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1 SELF ESTEEM AND FEELINGS OF COMMUNITY CONNECTEDNESS OF AT RISK ADOLESCENTS WHO ATTEND COMMUNITY BASED AFTERSCHOOL PROGRAMS By TINA MARIE LOUGHLIN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PAR TIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 T ina Marie Loughlin
3 To my supportive and loving family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to acknowledge my awesome committee, Dr. Barnett, Dr. Culen, and Dr. Stedman. Your guidance, expertise and patience in h elping me to complete the best t hesis possible is greatly appreciated. I would like to extend a special thank you to my advisor, Dr. Barnett for all of the additional help tha t you provided throughout this process. I most certainly could not have done this without each and every one of you. I would also like to thank Caroline Payne Purvis, CYFAR State Coordinator for helping to arrange my visits to the afterschool program sites as well as for helping me with data collection. Your dedication to the project is forever appreciated. Also, I would like to thank my fellow teaching assistants and FYCS friends. Your encouragement is greatly appreciated. Thank you for cheering me on all along the way, Last, but not least, I would like to thank my family, Mom, Dad, and Leah and my boyfriend, Stephen. Thank you for dealing with me at my best and my worst throughout this whole process. The accomplishments I have made would never have possible without the support of each and every one of you. You have dealt with me not being able to come home for holidays due to being too busy writing this as well as going weeks withou t me returning your phone calls. Through it all you have continued to encourage me and express how proud you are to watch me overcome challenges and fulfill my dreams. Thank you again to everyone that has been a part of this experience. You have all been wonderful supporters and I hope that I can one day repay you for everything you have done for me.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 11 Rationale of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 12 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 13 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 13 Research Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ............................. 14 Discussion of Variables ................................ ................................ ........................... 14 Definitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 15 Significance of Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 15 Assumptions of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 16 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 18 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 18 Risky Behaviors ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 19 Self Esteem and Afterschool Programs ................................ ................................ .. 21 Community Connectedness ................................ ................................ .................... 25 Theoreti cal Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 31 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 32 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 35 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 35 Population & Sampling Frame ................................ ................................ ................ 35 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 36 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 37 Self Esteem Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ........... 37 Community Connectedness Instrumentation ................................ .................... 37 Measurement of Attendance ................................ ................................ ............ 38 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 39 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 39 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 40 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 42
6 Descriptive Results ................................ ................................ ................................ 42 Demographics of the Sample ................................ ................................ .................. 42 Attendance Measure ................................ ................................ ............................... 44 Self Esteem Measure ................................ ................................ ............................. 47 Youth Involved in Community Issues Measure ................................ ....................... 48 Analysis of Research Questions and Hypothesis ................................ ................... 51 Research Que stion 1. ................................ ................................ ....................... 51 Research Question 2. ................................ ................................ ....................... 53 Research Question 3. ................................ ................................ ....................... 57 Othe r Significant Findings ................................ ................................ ....................... 58 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 59 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 60 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 61 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 61 Risky Behaviors ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 64 Self Esteem and Afters chool Programs ................................ ................................ .. 65 Community Connectedness ................................ ................................ .................... 66 Developmental Contextual Model of Self Esteem ................................ ................... 67 Developmental Contextual Model of After School Program Attendance ................. 69 Developmental Contextual Model of Community Connectedness .......................... 70 Contributions to Literature ................................ ................................ ....................... 71 Limitations and Delimitations ................................ ................................ .................. 71 Implications for Further ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 2 Research ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 72 Practice ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 73 Program Staff ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 74 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 75 APPENDIX A ROSENBERG SELF ESTEEM SCALE ................................ ................................ .. 76 B YOUTH INVOLVED IN COMMUNITY ISSUES SURVEY (YICI) ............................ 77 C INFORMED CONSENT ................................ ................................ .......................... 83 D ADDITIONAL TABLES ................................ ................................ ............................ 84 LI ST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 89 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 92
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Research questions table ................................ ................................ ................... 41 4 1 Demographic characteristics of combined county study participants .................. 44 4 2 Attendance of combined count y study participants ................................ ............. 46 4 3 Self esteem of combined county study participants ................................ ............ 48 4 4 Feelings of community connectedness of combined county study participants .. 51 4 5 Self esteem and community connectedness Pearson Correlation ..................... 55 D 1 Demographic cha racteristics of Volusia county study participants ..................... 84 D 2 Demographic characteristics of Seminole county study participants .................. 84 D 3 Attendance of Volusia county study participants ................................ ................ 85 D 4 Attendance of Seminole county study participants ................................ ............ 85 D 5 Self Es teem of Volusia county study participants ................................ ............... 86 D 6 Self esteem of Seminole county study participants ................................ ............ 86 D 7 Feelings of commun ity connectedness of Volusia county study participants ...... 86 D 8 Feelings of community connectedness of Seminole county study participants .. 87
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 ................................ ............. 34
9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science SELF ESTEEM AND FEELINGS OF COMMUNITY CONNECTEDNESS OF AT RISK ADOLESCENTS WHO ATTEND COMMUNITY BASED AFTERSCHOOL PROGRAMS By Tina Marie Loughlin May 2012 C hair: Rosemary V. Barnett Co c hair: Gerald Culen Major: Family, Youth and Community Sciences My research investigated the relationship between adolescent afterschool program attendance, self esteem and feelings of community connectedness. Specifically, t he effect of overall self esteem on the decision to attend an afterschool program as well the adolescents overall feelings of community connectedness. The theory of Developmental Contextualism was used to explore and identify the various factors that may i nfluence an self esteem, feelings of community connectedness, and their decision to attend a community based afterschool program. A sample of 61 adolescents enrolled in two federally funded and community based afterschool programs completed a 10 item self esteem questionnaire followed by a 5 item section of the Youth Involved in Community Issues Survey (YICI). The surveys consisted of questions regarding the adolescents overall feelings of self esteem and community connectedness. Attendance rec ords were also collected from the afterschool program sites. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlations, Linear Regression Models, ANOVAs, and MANOVAs.
10 Results indicated that there is no significant relationship between adolescent self esteem and after school program attendance. Nor was there significant evidence that feelings of community connectedness were affected by afterschool program attendance. While there was no significant relationship between overall self esteem and feelings of community connec tedness, the individual item analysis did show a significant relationship between adolescents feeling they had a voice in the community (Community Connectedness Item) and their level of respect for themselves (Self esteem Item). Findings suggest that there is a relationship to be explored and strengthened through means of community outreach for adolescents to get their voices heard. Recommendations for further research include taking a larger sample size and collecting data from adolescents who are part of the afterschool program as well as those who are not. Also, it would be beneficial to collect data at more than one point in order to identify change in adolescent self esteem and afterschool program attendance. Conclusions reached through this study have important implications for youth practice. Specifically, programs need to help adolescents get involved in the community so that they are able to thrive in the community environment as contributing members of society.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Self (Arnett, 2010) and is an integral part of youth development. It is important that adolescents develop a high self esteem from an early age and continue it into their adult lives. Since adolescence is the period during which identity issues are most prominent and most crucial to development, Erickson (1950) argued that it is important that youth are able to establish a clear identity. Identity serves as a basis for initial commitmen ts in adult life and as a foundation for later stages of development (Arnett, 2010). There are many factors that contribute to adolescent self esteem including: personal identity, personal achievements, family, friends, school, neighborhood, and community Self esteem in adolescence can fluctuate. Through positive youth development programs, esteem can be strengthened, thus, allowing them to feel better about themselves, their identities, their families, friends, and the community i n which esteem, afterschool program attendance and the opportunity to connect with the community can have a significant effect on the self ders Ferguson et.al., 2006). The use of one single approach can be difficult when trying to help diverse groups of adolescents, thus, communities, families, and schools must create opportunities for the youth to thrive in the environment in which they live grow, go to school, and play. Afterschool programs and the chance to connect to communities through volunteer work provide youth with an outlet, a place to exhibit their strengths
12 and gain a feeling of belonging and connectedness to their community. (Hal pern, 2005; alak, & Ames, 1997; Benson, 1998 ; Ybrandt & Armelius, 2008; Barton, Watkins, & Jarjoura, 1997; Schine, 1990; Broadbent, 2010). Rationale of Study A great deal of research has been done linking self esteem to after school programs, and most of that research has found that after school programs are effective as protecting the self esteem and healthy development of youth. Little research has esteem and the attendance in an aftersc hool program. Nor has much research been done to examine the relationship between self esteem and afterschool program attendance. This study will explore the relationship between the self esteem of at risk youth and their afterschool program attendance. It esteem and feelings of community connectedness and their feelings of community connected ness based on community based afterschool program attendance. It is important that afterschool programs promote bond ing and reduce risk can thrive and learn to give back to the community in which they live. The current research will be implemented in a high risk urban neighborhood wh ere it is important to Michalak, & Ames, 2007). The current study will focus on afterschool programs that not only give adolescents a safe place to go in the unsupervised hours of the afternoon, but also create conditions for re working as well as for developing self hood (Halpern, 2005). This re working and developing self hood aspect of afterschool programs has been called for through previous research and will be investigated in this study by
13 allowing adolescents opportunities to feel as though they are more connected to the community in which they live. When this occurs, youth take ownership of it and, thus, no longer partake in activities that compromise their community and i ts accomplishments (Benson, 1998 ). Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of self esteem, afterschool program attendance and feelings of community connectedness of at risk adolescents. Using the Theory of Developmental interaction between the growing, that is, the continuously changing individual and the u ss, 1996). This study will initially examine whether self esteem relates to attending an afterschool program. It will explore levels of self esteem and youth feelings of connectedness to their community. It will also examine youth with low, medium and high self esteem and investigate their corresponding feelings of community co nnectedness to determine whether there is a relationship between self esteem and community connectedness. If a relationship is found, the study will examine the strength of the relationship and whether self esteem feelings of community connectedness. Research Questions The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between self esteem and feelings of community connectedness through community involvement of youth who attend afterschool programs. Speci fically, this study aims to answer the following: 1. Is there a relationship between self esteem and afterschool program attendance?
14 2. esteem and community connectedness? 3. Is the feeling of connectedness to th e community affected by afterschool program attendance? Research Hypotheses The hypotheses of this research include: Hypothesis 1: Adolescents with higher attendance patterns in afterschool programs will have higher self esteem scores. Hypothesis 2: Adole scent self esteem is positively related to levels of feelings of community connectedness. Hypothesis 3: Adolescents who attend afterschool programs will have greater feelings of connectedness to the community. Discussion of Variables For this study, self esteem was used as the independent variable in the research questions involving self esteem. In these questions, both feelings of community connectedness and attendance were defined as dependent variables. Self Esteem was used as the independent variable because the researcher did not aim to change the adolescents self esteem based on the program that the adolescents attend. For the research question regarding feelings of community connectedness and afterschool program attendance, afterschool program attendance was used as the independent variable and community connectedness the dependent variable. This is the case because the researcher hoped to find that adolescents who attended the program more consistently would have higher feelings of comm unity connectedness.
15 Definitions Adolescence: the time adult status is approached, when young people are preparing to take on the nett, 2010). Adolescence 2010). Adolescents: youth who are in middle school or high school with an age rang e of 12 2010). Afterschool Program: all inclusive term for youth development programming that occurs beyond the school day, including before school, 2010). Community Connectedness: strong sense of identity or feeling of belonging to the community, good relationships with neighbors and others (real friendships call on in times of need); and, a number of l Self Esteem: (Arnett, 2010). Semester: In this study, a semester is the 90 day period in which adolescents att end school and after school. Significance of Study This study will add to the body of literature in a way that has rarely been done esteem, and feelings of community connecte dness. This study will be conducted with a
16 population of low income inner city adolescents in order to increase knowledge about African American, Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents who attend afterschool community connectedness will hopefully increase their openness to new experiences and willingness to take the steps necessary to be able to succeed (Halpern, 2005). Adolescents in low income areas often face issues earlier in their lives that cause them to question the self and mistrust others (Halpern, 2005). If adolescents are able to increase their feelings of community connectedness through afterschool program involvement, they will build trusting relationships with friends, adults, and the community itself. This study will increase knowledge of afterschool program effect on youth in an area that is under researched and extremely important. If an increase in community connectedness is developed through afterschool program attendance, the current resea rch aims to get many adolescents connected to their communities in positive ways. It is one thing for a youth to feel connected to their community through gang involvement, but quite another for them to feel connected because of the positive contributions that they have made to that community. Assumptions of the Study This study assumes that the adolescent participants have relatively low feelings of community connectedness and can benefit from a program that allows them a place to feel welcome and a plac e to connect to their community through activities. It is recognized that the participants may have high levels of self esteem, feelings of community connectedness, and may have previously attended afterschool programs. The study, however, did not differen tiate between the various levels of self esteem, feelings of community connectedness, or afterschool program attendance that the
17 participants may have already experienced. The study also assumes that the attendance data collected at the afterschool program sites is accurate. This data will be collected by a third party source as the researcher is not able to attend the program every day. As a quasi experimental design, it has the purpose of establishing a cause and effect relationship between and independen t variable and a dependent variable, but the assignment of subject to treatment conditions is not at random (Cook & Campbell, 1979).
18 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction The middle school and high school years that include many of the years of ad olescence are a time when many lifestyle changes are being made. This is a time that can prove to be extremely difficult for adolescents in terms of their self esteem. This period brings change that is unfamiliar and often unwelcomed by adolescents that mu st adapt and overcome the unfamiliarity that has suddenly been thrust upon them. During the years of middle school and high school, it is imperative that these changes be examined in efforts to help promote positive development in a time of such turmoil. This literature review will examine self esteem of inner city adolescents who feel connected to their communities through after school and community program involvement. The first section will examine the risks that inner city adolescents may take due to u nstructured free time and the consequences of their actions. The second section will examine the self esteem of youth who are involved in after school programs in order to define the need for such programs and show the benefits that are incurred by the ado lescents. This section will examine afterschool programs that are already in place and functioning in a manner that is beneficial to the adolescents who attend the program. The third section will discuss community connectedness and how those involved feel about the accomplishments and friendships they have made in the communities in which they live. It will also examine the ways that have been useful in getting youth involved in the community.
1 9 The fourth section will discuss the framework used for this whi ch will include the the growing, that is, the continuously changing individual and the ecological context in u ss, 1996). The final section will discuss afterschool programs in general and what is needed to make them function in such a way that will increase adolescent self esteem and feelings of connectedness to their community. Risky Behaviors any act of involving unprotected sex, substance abuse or violence among those between the ages of 13 and 19. Adolescence starts at the onset of puberty and ends at the beginning of young escents wanting or having the ability to partake in these behaviors, one of which is unstructured free time. In a study by Bolland (2007), it was found that among those living in high poverty inner city areas, African American adolescents are the most at risk. This study was done in waves in order to track changes in adolescent attitudes and behaviors over a five year period as the adolescents grew older while still living in poverty. The risks that these adolescents are taking in inner city neighborhoods include substance abuse, with race and hopelessness, but race and hopelessness were strongly correlated. He reports that inner city mixed race adolescents exhibit the highest levels of hopelessness and feel that there is no end to their current situation. The higher rate of hopelessness also raised the likelihood of risk behavior participation.
20 Along with race and age, timing of exposure to violent behavior plays a hu ge role examined the short and long term effects violence exposure has on adolescents. The study was conducted in Mobile, Alabama and examined youth ages 9 19 and limited t he effects of neighborhood and individual level poverty by restricting the study to those who are homogenous in those areas. During the first wave, violence exposure had little significance in predicting violent behavior (2006). Most violent behaviors were found to occur in wave five and could be correlated to violence exposure during waves three and four, but violence exposure between waves one and four had a more significant impact. The violence exposure during waves one and two shows to have a more long term impact as violence tends not to occur until wave five. And if the adolescent was exposed to violence starting at wave one rather than wave three or four, the acts appear to be less violent than those that were exposed during wave three and four only. Thus, the exposure to violence during the most proximal time period increases wave five violence by 84 percent (Spano, 2006). Campbell (2005) conducted a similar study that aimed to link violence and parenting as mediators between poverty and psychologica l symptoms in urban African American adolescents. This study shows links between poverty and adolescent psychological symptoms through economic stressors and impaired parenting. For the study, 105 students with a mean age of 12.9 and about 47% female were examined. The results showed that poverty and economic stressors did not predict a significant difference in the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, internalizing symptoms such as those that cause low self esteem did correlate with
21 exposure to violence and age. The study also found that monthly income and mean number of economic stressors show that the adolescents are exposed to significant poverty and economic stress. Public policy efforts to eradicate poverty are necessary to protect these children from psychological symptoms. The study also suggests that family and the neighborhood in which the youth reside. Kataoko (2008) posits that school me ntal health assessments need improvement in order to protect minority students who would not generally receive traditional mental health services get the assistance that they need. These services are particularly important for low income minority students who are at increased risk for violence exposure and mental health problems due to multiple risk factors including poverty, school, and community factors. For this study, children were asked socio demographic questions in which they responded on a 4 four po int Likert scale. Violence exposure questions were also measured using a modified life events scale. Overall, students reported high levels of victimization and witnessing of violent events. It also found that more students were exposed to violence at scho ol rather than at home or in the community and that greater English language fluency among non native speakers resulted in higher incidences. The greater English language fluency also contributed to the students being at higher risk of violence exposure, P ost traumatic Stress Disorder, and avoidance symptoms. Self Esteem and Afterschool Programs Adolescent self esteem, behavioral and emotional status, and social context, including the peer group, family, and school social system all play a role in adolescen t aggressive behaviors. Ybrandt & Armelius, (2008) conducted a study suggesting that
22 self esteem be used as a mediator for peer aggression and mental health problems. Many factors, including self esteem have proven to have long lasting consequences on ment al health in early adulthood. High self esteem was found to be related to positive adjustment, general well being, and mental health in adolescence and also to fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. One possible explanation is that high self este em could be a potential mediator between peer aggression and psychopathology which presumably facilitates effective coping and inhibits maladaptive responses to being involved in peer aggression, but this is far less well investigated (Ybrandt & Armelius, 2008). The purpose of the study by Ybrandt & Armelius, (2008) was to explore self esteem as a possible mediator between involvement in peer aggression and internalizing and externalizing problems in a group of normal adolescents aged 12 to 16 years old. A school based sample of 204 adolescents in four middle and junior high schools in different socioeconomic areas and a series of questionnaires were used to collect data regarding self esteem, mental health problems, and involvement in peer aggression. It w as found that self esteem had a direct effect on mental health problems and also partly or mediated the association between involvement in peer aggression and mental health problems. The study examined three types of peer aggressors: the aggressor, the vic tim and those who are both the victim and the aggressor. Among the three, those who are only victims tend to have lower self esteem than any other kind of aggressor (Ybrandt & Armelius, 2008). The unsupervised hours of the afternoon are a crucial time for adolescents. It is during these hours that adolescents tend to get in the most trouble simply because they
23 school students from low income areas who were at high risk for behavioral problems were taken to mentor elementary aged children during the afterschool hours. This was done through a partnership with the YMCA and three elementary schools. The program allowed 54 mentors to work with 584 elementary school children from afterschool programs. The teens went through an intensive training process in order to be considered for the program and were then supervised at the elementary schools. The aim was that the program be preventative in that it keeps the mentors off the stree ts, thus services were provided for both the mentors and the mentees who participated in the program. Through the afterschool program, both the mentors and the mentees benefited from a bonding experience that heightened the self esteem of all involved. In fact, 89% of the mentors reported positive changes in themselves due to the employment opportunity. The program also gave the younger youth a safe place to go after school, helped them build a positive self worth, and it was also good for the parents becau se child care was provided. Overall, the program had positive effects on the youth, their families, and the community. The following study by Roffman, (2001) was conducted in order to obtain information about African American and Hispanic children who atte nd afterschool programs. The research focuses on the change it makes in the self esteem of children based on race, gender, and age. Roffman chose participants from a Boys and Girls Club of America in a major urban center. Three variables were used to measu re the esteem was measured from four opinions of too much
24 successful. Children also reported the average number of days and hours they spent at the club each week. The children were also asked if they came to the club for the ac tivities, staff at the club, enjoyment at the club, and treatment at the club. Roffman (2001) found that there was a significant correlation between enjoyment at the club and self esteem. It was also found that girls who attended reported slightly higher l evels of self esteem than boys that attended the club, possibly because of relationships formed with staff members as girls reported getting in trouble less than boys and mentioned club staff as important to their attendance. Inner city youth programs ope rate with the aim to address the normative tasks of adolescents without neglecting the range of vulnerabilities like self doubt and mistrust of others (Halpern, 2005). Adults have an important role to play in youth development and are essential for teachin g developmental tasks. Many students have low self efficacy and get lost in the hustle and bustle of large urban high schools, thus afterschool programs are needed to help show these at risk students how to be good citizens. An afterschool program is a pla ce where students can go and get the extra support they need due to the deficit in support they are receiving at home or in school. Through the afterschool program, students will try out different roles, sample different kinds of experiences, question them selves and others, take risks and test limits. In order to service these children effectively, it requires a variety of persons and social resources as well as the children being open to new experiences and willing to take the steps necessary to be able to succeed. Many of the children suffer problems rooted in earlier life experiences such as loss of a family member, absentee/erratic parents, early
25 pregnancy, dropping out of school, responsibility for younger siblings, pressure from gangs, contact with pol ice, juvenile justice, and child welfare authorities (Halpern, 2005). The afterschool program provides a place for those that fall somewhere between school stars and the disconnected due to gang involvement, too early parenthood, dropping out of school, be ing caught up in the juvenile justice system, etc. Thus afterschool youth programs need to create conditions for re working as well as for developing self hood (Halpern, 2005). Community Connectedness Youth often have the opportunity to make a huge impact on the community and neighborhood in which they live. Communities also can help make the youth development process go as smoothly as possible by providing programs for the youth to participate in that they make them feel connected to their community and wa nt to give back to it. High feelings of community connectedness have been proven to help adolescents with positive development. Community connectedness has acted as a mediator for adolescents who have depressed or suicid al tendencies (Matlin, Molock, & Teb es, 2011). Barton, Watkins, & Jarjoura, (1997) conducted a study that aimed to find strategies for youth development that lessen risky behaviors for those living in inner city impoverished neighborhoods and develop a prevention program that addresses commu nity specific risks and assets at multiple levels. This community specific approach is important, as no two communities or two children are the same. The program, must be specifically tailored to each community that it is attempted in. This community speci fic approach breaks down aspects of the community that cause specific issues that need to be addressed. In order for progress to be made, there must be
26 guidelines for what an effective program will need. Specific goals and objectives must be set out and cl early measurable. The program must be strong in duration and frequency in order to serve younger teenagers. The program must also involve peer and parent support in order for it to be successful. Unfortunately, there is no simple quick fix to the problems that impoverished youth face due to violence exposure, early pregnancy, substance use, delinquency, etc. What is known is that each neighborhood will have to tailor a program to the specific needs of its youth in order to make prevention programs successfu l. It is also necessary for parents, youth, and communities to be involved in the development process in order for it to be most effective (Barton, 1997). In order to connect youth to communities, there are many strategies that can be applied. One that has proven to be rather effective is a community cultural arts program (Ersing, 2009). These community based art programs are empowering marginalized youth to make a difference in their community and become agents of change. This particular study aimed to exa mine how after school cultural arts programs have a positive effect on core development assets. The study measured youth developmental assets by using the 40 developmental assets instrumentation (Search Institute, 2004). The focus was to connect youth with outlets and opportunities that they would otherwise not have. The program helped youth increase competent decision making skills so that they can engage in the community and learn to solve their problems rather than externalize them through risky behavior s. After a decade of research, the study concluded that if trained properly, youth can become competent community builders and agents of change (Ersing, 2009). Community development programs provide
27 alternative ways to utilize free time and exhibit creativ e expression while helping the community. Adolescents who help care for young children, who assist people with disabilities, serve in soup kitchens, tutor their peers or younger children, visit with the aging, assist shut ins, participate in programs to e ducate their communities about substance abuse, organize an action campaign to rehabilitate a building, improve a playground, clean up a stream, or advocate for the homeless are filling the void that our age of technology and alienation has created in thei r lives. Perhaps in more positive ways than their counterparts of an earlier era, they are assuming meaningful roles and responding to real needs of their society as well as to their need to be needed (Schine, 1990). This participation in community develop ment allows the youth to obtain a feeling of belonging and contributing that sustains them even when the work is difficult or dull. However, for young people to learn most effectively from their participation in community service they must have opportuniti es to reflect thoughtfully upon the meaning of their work. A youths desire to reach out to adults other than parents and teachers, a drive to test values and try on new roles, are all important developments of this period of adolescence. Most, if not all, young adolescents will derive benefits from engaging in meaningful service to their community. Working with the very young or the aging, young volunteers enjoy the warm welcome and affection that greet them, and at the same time, their self esteem is bolst (Schine, 1990). Many after school programs such as the YMCA and Boys and Girls Club of America offer youth volunteer opportunities that they like more than those provided by
28 sch ools as they do not feel restricted by the school schedule and are more able to do volunteer work that they really want to do. Establishing community service as an integral part of the program in middle level schools, however, could constitute an important first step in true reform. The challenge is to create environments and opportunities that will entified the importance of community involvement in key decisions about schooling. One model aimed to promote self confidence and self esteem, develop life and problem solving skills, encourage the practicing of social skills, link the child or young perso n into engagement in education. This model is beneficial to all involved. The community esteem is bolstered and the school has fostered ch ange in a young person. Broadbent (2010) found that six in 10 youth believed that they are now more confident as a consequence of participating and valued highly the experience of exploring and learning in their local communities and engaging with divers e people, whether this was volunteering capacity, assisting others, or engaging in new experiential learning and skill development. The program also improved the overall school performance of five in 10 youth. Learning happens at home, and in neighborhoods as well as at school wherever young people with curious minds spend time. Thus, schools that provide high quality teaching and an array of experiences and skill building opportunities in a variety of community environments, learning is deepened and stre ngthened. Clearly communities need to be places where young people can
29 avail themselves of such opportunities and it requires communities, programs and governments to work together to achieve long term sustainable program outcomes and benefits (Broadbent, 2010). Community schools are open to students, families, and community members before during and after school and throughout the year. They are a place and set of partnerships that lead to improved student learning, stronger schools, and healthier families and communities (Blank, 2003). Community schools use the community as a resource to engage students in learning and service and help them become problem solvers and asset builders in their communities. This is also beneficial to the students as it provide s them with a place to go in the after school hours. A place where they can get an assignment and go out and make a difference. This is great way to get youths connected to their communities through service and cooperative learning experiences. When the co mmunity is used as text, young people can become assets in their community, helping to solve specific problems alongside peers and adults while increasing their feeling of connectedness to the community in which they live. Community based Child and Youth C are (CYC) include building partnerships with parents, service providers, and youth while helping resolve individual problems and helping to build capacity. CYCs have learned to use recreation strategically as a tool to attract at risk youth into the commun ity centre (Martin & Tennant, 2008). Community centers have a neighborhood Board of Directors who plan the long term development of the community center in conjunction with the municipality community members and staff of the center. These centers must lea rn to observe children and youth and the trends that they partake in. Thus, the comfort and connection between children and youth
30 worker are key indicators of the effectiveness of a community CYC worker (Martin & Tennat, 2008). Experience has taught us, ho wever, that youth work best when they initiate and develop the programs. In this case, a few adolescents may develop a program that works great for them that is also great for many other youth simply because it was created by youths in the same sort of sit uation. This allows the adolescents to create meaningful relationships with one another, the youth workers and the community. Community centers that are open year round to people of all ages in the community often facilitate a living room type center. In t hese centers, the feeling of community connectedness is extraordinarily high as everyone meets in one place and feels comfortable being there together. The adolescents do not feel ostracized by the adults and the adults do not feel bothered by the actions of the adolescents at the center. Over time, the adolescents and friends develop closer ties with each other than they were previously able to. Local schools can also benefit from community centers as they provide places for youths with anger problems and other disabilities with a place to let out frustrations whether it is by playing on a sports team or just interacting with youth who are just like them. The centers provide a place for cooperative learning and a great resource to schools. The center allow s the schools to focus on educating youth rather than try to fix their problems while educating them. The center ultimately provides a support system for youth to develop skills and competencies; provide youth with opportunities to practice new behaviors and take on challenging roles; encourage civic involvement and; provide opportunities for youth to feel connected and valued (Martin & Tennant, 2008).
31 Having a sense of community represents a social economy of shared intimacy based on self disclosure and feelings (McMillan, 1996). This suggests that individuals who do not have a sense of community are at greater risk for feeling of social isolation and alienation, which may lead to experiences of loneliness and low self esteem (Chipuer, 2001). An adolesce neighborhood communities are important to the developmental process and are esteem and life satisfaction. Loneliness is a factor that greatly affects self esteem and you dyadic connection with their peers and parent report a higher degree of loneliness experiences and those who feel closely connected to peers, school, neighborhood and community report lower levels of loneliness than those who only fe el connected to their parents. These dyadic relationships between peers and the community in which the being and it is important that we create Theoretical Framework The Developmental Contextualism. This is a theory that is not limited to adolescence, but on the contrary, it encompasses the entire span of human life, and is a lifespan developmental t heory that shares many ideas with the life span developmentalists Baltes, Reese, and Neselroade. Contextualism constitutes a conceptual tool that fosters an awareness of diversity and greater understanding of the individual in the multiple contexts that i n which he or she lives. The purpose is to advance our knowledge of specific factors and subfactors and emphasize how their interactions contribute to the developmental process. The multiple contexts in which an adolescent
32 lives are particularly important to this study as it examines the relationship between an esteem, feelings of community connectedness, and afterschool program attendance. The focus of this study will be on context as described by Lerner. The contexts to be examined inclu de, family structure, family recreational and leisure time activities, socioeconomic variables, quality and level of supervision, and geographic location of the home. Each of these contexts will reveal the specific context and situation in which the adoles cents in the study live, grow, and go to school. This information will help explain the relationships between self esteem, feelings of community connectedness, and afterschool program attendance (Muuss, 1996). Summary Adolescents of middle school and high school age participate in risky behaviors almost every day. These risk behaviors tend to occur during the unsupervised hours of the afternoon between the time school gets out and parents get home from work. The need for structured activity and a safe place to go after school is greatly needed for adolescents living in inner city neighborhoods. After school programs provide an outlet for these students that fall somewhere in between those who are involved with positive extra curricular activities at school a nd those that have no place to turn, but the streets and gang involvement for support. This grounded are necessary. It is also necessary that these activities benefit the ir self esteem as well. Low self esteem is an ever so increasing problem among many disconnected group. After school programs offer the opportunity for students to ha ve an
33 Communities and community centers are a great location for these afterschool programs that allow inner city adolescents the opportunity to have a place where they feel like they belong. It is a place that is like a home away from home for them where they feel safe and can also learn about the community in which they live. Communities are an integral part of the youth development process a nd communities that provide experiences. The youth who are able to volunteer in their community whether it be with the elderly, younger children, or their peers can devel op a sense of belonging. The community and the youth both gain from the experience that has been provided. Community centers and afterschool programs often provide these volunteer opportunities to the adolescents in their community. They help to locate and provide these opportunities for adolescents who would generally have no idea where to start looking for such an experience. These opportunities to connect with the community have increased student performance in the classroom as well as their own personal self esteem and vocational skills. The ability to feel connected to their community is something that youth of all ages can benefit from and communities need to provide an environment in which youth can thrive.
34 Figure 2 1. ntal Contextualism
35 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Research Design The study employed a quasi experimental design. A quasi experimental design has the purpose of establishing a cause and effect relationship between and independent variable and a dependent variable, bu t the assignment of subject to treatment conditions is not at random (Cook & Campbell, 1979). Thus, this study examined whether a program or treatment caused some outcome or outcomes to occur. Adolescents were not randomly selected but rather chosen based on their participation in a currently running afterschool program. Quasi experimental designs do determine the relationship between two or more variables as well as the direction of the relationship between the variables. For this study, the independent va riable is self esteem and the dependent variables are the adolescents change in feelings of Population & Sampling Frame The theoretical population for this study was compr ised of adolescents participating in a particular afterschool programs in Central Florida funded by The United States Department of Agriculture Children Youth and Families at Risk (CYFAR). The entirety of the population was student enrolled in nearby middl e or high schools in Volusia and Seminole County. The population available for sampling consisted of 61 middle school or high school aged adolescents enrolled in the CYFAR afterschool program in Volusia and Seminole counties. Minority students, particularl y African American and Hispanic youth were studied as the researcher wanted to add to the body of research concerning those minority/ethnic groups. These youth were also thought to
36 show potentially greater increases in feelings of community development as they lived in low income, rather impoverished communities. The researcher had no reason to believe that the minority adolescents in this study were different than adolescents in their same situation elsewhere and assumed that the findings would be generali zable among African American and Hispanic middle school and high school aged adolescents from low SES areas. at the afterschool program site to inform them of the study and a sked to sign a form providing written consent for their child to participate in the research. Program registration forms were made available in English and Spanish and a translator was at each point to communicate with parents who had low level of English language fluency. If the consent form was not received within a two week period, the researcher attempted a second contact via telephone. Once parental consent and student assent was obtained, students were included in the population for the current study Data Collection For each county, the researcher coordinated a time with the program director to come to the program and collect the data. All students present on the day of collection were asked to participate in the data collection process. Afterschool program participants were reminded that their participation was voluntary, and would remain confidential and anonymous. They were also reminded that their responses would be given a number for identification rather than their name. A total of 61 participa nts participated in the study. Only students whose parents did not return consent forms did not participate. Of the 65 questionnaires that were completed, 61 were used for data analysis.
37 Instrumentation Self Esteem Instrumentation Self esteem was measur item self esteem scale. Self Esteem Scale. The scale consist ed of statements dealing with general feelings about the self. The complete scale took about 10 minutes to c omplete The questionnaire consisted of the following conceptual areas: a). self worth; b). success or failure; c). ability; and d). attitude. Each item consists of answers ranging from 0, strongly agree to 3, and strongly disagree. Some items were reverse coded so that 3 was strongly agree and 0 strongly disagree The raw score will be measured and can range from one to 30 with 30 being the highest l evel of self esteem and one being the lowest level of self esteem. Those with low levels of self esteem will have self esteem scores that range from 0 10 and will be assigned to group 1, mid range self esteem will range from 11 20 and be assigned to group 2 and a high level self esteem score will be classified as 21 30 and will be assigned to group 3. Community Connectedness Instrumentation 5 item version of the variable was used f rom Youth Involved in Community Issues Survey (YICI) (Barnett & Payne, 2010). .90. The complete scale took approximately five minutes to complete. The survey consists of questions regarding community connectedness The 5 item survey is measured on a five point scale ranging from 1, strongly disagree to 5, strongly agree.
38 The YICI survey was implemented on participants participating in the afterschool program. The community connectedness section of the YICI (Barnet t & Payne, 2010) included five items. These five items are as follows: a).youth in my community have a voice; b). I feel connected to my community; c). I am not interested in what goes on in my community; d). I am able to influence decisions that affect my community; and e). I do not feel I have a positive impact on my community. These questions allowed the in the community and whether they were willing to go into the co mmunity and make decisions. This instrumentation was administered in June 2011. The measure of feelings of community connectedness can range from 5 25. Those reporting low feelings of community connectedness will have a score between 5 and 11 and will be a ssigned to group 1. Those with mid level feelings of community connectedness will have a score between 12 and 18 and will be assigned to group 2, and those reporting high feelings of community connectedness will have scores between 19 and 25 and will be as signed to group 3. Measurement of Attendance Attendance was measured using the attendance records that are kept at the afterschool program site. Each site keeps a record of daily attendance in which frequency and consistency of attendance was obtained fro m. The attendance measure will be broken into three categories based on the number of times the adolescent attended the program. Those who reportedly attended 0 days will be assigned to group 0. Those who attended 1 47 days will be considered to have low a ttendance and assigned to group 1. Those who attend 48 94 days will be considered to have mid level
39 attendance and will be assigned to group 2 and those who attend 95 142 days will be considered to have a high rate of attendance and assigned to group 3. De mographics age, grade in school, race/ethnicity, and gender. Demographics information was collected as it is in most research in order to gain a better understanding of the sam ple being studied. Adolescents were first asked to write their age as a number in years. They were then asked to identify their grade, 6 th 12 th Following their age, adolescents were asked to select their race/ethnicity, a). White, (non Hispanic); b). Asia n Pacific Islander; c). Black (non Hispanic); d). Hispanic; or e). Other. Last the adolescents were asked to identify their gender, a). Male or b). Female. Limitations of the Study The population of this study was a sample of convenience in which the par ticipants voluntarily agreed to take part in the after school program and community development activities that were provided. Another limitation of this study is that the results cannot be generalized to youth in after school programs everywhere as there was not a great deal of diversity among the sample population. Also, adolescent development strategies must be tailored to each individual community as the adolescents are not the same in all communities thus the results cannot be used to generalize adoles cents in every community environment. A final limitation was that the attendance data collected from the afterschool program sites was not completely accurate.
40 Data Analysis The researcher used Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) 20.0 for stat istical tests of the data collected. Data collection was analyzed using many different types of tests including Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Linear Regression, MANOVA and Chi Squared test to display the correlations between the variable as well as the variance that exist among middle school and high school students as well as African American and Hispanic participants.
41 Table 3 1. Research q ues tions t able Research Questions Hypothesis Items Type of Analysis Variables RQ 1: Is there a relationship bet ween self esteem and afterschool program attendance? Ho 3: Adolescents who attend after school programs will have higher self esteem scores. Attendance 1 10 (Rosenberg Self Esteem Measure) Correlation Coefficient Anova Linear Regression MANOVA Chi Square Independent Variable: Self Esteem Dependent Variable: Consistency of attendance RQ 2: Is there a relationship between an self esteem and community connectednes s? Ho 1: Adolescent self esteem is positively related to levels of feelings of c ommunity connectednes s. 1 10 (Rosenberg Self Esteem Measure) 25 29 (Youth Involved In Community Issues Survey) Correlation Coefficient Anova Linear Regression MANOVA Chi Square Independent Variable: Self Esteem Dependent Variable: Community Connectedn ess RQ 3: Is there a relationship between feelings of community connectednes s and afterschool program attendance? Ho 2: Adolescents who attend after school programs will have greater feelings of connectednes s to the community. Attendance 25 29 (Youth Invo lved In Community Issues Survey) Correlation Coefficient Anova Linear Regression MANOVA Chi Square Independent Variable: Afterschool Program Attendance Dependent Variable: Community Connectedness
42 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to inv estigate the level of self esteem and feelings of community connectedness of adolescents who participate in afterschool programs. (Community Connectedness Index), as well as and the participants frequency of afterschool program attendance. It includes a description of the participant demographics in the areas of gender, race, and age. This study compared adolescents feelings of community c onnectedness and self esteem based on their afterschool program attendance. Descriptive Results A total of 65 CYFAR afterschool program attendees completed the surveys. If the afterschool program attendees only filled out one of the surveys, or there wer e a great deal of questions left unanswered, they were eliminated from the sample. A final total of 61 participants were included in the sample. Of the participants, 11 were from the Volusia County CYFAR afterschool program and 50 were from the Seminole Co unty CYFAR afterschool program. The response rate of adolescents attending the afterschool program was 93.8%.The final sample size was limited as some participants did not want to fill out the surveys or the participants were picked up from the program bef ore being able to complete both surveys. Demographics of the Sample The demographic criteria include d gender, race and age. Tables D 1, D 2 (see Append ix D ), and 4 3 display demographics for this sample. Of the participants from Volusia County, six (54.5% ) of the respondents were male and five (45.5%) were
43 female. The respondents ranged in age from 12 16 and the mean age was 14.09 years old. A total of 2 (18.2%) were 12 years old, 2 (18.2%) were 13 years old, 3 (27.3%) were 14 years old, 1 (9.1%) were 15 years old, and 3 (27.3%) were 16 years old. Participants identified their race as either African American, Hispanic/Latino, or White /Caucasian. A total of 3 (27.3%) reported that they were African American, 6 (54.5%) that they were Hispanic/ Latino, and 2 (8.2%) were White/Caucasian. Of the 50 participants from the Seminole County site, 27 (54%) reported that they were male; 20 (40%) reported being female, and 3 (6%) did not answer. The participants ranged in age from 10 19 with a mean age of 12.94. Of t he participants, 1 (2%) was 10 years old, 12 (24%) were 11 years old, 11 (22%) were 12 years old, 8 (16%) were 13 years old, 10 (20%) were 14 years old, 3 (6%) were 15 years old, 0 (0% were 16 years old, 2 (4%) were 17 years old, 1 (2%) was 18 years old, 1 (2%) was 19 years old, and 1 (2%) did not respond. The Seminole County participants identified as African American, Hispanic/Latino, and White/Caucasian. Of the participants, 44 (88%) reported being African American, 1 (2%) as Hispanic/Latino, 1 (2%) as W hite/Caucasian, and 4 (8%) did not respond. Combined, there were 61 participants. Of the participants, 26 (42.6%) were male, 32 (52.5%) were female, and 3 (4.9%) did not answer. The age of the participants ranged from 10 19 and the mean age was 13.15. One (1.6%) participant reported being 10, 12 (19.7%) were 11years old, 13 (21.3%) were 12 years old, 10 (16.4%) were 13 years old, 13 (21.3%) were 14 years old, 4 (6.6%) were 15 years old, 3 (4.9%) were 16 years old, 2 (3.3%) were 17 years old, 1 (1.6%) was 1 8 years old, 1 (1.6%) reported being 19 years old and 1 (1.6%) did not respond. The participants reported being
44 African American, Hispanic/Latino and White/Caucasian. Of the sample, 47 (77%) were African American, 7 (11.5%) were Hispanic/Latino, 3 (4.9%) w ere White/Caucasian, and 4 (6.6%) did not respond. Table 4 1. Demographic characteristics of combined county study participants n f % Gender 61 Male 26 42.6 Female 32 52.5 Did not Respond 3 4.9 Age 61 1 0 years old 1 1.6 11 years old 12 19.7 12 years old 13 21.3 13 years old 10 16.4 14 years old 13 21.3 15 years old 4 6.6 16 years old 3 4.9 17 years old 2 3.3 18 years old 1 1 .6 19 years old 1 1.6 Did not Respond 1 1.6 Race/Ethnicity 61 African American 47 77 Hispanic/Latino 7 11.5 White/Caucasian 3 4.9 Did not Respond 4 6.6 Attendance Measure The attendance mea he afterschool program. Tables D 3, D 4 (see Appendix D ),and 4 2 display the number of times respondents attended the program. Number of days attended in Volusia County ranged from 20 to 117 days. The me an number of days attended was 65.55. Of the 11 participants, 1 (9.1%) attended the program 20 days, 1 (9.1%) attended 30 days, 1 (9.1%) attended 32 days, 1 (9.1%) attended 35 days, 1 (9.1%) attended 69 days, 1
45 (9.1%) attended 73 days, 2 (18.2 %) attended 77 days, 1 (9.1%) attended 87 days, 1 (9.1%) attended 104 days, and 1 (9.1%) attended 117 days. The participants in Seminole County attended between 0 and 142 days with a mean of 25.66. Of the participants surveyed, 22 (43.1%) of the participants had rep ortedly not attended the program. These surveyed participants are thought to have attended the program previously, but the attendance records are presumably inaccurate. One (2%) attended 2 days, 1 (2%) attended 3 days, 1 (2%) attended 5 days, 2 (3.9%) atte nded 9 days, 3 (5.9%) attended 14 days, 1 (2%) attended 15 days, 1 (2%) attended 21 days, 1 (2%) attended 25 days, 1 (2%) attended 29 days, 1 (2%) attended 30 days, 1 (2%) attended 32 days, 1 (2%) attended 37 days, 1 (2%) attended 42 days, 1 (2%) attended 44 days, 1 (2%) attended 46 days, 1 (2%) attended 57 days, 1 (2%) attended 75 days, 2 (3.9%) attended 87 days, 1 (2%) attended 91days, 1 (2%) attended 97 days, 1 (2%) attended 104 days, 1 (2%) attended 135 days, and 1 (2%) attended 142 days. Combined, the participants attended the afterschool program between 0 and 147 days. The mean attendance was 32.85 days. Of the participants, 0 (22%) did not attend the program, 1 (1.6%) attended 2 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 3 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 5 days, 2 (3.3%) atten ded 9 days, 3 (4.9%) attended 14 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 15 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 17 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 20 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 21 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 25 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 29 days, 2 (3.3%) attended 30 days, 2 (3.3%) attended 32 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 35 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 37 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 42 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 44 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 46 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 57 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 69 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 73 days, 1
46 (1.6%) attended 75 days, 2 (3.3%) atte nded 77 days, 3 (4.9%) attended 87 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 91 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 97 days, 2 (3.3%) attended 104 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 117 days, 1 (1.6%) attended 135 days, and 1 (1.6%) attended 142 days. Table 4 2. Attendance of combined county stu dy p articipants Number of Days Attended n f % 61 0 22 36.1 2 1 1.6 3 1 1.6 5 1 1.6 9 2 3.3 14 3 4.9 15 1 1.6 17 1 1.6 20 1 1.6 21 1 1.6 25 1 1.6 29 1 1.6 30 2 3.3 32 2 3.3 35 1 1.6 37 1 1.6 42 1 1.6 44 1 1.6 46 1 1.6 57 1 1.6 69 1 1.6 73 1 1.6 75 1 1.6 77 2 3.3 87 3 4.9 91 1 1.6 97 1 1.6 104 2 3.3 117 1 1.6 135 1 1.6 142 1 1.6
47 Self Esteem Measure esteem of the pated in the study. Tables D 5 D 6 (see Appendix D ), and 4 3 esteem scores. The self esteem (SE) scores for the Volusia County participants ranged from 18 to 30 points and had a mean score of 22.55. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scal e can output self esteem scores between 0 and 30. Those students who reported a self esteem score between zero and 10 were put in group and assessed as having low self esteem. Those with scores between 11 and 20 were put in group two and were assessed to have mid level self esteem, and those with self esteem scores between 21 and 30 were placed in group 3 and assessed to have high self esteem. Of the Volusia County afterschool program participants, 1 (9.1%) reported a SE score of 18, 1 (9.1%) reported a SE score of 19, 1(9.1%) reported a SE score of 20, 2 (18.2%) reported a SE score of 21, 1 (9.1%) reported a SE score of 22, 2 (18.2%) reported a SE score of 23, 1 (9.1%) reported a SE score of 25, 1 (9.1%) reported a SE score of 26, and 1 (9.1%) reported a S E score of 30. Among the Seminole County participants, the self esteem scores range from 15 30 and had a mean score of 23.64. Of the participant, 2 (3.9%) reported an SE score of 15, 1 (2%) reported an SE score of 16, 2 (3.9%) reported an SE score of 17, 2 (3.9%) reported an SE score of 18, 3 (5.9%) reported an SE score of 19, 3 (5.9%) reported an SE score of 20, 4 (7.8%) reported an SE score of 21, 5 (9.8%) reported an SE score of 22, 1 (2%) reported an SE score of 23, 1 (2%) reported an SE score of 24, 6 (11.8%) reported an SE score of 25, 5 (9.8%) reported an SE score of 26, 5 (9.8%) reported an SE score of 27, 2 (3.9%) reported an SE score of 28, 3 (5.9%) reported an SE score of 29, 5 (9.8%) reported an SE score of 30, and 1 (2%) did not report a SE sc ore.
48 Combined, the participants reported self esteem scores between 15 and 30. The mean score was 23.44. Of the participants, 2 (3.3%) reported a SE score of 15, 1 (1.6%) reported a SE score of 16, 2 (3.3%) reported a SE score of 17, 3 (4.9%) reported a SE score of 18, 4 (6.6%) reported a SE score of 19, 4 (6.6%) reported a SE score of 20, 6 (9.8%) reported a SE score of 21, 6 (9.8%) reported a SE score of 22, 3 (4.9%) reported a SE score of 23, 1 (1.6%) reported a SE score of 24, 7 (11.5%) reported a SE sc ore of 25, 6 (9.8%) reported a SE score of 26, 5 (8.3%) reported a SE score of 27, 2 (3.3%) reported a SE score of 28, 3 (4.9%) reported an SE score of 29, 6 (9.8%) reported a SE score of 30, and 1 did not report a self esteem score. Table 4 3. Self estee m of combined county study p articipants Self Esteem Score n f % 61 15 2 3.3 16 1 1.6 17 2 3.3 18 3 4.9 19 4 6.6 20 4 6.6 21 6 9.8 22 6 9.8 23 3 4.9 24 1 1.6 25 7 11.5 26 6 9.8 27 5 8.3 28 2 3.3 29 3 4.9 30 6 9.8 Did not Report 1 1.6 Youth Involved in Community Issues Measure Respondents were asked to report their fe elings of community connectedness based on the following five questions. I feel connected to my community, youth in my
49 community have a voice, I am not interested in what goes on in my community, I am able to influence the decisions that affect my communit y, and I do not feel I have a positive impact on my community. The results are displayed in t ables D 7 D 8 (see Appendix D ), and 4 4 Participants answered these questions by selecting strongly disagree, disagree, undecided, agree or strongly agree. Among the participants at the Volusia County site, when asked if youth in their community had a voice, 1 (9.1%) disagreed with the Statement, 3 (27.3%) were undecided, and 7 (63.6%) agreed. When asked if they felt connected to their community, 4 (36.4%) were un decided, 6 (54.5%) agreed, and 1 (9.1%) strongly agreed. Two (18.2%) disagreed with the statement: I am not interested in what goes on in my community, 2 (18.2%) were undecided, 5(45.5%) agreed, and 2 (18.2%) strongly agreed. When answering whether or not they were able to influence decisions in their community, 2 (18.2%) disagreed, 5 (45.5%) were undecided, and, 4 (36.4%) agreed. When posed with the statement, I do not feel that I have a positive impact on my community, 1 (9.1%) strongly disagreed, 3 (27.3 %) disagreed, 4 (36.4%) were undecided, 2 (18.2%) agreed, and 1 (9.1%) strongly agreed. Among the participants at the Seminole County site, when asked if youth in their community had a voice, 6 (12%) strongly disagreed with the statement, 2 (4%) disagreed, 16 (32%) were undecided, 15 (30%) agreed and 11 (22%) strongly agreed. When asked if they felt connected to their community, 5 (10%) strongly disagreed, 1 (2%) disagreed, 12 (24%) were undecided, 18 (36%) agreed, and 14 (28% ) strongly agreed. Seven (14%) strongly disagreed with the statement: I am not interested in what goes on in my community, 10 (20%) disagreed, 13 (26%) were undecided, 7 (14%)
50 agreed, and 13 (26%) strongly agreed. When answering whether or not they were able to influence decisions in th eir community, 7 (14%) strongly disagreed, 2 (4%) disagreed, 16 (32%) were undecided, 16 (32%) agreed and 9 (18%) agreed. When posed with the statement, I do not feel that I have a positive impact on my community, 5 (10%) strongly disagreed, 7 (14%) disagr eed, 16 (32%) were undecided, 6 (12%) agreed, and 16 (32%) strongly agreed. Among the participants of the counties combined, when asked if youth in their community had a voice, 6 (9.8%) strongly disagreed with the statement, 3 (4.9%) disagreed, 19 (31.1%) were undecided, 22 (36.1%) agreed and 11 (18%) strongly agreed. When asked if they felt connected to their community, 5 (8.2%) strongly disagreed, 1 (1.6%) disagreed, 16 (26.2%) were undecided, 24 (39.3%) agreed, and 15 (24.6%) strongly agreed. Seven (11.5 %) strongly disagreed with the statement: I am not interested in what goes on in my community, 12 (19.7%) disagreed, 15 (24.6%) were undecided, 12 (19.7%) agreed, and 15 (24.6%) strongly agreed. When answering whether or not they were able to influence dec isions in their community, 7 (11.5%) strongly disagreed, 4 (6.6%) disagreed, 21 (34.4%) were undecided, 20 (32.8%) agreed and 9 (14.8%) agreed. When posed with the statement, I do not feel that I have a positive impact on my community, 6 (9.8%) strongly di sagreed, 10 (16.4%) disagreed, 20 (32.8%) were undecided, 8 (13.1%) agreed, and 17 (27.9%) strongly agreed.
51 Table 4 4. Feelings of community connectedness of combined county study p articipants n f % Youth in my community have a voice. 61 Strongly Disagree 6 9.8 Disagree 3 4.9 Undecided 19 31.1 Agree 22 36.1 Strongly Ag ree 11 18 I feel connected to my community. 61 Strongly Disagree 5 8.2 Disagree 1 1.6 Undecided 16 26.2 Agree 24 39.3 Strongly Agree 15 24.6 I am not interested in what goes 61 on in my community. Strongly Disagree 7 11.5 Disagree 12 19.7 Undecided 15 24.6 Agree 12 19.7 Strongly Agree 15 24.6 I am able to influence decisions 61 that affect my community. Strongly Disagree 7 11.5 Disagree 4 6.6 Undecided 21 34.4 Agree 20 32.8 Strongly Agree 9 14.8 I do not fee l I have a positive impact 61 on my community. Strongly Disagree 6 9.8 Disagree 10 16.4 Undecided 20 32.8 Agree 8 13.1 Strongly Agree 17 27.9 Analysis of Research Questions and Hypothesis Research Question 1. Is there a relationship between afterschool program attendance and self esteem?
52 Hypothesis 1. Adolescents who regularly attend afterschool programs will have higher self esteem scores than those who do not regularly attend. Hypothesis 1 was r ejected. Pearson Correlation The adolescents who were used for this study were a sample of convenience. They were members of a federally funded afterschool program that is operated in two separate counties (Volusia and Seminole) in its second year of oper ation in their communities. The adolescents surveyed reported relatively high self esteem scores. The self esteem mean score was 23.44 of 30 possible and group mean score of 2.7377 of 3 possible with a standard deviation of 4.197 and group standard deviati on of .44353 respectively. With self esteem scores that are already relatively high as they are based on a 30 point scale, the researcher was not able to determine whether or not the self esteem score could be attributed to afterschool program attendance o r something else, as the number of days attended varied greatly and the self esteem scores remained relatively high. Of those surveyed, the mean number of days attending the program was 32.85 with a standard deviation of 39.783and group standard deviation. Due to the nature of the program (students are not required to attend) it is difficult to determine the esteem. S pearman Correlation A Spearman non parametric correlation was also conducted i n order to determine if there was a different relationship than was examined through the Pearson parametric correlation.
53 Linear Regression The linear regression testing resulted in a significance score of .442 indicating that there is not a significant relationship between self esteem and number of days attending an afterschool program. One Way ANOVA The one way ANOVA resulted in a significance score of .883 indicating that there is not any significant relationship between afterschool program attendance and self esteem. Of the students used for data analysis, most fell into groupings two and three for both self esteem and total attendance meaning that they reported mid to high level self esteem as well as mid to high attendance patterns. MANOVA Using th e MANOVA test of between subject effects, the results indicated an F score of 1.214 and a significance value of .284 indicating again that there is no significant relationship between self esteem and afterschool program attendance. The corrected model, how ever, resulted in an F score of 1.913 and a significance total of .049 indicating that there is some kind of relationship between the two, but it cannot be determined if there is a direct relationship between self esteem and afterschool program attendance (The Corrected Model is the variance in the dependent variables which the independent variables accounts for without the intercept being taken into consideration.) In order for significance to be determined at a 95% confidence interval, the researcher woul d like to see a significance score of .05. Research Question 2. esteem and community connectedness?
54 Hypothesis 2. Adolescent self esteem is positively related to levels of feelings of community connecte dness. Hypothesis 2 was rejected. Pearson Correlation Using the combined data (includes both counties) the mean self esteem score of the participants in this group was higher than expected. The participants reported a mean self esteem score of 23.44 and a grouped score of 2.7377 with a standard deviation of 4.197 and group standard deviation of .44353. This high range score showed that there was little room for self esteem score increase. Although the participants reported a fairly high mean self esteem sc ore, it was found that self esteem could be increased through heightened feelings of community connectedness in one specific area. The participants reported that having a voice in their community would help them to have more respect for themselves. The Pea rson correlation between those two variables gave a result of .307, showing that there is room for significant improvement in this area. Although the hypothesis was rejected as it was written, the researcher did find areas where self esteem and feelings o f community connectedness could be increased. With only one of the inter item correlations proving to be significant, it is important to note that the correlations between the items although not significant, some were positive, indicating that the adolesce nts do feel connected to their community even if the connect ion is seemingly insignificant. The participants reported the highest level of agreement with the statement; I wish I could have more respect for myself which had a mean score of 1.67 and a standa rd deviation of 1.020. Thus, this is an area where improvement can be made whether it is through connecting with their community or continued afterschool program attendance.
55 Table 4 5. Self esteem and community connectedness Pearson Correlation Youth in my comm unity have a voice. I feel connected to my comm. unity I am not interested in what goes on in my comm. unity I am able to influence decisions that affect my comm. unity. I do not feel I have a positive impact on my comm. unity. Total Community Con nected ness On the whole I am satisfied with myself. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2 Tailed) .100 .444 .091 .484 .006 .963 .016 .904 .014 .915 .010 .942 At times, I think I am no good at all. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2 Tailed) .045 .731 .094 .731 .155 .234 .015 .907 .088 .499 .045 .730 I feel that I have a number of good qualities. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2 Tailed) .045 .73 3 .057 .665 .151 .246 .072 .583 .071 .587 .062 .637 I am able to do things as well as most other people. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2 Tailed) .074 .570 .143 .270 .090 .492 102 .432 .028 .833 .084 .520 I feel I do not have much to be proud of. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2 Tailed) .172 .184 .036 .786 .074 .571 .049 .706 .110 .400 .008 .950 I certainly feel useless at times. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2 Tai led) .157 .230 .077 .557 .159 .226 .042 .749 .037 .777 .018 .893 person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2 Tailed) .110 .399 .163 .209 .013 .921 .108 .409 045 .731 .118 .364 I wish I could have more respect for myself. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2 Tailed) .307* .017 .203 .121 .233 .073 .217 .096 .222 .088 .070 .597 All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. Pearson Corr elation Sig. (2 Tailed) .232 .072 .100 .442 .164 .206 .146 .261 .218 .091 .013 .922 I take a positive attitude toward myself. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2 tailed) .038 .773 .002 .988 .128 .327 .096 .460 .080 .539 .036 .784
56 Linear Regression When analyzing the Linear Regression models to investigate whether or not there is a relationship between adolescent self esteem and feelings of community connectedness, the results indicated a significance score betwe en the two variables of .108, therefore, there is not a significant relationship between self esteem and feelings of community connectedness. In order for the score to be considered significant, it must be .05 or below. One Way ANOVA The data shows again that there is no significance between self esteem and feelings of community connectedness. The test of homogeneity of variance produced a significance score of .096 which indicates that the two are not significantly related. The ANOVA itself produced a sig nificance score of .216 indicating to a higher degree that the two variables are not related. M ANOVA Using the Multiple analyses of variance between subject effects test, the results indicate again that there is no significant relationship between self es teem and feelings of community connectedness. In fact, the results produced a significance score of .946 indicating that the two are nearly as far from significantly related as they could possibly be as farthest from significant is a score of 1. The Correc ted model, however, shows a significance score of .567 which is much better than the uncorrected model, but still does not indicate any significant relationship between self esteem and feelings of community connectedness(The Corrected Model is the variance in the dependent
57 variables which the independent variables accounts for without the intercept being taken into consideration.) Research Question 3. Is the feeling of connectedness to the community affected by afterschool program attendance? Hypothesis 3 Adolescents who attend afterschool programs will have greater feelings of connectedness to the community. Hypothesis 3 was rejected. Pearson Correlation The participants reported a mean attendance score of 32.85 with a standard deviation of 39.783. Wit h participation ranging from 0 120 days the results did not show a significant relationship between number of days attended and feelings of community connectedness. Participants agreed with all of the items asked about feeling connected to their community with a means core of 3.26 or higher with the highest being 3.7 for the item that stated, I feel connected to my community. Being that the communities where the afterschool programs are located are relatively small, reported scores of feelings of community connectedness could be slightly inflated. This could also be true due to the researcher collecting a sample of convenience from participants that may have attended the program for a year prior to this study. Linear Regression Using linear regression, the results indicate that there is some sort of relationship between after school program attendance and feelings of community connectedness. However, the significance score reported is a .60. While this significance score does not
58 prove that the two are dire ctly related, it is indicative of some sort of relationship between after school program attendance and community connectedness. ANOVA The analysis of variance test resulted in a significance core of .33 indicating that there is not a relationship betwee n afterschool program attendance and feelings of community connectedness. MANOVA Using the Multiple Analysis of Variance Test of between subject effects, the result again shows some sort of significance between afterschool program attendance and feelings of community connectedness, However, the significance score is .60 so it is does not prove that the two are directly related with enough power to assume that one directly effects the other because a significance score of .05 is necessary to determine a rel ationship. The result, however, does show that there is a relationship to be discovered and possibly strengthened through increased afterschool program attendance and community involvement. Other Significant Findings Due to the presumed inaccuracy of the attendance record keeping, the researcher performed further data analysis with the participants who had reportedly attended the program 0 time s removed. For this analysis the researcher used Pearson Parametric correlations and found that the research ques tions as they were written were still rejected, but there was a greater number of inter item correlation than was reported having the non attendees in the data. With the non attendees removed the researcher found a significant relationship between self es teem and community connectedness on seven different items as
59 opposed to one item when the non attendees were included. Having excluded the non attendees, hypothesis three would have been accepted in that the correlation s between the variables becomes signi ficant with a Pearson Correlation score of .3578 and a significance score of .026. This finding is extremely important as it proves that there is a relationship between adolescent feelings of community connectedness and afterschool program attendance. It i s also important to recognize that although the research hypothesis were rejected, the correlation values in the majority of the inter item correlations were positive thus indicating that the program is moving adolescents in a positive direction in regard to their self esteem and feelings of community connectedness. Summary The statistical analysis presented in this chapter has shown very low correlation between the variables selected. However, there is some significance in the relationship between the ind ividual items contained in each variable, specifically, in the relationship between self esteem and feeling of connectedness to the community in which the participants live. Particularly alarming is the finding that amongst the participants in the survey, there was no correlation between afterschool program attendance and self esteem. However, since it was a sample of convenience taken of students who already attend the program, some for more than a year, it could be possible that the afterschool program ha d already helped the students with their self esteem and feelings of community connectedness. Had the researcher had the opportunity to measure pre and post self esteem and feelings of community connectedness measures, the results may have produced greater findings.
60 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by many corresponding changes, including those in physical, emotional, cognitive, social and moral domains. As youth experience these changes, they often have a decline i n self esteem related to their changing states of self (Arnett, 2010). It is a time filled with many changes that can esteem. Numerous factors have been proven to esteem both negatively and positively. Afterschool program attendance can help adolescents and their self esteem become resilient to the changes they are experiencing. Through after school program attendance the adolescent may not only become more resilient to changes going on aroun d and inside them, but they may also have increased feelings of community connectedness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of self esteem, afterschool program attendance and feelings of community connectedness of at risk adolescents. between the growing, that is, the continuously changing individual and the ecological u ss, 1996). Self esteem as measured by the Ro senberg Self esteem Measure was examined to determine the level of self esteem of the adolescents who attend community based afterschool programs. Feelings of community connectedness were measured using a 5 item portion of the Youth Involved in Community Issues Survey to determine the feelings of community connectedness that are exhibited by the adolescents attend the aforementioned afterschool program. This chapter presents a discussion and review of the research questions, as well as an
61 interpretation of the results the study as they relate to the theoretical framework. Implications for youth workers and then followed by a discussion of the contributions to the current literature and suggestion for further research. Findings s were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Frequencies esteem, feelings of community connectedness, and afterschool program attendance. Pearson correlations were used to identify the relationship between the variables chosen. For further analysis and relationship determination, ANOVAs, Linear Regressions, MANOVAs, and Chi Square analysis were analyzed. Research Questions The following research questions were stated along with a h ypothesis that was intended to be accepted and were analyzed using the aforementioned methods. The first research question concerned the relationship between afterschool esteem. Research Question 1: Is there a relationship between afterschool program attendance and self esteem? Hypothesis 1: Adolescents who regularly attend afterschool programs will have higher self esteem scores than those who do not regularly attend. There were no significant findings indica ting that increased afterschool program esteem (low, medium, high). This finding resulted in a rejection of the hypothesis. The result that was found is rather surprising being that many researchers h ave found that afterschool program attendance self onnell, 2007;
62 Ybrandt & Armelius, 2008; Roffman, 2001). The variation in the findings of thi s study compared to that of prev ious studies may be due to the study being a study of convenience in that the subjects being tested were a small group of participants that attend a community based afterschool program by choice. Also, it is possible that the results differ slightly from those of previous stu dies due to inconsistent attendance reports that were collected through a third party, an employee at the afterschool program site. Additionally, previous studies have examined large groups of adolescents and have been able to measure self esteem at pre an d post treatment. Through data analysis, no specific relationship was identified. The corrected MANOVA model, however, indicated a significance score of .049 proving that there is some sort of relationship between the two variables, but it may not necess arily be in the direction predicted by the researcher. The second research question concerned the relationship between an esteem and feelings of community connectedness. Research Question 2: Is there a relationship between an adolescen esteem and feelings of community connectedness? Hypothesis 2: Adolescent self esteem is positively related to levels of feelings of community connectedness. Similar to hypothesis 1, there were no significant findings indicating a relationship be esteem and feelings of community connectedness using the total scores from the two variables. The hypothesis was rejected. The inconsistent findings are part icularly interesting as prior research has found relationship between self esteem and community connectedness (McMillan, 1996; Chipuer, 2001; Martin &
63 Tenant, 2008; Broadb ent, 2010). This finding could be due to small sample size and the use of a convenience sa mple. The participants were a small group of youth that attended a co mmunity based afterschool program by choice. Also, most of the prior research conducted allowed adolescents a great deal of experience volunteering in their communities. The individual item scores, however, did return favorable results regarding self estee m and feelings of community connectedness. The individual item analysis indicated that the question, adolescents would have more respect for themselves (self esteem item) if they had a voice in their community (Community Connectedness Item). This finding i ndicates that there is improvement to be made in the area of community outreach opportunities for the adolescents that attend the afterschool program in an effort to increase the respect they have for themselves and in effect, their overall self esteem. T he final research question concerns the relationship between feelings of connectedness to the community and afterschool program attendance. Research Question 3: Is the feeling of connectedness to community affected by afterschool program attendance? Hypo thesis 3: Adolescents who attend afterschool programs will have greater feelings of community connectedness. There were no significant findings linking afterschool program attendance to feelings of community connectedness. Hypothesis 3 was rejected. This finding is particularly interesting as previous research has found that there is a positive relationship between afterschool program attendance and feelings of community connectedness (McMillan, 1996; Chipuer, 2001; Martin & Tenant, 2008; Broadbent,
64 2010). This contradictory finding could be due to the sample being a small sample of convenience. It is also possible that the results were contrary to previous research in that the current study is only similar to those done in the past. Past research involving the two variables has indicated a significant relationship, but the afterschool programs in previous studies have provided ample opportunities for their participants to get involved with their communities whether it is through mentoring the young or volun teering in the community doing various tasks. This contradiction to previous research could also be the result of collecting attendance data through a third party source. The attendance data seems to have not been properly collected as many students had re portedly never attended the program. Risky Behaviors The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of self esteem, afterschool program attendance and feelings of community connectedness of at risk adolescents. Thus, the research question (Questio ns 1 3) focus on the relationship between self esteem, afterschool program attendance, and feelings of community connectedness. In reviewing the literature regarding adolescent risky behaviors, however, it became rtake in risky behaviors depends on many variables, not just self esteem, afterschool program attendance and feelings of community connectedness. To really understand why it is that adolescents choose to partake in risky behaviors, many variables must be e xamined such as first exposure to violence, living in poverty, age, race and risk taking propensity. Although the decision to partake in risky behaviors and self esteem are not behaviors is contingent upon lived experience which can also contribute to self esteem and feelings
65 of community connectedness. Changes in risky behavior due to program participation were not measured, but it is assumed that those adolescents who regular ly attend the afterschool program are less likely than their non attending counterparts to take part in risky behaviors because they are in a safe place that is supervised during the regular unsupervised hours of the afternoon that have been proven to be t he time of day when most adolescents get into trouble. Also, according to the research, adolescents with heightened feelings of self esteem are less likely to partake in risky behaviors. Being that the majority of the participants used for this study repo rted mid to high levels of overall self esteem, it is less likely that the program participants are partaking in risky behaviors. Self Esteem and Afterschool Programs There are many factors that contribute to adolescent self esteem including: personal id entity, personal achievements, family, friends, school, neighborhood, and community. Self esteem in adolescence can fluctuate. Through positive youth esteem can be strengthened, thus, allowing them to feel bett er about themselves, their identities, their families, friends, and the community in which they live. Afterschool program attendance was not proven to have a significant effect on an esteem. The participants in this study however, repor ted higher levels of self esteem than expected which left little room for growth. Afterschool program attendance in previous studies has been proven to increase adolescent self esteem, but in this case a direct relationship cannot be determined. Adolescen t self esteem and afterschool program attendance of those who participated in this study showed great variance in some areas (attendance) and very
66 little variance in others self esteem). Although these results cannot be identified as causal, it is suggeste d through previous research that adolescents with higher self esteem do attend afterschool programs. In this study the relationship between the two is not definite as the adolescents in this particular program are given the choice whether or not to attend. Therefore, it may not be the level of self esteem of the adolescent that prompted them to attend or not attend the afterschool program. It is possible that the students although not required by the program to attend were required by their parents to atten d thus their self esteem is not affecting that decision, their parent is. Many of the program participants also attend as a recommendation by the school. Again, there decision to attend is not directly influenced by their own choice, but rather by a higher authority. Community Connectedness Youth often have the opportunity to make a huge impact on the community and neighborhood in which they live. Communities can also help make the youth development process go as smoothly as possible by providing programs f or the youth to participate in that they make them feel connected to their community and want to give back to it. High feelings of community connectedness have been proven to help adolescents with positive development. Community connectedness has acted as a mediator for adolescents who have depressed or suicidal tendencies (Matlin, Molock, &Tebes, 2011). Community connectedness is an important aspect of an impactful afterschool program. When an afterschool program has the ability to help youth connect to th eir
67 esteem, it also allows them to feel appreciated by the members of their community. Thi s appreciation of adolescents allows the adolescents to take ownership of their community and positively contribute to it. Often it is helpful to allow adolescents the ability to participate and volunteer to help with community events. This is a way for a dolescents to have a greater presence in the community an d have their voices heard by the community. Recognition by members of the community and the ability to help others in their area whether it is the young or the old will help adolescents to develop a high self esteem. This study shows that adolescents who feel as though they have a voice in their community will have more respect for themselves. Having more respect for oneself transcends across many areas ave more respect for everyone around them. Developmental Contextual Model of Self Esteem For adolescents, self Developmental Contextualism helps explain an adolescent self esteem in ways that many o considers the context in which adolescents grow and develop. In the context of their environment this esteem, each is very important. The individual characteristics impact their social network. The social network moves forward to the parental context and then the community context. Th is study focuses mainly on the adolescent individual context as well as their community context. The school context was also examined as the individuals that the adolescents attend the afterschool program with are often the same adolescents who
68 operate w ithin their peer network at school. The school network is also examined as the afterschool program is designed similar to a school setting where there is a curriculum that is followed just as there is during the school day The self esteem of the students in this study was discovered to be very high which is due to their development, biology, cognition, personality, and temperament. The self esteem although altered by their environment is developed primarily internally. The researcher found tha t the adolescents in this study were greatly influenced by their peer network, but not so much that it extended into their feelings of community connectedness. In fact, the results of this study suggests that the study participants are not being able to mo ve forward from the individual and familial level to the community level. The adolescents in this study are having difficulty making the step from individual to community level contexts. This could be due to the adolescents feeling as though they feel the y have little respect for themselves and thus will not be respected by their community. In order for the adolescents in this study to thrive, youth workers must implement programs that help adolescents feel connected to their community through whatever mea ns possible. It is important for adolescents to feel as though they have a safe place to develop skills and abilities that are needed in order to make their voices heard in the communities in which they live. Bridging this gap is extremely important as t he adolescents in this study are relatively comfortable in their individual and social context levels. What is left for these adolescents is for them to use their heightened feelings of self esteem for good rather than mischief. If the adolescents are not able to move forward to the community context, they will also not be able to move forward to the society and cultural contexts. The
69 ability of adolescents to move forward and thrive in each context is very important. Although the United States is an indivi dualistic society, it is important that adolescents transcend past individualism and are able to thrive both individualistically and collectivistically. Developmental Contextual Model of After School Program Attendance Afterschool programs according to Le Contextualize would be in the adolescent social network context. This is an important context for adolescents as this is a time when contact with friends increases and contact with parents and family decreases. The adolescent network that they are a part of will influence most of the decisions the adolescents make whether the decisions are good or bad. Adolescence is a time when decision making becomes a sort of gray area for the developing pe rson. During this time, adolescents are trying to develop into their own person while still holding to some family values. The social network can often become problematic if the adolescent is involved with peers who are not making good choices and thus beg ins making poor decisions based on the social context in which they live. During this increasingly impressionable time, afterschool programs become extremely important. The afterschool program provides adolescents with a place where they feel welcome and safe to make decisions that may not be pleasing to their peers. Community based and federally funded afterschool programs allow adolescents a place where they can not only feel safe, but can also receive homework help, and most importantly be supervised du ring the largely unsupervised hours of the afternoon. This is the time when most crimes are committed by adolescents due to the lack of
70 supervision. The afterschool program provides not only supervision, but a social network that is productive to the adole scent development. Developmental Contextual Model of Community Connectedness The community context for the adolescents in this study is somewhat lacking. The adolescents are having a difficult time bridging from the individual and social network context t o the community context. Afterschool programs can have a big order for the adolescents in this study to move into the community context level of development, they must continue to grow individually and socially until they are able to integrate the members of the community into their social context. adolescents in this study have indicated that they need to have more respect for themselves. They have indicated that having more respect for themselves will help them to feel as though they have a voice in their community. Adolescents not only to feel as though they have a voice in their community, but they also need to feel as though their voice makes a difference to those in their community. Adolescents must be seen by members of their community as assets rather than as problems. If this can be done, adolescents will be shown by the members of the community that they are important a nd they do make a difference. If adolescents are able to move into the community context they will not only further their personal development, but will also be able to feel valued by members of their community and be abl e to contribute to the community. If the adolescents can move into the community context they will begin to develop a respect for and take ownership of the communities in which they live.
71 Contributions to Literature The current study makes contributions t o the current literature in that it has identified areas where further research needs to be conducted. This study has indicated that there is some relationship between self esteem and feelings of community connectedness. This study differs from previous re search in that it identifies a relationship based solely on afterschool program attendance and not on further community involvement. It can add to the literature in that it leaves room for further study and identifies areas of interest that would most like ly greatly contribute to the literature. The current study also furthers the claim in previous research that afterschool programs are beneficial to the health and development of adolescents. Through this study afterschool programs and youth workers are ma de aware of areas where changes can be made to programs in order to help adolescents feel more connected to their communities and grow into mature and successful young adults who can contribute to the society in which they live. The important thing to reme mber is that not two afterschool programs can be alike because all adolescents are different and have different needs, but through specific groundwork all programs can help to bolster esteem and feelings of community connectedness. Limita tions and Delimitations Limitations of this study include, but are not limited to; small sample size, convenience sampling and improper record keeping. The sample used for this study was a sample of convenience that consisted mostly of adolescents that we re very similar in age, socio economic status, and ethnic background. This limits the study in that variance among the group is difficult to determine.
72 Being that the sample was a group of adolescents whom attend a federally funded afterschool program in an area relatively far from the researcher, the attendance records had to be kept by a third party. This was a huge limitation to the study as it was found that the attendance records were not kept vey accurately in that data had been collected on adolesc ents who had reportedly never attended the program. A further limitation of the study is that the researcher did not collect data on the involvement in activities outside of the afterschool program. Therefore, outside factors may be contribu ting to their sporadic attendance and also to their feelings of community connectedness and level of self esteem. It would be beneficial to have a sort of activities study that the adolescents are able to indicate their school and community involvement. Im plications for Further Research For further research, the researcher would suggest that self esteem and feelings of community connectedness measures be taken at least twice during the study. Collecting these two data sources twice will hopefully show var iance in the scores that are collected and thus show a relationship between afterschool program attendance, self esteem and feelings of community connectedness. Also, if measuring afterschool program attendance it is imperative that proper record keeping i s taking place. Afterschool program attendance has been identified as variable in many studies, but would be best suited if analyzed based on both frequency and consistency of attendance. Another suggestion for further research is to take self esteem and community connectedness measures on both adolescents who do not attend the afterschool program and those who do attend. This would hopefully show some
73 variance between the two groups and indicate a relationship between afterschool program attendance, self esteem and feelings of community connectedness. In order to determine a relationship between self esteem and feelings of community connectedness in further research, a larger sample size is suggested. Possibly a sample that spans ethnic groups and will id entify differences and similarities in areas not limited to the relationship between self esteem and community connectedness, but also the relationship between age, race, self esteem and feelings of community connectedness. The larger sample size would hop efully yield a range of scores that range from low to high in both self esteem and community connectedness. This range of scores will allow for further examination of the relationship and presumably reveal that feelings of community connectedness and self esteem are directly related. The researcher would also suggest that a new theory be designed that specifically includes afterschool programs as a developmental context in which the adolescent interacts. This is necessary as afterschool programs have been proven to be beneficial for adolescents and further research needs to be done about the exact areas of Developmental Contextualism or even a new theory would provide youth workers a starting point when it comes to designing a successful afterschool program as it will be obvious what the adolescents tend to gain from this context whether it be social, academic or something else. Practice For youth workers, the results of this study are particularly important. Self esteem
74 successful development into an adult who can thrive in any situation. Afterschool programs must be places that bolster self esteem and feelings of community connectedness in order to create resilient adolescents. In order to bolster adolescent self esteem and feelings of community connectedness, it is important to get the adolescents out in the community in which they li ve so that they are able to elicit change and feel as though they are a part of the community, afterschool programs could hold community outreach events where the adole scents showcase talents and skills that they have learned while attending the afterschool program. When adolescents begin to feel as though they have a voice in their community, according to the research, they will begin to feel greater respect for thems elves. With greater feelings of respect for themselves, heightened self esteem and greater feelings of community connectedness will follow. If possible, afterschool programs should have their participants sign a contract saying that they will regularly att end the program. Of course the parent will make the final decision, but if the adolescent feels as though they are valued and are given the opportunity to make decisions for themselves, great growth will occur. Program Staff For th e staff of this aftersch ool program and afterschool programs like it, it is important that they use this research to make the changes that the adolescents who attend the program desire Specifically, the adolescents need to be given a voice in what goes on not only in the program but in the community as well. For adolescents to feel confident enough to let their voice be heard in the community, they must begin by
75 growing their confidence through the program by being given a voice. What this means is tha t the people who facilitate the program will give the adolescent the opportunity to make decisions about what goes on at the program. In doing this, the youth will not only begin to enjoy the program even more, but it may also give the program the opportunity to grow through word of mouth and community outreach. Summary The results of the study found that there was no significant relationship between esteem or feelings of community connectedness among the adolescents who attend the federally funded self esteem and feelings of community connectedness, correlation was found between individual items. Adolescents felt that they could have greater r espect for themselves if feel as though they would respect themselves more if others also respected them. The results of this study can be used to develop programs t hat allow adolescents to participate in community outreach events that allow them to get their voices heard. This will allow adolescents to take ownership of their community while developing a respect for themselves, their community, and the people in it. This can be focused on the development of afterschool programs that are community based and infuse self esteem building activities. As youth workers strive to create effective youth programs they can consider the findings of this study and other similar st udies. This study supports the evidence that afterschool programs and community connectedness do esteem and positive identity development.
76 APPENDIX A ROSENBERG SELF ESTEEM SCALE Identification Number: ______ Age: ______ Gender: Male Female Race/Ethnicity: African American, Hispanic/Latino, White/Caucasian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Other Instructions: Below is a list of statements dealing with your general feelings about yourself. If you strongly agree, circle SA If you agree with the statement, circle A If you disagree, circle D If you strongly disagree, circle SD Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self image Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. SA A D SD 2.* At times, I think I am no good at all. SA A D SD 3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. SA A D SD 4. I am able to do things as well as most other people. SA A D SD 5.* I feel I do not have much to be proud of. SA A D SD 6.* I certainly feel useless at times. SA A D SD 7. ual plane with others. SA A D SD 8.* I wish I could have more respect for myself. SA A D SD 9.* All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. SA A D SD 10. I take a positive attitude toward myself. SA A D SD
77 APPENDIX B YOUTH INVOLVED IN COMMUNITY ISSUES SURVEY (YICI) ID #_____________ Youth Involvement in Community Issues Survey YICIS Pre test Circle the ONE ANSWER you feel b est applies to you. 1 2 3 4 5 1. Ethnic Origin/Race White African American Hispanic/ Latino Native American Other 2. Sex Male Female 3. Grade Middle School 6 th 7 th 8th High School 9 th 10 th 11 th 12th 4. Age 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 or Older 5. What are your grades like 6. What type of community do you live in? Farm Country Small Town City Large City 7. How long have you lived in your community? Less than 1 year 1 4 years 4 8 years 8 11 years More than 11 years 8. Have you lived in the same community your whole life? Yes No 9. What is your home zip code? Select ONE ANSWER only for the following questions. Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree Comm unity Environment 10. My community is a good place 1 2 3 4 5 Demographics You and Your Community
78 to live. 11. I feel safe in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 12. My community does not have fun things to do. 1 2 3 4 5 13. My community is clean. 1 2 3 4 5 14. I enjoy being in m y community 1 2 3 4 5 Community 15. I feel supported by my community. 1 2 3 4 5 Support 16. My community cares about me. 1 2 3 4 5 17. Adult leaders in my community are concerned about my needs. 1 2 3 4 5 18. Adults in my community are my ro le models. 1 2 3 4 5 19. There are adults I can talk to in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 Community Involvement 20. Youth are very involved in the local 1 2 3 4 5
79 community. 21. I am very involved in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 22. I wo uld like to be more involved in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 23. I am very motivated to be involved in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 24. I feel valued by my community as a result of my community involved. 1 2 3 4 5 Community Connectednes s 25. Youth in my community have a voice. 1 2 3 4 5 26. I feel connected to my community. 1 2 3 4 5 27. I am not interested in what goes on in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 28. I am able to influence decisions that affect my communi ty. 1 2 3 4 5 29. I do not feel I have a 1 2 3 4 5
80 positive impact on my community. Select ONE ANSWER only for the following questions. Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree 30. I plan on graduating from high school 1 2 3 4 5 31. I plan on attending college. 1 2 3 4 5 32. I plan on living in my community as an adult. 1 2 3 4 5 33. I plan on raising my family in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 34. I plan on living my community forever. 1 2 3 4 5 Select ONE ANSWER only for the following questions. Please tell us how much these reasons motivate your community involvement (working with community groups, volunteer projects, etc). Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree 35. I want to improve my co mmunity. 1 2 3 4 5 36. I am dissatisfied with the way things are in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 37. I hope others will get involved as a result of my efforts. 1 2 3 4 5 38. I feel I have a public duty as a citizen. 1 2 3 4 5 39. I want to help people in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 Future Plans Reasons Involved in Community
81 Select ONE ANSWER only for the following questions. Please tell us how these reasons limit your community involvement (working with community groups, volunteer projects, etc). Strongly Disagree Disagree Un decided Agree Strongly Agree 40. I have t oo much to do 1 2 3 4 5 41. in my community 1 2 3 4 5 42. Others my involvement. 1 2 3 4 5 43. I would feel intimidated by others. 1 2 3 4 5 44. e transp ortation. 1 2 3 4 5 Please indicate your BEST ESTIMATE as to where your knowledge comes from of Community Issues (crime, recycling, unemployment, safety, drugs, etc). I learn about community issues from: Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided A gree Strongly Agree Individuals 45. Peers 1 2 3 4 5 46. Siblings (brother/sister) 1 2 3 4 5 47. Parents 1 2 3 4 5 48. Teachers 1 2 3 4 5 49. Community Leaders (Mayor, County Commissioners, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 50. Other Adults 1 2 3 4 5 Inst itutions 51. School 1 2 3 4 5 52. Church 1 2 3 4 5 53. Community Centers 1 2 3 4 5 54. Community Agency (Fire Department, Police Department, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 55. Community Organizations (YMCA, Boys & Girls Club, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 Me dia Reasons Not Involved in Community Knowledge of Community Issues
82 56. Newspaper/ Magazines 1 2 3 4 5 57. Books 1 2 3 4 5 58. TV 1 2 3 4 5 59. Movies 1 2 3 4 5 60. Music 1 2 3 4 5 61. Social Networking Websites (Facebook, MySpace) 1 2 3 4 5 62. Internet
83 APPENDIX C INFORMED CONSENT Informed Consent Script for Florida After School Enrichment Project Seminole and Volusia County Sites The purpose of this after school program is to provide support for you to grow in positive ways. This means not just as a student, but as a whole person. We try to help y ou and your family by giving you a safe place to stay after school. We also try to teach you things that may help you learn certain life skills that will stay with you as you grow up. We hope to teach you about the importance of being involved in your comm unity and that you are able to help influence your community in a positive way. We have computers for you to use, volunteers to help you with your homework, and some fun activities and recreation time so that you also build a strong mind and healthy body. The reason we want to give you this (survey/interview/focus group) is to discover what is helping you and what you are learning. Your role is to help us understand what you may have benefited most from the program as well as what support you feel is avail able to help you learn and grow as a whole person. We may also ask you questions in an (interview/survey/focus group) so that you can tell us what has helped you develop into a responsible young person. In a few minutes, I will begin asking you a series o f questions on these topics. There are no known risks to you as a participant in this information collecting (interview/survey/focus group). This will last approximately 10 15 minutes. Your participation is voluntary. If there is a question that you do not wish to answer, you are not required to do so. With your permission, I would like to take notes during the (interview/focus group) to help create a more complete record of the discussion. Your name will not be written next to your comments and we will no t identify individuals who participate in these interviews in any reports. Anything that you say during this interview will remain confidential. We will remove all names and other identifying information from the transcripts of the interviews. [This parag raph is for interview/focus group only.] If you have any questions about the (survey/interview/focus group) later, please contact Dr. Rose Barnett. I will give you her business card before you leave today. Any questions you may have about the project and University of Florida Institutional Review Board Office, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250 Thank you for your participation in this after school program. If you agree that you are willing to participate in this (interview/survey/focus group) and there are no further questions, I will begin the (interview/survey/focus group) now.
84 APPENDIX D ADDITIONAL TABLES Table D 1 Demographic characteristics of Volusia c ounty study p articipants n f % G ender 11 Male 6 54.5 Female 5 45.5 Age 11 12 years old 2 18.2 13 years old 2 18.2 14 years old 3 27.3 15 years old 1 9.1 16 years old 3 27.3 Race/Ethnicity 11 Af rican American 3 27.3 Hispanic/Latino 6 54.5 White/Caucasian 2 18.2 Table D 2 Demographic characteristics of Seminole county study p articipants n f % Gender 50 Male 27 54 Female 20 40 Did not Respond 3 6 Age 50 10 years old 1 2 11 years old 12 24 12 years old 11 22 13 years old 8 16 14 years old 10 20 15 years old 3 6 16 years old 0 0 17 years old 2 4 18 years old 1 2 19 years old 1 2 Did not Respond 1 2 Race/Ethnicity 50 African American 44 88 Hisp anic/Latino 1 2 White/Caucasian 1 2 Did not Respond 4 8
85 T able D 3. Attendance of Volusia county study p articipants n f % Number of Days Attended 11 20 1 9.1 30 1 9.1 32 1 9.1 35 1 9.1 69 1 9.1 73 1 9.1 77 2 18.2 87 1 9.1 104 1 9.1 117 1 9.1 Ta ble D 4. Attendance of Seminole county study p articipants n f % Number of Days Attended 50 0 22 43.1 2 1 2 3 1 2 5 1 2 9 2 3.9 14 3 5.9 15 1 2 21 1 2 25 1 2 29 1 2 30 1 2 32 1 2 37 1 2 42 1 2 44 1 2 46 1 2 57 1 2 75 1 2 87 2 3.9 91 1 2 97 1 2 104 1 3 135 1 2 142 1 2
86 Table D 5. Self Esteem of Volusia county study p articipants n f % Self Esteem Score 11 18 1 9.1 19 1 9.1 20 1 9.1 21 2 18.2 22 1 9.1 23 2 18 .2 25 1 9.1 26 1 9.1 30 1 9.1 Table D 6. Self e steem of Semin ole county study p articipants n f % Self Esteem Score 50 15 2 3.9 16 1 2 17 2 3.9 18 2 3.9 19 3 5.9 20 3 5.9 21 4 7.8 22 5 9.8 23 1 2 24 1 2 25 6 11.8 26 5 9.8 27 5 9.8 28 2 3.9 29 3 5.9 30 5 9.8 Did not Report 1 2 Table D 7. Feelings of community connectedness of Volusia county study p articipants n f % Youth in my community have a voice. 11 Disagree 1 9.1 Undecided 3 27.3 Agree 7 63.6 I fe el connected to my community. 11 Undecided 4 36.4 Agree 6 54.5 Strongly Agree 1 9.1 I a m not interested in what goes 11
87 on in my community. Disagree 2 18.2 Undecided 2 18.2 Agree 5 45.5 Strongly Agree 2 18.2 I am able to influence decisions 11 that affect my community. Disagree 2 18.2 Undecided 5 45.5 Agree 4 36.4 I do not feel I have a positive impact 11 on my community. Strongly Disagree 1 9.1 Disagree 3 27.3 Undecided 4 36.4 Agree 2 18.2 Strongly Agree 1 9.1 Table D 8. Feelings of community connectedness of Seminole county study p articipants n f % Youth in my community have a voice. 5 0 Strongly Disagree 6 12 Disagree 2 4 Undecided 16 32 Agree 15 30 Strongly Agree 11 22 I fee l connected to my community. 50 Strongly Disagree 5 10 Disagree 1 2 Undecided 12 24 Agree 18 36 Strongly Agree 14 28 I a m not interested in what goes 50 on in my community. Strongly Disagree 7 14 Disagree 10 20 Undecided 13 26 Agree 7 14 Strongly Agree 13 26 I am able to influence decisions 50 that affect my community. Strongly Disagree 7 14 Disagree 2 4 Undecided 16 32
88 Agree 16 32 Strongly Agree 9 18 I do not feel I have a positive impact 50 on my community. Strongly Disagree 5 10 Disagree 7 14 Undecided 16 32 Agree 6 12 Strongly Agree 16 32
89 LIST OF REFERENCES (2010). Indiana afterschool network Retrieved from http://www.indianaafterschool.org/about/define/ Arnett, J. (2010). Adolescence and emerging a dulthood (4 th ed.). Upper Saddle River NJ : Pearson. Barnett, R.V. & P ayne, C.M. (2010). Youth involved in c ommunity iss ues s urvey Barton, W.H., Watkins, M., & Jarjoura, R. (1997). Youth and communities: Toward comprehensive strategies for youth development. Social Work (42) 5: pp. 483 493. Benson, P. (1998). Mobilizing c ommunities to promote developmental assets: A promising strategy for prevention of high risk behaviors. Family Science Review 11, pp. 220 238. Blank, M.J., Johnson, S.D. Shah, B.P. (2003). Community a s text: Using the community as a resource for learning in community schools. New Directions for Y outh Development 97 pp. 107 120. Bolland, J.M., Bryant, C.M., Lian, B.E. McCallum, D.M., Vazsonyi, A.T., & Barth, J.M. (2007). Development and risk behavior among African American, Caucasian, and Mixed race adolescents living in high poverty inner cit y neighborhoods. American Journal of Community Psychology 40 pp. 230 249. Broadbent, R. & Papadopoulos, T. (2010). Government, schools, young people and communities in partnership. Youth Studies Australia 29 (3), pp. 52 60. Campbell, A. Carleton, R., & Taylor, R. (2005). Exposure to violence and parenting as mediators between poverty and psychological symptoms in urban African American adolescents. Journal of Adolescence 28, pp. 507 521 Chipuer, H.M. (2001). Dyadic attachments and community conn ectedness: Links with (4), pp. 429 446. Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Er ickson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York NY : Norton Ersing, R.L. (2009). Building the capacity of youths through community cultural arts: A positive youth development perspectives. An International Journal 5 (1 ), pp. 26 43.
90 Halpern, R. (2005). Instrumental relationships: A potential relational model for inner city youth programs Journal of Community Psychology 33 ( 1) pp. 11 20. Hornbeck, ducation and S tudent G ov ernment S to Community Service Conference. Council of Chief State School Officers, Baltimore, April. 1988. Hudome, J. (2010). Common risky adolescent behaviors Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Common Risky Adolescent Behaviors&id=5297063 Kataoko, S., Langley, A., Stein, B., Jaycox, L., Zhang, L., Snachez, N.,& Wong, M. (2008). Violence exposure and PTSD: The role of English language fluency in Latina youth. Jou rnal of Child and Family Studies 18 pp. 334 341. Martin, D., & Tennant, G. (2008). Child and youth care in the community centre. Relational Child and Y outh Care Practice 21 (2), pp. 20 26 McMillan D.M. (1996). Sense of c ommunity. Journal of Community Psychology 24, pp. 315 325. Matlin, S., Molock, S.D., Tebes, J.K. (2011). Suicidality and depression among African American adolescents: The role of family and peer support and community connectedness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 81 (1), 1 08 117. Muuss, R. (1996). Theories of adolescence (6 ed., pp. 340 361). New York, NY: McGraw Hill. A., & Ames, E.B. (1997). Inner city youths help ing children s after school programs to promote bonding and reduce risk. Soc ial Work in Education 19 ( 4), pp. 231 241. Roffman, J.G., Pagano, M.E., & Hirsch, B.J. (2001). Youth functioning and experience in inner city afterschool programs among age, gender, and race groups. Journal of Child and Family Studies 10 (1), pp. 8 5 100. Ros enberg, M. (1965). Society and the a dolescent self image. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press. Saunders Ferguson, K ., Barnett, R.V., Culen, G., & TenBroeck, S. (2008). Self esteem of adolescents involved in horsemanship activities. Jo urnal of Extension 46 (2), 9 pages. Schine, J. (1990). A rationale for youth community service. Social Policy 20 (4), pp. 5 11.
91 Search Institute (2007). The 40 developmental assets for adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.search institute.org/assets/ Spano, R., Rivera, C., & Bolland, J. (2006). The impact of timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior in a high poverty sample of inner city African American youth. Journal of Youth Ad olescence 35, pp. 6 81 692. Tomison, A. M. (1999, April 22). Creating the vision: Communities and connectedness. Retrieved from http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/papers/tomison 5.html Ybrandt, H., & Armelius, K. (2010). Peer aggression and mental health problems: Self esteem as a mediator. School Psychology International 31 pp. 146 160.
92 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tina Loughlin was born and raised in Indian R iver County, Florida. Sh e gradu ated from Sebastian River High S chool in 2006. She then attended Santa Fe Community College where she obtained an Associate of Arts degree in 2007. Tina then attended the University of Florida where she was awarded a Bachelo r of Science degree in Fa mily, Y outh and Community Sciences with minors in Education, Leadership, and Non Profit Organization. She went on to pursue a graduate degree in Family, Youth and Community Sciences at the University of Florida. Upon completion of her degree, Tina began a subsequent graduate degree in Mental Health Counseling. Upon comp letion of the degree in Mental H ealth Counseling, she will work with children and families with mental health needs.