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Afro-Descendant Soccer Stars and the Inconsistencies of Race, Class, and Identity in Ecuador

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044297/00001

Material Information

Title: Afro-Descendant Soccer Stars and the Inconsistencies of Race, Class, and Identity in Ecuador
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Iniguez, Carlos A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: class -- ecuador -- identity -- inconsistencies -- race -- soccer -- status
Latin American Studies -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Latin American Studies thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Afro-descendant soccer players occupy “inconsistent statuses” within Ecuador’s system of social stratification. Status inconsistency is relevant to this study as it conceptualizes the unique status of soccer players in Ecuador. They are high on some dimensions but low on others. My objective is to use the concept of status inconsistency and apply it to Afro-descendant soccer players to structure the analysis of race and national identity. Targeting these inconsistencies can generate novel insights about the character of Ecuador’s race relations. The research was conducted in seven weeks based on-depth interviews of Afro-descendant players, journalists, and a children's social worker, and informal interviews with sports fans. Afro-Ecuadorians and whites differ with respect to elements that enter into subjective perceptions of status identity. Black soccer players still consider themselves belonging to a social underclass. Racism, histories of financial hardship after retirement, and solidarity with family and friends stuck in poverty are explanations for this persisting identification. Children view soccer players as examples to imagine a life away from poverty and social exclusion in rural areas. Nonmigrant soccer players are likely to maintain that issues like racism or social 9 inequality are not a problem in Ecuador. These young men are more likely to endorse culturally-dominant notions that all races have equal chances of success in Ecuador. Older players and retirees use their experiences from abroad to formulate new ideas of what Ecuador should be. Upon return they were able to identify social and institutional racism and would not accept the status quo. New experiences and exposure to different social norms make them critical of regionalism, racism, and poverty. The stadium becomes a social gathering point where it’s possible to probe how and why intolerant behavior exists against Afro-Ecuadorian players and their community. It’s a dynamic arena of inconsistent and contested opinions in what is seen and spoken regarding race, nationalism, and identity in Ecuador.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Carlos A Iniguez.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Wood, Charles H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044297:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044297/00001

Material Information

Title: Afro-Descendant Soccer Stars and the Inconsistencies of Race, Class, and Identity in Ecuador
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Iniguez, Carlos A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: class -- ecuador -- identity -- inconsistencies -- race -- soccer -- status
Latin American Studies -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Latin American Studies thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Afro-descendant soccer players occupy “inconsistent statuses” within Ecuador’s system of social stratification. Status inconsistency is relevant to this study as it conceptualizes the unique status of soccer players in Ecuador. They are high on some dimensions but low on others. My objective is to use the concept of status inconsistency and apply it to Afro-descendant soccer players to structure the analysis of race and national identity. Targeting these inconsistencies can generate novel insights about the character of Ecuador’s race relations. The research was conducted in seven weeks based on-depth interviews of Afro-descendant players, journalists, and a children's social worker, and informal interviews with sports fans. Afro-Ecuadorians and whites differ with respect to elements that enter into subjective perceptions of status identity. Black soccer players still consider themselves belonging to a social underclass. Racism, histories of financial hardship after retirement, and solidarity with family and friends stuck in poverty are explanations for this persisting identification. Children view soccer players as examples to imagine a life away from poverty and social exclusion in rural areas. Nonmigrant soccer players are likely to maintain that issues like racism or social 9 inequality are not a problem in Ecuador. These young men are more likely to endorse culturally-dominant notions that all races have equal chances of success in Ecuador. Older players and retirees use their experiences from abroad to formulate new ideas of what Ecuador should be. Upon return they were able to identify social and institutional racism and would not accept the status quo. New experiences and exposure to different social norms make them critical of regionalism, racism, and poverty. The stadium becomes a social gathering point where it’s possible to probe how and why intolerant behavior exists against Afro-Ecuadorian players and their community. It’s a dynamic arena of inconsistent and contested opinions in what is seen and spoken regarding race, nationalism, and identity in Ecuador.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Carlos A Iniguez.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Wood, Charles H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044297:00001


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1 A F R O D ES C E N D A NT S OC C E R S T A RS A N D T HE I N C ON S I S T E N C I E S O F R A C E CL A SS A ND I D E N T I T Y I N E C U A DOR By C A RL O S A INI G U E Z A THESIS P R E SE N T E D T O T HE G R A D U A T E S C H O O L OF T HE UNI VE R S I T Y O F F L ORIDA I N PA R T I A L F UL F I L L M E NT OF T HE R E QUIR E M E N T S F OR T HE D E G R E E O F M AS T E R OF A R T S U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L ORIDA 2012

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2 201 2 C A RL O S A INI G U E Z

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3 T o m y m o m an d dad

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4 A C K N O W L E DG M E NTS I w ou l d l ike to t han k a ll t h o se w h o ha ve g u id e d m e o n th i s p e r s on a l a n d a c a d e m i c j ourne y. T o m y c o m m i t t e e D r W o od D r S o r e k, an d D r D eer e t han k y o u f o r y ou r s uppor t an d p a ti en ce t h rou g hou t t h i s pro c e s s I n par t i c u la r D r W o od y o u r g u id an ce an d en c o u rage m en t h e l pe d k ee p m e fo c u s e d an d m o t i v a t e d e v e n a s I fe l t t h e pre ss u r e o f t i m e I t han k a ll t h e s o cc e r p l a y e r s, m anager s, agen t s c oa c he s an d o t he r i ndu s t r y w or k er s tha t ga ve m e a g li m p se o f w ha t i t s l i k e t o b e a n A f r o de sc en d an t p l a y i n g s po r ts i n E c ua d or I w a s e m bra c e d w i th ope n ar m s b y e v er y bod y I m e t an d c an d i d l y s po k e n t o abou t t h e i ss ue s M y c on t a cts a l l o w e d m e a n en t r y p o i n t t ha t ena b l e d m e t o r e l a t e to a ll re s pon d en t s I w a s no t a n ou t s i d e r a t an y t i m e I t han k m y aun t Z a i d a an d u n c l e H u m ber to fo r h e l p i n g m e w i th m y i n i t i a l c o n t a c ts. In Q u i t o P a b lo A c o sta o p ene d t h e go l d e n d o o r t o s o m e o f t h e m o st i m por t an t p e op l e r e l a t e d t o E c u a do r i a n s o cc er M y c ou s i n H o l ge r an d P ro f e ss o r S i x to ga ve m e th e m o st e x c l u s i ve a cc e ss t h a t e v e n a s ea s o ne d s p or ts j ourn a l i st c o u l d no t en j o y du r i n g t h e m o st i m por t an t da t e s f o r E c uado r i a n s o c c e r i n 2 011 ; w i t h ou t t he m m y p ro j e ct w ou l d ha ve b ee n i m po ss i b l e T han ks go out t o La u rean o w h o i n t r odu c e d m e t o h i s ne t w or k o f r e l a t i v e s an d f r i end s arou n d E l Nac i o n a l an d D e por t i vo Q u i t o He ga ve m y c ou s i n an d m e a tou r a roun d t h e v i l l age s o f t h e C ho ta V a l l e y an d be c a m e a goo d f r i en d in th e p r o c e s s S pe c i a l t han ks go out to S a n t i ag o an d t h e o t he r d i re ct o r s a t L iga D ep o r t i va U n i v er sit a r i a f o r t h e ir o p enne ss a n d re c ep t i v e n e ss t o m y presen ce a t t h e i r t r a i n i n g c en t er s f o r t h re e w ee k s I a m gra t e f u l t o t h e p l a y er s o f E l N a c i on a l a n d D ep o r t i vo Q u i t o fo r a l l o w i n g a cc e ss t o t h e i r f a c i l i t ies f o r i n t e r v i e w s T hanks go out to m y aun t Ca t y, un c l e Gu s t a v o a n d c ou s i n P a b l o f o r a ll t h e i r g e nero s i t y l o ve an d ho s p i t a l i ty d u r i n g m y en t i r e s ta y M y c ou s i n F ern a nd o v o l u n t ee r ed h i s c a r an d t i m e t o j o i n m e o n r e s ear ch t r i p s o u t s ide o f Q u i t o

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5 T hanks go out to m y c ou s i n J org e fo r g i v ing m e l a t e n i gh t r id e s ba ck f ro m na t i on a l t ea m tra i n i n g gr o und s. I le arn e d fro m e v er y on e i n Q u i t o E l V a l l e D e l C ho t a E s m era l da s, an d Q u i n i n d an d hop e t ha t t h i s the s i s w i l l b e u s e f u l fo r f ur t h e r d i sc u s s i o n s a t h o m e o r i n p u b l i c. Additional thanks go out to m y program c o ll e a gue s a n d f r ie nd s i n S ou t h F l o r i d a f o r t h e ir s upp o r t a n d e x c i t e m en t i n m y pr o j e ct. Thanks go out to m y paren ts f o r t h e un c o n d itio n a l l o ve an d s u ppor t thr o ugho u t m y en t i r e a c ade m i c c a r ee r it a ll b o i l e d do w n t o th i s m o m en t. F in a l l y, I t h a n k Go d f o r g i v i n g m e th e op p or t u n i ty t o p u r s u e m y i n t e re sts a n d pa s s i o n s an d f o r re m i nd i n g m e w h y I l o ve t h i s s p or t. I c on t i nu e t o b e l i e v e s o cc e r to b e t h e w o r l d B ea u tif u l Ga m e ."

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 8 1 AFRO ECUADORIANS, SPORT, AND SOCIETY ................................ .................. 10 The Afro Ecuadori an Population ................................ ................................ ............. 13 Co n ce p t u alizi n g t h e I n c o n siste n cies o f R a ce, Class, a n d I d e n ti t y ........................... 15 Methods of Research and Implementation ................................ .............................. 17 Thesis Structure ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 20 2 INCONSISTENCIES IN CLASS IDENTIFICATION ................................ ................. 22 The Troubled History of Africans in Ecuador ................................ ........................... 22 Afro Ecuadorian Socce r Players and the Construction of Status Identity ................ 25 The Perils of Retirement ................................ ................................ .......................... 27 Solidarity with Their Home Community ................................ ................................ ... 29 Segregated Places ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 33 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 39 3 RACIAL ISSUES IN ECUADOR AS SEEN BY MIGRANT AND NON MIGRANT SOCCER PLAYERS ................................ ................................ ............................... 41 Ecuadorian Immigration ................................ ................................ .......................... 41 S po r t s a n d S o c i et y ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 43 Aspiring Youth: Rural Urban Migration, Career Paths, and Pitfalls ......................... 48 Non Migrant Professional Players ................................ ................................ ........... 53 Professional Players: Migrants and Return Migrants: A Need for Change .............. 57 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 65 4 SOCCER TEAMS, CONTESTED NATIONALISM, AND FANS .............................. 67 Contested Nationalism and Identity ................................ ................................ ......... 67 Language ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 69 The Stadium and Crowd ................................ ................................ .......................... 69 Ecuador U 20 vs. Panama U 20 ................................ ................................ .............. 71 Ecuador vs. Mexico ................................ ................................ ................................ 72 Copa America: July 1 (3) July 24 (13), 2011 ................................ ........................ 73 Paraguay 0 0 Ecuador ................................ ................................ .......................... 75 Venezuela 1 0 Ecuador ................................ ................................ ........................ 76 Brazil 4 2 Ecuador ................................ ................................ ................................ 78

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7 Liga Deportiva Universitaria de Quito (LDUQ) vs. Club Sport Emelec (Emelec). July 27 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 80 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 83 5 CONCLUDING REMARKS ................................ ................................ ...................... 85 Research Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 85 Policy Recommendations and Implications ................................ ............................. 90 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ 92 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 95

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8 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts A F R O D ES C E N D A NT S OC C E R S T A RS A N D T H E I N C ON S I S T E N C I E S O F R A C E CL A SS A ND I D E N T I T Y I N E C U A DOR By Ca r los A I n i gue z M a y 201 2 Ch a i r : Ch a r l e s W o o d M a j or : La t i n A m er i c a n S t u d i e s A f r o de sc e n dan t s o c c e r p l a y er s o cc u p y i n c o n s i st e n t st a t u s e w i t h i n E c u a dor syst e m o f s o c i a l st r a t i f i c a t io n S t a t u s i n c on s i s t en cy i s r e l e v a n t to t h i s s tud y a s i t c on c ep t u a l i z e s t h e u n i q u e s ta t u s o f s o c c e r p l a y er s i n E c uad o r T he y a r e h i g h o n s o m e d i m en s i on s b u t l o w o n o t h e r s. M y ob j e ct i ve i s to u se th e c on c ep t o f st a t u s i n c on s i st e n cy an d ap p l y i t to A f ro de sc en d an t s o c c e r p l a y e r s t o s tru c t ur e t h e an a l y s i s o f ra ce and na ti on a l i de n tit y T a rge t i n g the se i n c on s i st en c ies c a n ge n e ra te no v e l i n s i g h ts ab o u t t h e c hara ct e r o f E c ua d or ra c e r e l a ti on s. T h e r e s ear ch w a s c ondu ct e d i n s e v e n w ee ks ba s e d o n dep t h i n t er v i e w s o f A f r o de sc e n dan t p l a y er s, j ourn a l i sts, an d a c h i l dre n' s s o c i a l w or k e r an d i n f or m a l i n t er v i e w s w i th s p or ts f an s. A f r o E c u a do r i an s an d w h i t e s d i f f e r w i th re s pe ct t o e l e m en ts t ha t en t e r i n to s ub j e ct i ve p e r c ep t i on s o f st a t u s i den t i ty. B l a ck s o cc e r p l a y e r s s t i l l c on s i d e r the m s e l v e s be lo n g i n g t o a s o c i a l und e r class. R a c i s m h i st or i e s o f f in an c i a l h a rd s h i p a f te r re t i r e m en t, an d s o l i d a r ity w i th fa m il y an d f r ie nd s st u ck in po v e r ty a r e e x p l a n a t i on s f o r t h i s p er s ist i n g id en t i f i c a t i o n C h i l dr e n v i e w s o cc e r p l a y e r s a s e x a m p l e s t o i m ag i n e a l i fe a w a y fro m po v er ty an d s o ci a l e x c l u s i o n i n r u r a l areas No n m i gr a n t s o cc e r p l a y e r s ar e l i k e l y t o m a i n t a i n t ha t i ss ue s l i ke ra c i sm o r s o c i a l

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9 i ne q u a l i ty a r e no t a pr ob l e m i n E c uador T he s e y oun g m e n ar e m or e l i k e l y t o end o r se c u l t u r a l l y do m i nan t no t i on s t ha t a ll ra c e s h a ve equ a l c han c e s o f s u c c e ss i n E c uad o r O l d e r p l a y e r s an d r e t i r ee s u se t h e i r e x pe r i e n c e s fro m abroa d t o f or m u l a te ne w i dea s o f w ha t E c uado r s ho u l d b e Up o n re t u r n the y w er e a b l e t o i den t i fy s o ci a l an d i n s tit u t i on a l ra c i sm an d w ou l d n o t a cc ep t th e s t a t u s qu o Ne w e x per i en c e s an d e x po s ur e t o d i f f ere n t s o c i a l n or m s m a ke th e m c r i t i c a l o f re g i on a l i s m ra c i s m an d po v er ty. T h e s t a d i u m be c o m e s a s o c i a l ga t he r i n g p o i n t w her e i p o ss i b l e to p r ob e h o w an d w h y i n t o l e r an t beha v i o r e x i sts ag a i n st A f r o E c ua d o r i a n p l a y e r s an d t he i r c o m m un i ty. I t s a d y n a m i c aren a o f i n c on s i st e n t an d c on t e st e d o p i n i o n s in w ha t i s s ee n an d s p o k e n r ega r d i n g ra c e na t io n a l i s m an d id e n t i ty i n E c uad o r

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10 CHAPTER 1 AFRO ECUADORIANS, SPORT, AND SOCIETY I w a s bor n in Q u i t o E c u a do r i n 198 8 bu t h a v e l i v e d in t h e U n it e d S t a t e s s i n ce 1991 A s a n i m m i gran t l i v i n g i n A m er i c a m y fa m il y ha s b a l a n c e d t h e s o m e t i m e s d i f f i c u lt st r ug g l e f o r i d e n t i ty t ha t m a k e s t h e i m m i gran t e x per i en ce so to u g h w e a s s i m il a t e d A m er i c a n v a l ue s an d l i f e st y les, w h i l e a t ho m e w e e m bra c e d ou r E c uad o r i a n r oo ts. A s I gre w o l d e r I r e a l i z e d t h a t de s p i t e m y ap pare n t A m er i c a n i z ed i d en t i ty, m y hear t a l w a ys re m a i ne d t i e d t o E c uador It w a s on l y w i th t i m e tha t I b ega n t o e x p l o r e a n d c r i t i qu e w ha t m y c l a i m t o E c uado r i a n au t h e n t i c i ty r e a l l y m eant an d j u st ho w d i f f i c u lt i t w a s t o p in p o i n t a tru e E c u a do r i a n id en t i t y O n m y v ar i ou s r e t u r n t r i p s t o E c uad o r I ne v e r f u l l y under st o o d n o r d i d I w an t to s e e th e ba ck d r o p o f ra ce in m y c oun t ry P ar t i c u l a r l y a s a c h i l d i n m y na i ve per c ep t i on s o f E c uad o r m y c oun t r y s e e m e d t o b e w h i te o r i n d i g enou s, an d t h e o n l y A f r o de sc e nd an t pr e s en ce w a s e i t h e r o n t h e s o cc e r f i e l d o r s e l l i n g c o c onu t c on f e c t i o n s i n bea c h s i d e r e s o r t t o w n s o n th e P a c i f i c c oa st. W h e n I re t ur n e d t o E c u a do r w h y w a s I s tar t l ed l i ke so m an y o t he r E c ua d o r i an s, to s e e a b l a ck m a n ou ts i d e o f c o a st a l a r ea s, o r s e e a b l a ck m a j or i t y o n pro f e s s i on a l s o c c e r t e a m s a c ro ss th e c oun t r y? I s a w th e E c uado r i a n n a t i on a l t ea m l i ve f o r t h e f i r st t i m e o n J u l y 2 9 20 0 0 i n Q u i t o T h e m a tch w a s a v i t a l ti l t ag a i n st P e r u w h i ch E c uado r w o n b y a sc o r e o f 2 1 B o th go a l s w er e sc or e d b y p ro m i nen t b l a ck p lay er s. C au g h t u p i n th e m o m en t and s urrou n de d b y drun k e n pa t r i o t i c f a n s, I c o u l d no t und e r st an d w h y peop le a r oun d m e o v er t l y i n s u l t e d ou r na t i o n a l t ea m s p l a y e r s w he n m i st a k e s w er e m ad e no t a b l y w hen t h e m i st a k e s w er e c o m m i t te d b y tho se o f b la c k c o m p l e x i on Du r i n g t ha t s u m m e r v a c a ti on I c o n t i nue d t o h e a r e v e r y on e be c o m e a pun d i t t o th e up s a n d do w n s o f o u r

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11 na ti on a l tea m e x pre ss i n g v ie w s t ha t i n v a r i a b ly c en t er e d o n ra c e W h e n I r e t urn e d t o t h e Un i t e d S t a t e s, m y pa ss i o n f o r E c ua d o r i a n s o c c e r be c a m e pr i m ar y c on c e r ns an d t h e m or e I w a tc he d E c uado r p lay, th e m or e I he a r d th e s a m e pra i s e s an d de n i g r a t i on s a i m e d a t b lack p l a y e r s. S ince t h en I v e tra v e led t o E c uad o r fo r bo th na t i on a l t ea m an d c l u b s o cc e r g a m es I ve l o st c oun t o f t h e ga m e s I ve a t t end e d o v e r th e y e ar s a n d ha ve n o i de a ho w m an y g a m e s I ve w a tc he d o n T V her e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s. E c uad o r w i l l a l w a ys b e m y f i r st ho m e bu t i n r e c en t y e a r s I ha ve l ea r ne d t o s e e m y h o m e l an d t hroug h a d i f f e r en t l e n s. S o m e t i m e dur i n g E c ua d or s qu a l i f i c a t i o n t o t h e 200 6 W o r ld Cu p m y fa t he r a n d I s a t in a p o o r l y l i t b a r i n F or t L aud e rd a l e F l o r i d a s urr o unde d b y r o w d y E c uado r i a n s w a tc h i n g o u r na t i o na l tea m p l a y a ga i n st B ra z i l A f te r b e i n g o n t h e r o p e s fo r m o st o f t h e m a tc h E d i s o n M ende z sc or ed t h e l o n e w i n n i n g go a l a n d w e erup t e d in j ub i l an t c e l e b ra t i o n a s w e s a w ou r c oun t r y b ea t t h e m i gh ty B ra z il i n Q u i t o A f te r t h e go a l w a s sc ored I c l e a r l y r e m e m be r hear i n g Ca r l o s M a c hado a w e ll k no w n E c uado r i a n announ c e r o n T V s a y go l d e E d i s o n N egr o l i nd o N eg r o d e o r o (" A go a l b y E d i s o n B eau t i f u l ne g r o G o l d e n ne g r o ) I i m m ed i a t e ly que s t i one d w h y th e m an s c o l o r w a s t a k e n i n to a cc oun t, reg a r d l e ss o f th e c o n t e x t. I n th e h e a t o f t h e m o m en t, w he n w e f o c u s e d o n c e l eb r a t i n g a n o t h e r w i n o n o u r r o a d t o qu a l i fy f o r o u r s e c o n d W o r l d C u p appea r an c e t h in g s be c a m e c l e a rer I ve hea r d s u ch r a c i st c o m m en ts c on s i st en t l y but ne v e r r e a l l y no t i c e d t he m M o st o f t h e t i m e I on l y hea r d i n s u l ts a n d i n s ta d iu m s, li ke e v er y on e e l se i n t h e c r o w d w e w ou l d s i m p l y c hu ck l e a t a l o n e v o i ce f ro m s o m e w her e i n t h e ba c k w h i ch w e d d i s m i ss a s a m a l c r ia do ( t r o u b le m a k er) D e s p ite th e s t i n g i n g na t ur e o f t h e c o m m en t s, E c uador i a n h u m o r s ee m s t o d i f fu se e v e n th e m o st bru t a l den ig r a t i o n s. Co m m en ts lik e "ne g r o b r u t o (" d u m b negro" ) o r m oren o v a go ( l a zy

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12 negro ) a r e so c o m m o n an d so tho r oug h l y p e r m ea te fa n d i a l o g u e d u r ing m a tc he s tha t I bega n t o a sk m ys e l f if peo p l e r e a l l y t hough t wh a t t he y s a id w a s tru e o r w he t he r the y s i m p l y re s o r t e d t o a s ta n dar d r ep e r t o i r e o f c o mm en ts de e m e d approp r ia t e t o t h e st ad ium en v i ron m en t. B e i n g a s o cc e r fa n i n E c uado r m ean s tha t y o u hea r r a c i a l l y t arge t e d c o m m en ts a l l t h e t i m e an d e v en t u a l l y to a p o i n t w he n y o u be g i n to r e pea t t he m O n ce aga i n w a s th i s s o m e t h i n g tha t E c uado r i an s t oo k to he a r t? A n d w ha t abo u t t h e p l a y er s w h o hea r s u ch e p i t he t s ? W h o ta k e s the m i n to a cc o u n t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i on ? T h e q u e s t i on s I p o s e d p ro m p t e d m e t o th ink o f s o cc er a s por t i n g an d s o c i a l i n s t i t u ti o n i n E c ua d or to b e a s i t e o f c o n t e st e d an d i n c on s i s t en t i de n titi e s an d repre s e n t a t i on s f o r b o th t h e c oun t r y an d its A f r o E c uad o r i a n p o p u l a t i on H o w c a n b l a ck p l a y e r s b e bo th c e le bra t e d a s h eroe s an d n a t io na l re p re s en t a t i v e s a s w he n the y c l a s s i fy t o th e W o r l d C up bu t a t t h e s a m e t i m e b e s o c i a l l y m arg i n a l i z e d an d tar g e ts o f ra ci a ll y d i re ct e d s l ur s bo th o n an d o ff t h e f i e l d ? F ur t her m ore ho w doe s t h e A f r o E c uado r i a n c o m m un i ty t ha t i s bo th d i s p rop o r t io na t e l y i m po v er i s h e d an d unedu c a t e d rea ct to th i s ? W he r e i s th e ir s tor y in m a i n st r e a m d i a l og u e ? E v e n be f or e ar r i v i n g i n Q u i to o n a c o ld W edn e s d a y n i gh t i n J une I ha d b ar e l y st eppe d o n t h e p la n e w he n th e per s o n sit t i n g ne x t to m e a sk e d m e t h e r ea s o n f o r m y t r ip to E c ua d or A f t e r de sc r i b ing m y r e s ear ch t op i c, s h e a sk e d m e w h y I w an t to ta l k t o b l a ck s o c ce r p lay er s a t a l l In h e r o p i n i on t h e que s t i on s I i n t end e d t o a sk, an d t h e l e v e l o f an a l y s i s I p ropo s e d t o c a rr y o u t, w er e be y o n d th e g ra sp o f peo p l e s h e r ega r de d a s unedu c a t e d an d i l l i t e ra t e T h e b r i e f e x c hang e w h i ch fore s h ado w e d s o m e o f t h e a t t i t ude s I w o u l d c on f ron t i n th e f u t ure c on f i r m e d m y c o m m i t m en t to s tud y r a ce re la t i on s i n E c u a dor

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13 The Afro Ecuadorian Population T h e f o l l o w i n g i n f or m a t i o n w a s ga t h e re d f ro m o f f i c i a l g o v e r n m en t pub l i c a t i o n s f r o m th e N a t i on a l I n s t i t u te o f S t a t i s t i cs a n d th e C en s u s ( IN E C) o f E c uador T h e 201 0 na ti on a l c en s u s i n d i c a t e s th e p op u l a t i o n o f E c uado r i s 1 4 m i l l i o n bu t re c en t e s t i m a t e s i n d i c a t e th e nu m be r ha s s urpa s s e d 1 5 m i l l io n T h e b rea k do w n b y e t h n i c gr o up s i n d i c a t e s tha t m e st i z o s c o m po se 65 % o f t h e p opu la t i on 2 5 % ar e o f i n d i ge n ou s de s c en t, 7 % ar e w h i te a n d E ur o pea n d e sc en t, an d 3 % r epre s en ts t h e A f r o E c u a do r i a n / b l a ck pop u l a t i on E c uado r de c l a re d i ts i n depe n den ce f ro m S pa i n o n A ugu st 1 0 18 0 9 an d b y M a y 24 182 2 w o n i ts i n d epend e n ce a f t e r a l o n g r e v o l u t i o nar y w a r t h a t l ib era t e d S ou th A m er i ca fro m S pan i sh r u l e F o r 8 y ear s, E c u a dor C o l o m b i a P ana m a V ene z u e l a w er e j o i ne d i n to a st a te c a l l e d Gr a n C o l o m b i a tha t w a s r u l e d b y t h e h e r o o f i ndep e nden c e S i m o n B o li v a r A s ea r l y a s th e 1 500s A f r i c an s w er e i m por t e d t o c oa s t a l por ts l i k e Ca r t age n a i n C o l o m b i a an d E s m e ra l da s i n E c uado r t o w or k i n a v a r i e ty o f a g r i c u l t u r a l en t er p r i s e s, s u ch a s c o t t o n an d s uga r to fu e l t h e S pa n i sh E c ono m y ( Q u i roga 200 8 ) A f r i c an s w er e u s e d t o s up p l e m en t s h r i n k i n g i n d i g e nou s l a b o r a n d f i l l th e g ro w i n g nee d f o r e x pande d p rodu c ti on W or k w a s arduou s, c ond itio n s w er e br u t a l a n d s o c i e ty f a s h io ne d b y th e t i m e s he l d b l a cks i n a s o c i a l ly i n f e r i o r s t a t u s. L abo r in E c uad o r w a s neede d a lo n g t h e P a cif i c c oa st a n d i n t h e no r t her n A nde s w her e c o t to n a n d s u g a r w a s a l so pro d u c ed H i st or i c en c l a ve c o m m un i t i e s o f A f r o de s c enda n ts i n c l ud e E s m era l da s (an d S a n L oren z o to t h e no r t h ) a l o n g t h e nor t her n P a c i f i c b o rde r o f E c uad o r a d i f f i c u l t por t f o r th e S p a n i s h t o c o n t r o l a n d ho m e t o p i r a t e s an d m er c enar y s h ip m en E s m era l da s w a s a r e l a t i v e l y au t o n o m ou s are a w h i c h un t il i nd e pend e n c e w ou l d b e a t hor n i n t h e s i d e o f S pa n i a r d s. T h e V a l l e d e l C ho ta i s a n a r i d a n d fe r tile v a l l e y t o t h e nor th o f Q u i to a n d s ou t h o f t h e

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14 C o l o m b i a n b o r der Du r ing th e co l o n i a l p e r i od t h e v a l l e y w a s h o m e t o m an y ha c i en d a s. T h e J e s u i ts i m p or t e d A f r i c an s a s s l a ve l abo r in th e re g i on w h i ch w a s a l so h o m e t o a s i z a b l e nu m be r o f runa w a y sl a v e s w h o l i v e d in re la t i ve i s o l a t i o n fro m th e r e st o f E c uador T h is a ct e d t o s ub s t i t u te f o r d w i nd l ing i n d i g enou s l a bor T h e c u lt ur e o f t h e V a l l e d e l Ch o ta i s u n i q u e t o E c ua d or A f r o E c uado r i a n p op u l a t i on s T o t h e s o u th i n G u a y aqu i l A f r o d e sc end a n ts m i gra t e d f r o m E s m era l da s, a t tra c t e d b y t h e g r o w i n g de m an d fo r l ab o rer s an d c r a f t s m e n t o s uppor t th e s h i p bu i l d i n g i n d u s t r y t h a t t h r i v e d s i n ce t h e e a r l y 1 8 00 s. M or e t ha n an y o t h e r p l a ce i n E c uador G u a y aq u il a n d i ts c oa st to th e nor th w e st i s w her e ther e ha s b e e n th e gre a t e st i n c i d e n ce o f ra c i a l b l e nd i n g a n d m i x i ng A f r o E c uado r i an s i n G ua y a q u il ar e c u l t ur a l l y s i m il a r t o t he i r c o u n t er p ar ts i n E s m era l da s A m or e c on t e m porar y re g ion o f A f r o E c uado r i a n s e t t l e m en t i s Q u i to i n th e P i c h i n c h a pro v i n c e T h e i n s t i t u t ion o f s l a v er y w a s ab o l i s he d i n E c uado r i n 1 851 b u t s o c i a l d i v i s i on s re m a i ned a s d i d th e a s s o cia te d g eog r ap h i c i s o l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n g roup s o f A f r o de sc endan t s P h ys i c a l s ep a ra t i o n an d s o c i a l m arg i na l i z a t ion l e d t h e A f r o E c uado r i a n pop u l a t i o n t o s ur v i ve o n t h e ba s i s o f s ub s i st e n ce ag r i c u l t u r e a n d c r a f t w or ks. In r e c e n t de c ade s, w i th m i gr a ti o n t o urba n c en t e r s be c o m i n g a g l o b a l tr e nd A f r o E c uado r ia n s ha ve s tar t e d l ea v i n g th e i r c o m m un i t i e s t o s e e k be t te r l i v e s in c i t i e s l i ke Q u i t o an d I ba r ra a m on g o t her s. Y e t, de s p i t e up w ar d t r end s i n inc o m e an d a gener a l de c r e a s e s i n po v er ty, i t i s e vid en t t ha t A f r o E c uad o r ia n s a r e o v e r re p re s en t e d a m on g th e po o r an d unedu c a t e d N o t w i t h s t an d i n g t h e o f f i c i a l l a ng u ag e i n th e m o st re c en t c on s t i t u t i o n a l re f or m w h i ch e x p li c i t l y p ro h i b i ts d i sc r i m i na ti o n an d r e j e cts ra c i s m t h e da y t o da y re a l i ty i s t h a t i m p l e m en t a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t, an d s t r i king r a c e r e l a t e d i ne q u a l i ty re m a i n s o n e o f E c u ador b i gge s t pr ob l e m s.

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15 Co n ce p t u alizi n g t h e I n c o n siste n cies o f R a ce, Class, a n d I d e n ti t y In h i s c l a s s i c ar t i c l e pu b l i s he d in 19 5 4 G e r ha r d Len s k i S t a t u s C r yst a l l i z a t i on : A N o n V er t i c a l D i m en s i o n o f S o c i a l S t a t u s h i f t e d s o c i o l o g i a n a l y t i c a l fo c u s a w a y f r o m th e h i e r ar c h y o f s o c i a l c l a ss e s t ha t c o m pr i s e d a c o u n t r t ra t i f i c a t i o n sys te m t o f o c u s i n st ea d o n i n d i v i d u a l s w h o he ld i n c on s i s t en t st a t u s e s w i t h i n th a t syst e m He t arge t e d i n d i v i du a l s w ho f o r e x a m p l e w er e h igh o n o n e d i m en s i o n o f s o ci a l st r a t i f i c a t i on s u ch a s edu c a t i o n bu t s i m u l t an e ou s l y w er e l o w o n ano t he r d i m en s i o n s u ch a s i n c o m e A cc ord i n g t o L en s k i p a r t i c u lar c on f i g u ra t i on s o f st a t u s i n c on s i st e n cy c ou l d pr e d i c t peo p p o l i t i c a l o r ie n t a t i o n s Len sk i no t i o n o f st a t u s i n c on s i st en cy i s r e l e v an t to t h i s s t ud y i na s m u ch a s i t pro v i de s a w a y t o c on c ep t u a l i ze t h e u n iq u e s t a t u s c on f i g u ra t i o n o f s o cc e r p l a y e r s i n E c uador I n a m anne r c o m pa t i b l e w i th L e n s k i er m st a r a t h l e t e s w h o ar e a l s o o f A f r i c a n an c e s t r y ar e a t on c e h i g h o n s o m e s ta t u s d i m en s i on s ( e g ., p r e s t i g e a n d i n c o m e ) bu t l o w o n o t h e r s ( r a ce an d geo g rap h i c l o c a t i o n) I n c on t ra st to Len s k i w h o m a i n l y s e t o u t to p re d i ct p eo p l e r a d i c a l /c on s er v a t i ve p o l i t i c a l inclin a t i on s, m y ob j e ct i v e her e i s t o u se th e no t i o n o f st a t u s i n c on s i st e n cy, a s it ap p l i e s t o b l a ck s o c c e r p l a y er s, to st r u ct u r e m y ana l ys i s o f r a ce an d na t i o n a l id e n t i ty in E c uado r A f r o de sc e n dan t s o c c e r p l a y er s o cc u p y c on t r ad i c t or y s ta t u s e s w i t h i n E c u a dor syst e m o f s o c i a l st r a t i f i c a t io n T h e c on t ra d i ct o r y na t u r e o f t h e i r st a t u s c a n produ c e t en sion a m on g p l a y er s a n d fan s. T h i s t en s i o n c a n b e e x p l o re d a s a m e t ho d o f s he d d ing ne w l i g h t o n t h e c h a ra ct e r o f r a ce r e la t i on s i n E c uador S o cc e r p l a y er s an d f an s o f t he ga m e c a n s e r ve a s u s e f u l en t r y p o i n ts f o r un d er st an d i n g r a c e ra c i a l d i s c r i m i na t i o n an d na ti on a l i de n tity i n E c uad o r A f ro E c uado r i a n s be lo n g t o a n u n der c l a ss s u f fe r i n g fro m e x c l u s i o n st r u c t ur a l po v er t y an d ra m pan t d i s c r i m i na t i on I n th e ir ho m e c o m m un i t i e s,

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16 s o cc e r st a r s ar e i d o l s fo r bo th t h e i r e c ono m i c po w e r an d s o c i a l e x po s ure bu t t h e i n c on s i s t en cy a r i s e s a s t h e y c a n h o ld i n c on s i s t en t st a t u s e s i n th e e y e s o f t h e i r o w n ra ci a l gr o up t h e gen e r a l p u b l i c, c o l l eag u e s, a n d abr o ad E c ua d o r i s a n a t i o n i n w h i c h A f r o de s ce n dan ts m a ke u p a s m a l l pro p or t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i on bu t y e t pr e do m i na te i n t h i s s por t i n g pro f e s s i on S t a t u s i n c on s i st en c i e s in E c uado r ar e a ss o c i a t e d w i th s o c i a l t e n s i on s a n d c l ea v a ge s t h a t ar e m an i f e st e d w he n an a l y z i n g c on t r a d i c ti on s o f ra c e c l a s s a n d i de n tity. T h er e ar e i n c o n s i st en c i e s ar i s i n g e v e r y w here : T h e na t i on a l t ea m i s c urr e n t l y a ba t t l egr o un d f o r th e s o c i a l l y c on s t ru ct e d m e stiz a j e i den t i ty. T oda y, b l a ck s o cc e r p l a y e r s ar e g l o b a l a m ba ss ador s o f E c uad o r T h e na t ion e m bra c e s an d r e j e cts t h i s i n t e rna t i o n a l repre s e n t a t i o n depe nd i n g o n th e s u c c e ss e s a n d f a i l ure s o f t h e t ea m T h e f i ckle na t u r e o f t h e v i e w i n g pu b l i c a n d fan s i s a site o f i n c o n s i st e n cy. T h e f i r st e c hoe s o f ra c e b a i t i n g ar e a l w a ys fe l t a f t e r l o ss e s. I t s no t un c o m m o n t o he a r c o m m en ts l i ke w e l o se be c au se ou r p l a y e r s a r e b l a ck a n d c an n o t p l a y i n t e l l i ge n t l y o r t h e p lay er s a r e j ea l o u s o f e a ch o t he r a n d i n c o m pe t i t i o n t he y r e o u t to s a bo t a g e ea ch o t he r In ter m s o f de fi n ing s ta t u s, t h e s a m e i nd i v id u a l c a n b e l o w o n on e o r m or e d i m en s i o n s o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i on bu t s i m u l t a neou s l y r a n k h i g h l y o n o t h e r d i m en s i on s. E c uado r i a n s o c c e r p l a y er s c a n b e c on s id ere d uppe r class i f de f in e d b y e c ono m i c ear n i ng s ( c o m pare d t o th e a v er a g e E c uad o r i a n hou s eh o ld i n c o m e ) an d th e pre s t i g e o f t he ir o cc u p a t i on b u t r a n k l o w b y r a c i a l c l a s s i f ica t i o n an d edu c a t i o n T h er e i s v a r i an ce a m on g s o cc e r p l a y er s i n i n d i v id u a l p r e s t i ge i n c o m e an d edu c a ti o n l e v e l s, bu t t h e y ar e still i n a s o c i a ll y i n f e r i o r po s i t i o n c o m pare d t o t he ir w h i te a n d m e st i zo pe e r s, de s p i t e h i g h e r t h a n a v e rag e i n c o m e an d pre s t i ge S i m i l a r l y s o cc e r f an s f i n d t he m s e l v e s i n th e po s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o gran t r e s p e ct an d pre s t i g e t o i n d i v i du a l s w ho i n o t he r

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17 c i r c u m st an c e s, t he y w o u l d de n ig r a te an d i g no re I n t h e c on t e x t o f s o cc er i t f ur t h e r req u i re s peo p l e w h o m a y ho l d ra c i st i dea s, a n d w h o s e e E c ua do r i a n na t i on a l i d en t i ty i n w h i te ter m s, to c o m e t o te r m s w i th th e f a ct t h a t s o cc e r t e a m s a c ro ss E c uado r a r e repre s e n t e d hea v i l y b y p eo p l e w h o o t h e r w i se ar e no t e v e n c o n sid er e d tr u l y par t o f t h e na ti on T h e se c o n t r a d i c t io n s i n t r odu ce a s or t o f c og n i t i ve t e n s i o n b e t w ee n p lay e r s a n d f an s, an d e v e n w i t h i n t h e p l a y er s t h e m s e l v e s. B y targe t i n g t h e se i n c o n s i st en c i e s a n d t en sio n s, t h e go a l i s t o gen e ra te no v e l i n s i gh t s abou t t h e na t u r e o f r a ce r e l a t i on s an d na ti o n a l i de n tity i n E c uad o r Methods of Research and Imp lementation T h e r e s ear ch w a s c ondu ct e d i n s e v e n w ee ks ba s e d o n dep t h i n t er v i e w s o f pro f e s s i o n a l b l a ck p l a y e r s, j ourn a l i sts, a n d a c h i l d ren s s o c i a l w or k e r f o r a c l u b t ea m a s w e l l a s i n f or m a l i n t er v i e w s w i th s po r ts f an s. I c ondu ct e d t w o v i s i ts to rur a l s e n d i n g c o mm un i t i e s t ha t a r e ho m e t o m an y b l a ck p l a y er s w her e I c a rr i e d o u t i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s a s a m ean s to c on t e x t ua l i ze a n d e x pe r i en ce f i r st ha n d t h e da y t o da y re a l i t i e s t ha t A f ro E c u a do r i an s c on f r on t In to t a l I i n t e r v i e w e d s i x t ee n a c t i v e p l a y e r s, s i x r e ti re d p l a y e r s, o n e s o c i a l w or k er t w o j ourn a li s ts, a n d s i x t ee n f a n s ( g rou p i n t er v i e w s ) In r ur a l f i e l d re s e a r c h t h e e x a ct nu m be r o f i n t er v i e w ee s i s un k no w n be c au se re s e a r ch w a s m or e ob s er v a ti on a l w it h i n f or m a l c o m m en t ar y throug h ou t t h e t i m e s pen t i n t he s e vi l l age s an d to w n s T h e i n t er v ie w s l a st e d 2 5 t o 7 0 m i nu t e s an d w er e c ondu ct e d a t t r a i n i n g h eadq u ar t e r s o f t h e E c uado r ian F oo t b a ll F ede r a t i o n ( F E F ) c a l l e d t h e C a sa d e L a S e l e c c i n ( Ho u se o f t h e N a t io n a l T ea m ) Wi th l o c a l c l u b t e a m s, I ha d a g u i d e e s c or t m e t o t w o c l ub s i n Q u i t o C l u b D e p or t i vo E l N a c i o na l an d S o c i e da d D e p or t i vo Q u it o H i s c on t a cts w er e v i t a l o n t he se t w o tea m s. He ha d c h i l d hoo d f r i end s f r o m th e V a l l e D e l Ch o ta v i l l age s, w h i ch h e t o l d m e w er e peo p l e I c a n tru s t. He a l so ha d r e la t i v e s a n d

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18 c onne c t i on s t hro u g h fa m il y m ar r i age s t ha t c o u l d b e o f h e lp. It w a s e ss en t i a l t o u se t h i s m e t ho d fo r ga i n i n g t h e tru st an d re s pe ct o f p l a y er s be c au s e o t h e r w i se I w ou ld ha ve bee n v i e w e d a s a j ourn a l i st, a n d i t w ou l d ha ve bee n a n au t o m a t i c d i s q u a l i f ier d u e t o t h e appar e n t l y h i g h d i s t ru st o f s po r ts re p or t e r s a n d j ourna l i sts i n E c uado r O n ce t h e c onne c t i o n w a s e st a b l i s h e d t h e t en s i o n w a s ea s e d an d a ll i n t er v ie w s pro c eede d s m oo t h l y. T h e i n t er v i e w s I c ar r i e d o u t a m on g m e m ber s o f t h e L i g a D e por t i va Un i v e r sit a r i a d e Q u i to (L D U Q) w er e fa c i l i t a t e d b y a p l a y e r o n t h e tea m w h o a ct e d a s an i n t e r m ed i ar y b e t w ee n m e an d h i s b l a ck t e a m m a t e s 1 I guar a n t ee d t o k ee p t h e d i sc u s s i o n s c on f i d e n t i a l o u t s i d e o f t h i s the s i s re s e a r c h be c au se o f th e h i g h p ro f i l e s ta t u s o f t h e se m e n i n E c u ado r an d t h e s en s i t i v i ty o f th e e x p l ore d t o p i cs. I d e le te d t h e au d i o re c ord e d in ter v i e w s on ce I t r an sc r i b e d th e i n t e r v i e w s, an d ag r ee d t o r e m o ve an y i n f or m a t i o n tha t c ou l d b e u s e d t o id en t i fy t h e i n f o r m an t s. In th e s p i r i t o f G r ound e d T h eor y ( Co r b i n an d S t au ss, 199 0 ) I d i d no t b e g in m y f i e l d w or k w i th a p r i o r i h y po t he s e s i n m i nd In s t ead t h e ob j e ct i ve w a s t o e n gag e i n f o r m an ts i n a d i re ct e d c on v er s a t i o n t h a t a l l o w e d th e m t o e x pre ss the ir per s pe c t i v e s w i th a s l i t tle i n t er v en t i o n f ro m m e a s po ss i b l e I d id n t en t e r an y i n t e r v i e w s ee k i n g t o i n f l u e n ce o r dr a g ou t s pe c i f i c i n f or m a t i o n ra th e r I l e t t h e m d o th e ta l k ing w h i l e l oo k i n g f o r p o i n ts to d i g d eep e r i n to a c c or d i n g t o t h e ir re s pon s e s an d b od y l an g ua g e T h e i ndu c t i v e ap p roa c h m ean t t ha t gene r a li z a t i on s an d c on c l u s i o n s e m erge d fro m th e da t a a s th e p r o c e ss o f da ta c o l l e c ti o n p r ogre s s ed A f te r th e f i r st t w o i n t e r v i e w s, t h e r o st e r o f 1 T h e i n t er v i e w e d p l a y er s o f L D U Q s s q ua d a r e th e h i st o r i c a l na m e s o f l a st de c ad e s na ti on a l tea m s u cc e s s bu t s t i l l c o n t i nu e t o b e i n c r e d i b l y po w er f u l a n d p r o m i nen t A f r o E c uado r i a n p l a y er s d e s p i te t h e ir r e la t i v e l y o l d ag e a s p ro f e s s i o n a l s o cc e r p l a y er s

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19 que s t i on s c h ange d dra m a t i c a l l y fro m t w en ty to for ty q ue s t i on s. I o m i t t e d que s ti on s i f a p l a y e r w ou l d d i sc u ss s o m e t h i n g w i t h ou t m e for m a ll y a s k i ng an d d epen d i n g o n t h e i n t e r v i e w t h e or d e r o f t h e q u e s t i o n r o st e r w a s a l t ered T h e fo u r g e ner a l t o p i cs w ere : ra c i a l c on s c i ou s ne ss an d A f r o E c uad o r i a n i d e n t i ty, ra ce an d r a c i s m c l a s s i den t i f i c a ti o n a n d ho w t o oper a ti on a l l y de f ine i t, a n d tho u gh ts o f i m m i gra t i o n o r e x per i e n c e s f r o m i m m i gra ti n g an d r e t ur n i n g F o r th e c h i l d s o c i a l w or k er j ourna l i sts, a n d fan s, th e q ue s t i on s I a sk e d w er e ada p t e d f ro m an s w er s tha t t h e A f r o E c uado r i a n p l a y er s g a ve d u r ing t h e ir i n t e r v i e w s A l l s ub s e q uen t i n t er v i e w s w er e c ondu ct e d o n l y a f t e r I c o n clu de d t ha t I h a d r e a c he d a s a t u r a t i o n p o in t ( i. e ., w he n add itio n a l c o m m en ts pro v i d e d o n l y redu n dan t i n f o r m a t i on ) In r u r a l area s I w an t e d t o s e e t h e day t o da y a ct i v i t i e s o f A f r o E c uado r i a n s to be t te r u nder s t an d t h e ty p e o f s o c i a l p a t te r n s a n d ne t w or ks tha t b rou g h t E c uad o r t o i ts ape x o f s o cc e r s u cc e ss b y 20 0 6 I c a n no t s t r e ss th e i m por t an ce v i s i t ing the s e s en d i n g c o mm un i t i e s be c au s e on e c anno t f u l l y gra s p t h e en t i r e ty o f t h e s tud y w i t hou t s p en d i n g t i m e t her e to u nd er s t an d l o c a l c u l t ur e s o c i a l d y na m i cs, an d f l a v o r W i t h gr e a t e r t i m e an d r e s o ur c e s, m or e da ta c o u l d ha v e be e n c o l l e ct e d in o r de r t o be t t e r s ub s t an t i a te t h e c on c l u s io n s p r e s en t e d i n l a t e r c hap t er s, a n d t o be t te r de p i ct re g i o n a l d i f fe r en c e s. O n e re g i o n f o r e x a m p l e i s c o a st a l a n d th e o t he r is l a n d lock e d a n d m oun t a i n o u s, so t h e d i f f eren c e s w er e ne c e ss ar y t o s e e ho w an d w h y r e s po n den ts (bo th p l a y er s an d l o c a l re sid en t s ) c on c e p t u a l i ze r a c e c l a ss, an d i de n t i ty w i th d i f fer e n t a t t i t u d i n a l m oda l i t i e s. T h e p e o p l e o f E s m era l da s an d Q u n i nde bo th P a c i f i c c oa s ta l to w n s ar e r a d i c a l l y d i f f eren t f r o m th e V a l l e d e l Ch o t a d e s er t l i k e A ndea n v a l l e y. T h e v i s i ts n one t h e less pro v i de d i m por t an t ba c k gro u n d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r gra s p i n g t h e c o n t e x ts t ha t pr o du c e d t h e

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20 c oun t r l e a d ing p l a y e r s o f t h e ga m e Thesis Structure T h i s re s e ar ch s e e ks t o p re s en t th e t h re e c a se s tu d i e s a s e x a m p l e s t o c l a r i fy t h e st a t u s i n c on s i st e n c i e s tha t b l a ck s o cc e r p l a y e r s fa ce i n E c u a dor C h ap t e r t w o e x p l ore s per s on a l s t a t u s i d e n t i f i c a t i on De sp i te h i g h l e v e l s o f i n c o m e an d fa m e A f r o E c uado r i a n s o cc e r p l a y e r s c on s i d e r the m s e l v e s t o b e l o w e r m i dd le an d lo w e r c l a ss. I w i ll u se r a c e a s a t o o l t o d i sc u ss h i st or i c a l m arg i n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e A f ro E c uado r ian c o m m un i ty and ho w i t m a y c on t r i bu t e t o i n c o n s i st en c i e s i n s t a t u s de f i n i t i on D e s p i te t h e ge n er a l p ub li c ho l d ing s ep a ra te o p i n i on s abou t s o cc e r p l a y e r s an d th e grea t e r A f r o E c uad o r i a n c o mm un i ty, the r e ar e tend e n c i e s t o u nder c u t s o c i a l m ob i l i ty b y a t t e m p t i n g t o ran k t h e ra c es Ch a p t e r t hre e s ee ks t o u se i m m i gra t i o n a s a w a y t o pre s e n t d i f f e ren c e s i n per c ep t i o n s o f E c ua d o r i a n s o c ie t y. T her e i s a c l e a r d i f f e ren ce i n ho w b l a ck p lay er s l i v i n g abroa d per c e i ve th e n a t i on r a ci a l i ss ue s v e r s u s tho se w h o ha ve n o t l e ft a n d s t i l l c anno t c on c ep t u a l i ze o r r e c og n i ze t h e i ss ue s in E c uador Do m e st i c p l a y er s a r e m or e l i k e l y t o a cc ep t t h e s ta t u s qu o o f b e i n g E c ua d or ia n a s a m e t ho d t o s i de st e p r a c is m an d s upp o r t a ra c i a l e q u a l i ty abo v e ad d re s s i n g s o cial m arg i n a l i z a t i o n P l a y er s t h a t ha ve e m i gra t e d an d r e t u r n m i gran ts s ee m t o ho l d t h e oppo s i te o p i n i on In Ch a p t e r f ou r I i n t e r v i e w an d ob s e r ve m e st i zo an d w h i t e s o c c e r fan s t o e x p l o r e th e o p i n i on s o f t h e m a j or i ty t o w ar d a pre d o m i na t e l y b l a ck s e n i o r m en na t i on a l t ea m an d t h e i r f r u s t ra t i on s w i th E c uador s f a i l ur e in th e C o p a A m er i c a a s a w a y t o v i s u a l i ze t h e fe e l i n g s o f b a t te r e d

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21 na ti on a l p r id e E x pre ss e d o p i n io n s a r e r e l e v a n t to s ho w ho w na t i o na li sm an d A f r o E c uado r i a n p ar t i c i pa t i o n o n t h e na t i o n a l tea m c on ti nue s t o b e a c o n t e st e d s i te t o d i sc u ss ra c e c l a s s an d i d en t i t y T h e s e c on d par t o f c hap t e r fo u r h i g h l i gh t s m y ob s er v a t i o n s o f f a n s i n s ta d i u m s throug h bo th a na t i on a l t ea m e x h i b i t i o n g a m e an d a l o c a l c l u b tea m g a m e Ch ap t e r f i ve i s t h e c on c l u s i o n o f t h i s t he s i s an d a i m s t o r e c a p th e c a se s tud y c h a p t er s b r i e f l y b e f o r e i n t r o du c i n g a s e r i e s o f p o l i c y l e v e l an d s o c i a l re c o m m enda t i on s t o a ddre ss ra ce r e l a t i on s in E c uado r

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22 CHAPTER 2 INCONSISTENCIES IN C LASS IDENTIFICATION The Troubled History of Africans in Ecuador T h i s i n f or m a t i o n w a s ga t h ere d f r o m t h re e r e s e ar ch no t e s pu b l i s h e d b y IN E C (2 0 10 ) de t a i l i n g th e h i st or y an d c u rren t i s s ue s fa c i n g A f r o de sc e n dan ts b y pro v i n c e E a ch r e s ear c h no te i s de d i c a t e d t o a s pe c i f i c p ro v i n ce w her e i m por t an t c on s t i t u en c i e s o f A f r o d e sc en d a n ts re sid e : E s m era l da s, I m babura an d P i c h i n c ha T h e f i r s t A f r i c a n s to a r r i v e i n E c uad o r i n 1 5 5 3 an d w er e l o c a t e d i n th e E s m era l da s P r o vinc e w her e the y w er e la te r j o i n e d b y runa w a y s l a v e s f r o m C o l o m b i a c a l l e d c i m arrone s T h er e ha s bee n a h i st o r i c a l p r e s e n ce o f b lack peo p l e o n t h e n o r t h e r n c oa s t o f E c ua d or w i th degree s o f ra c ial m i x i n g a l so o cc u rr i n g be t w ee n i n d i g enou s an d A f r i c ans a m i x tha t c a m e t o b e c a l l e d z a m In 159 9 A f r i c an s an d In d i g e nou s p eo p l e o rga n i z e d th e R e pu b l i c o f Z a m bo s i n E s m era l d a s. T h e c on s t i t u e n cy s oare d t o o v e r 100 0 00 S pa n i a rd s v i e w e d t h is c oa st a l r e g ion a s p ro b l e m a t i c, a n d w a s ne v e r a b le to t a k e f u ll c on t r o l o f t h e a rea S l a v e s h ips f r o m th e P ana m a s P a c i f i c po r ts w ou l d br ing A f r i c a n s lav e s t o t h e p o r ts a t E s m era l d a s w her e t he y w ou l d b e dr a f te d t o w or k i n g o l d m i n i ng a n d s o m e r ep l a c e d tho s e w h o r a n a w a y fro m s uga r p l an t a t i o n s an d o t h e r m i ne s. T h e n o r t h e r n P a c i f i c c oa st w o u l d b e o f g r ea t e c ono m i c i m por t an ce t o t h e R e a l A ud e n cia d e Q u i t o an d t h e s ub s eque n t f r e e d na t i o n o f E c u ado r de s p i te th e s pa t i a l i s o l a t io n A no t he r n o t a b l e r e g i o n o f E c uado r t ha t ha d a st r on g A f r i c a n pre s en ce w a s t h e nor t h e r n p r o v i n c e s o f C ar c h i a n d I m babura P ro m i nen t v i l l a ge s o f t h e V a l l e D e l C ho t a t o t h i s da y r e m a i n c u l t u r a l l y an d s o ci a ll y u n i qu e t o t h e re g i o n In st an c e s o f r a c i a l m i x i n g i n nor t her n E c uado r a r e no t a s pre v a l en t a s in c oa st a l ar e a s A f r o de sc e n dan ts p ar t i c i pa t e d i n t h e i nde p en d en ce w ar s a s bo th s l a v e s an d f r e e d m en In E s m era l da s in 18 2 0 t he y l e d a l a rg e sc a l e i n s ur r e c t i o n a g a i n st t h e S p a n i a r d s. T he y

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23 f or m e d par t o f t h e ar m i e s tha t E l o y A l f a r o c o m m and e d an d fough t a g a i n st t h e c on s e r v a t i ve go v ern m en t o f t h e l a t e 1 9 t h an d e a r l y 2 0 t h c en t ur y. M anu m i ss i o n l a w s w er e pa ss e d i n 185 4 bu t s l a v er y s t i l l p er s i st e d in s o m e area s u n t il a bou t t h i r ty y e a r s la ter Co n c e r t a j e o r w ha t i s k no w n a s deb t pe o nag e re p l a c e d th e s l a v e r y syst e m t o s ubord i n a te n o t o n l y b l a ck pop u l a t i on s, bu t a l so th e i n d ig enou s peo p l e In S ou th A m er i c a be h i n d B ra z i l C o l o m b i a a n d V ene z u e l a E c u a do r i s h o m e t o th e f our th l a rge st c on s t i t uen cy o f A f r i c a n de sc en d an ts i n S ou th A m er i c a A cc o r d ing t o c en s u s da t a 6 0 4 00 9 A f r o de s c endan ts l i v e i n E c ua d or T h e pro v inc e s o f E s m era l da s, Gua y a s, a n d P i c h i n c h a c o m b i n e t o to t a l 7 5 p e r c en t o f t h e t o t a l pop u l a t ion o f A f r o E c uad o r i an s. E a ch re g i o n h a s a u n i q u e s e t o f ob st a c les to d i f f er e n t i a te i ts e l f f ro m th e o t her b u t a l a ck o f c o mm un i ty de v e l op m en t, c u lt ur a l i d en t i ty, t e r r it or y, an d s o c i a l p a r t i c i pa t i o n c hara c t e r i ze P i c h i n c ha I m babura an d E s m era l da s. O n e s t r i k i n g p o i n t i s t h e p ro b l e m o f s e l f id en t i f i c a t i o n an d i dea s p ro m o t i n g b l anq u ea m i en t o ( s kin w h i t en in g ) t ha t m i gh t un d e r r epre s en t A f r o E c uado r i a n i d e n t i ty. T h i s i s a c o n c er n t ha t h a s s e r i ou s i m p li c a t i on s n o t o n l y f o r p r ope r d a ta c o l l e c t i o n bu t a l so t o i n d i c a te ho w A f r o E c ua d or ia n s i n w ar d l y pro j e ct t he m s e l v e s. 7 0 per c en t o f t h e b lack po p u la t i o n i s u nde r t h e p o v er ty l i ne an d t h e i l l i t era cy ra t e s a r e 1 0 per c en t h ig he r c o m pare d t o t h e na t i on a l a v er a g e ( 9 p er c en t ) ; m or t a l i ty ra te f o r c h i l d r e n f r o m b i r th t h roug h 5 y ear s o l d i s 49 3 p e r c en t f o r e v er y 1 0 0 0 bo r n an d th e n a t i on a l a v erag e i s 42 .3 p e r c en t. W o r st l e v e l s o f ab j e ct po v er ty a r e i n th e N o r t he r n c oa st a l pro v i n c e s an d b lac k s ha ve th e h ig he st ra te o f une m p l o y m en t o f an y e t h n i c g r ou p i n t h e c ou n t r y. S c ho l a r l y i n v e s t i ga t i o n s o f r a ce r e la t i on s i n E c uado r a r e r e l a t i v e l y sc a r c e A s w i ll b e no t e d t h roug h ou t t h i s s t ud y, t h e pau c i ty o f re s ear ch i s p a r t l y d u e t o t h e s m a l l

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24 s i ze o f t h e pop u l a t i o n o f A f r o de sc en d an ts i n E c u a dor a n d th e n a t i on a l l y h e l d b e l i e f t ha t E c uad o r i s mainly a m e st i zo ( m i x e d r a c e ) s o c i e t y W h i t t en s (198 6 ) re s e ar ch i n th e E s m era l da s an d I m babur a p r o v i n c e s, g rou n de d i n a M ar x i st f r a m e w or k, i s a no t a b le e x c ep t i o n l oo k i n g a t st r a t i f i c a t i o n t hro u g h e c o no m i c produ c t i o n H is f o l l o w u p s t u d y ad d e d a d i f f i c u lty i n tr y i n g t o p l a ce A f ro E c u a do r i an s w i t h in e i t h e r La t i n A m er i c a n o r C a r i b b ea n d i a s pora s o f A f r o de sc endan ts ( 1 9 98 ) C u l t ur a l d i f f eren c e s be t w ee n r e g io n s i n E c uad o r m ad e a c er t a i n pro v i n c e A f r o de sc e ndan ts c u lt ur a l l y a k i n t o t h e C a r i b b ea n w h i l e a no t h e r w a s c l o s e r t o a m or e A f r i c a n r oo t e d c u lt ure A 200 2 c o n t r i bu t ion b y De L a T o rr e i n v e s ti ga t e d s o c i a l d i sc r i m i na t i o n in Q u i to an d fo c u s e d o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s an d d e a l i ng s b e t w ee n i n s t i t u t i on s a n d c i t i z e n org a n i z a t i on s. Q u i rog a (20 0 8 ) c o n t r i bu t e d t o A f r o d i a s p o r i c s tu d i e s b y de v e l o p ing a n i m por t an t c hap t e r o n t h e h i s t or y o f A f r o d e sc e ndan ts i n E c ua d or V a n C o tt (2 0 00 ) s h ed s l i gh t o n c on s t i t u t i on a l r e f or m s i n E c uado r du r i n g th e 1 990 s w h i ch c on t a i n s t h e c h a r t er m o st i m por t an t s t a t e m en t w i th r e s p e ct to e t h n i c r i g h ts i n E c uado r T h e r e f or m s r e c og n i ze A f r o E c uado r i an s an d t h e ir h i st or i c a l r o l e in th e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e E c uad o r i a n s t a t e Co n s t i t u t i on a l re f or m s w er e s ee n a s a cc e p t a b l e b y e l it e s be c a u se t h e per c en t ag e o f A f r o E c uado r ia n s i s so s m a ll r e la t i ve t o C o l o m b i a an d t h ere f o r e l e ss t hrea t e ning W ith re s pe ct t o th e A f r o de s c en d an ts o f E s m era l da s, H o o k e r (200 5 ) d i sc u ss e s t h e a b i l i ty o f t h e c i ty to w i n r e c o g n i t i o n f o r c o l l e ct i ve r i gh ts b y fo r g ing a n a l l i an ce w i th i n d i g enou s g roup s C o m m un i ty l e a der s a n d c i t i z en s none t h e l e ss ha d d i f f i c u l ty w i th l an g uag e t ha t d i d no t r e s ona t e t h e i n t ere sts o f urba n A f r o E c uad o r i an s. S o m e re c og n i t i o n c on ti nue s t o b e g i v e n i n l o c a l a n d n a t i o n a l p o l i t i cs, b u t i s n a rro w an d r e q u i re s grea t e r a l l i an c e b u i l d i n g an d re c i pro c i t y t ha t ha s ha d un i n t end e d c on s e q uen c e s o f d i v i d i n g urb a n an d r u r a l b l a cks

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25 i n s o m e i n st an c e s. Ra h i e r ( 2 008 ) pu b l i s he d a s e r i e s o f v i s u a l an t hrop o l og y st u d i e s o f A f r o E c u a do r i a n s o cc e r p l a y e r s w h i ch w er e u s e fu l to m y r e s e a r c h U s i n g m aga z i ne s an d t e lev i s ion produ c t i o n s, h e s h o w s ho w r a ce r e in for c e s o t herne s s b y a t t r i bu t i n g b l a ck ne ss t o b i o l o g i c a l g i f t edne ss. T h i s ha s bee n a l on g h e l d s t e reo t y p e in E c uad o r T h e s e n i o r E c uado r ian na ti on a l tea m i s a p lace t o d eba te ra ce an d t h e na t i on a l i m ag i na t i o n H i s pu b l i c a t io n s s ho w E c uador W o r l d C u p p a r t i cip a t i o n s a s a de s t ab i l i z i n g m o m en t t ha t e x po s e d d i sc r e pan c i e s an d i n c on s i st e n cies w i t h i n t h e m u l t i c u l t ur a l a n d m e st i z a j e s o c i a l c on st r u c t i o n o f E c uado r i a n s o c i e t y B l a ck p l a y er s c h a l l enge d t h e do m i nan t c on c ep ts o f E c uad o r i a n s o c i a l c on st r u c ts. T here a gr e a t e r a w arene ss an d e f fo r t b y n o nb l a ck E c uado r i a n s to r e f o c u s th e d i s c u s s i o n to ag a i n f i t do m i nan t na t i o n a l i de o l og i e s H i s m en t i o n o f t h e f i ve v o l u m e c o l l e c t i o n E n cyc l op e d ia o f E c ua d o r i a n F oo t b a l l c r i t i q ue s th e sc ar ce m en t i o n o f A f r o de s c endan t c on t r i bu t i o n s to s o cc e r a n d s o c i e ty. T h e f i f t h v o l u m e i n t h e s e r i e s b r i e f l y re c og n i z e s th e A f r o E c uado r i a n c o n t r i bu t io n s to s o c c e r s i n ce th e 1 990 s bu t i s o t her w i se s i l e n t o n t h e i ss u e o f b l a ck i d en t i ty. A s a re s u l t, t h e s e r ies s ee m s t o perp e t ua te t h e i de a o f E c uad o r a s a m e st i zo na ti on O t h e r sc h o la r s h i p fa ll s i n to s i m il a r ge n e r a l i z a t i on s, bu t I s e e k t o l o c a te m y r e s ear ch i n a c on t e x t t ha t c h a l l enge s s o c ial c on st r u c t i o n s o f he g e m on i c m e st i z a j e a s a n e ss en t i a l f un c t i o n o f E c u a do r i a n na t i o na l i den t i ty. Afro Ecuadorian Soccer Players and the Construction of Status Identity A l l m y r e s ponden ts s e l f id en t i f i e d a s b l a c k a n d w er e c o m f or t ab l e u s i n g th e t er m A f r o E c uado r i an o r m oren o M o st o f t he s e m e n gre w u p i n c o m m un i t i e s in ha b i t e d m o st l y b y A f r o de sc e n dan ts. I t w a s w i th fu r t h e r p r o b i n g t ha t on e gene r a li z a t i o n e m erge d a m on g tho se i n t e r v i e w e d : n o on e da r e d c on s i d e r t he m s e l v e s uppe r c l a ss i rre s pe c t i ve o f th e i r h igh i n c o m e l e v e l

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26 J uan a n i n e t ee n y ea r o ld p l a y e r fro m S ou t he r n E c uado r i d en t i f i e d h i m s e l f a s l o w e r m i dd l e c l a ss. B a s e d o n o u r c o n v er s a t i o n h i s f a m il y h i st or y, per s o n a l e x pe r i e n c e s, an d v i e w s o f E c uado r i a n s o c i e ty w er e th e fa ct o r s t ha t c on t r ib u t e d t o h i s de c i s i o n t o c a t ego r i ze h i m s e l f i n a n und e r c l a s s T h i s gen e r a l i z a t i o n w ou l d m an i f e st i ts e l f r epea t e d l y i n m y i n t e r v i e w s. W h i l e I f req u en t l y he a r d b l a ck p l a y er s u se t e r m s c l a se m ed i a ( m i dd l e cl a ss) an d c l a se ba j a ( l o w e r c l a ss ) b u t w he n I c on t e x t ua li z e d t h e se c o m m en ts i t be c a m e e v i de n t t ha t t he y a ss o c i a t e d t h e i r A f r i c a n de sc e n t w i th l o w e r c l a ss s ta t u s. H i g h i n c o m e s a n d na t i o n a l pro m i nen ce p l a y e d l it t l e i n f l u e n ce i n d e fi n i n g s t a t u s. W h e n p l a y er s e x p l a i ne d w h y the y c l a s s i f ied t h e m s e l v e s a s m e m ber s o f a n under c l a ss, t he y w er e c og n i z an t o f t h e i r h i s t o r y an d w ha t i t m ean t to b e b l a ck i n E c ua d o r a s pr i m ar y c on t r i b u t or s t o i den t i f y In a s por t t ha t c are s l i t t l e a b ou t s e r i ou s s o c i a l a c t i v i sm an d a s o c i e ty tha t m arg i na li z e s A f r o E c u a do r i a n pe o p l e b l a ck p l a y e r s ta ke o w ner s h ip o f t h e i r i de n tity i n d i f f e ren t w a ys tha n s o c i a l a c t i v i sts. I w a s r epea t e d l y t o l d t ha t c l a ss w a s s e lf e v i d e n t to t he m C o mm o n te st i m on i a l s b y m y r e s pon d en ts i n d i c a t e tha t w e a l th d o e s no t en t e r i n t o t h e i r r ea s on i ng In t h i s r e gar d t h e c o l o r o f t h e i r s k i n b e c o m e s the i r c l a s s regar d less o f h o w w ea l t h y t h e y m a y be A h i g h i n c o m e genera l l y in d i c a t e s a h i g h s t a t u s f o r a w h i te o r m e st i zo p er s on bu t f o r a n A f ro d e s c endan t w ea lth i s no t enou g h T h e c on t r a d i c t i o n an d d i s c rep a n cy m an i f e sts i ts e l f w he n l oo k i n g a t ho w w h i te E c uado r i a n s s e e t he se A f r o E c u ado r i a n p l a y e r s T h e c o m m en t s m ad e b y th e p l a y er s I i n t er v i e w e d under sc o r e t h e c on c l u s i o n tha t A f r o E c uad o r ia n s an d w h i t e s d i f f e r w i th r e s pe ct to t h e e l e m en ts t ha t en t e r i n t o s ub j e ct i ve per c e p t i o n s o f st a t u s i d en t i ty. T h i s c on c l u s i o n i s fu r t he r e v i d e n t i n t h e w a ys tha t w h i t e s v i e w th e A f r o E c uado r i a n s o c c e r p l a y er s.

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27 T hose blacks are so rich. Look at how they go around spending the ir weeks pay to pay for groceries. have the education or understandin g to know that the money came easily and will leave them easier. What do they have to fall back on? Think about it Jorge, 48 A t a x i d r i v e r t o ld m y c ou s i n an d I t ha t no t e v e n w ea l th c o u l d b r i n g A f r o E c ua d o r i an s u p in s o c i e ty. He c o m m en t ed me. How do change that perception when we are the ones that keep thinking it? You want to do work in those places? They w The Perils of Retirement S e v era l per s i s t en t st a t e m en ts appea r t h roug h ou t t h e i n t er v i e w s w i th re s po n den ts w h i ch c l a r i f y t h e ir per c e i v e d i n f er i o r s o ci a l po s i t i on A ll r e s pon d en ts o v e r th e ag e o f 2 3 h a d l o w l e v e l s o f edu c a t i o n a m a x i m u m o f m i dd l e sc hoo l o r o n e y e a r o f h igh sc ho o l Res ponden ts und e r th e ag e o f 2 3 a r e m or e l i k e l y t o ha ve c o m p l e t e d h i g h s c ho o l o r ha ve s o m e m i d l e v e l e d u c a t i on G ene r a ll y s pea k i n g t h e A f r o E c uado r i a n s o cc e r p l a y e r lacks t h e e ss en t i a l e x pe r i en c e / t r a i n i n g to b e c on s i de r e d for m a ll y e du c a t e d I m p li c a ti on s o f th i s ga p i n edu c a t i o n m an i f e sts i t se l f i n m an y w a ys, bu t no t a b l y i n po s t re t i re m en t l i fe w he n l it t l e oppor t u n i t i e s r e m a i n t o tho se w i t h ou t a u n i v e r s i ty d egre e o r e x per t i se in s o m e trade T h e y a l so re c o g n i z e th e i n f e r i o r ity o f sc h oo l s i n r u r a l c o m m un i t i e s In t h e o p i n i o n o f m o st p l a y e r s, de s p ite th e ir h i g h i n c o m e t h e edu c a t i o n bar r ier c on t i n u e s t o p ro h i b i t s o ci a l m ob i l i ty a m on g m e m ber s o f t h e A f r o E c u ado r i a n c o m m un i ty. S e v era l e x a m p l e s o f h ard s h i p s fo r re t i r e d p l a y er s i n d i c a te t h e d i f f i c u l ty tha t t he se m e n fa ce on ce th e i r s o cc e r c a r ee r end s Ra u l a on ce w e l l k no w n de f end e r o n

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28 m an y pro m i nen t t ea m s t hrough o u t E c uad o r S e r i e A l eag u e i s a n e x a m p l e He w a s a c on s i st en t pre s en ce o n th e na t i o n a l t ea m an d a par t o f E c uador f i r st t ea m t o qu a l ify an d p l a y i n a W o r l d C u p ( K o rea /J a p a n 2 0 00) A f t e r h i s p a r t ic i pa t i o n i n t h e 200 2 W o r l d C up R a u l a l a r y de m and s be c a m e h i gh e r de s p i t e h i s s l i p i n c o n s i st en cy o n t h e f i e l d B e c a u se o f i n t ern a ti on a l e x po s ur e a t t h e W o r l d C up h i gh e r de m and s w er e c on s i d e re d n e c e ss ar y b y R a u l A f t e r s pa ts w i th c oa c h e s an d t ea m d i re ct o r s, h e re t i red W ith n o for m a l edu c a t i o n a n d l i t t l e m one y i n t h e ban k h e w a s s oo n a de s t i t u te m a n i n Q u i to. O th e r r e s p onde n ts ag r e e th a t h i s s t o r y t oo k a l u cky t u r n w he n h i s y o u nge r bro t h e r s e c ure d o n e o f E c ua d or m o st e x pen s i ve t r an sf e r s t o a S p a n ish t ea m i n M ad r i d T h i s m o ve m ad e i t po s s i b l e f o r h i s bro t h e r t o re sc u e Ra u l f ro m po v er t y W he n I m e t Ra u l I w a s l e a v i n g E l J u n c a l t o re t u r n t o Q u it o He t o ld m e o f h i s ne w l i fe a s a m er c han t s hop k e epe r in Q u i to w h i ch e a rn s h i m a s ub s i st e n ce i n c o m e He w a s a l m o st unre c og n i z a b l e c o m pare d t o h o w h e l o o k e d a s a p ro f e s s i o na l M y g u i d e o f t h e C ho ta v a l l e y p o i gn a n t l y t o l d m e Raul is a lucky guy. His brother came out of nowhere to become a hit. It took that international title won with Liga to send him off to Spain, and look money off that transfer. Almos t $5 million. Raul got taken care of for sure. If What was he going to live off of when he stopped kicking the ball around? You think he had anything to fall back on? None of us do. No school and no supposed to be. Ramiro, 34 W h e n I a s ke d w h y the se w e a l t h y m e n ar e s t i l l c on sid e r i n g t h e m s e l v e s m e m ber s o f a s o c i a l u nder c lass, r a c i s m a h i st o r y o f f in an c i a l h a rd s h i p s a f te r re t i r e m en t, an d s o l i d a r i ty w i th f r ie nd s a n d fa m il y s t u ck i n po v er ty w er e f r eq u en t e x p l an a ti on s.

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29 Solidarity with Their Home Community M an y o f t h e p l a y e r s no t e tha t p r i d e an d s o l i d a r i ty w i t h th e i r ho m e t o w n s an d v i l l age s w er e rea s on s t o c lassify t he m s e l v e s a s l o w s ta t u s P l a y er s a r e c on s i s t en t l y s e n d ing m e ss age s o f s uppor t to t h e i r t o w n s a s a w a y t o c on t i nu e i d en t i f y i n g w i t h th e i r peer s T hro u ghou t m y i n t e r v i e w s, n o r e s po n d en t e v e r s h i e d a w a y f r o m a cc ep t i n g th e i d e a th a t t he y c a m e fr o m poo r area s o f th e c o un t r y. are. We hold on to t hat idea of our community especially when we are away tes us. Luis, 19 S i n ce n o t a ll a c t i ve a n d r e t i re d p lay er s ha ve r e t urne d t o th e ir ho m e c o m m un i t i e s f o r per m anen t re s i den c e th e i r a c t i v i ty i n th e c o m m un i ty s ho w s the i r c o m m i t m en t to f o st e r ing a s en se o f s o l i d a r i ty de s p ite th e d i f fe r en c e s i n p er s on a l w ea l t h w i th th e a v e r ag e c i t i z en T h e r e ar e m an y e x a m p l e s o f a ss i s t an ce t o c o m m un i t i e s, m o st o f w h i ch f a ll u nde r m i c ro e n t er p r i se a ss i st a n ce o r s o m e s or t o f m one y tran sf e r t o he l p w i th fo o d s h e l t e r c l o t h i n g e tc. A ll p l a y e r s s en d m one y ho m e an d ha ve don e so si n ce t h e y l e ft ho m e a s teenag e r s. T h i s for m o f a ss i st a n ce v a r ies, bu t t h e i m por t an ce i s tan ta m oun t i n s o m e c a s e s t o s i m p l e s ur v i v a l A s a c h i l d ren s o c i a l w or k e r f o r o n e o f Q u it o p r o m i nen t c l u b t ea m s to l d m e The financial responsibility usually falls on these young men, sometimes children, to supplement family income. Imagine a 12 year old playing soccer, already away from home with no family around, having to send money home because his parents are telling him they need to pay for food and other househol definitely has an impact on the psyche of these kids as they get older and traumatic issues of neglect or other things going on at home. Even with the money they might make if they can break out of the developmental sides,

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30 few have that mental toughness to be the next big thing even if they have the skill set and potential Stefany, 41 O n l y w he n c on t e x t ua l i z i n g f a m il y ne c e s s i ty a n d th e f i n a n ci a l bu r de n p l a c e d o n p l a y e r s i s s o l i d a r i ty re c og n i z a b l e a s a c h a ra c t er i s t i c tha t l i n ks t he se p l a y er s t o ea ch o t he r an d th e i r ho m e c o m m un i t i e s. A s t h e y ge t o ld e r an d g a in p r o m i n en c e t h e ir f i nan c i a l s i t u a ti on s be t t e r a f f e ct t h e ir fa m i l i e s c on d i t i on s an d a l so o f t h e s u rr o un d i n g area P ro m i nen t p l a y e r s l i ke O m a r De J e s u s b u i l d m a ss i ve h o m e s fo r the i r f a m i l i e s i n to w n s li k e E l J un c a l o r Q u i n i n d O t he r p lay er s l i ke Ja i r o m o ve th e ir par e n ts to I bar r a f r o m t h e C ho ta V a l l e y. He st a t ed With my first contrac t I bought my parents a house in Ibarra. It was important to give back to them and know their situation would improve because of my career choice. When I was transferred to Belgium at 18, the team gave my parents visas for the duration of my stay. They wer e able to work in Europe and live with me. It made the transition easier into a new world. They went home with more money, and I just felt glad to be in a position to take care of them. Jairo, 27 T h e s t o r i e s o f t hre e in d i vid u a l s p ro v i d e e x a m p l e s o f t h e d e gr e e t o w h i ch m an y s u cc e ssf u l s o cc e r p l a ys f e e l a s en se o f s o l i d a r i ty w i t h th e i r ho m e c o m m un i t i e s. A gu s t i n Ne i c e r an d U l i s e s, a ll o v e r 30 a r e c on s i d ere d t o b e s o m e o f t h e l u m i n a r i e s o f E c uador go l d e n g e nera t ion o f s o c c e r p l a y er s. E a ch h a s s pen t s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e ou ts i d e o f E c uad o r p l y i n g t h e i r c are e r i n tea m s a c ro ss A rge n ti na B ra zi l E n g l a nd S c o t l an d an d M e x i c o S e c on d o n l y t o A l b e r to S pen c e r i n t er m s o f i m por t an ce t o E c ua d o r i a n s o c c er A gu st i n w h o ha s t oppe d sc o r i n g c har t s w a s th e f i r st E c ua d o r i a n t o p l a y i n E n g l a nd H i s c aree r bega n in th e ea r l y 1 9 90 an d h e o n l y r e c en t l y r e t i re d t o han d l e bu s i ne ss e s an d f ounda t i on s h e h a s c r ea t ed He i s a l s o th e a c t i n g pre s i d e n t o f t h e V a l l e d e l C h o ta F C s o cc e r t ea m t h e f i r st pro f e ssio n a l t e a m o f t h e area He d e v e l ope d t h e F unda c ion

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31 A gu s t i n D e l g ad o a gra ss r oo ts o rga n i z a t i o n t ha t b r i n g s e ss en t i a l s er v i c e s l i ke c l i n i cs a n d c h i l d a s s i st a n ce t o E l J un c a l an d s urr o un d i n g c o m m un i t i e s. T h e F u nda cion a l so ha s a s o c c e r a c a de m y tha t nur t u r e s y ou n g t a l en t in t h e v a l l e y S o m e o f E c uador n e w e r ta l e n ts ha v e c o m e ou t o f t h i s a c ade m y, an d i ts i m por t an ce i n t h e E c uad o r i a n r e c r u i t ing c i r c u i t i s be c o m i n g m or e appare nt He s a i d for the government and other s to step in? I grew up there years ago and e of the first to look at this place and say that it needed and deserved to be better. Now the kids have a team, the people have a clinic, being left out in the cold Agustin, 37 Ne i c e r i s fro m th e E s m era l da s pro v i n c e an d i s ano t h e r v e t e ra n o f t h e n a ti on a l t e a m H i s c a r ee r s pan s s e v e r a l i m por t an t t ea m s i n A rgen t i n a an d B ra z i l bu t i s s t i l l c on s i d ere d to b e a m on g S ou th A m er i c a be st a t h i s p o siti o n A t t h e t i m e I c ondu ct e d m y r e s ear c h h e w a s t ea m c ap t a i n f o r L i g a D e por t i va U n i v er s i t a r ia d e Q u i t o He ha s w or k e d a l o n g s i d e s e v e r a l go v ern m en t m i n i s t r i e s t o de v e l o p hou s i n g pro j e cts an d br i n g o t he r s e r v i c e s t o t h e i s o l a t e d c o mm un i t i e s o f S a n L o ren zo ge n er a l l y c o n sid ere d t o b e a s poo r a s o r poo r e r t h a n th e Ch o ta V a l l e y. U s i n g t h e c l ou t h e g a i n e d a s a p l a y e r h e ha s ta k e n s tep s t o ad v an ce a n agend a t o de v e l o p tho se ar ea s He e x p l a i n e d to m e tha t h i s i de n tity a s a b lack a t h l e t e i n E c uado r m ad e h i m under st an d t ha t h e ha s b e e n a l l o w ed a u n iq u e s pa c e tha t o t h e r A f r o de sc endan ts i n E c uad o r d o n o t ha v e He re m ar k ed T kground is the same as most in that village e that. I might not there and how I still want to keep up with them. San Lorenzo is a really

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32 nged much in the last 20 years. Neicer, 34 U l i s e s i s w i d e l y c o n sid er e d th e grea t e st e x a m p l e o f s o l i d a r ity w i th a h o m e c o mm un i ty. T h roug h ou t h i s e x t en s i ve c a reer h e ha s t a rge t e d t h e t o w n o f P i q u i u c h o f o r c o m m un i t y ba s e d de v e l op m en t. H i s c le a n i m a g e an d s e n se o f p r i d e i n t h e c o m m un i ty ha s g i v e n h i m a p l a t f o r m t o e x t en d s er v i c e s t o h i s i s o l a t e d to w n He ha s a l w a ys g i v e n a per c en t a g e o f h i s y ea r l y ear n i n g s t o p ro j e cts in P i q u i u c h o In E n g la n d h e s tar t e d c h a r i ty t r u sts w i th f a n s o f t h e tea m s h e p lay e d o n w a s na m e d a UNIC E F g l ob a l a m ba ss ado r an d ha s c o l la bo r a t e d w i th t h e m i n i s t r i e s o f E du c a t io n Ho u s i ng an d P l an n i n g an d D e v e l op m en t to b r i n g e ss en t i a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e A f ro de sc e n dan t c o m m un i ty o f P i q u iuc ho De s p i t e h i s f an cy c ar s a n d I t a l i a n de s i g n e r c l o t h in g U l i s e s ha s bee n a s t a l w ar t s upp o r t e r o f e m po w er i n g h i s c o m m un i ty. E v er y da y a f t e r tr a i n i n g h e a t t en d s c on f e ren c e s an d m ee t i ng s in go v e rn m e n t m i n i st r i e s t o b r i n g i ss u e s t o t h e fo r e f r o n t. On o n e s u ch v i s i t, w e ski r t e d t h e l i n e c o m p l e t e l y t o s pea k t o a h i g h r an k i n g p u b l i c s er v a n t. P eo p l e w er e f l a s h i n g c e l l u l a r phon e c a m era s a s w e w a l k e d b y. P iq u i u c h o l i k e E l J un c a l w a s on c e a for g o t te n v i l l a g e o f t h e V a l le d e l C h o t a No w t han ks i n l a rg e p ar t to th e h i s a ss i s t a n c e t h e to w n en j o ys a sc ho o l tha t e v er y y ea r ad v an c e s m or e c h i l dre n t o h i g h s c ho o l a po t a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y, pa v e d r o ad s w i th i l l u m i na t i on a n i ndo o r g ym an d c o l i s e u m a n ag r i c u l t u r a l c oop e ra t i v e c l i n i cs, an d a m u s eu m o f A f ro de s c enda n t c u l t u r e fr o m th e m i dd l e an d l o w c l a s s e s. F o r m e t h e an s w e r w a s s i m p l e A f te r hundr e d s o f y e a r s o f oppre s s ion an d i s o l a t i on w e neede d t o ta k e c on t r o l o f t h e s i t ua t i o n be c au s e nob o d y w a s go i n g t o d o i t f o r u s. A t l e a st I w a s b l e ss e d w i th t h e a b i l i ty to p lay s o cc e r a n d m a ke m one y, an d I bee n v er y s u cc e ssf u l B u t i no t a s ea sy a s j u st go i n g o u t t her e an d k i c k i n g a b a l l w or k e d an d s a c r if i c e d f o r t h i s l i f e How w i ll o u r k i d s g e t ou t o f t h i s s i t u a ti o n i f t h i n g s s ta y t h e s a m e

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33 w a y? N o w we ha ve w a t er m ed i c i ne pa v e d r o ad s, b e t te r ho m e s, an d a s en se o f i d en tity. M y vil l ag e i s w a y ahea d o f o t h er s in th e v a l l e y, an d it w a s n th e s ta te t ha t st ar t e d the s e c han g e s. T he y too k a t te n ti o n o n l y a f te r I w en t i n s t ar t e d do ing t h i ng s U N IC E F an d F I F A ga ve m e s o m e s pe c i a l re c o gn i t i on s, a n d fan s o f t e a m s I p l a y e d f o r i n E ng l a n d c r e a t e d c h a r i t i e s t o a ss i s t a f t e r he a r ing o f m y w or k. Y o u s ho u l d ha ve s ee n P i q u i u c h o be f or e ne v e r fo r go t t e n w her e I c a m e fro m If w e do i ga m e o v er B u t t h e c hang e w e r e l oo k ing fo r i s n g o i n g t o hap p e n o v er n i gh le t no t k i d our s e l v e s. U l i s e s, 3 8 Segregated Places B e i n g i s o l a t e d i n s m a ll po ck e ts o f t h e na t i on A f r o de sc e n dan ts a r e r a i s e d i n s o c ial en vi ron m en ts un l i ke t h e e v er y da y re a l i ty n o n b l a ck E c u a do r i an s f a c e P o ck e ts o f po v er ty e x i st i n th e n a t i on b u t i n th e pro v i n c e s w her e m o st A f r o E c uado r i a n s li v e ( I m babur a a n d E s m era l da s ) po v e r ty i s e x t r e m e a l on g w i th t h e a ss o c i a t e d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s T h e V a l l e d e l Ch o ta i s ho m e t o s e v er a l v i l l ages ea ch en c a p s u l a t i n g a c o m m un i ty t ha t h a s l i t t l e e m p l o y m en t o t he r th a n a g r i c u l t ure s hop k e e p in g an d a s a r e s t st o p fo r c o mm er c i a l t r u ckin g W h e n the r e ar e c han c e s to l ea ve to c i t i e s l i ke I barr a ( t h e c los e st c i ty to E l V a l l e d e l Ch o t a ) o r Q u i to t o f i n d w or k t he y ar e rea d i l y t a k en o f t e n l ea v i n g t h e fa m il y be h i nd I n t h e c i t i e s t he y g o t o ne w c o m er s ar e r e le ga t e d t o t h e f r in ge s an d c a n r a r e l y f i n d w or k be c au se t h e y l a ck m ar k e t a b l e s k i l l s W ith fe w o t h e r op t i on s the y en t e r th e i n f or m a l s e ct o r o r s u cc u m b t o a l i fe o f c r i m e i n o rde r to s en d m one y ba ck h o m e T h e r e s u l t is f e l t m o st a t ho m e w her e s epara t i o n o f f a m i l ies an d a l a ck o f pre s e n ce o f par e n ts o r re s p o n si b l e f i g u re s l ead s c h i l dr e n to f o l l o w i n s tep s tha t a r e c o n sid er e d t o b e l e s s tha n de s i ra b l e T h e b ig ge st a n d m o st i m por t an t v i l la g e o f th e v a l l e y, E l J u n c a l s i ts s t r a t e g i c a l l y o n th e b an ks o f a r i v e r an d a l arg e br id g e t h a t c ro s s e s i n to t h e C ar c h i pro v i n c e T o s a y tha t E l J un c a l i s po o r i s a n under st a t e m en t. M o st h o m e s tha t ar e b u i lt ar e no t h i n g m or e tha n c rud e c e m en t b l o ck w i th a l u m i nu m r oo fs. T o d ay go v e rn m en t hou sing is be g i n n i n g t o f i l t e r in v er y

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34 s l o w l y. T h e t o w n i s s p l i t i n h a l f w i th t h e P ana m er i c a n h ig h w a y c u t t i n g t hro u g h n o r t h w ar d t h e o n l y p a v e d r oa d o f E l J un c a l T h e m a j or i ty o f E l J un c a l a n d s u r r o und ing to w n re s i de n ts ar e une m p l o y e d o r w o r k i n th e i n f or m a l s e ct o r an d f a m i l i e s a c t i v e l y s ee k t o n e go t i a te t h e i r c h i l d e x i t to c i t i e s l i ke Q u i t o t o p l a y s o cc e r i n hope s o f s e c u r i n g a pro f e s s i o n a l c on t ra ct a f t e r s e v er a l y e ar s o f t r a i n i n g i f t h e c h i l d s h o w s e v e n a g l i mm e r o f p ro m i s e S er v i c e s ar e r e l a t i v e l y none x i st e n t, t her e i s n o i ndo o r p l u m b i ng a n d e l e c t r i city i s unr e l i a b l e M o st re s i den ts w i l l c o n t i nu e u s ing t h e r i v e r t o th e w e st a s a p l a ce f o r ba t h in g c o l l e c t i n g w a t er an d f o r w a s h i n g c l o t he s. A d j a c en t to th e r i v e r i s th e P ana m er i c a n h i g h w a y br i dg e t ha t g o e s n o r t h w ar d t o t h e Ca r c h i pro v i n c e E c uad o r m o st i m por t an t n o r t h s o u th h i gh w a y. Un de r th e br i dg e s i ts on e o f E c uador m o st hu m b l e s o cc e r f i e l d s, an d y e t sy m bo li c a l l y i t i s t h e m o st v a l ua b l e T h e i r reg u l a r l y s hap e d d i r t l o t i s th e s i t e w her e th e V a l l e d e l C h o t a m o st pro m i nen t p l a y er s go t t he ir st a rt ; i l o c a l l y c a l l e d th e f i e l d o f m i l l i on be c au se o f t h e m u l t i m i l l i o n d o l l a r c on t ra cts t ha t V a l l e m e n ha ve earn e d ab r oa d p l a y ing f o r m a j o r te a m s i n H o l l and S p a in, E n g l and M e x i c o B ra z i l G e r m an y, e tc. T h e br i dg e i s n o w a n a t tra c t i o n f o r to u r i sts to s e e i n E l J un c a l o n th e i r w a y nor t h t o C o l o m b i a T h e v i l l age s o f t h i s fer t i l e v a l l e y c on t i n u e t o p in t h e i r hope s o f s o c i a l ad v a n c e m en t t hroug h s o c c e r b e c au s e o t he r re c o u r s e s ha v e ne v e r d e l i v e red R a m i ro 3 4 s a ys: T h i s to w n i s poo r W e k no w n it f o r a w h i l e T h i ng s d on c ha n g e h e re S o m e o f ou r k i d s sti l l p l a y w i t h ou t s h o e s, bu t t h i s f i e l d is w her e th e m one y c o m e s fr o m T h i s i s th e c r i b o f ou r t a le n ts. M e nde z, De l ga d o E sp i no z a De L a C r u z, G u er r on a nd o t h e r s p l a yed o n t h i s s a m e f i e l d A n d no w the y ar e m il l i o n a i re s. If t he y c a n d o i t, w e c a n t o o How e l se c a n y o u ge t o u t o f po v er ty h ere ? A g r i cu l t ur e doe s n pa y, sch o o l ing c a n g et y o u a titl e i f y o u c a n a f fo r d i t, b ut a f t e r w ard s y o u ha ve t o g o o ut an d ge t a j o b w h i ch w on e v e n pa y y o u w e l l I t l i ke a ll o p t i on s l e ad t o d ea th b y h unge r F or u s, i s o cc er I t ha t ea sy. He l a t e r d i sc u s s e d h i s s ta t u s,

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35 Me? I was never a well known player, my cousins are the big timers, but I accident, I spent my saving s to take care of him. Tens of thousands gone. Sure I have my house, and my tiny business in El Juncal, but my money is oor. But we hustle to get ahead. Whatever we can do. A w i nd i ng unpa v e d r o a d l ea d i n g w e st w ar d a w a y fr o m E l J un c a l t a k e s y o u d i re c t l y u p a m oun t a i n to a to w n c a l l e d P i m a m p i ro T h i s t o w n i s a n en c lave o f m e st i z o s a n d i n d i g e no u s de sc endan ts o n a m oun t a i n t o p l o o k i n g do w n o n th e A f r o E c uad o r ian v i l l age s o f t h e v a l l e y. T h i s to w n i s re m i n i sc e n t o f a n y S pa n i sh c o l o n ial t o w n s h i p a n d i s a c o m pa ct, q u i e t p l a ce tha t i s i n c o n t r a st to th e ab j e ct po v er ty o f t h e C ho t a v a l l e to w n s. A t t h i s j un c t i on i t appe a r s t ha t t h e m i c ro c o sm o f E c uado r i a n s o c i e ty i s b e st en v i s i one d thr o ug h t h e r e l a t io n s h i p o f P i m a m p i r o w i th E l J un c a l an d s urr o un d i n g v i l la ge s. P i m a m p i ro ho m e s ha ve i ndo o r p l u m b i n g e lec t r i c i ty, t h e c i ty s q u ar e h a d W i F i i n t erne t ins t a l l e d b y t h e M in i s t r y o f T e l e c o m m un i c a t i o n T h e to w n i ts e l f ha s pa v e d r oad s an d a t t ra c t i ve l o o k i n g c o l o n i a l s t y l e ho m e s. T e n m i nu t e s d o w n th e m oun t a i n t h e vi l l age s o f E l J un c a l a n d C ha y u a ra co ha ve f a m il ies li v ing i n ho m e s un f i t f o r re s i d e n c e a n d i n c o m m un i t i e s t h a t ar e po o re r t ha n t h e ir ne i g hbor s T h e s tar k c on t r a s ts s ho w ho w E c u ado r a s a w ho l e h a s de a l t w i th its A f r o de sc endan t pop u l a ti on s. R e l e g a t e d t o f r i n g e a rea s o f t h e c ou n t r y, a n d s o c i a l l y e x c l u de d b y sk i n c o l o r a n d pre j u d i c e s, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e v a l ley w i th P i m a m p i r o p lays t o s i m il a r t he m es t her e i s a l m o st n o c o mm un i c a ti o n be t w ee n th e t w o area s, an d i n m y t i m e a t t h e to p o f t h e m oun t a i n I ne v e r s a w a n A f r o d e sc en d an t i n th e t o w n I a sk e d m y gu i d e i f h e e v e r t oo k th e roa d u p t o P i m a m p i ro bu t h e t o l d m e tha t h e ne v e r d id. T h e bu s e s don u s u a l l y m a ke s top s i n E l J un c a l o n t h e i r w a y up a n d j u st ano t he r to w n tha t i s

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36 w ea lt h i e r t ha n h i s vi l l age H e d i d a f fi r m tha t her e ha s n be e n so m u ch c o mm un i c a t i o n be t w ee n th e V a l l e d e l Ch o ta an d P i m a m p i r o de s p i te s ha r i n g a c o mm o n r oa d an d geo g rap h i c area They probably organize better from what Ramiro, 34 T h e m an i f e st a t i o n o f ra c i sm i n E c uado r i s c l e a r in th e m i nd s o f in for m an t s T h e l ega cy o f r a c i sm i s f e l t b y A f ro E c u a do r i a n s o n a d a i l y ba s i s. E c u a do r i a n s o c i e ty h a s h i st or i c a l l y i gn o re d o r de n i g ra t e d th e A f r o de s c endan t l e g a cy an d c u l t ur e equa t ing i t to a d i r e ct a f f ron t t o na t i o na li s t i de o l o g ies. I n t h e c on t e x t o f t h i s r e s e ar c h t h e o t h e r c o m ponen t o f ra c i sm i s th a t i t a l l o w s l i t t l e s o c i a l m ob i l i ty. B a r r i e r s t o up w ar d m ob i l i ty u nder m i n e t h e s o c i a l progre ss tha t t h e na t ion ha s e x per i e n c e d i n th e re c en t y ear s. D e s p i te l e g i s l a t i v e c han g e s an d a ne w c on s t i t u t i o n c a l l i n g f o r a m u l t i e t h n ic an d m u l t i ra c i a l E c u a do r i a n s o c i e ty, t h e tr u e i m p l e m en t a t i o n i s s t i f l e d b y q u i e t gru m b l i n g c o n t r a d i c t i n g o f f i c i a l d i a l o g ue T h e p o l e m i c c au s e d b y a 201 0 i n c i d en t i n v o l v ing F e l i p e C a i c e d o s h o w s ho w r a c i sm an d s te r eo ty pe s per m ea te s o cie t y. He e n t er e d a n up sc a l e r e st a ura n t i n Gu a y aq u il w i th s o m e fr i end s f o r l un c h A t t h e do o r t h e o w ne r o f t h e r e st a u ran t re f u s e d h i m s er v i ce be c a u s e h e thou g h t C a i c ed o w a s a th i e f o r d e l in que n t. T h e i n c i d e n t s p a r k e d a w a ve o f p ro t e sts aga inst th e r e st a uran t o w ne r in th e pre ss f o r h a v i n g m i st a k e n t h e i d en t i ty o f on e o f E c uador m o st f a m ou s c e l e b r ities w i th a c r i m i n a l o n th e ba s i s o f be i n g d a r k s k i nn e d T h e o w ne r fa c e d a l a w s u i t an d e n oug h pu b l i c hu m i l i a t i o n t o p r oba b l y n e v e r a l l o w a n a c t i o n l i k e t ha t to o c c u r a g a i n B u t a c c or d i n g t o m y r e s ponden ts s u c h ne g a t i ve tr e a t m en t i s c o m m on O n e c o m m en t ed

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37 country a lot of joy, and this is how someone pays him back. Imagine if it even complained or been able to afford a lawyer to defend their rights. This can defend ourselves. Diego, 19 They really made a mistake on that one. It was one of those big event s that really created a stir among us players. If they targeted Felipe and he was against it. Richard, 25 A 1 9 y ea r o l d p l a y er re s i d e n t o f G ua y aq u il a n d m e m be r o f t h e U 2 0 na t i on a l t ea m s i m il a r l y t o l d m e If I go out with friends we have to be mindful of where we try and go I can p level of people. Patricio, 19 In th e o p ini on s o f m y r e s pond e n ts, the y m en ti one d m u ch o f t h e r e s en t m en t o f ra c i st e l e m en ts st e m m i n g f r o m i n f er ior p o sitio n s th a t t h e pu b l i c s e e s i n r e la t i o n t o w e a l t h y A f r o de sc endan t s I t w a y o f a i r i n g th e i r fru s t ra t io n s w i th th e i r o w n s i t ua t io n so i no t en t i r e l y t a k e n t o h ear t, bu t d e f i n i t e l y a re s ona t ing s en t i m en t w he n ou t i n pu b l i c p l a c e s l i ke s hop p i n g m a ll s an d re st a u ran ts. I go out with my family somewhere and you can tell that people are starting look at us differently. e something that they feel strongly about. Orlando, 34 They (nonblack Ecuadorians) have opened up a space for us, and I think pick up and start running with it. There is some skepticism for sure. a mistake and blow it up. One of my teammates was accused of murder a few years ago

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38 media, but with more fame comes greater exposure. So we have a space for us after generations of being ignored, but it needs to be done on their end than on our end. Fernando, 29 Co n t r ar y to th e ra c i s m t ha t st i f l e s c lass a sc e n s i on th e A f r o E c uad o r ian s e n d ing c o mm un i t i e s h o l d t he i r p l a y e r s a s t h e l u m i na r ies an d e x a m p l e s fo r th e ir c h i l d r e n t o f o l l o w F a l l i n g s h o r t o f i d o la tr y, c h i l d re n an d a du l ts l o o k a t A f r o E c u a do r i a n s o cc e r p l a y er s a s e x a m p l e s, a s a w a y to i m ag i n e a l i fe a w a y fr o m po v er ty an d s o ci a l e x c l u s i on S o c i a l i m ag i na t i o n i s a n i m por t an t d r i v e r fo r c on t i n ue d a s p i ra t i o n s o f c h i l d re n t o tr y a n d p u r s u e c areer s in s o cc er a l t ho u g h m an y o f t he m d o no t re a l i ze t h e s i g n i f i c a n t s a c r i f i c e s an d d i f f i c u l t i e s i t t a k e s t o b r e a k i n to t h e e l i t e My r e s ponden ts re p re s en t e d a n e l i t e gr o u p w i t h i n a n a l re a d y gro w i n g p r i v i l e g e d g r ou p o f b l a ck p l a y e r s t h o se t h a t w er e i n t er n a t i on a l l y re c og n i z e d c o m pen s a t e d hand s o m e l y fo r th e ir t a l en ts, an d w i th e it he r pro v e n tra ck re c o r d s o f s u cc e ss o r n o a p par e n t c e i l i n g o f t a l en t. P aren ts a t t e m p t e d t o c on vince m e tha t i t w o u l d b e bene f i c i a l to i n v e st i n th e i r c h i l dren k i l l s b y nego t i a t i n g a c o n t r a ct t ha t c o u ld a l l o w m e to ta ke t h e c h i l d t o Qu i t o o r a b roa d f o r a c a r e e r i n s o cc e r T h e y s a w m e w i th a gu ide th a t happen e d t o b e a t a l e n t sc ou t, an d a s s u m e d I w a s a n i n v e st o r e s p e ci a ll y a f t e r the y k n o w I l i v e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s. T h e a s s u m p t i o n w a s tha t I h a d m one y. A s the y s tre ss e d to m e t h i s w a s a g r ea t w a y t o f i n d a be t t e r l ife f o r th e i r c h i l d w h i ch w ou l d e v en t u a ll y pa y o ff hand s o m e l y fo r a ll inv o l v e d p a r t i e s. T he r e w a s c on st an t m en t i o n o f ho w th e i r n e ig hb o r h i l d o r t h e ir o w n w ou l d b e t h e ne x t b i g s t a r f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e s o f l o c a l h e roe s, A gu s t in De l g a do J o f f r e G u err o n o r E d i s o n M ende z. T he y a l so una n i m ou s l y d e f i n e d th e ir s ta t u s a s l o w c l a ss an d s o u gh t to c hang e it i f t he y ha d t h e pro p e r t oo l s s u ch a s ins t i t u t i on a l s upp o r t an d goo d l o c a l l ea d er s t h a t c a n p ro m o te th e

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39 p rogre ss t ha t t h e s ee n in o t h e r a r ea s o f E c uador T h e l ega cy o f n e g lect a n d e x c l u s i o n c on ti n u e s i n t h e m i nd s o f t h e se r e s id en ts. We can host a game, and you can watch the kids play. My son definitel y to play professionally in Ambato about 12 years ago. There is still so much potential in this town. Every kid wants to have the chance to play professionally, but I really th ink mine has what it takes. One day, if he gets Henry, 39 interest ed in signing players. Are you okay? Are you in the right place? lives off soccer and agriculture. My job? I grow beans, tomatoes, and that backbreaking work anymore, and if we see an opening to send them ahead. Rolfi, 35 Conc l usion T h i s c hap t e r d i sc u s s e d sc h o l a r h a l l en g e s r egar d i n g i den t i f y i n g a c on s i st e n t st a t u s de f i n i t i o n ba s e d o n t h e c o m p li c a t e d s o c i a l i n t e ra c t i on s o f E c uad o r i a n s o c i e ty. I n E c uador t h e i n c on s i st e n cies o f a f r o E c u a do r ian s o cc e r p lay e r s t a t u s a s a h i g h i n c o m e earne r an d l o w edu c a t i o n a c h i e v e r i s c ou p led w i th h i s o w n c a t ego r i z a t i o n a s b e l o n g i n g to l o w e r c l a ss e s ba s e d o n c o l l e c t i ve c on s c i o u s ne ss an d s o l i d a r i ty w i th p oo r f a m il y an d s o c i a l n e t w or ks. Co n t i nu e d i den t i f i c a t ion w i th lo w e r c l a ss e s i s a re s u l t o f a l e g a cy o f s o c i a l m arg i na li z a t i on d i s c r i m i na t i o n an d po v er ty. T her e ar e t hre e k e y p l a y e r s ar e a t t h e for e f r on t o f s ee k i n g t o u s e th e i r for t un e a n d s o cial c a p i t a l t o u p l i ft t he i r l o c a l c o mm un i t i e s T h e r e i s a c k no w l edge m en t an d s uppor t t o ha v i n g c h i l dr e n a s p i r e t o c areer s in pro f e s s i on a l s o c c er b u t no t a t t h e e x pen se o f ear n ing a n edu c a t i o n M o st

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40 c h i l d re n w i l l ne v e r j o i n p ro f e s s i o na l s o cc e r t e a m s an d e m p o w er i n g t h e m t o c on t i nu e sc ho l a s tic pur s u its i s c on s i d e re d t h e b i g g e st c ha l l e ng e i n rur a l v i l l a g e s. No n b l a ck E c uado r i an s a r e c e d ing s o m e groun d f o r a f r o E c uado r i a n s o c c e r p l a y er s t o s ho w c a se t he ir s ta t u s thr o ug h p re s t i ge bu t c a n und e r c u t i ts i m por t an ce b y c on t i n u i n g t o s u p por t o l d s o ci a l d i v i de s a n d s t e reo ty pe s tha t u nde r m i n e th e l eg i t i m a cy o f s o c i a l m ob i l i t y P o ck e ts o f po v e r ty an d s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n o f a f r o de sc endan t c o m m un i t i e s p er s i st. T h e st ar k d i f f e ren c e s i n de v e l op m en t be t w ee n P i m a m p i r o an d t h e V a l l e d e l C h o t a r e m a i n s obe r i n g e x a m p l e s o f ho w s pa ce c o n ti nue s t o b e s eg r ega t e d de s p i te t h e i r pro x i m i ty. T h e s t o r i e s r e c oun t e d in t h i s c h ap t e r i l l u s t ra te t h e m u l t i p l e d i m en s i on s a l on g w h i c h i n d i v i d ua l s c a n b e c l a s s i f i ed a n d c l a s s i fy t h e m s e l v e s, a s t h e y c on t en d w i th i d en t i ty, c o mm un i ty, an d s e gre g a t i on I n m y r e s ear c h t h i s m u l t i d i m en s i on a l a n d i n c on s i st e n t st a t u s i den t i f i c a ti o n s ho w s th e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f E c ua d o r i a n s o c i e ty t ha t ha ve l e d t o c ogn it i v e ten s i o n s a m on g r e s pon d en ts w i th h o w t o prope r l y f i t t he m s e l v e s i n a s o c i a l h i e rar c h y tha t i s p o s i t i one d d i f fer e n t l y a m on g th e c oun t r d i f fe r en t r a ci a l an d e t h n i c group s

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41 CHAPTER 3 RACIAL ISSUES IN ECU ADOR AS SEEN BY MIGR ANT AND NON MIGRANT SOCCER PLAYERS Ecuadorian Immigration Dav i d K y l e b o o k T ran s na t i ona l P ea s a n ts: M i gra t i on s, Ne t wo r ks, a n d E t hn i c i ty i n A ndea n E c uad o r w r i t te n in 20 0 0 c hr o n i c les E c uado r i a n m i gra t i o n p a t tern s an d s h o w s ho w the y f o l l o w t h e e c o no m i c c on d i t i on s t h a t t h e c oun t r y fa c e d du r i n g th e p a st c en t ur y. E c uado r i a n s c a n b e f oun d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s, S pa i n I t a l y, a n d a c r o ss La t i n A m er i c a T h e 1 9 50 s s a w th e f i r st w a v e s o f E c uado r i a n m i gran ts w h o l e ft t h e c oa s t a l re g i o n s an d t h e s ou t h er n S i e r r a to t ra v e l t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s. M o st m i gra t i o n w a s l eg a l an d f a ci l i t a t e d b y t h e r e l a t i v e l y ope n p o l i c i e s o f t h e US go v ern m en t. M o st E c uador ia n s e st a b li s h e d re s i den cy i n N e w Y or k C i ty, i ts ou t l y i n g bor o ugh s, a n d N e w J er s e y. T h is t r en d l a s t e d t h roug h t h e 1980 s an d w a s c o m po s e d o f rur a l w or k er s w h o l e ft t h e w ea k ag r i c u l t u r a l s e ct o r, w h i ch w a s poo r l y i n t egra te d i n to th e w o r l d e c o no m y. F ar m er s w h o w er e unab le to c o m pe te e f fe c t i v e l y a s o cc u r r e d in t h e A z ua y pro v i n c e s ou g h t j ob s e l s e w her e In bo th A z ua y an d M anab th e c o l l a p se o f t h e P ana m a H a t i ndu st r y w a s ano t he r pu sh fa ct o r tha t pro m o t e d e m i gra t i o n W o r ld d e m an d pr e c i p i t ou s l y f e ll an d t h e s k i l l e d c ra ft an d ar t i s a n n i c h e f o r t h e s up e r f i no ha t w a s e c li p s e d b y n e w fa s h i on s an d de m and B y th e 1960 s w he n th e c o l l a p se o f t h e i ndu st r y l e d t o s o ci a l an d e c ono m i c d i s i n t e gra t i o n u r ba n w h i te an d m e st i zo e x por t er s a l on g w i t h pea s a n t w ea v er s be g a n to m i gra t e an d to de v e l o p s o c i a l ne t w or ks t h rou g h m i gra ti o n T he se n e t w or ks fa ci l i t a t e d c on ti nue d i n t e r gen e ra t i on a l m ig ra t ion o f f a m i l i e s a n d a c q ua i n t an c e s T h e c r i s i s t u rne d na ti on a l a n d m i gra t i o n o f t h e 1980 s s a w up sw i ng s i n und o c u m en t e d an d cl ande s t i n e ou t f l o w s t o th e U n i t e d S t a t e s. C on t i n ue d m i g r a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n th e 1990 s w a s c o m p li m en t e d b y i n c rea s e d m i g ra t i o n t o E urop e ( S p a i n I t a l y, a n d th e U n it e d

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42 K i ngdo m ) a f te r t h e 19 9 9 2 0 0 0 f i nan c ial c r i s i s an d d o l l a r i z a t i o n Co n d i t i on s i n S p a i n w er e f a v ora b l e f o r m i gra t i o n an d t h e a t t ra c t i o n o f w or k c on t i n u e d t o p u ll E c uado r ia n s (p r i m ar il y w o m en ) i n to c are t a k ing an d do m e stic s e ct or s o f e m p l o y m en t. W h i l e fa m i l i e s i n i t i a l l y m i gra t e d t o S p a i n t h e i n c i d e n ce o f s t r ict l y fe m a l e m i g ra t i o n i n c r e a s e d dra m a t i c a l l y. In th e h i st o r y o f E c u a do r i a n m i gra t i on t h er e i s n o m en t i o n o f c o n t e m porar y A f r o de sc endan t pa t t e rn s. T h i s c on t r a sts a n i m por t an t gr o u p o f i n d ig enou s m i gran ts f r o m O ta v a l o i n t h e I m babur a pro v i n c e t h e s a m e pro vince o f t h e V a l l e d e l C h o t a T he y a r e a n i n t ere s ti n g c a se o f m i gra t i o n be c au se t he y ar e c h a ra ct e r i z e d a s te m porar y m i gra n ts an d h i g h l y e n t r e p ren e u r i a l m er c h a n ts. T h e i r a r t i s an a l p rodu c t i o n o f w o v e n gar m en ts an d o t h e r p r odu cts h a ve de v e lo pe d a w or l d w ide n i c h e i n t h e g l o b a l m ar k e t T h e i r e c ono m i c s tra t eg y i s u n i qu e an d b a s e d o n a h y br i d i z e d h o u s eh o l d la bo r o f p r e in du st r ial an d i ndu s t r i a l te c h no l o g i e s. T h e l o c a l e c ono m y o f O ta v a l o i s bo th s e l f s u st a i n i n g an d c a t e r s to t ou r i sts b y r e c rea t i n g t h e i r i nd i gen ou s i d e n t i ty t h r oug h t h e i r o pe n a ir m ar k e ts an d r e l a t e d sy m bo l s o f au t he n t i c i n d i ge n e ity O t a v a l eo s u se t h i s to c rea t e a n i d en t i ty t ha t i s v i s i b l e t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o na l c o m m un i ty. E c uado r i s thu s a s i te o f i n d i ge n ou s i de n tity t ha t O ta v a l e o s c a n u s e t o m ar k e t t h e m s e l v e s an d t h e i r produ c ts (h a nd c ra f ts, gar m en ts, an d m u s i c) fo r f i n an c i a l s u cc e ss. T he ir m i gra t i o n t o E urop e A s i a an d N o r th A m er i ca i s t e m porar y an d even t u a ll y O t a v a l e o s r e t u r n ho m e T h i s i s on e o f E c uad o r pr i m ar y ou t w ar d pro j e c t i on s o f id en t i ty t ha t c o n t r a d i c ts w ha t w e w ou l d s e e o n t e l e v i s i o n sc reen s a c ro ss th e w or l d w he n E c uad o r na t io na l t ea m p l a ys s o cc e r O ta v a lo i s l o c a t e d ap p ro x i m a t e l y 4 0 m i nu t e s d r i v i n g d i s t an ce fro m th e V a l l e d e l C ho t a Re l a t i ve to th e to t a l p op u l a t i o n E c uado r s d i a s por a i s a n i m por t a n t s o c ial an d e c ono m i c d r i v er I n th e U n it e d S t a t e s a lo n e E c uado r i an s nu m be r o v e r 5 0 0 000 ; in S pa i n t her e ar e a no t h e r

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43 50 0 000 ; an d i n I ta l y 1 2 0 00 0 ( J o k i sc h 2 007 ) E c uado r s pop u l a t i o n a cc or d ing t o c e n s u s da t a st a n d s sl i gh t l y a bo ve u nde r m i l l i o n pe op l e w i th r oug h l y 1 0 per c en t l i v i n g a bro a d ( J o k i sc h 20 0 7 ) T h e e c o n o m i c i m pa ct o f t h e i r re m i t tan c e s to t a l abou t 7 per c en t o f t h e n a ti o n a l G D P F our t ee n p er c en t o f ad u l ts in E c uado r be n e f i t f r o m r e m i t tan c e s. S l i gh t l y o v e r $ 2 b i l l i o n w a s c o l lec te d i n re m i t tan c e s i n 2004 a n d e s t i m a t e s i n d i c a t e tha t i t c o u l d b e n o t a b l y h i gh e r to d a y. S po r t s a n d S o c i et y T h i s bod y o f l i t er a t ur e o f fe r insi gh ts i n to t h e i n t er s e c t i on s o f s po r ts an d s o cie t y w i th r e s pe ct t o i den t i t y ra c e cl a ss, na t io n a l i s m t r an s na t i on a l i s m g l ob a l i z a ti on r a c i s m an d m u l t i c u l t ur a l i s m In th i s s e c ti o n I r e v i e w ho w th e pub l i c i n s tit u t i o n o f s po r t i s b e i n g st ud ied t o re f l e ct i n t ern a ti on a l i s s ue s an d t h e i r rea c t i on s a t a do m e st i c l e v e l I n a n i n c r ea s i n g l y c o nne ct e d w or l d na t i on a l i m ag i n a t i o n i s fr e quen t l y c h a l le nge d by i m m i gra t i o n c o m m er c i a l i z a ti on c h a n g i n g v a l u e s, an d o t he r i ss u e s S por ts a l so p r o vide a n a v enu e t o e x pre ss t he ten s i o n be t w e e n t r a d i t i o na l an d c h an g i n g id en t i t i e s i f o n l y be c au se t h e s pe ct a c le i ts e l f sy m bo l i z e s m or e tha n t h e ga m e i ts e l f i n a n a r en a i n w h i ch r a c e r e l i g i on s t a t u s, p o l i t i cs an d g eog r aph y be c o m e c on t e st e d d o m a i n s. E a ch o f t h e w or ks pro v i de s en t r y p o i n ts to d i sc u ss ra c e id en t i ty, a n d c l a ss. E c uado r i a n s o c i e ty i s de f i n e d b y i ts c o nne c t i o n t o th e s por t. T w o e ss a ys i n t h e F E F an t h o lo g y ( C a r r i on 200 6 ) h i g h l i g h t t h e i m por t an ce o f na t i on a l i d en t i ty a n d i n t e rna t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i on t r an s n a t i on a l i sm an d na t i on a l i m ag i na t i o n Ra m i ere z ( 2 006 ) d i sc u ss e s th e h i s t or y o f E c uado r i a n s o cc e r th r oug h a s o c i a l m orpho l og y l e n s d i sc u s s i n g t h e w a ys s o c i e ty ha s c ha n ge d t o f i t a ne w pa r ad i g m to de f i n e i ts u n i qu e t r a i ts. T h e s o cc e r tea m pro vid e s po s s i b i l i t i e s o f s o c i a l m ob i l i ty f o r l o w e r c l a ss e s, b u t a l so s e r v e s t o un i t e th e m a j or i ty o f t h e pop u l a t ion tha t c a n pr o c e ss e t h n i c i m ag i na t i o n i n a s a f e s o c i a l

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44 s pa c e i n t h i s c a se t h e s po r ti n g i n s t i t u t io n F ran c i sco R ho n D a v i l a (200 6 ) d i sc u ss e s t h e in terna t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f E c uad o r ian s o cc e r an d s o c i e ty t h r ou g h F I F A T h e w a ys tha t F I F A s go v e r n i n g sys t e m i s a l l o w i n g f o r st ab i l i z e d l ead e r s h i p a t l o c a l l e v e l s o f th e E c u ado r i a n S o cc e r F eder a ti o n ( F ed e ra c i o n E c ua t o r i an a d e F u t b o l ( F E F ) ) c on t ra d i cts t h e in terna t i o n a l p r e ss ure s t ha t h a ve f o r c e d ou t na t i o n a l pre s i d en ts be c au se o f f a i l i n g e c o no m i e s, c orrup t io n e tc ( e i gh t pre s i d e n ts s er v e d i n E c u a do r d u r i n g 1 0 y e a r s w h i l e o n l y 2 pre s i d e n ts o f t h e F E F s er v e d ) i s a n i n t e re s t i n g c a se o f l e ader s h i p s ta b i l i ty i n a t i d a l w a ve o f syst e m i c na t i on a l ins ta b i l i ty. F I F A s c o m m er c i a l i z e d i d e n t i ty i s a l l o w i n g f o r grea t e r o f e x po s ur e o f E c uad o r i a n t a le n t to i n t er n a t i on a l m ar k e ts, an d e v e n t h oug h g l o ba l i z a t ion i s w or k i n g t o p ro m o te a ne w s o c i a l m ob i l i ty pa t t er n in E c uado r t h e r e i s n o re a l t h r ea t to na t i on a l s o v er e i g n ty. F I F A i s t h e p r i m e e x a m p l e t o s ho w ho w g l ob a l i z a t i o n is w or k i n g i n t h e w or l d T h e A f r o E c uado r i a n repre s en t a t i o n w i ll no t po s e a n i d en tity c r i s i s tha t w i ll l e a d o v e r t o p o l i t i c a l uphea v a l b u t w i l l c on t i n u e t o c h a l l eng e l o c a l per c ep t i o n s o f n a ti on a l i d e n t i ty an d i m age B i ll M u r ra y ( 199 9 ) de t a i l s t h e h i st o r y o f F I F A w h i ch i s t h e w or l d go v e r n i n g b o d y o f s o cc er I t r a p i d a sc en s i o n t o g l o ba l pro m in en c e ne w f oun d po w e r t o i n f l uen c e na ti on s b i d d i n g fo r W o r l d C u p ho s t i n g r i gh ts a n d i n itia t i v e s i n d e v e l o p m en t pro j e cts be c o m e i m por t an t par ts o f i ts ne w f oun d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l ou t. In ad d i t io n F I F A gen e r a l a ss e m b l y ha s m or e na t i on s a s p a r t i c i pan ts th a n th e U n i t e d N a t i on s. T h e ra p i d gro w th o f F I F A i s a t t r ib u t e d to th e g l ob a l i z a t i o n o f s o c c e r an d t h e g r ea t e r in tere s ts i n bu s i n e ss par t n e r s h i p s, w h i ch be c o m e e v i den c e t o s ho w i n f l u en ce i n i n t ern a ti on a l m ar k e ts. G l o b a l i z a t i o n i s a m a j o r tren d a f fe c t i n g th e in t erna t i o n a l e x po s ur e th a t p l a y e r s an d a na ti o n r e c e i ve th o ug h F I F A ad v e r t i s i n g a n d t ourna m en ts. O th e l lo H a r r i s (19 9 9 ) p re s en ts a h i st o r i c a l an a l y s i s o f t h e e v o l u ti o n o f do m i nan t

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45 A m er i c a n i dea s abou t r a ce an d i d e n t i ty. I n t h e p o s t i ndu s t r i a l US s o c i e ty, t h e b l a ck a t h le t e i s b o th a n a t i on a l c e l e b r i ty, a n d a n e l i t e m e m be r o f h i s r a c i a l grou p Ha r r i s c hro n i c l e s t h e i n t e r na t i on a l bo x i n g i n d u st r y b a ck p r i o r t o th e R e v o lu t i on a r y W a r a s b e i n g a s por t w her e b lack s l a v e s t ra v e l e d i n t ern a ti o na l l y t o c o m pe t e La t e r on S ou t h er n p l a n t a t i o n o w ner s c rea t e d l eague s w her e th e t a l e n t e d fe w ear n e d m one y an d m an u m i ss i on F ree d s l a v e s tra v e led a s f a r a s E urope A s i a an d La t i n A m er i ca t o c o m pe t e an d w ou l d be c o m e na ti on a l h e roe s if the y de f ea t e d i n t e rn a ti on a l r i v a l s A t r en d t h a t Ha rr i s d i sc u ss e s i s t h e rag s t o r i c h e s t o r ag s cy c l e t h a t p l a g ue s b l a ck a t h le te s t o t h i s da y. N o t a b l e b o x er s o f t h e 1 9 t h an d 2 0 t h Ce n t ur y w ou l d f a ll i n t o t h i s t rap M or e i m por t an t l y, A f r i c a n A m er i c a n bo x er s a n d tra ck a t h le t e s o f th e 2 0 t h Ce n t ur y w ou l d b e sy m bo li c f i g ure s i n w a t er s h e d m o m en ts o f US h i st or y l ea d i n g to g r ea t e r s o c i a l a cc ep t an c e G l ob a l i z a t i o n a l l o w e d fo r s o c i a l c hange s i n A m er i c a a n d c ha ng i n g a t t i t ude s a t ho m e bega n w i th a t h l e t e s s t r ug g l i n g t o g a i n equ a l i ty an d r e c og n i t i o n Des p i te th e s p a ce w o n fo r A f r i c a n A m er i c a n a t h l e t e s, A m er i c a n s o c i e ty re m a i n s a p l a c e w her e r a ce r e l a ti on s a n d i den t i ty pro j e ct i o n s n ee d t o b e an a l yz e d thr o ug h s p or ts. Dav i d L A ndre w s, e t a l ( 199 7 ) st a te t ha t a th r i v i n g t ran s n a t i on a l p ro c e ss e x i sts i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w her e th e s por t i s a ss o c ia te d w i th i m m i gran ts i n i t i a l l y d r a w n fro m E urop e ( l a t e r L a t i n A m er i c a ) a s a s i te t o a ppr o pr ia t e t h e s po r t a s a n e x pre ssion o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l o t h erne s s It h o l d s a n i n t e re s t i n g s pa c e a s bo th t h e s p o r t o f urb a n i m m i gran ts an d no w s uburb a n m i dd l e A m er i c a n y ou t h T h i s i s i n t e re s t i n g be c au se th e U n i t e d S t a t e s ha s i n v e r t e d t h e g l ob a l t r e n d o f s o cc e r a s a s por t ing sy m bo l o f d a r k e r an d l e ss w ea l t h y i n t e r na t i on a l de m ograph i cs. T h e w h i t e m i dd l e c l a ss i s t h e b u l k o f t h e c on s u m e r m ar k e t f o r s o cc er a n d i t s r e i n f o r c i n g s o c i a l s t ereo ty pe s o f w h i te do m i nan ce i n s u burb s aga inst A f r i c a n A m er i c an s a n d L a ti no s i n u rb a n area s. W h er e A f r i c a n A m er i c an s s ee k

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46 s o c i a l m ob i l i ty i n s p or ts ( f oo t b a l l ba sk e t b a l l e tc .) w h i te s u bur b a n A m er i c an s o n l y s e e k re c rea t i o n T h i s r e i n f or c e s o l d s ter e o ty pe s, p r o m o t e s r a c i a l s e g rega t i o n an d add s v a l u e to s o cc e r i n w h ite s u b u rb s a s a w a y t o s epa r a te fro m b l a ck ne ss. T h e 199 4 W o r l d C u p l i n k e d t h e c o m m er c i a l do m i nan ce o f t h e A m er i c a n pur c h a sing p u b l i c to th e g l ob a l s p or t o f s o cc e r a s m a j o r c on s u m er s, bu t t h e s ub u r b a n r e c r ea t i o n o f w h i te c h i l d re n i n s o cc e r a ct i v i t i e s c on t r a s ts t h e i m m i gran t r oo ts o f t h e s por t i n A m er i c a It c on f l i cts w i th t h e i n t e rna t i o n a l au t h en t i c i ty o f s o cc e r a s t h e s p o r t o f t h e m a ss e w h il e r e in for c i n g a n i n f o r m a l s o cial s eg r ega t i on W h er e o t he r na t i o n s ha ve y e t to e x pe r i en ce g lo b a l i z a t i on c run ch o n s port s an d s o c ie t y t h e r e i s a re v er s e e f fe ct i n t h e US w her e s o cc e r i s gro w i ng b u t a m on g a d iff er e n t s o c i a l c l a ss. T h i s i l l u s t ra t i o n h a s i m por t an t t he m e s w h i ch re s ona te in m y r e s ear c h T h e c h a n g i n g fa c e o f s o cc e r i n A m er i ca p a r a l l e l s a t w o de c ad e o l d sh i ft i n E c ua d o r i a n s o cc e r t rend s, bu t t h e n a t ur e o f i n t e rna t i o n a l m ar k e t i n g i s f or c i n g t h e c oun t r y en t e r i n to un c o m f or t a b l e d isc uss i o n s ba s e d o n a grea t e r i n t e rna t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f na t i o na l s o cc e r i den t i t i e s. P arado x i c a l l y, E c ua d o r i a n s o cie t y s ee ks t o de v i a te s o cc e r on v e r s a t i o n f ro m b l a ck ne ss. T a m i r S ore k ( 2 007 ) d i sc u ss e s t h e c a se o f A r a b P a l e s ti n i an s i n t h e I s r a e li s ta te t hroug h a n i n t e r s e c t i o n o f s p o r ts a n d s o c i e ty. T h e I s r a e li s o cc e r l eagu e i s a s i te w her e P a l e s t i n i an s li k e A f r o de sc en d an ts i n E c ua do r ar e a na t i o n a l m i no r i ty, bu t ha ve a v i s i b l e p re s en c e o n s o c c e r t e a m s a c ro ss th e l eague T h e s t a t u s o f th i s m i no r i ty c on t r a d i cts I s ra e li n a t i on a l i d e n t i ty, a n d c r e a t e s a n a m b i guou s s i te f o r e x pre s s i o n o f A ra b i den t i ty w her e b o th I s r a e l i s an d P a l e s t ini an s ou t s i d e Is r a e l v i e w w i th s u s p i c i on A ra b cit i z en s i n I s ra e l s u f f e r d i s c r i m i na t i o n in d i v e r se s p h ere s s u c h a s p o l i t i cs, t h e e c ono m y, an d pu b li c l i f e T her e i s a gr a du a l i n t egra t i o n i n to s o c i e t y bu t i l i m i t e d t o t h e s o cc e r s ph e r e a n d i s on e m e c ha n i sm tha t i s c on st r u ct e d t o s e r ve a s a n en c l a ve o f

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47 i n t e gra t i o n w her e na t i o n a l id en t i f i c a t i o n i s s u s pended T h i s i s n o t a l w a ys s m oo t h l y v i s i b l e t h ough Lo c a l pr i d e a n d fan d o m ar e c l o s e l y r e l a t ed an d t h e r o le o f s o cc e r t o a ct a s a u n i t i n g f or ce c rea t i n g a s p a c e o f c i t i z en s h i p w her e a s p i ra t i o n s o f i n t egra t i o n s ee m re la t i v e l y s a f e Le s B l a ck, T i m C rabbe an d J o h n S o l o m o s ( 2001 ) a na l yze t h e c ha n g i n g na t u r e o f E ng la n d a n d i ts s o cc e r l eag u e s w i th r e s pe c t to th e g lo b a l i z e d m ar k e t o f i n t e rna t i o n a l s o cc er T h e c h a n g e s i n l e agu e s t ru ct u re c o mm er c i a l i z a t i on an d i n c rea s e d de m an d fo r i n t e rna t i o n a l p l a y e r s i s a t t r a c t i n g i n t ere st t o t h e x enopho b i c an d ra c i st r ea c t i on s f ro m th e w h i te pop u l a t i o n o f E n g l a nd A l t hou g h a c t i v i s m e x i sts to c o m ba t t h e nega t i v i ty, t h e que s t i on s t h a t t h i s b oo k s ee ks t o an s w e r i s w h y i s s o cc e r h a s be c o m e a n i m por t an t a v enu e t o e x pre ss r a c i st a t t i t ude s, an d h o w ar e r a c i a l a n d e t h n i c i d en t i t i e s c o n st r u c t e d t hroug h s o c i a l ga t he r i ng s O n ce a v er y c o n t e n t i ou s d i sc u s s i o n p o in t ha v ing b l a ck E ng l i s h m e n o n t h e n a ti on a l t e a m ha s m a i n st r ea m e d i ts e l f i n to p o p u l a r t hou g h t w i th s o m e i m por t an t s u cc e ss e s o n th e f oo t b a ll f ield tha t ha s bee n c ou p l e d w i t h th e m or e g l o ba li z e d a n d i n t e r na t i on a l l y do m i nan t P re m i e r Lea g ue T h e ne w i n t era c t ion i n E n g l i sh s o cc e r i s w ha t t h e a u t hor s de sc r i b e a s c u l t u r a l h y b r i d i ty t h a t re a f f i r m s na t i on a l i d en t i ty an d gr a du a l a cc e p t an ce o f m u l t i c u lt ur a l i s m A l a n B a i r n e r ( 2001 ) de sc r i b e s i n t e r s e c t i on s b e t w ee n s por ts an d na t i o n a l i de n titi e s i n E ur o pea n n a t i on s a n d N or t h A m e r i c a T h e w a ys tha t n a t i on s a r e c o p i n g w i th an d r e j e c t i n g t h e e f fe cts o f g l o ba li z a t i o n is par t o f a g r ea t e r deba t e o n t h e s ub j e ct o f i n t e rna t i o n a l i z a t i on W h i l e E u rope a n an d C a n ad i a n na t i o n a l i sm i s m or e o v er t l y m an i f e st ed a cc o r d i n g t o B a i rner US s por t i n g c u l t u r e l o c a l i z e s to c i t i e s a n d r i v a l r ies a m on g c orpora te o w ner s o f pro f e ssio n a l t e a m s. Na t io n a l i sm c a n m an i f e st i ts e l f i n t h e hug e s u cc e s s e s tha t t h e US ha s e n j o y e d i n O l y m p i c s por ts fo r o v e r 5 0 y ear s On t h e i n t e rna t i o n a l s tag e a b l a ck m a n c h a l le nge d

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48 i d ea s o f Na z i a n d A r y a n s u pe r i o r i ty a t t h e B er l i n O l y m p i cs, t h e C o l d W a r h ig h l i gh t e d pa t r i o t i sm w he n th e US H o ck e y tea m de f ea t e d a s up e r i o r S o v i e t s quad T h e 19 9 4 W o r l d C u p a l l o w e d fo r a ga m e o f i m m i gran ts to ta k e na t i o na l s tag e fo r a s u m me r an d ha s c on t i n ue d g ro w i n g i n m ar k e t s i z e T h e o t he r d y na m i c i s t h e l i n k b e t w ee n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C an a d a i n b a s eb a l l ho ck e y, s o cc e r an d ba sk e t b a ll w her e l eague s ha ve l i n k e d t h e t w o c oun t r i e s an d opene d a v enue s f o r d u a l i den t i t i e s t o b e e x pre ss ed Doc u m en t e d c a s e s o f na t i on a l i s t i c ou t b u r sts m an i f e s t e d t h roug h de m on st r a ti on s an d v i o l en ce ar e n o t ed A l t h o ug h na ti on a l i sm i s m an i f e st e d d i f f e ren t l y i n A m er i c a t h e i m pa ct o n o t he r s o c i e t i e s i s i m por t an t e s pe c i a l l y w he n l oo k i n g a t t h e r e l a t io n s h ip be t w ee n s p o r ts, th e po w e r o f m ed i a i n t e re sts, a n d l o c a l p er c ep t io n s. A m er i c a n s por t i n g c u l t u r e ha s e v o l v e d w i th i n t e rna t i o n a l i n f l uen c e bu t t h e o p po s i te i s a l s o true T h e m oder n l i n k a g e s be t w ee n s por ts a n d bu s i ne ss bega n in th e U n i t e d S t a t e s, bu t t o d a y i a n i n h ere n t c ha r a ct e r o f t h e g l ob a l p o l it i c a l e c ono m y. T h e c h a ra ct e r o f A m er i c a n s p o r t i n g c u l t ur e i s i n c on s i st en t an d u s u a l l y h a s gr e a t e r a l le g i an c e s to c i ty t e a m s tha t be lo n g t o c or p ora te o w ner s. Na t i o na li sm i s c h a l l e nge d t hrou g h th e i n t er n a t i on a l i z e d an d in teg r a t e d l e agu e s t ru ct u r e i n s e v er a l h i g h pr o file s po r ts w her e C ana d i a n c i t i e s a r e i n c l u d ed b u t i n E c uad o r na ti on a l i sm s uper s ede s th e c orp o ra te s t r u ct ur e o f t h e l e ague T h e i n t er n a t i on a l i n f l u e n c e s o f g l ob a l m ar k e t i n g ar e b e i n g fe l t i n E c uado r a n d w i ll c on t i nu e t o m od i fy t h e c hara ct e r o f t ran s n ati on a l p ro c e ss e s o f pr o f e s s i on a l s por ts w i t h in t h e na t i on G r ea t e r ou t w ar d m i gra t i o n an d c on t e st a ti o n o f na t i on a l i s t i c s o c i a l c on st r u c t io n s i s po s s i b l e a s t h i s l i t e ra t u r e s u g ge sts. Aspiring Youth: Rural Urban Migration, Career Paths, and Pitfalls T h e r espon d en ts w h o ha ve n o t m i gra t e d f o r t h e i r s o cc e r c are e r s a r e li k e l y t o m a i n t a i n t h a t i ss ue s l i ke ra c i sm o r s o c i a l i n e q ua l i ty ar e n o t p r o b l e m s i n E c uado r

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49 No n m i gran t p l a y e r s equ a l l y a cc ep t t h e i de a th a t ra c i sm doe s no t per m ea te th e s o c i e t a l f ab r i c l i ke de t r a ct o r s c l a i m A m on g th e m an y r ea s on s f o r t h i s p h eno m enon t her e i s i gn o ran ce o f r a c i s m a c u l t ur e o f e x c u s e m a k i ng an d a cc ep t an c e o f r a c i sm a s s o c i a ll y nor m a l an d un c hang e a b le Unl i ke t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s n o c i v il r ig h ts m o v e m en t e v e r t oo k r oo t i n E c u a do r n o r a n an t i a par t h e i d m o v e m en t i n s o l i d a r ity w i th b l a ck S o u th A f r i c an s. T h e r e i s n m u ch a w arene ss o f i n t e rna t i o n a l st r u g g les f o r r a c i a l equ a l i ty o r an t i c o l on i z a t i on W it h ou t bo t to m u p m ob i li z a t i on i t ha s be e n d i f f i c u l t t o c hang e t h e per c ep t i on s o f A f r o de sc endan t m e n an d w o m e n w h o ar e i n a s o c i a l l y i n f er i o r p o s i t i o n i n E c u a dor A s n o t e d ea r l i e r t h e p r i m ar y thre a d o f i d e n t i ty i s w o v e n ou t o f t r a d i t i on a l d i a l ogue s o f m e st i z a j e an d In c a n he r i t a ge w h i ch i g nore s th e e x i s t e n ce o f a n A f r i c a n l i nea g e tha t ha s p r o v i de d an y m ean i ng f u l c o n t r i bu t i o n s t o E c ua d or u l t ur a l an d s o c i a l en r i c h m en t. M o st re s pon d en ts d o n l oo k be y on d E c ua d o r w he n th e i r p ro b l e m s appea r l o c a l i z e d t o th e ir vi l l ag e o r p ro v i n c e F e w e x pre ss e d an y i n t e r e st d e sc r i b i n g s o c i e ty i n a m or e s o c i a l l y c on sc i o u s m anne r i f the y h a v en b e e n e x po s e d t o a n o t he r sy s t e m C o m p l a c en cy an d a m b i v a l en ce ar e t h e t w o a t t i t ude s e vid en t a m on g th e no n m i g ra n t i n f or m an ts I i n t e r v i e w ed really abroad. If we can fix our own situation, then we can talk about others. Until oka y. Rafael, 50 In r u r a l c o m m un i t i e s l i ke Q u ini nd a n d th e V a l l e d e l Ch o t a m o st A f r o E c uad o r i a n c h i l d re n o n l y k no w o f o t he r c oun t r ies b y w a tc h i n g t e l e v i s i on A cc o r d i n g t o t h e i r p are n ts,

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50 t h e o n l y i n t e re st i n w ha t ha p pen s e l s e w her e i s w he n i t r e l a t e s t o te l e v i s e d s p or tsc a sts. In r u r a l sc ho o l s, a n y for m o f A f r o c en t r i c i ty o r r a c i a l c o n s c i ou s ne ss i s vi r t u a l l y none x i st en t. P eo p l e a cc e p t p o v e r ty bu t ar e r e luc tan t to enga g e i n a d eepe r d i a l og u e abou t st r u ct u r a l o r i n t erp e r s on a l ra c i sm P ro f e ss i on a l s o cc e r p lay er s re t u r n i n g to E c uado r d u r i n g o f f s ea s o n brea ks s pen d t i m e w i th t h e i r e x t ende d f a m il y a n d f r i e n d s, bea r i n g g ifts an d m e m orab i l i a f ro m w here v e r t he y w er e p layi n g a n d li v in g a t an g i b l e s i g n o f t h e in ter n a t i on a l s u c c e ss t ha t c h i ld r e n a s p i r e to N on e o f t h e A f r o E c uad o r ian c h i l d re n w i th w ho m I s po ke s a i d t he y w an t e d t o st ud y o r pur s u e a n o n a t h le t i c c a r eer bu t c h i l dr e n li k e P a u l an d F r i cks o n s a i d I want to play for Manchester like Valencia Paul, 10 everyone something just like they do once I start playing for a big team. My wearing right now! Frickson, 14 T her e ar e re g i o n a l d i f fe r en c e s a m on g r e s p on den ts, bu t non e o f t he m c o m e f ro m e c ono m i c a l l y s t ab l e ba ck g rou n d s. I a ss u m e d t ha t s o m e w ou l d ha v e a n i n t ere st i n f i n d i n g op p or t u n i t ies ab r o a d f o r no n a t h l e t es bu t t h e p heno m eno n o f i n t e rna t i o na l m i gra t i o n ha s n o t a f fe c t e d th e A f r o d e sc end a n t c o m m un i t i e s o f t h e c o u n t r y l i ke i t ha s t h e m e st i z o in d i ge n ou s, a n d w h i te p o p u l a t i o n s. Un l e ss th e p er s o n i s a s o cc e r p l a y e r s ee k i n g a c a ree r abr o ad o r a n a r t i st, t h e l i k e l i hoo d o f a m i gran t b e ing A f r o de sc en d an t i s s l i m a cc ord i n g t o m y r e s ponden t s T h e pr e c ar io u s f i n a n ci a l s i t ua t i o n o f m o st A f r o E c uado r i an s m a k e s e m i gra t i o n d i f f i c u l t. I n m a n y c a s e s, t h e fa m il y u n it i s hea v i l y r e l ia n t o n d a i l y s ur v i v a l o f a w or k i n g fa t he r o r m o t he r m a k i n g t h e bu r de n t h a t m u ch grea t e r i f on e de c i d e d t o l ea v e T h a t s a i d t her e i s l i t tle a v er s i o n t o fo st e r ing a s e n se o f f l i g h t i n t he ir m a l e s on s i f t h e r e a s o n i s t o f o l l o w a c a r ee r i n s o cc e r A l t hou g h th e de c i s i o n i s

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51 r i sky, th e p o t en t i a l e c ono m i c re w ar d i s s u f f i c i e n t l y a t tra c t i ve to l ea v e th e C h o ta V a l l e y, G ua y a s o r E s m era l d a s p r o vinc e s w her e p l a y ing pro f e ssio n a l s o cc e r i s th e o n l y c a r ee r op ti on T o un d er st a n d A f r o E c u a do r i a n y ou th m i gr a ti o n t o c i t i e s f o r s p o r t, o n e m u st under st a n d th e pro c e ss an d p itf a l l s tha t m o st y oun g m e n en c oun t e r S c ou t i n g a c h i ld p l a y e r i n v o l v e s s e v er a l s t ep s: a n ag e n t /o r co n s or t i u m o f i n v e st o r s w i l l sc ou t a c h i l d i n re m o te par ts o f E c uad o r I f a c h i l d i s s ee n a s a n a t tra c t i v e p r o s pe ct, a c on t r a ct i s s i gn e d w i th t h e p a ren ts w h o w i ll re c e i ve m one y ( gen e ra l l y a fe w thou s an d d o l l ar s ) T h e c on t r a ct g ran t s r i gh ts t o re p re s e n t t h e c h i l d a n d t o ha ve au t h o r i ty o v e r th e c h i l d in th e ab s en ce o f d i re ct par e n t a l o v e r sig h t. T h e c h i l d i s t h e n s h o ppe d a rou n d t o t e a m s dur i n g t h e o f f s ea s on o r p l a c e d d i re c t l y o n a t ea m i f t h e i n v e st o r s r e p re s en t th e i n t ere sts o f a n i n d i v i d ua l s o cc e r cl ub W age s ar e gen e r a l l y l o w o f te n aroun d $10 0 $15 0 pe r m on t h Chi l d r e n a r e e i t h e r p r o vid e d a roo m i n ho m e s o w ne d b y i n v e s t or s, o r w i l l g o t o a tea m t r a i n i n g fa c i l i t i e s S o m e te a m s ha ve c a m pu s sty l e hou s i n g s u ch a s L iga D ep o r t i va Un i v e r sit a r i a d e Q u i t o I f t he y don l i ve o n th e pre m i s e s o f a t r a i n i n g g rou n d t h e c h i l d w i ll pa y f o r h i s t ran s p o r t a t i o n t o a n d f r o m pra c t i c e bu t s u ch e x pen s e s m i gh t be s ub s i d i z e d b y h i s agen t to k ee p th e p l a y e r l o y a l Lun ch i s u s u a l l y pro v id e d f o r y ou n g p l a y e r s, b u t br e a kf a st a n d d i n n e r a r e no t, u n l e ss t he y l i ve o n sit e a p r i v i l eg e s e r v e d f o r t h e m o st t a l en t e d c h i l dr e n T h e l ea st a d v er t i s e d par t o f t h i s p ro c e ss i s t h e c on st a n t st r ug g l e y o un g m e n f a ce w he n the y m u st adap t to c i ty l i f e c o n f or m t o a tea m d i e t ar y, edu c a t i on a l an d p h ys i c a l de m and s A s por ts agen t t o l d m e tha t de s p i te th e ir l eg a l l y e m an c i pa t e d s ta t u s i t i s th e par e n ts o f y o un g t eenag e bo y s w h o c o mm un i c a te t h e i r c h i l d d e m and s, o f te n pu s h i n g t he m i n to b a d c on t r a cts w he n th e par e n ts a r e i n de s pera t e ne e d o f a c on s i st en t s t r ea m o f re m i t tan c e s A cc o r d ing t o t h e a g en t:

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52 A lot of these kids are coming from rough situations in their homes. An absent father, negligent mother, or fully absent parents. Now these kids have the chance to play ball and make money. Then you see the parents trying to get involved and sticking out their hands for a new cut after they got their share in under the ta ble and forced to sign cheap contracts for a few hundred bucks a month. Under what pretext? Esteban, 33 He w en t o n to d i sc u ss th e d i s i nge n uou s m o t i v e s o f s o m e c l ub s a n d th e p l a y er i gn o ran ce o f t h e ir r i g h ts an d en t i t l e m en t s : I magine one of these smalle r teams trying to make consistent payments sponsorships; attendance is so low that it costs more to play at night than ticket sales can cover for the light bill. They barely scrape by. These kids playing and fall down can go way he is still feels responsible for sending money home. I always tell them, get the money, but the parents still force the kid into what seems to be a safe phone, a new pair of clea want to deal with the eighteen through twenty something bracket, but it costs big money and gets very political. because their mentality is so underdeveloped. They have the talent but not just way behind with school so they lack something really important. It shows investment side of this business. If it gets hard, he might go home for a weekend to cry to his parents or will skip a practice because he feels down or the investor. Those are strikes against your pro fessionalism. They

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53 more failures that we have with other kids. Esteban, 33 Non Migrant Prof essional Players A f r o de sc e n dan ts t ha t c a n m a ke i t ou t o f th e c u t t h r oa t y ou t h d i v i s i on s a n d b r ea k i n to t h e f i r s t t ea m ar e in a po s i t ion t o s e c u r e l o nge r t er m c on t r a cts w i th h i g h e r pa y ou ts. P ro m o t i o n i s a gr e a t a c h i e v e m en t. A n o v er w he l m i n g m a j or i ty o f p lay er s a s p i r e t o g o abroa d in s ear c h o f f a m e f or t u n e an d s e c u r i t y, bu t t h e ir s tar t w i th r a r e e x c ep t i on i s a l w a ys i n E c uador T h e m e n w h o f i t t h i s c a t e g or y a r e p r i m ar i l y th o se be t w ee n 1 8 a n d 2 5 y ear s o l d w h o ar e a m on g th e l ea s t li k e l y t o d e l v e i n to i s s ue s o f ra c e c l a ss, a n d i de n tit y T h e y d i dn c onne c t t h e p l i g h t o f t h e A f r o E c uado r i a n to un f a ir s te r eo ty p e s an d ra c i s m M o st o f t h e y o u n g m e n endor s e d t h e c u l t u r a l l y d o m i na n t no t i o n tha t a ll ra c i a l g roup s ha ve a n equ a l c han c e o f s u c c e ss. T h e se p l a y e r s th ou g h t t ha t m y que sti on s a b ou t i ne q u a l i ty w er e v a l i d b u t t ha t a s E c uad o r i an s, t h e y ha d a s en se o f s har e d sol i d a r it y T he y w er e m or e l i k e l y t o rea ct t o m y r a c e ba s e d que s t i o n s i n k ee p i n g w i th th e i d e a tha t w e ar e a ll E c uado r i an F o r the m ra ce n o l o nge r m a t te r e d A s th e c o un t r y h a s p r ogre ss e d t h e ra ci a l pr o b le m s tha t c hara ct e r i z e d th e ir c o m m un i s t r ug g le de c l i ne d T h e p l a y er s a ck no w l edge d in equ a l i t i e s, bu t t h e se w er e no t under s t oo d t o b e th e r e s u l t o f syst e m i c i n j u st i c e s o r p er s i st en c e s o c i a l c l ea v a ge s T h e tenden cy t o d e e m pha s i ze r a c i sm an d s uppor t na t i on a l i sm be c a m e t h e m a i n threa d t ha t bon d e d t h e m a j o r i ty o f p l a y er s w i t ho u t e x per i en c e s abr o ad T h e c on c ep t o f a f r o c e n t r i c i ty a n d i ts de f initi o n w a s un k no w n t o m o st re s pon d en ts. A f te r c are fu l e x p l a n a t i on t h e y a ss o c i a t e d i t w i th o ld e r g ene r a t i on s a n d ba ck w ardne ss. F o r y ou n g m e n o n th e na t i o na l t e a m i t be c a m e a par t i c u l a r l y i n t ere s t i n g t op i c a s t he y

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54 w o u l d s o o n b e t ra v e l i n g t o C o l o m b i a fo r a m on t h l o n g to u rna m en t, th e U 2 0 F I F A W o r l d C u p S o m e w er e i n t h e p ro c e ss o f be ing t r an sf e r re d t o E urop e a n tea m s o r ha d th e i r agen ts a c t i v e l y s ee k i n g a c h a ng e t o b i g g e r a n d m or e i m por t an t l eag u e s. M u ch o f t h e i r d i s c our se r e i n f o r c e d t h e i m por t an ce o f th e i r po s i t i o n s a s n a ti on a l a m ba ss ador s an d t h e i r e x c i t e m en t to p lay i n a t our n a m en t t ha t w ou l d b e s ee n w o r l d w i de D u r i n g a n i n t e r v i e w I ha d t o p au se t h e ta p e r e c o rde r w he n a m e m be r o f t h e c oa c h i n g s ta ff c a m e i n t o d e l i v e r w ha t a p pea r e d t o b e a l ea t he r b o un d f o l d e r w i th th e s e a l o f E c u a do r e m bo ss e d o n th e fro n t. I t h e ld a f a n cy l e t te r f r o m th e C ongre ss o f E c uad o r c ongra t u la t i n g t h e p l a y e r o n b e ing o f f i c i a l l y s e lec te d t o rep r e s en t t h e c oun t r y i n s u c h a n i m por t an t t o u rna m en t. B y dep i c t ing th e p l a y e r a s a r e p re s en t a t i ve o f t h e na t io n t h e l e t t e r i m p li c i t l y u nder s c ore d E c u a dor e g a l i t a r i a n s e l f i m age S pe c i a l re c og n i t i o n fro m t h e go v e rn m en t i s a w a y t o r e i n f or ce t h e i de a o f E c ua d o r i a n ne T h e fa ct t ha t a m a j or i ty o f p l a y er s w er e o f A f r i c a n d e sc en t be c a m e a w a y t o s ho w tha t ra c i sm w a s no t t h e pr o b le m ; o t her w i se the y w ou l d n ha ve b e e n s e l e ct ed you here in Ecuador anymore. Maybe we did once before, but now, things have changed. Look at where T he focus should be on other more serious problems like poverty and crime i brothers. Pedro, 19 W h a t be c a m e d i f f i c u l t f o r the s e m e n w a s h o w to de sc r i b e w ha t ra c i sm m ean t an d ho w t o r e c o gn i ze i ts m an i f e st a t i o n s T h e m o st d i sc u ss e d e x pre ssion w a s F e l i p e Ca i c e d o re m o v a l f r o m a r e st auran t i n Gua y a qu i l In m y i n t er v i e w s ther e w a s n o m en t i o n o f t h e f req u en t r epor ts t ha t b l a ck m e n ar e l e ss l i k e l y t o ge t p i ck e d u p b y a t a x i

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55 c ab o r rep o r ts o f s l o w e r s er v i c e / n o s e r v i ce a t ho t e l s, re s t aur a n ts, a n d s to r e s a ll o f w h i ch r e f l e ct und e r t one s o f ra c i sm tha t ar e s u b t l e an d o f te n m i s j udge d a s s i m p l e neg l i gen ce o r b a d s er v i c e F r equen t l y, th e ta x i c a b e x a m p l e be c a m e a p r i m e top i c o f d i sc u s s i o n t o s h o w t he i r per m i ss i ve a t t i t u d e s t o w ard s r a c i s t beha v ior a n d fe e l i ng s o f under st a n d i n g t o w ard s w ha t i s a n abu s i ve p r a ct i ce ag a i n st b lack peo p le. T h i s st r e s s e d a d i f f eren c e i n t h e an s w er s a m o n g y oung e r r e s pond e n ts be c au se ano t he r par t o f t h e s a m e grou p r e c o g n i z e d an d d i s agr e e d w i th s o c i a l ra c i s m bu t ha d a j ade d op i n i o n o f i ts p er s i st e n t pre s en ce i n E c u ado r T h e y o unge r p l a y er s tha t I i n t e r v i e w e d reg a rde d s u c h i n st an c e s o f r a c i s m a s s o m e t h i n g t o a cc ep t an d t o m o ve be y ond T h i s s u b gro u p o f r e s pon d en ts a ss u m e d th a t t her e w a s a j u st i f i c a t i o n f o r r a c i st beha v i o r ag a i n st b lack s o cc e r p l a y er s an d t h e a v erag e A f r o E c ua d o r i an I f no t begru d g ing a cc e p t an c e i t w a s a t l ea s t e m barra ss i n g l y n o t e d s e v er a l t i m e s tha t i t w ou l d b e be t t e r t o k e e p th e s ta t u s q u o th a n r e a l l t ir u p th e po be c au se t h er e i s m u ch a t st a ke an d m u ch to l o s e i n ter m s o f s po n s or s h i p s, pu b l i c s up p o r t, a n d po t en t i a l l y a s u st a in a b l e c a ree r. The country will love us for a few days after a win, and then things go back to tare at you like an outsider, or might heckle when we have bigger issues to worry about. Hernan, 2 2 thieves and troublemakers? I know some give the group a bad name, and W h e n pre ss e d t o c o m m en t o n l i fe ou t s i d e E c u ador m y 1 8 2 5 y e a r o l d re s pon d en ts n e a r l y a l w a ys s tre ss e d t w o the m e s: i m ag i n a ti o n o f ra c i a l e q u a l i ty ou t s i d e

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56 E c uador a n d ge n er a l w ea l t h T h e i de a o f a y o un g b l a ck m a n s u cc ee d i n g i n E c u a dor non s p o r t i n g p ro f e s s i o n s w a s i n c on c e i v a b l e t o t h e y ou t h A l t houg h t h e y h a d a m b i ti on s o f a t ten d ing u n i v e r s i t i e s t h e m a j or i ty o f m y r e s ponden ts ha d s o m e e x per i en ce in a h i g h sc hoo l le ar n ing en v i r on m en t O n l y o n e w a s par t i a l l y en r o l l e d i n a u n i v er s i ty. D e s p i te t he ir s up e r i o r edu c a t i o n c o m pare d t o o l d e r p l a y er s, no n e o f t h e m r e c ogn i z e d th e po ss i b i l i ty o f s u cc e ss w i th c i v i l i a n e m p l o y m en t i f t he y w er e no t re c og n i z e d f i g u re s be f ore h and M a i n t a i n i n g a b a l a n ce o f w or k a n d sc ho o l i s n e a r l y i m po ss i b l e fo r th e a v erag e s t uden t an d i f t he y h a ve s tru c t ur a l o r per s on a l han d i c a p s, t h e d if f i c u l ty i s m agn i f i ed A t s o m e po i n t i n t he i r c a reer m o st s o cc e r p l a y e r s w i l l ha ve t o m a ke a de c i s i o n w he t he r t o c on t i nu e s c ho o l i n g o r be c o m e a fu l l t i m e p l a y er W h i l e t h e t ren d i s c han g i n g g rad u a l l y a s c l u b t e a m s d e m an d h i g he r l e v e l s o f edu c a t ion a m on g th e i r y o u n g p l a y e r s, d i ss o nan ce m an i f e sts i t se l f a t e v er y t urn : c oa c he s f o r ce k i d s t o p l a y ga m e s tha t i n t e r f e r e w i th te sts, sc ho o l s a r e i n f l e x i b le to t e a m sc hedu l e s, an d pro v i d e l it t l e i n t h e w a y o f t u t o r i n g an d o t h e r edu c a ti o n a i d s. S c h o o l a d m i n i st r a t or s t r ea t s o cc e r l i ke a n e x t r a c ur r i c u l a r a c t i v i ty, bu t c lub tea m s s e e th e i r de v e l op m en t a l l e ague s a s t i er s o f c o m pe t i t i ve j ob s tha t nee d t o b e c o m p l e t e d A lt houg h i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y no v e l c on c ep t, t her e i s a gro w i n g s en se t ha t, t o b e w e ll r oun d ed y oun g s o cc e r p lay er s s ho u l d f i n i sh h i g h sc ho o l A s o c c e r c oa ch i n th e v i l l ag e o f E l J un c a l i n t h e V a l l e d e l C ho ta re c a l l e d t ha t m a l e teen s ha ve l e ss a m b i t i o n i n sc ho o l an d a ct i v e l y s p en d t he i r t i m e p l a y i n g s o cc e r t o c a tch th e e y e o f a n age n t o r s c ou t i n h ope s o f l ea v i n g th e ir to w n t o c ha se g lo r y. In h i s op i n io n de s p ite th e n a i v e t o f t he s e k i d s, t h e y s e e th e s u c c e ss o f p l a y er s l i ke t h e one s I i n t er v i e w e d a s th e o n l y e sc a p e fro m po v er ty. W it h o u t an y re a l u n der st a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f i c u l t l i f e tha t s o cc e r p lay er s f a c e a l o n g w i t h hea vy s o c i a l pre ss u re s a n d th e

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57 st ereo ty p e s tha t ar e p or t r a y ed c h i l d re n w er e less l i k e l y t o w an t t h e i r p a ren l i f e s tyl e s ub s i s t en ce a g r i c u l t u r a l w or k, o r l e a r n i n g a c r a f t W i t h t e l e v i s i on s g l ue d t o s o cc e r ga m e s an d k no w l edg e o f w ea lth a ss o c i a t e d w i th pro f e s s i o n a l s p o r ts, the y e sc ap e t h e i r re a l i t i e s b y i m ag i n i n g t h i s a l t e r na t i ve p a t h He s a i d boys play barefoot, they go out to tha t dirt field like Ulises (De La Cruz), for a few hours a day, play your favorite sport, and get paid. Easy enough, lay abroad or fail, and if they do, the fall is hard. They just watch television and see these guys getting paid millions. You have to be pretty unique to be at that level. Our coun try is failing these kids if this is the only escape imaginable. Otherwise every kid will be selling candy on street corners, cleaning windshields, or entering a life of crime to make ends meet. Jacinto, 45 unds, so school was something we had to attend. But think about it, where would I be if I got my made it a business later on. Not everyone has my type of ideas though. There are examples of some soccer players opening up businesses, but they waste money and fail without training or an educat ion Bryan, 22 We have a window of maybe 10 20 years to make what others do in a lifetime. Almost everyone in my village will never live to see that much money. Holland. Even more money. Probably 10 times what I make here. I had to Javier, 23 No. Nobody in my village could ever dream about leaving Ecuador for better be out there somewhere. Maybe Europe. I have a cousin playing in Mexico. I outside Alex, 20 Professional Players: Migrants and Return Migrants: A Need for Change T h e g e nera t i o n a l d i f f e ren c e s ar e e vid en t a m on g r e s p o nden ts. T h e o l d g uar d

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58 s o cc e r p l a y e r s an d r e t i r ee s ha v e u s e d t h e i r e x pe r i en c e s abro a d t o f or m u l a te a n e w i de a o f w ha t E c uado r i s an d s ho u l d be S i t t i n g a t t h e ape x o f f oo t b a l l i n g s u cc e ss, t he se m e n t ha t l e ft E c ua d o r to p l a y s o cc e r i n s o m e o f t h e w or l d m o st pre st i g i o u s l eag u e s ha ve un i q u e e x pe r i en c e s tha t y o ung e r p l a y e r s s ee k t o f o l l o w T he se r e s pon d en ts a r e pr i m ar i l y o v e r t h e ag e o f 3 0 ( s o m e e x c ep t i on s i n th i s s tud y) an d a m on g th e m o st l i k e l y i n f o r m an ts to fra m e i s s ue s o f ra ce i n E c u a do r a s b e i n g f u nda m en t a l l y f l a w ed T h e y d i sc u ss e d s o c i a l i n e qu a l i ty a s b e i n g t i e d t o r a c i sm an d per s i st en t po v er t y a m on g th e m a j or i ty o f A f r o E c ua d o r i an s r eg a r d l e ss o f r e g i o n o f r e sid en c e U po n r e t ur n ing t o E c uador t h e p l a y er s w er e a b l e t o i d en t i fy s o c ial a n d i n s t i t u t io n a l r a c i s m bu t u n l i ke y ounge r p l a y er s w h o ha ve y e t to gra sp o r r e c ogn i z e the se c on c e p ts, th e o ld e r re s pon d en ts n o lo nge r a cc ep t t ha t st a t u s qu o S i m p l y s ta t ed t he y a r e fru s t r a t e d w i th th e c on ti nua t i o n o f t h e s a m e prob l e m s tha t h o l d t h e A f r o E c ua d o r i a n pop u l a t i o n i n i n f er i o r s o c i a l p o s i t i on s. S o m e r e s ponde n ts u se t h e s o c i a l c a p i t a l the y ha ve g a i ne d t hrou g h pro f e s s i o n a l s u cc e ss e s t o r a l l y a g a i n st w ha per c e i v e d t o b e s o c ial i n j u st i c e s, a n d t o u se th e i r i n fl uen ce t o d i re ct l y i m pro ve th e l i v e s o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s a n d f r i e n d s ( s e e C hap t e r 2) In o u r d i sc u s s i o n o f l i fe abr o ad a c t i ve an d re t i re d p lay er s c o mm en t e d o n th e grea t re c ep t i o n an d b eha v i o r o f t h e ir ho sts, bu t d i dn d i sc u ss th e h ard s h i p s. T h e ir e m pha s i s w a s s quare l y o n t h e po s i t i v e T ho se re s p o nd e n ts t ha t h a ve s pe n t c on s i d e ra b l e t i m e a w a y fr o m E c uado r w er e a l so citiz en s i n t h e i r ho st na t i o n an d m an y p l a n t o re t u r n a f t e r re t i re m en t be c au se o f th e s o c ial pro b le m s a n d s a f e ty c on c ern s i n E c uador T h e fa s t pa c e d en v i r o n m e n t o f i n t e rna t i o n a l l e ague s an d l i f e a b roa d i s a r a d i c a l c hang e f ro m th e s l o w m o v i n g l i fe o f r u r a l E c u ador P l a y e r s no t e d ho w har d i t w a s t o adap t to l i f e i n b i g c i t i e s an d i n f or e i g n c oun t r ies, e s pe c i a l l y t h o se w h o c a m e fr o m i s o l a t e d an d ru r a l c o m m un i t i e s. S i m p l e t h i ng s l i ke ne w food un f a m i l i a r w ea t her a n d

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59 d i f f eren t s c ener y be c a m e o v er w he l m i n g fo r s o m e an d i t o f te n r eq u i re d t h e a s s i st an c e o f t ea m s ta f fer s an d a c c o m pan y i n g r e la t i v e s t o ea se t h e s e t t l i n g pro c e ss. A f te r t h e adap t a t i o n I w a s to ld re p ea t e d l y t ha t a s s i m il a t i o n i n to t h e ho st s o c ie t y w a s s i m p l e bu t v ar ie d Co u n t r i e s l i ke B r a zil w er e e a sier t o ad j u st to th a n M e x i co o r A rg e n t i na T he r e i s u s ua l l y less a v er s ion t o t ra v e l i n g w i t h in t ho se t hre e c o un t r i e s be c au se th e s o c c e r m ar k e t i s l a rge s a la r i e s a r e n o t a b l y h i g h e r t h a n E c uador an d e x po s u r e t o E ur o pea n l ea g ue s i s m a x i m i z ed like you. They from Ecuadorian, just go to Brazil if you get the chance. Christian, 29 I played in Argentina. They were really nic e and accommodating, but I was so self conscious out there because I felt like the only black person in my city. I was definitely the only black person on the team. They spoke differently than I did, they ate different food, and it was cold out there. Ther e was never any for a few years, and after my performance in the World Cup, they signed me in Brazil. Very different than Argent Brazil) just works so differently than here. Fabr icio, 34 many black people in that country, but they do speak the same language, and their food was good too. The people were very nice and accommodating. Now you see more black pla yers from Colombia, Peru, Brazil and from parts of Central America playing in Mexico. I remember when Estupian was the only black player in Mexico back in the 80s. At least I had some black teammates. That made it easier. Along with the language. Not to m ention that I played well, so you have fans. I never saw any racism towards me, and that was different than in Ecuador. William, 40 T ho se t h a t w en t to E uro p e e c h o e d s i m il a r c o n c l u s i on s. D e s p i te j ourn a l i s t i c a n d sc ho l a r l y m a t er i a l o n th e s u b j e ct o f E urope a n ra c i sm m an i f e st e d b y fan s an d s o c i e ty re la t i n g t o s por t s t h e re s po n den ts i n t h i s s tu d y d i d n e e i t t ha t w a y, o r c ho s e no t t o

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60 m en t i o n i t i n m y i n t er v i e w s.. No ne t h e l e ss, E u rop e w a s e x a l t e d a s a c on t i n en t o f n a ti on s a n d l eag u e s tha t w er e fr i e n d l y, an d to t a l l y o p e n t o b lack s o cc e r p l a y er s. M an y t h a t w en t to E n g l and Hol l an d an d S p a in, r e m a i ne d lo n g e n oug h t o c l a i m c i t i z en s h i p o r r e s i d en c y a s i g n o f a ss i m il a ti o n i n to t h e i r ho st s o c i e ty. E urop e a n t ea m s ar e gener a l l y be t t e r s u i t e d t o pro v i d e a d d i t i on a l b ene f i ts t o p l a y e r s s u ch a s a ct i n g a s i n t e r m ed i a r i e s f o r fa m il y v i s a s be c o m i n g a s upp o r t n e t w or k t o a s s i st i n l a n g u ag e l ea r n in g h o u s i n g a c qu i sitio n a n d c u l t u r a l a d ap t a t i o n B i g ge r b udge ts a l low f o r a ll t h i s a n d m ore T h i s i s no t a l w a ys th e c a se fo r L a t i n A m er i c a n tea m s. O u tsi d e th e s o cc e r f i e l d s, m y r e s pond e n ts p r a i s e d th e orde r a n d d i s c i p l i n e o f E ur o pean s, an d g ene r a l l y f ra m e d the i r ad m i ra t i o n f o r tho s e c oun t r i e s b y h i g h l i gh t i n g th e i r o p i n i on s o f E c u ado r a s a ba ck w ard s s o c i e ty. T h e p l a y er s repea t e d l y und e r s c o r e d tha t l i f e i n E ur o p e w a s s a f e r a n d m or e d y na m i c tha n w ha t E c uado r c o u l d e v e r pro v i d e I was in Scotland and England. Those places are so too. They were curious ab out where I was from, what my culture is about, and the between there and here especially because I know the language and my wife likes it in England. But as a profes You want the biggest stage very supportive. It took me a little while to adapt, but they gave me that opportunity to do so, and it I was recruited directly out to Holland. I was really young when I left to go there. I spent most of my career playing in their top league, so I definitely have a good understandin g of how life is out there. Now I can speak Dutch, be closer to my extended family, but would go back without thinking twice. If

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61 quality of education is better. If the opportunity is given, why not take it. They are more likely to accept you regardless of your skin color over th another world. Luis, 29 W h e n the y r e t u r n t o E c ua d or r e s pon d e n ts a r e c augh t i n be t w ee n th e c u l t ur a l nor m s o f t w o s o c i e t i e s On o n e s i de t he y be c a m e a ss i m il a t ed o r a t l ea s t a cc u l t u ra t e d to l i f e i n th e ir ho st c oun t r y. I n t h e ir o p i n i o n s, r a c i sm w a s no t a n i ss ue a n d th e ir fa m i l i e s gener a l l y h a d a n ea s i e r t i m e de v e l o p i n g a c a r ee r o r c on t i n u i n g th e i r edu c a t io n F o r t he m E c uado r be c a m e a v a c a t i o n s i t e o r a p lace fo r ( s e m i ) per m anen t re s i d e n c e Res ponden ts agr e e d th a t t he y c o u l d n o l o ng e r s e e E c uad o r i n t h e s a m e w a y the y d id w he n the y l i v e d the r e New e x per i en c e s an d e x p o s ur e t o d i f f e ren t s o c i a l nor m s an d beha v i or s m a k e s the m c r i t i c a l o f t h e t h i ng s E c uado r i an s s t i ll en c ou n t e r o n a d a i l y ba s i s re g i on a l i s m ra c i s m po v er ty, e tc. T h e c on t e x t o f a ne w s o c i e ty a l l o w e d the m t o s te p ba ck an d c r itiq u e w ha t t he y s a id w a s on ce i n v i s i b l e t o the m from the stands. I know those are the ignorant ones. Not all of Ecuador is like that, bu t as a professional you have to block out those negative people that are trying to get you riled up and focus on doing the best you can for your team. I remember in Holland my black teammates had white girlfriends humiliation. They are just a more forward thinking society over there. There has made an effort to fight racism, and is starting to ban fans that are found T her e ar e a l s o e x pe ct a t i on s t h a t s u cc e ss in s o cc e r w ou l d l e a d t o s o ci a l c han g e W hen I came back to Ecuador for a call up to play in Quito for the national team, I felt like I came to a different world. It was the same place I lived in, but everything seemed so strange. I got so used to being away that something as simple as the bad drivers really started to fru strate me. Then I went to the

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62 in Ecuador. In Europe and in our profession, we always hear about the Anti Racism and Fair Play campaigns, in Ecuador you hear about it, too but there second class citizen. We gave the nation so many joys by playing soccer, and the space they opened for us we thought would start to fix the social problems that my people faced. Apparently it was only for those that were me a long time to get used to how things were over here. Eduardo, 38 E sc ap i n g po v e r ty an d c rea t i n g a ne w l i fe i s t h e p r i m ar y goa l o f m o st re s pon d en ts. A l t ho u g h th e r e a r e v ar y i n g de g r ee s o f po v er ty a m on g tho se i n t er v i e w ed m an y agre e tha t t h e r e w a s a n a t t r a c t i o n t o s o cc e r fo r i ts m one y m a k i n g po t en t ial tha t ou t w e i ghe d o t he r o p p o r t u n i t i e s. W h a t e x i sts i s a gen e r a l fru s t r a t i o n a m on g w i th th e m ono t on y o f rur a l l i f e w h i c h m ad e i t ea s i e r t o m a ke the i r f i r st m o ve t o b i gg e r c i t i e s i n E c uado r be f or e m a k i n g t h e l ea p to i n t e rna t i o n a l l e a gue s Re s pond e n ts e c h o e d th e hard s h i p s o f po v e r ty a n d th e f e e l i n g o f hop e l e ss ne ss w he n the y r e a l i z e d tha t th e i r c o mm un i t i e s r e m a i ne d n o t a b l y u nder d e v e l op e d a s o t h e r p a r ts o f t h e c oun t r y c h a nged In E l J un c a l an d n e i ghb o r i n g v i l l age s th e se yo un g m e n i n th e ir m i d t een s p lay s o cc e r in t h e v a c an t d i r t f i e l d u nd e r th e P a n a m er i c a n h ig h w a y br i d g e tha t pa ss e d t hro u g h th e ir c o mm un i ty. O f te n w i th n o s h o e s o r a p r ope r b a l l t he y w ou l d s pen d a ll da y p l a y i n g t o pa ss th e t i m e In th e e a r l y 19 9 0 s, a r e c r u i t i n g r e v o l u ti o n s h o o k u p E c ua d o r i a n s o c c e r a n d m or e A f r o de sc e n d a n ts m o v e d i n to th e ran ks ba s e d o n a m or e E uropea n sy s t e m o f sc ou t i n g an d t a l en t nur t u r i ng M on t e neg r in c oa ch D u s s a n D ra sk o v i c, c o n s i de r e d th e gra n d f a t h e r o f m oder n E c uado r i a n f oo t b a l l t ra v e l e d t h e c o un t r y o v e r t o f i n d p l a y e r s tha t fit t h e s t y l e o f s o cc e r h e w i s he d t o i m p l e m en t. M or e an d m or e m e n w er e r e c r u i t e d f r o m r e m o te area s l i ke S a n Loren z o t h e V a l l e d e l C ho t a a n d o t h e r on ce f org o t te n a rea s. M an y o f h i s e a r l y s i g n i n g s w er e par t o f t h e o ld e r gene r a t i o n o f r e s pon d en ts i n t h i s s tud y o r

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63 s o m e o f t he i r r e l a t i v e s a n d pe e r s. T h e d a r k e n ing skin c o l o r o f E c uad o r i a n t e a m s c ou l d b e no t e d thr o ughou t th e n e x t t w o de c ade s w i th v ar y i n g d egr e e s o f c o n t r o v e r sy. W ha t w a s no t deba t a b l e w a s th e s u c c e s s an d de v e lo p m en t o f E c uador ian s o cc e r E a r l y t a l e n ts l i ke A gu s t i n D e l g ad o a n d I v a n H ur t a d o w ou l d f i r st b e s en t t o M e x i co fo r s e v er a l s ea s on s be f or e s i g n ing m a j o r c on t r a cts i n E ng l a n d an d S p a in, r e s pe c t i v e l y. D e l g ad o w a s th e f i r st E c u a do r i a n t o s i g n a c on t ra ct w i t h a n E n g l i sh c l u b an d be c a m e th e m o st e x pen s i ve t r an sf e r i n t h e h i st or y o f E c uad o r i a n s o cc er K l eb e r C h a l a j o in e d h i s c o u s i n A gu st i n i n E n g l an d f o r a br i e f p e r i o d o n th e sa m e te a m t o tr y fa ci l i t a t i n g adap t a t i on Iv a n Hu r t ad o p lay e d f o r s e v e r a l tea m s i n M e x i c o S pa i n C o l o m b i a S au d i A ra b i a an d t h e U A E be f or e r e t ur n i n g to p l a y i n E c uador E d i s o n M ende z p l a y e d pro f e s s i on a l l y i n E c uado r be f or e b e i n g s i g n e d t o a s t r i n g o f M e x i c a n c l u b s an d the n s i gn i n g w i th a D u tch c l u b t ea m w her e h e s pe n t s e v e r a l s ea s on s b e f or e r e t ur n i n g t o p l a y in E c uad o r J o se V a l en c i a w a s r e c r u i t e d d i re c t l y f r o m E c uado r t o p lay i n H o l l an d f o r s e v er a l D u t c h c l ub s be f or e s e c u r i n g a pa ss t o Ger m an y an d f i n a l l y r e t u r n ing t o E c u a dor U l i s e s De L a C r u z be c a m e th e f i r st E c u ado r i a n t o s i g n w i t h a S c o t t i s h c l u b b e f or e m o v i n g t o E n g l an d an d c on ti n u i n g h i s c ar e e r th e r e un t il h e m o v e d ba ck t o E c uador N e i c e r R ea s co p l a y e d in A rgen t i n a a n d B ra z il a n d s pen t c on s i de r a b l e t i m e a s c ap t a i n f o r a l o c a l c l u b tea m i n Q u i t o G i o v a n n y E s p in o za p l a y e d i n E c ua d or M e x i c o Hol l and B ra z i l E n g l and an d Chi l e b e f or e r e t u r n i n g to E c uad o r E dua r d o H ur t ad o p lay e d i n E c u a do r b e f o r e s e c u r i n g t r an sf e r s t o S w i tz e r l a n d C h i l e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s, A rgen t i n a S c o tl and an d C o l o m b i a w i th i n t er m i t ten t r e t urn s t o E c uad o r o n l o a n t o c on ti nu e p l a y i n g w h i l e o n c on t r a ct abroad W h i l e no t a ll t h e a f o re m en t i on e d m e n ar e c o m m i t te d t o s o c i a l j u st i c e t h i s i s t h e genera t ion tha t en c o m pa ss e s th e no t a b l e a ge n ts o f c ha n g e a n d s ee ks t o pa ss i t o n t o t ho se o t h e r p l a y e r s w h o ar e n o w m or e f a m ou s an d be t t e r s u i t e d t o c o n t i nu e a pro c e ss

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64 o f s o c i a l r e n o v a t i on E a ch p l a y e r m en t i on e d i s o f A f r o de sc e n t an d i s o v e r 3 0 y ear s o ld. T he se m e n pro v i d e t h e m ode l c ar e e r t h a t y ou n ge r t a le n ts l i ke C h r i s ti a n B e n i t e z (25 ) A n t o n i o V a l en c i a (26 ) Ch r i s t i a n No b o a (25 ) J o f f r e G u erro n (2 7 ) J e f f e r s o n M on t e r o ( 2 2) F e l i p e Ca i c e d o (2 3 ) J a i m e A y o vi ( 2 3 ) a n d m an y o t her s s ee k t o r e p l i c a t e w i th th e tran s f er s abroad T h e pre v i o u s l y m en t i one d n a m e s ar e th e ne w s tar s an d t h e s u b st an t i a l l y r i c he r group bu t t h e ir pa t h w a s l a i d o u t b y t h e o l d g uard W h a t c on t i nu a l l y re s on a t e d i n m an y i n t e r v i e w s w i th o ld e r p lay er s w a s th e d i s i l l u s i on m en t w i th th e p e r s i st en t po v er ty an d m arg i n a l i z a ti o n o f t h e i r h o m e t o w n s, w h i ch c o m pr i se l arg e pop u l a ti on s o f A f r o de s c endan ts. I n a l a r ge r s en s e t h e m e ss ag e t he y c on v e y e d w a s t h e id e a t h a t b l a ck p eo p l e i n E c ua d o r n eede d to be c o m e the ir o w n agen ts o f c hang e if t h e g o v ern m en t an d s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i on s c o n ti nu e t o i gno r e the m T h i s i s w her e th e cl ou t o f s o cc e r p lay er s be c o m e s a n a ss e t w h i ch i s re c o g n i z e d a n d tap p e d i n t o When I played in England, I gave a share of my salary to my town. We set up a foundation where my contributions were collected to remove the boulders blocking roads, paving them afterwards, setting up a clinic, school, and a gymnasiu m. Looking at how life was in Europe compared to what I lived as a youth in Ecuador, it really opened my eyes to the injustices. Where was the government in all of this? It was only after I started doing things and the national team started getting some go od results did people start to take notice. Now I can enter any ministry, go right to the front of the line and talk Eduardo, 38 The first thing I did with my first paycheck from living abroad was to take my parents out of Carpuela. I bought them a house in Ibarra, which is close house. I was so proud to do that. Later on, I helped to bring other servic es with the help of the government. The problem is that they give us a lot of did 20 years ago when I first left there. I can only do so much though. People

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65 need to find ways to organize and unify their voice so people can take notice. The president visited and we inaugurated that grass field with lights to play at night. Floods broke through the fence a Conclusion T her e i s a g r ea t d i f f eren ce in th e re s p o n s e s b e t w ee n p l a y e r s tha t ha ve t ra v e l e d abroa d an d t h o se w h o ar e j u st st ar t i n g th e i r c areer s an d h a ve ne v e r l e f t C o n t e x t m a t ter s grea t l y in t h i s d i sc u s s i o n an d the r e f o r e e v er yt h i n g fro m per s on a l e x pe r i en c e s to pu b l i c p e r c ep t i o n p l a y a r o l e i n t h e w a y th e se m e n i n t erp r e t t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s i n E c uador T ho se w i th n o o t h e r f ra m e o f re f ere n ce be s i de s t h e E c uad o r ian sys te m ar e m o st li k e l y t o a c c ep t a m e ss ag e o f e q u a l i ty a n d r a c i a l h a r m on y. T ho se a f f o rde d th e oppor t u n i ty to p l a y ab r oa d ha v e a b road e r p e r s pe ct i v e t o a ddre ss a pr ob l e m l i ke ra c i sm an d tra c e o t h e r p r o b l e m s a ss o c i a t e d w i t h i t. T h e c on c l u s i o n i s t h a t, d e s p i te t h e d i v e rgen t m e ss age s g i v e n b y r e s p onden t s i n t erna ti o n a l e x per ie n c e s a n d ag e m a t te r grea t l y. A s p l a y e r s i n c r ea s i n g l y l ea v e th e c ou n t r y a t y o ung e r age s an d i n g rea t e r nu m ber s, t h e i n t ern a ti on a l e x pe r i en c e w i ll s u r e l y p ro m p t p l a y e r s t o a d op t a pro g re s s i ve c o m m i t m en t to i m pro v i n g th e l o t o f A f r o E c u a do r i an s, a l t houg h t h i s i s no t a fo r egon e c on c l u s io n A r e c en t a r t i c le pu b l i s h e d b y a p o pu l a r s o cc e r ne w s w eb s i te i n E c uad o r f o r e x a m p l e quo t e d 2 3 y e a r o l d F e l i p e C a i c e d o s a y i n g h e d i d no t b e l i e v e r a c i sm c on t i n ue d to e x i st i n E c uad o r Cu r i o u s l y, h e w a s o n t h e r e c e i v i n g en d o f a w e ll p u b li s he d ra c i st a f fron t ag a i n st h i m s e l f a t a r e s t aur a n t i n G u a y aqu i l N o w i n R u s s i a a c oun t r y k no w n fo r ha v i n g de a l t w i t h s e v e r a l bou ts w i t h r a c i sm i n t h e s tand s, h e s t i cks t o th e m e ss age W h i l e A f r o E c uad o r ia n s g e ner a l l y d o no t ha ve t h e m ean s t o i m m i gra te l i ke th e ir i n d i g enou s, m e st i z o an d w h i te c oun t e rpa r ts, t her e i s a l so no t m u ch o f a s en se o f f l i gh t i n t h e i r c o m m un i t i e s T h e a ct u a l re c r u i t ing p r o c e ss s tar ts a t ea r l y age s i n E c u a dor an d

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66 t h e bu s i ne ss m ode l o f i n t e rna t i o n a l s o cc e r m a k e s i m m i gra t i o n a v er y r e a l po s s i b i l i ty a n d drea m fo r m o st pro f e ss i o n a l s o cc e r p lay er s. T h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l d i sc u ss in g r ea t e r de t a i l t h e t he m e s o f na t i o n a l i sm an d nonb lack fan s t o s e e t h e o t he r s ide o f t h i s c a se st ud y.

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67 CHAPTER 4 SOCCER TEAMS, CONTES TED NATIONALISM, AND FANS Contested Nationalism and Identity L i t e ra t u r e o n s o cc e r f a n s i n E c ua d o r d o e s no t e x i st. J our n a l i s t i c a cc oun ts o f c ro w d r ea c t i on s ha v e be e n pu b l i s h e d bu t t h e y ar e s h o r t a n d l a ck an a l y t i c a l dep t h Des p i te t h i s l i m i t a t i o n I w i ll a r gu e t h a t t h e pu b l i c be h a v i o r o f s po r ts f an s i s p ar t l y a re f l e c t i o n o f t h e b roa d e r l a ck o f c ohe s i o n an d na ti on a l i de n tity i n E c uad o r a s n o t e d i n t hre e b oo ks o n t h e to p i c o f E c uad o r i a n n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y : Re m a k i n g th e N a t i on : P lac e I den t i ty, an d P o l i t i cs i n La t i n A mer i ca w r i t te n b y S ara h R ad c l i f f e in 199 6 L a I d en t i da d Nac i ona l e n E c uador : u n A c er c am i en to P s i c o s o c i a l a la C on st r u cc i n N a c i ona l w r i t te n i n 1 99 8 b y M ar t h a T ra v er s o Y epe z a n d R ac e E t hn i c i ty, an d P o wer i n E c uador : T h e Man i pu la t i o n o f Me sti z a je b y K ar e m R o i t m a n ( 2009 ) T h r e e ad d i t io n a l e ss a ys ( A dou m 2000 ; P are j a 200 0 ; an d C h ar v e t 200 4 ) s i m il a r ly po int t o t h e c oun t r lack o f a c le a r na ti on a l i de n tity. T h e r ea s on s f o r th e l a c k o f c o he s i o n a r e m an y, an d i n c l u d e t h e a b s en ce o f c o mm o n e x pe ri en c es w h i ch m a k e s i t d if f i c u l t to c onne ct t h e u n iq u e c u l t u re s f o un d w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y. E c ua d or h o r t h i st o r y s i n ce i n depe n den ce i s c o n s i de r e d an o t he r k e y fa ct o r t ha t m a k e s th e m ean i ng f u l d e v e l o p m en t o f a s en se o f c o m m un i ty d i f f i c u l t ( A dou m 200 0 an d C h ar v e t 20 0 4) E c ua d or n a m e i ts e l f i s a geo g rap h i c re f e r en ce w i th E uropea n or i g i n s w her e a u n i t i n g s e n se o f i de n t i ty i s t o o h e a v il y i n f l uen c e d b y o u tsi d e f or c e s ( R a d c l iffe a n d W e st w ood 199 6 ) A do u m ( 2000 ) c l a i m s tha t a m or e a cc ura te na m e ba s e d o n l o c a l h i st or i c a l e v en ts w ou l d ha ve bee n m or e appro p r ia te D i f f e ren t c on c ep ts a r e t i e d t o th e na m e w h i ch un d er m i ne s th e s t reng th o f t h e na m e i n na t i o n a l i m ag i na t i on a cc or d ing t o P a re j a ( 2000 ) If t r u e pa t r i o t i sm i s c on s i d e re d w ea k, a u n itin g

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68 f or ce c a n b e r e g i o n a l pr i de w h i ch fa c t i on a l i z e s th e na t i o n a cc o r d i n g t o A dou m ( 2000) Re g i o n a l i sm i s a c o mm o n the m e a m on g a l l a u t hor s. Q u i t o an d G ua y aq u il ar e b y f a r t h e m o st i m p o r t an t c i t i e s b u t p l a y d iff er e n t r o l e s Q u i t o i s th e p o l it i c a l c en t e r a n d Gua y a q u il i s t h e f i n an c i a l c e n t er E a c h c i ty s ee s i ts purpo se a s m or e i m por t an t t ha n th e o t her D i s c r i m i na t i o n be t w ee n r e g i o n s i s v i si b l e an d r e g io n a l p r e j ud i c e s c o n t r i bu t e t o c o n t en t i o u s p o l it i c s. E t h n i c d i v i s i on s p lay i n to t h e a t te m p t to bu i l d a na t i o n a l id en t i ty. In t h i s p ro c e ss, t h e m e st i zo na t ion ha s g a i ne d m a i n st r ea m a cc ep t an c e a t t h e e x pen se o f o t he r i den t i t ies ( Ch a r v e t 2 0 04) T h e s t a t e l e d v i s i o n w a s s ee n a s a n i n c l u s i ve w a y t o d ra w in c i t i z e n s an d b u i l d n a t io n a l i den t i t y ( Ro i t m a n 2009 ) bu t i t a l s o e x c l ud e d A f r o E c u a do r i an s a n d i n d i g e nou s p eo p l e s w h o don f i t t h e m e st i zo par a d ig m P opu l a r i n d i g e nou s m o v e m en ts s i n ce t h e l a te 1980 s ha ve tur n e d th e no t i o n o f m e st i z a j e s upr e m a cy o n i ts h ea d I n d i gen o u s c i t i z en s be c a m e t i re d o f t h e ir m arg i na l i z a t ion an d beg a n t o o rga n i ze in s up p or t o f t h e i r r e c og n i t i o n P o l it i c a l c han g e s ha ve bee n e f fe c t e d b y t h e se m o v e m en ts, an d toda y t he y ar e c on s i de r e d t o b e a n i m por t an t v o i ce i n l eg i sla t i ve de c i s i o n s. A f r o E c uado r ia n s a r e s i m il a r l y g a i n i n g v i s i b i l i t y i n pop u l a r c u l t u r e e s p e c i a l ly i n s por ts a s a m ean s t o c h a l l eng e t h e m e st i z a j e d ial og b u t w i t hou t t h e s o c i a l an d po l i t i c a l s u cc e ss a c h i e v e d b y i n d ig enou s peo p l e s. T h i s i s p a r t l y du e t o th e ir s m a l l nu m ber s an d th e i r p h ys i c a l i s o l a t i o n i n r e m o te par ts o f t h e c o un t r y. T h e v a r io u s au t h or s a gre e tha t un i qu e ra c i a l id en t i t i e s ha v e und e r m i ne d th e l ong s t an d i n g a t te m p t to b u i l d a n a t i on a l i d e n t i t y ba s e d o n na t i o n a l sy m bo l s l i ke f la g s, t h e s h i e l d a n d th e na t i o n a l an t he m In ad d i t ion t o the s e sy m bo l s, w h i ch s o m e au t hor s t h i n k ar e o v eru s e d ( A dou m 2000) E c ua d o r a lso fi nd s a d egre e o f i de n tity i n i ts

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69 oppo s i t i o n t o P eru A f t e r s e v e r a l w ar s an d b o r de r d i s pu t e s w h i ch l e d to th e loss o f na ti on a l t e r r i t o r y, E c uad o r ha s f oun d a deg r e e o f u n i t y i n i ts r i v a l r y w i th P e ru de s p it e o r perhap s be c au se o f t h e fe e l i ng s o f l o ss a n d d e f ea t. S o cc e r w i th th e e m o t i on a l i n t en s i ty a ss o c i a t e d w i th w i n n ing o r l o s i ng b e c o m e s a n i m por t an t st a g ing g r oun d w her e i d ea s an d fru s t ra t i on s t i e d t o na t i o n an d s o c i e ty f i n d e x pre ss i on Language In an y s po k e n l an g uage c on t e x t m a t ter s. F l u en cy i s a l so j udge d b y h o w w e l l on e under st a nd s th e s ub t l e t i e s an d i d i o s y n c ra s i e s o f v erb a l c o mm un i c a t i on A n d in th e E c uado r i a n c a s e i t i s ne c e ss ar y t o an a l yze t h e c on t e x t w i t h i n w h i ch c o m m en ts ar e m ad e b y fan s t o gra sp t h e m ean i n g o f k e y t e rm s. T er m s l i ke r o c a n b e i n t e r c ha n gea b l y u s e d a s e i t he r a po s i t i ve o r n ega t i ve qu a l i f i e r De p en d i n g o n i ts u s a ge t h e w or d c a n r e s ona te nega t i ve a ss u m p t i on s t ha t ar e ra c i st i n t on e a n d m ean i ng o r th e w or d c a n b e u s e d a s a t e r m o f pra i s e T h ere f o re to f u l l y und e r st an d t h e m an i f e st a t i o n o f ra c i a l l y c h a rge d la ngua g e an d ra c i s m on e need s t o under s t an d c o m m un i c a t i o n a s a pro c e ss o f lay er e d s o c i a l i n t e ra c t i on s an d c o n t e x t ua l i z a t i on s t o a cc u r a t e l y i n t e rpr e t w ha t peo p l e s a y. The Stadium and Crowd T h e s ta d iu m be c o m e s a s o c i a l ga t he r i n g p o i n t b r i n g i n g th i s r e s e ar ch t o a t y p e o f u ll c i r c l e w her e w e c a n p rob e ho w an d w h y i n t o le r an t beha v i o r e x i sts a g a i n st A f r o E c uado r i a n s o c c e r p l a y er s ( an d t h e ir c o m m u n i ty ) T h e s ta d i u m en v i r o n m en t i s a n a re a o f c on t e st e d o p i n i o n s an d t en s i on s a n d i n c o n s i st en c i e s i n w ha t i s bo th s e e n an d s po k e n regar d ing i ss ue s o f ra c e na t i o na li s m an d i d e n t i ty. M u ch o f t h e beha v i o r i s a c on s equen c e o f t e a m per f or m an ce an d th e e b b an d f l o w o f t h e c ro w d a t t i t ude S o cc e r in E c uad o r i s a s p o r t p r o f e s s i on a l l y p lay e d b y m e n o f d i v er se s k i n co l or s an d r a c e s bu t

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70 m o st pro f e s s i o na l p l a y er s ar e A f r o de sc e n dan ts. On th e o t he r hand a s a s pe ct a t o r s por t, th e c ro w d i s c o m po s e d p r i m a r i l y o f m e st i z o s an d w h i t e s. W ha t b e t te r w a y t o s e e th e c on t ra d i c t i o n i n per c ep t i on s o f na ti on a l i de n tity t ha n s tan d i n g a l ong s i d e a c ro w d tha t i s o v er w he l m i n g l y n o n b l a ck, si n g ing a na t i o n a l an t he m an d c hee r i n g a tea m t ha t i s pr e do m i na t e l y c o m po s e d o f A f r o de sc e ndan ts? T he r e ar e fe w s o c i a l g a t he r in g s t ha t so po w er f u l l y e x pre s s a na t i on a l i s t i c s en t i m en t to th e e x t en t t ha t c a n l i t e r a l l y par a l yze t h e c oun t r p r odu c t i v i ty f o r s e v e r a l hour s, w her e t h e da a s h i o n i s t h e na ti on a l j er s e y, t h e p o l i ce c l o se s t ree ts, th e i n f o r m a l s e ct o r c h u rn s o u t m er c hand i s e w h i ch i s ra p i d l y p ur c h a s e d a n d s tre e t ad v e r t is i n g c a m pa i gn s b y m a j o r c orpora t i on s a r e a ll l i n k e d ba ck t o r e c o gn i z a b l e sy m bo l s o f na t io na l p r i d e s u ch a s na t i on a l co l or s, s ong s, an d per s on a l i t i e s A t tend ing na t i o n a l tea m s o cc e r m a tc he s i s a p a st i m e frequen t e d m a i n l y b y tho s e t ha t c a n a f for d t o pa y t h e r e la t i v e l y h i g h tick e t pr i c e s. W h i l e t i ck e t p r i c e s f o r c l u b m a tc he s c a n g o fo r a s l o w a s $3 I p a i d $ 2 0 f o r a t i ck e t f o r th e na t i o n a l t ea m equ i v a l e n t. T h e h i g h e r pr i c e s a r e d u e to p r o m o t er s an d t h e na t i on a l s o cc e r f e der a ti o n w h o re c og n i ze t h e p ro f i t to b e m ad e fro m the se ga m e s. I t a l so th e h i g he st p r o f i l e m a tch no t a ss o c i a t e d w i th a n i n t e rna t i o n a l t ou r na m en t t ha t i s n ho st e d b y th e s o cc e r f ede r a t i o n o r l o c a l c l u b tea m s. T h e i n f r e quen t o cc u r ren ce o f t he se ga m e s d r i v e s c o sts u p a s w e l l A n un i n t end e d c on s e q uen ce i s p r i c i n g ou t a s i z a b l e pro p or t i o n o f po t en t i a l bu y er s a n d c a t e r i n g t o a n a u d i en ce t ha t i s e a ge r an d w i l l i n g t o pa y a h i gh e r p r i c e T h e c r o w d tha t a t ten d e d bo t h m a tc h e s i n Q u i t o w a s o v er w he l m i ng l y m e st i zo a n d w h i t e In m y a r e a I c o u l d n o t s e e on e s p e ct a t o r w h o w a s a n A f ro de sc end a n t, a l t h oug h a m a w ar e tha t s o m e w er e i n a t t end a n ce i n d i f f eren t p ar ts o f th e s t ad i u m Ov era l l t h e propo r ti o n i s so l o w t ha t o n e c a n c on f i de n t l y st a te tha t t h e i r pre s en c e w a s v i r t u a l l y none x i st en t T h e s t a d i u m s epara t e s p eo p l e b y th e i r a b i l i ty t o pa y. T h e l e a st de s i r e d a n d

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71 m o st a f fordab l e s ea ts a r e d i r e c t l y be h i n d bo th go a l s, a s e c t ion c a l l e d G ener a l A l o n g t h e s i d e l i ne s, s e c t i on s a r e c a l l e d P r e f er e n an d o f f e r th e be st v i e w s. B o th Gen e r a l an d P re f e ren c i a d o no t p ro v i d e s ea ts w i th b a c k re sts. T h e m o st e x pen s i ve t i ck e ts t h a t aren p r iva t e v i e w i n g s u i t e s b e lo n g t o t h e P a a s e c t i o n pop u l a t e d b y w ea l t h y fan s an d e x e c u t i v e s. A l t houg h no t a l w a ys th e c a s e t her e i s u s u a l l y a c l e a r c o l o r l ine t h a t de fi ne s w h o s i ts w here Ecuador U 20 vs. Panama U 20 It w a s a s unn y a f t e rnoo n in Q u i to o n J un e 2 5 201 1 w he n I w en t w i th s e v er a l c ou s i n s t o a dou b l e hea d e r a t t h e s t a d ium t o w a tch th e U 2 0 an d pro f e s s i on a l m en t ea m p l a y f r i en d l y m a tc he s ag a i n st P a n a m a an d M e x i c o re s pe c t i v e l y Lea d ing u p t o t he se a f t e rno o n s i n Q u i t o p o l i ce c l o se i m por t an t st r e e ts, an d th e w a v e s o f y e l l o w j er s e ys i n d i c a te to fan s an d n on f an s a li k e tha t th e na t i o n a l tea m i s p l a y i ng T he s e ar e t h e da ys w he n ar g ua b l y t h e m o st na t i on a l i s t i c s en t i m en ts ar e e x h i b i t ed an d t h i s o cc a s i o n w a s n o e x c ep t i o n F l ag s dru m s, f i r e w or ks, bu i l d i n g s i z e d b a nner s an d o t he r i n s t ru m en ts c e l e b ra te a no t h e r da y o f na t i o na l pr id e T h e b e e r c on s t an t l y f l o w s an d t h e c han t i n g g e ts l oud e r Q u e se par e E c uador ( E c uado r S t an d U p ) V a m o s E c ua t o r i ano s. E sta T a rd e T ene m o s Qu e Ga n a r ( L e G o E c uad o r T h i s a f t e rnoo n w e ha ve t o w i n E c uad o r E c uad o r E c uad o S i se p u ed e ( Y e s W e C a n an d E c uado r s i e m pr e p r i m ero P r i m er o e n n u e st r o c ora z o n ( E c u a do r i s a l w a ys f i r st. A l w a ys f i r st i n ou r hear t s ) W ha t b e c o m e s qu i c k l y a p par e n t i s tha t the r e i s a g ro w i n g e x c i t e m en t abou t t h e t e a m per f or m an c e E c uador U 2 0 tea m i s ha nd il y de a l i n g w i t h P ana m a an d th e c r o w d r e s pond s w i th p l ea s u re Du r ing th e ga m e m an y peop l e s i t ti n g a roun d m e w er e k ee n t o d i ss e ct t h e d i f f eren ce be t w ee n the se y oun g E c u a do r i a n p l a y e r s an d t h e o n e s tha t w er e g o i n g t o

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72 p l a y ne x t. T h e U 20 a s s p e ct a t o r s no t e d w a s a y oun g t ea m hungr y fo r grea t e r e x po s ure T he y ar e s till n o t i n a po s i t i o n t o b e j ade d b y fa m e an d for t une an d a r e t here f o r e h e ld i n h i g h e st ee m b y fan s. T h e b e st p lay er s o n th e S u b 2 0 w er e h a i l e d fo r be i n g b l a cks w i th a m b i ti on a n d y oun g m e n tha t ar e t h e c o u n t r o o t b a l l i n g f u t u r e T a l king t o m y ne i g hbor s abou t w ha t m a k e s t h is t ea m so s u cc e ssf u l t h e r e s pond e n ts una n i m ou s l y no t e d t h e s u p e r i o r ph y s i qu e o f t h e y oun g m en t h e i m pro v e d c oa c h i ng an d th e p lay er a ir o f c o n f i den c e On ce t he y f oun d ou t tha t I ha d i n t er v i e w e d the s e s a m e p l a y er s, I w a s th e t a rge t o f a f l o o d o f q u e st i o n s abo u t t h e be h i n d t h e sc e n e s prepa r a t i on s. W a s I i n a p o sition t o c on f i r m tha t t h i s y ou n g s qua d w a s i nde e d th e p r i z e d j e w e l tha t e v e r y on e e x pe ct ed ? I t d i d n m a t ter Re gar d l e ss o f age it w a s e v i d e n t t ha t f an s s upp o r t e d t h e tea m B e c au se th e t ea m won so c on v i n c i n g l y n o o t he r pro b l e m s w er e apparen t A n d s i n ce t h i s w a s j u st t h e w ar m u p t o s ee i n g th e pro f e s s io n a l m en t ea m f an s h i g h l y a n t i cip a t e d s e e i n g t h e na t i o n be st t a ke o n M e x i c o Ecuador vs. Mex ico A n hou r l a t e r t h e m en pro f e ssio n a l na t io n a l t e a m bega n i ts e x h i b i t i o n m a tch aga inst M e x i c o na t i o n a l t ea m an d de s p i te f ie l d i n g th e s t ron g e r s q u ad E c uad o r l o st 1 0 T h e c ro w d re s pon se w a s o v er w h e l m i ng l y nega t i ve ( m or e t o f o l l o w ) T he y c h a n t e d i n u n i s o n t o ge t r i d o f t h e c oa c h an d t h re w p r o j e ct i l e s a t t h e p l a y er s. T h e en v i r o n m en t w a s ho t, an d w ou l d s u m u p th e s u m m er e x p er ie n ce w i th f an s a s t he y w a tc he d th e t ea m fa i l a t ho m e t o a bea t a b le opp o nen t. T h e e x h i b i t ion m a tch w a s E c uador l a st p re p ara t or y te st p r ior t o th e k i ck o f f o f t h e C op a A m er i ca i n A r g en t i n a sc h ed u l e d in t w o w ee i m e T h e ga m e bega n w i th h i g h e x pe ct a t i on s, a n d a s a l w a ys, p r i o r t o k i c k o f f w e s too d r e s p e ct f u l l y f o r th e na t i on a l an t he m A s th e s e a o f y e l l o w s h i r ts s an g t h e a n t he m I st are d a t te n t i v e l y a t o u r tea m o n t h e f i e l d 8 o u t o f 1 1 p l a y e r s w er e A f r o de sc e n dan ts. On ce

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73 ag a i n I s too d a m on g E c uado r i an s w h o e x ude d tr a d itio n a l p a t r i o t i sm b y w a v i n g f l ag s, si n g i n g t h e i r n a ti on a l an t he m an d s uppor t ing th e t ea m It w a s to o ear l y t o s e e an y ten s io n s, b u t on ce ag a i n t h e sy m bo li c i n c on s i st en cy b e t w ee n th e r a ci a l c o m po s i t i o n o f t h e t ea m an d w ha t E c uado r i an s p er c e i v e d t o b e a n au t hen t i c rep r e s en t a t i o n o f t h e ir c i t i z en s h i p w a s t e l e v i s e d t o t h e w or l d These guys always find a way to disa ppoint us. Sometimes I even wonder play one h undred percent. This is the type of stuff where we know they lack what the big teams have: intelligence. Daniel, 23 or Ecuador anymore. All they want is to get rich in another country, and this call up is a formality. No national pride. There was a time when our players, even the blacks, were humble. They forgot where they came from. It used to be their motivation. Jeff erson, 46 see them and want to uphold the respect that our flag commands. At least when we used to lose, we knew it was coming. Now they get our hopes up and we fall hard. The coach needs to go, and we should purge the team. Bring in patriots. The kids that are hungry for a chance should be all over this team. Pablo, 41 was ego Fernando, 39 There are too many leaders and not enough followers. The egos are big and mess. Juan Carlos, 20 Copa America: July 1 (3) July 24 (13), 2011 T h e C op a A m er i ca tour n a m en t i s ho st e d e v e r y fou r y e a r s b y t h e C on f e dera c ion

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74 S uda m er i c an a d e F u t b o l ( S ou th A m er i c a n F o o t b a l l Co n f e d era t i o n ) ( CON M EB O L ) b y a d i f f eren t c oun t r y o n t h e c on t i n en t. E c ua d or p ar t i cip a t i o n i n th e t o urna m en t h i s t o r i c a l l y ha s bee n d i s app o i n t in g a n d th e 201 1 s e a s o n w a s n o d i f f e ren t. P u b l i c b u i l d u p to th e Co p a A m er i ca w a s s obe r c o m pare d t o p r e vi o u s y ear s b e c au se t h e tea m w a s be i n g reb u i l t, a ne w c oa ch w a s h i r e d an d s c and a l s m arre d th e p la n n i n g bod y o f th e F E F A l t hou g h E c uad o r f a i l e d t o qu a l i fy f o r t h e 20 1 0 W o r l d C u p c o m pe t i t i o n t h i s t e a m i n c l u d e d e x pe r i en c e d v e t e r an s a n d t a l en t e d y oun g p l a y e r s. It c o u l d b e c on s i de r e d th e st r onge st t ea m e v e r f iel de d i n t h e c o u n t r h ist or y. W ith F I F A a i d t h e F E F ha d re c en t l y c o m p l e t e d th e C a sa d e l a S e l e c c i n t ra i n i n g fa c i l i ty i n Q u i t o a pro j e ct t ha t m agn i f i e d t h e tea m pre s t i ge T h e t o p t i e r tr a in i n g fa c i l i ty w a s f i n a l l y c o m p l e t e d fo r a t ea m tha t m an y peop l e agr e e d l on g de s e r v e d t he se l u x ur ies. T h e pu b l i c c o u l d no t a cc e ss th e fa c i l i ty, w h i c h w a s l o c a t e d o n a m o un t a i n s i d e a n d i s o l a t e d fro m th e r e st o f t h e c i ty. E v er y o n e w a s eage r t o s e e w ha t l u x ur i e s th e p l a y er s h a d o n t h e i n s i de Des p i te th e p u b l i city s u cc e ss o f t h e F E F w i th t h e C a sa d e la S e lecci n t h e pub l i c h e l d l i t t l e h op e o f a g o o d p e r f or m an c e M ora l e w a s l o w a f te r th e fa i lu r e i n 2010 an d fru s t ra t i on s b o i l e d o v e r i n t h e E c uad o r M e x i co m a tch aga i n st t ho se w h o c an n o t c arr y t h e w e i gh t o f ou r c oun t r F an s r ea ct e d nega t i v e l y t o t h e s i g n i n g o f R e i n a l do Ru eda a C o l o m b i a n c oa ch w h o l e d H on d ura s t o its f i r st e v e r W o r ld Cup p a r t i c i pa t i o n in 2010 F an s e x pre ss e d t h e i r d i s p le a s u r e w i th a no t he r C o lo m b i a n c oa ch w h o the y f e lt w a s un f i t to l e a d th e ca l ib e r o f p l a y e r s E c u ad o r ha d d e v e l ope d P u b li c s upp o r t w a s l u k e w ar m a t be st. A s tr ing o f dra w s an d de f e a ts unde r R ueda o n e y e a r s te w ard s h i p o f t h e na t i o n a l t ea m w a s c on s i d e re d a n e m barr a s s m en t an d te st a m en t to h i s i na b i l i ty t o l ea d F I F A w or l d sys te m r an k e d E c ua d o r 6 7t h w or l d w i d e a l e ss t h a n f l a t t e r i n g ran k i n g a cc or d i n g t o fan s. It w a s c o mm onp l a ce t o he a r fan s d i re c t i n g e p i t he ts a t Ru eda an d s por ts

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75 j ourn a l i sts w ou l d g r i l l h i m dur i n g pre ss c on f eren c e s. P eo p l e need e d a n e a r l y sc apegoa t, an d R u ed a w a s th e ta r ge t. I m m ed i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e l o ss t o M e x i c o t h e s outh s i d e o f t h e s t a d i u m erup t e d i n u n i t e d c h an ts, F uer a R ued a ( A w a y w i th Ru F an s w er e no t h a pp y w i th s o m e o f t h e p l a y er s h e c a l l e d u p t o th e o f f i ci a l 2 3 m a n r o st er an d r u m or s s prea d tha t th e F E F pre s i den t ha d a han d in t h e d e c i sio n Ru eda h o i ce o f i n d i v i du a l s ru m ore d t o b e a ss o c i a t e d t o agen ts l i n k e d t o F E F pre s i den t m ad e h i m appea r l i k e a p u ppe t i n th e m i n d o f f an s. F an s re f e r re d t o l a m an o negra ( t h e b l a ck h a nd ) t o de sc r i b e a l l eg e d c o rrup t i o n p o l i t i c k i ng an d fa v o r i t i sm o n th e na ti on a l t ea m be c au se t h ere n o tran s par e n c y i n t h e i r p ro c e ss. R u ed a n e v e r c o a c he d E c uado r i n a n o f f i c i a l m a tc h T he r e f or e f an s w ou l d r e l u c t an t l y g i ve h i m th e bene f i t o f t h e doub t to pro ve h i s w or th in th e C o p a A m er i c a I n f a ct, s o m e peo p l e w an t e d t o s e e E c uado r f a il a s a m ean s t o for ce t h e F E F in t o f i r i n g h i m pr i o r to th e W o r l d C u p Q u a l i f i er s f o r B ra z il i n 2 0 14 T h i s w a s th e c on t e x t o f t h e f i r st m a tc h w he n th e E c uado r i a n t e a m w a s s l o t te d i n G rou p B a l o ng s i d e B ra z i l V e n e z ue l a an d P a ragua y a d i f f i c u lt gr o up E c uado r w ou l d o n l y l a st t h rou g h th e g rou p s t a ge an d o n l y s pen t 1 0 da ys in c o m pe t i t i on Paraguay 0 0 Ecuador E c uador op e n ing m a tch w a s aga i n st P ar a g u a y o n J u l y 3 T h e ga m e ende d in a t i e It w a s a n i m pre ss i v e dra w be c au se o f P a r agua r o n g p e r f or m an ce in t h e W o r l d Cu p bu t t h e m a tch w a s no t v er y e x c i ti ng T h e ba r I w a tc he d t h e ga m e a t w a s e m o t i ona l l y f l a t an d d id n ee m l i ke a p lace t o w a tch a ga m e P eop l e w er e happ y E c uado r d i dn l o se th o ugh b u t w er e s t i ll f r u s t ra t e d a t th e i n ab i l i ty o f t h e tea m t o st r ing t oge t h e r pa ss e s an d m o ve for w ar d fo r s h o t s o n go a l I app r oa c he d a d i v er s e g r ou p o f f an s du r i n g th e ga m e fo r s hor t d i sc u s s io n s a b ou t m y r e s ear ch to p i c. R e a c t i on s w eren nega t i v e b u t t he y w eren po s i t i ve e i t h er E v e r y on e w a s an x i ou s abo u t t h e ne x t ga m e

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76 v er s u s V ene z u e la to s e e i f E c uad o r c a n q u a l i f y t o th e n e x t round e serious problems. Our guys are aging and in all honesty, the level of intelligent game Wellington, 25 Rueda is a joke. His ineptitude and calling up s are really starting to make me feel a little reluctant to keep supporting the team. It is our country and all, but we need them to step up. They look lost. Fran cisco, 25 These guys are obviously so concerned with everything th representing Ecuador that it shows when they play. On paper this is a better country anymore. Juan, 25 Venezuela 1 0 Ecuador On J u l y 9 E c uad o r h a d w ha t s por ts a n a l y sts c on s i d ere d th e v i t a l t i l t to q u a l i fy t o t h e ne x t roun d o f t h e C op a A m er i c a T h e ga m e w a s aga i n st V e n e z u e l a a tea m E c uado r ha s h i st o r i c a l l y d o m i na t ed T h e t r en d w a s bu ck e d fou r y e ar s a g o an d r e c e n t re s u l ts ha ve bee n in V ene z u e l a f a v or T h e g a m e too k o n e x t r a i m por t an ce be c a u se V enezu e l a v i ct o r i e s in th e 201 0 W o r ld Cup Q ua l i f y i n g to u rna m en t w er e par t l y t o b l a m e f o r E c uad o r a i l ur e t o c l a s s i fy. T h i s t i m e Q u it o bar s w er e l i v e l y a n d c u st o m er s f l o ck e d i n t o w a tch t h i s c ru c i a l qu a l i f y i n g m a t c h A f te r a v e r y l ou d r e c i t a t i o n o f t h e na ti on a l an t he m c han ts an d c h e er s o v e r t oo k t h e bar I ap p roa c h e d t w o ta b l e s o f f ou r peo p l e ea c h an d pro c e ede d t o a sk the m abo u t t h e b u i l d u p t o t h e ga m e an d ab o u t t h e ir op i n io n s o f t h e na t io n a l tea m b l a ck p l a y er s. Res pon s e s v a r ied a s t h e ga m e progre s s ed I i n t er v i e w e d th e p eo p l e a t on e ta b l e be f o r e h a l f t i m e an d th e o t he r du r i n g t h e s e c on d h a l f. B e f o r e h a l f t i m e re s pon d en ts a ct i v e l y deba t e d th e v i r t ue s a n d w ea k ne ss e s o f t h e t e a m T h e ag e b r ea k do w n o f t h e g rou p w a s ea r l y 3 0 s. Na t i o n a l i sm w a s a l w a ys under sc o r e d an d r a ce w a s e v o k e d t o s t i r m i x e d e m o t i on s.

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77 start hugging eac know each other (laughs). Those negros out in Argentina are representing Matteo, 31 S ure, what he just said is true, but at the same time you have to recognize walk down the street and Sara, 33 T h e ga m e r e m a i ne d sc or e less un t il t h e 6 1 s t m in u te w he n V ene z u e l a m ad e th e l on e go a l T h e b ar e n erg y i m m ed i a t e l y c ha n ge d an d peo p l e w er e v i s i b l y u p s e t. T h e ga m e hadn ended b u t f an s w er e a l read y p r e pa r i n g t h e m s e l v e s fo r a de f ea t A s in th e st ad iu m a n angr y an d f r u s t ra t e d l o n e v o i ce y e l l s s o m e t h i n g ou t f ro m th e ba ck o f t h e roo m Ru ed a y o u s o n o f a b i t ch A t t h a t m o m en t e v er y m i sc u e an d e rr o r tha t a p l a y e r m ad e w a s har s h l y c r it i c i z ed It w a s a s i f o n e s par k w a s neede d t o l e t l oo s e th e f ur y o f b l a m e s an d i n s u l ts. K i ck i t c orre c t l y y o u l a zy negro A g a i n ? G e t h i m ou t o f t her e T h e y pa y h i m m il l i on s fo r t ha t. U s e l e ss Du m b B e f or e h a l f t i m e ende d I s a t w i th a p ar ty o f s i x F an s r ange d be t w ee n th e a ge s o f 2 2 an d 2 9 T h e d i sc u s s i o n ha d a m or e ag g re s s i ve t on e t h a n th e fi r st i n t e r v i e w an d i n st e a d o f enga g i n g i n a c t i ve rou n d t a b l e d i s c u ss i on s, the y w er e m or e i n t ere st e d i n a sk i n g w h y E c uador ea m w a s so i n e f fe c t i ve an d ba d l y re p re s en t e d T h e a t m o s pher e s oure d w he n E c uad o r s ta r t e d l o s i n g T h e ga m e h ig h l i gh t e d th e c r it i c a l i de a o f ho w na ti on a l p r ide i s v i e w e d in th e m i nd s o f f an s V ene z u e l a w a s a bea t a b le op p o nen t. E c uado r ha s a h i st or y o f b e i n g s up e r i o r t o V e ne z u e l a i n s o c c er a n d fan s de s p e ra t e l y w an t e d s o m e t h i n g t o c he e r fo r Not o n l y w o u ld i t b e a d i s app o i n t m en t to l o s e i t w o u l d b e a d i s g r a c e M y r e s p o nden ts f e l t t h e ir na t i o n a l p r i d e t oo k a h i t tha t n ig h t a n d th e b l a m e neede d t o b e d i s t r i bu t e d

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78 a m on g m an y d i f f eren t peo p l e R e i n a l d o R u ed a w a s b l a m e d fo r b e i n g ano t he r c o a ch u s i n g th e C o lo m b i a n s t y l e w h i ch s ee m e d un c rea t i ve an d d u ll f o r E c uad o r a l en t e d p l a y e r s. A cc o r d i n g t o m y fan s, h e c l ea r l y fe l t t h e p r e ss ur e fro m th e F E F t o f a v o r s o m e p l a y er s abo ve o t h er s w h o w er e though t t o b e m or e de s er v i n g T h e o t h e r i ss u e t ha t a r o se w a s tha t E c uad o r w a s p l a y ing w i th s e v e r a l na ti on a l i z e d p lay er s t ha t w er e dee m e d to o o l d an d l a ck e d t h e pa s s ion t o rep r e s en t E c uador T h e y w er e v i e w e d a s i nau t h en t i c r e pre s en t a t i v e s, an d hen c e t h e rea s o n fo r f a i l u re F in a l l y, b l a ck n e ss i ts e l f w a s par t l y t o b la m e B l a ck p l a y e r s w er e a cc u s e d o f j ea l ou sy an d s e l f s a b o t ag e be c au se ego s c o l l ide in b i g ga m e s. T h e q uo te t ha t w a s repea t e d w a s t her e ar e t o o m an y l ead e r s a n d no t e n oug h f o l l o w er I k ne w th i s w a s g o i n g t o hap p en Ru e d a m a k e s u s th e l a ug h i ng s t o ck o f S ou th A m er i c a D i d y o u h e a r o n F o x S por ts h o w the y w er e c o m m en t e d o n t h e l inks be t w ee n C h i r i b o g a ( t h e p r e s i den t o f t h e F E F ) h i s b r o t he r an d s e v er a l p l a y e r s o n t h e t e a m ? A pparen t l y t h e b ro t he r r e p re s en ts 5 p l a y e r s o n th e t e a m O u t r ageou s. T w o o f t he m ar e o n th e f i e l d r ig h t no w an d t he r e c l e a r l y th e w ea k e st l i n ks. A r a u j o an d E l i z ag a ar e A r gen t i n e an s. No d i s r e s pe ct t o th e i r he r i t a ge b u t w ha t bu s i ne s s e s d o the y ha ve p l a y ing o n ou r tea m W e u s e d t o b e pu r e b l ood s o n th e n a t i o n a l tea m Is n tha t t h e po i n t? T ru e p a s s i on Now an y bod y c a n ge t o n ther e a f te r t a k i n g a n oa t h I don ar e if t he y p lay o n t h e i r c l u b t ea m s her e i n E c u a dor bu t n o t fo r t h e na ti on a l tea m P au l 2 3 S ee t h e p ro b l e m i s tha t t he r e ar e t o o m an y l eader s a n d no t eno u g h f o l l o w er s. T he se n egro s ha ve g o t te n t o o c o c k y. T he y a r e b i g t i m er s o n th e ir c l u b t ea m s, br i n g t ha t e g o o v e r t o t h e na t i o n a l t ea m an d on e c an e e m t o bu ck l e fo r t h e o t h er T he y l o o k thr e a t en e d b y ea ch o t h e r A t l ea st t ha w ha t I k ee p hea r i n g T h e ga m e i s n a ll a bou t st r eng th an d s p eed L oo k a t t h e be st t ea m s r i gh t no w S p a i n i s so c rea t i v e F o r t he m i a ll abou t t a c t i cs an d no t run n i n g Do y o u re a li ze th i s i s ou r t h i r d l o ss in a r o w t o V ene z u e l a ? T he se g a m e s w er e a l w a ys ea sy p o i n ts fo r u s T he y a r e p l a y i n g th e w a y w e u s e d t o f ro m 9 8 2006 W ith h ear t D i ego 2 8 Brazil 4 2 Ecuador A f te r th e l o ss t o V ene z u e la, E c uad o r s t i l l ha d a m a t h e m a t i c a l c h an c e t o ad v an ce i n t h e to u rna m en t, bu t f a c i n g a B ra z i l i a n s q u a d m ad e th e fea t s ee m near l y i n s u r m oun t ab l e

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79 P u nd i ts i n E c uad o r l a m en t e d th e de v a s t a t i n g l o ss t o V ene z u e l a a s be i n g t h e f i n a l n a il in ou r c o f f i n A ll bu t e l i m i n a t e d a g a i n R e p or t e r s fr e quen t l y q u o t e d p l a y e r s a s s a y ing tha t the y w i l l f i gh t un t il th e l a st m i nu te t o c l a s s i fy a n d tha t hop e w a s no t y e t l o st. P e o p l e w er e l e ss th a n en t h u sias t ic. I w a tc he d t h i s m a tch 2 0 m i nu t e s fro m Q u i t o i n a b a r o w ne d b y a n e x a ss i s t an t c o a c h o f t h e na t i on a l t ea m dur i n g t h e p re v i ou s W o r l d C u p Qu a l i f i e r s. T h e ba s e m en t ba r pa c k e d in q u i c k l y, a n d a s t h e ga m e s tar t ed t her e w a s an x i e ty i n t h e a i r D e s p i te t h e m a t c h en d i n g i n a 4 2 l o ss, E c uad o r an d ou t per f or m e r w a s F e l i p e C a i c ed o w h o sc or e d t w o go a l s. In a h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l 9 0 m i nu t e s, t h e h i gh s a n d l o w s o f c o m m o n t o E c uador o t her s ga m e s. F ru s t ra t i o n m oun t e d a s E c uado r f a i l e d t o q u a l i f y A s r e s p o nden ts i nd ica ted t h e tea m o v era ll p er f o r m an ce i n a ll t h re e g a m e s w a s b l a m e d o n w ha t ha s be e n d i s c u ss e d w i th f an s i n t h e p r e v io u s t w o ga m e s. F an s l e ft q u i e t l y, a n d s a t a t t h e ir ta b l e s arg u i n g t h e c h a nge s t h a t ne e de d t o b e m ad e t o s tee r th e n a ti o n ba ck in a po s i t i ve d i r e ct i o n A f te r fa i l i n g t o q u a l i fy, E c uad o r i an s f e l t t h e i r n a t i on a l pr i d e w a s w ound e d an d a c o n t i n ua t i o n o f l o s i n g re s u l ts n e ede d t o b e e x p l a in ed T h e c o m m o n th e m e w a s t o c on t i n u e sc apego a ti n g t h e for e ign c oa c h e s, unpa t r i o t i c p l a y er s, an d n a t i on a l i z e d p l a y er s, an d a t t r ib u te t h e po o r p e r f or m an ce t o th e d i s u n i ty in th e lock e r roo m T h i s w a s a s ob e r ing r e m i nde r t o E c uad o r ian fan s tha t s upe r i o r i ty w a s n o l o nge r gua r an t ee d T h e pr e ss c r i t i c i z e d th e F E F a n d i ts i nep t it ud e t o b e adeq u a te s te w ard s f o r th e na t i on u n i t i n g f or c e A s r e s p onde n ts i n d i c a t e d t h e t ea m be c a m e th e l a st b a s t i o n o f u n i ty i n a na t i o n l o n g frag m en t e d b y p o l i t i c a l an d s o c i a l d i v i s i on s. Besides our independence day celebration, when the national team plays, we watch the game here. People are disillus regionalistic, and classists. Watch, after the stuff you told me about your You already heard it in the bar. All it takes is frustration to see the real feelings come out This loss hurts! Enrique, 55

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80 We need to bring back Vizuete to coach the team. At least he was what he did to the team despite some of his mistakes. W being from Latacunga was something that was embarrassing to us. To be predominately mestizo and indigenous province. Now, we have Rueda. And he sank our ship fast. And the play ers have to realize that they play for something greater than just being on TV. Outrageous, and embarrassing. We could have beaten Brazil if we played intelligently for the last 20 mi nutes. Nelson, 49 Liga Deportiva Universitaria de Quito (LDUQ) vs. Club Sport Emelec (Emelec). July 27 T h e f i n a l ga m e I ob s er v e d w a s a c l u b m a tch be t w ee n t w o o f E c uador b i gge st c l ub s. L D U Q i s fro m Qu i t o an d E m e l e c i s fr o m Gua y aqu i l T h e m a tch w a s ho s t e d i n Q u i t o a t L D U Q h o m e s tad i u m It w a s a n i m p or t an t m a tch i n t h e do m e s t i c l e a gu e be t w ee n th e t w o m o st s u cc e ssf u l t ea m s i n th a t s ea s o n B o th tea m s ha ve ha d a g rea t h i st o r y o f d o m e st i c s u cc e ss, a n d L D U Q i s th e f i r st E c uado r i a n c l u b t e a m t o w i n fo u r i n t e rna t i o n a l to u rna m en ts. T h i s ga m e i s on e o f E c uador m o st i m por t an t, an d be c o m e s a grea t s i t e t o e x p l o r e s o m e o f t h e r e g i on a l d iv i s i on s w h i ch sc h o l ar s ha ve n o t e d i n Ec uador Re g i o n a l i sm c on t r i bu t e s t o t h e r i v a l r y be t w ee n th e tea m s. A l on g w i th t h e o t h e r m a j o r c l u b in Gua y a q u il ( B ar c e lo n a S C ) E m e l e c en j o ys a l a rg e f a n ba se an d t ra v e l s w e l l i n a w a y ga m e s. S e v era l t hou s a n d E m e l e c fan s s e c u r e d t i ck e ts to th e m a tch an d w er e p l a c e d b y s e c u r i ty t ea m s i n th e gra n d st a nd s d i re c t l y o v e r L i g a B a r r a B ra v a c a l l e d M uer te B l an c a ( W h i t e D ea t h ) E m e l e B arr a B ra va i s c a l l e d B o ca D e l P o z o ( M ou th o f t h e W e l l ) B ar r a B ra va i s a La t i n A m er i c a n t e r m u s e d i den t i c a l l y t o E uro p ea n U l t ra t o de f i n e an d c h ara c t e r i ze o rga n i z e d group s t ha t s u p por t a s pe c i f i c t e a m I t pheno m eno n tha t ha s e x i st e d i n E c u a do r s i n c e th e 1 9 80 s, bu t o r i g i n a t e d i n A r g en t i n a an d U ru g ua y i n t h e 1 9 50 s T e a m r i v a l r i e s a r e e x a c erba t e d b y s u c h s o c i a l d i v i s i on s

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81 s u ch a s c l a ss ( st a t u s ) r e l igi on n e ig hb o rhood p o l i t ical i d eo l og y, a n d r eg i on a l i s m B arra s B ra v a s ha ve e v o l v e d t o re s e m b l e s t r ee t g a n g s an d ha ve de v e l o p e d a s m a j o r fun d i n g m e c han i s m s fo r tea m s a c ro ss th e c on t i n en t. I m u st under sc or e tha t n o B a r r a B ra va i n E c uado r i s o f f i c i a l l y a f f i l i a t e d w i th a s o cc e r cl u b P r i o r t o ga m e s, r i v a l B arra s B r a v a s m i gh t en c oun t e r ea ch o t he r o u t s i d e t h e st ad ium ground s w her e f ig h ts a n d v i o l en ce a r e a l w a ys a t h rea t. W e apon s a n d d r u g u se ha ve be c o m e pro b l e m s tha t s e c u r i ty t e a m s a n d p o li c e o f f e r s s ee k to p r e v en t w i th s ur v e i l la n ce a n d a h ea v i l y for t i f ied p r e s en c e R i v a l B a r ra s B ra v a s ar e e s c or t e d s epara t e l y to p r e v en t b o t t l ene cks an d v i o l e n c e a t t h e ga t e s. A t t h e ga m e e nd t h e v i s i t i n g f an s a r e e sc o r t e d o u t b y p o l i c e to p r e v en t v i o l en c e T rapo s ( b a nner s ) f l ag s, m a ss i ve ba ss dru m s, f i re w or ks, an d f l are s, w h i ch a r e u s e d b y B a r ra s B ra v a s to an t ago n i ze ea ch o t he r du r i n g th e g a m e s, ar e s o m e t i m e s s to l e n a n d d i s p l a y e d a s t r op h i e s t o hu m i l i a t e th e r i v a l i n q u e s t i on S o n g s ar e c h an t e d a t ea ch o t h e r t o s t i r u p f an s. T h e s ong s, w h i ch v ar y f r o m h u m orou s t o s e r i ou s, o f te n q ue s t i o n t h e o p ponen m a sc u li n i ty o r i n v o ke s o m e o t he r w a y t o hu m i l i a te th e o ppo s i t i o n T h i s ga m e w a s n o e x c e p t i on I w a l k e d i n w i th L D U B arr a B ra va an d en c oun t e re d s m a l ler b and s o f E m e l e c fan s w h i ch w er e n o t an t a go n i z ed bu t h ear d repor ts o f f i gh ts an d s k i r m i s he s i n o t h e r ar e a s o f t h e s t ree ts. W e w er e c o rr a l l e d b y m oun t e d po l i ce o f f i c er s w h o e sc or t e d u s i n t o t h e s ta d i u m T h e M uer te B l an ca bega n pu s h ing ba ck an d p l a y ing m u s i c tha t f a n s s a n g a lo n g t o in a n e f for t to un d er m i n e th e au t ho r i ty o f t h e p o l i c e It w a s a m o ve t o an t a g on i z e H matchbox. Tonight we have to win. Muerte Blanca Band T en s i o n h a s e x i st e d be t w ee n au t h o r i ty f i g u re s an d fan s. C o m m en ts li ke P i g s

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82 an d Y ou r e w or t h l e ss, c op ar e c o m m onp l a c e F an s s a id t he y v ie w e d po l i ce pre s e n ce a s hea vy h a nde d an d u n ne c e ss a r y. A s B i l l B u f or d ( 1991 ) no t e d in h i s b o o k A mon g t h e T hug s a bou t E n g l i sh ho o l i gan s i n th e 1 980 s, f an s l i ve in th e m o m en t an d ar e fu e l e d b y adren a l i n e r u s h e s s par k e d b y c h a r i s m a t i c l e a der s. I n t h i s c a s e E c u a do r i a n fan s that be l o n g t o B a rra s B ra v a s ha ve r i v a l r i e s a m ong s t ea ch o t h e r a n d w i th a u t ho r i ty f ig ure s. O n ce th e g rou p t oo k i ts p lace be h ind th e s ou t her n t o u c h l i n e i n t h e s e c t i o n c a l l e d G ene r a l S u r B a j t h e ga m e began E m e l e c f an s s a t d i r e c t l y abo v e i n th e G e n er a l S u r A l t T h e ga m e w a s l i v e l y, an d fil l e d w i th e m o t i o n L D U Q f a n s s i t t i n g i n t h e Ge n er a l s e ct i o n s an g t hro u ghou t t h e w ho l e m a tch an d ne v e r s a t do w n a s i s c u st o m ar y. A l c o h o l f l o w e d fre e l y an d t h e s m e l l o f m ar i j uan a s m o k e w a s e v i den t in s o m e c orner s, a l t h oug h no t a ll fan s enga g e d i n t h i s beha v i o r V iol en c e c a n b e p ar t l y a t t r i bu t e d t o s ub s t an ce abu s e w h i ch h e i gh t en s e m o t i on s an d pro m o t e s a c r o w d beha v i o r Du r i n g th e m a tc h f r eque n t m i st a k e s b y p l a y e r s l e d t o c han t i n g a ga i n s t w hoe v e r c o m m i t te d th e e rro r F ru st r a t i on s a r e e c h oe d j u st l i ke the y w ou ld i n an y o t h e r ga m e an d fr e quen t a t ta cks w er e m ad e aga i n s t b l a ck p l a y er s w i th c o m m e n ts l i ke ne g r o p aque t e ( sc h le pro ck negro ) o r t i s h ne g V a m o s, negro ( m o ve i t, neg r o ) w ou ld b e u t t ere d in a nega t i ve c o n t e x t, too T h e ga m e too k a tu r n w he n L u i s B o l ao s s c or e d a s tu nn i n g g oa l w h i ch w o n th e ga m e I m m ed i a t e l y, i m pa t i en ce tur n i n to j ub i l an t c e le bra t io n a n d a n a v a l a n c h e o f fan s ra n to w ar d t h e fen c e s tha t s epara te th e f i e l d fro m th e c r o w d T h e v a m o s negro r e m ar k s udde n l y s h ift e d f ro m ha v i n g a ne g a t i ve t o h a v i n g a po s i t i ve c onno t a t i o n a s t h e c on t e x t c han g ed F an s s t and ing a roun d m e d i re ct e d t h e i r c e l e b ra t i o n ag a i n st E m e l e c f o l l o w er s b y u s i n g r e g i on a l i st t he m e s, an d c han ts t h a t

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83 bera t e d th e l o s i n g s qua d Ho m o s e x ua l Gua y aqu i l eo s M ono s 2 ( M on k e ys ) a n d P i t u f o s 3 ( S m ur fs ) W h e n t h e f i n a l w h i s t l e b l e w E m e l e c fan s w er e e sc o r t e d ou t be f or e L D U Q f an s w er e a l l o w e d t o l ea ve t h e Ge n er a l S u r area On ce o u t s i de t her e w er e repor ts tha t f i g h ts b r o ke ou t be y o n d th e g a t e s o f t h e s t a d iu m an d s e v er a l a cts o f pe t t y c r i m e i n c l u d i n g p i ck po ck et i n g a n d the f t Conclusion T h e s ta d ium an d ba r en v i r o n m en t s ar e p o i n ts o f in tera c t ion w her e th e pa s s i ona t e f ee l i n g s h e l d b y s o cc e r fan s c o l l i d e w i th s o m e t i m e s e x p l o s i ve c on s eq u e n c e s. F an s o f na ti on a l tea m ga m e s an d c l u b t e a m g a m e s e v o ke d i f fe r en t a n d c on f l i c t i n g d i sc our s e s. T h e na t io n a l tea m a cts a s a ( d i s )u n i t i n g for ce a m on g c i t i z e n s, an d t h e o verr e pr e s e n t a t i on o f A f r o de sc en d an ts o n t h e tea m be c o m e s a c on t en t i ou s t o p i c fo r s o m e Na t i on a l p r i d e an d w ha t i s c on s i d ere d t he n t i c c i t i z en s h ip, i s c on st a n t l y re in for c e d b y n a t i on a l sy m bo l s, ad v er t i s i n g ca m pa i gn s, an d s o n g s, w h i ch a r e u s e d t o un i t e und e r c o m m o n e l e m en ts. T h e 201 1 f a i l u re s o f t h e na t i o na l tea m e v o k e d s tro n g f ee l i n g s a m on g r e s pon d en ts, a n d c r e a t e d a s lew o f e x c u s e s an d sc a pegoa ts to j u st i fy t h e fe e l i ng s o f an g er C l u b t ea m s o n th e o t he r han d e v o ke d i f f ere n t e m o t i on s a m on g fan s. A v ar ie t y o f i de o lo g i c a l v i e w po i n ts c a n be c o m e m a j o r i n f l u en c e s t o l i f e l o n g l o y a l ty o f a c l ub R i v a l r i e s ar e d ee p l y f e l t an d a s s o c i a t i on s w i th B ar r a B ra va org a n i z a t i on s c a n l ea d t o s p i l l o v e r s o f v i o l e n ce o r tar g e t e d s l u r r i ng R e g i on a l i sm an d c o m pe t i ti o n be t w ee n t h e 2 M ono (M on k e y) ha s bee n a de r og a t o ry t e r m t ha t pe o p l e i n t h e S i e rra u s e t o c al l p eo p l e f r o m t h e c oa s t T oda y, i t i s a m o re i n f o r m a l t e r m t ha t ha s l o s t i t s m o s t n ega t i v e c onno t a t i on s bu t r e m a i n s i n w i d e u s age Co n v e r s e l y, peo p l e f r o m t h e c oa s t w il l c a l l t ho s e f r o m t h e S i e rra e rr ano s 3 M ono (M on k e y) ha s bee n a de r og a t o ry t e r m t ha t pe o p l e i n t h e S i e rra u s e t o c al l p eo p l e f r o m t h e c oa s t T oda y, i t i s a m o re i n f o r m a l t e r m t ha t ha s l o s t i t s m o s t n ega t i v e c onno t a t i on s bu t r e m a i n s i n w i d e u s age Co n v e r s e l y, peo p l e f r o m t h e c oa s t w il l c a l l t ho s e f r o m t h e S i e rra e rr ano s

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84 m a j o r c i t i e s i n E c uado r c on t r i b u t e s t o c ro s s c o un t r y r i v a l r i e s be t w ee n c l u b t ea m s, w h i ch m agn i f i e s t h e i m por t an ce o f ga m e s an d c r e a t e s s t ron g a n i m o s i ty a m on g B arra s B ra v a s. T h e s ta d ium i s a n en v i r o n m en t w her e m an y t h i ng s ar e ope n l y c h an t ed I u s u a l l y rea c t i on a r y i n n a t ur e be c au se i t dep e nd s o n t h e eb b a n d f l o w o f t h e g a m e bu t c a n b e e x pre ss i n g unde r l y i n g ten s i o n s an d s o ci a l fru s t r a t i on s t h a t f an s ha v e C o n t e x t m a t ter s, e s pe ci a ll y in the se en v i r o n m en ts an d i s t h e c e n t r a l p o i n t o f i n t e rpr e ti n g an y s or t o f s o c i a l d i a l o gu e i n E c u a dor C l u b tea m s ha ve ta k e n grea t e r s t r i de s t o i n c r ea se s e c u r i ty b y add ing s u r v e i l la n ce sys t e m s, i n c r ea s i n g p o li c e pre s en c e i n h i g h pro f i l e m a tc he s, an d en c our a g ing l e ss a l c o h o l c on s u m p t i o n in st a d iu m s. Rac is m i s ano t h e r to p i c t ha t s e v e r a l t ea m s ar e beg in n i n g t o a t ta ck h ea d o n L D U Q i s o n e s u ch e x a m p l e tha t i s u s ing i ts ne w f oun d l e v era g e fro m m a j o r c orpora t e en d or s emen ts an d i n t er n a t i on a l t o urna m en t v i ct o r ies to c rea te a d c a m pa i gn s f o r i ts f a n s t o ta ke no te o f. C on t in ue d s u ppo r t f o r i n t e rna t i o n a l F I F A r eg u la t i on s a ga i n st r a c i sm ar e h i g h l i g h t e d b y t h e F E F bu t en f or c e m en t i s d i f f i c u l t to i m p l e m en t e v e n i n de v e lo pe d n a t i on s. T h i s c h a p t e r c on t i nue s s ho w i n g th e l a y ere d s o c i a l d y na m i cs o f E c ua d o r tha t m a k e s pre s e n ti n g i ss ue s o f ra c e c l a ss, an d i d e n t i ty a d i f f i c u l t pr o pos i t i o n t o un t ang l e S e e i n g rea c t i n g fan s i s n e c e ss ar y to h i g h l i gh t t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e m a j or i ty, a s sp e c t a t or s, to o n f i e l d o v e rre p re s e n t a t i o n o f A f r o de sc e n dan t s i n c on s i st en t i dea s o f na t i o n a l i d e n t i ty, a n d per c ep t i on s o f s o c i a l c on st r u c t i on s in E c uad o r ian s o c i e ty.

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85 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUDING REMARKS Research Findings A f r o de sc e n dan t s o c c e r p l a y er s o cc u p y i n c o n s i st e n t st a t u s e w i t h i n E c u a dor syst e m o f s o c i a l st r u ct u re T h e c o n t r a d i c t or y n a t ur e o f th e i r s t a t u s, i n t urn ha s t h e po t en t i a l t o pro d u ce t en s i on s a m on g bo th p lay er s an d fan s. S u ch t en s i on s a m on g p l a y e r s a n d fan s c a n b e e x p l or e d a s a m e t ho d o f s he d d ing ne w l i g h t o n t h e c h a ra ct e r o f ra ce r e l at i on s. S o cc e r p l a y e r s, an d fan s, t he r e f or e c a n s er ve a s u s e f u l t r y p o i n t s f o r under st a n d i n g ra c e ra c i a l d i sc r i m i na t i on an d na ti on a l i de n tity i n E c uad o r Ch ap t e r o n e p re s en t e d a n i n t ro du c t ion t o t h e A f ro E c uado r ian c o m m un i ty, re s ear ch m e t hod s, an d t h e s t r u ct u r e o f t h e t h e s i s. I u s e d G roun d e d T heor y t o e n gag e i n f o r m an ts i n a d i re ct e d c on v er s a t i o n t h a t a l l o w e d th e m t o e x pre ss the ir per s pe c t i v e s w i th a s l i t tle i n t er v en t i o n f ro m m e a s po ss i b l e T her e w a s n o i n t en t to e li c i t s pe c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a n d I l e t t h e m ta l k w h i le l oo k i n g f o r p o i n ts t o e x p l o r e i n g rea t e r de p th depen d i n g o n t h e ir r e s pon s e s an d b o d y l ang u age Res e a r ch w a s c ondu ct e d in Q u i t o E s m era l da s, t h e v i l l age s o f t h e C h o ta V a l l e y, an d Q u i n i n d e I i n t e r v i e w e d th e U 2 0 an d s en i o r m en na t i o na l tea m a t t he ir ne w tr a i n i n g headq u ar t e r s i n Q u i t o M e m ber s o f an y na ti on a l tea m be l o n g t o e it he r c lu b s i n t h e l o c a l l e a gu e o r i n t e rna t i o n a l le ague s an d t hu s the r e i s a c lub an d c oun t r d u ty f o r t ho s e p lay er s. N o t a ll c l u b p l a y er s a r e o n t h e na ti on a l tea m ho w e v e r I a l so v i s i t e d an d c o n du ct e d s e p ara te i n t er v i e w s w i th thr e e c l u b t ea m s i n Qu i t o : CD E l N a cio n a l S D Q u i t o a n d L iga D ep o r t i va U n i v e r sit a r i a d e Q u i t o I c ar r i e d o u t a d d itio n a l i n t e r v i e w s w er e w i th j ou r n a l i sts, a s o c i a l w or k er re s i den ts i n s end ing c o m m un i t i e s an d s o cc e r f a n s i n s t a d iu m s an d bar s. T h e i m por t an t t a k e a w a y f r o m th i s c hap t e r i s th e c on c ep t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n c on s i st en c i e s o f ra c e c l a ss a n d

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86 i de n tity i n E c uad o r w h i ch p ro v i d e e n t r y p o i n ts to d i sc u s s i n g t h e na t u r e o f r a ce r e l a t i on s i n t h e c ou n t r y a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f s o cc e r an d s o c i e ty. Ch ap t e r t w o pre s en t e d a c a se s t u d y ba s e d o n i n t er v i e w s w i th s o cc e r p l a y er s a n d re sid en ts o f r u r a l s en d i n g c o m m un i t i e s I w a s i n t ere st e d i n e x p l o r i n g i m p li c a t i on s o f a m a j o r a s pe ct o f st a t u s i n c o n s i s t en cy, n a m e l y th e fa ct t h a t a cc o m p l i s he d A f r o E c uado r i a n a t h l e t e s a re s i m u l t ane o u s l y, m e m ber s o f den i g ra t e d m i no r i t y y e t h o ld w e l l re w arde d h o l d p o s i t i on s o f h i g h p re s t i ge H o w doe s t h i s u nu s u a l c o m b i na t i o n i n f l u e n c e t he ir p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e ir o w n c l a ss s t a t u s? T h e an s w er s t o t h i s que s ti o n w er e uneq u i v o c a l : A ll r e s pon d en ts w i th w ho m I s p o ke de f i ne d the m s e l v e s a s lo w e r c l a s s regar d less o f t h e h i g h i n c o m e s tha t t he y ea r n ed w h i ch v a s t l y e x c eede d th e a v erag e i n c o m e s o f peo p l e l i v i n g in th e ir ho m e c o m m u n i t i e s. E x p l ana t i on s f o r t h e se an s w er s i n c l u d e d s o l i d a r i ty w i th r e la t i v e s an d f r i e n d s i n r ur a l s e n d i n g c o m m un i ti e s an d do c u m en t e d c a s e s o f po st re t i re m en t f i nan c ial s trug g l e s a m on g c o l l eag u e s. T h i s s ugge sts a m or e gen e r a l c on c l u s i o n w i th r e s p e ct to th e na t u r e o f ra c i a l i ne q u a l i ty an d c l a ss i d e n t i ty i n E c ua d or S pe c i f i c a l l y, i t i n d i c a t e s tha t, in t h e c o m p l e x pro c e ss e s t ha t ar e i n v o l v e d in th e c on st r u c ti o n o f s e l f i de n titi e s, ra c i a l s ta t u s ap p ear s t o t ru m p e c ono m i c s ta t u s T he se f i n d in g s f u r t he r s pea k t o th e p o w e r o f t h e c o un t r d o m i nan t ra ci a l i de o l og y t o i n f l u e n ce a t t i t ude s a n d b e l i e f s, e v e n a m on g th e un d er c l a ss. I t appear s t ha t s o c c e r p l a y er s a cc e p t t h e low s ta t u s tha t i s a cc ord e d t o t he m i n th e na ti on a l c on s c i o u s ne s s, e v e n t o t h e p o int o f d en y i n g th e v er y e x i st e n ce o f d i sc r i m i na t o r y p r a c t i c e s tha t ha ve r e l ega t e d t h e A f r o E c uad o r i a n p op u l a t i o n t o po v er ty. Ch ap t e r t hre e pre s e n ts t h e h y po t h e s i s tha t d i f f eren t p er s o na l a t t i t u d e s o f st a t u s i n c on s i s t en cy a r e r e la te d t o t h e sc o p e o f p la y er ran g e o f c a re e r e x per ie n c e s s u c h a s s pen d i n g t i m e i n o t he r c o un t r i e s. I an t i c i p a t e d t ha t r e s p onde n ts w h o ha ve p l a y e d

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87 abroa d an d w h o ha ve b ee n e x po s e d t o o t h e r s o c i a l re a l i t i e s w ou ld ha ve a gr e a t e r a w arene ss o f t h e c har a c t e r o f r a c i a l i d eo l o g i e s an d p r a c t i c e s w he n the y r e t u r ne d t o E c uador T o ad d re ss t h i s h y po t he s i s, I c o m pare d r e s pon s e s o f p l a y e r s w h o ha ve m i gra t e d ab r oa d t o p l a y er s w h o ha ve r e m a i n e d i n E c uador T h e in ter v i e w s s ho w e d t ha t non m i gran t s o cc e r p lay er s a r e l i k e l y t o m a i n t a i n t ha t i ss ue s l i k e r a c i sm o r s o cial i ne q u a l i ty a r e no t a pr ob l e m i n E c uador T he s e y oun g m e n ar e m or e l i k e l y t o end o r se c u l t u r a l l y do m i nan t no t i on s t ha t a ll ra c e s h a ve equ a l c han c e s o f s u c c e ss. T he se s a m e p l a y e r s, ha v ing g r o w n u p i n i s o l a t e d rur a l are a s d i s t an t f r o m th e d o m i nan t w h i te an d m e st i zo c l a s s e s, gen e r a l l y end o r se v i e w s tha t ar e r e la t i v e l y c on s i st e n t w i th do m i nan t s o c i a l c o n st r u c t io n s o f ra c i a l i de o lo g y. B o th a n ou t r i g h t re j e cti o n o f t h e e x i st en c e o f ra c i sm i n E c ua d o r a n d a n i n a b i l ity t o i d e n t i fy i t s m an i f e st a t io n s e x i st a m on g y oun g no n m i gran t s o cc e r p lay er s. T h e r e i s g r ea t i n t e re st i n l e a ving E c uad o r t o c on t i nu e in a pro f e s s i o n a l s o cc e r c are e r a b road C o n v er s e ly, upo n r e t u r n ing f r o m o t he r c oun t r i e s (an d t h o se w h o c on t i nu e t o p l a y a bro a d bu t a r e o b l ig a t e d to r e t ur n f o r n a t i on a l t e a m du t y ) o l d e r p l a y er s w er e a b l e t o i den t i fy s o c i a l a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i sm an d d id no t a cc ep t c u l t u r a l l y do m i nan t i d e o l o g i e s o f m e st i z a j e an d r a c i a l de m o c ra c y New e x per i en c e s an d e x po s u r e t o d i f f ere n t s o c i a l a n d be h a v i o r a l n o r m s m a ke th e m c r i t i c a l o f re g i on a l i s m ra c i s m an d po v er ty in E c uado r O l d e r p l a y e r s an d r e t i r ee s ha v e th e p o t en t i a l t o b e ag e n ts o f c h ang e b y u s i n g t h i s i n t e rna t i o n a l e x pe r i en ce t o for m u l a te ne w i de a s o f w ha t E c uado r s h o u ld be T h e i r m or e v o c a l a c t i v i sm t o r a l l y ag a inst r a c i a l i n equ a l i ty an d d i sc r i m i na t i o n i s a r e s u l t o f f r u s t r a t i o n w i th th e p e r s i s t en t n a t ur e o f i ne q u a l i t i e s i n t h e E c uado r i a n s o cial s ph e re T he se m e n w i ll f r e quen t l y u s e th e ir s o c i a l c a p i t a l to m ob i l i ze de v e l op m en t pro j e cts an d c a m pa i gn s to bene f i t t h e i r h o m e c o mm un i t i e s.

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88 A l l t h i s i n d i c a t e s d i f f e ren c e s i n per c e p t i on s o f ra ci a l i neq u a l i ty an d ra ce r e l a t i on s w h i ch ar e i n f l u en c e d b y th e rang e o f p e r s on a l c aree r e x per i e n c e s o f t he se s o c c e r p l a y e rs M y f i n d i ng s s ho w t h e l a s ti n g i n f l u e n c e o f E c uad o r do m i nan t r a ci a l i de o l og y o n t h e m en t a l pro c e ss o f b l a ck s o cc e r p l a y er s i n c on c ep t u a l i z i n g t h e c o m p l e x s tru ct u r e o f E c uado r i a n ra ce r e la t i on s e vid en c e d b y th e g enera t i o n a l d i v i d e b e t w ee n y oun g n o n m i gran ts an d o l d e r m i gran ts / re t u r n m i gran t s a n d ho w ea ch i n t e r a cts w i th s o c i e t y Ch ap t e r f ou r e x p l ore s na t i on a l i d en t i ty a s a s i t e o f c on t e s t e d a n d i n c on s i st e n t op i n io n s b y f an s i n s t a d iu m s an d bar s. U s i n g t h e f i n d i ng s o f Ch ap t er s t w o an d t h ree m y i n t e n t w a s t o t r ea t t h e s t ad i u m a s a s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g p o int w her e i t i s po s s i b le to p rob e ho w an d w h y i n t o l er a n t be h a vior e x i sts ag a i n s t A f r o E c uad o r i a n p l a y er s a n d th e i r c o mm un i ty. I w an t e d t o p rob e t h e na t ur e o f c o gn i t i ve d i ss onan c e w a s a m o n g fan s o f E c uado r i a n s o c c e r t o inc on s i st en t a n d c o n t e s t e d o p i n i on s i n w ha t i s s e en s po k e n a n d hear d reg a r d i n g r a c e n a t i on a l i s m an d i d e n t i t y. T h e n a t i on a l t e a m i ro n i c a l l y a cts a s a (d i s )u n i t i n g for ce a m on g c i t i z en s w her e n a t i o n a l pr i d e a n d a u t hen t i c c i t i z en s h i p i s c on st an t l y r e in for c e d b y n a t i on a l sy m bo l s, c o r p o ra te ad v er t i s i n g c a m pa i gn s, a n d s ong s w h i ch ar e u s e d t o p ro m o te un i t y On t h e o t h e r hand p h ys i c a l o v e r rep r e s en t a t ion o f A f r o de sc e n dan ts o n th e s o cc e r f i e ld be c o m e s a m a j o r po i n t o f ob j e ct i o n In Q u i t o E c uador l o ss i n a n e x h i b i t i o n m a tch pro m p t e d a pu b l i c a ga i n st t h e m en na t i on a l t ea m an d fore ig n b or n c o a c h T h e f a i l u r e i n t h e C op a A m er i ca b y t h e s e n i o r m en na ti on a l tea m e v o k e d p a i n e d f e e l i n g s a m on g fan s in bar s an d re st a u ran ts. T h i s sc e n e l e d to e x pre s s i on s o f v a r i e d e x c u s e s an d s c a p egoa ts t o j u s t i fy t h e c og n i t i ve d i ss o nan ce f an s e x per ie n c ed F an s b l a m e d t h e fa i l u r e o n b l a ck p lay er s, t h e f o r e i g n c oa c h re c en t l y na ti on a l i z e d p lay er s, an d t h e per c e i v e d l a ck o f l e ader s h ip w i t h i n th e F E F N a ti on a l i s t i c rhe t o r i c w a s u s e d t o r e i n f or ce ra c i st d i sc o ur s e s a n d fan s s ough t to v en t fe e l i ng s o f

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89 ba t ter e d na t i o na l p r i d e in t h e f a ce o f e m barra ss i n g l o s s e s. T h e s ta d i u m en vi ron m en t an d c r o w d beha v i o r o f d o m e st i c l e agu e c l u b g a m e s pro v i d e d a n e x c e l l en t en t r y p o i n t to d i sc u ss id en t i ty p ro j e ct e d thr o ug h r e g i on a l i s m c l a ss, r a c e an d l o c a l id en t i t i e s. M y a t tendan c e o f a L D U Q vs. CD E m e l e c m a tch h i g h l i g h t e d t h e p e r s i st en ce o f t he se d i v i s i on s w i t h in E c uador s o c i a l a r en a a n d h ig h l i g hte d t h e i m por t an ce o f c l u b t ea m s a s s i t e s o f l o c a l a f f i l i a t ion an d sy m bo l i c re c re a ti o n s o f i den t i t y O r g a n i z e d f a n gr o up s ( B arr a B ra v a s) c a n r a d i c a l i ze s upp o r t er s ag a inst v i s i t i n g fan s, w h i c h c a n b o i l o v e r in t o ou t r i gh t s k i r m i s he s an d v i o l en c e i n s i d e a n d o u ts i d e th e s t ad i u m T h e o v er r epre s en t a t i o n o f A f ro de s c enda n ts o n c l u b te a m s e l i cits j e e r s an d p r a i s e de p en d i n g o n th e progre s s ion o f a m a tch an d y ou r t e a m per f or m an c e T h e c r o w d ha s a ten d en cy t o f o l low th e l e ade r an d m ood s frequen t l y c h a ng e a s t h e ga m e progre ss e s. M y f i n d in g s i n t h i s c hap t e r p r e s en t t h e s ta d i u m an d ba r e n v i r o n m en ts a s s i t e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n w her e t h e pa s s i on a te fe e l i n g s h e l d b y s o cc e r f an s c o l l i d e w i th o p i n i on s reg a r d i n g ra c e na ti on a l i s m an d i d e n t i ty t o p i cs i n E c u ador F an s a t te n d ing na t io n a l tea m an d cl u b m a tc he s ho l d d i f f e ren t f e e l i ng s. T he se e x pe r i en c e s m a ke i t p o s s i b l e t o p r ob e ho w an d w h y i n t o l er a n t be h a vior e x i sts ag a i n st A f r o E c uad o r i a n p l a y er s a n d t h e i r c o m m un i t i e s. M e s t i zo a n d w h i t e s re in for ce c u l t u r a l l y a n d ra c i a l l y do m i nan t d i a l o gu e t o m a i n t a i n i n f lu en ce i n a t t i t ude s an d be l i e fs a s th e do m i nan t c l a ss. A t t h e c en t e r o f t h i s i ss u e t h e t h en t i c i o f na t i o n a l c on sc i o u s ne ss i s r e i n f o r c e d b y d i s c r i m i na t or y an d e x c l u s i on a r y d i a l o gu e t h a t s ubor d i n a t e s A f r o de sc e n dan ts a s a r a c i a l u n der c l a ss. T her e f ore th e s o c i a l ga t h e r i n g po i n t o f st a d i u m s an d bar s t o p ro v i d e i n s ig h t s i n to th e c h ara ct e r o f ra ce r e l a t i on s i n E c uado r i a n s o c i e t y

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90 Policy Recommendations and Implications T h i s r e s e ar ch h ig h l i gh ts t h e d i f f i c u l t n ego t i a t i o n s be t w ee n r a c i a l g roup s i n E c uador S t a t u s i n c on s i st en c i e s an d s o c ial c o n st r u c t i on s c o m e i n to f r e quen t c on f l i ct a s c ogn it i v e ten s i o n a r i s e s f r o m ten s i on s a m on g d i f f eren t c lass e s an d r a c i a l g roup s. No s i n g l e app r oa ch c a n b e c o n sid er e d a p a na c e a fo r th e pro b lem o f ra c i a l d i s c r imi na t i o n an d e x c l u s i o n T w o fa ct or s n one t h e less ha ve grea t p o t en t i a l t o i n f l uen c e r a c i a l i de o lo g i e s a n d pra c t i c e s i n E c uad o r In a cc or d an ce w i th F I F A m anda t e s an d l a w s, s o cc e r fe d era t i o n s ( a n d b y e x t en s i on i ts do m e st i c l e agu e s t r u ct u re ) m u st e x p li c i t l y h o l d a n an t i ra c i st st an c e S o cc e r ga m e s ha ve th e c apa c ity t o b r ing r a cial i s s ue s t o t h e fro n t m or e tha n an y o t he r s o c i a l v e nu e i n E c u a dor U s i n g s po r ti n g i n s t i t u t i on s i s on e s u c h w a y t o po t en t i a l l y rea ch t h e na t i on la r ge st m ar k e t. B e c au se o f s u ch a n e x p l i c i t st an c e ag a i n st r a c i sm an d d i sc r i m i na t i on th e F E F a n d i ts c l u b t e a m s u b o r d i na t e s (L D UQ, E m e l e c, e tc ) ar e no w req u i r e d t o i n s t i t u t i on a l i ze reg u l a t i o n s an d pr o c edure s t o pre v en t r a c i sm a m on g the i r f an s, bu t a l s o r ea c t s w i f t l y i f i ss ue s ar i s e A ll m e ss age s m u st re f l e ct F I F A K i ck out Rac i s m an d F a ir P c a m pa i gn s w h i c h ar e st ap les o f i n t erna t i o n a l c o m pe t i t i o n an d m ar k e t i ng G i v e n th e h i g h s ta t u s an d p re s t i g e t ha t A f r o d e sc endan t s o cc e r p lay er s h a ve i n t h i s s por t i n g c ar e er t h e y ha ve t h e p o t en t i a l t o be c o m e s po k e s per s on s f o r t h e A f r o de sc endan t pop u l a ti o n i n E c ua d or I n st ea d o f a gene r a t i on a l g a p be t w ee n t h e o l de r a nd y ounge r gro u p s o f p l a y er s, l e v e ra g i n g t h e p o w e r o f pre s t i g e w i th a c oo r d i na t e d m e ss ag e c a n br i n g gr e a t a t t e n t i o n t o i ss ue s i n th e A f r o de sc en d an t c o m m un i ty in E c uador A s o l d e r p l a y e r s ha ve a l read y s ho w n t h e i r m or e v o c a l a c t i v i sm t o r a l l y ag a i n st ra ci a l i neq u a l i ty an d d i s c r i m i na t i o n i s a r e s u l t o f f r u s t ra t i o n w i th t h e p e r s i st en t na t u r e o f

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91 i n c on s i s t en c i e s i n t h e E c uad o r i a n s o c i a l s phe r e T he se m e n c a n c on ti nu e to u se t h e ir s o c i a l c ap i t a l t o m ob i l i ze e f f or ts t o i m pro ve the i r rur a l c o m m un i t i e s.

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92 LIST OF REFERENCES A dou m J org e E nr i q u e 20 0 0 A p r o x i m a c i o n a l p a t r i o t i s m i n E c ua d or : S ea s P ar t i c u la r e s E sk e l e t r a E d i t o r i a l A ndre w s, Dav i d L ., P i t t er Ro b er t. Z w i ck, De t lev. A m bro s e Da r r en 1 9 97 S o cc e r s Rac i a l F ro n ti er : Sp o r t an d t h e S ub u rba n i z a ti o n o f Co n t e m porar y A m er i c a p g s. 261 2 8 2 i n E n t er i n g th e F i e ld: N e w P er s pe ct i v e s o n W or ld F oo t ba ll e d i t e d b y A r m st r ong G ar y an d G i u l i a no t t i R i c h a rd B e r g O x f ord E n g l and B a ck, Le s, C ra b be T i m an d S o lo m o s, J ohn 2001 T h e C h a n g i n g F a ce o f F oo t ba l l Rac i s m I den t i ty, an d M u lt i c u lt ur e i n th e E ng l i s h Game B e r g O x f or d In t erna t io n a l P ub l i s h e r s, B a i rn e r A l an 2 001 S p o r t, N a t i ona l i sm an d G l oba l i z a t i on : E uropea n an d N o r th A mer i c a n P er s pe ct i v e s. S t a te U n i v er s i t y o f N e w Y or k P re ss, A l ban y, N Y B ernard H. R u ss e l l 20 0 0 S o c i a l Res ear ch M e t hod s: Q u a l i t a t i ve an d Quan t i t a t i ve A pproa c he s Lond o n : S ag e P u b l i c a t i o n s, I n c. B u f ord B i l l 1991 A mon g t h e T h ug s A r r o w B oo ks, Lon d on U K Ch ar v e t, E r i ka S i l v a 2 004 In I m ag i n a r ios d e l pode r s obr e la e c ua t o r i a n i d a d a n d L o s M i t o s d e l a E c u a t o r i a n i d ad i n I den t i da d N a c i ona l y P ode r E d i t or i a l A b a Y a l a CIA W o r l d F a ct B oo k, E c u ado r P r o f i l e : h t t p s: / / w w w .c i a go v/l i b r ar y / pu b l i c a t i on s / th e w or l d f a c t boo k/ g e o s/ e c. h t m l Co r b i n J u l i e t an d A n s e i m S t rau ss. 1990 G r o unde d T heo r y R e s ear c h : P ro c e d ure s, Ca non s, an d E v a lu a t i ve C r i t erea Q u a l i t a t i v e S o c i o l og y, 13 : 4 21 Davi l a F r a n c i s c o R hon 2006 "La s s o c i e da d e s d e l fu t b o l. H a sta e l P r o x i m o E n c uen t r o pg s. 12 1 128 i n E l J ugad o r N um e r o 12 : F u tb o l y S o c i edad B i b l i o tca de l F u t bo l E c ua t or i an o v o l.5 e d i t e d b y C a rr i on F e r nand o M F L A C S O, Qu i t o E c uado r Dav i d K y l e 2000 T r a n s na t i ona l P ea s an ts: M i gra t i on s, Ne t wo r ks, an d E t hn i c i ty i n A ndea n E c uad o r B a l t i m ore M D: T h e J ohn s Ho p k i n s U n i v er s i ty P re ss. D i a r i o Ho y. 20 0 7 S o lo e l T i n D e lg ad o C on s t ru ye e n E l J un c a l h t tp : / / w w w e x p l ored .c o m e c/ no t i c ia s e c u ador / s o l o e l t i n d e l g a d o c on s t r u y e en e l j un c a l 27 5 17 9 2 7517 9 h t m l A ugu st 1 9 Ha r r i s, O t h e l l o 19 9 9 T h e R i se o f B l a ck A t h le te s i n th e U SA pg s 15 0 176 i n T h e I n t e r na t i ona l P o l i t i cs o f S por t i n th e 2 0 t h Ce n t ur y e d i t e d b y R i o r dan J i m an d K ruger A r n d E F & F N S p o n Lo n don E n g l a n d

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93 Ho o k er J u l i e t. 2005 I nd i genou s In clus i on / B l a ck E x clu s i on : Rac e E t hn i c i ty, an d Mu lt i c u lt ura l C i t i z en s h i p i n La t i n A me r i c a J ou r na l o f La t i n A m er i c a n S t u d i e s. V o l 37 Ca m br i dg e U n i v e r s i ty P re ss. P g s. 28 5 3 1 0 IN E C. 2010 P i c h i n c h a IN E C. 2010 E s m era l da s IN E C. 2010 I m babura IN E C, C en so d e P o b l a c i o n Y V i v i end a P o b l a c i o n A f r o E c ua t or i an a P o r P ro v i n c i a ., 2001. J o k i sc h B rad 2 00 7 E c uador : D i v er s i ty i n M ig r a t i on O h i o U n i v e r s i ty. h t tp : / / w w w m i gra t i o n i n f or m a t i on o rg /U S f o c u s / d i s p l a y. c f m ? ID = 57 5 Len ski, Ge r hard 1954 S t a t u s C r yst a l l i z a t i on : A N o n V e r i c a l D i m en s i o n o f S o c i a l S t a t u s A m er i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w V o l 1 9 No. 4 A u g P p 40 5 413. L l a n a S ar a M i l le r 2 006 I n E c uado r A P oo r V a l l e y Ge ts a K i ck S t ar t. Ch r i s ti a n S c i en ce M on i t o r D e c e m be r 27 2006 h t tp : / / w w w .c s m o n i t o r .c o m / 2006 / 1227 / p13 s 0 1 w o a m h t m l M u rra y, B i l l 1 99 9 F I F A pg s. 2 8 50 in T h e I n t erna t i ona l P o l i t i cs o f S p or t i n th e 2 0 th Ce n t ur y e d i t e d b y R i o rdan J i m an d K rug e r A rnd E F & F N S p o n Lo n don E ng l a n d P are j a M i gue l Do no s o E c u ador : I den t i da d o E s q u i z o f r en i a E sk e l e t r a E d i t o r ial, 2000 Q u i roga Da v id. 20 0 8 E n cyclo ped i a o f t h e A f r i c a n D i a s por a V o l u m e 1 AB C CL I O, P ub l i s he d P g 41 1 416 H i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o n A f r i c an s i n E c u a do r Ra d cl i f f e S ara h 1996 Re m a k i n g th e N a t i on : P lac e I den t i ty, an d P o l i t i cs i n La t i n A mer i c a Ro u t l e dg e P re ss. Ra h i e r J e a n M u t eba 2 008 S o cc e r an d th e ( T r i ) C o l o r o f th e E c ua d o r i a n N a ti on : V i s u a l a n d Ide o l og i c a l ( D is ) C on t i n u i t i e s o f B lack O ther n e ss fro m M ono c u l t u r a l M e st i z a j e t o M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m ." V i s ua l A n t r opo lo g y R e v i e w V o l 24 Is s u e 2 P g s. 148 1 8 2 R a m i ere z, J a c que s P a u l 199 9 "L a s e lecci o n d e fu t b o l c o m o nue vo s i m bo l o d e i de n ti da d n a cio n a l p g 3 5 59 E d C a r r i on F e r nand o M E l J ugad o r N um e r o 1 2 F u t bo l y S o c i edad B i b l i o t e ca d e F u t b o l E c ua t or ia no V o l 5 F L A C S O R o i t m a n K are m 2009 Rac e E t hn i c i ty, an d P o wer i n E c uador : T h e M a n i pu la t i o n o f Me sti z a j e L y nn e R i en n e r P u bl i s h e rs

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94 S ore k, T a m i r 2 007 A r a b S o cc e r i n a J e w i sh S t a t e T h e I n t e g ra t i ve E n clav e Ca m br i dg e Un i v e r sity P re s s T ra v e r s o Y epe z, M ar t ha 1 998 L a Ide n t i da d N a c i ona l e n E c uador : u n A c er c am i en to P s i c o s o c i a l a la C on st r u cc i n N a c i ona l E d i c i o ne s A b y a Y a l a 1 a e d i c i o n W h itt e n No r m an 1974 B lack F ron t i er s m e n : A f r o H i s pan i c C u lt ur e o f E c uado r an d Col omb i a P ro s pe ct H e i gh ts: W a v e l an d P r e s s W h itt e n No r m a n 1997 L o s N eg r o s d e S a n L oren z o : C l a s e P aren t e sc o y P od e r e n u n P ueb lo E c ua t or i ano S t an f o r d U n i v e r s i ty P re s s, E d i c i o n E s p a n o l a Ce n t r o C u l t u r a l A f r oe c ua t o r ia na V a n C o t t Do nn a Lee 2 000 La t i n A mer i c a : Co n st i t u t i ona l Re for m an d E t hn i c R i gh t. P ar l i a m en t ar y A f f a i r s O x f or d U n i v er s i ty P re s s P g s. 4 1 5 4

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95 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ca r los I n i gue z i s o r i g i n a l l y f r o m Qu i t o E c ua d or He m o v e d t o C h i c ag o I l l i n o i s a t t h e ag e o f 3 a n d t o S ou t h F l o r i d a a t t h e a g e o f 10 M r I n i g u e z a t te n de d S t. T ho m a s A qu i na s H i g h S c ho o l i n F t. L a ude r d a l e F L be f or e a t t e n d i n g t h e U n i v er s i ty o f F lo r i da H i s i n t e r e sts a r e i n i n t erna t i o n a l r e la t i on s, h i p ho p c u l t u r e s p o r t i n g c u l t ure s por ts j ourn a l i s m m ar k e t i ng m anage m en t, an d La t in A m er i c a n s t u d ie s H i s i n t e r e sts i n i n t e rna t i o n a l s tu d i e s gre w a f te r t a king s e v e r a l c l a ss e s o n ra c e r e l a ti on s i n t h e United States an d La tin A m er i c a E x t en s i ve t r a v e l th r ough o u t A sia, E urop e an d L a t i n A m er i ca add e d f ur t h e r s par k to h i s i n t ere s t s i n m an y o f t he se iss ue s Ca r los gr a dua t e d fro m th e Un i v er s i ty o f F l o r i d a i n 201 0 w i t h a m a j o r i n p o l i t i c a l s c i en ce a n d a m i nor / c er t i f i c a te in La t i n A m er ican s t u d i e s. M r I n i g ue z g r adua t e d fro m t h e U n i v er s i ty o f F l o r ida w i th a m a st er degr e e i n La t i n A m er i c a n s t u d i e s in 20 1 2 an d p l an s t o e n t e r t h e w or kf or ce b e f o r e c on t i n u i n g th e pur s u i t o f a m a st er degre e i n b u s i ne ss a d m i n i s t r a t i o n