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The Correlation between China’s Agenda in Diplomacy Activities and the U.S. Media Agenda

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044278/00001

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Title: The Correlation between China’s Agenda in Diplomacy Activities and the U.S. Media Agenda a Content Analysis on Chinese President Hu’s Visit to the United States
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Sun, Jing
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agenda-building -- diplomacy -- public -- traditonal
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis is a content analysis with a pre-post design to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese President Hu’s visit to the United States in building the agenda for the U.S. media coverage. It includes an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion and conclusion section. The topic, frame and valence of the news stories about China from two mainstream newspapers of the United States, the New York Times and the Washington Post, before, during and after the visit were coded. Also, the news releases, statements and speeches related to President Hu’s visit from China’s official news agency, Xinhua News Agency, were analyzed and compared with the news stories of the United States. The result showed that the first-level agenda building effect and the substantive attribute effect of second-level agenda building did not occur in China’s public diplomacy, either in the long term or in the short term. However, affective attribute salience successfully transferred from China’s public diplomacy agenda to the agenda of U.S. media coverage, especially in the short term. In terms of traditional diplomacy, the first-level agenda building effect and the substantive attribute agenda building effect did not occur either. Although the salience of affective attributes transferred effectively, it occurred only in a short term. In addition, the data analysis of all the topics showed that China’s public diplomacy did not perform the agenda-building function very well in terms of second-level agenda building. However, by examining the issue salience, substantive attribute salience and affective attribute salience of two major topics, namely, international politics and international economy, in President Hu’s visit revealed that, China’s public diplomacy was effective in first-level agenda building and second-level agenda building for its major topics.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jing Sun.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Kiousis, Spiro K.

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Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044278:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044278/00001

Material Information

Title: The Correlation between China’s Agenda in Diplomacy Activities and the U.S. Media Agenda a Content Analysis on Chinese President Hu’s Visit to the United States
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Sun, Jing
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agenda-building -- diplomacy -- public -- traditonal
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis is a content analysis with a pre-post design to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese President Hu’s visit to the United States in building the agenda for the U.S. media coverage. It includes an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion and conclusion section. The topic, frame and valence of the news stories about China from two mainstream newspapers of the United States, the New York Times and the Washington Post, before, during and after the visit were coded. Also, the news releases, statements and speeches related to President Hu’s visit from China’s official news agency, Xinhua News Agency, were analyzed and compared with the news stories of the United States. The result showed that the first-level agenda building effect and the substantive attribute effect of second-level agenda building did not occur in China’s public diplomacy, either in the long term or in the short term. However, affective attribute salience successfully transferred from China’s public diplomacy agenda to the agenda of U.S. media coverage, especially in the short term. In terms of traditional diplomacy, the first-level agenda building effect and the substantive attribute agenda building effect did not occur either. Although the salience of affective attributes transferred effectively, it occurred only in a short term. In addition, the data analysis of all the topics showed that China’s public diplomacy did not perform the agenda-building function very well in terms of second-level agenda building. However, by examining the issue salience, substantive attribute salience and affective attribute salience of two major topics, namely, international politics and international economy, in President Hu’s visit revealed that, China’s public diplomacy was effective in first-level agenda building and second-level agenda building for its major topics.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jing Sun.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Kiousis, Spiro K.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044278:00001


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1 THE CORRELATION BETWEEN AGENDA IN DIPLOMACY ACTIVITIES AND THE U.S. MEDIA AGENDA : A CONTENT ANALYSIS O N CHINESE PRESIDENT VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES By JING SUN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DE GREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Jing Sun

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3 To my parents, who told me that the best thing they can give me was education

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I a m endebted to my advisor committee members, course instructors and many of my friends who, also at the edge of graduation, contributed to the completion of this thesis. First and foremost, I would like to acknowledge my adviser Spiro Kiousis I am very grateful for his guidance as a mentor since I took his course in my first semester in the graduate program I would like to thank him especially for h is constant availability for discussion and advice even during holidays. H is id eas, counsel, and patience were crucial to m y thesis and to my obtaining a m aster s degree. I would also like to thank the two members of my committee for their suggestions to make my thesis more polished To Dr. Michael Leslie, I am grateful for sh owing me the importance of articulating hypotheses and rigorous methodology in my content analysis. His advice in formulating the hypotheses and questioning about the validity of the methodology to examine my hypotheses is invaluable for me to build a so lid foundation for my thesis. To Dr. Juan Carlos Molleda, I am thankful for his course on I ntern ational Public Relations, where the source of the idea of this thesis comes from. He offered a lot help in theoretical framework, as well as in solving some met hodological problems, such as which resource is more reliable to collect sample. I would also like to express my special gratitude to Dr. Corry Armstrong, though she is not on my committee, she still helped a lot in terms of methodology and data an alysis when I took her course Content Analysis I would like to thank Dr. Juyan Zhang, who accepted my interview about public diplomacy and offered insightful opinions. I n addition to all of the academic help, I would like to thank my friends for th eir support and contribution to my thesis. First, I would like to thank my classmate Jingyi Huang, who was the second coder of this content analysis. Without her responsibility, it

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5 w ould be impossible to complete all the data coding in such a limited time period and achieve the desirable inter coder reliability. Secondly, I would like to thank my friends Guangfan Hu, Xiaoning Li, Gong Zhang, Lingfei Zhu and who helped to input a dataset of the size 1126 by 140 It took them three days to input all the data. The third I would like to thank is my sweet roommate Haishi Cui, who comforted me when I was frustrated after continuous hours of work, who grabbed me food when I was busy at coding or writing, who accompanied me when I ran data analysis till mid night i n the computer lab. Last but not least, I would like to thank my parents for their love and caring for me when I was overwhelmed by my thesis, even they are not here with me. I love them so much and am missing them all the time.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENT S page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 11 CHAPTER 1 I NTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 13 Topic and Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 13 Background Information of the Visit ................................ ................................ ................. 14 Thesis Structure ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 15 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 17 Similarities and Differences between P ublic D iplomacy and P ublic R elations ......... 17 Similarities between P ublic Diplomacy and P ublic Relations ............................... 17 Differences between P ublic D iplomacy and P ublic R elations .............................. 22 Agenda building: Public Relations Activities and Media Coverage ............................ 24 Agenda setting: Why Media is Important to Public Relations ............................... 24 Agenda building Role of Public Relations ................................ ................................ 24 First level Agenda Building ................................ ................................ ......................... 27 Second level Agenda building and Framing ................................ ........................... 27 Public Relations and Public Diplomacy in China ................................ ........................... 29 nited States ................................ ............. 32 mage on U.S. Media Coverage ................................ ........... 34 Hypotheses and Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............. 36 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 40 Method s ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 40 Universe and Measurements ................................ ................................ ..................... 40 Effects of First level Agenda Building ................................ ................................ ....... 42 Effects of Second level Agenda Building ................................ ................................ 43 Data Analysis Strategy ................................ ................................ ................................ 44 Sampling ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 44 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 47 First level Agenda Building ................................ ................................ ................................ 47 Dominant Topic Correla tion ................................ ................................ ....................... 48

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7 Topic Correlation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 50 Summary of First level Agenda Building ................................ ................................ .. 52 Second level Agenda Building ................................ ................................ .......................... 52 Substantive Attributes ................................ ................................ ................................ 52 Affective Attributes ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 55 Summary of Second level Agenda Building ................................ ............................ 57 Agenda Building Effects, Time Lags and Ceiling Effects ................................ ............. 58 T ime Lags ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 58 Ceiling Effects ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 59 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 71 Methodological Concerns ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 71 Sample Size and Reliance on Keywords for Collecting Sample .......................... 71 Legitimacy of U sing A genda of N ews S tories from Xinhu a as a Proxy to R epresent the A ................. 73 Possible Neglected Interruptions ................................ ................................ ............... 74 First l evel Agenda Building Discussion ................................ ................................ ........... 75 First level Agenda Building and Public Diplomacy ................................ ................. 75 First level Agenda Building and Tradition al Diplomacy ................................ ......... 7 8 Theoretical and Practical Implications ................................ ................................ ...... 79 Second level Agenda Building Discussion ................................ ................................ ...... 80 Substantive Attributes Salience and Public Diplomacy ................................ ......... 80 Substantive Attributes Salience and Traditional Diplomacy ................................ 82 Theoretical and Practical Implication ................................ ................................ ........ 83 Affective Attributes Salience and Public Diplomacy ................................ ............... 84 Affecti ve Attributes Salience and Traditional Diplomacy ................................ ....... 85 Theoretical and Practical Implications ................................ ................................ ...... 85 Review the Results on First and S econd level Agenda Building on Two Major Topics Emphasized by Xinhua in an Integrated Way ................................ ................ 86 6 CON CLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 90 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 90 and Second level Agenda Building of All the Topics ................................ ................................ .......... 90 The Effectiveness of Ch and Second level Agenda Building ................................ ................................ .............................. 91 and Second level Agenda Building in the Two Major Topics ................................ ................... 91 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 92 APPENDIX A CODING SHEET ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 93 B TRANSCR IPT OF THE INTERVIEW ................................ ................................ ............. 102

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8 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 111

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table p age 1 1 .................... 16 2 1 Four cultural communication models ................................ ................................ .......... 39 3 1 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 45 4 1 List of the frequency and rank of the stories use each topic as domi nant topic .. 61 4 2 Bivariate correlation of dominant topic (PD=Public Diplomacy, TD=Traditional Diplomacy) ................................ ................................ ........................... 61 4 3 Asymptotic Chi square for aggr egated frequency of dominant topic in the U.S. media before, during and after the visit ................................ ................................ ...... 62 4 4 List of the frequency and rank of the stories use each topic as topic or sub topic (F=Frequency, R=Rank) ................................ ................................ ...................... 62 4 5 Bivariate correlation of topic (PD=Public Diplomacy, TD=Traditional Diplomacy) ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 63 4 6 Asymptotic c hi square for aggregated frequency of stories choosing each topic in the U.S. media before, during and after the visit ................................ ......... 63 4 7 List of the frequency and rank of the stories using each frame by each topic (F BT= Frame by Topic T1F1=Frame 1 used for Topic 1) ................................ ........ 64 4 8 Bivariate correlation of frame (PD=Public Diplomacy, TD=Traditional Diplomacy) ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 66 4 9 Aggregated number of each frame in US media coverage (F=Frequency, R=Rank) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 67 4 10 Asymptotic Chi square for aggregated frequency of frames in the U.S. media before, during an d after the visit ................................ ................................ .................. 67 4 11 List of the frequency and rank of the stories using each valence by each topic (T1V1= Valence 1 used for Topic 1) ................................ ................................ .. 68 4 12 Bivariate correlation of valence (PD=Public Diplomacy, TD=Traditional Diplomacy) ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 69 4 13 Asymptotic c hi square for aggregated frequency of valence in the U.S. media be fore, during and after the visit ................................ ................................ .................. 70 4 14 Aggregated number of each valence adopted by US media coverage ................. 70

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 After categorizing a story into topics, categorize frame by topic and categorize valence by topic ................................ ................................ .......................... 46

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the Universi ty of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requ irements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication THE CORRELATION BETWEEN AGENDA IN DIPLOMACY ACTIVITIES AND THE U.S. MEDIA AGENDA : A CONTENT ANALYSIS O N CHINESE PRESIDE NT VISIT TO THE U NITED STATES By Jing Sun May 2012 Chair: Spiro K. Kiousis Major: Mass Communication This thesis is a content analysis with a pre post design to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese President Hu s visit to the United States in buil ding the agenda for the U S media coverage. It includes a n introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion and conclusion section The topic, frame and valence of the news stories about China from two mainstream newspapers of the United States, t he New York Times and the Washington Post, before, during and after the visit were coded Also, the news releases, statem ents and speeches related to President Hu s visit from Xinhua News Agency, were analyse d and co mpared with the news stories of the United States T he result sho w ed that the first level agenda building effect and the s ubstantive attribute effect of second level agenda building d id not occur in China s public diplomacy either in the long term or in the short ter m. However, affective attribute salience successfully transferred from China s public diplomacy agenda to the agenda of U S media coverage, especially in the short term. In terms of traditional diplomacy, t he first level agenda building effec t and the substantive attribute agenda buildi ng effect

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12 did not occur either. Although the salience of affective attribut es transferred effectively it occurred only in a short term. In addition, the data analysis of all the topics show ed that China s publi c diplomacy did not perform the agenda building function very well in terms of second level agenda building. However by examining the issue salience, substantive attribute s alience and affective attribute salience of two major topics namely, internationa l politics and international economy, in President Hu s visit reveal ed that, China s public diplomacy wa s effective in first level agenda building and second level agenda building for its major t opics.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Topic and Significance Public r elations activities have been suggested to have an influence on media coverage and some scholars and researchers value the function of agenda building by studying the effectiveness of public relations on media coverage. However, the majority of the literat ure mainly focuses on public relations campaigns or activities of corporations (Kiousis, Popesc u & M itrook, 2007), and only a few covered the international public relations activities launched by national governments (Abritton & Manheim, 1985; Abritton & M anheim, 1987; Kiousis & Wu, 2008). In addition, most studies evaluated the effectiveness from the perspective of public relations while merely mentioning public diplomacy. In this thesis a content analysis with a pre post test design was adopted to evalu to the United States, which inclu ded a series of diplomacy activities during the visit on American media coverage. The topic, frame and valence of the news stories about China in two leading U.S. newspaper s the New York Times and the Washington Post before, du ring and after the visit was measured to see if there is any difference In addition, since Xinhua News Agency (PRC), the news coverage about the visit of Xinhua would be used as a proxy to reflect the main agenda of the diplomacy activities N ews stories from Xinhua were analyz ed and compared with news stories from the United States in order to see if there is any correlati on between the U S media agenda and the agenda activities Different from the previous studies, which were conducted from the

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14 perspective of p ublic relations, this study paid attention to similarities between public rela tions and publ ic diplomacy, focused on whether the function of agenda building exists in the field of diplomacy, and went further to see whether public diplomacy or traditional diplomacy is more effective in agenda building. On the other han d, this study tried to analy z e if there is any difference in influencing media coverage between public relations and public diplomacy. Background Information of the Visit Chinese president Hu Jintao visited the United States from January 18, 2011 to January 21, 2011. It was a recipro cal visit of sorts after President Obama travelled to Beijing in November 2009 and it was replete with ceremonial flourishes. However the trip was driven by high priority economic, global security, and human rights issues. Following is the timeline of the main events of the visit ( Table1 1). The main theme of the visit was cooperation and exchange between the United States and China. In the press confer ence, President Hu stated that: We both agree to further push forward the positive, cooperative and compre hensive China U.S. relationship and commit to work together to build a China U.S. cooperative partnership based on mutual respect and mutual benefit. The focus of this partnership is to better benefit people in our own countries and the world over. We both agree to strengthen exchanges and cooperation in economy and trade, energy and the environment, science and technology, infrastructure construction, culture and education, counterterrorism, non proliferation, law enforcement and other areas s o as to achie ve mutual benefit. And President Obama stated: The positive, constructive, cooperative U.S. China relationship is good for (and) also good for the world (The White House, Jan 19, 2011).

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15 Thesis Structure This thesis consists of five sections, including literature review, methodology, results, discussion and conclusion. The literature review first differentiate s public diplomacy from traditional diplomacy, and then compare s publ ic diplomacy with public relations in order to present the similarities between them and provide a foundation for applying theoretical framework from public relations to public di plomacy. A lso it summarize s the di fferences between them Then it discusse s t he influence of public relations activities on media coverage and introduce d agenda building theory which i s the main theoretical basis for this study In addition i t applie s agenda building theory in the public diplomacy context, based on the similariti es between public diplomacy and public relations. Meanwhile, it predict s the distinctions of the agenda building role of public diplomacy from that of public relations according to the differences between them Thirdly, it provide s a historical background a s well as the negative media coverage about China in the United States. Finally it generate s six hypotheses and four research question s based on the literature review. The methodology section contain s methods, samplin g and data analysis strategy The results section report s on the findings from the data analysis, and in the discus sion section the results are interpreted. Finally, conclusions are drawn from the results and discussion, and the li mitations of this study are summarized, meanwhile a direction for future study i s also provided

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16 Table 1 1. States Date Time Event Source 01/18/ 2011 N/A N/A President Hu is headed to Wash ington to meet with President Obama at the White House China unveils a 60 second mes Square before President Hu arrived. The New York Times Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/1 8/world/asia/18policy.html The New York Times. Retrieved from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes. com/ 2011/01/18/chinas publicity ads arrive in times square/ 01/19/ 2011 10 :00 a.m. EST 1:30 p.m. EST 5: 30 p.m. EST President Obama welcomes Chinese President Hu Jintao during a State Arrival ceremony on the South L awn Press Conference held with Preside nt Obam a and President Hu in East room of the White House President Obama and First lady Michelle Obama host the State Dinner to welcome President Hu Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/201 1/jan/19/world/la fg china hu washington 20110120 The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washi ngtonpost.co m/wpdyn/content/article/2011/01/1 8/AR2011011805754.html Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/en glish2010/china/2011 01/20/c_13698972.ht m 01/20/ 2012 9:30 p.m. EST President Hu arrives in Chicago for the first time, and Chic ago is the only stop outside of Washington. He was greeted by Chicago May Richard Daley The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/2 1/us/21cncwarren.html 01/21/ 2012 N/A N/A President Hu visits a Chinese owned auto parts firm and a Chinese wind energy company President Hu and Mayor Daley tour Walter Payton College Prep High School, in which Confucius Institute -a Chinese language and cultural education center house d. CNN News. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2011 01 21/politics/china.us.visit_1_chines e president hu jintao human rights confucius institute?_s=PM:POLITICS

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17 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Most of the studies on media coverage are from the perspecti ve of public relations and numerous theories and s tatistical evidence suggest th at public relations activities h ave an influence on media coverage (Ohl et al., 1995; Cameron, Sallot & Curtin, 1997; Curtin & Rhodenbaugh, 2001). Although some studies focus o n political public relations (Kiousis, Mitrook, Wu & Seltzer, 2006), only a few of them have tapped into the field of public diplomacy. On the other hand, previous studies on international public relations have proposed that international activities, which are supported by the national government to shape the national image, would influence media coverage in the target nation (Albritton & Manheim, 1987; Kiousis & Wu, 2008). So first, public diplomacy will be defined and the relationship with traditional dip lomac y will be clarified which will then be served as a basis for further comp arison with public relations, in order to see if there are any similarities between them. If there are more similarities between public reasonable to extend the public r agenda building role to the field of public diplomacy. Meanwhile, the differences between public diplomacy and public relations will also be addressed in order to see if the application of the theory in public di plomacy will vary to certain degree. Similarities and Differences between PD and PR Similarities between P ublic Diplomacy and P ublic Relations has not yet reached a consensu s definition. Most of the literature defined it in a d escriptive way other than how it is conceptualized. Delaney (1968, p.3) stated that: Public diplomacy is...the way in which both government and private individuals and groups influence directly or indirectly those public attitudes

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18 and opinions which bear decisions. Schuker ( 2004) said: Public diplomacy effectively communicating with publics around the globe to understand, value and even emulate America's vision and ideas; historically one of America's m ost effective weapons of outreach, persuasion and policy And Cull (2006) proposed that: formation and execution of foreign policies. T (Signizer & Coombs, 1992), by diplomats or national leaders of a nation. Although there definitions provide sufficient evidence to differentiate public diplomacy from traditional diplomacy in terms of actors, target audience, goals and strategies. These differences from traditional di plomacy also suggest similarities be tween public diplomacy and public relations. First of all, the actors in the field of public diplomacy are no longer mere ly diplomats or governments, instead it involve s individuals, groups and institutions (Koschwitz, 1986). Because of internet techno logy, transportation evolvement and democracy development, more and more individuals have the opportunity to interact with the outside world and serve as a role of citizen diplomat when they travel to s at home. Such a trend tends to blur the borderline of public re lations practitioners and formal diplomats ; some studies have shown that many national governments directly hire or contact public relations

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19 agents for counselling to build their national ima ge (Kunczik, 1997; Kunczik, 2003; Kiousis, 2008). Secondly, the target audience of public diplomacy i s as broad as overseas citizens i nstead of being composed of only national leaders or decision makers. The traditional diplomacy is at a government to gov ernment level or nation to nation level. However the domestic publics, are taken into consideration recently (Fitzpatrick, 2010). If the whole nation is regarded as an organ ization, then similar to public relations, the overseas publics and the domestic publics are the external and internal constituencies of public diplomacy. In the f ield of public relations, the branch dealing with overseas Nevertheless international public relations is more concerned with practical issues of multi national corporations in a business setting Signit zer & Coombs (1992, p. 138) stated that: how nation states, countries, or societies manage their communicative relationships with their foreign publics remains largely in the domain of political science and international relations When it comes to p ublic diplomacy it individuals and groups (Delaney, 1968, p. 3). Thirdly, the traditional diplomacy intends to reach an agreement through negotiation between two national governments, however public d iplomacy tends to in fluence public opinion the bottom up. Some scholars also argue that public diplomacy and public relations share a similar objective. Public diplomacy has been defined by Delaney ( 1968, p. 3) as

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20 T he way in which both government and private individuals and groups influence directly or indirectly those public attitudes and opinions which bear influence the behaviour of a foreign government by influencing the attitudes of its citizens (Malone, 1988, p. organization and the publics upon whom its succ ess or failure depends (Broom, 2009, p. lays emphasis on building a relationship and strives for mutual benefit while the element of relationship is not explicitly m entioned by the definition of public diplomacy. However, there is at least one s imilarity in their objectives : affect public opinion for the benefit of client/organization (Signizer & Coom bs, 1992). Lastly, the traditional diplomacy mainly use s official do cuments to disseminate information among nations, while public d iplomacy evolved from one way a symmetrical communication to two way symmetrical communication. So there is also an overlapping evolvement of the strategies and models used by public diplomacy and public relations. similar objectives and use similar tools (p. diplomacy and public relations were proposed and compared with each other in their article. Two concepts of public diplomacy, which are tough minded and tender minded (James, 1955 ; Deibel & Roberts, 1976) showe d a distinction between two main schools of public diplomacy. The tough minded concept posits that the objective of public diplomacy is to exert an influence on attitudes of foreign audiences through the way of propaganda and persuasion. Hard political information is considered more important

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21 than soft cultural information and fast media such as radio, tel evision and newspapers are preferred to be the channel to disseminate the information. This is more like the public information model provided by Grunig and Hunt (1984) which focused on self portrayal in a method of one way transmission Conversely, the t ender minded states that the goal of public diplomacy is to create a climate of long term mutual understanding through soft cultural information and programs. Soft media such as films, exhibitions, language institution, overseas educational programs and ar tistic exchanges with a view toward exchange and communication about lifestyles, political and economic systems, and artistic achievements are usually adopted. The tender minded model propose s thus is similar to the two way asymmetric model developed by Grunig and Hunt (1984). However, it only br ings about the idea of exchanging information to achieve mutual understanding, without mentioning cooperation in an effort to achieve mutual benefit. Peisert advanced and enr iched the concept of tender minded and proposed four models for cultural communication, including one way transmission, self portrayal, information, and exchange and cooperation ( Table 2 1) Mainly two questions were raised to differentiate the four models : (1) to which extent the nation is willing to culture. Signizer and Cooms compared these four models with the four models of e four models of public relations seem to fit best with cultural diplomacy (p. cultural

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22 relations (p. It suggest that these cultural communication models used in public diplomacy are related to both pub lic diplomacy and public relations. In conclusion, current public diplomacy is still at a two way asymmetric level. However the evolution of public diplomacy from a one way communication model to a two way symmetrical mo del sounds very similar to the evol ution in p ublic relations (Fitzpatrick, 2007). Just like public relations, it evolved from one way to two way, from transmission to communication, and also from pursuing acceptance to mutual understanding. Differences between P ublic D iplomacy and P ublic R e lations There is an ongoing debate about whether public diplomacy falls under the umbrella of public relations and whether public diplomacy is tied closely to two branches of public relations, namely, international public relations and government public re lations. International public relations has been attracting more and more attention since effort of a company, institution, or government to establish mutually beneficia l relations with publics of other nations (pp. 409 that will allow it to work in many countries (p. 7). Booth posits that international public relations pract Based on these definitions, there is a common element between public diplomacy and international public relations both of them involve different contexts across multiple na tions. However, the two major differences are the actors and the goals. For actors, an international public relations practice does not need to be supported by national governments. In fact, a majority of international public relations activities are

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23 launc hed by corporations (Parkinson & Ekachai, 2006). For goals, public diplomacy perception about a corporation, a brand or even a specific product. Tuch by the tremendous cultural diversity in the world which makes it so difficult for people to grasp the pleth ora of information coming at them from everywhere and to form accurate judgements (Tuch, 1990, p. 224) both international public relations and public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is confronted a more complic ated setting as the diversity of issues varies from cultural to historical, political, economic, social, and so on since it is dealing with issues at a broad national level instead of a corporation or organizational level. The goal of government public rel ations is similar to public diplomacy to a certain degree. Broom (2009) mentioned the purposes of government public relations, including support for established polici However, the audience of public diplomacy is mainly overseas public of another nation. Different from communicating with domestic citizens, the media platform changes from local media to the medi a of other nations. For the domestic press, there are a variety of resources and multiple voices since different media hold different positions towards one certain policy. On the contrary, the diversity is unlikely to occur when it comes to public diplomac y. The overall attitude of a nation towards another nation is often similar, which leads to high congruity in media coverage on international issues. In addition, such a

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24 bias in media coverage gets worse when the media holds a hostile attitude towards the nation in its report. In summary, the diversity in linguistic, cultural, political, social, and economic context and the lack of diversity in media position are two major indicators distinguishing p ublic diplomacy from public relations Agenda building: P ublic Relations Activities and Media Coverage Agenda setting: Why Media is Important to Public R elations Dealing with media relations has been considered one sub function of public relations for a long time, and past theories such as s ystem theory suggest that media is one important external stakeholder of organizations in the perspective of public relations. Cohe n ( 1963) stated that the mass media may not be successful in telling an e what to think setting studies suggest that the audience are influenced by media when they decide what issues are important and how important those issues are (McCombs & Shaw, 1972). In addition to the influence on salience, n umerous studies suggest that agenda setting can also influence how the audience think s about an issue by selecting, emphasizing or ignoring certain elements of the issue (Ghanem, 1997; Lopez Escobar et al., 1998). From the perspective of public relations K iousis (2005) suggest that agenda setting may not only influence publics on a cognitive level, but also on an attitudinal level Agenda building Role of Public R elations The agenda setting role of media in influencing an audience makes it valuable for pub

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25 provided economical, effective methods of communicating with large and widely dispersed publics. Consequently, work in public relations requires an understanding of and skills in using newspaper, magazines, trade publications....and so on (p Realizing the importance in influencing media and using it as a mediator to set agenda for publics some scholars propose the agend a building role of public relations (Ohl et al., 1995; Turk, 1986; Weaver & Elliott, 1985; Hale, 1978) These studies demonstrate that public relations ha s an influence on media agenda and indirectly influence public agenda. D ifferent from the traditional way of determining the value of public rela tions solely by measuring the media output such as news releases and newsletters, th e agenda building role focuses on outcome, which means public relations influence on media agenda by providing information subsidies and activities such as news releases, press conferences, campaigns and so forth. Ohl and his colleagues proposed that agenda and take process in which sources seek to get their information published and the press seeks to get their information from independent sources ( 1995, p. 90) Kiousis (2004) posit that media coverage is the result of the symbiotic relationship between sources and journalists, instead of merely the placement of messages provided by sources. The agenda building role also extends to the international context and is called international agenda building. S ome former studies showed that international public relations efforts would have an impact on media coverage (Manheim & A lbritton, 198 4; Lee, 2007). Manheim sponsored by national governments influence the image of foreign nations in the U nited

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26 States press in terms of visibility and valence. L study (Lee, 2007) of the United States ign in the U.S. also S newspapers....suggests that the press appeared to have been affected by the campaign (Lee, 2007, p. In addition to conducti ng a content analysis on public relat ions campaigns and activities, some scholars use another method to evaluate the influence of international public relations on media coverage, the public relations consultancy. Kiousis and Wu (2008) used a triangulation of methods by comparing public relat ions counsel for foreign nations, m edia content and public opinion data in 1998 and 2002. They found that public relations counsel influenced the news coverage, especially in the way of decreasing the amount of negative news coverage. Overall, most past st udies focused on the influence of public relations on media coverage. Although some literature from the field of international public relations covered the impact of international activities supported b y the national government and the international public relations counsel on shaping the perception of national image on the media of the targeted country, few of them officially mentioned public diplomacy. In addition, most of them only compare d the media coverage before the public relations activities with that after and focus on the chan ge in salience and tone, nevertheless few mentioned about whether those changes in media agenda related to agenda se t by public diplomacy efforts

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27 Based on the similarities between public relations and public diplomacy, thi s study tries to find whether such an agenda building role of public relations can also be applied visit to the United States. First level Agenda B uilding Previous st level agenda building. First level agenda Sim ply put, the salience of an issue in public relations messages will influence the media salience of that issue. mage in the U.S. media coverage, which are mainly based on the 1980 project of the IAMCR (Stevenson & Cole, 1984). The list of categories will be stated in the methodology section. Second level Agenda building and F raming The second level agenda building f ocuses on characteristics, properties, or Bantimaroudis, & Ban, 1999) A ttribute salience was first mentioned in second level agenda setting. The contemporary expli cation of second level agenda setting suggest s that news media attention can influence public opinion about an issue by emphasizing on certain attributes and ignoring others (Ghanem, 1997; Lopez Escobar et al., 1998; Want a & Hu 1993). Similarly, second le vel agenda building does not only look at the transfer of major issue salience, but als o the transfer of the attribute salience.

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28 The second level agenda building role is supported by numerous studies in the context of political public relations K aid (1976 ) found that the news stories about candidates in newspapers are reported similarly as the content in news releases disseminated by public relations practitioners. Lancendorfer and Lee (2003) observed that the salience of issues in campaign news releases i nfluenced the salience of issues the linkages between candidate news releases and media coverage during the 2002 Florida Gubernatorial election and found that both object and attribute salience development w ere included in agenda buildi second level agenda building model has a logical connection in its application to the practice and According to the p revious studies on second level agenda building, attributes can be divided into several dimensions. Ghanem (1997) proposes that there are four dimensions, including subtopics, framing mechanisms, affective elements and cognitive elements. McCombs (1995) as serts that affective and substantive elements may be the central attributes. Affective attributes refer to the elements in a report that arouse emotional reactions from audience, such as the tone (Kiousis, 2005). The substantive dimension refers to the fac ets of a story that help the audience to structure the content cognitively. Some studies suggest links between substantive attributes and framing theory. McCombs and Ghanem (2001) propose that substantive attributes range along a micro macro continuum and attributes and,

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29 example, at a micro level, the substantive attributes of Tibet issue can be the age, name or ap pearan ce of Dalai Lama, who is the religious leader of Tibet; at a macro level, a substantive attribute can be the conflict between Dalai and Chinese central government. consistently examined in the literature are the conflict, human interest, problem definition, responsibility attribution, moral evaluation, and consequence assessment frames (p. level attributes would be conflict frame. In a s imilar fashion, this study extend s the concepts and measurement of affective and substantive attributes to the field of public diplomacy The second level agenda building role of public relations provides a theoretical foundation for this stud y. This thesis does nce at the first level agenda building but also explore s deeper to see whether the media coverage would be influenced by second level agenda building. Fo r instance, whether or not the negative media coverage decreased, whether the salience of attributes framed by Chinese government influenced the attributes salience in media coverage, and whether the Public Relations a nd Public Diplomacy in China The concept of public relations was introduced in China in the 1980s. At this time, the political and economic changes such as the implementatio Open and and profession (Chen, 1991). Furthermore, the market driven economic system, the democratic development, and the gradually evolved media system made public opinion more and more important and forced organizations to establish and maintain a good relations hip with their publics.

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30 Therefore the western approach of public relations soon spread rapidly all over the country during these twenty years and is now growing faster than ever in the form of educational programs and public relations societies in China ( Black, 1991). Although the discipline of public relations has grown up very quickly whether in scholarship or in profession, it still faces with the same challenges such as the lack of the body of knowledge and the lack of a consent on its definition. Also there is an ongoing debate over whether it should belong to a mass communication or to a business school. Contrary to public relations, public diplomacy may not be a new concept in China, and it is tied closely to foreign media An early example can be t raced back to the mid 1930s, when American journalist Edgar Snow was invited by the Chinese Communist Party to report about its civil war. His book, Red Star over China, then national leader, Mao Zedong, as a national hero. The book was a complete success around the world. After the foundation of th e P Chinese government kept inviting foreign journalists and academics, who were carefully selected and investigated, to visit China and report to the worldwide aud iences. In the premier Zhou Enla i l worldwide attention through a mass media report which broke the 20 year long isolation between China and th e U nited States. However, such a favourable nationa l image has not been maintained for a long period, since it was damaged by the 1989 Tiananmen Square protest. American media such as CNN reported on the unrest, and the famous photo, picturing a lone protester standing in front of an array of tanks, was se lected as the World Press Photo of 1989 (Hooghe, 2007) A fter that, China hired one of the

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31 consulting firms, Hills and Knowlton, to help repair its damaged national image. casts shadows on China. The development will threaten their lead ing positions and China will assert its military strength to the world. Chinese government officials accused western media of being The Chinese Are Coming China as a threat to overtake America as the complained that western media us China without pointing out recent positive develo Zhongguo de hepingjueqi Acco e ( that C hina pursues to be seen as caring for its people and seeks understanding for its y and

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32 The third is that China wants to be regarded as a trustworthy member of the international community, with contributions to the world peace. Activities in the U nited States (Chinarelations, 2011). They found that China is studying from the U nited States public diplomacy and trying out new public diplomacy instruments. In addition, more and more Chinese states and institutions are involved in the field of public diplomacy, and more and more public diplomacy practitioners are beginning to notice that public diplomacy is not only to disseminate information, but also to listen to its publics and have a two way dialogue. s explosive economic powe r directly or indirectly erodes the leading position of America For instance, American public view cost manufacturing industry as making the situation of unemployment even worse in the U nited States. Also, its human rights issues, the quality sues including the Taiwa n, Tibetan and Xinjiang issue ha ve long been a concern of the U nited States I n addition, China s nuclear program stressed the tension between the two nations. government launched an international pub lic relations campaign in the U nited S tates between August 23 and September1 7. D uring the campaign, many cultural performance s and exhibit Presid ent Jiang Zemin visited

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33 the U nited States 60 minutes According to Mr Zhao Qizheng, who was the director of the China State Council Information Office at that time, President Jiang said during the people to hear first hand his peaceful intentions, and help foster g President on 60 minutes, 2000) According to the U .S. Senate report (Committee on Foreign relations, 2011), increasing dominance was illustrated in (p. Aside from campaigns in the U nited States two major global events that were held in China conveyed messages to the whole world, includ ing the United States, and they were the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2010 World Expo in Shanghai. These two events and also gained worldwide media coverage including the coverage in the U nited States In addition to formal campaigns and official nited States China also e stablished educational programs The programs offer ed scholarships and all ocate d 2010, 127,000 Chinese students were in the

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34 United States (a 30% increase in the number of Chinese students from the year before), and Chin of sending international students to the U nited States China also developed educational programs and schools to introduce Chinese culture to America. For example, Beijing has inv the United States, there are about 70 such i nstitutes, which provide classes in Chinese language, literature and the arts. which rang ed from a formal and public diplomacy campaigns, to educational programs and schools in the United States, showed an increasingly sophisticated system of China s public diplomacy U.S. scholars ha ve noticed that China pa ys more and more attention t o public diplomacy activities in the U nited States which aims to build ing its national image and a good relationship with the United States. According to Stevenson and Gaddy (1984), the American media s hare a similar pattern in selection of international news. A lso they tend to report the negative news of developing or underdev eloped countries. The distorted news coverage of the third world has been one of the most common complaints from third world coun tries. In addition, the stories focused on cris e s, strikes, and protests of the third world countries. Chang f ound that not all the countries are treated equally to be mentioned in the news (1998) He argues that, for those countries in the core zone of t he world system, their chances of being in the news are higher than those in the semi peripheral and peripheral strata. Nations in the other two zones will have to go through several filters before they make it to the news.

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35 As a developing country, China f aces the same challenge in American media coverage. Because of different political ideolog ies the American media adopted the anti China stance for a long time. Some argued that the anti China stance was adopted since 1989 (Ching, 1998) ; however accordin g to Perlmutter (2007), the U.S. negative attitude towards China can be dated back to 1949, when new China was just found ed During 1950s 1960s, western reporters were kept out of China. The media stories and pictures were all taken by Chinese news agenc ies However American propaganda and the Times tried out a way to distort and change the original pictures received from a Chinese agency. That was the starting point of the negative attitude of American media towards China. In media research, Goodman found that 24% of the stories from the Washington Post and New York Times focused on severe cri se s, 70% were concerned with conflict and 32% with violence (Goodman, 1999) According to Mann (1999), the American news tend to portray China in an overly simplistic frame, and the stereotype of the stories always used a single story, image or concept instead of providing complete and substantial facts and perspectives. He beli eved that such a selective reduction led to many negative effects. Ching (1998) found that stories on Chinese lifestyle, culture and social attitudes started to appear i n U .S. newspapers, provided a more objective and complete picture of China, compared wi th the time when media coverage merely focused on political issues. The improving image of China on American media does not reach the standard for objectivity of China. A conference hosted by the National Committee on U.S. China relations and John F. Kenne dy School of Government at

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36 H arvard University in 1998 analyz ed the US media coverage of China. Most American conference attendants viewed U.S. coverage of China as balanced and objective, while most Chinese attendants disagreed. In conclusion, the American media tend to report on bad news about the Third World such as cris e s, protests and violence. A dditionally, the American coverage of China adopted a negative stance back in the 1950s and the American media system shares a similar pattern and homogenized perspective on C hinese issues. Although the exp a nded coverage to Chinese culture and lifestyle improved the objectivity, China does not agree on the extent of objectivity and aims to build a more positive national image o n U.S. media. Hypotheses and Resear ch Question s Based on the logic of first level agenda building, the salience of issues in news releases during the public relations activities will be related to the salienc e of issues in media coverage. Since the literature discussed about the similaritie s between public relations and public diplomacy, it is expected that the first level agenda building effect also exist s in the field of public diplomacy This thesis investigate s whether the topic salience in the visit related news stories reported by Xinh ua News Agency correlate s with the topic salience in the news stories from the leading newspapers in the United States. Two hypothes e s are offered here: H1: The salience of topics in the news stories from the N ew Y ork T imes and the W ashington P ost after t he visit will be positively correlated with the salience of topics in the visit related news stories from Xinhua News Agency H2: The strength of the correlation between the salience of topics in the news stories from the N ew Y ork T imes and the W ashington P ost after the visit and the salience of topics in the visit related news stories from Xinhua news agency will be stronger than that before the visit.

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37 In addition to first level agenda building, which focuses on object or issue salience, second level age nda building suggest s that attribute s alience in news releases w ould be related to the attribute salience in media coverage. Just as mentioned in the literature review, there are two dimensions of attribute salience, namely, substantive dimension and affec tive dimension. Similarly, the second level agenda building effect is also expected to occur in public diplomacy activities. For evaluating su bstantive dimension, two hypothes e s are stated as follow s: H3: The salience of substantive attributes in the news stories from the N ew Y ork T imes and the W ashington P ost after the visit will be positively correlated with the salience of substantive attributes in the visit related news stories from Xinhua News Agency H4: The strength of correlation between the salie nce of substantive attributes in the news stories from the N ew Y ork T imes and the W ashington P ost after the visit and the salience of substantive attributes in the visit related news stories from Xinhua news agency will be stronger than that before the vis it. For eva luating affective dimension, two hypothes e s are stated as follow s: H5: The salience of affective attributes in the news stories from the N ew Y ork T imes and the W ashington P ost after the visit will be positively correlated with the salience of a ffective attributes in the visit related news stories from Xinhua News Agency H6: The strength of correlation between the salience of affective attributes in the news stories from the N ew Y ork T imes and the W ashington P ost after the visit and the salien ce of affective attributes in the visit related news stories from Xinhua news agency will be stronger than that before the visit. Both public diplomacy and tr aditional diplomacy occurred during the visit, however the commo n elements between t raditional di plomacy and public relations are scarce. Hence, whether the agenda building effect will occur in traditional diplomacy still remains a question. If it still exists, whether it is more or less effective than public

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38 diplomacy in influencing media agenda is a nother question Four research questions are offered as follow s: RQ1: Is there any correlation between the salience of topic in the agenda of traditional diplomacy and media coverage of the United States? RQ2: Is there any correlation between the salience of substantive attributes in the agenda of traditional diplomacy and media coverage of the United States? RQ3: Is there any correlation between the salience of affecti ve attributes in the agenda of traditional diplomacy and media coverage of the United S tates? RQ4: Which is more effective in setting the media agenda, public diplomacy or traditional diploma c y?

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39 Table 2 1. Four cultural communication models Model of public relations Model of cultural communication Two of the four models of public rel ations fit with cultural diplomacy PRESS AGENTRY/PUBLICITY PUBLIC INFORMATION ONE WAY TRANSMISSION SELF PORTRAYAL Two of the four models fit with cultural relations TWO WAY ASYMMETRIC TWO WAY SYMMETRIC INFORMATION EXANGE AND CO OPERATION

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40 C HAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Method s Universe and M easurements Chinese president Hu Jintao visited the United States from January 18, 2011 to January 21, 2011. Actually he arrived in the United States on January 19, 2011 and it was a three day visit, but he was he ading to the United States on January 18, 2011 and ted on January 18, so that day wa s categorized as a day during the visit. The universe include d two parts. The first pa rt was the media stories of United States on China from November 18, 2010, two months before President Hu arr ived, to March 21, 2011, which wa s two month after the day he left. The second part w as news stories released from the Chinese government from November 18, 2010, two month before the visit to March 21, 2011, which wa s two month after the visit. All the data w ere collected from LexisNexis Academic database to keep the searching consistent. For media coverage, t wo mainstream newspapers w ere used as sources to collect stories on China, including t he New York Times and t he Washington Post The keyw ord as used to search in headline a nd lead since the analysis focus ed the United States media coverage. The analysis focus ed on whether the media coverage has noti ced about the visit and whether the media agenda was influenced by the public diplomacy activities. A compr ehensive discussion included the topic, frame and tone Xinhu a News Agency w ere collected since Xinghua is the official news agency to report

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41 to international publics and release statements, transcripts of speeches and news releases related to the visit. Sin ce the intervention wa strategie s and activities only the visit related stories from Xinhua w ere collected. First in order to filter out news artivles irrelevant to Hu s visit to the United States, search keyword s in conju nction with Boolean operator AND w ere used to search in headli ne and lead. The second step wa s to sort out the news stories directly related to t he visit. T his thesis focus ed on the therefore only the news stories sit to the United States w ere kept for further analysis and compar ed with the stories from the two newspapers of the United States. It might be criticized that the stories related to the visit can only cover traditional diplomacy activities while fail to spot public diplomacy efforts. However back to the definition of traditional diplomacy, only the confidential official documents between two governments would be count ed as traditional di plomacy Since Xinhua News Agency itself is a platform for public diplomacy and all the stories released by Xinhua is trying to communicate with U.S. publics instead of merely talking to leaders of the United States Even the story only cover s traditional diplomacy activities, it is still trying to release information that they want the public to know other than keeping it under the table between governments. Hence, the story co vered traditional diplomacy w ere still regarded as including public diplomacy in formation because they release d some p ortion of traditional diplomacy informa tion, the portion they wanted the publics to be informed. So all the stor ies related to the visit w ere analysed as public diplomacy

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42 materials. However, those stories coveri ng trad itional diplomacy w ere sort ed out to answer four research questions. Watson & Noble, 2007) model of public relations effectiveness evaluation will be adopted. Yardstick proposes th ree levels in measuring public rel ations effectiveness T he analysis mainly focus ed on the fir st media level, which wa s media output The second level of target audience and the third level of attitude/behavioural change we re out the scope of this thesis b ecause the time period may be too short for the audience to fully respond, but it can be left for future research. Effects of First level Agenda Building To examine the effects of first level agenda building, t he sources collected from both the American me dia coverage and from Xinhua News Agency w ere classified into different categories according to their topics to see if the issue salience transferred f rom public diplomacy agenda to overseas media agenda The topic categories wer e adopt ed from Zhang and C study which was mainly based on the 1980 project of the IAMC R ( Stevenson & Cole, 1984) The International Association for Mass Communication Research and other relevant studies. Topic categories we re listed as follows: (1)PRC domestic p olitics; (2)Taiwan Straits /Tibet issue/Xinjiang ; (3) international politics; (4) domestic econom y ; (5) international economy; (6)defen s e/nuclear weapon/war crises; (7) disasters/unrest/terrorism; (8) culture; (9) science/ecology/technology; (10) religion; (11) law/crimes/corruption; (12) population; (13) sports; (14) social service, welf are, education

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43 Each story was categorized into one dominant topic, while could be coded as with more than one topics. After categorizing every piece of stories into diffe rent topics, first, correlation between the issue salience of two newspapers from the United States and that of Xinhua News Agency were calculated to see whether they are positively correlated. Secondly, the correlation during the two months before the vis it was compared with that during the two months after to see if there is any difference. E ffects of Second level Agenda Building According to previous literature, two dimensions of attributes in the second level agenda building, namely, substantive a nd af fective dimensions, were measured separately. For precisely measuring whether the tone or the frame of a specific topic of U.S. media coverage and Chinese media is related to each other, the substantive attributes and affective attributes w ere broken down into fourteen topics. S imply put, first a story w as put into a topic category; secondly, the story under a topic w as put into one of the six frame categories and one of the three valence categories ( Figure 3 1) There are six substantive attributes, includ ing the conflict, human interest, problem definition, responsibility attribution, moral evaluation, and consequence assessment frames (de Vreese, 2003; Entman, 1993; Hallahan, 1999; Knight, 1999; Scheufele, 2000). According to Kiousis (2011), the conflict frame focuses on describing conflicts between individuals, groups, or institutions as a means of capturing audience interest. s definition frame is adopted in messages attribution frame is used in a message to identify the accountability of the cause or solution of an issue or problems to in

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44 messages to identify outcomes and res For affective dimen si on, the tone w as analyz ed. A three point scale from one to three w as created to measure the tone of stor ies, in which one means positive two means balanced or n eutral, and three means negative The complet e coding book i s presented in Appendix A Data Analysis Strategy The frequency of each topic, frame and valence w ere ranked in descending order and the rank represent ed the ir corresponding salience Sp correlation w as used as the main statisti cal test to compare issue salience and attributes salience of the New Y ork T imes and the Washington P ost with that of Xinhua News Agency (e.g: McCombs & Bell, 1996). w as adopted to analyz e whether there is significant difference between two correlation coefficients if there was significant correlation both before and after the visit Two independent coders code d all the sample stories separately. w as used to test inter coder reliability. Asymptotic Chi square test was performed to see whether there is significant d ifference between the aggregated frequency for each topic, frame and valence adopted by American newspapers before and after the visit. Sampling The total number of the news stories collect ed from the New York Times th e Washington Post and Xinhua was 1126, including 434 from th e New York Times and the Washington Post and 88 from Xinhua during the two months before the visit; 60 from the New York Times and the Washington Post and 98 from Xinhua during the visit;

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45 415 from the New York Times and the Washington Post and 31 from Xinhua during the two mont hs after the visit ( Table 3 1 ) Table 3 1 Sample Time period NYT (Unit:Story) WPOST (Unit: Story) Xinhua (Unit: Story) 11/18/2010 01/17/2011 (2 months before the visit) 301 133 31 29 296 119 88 01/18/2011 01/21/2011 (4 days during the visit) 98 01/22/2011 03/21/2011 (2 months after the visit) 31

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46 Figure 3 1. After categorizing a story into topics, categoriz e frame by topic and categorize valence by topic

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47 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS First level A genda B uilding There are two hypotheses regarding to the first level agenda building of public diploamcy H1 assumes t he salience of topics in the news stories from two U.S. newspapers after the visit will be positively correlated with the salience of topics in the visit related news stories from Xinhua News Agency H2 stated that t he strength of the correlation between the salience of topics in the news stories from two U.S. newspapers after the visit and the salience of topics in the visit related news stories from Xinhua news agency will be stronger than that before the visit There are two research questions explor ing the first level agenda building of traditional diplomacy RQ1 tries to find out if there is any correlation between the salience of topic s in the agenda of traditional diplomacy and medi a coverage of the United States RQ4 tries to figure out whether traditional diplomacy or public diplomacy i s more effective i n building the first level agenda. As stated in the methodology section, all the visit related news stories from Xinhua News Agency wer e regarded as a proxy to reflect diplomacy. Even if the s tory just cover ed traditional diplo macy activities, those activities were published by Xinhua News Agency which means Chinese government want ed to communicate with overseas publics through mass media. To evaluate the effectiveness of agenda building in the field of public diplomacy, all the news stories related to the United States w ere analy z diplomacy agenda. However the news stories re lated to traditional diplomacy we re still

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48 sorted out to see whether th e traditional diplomacy agenda i s also related with media agenda of the United States. Dom inant Topic Correlation For dom inant topic, each piece of news stor y can only be assigned into one main topic, no matter whether there is any sub topics occur. The total number and rank of each to pic from Xinhua News Agency and two n ewspapers of the United States, the New York Times and the Washington Post are listed in Table 4 1 The inter coder reliability test show ed that for dom inant topic is 0.883. Bivariate correlation test for do minant topic is listed in Table 4 2. First, the Asymptotic Chi square test was performed to analyze whether there is significant difference between the frequency of the news stories from two U.S. newspapers before and after the visit for each topic. The st ories during the visit only covered four days, while the stories before and after the visit both covered two months. Therefore only the cell of before and the cell of after were analyzed because they have a balance d sample for statistical analysis. All of the three cells were analyzed in a descriptive way to see if there was any change. The result from the Chi square test showed that, the frequency of topic 6 Defense/nuclear weapon/war crisis and topic 14 Social service/welfare/ education significantly decreased, while topic 8 Culture significantly increased after the visit than that before a t the 0.01level ( Table 4 3). In addition, the rank of the frequency of news stories choosing Culture as dominant topic by two U.S. newspapers befor e the visit wa s five, however, it climbed up to three during th e visit and reached one after the visit.

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49 Bivariate correlation test show ed that the rank of frequency of dominant topic chosen by Xinhua News Agency after the visit is not significantly correlated with the rank of frequency o f dominant topic chosen by two U.S. newspapers after the visit. However there is significant correlation between dominant topic of news stories reported by Xinhua and that of the news stories reported by the N ew Y ork T imes and the Washi ngton P ost during Presiden =.719, p<0.01 ). Also there is significant correlation before =.732, p<0.01 ). The correlation before the visit is slightly higher than that during the visit, however show ed the correlat ion before the visit is not significantly higher than that during the visit. The result suggest s that the salience of dominant topic of news stories reported by t he N ew Y ork T imes and t he Washington P ost before and during the visit is significantly correl ated with the salience of dominant topic of news stories reported by Xinhua while the salience is not significantly correlated after the visit. H ence H1 and H2 are not supported. For the news stories related to traditional diplomacy, there is no significa nt correlation between the rank o f frequency of dominant topic chosen by news stories from Xinhua and th at of frequency of dominant topic reported by two newspapers of the United States after the visit. However there is significant correlation before the v isit at =.485, p<0.05), though show ed that there is no significant difference between the correlation wielded from stories of public diplomacy and that wielded from stories of traditional diplomacy. Also there is significa nt =.719, p<0.01). Still shows that there is no significant difference between two correlation coefficients. To answer

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50 RQ1, the result show ed that there is significant positive correlation b etween the agenda of traditional diplomacy and media coverage before and during the visit. And the correlation during the visit is higher than before. To answer RQ4, the result show ed that the effectiveness of traditional diplomacy in setting media agenda is not significant different from that of public diplomacy. Topic Correlation For topic, one news story can be categorized into more than one topic and the topics or sub topics assigned to a news story were all coded Doing so wa s to provide a more compl ete picture to see if the agenda of all the topics covered by news stories of two U.S. newspa pers is related with that of Xinhua. The total number and rank of each topic from Xinhua News Agency and two newspapers of the United States, the New York Times an d the Washington Post are listed in Table 4 4 The in ter coder reliability test show ed that Pi for dom inant topic is 0.820. Bivariate correlation test for dominant topic is listed in Table 4 5 The Asymptotic Chi square test combined with descript ive analysis were also performed to analyze whether there is significant difference between the frequency of the news stories from two U.S. newspapers before, during and after the visit for each topic. The result from the Chi square test showed that, only topic 8 Culture significantly increased after the visit than th at before at the 0.01level ( Table 4 6). In addition, the rank of frequency of news stories choosing Culture as topic or sub topic Culture befor e the visit was five before and during th e visit, however it went up to one after the visit.

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51 Bivariate correlation test show ed that the rank of frequency of topics chosen by Xinhua News Agency is significantly correlated with that of frequency of topic chosen by two U.S. newspapers after President =.739, p<0.01). Hence H1 is supported. However there is also significant correlation between the topic salience of news stories reported by Xinhua and that of the news stories reported by two U.S. newspapers =.808, p<0.01) and dur =.795, p<0.01). Although the correlation is slightly higher before the visit than during and after the visit, to z shows there is no significant difference between them. For topic, H2 is not supported For the news stories rela ted to traditional diplomacy, there is significant correlation between the topic salience of news stories from Xinhua and that of news stories from =.795, p<0.01) and after the visit at the 0.01 =.739, p<0 .01). The significant correlation before the visit only occurs at the =.483, p<0.05). To answer RQ1, the result show ed tha t there is significant positive correlation between the agenda of traditional diplomacy and media coverage especially du ring the visit, and the traditional diplomacy does have effects in building media agenda of topics. To answer RQ4, firstly, the significant positive correlation only occurs at the 0.05 level before the visit while it is significant at the 0.01 level during and after the visit Compared with the correlation wielded fr om public diplomacy, which show ed no significant difference before, during and after the visit, traditional diplomacy is more effective in influencing me dia agenda. Secondly, by compar ing the co rrelation wielded from public diplomacy with that wielded from traditional diplomacy in each time period, show ed there is no significant difference between them. The result

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52 partially revealed that traditional diplomacy is more effective in setting first level media agenda. Summary of First level Agenda Building To sum up, H1 is rejected in terms of dominant topic salience while supported in terms of topic salience. H2 is rejected for both dominant topic and topic salience In addition, ther e is no correlation between the dominant topic agenda of traditional di plomacy and that of two U.S. newspapers Nevertheless there is a significant correlation between the topic agenda of them. In terms of building topic ag enda, the result s partially show ed that traditional diplomacy is more effective. Second level Agenda B uilding To measure the effectiveness of second level agenda building, the substantive and affective attributes we re analyz ed sepa rately. There are six frames of substanti ve attributes a nd three tones of affective attributes. Substantive Attributes There are two hypotheses regarding second level agenda building effects of public diplomacy. H3 assumes that t he salience of substantive attributes i n the news stories from two U.S. newspapers after the visit will be positively correlated with the salience of substantive attributes in the visit related news stories from Xinhua News Agency H4 assumes t he strength of correlation between the salience of substantive attr ibutes in the news stories from two U.S. newspapers after the visit and the salience of substantive attributes in the visit related news stories from Xinhua news agency will be stronger than that before the visit. There are two research questions that try to find out whether the sub stantive attribute agenda building effects exist in the field of traditional diplomacy. RQ2 explored

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53 whether there is any correlation between the salience of substantive attributes in the agenda of traditional diplomacy and medi a coverage of the United Sta tes RQ4 asked whether traditional diplomacy or public diplomacy is more effective in substantive attributes agenda building. The substantive attributes a re represented by frames, and a news story can use more than one frame to portray a topic. The substa ntive attributes are broken down by fourteen topics. The total num ber and ranks of each frame adopted by Xinhua News Agency and two newspapers of the United States, the New York Times and the Washington Post are listed in Table 4 7 The in ter coder reliabi lity test show ed that for frame by topic is 0.787. Bivariate correlation test for frame by topic is listed in Table 4 8 First when looking at the aggregated number of each frame to get a general picture the Asymptotic Chi square test ( Table 4 9) combined with descriptive analysis was used to analyze whether there is significant difference between the frequency of the news stories from two U.S. newspapers in choosing each frame before, during and after the visit. The result of Chi square sugges t that, the frequency of stories choosing Frame 1 Conflict Frame 4 Responsibility Attribution and Frame 6 Consequence Assessment by two American newspapers decreased significantly at the 0.01level ( Table 4 10 ) after the visit than that before. How ever w hen it was analyzed in a descriptive way t he first finding is that the frame most frequently used by Xinhua before, during or after 6 adopted by the media coverage of the United Stat es in creased by 10% during the visit

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54 than that before the visit although after the visit, the proportion turned back to almost the same point as that before the visit. The second finding is that the second frequently used frame by Xinhua em amount of Frame 3 adopted by two American newspapers increased by 7% after the visit than that before. Although the aggr egated number of each frame d id not show much correlation between Xinhua and two U.S. newspapers, when the fram es are broken down to topics, bivaria te correlation test show ed there is significant positive correlation between the substantive salience of Xinhua and that of the N ew Y ork T imes and the Washington P ost =.381, p<0.01). Hence H3 is supp orted. However there is also significant correlation found between the substantive salience of Xinhua and that of two U.S. newspapers before the visit =.581, p<0.01). The correlation before the visit is higher than that after the visit. Hence H4 is rejected. suggest that there is significant difference between the correlation coefficients during the visit and that after the visit at the 0.05 level (z =1.67, p<0.001), therefore the correlation during the visit is stronger than that after the visit. For the news stories related to traditional diplomacy, by looking at the aggregated numbe r of each frame, the frame most frequently used by Xinhua is still Frame 6 ames are broken down to topics, there is significant correlation between the salience of substantive attributes of news stories from Xinhua and th at =.485, p<0.001) =.554, p<0.01) the visit at th e 0.01 level. The substantive attributes salience of news stories from two American newspapers after the visit is only significantly correlated with that of Xinhua =.203, p<0.05). In addition,

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55 although the correlation during the visit is the highest, suggest that there is no significant difference between the correlation during the visit and that after the visit. To answer RQ2, the result show ed that there is significant positive correlation between the agenda of traditi onal diplomacy and the media coverage before, during and after the visit while ther e is no significant difference in the correlation s In addition, by comparing the correlation wielded from traditional diplomacy with that wielded from public diplomacy, the re is no significant difference either before, during or after the visit. To answer RQ4, the result show ed that, for building substantive attributes agenda, traditional diplomacy and public diplomacy are equally effective. Affective A ttributes The affe c tive attributes are represented by three tones, namely positive, neutral and negative. The affective attributes we re broken down to fourteen topics. The total number and rank of each frame from Xinhua News Agency and two newspapers of the United States, New York Times and Washington Post are l isted in Table 4 11 The inter coder reliability te st show ed correlation test for frame by topic is listed in Table 4 12 W hen looking at the aggregated number of each tone the Asymptotic Chi square test was used to analyze whether there is significant difference between the frequency of the news stories from two U.S. newspapers in choosing each valence before, during and after the visit. Th e result suggest tha t, positive stories significant ly increased while negative stories significantly decreased after the visit than that before at the 0.0 1 level ( Table 4 1 3 ) W hen it was analyzed in a descriptive way ( Table 4 14) it clearly reveals that the proportion of po sitive media covera ge before the visit wa s only 7.6%, and it almost tripled to 21.6% during the visit and almost doubled as 14.4% after the visit. The

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56 negative media coverage decreased from 49.9% before the visit to 37.1% during the visit, and then went do wn to 33.6% after the visit. Althoug h the change in the aggregated tone of media coverage during and after President Hu s visit is obvious when the valence we re broken down to each topic, the bivariate correlation test show ed that significant correlati on between the rank of frequency of valence for each topic from Xinhua and that from two U.S. newspapers =.274, p<0.05). H5 is partially rejected. Although the correlation after the visit is only significant at the 0.05 level, there is no significant correlation found even at the 0.05 leve l before the visit, hence H6 is partially supported. In addition, the correlation during the visit is significant =.582, p<0.01), and show ed that there is significant difference between the correlation coefficient durin g the visit and that after the visit at the 0.05 level ( z = 1.7, p<0.05). Therefore the correlation during the visit is stronger than that after the visit. For the news stories related to traditio nal diplomacy, when the frames we re broken down to topics, there is significant correlation between the salience of affective attributes of news stories from Xinhua and the salience of affective attributes of news stories from two U.S. newspapers =.523, p<0.001). There is no significant correlation either before or after the visit. To answer RQ3, there is only significant positive correlation during the visit. To answer RQ4, for both public diplomacy and traditional diplomacy, t he result show ed that there is significant positive correlation during the visit, and shows that there is no significant difference between the two correlation coefficients. The significant correlation after the

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57 visit only occurs at the 0. 0 =.274, p<0.05) in terms of public diplomacy, and there is no significant correlation between the traditional diplomacy related news stories and the media coverage of the United States after the visit. To answer RQ 4, the result partially show ed that, in terms of building affective attributes agenda, public diplomacy and traditional diplomacy are equally effective. Summary of S econd level A genda B uilding For substantive attributes, there is significant correlation after the visit, therefore H3 is supported. However, the correlation before the visit is higher than that after the visit. Hence H4 is not supported In addition, the correlation during the visit is significantly stronger than that after the visit. For RQ2, the result s show ed that there is significantly positive correlation between the agenda of traditional diplomacy and the media coverage before, during and after the visit. For RQ4, there is no significant difference between the correlation wielded from traditional diplomacy related sto rie s before, during and after the visit In addition by comparing the correlation wielded from traditional diplomacy with that wielded from public diplomacy, there is no significant difference either before, during or after the visit. Based on the resul ts traditional diplomacy and public diplomacy are equally effective in terms of building substantive attributes agenda. For a ffective attributes, there is significant correlation at the 0.05 level after the visit, hence H5 is partially supported. Although the significant correlation is relatively low, there is no significant correlation before the visit, therefore H6 is partially supported. In addition, the correlation during the visit is significant at the 0.01 level, and the correlation during the visit is significantly stronger than that after the visit.

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58 For RQ3, there is only significant positive correlation s during the visit. To answer RQ4, the result s show ed that there is significant positive correlation during the visit, for both public diplomacy and traditional diplomacy. There is no significant difference between the two correlation coefficients. The significant correlation after the visit only occurs at the 0.05 level for public diplomacy, and there is no significant correlation for traditional di plomacy. Based on the results, traditional diplomacy and public diplomacy are equally effective in terms o f building the affective attribute agenda. Agenda B uilding E ffects Time Lags and Ceiling Effects Time Lags The hypotheses assume d that it w ould take some time for the influence of the six hypotheses focus on the comparison of the correlation during the two months after the visit and that during the two months before the visit However, the results show ed tha t the short term effect s during the four day visit are more striking. For first level agenda building, there are significant correlations between the public diplomacy a genda and agenda of two U.S. newspapers during the visit, in terms of both dominant topic and topic. Also, there are significant correlations between the traditional diplomacy agenda and the agenda of two newspapers of the United States during the visit for both dominant topic and topic. For substantive attributes of second level agenda building, there is significant correlation between the agenda of public diplomacy and that of two American newspapers during the visit. In addition, the correlation during the visit is stronger than that after the visit. Also there is significant correlati on between the agenda of traditional diplomacy and that of two newspapers of the United States.

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59 For affective attributes of second level agenda building, there is significant correlation between the between the agenda of public diplomacy and that of two A merican newspapers during the visit. Additionally, the correlation during the visit is stronger than that after the visit. Also there is significant correlation between the agenda of traditional diplomacy and that of two newspapers of the United States. Ov erall, the agenda building effect during the short term is more significant than that during the long term. Ceiling Effects The hypotheses assumed that there would be no significant correlations before President Hu s visit, and the correlation would be mo re significant during and after the visit than before. However, the results suggest significant correlations already exsited before the visit. For first level agenda building, there are significant correlations between the public diplomacy agenda and agend a of two American newspapers before the visit i n terms of both dominant topic and topic and the correlations are high Also, there are significant correlations between the traditional diplomacy agenda and the agenda of two newspapers of the United States before the visit for both dominant topic and topic. For substantive attributes of second level agenda building, there is significant correlation between the agenda of public diplomacy and that of two American newspapers before the visit. Also there is sig nificant correlation between the agenda of traditional diplomacy and that of two newspapers of the United States. Only f or affective attributes of second level agenda building, there is no significant correlation before the visit in terms of both public d iplomacy and traditional diplomacy.

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60 The results suggest that there might be a ceiling effect for first level agenda building and substantive attribute agenda building The media agenda of the United States is related to that of China before the visit, whic h might be a result from the past public diplomacy activities of Chinese government. And it is difficult to strengthen the correlation by a single visit if it is already significant at a high level.

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61 Table 4 1. List of the frequency and rank of the sto rie s use each topic as dominant topic (F=Frequency, R=Rank) Topic Number Xinhua U.S. newspapers Before During After Before During After F R F R F R F R F R F R 1 2 5.5 0 9 0 8.5 50 2 7 3.5 56 3 2 2 5.5 0 9 0 8.5 4 11.5 1 8.5 12 9 3 62 1 8 3 1 28 1 49 3 21 1 30 4 4 2 5.5 0 9 0 8.5 27 7.5 4 5 25 5 5 12 2 12 2 2 2 80 1 10 2 70 2 6 6 3 0 9 0 8.5 47 4 2 6.5 18 6.5 7 0 11 0 9 0 8.5 6 10 0 12 11 10.5 8 2 5.5 2 3 0 8.5 40 5 7 3.5 83 1 9 0 11 0 9 0 8.5 28 6 2 6.5 18 6.5 10 0 11 0 9 0 8.5 2 13 .5 0 12 1 14 11 0 11 0 9 0 8.5 10 9 1 8.5 9 12 12 0 11 0 9 0 8.5 2 13.5 0 12 7 13 13 0 11 0 9 0 8.5 4 11.5 0 12 13 8. 14 0 11 0 9 0 8.5 27 7.5 0 12 11 10.5 Table 4 2. Bivariate correlation of dominant topic (PD=Public Diplomacy, TD=Traditional Dip lomacy) XH(PD) XH(TD) US Spearman's rho before the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient .814 ** .732 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .000 .001 N 14 14 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient .485 Sig. (1 tailed) .039 N 14 Spearman s rho during the visi t XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient 1.000 ** .719 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .002 N 14 14 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient .719 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .002 N 14 Spearman's rho after the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient .734 ** 448 Sig. (1 tail ed) .001 .054 N 14 14 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient 14 14 Sig. (1 tailed) .241

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62 N .203 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1 tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1 tailed). Table 4 3. Asymptotic Chi s quare for ag gregated frequency of dominant topic in the U.S. media before, during and after the visit Chi Square df Asymp.Sig Observed N Expected N Residual DT6 12.938 a 1 .000 before 47 32.5 14.5 after 18 32.5 14.5 total 65 DT8 15.033 b 1 00 0 before 40 61.5 21.5 after 83 61.5 21.5 total 123 DT14 6.737 c 1 .009 before 27 19 8 after 11 19 8 total 38 a.0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.5 b.0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The mini mum expected cell frequency is 61.5 c.0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minim um expected cell frequency is 32.5 Table 4 4. List of the frequency and rank of the stories use each topi c as topic or sub topic (F=Frequency, R=Rank) Topic Number Xinhua U.S. newspapers Before During After Before During After F R F R F R F R F R F R 1 6 6.5 6 6 2 7.5 60 2 14 3.5 70 3 2 9 5 2 9 0 12 8 10.5 8 6 14 10 3 64 1 39 1 28 1 49 4 23 2 32 4 4 5 8.5 3 8 2 7.5 30 7.5 8 6 31 5 5 43 2 32 2 17 2 94 1 25 1 81 2 6 32 3 15 3 6 4 53 3 14 3.5 30 6 7 5 8.5 6 6 2 7.5 8 10.5 0 13 13 11.5 8 6 6.5 6 6 5 5 45 5 8 6 86 1 9 16 4 14 4 11 3 37 6 7 8 26 7 10 0 13 1 11 0 12 4 13.5 2 10.5 2 14 11 4 10 1 11 0 12 15 9 4 9. 25 8 12 0 13 0 13.5 0 12 4 13.5 0 13 7 13 13 0 13 0 13.5 0 12 5 12 0 13 13 11.5 14 0 11 0 11. 2 7.5 30 7.50 2 10.5 23 9

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63 Table 4 5 Bivariate correlation of topic (PD=Public Diplomacy, TD=Traditional Diplomacy) XH(PD) XH(T D) US Spearman's rho before the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient .820 ** .808 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .000 .000 N 14 14 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient .483 Sig. (1 tailed) .040 N 14 Spearman s rho during the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient .970 ** .795 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .000 .000 N 14 14 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient .766 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .001 N 14 Spearman's rho after the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient .872 ** .739 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .000 .001 N 14 14 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient .653 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .006 N 14 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1 tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1 tailed). Table 4 6 Asymptotic c hi square for aggre gated fre quency of stories choosing each topic in the U.S. media before, during and after the visit Chi Square D f Asymp.Sig Observed N Expected N Residual T8 12.832 a 1 .000 before 45 65.5 20.5 after 86 65.5 20.5 total 131 a.0 cells (.0%) h ave expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.5.

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64 Table 4 7. List of the frequency and rank of the stories using each frame by each topic (FBT= Frame by Topic T1F1=Frame 1 used for Topic 1) F BT Xinhua U.S. newspapers B e fore D uring A fter B efore D uring A fter F R F R F R F R F R F R T1F1 0 58.5 2 24.5 0 55 43 1 12 4 48 1 T1F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 28 7 1 37.5 23 7 T1F3 6 14.5 2 24.5 0 55 15 12.5 4 15.5 16 9 T1F4 0 58.5 1 32.5 2 17.5 4 42 3 20.5 7 26.5 T1F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 1 58 0 63 0 74.5 T1F6 1 31 6 13 0 55 7 26.5 6 8.5 9 21.5 T2F1 7 12.5 2 24.5 0 55 4 42 5 11.5 8 24.5 T2F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 2 50.5 0 63 2 53 T2F3 0 58.5 3 19 0 55 1 58 2 28.5 6 29.5 T2F4 0 58.5 1 32.5 0 55 0 74 1 37.5 0 74.5 T2F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T2F6 2 26 4 16.5 0 55 5 36 3 20.5 1 61.5 T3F1 7 12.5 3 19 4 9.5 32 6 15 1 14 10.5 T3F2 3 21 6 13 0 55 7 26.5 2 28.5 10 18 T3F3 29 2 28 4 16 2.5 7 26.5 6 8.5 6 29.5 T3F4 16 5 31 3 15 4 11 19 4 15.5 1 61.5 T3F5 0 58.5 1 32.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T3F6 50 1 56 1 25 1 9 24 11 5.5 7 26.5 T4F1 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 13 15 5 11.5 11 15.5 T4F2 2 26 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 3 43.5 T4F3 3 21 0 60.5 0 55 22 8 5 11.5 19 8 T4F4 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 6 30.5 3 20.5 4 36.5 T4F5 0 58.5 1 32.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T4F6 0 58.5 5 15 2 17.5 15 12.5 3 20.5 13 12.5 T5F1 5 16 8 11 2 17.5 40 2 11 5.5 28 6 T5F2 4 18 0 60.5 2 17.5 4 42 1 37.5 3 43.5 T5F3 20 4 9 9.5 6 7 36 5 13 3 32 4 T5F4 10 8.5 14 6.5 6 7 10 22 2 28.5 9 21.5 T5F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T5F6 26 3 39 2 16 2.5 38 3.5 14 2 29 5 T6F1 9 10.5 0 60.5 0 55 38 3.5 7 7 14 10.5 T6F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 1 37.5 2 53 T6F3 9 10.5 2 24.5 2 17.5 13 15 4 15.5 9 21.5 T6F4 14 6 12 8 0 55 11 19 2 28.5 2 53 T6F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T6F6 12 7 14 6.5 4 9.5 10 22 4 15.5 8 24.5 T7F1 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 1 61.5

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65 Table 4 7 Continued FBT Xinhua U.S. newspapers Before During After Before During After F R F R F R F R F R F R T7F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 1 58 0 63 3 43.5 T7F4 0 58.5 2 24.5 2 17.5 2 50.5 0 63 5 32.5 T7F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T7F6 2 26 4 16.5 2 17.5 5 36 0 63 9 21.5 T8F1 2 26 0 60.5 0 55 6 30.5 0 63 13 12.5 T8F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 21 9 2 28.5 38 2 T8F3 4 18 6 13 2 17.5 11 19 5 11.5 33 3 T8F4 2 26 0 60.5 2 17.5 1 58 0 63 2 53 T8F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T8F6 0 58.5 0 60.5 1 25 5 36 1 37.5 3 43.5 T9F1 0 58.5 2 24.5 0 55 6 30.5 2 28.5 11 15.5 T9F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 5 36 0 63 3 43 .5 T9F3 6 14.5 2 24.5 6 7 18 11 2 28.5 10 18 T9F4 4 18 9 9.5 2 17.5 5 36 0 63 3 43.5 T9F5 1 31 0 60.5 0 55 1 58 0 63 0 74.5 T9F6 10 8.5 17 5 7 5 10 22 3 20.5 2 53 T10F1 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 2 50.5 2 28.5 1 61.5 T10F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 2 53 T10F3 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T10F4 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 1 58 0 63 0 74.5 T10F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T10F6 0 58.5 1 32.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T11F1 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 6 30.5 1 37.5 4 36.5 T11F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 7 26.5 0 63 6 29.5 T11F3 2 26 0 60.5 0 55 3 46.5 2 28.5 10 18 T11F4 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 2 50.5 3 20.5 2 53 T11F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T11F6 2 26 2 24.5 0 55 5 36 0 63 3 43.5 T12F1 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 3 46.5 0 63 0 74.5 T12F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 4 42 0 63 4 36.5 T12F3 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 4 42 0 63 4 36.5 T12F4 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 1 58 1 37.5 1 61.5 T12F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T12F6 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 1 58 0 63 3 43.5 T13F1 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T13F2 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 3 46.5 0 63 6 29.5 T13F3 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 1 58 0 63 4 36.5 T13F4 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 2 53

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66 Table 4 7. Continued FB T Xinhua U.S. newspapers Before During After Before During After F R F R F R F R F R F R T13F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 0 74.5 T13F6 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 0 74 0 63 2 53 T14F1 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 12 17 0 63 1 61.5 T14F5 0 58.5 0 60.5 0 55 1 58 0 63 0 74.5 T14F6 0 58.5 3 19 2 17.5 5 36 2 28.5 5 32.5 Table 4 8 Bivariate correlat ion of frame (PD=Public Diplomacy, TD=Traditional Diplomacy) XH(PD) XH(TD) US Spearman's rho before the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient .831 ** .570 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .000 .000 N 84 84 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient .485 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .000 N 84 Spearman s rho during the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient .935 ** .581 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .000 .000 N 84 84 XH(TD) Correlation C oefficient .554 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .000 N 84 Spearman's rho after the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient .694 ** .381 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .000 .000 N 84 84 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient .203 Sig. (1 tailed) .032 N 84 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1 tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1 tailed).

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67 Table 4 9 Aggregated number of each frame in US media coverage (F=Frequency, R=Rank) Table 4 10 Asy mptotic Chi square for aggregated frequency of frames in the U.S. media before, during and after the visit Chi Square D f Asymp.Sig Observed N Expected N Residual F1 31.514 a 1 .000 before 205 155.5 49.5 after 106 155.5 49.5 total 311 F4 24. 377 b 1 .000 before 98 6 9.0 29 0 after 40 69 0 29 0 total 1 38 F6 16.254 c 1 .00 0 before 158 1 26.0 32.0 after 94 126.0 32.0 total 262 a.0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expe cted cell frequency is 7 5.0 b.0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimu m expected cell frequency is 61 5 c.0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minim um expected cell frequency is 53 0 Before the visit During the visit After the visit F R F R F R F1 205 0.25593 48 0.290909 106 0.20703 F2 138 0.17228 8 0.048485 109 0.21289 F3 196 0.24469 43 0.260606 163 0.31836 F4 98 0.12235 19 0.115152 40 0.07813 F5 6 0.00749 0 0 0 0 F6 158 0.19725 47 0.284848 94 0.18359

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68 Table 4 11. List of the frequency and rank of the stories using each valence by each topic (T1V1= Valence 1 used for Topic 1) Valenc e Xinhua NYT and WPOST Before D uring After Before D uring A fter F R F R F R F R F R F R T1V1 6 8.5 4 12.5 2 11 0 39.5 6 9.5 12 13 T1V2 1 21.5 6 7.5 0 28 5 20.5 2 19 21 4 T1V3 0 33 0 33 0 28 58 1 7 6 38 3 T2V1 2 16.5 0 33 0 28 1 34.5 1 25 0 40.5 T2V2 5 10.5 6 7.5 0 28 2 31 4 14.5 8 22 T2V3 2 16.5 0 33 0 28 5 20.5 3 16.5 6 25 T3V1 36 1 21 4 20 1 4 24.5 6 9.5 5 28.5 T3V2 27 2 63 1 8 3 27 6 11 1 18 6.5 T3V3 1 21.5 1 21 0 28 22 8 6 9.5 11 16.5 T4V1 2 16.5 0 33 0 28 0 39.5 1 25 5 28.5 T4V2 3 12.5 5 9.5 2 11 16 12 1 25 16 9.5 T4V3 0 33 1 21 0 28 17 11 6 9.5 12 13 T5V1 22 3.5 12 6 17 2 7 16 8 4 15 11 T5V2 19 5 33 2 4 7 54 2 9 3 49 2 T5V3 1 21.5 2 17.5 0 28 3 7 3 10 2 18 6.5 T6V1 10 7 4 12.5 4 7 3 28 4 14.5 2 35 T6V2 22 3.5 19 5 2 11 24 7 7 6 17 8 T6V3 0 33 0 33 0 28 31 4.5 5 12.5 7 23 T7V1 2 16.5 3 15.5 0 28 1 34.5 0 36 0 40.5 T7V2 3 12.5 4 12.5 2 11 4 24.5 0 36 10 19 T7V3 0 33 0 33 0 28 3 28 0 36 3 32 T8V1 0 33 1 21 5 5 6 17.5 1 25 19 5 T8V2 6 8.5 5 9.5 0 28 31 4.5 7 6 50 1 T8V3 0 33 0 33 0 28 6 17.5 0 36 16 9.5 T9V1 11 6 4 12.5 7 4 4 24.5 2 19 5 28.5 T9V2 5 10.5 22 3 4 7 15 13 5 12.5 9 20.5 T9V3 0 33 0 33 0 28 18 10 1 25 12 13 T10V1 0 33 0 33 0 2 8 0 39.5 0 36 0 40.5 T10V2 0 33 1 21 0 28 1 34.5 1 25 1 37.5 T10V3 0 33 0 33 0 28 2 31 2 19 1 37.5 T11V1 2 16.5 0 33 0 28 0 39.5 1 25 5 28.5 T11V2 2 16.5 2 17.5 0 28 5 20.5 0 36 11 16.5 T11V3 0 33 0 33 0 28 10 14 3 16.5 9 20.5 T12V1 0 33 0 33 0 28 1 34.5 0 36 2 35 T12V2 0 33 0 33 0 28 3 28 0 36 3 32 T12V3 0 33 0 33 0 28 2 31 0 36 3 32 T13V1 0 33 0 33 0 28 0 39.5 0 36 0 40.5 T13V2 0 33 0 33 0 28 4 24.5 0 36 11 16.5 T13V3 0 33 0 33 0 28 0 39.5 0 36 2 35 T14V1 0 33 1 21 0 28 8 15 1 25 6 25 T14V2 1 21.5 3 15.5 2 11 5 20.5 1 25 6 25

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69 Table 4 12 Bivariate correlat ion of valence (PD=Public Diplomacy, TD=Traditional Diplomacy) Correlations XH(PD) XH(TD) US Spearman's rho before the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient 763 ** 130 Sig. (1 tailed) .000 207 N 42 42 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient 053 Sig. (1 tailed) 370 N 42 Spearman's rho during the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient 954 ** 582 ** Sig. (1 tailed) 000 .00 0 N 42 42 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient 523 ** Sig. (1 tailed) .00 0 N 42 Spearman's rho after the visit XH(PD) Correlation Coefficient .73 7 ** 274 Sig. (1 tailed) .00 0 .0 40 N 42 42 XH(TD) Correlation Coefficient 084 Sig. (1 tailed) .2 99 N 42 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1 tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1 tailed).

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70 Table 4 1 3 Asymptotic c hi square for aggreg ated frequency of valence in the U.S. media before, during and after the visit Chi Square D f Asymp.Sig Observed N Expected N Residual V1 8.495 a 1 .000 before 35 49 .5 14.5 after 64 49 .5 14.5 total 99 V3 17.311 b 1 .000 before 23 0 189 .5 40. 5 after 149 189 .5 40. .5 total 379 a.0 cells (. 0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The mini m um expected cell frequency is 5.7 b.0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The mini mu m expected cell frequency is 25.5 Table 4 1 4. Aggregated number of each valence adopted by US media coverage Valence B efore D uring A fter Frequency Ratio Frequency Ratio Frequency Ratio V1 35 0.07592 25 0.2155 64 0.14447 V2 196 0.42516 48 0.4138 230 0.51919 V3 230 0.49892 43 0.3707 149 0.33634

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71 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Methodological Concerns Prior to discussing about t he findings, it would be more pruden t to list some shortages of the methodological design in order to interpret the results in a more complete and balanced view. The three major caveat s of this content analysis would be : (1) sample size and the keywords to collect sample; (2) legitimacy of using agenda of news stories from Xinhua ted States; and (3) other States, which mi ght be neglect ed during the methodological design. Sample Si ze and R eliance on K eywords for C ollecting S ample One shortcoming of this content analysis wa s with its limited sample size. First, o nly two main stream newspapers, the N ew Y ork Times a nd the W ashington P ost w ere analyzed The small sample size might not be enough to generalize the results to the overall media coverage of the U nited States. However, the literature review revealt the homogenized media coverage on China from the media of t he United States, and th e N ew Y ork T imes and the W ashington P ost are two leading newspapers therefore the two newspapers still have the credibility to represent the whole media coverage to some degree. Secondly, the sample only covered stories two months before and after the vi sit. The small sample size is unavoidable since beyond this period, there is only limited n umber of stories talking about P Xinhua News Agency And such a univ erse was applied to t he N ew Y ork T imes and t he W ashi ngton P ost to keep the sample size of them balanced with that of Xinhua. Even

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72 though the actual number of newspapers is small and the coverage length is short the content analysis contains 1126 news stories, which makes the sample size more dependable. T he third concern with the study is the reliability of keywords search in collecting lead to sort out the stories from the N ew Y ork T imes and the W ashington P ost turn ed out t o be too broad. During the coding process, two coders found that there were some stories merely mentioning about China or Chinese with single word or phrase when talking about other issues, other than focusing on any issue of China. Although the stories no t actually reporting on China or Chinese were eliminated from the sample by assigning every variable zero value and the volume is acceptable (5.06%), that would still influence the results. search in the headline and lead to collect the samples from Xinhua turned out to be too restrictive. During the methodological design, irrelevant stories were expected to be pulled out, and two coders were supposed to refine the sample. Howev er, all the stories the United States, no story was dropped. To view it from an optimistic way, the keywords can precisely eliminate all the irrelevant information. Re considering such a result, a question is raised : w hether the setting of keywords wa s to o restrictive and e xcluded some of the relevant stories.

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73 Legitimacy of U sing A genda of N ews S tories from Xinhua as a Proxy to R epresent the A sit to the United States It w ould be more legi timate to directly investigat e releases from Chinese government. However it wa s difficult to d irectly use government materials for analyzing in terms of limited sample size and availability. Therefore, to achieve desirable volume of information, the content analysis use d news stories from Xinhua News Agency isit to the United States instead. A major concern is the legitimacy of using news stories collected from Xinhua News Agency to represent Xinhua News Agency would closely follow the agenda of Chin ese governmen t in terms of topic salience, substantive salience and affective salience woul d be crucial to th is study. First, Xinhua News Agency is an important information platform of the Chinese which is the dominant and ruling party in China (Malek & Kavoori, 2000, p. 346). group Reporters without Borders ranked China 174 out of 178 co untries in its 2011 2012 worldwide index of press freedom (Index of Press Freedom). T he Communist Party's Central Propaganda Department (CPD) will review and enforce laws related to information flow within, into, and from China. The authority of Xinhua Ne ws Agency as the important organ of central government in China, together with the excessive information censorship lay a solid base for assuming the re would be high hegemony

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74 between the agenda of the news stories from Xinhua and the agenda of Chinese gov ernmen t http://english.gov.cn wa s verified in another way since the majority of the news releases and statements released by Chinese central government we re from Xinhua News Agency. Possible N eglected I nterruptions The intervention of the content analysis is Chinese President United States T he underlying logic is that, according to agenda building theory, the media agenda of the United States would be related with the agenda of the visit and the correlation would be stronger after the visit than that before. How ever, such an ideal process w ould be interrupted by many other unavoidable factors. First, at the same ti me when President Hu visited the United States, there were some other events going on in China or between China and the United States, which might influence the media coverage of the N ew Y ork T imes and the W ashington P ost For example, Liu Xiaobo, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 was arrested by Chinese government and absent from the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. and raise d l system. Such an interruption would distract the media f rom the issues emphasized by In addition to the interruption s s from the United States. The first interruption is the influence of U.S. government policy on media coverage when frami ng the image of other countries and such an influence is supported by numerous previous studies. Yu and Riffe (1989) analyzed the coverage of n t hree U.S. newspapers and proposed that

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75 how the media of the United States frame the image of C s leaders depended on U.S. foreign interests. Saleem (2007 ) reviewed the studies of Mann ( 1999 ) ; and Dorman & Farhang ( 1987 ) and reached a conclusion tha Consistent with past literatures about U.S. media influenced by government foreign policy and report ing on foreign countries in favor of U. the coding process, two coders found that even the Chinese government avoided Those interruptions b oth from China and from the United States would interfere with the results of the content analysis and it wa s impossible to eliminate all of them. When interpreting the results, it would be more prudent to consider all the possible factors other than rea ch ing conclusion merely linking U.S. media coverage to President First level A genda B uilding D iscussion First level A genda Bu ilding and P ublic D iplomacy For firs t level agenda building, two variab les were analysed ; the first was dominant topic, and the second wa s topic. The results show ed strategies of public diplomacy failed to transfer either the dominant topic salience or the topic salience from their own agenda to the agenda of the United Stat es either in the long t erm ( two months after the visit) or in the short term (during the visit). However, some evidence suggest s that the actual public diplomacy activities might be more effective in first level agenda building.

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76 In terms of the dominant topic, there we re signif icant correlations between Xinhua and two U.S. newspaper s before and during the visit In addition, the correlations we re both at a high level. H owever, n o significant correlati on was found after the visit Such a result suggest strategies of public diplomacy failed to transfer the dominant topic salience from their own agenda to the agenda of U.S. media after the visit. For dominant topic, first level agenda building effect did not occur in the long term In addition, although t here wa s significant corre lation during the visit, there wa s no significant difference between the correlation before the visit and that during the visit, which suggest that the first level agenda building effect did not occur in the short term, either. I n terms of the topic, there we re significant correlations between the Xinhua and two U.S. newspapers before, during and after the visit H owever there wa s no significant difference between them. The result wielded from all the topic s also suggest that Chi agenda of the United States either in the long term or in the short period. When taking a scrutiny at the collapsed frequency of each dominant topic, international politics and international economy were frequently reported by two U.S. newspapers either before, during or after the visit. On the other hand, the major issue emphasized in the agenda of President H we re also international politics and i nternational economy. The s imilarity in the topic agenda g a ve ce rtain explanation to why there wa s no significant difference found in the correlation before, during and after the visit.

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77 In addition, the result show ed that for dominant top ic or topic, dome stic politics wa s always one of top three concerns no matter before, during or after the visit. While port on domestic politics wa s unbalanced with that of the U.S. As is listed in the section of methodological concerns, one reason might be there were some interruptive events going on in China. For example, two coders found the U.S. media frequently reported on the arrest of Liu Xiaobo, the winner of Nobel bsent from the Nobel Award Ceremony because of the suppression of Chinese government. Another factor to explain such a gap between China and the U.S. in domestic politics would be the stereotypical pattern in selecting topic in the U.S. media system. Mann (1999) found that the U S media in the late 1970s and the early 1980s framed China as a politically irical study found that U.S. newspapers paid great attention to Chinese sensationalism (31% of total), which in cluded human diplomacy, U.S. newspapers still tended to focus on domestic politics. All the previous studies suggest that, historically, the U S newspapers emphasized on C might not be easily changed during a short period either according to Chi square test or descriptive analysis Although Xinhua News Agency did not emphasize on culture and economy was the main issue other than culture i related activities exceeded the economy related activities. The

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78 promo tional video unveiled in Times Square was mainly to promote the Chinese culture and Chinese community; the guest list of the state dinner included a great portion of Chinese or Chinese American culture related celebrities, such as actors, artists and desi gners; on the last day before departing to China, President Hu visited Walter Payton College High School, in which Confucius Institute -a Chinese language and cultural education center housed. Linking these culture related activities during the visit to the sharp increase of the culture related news stories reported by U.S. newspapers, it proposes a new question, suggesting that to some extent, the actual public diplomacy activities are more effective in building first level agenda than releasin g informat ion subsidi e s. A nal y z ing the news stories from X inhua News Agency only concern about the communication strategy, however, the public diplomacy activity is another main organ of this visit, which was neglected during the methodological designing. First leve l A genda B uilding and T raditional D iplomacy The results wielded from the news stories related to traditional diplomacy from Xinhua show ed transfer either the dominant topic salience o r the topic salience from their own agend a to the agenda of the U .S. media, either in the long term ( two months after the visit) or in the short term (during the visit). The first l evel agenda building effect d id not occur in traditional diplomacy either. Therefore neither public dipl omacy nor traditional diplomacy i s more effective in building first level agenda. A nother finding i s that, there i s significant positive correlation between the news stories about public diplomacy and those related to traditio nal diplo macy, and all the correlations we re high especially during th e visit. Such a finding suggest s that Xinhua News Agency follow s a same pattern in topic salience, no matter it reported on

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79 blic diplomacy activities cover ed some soft issue such as culture, it wa s not reflected in the communication subsidi es. Xinhua still focuse s on hard topics such as international economy and international politics. Theoretical and P ractical I mplication s T he study focuses on whether agenda building theory of public relations can be applied to the field of public diplomacy. In this particular case, the theoretical implications refer to the agenda building effects of China s public diplomacy campaig n. Since the content analysis used the news stories from the Xinhua news agency as a proxy to reflect the diplomacy agenda of China, it would be more prudent to say the theoretical implications actually refer to the agenda building effects of China s diplomatic inform ation subsidies, which refers to the news stories related to the visit reported by Xinhua News Agency. For theoretical implication, the interpretation on the results for firs t level agenda building suggest ublic diplomacy did not perform the agenda building function very well, either in the long term or in the short ategy of traditional diplomacy wa s not effective in building first level agenda either in the long term or in the short term. There are also some practical implications for Chinese government in terms of public diplomacy and traditional diplomacy. First, Chi s imilar pa ttern in reporting on traditional diplomacy and public diploma cy, and both focused on hard issues. It might be more effective and would contribute to the diversity of news topi cs if Chin a s news agency use s a different but consistent pattern to report on public diplomacy. Secondly, the result implies, to some extent, the diplomacy

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80 activities might be more effective in building first level agenda in the U S media. Therefore the Chinese government might consider launching actual diploma tic activities if they want to earn more media coverage on a certain topic in the U nited States, instead of merely publishing information subsidies such as news releases or news stories Thirdly, the content analysis showed that the arrest of Liu Xiaobo and Ai Weiwei distracted the media attention from President Hu s visit, so during a diplomacy campaign, the Chinese government should pay more attention to avoid eye catching scandals, which would strikingly weaken the agenda building effects of diplomacy efforts. Second level Agenda B uilding D iscussion A s stated in the literature review section, there are two elements of the second level agenda building, substantive attributes and affective attributes. The content analysis used six frames to measure substantive attributes, and three tones to measure affective attributes. The results show ed that public diplomacy wa s effective in transferring affective attributes especially during the short term. Substantive A ttributes S alience and P ublic D iplomacy First, by looking at the aggregated number of each frame, the result sugges t that the frame most frequently used by Xinhua wa f according to descriptive analysis, the frequency of the stories choosing consequence assessment frame by U.S. media increased by 10% during the visit than that before the visit however according to the Chi square test, it decreased significantly after the visit than that before In addition, the result shows that the second frequently used frame by Xinhua this frame adopted by tw o U.S. newspapers increased by 7% after the visit than th at before. For

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81 aggregated frequency of each frame, the result reveals some linkage between the S newspapers during the short term. When the frame s we re broken down to di fferent topics, although there wa s significant correlation after the visit, th e correlation before the visit wa s higher than that after the visit. In addition, there wa s also significant correlatio n during the visit while there wa s no significant difference between the correlation during the visit and that before the visit Therefore, the result suggest s that the substantive attributes agenda Throughout all the news stories from the U.S. newspapers, except for the rocketing of culture related stories after the visi t, the top three reporte d topic we re domestic politics, international politics and international economy. For dom estic politics, the result show ed that no matter be fore, during or after, the most frequentl y used frame by the U.S. media wa s the conflict frame. For internatio nal politics, the result reveal ed that the U.S. media also tend ed to use conflict frame befo re, during and after the visit For interna tional econ omy, the result show ed that, before and after the visit, the conflict frame wa s the most frequently used frame Although the rank of conflict frame dropped from one to three, the actual frequency wa s ver y similar to Rank 1 and Rank 2 The result is consist ent with the finding of Smith (1997) that American journalists often reflexively choose the conflict frame. Again, the reason for the similarities in the frames chosen by the US newspapers before, during and after the visit might be the stereotypical patt ern of the US media in sticking to a certain frame, which might not be easily changed during a four day visit.

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82 To sum up, although there is some variation in the aggregated number of each frame chosen by US newspapers, which is likely to be linked to Chin a s public diplomacy efforts, when the frames were broken down to different topics, the result suggests that the substantive attributes agenda buildi ng effect did not occur However, before s public diplomacy in substantive attributes agenda building, the stereotypical pattern in framing stories in U S newspapers should be taken into consideration. Substantive A ttributes S alience and T raditional D iplomacy By looking at the aggregated frequency of each frame, the result suggest s that the frame most frequently used by Xinhua is still f followed by frame 3 problem definition frame Similar to what is found in public diplomacy, there is some linkage between the agenda of U S m edia coverage and the agenda of China s traditional diplomacy in terms of the aggregated number of each frame. T he result shows that there is significant positive correlation between the agenda of traditional diplomacy and the media coverage before, during and after the visit while there is no significant change in the correlation. In addition, by comparing the correlation wielded from traditional diplomacy with that wielded from public diplomacy, there is no significant difference either before, during or after the visit. Similar to what was found in the first level agenda building there is significant positive correlation between the news stories about public diplomacy and those related to traditional diplomacy in in terms of substantive attributes. A ll t he correlations we re high especially during th e visit. Such a finding suggest s that Xinhua News Agency

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83 follow ed a s imilar pattern in framing each topic no matter it reported on traditional diplomacy or public diplomacy. Theoretical and P ractical I mplicati on For theoretical implication s the interpre tation on the results of substantive attributes s uggest that, firstly, the variation in the aggregated number of each frame occurred in the US newspapers might have some linkage with the effors of public diploma c y. Secondly, after the frames were broken down to dif ferent topics, the result s hows that there wa s no significant change in the correlation either in the long term or in the short term. Thirdly, the result showed that there wa s a stereotypical pattern in framing certain topic such as China domestic politics, international politics and international economy, which can hardly be changed during a short period or by a single campaign There are also some practical implications for Chinese government in term s of public diplomacy and traditional diplomacy. First, similar to what was found in first level agenda building, framing news stories related to traditional diplomacy and public diplomacy, and both focused mo re often on consequence assessment Secondly, since China s efforts did have some effects in the aggregated number of frames occurred in the United States, while didn t perform very well in terms of frame by topic. It would be perfunctory if China only loo ks at the aggregated number of each frame at a macro level to measure the effectiveness of its diplomacy strategies. It would be more prudent and precise for the Chinese government to break down the frame to different topics, and to get a more complete vie w at the micro level Thirdly, the U.S. newsp apers are more interested in using conflict frame when reporting news stories It might be beneficial in winning the U.S. media coverage if

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84 Chinese government be more transparent about the conflicts it is curren tly facing and plan some diplomatic activities to relieve the tension within China and that between China and the United States. Affective A ttributes S alience and P ublic D iplomacy The affective attributes are represented by three valences, including pos itive, neutral and negative. By l ooking at the aggregated frequency of positive, neutral and negative stories the Chi square test and the descriptive analysis positive media coverage strikingly increased during and after the visit than before while t he n egative media coverage plummeted during and after the visit than before. T he result showed t hat the aggregated valence tended to be more positive, which might be caused by China s public diplomacy efforts. Another finding is that, different from what was e xpected in a stereotype, the most frequently used valence by Xinhua News Agency to report on this visit wa s n ot the positive tone but the neutral tone, though the frequency of negative tone wa s still extremely scarce. When three valences were bro ken down to different topics, the result showed that there was no significant correlation found before the visit while significant correlation occurred during the visit at the 0.01 level and after the visit at the 0.05 level. T he result suggest that China s public diplomacy is effective not only in influencing the overall tone of the U S media coverage, but also effective in influencing the tone of each topic. T herefore the China s public diplomacy is effective in building affective attributes agenda both at a mac ro level and at a micro level. H owever, the result also suggest that, whether at a macro level or at a micro level, the effects tended to be weaken after the visit than during the visit. Such a r esult cast

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85 question on the long term effectiveness in affect ive attribute s agenda building of public diplomacy. Affective A ttributes S alience and T raditional D iplomacy For traditional diplomacy, by looking at the aggregated number of each tone the result suggests that similar to the news stories on public diploma cy, the most frequently adopted tone by Xinhua News Agency is still the neutral one, followed by the positive one. And the frequency of the negative stories is still with a really small portion. W h en the tones were broken down to different topics, there i s only significant correlation during the visit at the 0.01 level, while no significant correlation was found either before or after the visit. Such a result suggests that, compared with public di plomacy, traditional diplomacy wa s effective in building aff ective attributes agenda only in the short term while public diplomacy s effectiveness can last in the long term though it was weaken gradually. In addition, there are significant correlation between the news stories on public diplomacy and those about tra ditional diplomacy by X inhua, whether before, during or after the visit. Three correlation coefficients are all high especially during the visit. Such a finding suggest that Xinhua News Agency follow ed a same pattern in framing each topic no matter it rep orted on traditiona l diplomacy or public diplo macy. Theoretical and P ractical I mplication s For theoretical implication s the interpre tation on the results of affective attributes suggest that, firstly, the variation in the aggregated number of each tone oc curred in the U S newspapers m ight have some linkage with the efforts of public diplomacy. Secondly, public diplomacy is effective in building affective attributes agenda both in the short term and long term, however the effectiveness was weaker in the l ong term.

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86 There are also some practical implications for Chinese government in terms of public diplomacy and traditional diplomacy. First, similar to what was found in first level agenda building, s a same pattern in framing news stories related to traditional diplomacy and pu blic diplomacy, and both more often chose to report with a neutral tone Secondly, since public diplomacy and traditional diplomacy are equally effective in affective attributes agenda building in the short t erm while public diplomac y is more effective in the long term. It is better to consider public diplomacy if the Chinese government is willing to aim for long term effect s Thirdly, even public diplomacy wa s more effective in the long term, the effectivenes s was gradually weaker in the long term than in the short term. Ideally the Chinese government should conduct researches to mon itor the agenda building effect and maintain it by lanching follow up diplomacy activities. In addition, the study only contains two months after the visit, would the effectiveness become weaker if the timeline extended to four months, half a year, or one year? How to achieve an actual long term effectiveness still remains a question. Review the Results on First and Second level A genda Building on Two Major Topics Emphasized by Xinhua in an Integrated Way T he methodological design of this content analysis went beyond first le vel agenda building and examined the second level agenda building effectiveness. In addition it did not sto p at looking the aggregated frequency of each frame and valence, which was at a macro level, but it also examine d each frame and valence by topic, which provided a more careful view at a micro level. However, when reconsidering the validity of the methodol ogy, some concern emerges. Supposing an ideal situation, in which the correlations between Xinhua and

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87 two U.S. newspapers after the visit are all significantly stronger than that before the visit, whether in terms of topic salience, substantive salience or affective salience, it is still not robust to support the salience successfully transferred from China s public diplomacy agenda to the U S media agenda. Consider such a situation, the major issue emphasized by Chinese government is T opic 1 domestic pol itics the major substantive attribute China emphasized i n the stories related to domestic politics is the conflict frame and the major affective att ribute China adopted for domestic politics is positive Even there is a stronger correlation in terms of frames, it can be a result from the frame selection of other minor topics. For instance, the stronger correlation is because there is stronger correlation betwee n the frames for Topic 2 to T opic 14. The same situation can also happen to valence. If the str onger correlation of frame and valence was not caused by the similarities in the frame and valence of major topic, instead it was a result from the aggregated similarities in the frame and valence of minor topics, it is still not convincing to value it as effective. Therefore, it would be more robust to examine the effectiveness of public diplomacy by analysing topic, frame and valence in an integrated way. Two most frequently reported topic by Xinhua is T opic 3 international politics and T opic 5 intern ational economy whether in terms of dominant topic or topic, whether before, during or after the visit. And the frequency of the two topics exceeded other topics strikingly. So it is reasonable to state that international politics and international econom y are the two major iss ues of President Hu s visit to the United States. And to examine whether the salience of major issues and the salience of attributes of these issues transferred from China s agenda to U S media coverage, the

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88 precise way is to examin e the change in the topic salience, the frame and the tone of the topic systematically First, the most frequently reported topic by Xinhua is T opic 3 international politics The frequen cy of the stories choosing international politics as the dominant t opic in the two U S newspapers was ranked as three before the visit, one during the visit and four after the visit. The frequency of the stories choosing it as its topic or subtopic in the two U S newspapers was ranked as four before the visit, two duri ng the visit and four after the visit. Secondly, the frame most fr equently used to portray international politics by Xinhua is F rame 6 consequence assessment whether before, dur ing or after the visit. The consequence assessment frame was ranked as three before the visit, two during the visit and three after the visit in the U S newspapers for framing international politics Thirdly, the tone least fr equently used to portray international politics by Xinhua is the negative tone whether before, during or a fter the visit. T he negative tone was ranked as two before, during and after the visit in the U S n ewspapers for portraying China s international politics However, the proportion of negative coverage decreased from 41.5% before the visit to 26.8% during the visit, and bounced a little to 32 .4% after the visit. For international politics the issue salience and the substantive attributes salience were partially transferred from China s public diplomacy agenda to the U S media during the visit, though the variation is slight. The affective salience transferred effectively is looking at the change in proportion. The second frequently covered topic of Xinhua is international economy The frequency of the stories choosing it as the dominant topic in two U S newspapers was ranked as one before the visit, two during the visit and two after the visit. The frequency

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89 of the stories choosing it as t he its topic or subtopic in two U S newspapers was ranked as four before the visit, two during the visit and four aft er the visit. Secondly, the frame most fr equently used to portray China s international economy by Xinhua is F rame 6 consequcne assessment frame whether before, duri ng or after the visit. The consequence assessment frame was ranked as two before the vis it, one during the visit and two after the visit in the U S newspapers for framing international economy Thirdly, the tone least fr equently used to portray international economy by Xinhua is the negative tone whether before, during or after the visit. T h e negative tone was ranked as two before, one during and two after the visit in the U S newspapers for portraying T opic 3. However, the proportion of negative coverage decreased from 37.8% before the visit to 21.9% after the visit. For international econo my the issue salience and the substantive attributes salience were partially transferred from China s public diplomacy agenda to the U S media during the visit, however the affective attributes salience was only transferred effectively after the visit. T o sum up, the scrutiny of the issue salience, substantive attribute salience and affective attribute salience of two major topics in President Hu s visit reveals that, the issue salience and the substantive attribute salience are all effectively transferre d from China s public diplomacy agenda to U S media coverage during the visit. The affective attribute salience transferred effectively during and after the visit for topic of international politics and only transferred effecti vely after the visit for to pic of international economy Overall, China s public diplomacy is effective in first level agenda building and second level agenda building for its major topics.

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90 CHAPTER 6 CON CLUSION Summary The E ffectiveness of China s Public Diplomacy in First and Seco nd level Agenda Building of All the Topics In terms of first level agenda building, t he result s wielded from dominant topic and topic suggest influence the media agenda of the United States either in the long term or in the short period. And another finding is that t he actual public diplomacy activities might be more effective in first level agenda buildin g, which need to be further examined. In terms of the substantive attributes of second level agenda building, there is some variation in the aggregated number of each frame chosen by the U.S. newspapers, which is likely to be linked to China s public diplomacy efforts. However when the frames were broken down to different topics, the result suggests that the substantive attributes agenda buildi ng effect does not occur In terms of the affective attributes of second level agenda building, the result suggests that China s public diplomacy is effective not only in influencing the overall tone o f the U.S. media coverage, but also effective in influencing the tone of each topic. T herefore the China s public diplomacy is effective in building affective attributes agenda both at a macro level and at a micro level. However, the result also suggests t hat, whether at a macro level or at a micro level, the effects tends to be weaker after the visit than during the visit.

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91 The Effectiveness of China s Traditional Diplomacy in First and Second level Agenda Building The results wielded from the news stori es related to traditional diplomacy from Xinhua of traditional diplomacy fail ed to transfer either the dominant topic salience or the topic salience fro m their own agenda to that of the U.S. media coverage either in the long term (2 months after the visit) or in the short term (during the visit). The first level agenda building effect does not occur in traditional diplomacy In terms of substantive attributes, although there is some variation in the aggregated nu mber of each frame chosen by the U.S. newspapers, the result suggests that the substantive attributes agenda buildi ng effect did not occur. In terms of affective attributes, the result suggests that traditional diplomacy is effective in building affective attributes agenda only in the short term while public diplomacy s effectiveness can last in the long term though it was weaken gradually. Th e Effectiveness of China s Traditional Diplomacy in First and Second level Agenda Building in the Two Major Topics Two most frequently reported topic by Xinhua is topic 3 international politics and topic 5 international economy whether in terms of dominant topic or topic, whether before, during or after the visit. Although the data analysis of all the topics show s that China s public diplomacy did not perform the agenda building function very well in terms of second level agenda building, however by examining the issue salience, substantive attributes salience and affective attributes salience of two major topics in President Hu s visit reveals that, China s public diplomacy is effective in first level agenda building and second level agenda building for its major t opics.

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92 Future Research Firstly, t he chief shortcoming of this thesis is with its limited sa mple size and the result shows that time lag would have some influence on the effectiveness of public diplomacy in agenda building. Hence it would be more dependable if future study extends the universe to four months before and after the visit. Secondly, this con tent analysis only focused on the a nalysis of information subsidies, while some evidence suggest that actual public diplomacy activities might be more effective in agenda building, which provides new determinant for future study. Thirdly, this content anal ysis did not include the influence of U S foreign policies, which might also interrupt the results. For future study, it would be more prudent to take the U S foreign policies towards China as another factor, which would influence the U S media coverage Fourthly, this content analysis only examined the effectiveness of China s public diplomacy in agenda building, it would bring a more complete picture if future study examines the effectiveness of public diplomacy strategies of different countries.

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93 APPENDIX A CODING SHEET Variabl e Numbe r Variab le Name Variable Definition Instructions Value Commen t 1 Coder ID number 1 = Coder 1 2 = Coder 2 2 Article ID number 1 1126 3 Sourc e Title of newspaper containing the coded s tory 1 = New York Times 2 = Washington Post 3 = Xinhua News Service 4 Date Date that the article was published Enter as mm/dd/yy 5 Lengt h Exact word count of the coded story Enter as a number Notice: Only code for visit related or not if the story is from Xinhua News Service. If the story is visit related, keep coding for other variables. If not, leave it out and stop coding for other variables. 6 Visit relate d Whether the story directly related to visit 0 = Not related 1 = Related Notice: Only code for diplomacy type if the story is from Xinhua News Service 7 Diplo macy Type Type of diplomacy 1 1 = Traditional diplomacy 2 = Public diplomacy Dominant Topic: Each story can only be categorized into one dominant topic. 8 Domin ant The dominant topic of the story 2 1 = Domestic politics 2 = Taiwan 1 Type of Diplomacy 1. Public diplomacy: Diplomacy in which both government and private individuals and groups influence directly or indirectly the public attitudes and opinions which bear directly on another government s foreign poli cy decisions. Example: President Hu visits a Chinese owned auto parts firm and a Chinese wind energy company 2. Traditional diplomacy: Diplomacy activities at a nation to nation level, which focus on negotiation between main actors including national leaders diplomats and policy makers through formal documents, speeches, and meeting. Example: Press Conference held with President Obama and President Hu in East room of the White House

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94 Topic Straits/Tibet/Xinjiang 3 = International politics 4 = Domestic economics 5 = International economy 6 = Defense/nuclear weapon/war crises 7 = Disasters/unrest/terror ism 8 = Culture 9 = Science/ecology/techn ology 10 = Religion 11 = Law/crimes/corruption 12 = Population 13 = Sports 2 Topics: These concern the kind of event or situation that the item is mai nly about. Here is the list of topics and detailed subsidia ry topics under the main topics If any phrases contain or relate to the words in topic or the subsidiary topic, then code it as present. If not, code it as absent. 1. PRC domestic politics : internal conflicts or crisis such as political unrest and political protests; elections, campaigns, appointments, government changes; other political, including legislation; 2. Taiwan Straits /Tibet/Xinjiang; 3. International Politics: 4. Domestic economics: internal trade and tariffs; national capital investment and stock issues; prices, cost of living, inflation; national industrial projects, factories, dams, ports, roads; agricultural matt ers, projects crops, harvest; national labor relations, disputes, negotiations, wages; government finance issues; other economic; 5. International economy: agreements on trade, tariffs; other international trade, imports, exports, trade balance; international capital inv estment, international stock issues; exchange rates, money supply, international loans; other economic; 6. Defense/nuclear/weapon/war crises: armed conflict; peace move, settlements; nuclear issue; arms deals and weapon trade; war; others; 7. Disasters/terrorism : Natural disasters including floods, earthquakes, droughts; terrorist attacks, human bomb; others; 8. Culture: culture, arts, archaeology; 9. Science/ecology/technology: Climate change, environmental pollution; 10. Religion; 11. Law/crimes/corruption ; 12. Population; 13. Sport s; 14. Social service/welfare/ education: social problems, health, housing, illiteracy, etc; educational provision; health provision; student matters; other social services and social welfare matters; (Stevenson & Cole, 1984)

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95 14 = Social service/ welfare/education 9 Domin ant Frame The dominant frame of the story 3 1= Conflict 2= Human interest 3= Problem definition 3 Frames : 1. The conflict frame : focuses on describing conflicts between individuals, groups, or institutions as a means of capturing audience interest. If the answer to any of the items listed below is yes, then code it as present; if not, code it as absent. 1. Does the news story ref lect disagreem ent between political parties, individuals, groups, institutions or countries? 2. Does China reproach another or be reproached by another country in the story ? 3. Does the story refer to two sides or more than two sides of the problem? 2. Th e human interest frame: is used in statements to depict how issues directly affect specific individuals and groups. 1. Does the news story provide a human example or human face on the issue ? 2. Does the story employ adjectives or personal vignettes that ge nerate feelings of outrage, empathy caring, sympathy, or compassion? 3. Does the story emphasize how individuals and groups are affected by the problem? 4. Does the story go into the private or personal lives of the ac tors? 3. The problems definition frame: is adop ted in messages that identify causes and antecedents associated with various issues. 1. Does the story build an understanding of the problem or the issue? 2. Does the Story give background information of the problem/issue? 3. Does the story identify the causes of the problem? 4. The responsibility attribution frame is used in a message to identify the accountability of the cause or solution of an issue or problems to individual or group. 1. Does the story suggest that some level of an individual/group/country has the a bility to alleviate the issue/problem? 2. Does the story suggest that some level of an individual/group/country is responsible for the issue/problem? 3. Does the story suggest solutions for the issue or problem? 4. Does the story suggest the problem requires urgent action? 5 The morale evaluation frame : is used in messages to describe issues in ethical and normative terms of right and wrong, often raise a question of how to behave. 1. Does the story contain any moral message? 2. Does the story make reference to mora lity, Confucianism God and other religious tenets? 3. Does the story offer specific social prescriptions about how to behave? 6 The consequence assessment frame: is used in messages to identify outcomes and results. 1. Does the story mention the possible outcome or results of either following a certain action or not ? 2. Does the story mention the possible cost or gain in econo mic, politics, environment, and culture? 3. Does the story allude to the costs associated with the issue or problem? (Semetko & Valkenburg 2004; Igartua, Cheng & Muniz, 2005; Kiousis, 2011 )

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96 4= Responsibility attribution 5= Moral evaluation 6= Consequence assessment 10 Domin ant Tone The overall tone of the story 1 = Negative 2 = Neutral 3 = Positive Notice: One story can have more than topics or sub topics. Only code for frame and to ne if the topic is present. Topic 1 = Domestic Politics 11 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 12 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 13 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 14 Frame 3 Problem defin ition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 15 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 16 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 17 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 2 = Taiwan Straits/Tibet/Xinjiang 18 To ne The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 19 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 20 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 21 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 22 Frame 4 Responsibility attrib ution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 23 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 24 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 3 = International politics 25 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral

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97 3 = Negative 26 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 27 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 28 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 29 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 30 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 31 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 4 = Domestic economics 32 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 33 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 34 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 35 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 36 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 37 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 38 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 5 = International economy 39 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 40 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 41 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 42 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Pre sent 43 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 44 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 45 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present

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98 Topic 6 = Defense/nuclear weapon/war crises 46 Tone The tone of the t opic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 47 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 48 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 49 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 50 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 51 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 52 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 7 = Disasters/unrest/terrorism 53 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 54 Frame 1 Confl ict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 55 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 56 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 57 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 58 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 59 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 8 = Culture 60 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 61 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 62 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 63 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 64 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 65 Frame Moral evaluation 0 = Absent

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99 5 1 = Present 66 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 9 = Science/ecolog y/technology 67 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 68 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 69 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 70 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 71 Frame 4 R esponsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 72 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 73 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 10 = Religion 74 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negativ e 75 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 76 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 77 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 78 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 79 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 80 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 11 = Law/crimes/corruption 81 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 82 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 83 Frame 2 Human in terest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 84 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present

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100 85 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 86 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 87 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 12 = Population 88 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 89 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 90 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 91 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Pre sent 92 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 93 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 94 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 13 = Sports 95 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Ne utral 3 = Negative 96 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present 97 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 98 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 99 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 100 Frame 5 Mo ral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 101 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present Topic 14 = Social service/ welfare/education 102 Tone The tone of the topic 1 = Positive 2 = Neutral 3 = Negative 103 Frame 1 Conflict 0 = Absent 1 = Present

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101 104 Frame 2 Human interest 0 = Absent 1 = Present 105 Frame 3 Problem definition 0 = Absent 1 = Present 106 Frame 4 Responsibility attribution 0 = Absent 1 = Present 107 Frame 5 Moral evaluation 0 = Absent 1 = Present 108 Frame 6 Consequence assessment 0 = Absent 1 = Present

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102 APPENDIX B TRANSCRIPT OF THE INTERVIEW ( For better s public diplomacy was conducted with Dr. Juyan Zhang. Following is the transcript. ) Jing : What kind of public diplomacy goal and strategies was adopted by China in Answer: Dr. Zhang: From what I observed, China likes to take a campaign approach in the U.S. so every time they feel there is some need, to fix some problems, they start a public diplomacy campaign. In 2001, the U.S. president Jiang planed the visit to U.S. And at the same time, they had a huge media launch such a big scale campaign, but it is the same style. Every time, you feel that the state relations, there is some problem, we need to fix it, the n they started to us e some public diplomacy strategies deal with it. between the two (China and America) is kind of tense. The Korean issues, Korea tested their missile, a nd U.S. ship got into the yellow sea, so the relationship at that time was that, but

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103 I did not follow this one closely, but compared with the last one, you know, China was very enthusiastic, they showed a lot of trust, tried to be close and warm. But this time, China is kind of cold. I think the tone is not as high as the last one. And also they did not create lots of events. Last time, there were lots of exhibitions, performances, but And China actually did hire some public relations firms, but not directly hire, or n ot those in U.S., instead, they contacted these firms whose subsidiaries are in China, to seek their advices. Just consultancy, not directly hire them to be in charge of the whole campaign. Like for Olympic Games in Beijing, they contacted several internat ional firms, but they did not go further to hire them. I think the major reason is that Chinese trust the whole effectiveness of these companies. Chinese government lik es to approach things at a macro level. China got this concept, public diplomacy, only a few years ago, maybe ten years ago. Before that, it was propaganda. And modern PR was introduced to China like 30 years ago. But gradually, they become sophisticated now. It is still at a government to government level, or nation to nation level, but recently, they are also, Chinese government started to set up scholarships to send doctoral students to America, and also they pay U.S. students to go to China. I think ov erall, China did not do a good job in directly communicating with general public in U.S. And an ironic thing is that, most Chinese public diplomacy was targeting overseas Chinese. And they are still using a one way communication approach like just sending out messages, not so much interaction.

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104

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110 The White House (2011). Press Conference with President Obama and President Hu of http://www.whitehouse.gov/the press office/2011/01/19/press conference president obama and president hu peoples repu blic china Wilcox, D. L. Ault, P. H., & Agee, W. K. (1992). Public relations strategies and tactics (3 rd ed.) New York: HarperCollins. Xu, X. G. & Parsons, P. (1997). The image making news flow between China and the United States, Mass Communication R eview, 24(3 4): 57 70. Yu, Yang C. & Riffe, D. (1989). Chiang and Mao in U.S. news magazines. Journalism Quarterly, 66(4), 913 919. Zhang, J. US: assessing an international publ ic relations campaign. Public Relations Review 29(2003), 13 28.

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111 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jing Sun was born in 1987 in China. She com pleted her Bachelor of Arts in Mass C ommunication at Shanghai Jiaotong University in 2010. After she completed her one year int ernship in Shanghai Television Station, she found she was interested in public relations and started to pursue her master s degree in public relations in University of Florida. She earned her Master of Arts in M ass C ommunication from University of Florida in the spring of 2012.