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1 CORRIDOR REVITALIZATION IN SARASOTA: A CPTED CATALYST PROPOSAL By DANIEL SIDNEY GREENBERG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Daniel Sidney Greenberg
3 T his t hesis is dedicated to my family and friends for all their love and support.
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis would not have b een pos sible without the guidance of Dr. Richard S chneider. City of Sarasota staff and caring professionals invested in the North Trail have been long term supporters of crime prevention and urban revitaliz ation efforts, and this thesis recognizes their contrib utions Furthermore, the interviews with Marjory Sykes and David Greenberg provided valuable insight. P eter E. Prugh a nd Joseli Macedo have been more than helpful in assisting research and critiquing proposals Special thanks to t he University of Florid a Urban and Regional Planning Department faculty, staff and students for all their assistance and professional discourse.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 11 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 Rationale ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 14 Holistic Approach to Crime Prevention ................................ ................................ ... 16 ................................ ................................ .... 17 General Intent of Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 1 8 Summary of Methods and the Case Study ................................ ............................. 19 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 22 Organization of the Chapter ................................ ................................ .................... 22 Three D Concept ................................ ................................ .............................. 23 The Adaptive Criminal and Proactive Urban Designer ................................ ..... 25 Staying One Step Ahead of the Criminal ................................ ......................... 25 Rational Choice and Situational Crime Prevention ................................ ................. 26 Hot Spots ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 28 Reducing Opportunity for Crime ................................ ................................ ............. 28 Surveillance ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 31 Natural Surveillance as a Crime Deterrent ................................ ....................... 33 Movement toward Natural Surveillance ................................ ............................ 33 Improving Surveillance ................................ ................................ ..................... 34 Architectural Lighting ................................ ................................ ........................ 36 Physical Strategies to Aid Surveillance ................................ ............................ 37 Environmental Perceptions ................................ ................................ ............... 40 Permeability Cons iderations ................................ ................................ ............. 40 Social Permeability ................................ ................................ ........................... 41 CCTV Surveillance ................................ ................................ ........................... 43 Access Control ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 44 Natural Access Control ................................ ................................ ........................... 46 Boundary and Territoriality ................................ ................................ ............... 47 Hallway Design ................................ ................................ ................................ 50 Public Restroom Location and Planning ................................ ........................... 52 Public and Private Parking ................................ ................................ ............... 54 Territorial Reinforcement ................................ ................................ ........................ 56
6 Bryant Park ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 59 Minnesota HEALS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 62 Brooklyn Redevelopment Initiative ................................ ................................ .......... 63 Gainesville, FL Convenience Store Ordinance ................................ ....................... 65 Englewood, Colo rado CityCenter ................................ ................................ ............ 68 3 SUMMARY OF METHODS ................................ ................................ ..................... 72 Rationale for Myrtle Node Revitalization ................................ ................................ 73 Rationale for Case Study Proposal at Trail Plaza ................................ ................... 79 Rationale for CPTED Consideration at Trail Plaza ................................ ................. 81 I nterviews with NTRP Volunteers ................................ ................................ ........... 82 Crime and Environmental Data Gathering ................................ .............................. 83 Configuring a Proposal at the Case Study Site ................................ ....................... 83 4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ............... 96 Literature Review Findings ................................ ................................ ..................... 96 Rational Choice ................................ ................................ ................................ 97 Situational Crime Prevention ................................ ................................ ............ 97 Opportunity Theory ................................ ................................ ........................... 97 Natural Access Control ................................ ................................ ..................... 97 Natural Surveillance ................................ ................................ ......................... 98 Territorial Reinforcement ................................ ................................ .................. 98 Management ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 98 Maintenance ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 98 Case Study Findings ................................ ................................ ............................... 98 Bryant Park ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 99 Minnesota HEALS ................................ ................................ ............................ 99 Brooklyn Reinvestment Initiative ................................ ................................ .... 100 Gainesville, FL ................................ ................................ ................................ 100 CityCenter Englewood ................................ ................................ .................... 101 Sarasota, FL ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 101 Interviews with Local Actors and Project Discussion ................................ ...... 102 Interview with David Greenberg ................................ ................................ ..... 102 Interview with Marjory Sykes ................................ ................................ .......... 103 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 106 ........................ 106 Crime Data for Strategic Crime Prevention Planning ................................ ..... 108 Trail Corridor and Trail Plaza Crime Data Discussion ................................ .... 109 Trail Plaza and Case Study Discussion ................................ ................................ 110 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ..................... 115 Criminal Activity Theories ................................ ................................ ..................... 115 CPTED Principles ................................ ................................ ................................ 117 Case Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 121
7 Bryant Park ................................ ................................ .............................. 122 Minnesota HEALS ................................ ................................ .................... 122 Brooklyn Initiative ................................ ................................ ..................... 122 Gainesville, FL ................................ ................................ ......................... 122 Englewood, CO ................................ ................................ ........................ 123 Sarasota, FL ................................ ................................ ............................ 123 Conclusions from Interviews ................................ ................................ ........... 123 Framework for conclusions ................................ ................................ ...... 123 David Greenberg ................................ ................................ ...................... 124 Marjory Sykes ................................ ................................ .......................... 124 ................................ .......................... 125 Case Study Proposal Sarasota ................................ ................................ ...... 126 P re planning consideration ................................ ................................ ...... 126 Urban form and architectural possibilities for Sarasota ............................ 127 Plane of light and sun path ................................ ................................ ...... 129 Form based code ................................ ................................ ..................... 129 Ground level parking and surveillance ................................ ..................... 130 Lighting ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 130 Mixed use and cultural diversity ................................ ............................... 131 Case Study Proposal for North Sarasota ................................ ........................ 131 Proposal ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 131 Architectural and urban design programming ................................ .......... 132 CPTED and architectural theory ................................ .............................. 133 Catalyst Project Proposal ................................ ................................ ...................... 134 Proposed Environment and Atmosphere ................................ ........................ 134 Spatia l composition ................................ ................................ .................. 135 Flexibility in use ................................ ................................ ........................ 135 Parking ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 136 Lighting ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 137 Elevators and stairs ................................ ................................ ................. 137 Circulation ................................ ................................ ................................ 137 Permeability ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 139 Social composition ................................ ................................ ................... 141 Density ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 141 Code considerations ................................ ................................ ................ 142 Site management ................................ ................................ ..................... 144 Program Evaluation ................................ ................................ ........................ 146 Site Discussion ................................ ................................ ............................... 147 Knowledge Diffusion ................................ ................................ ....................... 149 APPENDIX ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 160 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 182 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 187
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 North Sarasota corridor and neighborhood map. Source : Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 21 1 2 Myrtle Node morphology. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ 21 3 1 City of Sarasota and North Trail Corridor. Source: Created by author, 2011 ....... 84 3 2 North Trail Cultural and Education Corridor. Source: Created by author, 2011 ... 85 3 Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 86 3 4 Existing urban morphology at the Myrtle Node. Source: Created by au thor, 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 87 3 5 Early Wal Mart Neighborhood Market proposal, at the Myrtle Node. Source: NTRP meeting, 2011 ................................ ................................ .......................... 88 3 6 Trail Plaza, south entrance and Goodwill store. Source: Google Street View 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 89 3 7 Trail Plaza east faade. Source: Google Street View 2011 ............................. 89 3 8 Trail Plaza northeast corner. Source: Google Street View 2011 ..................... 90 3 9 Trail Plaza southeast wasted space. Source: Google Street View 2011 ......... 90 3 10 Trail Plaza southeast site border with N. Tamiami Trail and Highland Street. Source: Google Street View 2011 ................................ ................................ 91 3 11 Trail Plaz a southwest service drive, entrance from Highland Street and Goodwill Google Street View 2011 ... 91 3 12 Trail Plaza southwest site, taken 20 feet west from Figure 3 11. Source: Google Street View 2011 ................................ ................................ ............... 92 3 13 Trail Plaza western site intersection with potential formal neighborhood entrance. Source: Google Street View 2011 ................................ ................ 92 3 14 Trail Plaza western site border and central western entrance, taken 20 feet east from Figure 3 13. Source: Google Street View 2011 ............................ 93 3 15 Trail Plaza northwest site border with Norwood Court and adjacent pharmacy. Source: Google Street View 2011 ................................ ................................ 93
9 3 16 Former Winn Dixie parking lot, with Trail Plaza i n the (west) background. Source: Google Street View 2011 ................................ ................................ 94 3 17 Trail Plaza aerial view, facing northwest. Source: Greenberg, 2011 .................. 94 3 18 Trail Plaza aerial view, facing southwest. Source: Greenberg, 2011 ................. 95 5 1 Myrtle Node concept for considering complimentary uses. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 150 5 2 Myrtle Node concept for considering urban design. Source: Created by author 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 151 5 3 Catalyst redevelopment concept (pArc 33) development massing of space. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ..... 152 5 4 Catalyst redevelopment concept arcade buffer between retail and the stage and surrounding atrium. Source: Created by author, 2011 ............................. 152 5 5 Catalyst redevelopment concept atrium and stage. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 153 5 6 Cat alyst redevelopment concept integrated parking structure over retail ground level. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ .......................... 153 5 7 Catalyst redevelopment concept site footprint on parcel. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 154 5 8 Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure and pedestrian circulation ramp. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ ......................... 155 5 9 Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure promenade (ramp). Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ..... 155 5 10 Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure exterior and vehicle ramp to covered parking Source: Created by author, 2011 ........................... 156 5 11 Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure clear visibility and surveillance strat egy, facing south. Source: Created by author, 2011 ............ 156 5 12 Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure entrance, facing west. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ..... 157 5 13 Catalyst for redevelopment concept retail visibility for natural surveillance, facing north and upon the interior atrium. Source: Created by author, 2011 .. 157 5 14 Catalyst concept for natural access control and natural surveillance, and funnel entrance points at corners and the western edge main entrance. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ..... 158
10 5 15 Hypothetical proposal for allowing and event and stage/venue area with surrounding natural surveillance. Source: Created by author, 2011 ............... 158 5 16 Proposal for catal yst site, view northeast. Source: Created by author, 2011 ... 159 5 17 Catalyst project interior dynamic proposal with natural surveillance and natural access control and territorial reinforcem ent. Source: Created by author, 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 159
11 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S CPTED Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design HEALS Health, Education, Law and Safety NT North Trail NTRP North Trail Redevelopment Partnership TND Tr aditional Neighborhood Design QOL Quality of Life
12 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning CORRI DOR REVITALIZATION IN SARASOTA: A CPTED CATALYST PROPOSAL By Daniel Sidney Greenberg May 2012 Chair: Richard Schneider Cochair: Peter E. Prugh Major: Urban and Regional Planning The objective of the present study is to explore the possibilities for developing a CPTED inspired urban catalyst project to guide a revitalization effort along a decaying urban co rridor, in Sarasota, Florida. In accomplishing this, w e reviewed urban revitalization projects that combined crime prevention through environment al design principles, relied on personal observations, archival research, interviews with key actors, planners, decision makers, and realtors, reviewed existing public and private plans, and analyzed the local urban morphology in order to generate a contex tually Corridor. Additionally, the current zoning overlay proposal for the North Trail Corridor is critiqued for its ability to harbor the proposed catalyst project, with ch anges suggested. Throughout the study and research proces s, we focused on modern, natural methods to incorporate CPTED at the initial stage of an urban redevelopment project We found t hat implementing natural crime prevention theories at the architectur al and urban scale levels traffic to a site. The strengths of natural approaches are t hat they employ means that tend not to foster a fortress environment and they may reduce the associated c osts of
13 guardianship and post construction mechanical prevention technology, such as monitored video feeds from CCTV. Our findings suggest that public private partnerships, based on CPTED principles, can be used to organize large scale urban revitalizat ion programs. Furthermore, we found that a catalyst project for urban redevelopment can be n order to influence future redevelopment on the Trail. Our recommendation s for a catalyst proposal are specific to this site, culturally and environmentally sensitive and term vision and plans
14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Rationale This study focuses on the recognition of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles in the design of a potential redevelopment/revitalization project in Sarasota, Florida. The use of crime prevention theories and strategies in the initial redevelopment design stage is important because it i s initiated at the first, brainstorming and process design phases of design and planning, as is explained in the concept of natural crime prevention We define natural aspects of crime prevention to require initial construction to have been considerate of crime prevention strategies (natural surveillance and natural access control) and considerations, and not referring to retrofit application of crime prevention theory and deterrents on existing environments. Research has shown CPTED guided development to improve values linked to quality of life perc eptions, possibly because the principal goal s of CPTED support sustainable approach es to urban design by fostering (Macedo, 2007; Bryant Park, 2011) As demonstrated by the Urban Land Institute (2011), and federal revitalization programs, like Minnesota HEALs and the Brooklyn Initiative, we consider ur ban, community and neighborhood revitalization to be a primary interest for cities across the country. We recognize that many ci ties have been faced with the question of how to address decaying strip centers, community improvem ent and criminal activity that a in the U.S. since 2006 and some popular new r etail and mixed use developments that have been built in the last few years are embracing more traditional and walkable urban
15 environments that allow for a great deal of flexibility in use and options for environmental engagement (Clifford, 2012) Saraso Cultural) Corridor has seen volunteer efforts to improve quality of life, spur economic The corr idor has been faced with crime and perceived economic disinvestment for over 20 yea rs, and we recognize problematic categories to include : criminal activity, lack of local market economic stability and difficulty in attracting businesses and investment to the area Within the city wide context of Sarasota there are potentially places we ll suited to allow mutually supportive land uses Goals for the North Trail Corridor currently include: a gateway International Airport and a commercial, retail and service corridor for the diverse population of res ide nts living and working in north west Sarasota Nobody wants to be feel hostage to fear. Nobody wants to be held confined in an automobile. We consider natural crime prevention principles to be the crime deterrents integrated into the original des ign of space and creation of place. We recognize modern CPTED for its emphasis on the natural ways to deter crime, by using architecture, landscape architecture, interior design and urban planning to implement crime prevention strategies into the initial stages of site planning and design; furthermore, we acknowledge the natural principles of CPTED to not include retro fit applications, and require CPTED consideration long before any construction begins. Revitalization and crime prevention literature supp ort the review of the literature and direct the study to focus on ways to introduce natural CPTED techniques of a ccess control, surveillance, territorial reinforcement management and maintenance into development
16 As explained, t he natural approach to CP TED involves not relying on retro fit crime prevention applications, but using the principles of natural access c ontrol, natural surveillance, territorial reinforcement management and maintenance at the initial design and planning stage and throughout the (Schneider, 2009). Furthermore, mechanical as well as guardian based tools and programs are suggested to supplement the natural approaches, in order to maintain a non threatening environment and attract users to an inviting pl ace, rather than repel users from an uninviting space. Holistic Approach to Crime Prevention When performing a Google tes were displayed, that all led to the same report : CPTED The highly informative, recent special report from the Horse Ride r Press (2011) describes second generation A term referring to a more holistic approach to CPTED that includes the integration of effective social design or social development to reduce crim e modern CPTED to describ e the most current practices. We argue that t he holistic CPTED approach is ar guably: using the most modern strategies to incorporate CPTED into the earliest stages of planning and design possible and hav ing the natural strategies act to support each other so that no one deterrent or principle carries too heavy of a crime prevention burden. Why use crime prevention through environmental design as an anchor strategy for urban improvements? What should be considered when formulating a strategy for CPTED based urban revitalization? What modern approaches to crime prevention
17 should be implemented in a revitalization model? How do the contexts and existing environments of North Sarasota lend themselves to a crime preventi on model? Are modern, current natural crime prevention techniques the only methods of crime prevention that should b e employed? This thesis examines the above questions, while providing findings, suggestions and recommendations in an urban design proposal as a Cultural Corridor in the Review of the Literature City of Sarasota The City of Sarasota was instrumental in using CPTED principles to generate the NT (North Trail) and known t hereafter as the corridor The legislation that Sarasota enacted was one of the first uses of CPTED in planning a zoning ordinance in the country (Schneider, 2011). Since then, there has been mixed views of its success and some biased reviews of its results (Schneider, 2011) What is not debatable is that the area continues to harbor a larger amount of c riminal activity than many other places within the City of Sarasota (Crime Mapping, 2011) Personal experience with business owners, professionals and citizens within the corridor attracted the attent ion of th e research team. The desire is to propose a potential way to improve the North Trail Corridor and support efforts to revitalize and redevelop the urban environment. This thesis aims to generate a hypothetical project that could be realistically implemented in order to improve struggling Cultural Corridor. CPTED is a familiar concept, to the City of Sarasota and it is a primary component of their Downtown Core v ision and long term plans ( City of Sarasota, 2003; 2006) CPTED has been i ntrod uced in the discussions of local interest groups, such as
18 the NTRP (North Trail Redevelopment Partnership) and the Bayou Oaks Neighborhood Watch Research has demonstrated that public and private efforts and resources can be joined under a modern cri me prevention strategy and is presented in the Review of the Literature (Macedo, 2007 ; Bryant Park, 2011; Minnesota HEALS, 1999 ) With a primary goal of modern CPTED theories being to make space and place better both the public and private stakeholders m ay be able to associate crime prevention principles with contextually specific goals and objectives. Uniting a community under one overall strategy may improve effici ency of physical efforts and general effectiveness of the program. General Intent of St udy The inte nt s of this thesis are to explore the potential fit of an urban revitalization propose a case study at 3333 North Tamiami Trail in the Findings and Discussion chapter as th e most appro priate site to locate an u rban redevelopment initiative, and explain our reasoning in the Findings and Discussion. The conclusion s and recommendations presented in the final chapter are meant to generate support for a public private and holist ic approach to creating and implementing a renewed community revitalization strategy for a troubled yet important city corridor. We propose tentative answer s to the research question s regarding how utiliz ing a CPTED based catalyst and anchor development to help facilitate an urban revitalization could be designed. We propose a case study project for Sarasota at a vital node within the corridor, so that any revitalization and CPTED inspired environments can have their success measured and maintained. We hypothesize that integrating a renewed urban improvement push with
19 CPTED, at the initial phase, might bring contextual benefits such as reduced crime, improved community perceptions and economic circulati on. By considering the Innovation 41 Study (2006), that examined the current state of the corridor and their recommendations for an improved urban fabric, we agree that the Myrtle Node should be a town center based urban attractor, with mixed use and bus inesses that su pport the local residents. Wal Mart has been approved to build a Neighborhood Market store at the node, in the location of the former Winn Dixie and we propose this to be a possible threat to the Myrtle Town Center Node vision generate d from the Innovation 41 North Trail Corridor study We propose that the best way to redirect the development of the node, in the manner best fit for the location, might be to infuse the other (west) side of the node with a mixed use development derived f rom consideration of modern CPTED techniques for reducing crime and improving quality of life. Our argument is that a strong enough urban attractor will bring needs, generate tax revenue for the city and spark adjacent land improvements, like the case study of Bryant Park resulted in nearby increases in real estate value and coinciding urban renewal (Macedo, 2007) Summary of Methods and the Case Study The study utilizes archival research, extensive pe rsonal experience with the local pro redevelopment business group, and interviews key actors. We reviewed existing and proposed plans from both the public and private sector within Sarasota. In order to recognize the urban form we analyzed the local urba n morphology. Three case studies of public private partnerships were used in the research to glean successful methods of integrating CPTED principles with crime prevention based revitalization.
20 In order to address the major research questions of whether CPTED can be used as a guide in urban revitalization, we reviewed three case studies that demonstrate ways to accomplish urban improvement with crime prevention based public private partnerships. More specifically, this study questions whether adhering to CPTED principles in a centrally located catalyst project can provide the needed spark to ignite revitalization literature, and speaking with key stakeholders, we propo se the design of a Cultural Corridor. By mapping the urban morphology, analyzing the current environment and proposed developments and digesting the urban vision of the c orridor, the site at 3333 N. Tamiami Trail is found to be the best location for placing the initial phase of a larger scaled revitalization initiative. By nesting the catalyst for CPTED infused redevelopment in the center of the corridor and by focusing t he majority of our recommenda tions at the site, we aim to propose an urban revitalization catalyst concept at a manageable and appropriate scale, paying special attention to the impr ovement of what may be the most important activity node along the Trail.
21 Figure 1 1 North Sarasota corridor and n eighborhood m ap Source : C reated by author 2011 Figure 1 2. Myrtle Node m orphology Source: Created by author 2011
22 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The intent of Chapter 2 is to provide a review of t he literature pertaining to modern crime prevention approaches to urban revitalization, development and public privat e partnership strategies based o n CPTED oriented improvement. The purpose of the literature review is to outline the theories and strategi es that support a holistic crime prevention and revitalization program. Examples of modern, CPTED inspired urban designs are presented from archival research and case studies. The case studies relevant to urban scale revitalization practice provide exampl es of working solutions to real life problems in crime and urban planning by explaining the reasoning and application of CPTED principles in urban intervention programs. Organization of the Chapter The foll owing chapter presents a brief overview of relevan t criminal activity theories to modern CPTED, the main principles of modern CPTED and a set of case studies related to urban improvements, revitalization and/or CPTED. The th ree D concept, rational choice, situational crime prevention and opportunity theo ries are used recommendations for planning, programming and addressing urban spaces and environments Access control, sur veillance, territorial reinforcement managem ent and maintenance arguably comprise the main components of modern CPTED strategies and are researched in order to understand and illustrate the holist ic approach to crime prevention. The literature reviewed is in the field of crime prevention, urban rev italization and public private partnerships and is meant to provide a framework of theoretical guidelines for successfully implementing CPTED into a revitalization strategy
23 and/or project The main research question is whether a CPTED based urban revitali zation strategy could be su ccessful, specifically utilizing a case study, catalyst proposal Education and Cultural Corridor. Could and should a catalyst project for spurring urban improvement be located at the central node along the No rth Trail? Three D Concept D approach to holistic effectiveness and far reaching ability in crime prevention contexts, by explaining that, D approach can be the overreaching umbrella for se curity c onsideration within any context. There are many philosophies for how designers should address space. Crowe (2000) recognizes the Three D concept as based upon human function and dimension in space, but adds the category of assumptions at the end, to encompass the following comprehensive list of general considerations of the three assumptions and concepts : Assumptions: All human space has some designated purpose All human space has social, cultural, legal, or physical definitions All hu man space is designed to support and control the desired behaviors Designation: What is the designated purpose of this space? What was it originally intended to be used for? How well does the space support its current uses? Its intended use? Is there conf lict? Definition: How is the space defined? Is it clear who owns it? Where are its borders? Are there social or cultural definitions that affect how the space is used? Are there legal or administrative rules clearly set out and reinforced in policy? Are th ere signs? Is there conflict or confusion between the de signated purposes?
24 Design: How well does the physical design support the intended functions? How well does the physical design support the definition of the desired or accepted behaviors? Does the p hysical design conflict with or impede the productive use of the space or the proper functioning of the intended human activity? Is there confusion or conflict in the manner in which the physical design is intended to control behavior? ( Crowe, 2000, p.39 40) While the Three D concept seemingly applies to existing environments, it is nevertheless an important tool to be used during the concept design and initial concept planning process. If only to bring to the design table a new set of criticisms regard ing good design considerations, the three D approach would serve an important role. T he adjustment proc ess, after construction of a site and its usage actually occurs, is a vitally important st ep in the thorough CPTED management The maintenance and mana gement of crime prevention measures allows for necessary and needed adjustme nts to the everyda y environment, and is a primary CPTED element (Crowe, 2000; Schneider, 2011) and Awwad there is a reaction; the designer should anticipate a reciprocal relationship between the public environment, security solutions, experience, rime prevention measures will need adjusting once a place becomes engaged by users and this can o nly be done once an environment is built, studied and managed (Schneider, 2009 )
25 The Adaptive Criminal and Proactive Urban Designer T he natural way of integrating modern CPTED principles, through desig ning with a strategically constructed architectural an d urban program that organizes social interaction and experiences within environments so users support one another. However, n ot everything can always be considered, in terms of identifying potential threats to proposed design s so it would seem wise to recognize the following excerpt, from Hope (1986): The implementation of crime prevention measures cannot, it seems, be t aken for granted. This suggests that it is necessary for those promoting crime prevention to participate in the implementation proces s. This is necessary for two reasons: organizations and to ensure that momentum continues, and There is a need to adjust plans and find solutions to practi cal difficulties as they arise. (p.43) Schneider and Kitchen (2007), remind professionals that abilities of ever adaptive criminals make the struggle of keeping up to date with crime prevention practice a continuous job. Therefore, the authors admit that crime prevention adaptation in t he design stages is never going to result in a final and complete measure of total crime prevention (S chneider and Kitchen, 2007). Staying One Step Ahead of the Criminal So, what do guardians have to do in order to proactively combat criminals, on ce an e nvironment is created? We argue that management and continued study and maintenance of a site is imperative to its future integrity as a safe place or environment that deters criminality, and can assist in helping to spot potential threats before they bec ome a problem. For example, c riminals do not stop trying to find ways around crime
26 preven tion barriers, so neither can crime prevention analysts, owners of space or controllers and guardians of environments (Schneider, 2009) Proactive approaches relate to revitalization strategies because it is important to not repeat mistakes and be able to envision how to improve an environment within its existing context. The revitalization of Bryant Park is an example of how it took multiple crime prevention strateg ies and designs to achieve a su ccessful environment (Macedo, 2007 ). Rational Choice and Situational Crime Prevention N atural and mechanical deterrents bring inc reased risk to the offender, decisions made on the part of the potential criminal, situational c rime prevention theory and rational choice theory establish a framework for proactively combating potential criminal activity. According to rational choice theory crime results from behaviors designed to king determined by time, ability and the availability of relevant, environmental information (Newman, Clarke and Shoham, 1997). Situational c rime prevention involves depersonalizing and de psychologizing crime (Newman, Clarke and Shoham, 1997); it analyze s crimes not from a moral perspective, but supports the theory that cri me is based on opportunity and a cost benefit calculation to commit the offense, such that 189) Newman, Clarke and Shoham (1997) use de psychologizi ng crime as a way to suggest that everyone should be considered to be potentially capable of criminal activity if presented with the right opportunity and we recognize de psychologizing crime as a way to consider criminal threats apart from any moral, eth ical or personal standards It may be useful to think of the challenges faced by a thief who is trying to crack open a safe; the harder the safe is to crack, the longer it will take and the more risk is involved in attempting to commit the crime. Using ti me and barriers increase difficulty
27 and risk for potential crimin als trying to reach a target. We hypothesize that d uring a criminal act, as time continues to tic k away or more deterrent devices are applied (such as an increase in surveillance from new pe ople entering the environment), more risk is involved for the offender(s). However, if there are numerous deterrents, but no guardianship and enough time to overcome the deterrents, will the preventative measures actually work to deter criminality or will they simply be extra steps that a criminal has to take in order to get what they are after? Extra steps that do not really affect th e potential risk of being apprehended may likely be ineffective in deterring criminals. A n excerpt from Schneider and Kitc hen (2007) illustrates a common scenario by presents far more opportunity in terms of reward, and far less risk and effort, than one locked behind a showroom window in a bus known how individual criminals make decisions and what rational grounds they use in determining t heir decision making, even when under the influence of intoxicants, it is known that criminals do in fact make de cisions based on their own rationality, with a maximum pleasure or payoff and minimization of risk or pain, at least to some degree (Cornish and Clarke, 1986; Clarke and Felson, 1993; Felson, 2002, as cited by Schneider and Kitchen, 2007). Police warn th at there could be potential criminals in nearly any environment. Criminals, while often varying the locations of their targets so as to not be expected and thus caught by law enforcement may also frequent familiar locations and even the same spots ( Branti ngham and Brantingham, 1981) Routine activities may provide vigilant
28 criminals the opport unities to commit crimes, if criminals simply act upo n deviant impulses without consideration of being arrested or even seen (Clarke 1995; 98) Furthermore, in genera lizing most crime, Clarke (1995; 98) explains: Crime is the outcome of purposive behavior, designed to meet the excitement and that in meeting these needs involves the making of (sometimes quite rudimentary) decisions and choices, constrained as these are by the limits of time and ability and the availa bility of relevant information (p. 145) Hot Spots Crime hot spots may form from localized criminal behavior and are often explained by opportunit y theory. Evidence suggests that criminals sometimes exhibit random behavior, as well as characte ristic, or predictable behavior (Global Report on Human Settlements, 200 9 ). We assume that l aw enforcement is generally aware of crime hot spots and opportu ni ty theories however, we suggest that clever offenders might be aware of the many of the risk factors associated with an environment and may also be highly slippery so as to be difficult to catch Furthermore, we recognize that police departments do not have infinite resources for staking out common locations for low level crime at all hours of every day, for there may be more important matters to attend to, such as having a broad presence in the community and keeping crim inals alert in all environments a nd not simply environments that are already know n for criminal association. Reducing Opportunity for Crime We assume that modern CPTED principles, when implemented correctly, might reduce opportunities for crime. Criminal rationality, known to be the wei ghing of opportunity against risk, is used by many citizens, likely without the full understanding of
29 the basis for its success. For example, many people ask complete strangers (who are assumed to be more or less trustworthy individuals, at the moment, an d thus not potential criminals) to watch their things while they use the restroom, or step outside, so that they do not have to carry all of their items with them every time they would like to step away from their personal belongings when in a public or se mi public place. Consider being at the library and needing to use the restroom; might you ask a stranger to watch over your things? An individual leaving behind their personal items, and sometimes very valuable ones such as a purse or laptop computer, is not only utilizing the principle that belongings is a threat to getting away with a crime. Lurking potential criminals, wh o perceive that even though there is someone absent to whom things belong, may perceive that they may have someone else keeping an eye on property (surveillance) and we theorize that in some instances, this minimal potential threat may be a st rong enough crime deterrent to actually preve nt a theft It is the unknown, yet ever so slight presence (deterrence) of a potential threat to criminal activity that makes us question if there is a direct relationship between criminal deterrents and crime prevention or if the relationship is subject to a holistic crime prevention approach where one deterrent may not drastically reduce crime but a comprehensive strategy might and may. We assume that t he ability to thwart crime by creating minimal, yet acti ve surveillance (threats to criminals), for example, is an important concept to be understood when considering how to design a built
30 environment. We recognize that d esign to promote and support n atural surveillance, or naturally oc curring surveillance, mi ght be used as a crime deterrent when unofficial guardians like store employees maintain a visual presence, spotting and reporting suspicious behavior when it occurs. However, as Brantingham and Brantingham (1981) rinciples should not overestimated, for natural surveillance, as an example, will likely not work to deter crime drastically, if normal users are relied on, but crime may be noticeably reduced when businesses and employees become more in volved in natural s urveillance. User perception is in fact a form of surveying an environment, before even actually engaging it, and must be acknowledged when attempting to market a place as safe, welcoming and usable (Clarke, 1997). However, the nightmare potential scenar io (for criminals) in which a victim catches and brutally assaults a criminal, though remote, is always a possibility to which many potential criminals are highly aware (Clarke, 1997). The threat from immediate results of getting caught in a crime, not by the police but by the intended victim, can be a stronger crime deterrent than any long term criminal charges that might occur in the event that the police apprehended a criminal (Clarke, 1997). In other words, we allow the possibility that an immediate t hreat might be a stronger crime de terrent than a long term threat, such as length of imprisonment, for example to influence our understanding of the impacts of certain criminal deterrents We acknowledge that natural surveillance requirements may include all professional designers to consider CPTED in their designs and concepts, so that there is an emphasis in the design of an
31 environment to generate user based surveillance, such as from employees, visitors and official guardians. The concept of utilizi ng the presence of even a minimal threat like natural surveillance, to a potential criminal occurrence, to act as a criminal deterre nt device, might be as effective as a ny other preventative mechanism, though it not known to what degree potential criminal s weigh immediate aspects of being caught by an empowered victim and assaulted, versus the consequences of b eing caught by law enforcement and the threat of potenti al imprisonment. I t has been hypothesi zed that in the absence of a capable guardian, the na tural surveillance techniques are less effective, at best (Braga and Weisburd, 2010; Brantingham and Brantingham, 1981; Mayhew, 1979). We recognize that it may be logical to assume that official guardians and general users of place, that may or may not b e highly beneficial to surveillance based crime prevention, should be programmed into the design and planning of an environment in order to encompass more surveillance than if only one category of user was engaged in surveillance The role of guardianshi p in natu ral surveillance is discussed below in the surveillance section. Surveillance Why is it important to have active surveillance at a site? What power does overlooking space have on preventing crime? Surveillance allows users to potentially view a crime or the threat of crime therefore allowing them to respond in a timely manner. However, because not all users of space will respond to a criminal occurrence, it is important to have formal guardians of a site, who are trained to take action when t hey spot suspicious activity or deviant acts (Braga and Weisburd, 2010). Evidence suggests that potential offenders go as far as to avoid environments that are rated with
32 high levels of guardianship (Hannan, 1982; as cited in Braga and Weisburd, 2010). I t is imperative that the responders are able to act in the quickest manner possible in order to not only thwart crime and respond to crimes, but to actually prevent criminal activity ders avoid Can natural surveillance act to reduce the likelihood of criminal behavior ever potentially occurring? No. Different types of crim inals hold surveillance in different regards, and different types of criminals have differing assumptions of what risks are involved in committing a crime (Braga and Weisburd, 2010) It is difficult t herefor t o decisively conclude any strategy as 100% effective. However, crime is related to the associated value t hat surveillance can brin g (Braga and Weisburd, 2010). We agree that a ll crime is not created equal. For example, to make the assumption that certain principles, such as surveillance, access control and territorial reinforcement inflict the same risk fac tors on all criminals is an incorrect assertion. Eck (1994) found that certain drug dealers actually preferred apartment buildings with certain types of access control features, and that these features, while possibly preventing one type of crime, such as burglary, likely work to attract other types of crimes, such as crack cocaine dealing (as cited in Braga and Weisburd, 2010). Defensible Space Theory, were unsuccessful in generating nat ural surveillance based crime prevention, even though that was the designed intention (Braga and Weisburd, 2010) Newman unofficially defended his defensible space theory (as used in the projects) by commenting that the designers ignored key components of the holistic approach, and
33 therefor nullified any attempts at certain crime prevention aspects, such as the natural surveillance method (Braga and Weisburd, 2010). Natural Surveillance as a Crime Deterrent We question how natural surveillance deters crimi nal behavior in relation to density and use. A t the right density we contend that Jane Jacobs (1961) explanation that public and private users eyes on the street (or on the public realm) may a ct to regulate acceptable social beh avior by adding risk factors for potential offenders to overcome ( such as guardian surveillance) We question that if increasing the ability for guardians to quickly react to suspicious, antisocial or deviant behavior (immediate response time) might mak e normal users may feel safer than they would in a less actively managed and guarded environment may We speculate that su rveillance could be used to generate territorial ownership an d managerial presence within an environment Guardianship that is effec tive in preventing crime is often not completed by the public sector, such as the police, but organ ized and implemented by owners, managers and employees of properties, stemming from maintaining quality place management (Braga and Weisburd, 2010). Movem ent t oward Natural Surveillance Historically access control and mechanical surveillance have been dominant crime prevention techniques of the physical design programs (Crowe 2000). Surveillance, however, unless actively displayed in the public realm, doe s not necessarily deter deviant behavior, if the surveillance method is only a hidden camera. It is the guardians, such as employees, who deter potential criminals and is a better method of natural surveillance than relying simply on average users (Mayhew, 198 1; Hunter and Jeffery, 1992 ). Crowe (2000) infers that surveillance is designed to be
34 directed primarily at keeping intruders observed, and therefore, the primary motive of surveillance strategies should be to facilitate observation. Furthermore, oth er strategies, such as natural access control, can supplement surveillance measures through increasing the perception of risk for criminal activity. A ccess control strategies are presented further in the review of the literature. Improving Surveillance Surveillance techniques are comprised of many strategies and implemented via various design methods. For example, Colquhoun (200 4 ) clarifies that the choices we dwelling facades can aid or hinder surveillance of the dwelling from the street and vice preventing crime, when the occupants can clearly view the road and garden areas, th rough clear windows and external users can visibly perceive occupants that may be sitting, standing or working insi de the building (Colquhoun, 2004 ). Furthermore, the structural features of buildings, that protrude and interfere with clear lines of visib ility, such as porches and garages, are impeding crime prevention potential (Colquhoun, 200 4 ). Even the front road should be public in nature and contain two footpaths, one on each side of the street, in order to improve surveillance (Colquhoun, 200 4 ). C onsidering details of crime prevention measures at the human scale is a large subject area and thankfully widely researched. One can consider the endless options for bicycle locking mechanisms and stations to understand that aesthetics and function can go hand in hand, driven by crime prevention theory. Achieving one site objective could simultaneously support meeting another principle objective. Crowe (2000) reminds the reader that while natural surveillance has
35 many benefits, its objective to achieve is actual observation, a demand that requires participatory engagement with a site on the part of stakeholders, users and management. Without the users or guardians of environments to observe users and employees, there would be no strong natural surveillanc e mechanism. According to Crowe (2000), there are three types of surveillance strategies: Organized (socially with guards, police, security, policies) Mechanical (lighting, cameras, automatic devices) Natural (visually permeable public thresholds to users ) Some re cent approaches to the designing of environments, like Bryant Park, ha s shifted the crime prevention emp hasis to natural techniques and away from relying mainly on mechanical or organized security staff Modern theories attempt to utilize the na tural opportunities presented by the urban form and architectural program for deterring criminal activity. Some strategies integrate natural approaches from CPTED theory into the built environment by way of zoning and building codes, in order to improve th Initiative, 1999). Because natural surveillance strategies are being replicated, and legislation has been repeatedly enacted, it is apparent that both the public and private s ectors are in fact taking preventative and even proactive measures, to deter what they consider deviant or inappropriate behavior. The CPTED shift in conceptual thinking has evolved from simply recognizing mechanical options to complex planning against cr iminal opportunities and design of natural techniques for access control, surveillance and territorial reinforcement (Crowe, 2000).
36 Architectural Lighting We acknowledge that l ighting impacts not only proposed redevelopment considerations, such as with an urban node being proposed as a catalyst project for revitalization but all scales of engagement From restrooms to urban corridors, we argue that illumination and lighting is one of the most important considerations when analyzing CPTED and human interact ion within space Of course, to place and select good lighting with regard to CPTED requires more considerations than meeting minimum code requirements and standards for brightness CPTED demands the designers think about lighting design and theory as a place maker, boundary creator and psychological effector as any other crime prevention principle, for in the absence of proper light, almost anything is possible to be occurring. Light has been shed on the subject of illumination by Crowe (2000), whereas he dwells on the broad impacts of light on human life, existence and subconscious understandings. In fact, our eyes can play tricks on us, by incorrectly gathering data from the environment, su ch as with optical illusions that request that our brain respond in an opposing manner to what the reality actually is. However, our eyes are also our first introduction to an environment, thus granting our distant visual perception the ability to interpr yet. In fact, before we speak, we see (Schneider, 2011). Soon after visual recognition, cue environmental cues, and likely before it is seen where a sound came from, if something that caused the sound can even be seen.
37 The natural introduction of place, through sensual deduction, and visual recognition, provides clues to the astute planner and designer as to the potential power of utilizing illumination design to improve not only initial impressions of a site, but to increase the quality of life derived from the indirect effects of proper lighting and strategic p lacement of luminaires. Colquhoun (200 4 ) recommends lighting to be considered in CPTED applications, summarized as follows: Use c onsistency of lighting in application s Provide p roper placement of lighting fixtures, angles and luminosity Employ p rotection of lighting fixtures from deviant users Maintain lighting fixtures, i.e. bulb replacement and adjustments Plan for night time use with respect to color rendition and illumination Design process integration of illumination theories in architectural form Ar eas such as restrooms, hallways and parking lots all need appropriate lighting. So, how does the CPTED planner become involved in proposing good lig hting designs? How should design critiquing based on characteristi cs of potential user needs, inspire pos sible solutions to foreseen thre ats within an architectural program? We suggest that CPTED designers further explore the potential uses for lighting in CPTED integration. Physical Strategies to Aid Surveillance Colquhoun (200 4 ) explains that not only offi cial guardians, but residen ts need to be involved and take action to prevent the allowance of crime, when he writes, i nside and outside the buildings d Kitchen (2007) remind size fits all blanket solutions, and that every environment is unique and therefore must be considered from its own frame of reference, to which CPTED principles must a lso be considered under their own merit and value to a project (p. 3 4 ).
38 Through the use of permeability measures, the physical design methods suggested by Colquhoun (2007) are summarized as follows, and cover some practical applications regarding permeab ility, that have become widely accepted in the field of physical crime prevention through environmental design: Window placement should allow the surveying of the inside and the outside. Streets and open space should be visually recognized from buildings Front entrances should be viewable to passersby. Common areas, within buildings, should be overlo oked by residents, and even the street, when possible. Stairs and elevators should be visually permeable and able to discharge users to the fronts (or visibl e plac es) Of course, while nobody can completely predict the totality of future environmental uses, it is an aim o f CPT ED to try. Bill Hillier, creator of the Space Syntax Theory, said that: Space syntax is a means of explaining from a sociological point of view element in the architectural experience is not visual characteristics, but the way in which the sequence of spaces is used, e.g., how these will affect patterns of pedestrian move ment, economic vitality and safety (as cited in Colquhoun, 200 4 ; p.70 71) I n proposing recommendations, to both existing and future design, environmental legib ility is vital for users to grasp. Colquhoun (200 4 conclusions [ P ermeability is one of the most controversial aspects of new urbanism and furthermore can conflict with urban design theories such as CPTED While city planners and n ew
39 u rbanists both may applaud permeability efforts, CPTED research may suggest that the m ore access routes available, the more escape routes available. Potential for crime is theoretically greater in places that have more entry and escape points based in the hypothesis that criminals can use them as get away paths (Kitchen, 2005 ; as cited b y Schneider and Kitchen, 2007 ). However, there is the ability for compromise when designers uses their CPTED thinking hats and question why the objective goals of permeability and natural crime prevention techniques may succeed or not succeed in an enviro nment, and what the individual aspects are that seem to make crime deterrence techniques either potentially implementable or not usable. The connection between user perceptions and how they use an urban space are undeniable. Schneider (2010) suggests that while many measures are possible to s may be greater than others. We agree that certain techniques to reduce the public fear of crime, like design instillations such as improv ed street lighting, may increase the potential risk factors for criminal activity and generate a sense of security; this is what we regard as the double edged nature of CPTED. Therefore, we argue that generating the impression that an area is inviting might be the most impo rtant res ult of a lighting improvement, though we recognize that all environments are unique and may require certain environmental improvements over others We recognize that a small change like improved, repaired and maintained li ghting, in the above exa mple, might help support revitalization m arketing campaigns by attract ing users. We acknowledge that n atural techniques thrive in a well used environment.
40 Environmental Perceptions The reduction in fear of crime can alte r behavior. People naturally behave differently when they are more afraid of a place than if they are more comfortable and greater risk when there is a clear barrier for used plaza will attract users and make people feel safe (p.133 135) A non threatening, funneling method for entrance to a site could allow for official entryways and exit Funneling may actually relieve some environmental stresses generated by the outside environment, if users are able to enter through a more secured environment with official peacekeepers and surveillance. For example, we speculate that entering through protected by its border structure and guardianship may logically have provide d entering users with re abuses of power from the ruling parties, once inside the on the inner walls of a castle, or a ny environment, are completely different matter s to be considered. Permeability Considerations Sc hneider and Kitchen (2007) documented that blanket gridiron design prescriptions, regarding permeability, have been shown to have negative effects. So, what exactly is the threat from high permeability and grid networks? Schneider and Kitchen (2007) explain that: What have been scrutinized in considerable degree are burglary patterns. Burglary is arguably the b est example of an environmental design related offense that is related to street permeability, and a long line of research connects burglary incidents with street types and incident locations. Taken dences and commercial areas are more at risk when they are mor e exposed to external traffic (p.47)
41 more susceptible to break ins, likely because their multiple escape rout es, and increased exposure to traffic, make them more susceptible to crimes of opportunity and convenience. This is the same thinking that supports a hypothesis that explains why some apartment units have more ground level thefts than at other levels ( Sch neider, 2010) The context approach, from Schneider and Kitchen (2007), is suggested in the following excerpt: Bothwell et al (1998) acknowledge that traditional neighborhood design (TND) ma y indeed lead to more crimes that are dependent on accessibility, but they argue that this problem is offset by increased social controls attendant to closer inte raction of neighbors (p.47) However, it is admitted that this balance, to their knowledge, (Schneider a nd Kitchen 2007). L s might infer that a primar y goal of CPTED should be to achieve a balance between mixing uses, connecting physical space and maintaining active management that aims to create tight knit, safe communities, in order to counter potential criminal environments with appropriate natural surveillance, natural access control and territorial reinforcement. Social Permeability One might argue that p ermeability could reference r ealms beyond the physical and visual, to consideration s of social permeability Can one understand and predict the level of difficulty of entrance or intrusion beyond the physical level and into the realm of social interaction of place? An environment th a t entice s undesirables may also be an environment that repels desirable users (Crowe, 2000 ; Schneider, 2009) How can an environment market itself to potential users that it is welcoming, and convey a message to deviant users t hat they are not welcome?
42 O n the edge of a development, design features that invoke perceptions of caring management and active maintenance, such as extra wide sidewalks, well manicured l andscaping and nice lighting may inform potential users that the in ternal environment is att ractive and welcoming (Crowe, 2000) For example, if there is nobody eating at a restaurant when you walk by when you are looking for a place to eat, would it give the impression that it is not a place worth visiting or the impression that it would be pri vate, fresh and well served? Any number of factors m ay contribute to an impression ho wever a long term impression might lead to a strong opinion. We suggest that the CPTED planner ask questions regarding the potential use environments and propose they off er design or programming strategies that would accomplish multiple objectives. For example, we argue that aesthetic improvement s, like visually permeable walls with some intertwined vegetation or see through fences with vegetation intertwined within the frame, instead of concret e walls as borders. Of course, guardians of space need to actually view and survey an environment in order to achieve some type of natural surveillance strategy (Brantingham and Brantingham, 1981; Crowe, 200 0 ; Schneider and Kitchen 2007) Roger Trancik (1986) recognized a breakdown in good urban design, when individual architectural form took priority in some cities, when he wrote about the importance of creating links between pedestrian destinations and explained tha t urban connec tions have sometimes been absent from architecture Trancik (1986) further explains that one of the first steps in creating good architecture and planning is to look for gaps in spatial continuity, then fill them in with appropriately interconnected space s. The removal of wasted space, such as ground floor parking lots, can promote the
43 revitalization of urban form and aid in CPTED based development strategies, such as natural access control and surveillance. Trancik (1986) suggest s Le Corbusier as the dom inant force in architecture from 1940 to 1960, and as the most influential architect of the time because of work at both architectural a nd urban design scales Whether or not the works were successful is irrelevant to the fact that there was an intention within them to recognize the context in architectural formation and massing of spaces. We argue that w hen considering a rev italization catalyst project, ideas of scale and flow should bring forth discussions that relate to the natural crime preven tion str ategies that are supported from active use. In our view, construction that ignores contextual obligations, such as much p ost modern approaches to architecture has facilitated a fragmented, non pedestrian friendly l Corridor. CCTV Surveillance CCTV encompasses the technology that captures video, sending the data back to a surveillance monitor and sometimes an electronic recording. It may work as a deterrent when used correctly, as cases have demonstrated. It may n ot work, if implemented haphazardly. For example, the analysis of crime data from the NYPD data collections in 2005 that allowed park managers to study the moderate increase of park area crime and linked to the installation of the new amenity, The Pond, a popular ice skating rink ( Tracking Crime in New York City Parks, 2007) The data revealed that theft (Tracking Crime in New York City Parks, 2007) Upon realizing this, management installed a clo sed circuit camera system, which immediately dec reased the number of incidents (Tracking Crime in New
44 York City Parks, 2007) Colquhoun (200 4 ) suggests considerations that are important in order to maximize the po tential for CCTV success and are summariz ed as follows : Honest appraisals of the problems should be addressed. And are the expectations for CCTV realistic (i.e. do they require that every single move recorded on video be monitored with a 100% success rate and immediate call to police)? Is CCTV ev en a useful tool for the type of crime that is attempting to be prevented? Do local residents support the implementation and monitoring? Is law enforcement going to treat the relay of information, gathered from the surveillance, with immediate urgency and importance? Are the costs of not only implementation but operation and maintenance of an acceptable nature, so that it is a sustainable support mechanism? Is the CCTV monitored in real time or recorded for observation in the event of a criminal occurrence? We recognize CCTV surveillance systems for their potential to allow observation, a recorded video file of users and a potential way to screen visitors. We suggest that considerations for CCTV be combined with natural CPTED principles, such as natural acc ess control, in order to support efficient and effective implementation and use. For example, in the following section related to access control, we present research regarding the integration of multiple crime deterrent measures and how they can feed off Access Control Controlling the access of an urban corridor comes with recognition of an urban hierarchy of space(s). The manipulation of space, path, program, boundary, and an understanding of the components and systems involved in generating positive perceptions derived from visual and physical permeability to other places that exist within and around the site is no small task. For example, what may be a complete
45 physical and visual barrier for an elderly woman could be neither a physical or visual barrier for a tall, young man. Those who are most apt (physically) to get away with a crime may feel they have more opportunities. Well planned natural access control strategi es in design might make it just as easy for an elderly la dy to navigate and understand an environment as it would be for anyone else. Based upon the layout and configuration of the spaces within, reducing potential opportunities for cr iminal activity should occur at the earliest design stage, in order to promot e modern CPTED principles ( Crowe, 200 0 ; Schneider and Kitchen, 2007) Our studies focus on design measures for reducing crime, for we believe design should not be made in order to allow accessibility to all possible users at the expense of other users, but rather, design should supplement and add richness to the functionality of the site, by making the environment more usable for the most users possible. Criminology researchers, such as Crawford (2010), recognize the impossible task of accounting for al achieves the maximum benefit from minimal efforts and costs, and for even a minor demograph another minority group, would seem to be a valuable goal during the creation of public and semi public environments. There are a number of methods in which to organize accessibi lity and grant permeability at a site, within the urban fabric, as is obvious, so to categorize the possible strategies involved, Crowe (2000) explains that: Access control is a design concept directed primarily at decreasing crime opportunity. Access co ntrol strategies are typically classified as organized
46 (e.g. guards), mechanical (e.g. locks), and natural (e.g. spatial definition). The primary thrust of an access control strategy is to deny access to a crime target and to create a p erception of risk t o offenders (p 36) Natural Access C ontrol We acknowledge that n atural access control methods relates to architectural moves that direct or organize space(s) so that use is restricted or reinforced in a manner natural ly suited to the architecture and con text. M echanical and organized applications of access control sh ould support operations of management, security and maintenance, but can be used along with natural principles in the architectural design stage. Supplementing the components of a crime prev ention strategy and alleviating one type of crime prevention mechanism from carrying too large of a burden in crime prevention can be the role of natural access control strategies. Multiple deterrents can work in unison to wards mutually cooperative arrang ements to create a holistic approach to CPTED. Using overlapping strategies to reinforce each other, much like the woven fibers in tapestry gain strength from each other, could increase the efficiency and effectiveness of prevention efforts. There are o f course many ways of creating access control, such as using a concentric buffer, as could be the case in perimeter based site plans that have open courtyards in the middle of them. Crowe (2000) suggests that natural access control assists security, by cl aiming that, natural access control methods, ill promote more responsiveness by users in protecting their territory (e.g. more security awareness, reporting, reacting) and promote greater perception of risk by offenders Extending his explanatio n of why natural access control is preferred over target hardening, Crowe (2000) continues by suggesting:
47 The effort to achieve a balance between design for crime prevention and design for effective use of environments contributed to the shift in focus fr om organized and mechanical strategies per se to natural strategies. This is because natural strategies exploited the opportunities of the given environment both to naturally and routinely facilitate access control and surveillance, and to reinforce posit ive behavior in th e use of the environment. (p.36) to reinforce positive behavior. Since the designer/ planner needs not to come up with t he perfect solution, because there often is no perfect solution or at least one fully agreed on by everyone as perfect, Crowe (2000) suggests that: The CPTED planner merely tries to maximize the use of natural strategies before using the more costly organized and mechanical ones that may a ctually serve as impediments to profitable operations [such as in the case of barricaded windows with iron bars]. The conventional security concepts of access controls and surveillance are [simply] enhanced by the emphasis on natural approaches, with the added feature of increased territorial behavior an d expanded proprietary concern (p.51) We hypothesize a strong connection between the profitable operation of business and designs and plans that utilize the formation of territoriality and boundary for the intended benefit s of deterring crime promoting business and economic stability and improving community perceptions Boundary a nd Territoriality Territoriality can contribute directly to physical design and user perception s (Schneider and Kitchen, 2 007) Natural access control and surveillance methods can contribute to territorial reinforcement, thus making it a possible tool for crime prevention (Schneider and Kitchen, 2007). Discussions associated with boundaries and access control may inevitably lead to surveillance discussions, as well as territorial reinforc ement considerations and a back and forth conversation on the effectiveness of crime prevention initiatives.
48 Boundary is a general term, fairly commonly used, and more or less understoo d by the general population. However, in order to recognize the theoretical parameters of boundaries, and the development of CPTED within urban contexts, there must be clarity in the urban program and vision. Boundary can be used as a design tool for inc reas ing safety and deterring crime while not compromising aesthetic or functional integrities of the architectural and urban programs (Crowe, 2000 ; Schneider, 2009) There are many ways to design for a safe place and actually deter criminal behavior, and those are by using the principles of the natural CPTED techniques to increase the perception of a safe environment while simultaneously increasing the pe rception of risk to the illegitimate user. In doing so, there exists the hope for the environmental g uardians to respond, in a timely manner, should deviant activity occur. Crowe (2000) r ecognizes spatial qualities like distance as e ffective barriers, and suggests that the natural barrier of distance can be joined wi th human scale details indicate boun daries through material reinforcement, such as by varying the pattern or materials used on the ground or by changing the landscape design to designate space. Distance between place s can also be used to create a risk factor for potential criminals, so that there can be no (good) excuse for being in the wrong place and at the wrong time, and thus creating a greater risk for detection during a theoretical crimin al act (Crowe, 2000). We suggest that b oundary making might also be u sed in design strategies in a t least three ways, for example: preventing or deterring criminal or undesirable behavior, by aiding in or assisting in aid (should something occur that demands interaction on the part of the site management) and increasing community perceptions that a si te is safe and inviting.
49 We propose that if b orders, boundaries and territoriality may help to in form users about the appropriate uses of space, therefore inferring as to how the space is to be used then they may also be used to clarify and inform users on how to navigate to and through an environment from the urban fabric to the interior (private) corridors. Crowe (2000) notes CPTED principles in lighting and border theories, by relating the behavior of humans to territoriality, from a historical persp ective: Border definition and symbolic barriers were important to early humans. Sticks with skulls atop were strategically placed to signify entrance to controlled space. Drums were beaten constantly to define closed space by the distance to which the s ound would travel. Accordingly, contemporary humans feel the need to identify with space, both permanently and semi permanently. It is important to note here that the fundamental territorial nature of human beings has changed little in the last 5,000 yea rs, and remains a powerfu l factor in behavioral control (p.82) In the above quote, the author sheds light on the concept that humans can experience border and territoriality from a n umber of perspectives, such as physical construction, signage, lighting acoustics, user behavior, management, maintenance and ownership. By emphasizing desi gn guidelines related to the deep rooted nature of makers to reinforce territoriality and increase the perc eption of risk factors for criminals (Crowe, 2000) Boundary can exist among all components of spatial arrangements, at spatial joints, as an ability to separate or join, and define ownership (Schneider and Kitchen, 2007) Boundary can be personal or pub lic, semi public or semi private (Schneider, 2009). We recognize that boundary may be used to sign, inform and mitigate, for boundary is the dema rcation of controlled access. We hypothesize that b oundary is border, defined, and access control is spatial a nd social control, at the most initial stage.
50 Hallway D esign Crowe (2000) mentions many important considerations relate to lighting yet does not setting, directional enhancement and artful lighting possibilities (like grazed lighting), when they are installed in a way that does not weaken the surveillance strategies of an environment but supports the context. Important suggestions for hallways are provide d by Crowe (2 000) as follows: Hallways may be assigned to the tenant of the adjoining internal space. Users should be influenced to mark their turf to identify their boundaries. Boundaries and turf cues should be extended to consume unassigned or undifferentiated spa ces., the legitimate use of hallways and corridors need to be reinforced through policies and signs., graphics may be used to promote movement and to indicate direction., floor coverings and colors may be used to identify public versus private spaces., nor mal users safer in these areas and exhibit challenging and controlling behaviors. Abnormal users respond to these cues by avoiding these areas or with avoidance behaviors when they ar e in the vicinity (p.1 50 151) We argue that i n an urban setting, architectural lighting design, created with the intention of not only meeting standards for safety but for enhancing the environment through psychological methods, such as mood elevating aur as an d color rendition sequencing, might be mutually beneficial to program strategies, if implementation does not comprise the surveillance strategies and results in an i ncreased use of a place (Crowe, 2000) We consider i ncreasing the natural surveillanc e perceptions and inviting potential users to become engaged in a space to be a primary function with in a CPTED program Schneider (2009) suggests that i ntersections of hallway corridors might be improved by eith er curved corners or integrated with convex mirrors so that users traveling in other directions are visually recognizable and hiding spots and entrapment zones are eliminated.
51 Research has shown that hallways may especially benefit from utilizing psychological methods that strategically address co rridors (Crowe, 2000) Intriguing, color highlighting with artfully placed hues, via grazed lighting or spot lighting certain aspects of a site while simultaneously utilizing bright white flood lighting, in order to maintain true color rendition in the pu blic realm, can allow users to more clearly identify others in a more realistic manner than might occur if users were completely illuminated with colored lighting, such as is the effect with yellowing high pressure sodium bulbs ( Fennelly 2003; Schneider, 2009) We recognize that s unlight generates a full good color rendition. However, i n the evening, more o r less true color rendition may be p ossible through utilizing metal halide flood lamps, or other lights, that provide non yellowing color spectrums and more of a white light ( Crowe, 2000; Fennelly, 2003) The choice of light fixtures, the placement of light sources and directing of illumination can dramatically impact perceptions of sp ace and the degree to which people engage other people and place thus place. For example, Crowe (2000) mentions hallway lighting studies performed in Louisville, Kentucky and conclude s that locating the source(s) of light not in the center of hallways but at near the edges or corners and directing light toward the walls achieves the greatest perception of the size of a space as well as the best interaction among other users of the space We could not research the study in Louisville, yet suggest that Crow By generating social contacts with other users, such as eye contact, and in a more comfortable way than central lighting does, wall an d corner light placement can improve how users experience a place ( Crowe, 2000).
52 Improving spatial com fort, through the positioning, orientation and selection of luminaire can make the space seem larger and wider than a central light fixture would, and better allows for users to move in opposite directions of each other through a space, under the perceptio n that there is plenty of room for each of them to walk (Crowe, 2000) The positive effects of thoughtful moves, such as lighting placement, can also have effects on other concerns such as noise levels ( Crowe, 2000) When users walk down the hallways at the sides of them, and not in the middle of them there was a thirty percent reduction in noise from pedestrian traffic, due to acoustic design principles and sound wave reflection discovered in the Louisville study ( Crowe, 2000 ). Public Restroom Location a nd Planning The following idea s, from Crowe (2000), suggest how restroom design and placement functions in regard to safety and crime prevention: Restrooms should be placed in the most convenient and accessible location to increase use, which increases the perception of safety. A maze type entry system or doors placed in a locked open position will increase convenience and safety. Normal users will determine who is in the restroom by glancing around the privacy screen or wall. Abnormal users will fee l at greater risk of detection. Customer (or student) convenience and safety should contribute to the attainment o f the objectives of the space (p.153) In the above quote, the author neglects to mention that sound travels easier through and around an ope n, maze entry system tha n it does through closed doors, especially in the case of the double door entry system that utilizes a small room and spatial buffer to disseminate smells, views and sounds from entering the adjoining space(s ) that a restroom is att ached to (Smith, 1996) In the case of restrooms, good visibility is vital to counter fears of entrapment, for restrooms are often experienced
53 singularly and when an individual is at a heightened susceptibility to threats from potential entrapment zones a nd poor visibility (Schneider, 2009) We propose that perceptions of s afety in restrooms m ight become improved if p rinciples of CPTED are considered in the design. In choosing the brightness, color rendition, placement and strength options of environmen tal lighting and proper maintenance and management responsibilities of any environment containing public users, proposals to all public restroom designs should likely adhere to similar princi ples as any other public space (Crowe, 2000 ; Smith, 1996 ). For e xample, utilizing a maze entry system in restrooms helps guardians to b e more quickly alerted by sound s of threats, such as from a scream from inside the restroom, because the sound will travel farther and more clearly than it would if there were doors to muffle and block it ( Schneider, 200 9; Smith, 1996 ) Crowe (2000) suggests that when determining architectural lighting for restrooms, if certain colors are to be used they should be related to the potential abilities that they possess. For example, Crowe (2000) identifies the following characteristics of colors: black clothing makes people feel better and appear thinner ; t he deeper the color density, the more it instills trust from the consumer; o range may instill perceptions of distrust and ; bright whit e light allows for full spectrum reflection off of materials, which would allow the best illumination and reflection of all objects and people th at are in a room We acknowledge that some of the above may be logical, yet do not concur discu ssion to be absolute and complete, and recommend further study of color and lighting for use in CPTED programs and strategies. We suggest that by
54 combining lighting placement, illumination and color generation, maze type natural access control and official guardianship in the form of restroom maintenance and nearby emergency assistance, public and semi public restrooms may be territorially reinforced. Public a nd Private Parking Smith (1996) contends that lighting is the most important feature in a parking garage crime deters crime and produces a more secure atmosphere S uggestions for plac e making and considerations f or parking places by recognizing that threats might arise in poorly crafted parking areas may allow the CPTED planner to help improve the environment (Crowe, 2000; Smith, 1996) CPTED theor etically integrates the principles of crime prevention through environmental design that apply to all public spaces, in order to generate the following ideas for designing parking structures according to Crowe (2000) : Parking is enclaved in relation to business entrances. Lateral access by vehicles is severely restricted. Aesthetic design opportunities are enhanced to screen u gly parking lots. Extreme transitional definition exists, thereby reducing escape opportunities. Parking areas may be closed with barricades at different times of the day (p.1 56) However, natural surveillance principles require the visibility of parki ng lots, so designers should not screen away ugly parking lots, as the passage above suggests, but utilize aesthetic design opportunities to improve both the picturesque value of parking lots and the surveillance of them, through natural mechanisms, such a s overlooking windows, that potentially allow users and guardians to their vehicles and those in the parking areas. We suggest a n example of clos ing certain areas of parking might involve opening and closing specific levels of a parking structure In res ponse to
55 the demand from delivery vehicles of shipping bays and access to service drives, we suggest consideration of Crowe Barriers are used to divert parking activity to create safe locations for the late arrival. A variety of floor plans may be used depending on a parking needs assessment. Floors may be alternately closed. Aisles may be partially opened. Ground spaces should be dedicated to pedestrian oriented businesses and activities, leaving the air space for the car. Traffic flows may be controlled to allow for angle parking to recover needed p arking that is close to shops (p.137 142) Smith ( 1996 ) explains that ground parking areas are roughly 1.5 times the square footage of retail, yet account for only a small portion of users at a given time, which makes them a vulnerable target for the following reasons: Parked cars provide hiding places and impede the distribution of lighting Most parking facilities are open to the public t likely to be noted as strange or memorable in a parking facility (p.2 3) Furthermore, because the above characteristics of parking areas are inherent to most parking places, Smith (1996) suggests that : Although it is relatively easy and inexpensive to i ncorporate CPTED concepts in parking facilities at the time of construction, it is often difficult and expensive to upgrade security at a later date, especially in parking garages that may have inherent design features that inhibit security (p.3) Smith (1 996) explains that CPTED is especially applicable in parking design because the principles of natural, passive design, such as lightin g and natural access control, are particularly suited for CPTED based design inspiration. Furthermore, active systems, li ke security staff and CCTV surveillance, can be designed to support the passive techniques within the architecture and site program in areas like parking garages, for example (Smith, 1996). Furthermore, if architectural illumination is universally consid ered the most important feature in a parking area, Smith (1996)
56 stresses the importance of lighting factors that go beyond color rendition and brightness to concepts like uniformity in lighting transitions. For example, it is difficult on the eyes to have to adjust to different levels of brightness and parking areas, and where users are at a heightened susceptibility to criminals, extra caution should be taken in determining how to get light into areas like the parking spaces between cars and not simply th e primar y circulation path (Smith, 1996). Territorial Reinforcement We assume that fo r impacting and influencing perceptions of site ownership or owner involvement in a property and the maintenance of it, territorial reinforcement principles provide desi gners with tools for a holistic approach. We consider the possibility that perceptions may be as important to revitalization and crime prevention as any other considerations Crowe (2000) introduces the concept of territorial reinforcement as a guiding f ramework, by presenting the CPTED principle as: An umbrella concept, embodying all natural surveillance and [natural] access control principles. It emphasizes the enhancement of ownership and proprietary behaviors... It is perhaps most useful to think of territorial reinforcement as the umbrella concept, comprising all natural surveillance principles, which in turn comprise all access control principles (p.52) Thankfully, territorial reinforcement can come in many f orms, as is the case with modern CPTED principles and their non prescriptive nature (Schneider, 2009) Materials like a (CPTED approved) fence, simply placed to indicate boundary while still allowing for visual permeability, or with a Neighborhood Residents Only sign, that warns of a policy a ttached to a place, and with the potential for mechanical and community oversight, multiple techniques may work in mutually beneficial directions for crime deterr ence (Schneider, 2009) Furthermore, in considering territorial reinforcement,
57 density and as sociations of community, we consider how to program mixed use projects in the following sub section. The objective of mixed use should be to achieve collective efficacy (Sampson and Raudenbush, and Earls, 199 8 ) We consider collective efficacy to be define d as a cohesion existing among community residents that can be combined with similar or shared expectations for not only informal social controls of the public realm, but in support of the methods used to maintain order. Sampson, Raudenbush and Earls (199 8 ) say c ollective efficacy is a social process and while it can inhibit both crime and disorder it is linked to reduced violence We recognize that disorder might be measured by direct observation, and through the somewhat subjective perceptions of neig hborhood residents. The informal social control method of collective efficacy (similar in nature to the broken windows theory) focuses on what is visible in the public environm ent (Sampson and Raudenbush and Earls, 1998 ). We argue that goals and visions o contextual obligations to environmen tal influences, such as culture and demographic, are always u nique. Geller (2003) highlights Rich Killingsworth, the Director of Active Living by Design, who says st feel empowered on a level that is personal to them individual co mmunities have individual needs p.1412 ) When people speak of Smart Growth and what ideas the concept brings, the Executive Director of Smart Growth America Barbara McCann proposes th at things (as cited by Geller, 2003) been more fundamental to quali ty of life Geller, 2003, p.1411)
58 We argue that territorial reinforcement considerations should be extended beyond a up to the exterior context, including community needs and desires. We recognize that the mix ing of uses for development purposes a nd transportation advantages for example, and that they two are mutually compatible, if not mutually supportive ( City of Englewood 2011 ) We argue that a sense of community may be a factor in measuring quality of li fe. In considering the research on the sense of community in mi xed use developments, the professional s at the American Planning Association believe that: Many urban problems are blamed on a declining sense of community. To assess such claims and to learn how policies affect sense of community, we need a reliable and valid measure for the construct. One test of the scale with 100 residents in single use and mixed use areas near one another found significantly more sense of community in the mixed use neighb orhood. A test with 32 renters in neighboring apartment buildings, one with an outdoor courtyard and the other with an interior double loaded corridor, found significantly more sense of community in the courtyard building. Scores agreed with two other mea sures associated with community: number of neighbors known by name, and number of friends in the buildings. We recommend furthe r testing in other contexts (The Psychological Sense of Community in the Neighborhood, 1995) Schneider and Kitchen (2007) examin e the relationships between crime and mixed use developments and found that open permeability theoretically allows more routes for escape (after a criminal act), and the mixing of uses theoretically in creases the likelihood of crime. Moreover, a strong se nse of community (or c ollective efficacy) might be used as a tool for preventing crimes (Schneider, 2011) An excerpt from use and mediating threats, is : While mixing of land uses is valued by new urbanists and by planners generally as a means to invigorate economically and socially otherwise
59 homogenous areas, and has been supported by some as a means of reducing crime (Jacobs, 1961; Newman, 1973), there are multiple studies that suggest it is not t otally benign. Greenberg et al. (1982) and Greenberg and Rohe (1984) found that homogenous residential neighborhoods had research (1977) noted that residential burglary occurred more frequently near commercial areas. A recent study by Wilcox and Quisenberry (2004) claims that the presence of businesses in neighborhoods tends to increase burglaries, though this effect is mediated by physical disorder and by levels of relative residenti al stability. In this context, mixing playgrounds into residential areas tends to increase burglary risk regardless of neighborhood social structural chara cteristics (p.51) We found that territorial reinforcement includes s upplementing other crime preven tion strategies, and being assisted by them, grants CPTED principles a major benefit in overcoming obstacles to implementing a holistic program for crime prevention and revitalization. We suggest that u nderstanding the concept of territorial reinforcement might help to g uide design strategies and aid in efforts to i mplement a renewed CPTED based crime deterrence program. We suggest that territorial reinforcement may also be need to be considered in order to market an environment as safe, inviting and usab le, and we discuss relevant case studies in the following sections on : Bryant Park, Minnesota Heals, the Brooklyn Initiative Gainesville, FL convenience Bryant Park The differen ce between inviting aesthetics and uninviting aesthetics plays a vital role in the creation of a desirable place. In order to convey to potential users that a space is safe and usable, people may need to see others using it in a manner similar to how they might. An example of how observation is used as a tool in CPTED, along with other methods, to convey a welcoming atmosphere, occurs in Midtown Manhattan, New York, at the once infamous Bryant Park. According to Macedo (2007), in a research
60 study written for the United Nations, thousands use the park every day, yet it was once a criminal harbor and very threatening. A non safe, non inviting place like Bryant park used to be, may clearly cater to illegitimate use (Macedo, 2007). How can the transformatio n of perceptions, from negative to positive, occur? How can an unsafe location become perceived as a safe location? How can the desirable users gain control over an environment? To explain the successful Bryant Park revitalization, Macedo (2007) document s budget, yet it is the only park in New York City that receives no public funding. The present park is part of a public private partnership and requires a great deal of mainte nance, management and upkeep from the private sector. Most complaints now do not stem from crime, but are come from issues dealing with park maintenance and how the park is being operated as a business. Some of the people complaining may have not experie nced Bryant Park before the redesign. Furthermore, evidence might suggest most important factors to its successful revitalization and continued success. The park is now run completely separate from public funding, through the BPRC (Bryant Park Restoration Corp.). The BPRC handles the issue of collecting revenue events are in fact free, the park does hold special events that require patrons to pay for access. There are also a couple, small on benefits, since the revitalization effort, the surrounding real estate market has seen dramatic improveme nt in rentals and values. The revitalization of Bryant Park led to an
61 increase in dwelling unit improvements (Macedo, 2007). Real estate brokers have since been able to use the park as an amenity, instead of a threat to overcome. How did the changes made to Bryant Park succeed in their crime prevention efforts after the revitalization? Instead of being an overgrown harbor for criminal activity, the landscape was tightly manicured, which allowed for clear sight lines. The solid barrier wall that helped t o alienate the space from the city outside was removed, and a visually permeable fencing was installed, allowing for the park to reconnect with civilization around it. The prior design of Bryant Park, before the newest revitalization, had aimed to disasso ciate it from its city environment and allow users to seclude themselves from the urban atmosphere. In the prior design, walls were put up and the park was elevated, above the ground level of the city. The design did not take into account the types of de viant uses that would become easily accomplishable in the park, because it was a disconnected space from the urban environment surrounding it (Macedo, 2007) Prostitution and d rug sales and use soar ed in the previous, secluded environment (Macedo, 2007) Thankfully, by understanding why the park was attracting non desired users, the city took action. The local government allowed a public private partnership in which two small businesses were added, that serve park patrons with food and beverages, provid e information, organize events, and manage daily revenue generating operations. Redesign measures, that stressed constant on site security, engaged management and maintenance of the landscape were needed to reclaim the park from the deviant users. Portab le chairs were added, making customization and flexibility of place making easy
62 are commonplace, which likely serves to push out undesirable users or those who did not wish to have their lifestyles or activities in the public realm. Private grounds workers and security staff secure the impression of environmental management by cleaning, maintaining and publicly showing that an area is cared for by its stakeholders. Br yant Park maintains physical order and an active presence, by not allowing deviant behavior to go unreported or uncontrolled. The park now receives 24 hour security patrolling and is always watched over by at least two security officers (Bryant Park, 201 1). It has been suggested that even more effective than the design alterations to the space is the new found management and maintenance of the site (Macedo, 2007). Bryant Park suggests that territorial reinforcement principles a ctive management system s and engaged ownership can display caring and eng aged ownership of a property. We argue that e ven if the greatest design implementations are theoretically discovered and installed at a site, the end result would likely be poor if there was a perceived lack of order and governance of the and further propose the importance of a holistic approach in the findings and discussion Minnesota HEALS We suggest that o ne of the most imp ortant aspects in a community rev italization movement is the cooperative implementation and management of crime prevention strategies. T he priva te sector begun to assist law enforcement and local governments in tackling crime prevention and urban revitalization, and th e United States Fed eral Government has acknowledged a vast number of benefits that come from public private partnerships (Reno, 1999; as cited by Whiting, 1999). When otherwise separate groups join forces, to make a community better, the rewards can be much greater than any
63 individual group could have achieved on their own (Reno, 1999; as cited by Whiting, 1999) Companies that actively participate in the urban renewal of their communities have seen enormous benefits and support efforts from the area residents, employees, a nd the local governments (Reno, 1999; as cited by Whiting, 1999) For example, Honeywell, Allina Health Systems and General Mills, some of the leaders in the Minnesota HEALS (Minnesota for Hope, Education, A Law and Safety) program, have all received comm unity support and reported s uccess within the H EALS program (Reno, 1999; as cited by Whiting, 1999). Former Attorney General Janet Reno (1999) emphasized, at the first symposium on the issue (in regard to the Minnesota HEALS program), not only the effectiv eness of follows: T he key to success lies in the people of a community. With the proper resources, the residents of an area are far better equipped than anyone to decide wh at can be done to address a problem. We can do that by renewing our efforts, strengthening our partnerships, using common sense in analyzing crime problems, and designing strategies to solve them in practical ways. Politics must be kept out of crime, and the issue must be approached in a thoughtful, collegial manner. Using common sense and applying business strate gies, we can make a difference (as cited by Whiting, 1999 p.17 18) Brooklyn Redevelopment Initiative Aside from the HEALS program, the Brookl yn Redevelopment Initiative and partnership with Pfizer, Inc. has also resulted in effective and sustainable crime prevention operation. Located at the site where the company was founded, in 1849, Pfizer had an important decision to make when the area aro und them was noticeably falling into decline; they could move their operation to the suburbs or stay where they
64 programs where there is a need. Provide the glue that keeps people talking and acting. as cited by Whiting, 1999 p.18) Pfizer chose to stay where they were a long running business staple in the community and actively heade d an urban revitalization effort in order to make their employees and community feel safer, happier and more connected. Pfizer became a champion partner within the Brooklyn Redevelopment Initiative. Some of the local initiatives included Pfizer security guards patrolling the neighborhood two or three times each shift and posting one of their security guards at the top of the subway stairs during morning and evening rush hours (Whiting, 1999) Pfizer, additionally, mounted security cameras in the subway and they monitor the live feed c ontinuously, reporting all incidents immediately to the local police (Kline, 1999; as cited by Whiting, 1999) The videos from the subway c ameras were given to authorities about 15 times and approximate ly a dozen perpetrato rs were appr ehended due to their efforts (Kline, 1999; as cited by Whiting, 1999) According to Pfizer the cameras an d active management made a substantial impact in deterring crime, creating a safer environment for th eir employees and for the local community ( as cited by Whiting, 1999) Numerous other community efforts ensued and before they knew it Pfizer had made a tremendous impact on the community and its crime rate. A substantial reduction in crime came from thei r revitalization effort ( Kline, 1999; as cited by Whiting, 1999) Whiting (1999) recognizes t he Keys to a Successful Partnership employ many components, summarized as follows : Assuming the role of a catalyst is the most successful way that businesses can h elp to rehabilitate communities.
65 Selecting a project champion or business/development to be the leader and headline the community strategies is a vital way to both manage and implement goals, objectives and strategies. nizational and managerial abilities to frame and direct community strategies and reach out into the residential population is a vital role of the project champion. Appropriating fiscally, resources to devote to the revitalization effort and allow wholehea rted participation from stakeholders, supported by sen ior management We suggest that t hreats that are shared between residents and businesses in a community should be attacked in a cooperative manner. When the line between public and private interests ca n become blurred, project champions can help to organize and articulate individual concerns and focus energy and resources strategically and appropriately (Reno, 1999; as cited by Whiting, 1999). We suggest that low crime rates, productive citizens and sa fe streets are all important to the businesses and residents of an environment (Whiting, 1999) In fact, Kline (1999) VP of Marketing Strategy for just like you change education, by teach ing one student at a time as cited by Whiting, 1999 p.13) Gainesville, FL Convenience Store Ordinance Gainesville, Florida passed legislation in 1986 required most convenient stores in the city to have two clerks on duty between the hours of 8:00 PM an d 4:00 AM and that the employees during those hours take a Robbery Prevention course or be come certified by the City Manager or designee with 30 days of hire (Gainesville Ordinance 3318 0 87 06, 1987). Braga and Weisbur d whether the number of employees conducting surveillance makes a difference Weisbur d explain (2010) critical professional views and research findings from the Gainesville, Florida ordinance and cite Clifton (1987) claim that the ordi nance did
66 result Sherman (1991), who contended that important rival hypotheses were not considered ulting implementation of the new law that actually cau sed the reduction in robberies T he S tate of Florida ultimately superseded the ordinance with one of its own. W e argue that the decision may have b een politically or otherwise influenced, and not dir ectly decided by analyzing the results from the crime data or the research findings from Gainesville (1987) finding stating that the legislation was in fact the strongest evidence to support the reduction in r obberies and empirically based their research so as to give further support to the argument that more guardianship may act as a criminal deterrent (as cited by Braga and Weisburd, 2010) However, when replicating the study in Austin, Texas, LaVigne (1991 ) was not able to conclude the same findings as Clifton, Hunter and Jeffery (as cited in Braga and Weisburd, 2010). Regardless, we acknowledge that guardianship and surveillance of a site by employees is an important aspect to consider when developing natu ral surveillance strategies (Schneider and Kitchen, 2007; Smith, 1996) We argue that t he back and forth debate of research conclusions, such as in Gainesville, for example, ev idence and challenged results are commonplace in the evaluation of many crime pr evention theor ies techniques and applications. Due to the extremely circumstantial nature of place based criminal activity, occurrences and measures, drawing conclusive results is extremely challenging for perceptions are unique and vary widely among us ers of space We argue that f inding empirical conclusions that support seemingly rational design suggestions is challenging,
67 especially when looking for a one size fits all design strategy or universal agreement. Much time and study is still needed befor e all criminologists support and create a statistically based, complete CPTED based set of g uidelines and recommendations that should be used in a standardized manner, for crime is environmentally variable and user expectations differ from one place to ano ther across the globe ( Crowe, 2000; Schneider and Kitchen, 2002; Whiting, 1999). There is, unfortunately, not a way to gather a complete data set of all crimes committed, for often, many crimes are not even be reported (Wekerl e and Whitzman, 1995) Homi cide is often used to measure, as a reliable indicator, violent crime in an area (Weker l e and Whitzman, 1995). We agree that when t here is no evidence of a crime ( it is not reported ), then no data collection or empirical research conclusions can arguably be absolute Consequentially, we assume that it is hard to collect data for measures of successful techniques that result in the prevention of crimes, because one of the only ways to comp are crime prevention measures by using empirical evidence, is by loo king at reductions in recorded crime after a preventative implementation has been installed or by in ferring results, based on large, independent research surveys. It is more costly and less effective to renovate a developed and existing parcel within an urban fabric, than it is to consider and implement preventative natural design principles and features during the initial construction phase (Colquhoun, 200 4 ; Schneider and Kitchen, 2007 ; Smith, 1996). It is simply easier and more cost effective to do som ething correct the first time around than to have to alter an existing and complex set of systems, materiality and social program s with retro fit applications (Schneider, 2009; Smith, 1996)
68 Englewood, Colorado CityCenter In Colorado, the City of Englewo od, near Denver, cr eated a downtown, open air City Center out of a regional shopping mall (City of Englewood, 2009) The public private partnership development focuses on creating a central place and walkable streets that connect a wide mix of uses (City o f Englewood, 2009) In 1997 the City of Englewood explored new urbanism and transit oriented development theories, collaborating with a local non profit development group of planners, architects, attorneys, developers, real estate executives and bankers ( City of Englewood, 2009) The city c enter resulted in 800,000 square feet of development, consisting of 300,000 square feet of offices, inter modal transit station, 330,000 square feet of retail space, and 50,000 square feet of restaurant space (City of Englewood, 2009) There is also a Civic Center with offices, libraries, a cultural arts center and courtrooms (City of Englewood 2009) The developmental objective of the project is to revitalize the i nner suburbs (City of Englewood, 2009). Intense in tra regional retail competition caused the City to consider how they would create a sustainable retail market, to supplement the collection of tax revenue ( City of Englewood, 2009 ) By thoughtfully and carefully calibrating an urban use structure of cultu ral facilities, multi modal transit and libraries, the City aims to counter any whims in the retail market with a more sustainable approach to developing their urban environment (City of Englewood, 2009). One of the most important strategies in the Englew ood revitalization is supportive, complimentary urban uses. Parking, for example, is not required to be constructed for each parcel; parking is shared by all uses in order to reduce the high costs of structured parking and asphalt paving (City of Englewoo d, 2009) Cultural activities draw crowds that are meant to support the restaurants and retailers (City of
69 E nglewood, 2009). B ig box retail shopping is accommodated for with a faade that fits the desired urban image and parking that is not centralized i n a large parking lot in front of the retailer but broken up into smaller lots (City of Englewood, 2009) Additionally, th e big box retailer allowed the c ity to construct a pedestrian oriented street to bisect what would have been a large parking lot in i n front of the store (City of Englewood, 2009) The City of Englewood (2009 ) organized six development objectives, to facilitate the urban vision and help organize efforts summarized as follows : Revitalize inner suburbs Replace the mall footprint with a network of urban pathways, streets and parks Integrate new development with the bus transfer lot and light rail station Provide adequate parking for transit riders, shoppers and civic space users Integrate big box retail appropriately Integrate the regiona l system of greenways and parks into the ur ban design While we recognize that transfer directly to all o ther revitalization projects, we regard it importa nt to understand the comprehensive effect of the s pecific objectives and potential, complimentary support that they can provide each other Furthermore, we argue that the holistic approach that Englewood took in developing revitalization objectives parallels the holistic approach to modern CPTED For ex ample, we conclude that ignoring the problem of ground parking would have led to a dramatically different environment in Englewood likely resulting in a less successful outcome because a large social need would be left to individual developers to solve, w hich in turn would likely foster architecture unrelated to its contextual urban fabric and more oriented towards automobile accommodation. Individual development projects may not have to strive to create the best urban
70 environment ever, and may lead to a d isconnected urban environment with gaps in spatial continuity (Trancik, 1986). Much like CPTED works in a holistic manner, we suggest that urban scale revitalization projects with a cohesive vision meet community needs through urban based improvement and redevelopment strategies In the way that CPTED principles can be mutually supportive, the goals of the Englewood CityCenter para llel the modern CPTED approach to utilizing multiple techniques to support an larger program objective. T he CityCenter does not market CPTED as a central goal in their redevelopment strategy, yet the City of Englewood offers many crime prevention, safety and community Self Defense C lasses, Emergency Preparedness, Graffiti Paint Out (and graffiti alert system), Code Enforcement, Victim Assistance, Investigative Services, and Patrol Operations and custom crime preventi on presentations (Englewood, 2009 ). Furthermore, we argue that we c ould defend much of the development to include modern CPTED principles. A component of the City of (2009) first goal, within their Economic Development Strategy to assist local business through investment programs contains three parts: Ent erprise Zone Catalyst Program Business Makeovers The City of Sarasota (2002) utilized a similar strategy, by implementing an Enterprise Zo ne along the Trail Corridor, hoping to gain business makeovers (as well as new development) however it has not intro duced a strong catalyst project to the interior
71 corridor that might work to spur improve ment from within. We recognize the City of (2009) Eco nomic Development Strategy to p rovide a safe, healthy and at tractive business environment and believe this goal to be generally applicable to appropriately fit most revitalization campaigns. To plan for a safe environment, some may argue that CPTED concepts played a role in the planning, design and review processes in Englewood. Englewood has an entire s taff department dedicated to Building and Safety (Englewood, 2009 ) We conclude that E can spur a dramatic change in the overall urban environment. Furthermore, Englewood emphasizes the importance of recognizing the complimentary effects between the physical appearance of commercial districts and the surrounding residential community by developing design standards to enhance sense of place in corridors and business districts ( Englewood E conomic Development Strategy, 2003 ; as cited by City of Englewood, 2009)
72 CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY OF METHODS Can CPTED principles be used to guide an anchor project and catalyst for urban revitalization development in North conducted this study in order to find out if CPTED would be an appropriate theory to base a renewed urban revitalization for use in revitalization campaigns, we researched the general hypothe ses behind some criminal activity theories and modern crime prevention theories such as o pportunity, rational choice and situational crime prevention theories and second generation CPTED principles (the modern, natural approach to designing proactively to deter crime) In order to find out how other communities have approached crime prevention planning and legislation, urban renewal and mixed use programming that relies on mutually supportive land uses we looked at five case studies that we argue may pr ovide valuable guidance for urban revitalization and crime prevention We further used lessons from graduate studies from Schneider (2009; 2011) in Introduction to CPTED and Advanced CPTED Practices, as well as case study research from class investigation s, to provide insight into CPTED principles, methods and examples. To determine if a CPTED based catalyst project could be appropriately situated within the North Trail Corridor, we allowed personal experience and observation s to influence our understandin proper location for anchoring an urban renewal catalyst project. By interviewing key actors in the current economic development partnership we were able to discover some community concerns and perceptions, so that our conclusions and recommendations recognize some of the community concerns and desires which we discuss in the
73 findings section By performing, and presenting in the fi ndings and discussion, a rudimentary urban morphology analysis of the urban landscape around the site that we believe to be best suited for centralizing urban redevelopment and a CPTED based revitalization campaign, we recognize in the findings and discussion, the current and proposed urban form and land use s of a vi Cultural and Education Corridor. term vision plans and goals, from the 2030 Vision Plan (2006) we align our proposals for Sar creating safe, walkable places and also an official Gateway to Sarasota corridor (from the Sarasota International Airport) Through th is study, our expectation is to propose how CPTED principles might be able to inspire urban renewal and en vironmental improvements with the imple mentation of an anchor/catalyst initial development, and by continuing the community revitalization effort out into the surrounding neighborhoods and businesses. Rationale for Myrtle Node Revitalization Geo graphically, the Myrtle Node i s located centrall y to the length of th e North Trail Corri dor. Through personal observations, including walking around the Myrtle Node and Cultural Corridor, marking the existing businesses and vacancies, we recognize that t he west side of the node is a fairly active locat ion with visitors fr equenting the shops at Trail Plaza, such as: Goodwill Radio Shack, Amscot Sally Beauty tore, a copy store, an ethnic food market Laundromat and dry cleaner We learned that Goodwi ll likely intends to move further up t he North Trail when their lease is up, and they have had their new site construction approved (Greenberg, 2011) We acknowledge that the Goodwill store
74 would leave another large vacancy if they left, at the Myrtl e Node and we discuss what this would entail in our findings and discussion. Across the street from Trail Plaza, on the north east parcel of the Myrtle Node, sits the former Winn Dixie building and empty ground level parking lot. We recognize that the a bsence of activity on the north east Myrtle Node creates large urban gap along the corridor or as Trancik (1986) suggests, a gap in spatial continuity ; the periodic absence of business and/or residents and fragmentation of urban connectivity along th e corr idor 2011). The recognition of a potential threat to the urban vision at the Myrtle Node ( as determined by the Innovation41 Study ( 2006 ) and our personal observations) sup ported other contextual factors in our decision to propose a revitalization catalyst/anchor project at the Myrtle Node. Directly across the corridor from the Tra il Plaza, in the eastern center of the Myrtle Node, south of the former Winn Dixie store (a nd approved site of a Wal Mart Neighborhood Market ) are a corner store, a liquor store and a bar/lounge ( Figure 3 5 ) There are a couple small commercial businesses in the south east Myrtle node as well ( personal observations, 2011 ). The Myrtle Node h as historically been a center f or shopping, but the Innovation 41 (2006) study found that shopping at this location is, oriented, and prim arily serve [s] the local community Innovation 41 (2006) provides the recommendation that the node should be developed to: S erve the local community market, but with a more diverse mix of merchandise and services. The opportunity is to attract higher density residential uses, particularly rental apartments, and mixed income communities providing attainable workforce housing, with plazas and
75 informal gathering places to shop, interact and recreate and with public art displays (p.33) We believe that the recommendation from Innovation 41 (2006) to attract higher density uses, provide informal gathe ring places and utilize public art displays is directly in line with what our research explains revitalization projects should include. We hypothesize that when the Innovation 41 S tudy (2006) was conduc ted and then presented, the economy was in better shap e than it has been since then, and we suggest that there may currently be less business activity and economic generation at the Myrtle Node than when the study was conducted. We theorize that the recommendations and visi on proposal from the Innovation 41 S tudy (2006) are generally applicable in the current market, but suggest that they may need to be adjusted in order to spark economic investment and regain community support for a renewed urban revitalization program. We recognize the struggle in programmi ng density in our mixed use section of the literature review and propose recommendations in the final chapter of this study. The Myrtle Node, bisected by the Cultural Corridor, consists of roughly 16 acres of developable property ( Figure 3 4 ) What is now an abandoned Winn Dixie parcel and empty parking lot may soon be a Wal Mart Neighborhood Market, with a similar site plan as the former Winn Dixie We recognize that a one story shopping center that caters to the automobile is the type of land use that existed when Winn Dixie was located at the node, and we argue that the new Wal Mart proposal will not recognizably alter the environment; it is our assumption that this is not the best use of the Myrtle Node and may actually be a very poor use of the site, relative to urban redevelopment and connectivity. The previous assumption that considers the best and
76 greatest use possibilities for the Myrtle Node and drove our study to research case studies that have dramatically redesigned or improved their urban fabric through CPTED and holistically generated revitalization campaigns, or revitalization campaigns that combine a handful of objectives under one cooperative framework, such as Englewood, CO. Since we discovered at a NTRP meeting that t he layou t of the approved Wal Mart Neighborhood Market is a more or less a typical big box retail layout composed of parking in the front with the structure and cargo loading bay attached to a rea r service drive ( Figure 3 5 ), we started researching ways that big box retail was integrated into revitalization strategi es, and discovered Englewood, Colorado accommodate a big box store, but through the use of compromising strategies, including parking lot division. We learned that t here was no open fo rum discussion of the project, with the nearby al of Wal Mart business (NTRP meeting, 2011) This suggestion is further explore d in our recommendations relating to open forum communications between staff departments, businesses and communities. We recognize early in our research that placing automobile oriented businesses along the Trail may lead to an urban formation of the corri dor that might threaten the poten tial walkability of the district as a whole, and not service the residents a nd community members as well as pedestrian oriented businesses might, especially w hen speaking of the Myrtle Node; this is because of the large res idential population behind the businesses along the Trail and their need for nearby goods and services in safe and
77 secure environments We consider development that does not conform to visions of a walkable corridor to be harmful to the overall urban netw ork and interconnection of spaces and places throughout the district, so we propose ideas for using CPTED to inspire revitalization concepts presented in our conclusions. We recognize that there are different usage possibilities for day and eve ning hours that may be mutually beneficial and allow the sharing of resources, such as exterior seating or parking, and that Sarasota is exploring these options in consideration of their plan to propose an overlay district to the corridor (NTRP meeting, 2011) We a rgue that even if the Wal Mart Neighborhood Market for example, were open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, the parking l ot may be desolate at many times and possibly harbor factors associated with criminal environments, such as seclusion from guardian ship and normal users. We find it troubling to think that some environments may not consider the public thoroughfare and we discover in our archival research that post modern planning and architecture may have resulted in gaps in spatial continuity (see T rancik, 1986) that we suggest may be counter productive to creating an environment associated with high quality of life associations and modern CPTED principles. Archival research online and at the UF libraries provided a collection of CPTED based theorie s to apply at the initial design/redesign stage, which we use to support our findings and con c lusions. We recognize that day and night time uses and needs may vary widely among environments and users, and explore how designers should consider diurnal usage and further, how a site may be used when the businesses on location are closed. From our recognition that night time community perceptions of the walk ability and safety of an environment may vary greatly at different times of the day and night, we sugges t an
78 approach similar to the way Englewood, CO strategically located specific businesses to cooperative business operations and foster the type of urban environment (that they) desire. We are not aware of whether or not Wal Mart considered the greater urban context or community needs such as safe, walkable corridors in North Sarasota We suggest that t he City of Sarasota, however, should be concerned with the outcome of any built en vironments that do not assume their urban contextual obligations to include the public use of the site or site perimeter, for non customers, and leads us to suggest a catalyst project and environment that is suited for public and private users. For exampl e, if a minimum of even 25% of an important urban node is to be virtually closed to pedestrians at night, how will the citizens who need to walk through it feel and be safe? Alternatively, i f the other 75% of the urb an node c ontains auto oriented businesses, vacant units, a bar/lounge and expansive ground level parking lots, how will anyone passing through the node, who is not within the confines of an automobile, feel comfortable, secure positive or attracted to the environment? We conclude that it should be a primary concern of cities to bring dangerous or threatening public spaces to attention and in our recognition of this, we propose a redevelopment project be placed at the urban space we feel could have the mos t to gain from a renewal, redevelopment or revitalization strategy. During our research, we question that i f an entire urban node neglects to find a way for pedestrians and multimodal users to travel safely and enjoyably through it, is the node undoubted ly a failure as a joint in the urban fabric and not have a positive influence on its environment. Moreover, could it have a negative influence on its
79 environment? We assume that a project can negatively influence its environment (see Jane Jacobs (1961) a nd the broken windows theory) and that alternatively, the right project could positively influence its environment. Therefore, we further researched examples of projects and case studies that have influenced their communities and environments for the bett er. We extract the relevant lessons that we consider should be mentioned, regarding the case studies and their effective strategies. We conclude that a failed joint in any context may only increase the risk of more structural failures and in more than one direction; this is our consideration of how poor development hurts urban environments and their inhabitants. Rational e for Ca se Study Proposal at Trail Plaza It has been s uggested, in the Innovation 41 s North Trail Corridor, the existing (primarily retail) node between Myrtle St. and Highland St. is a natural activity zone in which future development should utilize an d activate. Referring to the large blocks east and west of N. Tamiami Trail, south of Myrtle and nor th of Highland, as the Myrtle Town Center Node the study Innovation 41 describe s he psychological heart of the neighborhoods where people have historically shopped and interacted Wal Mart has been approved to build an urban market on the east side of the Myrtle Node and their plan includes an expansive parking lot in front, between the store and the main road, N. Tamiami Trail ( NTRP meeting 2011). Currently, at the Myrtle Node, on the wes t side of the corridor, si ts the Trail Plaza strip center, with mostly lower end retail, some vacant units and a comedy club that opens in the evening. The Trail Plaza strip center was built decades ago and we suggest that it has faced considerable criminal activity within and ar ound the site. A recent burglary at the
80 Radio Shack, on site, has led the owner, according to Mr. Greenberg (2011), to consider installing CCTV cameras, a mechanical surveillance technique, and tool that we can not necessarily recommend implemen ting on it s own An assumption of ours is that simply installing CCTV cameras will likely not dramatically increase community perceptions of the site and is a retro fit crime prevention tool that, if used alone and without continuous official surveillance of the vid eo feed, will likely not improve the quality of the environment or reduce crime. However, the owner has agreed to allow the Sarasota Police Department to install a satellite office at the Trail Plaza, in one of the vacant units, and we conclude that there may be a way for the City of Sarasota and the owner to collaborate in a public private partnership to redevelop the Trail Plaza parcel and improve the greater Myrtle Node (Greenberg, 2011) We learned that a satellite police office (at the Trail Plaza a nd Myrtle Node geographic area) would be the first satellite office for the Sarasota Police Department (Greenberg, 2011) We hypothesize that a satellite office at a CPTED based revitalization anchor and catalyst project would mesh well with the goals of the development, objectives of community revitalization strategies and might promote change in user perceptions regarding the safety and usability of the site. We suggest that the location is appropriate to the entire Cultural Corridor site, as the Myrtle Node is located fairly centrally to length of the corridor. While CCTV and a police presence, together, might help to reduce some of the crimes committed at and around the Trail Plaza, we regard retro fit crime prevention strategies to be less of a long term solution or proactive approach to community improvement and more of a response and short
81 term tool for combatting a fundamental problem of the site and/or surrounding urban fabric. Our assumption that there may be a fundamental problem with the ur ban fabric at the node has directed our research to consider how a new development might be built that could foster CPTED principles and also spur the many facets of community revitalization. We therefor recommend that the City of Sarasota consider a sus tainable approach to combating crime and creating successful urban environments, and we recognize the principles of modern CPTED for their ability to combine community needs and goals under a strategic vision with organized objectives from the initial des ign and planning stages of redevelopment. In the Findings and Discussion chapter we present a crime comparative for shopping areas in Sarasota, Florida, along Tamiami Trail. Rationale f or CPTED Consideration a t Trail Plaza By integrating CPTED principles into the North Trail Zoning District in 1991 Sarasota positioned itself as a pioneer in crime prevention planning ( Appendix A) Led r was the focus of attention. Since t he owner of the Trail Plaza has recently volunteered to allow the Sarasota Police Department to put a satellite office in one of th e open units at the plaza, we recommend further exploring options with the owner that might include public private partnerships Within the Myrtle Node, the following list of contextual factors led to the decision to propose a case study revitalization catalyst project at 3333 N. Tamiami Trail, Trail Plaza: Wal Mart Neighborhood Market project approved at large NE parcel Vacancy of Goodwill at Trail Plaza when the lease is up, in late 2012 C riminal activity at and around Trail Plaza has been recognized by the owner The first satellite police office has been volunteered at Trail Plaza
82 Roughly a third of the Myrtle Node is arguably the Trail Plaza The Trail Plaza has historically been a shopping center and urban attractor ome dy c lub may be looking to relocate Trail Plaza is a decaying strip center at risk of high vacancy and increased crime Time to alter the Wal Mart project, to promote walkability and safety has passed The size of Trail Plaza (6 acres) is arguably large enough to buil d an anchor site Trail Plaza has historically been a destination site and a new development may spur new interest in what the site has to offer and /or improve the c orridor image We consider an urban magnet or urban attractor, to be a project large enough and diverse enough to reach out to a community, draw them in to the site and potentially bring in users to the area who are not local residents. The Myrtle Node location is centrally positioned on the North Trail Cultural Corridor and in a prime location for catching commuters on N orth Tamiami Trail as well as nearby residents (Innovation 41, 2006) Inserting a catalyst project for revitalization on the west side of the Myrtle Node, at the Trail Plaza, could prevent a large, decaying property from facing empty retail spaces that we suggest would undoubtedly have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Instead, through our experience wit h North Sarasota, we recognize that redeveloping the Trail Plaza may grant an opportunity to redirect the urban form ations and developments implement more sustainable business and residential considerations and begin a public private partnership strategy that could organize revitalization efforts and potentially spur reinvestme nt in the community (as we present in the case study section of the literature review ). Interviews w ith NTRP Volunteers Interviews with local volunteers, David Greenberg and Marjory Sykes, were conducted to provide lo cal perspectives on the Trail potential. The interviews were conducted by phone and in an informal narrative so that the conversations would flow naturally and their opinions would not be confined to a list
83 of questions. Interviews were conducted during 2011, after personal participation in multiple North Trail Redevelopment Partnership meetings. The findi ngs are presented in Chapter 4 with conclusions from the interview s proposed in Chapter 5 Crime a nd Environmental Data Gathering We utilize the crime data from C rime M apping (2012) in order to understand that there are a high number of crimes occurring around North Sarasota, Trail Plaza and also what types of crimes are occurring a r ound the biggest parcel of the Myrtle Node ( Crime Mapping 2012 ). We also have informal discussions with the owner and manager of the Trail Plaza regarding current criminal events. Our interest is in understanding and presenting some data regarding the g eographic location of Trail Plaza and the type of criminal environment that surrounds it. Furthermore, we compare shopping areas within Sarasota, along Tamiami Trail, in order to support our placement for a CPTED derived urban redevelopment anchor project and we present the study in our findings and discussion chapter. Configuring a Proposal at the Case Study Site Through analyzing the literature surrounding CPTED and researching case studies that we deemed relevant to our study, we discovered valuable CP TED theories and how they can apply to urban planning, urban design architecture, landscape architecture and interior design By locating p ublic private partnership based case studies that have been successful in community revitalization, we formed sugg estions and recommendations for our Sarasota case study proposal of a catalyst and anchor project, by weaving in what we also gleaned from interviews with key actors, meetings tended period of time from 2009 to 2012
84 We conclude that t he Myrtle Node presents an interesting an appropri ate intervention site to strategically allow an intervention in the form of a revitalization catalyst project, that could be used to lead the Cu movement. Plaza as the initial anchor site in the following chapter W e discuss our research and analysis findings, by including what we consider to be vital lessons from CPTED theory, NTRP volunteers and personal observations F urthermore, we recognize the les sons from the case studies and discuss relevance of specifi c approaches to crime prevention and/or revitalization. Ou r conclusions and recommendations are presented in the final chapter and deal mainly with how designers and planners might begin to consider how the Myrtle Node could be potentially transformed and moreover, how CPTED principles might be used for idea generation and design inspiration. Figure 3 1 City of Sarasota and North Trail Corridor Source: Created by author 2011
85 Figure 3 2. North Trail Cultural and Education Corridor Source: Created by author 2011
86 Figure 3 3 Center of Source: Created by author 2011
87 Figure 3 4 Existing u rban morphology at the Myrtle Node Source: Created by author 2011
88 Figure 3 5 Early Wal Mart Neighborhood Market p roposal at the Myrtle Node Sourc e: NTRP meeting, 2011
89 Figure 3 6. Trail Plaza south entrance and Goodwill store. Source: Google Street View 2011 Figure 3 7 Trail Plaza east faade S ou rce: Google Street View 2011
90 Figure 3 8. Trail Plaza north east corner S ou rce: Google Street View 2011 Figure 3 9 Trail Plaza south east wasted space S ou rce: Google Street View 2011
91 Figure 3 10. Trail Plaza south east site border with N. Tamiami T rail and Highland Street S ou rce: Google Street View 2011 Figure 3 11 Trail Plaza s outh west service drive entrance from Highland Street and Goodwill store S ou rce: Google Street View 2011
92 Figure 3 12 Trail Plaza southwest site, taken 20 feet west from Figure 3 11. S ou rce: Google Street View 2011 Figure 3 13 Trail Plaza west ern site intersection with potential formal neighborhood entrance. S ource: Google Street View 2011
93 Figure 3 14 Trail Plaza west ern site border and central western entrance, taken 20 feet east from Figure 3 13. Source: Google Street View 2011 F igure 3 15. Trail Plaza north west site border with Norwood Court and adjacent pharmacy Source : Google Street Vie w 2011
94 Figure 3 16. Former Winn Dixie parking lot with Trail Plaza in the (west) background Source: Google Street View 2011 Figure 3 17 Trail Plaza aerial view, facing north west. Source: Greenberg, 2011
95 Figure 3 18 Tra il Plaza aerial view facing south west. Source: Greenberg, 2011
96 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION We found that principles associated with modern CPTED are relevant to urban redevelopment. Public private revitalization catalyst projects have shown us t hat crime prevention, safety, economic development, multimodal transportation have been integrated to support a community visions and local, market based economies (Bryant Park, 2011; City of Englewood 200 9 ; Minnesota HEALS, 1999). Interviews and persona Corridor and case study / catalyst proposal for a renewed CPTED based approach to supporting urban improvement. When performing a G oogle e websites were found. T he three web all linked to the same special report from the Horse Ride r Press (2011) describes second A term referring to a more holistic approach to CPTED that includes the integration of effective social des ign or social development to reduce crime and victimization. Modern CPTED s becoming In our study, w e use the term modern CPTED to describe the most current pract ices. The holistic approach is arguably achieved by using the most current strategies to incorporate CPTED into the earliest stages of planning and design poss ible and by ha ving the modern, natural crime prevention techniques work to support each other so that no one principle carries too heavy of a crime prevention burden. Literature Review Findings There are many theories on criminal behavior and crime prevention, but we found a few to be particularly relevant to modern CPTED application and education
97 Rational Choice C riminals may use a rational logic when considering whether to commit a crime, or fully consider Situational Crime Preventio n C onflicting inter ests should be separated in an appropriate way and where susceptibility to crime is high, either alternate design (s) should be considered or a heightened awareness of potential vulnerability that manifests its absence into a presence of added resources and support for other crime prevention measures should exist Opportunity Theory A ll people should be considered potential criminals if presented with a desirable enough reward for an acceptable risk, so all public space and social environments should plan an d design to prevent opportunities for easy crimes In recognizing that opportunity theory considers everyone a potential criminal, to some degree, we found the modern CPTED principles to fit well with deterring crime from a large array of directions while utilizing natural techniques that fit stealthily into the built environment, so that criminal opportunities are hopefully too risky to be considered rational crimes. We recognize that the categories of modern CPTED can be grouped in a number of ways. H owe ver, the following natural approaches are largely accepted modern, universally accepted theories applicable to considering a holistic crime prevention model for urban revitalization. Natural Access Control U se specific architectural organization of spa ce to support other crime prevention strategies and control boundary access without complete reliance on mechanical
98 devices; a strategic use of architectural form to promote mutually exclusive uses from sharing spatial joints Natural Surveillance U tiliza tion of the users of an environment (employees, v isitors, guardians) to act as surveyors, and therefore a criminal deterrent; planning, design and construction that supports both drawing in users to an environment and creating space that improves environme ntal surveillance Territorial Reinforcement R ecognition of the large scale and small scale contextual factors that may play a role in supporting a holistic crime prevention program; supporting other crime deterrents, tools and organizations, including spe cial attention to how to improve the other principles of modern CPTED Management O rganized program strategy focused on leadership, an anchor project and stakeholder involvement, motivated to collaborate crime prevention efforts Maintenance C ontinued crim e prevention program leadership, strategy revisions and implementation of objectives through continued participation of stakeholders and project actors Case Study Findings While not all revitalization projects make a point to separate CPTED principles in t heir methods, the case studies included in this thesis all recognize the importance of crime prevention and safety within their built environments. Through researching crime prevention theories, such as rational choice, situational crime prevention, oppor tunity theory and the three D approach, we found that the modern CPTED principles
99 encompass many of the theoretical components of the many theories of why many crime s occur. Modern, natural crime prevention principles work in support of one another and to wards the ultimate goal of increasing risk to the potential offender while decreasing their opportunity to easily commit many crimes. Bryant Park The public private aspect of the park financially supports the maintenance and operational costs. The updat ed CPTED based redesign incorporated modern CPTED components in order to change community perceptions of the area (Macedo, 2007). to allow for natural access control a nd multiple uses, the park can be open to the public or for private, special events. By having at least two official guardians of the park, the presence of authority is constantly nearby, 24 hours a day, seven days a week (Bryant Park, 2011). The park ma nagement maintains a crime prevention program, along with organized, private sector leadership and the willingness to adjust and relate to a changing environment (Macedo, 2007). Minnesota HEALS The Minnesota based public private revitalization program sa w much success in both the private and public sectors ( Reno, 1999 ). Attorney General Janet Reno (1999) urged businesses to become catalyst to urban improvement programs and use business strategies, void of political agendas, to strengthen communities. We found that public private partnerships can be effective and efficient, especially when revitalization support comes at the private, public and municipal levels, under open discussions and information sharing.
100 Brooklyn Reinvestment Initiative Through par tnering with Pfizer, Brooklyn allowed Pfizer to champion a community revitalization program. Pfizer, a long standing member of the community chose to stay and work to improve the environment rather than abandon it for an already established site. We foun Keys to a Successful Partnership to employ the following vital components: a catalyst role player, a project leader, business analytics and social outreach, and fiscally responsible appropriation of resources. Gainesville, FL Convenien ce store crime during the night hours led Gainesville, Florida to adopt some crime prevention measures. We found that regardless of whether or not their positive results stemmed precisely from the legislation that required more than one employee during ce rtain business hours, along with a few other requirements, was important, educational and productive. If the harm and risk on one end is minimal, and the benefits are potentially astronomical on another end of a theoretical stick, it would seem logical to implement whatever is being considered. We question, with no disrespect, why anyone would oppose legislation that may potentially have such dramatic results as preventing personal injury or death, when the cost of the potential crime prevention mechanis m comes at a low cost, such as the hourly pay of a convenience store clerk. The question of whether crime prevention measures such as natural surveillance work is answered long after implementation, but if the crime deterrence techniques are not mutually exclusive with other architectural and urban goals and objectives then there is likely minimal risk in using CPTED to supplement design, management and operations.
101 CityC enter Englewood Urban revitalization occurs within a unique context every time. Howeve r, there has been a large decline in the use of many strip centers and enclosed malls. Many strip centers and malls have been replaced, such as in Englewood, however, Englewood was a pioneer in eliminating a threat to their urban vision and utilizing publ ic private partnerships to recreate a more traditional urban fabric, from one of the largest malls in their region ( City of Englewood, 2009 ). Sarasota, FL After using CPTED principles for the North Trail Zoning Overlay District Ordinance ( 1991 ), Sarasot a arguably saw a decrease in certain crime, yet the area did not see a complete, corridor rev italization Currently, it is ver y difficult to locate new businesses along the North Trail Corridor (Greenberg, 2011) The current local trends in commercial re al estate and development have included low end retail, big box and relocation moves though there are some locally owned small businesses with a nice following (Greenberg, 2011) The polar ends of the roughly 2.5 mile North Tamiami Trail Education and Cu ltural Corridor have seemingly been pulling local businesses to the north and south ends, and the central corridor has arguably been in a continued decline (personal observations, 2006 2012) mixed use urban attra ctor, at the Myrtle Node, is currently threatened by the declining state of th e Trail Plaza, the approved Wal Mart Neighborhood Market project and the absence of an urban catalyst for a community improvement project and revitalization project champion (l eader).
102 Interviews with Local Actors and Project Discussion We discovered that when the effects of crime are shared among residents and businesses in a communit y, they should be neutralized in a cooperative manner to increase efficiency and effectivenes s When the line between public and private interests can become blurred, project champions can help to organize and articulate individual concerns and focus energy and resources str ategically and appropriately. Whiting (1999) reminds us that s afe street s, low crime rates, and productive citizens are equally important to all members of the community, residents and visitors alike. In fact, community one lot at a time just like you change education, by teaching one student p.13) Interview with David Greenberg Local commercial real estate broker, and representative for Trail Plaza, David Greenberg is both an active volunteer on the NTRP (North Trail Redevelopment Partnership) and an engaged member of the North Sarasota business community. Mr. Greenberg does not pretend to speak for the entire business community but he acknowledges that many people feel as he does about the curr ent state of the North because they relate largely to the issues surrounding economic revitalization and urban improvements, and represent a large portion of the communi ty perception. Mr. Greenberg explained that he and other commercial real estate agents have had difficulty in bringing new businesses to the area, due to local perceptions that the corridor is not currently a very inviting environment for companies that do not wish to market to low end clientele or box retail (Greenberg, 2011). We found that Mr.
10 3 ity in the business community may be well founded, for three new projects along the trail might include a large Goodwill c enter, a Wal Mart Neighborhood Mark et and a standalone $1 retail goods store. We found that Mr. Greenberg is actively researching how the Trail Plaza and Cultural Corridor could be further developed. He has presented ideas for how to bring new econo mic investment to the area to local planners, businesses and citizens. Furthermore, Mr. Greenberg is currently working on a presentation for the local authorities and stakeholders about how enhancing the educational corridor may be a way to bring in a str ong new developer; he believes that another higher learning institution may be a good choice for a revitalization catalyst, if implemented correctly (Greenberg, 2011). We found that bringing in a higher learning institution to spur development would likel y be a positive project for the area, however, special attention to the future use of such a project would need to be highly thought out and weighed against the overall community vision and desired developmental strategy, so that a community oriented node (such as the Myrtle Node) does not become a segregated place but a center that supports the community and their needs Interview w ith Marjory Sykes Ms. Sykes the Bayou Oaks and neighborhood watch representative to the NTRP, is familiar with many of the pr inciples and benefits of CPTED, though she is admittedly not an expert, and is in fact eager to learn more about how modern crime prevention as been active in her duties, as far as her volunteer responsibilities to both Bayou Oaks and the NTRP, and she explained how she had recently met with a business man who owns five motels along the trail. When
104 questioned about how the meeting went and if some of her suggestions and points were well received, she explained the owner had recognized some issues, but ultimately had mixed feelings about implementing some CPTED inspired redesigns on his properties (Interview with Ms. Sykes, 2011). We found that some of the cu stomers and usages on the corridor properties may represent characteristics that the neighborhoods are trying to eliminate. Furthermore, or Ms. Sykes) are likely to be of the deviant nature, and engaged in some of the low level crimes that the Bayou Oaks community (among others, such as the Sarasota CPTED Task Force, North Trail Redevelopment Task Force and North Trail Redevelopment Partnership) would like to see disappear. However, while no t directly stated by Ms. Sykes a possibility may nonetheless exist for t he introduction of CPTED measures at some of the motels, but may be costly and might result in reduced revenue because of a potential lo ss of clients when included in the costs of implemen tation. Furthermore, there may be a fear on the part of the property owner of backlash from long standing patrons of the establishments that had counted on the existing design and propert y management o f the sites in order to fulfill some criminal goals, such as prostitution or illegal drug solicitation. It is the case of addressing an existing site, its operations and the attached social atmosphere, that makes crime prevention implementation techniqu es harder to introduce than when accepted and integrated into the initial planning and design stage, which comes prior to construction. In fact, what could be possible is that a lack of CPTED considerations for an urban area, as a whole, and the propertie s within it, could
105 actually promote the snowballing of a criminal atmosphere and in turn, chase out desired users, thus creating a market that does not desire to cater to normal users but instead caters to the abnormal users or deviant users; this kind of atmosphere might make it hard to target and gain a sizable market share that is does not desire to risk asso ciating with deviant behavior. We found that the broken windows theory is a relevant concern for the Trail Corridor. Ms. Sykes expressed the concer n for community percepti ons of a criminal element that a he urban environment may harbor some criminal activity, at least as perceived by community members and our study of retail crime zones along Sar as in the following discussion section). We believe that i a district that may harbor deviant behavior, that crime and post crime management by police may be overburdened and incapable of addressing cri mes rapidly, when they are of a low level nature, such as minor drug offences and repeat prostitution. We also found that busi nesses and management in a troubled corridor may have not only become somewhat used to a deviant or troubled atmosphere, but come accept it, not necessarily supporting it, but not fighting it either, then they may not have as successful business operations as they would have, if they look the other way when they see deviant activity It would seem that a bad environment, related to the previously mentioned somewhat criminal environment, that small scale business owners may not necessarily be convinced of the benefits of CPTED retrofitting o n their properties, and that a new development, acting as a large catalyst, and central node that was large enough to have
106 an impact on its surrounding context could be a way to spur revitalization throughout a community, parcel by parcel, property by property. This thesis proposes a parcel that is large enough to making a It is the intention of this thesis to propose a parcel that could be redeveloped and become the revitalization catalyst, and large scale urban project, that imposes on the surrounding context in a positive way, eventually influencing the entire urban fabric in a manner suited to normal, desired users, thus flushing out the deviant atmosphere. From the Innovation 41 (2006) stud y that the City of Sarasota may look to for guidance, the North Trail Co rridor redevelopment effort on the central (Myrtle) node, is explained as a vital site to the community and residents due to a vast number of resources, such as locati on, retail, size and scale. Also, the historically well known reputation is a valuable element when considering the idea of redeveloping Sarasota North Trail C orridor and the challenges of marketing an improved environment (Innovation 41, 2006). Discussion C rime Study of Retail Nodes a long To determine if there are relatively more crimes occurring in the North Tamiami Trail Corridor, and specifically around the Myrtle Node, we performed a quick analysis analysis included a search for all crimes recorded within a two mile radius of our chosen addresses. The results suggest that there are more crimes occurring in the northern Sarasota district than in the south; there are more crimes being recorded around the North Tamiami Trail Nodes than there are around the South Tamiami Trail Nodes.
107 Furthermore, the Myrtle Node sees a considerable amount of crime, and while not at the ea just over a mile up the road. During the first two months (Jan. 1 to Feb. 29) this year a two mile circular study around the following locations resulted in the corresponding number of crimes recorded by Crime Mapping (2012) : 211 N. Tamiami Tr ai l (North end of Tra il Corridor North Sarasota) 651 crimes 3300 N. Tamiami Tr ai l (Myrtle Node North Sarasota) 534 crimes 3501 S. Tamiami Tr ai l (South gate Mall area Mid Sarasota) 376 crimes 6555 S. Tamiami Tr ai l (Gulf Gate M all area Mid south Sarasota) 232 crimes 8201 S. Tamiami Tr ai l (Sarasota Square Mall South Sarasota) 335 crimes The crime data presented does not show types of crime, and percentages of each crime type, which we suggest should be studied, so that potential developers in these areas will have an understanding of what types of crime are prevalent and specific CPTED principles can be used strategically. The Myrtle Node location had a very high number of crimes during the first two months of 2012, and our location was on the west side of the node. The former Winn Dixie location, on the east side of the trail node, had fewer crimes during the first two months, with 50 7 (Crime Mapping, 2012) We studied 7300 North Tamiami Trail, to the north of Trail Plaza, during the same time frame, and found 352 crimes. We then looked at 300 North Ta miami Trail and found 671 crimes, the most yet. Are findings show high numbers of crime around the Myrtle Node and high numb ers of cr imes to the north and the south. With this brief analysis, it seems logical to recommend the Myrtle Node location for a C PTED guided public private urban redevelopment anchor site and revitalization catalyst central anchor, so that community improvement grows north and south along the corridor. Of course, while our circular studies are a reflection of our measuring device, we believe
108 the nature of crime, crime prevention and community revitalization to occur in every direction. Crime Data for Strategic Crime Prevention Planning To get concrete CPTED data, it takes first an analysis of crime at a specific location in order t o compare it to resulting crime. Simply comparing the difference in numbers of crimes is not enough; all the differing variables of an environment must be measured, in order to get results that are based on i ndividual preventative measures such as what a re the most common crimes? Unfortunately, it is seemingly rare to find empirical measur ements of only a single crime prevention variable, especially because the modern preference for CPTED is to utilize crime prevention principles in the planning and desi gn stages before a site has been developed and in a holistically encompassing approach to creating an environment that proactively deters criminal activity It is easier a nd less costly to utilize the principles of CPTED theory in the designing stages of a project than after the fa ct, in the case of a retrofit. Therefore, we would like to introduce an educated discussion to the City of Sarasota about how to utilize CPTED principles when considering any zoning and code changes to the North Trail Corrido r so that CPTED components are in place before architects get too involved in their designs to make adjustments Furthermore, we recognize all professional designers, from architects and landscape architects to interior designers and urban planners as po tentially benefitting from integrating modern CPTED principles appropriately and strategically. Well coordinated site management and organized maintenance of properties are essential components for the long term su stainability of communities. CPTED theori es
109 reach beyond asking for property owners to keep their landscapes clean, clear and well lit. The theories request that the following stakeholders, groups and departments have open dialogue with one another, share information and combine resources: gove rnment staff, police, business and property owners, residents, and the business communi ty (including staff, employees and security ). By agreeing to common goals and a shared vision all of the relative parties to a community revitalization project can uti lize CPTED objectives to organize a community strategy for revitalization. Trail Corridor and Trail Plaza Crime Data Discussion The Trail Plaza, 3333 N. Tamiami Trail, may be one of the more concentrated offending locations in the general area of the Nor th Trail Corridor, in 2011, with 9 documented c rimes, in the first 45 days of the year, recorded from January 1 st to February 14 th 2011 (Crime Mapping, 2012 ) These results make us consider the hypothesis behind the broken windows theory, in which a brok en window in a building, if not replaced or repaired quickly (demonstrating ownership and active management of the property), will eventually lead to all the windows breaking in the building or at the site, effectively creating an atmosphere associated wit h criminality and lack of proper governance (Bratton, 1994) Within one week, 9/3/11 to 9/9/11, Crime Mapping (2012 ) shows us that inside a 1 mile radius of Trail Plaza there were 14 reported crimes, including: The violations include the following Type II (low level) crimes: 3 Drug / Alcohol 1 Disturbing the Peace 1 Vandalism (within .2 mile) 1 Weapons The violations include the following Type I (high level, more severe) crimes: 6 Assault (one within 500 feet or at the site) 2 Theft / Larceny (one wi thin 500 feet or at the site)
110 The data above shows that while the general neighborhood is experiencing most ly low level crimes, Trail Plaza may be experiencing more serious crime. Furthermore, ni three months, between 4/1/11 and 6/30/11, there were 58 rep orted crimes, including : Within 0.2 mile radius: 39 reported crimes Within 500 foot radius: 19 reported crimes From April to August, 2011 within 500 feet of Trail Plaza, there were reported violations of: 6 crimes in April 8 crimes in May 5 crimes in June 10 crimes in July 5 crimes in August (Crime Mapping, 201 2 ) Between the dates of March 10 th and September 5 th 2011 there were a total of 692 crimes reported within a one mile radius of Trail Plaza (Crime Mapping, 2011) The most common crimes at the adj acencies of the site seem to be petty thefts, with some counts of fraud, which still may be considered a form of theft, for which the crime could have been identity, credit card or other F or example, one account is fraudulent use of a credit card, around 7:00 PM on 2/5/11, a Saturday evening Trail Plaza and C ase Study D iscussion The public private partnerships, like Bryant Park, for example, show how the public sector can help to generate a catalyst project and then allow it to become self sustainable by the private sector, requiring no public funding for maintenance. As a case study that challenges any theory of a realistic, maximum thresholds of density and how designers and planners would need to approach a site that is more or less public
111 and highl y populated, in order to have a healthy environment that eliminates perceptions of fear and criminal entitlement, the private management of Bryant Park provides invaluable examples. Furthermore, to prove how a revitalization catalyst can make enormous chan ges in a community, the Minnesota HEALS partnership shows how a sustainable revitalization effort can spread throughout a community and not only keep the benefits that were found through a CPTED inspired catalyst project, but gain more throughout the area, for decades to come. Paralleling the design process involved in planning and architecturally programming a six acre mixed use, housing, retail, commercial, entertainment, restaurant, arts venue, such as the mix of uses suggested at the CPTED catalyst proj ect in Sarasota, this thesis began its study in an idea of how to generate revitalization and found its way to utilizing crime prevention and safety promotion strategies to not only thwart deviant users but attract desired users to an engaging, inspiring, community resource. Through the numerous examples of ways to incorporate CPTED principles into the redevelopment of the proposed revitalization site, CPTED potentially provides all the recommendations need ed in order to begin a public private partnership, aimed to create a catalyst for urban redevelopment and improvements to the quality of life for the entire corridor. In order to gather, extract and interweave the cultures and people already existing within the community, the program at a catalyst site s hould function as an urban tion, interests and needs. If the City of Sarasota does not desire to, or cannot find a way to, allow a public private partnership and invest their time, money and resources, the priv ate sector would
112 need to carry the entire burden of a CPTED inspired revitalization movement. In this case, the sta keholde rs and surrounding community may not be able produce any kind of redevelopment, they may have their hands tied with zoning or simply lack the financing to invest in the area. From meetings with development companies that are financially capable of a project to this scale, it is known that they will not go in i t alone, for it is far too risky of an investment, as is ( fall 2011), and too difficult a project comparatively, when there are such eas ier ways to generate revenue from the site, such as putting a for example might be at least a ten or twenty year, plus, business o ccupation of a valuable site and may do little to help walkability, promote crime prevention and safety or alleviate traffic congestion for the community. W ith a new Wal Mart Neighborhood Market planned for construction, nearly across the street from t he catalyst proposal site, the redevelopment of the entire pa rcel at 3333 N. Tamiami Trail may be the last opportunity that the City of Sarasota has to generate an urban node, such as is suggested by the Innovation 41 Study (2006) that explains how to revit alize the corridor. The study identified the specific node, at the 3300 block of the North Trail Corridor, as an established and expected place for urban regeneration and if the opportunity to use it as a catalyst proje ct is not acted upon, they may not h ave another oppor tunity for decades to come There can be a lot of crime in the period of decades and a missed opportunity to generate an economic stimulus catalyst for the North Sarasota community lanne rs are well aware of the impact that th e Trail Plaza property has on the entire region of northeast Sarasota and this is why they included the parcel under
113 the newest incentivized zoning overlay district, the Enterprise Zone. N ot every parcel along the corridor is zoned as such and this is esp ecially true of the western parcels. The regulations for City redevelopment at our location are in Section 6.10.5.b.1 of the density, the height limitations may make meetin g the requirements of a mixed use parcel of this size extraordinarily difficult and risky to invest i n which is why there are currently no developers that want to come on board to redevelop properties like Trail Plaza T o generate proper CPTED techniques let alone create the dynamic kind of environment that is required of a revitalization catalyst project, many more users will need to engage the environment, than currently do. Students, and low income, overburdened users, for example, arguably do not h ave enough purchasing power to support a retail node For example, since the nearby generate enough revenue for the on site businesses to earn a profit. We found that di versity is an important factor in mixed use and directly relates to the idea of a cultural district or corridor. Since the existing corridor is far from a luxury market, ground floor leases would have to be very affordable, to entice businesses to enter, and with l ow cost leases, it may be hard to speculate that a profit can be made for new developers, especially with the high costs associated with structural, elevated parking T he costs of creating a parking garage compared to ground parking are enorm ous and must clearly be recoverable for any developer to dare to build a parking garage, often a component of mixed use Without a solid profit return predictable from redevelopment, the Trail Plaza and Myrtle Node will likely continue to exist as it is, with
114 some minor touch ups to paint and repairs performed as needed to a slowly decaying strip center, served by low end retail and primarily automobile traffic. Without a strong incentive for development, the owners of properties, such as Trail Plaza, wil l not make seemingly high risk investments in the current volatile market, and the cycle of decayin g business will likely continue along the Trail Corridor.
115 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECO MMENDATIONS Our conclusion section provides information related to archival research, case studies, interviews, plans, personal experience, research findings and limitations. In the Trail Corridor. To inspire an ongoing discussion of how to incorporate modern CPTED principles into a corridor renewal program, we provide architectural renders and plans of CPTED inspired urban design. Within a redevelopment and revitalization catal yst project, in order to satisfy a mix of retail demands, dive rse visitors should be welcomed and planned for. Installing design features that are accessible for persons who are minimally able, to move freely through space in the same manner as everyone else might strengthen perceptions of safety and usability. Phy sically challenged individuals may have the most trouble with navigating through spaces, from a general standpoint, so it is recommended that in order to keep design simple and straightforward, and CPTED considerations manageable, professionals should simp ly design, plan and build for them in mind as the common user; this is a fundamental theory of CPTED, that all users are considered. Furthermore, planning for handicapped users, for example, parallels the way to approach design, with considerations for de viant users. Criminal Activity T heories Opportunity theory, rational choice and situational crime prevention should be recognized both for their logical reasoning and for suggestions on how to understand criminal behavior, for the purpose of aiming to pre emptively deter criminal activity. CPTED principles utilize a proactive approach to crime prevention and safety that
116 incorporates the theories of why some crimes occur and how some crimes can be deterred or prevented. For instance, the ability of a site to respond in a timely manner is imperative, for if a protective territorial response is to truly be effective in a preventative nature, the potential for a responsive consequence (being caught, arrested or assaulted) must be not only perceived by a crimi nal but lead them to the conclusion that they may not be able to get away with crime unchallenged. p reve ntative mechanisms should convey the message to the potential criminals that the risks far outweigh the payoff. For example, if there are no private guardian authorities, nor enough time for any authorities to respond and curb a criminal event, there is not enough time to apprehend a criminal; if a criminal recognizes this, they may perceive an opportunity to commi t a crime. When there is minimal risk in committing crime, a small payoff could outweigh preventative considerations very easily. However, crimes of opportunity are not possible if a perceived opportunity does not exist. Crimes of opportunity are crimes that are related to time and space, when there is an acceptable risk perceived. Granting a perceived opportunity for engaging in a criminal event might occur from simply not presenting enough deterrents or threats to potential criminal activity. An examp le of a crime of opportunity is an unlocked bicycle on a street corner, in which there are no visible guardians or perceived concerns for the ownership of the bicycle. The criminal is a highly adaptive individual and when in groups, can be even more of a t hreat (Schneider, 2009 ). How can guardians deal with the e ver adaptive criminal threat? We recognize that one approach may be to t hink one step ahead, and identify
117 problematic scenarios before complications arise. Furthermore, what can the stakeholders o f a revitalization effort learn from t he suggestion to stay one step ahead of the criminal mind? Utilize the chain of command to relay potential threats all the way to top management, so that employees who encounter problems can relay ground level informa tion to the management and owners. Incentives for spotting threats could be a way to get employees to become more aware of threats and more communicative in relaying thei r discoveries (Felson, 1995). CPTED P rinciples A reliance on one drastic crime preven tion technique is not the aim of CPTED, for we conclude that a holistic approach to crime prevention is usually more appropriate to abilities should ultimately be the goal o f architecture and urban design, and CPTED programs should aim to utilize the same met hods, whereas the combined project is greater tha n a sum of the components. We recommend the use of n atural access control and natura l surveillance strategies to inspire urban design and architecture. We conclude that t erritorial re inforcement should be used theoretica l l y as glue that connects an entire crime prevention strategy. By inspiring critical analysis of plans, designs and the built environment, territorial re inforcement strategies call for organization, crime deterrent supplementation techniques and inter and inner CPTED should be to use private sector efficiency, effectiveness and an organizational hierarchy to engage a proactive approach to crime prevention, while continuing to follow program objectives. Management should maintain a continuous crime prevention and safety program with a tight knit communication structure so that new threats are
118 discovered, reported and countered with appropriate criminal deterrent tools. We conclude that m aintenance of crime prevention programs is arguably as important as any other aspect of crime prevention based efforts. modern, holistic approach to integrating the three principles behind CPTED. The entire program of space may be improved by the intelligent organization and interplay of the crime deterrents. The holistic approach is vital to a successful and complete int egration of CPTED, and similar to the philosophy that when parts that fit together are assembled, the completed value can be greater than the summed individual values of the pieces. For example, techniques of design that reinforce territory are important, for spatial clarity, understanding an d readability of an environment, and are likely able to work in unison with other CPTED principles. In the case of correctly integrating CPTED principles, it is not as beneficial, we argue if even beneficia l at all, to only integ rate some aspects, and not take advantage of an approach that embodies all components such as a well organized public private partnership may, for example. We conclude that the success of one technique can rely dra stically, if not entirely, on other principle successful implementation s and maintenance An example of a partial, unsuccessful integration would be creating windows that overlook an area of use, an eyes on the street or natural surveillance technique, yet relying on th at technique without consideration of how to get the people inside to look out their windows, might fail at generating surveillance, and possibly result in a non existent prevention of criminal activity (Jacobs, 1961).
119 Crowe (2000) also explains the ways living creatures exhibit territorial behavior, to the degree which we regard it as not only important, but instinctual, to defend our territory. We argue that t he intrinsic nature of beings to mark and defend their own area runs deep, and like most requi rements of design, is likely easier to process and manage if accepted and used as a tool for improving the desired manipulation of program, space and user behavior rather than opposed and struggled against. Territorial reinforcement, t heoretically, suppo rts all individuals within and around a site by diminishing unnecessary stress and work on users of an environment We argue that an environment can become a conveyor of information and direct social interaction from the layout and impacts of interconnect ed spaces within a context. F or example, when an individual user is directed by a beautifully landscaped path to a clear, well lit transition space that emits a welcoming impression to visitors, the space is simply less to be as demanding on users than if the journey to the same location was filled with doubt, fear or concern. We argue, for example, that i f guardian oversight is known by criminals to be relatively non existent, the crime prevention measure of a No T likely be disconn ected from any official support, in turn, rendering the sign less effective or ineffective as a measure of prevention (Schneider, 2009) When crime prevention principles do not work in a holistic fashion, in support of one another, the results will not be very p redictable. I arguably a request on the part of the property owners, unless there is an official subscript attached to it stating that violators will be prosecuted (Fl. Statute 810.09). The statute
120 acknowledgment makes the sign a legally binding order and therefor e able to be enforced in Florida State Court of Law ( Schneider, 2009 ) We recognize that the concept of territorial reinforceme nt reaches far beyond signage We believe architects might ar gue that many types of spatial indicators could be used to invoke feelings and cue sensory reactions and user conclusions. We acknowledge that territorial reinforcement principle s are attached to management and maintenance roles but also in the architect ural forming of space and the social mpletion of their objectives. We found that some as pects to remember when designing f or natural crime prevention and territorial reinforcement are the importance of attracting users to an environment and the implementation of design programs that support the management and maintenance roles within a site hese symbolic or psychological barriers [to crime prevention] are to succeed in controlling access by demarcating specific spaces for specific individuals, potential offenders must perceive that unwarranted intrusion will elicit protective territorial resp onses from those who have legitimate acce ss measuring the success of natural crime preventio n programs. We contend that one could argue that p erception is the first stage in environmental eng agement, and is required of users before even entering an environment; this would infer that the CPTED designer needs to consider how well their design appeals to non users and makes the m desire to enter a site.
121 If developers have the option to create a ny theoretical layout for a project, within a we suggest considering the traditional neighborhood design (TND) style of urban design that calls for a large amount of perimeter based construction and dedicated spots for so cialization and gathering. Due to a number of variables, and possibly to supplement access control, natural surveillance and territorial reinforcement techniques, perimeter based construction has been used in countless successful cities such as Boston, N ew York, and Englewood Inner corridors, and hierarchy of urban space that consists of dedicated, public or semi public use, might come in many forms, such as a hardscapes, greenery, bicyc le parking stations, parking structure s for cars, pool areas, and squares for social gathering. In fact, in the old castles, we argue that the i nterior courtyards may have been used flexibly, for many things including daily operations and formal and informal gatherings. We acknowledge that t here are many possible uses for interior courtyards as well as other public spaces and present the following case study discussion to include findings regarding CPTED application, revitalization strategies and public private partnerships. Case Studies The case studies presented in the review of the literature deal with public private partnerships, urban revitalization, crime prevention planning and legislation, catalyst projects and improving quality of life for members of communities. Urban revitalization programs should look t o the case studies for information on how to introduce specific strategies for deterring crime and improving particular sites. CPTED principles are relevant to all scales of the built environment, from comprehensive planning to interior design, so at each level of design, we recommend proactively considering how deviant users may occupy the environment and how CPTED might propose solutions to
122 hypothetical conflicts. Our research on the case studies used in this study result ed in the following conclusions. Bryant Park A CPTED inspired redesign of the once infamous park sparked community revitalization and flipped community perceptions of the space; the public private partnership is now entirely self sufficient under the private sector and supports a wide range of activities and flexible use. Minnesota HEALS A public private community revitalization program, nationally recognized for its successful use of multiple business partners joining together to improve the environment; recognized by Janet Reno as an inspiration of what businesses can do to improve their own communities. Brooklyn Initiative A project champion led example of how a private business chose to improve their existing environment, rather than relocate; Pfizer led a community revitalizati on program that focused on crime prevention and urban renewal, showing how the reinvestment in Gainesville, FL Convenience store crimes during the night hours pushed Gain esville to enact crime prevention legislation; requiring two workers during specific hours may have reduced crime, but was an active approach to attempting to adapt to criminal activity, in which the potential benefits should have outweighed the costs of ( private) implementation.
123 Eng lewood, CO Faced with a decaying retail center, the Englewood CityCenter project incorporated a public private effort and incorporation of multiple objectives to work together in strengthening the overall environment; modern C PTED principles such as natural surveillance and territorial management play a large part in maintaining the urban vision. Sarasota, FL The North Trail Corridor has historically presented Sarasota with low level crime and struggling revitalization strateg ies; the renewed interest in economic development along the Trail Corridor has led to studies of new zoning overlay districts and questions regarding the direction of construction and development. The Myrtle Node appears to be a ripe location for strategi c redevelopment and is appropriately located to act as a revitalization anchor and redevelopment catalyst. Conclusions from Interviews David Greenberg and Marjory Sykes not only grant perspectives on the Trail Corridor, they help to inspire potential ide as for redevelopment. Our conclusions from the interviews are as follows. Framework for conclusions Local representatives shared their opinions on the current state of the North Trail Corridor and provided interesting perceptions regarding community revit alization, criminal activity and their perspective of the current North Trail Corridor environment. While local area volunteers, David Greenberg and Marjory Sykes, do not represent the entire community, they are respected members of the community a nd may help to
124 initiate discussions regarding stakeholder needs and community visions. Conclusions fro m the interviews are as follows. David Greenberg Mr. Greenberg, local commercial real estate broker, explains that there has seemingly been an increase in cri me at one of the properties that he represents, Trail Plaza. Mr. Greenberg further concluded that when the Goodwill (tenant) leaves, when their lease runs out in 2012, there will be another vacancy in the strip center and a very large percentage of the entire strip center. If another one of the main tenants criminal activity may arise at Trail P laza if there is less natural surveillance and an increase in community perceptions that the plaza is struggling. We also conclude that if the property owner and the City of Sarasota can work together to redesign and redevelop Trail Plaza, the site may be appropriate to anchor an urban revitalization catalyst project. Marjory Sykes Ms. Sykes, the representative of t he Bayou Oaks Neighborhood program for crime prevention at NTRP meetings is not the official spokesperson for the entire residential com munity along the Trail Corridor; h owever, she does bring a highly informed perspective to the discussion of revitalization and community interests and needs. Ms. Sykes infers that the residents would likely support a renewed CPTED based urban strategy for the c orridor, and has acknowledged that she finds CPTED very informative and useful. When the head of a large community program likely supports development, as long as it is meant to increase factors commonly associated with high quality of life,
125 then there so cial context is arguably ripe for presenting mutually cooperative urban strategies and shared enviro nmental objectives. We argue that the co mmunity support from North Sarasota residents is strong and ripe enough to support a central project alization catalyst effort. idor We conclude prevention strategy and urban improvement movement. We conclude that if there was a strong public private partnership and revitalization anchor at the Myrtle Node, the central node of the corridor, an outward expanding environmental improvement program could be continued through the rest of the trail, and to the schools at the north and south ends of the Educ ation and Cultural Corridor. inspired NT Zoning ordinance as being proactive in terms of preventing crime, when it was created, but we also acknowledge that the current economic development partnership is facing an uphill ba ttle in trying to alter negative perceptions of the corridor and get a more diverse mix of businesses to open in the area, in order to counter and compliment the primarily low end retail along most of the corridor district and especially the Myrtle Node From our case study research, we theorize that neglecting to explore opportunities for public private partnerships and CPTED driven urban planning and design possibilities at the Myrtle Node would be a huge missed opportunity for the City of Sarasota to re cognize the importance of the node within the Cultural Corridor and the impact that redeveloping the node might have on the surrounding residential and business communities.
126 Case S tudy P roposal Sarasota We strongly recommend that both the City of Saraso ta and the owner of the Trail Plaza research potential opportunities for working together to create a public private partnership and revitaliza tion anchor. There are likely opportunities for urban improvement grants, crime prevention grants, historical ro ad grants, community redevelopment grants and public private partnerships, that can be linked together to generate some of the funds needed for the design, planning and construction processes. We propose that the case study be directed at using a private sector project champion to organize and lead a corridor improvement program, by locating the initial redevelopment catalyst at the most appropriate site for an urban renewal catalyst development. For a revitalization effort to have a meaningful impact o n the community, the scale of the initial catalyst project should be large enough to significantly improve the environment on its own. The impact of the initial program must be in the theoretical form of an anchor, so that sustainability, reliability and investment factors are powerful estment in property and place. We conclude that any catalyst project initiated in North Sarasota should be intended as not a temporary installment, but as a long t erm anchor project, community activity generator and goods and services provider. Pre planning consideration The mutually reliant nature of crime prevention initiatives seems to parallel the natural development of the architectural design process. CPTED l ends itself to a smooth thought process for designing, especially if professionals reach out to the community and brainstorm openly, discussing the merits of intention and the potential
127 effects on the environment. It might even be true that one of the rea sons that potentially great architects design a project that fails is because their creations have overlooked contextual obligations to the environment, the affected c ommunities and/or the operational use of the site. The solution, because not engaging t he public is arguably a big problem, might be suggesting concepts, designs and methods for implementing CPTED at an initial stage for the purpose of a community discussion for what a new approach to urban revitalization and an improved CPTED based corridor strategy would consider. We conclude that the pri nciples of CPTED should be initiated at the earliest opportunities in an urban renewal program. Directional ambiguity or even disgust for an environment may cause confusion, generated from unmet expectat ions of navigation related inform ation or simply from a messy, un kept atmosphere (Schneider, 2009) We recognize that zero lot lines and traditional neighborhood design (TND) strategies both may allow for borders and urban massing to assist in territoria l reinforcement strategies. Schneider and Kitchen (2007) provide a comprehensive summary of prevention theories, reinforcing the importance of space syntax all place sig nificant value on clear cut boundaries between public and private spaces, such that the creation of ambiguous spaces should be minimized whenever possible Urban form and architectural p ossibilities for Sarasota Architecture, urban design and lands cape architecture have produced many styles and ideologies, however, we conclude that at a minimum, most public or semi public designs and proposals should meet or exceed the majority of social expectations with
128 regard to the following considerations: safe ty and security; lighting; natural crime prevention strategies; criminal deterrent supplementation tools; user mobility and accessibility needs; local economic market participation; legibility and clarity in signage and methods of conveying information to users; a comfortable threshold for viewing when an area is intended for surveillance; site management and maintenance, such as graffiti cleanup within 12 hours; moments of flexibility for use; quick access to assistance, such as police or security guards; context and environments, from cultural considerations to ecological sensitivities ; stakeholder needs, and; ethical standards, like designing for the greatest benefits for the most people. What are the possibilities for what can be done in North Sarasota? What can be general castle form, including perimeter construction, interior openness and flexible usage possibilities with highly organized natural access control? The resulting development would possibly have a natural crime prevention layout, but to be truly successful in operation, there would have to be proper maintenance and environmental security, so that users understood there where consequences of acting out in a deviant nature. It is hard to deny the benefits obtained from the perimeter constructed layout of a natural surveillance inspired development that surrounds an internal semi public, dynamic and engaging atmosphere, such as the walls and structure of a castle likely surround a courtyard. Since the City of Sarasota is working on a new zoning overlay for the Trail Corridor, but has not produced a final product, we propose a few recommendations for the City planners to consider as follows.
129 Plane of ligh t and sun path If the desire for sunlight to enter the Trail Corridor must result in some sort of requirement for building, such as having to build back as far as something is built up (for example, a second level that starts at ten feet would have to be set back ten feet from hot climate like Sarasota and whether any rule would have an appropriate application for properties located on the stretch of the corridor th at does not run close to true north south. Form based code We recommend that any form based code be implemented organically and adjust to development proposals, rather than be overly strict, scaring off potential creative developers. We recognize Alkhre Urban street spaces with ratios of (3/4 and 1) evoke the highest sense of comfort and safety, while streets with high ratios of (5 and 6) and low ratios of (1/6 and 1/5) evoke the least sense of comfort and the least sense of safety. If the support for a form based code is overwhelming, we recommend that rather than pushing the boundaries of requirements, the opposite approach be taken, where simple and vital design standards should be met. An example of a vital design standard would be to respect the sense of enclosure that humans find comfortable, 3:4, height to width, in which a 100 foot wide corridor space would be best suited to buildings of 75 feet. This height to width ratio is roughly, used b y one side of the Tamiami Trail in Sarasota, where the Sarasota Memorial Hospital sits roughly seven or eight stories high and within roughly twenty feet from the he popular, walkable, Hillview S treet
130 and d istrict, with compatible and actively engaged retail, commercial, restaurant, bar, service and residential usages Ground level parking and surveillance If ground level parking must be incorporated, and natural surveillance principles are proposed to gov ern the parking lots, there should be a requirement that the developer provide a strong argument as to why their designs don not simply meet arbitrary standards for visual permeability, such as 50 percent, but that effective crime prevention measures are i n place to deter crime in the parking lot. We recommend that businesses share parking, in order to support an efficient use of space, such as the theory behind shared leases or communal space(s). Furthermore, we do not conclude that parking is a fundamen tal human right in which the city needs to require developers to meet a specific standard. Parking should probably be in parking garages and not be free, in order to urge the nearby residents to leave their cars at home and support a revitalization strate gy in their community in person, on foot. Lighting We conclude that lighting and illumination techniques can play a major role in achieving a sense of place. Furthermore, lighting techniques can play a role in safety and marketing usability, as well as criminal activity deterrence and aesthetic crafting. Different colors can be used, but should be recognized as potentially impacting the environment and users in ways beyond simple illumination. Similarly, proper luminosity and color rendition are impor tant characteristics of individual light fixtures and bulbs and they should be inserted carefully into designs so as to not create a poor atmosphere.
131 Mixed use and cultural diversity If the community wishes to bring in a more diverse mix of uses, it w ill need to allow profitable development. If developers need a more dense mixture of leasable space, in order to be able to invest in redevelopment, we recommend the city push for an increase in the number of leasable units per acre. Furthermore, arbitra ry guidelines, such as specific limitations on height, may limit developers and reduce the potential to bring in community reinvestment, if there is too large of a risk factor in earning a return on investment. If mixed use is desired at the Myrtle Node, for example, any new zoning overlay should acknowledge the typical requirements of mixed use development, such as retail ground level(s), parking level(s), commercial and residential levels. After all, to properly fit elevated parking, retail, restaurants bars/pubs, commercial, residential, and entertainment s paces, plenty of height is needed Case Study P roposal for North Sarasota Proposal Corridor. The area seems to be more su sceptible to crime than South Sarasota (Crime Mapping, 2012). We have argue d the Myrtle Node location to be the most appropriate place to locate a public private revitalization anchor, or catalyst development. We theorize that the proposed development to the former Winn Dixie site for a similar big box project and site layout threatens the future urban connectivity of the Myrtle Node and entire Trail Corridor. Additionally, we recognize that the Trail Plaza occupies what is arguably the largest portion of the Myrtle Node and that the strip center is presently faced with crime, vacating businesses and a dilemma for how to continue operations at
132 the site, if there becomes an even greater lack of interest from businesses to relocate to the decaying center. Since the owner of Trail Plaza has recognized that there are existing problems with criminal activity and deviant use at the site, and has volunteered a small space for the Sarasota Police Department to use as a satellite office, we question if the owne r would also be willing to support a public private partnership to redevelop the Trail Plaza parcel. From private discussions with the owner, we conclude that he is interested in what could be done with the property, but is not going to make the jump to b eing a develop er on his own, without strong outside economic support and the security of knowing how a stron g return on investment will be earned Architectural and urban design p rogramming Based on the research and findings, we propose an architectural program as a general example for how the subject property can be programmed in order to generate a thriving, mixed use catalyst t o further revitalization and redevelopment in the district. From utilizing natural techniques as much as possible, such as nat ural access control and natural surveillance strategies that may supplement not only each other but territorial reinforcement principles, the social function and program of the proposed catalyst project, in Sarasota, should rely on a holistic crime prevent ion approach that is aimed at generating a dynamic environment, to be used comfortably by a diverse mixture of visitors. By supplementing the natural approach to crime prevention, with mechanical deterrents a nd organized security is suggested, in strategic and non aesthetically threatening, non imposing ways, so that a fortress effect is not apparent in the environment. Lastly, management, organizational roles and methods to maintain the
133 image of an engaged site consideration s CPTED and architectural theory Architects can base their designs on loose reasoning and abstract origins, but how can they integrate CPTED principles with in unrelated and complex architectural inspirations? We suggest it is not difficult t o intertwine architectural and urban design concepts with CPTED principles, and that CPTED may be used alongside other architectural processes. For example if a designer wants or needs to incorporate a sleeping porch into their struct ure, they might firs t look at what requirements they believe are involved in the creation of a sleeping porch and consider the CPTED principles that they would like to see implemented on the site, before beginning the brainstorming, initial design process of sketching or mode ling ways to amass space and join the porch requirements with the most desirable CPTED objectives for the project. How hard it is for architectural inspirations to integrate CPTED principles? For the sake of continuing this study, we suggest that each pr oject is unique, but it is not overly challenging to allow for CPTED to positively influence design and planning, if simply considered CPTED from the earliest stages possible. We conclude that since the combining of CPTED and architectural creativity is n ot impossible, merging t he theories might provide designers and planners with more ammunition to justify certain needs; by likely improves the environment through re ducing crime and improving safety, yet is faced with zoning or code department disapproval, we suggest that the City overlook the code or zoning violations if there is also overall community support. We suggest
134 that r elative association with successful pr actices in architectural design grants an urban environment with more opportunity for use and is more attractive. Transforming from environmental scale decisions to the human scale, beyond the scope of the r equirements of CPTED planning, takes an underst anding of the urban context all the way down to the potential user activation and engagement of a site, to fully encompass the spectrum of crime prevention considerations. For instance when nd function, the questioning of usage, on behalf of the CPTED consultant can be jumped into, head on, step ahead of the criminal mind (Clarke, 1997). Catalyst Project Proposal The case study site for the proj ect catalyst proposal could simply be called pArc 33, (3333 N. Tamiami Trail) and the desired CPTED guided planning and arc hitecture with an urban park conce pt. We recommend a well thought out name and mark eting campaign for a new urban environment. Duany, Plate r Zyberk and Speck (2000) suggest that developments are often mislabeled and poorly named, when they have no connection to their function. Proposed Environment and A tmosphere We strongly encourage the creation of an energetic, dynamic atmosphere considered by us to be vital to successful corridor r evitalization. We recognize that n ormal users should attract more desired users, while simultaneously repelling non desirables Residents, staff and us ers of the site should be able to feed off of each simultaneously repelling non desirables. The intersections of retail, caf, entertainment,
135 resident, visitor and staff uses should all collide strategically, in the controlled, secure, welcoming and engaging interior environment that is central to fostering a succes sful development. Spatial composition A perimeter site plan that wraps around a large open interior co rridor grants not only natural surveillance on itself, it reflects adjacent back into the heart of the environment. Because of the large scale of the parcel and mixed use availability (in the zoning code), the site should aim to fulfill as m any normal service a nd retail needs as it can. Community needs might be a grocery store, a dry cleaner, a caf and so on, and not up scale, luxury retailers that are of no common use to the general general demographic and assumed lack of purchasing power. Flexibility in use The interior, core environment, should be a flexible space that allows for the hosting of numerous types of events, so that residents and guests are constantly attracted to the site and engaged in w hat is occurring at the property. The constant marketing to engage and attract users, may promote discussions of the project in the nearby communities. Developers are suggested to am vertically, with each floor to have separate types of use, in order to generate a functional, mixed use atmosphere. The floors might be divided by ten foot height divisions for example, with a double story retail ground level. T he vertical division o f the program might be composed of ground floor retail, services and restaurants, parking above (as a buffer on the second level/third story) with residential units located a bove.
136 Parking We recommend that p arking should be structured for the most part and integrated into the construction so that access control of cars is utilized and ground floor space is not wasted R aised parking should help promote w alkability at the ground level and allow for a denser mixture of usage than would be allowed if th e site had to accommodate for an expansive parking lot, at the same level as the retail store s. Ground level parking should ultimately b e considered wasted space, and we conclude that it should be k ept to a minim um, such as for allowing only short time an d handicapped spaces, for example. Furthermore, if there is to be any ground level parking, it should be located on t he edge that is not bordering a major pedestrian we recommend any ground level parking to be placed at the western border of the site. To protect users from the harsh Florida weather, such as hot sun and unexpected rain, the grou nd floor retail, that we propose, could wrap around the inner perimeter of the interior social space (s) and h ave an arcade quality whereas the entrie s into the shops are not open directly to the exposed weather and elements, but rather, we propose that businesses at the site open up to a sheltered arcade that in turn connects the sun and sky. Na tural light, fre sh air and a comfortably enclosed sense of space should exist in the story ground level is proposed so that the transition from exterior to interior is smooth and inviting and related to the overall scale of the structure. Providing appropriate overhead clearance may be a method that naturally attracts users and generated user perceptions of non clustered, non claustrophobic and thus more comfortable than too low a ceiling height would.
137 Lighting Architectural lighting might be used to highlight divisions and provide atmospheric borders so as to entertain users and engage their visual senses but also inform them of Hallway and restroom designs should be in accordance with lighting methods that cre ate comfort in users, such as not centrally lighting hallway corridors and allowing for full color rendition in restrooms. Further more restrooms t hat are semi public in nature should not create buffers that would cause entrapment zones, such as doors mig ht, and instead utilize maze entry systems. Elevators and stairs Elevators and stairwells must be visible from multiple angles where there can be natural surveillance. Furthermore, the principle of natural surveillance should be applied as much as possi ble. To support the natural surveillance, mechanical devices should be used, such as at the entrances/exits to the site, in order to maintain the perception of guardianship and allow official guardians to be aware of users and potential threats as they en ter and exit the site In order to achieve natural access control, t he retail units, cafs, and uses at the ground level, should not open up to the exterior perimeter but to the in terior atrium and arcade so that users must first enter the complex and be somehow documented when entering, in order to access the goo ds, services and entertainment located a t the development. Circulation In order to not limit the permeability and walkability of the site, however, access corridors should be at least, at ea have to travel noticeably out of their way in order to engage the site and its off erings. Near the center of the western border, might be a primary or main entrance, to which
138 pick ups and drop offs b y automobile are directed. Furthermore, the adjacent residential community to the proposed site in Sarasota has a roadway that leads directly up to the center of the western border and thus would align perfectly with a grand entrance location, creating a formal contextual connection with the immediate community, via urban and architectural context driven form The proposed location if absolutely necessary, of the limited ground floor parking lot, should allow a natural buffer between the residential co mmunity to the west and the main structure on the site Additionally, the large trees that exist at the joint where the western residential road meets the site may allow for an even greater quality buffer zone to the site, deflecting noise and also hidi n g what some nearby residents may not want to see from their neighborhood or homes. The natural spatial buffer from the parking lot and the empty lots filled wit h trees at the western edge may additionally allow the site to be constructed to nearly any rea sonable h eight, such as seven stories, without imposing its structure on the residential community The wide Trail Corridor roadway (N. Tamiami Trail ) relates well to taller buildings, if the generally accepted sense of enclosure ration (3:4, W idth to H ei ght ) is respected. By concentrating visitors and site usage within the interior of the block, and allowing the users to circulate around the interior atrium/stage venue, attention and focus may be on the interior and reflect back on its own inner perime ter so as to contribute to natural surveillance The mixing of uses, from retail to restaurant, service, housing, entert ainment, and so on, is what may allow many possibilities for activity and site engagement Furthermore, the types of shops and enter tainment should cater to the full range of daily activit ies and community needs from breakfast hours to evening
139 hours, so that there is not a lull in activity, but rather, a constantly changing and varying atmosphere, that caters to all types of users Pe rmeability Permeability may seem t oo large a topic to be covered in this study, however, we suggest that the aim of CPTED need not be in the realm of perfection, but in the general area of attempting to use critical thinking skills and logic based reason ing about how future space may be used. How can we make an environment more successful? planner to critique design proposals. We assume that an objective of crime prevention planners can always be to i mprove safety and educate potential users, without the fear of not incorpor ating the best plan possible. We recognize that a s long as a valiant effort exists to take a holistic approach to CPTED considerations, and most importantly, to continue to examine a project once implementation of crime prevention measures have begun, there exists a solid foundation for which to analyze and improve an environmental character. Both positive and negative crime prevention potential may be related to the terms and comb inations of physical and visual permeability. For example, a physically perme able space that is not visually permeable can cause entrapment zones, hiding spots for criminals and/or the perception that a space is not safe to use. Thus, the physically but not visually permeable spatial joint may hold the potential for a normal user to turn a corner, become trapped, harassed or even assaulted. In the case of visually permeable but not physically permeable space a screen could be in place or a CPTED inspired barrier fence (that allows visual permeability yet acts to deter physical engagement ) However, the degree to which spaces are physically permeable varies with the degree of ability, desire and risk weighing on the
140 part of the individual user. For examp le, it is easy to unclip a velour rope partition (such as used in an amusement park line or cue outside of a nightclub), yet difficult, time consuming and indiscrete to attempt to hop over or even break through a metallic bar barrier with spikes on top, or even scale a concrete wall with cemented in, glass shards on top. We suggest that a goal of CPTED, in pro ject catalyst environment, could be to negotiate between the necessary controls in boundary and aims of territoriality to achieve what is required of a comfortable, public, semi public or semi private environment. Further, we suggest that a ny redevelopment project will need to address the full range of space, from public to private and urban to human scales. For example, central garden areas could be semi public or semi private places, but if under common private based natural access control and legible hierarchy of boundaries, management may be architecturally equipped to maintain the environment. We recommend that permeability at the ground level should be heavily focused on site as well as access to the exterior community, provided in a fluid, safe and transparent way. By utilizing context lines, generated from the linear orientation of external, site refe rences, physical permeability should be natural and straight forward, granting no hassle or annoyance, such as having to walk far out interior environment. We conclude that natural permeability should be influenced by the exterior entrances At Trail Plaza, placing an entrance at each corner (NE, SE, NW and SW)
141 plus a main entrance at the west, may be the most naturally way to funnel in users Locating entrances relates to natural ac cess control and guardianship, because dedicated corridor entrances may provide places where entry fees can be collected (during special events) and entry lines could form under direction and supervision. Social c omposition We conclude that t he correct mix of tenant uses is not created by simply combining two types of land use, such as residential and retail, but th rough the careful selection of occupants and urban design, as seen in Englewood, CO Coupland (199 7) suggests the importance of mixing land use correctly, by reinforce ment theories for use and explains that diversi vitality is in the interest of towns and city centers. Furthermore, Coupland (1997) explains that the mixing of land uses should be the norm, rather than an exception, including diurnal, shared use spaces and compatible placement of businesses to support a comprehensive mix of participants. To properly supplement usage, more is required of programming th an adding a couple of floors of residential over a business; plenty of customers for the retail units are needed to generate and circulate revenue in order to support local businesses. Density In the case of introducing a mixed use environment to an ar ea whe re there is currently not one, we recommend that zoning allow enough residents at a catalyst site, in order to properly support the businesses and provide for natural surveillance. Finally, if parking is to be implemented into the structure of a bui lding or development, there should be some form of incentive to justify building such expensive space. Incentives should not necessarily be tax related, but could be in the form of allowing extra density to overcome initial costs.
142 We acknowledge that in a somewhat distressed neighbor hood, luxury rents and expensive leases are probably not feasible. Developers are well aware of costs and profit margins that make development and redevelopment possible and if no clear profit is determined to be achievab le, developers will not likely dare to enter such a risky market. In the case of project catalysts, and revitalization anchors, it may be wise to allow denser development and remove limitations such as height restrictions in favor of zoning and building r egulations that apply to aesthetics urban form and connectivity Connectivity might relate to physical circulation and mobility as well as mutually supportive and compatible uses. Code considerations Form based zoning ordinances or form based code s, may be a way to allow better redevelopment of parcels, in areas that are ripe for revitalization However, we caution that in standardizing types of allowable design forms and /or dedicating categories for application, the code may constrain urban and a rchitectural design to arbitrary limitations ( or limits therefore highly subject to creating developments and buildings that are not adequately suited to their specific urban context We recommend personal project reviews and a flexible building code, so that well supported projects are realized. By considering that buildings can be constructed to stand for an extended period of time and thus influence the surrounding environment for decades to come we recommend that planners allow for special development consideration in revitalization districts, so that project proposals come under u nique scrutiny that goes beyond standardized code limitations. In the case of special projects that are meant to hi ghly engage the urban context and spur revitalization, we recommend planning staff allow for
143 compatibility with an overlay district that allows for site specific design review and that the review does not fall under regular code restrictions but reaches o ut to the community for discussions regarding context related needs. We dwell on the i mportance of correctly mixing uses for the success of a project as well as for the quali ty of life of all users of the urban environment. We recommend that an object ive at the catalyst site in Sarasota should be to integrate, not separate. While some cities, such as San Diego, have set up strategies for avoiding uses such as skate board ing, the act ivitie s like skateboarding, in some way, to draw in visitors and entertain users. As long as control measures, like boundaries, are used to protect normal users from things like stray ska teboarders, there may be ways to integrate uses historically thought of as compatible. We suggest that providing options, and a dynamic or changing environment, may users should be encouraged to take their time to try and extract as much enjoyment as The essence of the prop osed catalyst site in Sarasota could be to allow the users and re sidents to freely engage a flexible exiting and changing atmosphere. For example, San Diego also introduced a nti graffiti plans, but it may be better to attempt to avoid conflicts and allow tasteful graffiti at a dedicated wall, thus localizing it and embracing it, rather than contending with the impossible nature of preventing the rebellious and expr essive art form Utilizing (artistically) attractive nature to compliment an environment, might support a deeper connection between the people and the place.
144 While p roblems such as crude graffiti would need to be addressed immediately by m anagement or guardians, by quickly removing obscene art the management sets a precedent that it is pointless to try and make obviously distasteful art because it will be removed either before it is completed or before many people see it. As done in Gaine sville, FL on the 34 th St. w all, for example, graffiti is localized and more or less accepted and decriminalized. There are few examples, ever, of obscene graffiti, likely stakehold ers. In this manner, people have an outlet for their expressions and are not frustrated from a lack of canvas, and are also, not likely utilizing the sides of the buildings, as much, for their artistic expressions. We conclude that the inner core of a mixed use e ntertainment venue for example, would need engagement from the users on a fairly consist ent basis, in order to support natural surveillance, territorial reinforcement and market economics. User engagement might be possible by maintaining a sc hedule of events, like: shows, concerts, plays, movies, farmers markets, traders markets, talent shows, training shops, product showcases, conference locations and associated activities for members of associations and clubs, entertainer s, comedians, educat ion forums and community meetings. We argue that Bryant Park is an inspiration to public private mixing of use and event hosting, in order to generate users and revenue to support its operation. Site management We conclude that in order t o successfully integrate different uses within a mixed use environment, delicate selection of tenants is required. We recommend that l iving and working environments be made comfortable and structured. Management, staff operations, resident exper ience and visitor percep tion are recommended to be
145 integrated in ways to suggest social exchanges and communication among users. How is creating a design that fosters socialization achievable and why is it important to CPTED success? Through a cohesive social framework, a manag ement initiated and maintained, actively engaged leader, such as a social director, may be a way to support site coordination and communication. We conclude that o n site, the arrangement of uses and spaces sh ould be designed so that residents and sta ff in termingle and share social exchanges, to encourage a sense of community. We suggest that the site management actively encourage and engage residents and staff to participate in functions at the site, in order to promote discussions of what there is to off er users at the site. For example, one way to achieve a social exchange between users and staff might be to implement a strategy for staff to recognize and acknowledge regulars, or familiar patrons. We recommend that the employee selection and hiring pro cess, a t a catalyst development, should be thorough and rigorous so as to filter and well qualify individuals best suited for the unique staff roles at the site. A proposed revitalization catalyst, in Sarasota, is suggested to be in line with CPTED princi ples by using CPTED inspired critical analysis of plans and changing environmental sensitivity to intruders, through natural surveillance scrutiny of outside threats and strangers We recommend that a catalyst project begin with community and professional brainstorming discussions and open forum meetings, so that community interests are recognized early and immediately, in order to provide designers and architects with f uel for the creations.
146 The design process cannot always be led by an inspiring voice, frontrunner or project champion, such as is suggested by the Minnesota HEALS (1999) organizers. The architects and designers need flexibility to allow their designs to breathe, operate and exist without constraints, so that acceptability of crime prevention methods can be integrated at an early stage in the architectural process to allow for the easiest integration into a completed project. There are more costs involve d in retrofitting a building with CPTED principles than there likely are in designing with CPTED in mind, from the beginning (Schneider, 2010). We argue that t he relationships between individual users, groups of users, the site, context, built materials a nd structure come into play as space is experienced, and not a moment earlier or later, due to the needed action/reactionary environmental cues only truly recognizable once a project has been installed in the environment. Not all circumstances for use can be considered entirely ahead of time. We conclude that a djusting to the changing environment is a never ending responsibility for management, staff and maintenance Program Evaluation CPTED is recommended to be used to support strategies in planning and development that naturally generate moments of activity, and form organically, like the bud of a flower expands outward from within, as it grows over time. Furthermore, like new flower buds appear, new urban formations may emerge. Continuous evaluation an d CPTED implementation analysis are vital to not only maintaining a final product, but to the initial stages of designing a project concept. F rom the beginning of a revitalization effort and for many years into its operation, adjustments will need to be made, in order to secure the future success of the site and the urban context.
147 Furthermore, we recommend periodic urban and site evaluations, so that concerns are addressed continuously through the fine tuning of strategies and methods. Site Discus sion a decaying strip center, but symbolically and thoughtfully, aim to rejuvenate the envir onment. Contributing to the nearby residential only enclaves and the all around sprawled urban setting, that currently exists along the North Trail Corridor, through combining community activities, interests and needs for goods and services, by creating a catalyst node aimed at generating synergistic energy and revitalization throughout the the community will not only support natural surveillance crime prevention technique s, reinforcement. However, in the mixed use setting, a by product of natural surveillance product of it) is the existence and operation of successful businesses, residences and sense of community. We t heorize a cyclical, mutually beneficial, positive and direct relationshi p between CPTED and well regarded communities and believe crime prevention, safety promotion and environmental quali ty are intertwined and inseparable. We hypothesize that t he more people that can be attracted to a site, as long as they can be accommodated for appropriately the greater the natural surveillance potential for the surrounding area. We argue that normal users will likely attract more desirable users and simultaneously deter undesi rable behavior. In the following section, we present figures, in order to inspire creative brainstorming and critical thinking about how the Trail Corridor, Myrtle
148 Node and Trai l Plaza should be improved and redeveloped to support urban revitalization, economic market stimulation, tax revenue for the city and sustainable high quality of life perceptions. As the case studies presented in the literature review have shown, we conc ur with opinions that public private partnerships allow for large scale urban changes to occur. We conclude from the case study research that a revitalization catalyst development project and project champion (from the private sector) are vital players of any urban scale revitalization movement and key to sustainability and successful implementation. We believe that a s include not only initiating the first phys ical improvements, but demonstrating that site design and arc hitecture should be driven by natural crime prevention theories that in turn are meant to help inspire the creation of successful environments. By building successful places, excitement and adjacent improvements are expected occur naturally and urban red evelopment should follow, while a renewed urban revitalization maintains its objectives, community support and stakeholder efforts. apprehending of criminals However, they are in an uphill bat tle. I f society is willing to recognize that the ultimate responsibility for preventing crime is left to all members of the community, and all the stakeholders, to at least attempt to integrate the theories of crime prevention and occ upational safety into designs, plans, reviews, decisions and use of space, place, place making (programming) and surveillance, then the task may become easier to accomplish when a common ground can be found to allow for shared primary goals.
149 According to C larke (1997), if any unknown user could theoretically be a potential criminal or deviant user, then, an elderly lady snatching designer han dbags or medication is likely possible, somewhere and at some time. Therefore, we conclude that the future and poten tial use of a space, by criminals, needs to be considered as a constant potential threat, in order for modern CPTED approaches to attempt to tak e advantage in preventing a complete spectrum of criminal activity S imply put, we recommend implementing CPTED in the most amount of design as is reasonably possible, so that a holistic program can be constructed Knowledge Diffusion Due to the impact of user perceptions, and such intrinsic factors such as the fear of crime in users, in our view, an aligned goal with the CPTED revitalization proposal thus becomes the marketing of the ideas, or selling and transferring of knowledge, to not only the public but everyone involved with the creation, use and maintenance of the environment. One idea, related to informi ng both the public and professional realm of users and programmers, is providing a public education campaign on the many design intentions at a property, such as modern crime prevention theories and the delicate spatial relationship between the environment and the most immobile, or non agile visitors, as well as the most able users and citizens. It can be suggested that a primary objective of CPTED could be allowing the many various users to share similar safe experiences, for it is a strategy of modern CP TED to strengthen the quality of the place and increase usability for all desired users (Schneider and Kitchen, 2007)
150 Figure 5 1 Myrtle Node concept for considering complimentary uses Source: Created by author, 2011
151 Figure 5 2 Myrtle Node c oncept for considering urban design Source: Created by author 2011
152 Figure 5 3 Catalyst redevelopment concept (pArc 33) development massing of space Source: Created by author, 2011 Figure 5 4 Catalyst redevelopment concept arcade buffe r bet ween retail and the stage and surrounding atrium Source: Created by author, 2011
153 Figure 5 5 Catalyst redevelopment concept atrium and stage Source: Created by author, 2011 Figure 5 6. Catalyst redevelopment concept integrated parking structu re over retail ground level Source: Created by author, 2011
154 Figure 5 7 Catalyst redevelopment concept site footprint on parcel. Source: Created by author, 2011
155 Figure 5 8. Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure and pedestrian c irculation ramp Source: Created by author, 2011 Figure 5 9 Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure promenade (ramp). Source: Created by author, 2011
156 Figure 5 10. Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure exterior and vehicle ramp to covered parking Source: Created by author, 2011 Figure 5 11 Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure clear visibility and surveillance strategy, facing south. Source: Created by author, 201 1
157 Figure 5 12. Catalyst for redevelopment concept parking structure entrance facing west Source: Created by author, 2011 Figure 5 13. Catalyst for redevelopment concept retail visibility for natural surveillance facing north and upon the interior atrium Source: Create d by author, 2011
158 Figure 5 14 Catalyst concept for natural access control and natural surveillance and funnel entrance points at corners and the western edge main entrance Source: Created by author, 2011 Figure 5 15 Hypothetical p roposal fo r allowing and event and stage /venue area with surrounding natural surveillance Source: Created by author, 2011
159 Figure 5 16. Pr oposal for catalyst site, view northeast Source: Created by author, 2011 Figure 5 17. Catalyst project interior dyn amic proposal with natural surveillance and natural access control and territorial reinforcement Source: Created by author, 2011
160 APPENDIX NORTH TRAIL ZONING D ISTRICT ORDINANCE
181 Source: ( Carter and Plaster, 1993)
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187 BIOGRAPHICAL S KETCH Daniel Greenberg, better known as Dan, grew up in Sarasota, FL. He studied architecture at the University of Florida, where he received a Bachelor of Design. He concluded his undergraduate architecture education at the Vicenza Institute of Architec ture (VIA) in Italy, where he also traveled around Europe, absorbing all the urban and architectural design he could. Walkability, urban revitalization and multimodal transit where the focuses of his research. After returning from Europe, Dan enrolled in where he focused on urban design, CPTED and sustainable revitalization. Dan interned with the City of Sarasota, during the semester after his first year of graduate school. During his second year of graduate school, Dan worked with Dr. Richard Schneider on multiple CPTED based studies, reviews and proposals. In 2011, Dan performed comprehensive plan review research for Professor Gail Easley. In 2012, Dan received his Master of Art s in Urban and Regional Planning (MAURP).