Consumers’ Information-Processing Model for Sport Web Advertisement

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Title:
Consumers’ Information-Processing Model for Sport Web Advertisement Sport Event Value-Orientation and Consumer Involvement Perspective
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1 online resource (103 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Jang, Wonseok
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Sport Management, Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management
Committee Chair:
Ko, Yong Jae
Committee Members:
Stepchenkova, Svetlana O
Sagas, Michael B.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
creative-strategy -- dual-process -- involvement -- message-appeal -- planning-model -- value-orientation
Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Sport Management thesis, M.S.
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theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
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Abstract:
Advertisers put significant effort into selecting message strategy that persuasive their target group more effectively based on consumers’ psychological preferences. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential moderating role of consumers’ involvement level and value-orientation in the sport event consumers’ information-processing pattern and their attitude formation. Additionally, this study also examined the effects of different types message appeal (informational versus emotional) on their attitude toward the advertisement. This study suggests that advertising message is more effective when the appeal matches with the sport event type. Consistent with dual-process perspective, consumers independently uses cognitive or affective elaborating system to form their attitude for utilitarian sporting event based on their involvement level. On the other hand, consumers simultaneously depend on both cognitive and affective elaborating system to form their attitude for hedonic sporting event. Therefore, this study extends prior literatures (Dual-Process Theory and Planning Model) by suggesting that traditional dichotomous dual-process model must transfer to a co-occurrence model for hedonic sporting events, particularly among highly involved consumers. Key words: Dual-process Theory, Planning Model, Value-orientation, Involvement, Message Appeal, Creative Strategy, Attitude Formation
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Wonseok Jang.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Ko, Yong Jae.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-05-31

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Applicable rights reserved.
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lcc - LD1780 2012
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UFE0044279:00001


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1 CONSUMERS INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL FOR SPORT WEB ADVERTISEMENT: SPORT EVENT VALUE ORIENTATION AND CONSUMER INVOLVEMENT PERSPECTIVE By WONSEOK JANG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORID A IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 201 2

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2 201 2 Wonseok Jang

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thank God. I would like to acknowledge my advisor and chair of this thesis, Dr. Yong Jae Ko, for his guidance and direction through out my graduate study at the University of Florida I am sincerely honored that I have been taught by Dr. Ko H is great mentorship helped me find my direction whenever I am lost in my research and many other aspects of my life I also sincerely appreciate my committee members, Dr. Michael Sagas and Dr. Svetlana Stepchenkova for their guidance, mentorship, and support during my graduate study in the past two years. I w ould also like to thank my friends and colleagues ( Mike, Kevin, Kostas, Ryan, Andrew, Cornell, Janelle, Rick, Taeho, Dongho, Jihoon, Yongmin, Ben, and Todd) in the department of Tourism Recreation and Sport Management for their friendship and support I am very thankful that I have studied with such great colleagues at the University of Florida. My colleagues were there whenever I was struggling Finally, I offer my sincere gratitude to my family for their financial and emotional support during my graduat e study Y our existence itself is encouraging me to aim high I love you!!

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 10 S ignificance of Web Advertisement and Current Problem ................................ .................... 14 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 15 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 16 Hypotheses Development ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 17 List of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 23 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 24 Information Process ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 24 Information p rocess in w eb a dvertisement ................................ ................................ ..... 25 Dual p rocessing t heory ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 28 A Research Model ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 30 Utilitarian versus Hedonic Values ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 Hedonic v alue is s port ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 34 Moderating Role of Product Value Orientation ................................ ................................ ..... 35 Moderating Role of Involveme nt ................................ ................................ ............................ 39 Moderating Role of Value Orientation and Involvement ................................ ....................... 43 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 47 Study Design and Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ 47 Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 47 Stimuli Development ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 49 Types of s port e vent w ebsites ................................ ................................ .......................... 49 Involvement s cenario ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 49 Message a ppeal ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 51 Measure ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 51 Attitude t oward the a dvertisement ( Aad ) ................................ ................................ ........ 52 Attitude t oward the s port e vent ( Ab ) ................................ ................................ ............... 52 Visit i ntention ( VI ) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 52 Demographic m easures ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 52 Manipulation c heck ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 53

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6 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 54 Descriptive s tatistics ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 54 Hypothesis t esting ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 54 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 55 Descriptive Statistics ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 55 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 55 Attitude t oward the a dvertisement ( Aad ) ................................ ................................ ........ 55 Attitude t oward the s port e vent ( Ab ) ................................ ................................ ............... 55 Visit i ntention ( VI ) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 55 Pretest ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 56 Main Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 56 Manipulati on c heck ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 56 Test of h ypothesis 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 57 Test of h ypothesis 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 58 Test of h ypothesis 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 59 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 81 Dual Process Theory and the Moderating Role of Involvement ................................ ............ 81 Planning Model and the Moderating Role of Value Orientation ................................ ........... 82 The Moderating Role of Involvement and Value Orientation ................................ ............... 82 Mediating Role of Sport Event Attitude ................................ ................................ ................. 84 Managerial Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 85 Limitation and Future Research ................................ ................................ .............................. 86 A PPENDIX A INVOLVEMENT SCENARIO ................................ ................................ ................................ 88 B COVER LETTER ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 92 C QUESTIONNAIRES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 93 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 95 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 103

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table P age 4 1 Description of participants (N = 215 ) ................................ ................................ .................... 61 4 2 Summary Result for Measurement Model Test ................................ ................................ ..... 62 4 3 Means, SD, Correlations and Squared Correlations Matrix ................................ .................. 63 4 4 Univariate results for the attitude toward the advertisements ................................ ............... 64 4 5 Means for attitude toward the advertisements ................................ ................................ ....... 65 4 6 Univariate results for the attitude toward the sport event ................................ ...................... 66 4 7 Means for attitude toward the sport event ................................ ................................ ............. 67 4 8 Regression analysis testing the effects of attitude toward the advertisemen t on sport event attitude and visit intention for utilitarian sport event ................................ ............... 68 4 9 Regression analysis testing the effects of attitude toward the sport event on visit intention for utilit arian sport event ................................ ................................ .................... 69 4 10 Regression analysis testing the effects of attitude toward the advertisement on sport event attitude and visit intention for hedonic sport event ................................ .................. 70 4 11 Regression analysis testing the effects of attitude toward the sport event on visit intention for hedonic sport event ................................ ................................ ....................... 71

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure P age 1 1 Hypotheses 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 21 1 2 Web Advertisement Information Processing Model ................................ ............................. 2 2 4 1 Interaction between involvement and message appeals for utilitarian sporting event .......... 72 4 2 Interaction between involvement and message appeals for hedonic sporting event ............. 73 4 3 Interaction between involvement and message appeals for utilitarian sporting event .......... 74 4 4 Interaction between involvement and message appeals for hedonic sporting event ............. 75 4 5 Results of the test for mediation for utilitarian sporting event ................................ .............. 76 4 6 Results of the test for mediation for hedonic sporting event ................................ ................. 77 4 7 Involvement manipulation ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 78 4 8 Message appeal manipulation ................................ ................................ ................................ 79 4 9 Sporting event m anipulation ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 80

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Gradua te School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science CONSUMERS INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL FOR SPORT WEB ADVERTISEMENT: SPORT EVENT VALUE ORIENTATION AND CONSUMER INVOLVEME NT PERSPECTIVE By Wonseok Jang May 201 2 Chair: Yong Jae Ko Major: Sport Management Advertisers put significant effort into selecting message strategy that persuasive their target group more effectively based on consumers psychological preferences. Th e purpose of this study is to examine the potential moderating role of involvement level and value orientation in the sport event consumers information processing pattern and their attitude formation Additionally, this study also examined the effects of different types message appeal (informational versus emotional) on their attitude toward the advertisement. This study suggests that advertising message is more effective when the appeal matches with the sport event type. Consistent with dual pr ocess perspective, consumers independently uses cognitive or affective elaborating system to form their attitude for utilitarian sporting event based on their involvement level. On the other hand, consumers simultaneously depend on both cognitive and affec tive elaborating system to form their attitude for hedonic sporting event. Therefore, this study extends prior literatures (Dual Process Theory and Planning Model) by suggesting that traditional dichotomous dual process model must transfer to a co occurren ce model for hedonic sporting event s particularly among highly involved consumers

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION These days, the sport industry is one of the largest and rapidly grown industries in the United State; become a $414 billion business (Plunkett Research, 2010). Particularly, online sport and tourism service has experienced the similar pattern of growth and received tremendous attention from spo rt marketers over the last several decades (Xiang, Wober, & Fesenmaier, 2008). Because of corporations and organizations acknowledge the importance of online business as a means to accomplish a range of goals and objectives (Lyberger & McCarthy, 2001). Bro wn (2003) stated that 39% of people who had access to a personal computer already had access to sport information through the Internet. Hence, online sport business has explosively increased, becoming an important tool for accomplishing marketing strategie s (Hur, Ko, & Valacich, 2007). Especially, the introduction of the World Wide Web has increased the popularity of sport and tourism online consumer. Research done by Internet World Stats (2010) found that t he total number of World Wide Web users has increa sed to 1.9 billion accounting for 28.7 % of the population. F or example, internet has been used for an essential business strategy for all major participants in sport industries such as pro teams, manufacture, ticket (Hur et al., 2007). F urthermore previous studies in marketing have argued that the Website has been used for an array of purposes including selling services, projecting the corporate image, providing services information, generating qualified leads, distributing electronic coupons, and controlling a variety of post purchase tasks (Berthon el at., 1996; Hoffman & Novak, 1996). However, the most significant benefit by internet is advertisement. F or example, the interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) and Price waters house Coopers LLP (PwC) investigated that internet advertising is becoming one of the biggest segments of the internet with revenue generates more

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11 than $6.2 billion in the second quarter of 2010 which is increase of 11.3 percent compared to previous year. H owever, scholars have noted that unlike traditional media, Web advertisement s are (a) unrestricted by time and space (b) u nrestricted in amounts and sources of information and (c) capa ble of targeting specific segments of consumers. F urthermore, the interactivity of Web advert isements is the most crucial difference from traditional media (Yoo & Kim, 2001). B ecause of these benefits, a survey regarding the future of advertising conducted by Ducoffee, Sandler, and Secunda (1996) found that the use of new media technologies like Web advertisements is essential to the future of advertising. In addition, previous studies in the sport literature argued that advertising has become a most critical tool, because of flexibility, broader research, and higher levels of bran or corporate exposure (Kropp, Lavack, Holden, & Dalakas, 1999, p.42). T h us, it is essential for the web advertisers to understand how consumers process their information from advertisement on the web (Ducoffe, 1996; McMillan, Hwang, & Lee, 2003). Also, Cho, Lee and Tharp (2001) stated the importance of understanding how consumers process their information through advertising on the web has become crucial demand for the web advertisers. H owever, to date, the importance of consumers information process pattern has be en grown up, there have been little studies done by developing online sport consumers behavior. For example (a) previous studies researched benefits of online marketing (Brown, 2003; Caskey & Delpy, 1999; Delpy & Bosetti, 1998; Duncan & Campbell, 1999; K ahle & Meeske, 1999; Turner, 1999 ), (b) examined the contents of sport Web ( Filo & Funk, 2005 ) and (c) Hur et al., (2007) focusing on online sport consumption behavior using motivation theory and (d) identifying demographic profiles of online sport consume rs (Brown, 2003; Delpy & Bosetti,

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12 1998; Duncan & Campbell, 1999), (e) developed sport online consumption scale (Seo & Green, 2008). A lthough recent researchers found that the number of online sport consumers is rapidly growing and the information processi ng has received tremendous attention form advertising and psychology scholar, there are none of studies done by sport advertisement information processing in web. T o succeed in online sport and tourism advertisement it is essential to develop an informat ion process strategy that provides insides into sport consumers behavior. I nformation processing can be explained by applying the dual process model (e.g., Elaboration Likelihood and Heuristic and Systematic Models ) to Web environments. Furthermore, it is necessary to examine the ways in which sport consumers process their information based on involvement level and different types of value. According to i nformation processing theory scholars revealed that based on their involvement level ( Chaiken & Mahes waran, 1994; Petty & Cacioppo, 1981; Petty, Caioppo, & Schumann, 1983; Petty, Schuman, Richman, & Strathman, 1993; Petty, Unnava, & Strathman, 1991; Reinhard & Sporer, 2008 ) and different value orientation ( Aaker & Stayman 1 992 ; A l bers Miller & Stafford, 1999; Johar & Sirgy, 1991; Legg & Baker, 1987; Leskey, Fox, & Crask, 1995, M a no & Oliver, 1993; Mittal, 1999; Shavitt, 1992; Stafford & Day 1995; Stafford, 1996; Stafford & Stafford, 2001 Wakefield & Bush 1998; Wakefield & Inman 2003) consumer s focused o n different features and information through advertisement s F or example, based on ELM, when individuals are highly involved with a product or service, those individuals will use the central route, that is, they will focus on cognitive information such as t ext information; when individuals encounter a low involvement situation, they will focus on affective information such as pictorial images and the appeal of endorsements (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981; Petty, Caioppo, & Schumann, 1983; Petty, Schuman, Richman &

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13 S trathman, 1993). Previous studies have argued that appeal, also called advertising strategy is the most common method of implementing advertisements ( Mortimer, 2008; Puto & Wells, 1984; Shavitt, 1992 ; Stafford & Day, 1995) T hus, they attempted to investig ate the relationship s among product or service types, information process, and effectiveness of the advertisement. They found that when consumers process information, product or service value plays as moderator. Some e mpirical studies done by previous res earchers have found that when individuals search information for a utilitarian value, informational appeal is more effective than emotional appeal ; however when they process information through about a hedonic value, emotional appeal is more effective ( Aa ker & Stayman 1 992 ; Johar & Sirfy, 1991; Shavitt, 1992). Other researchers have argued that consumers are more highly interested, involved with and motived to process information about leisure activities such as a sporting activities or a movie. Hence, th ey suggested that when consumption is derived from hedonic motivation, both informational and emotional appeals are appropriate (M a no & Oliver, 1993; A l bers Miller & Stafford, 1999; Legg & Baker 1987; Mittal, 1999; Stafford & Day, 1995; Wakefield & Barnes 1996; Wakefield & Bush 1998; Wakefield & Inman 2003). An extensive review of the literature revealed that several studies have highlighted the importance of the moderating role of value orientation in information processing. However, t he result s for ma tching theory remain inconsistent. T herefore, the current study will investigate which types of advertising appeals are most effective based on different value orientation. F urthermore, no empirical studies have been conducted to examine how consumers proc ess information from Web advertisements with the regard to the two different values (i.e., utilitarian oriented, hedonic oriented) and the different level s of involvement (i.e., high involvement, low involvement). Such issues have important implications

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14 fo r enhancing the understanding of consumption behavior. Moreover, these investigations can be helpful to marketers in developing effective advertisements. S ignificance of Web Advertisement and Current Problem S cholars studying marketing, advertising, and co nsumer behavior have paid a tremendous amount of attention t o information process and message strategy for more than three decades. Furthermore with the emergence of the Internet, Web adverti sing has been of significant interest to both scholars and pract itioners. Therefore, Bergstrom (2000) addressed the importance of managing the Website which involves communicat ing corporate messages and building up brand equity through online advertising. D ue to the growing importance of the Internet, it is essential to understand consumers information processing patterns with Web advertising. Thus, the current study examined the information process model for Web advertisement, how involvement level moderates the in formation strategy, and how different types of sport event moderate the s effectiveness and then applied the dual process model to Web advertisement. B ased on the extensive literature review, the authors found four interesting contexts that could emerge in consumers information process for sport eve nt Web advertisement: (1) consumers process their information about a utilitarian oriented sport event in a low involvement situation, (2) consumers process their information about a utilitarian oriented sport event in a high involvement situation, (3) con sumers process their information about a hedonic oriented sport event in a low involvement situation, (4) consumers process their information about a hedonic oriented sport event in a high involvement situation. Although, these four situations are importan t for marketers and advertisers, we did not find any previous literature that investigated them. I n addition, this study attempts to provide evidence that traditional dual process models have to change to co occurrence models for hedonic consumption. I f e motional appeal is an

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15 effective message strategy in low involvement situations, while, both emotional appeal and informational appeal are effective in high involvement situations, these results support the notion that the traditional dichotomous model must shift to the co occurrence model. F urthermore, this study is the first attempt to investigate the information process in Web advertis ing within a sport context. In addition, this conceptual model provides a theoretical foundation for understanding sport c consumption behavior, especially that of golf consumers Therefore, the findings of this study help sport event marketers in develop ing effective advertising strategies based on the psychological profiles of their target consumer s Statement of the Problem Numerous researchers have investigated consumers information process and examined message strategy. However, the research into how consumers process their information from Web advertisement s has been limited to two specific values ( i.e., util itarian oriented, and hedonic oriented value) and different level s of involvement (i.e., high involvement, and low involvement). Although several studies scrutinized these situations, there has not been enough empirical support to fully understand consumer s information process in each situation of interest. F or example, previous studies examined the moderating role of involvement without considering value orientation ( Chaiken 1980; Engel & Blackwell 1982; Krugman 1965; Petty & Cacioppo 1979; Petty, Cac ioppo, & Schumann 1983; Sherif & Hovland 1961 ) or investigated the moderating role of value orientation without individual involvement level s in traditional media advertising (A l bers Miller & Stafford, 1999; Johar & Sirgy, 1991; M a no & Oliver, 1993; Mat tila, 1999; Wakefield & Barnes, 1996). In web advertising, previous research examined the moderating role of involvement, but without different types of value (Cho, 1999; Hwang & McMillan, 2002; McMillan, 2000; McMillan et al., 2003; Wu, 1999; Yoo & Stout, 2001). Moreover, Lotia, Donthu, and Hershberger (2003) scrutinized message effectiveness

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16 based on service type without considering consumers involvement level in the Web advertisement. Singh and Dalal (1999) applied the ELM to internet advertising. B ut, they only examined the low involvement situation. In addition, McMillian et al. (2003) investigated the relationship between the consumers involvement level and message strategy and features, but did not include the Website categor ies. Thus, they suggeste d that based on their results, additional study should be conducted on individuals involvement level with different Website categories. Also, Hwang et al. (2003) argued that it is essential to examine message strategies based on their product or service c ategory because message strategies can be differentiated from objective, function and target audience in Web advertising Although the dual process models have been widely used for more than 30 years in consumer behavior research, the models have not been e mpirically examined in the sport events context, especially in Web advertisement. Moreover because of Web advertisement has different characteristic compared to traditional media advertisement, this study attempts to propose a co occurrence model for spor t event Web advertisement. Thus, a better understanding of the roles of involvement and sport event type can assist marketers in creating more effective information delivery strategies among sport event online consumer Purpose of the Study The overall goal of this study is to propose information processing model focusing on informational and emotional appeals for Web advertisement based on the theoretical background. Particularity the primary purposes of this study are (a) to test the potential moderat ing effect of value orientation and consumers involvement level in the information processing procedures and their attitude formation (b) to examine the types of advertising that (informational or emotional) lead to positive attitude s toward the sport ev ent advertisement.

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17 T o provide a better understanding of information processing associated with Web adverting, authors applied the dual process theory (i.e., ELM, effortful and effortless mode, HSM) which is widely used theory in consumer behavior research Therefore, in the current study, several research questions should be answered throughout this study; (1) h ow is the sport event Web advertisement information process different from the process associated with traditional media advertisement s? (2) h ow do consumers levels of involvement moderate the information process in Web advertisement? (3) h ow do different types of values orientation affect consumers information process patterns in sport event Web advertisement s? (4) how do different types of values orientation and consumer involvement level play significant moderating roles in information processes for Web advertisements? Finally, the relationship between attitude toward W eb site attitude toward the sport event and visit intention w ere also exami ned. A conceptual model was proposed to answer these research questions. The present study will examine a proposed model of information processing in sport event Web advertisement by applying the dual process model (i.e., ELM, HSM) to answer these specific questions. Hypotheses Development To investigate the moderating roles of value orientation and involvement, b ased on the previous commentary, the following hypotheses were developed with reliance on the relevant theoretical background. The H1 tested by ap plying dual process model (i.e., ELM, HSM) to sport event Web advertisement. The H2 measured information processing behaviors in a sport event context by examin ing the moderating role of value orientation. The hypotheses are as follow: I n consumer behavior literature, involvement is believed to play a significant moderating role in information processing, attitude formation, and decision making ( Chaiken

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18 1980; Engel & Blackwell 1982; Krugman 1965; Petty & Cacioppo 1979; Petty et al., 1983; Sherif & Hovla nd 1961) P revious investigations found that when consumers make product decision s and process information based on their involvement level, they focus on different features and information (Olshavsky & Granbois, 1979). B ased on dual process theory, these scholars suggested that when consumers are highly involved, the central route generates rational, logical thinking and cognitive process responses (Chaiken, 1980; Trope & Liberman, 200 0 ) I n contrast, in low involvement situations, consumers use periphera l cues in ELM to focus on simple cues in persuasion, an active affective process ( Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Petty et al., 1991). Therefore, the researchers developed the next set of research propositions: H1 : There is a two way interaction between type s of message appeals and involvement level. More specifically, under high involvement conditions, the effect of informational appeal is greater than emotional appeal. Under low involvement condition s, the effect of emotional appeal is greater than inf ormational appeal. Prior studies found consumers relative preference for two different types of products or services with different v alue orientations (Babin, Darden, & Griffin, 1994; Chitturi, Raghunathan, & Mahajan, 2007; Dhar & Wertenbroch, 2000; Okada 2005; Voss et al., 2003). H owever, after an extensive review of the literature, the authors predicted that when consumers process their information in a sport event context, these two dimensions of value s play a significant role as moderator. Therefore, the first two propositions were developed: H2: There will be a three way interaction among types of message appeal, level of involvement and sporting event type. More specifically, the types of sporting event will moderate the relationship between mes sage appeal and the level of involvement More specifically, based on the extensive literature review, the authors concluded that both involvement and product or service values play a significant role as moderator. Furthermore, the authors found four inter esting contexts that emerged in sport event consumers information process for Web advertisement: (1) a utilitarian oriented sport event in a low involvement, (2) a

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19 utilitarian oriented sport event in a high involvement, (3) a hedonic oriented sport event in a low involvement, (4) a hedonic oriented sport event in a high involvement. Although, these four situations are vital for marketers, there are no previous studies scrutinized those situations B ased on the results of previous research, we can make sev eral predictions and assumptions. First, we can predict that hedonic oriented sport event in a low involvement situation emotional appeal will be greater because the most of the literature support this prediction (Aaker & Stayman, 1992; Chaiken 1980; Joh ar & Sirgy, 1991; Petty & Cacioppo 1979; Pett y et al., 1983; Shavitt, 1992). Second, Based on ELM, we can predict that for utilitarian oriented sport event, the effect of emotional appeal will be greater than informational appeal in a low involvement situ ation. Also in high involvement situation, the informational appeal will have greater effect than emotional appeal ( Chaiken 1980; Petty & Cacioppo 1979; Petty et al., 1983 ). T hese assumptions might be reasonably supported in conventional offline advertis ing context. This assumption is particularly appropriate for Web advertisement context where a large number of information is available for consumers (Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1984; Cho, 1999; Reinhard & Sporer, 2008 ). T he co occurrence model may do not expla in Web advertisements. However, the authors predict that for hedonic oriented sport event in highly involved situations, both informational and emotional appeals will be effective for Web advertisement. Previous studies found that when consumers motive de rives from pleasure, fun or enjoyment, consumers are more likely to search their information (M a no & Oliver, 1993; A l bers Miller & Stafford, 1999; Legg & Baker, 1987; Mittal, 1999; Wakefield & Barnes, 1996; Wakefield & Bush, 1998; Wakefield & Inman, 2003). Accordingly, b ased on the previous commentary, the following propositions are developed : H2 1 : For the information process ing of utilitarian sporting event s in low involvement conditions the effect of emotional appeal is greater than informational appe al

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20 H2 2 : For the information processing of utilitarian sporting events in high involvement conditions the effect of informational appeal is greater than emotional appeal. H 2 3 : For the information process ing of hedonic sporting event s in low involvem ent conditions the effect of emotional appeal is greater than informational appeal H2 4 : For the information processing of hedonic sporting events in high involvement conditions the effect of both informational and emotional appeals (there will be no statistical difference) are greater. Numerous scholars argued that consumers positive attitude toward the advertisement directly and indirectly influence their brand attitude and actual behavior consumption, regardless of their involvement levels (Lutz, Mackenzie, & Belch, 1983; Mitchell & Olson, 1981). Therefore, in terms of sport event, we predict that the attitude toward the advertisement would positively impact on brand (sport event) attitude, and visit intention Moreover, Madrigal (1995) fou nd that positive attitude toward the event directly impact on visiting intentions. For example, when people developed favorable attitudes toward the event, they are more likely to attend the event. Additionally, in terms of athlete endorsement Fink and co lleagues (2004) extended this relationship They revealed that consumers attitude toward the event partially mediated the relationship between endorser and event fit and intentions to purchase the event ticket. In current study, authors attempted to exte nd this literature by more precisely examining the relationships among attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the sport event and visit intention ( c.f., Fink, Cunningham, & Kensicki, 2004). The increased positive attitude toward the sport even t would positively influence on visit intention. Therefore, the following hypothesis was developed: H 3 Attitude toward the sporting event mediates the relationship between attitude toward the advertisement and the intention to visit the sporting event regardless of the types of event.

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21 Low Involvement High Involvement Utilitarian Sporting Event For the information process ing of utilitarian sporting event s in low involvement conditions the effect of emotional appeal is greater than informational a ppeal. For the information processing of utilitarian sporting events in high involvement conditions the effect of informational appeal is greater than emotional appeal. Hedonic Sporting Event For the information process ing of hedonic sporting event s in low involvement conditions the effect of emotional appeal is greater than informational appeal For the information processing of hedonic sporting events in high involvement conditions the effect of both informational and emotional appeals (there will be no statistical difference) is greater. Figure 1 1. Hypotheses 2

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22 Figure 1 2. Web Advertisement Information Processing Model

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23 List of Terms For the purpose of the study, the following terms were operationally defined ADVERTISING A paid form of media ted communication from an identifiable source, designed to persuade the receiver to take some action now or in the future (Richards & Curran, 2002, p. 74) o Internet advertising Not restricted to space or time, an evolving and multi faceted form of advertis ing that involves and engages with consumer with the consumer through ability to communicate and interact with the consumer (McMillan, Hwang & Lee, 2003). SPORT EVENT VALUE ORIENTATION o Utili tarian oriented sporting event Provides instrumental and functi onal value primarily for a utilitarian dimension rather than a hedonic dimension (Dhar & Wertenbroch, 2000). o He donic oriented sporting event P rimarily related to experiential consumption, fun, pleasure and excitement for a hedonic dimension rather than a utilitarian dimension (Dhar & Wertenbroch, 2000). MESSAGE APPEAL o Informational appeals M ore direct straight forward approach and meant to be a rational appeal that highlights the factual information (Stafford & Day, 1995). o Emotional appeals G enerate more positive emotional feelings, and thus more enjoyable experiences, which are subjective measures (Stafford & Day, 1995) and resulted in a vivid image of the experience (Johar & Sirgy, 1991).

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24 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, a review of th e information process is presented. Next, research on the information process in the online context is discussed so that the differences between Web advertisement and traditional advertisement can be identified Next, to understand information process patt erns, we review the dual process theory: (a) the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion; (b) the heuristic systematic model (HSM); and (c) the e ffortful and e ffortless m ode l which is best known theory in advertising. Subsequently, based on an ex tensive review of the literature, we discuss the moderating role of value orientation and involvement to understand the sport event consumers information process. Finally, we reviews the literature regarding informational and emotional message strategies based on the moderating role of sport event type (i.e., utilitarian oriented, hedonic oriented ) and different levels of involvement (i.e., high involvement, low involvement) and developed the co occurrence model for sport Web advertisement. Information Pro cess The importance of consumers information and decision making processes has received tremendous attention from scholars in the past three decades. C onsumer behavior researcher s and psychologist s have developed information processing models to understan d how consumer s process information as well as how they store the information in memory (Cacioppo & Schumann 1983; Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Jun, Vogt & MacKay, 2007 ; Petty et al., 1991; Reinhard & Sporer, 2008 ; Trope & Liberman 200 0 ) R esearch in the fields of advertising and psychology has adopted the d ual p rocess m odel to examine how consumer s process advertisements information. The current study applie s the d ual p rocess m odel to expla in sport event consumer nline information processing behavior s

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25 Information Process in Web Advertisement With the emergence of the internet, researchers have question about applicability of existing information processing theorie s to web advertisements, because of the different characteristic s of the advertising; web advertisement involves two way interaction, whereas traditional advertisement offers one way exposure (Bezjian Avery, Calder, & Iacobucci, 1998; Cho, 1999). Previous researchers argued that Web advertisement differs from traditional media advertisement in several ways (Bezjian Avery, Calder, & Iacobucci, 1998; Cho, 1999; Yoon & Kim, 2001). T he first significant component that differentiates Web advertisement from traditional media advertisement is its interactivity. Interactivity of Web advertisements means that consumers have an ability to choose and respond to a particular advertisement they like or find. F urthermore, this two way interactivity allows for better and timelier responsiveness to consumers and more connection to consumers enhanced engagement and involvement in Web advertisement Second, Web a d vertisement is unrestricted by time and space; this is the crucial component that differentiates it from traditional media advertisement. S ince Web advertisements have the potential to be continuously av ailable to the consumer, advertisers can communicate and customize as much content as they want and deliver it constantly to the consumer. Finally, Web advertising is a multidimensional process as consumers have greater control over the message and do not necessarily process information in a step by step manner. F or example, consumers can skip certain stages and jump directly to an action, such as purchasing a product, with just the click of their mouse, which shortens the information process. F urthermore, Bezjian Avery et al. (1998) suggested that in the Web environment, consumers can delete irrelevant information and control the order of the advertisement s information. Thus, in the Web environment, consumers have the power to actively navigate advertising the information rather than passively accepting only the information the advertiser provides; thus, the consumer can

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26 control advertising information T hese differences in Web advertisement including interactivity, unlimited space and time, consumers con trol, and engagement with the advertisement further justify the need to examine not only the effects of Web advertisements, but also how consumers process their information in the Web condition However, there are many different types of interactive adv ertising on the Web, including banners, buttons, text links, sponsorships, target sites, and interstitials (Cho, Lee & Tharp, 2001). Novak and Hoffman (1997) noted that banner advertisements and target advertisements are the most dominant form of Web a dvertisement. In Web advertising, clicking a banner advertisement and entering a target advertisement constitute the first step to engage with the world of interactivity (Cho & Leckenby, 1999). B ecause of the interactive communication in Web advertisements researchers have emphasized the role of the banner advertisement, which is a tool to encourage a voluntary action (e.g., clicking a banner ad); the consumer can select information to create a more active and intensive importation processing experience (R aman & Leckenby, 1998). However McMillan et al. (2003) stated that many of researchers had focused on banner advertisements, buttons, and pop up windows ( Bezjian Avery et al., 1998; Brackett & Carr, 2001; Cho, 1999; Shamdasani, Stanaland, & Tan, 2001; Sun dar, Narayan, Obregon, & Uppal, 1998) whereas, other researchers have defined the Web advertising using a broader approach (Bruner & Kumar, 2000; Coyle & Thorson, 2001; Lynn, Lipp, Akgun & Crotez, 2002; Stevenson, Bruner, & Kumar, 2000). Singh and Dalal ( 1999) mentioned that Websites itself, meet the conceptual definition of advertising, they resemble ads in physical appearance and they perform the same basic functions to inform and to persuade (p. 92). Thus, they have scrutinized the context of the Web site related to advertising effects.

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27 Thus, in this paper, the authors examined the Website itself, because of its important characteristics as advertising. Singh and Dalal (1999) revealed that although the Internet is awash with banner advertising, the We bsite itself is the most important advertisement. Furthermore, Khermouch and Lowry (2001) mentioned that the importance of banner advertising has decreased the click through rates for banner advertising has been drop ped below 0.1%. Moreover, McMillan et al (2003) argued that compared to traditional media advertising, the Website can build a brand by providing unlimited information that traditional media advertising cannot offer. Moreover, they argued that the Website can be used to ask a consumer to make a n online purchase, which is a direct marketing activity. McMillian et al. (2003) said that this transactional capability is the most significant characteristic of the Web. However, they found that if Web advertisement is considered in traditional terms (e. g., banner), this capability cannot be measured. Furthermore, Hwang et al. (2003) argued that unlike traditional media which are limited by the constraints of time and space, the Website offers a unique opportunity to combine multiple message types aimed a t targeted consumers. Currently, the click through rate is most commonly used to measure a Website s effectiveness. However, previous investigations have argued that even though the click through rate is a useful tool for measuring the popularity of a page it has nothing to do with a Website s effectiveness (Bruner & Kumar, 2000; Coyle & Thorson, 2001; Sing & Dalal, 1999). Then, how can we measure the effectiveness of a Website? Sing and Dalal (1999) stated that we can measure the effectiveness of a Websit e in communication s terms from an advertising perspective Furthermore, scholars have argued that appropriate information, message content, and Website design generate a more positive attitude toward the Website and the brand among consumers. Thus, it is i mportant to test the information process for the Website itself rather than measur ing

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28 the click through rate (Cho & Leckenby, 1999; Hwang et al., 2003; Raman & Leckenby, 1998). Moreover, previous researchers suggested that the consumer display different ch aracteristics compared to traditional media advertisement (i.e., power to actively navigate information for Web advertisement s), thus, the authors believe that consumers information process for Web advertisements will differ from the process for tradition al media advertisement s. Therefore to apply the information process model to Web advertisement s, we review the dual process model, the most widely known theory in consumer behavior literature. Dual Processing Theory processing behaviors, researchers found parallel persuasion processing using three different mode l s of the d ual p rocess t heories : (a) the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion; (b) the heuristic systematic model (HSM); and (c) the e ffortful and e ffortless m ode l A number of studies have identified the importance of the d ual p rocess m odel emphasiz ing that cognitive and affective response can develop attitude while a differen t level of personal relevance or involvement will a ffect persuasion by in voking different processes ( Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Petty et al., 1991; Reinhard & Sporer, 2008). The most recognized d ual p rocess theory is ELM, which suggested that persuasion has two different routes : c entral and p eripheral. According to Petty et a l. (1983) the central route is used when individuals ha ve high involvement This route foc uses on the information that an individual feel ing is central to the true merits of the object. Meanwhile, the peripheral cue in ELM is defined as an element in mes requires less cognitive effort in processing In particular, through the central route, motivation and ability to process information plays significant role in accessing and elaborating inform ation (Petty & Wegener, 1999). F urthermore, Bagozzi, Gurhan Calni, and Preister (2000) argued that the need for cognition, involvement or personal relevance determines the motivation to process

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29 information. Thus, when consumers have higher levels of motiv ation and ability to process relevant information or message content, they are more likely to evaluate all relevant information carefully. F urthermore, Petty and Wegener (1999) found that when individuals process their information, they evaluate informatio n using numerous criteria such as quality message source, and context information. According to ELM, when consumers have high motivation and ability level s, they may use one of these criteria to evaluate their information. In particular, the consumer may use the quality of the argument, such as credibility to evaluate the information. In contrast, when consumers have lack of motivation and ability the peripheral route, they will use only small amounts of information or the attractiveness of the informati on to evaluate Thus, consumers who process their information through a central route are more likely to process their information cognitively, and their thoughts and attitudes that result from this process should be more reasonable, rational, and resistan t to counter persuasion. ( Haugtvedt & Petty, 1992; Petty, Haugtvedt, & Smith, 1995) HSM is another critical d ual p rocess t heory approach is comparable with central route in that it focuse s on cogniti ve processes Chaiken (1980) rev ealed that in the systematic processing in the HSM, when individuals perform a task and evaluate a message s arguments they utilize cognitive effort. euristic cue is activated when individual s develop their information processing through their past experience s T hey use either simple or general cues for quicker and easier information process ing such as attractive or expert endorsers ( Chaiken 1980) P revious studies have also identified the effortful and effortless mode l for persuasion, h ow individuals use information processing based on their attitude change (Chaiken & Maheswaran 1994; Chen & Chaiken 1999; Petty et al., 1991; Reinhard & Sporer 2008 ). Individuals in the

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30 effortful mode (i.e., central route in ELM and systematic processin g in HSM) spend significant effort and time to process information and thus focus on persuasion to reduce their purchase associated risks (Hirschman 1986; Novak, Hoffman, & Duhachek 2003; Vogt 1993; Vogt & Fesenmaier 1998) However, effortless mode proce ssing (i.e., peripheral route in ELM and heuristic processing in HSM) focuses on simple rules and cues in the persuasion situation (Chaiken, 1980; Trope & Liberman 200 0). F or example, individuals may likely to process their information through nonverbal m essage (i.e., pictorial image, music), since it requires less processing effort than verbal message. Meanwhile, several empirical studies (e.g., Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Reinhard & Sporer, 2008) found new theory that effortless modes can co occur wit h effortful modes. Reinhard and Sporer (2008) fou n d that when individuals have high involvement conditions, they utilize all information both effortful (e.g., argument quality of verbal messages) and effortless cues (e.g., attractiveness of nonverbal mess ages) to make judgments. In this case, researchers used verbal for effortful mode because it requires more cognitive process and effort F or the effortless mode, non verbal messages such as pictorial image s and music have been used ; indeed, pictorial image s require less cognitive effort, are easier to process and bring more sensory responses (Reinhard & Sporer, 2008). Furthermore, according to Chaiken and Maheswaran (1994), when message content is ambiguous, individuals utilized both effortless and effortf ul process to influence attitudes under high task importance. A Research Model Based on the theoretical background this study proposes a research model by incorporating a dual process model focusing on informationa l and emotional appeal. Figure 1 2 illust rates the hypothesized relationships. In particular, both co occurrences of dual models as well as dual process models were scrutinized to understand online sport consumers information

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31 processing model. T he current study used informational appeal to exami ne cognitive processing whereas emotional appeal utilized to test affective processing. Because based on extensive review, we found that emotional advertising also influences on consumers affective processing (Ruitz & Sicilia, 2004; Singh & Dalal, 1999) We also hypothesized that different types of sport and consumers involvement level play significant moderating effect in the process I n the following section specific dimensions of value orientation, involvement, and its practical usage are discussed Utilitarian versus Hedonic Values Consumer information processing in sport event Web a dvertisement s can be viewed differently than actual consumption decision. Aronson, Wilson and Akert (2005) demonstrated that when consumers make decision s they focu sed on different features and information. Therefore, applying this viewpoint to the online environment when consumer s are exposed to w eb a dvertisement s, their information process might be different based on value orientation. T he consumer behavior litera ture details two unique values in consumption behaviors: utilitarian and hedonic values ( Okada, 2005; Voss et al., 2003). Batra and Ahtola (1990) suggested that consumers purchase products or services and perform consumption behavior for two basic reasons: (a) instrumental utilitarian reasons and (b) affective (hedonic) gratification (from sensory attributes) The consumption of utilitarian values requires more cognitively driven, goal oriented, and functional tasks (Batra & Ahtola 199 0; Engel Roger, & P aul, 1993) Meanwhile, h edonic values provide consumers with more experiential consumption, in which consumption is characterized primarily by an affective experience of aesthetic or sensual pleasure, fantasy, and fun (Dhar & Wertenbroch, 2000) T hese two different consumption behavior s highlight the distinct ion between buy products t hat they need and eople love to do it (Triandis, 1977). T hese two different types of values (especially for utilitarian and hedonic values) have

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32 been thoroughly res earch ed in the field of consumer behavior ; when consumers search for their information through advertisement s they focus on different type s of information (Aaker & Stayman, 1992 ; Liebermann & Flint Goor ; 1996, Johar & Sirgy, 1991). B efore the 1970s, util it a rian consumption behavior received tremendous attention from researchers. T he conceptualization of utilitarianism was often defined in terms of i nformation processing models (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982) driven primarily by functional motives. P revious r esearch ers stated that information process is a cognitive rational mental process involved with acquisition, selection, utilization, and storage of information (Jun et al. 2007). In a ddition, tradition theory suggests that when consumer s developing info rmation process are decid ing which product to consume, they seek to maximize the function of tangible attribute s (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982). However, some research ers have realized that the concept of utilitarianism neglected certain important experienti al phenomena including affective response (Osgood, Suci & Tannenbaum 1957) and fantasy imagery/daydreaming (Dhar & Wertenbroch, 2000; Singer, 1966, Swanson, 1978). Thus, i n the early 1980s, some consumer behavior researchers began to question experienti al consumption pattern like emotional gratification such as play sport/leisure activities and spectating sporting events/entertainment. T hey drew attention to the extension of traditional consumer research and develop ed new emerging theory hed onic consumption by enhancing existing marketing theory (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982). Hirschman and Holbrook (1982) behavior that relates to multiple sensory, fantasy and emotive aspects of one s experi 92 ) They argued that because of the multiple meanings that multisensory, fantasy, and emotive evoke, we must define them first to prevent confusion in their interpretation. Holbrook and

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33 Hirschman (1982) explained multisensory as receiving an exp erience in a variety of sensory forms, including tastes, sounds, scents, tactile impressions, and visual image. Berlyne (1971 p.92 ) stated the importance of efferent experience of multisensory urge as a significant form of consumer response, while other researchers only assume the afferent (e.g., a product taste test ) of these experience. In other words, individuals can receive multisensory impressions from external factors, but, they also can generate multisensory images by themselves. Holbrook and Hi rschman (1982) categorized these internal multisensory images as; historic imagery and fantasy imagery. Historic imagery involves recalling that which actually occurred in the past. F or example they argued that reminder of romance could be evoked by the s cent of a perfume. H owever, these internal, multisensory images can also occur even if they are not directly based on past experience, this is called fantasy imagery ( Singer 1966 ) R esearchers argued that in stead of recalling a historic memory, in fantasy imagery the sounds that are heard, the colors and figure s that are seen, and the touch that is felt have never actually been experience d, but can be experience d as mental phenomenon when the imagined is brought together in this particular form (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982). Another type of multisensory image that relates to hedonic consumption is emotional arousal (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982) E motional arousal includes feelings like joy, jealousy, fear, rage, and rapture (Freud, 1955). Researchers argu ed that even though these emotive responses are both psychological and physiological in nature (i.e., they affect the mind and body), they have rarely been investigated in consumer behavior research ( Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982; Orstein 1977 ; Schacter & Si nger 1962) However, this new theory was not used to replace traditional theories driven primarily by functional motives ; rather it aimed to extend them based on emotional response.

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34 Hedonic Value is Sport In the early 1980s, several consumer behavior re searchers discovered that, when people like emotional gratification occurred. This range of emotional feeling plays a significant role in research on experiential c relates to multiple images, fantasies, and emotional arousal in using product (p. 93). Holbrook, Chest nut, Oliva, and Greenleaf (1984) argued that these emotional arousals are the most important aspects in leisure and sport activities. Although functional motive is heavily driven by most of the product types, the consumption of products for sport activitie s and leisure is mostly driven by hedonic motives. Furthermore, Dhar and Wertenbroch (2000) revealed that hedonic aesthetic or sensual pleasure, fantasy and fun (p.61) could occur with products, services and experience. Indeed, in sport psychologist stated that sport products or services offered participants positive experiences such as psychological concepts of joy, fun, and flow, indicating hedonic consumption. Moreov er, scholars have investigated playful consumption incorporating leisure activities (Unger & Kerman, 1983), hobbies (Bloch & Bruce, 1984), and sports (Mihalch, 1982) from a hedonic standpoint. During these activities, consumers can experience emotional res ponses such as positive affection and satisfaction (Holbrook et al., 1984). In particular, Deci (1975) defined this intrinsically motivated behavior as a hedonistic position. Consistent with previous research, scholars stated that participation in sport ac tivities is one form of hedonic consumption. According to previous researchers, these hedonic aspects of the consumption experience (e.g., satisfaction, enjoyment, and fun) have been broadly considered as the essence of engaging in sports and leisure activ ities (Neulinger, 1981; Unger & Kernan, 1983; Wilson,

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35 1981). For example, Calder and Staw (1975 p.601 ) explained these states using such terms as current paper is based on the idea that golf activities refer to hedonic consumption. For example, during golf activities, individuals can feel an emotional arousal such as excitement and pleasure. This emotion arousal is one of the most important aspects in leisure an d sport activities, thereby indicating hedonic consumption (Holbrook et al., 1984). Mo derating Role of Product Value O rientation Recent studies have investigated the consumer relative preference for these two different values (Babin et al., 1994; Chittu ri et al., 2007; Dhar & Wertenbroch, 2000; Okada, 2005; Voss et al., 2003). T hese studies suggested that utilitarian and hedonic dimensions are not necessarily two opposite ends F or examples, Crowley, Spangenberg and Hughes (1992) revealed that consumer s simultaneously seek sensory emotional and/or cognitive stimulation at high or low utilitarian and hedonic values. Babin et al. (1994) also found that both utilitarian and hedonic values offer benefits to consumer s at the same time including excitement, p leasure and practical functionality. They argued that shopping provide both utilitarian and hedonic value simultaneously However, the distinction between utilitarian and hedonic dimension s can be made when either dimension is dominant (Dhar & Wertenbroch 2000). Therefore, Okada (2005) oriented hedonic oriented C onsistent with previous research some researchers defined hedonic oriented as being domin antly or relatively more hedonic than utilitarian (Dhar & Wertenbroch, 2000; O urry & Strahilevitz, 2001). G olf might have both hedonic and utilitarian values. F or example individual s can play golf for sport activities ( h edonic oriented) and/or play golf for social network or pressure which is goal oriented (utilitarian oriented) motivation. B oth hedonic and utilitarian values provide benefits to the consumer, with the former values resulting

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36 from emotional arousal derived from the experience of using th e product or service while the latter values offer function performed by product or service ( Batra & Ahtola 1990 ; Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982 ; Mano & Oliver, 1993) A s previously discussed, al though most of the basic necessities for living are offered by u tilitarian values consumer s sometimes seek more than just functional value. T herefore, in most situation s both utilitarian and hedonic consumption s are important to consumer ; the differences between the two values are a matter of degree and perception (O kada, 2005). However, when consumer s process their information, these two dimension s of values ( i.e., u tilitarian oriented and hedonic oriented) play a significant role as moderator. Researchers have found that when individual s process their information th rough hedonic value, they utilize an affective response ; when they search information for a utilitarian value, a cognitive process was used (Stafford & Day, 1995). M ore recent studies in advertising have attempted to investigate the relation ship among pro duct or service type, information process and effectiveness of the advertisement. Despite a larger number of terms in use, generally two types of message appeal are defined. The first is based on rational nature and is called informational appeal (Puto & Wells, 1984). Stafford and Day (1995) defined this appeal as more direct, containing factual information presented in a straight forward manner; they appeals were characterized by objectivity and designed to be thinking ads (p.62) Informational advertis ing involves cognitive appeal, which presents r elevant straightforward and significant information. This functional strategy is part of the utilitarian advertising appeal, which Johar and Sirgy (1991 ) defined as creative strategy that highlights the fun ctional features of the product (p.23) O n the other hand, the second type of appeal is based on the emotional, and is experiential in nature; this is called emotional appeal. Previous researchers labeled this type of appeal as

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37 transformational advertisi ng which is related to positive and enjoyable experiences (Puto & Wells, 1984; Rossiter & Percy, 1997). F urthermore, Johar and Sirgy (1991) defined this strategy as value expressive advertising appeal, which provides a vivid image of the experience of the product. T hey argued that this value expressive appeal is influenced by a self congruity route, which refers to a peripheral route in ELM (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984). F urthermore, Stafford and Day (1995) argued that these emotional appeals are generate d throu gh adventure, arousal, romance, pleasure, and fear. Previous studies investigated the relationship between product or service type and message effectiveness. T hose scholars suggested that the type of appeal must match the product or service type and that utilitarian product and service are most effectively advertised through informational appeal. In contrast, emotional appeal is more suited for hedonic product and service ( Aaker & Stayman 1 992 ; Johar & Sirgy 1991 ; Shavitt, 1992 ) Johar and Sirgy (1991) s aid that evaluation of product performance attributes influence attitude toward utilitarian products. On the other hand, consumers perceived congruity with facets of their self image affects attitude toward value expressive products. B ased on this approac h, Johar and Sirgy (1991) predicted that informational appeal is more appropriate for utilitarian products because it employs the concepts of self congruity and functional congruity routes to persuasion. C onversely emotional appeal is more appropriate for hedonic products. Later, Shavitt (1992) supported Johar and Sirfy s (1991) matching theory. Shavitt (1992) investigated appeal effectiveness through two utilitarian products (air conditioners and coffees) and two value expressive products (greeting cards and perfumes). The results indicated that information effectiveness depends on type of products namely, utilitarian and rational as well as experiential and affective. This is consistent with previous research by Aaker and Stayman (1992), who found that ap peals consistent with product

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38 type generate better advertising effectiveness and persuasiveness. F urthermore, empirical research conducted by Mattila (1999) also found that for hedonic service advertising ( e.g., hotel, restaurant ) an emotional strategy is more effective than informational strategy Although, this matching theory seems reasonable in, proving the effectiveness of these two different strategies, other researchers found conflicting evidence through extensive investigation (A l bers Miller & Staf ford, 1999; Legg & Baker 1987; Leskey, Fox & Crask, 1995; M a no & Oliver, 1993; Mittal, 1999 ; Stafford & Day, 1995). Leskey et al., (1995) found no significant persuasion difference in the two basic strategies through an extensive review of more than 1,10 0 advertisements. Moreover, Stafford and Day (1995) scrutinized the effectiveness of informational and emotional message strategies, attitude toward the advertisement, level of recall and recommendation intention. T hey found that informational appeal is mo re effective for both utilitarian and hedonic values ( Stafford & Day 1995; Stafford, 1996; Stafford & Stafford, 2001 ). However, in the fields of service and marketing, previous investigations found that consumers are more highly interested, involved with and motivated to process their information on hedonic value, such as a sporting activities or movie c ompare d to information that has utilitarian value, such as financial services or dry cleaning services and thus are less likely become emotionally involv ed with the advertisement (Wakefield & Barnes 1996; Wakefield & Bush 1998; Wakefield & Inman 2003). Moreover, consistent with previous investigations, other scholars support the notion that because individuals are more attentive to and actively search f or information on services whose consumption is derived from pleasure, fun, or enjoyment, they used both cognitive and affective processing for hedonic consumption (A l bers Miller & Stafford, 1999; Legg & Baker 1987; M a no & Oliver, 1993; Mittal, 1999). Mor eover, Hill and colleges (2004) argued that for hedonic or experiential services, document strategy is more effective than

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39 the affective approach, which refers to cognitive processing, because, when consumers relate to hedonic consumption they are more mot ivated to seek information T h us, consumers want to use all the information related to hedonic service. Motimer (2008) stated that three main reasons explain the inconsistent matching theory. First, in previous research, scholars scrutinized advertisement effectiveness with a number of different measures (e.g., recall, persuasion and key message comprehension) (Laskey et al., 1995). Second, the definitions of informational and emotional appeal have differed. Third, other product characteristics might incl ude effects message strategies (Johar & Sirgy, 1991; Swaminathan et al., 1996). Nevertheless Kathleen (2008) stated that, in general message appeals can be categorize d as rational or emotional. F urthermore, scholars have generally proposed that appeals c onsistent with product or service type generate maximum effectiveness for advertisements. However, t he findings based on matching theory remain inconsistent. An extensive review of the literature yielded several studies that highlight the importance of the moderating role of value orientation in the information process ing but no empirical study has been conducted to examine the moderating role of product type and its influence on consumers information processing behaviors in a sport context. Moderating Ro le of Involvement In consumer behavior literature, involvement is believed to play a significant moderating role in information processing not only in the traditional media ( Chaiken 1980; Engel and Blackwell 1982; Krugman 1965; Petty & Cacioppo 1979; Petty et al., 1983; Sherif & Hovland 1961 ) and Web advertisements (Cho, 1999; McMillan et al., 2003; Singh & Dalal 1999; Raman & Leckenby, 1998,). Zaichkowsky (1985) defines personal involvement as perceived relevance of an object based on inherent needs, values, and interests (p.324) In addition previous researchers have addressed that an individual s level of involvement with a

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40 product is determined by the personal relevan ce toward that product (Celsi & Olson, 1988). H owever, when co nsumers make product decision s and process information based on their involvement level, they focus on different features and information (Olshavsky & Granbois, 1979). T his investigation led researchers to view consumer involvement as a two fold dichotomy : low versus high involvement. According to Burnkrant and Sawyer (1983) involvement can significantly moderate the amount and type of information processing. F or example, w hen individuals have high involvement, they have greater relevance and consequences than low involvement situations (Chaiken 1980; Engel & Blackwell 1982; Krugman 1965; Petty & Cacioppo 1979; Petty et al., 1983; Sherif & Hovland 1961) T hus, since individuals felt their information judgments have significant consequences, they pay mo re attention to information. Furthermore, under high involvement conditions, the effortful mode generates rational logical thinking and cognitive process response s (Chaiken, 1980; Trope & Liberman, 200 0 ) Meanwhile u nder low involvement condition, indivi duals felt that their judgment about information is inconsequential; thus, their motivation to process information is attenuated (Chaiken 1980; Petty, Unnava, & Strathman 1991) T hus, when individuals have low involvement, they focus on simple cues in per suasion situation rather than focus on all of the information carefully (Petty & Wegener, 1999). F urthermore, Petty et al. (1983) stated that when individual s feel their information judgment is not important, they put less effort and focus on simple cue su ch as endorsers attractiveness, credibility, and prestige. T hese finding are consistent with the ELM theory. According to ELM, persuasion takes two different routes: central and peripheral. To more fully understand the process Petty et al. (1983) invest igated and found that the central route is used when individuals ha ve high involvement The central route in ELM focuses on the concept that an individual feel ing s are

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41 central to the true merits of the object. M eanwhile, a peripheral cue in ELM is defin ed as an element in a cognitive effort to process; this is used in low involvement situations (Petty et al., 1986). However, a n e merging theory has also appeared: the c o occurr ence m odel M ost previous dual process theories suggested that when individuals are highly involved, effortful cues are more persuasive, but when individuals have low involvement, effortless cues are more effective (Petty et al., 1983). However, scholars h ave recently argued that the effortful mode can co occur with the effortless mode in high involvement situations (Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Reinhard & Sporer, 2008). F or example Chaiken and Maheswaran (1994) found that based on their involvement levels, systematic and heuristic processing can be utilized independent ly or interdependently. F urthermore, scholars have also found that when the effortful mode cannot provide enough information to individuals in high involvement situations both affective and c ognitive influences help in processing information (Reinhard & Sporer, 2008) Reinhard and Sp o rer (2008) found that, under low involvement conditions, individuals use only the affective process ; however, when individuals are in high involvement conditions, they use both the cognitive and the affective process to form their judgments. M oreover, consistent with previous investigations, Chaiken and Maheswaran (1994) found that when message content is ambiguous, individuals employed both effortless and effortfu l cues to process their information. Cho (1999) applied ELM to Web advertisements He found that under low involvement situation s, consumers pay attention to larger advertisement sizes and animation Meanwhile, information based strategy has greater effect iveness in highly involved situations. Furthermore Singh and Dalal (1999) also applied the ELM to internet advertising. They classified the internet user as low involvement hedonistic surfers and high involvement utilitarian searchers

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42 Su r fers who are seeking fun and less involved more likely engage in peripheral cues. While searchers who are goal oriented and highly involved individuals tend to search information, they found that emotional dimension of the home page had a greater impact on low invo lvement hedonistic surfers B ut, they did not investigate the high involvement searchers in the study, thus the result partially supported the ELM on internet circumstance. McMillan et al. (2003) predicted that based on the literature review, informati onal strategy design will lead to a more positive attitude toward a Website when consumers are highly involved with the Website. On the other hand, transformational strategy design is expected to cause a more positive attitude toward a Website when consume rs have low involvement. However, unexpectedly this result was not consistent with Cho s (1999) results which were successfully tested in the Web environment by applying ELM in that environment McMillian et al. (2003) argued that although banners included as peripheral cues lead to more attraction in low involvement situations, peripheral cues might signify something slight ly different when the Website itself is the form to measure. T hey argued that consumers creat e situational since consume rs are engaged in a relatively high level of interactivity, even though individuals are in low involvement situations. Thus, McMillan et al. (2003) found an unexpected result in which there was no relationship between involvement level and message strategy However, in McMillian et al s (2003) studies, they did not test the design of the Website (i.e., informational, transformational) by having participants use tools like the informational/ transformational scales developed by Liu and Stout (1984). T hus, i t is possible that individuals view a transformational as an informational Website, because of the informational nature of the Web. However, relying on these dual process models for Web advertising, the authors predict that consumers will process their inf ormation differently than

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43 they would with traditional media advertising. Scholars have argued that Web advertisement is different from traditional media advertisement in several ways : unrestricted by time and space, u nrestricted amounts and sources of info rmation, capability to target segments of consumers, and interactivity of Web advertising (Bezjian Avery et al., 1998; Cho, 1999; Yoon & Kim, 2001) Interactivity of Web advertising can be explain as two way communication with consumers; consumers can choos e and respond to particular advertisement s they like or find interesting(Yoon & Kim, 2001). F or example, consumers can click a hyper link or banner advertisement to expose a target advertisement (Cho, 1999). F urthermore, scholars argued that in a Web envir onment consumers can delete irrelevant information and control the order of information in the advertisement (Bezjian Avery et al., 1998) Thus, they suggested that consumers were less likely to spend their time viewing the advertisement Therefore, it is important for advertisers to apply the dual process model and proposed information process model to Web advertis ing. I n this study, the authors predicted that since unrestricted amounts of information are available in the Web environment, consumers want t o simplify their information process. F urthermore, based on the findings from previous research, we can predict that the information process will differ based on consumers level of involvement and different types of Website. Moderating Role of Value O rien tation and Involvement B ased on the extensive literature review the authors concluded both involvement and product values play a significant role as moderator. Moreover, four interesting contexts could emerge in the consumer information process in Web adv ertisement: (1) when consumer process their information a utilitarian oriented sport event in a low involvement situation, or (2) when consumer process their information a utilitarian oriented sport event in a high involvement situation, or (3) when consum er process their information a hedonic oriented sport event in a

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44 low involvement situation, or (4) when consumer process their information a hedonic oriented sport event in a high involvement situation. Although these situation s are all important for marke ters to understand, no previous stud y scrutinized the moderating effect of sport event type and involvement level when consumer s process their information in sport event Web advertisement. Although several studies provide explanations these information pro cess contexts, there has not been enough empirical support to fully understand information process es in each situations of interest. Numerous studies only examined the moderating role of involvement without considering different types of value ( Chaiken 198 0; Engel & Blackwell 1982; Krugman 1965; Petty & Cacioppo 1979; Petty et al. 1983; Sherif & Hovland 1961 ). F or example, Petty and c olleagues scrutinized the moderating role of involvement without value orientation (Petty et al. 1983) Furthermore, Johar and Sirgy (1991) f ocused on the moderating role of different types of value orientation but did not include involvement level. Mattila (1999) also investigated the message effectiveness based on service type without examining involvement. Moreover, in the Web circumstance, Lohtia, Donthu and Hershberger (2003) scrutinized the message effectiveness based on involvement, but without considering Website categories Previous researchers also investigated the moderating role of involvement without considering different types of value in Web advertisement (Cho, 1999; Hwang & McMillan, 2002; McMillan, 2000; Wu, 1999; Yoo & Stout, 2001). In addition, McMillian et al. (2003) investigated the relationship between the consumers involvement level and message strategy and features, but did not include the Website categor ies. Moreover, Singh and Dalal (1999) applied the ELM to internet advertising but they only examined the low involvement situation.

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45 B ased on the results of previous research, several predictions and assumptions can be m ade. First, we can predict that hedonic oriented products in a low involvement situation the effect of emotional appeal, will be greater than informational appeal since most of the literature supports this prediction. Also, based on Singh and Dalal (1999) study, they found that emotional dimension of the home page had a greater impact on low involvement situation. O n the other hand, based on Cho (1999) and ELM, we can predict that for utilitarian oriented products the effect of emotional appeal will be gr eater than that of informational appeal in a low involvement situation. Also, in a high involvement situation, the effect of informational appeal will be greater than that of emotional appeal. T hese assumptions might be reasonably supported in conventional offline advertising context. This assumption is particularly appropriate for Web advertisement context where a large number of information is available for consumers (Cho, 1999). T he co occurrence model may do not explain Web advertisements; when message content ( i. e., cognitive processing) is ambiguous, individuals employ both cognitive and affective processing to process their information (Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1984). H owever, we anticipate that for hedonic oriented sport events in highly involved situa tions, both informational and emotional appeals will be effective for consumers. Wakefield and colleagues found that consumers are more highly interested, involved with, and motivated to process their information about hedonic consumption such as a leisure activities or a movie (Wakefield & Barnes 1996; Wakefield & Bush 1998; Wakefield & Inman 2003). Furthermore previous scholars support the notion that when motive derives from pleasure, fun, or enjoyment which referred to hedonic consumption individua ls are more attentive and actively search their information for products and services (M a no & Oliver, 1993; A l bers Miller & Stafford, 1999; Legg & Baker 1987; Mittal, 1999). Thus, we predicted that both informational and emotional

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46 appeals have great impac t on information processing with regard to hedonic oriented sport events in high involvement situations. In sum, based on the literature review, the four identified situations are vital for marketer s. No previous literature fully explains how consumers pro cess their information toward web advertisement in the two different values ( i.e., utilitarian oriented, hedonic oriented) of sport events and different level s of involvement. Thus, applying this viewpoint to the web advertisement, when consumer exposed to web advertisement, they will focus on different features and information Such issues have important implications for enhancing the understanding of consumption behavior

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47 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Face to face surveys were conducted in computer lap to obtain empirical data on attitude toward the advertisement, sport event attitude visit intention, and demographics. Data analysis was performed using numerous statistical techniques; descriptive statistic, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent T test analysis. This chapter presents in the following order : 1) Study Design and Participants, 2) Procedure, 3) Stimuli Development 4) Measure, and 5) Manipulation Check. Study Design and Participants A factorial 2 (message appeals: informational versus emotional) x 2 (sport event value orientation: utilitarian oriented versus hedonic oriented) x 2 (involvement: high versus low) between group quasi experimental design was employ ed The sample for the pretests and main experiment were college student in th e Southeastern United States University. A total of 2 2 5 (55% male versus 45% female) subjects participated in the main study; 10 incomplete surveys were deleted from the study. S tudents are appropriate sample for the sport s job fair and golf tournament emp loyed in this study since they are likely to be target for those two sport events. Additionally, most advertising studies have been scrutinized with a student sample, because they are very homogeneous and convenient (Batra & Stayman, 1990). Each subject w as randomly exposed to one condition There were 25 to 30 subjects in each of the eight cells. Procedure Both sport job fair and golf tournament W ebsites comp o se of five sections: (a ) an informed consent form and instructions; (b ) a written role playing sc enario for the involvement manipulation; (c ) dependent and manipulation check measures; (d ) respondent demographic information; and (e ) debriefing.

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48 The first page explained that the study is an attempt to understand the information processing involved wit h a Website. I n the instruction s section, participants asked to read a scenario that appears on the following page and imag in e themselves in the situation. I n experimental stud ies role playing that asks participants to imag ine a situation based on a writt en scenario is a widely used method. Although beliefs are usually impervious to change, roleplaying is the most effective way to change belief s (Petty et al., 1991). Participants also told that when they move to the next page, they can not go back to previous pages. The next section presents one of four versions of a role playing scenario (Appendix 1). A fter reading the role playing scenario, participants asked to look at a Website provided on the following page. The Websites present two versions of message appeals (i.e., informational or emotional appeals) and two versions of sport event types (i.e., utilitarian oriented or hedonic oriented). After examining the Website, participants ask ed the dependent variables and manipulation check questions. Su bsequently, they asked to answer demographic information such as gender and ethnicity. A t the end of the experiment, participants asked to not to discuss th e study with colleagues debriefed, and thanked for their participation.

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49 Stimuli Development Types of Sport Event Website s A sport job fair was selected to represent a utilitarian oriented sport event and a golf tournament was used to represent a hedonic oriented sport event. The choice of these two sport events were based on established research findi ngs ( Hill et al., 2004 ; Holbrook et al., 1984; Mittal, 1999; Wakefield & Barnes, 1996; Wakefield & Blodgett, 1994). T o minimize pre existing knowledge due to prior exposure or familiarity, a fictitious brand name was developed and used for following reason s : ( a ) P revious studies have found that prior attitude toward brand can affect advertising attitude and related constructed (Moore & Hutchinson, 1983) and ( b ) Johnson and Eagly (1989) argued that brand attitude toward novel brands about which consumers hav e little information will more strongly affect advertising attitude rather than established brand attitudes will affect attitudes about a familiar brand. Involvement Scenario L evel of personal relevance, perceived importance, level of interest and person al motivation for information processing determine d the individuals involvement level (Chaiken, 1980; Petty et al., 1983; Zaichkowsky, 1985). Although in the literature, numerous involvement objects were used to understand the relationship between consume r involvements and behaviors, situational involvement such as purchasing involvement or purchase decision can be used (Mittal, 1989). Therefore, based on these criteria, this study chooses the most widely used situational purchase involvement measure, purc hase decision involvement (PDI) (Mittal, 1989). I n the high involvement situation, participants provide a specific task to search for information about a sport event in order to stimulate cognitive and effortful processing. W hile under low involvement cond ition, participants were exposed to sport event advertisement while they were searching other information F urthermore, both high involvement and low involvement situations were

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50 differed by W ebsite categor y (i.e., utilitarian oriented, hedonic oriented). T wo different scenarios were created as follows: Utilitarian oriented/high PDI : Imagine that you are searching information on a website for a sport job career fair. You have been searching for a sport job career fair that best matches your interests and you have finally found one that you would like to attend. Because you are interested in attending sport job career fairs in the future, it is important for you to spend enough time and effort in searching for information about sport job career fair. In additi on, these experiences and opportunities can affect your future career choices in a significant manner. Assume that this this sport job career fair is your final choice among others events on the website. Hedonic oriented/high PDI : Imagine that you are sear ching information on a website for a golf event (i.e., PGA Tours). You have been searching for a golf event that best matches your interests and you have finally found one that you would like to attend. Because you are interested in attending golf events i n the future, it is important for you to spend enough time and effort in searching for information about golf events. In addition, these experiences and opportunities can affect your golf skill in a significant manner. Assume that this golf event is your f inal choice among others events on the website. I n the low involvement situation, participants led to believe that information o n the W ebsite is not relevant to them. F urthermore, the low involvement situations were differed by W ebsite categor y (i.e., util itarian preferred, hedonic preferred). T wo different scenarios were created as follows: Utilitarian oriented/low PDI : Image that you just saw a sport job career fair advertisement posted on a website while you were searching for information on other events Sport job career fairs are a good experience to have but not a high priority for you, because you

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51 are not interested in attending a sport job career fair and it is not going to affect your future in a significant manner. Additionally, you do not generall y care to spend too much time and effort in searching for information about sport job career fairs. Hedonic oriented/low PDI : Imagine that you just saw a golf event (i.e., PGA Tours) advertisement posted on a website while you were searching for informatio n on other events. Golf events are a good experience to have but not a high priority for you, because you are not interested in attending a golf event and it is not going to affect your future in a significant manner. Additionally, you do not generally car e to spend too much time and effort in searching for information about golf events. Message Appeal Among various types of messages, informational and emotional advertisements based on Puto and Wells (1984) classification was use d According to them, infor mational advertisements involve a m ore direct straight forward approach and are intended as rational advertisement s that highlight the factual information (Stafford & Day, 1995). The emotional appeal is design ed to g enerate more emotional feelings, and th us more enjoyable experiences, which are subjective measures ; the emotional appeal also include vivid image s of the experience of the product (Johar & Sirgy, 1991). A panel of three experts who have worked in the communication/advertising fields created tw o different types of message appeals (e.g., informational and emotional appeals) for each of the Websites Additionally, advertisements were create d with the assistance of an advertising company so as to increase realism. Measure The questionnaire consist ed of the following four parts: 1) Attitude toward the Advertisement, 2) Sport Event Attitude, 3) Visit Intention and 4) Manipulation Check

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52 Attitude T oward the Advertisement ( Aad ) In current study, the attitude toward the advertisement was examined by t hree items from MacKenzie and Lutz s ( 1989 ) scale. All three items were preceded by the phrase, what is your feeling toward the advertisement? and anchored by 7 point semantic differential scales. Participants ask ed to indicate their overall attitude tow ard the teste d advertisement on the following items good/bad ; pleasant/unpleasant ; favorable/unfavorable Attitude T oward the Sport Event ( Ab ) Attitude toward the brand (Ab) was measure d by three item s from MacKenzie and Lutz s (1989) scale All thr ee items were preceded by the phrase, What is your feeling toward the sport job career fair or What is your feeling toward the golf tournament ? and anchored by 7 point semantic differential scales. Participants requested to indicate their overall attit ude toward the brand on the following items good/bad ; pleasant/unpleasant ; favorable/unfavorable Visit Intention ( VI ) I n the last part of the questionnaire, participants wer e ask ed to in dicate their future intentions via response s to the statement, I would consider visiting this sport event. This statement was anchor ed by three items, 7 point semantic differential scale s ; unlikely / likely ; ; impossible / possible ( MacKenzie, Lutz, & Belch, 1986; Machleit & Wilson, 1988 ) Demographic Measures Research in this area has shown that demographic variables such as gender, age and national culture can differentially affect consumers information process ( Meyers Levy & Maheswaran, 1991). I n an effort to investigate the influenc e of the se variables and to provide characteristics of the sample respondents ask ed to report their gender, ethnicity (which was

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53 categorized as Caucasian, African American Hispanic, Asian American, Native American, and Other) and year of birth (which wa s recoded into an age variable). Manipulation Check After the dependent variable measures, to verify any significant difference s in perception of the sport events functional versus hedonic nature (Kim & Morris, 2007), participants were ask ed the followin g question: sport job fair as primarily a functional or an entertainment/enjoyable event? ; golf tournament as primarily a functional or an entertainment/enjoyable event? Using a 7 point scale, 1 w ill be primarily for functional use and 7 will be primarily for entertainment use Although several involvement scales were used in studies found in the literature behavior al or situational involvement such as purchase decision or purchasing involvem ent can explain the relation ship between consumer involve ment and actual behavior. Thus, we selected the most widely used situational purchase involvement measure ; purchase decision involvement (PDI) for the manipulation of involvement conditions (Mittal, 1989). The PDI will measur e three items on a 7 point scale; based on the situation you were given, in selecting this sport event from many other choices available in the market, would you say: I would not care at all/ I would care a great deal ; based on the situation you were give, how important would it be for you to make a right choice for this product: Not at all important/ Extremely important ; based on the situation you were given, how concerned would you be about the outcome of your choice in maki ng your selection of this product : Not at all concerned/ Very much concerned The two message appeals used in the current study were informational and emotional advertising. The subjects evaluation of the message appeals was measured using five items 7 point scale based on Liu and Stout s (1987) classification. The five items include Tangible/

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54 Intangible ; Logical/ Emotional ; Objective/ Subjective ; Factual/ Nonfactual ; Informative/ Imaginable Analysis The data was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 Da ta analysis was conducted in three stages. First, descriptive statistics was calculated. Second attitude toward the advertisement, sport event attitude and visit intention was examine d Finally, the moderating effect of involvement and product value on i nformation process in the W eb advertisement was analyzed. Descriptive Statistics In this study, SPSS 18.0 was used to explain the basic characteristics of the data, the authors examined various descriptive statistics such as central tendency (e.g., mean, m ode, median, etc.) and measures of variability (e.g., range, variance, standard deviation, etc.). Hypothesis Testing One way anal ysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the moderating effects of involvement on Aad, Ab and VI Furthermore a series of regression analyses was perf orm ed to determine the overall relationships among the constructs. Analysis of the model was consisted of two steps. F irst, to test an overarching model that compare s the influence of informational and emotional appeal s on attitude toward the advertisement as well as their influence on sport event attitude and visit intention the authors analyzed the pooled data of all manipulation conditions using regression. Second, to test the moderating effect of involvement for every experimental condition, the authors used multiple regression analyses

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55 CHAPTER 4 RESULT S This section are presented in the following order: 1) Descriptive Statistics, 2) Scale Reliabilities, 3) Pretest, and 4) Main Study Descriptive Statistics Demographics Demographic information of total participants ( N = 215) are indicated in Table 1. Total sample consisted of 119 (55.3%) males and 96 (44.7%) females, the age of the majority of the participants were 20 to 25 years old (56.3%) and Caucasian (White: 50.7%). Attitude T oward the Advertisement ( Aad ) The means scores of the attitude toward the advertisement ranged from 4.35 to 4.44. Additionally, standard deviations ranged from 1.58 to 1.67. The Pleasant/Unpleasant item had the highest mean score ( M = 4 44 ; SD = 1. 58 ) while Good/Bad item ha d the lowest means ( M = 4 35 ; SD = 1. 67 ) among the attitude toward the advertisement variables. Attitude T oward the Sport Event ( Ab ) The means of attitude toward the sport event ranged from 4.87 to 5.07. Furthermore, standard deviations ranged from 1.41 to 1.57. The Pleasant/Unpleasant item had the highest mean score ( M = 5 07 ; SD = 1. 41 ) while Favorable/Unfavorable item had the lowest means ( M = 4 87 ; SD = 1. 57 ) among the attitude toward the sport event variables. Visit Intention ( VI ) The means of vis it intention ranged from 4.11 to 4.77. Furthermore, standard deviations ranged from 1.71 to 1.91. The Possible/I m possible item had the highest mean score ( M = 4 77 ; SD = 1. 71 ) while Likely/Unlikely item had the lowest means ( M = 4 11 ; SD = 1. 91 ) among the visit intention variables.

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56 Pretest The first step investigated PDI manipulation using a small number of sample (n=32). ANOVA indicated significant differences between high and low PDI conditions; sport job fair event, M high PDI = 5 63 versus M low PD A = 2 42 F (1, 14 ) = 38 04 p < .0 01, and golf tournament, M high PDI = 5 54 versus M low PDA = 2 83 F (1, 14 ) = 37 0 2 p < 001. The PDI manipulation check was repeated with a larger number of samples in the main experiment. S ubjects were asked the follo wing questions to confirm significant differences in perception of the sport events utilitarian versus hedonic natures; Would you characterize this sport s job fair/golf tournament event as primarily a functional event or an entertainment/enjoyable event? As we predicted, a significant difference was showed between the sport job fair and golf events ( M sport job fair = 1 38 versus M golf tournament = 6 25 F (1, 30 ) = 93 8 9 p < 001 ) Additionally, subjects were asked to verify significant differences in perception of the informational versus emotional appeals. Result s of ANOVA indicated that subjects perceived informational and emotional websites significantly different way, M informational = 2 06 versus M emotional = 5 24 F (1, 30 ) = 140.70 p < .0 01. In the main experiment, manipulation checks were also repeated with a large r sample size M a in Study Manipulation Check As found in Pretest 1, the main experiment indicated that two PDI conditions were also significantly difference for both sport job fairs, M high PDI = 5 0 6 versus M low PDA = 3 1 4 F (1, 100 ) = 62 2 3 p < .0 01, and golf tournament M high PDI = 4 8 3 versus M low PDA = 3 18 F (1, 111 ) = 61 1 2 p < .0 01. Additionally, subjects perceived the sport job fairs as a utilitarian event, and the golf tournament as hedonic nature in significantly different way, M sport job fair = 3 3 5 versus M golf tournament = 5 7 3 F (1, 213 ) = 53 76 p < .0 01. F urthermore subjects

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57 perceived the informational and emotional websites in a significantly difference ways, M informational = 2 6 6 versus M emotional = 4 4 7 F (1, 213 ) = 243 2 6 p < .0 01. Thus, manipulations of the stimulus were successfully c onfirmed in the main experiment ( Figure 4 7, 4 8 and 4 9 ). Test of Hypothesis 1 All three items were reliable on attitud e toward the advertisement (Cronbach = .93) and combined into an average index. A 2 (high vs low involvement) x 2 (informational vs emotional) between subjects ANOVA on the attitude toward the advertisement produce following results : The main effect of involvement level was significant, F (1, 211) = 10.88, p < .01, indicating that high involvement subjects responded with a more favorable attitude toward the advertisement than low involvement subjects, M high involvement = 4.69 versus M low involvement = 4.04. The main effect of types of ap peal was not significan t ; participants responded equally well to both message appeals: M informational = 4.36 versus M emotional = 4.39, F (1, 211) = 0.11, p = .74. However, the main prediction of H1 that is the interaction between involvement level and me ssage type was significant, F (1, 211) = 20.4 1 p < .001, showed that high involvement conditions, subjects responded more favorably to informational than emotional appeals, whereas low involvement conditions, subjects responded higher for emotional than in formational appeal. Follow up univariate analyses indicated that in the high involvement condition the attitude toward the advertisement was significantly different between informational and emotional appeals, M informational = 5.11 versus M emotional = 4 .27, F (1, 109) = 7 80 p < .01. Under low involvement conditions, subjects responded favorable to emotional than informational appeals on the attitude toward the advertisement, M informational = 3.55 versus M emotional = 4.52, F (1, 102) = 13.27, p < .001. Thus, H1 was supported.

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58 T e st of Hypothesis 2 Three items scales were highly correlated for attitude toward the advertisement and were averaged into an attitude index (Cronbach = .93). To examine H2, a 2 (high vs low involvement) x 2 (informational vs emotional) x 2 (hedonic vs utilitarian) between subject ANOVA on attitude toward the advertisement was used. The main prediction of the second hypothesis was a three way intera ction of involvement, message types, and event types. The results are show in Table 4 4 and Figure 4 1 and 4 2 First, the main effect of involvement level was significant indicating that highly involved subjects responded higher on attitude toward the adv ertisement than low involvement subjects, M high involvement = 4.69 versus M low involvement = 4.04, F (1, 207) = 10.48, p < .01. Second, the main effect of message type was not significant, subjects responded equally well to both advertising appeal, M info rmational = 4.36 versus M emotional = 4.39, F (1, 207) = .02, p = .90. Third, there was no main effect of event type as well, M utilitarian = 4.29 versus M hedonic = 4.45, F (1, 207) = .49, p = .49. However, all of the two way interaction s were significant. The interaction between message type and involvement was significant, F (1, 207) = 24.10, p < .001. Furthermore, event type and involvement were also significant, F (1, 207) = 7.86, p < .01. In addition, interaction between event and message types were signi ficant as well, F (1, 207) = 5.28, p < .05. The main prediction of H2 was a three way interaction qualifying the preceding significant main effects. The three way interaction was significant, F (1, 207) = 7.05, p < .01. More specifically, for utilitarian ev ent, there was a significant interaction between message type and involvement level, F (1, 102) = 29.62, p < .001. Whereas, there was no significant interaction between types of message and involvement for hedonic event, F (1, 109) = 2.49, p = .12, accompani ed by a significant main effect of involvement, F (1, 09) = 17.90 p < .001. Therefore, H2 was supported. Table 2 shows number of subjects of cell and cell means.

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59 Follow up univariate analyses show following results. For the utilitarian sport event, under low involvement conditions, subjects scored significantly higher for emotional than informational appeals on attitude toward the advertisement, M informational = 3.72 versus M emotional = 4.76, F (1, 49) = 7.82, p < .01. While, subjects responded favorably to informational than emotional appeals under high involvement conditions, M informational = 5.26 versus M emotional = 3.39, F (1, 49) = 23.67, p < .01. Thus, H2 1 was supported. On the other hand, for the hedonic sport event, low involved subjects scored h igher for emotional than informational appeals on attitude toward the advertisement, M informational = 3.38 versus M emotional = 4.28, F (1, 51) = 5.66, p < .05. Whereas, under high involvement conditions there were no significant difference on attitude to ward the advertisement, M informational = 4.98 versus M emotional = 5.01, F (1, 60) = .02, p = .93. Therefore, H2b was supported as well. Test of Hypothesis 3 Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship among attitude toward the advertisement, sport event attitude, and visit intention. Hypothesis 3 predicted that the relationship between consumers attitude toward the advertisement and visit intention to sport event will be mediated by attitude toward the sport event for both utilitarian and hed onic sport events. The first analysis showed that the effect of attitude toward the advertisement on visit intention was significant for both p p < .001) The second regression analysis showed that attitude toward the advertisement significantly impact on sport event attitude for both p < .001) and hedonic p < .001) therefore, the first mediation condition was supported. The third regression analysis indicated t hat the effect of sport event attitude on visit intention was significant for both p p < .001) thus second mediation condition was supported as well. In the final regression analysis, in the

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60 first step the author entered the controls, and the second step both attitude toward the advertisement and sport event attitude were entered together. The results showed that the effect of attitude toward the advertisement on visit intention was not signif icant regardless of sport event type ( utilitarian event p =.06 ; hedonic event p = .44 ). Therefore, hypothesis 3 was also supported. The r esults are displayed in Figure 4 5 and 4 6

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61 Table 4 1. Description of participants (N = 215 ) Variables Description Frequency Percent Gender Men 119 55.3 Women 96 44.7 Age 18 20 58 27.0 21 23 111 51.6 > 23 46 21 4 Missing 0 0.0 Ethnicity Caucasian (White) 109 50 7 Hispanic 43 20.0 Asian 40 18.6 Black 19 8.8 Others 113 1.9

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62 Table 4 2 Summary Result for Measurement M odel T est Fac tor Item Attitude toward the Advertisement Good/Bad 89 93 Pleasant/Unpleasant 91 Favorable/ Unfavorable 88 Sport Event Attitude Good/Bad 87 92 Pleasant/Unpleasant 90 Favorable/ Unfavorable 88 Visit Intention Likely/Unlikely 86 93 Probab le/Improbable 89 Possible/Impossible 92

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63 Table 4 3 Means, SD, Correlations and Squared Correlations Matrix Aad Ab VI Involvement Level Message Type Event Type Aad 1 Ab .66** 1 VI .52** .68** 1 Involvement Level .21* .32** .32** 1 Message Type .01 .01 .09 .01 1 Event Type .05 .00 .04 .03 .00 1 Mean 4.38 5.00 4.39 1.52 1.50 1.53 SD 1.55 1.37 1.70 .50 .50 .50

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64 Table 4 4. Univariate results for the attitude toward the advertisements Variable Sum of Squares df Mean Squar e F Corrected Model 107 89 a 7 15 .4 1 7 81 ** Intercept 4 0 4 3 74 1 4 043 74 2048 22 *** Involvement 20 68 1 20 68 10 48 Message 03 1 03 .02 Event 97 1 .9 7 .4 9 Involvement Message 47 58 1 47 58 24.10*** Involvement Event 15 51 1 15 51 7 86** Mes sage Event 10 43 1 10 43 5 28 Involvement Message Event 1 3 92 1 1 3 92 7 05 N ote Dependent variable: Attitude toward the A dvertisement ***p < .001; **p < .01; *p < .05.

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65 Table 4 5. Means for attitude toward the advertisements Utilitarian Even t Hedonic Event Mean SD (n) Mean SD (n) Low Involvement Claim type Informational 3.72 1.41 (25) 3.38 1.21 (26) Emotional 4.76 1.23 (26) 4.28 1.52 (27) High involvement Claim type Informational 5.26 1.31 (26) 4.98 1.51 (30) Emotional 3.39 1.44 (25) 5.01 1.53 (30)

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66 Table 4 6 Univariate results for the attitude toward the sport event Variable Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Corrected Model 66 29 a 7 9 .4 70 5 82 ** Intercept 5313 02 1 5313 02 3267 41 *** Involvement 41 34 1 41.37 25 42 Message 02 1 02 .01 Event 04 1 04 02 Involvement Message 21 21 1 21 21 13.05*** Involvement Event 47 1 47 29 Message Event 3 24 1 3 24 2 99 Involvement Message Event 26 1 26 69 N ote Dependent var iable: Attitude toward the Sport Event ***p < .001; **p < .01; *p < .05.

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67 Table 4 7 Means for attitude toward the sport event Utilitarian Event Hedonic Event Mean SD (n) Mean SD (n) Low Involvement Claim type Informational 4.39 1.33 (25 ) 4.09 1. 27 (26) Emotional 4.82 1. 12 (26) 4. 88 1. 21 (27) High involvement Claim type Informational 5. 87 1. 37 (26) 5 62 1. 28 (30) Emotional 4 91 1. 35 (25) 5. 29 1.26 (30)

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68 Table 4 8 Regression analysis testing the e ffects of a ttit ude t ow ard the advertisement on sport event attitude and v isit i ntention for utilitarian sport e vent Variable B SE R Attitude toward the a dvertisement Dependent variable: Sport event attitude .59 .07 .64*** .41*** Attitude toward the advertisement Dependent variable: Visit intention .62 .10 .54*** .29*** Note ***p < .001; **p < .01; *p < .05.

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69 Table 4 9. Regression analysis testing the e ffects of a ttitude toward the sport event on v isit i ntention for utilitarian sport e vent Variable B SE R Attitude toward the sport event Dependent variable: Visit intention .86 .09 .68*** .47*** Note ***p < .001 ; **p < .01; *p < .05.

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70 Table 4 10. Regression analysis testing the e ffects of a ttitude toward the advertisement on sport event attitude and v isit i ntention for hedonic sport e vent Variable B SE R Attitude toward the a dvertisement Dependent vari able: Sport event attitude .59 .06 .69*** .47*** Attitude toward the advertisement Dependent variable: Visit intention .54 .09 .51*** .26*** Note ***p < .001; **p < .01; *p < .05.

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71 Table 4 11 Regression analysis testing the effects of a ttitude t oward the sport event on v isit i ntention for hedonic sport e vent Variable B SE R Attitude toward the sport event Dependent variable: Visit i ntention .84 .08 .69*** .47*** Note ***p < .001; **p < .01; *p < .05.

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72 Figure 4 1 Interaction between involvement and message appeals for utilitarian sporting event

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73 Figure 4 2 In t eraction between involvement and message appeals for hedonic sporting e vent

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74 Figure 4 3 Interaction between involvement and message a ppeals for u tilitarian sporting e vent

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75 Figure 4 4 Interaction between involvement and message appeals for hedonic s p o rting e vent

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76 Fig ure 4 5. Results of the test for m ediation for utilitarian sporting event

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77 Figure 4 6. Results of the test for m ediation for hedonic sporting e vent

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78 Fi gure 4 7 Involvement manipulation

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79 Figure 4 8 Message appeal manipulation

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80 Figure 4 9 Sporting event m anipulation

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81 CHAPT E R 5 DISCUSSION In the field of advertising and psychology, numerous researches widely used dual process (e.g., ELM and HSM) and the planning model to test consumers information processing behavior and attitude formation. The present study contribute s to the literature by investigating the moderating role of sport event value orientation (i.e., utilitarian versus hedonic) and consumers involvement level (high versus low) in their attitude formation. O ur results indicate that the selection of message appeals for sporting event can substantially influence consumers attitude formation and their behavior al intention This section are presented in the following order: 1) Dual Processing Perspective, 2) Plann ing Model Perspective, 3) Dual Processing and Planning Model Perspective, 4) Managerial Implications, and 5) Limitation and Future Research Dual Process Theory and the Moderating Role of Involvement The general implication of our study was that the dual p rocess theories (e.g., ELM and HSM) are appropriate in evaluating sport event consumers attitude formation As we predicted, we found a significant interaction between types of message appeal and consumers involvement level, F (1, 211) = 10.88, p < .01. M ore specifically, highly involved co nsumers responded more favorably to informational advertisement s, since the y enable consumers to solve their consumption related problem s by focusing on the attribute s and functional benefits of the sport event ( Petty et al., 1983 ). In contrast under low involvement conditions, the emotional tone of advertisement s that highlight the positive and optimistic experience of the sport event positively influence s consumers attitude formation ( Keller & Block, 1997; Petty et al ., 1983; Singh & Dalal, 1999 ). According to the dual process perspective ( Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Petty et al., 1983), consumers involvement level serves as a significant moderator on their information

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82 processing and attitude formation. These studies indicated that highly involved consumer s form their attitude (i.e., advertisement and brand) by using a cognitive elaborating system (referred to central route and systematic processing), and subsequently respond favorably to informational advertising tha t highlight the merits and benefits of the product with detail ed information ( Chaiken, 1980; Petty et al., 1983; Sam uelsen & Olsen, 2010). On the other hand, low involved consumers related little with the advertising message and focused on such simple cues as music and an attractive endorser to easily process the message to form their attitude ( Petty et al., 1983; Singh & Dalal, 1999; Sojka & Giese, 2006 ). Planning Model and the Moderat ing Role of Value O rientation Consumer behavior literature found that ad vertising effectiveness depends heavily on product/service value orientation (utilitarian versus hedonic) and selection of advertising appeals (informational versus emotional) ( Aaker & Stayman, 1992; Shavitt, 1992; Vaughn, 1980 ). Therefore, scholars develo ped the planning model and suggested that advertising communicates more effectively with consumers when the types of product/service match the message appeals. As we predicted, our results indicate that there was a two way interaction between message appea l and types of sport event, F (1, 211) = 4.01, p < .05. We found that utilitarian sporting event s (i.e., sport job fair) communicate effectively through informational appeal, while subjects developed more favorable attitude to emotional advertising for hed onic sporting event (i.e., golf tournament). Therefore, we also found that the planning model is appropriate to understand the effectiveness of sporting event advertising. The Moderating Role of Involvement and Value O rientation Based on an extensive li terature review, the author found that the dual processing model examined only the moderating role of involvement level ( Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Petty et al., 1983 ), while the planning model investigated just the moderating role of value orientation

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83 ( A lbers Miller & Stafford, 1999; Johar & Sirgy, 1991 ). Therefore, in the current study the author expanded on previous literature by incorporat ing those moderating variables ( involvement level and value orientation ) to examine sporting event consumers info rmation processing pattern s and attitude formation. Interestingly, the results of our study show that consumers involvement level s play a different role in their attitude formation based on the types of sporting event. This supported our main hypothesis o f three way interaction among message strategy, involvement level and types of sporting events F (1, 207) = 7.05, p < .01. More specifically, we found that the types of sporting event moderate the relationship between the consumers involvement level and the message appeals. In terms of utilitarian sporting event s consumers information processing behavior was consistent with the dual processing perspective (e.g., ELM and HSM). More specifically, under high involvement conditions, consumers utilized a co gnitive elaborating system (referred to central route and systematic processing ) and positively responded to informational advertisement s that focused on the merits and functions of the sporting events and enable d co nsumers to compare information i n the ad vertisement to their previous semantic knowledge of the sporting event ( Petty et al., 1983; Samuelsen & Olsen, 2010 ). On the other hand, low involved consumers formed their attitude s by utilizing an affective elaborating system to react favorably to the em otional advertisement. Scholars in the fields of adverti sing argue that these emotional advertising can evoke consumers positive and enjoyable experience s from the past event that they selectively memorize, and that subsequently influence their attitude f ormation ( Geuens, Pelsmacker, & Faseur, 2011; Ruiz & Sicilia, 2004; Yoo & MacInnis, 2005 ). In terms of hedonic sporting event s the result of our study suggested that under high involvement conditions, prior dichotomous dual process theory should shift to the co occurrence

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84 approach. R ecent attitude studies found that both cognitive (referred to central route and systematic processing) and affective (peripheral route and heuristic processing) elaborating systems works simultaneously to influence attitude formation ( Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994; Reinhard & Sporer, 2008; Ruiz & Sicilia, 2004 ). Consistent with those studies we found that both informational and emotional advertisements communicate effectively with highly involved consumers. Service lit erature also supported our result that consumers are more highly involved and motivate d to evaluate a message related to hedonic consumption such as sport and entertainment activities ( Hill et al., 2004; Wakefield & Inman 2003 ). However, low involved cons umers formed favorable attitude s when expo sed to emotional advertisements, s ince an emotional message tone helps consumers process the message with less effort and time (Keller & Block, 1997; Petty et al., 1983; Singh & Dalal, 1999) Mediating Role of Sp ort Event Attitude Our results from a series of regression analyses show that the relationship between attitude toward the sporting event advertisement and visit intention were fully mediated by the sport event attitude, regardless of sporting event types. Prior advertising and marketing l iterature found that consumers positive attitude toward the advertisement would influence their brand attitude and actual behavior Therefore, adver tising effectiveness studies have received great interest from numerous s cholars, accompanied by increased research attention to the power of message strategies in consumers attitude formation ( Lutz et al., 1983; Mitchell & Olson, 1981; Stafford & Day, 1995 ). However, in the context of sporting event s our study further extend s the prior literature by providing additional information about the mediating role of attitude toward the sport event Therefore, this study further clarifies the importance of expanding on a positive attitude toward the sporting event itself with adverti sing and promotional strategies.

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85 Managerial Implications Overall, our study provides numerous meaningful managerial implications for sporting event managers working to create effective advertising strategies. Our results suggest that sport event consumer s (i.e., service) differ from product in their information processing pattern and attitude formation Particularly sport event consumer likely to focus on tangible benefits of the sport event to diminish the higher levels of perceived risk of intangibility associated with the service purchase (Stafford & Day, 1995). Additionally sport event marketers should create their advertising strategy based on their potential consumers involvement level and the type of sport event they promote to increase their adve rtising effectiveness Firs t, when potential consumers are not greatly interested in sport ing event m arke te rs can positively develop their potential consumers attitude by highlighting emotional message appeals (e.g., positive and enjoyable experience of previous sporting event) o r using attractive and expert endorsers For example, advertisement that obtains a vivid image of positive experience can be an effective tool for sporting event advertisement regardless of their type. Furthermore marketers can more highlight on consumers favorable endorser (i.e., Phil Mickelson and Michael Jordan) than focusing on the beneficial information that explain how their sport event itself can differ from other competitor However marketers might use slightly differ ent advertising strategies particularly among highly involved consumers based on sport event type F or example marketers might focus on the functional benefits of a sport job fair that is superior to others rather than highlighting the pr omise of an enjo yable future experience when they are targeting senior college students (referred to utilitarian high involvement condition ) (Samuelsen & Olsen, 2010) T his is because senior college students are likely to use an in depth and cognitive process ing to solve their anxiety that is associated with their future career (Petty et al., 1983). On the other hand, if golf

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86 tournament marketers are promoting their special package to their potential consumers (refereed to hedonic high involvement condition), they may be more persuaded to balanced informational and emotional advertisement Marketers may highlight the tangible cues with their message such as promotional benefits or quality of golf tournament but they also have to emphasize an emotional message that helps c onsumer to imagine their enjoyable future experience ( Samuelsen & Olsen, 2010) Moreover, i n a long term perspective sport event marketers can create their unique symbolic meaning by highlighting their attractive endorsers (i.e., NBA and Michael Jordan) o r utilizing a unique visualization strategy (i.e., Boston Celtic and green color ) for their sport event; however they cannot ignore the importance of emphasizing the superior benefits to consumers for highly involved consumer In general results of this study will help marketers to develop and maintain a competitive edge within the marketplace by enhancing richer understanding of sporting event consumer s information process es, attitude formation and their response to advertis ing Limitation and Future R esearch This study has a few limitations that should lead to future research. First, the current study did not consider i nteractivity of web circumstance R ecent studies argued that interactivity between consumer and web advertisement s is a crucial disti nction from traditional advertis ing More specifically McMillan et al. (2003) found that even in low involved conditions, consumers create situational involvement through their engagement in a high ly interactive circumstance in web advertising which they thus perceive as a high involvement condition. Therefore, future research needs to examine how unique chrematistics of web circumstance can influence consumers information processing and attitude formation. The experimental setting of website advertiseme nt could be the second limitation of this study. To control potential effects of extraneous variables, in our experiment did not use

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87 graphical embellishment, color effects and background music. As we mentioned in the method section, Stafford and Day (1995 ) argued that this particular set up is essential to ensure experimental control even though the absence of these elements may decrease the realism of web advertisement s F uture studies can integrate the unique elements of web advertising in experimental d esign to fu lly understand web advertis ing s effectiveness

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88 APPENDIX A INVOLVEMENT SCENARIO Utilitarian oriented / high PDI Please read the following scenario very carefully and image that you are in this situation. Imagine that you are searching informa tion on a website for a sport job career fair. You have been searching for a sport job career fair that best matches your interests and you have finally found one that you would like to attend. Because you are interested in attending sport job career fairs in the future, it is important for you to spend enough time and effort in searching for information about sport job career fair. In addition, these experiences and opportunities can affect your future career choices in a significant manner. Assume that th is this sport job career fair is your final choice among others events on the website.

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89 Utilitarian oriented / low PDI Please read the following scenario very carefully and image that you are in this situation. Image that you just saw a sport job career fair advertisement posted on a website while you were searching for information on other events. Sport job career fairs are a good experience to have but not a high priority for you, because you are not interested in attending a sport job career fair and it is not going to affect your future in a significant manner. Additionally, you do not generally care to spend too much time and effort in searching for information about sport job career fairs.

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90 Hedonic oriented / high PDI Please read the following sce nario very carefully and image that you are in this situation. Imagine that you are searching information on a website for a golf event (i.e., PGA Tours). You have been searching for a golf event that best matches your interests and you have finally found one that you would like to attend. Because you are interested in attending golf events in the future, it is important for you to spend enough time and effort in searching for information about golf events. In addition, these experiences and opportunities can affect your golf skill in a significant manner. Assume that this golf event is your final choice among others events on the website.

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91 Hedonic oriented / low PDI Please read the following scenario very carefully and image that you are in this situatio n. Imagine that you just saw a golf event (i.e., PGA Tours) advertisement posted on a website while you were searching for information on other events. Golf events are a good experience to have but not a high priority for you, because you are not interest ed in attending a golf event and it is not going to affect your future in a significant manner. Additionally you do not generally care to spend too much time and effort in searching for information about golf events.

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92 APPENDIX B COVER LETTER Purpose of t he research study: This project examines how consumers will evaluate information What you will be asked to do in the study: You are being asked to participate in this research that examines how consumers will evaluate information. If you agree to particip ate in this research, your task is to examine the product information according to the instructions and indicate your evaluation. Your cooperation is extremely important and is greatly appreciated. Time required: 1 5 to 20 minutes Risks and Benefits: You ar e not expected to participate in any treatment that would incur the risk of physical or mental injury during your participation in this research. This research is not expected to yield any immediate benefit to the individual participants. Compensation: No monetary compensation will be given on behalf of the researcher for participating in this study Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number, so your name will not be linked to your responses. Voluntary participation: Your participation in the study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from participating in this research project at any time without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Wonseok Jang Tourism, Recreation, & Sport Management. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, Uni versity of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the document stating the procedures to be used and followed in this study. I have received a copy of informed consent and AGREE to participate in th is study. Principal E xperimenter ______________________________________ Date______________________ Approved by University of Florida Institutional Review Board 02:

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93 APPENDIX C QUESTIONNAIRES PART I (1) : Please read each question carefully and circle the number below that best describes the way you feel. What is your feeling toward the advertisement? Good 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bad Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pleasant Favorable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unfavorable What is your feeling toward the golf event? Good 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bad Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pleasant Favorable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unfavorable What is your chance to attend golf event in the future? L ikely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unlikely Imp robable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 P robable Possible 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Imp ossible How did you feel during your experience when you read this website? Tangible 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Intangible Logical 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Emotional Subjective 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Objective Factual 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nonfactual Imaginable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Informative PART I(2 ): Please read each question carefully and circle the word below that best describes the way you feel. The following items assess your general perception of the golf event on the website you just visited Would you characterize this golf event as primarily functional or fun/enjoyable (circle the w ord) ? Functional Not sure Enjoyable Below, we ask about your involvement level toward the golf event I do n ot care at all I do c are a great deal Based on the situation you were given, in comparison to other available golf event in the marke t, how do they compare? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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94 Not at A ll important Extremely important Based on the situation you were given, how important would it be for you to make the correct choice for this golf event ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N ot at all concerned Very much concerned Based on the situation you were given, how concerned would you be about the outcome of your choice in selecting your golf event ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PART II: Please either check the appropriate box or fil l in the blank for the items below. Demographic information Gender: M F Age _____ Email ______________ Ethnicity American Indian/Alaskan Native Asian Black Hawaiian/Pacific I slander Hispanic/Non White White/Hispanic White/Non Hispanic O ther If you have any comments, please use the space below. T ha nk you for your participation

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103 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mr. Wons eok Jang earned his Master of Science degree in the College of Health and Human Performance (sport management) from the University of Florida in May 2012 He received his Bachelor of Science degree in golf management at Kyong Hee University South Korea in February 2007. His research has been driven to examine a understudied segment of the sport business landscape sport media and advertising H is interest in this field has been practiced through experimental studies, specifically, creativity in advertising and social media via internet. This line of research has been extended to a variety of segments in the sport industry such as sport sponsorship sport e business and sport advertising. As a result, his accomplishments in the research areas above include several presentations and under developing 3 manuscripts for publication in high impact academic journal. The studies have been presented at high quality scholarly conferences such as the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM), Spo rt Marketing Association (SMA), and American Marketing Association (AMA). Mr. Jang has 5 years of industry experience s in sport marketing field, including Jack Nicklaus Golf, Puma Korea and J Golf Broadcasting. Beginning March 2004, Wons eok Jang consulted regularly with executives from a va r iety of golf events, worked as an interpreter and assist coaching golf for Mr. William K, Ma rtin with PGA Class A. In 2009, Wons eok began his new job at Puma Korea a global sport lifestyle company as a sport marketer. He offered the sponsor ship contracts for a numbers of professional golfers in the KPGA and KLPGA He has also been involved in a var iety of projects in a dvertising golf events and golfers Beginning fall 2012 he will continu e his graduate study as doctoral student of Sport Management at the University of Florida.