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1 HEIMAT: FROM RURAL PLACES TO URBAN SPACES By JENNIFER LAURA DESTER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVE RSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 J ennifer Laura Dester
3 To my p arents
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thank my parents for their enduring support throughout my time at the University of Florida. They were a constant source of love and encouragement and supported me in every possible way during my studies abroad. I also wish to thank the German section of the Languages, Literatures, and Cultures Department at the University of Florida who gave me the opportunity to extend my stay in the United States in order to finish my degree. I am especially very thankful for the continuous support I received from my committee members Dr. Barbara Mennel and Dr. Willard Hasty Lastly, I would like to express my gratitude to the VDAC (Federa tion of German American Clubs) as well as to the Fulbright Commission, who both made my stay abroad possible through very generous stipends.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 9 2 RURAL HEIMAT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 14 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 14 Heimatfilm in Post War Germany ................................ ................................ ........... 14 Heimatlosigkeit in Deppes Grn ist die Heide ................................ ........................ 17 The Heimatfilm as Travel Narrative ................................ ................................ ........ 21 Heimat and Fremde ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Heimat, Gender, and the Uncanny ................................ ................................ ......... 28 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 33 3 MODERN HEIMAT ................................ ................................ ................................ 34 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 34 Dismantling of the Rural Idyll: The Notion of Anti Heimat ................................ ....... 34 The Renaissance of Heimat in Contemporary German Cinema: The Modern Heimatfilm of Marcus H. Rosenmller ................................ ................................ 40 The Sound of Heimat in Wer frher stirbt, ist lnger tot ................................ .......... 42 Rosenmller and Uncanniness ................................ ................................ ............... 47 City and Country: A Convergence ................................ ................................ .......... 48 Leaving H eimat Behind in Rosenmllers Beste Zeit ................................ .............. 50 Fusion of Heimat with the Foreign ................................ ................................ .......... 52 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 54 4 URBAN HEIMAT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 56 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 56 Heimat in The City? ................................ ................................ ................................ 57 Heimat and Modernity: The Stadtheimatfilm ................................ ........................... 59 The Cinema of Inbetween ................................ ................................ ....................... 62 Soul Kitchen : A Turkish German H eimatfilm ................................ ........................... 63 Paris, Je Taime : Heimat Abroad ................................ ................................ ............ 67 Finding a Second Home in Paris ................................ ................................ ............ 69 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 72
6 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 74 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 76 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 80
7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Grn ist die Heide : Ldersen s good bye ................................ ............................. 19 2 2 Die Geierwally : nature and uncann iness ................................ ........................... 31 3 1 Jagdszenen aus Niederbayern : The notion of Anti Heimat ............................... 39 3 2 SPIO statistic: development of number of moviegoers ................................ ....... 42 3 3 Wer frher stirbt, ist lnger tot : the guitar as holy instrument ............................. 45 3 4 Wer frher stirbt, ist lnger tot : Music as Heimat ................................ ................ 4 6 3 5 Beste Zeit : Heimat and the Foreign ................................ ................................ .... 53
8 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts HEIMAT: FROM RURAL PLACES TO URBAN SPACES By J ennifer Laura Dester May 2012 Chair: Barbara Mennel Major: German This study examines the development of the German Heimatfilm from the 1950s until today and investigates how the traditional Heimatfilm differs from contemporary Heimat cinema. In discussing different Heimatfilm genres, such as the traditional post war Heimatfilm, the Anti H eimatfilm, the modern Heimatfilm, as well as the urban Heimatfilm this research analyzes how the Heimatfilms settings, characters, narratives and aesthetics changed over the past decades. In an era of globalization, which is characterized by mobility and travelling characters such as migrants or guest workers, the idea of a spatially defined home is put into question. The refore, the notion of Heimat cannot be seen as a spatial concept anymore, but rather as an internal sense of belonging and identity, whi ch travels with people through spaces. Consequently, the notion of Heimat, which was usually a ssociated with a rural setting in traditional Heimat cinema, can also be present in an urban locale as epitomized by the urban Heimatfilm
9 CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW H eimat is... This sentence can be completed in multiple ways, which makes a universal definition of Heimat virtually impossible. However, many scholars agree on several characteristics of the term Heimat. The most common translation of the German word is home" or "homeland," which consequently limits the borders of Heimat to a place of belonging and familiarity. Family members, friends and acquaintances form a community in which we feel safe and secure. Often associated with memories, childhood experiences and innocence, Heimat also receives nostalgic connotations. It reflects our roots and traditions, and therefore shapes our identity and values in life. The Heimat locale is often displayed through idealized and cliched descriptions of remote rural areas, hence ascribing Heimat a pristine and natural quality. Nonetheless, all of the above described features of Heimat raise an important question: What is Heimat? Is Heimat a place, a group of people, a memory, a feeling, or the combination of all? German jour nalist Peter Sandmeyer tries to answer the same question in a Stern article. The author defines Heimat as a "Grundbedrfnis," a basic need and an affinity for grounding in an era of globalization (Sandmeyer 1). For Sandmeyer, however, Heimat is "more than home, more than homestead, more than hometown, more than home country. Heimat is distinct, shapeless, blurred in color and shape, overflowing and impalpable like a dream" (1). Even though an accurate definition of Heimat lies beyond words like dreams ofte n do, and the question of Heimat often causes speechlessness due to its plethora of meanings, the term Heimat has always been a crucial part of German history and culture. Heimatliteratur as well as Heimatfilme tried to grasp the notion of Heimat
10 through w ords and images. This study traces the origins of the German Heimat film an d its development until today. What themes and motives does the traditional Heimatfilm of the 1950s cover and what characters and locales does it display? How did these aspects of th e Heimatfilm change over the years and how do contemporary Heimatfilme diffe r from the traditional ones? Unlike other scholarly works in the field, this study also discusses the contemporary German Heimatfilm of the Bavarian director Marcus H. Rosenmller, followed by a broader discourse which reconsiders the spatiality of Heimat, relocating it from a rural setting to an urban locale. The discussion ascribes a mobile characteristic to the Heimat concept, suggesting that Heimat is not spatial ly limited but rather an i nternal notion that travels with people through spaces. The mobility of Heimat therefore suggests the possibility of having a second home, or even multiple Heimaten, which are not necessarily tied to a r ural setting, but can also exist in an urb an space. German filmmaker Edgar Reitz well known for his 1984 Heima t epos, is where I feel comfortable ( Buchheim ). Chapter two of this study examine s the reasons for the emergence of the Heimatfilm genr e and focus es on the traditional post war Heimatfilm following 1945. After the war, Germans longed for their Heimat, which was destroyed during the Hitler regime. Therefore, the main challenge for 1950s cinema was the suppression of Nazi crimes through myt hicization (Seelen, Durch d ie Heimat 136 137 ). With its idyllic depiction of a heile Welt (perfect world) preferably set in Bavaria and Austria, the traditional Heimatfilm brought the notion of Heimat to the people on screen. The subsequent Heimatfilmwel le (wave of Heimat films ) and entertained
11 the audience with colorful and comforting images of pictorial Alpine sceneries and love struck couples However, the Heimatfilms awareness of the trauma caused by World War II finds expression in the depiction of incomplete families and an ubiquitous sense of homelessness. Hans Deppes protagonist Ldersen exemplifies that notion of Heimatlosigkeit in Grn ist die Heide ( 1951, The Heath is Green ) which accordingly links Heimat to the question of identity and belonging. With the emergence of the vacation film, a sub category of the Heimatfilm, recreational activities were promoted in order to alleviate the collective notion of displacement. Wolfgang Schleifs Die Mdels vom Immenhof ( 1955, The Imme nhof Girls ) depicts an idyllic travel destination for the audience, and portrays the typical encounter of Heimat with the foreign. Heimat in the traditional Heimatfilm is thus opposed to mo dernity and the foreign, exemplified in Schleifs film by the touri st from the city who has to adjust to a rural lifestyle when on vacation at Immenhof. Die Geierwally (1956 Geierwally ) another paradigm of the traditional Heimatfilm of the 1950s, demonstrates how Heimat can become an uncanny place for the female protago nist when disobeying the rules of the patriarch within the trope of Heimat. Chapter three discuss es how the traditional Heimatfilm of the 1950s changed during the past decades. After 1962, the year of the Oberhausen Manifesto, the so called Anti H eimatfil m occupied German screens. By depicting a counter image of the traditional Heimat idyll, the Anti H eimatfilm promotes the escape to the big city, as in Fleischmanns Jagdszenen aus Niederbayern ( 1969, Hunting Scenes from Bavaria ). But even the blunt depict ion of merciless provincials and the harsh realities of peasant life in the Anti Heimatfilm could not prevent a revival of Heimat in contemporary cinema.
12 German filmmakers like Marcus H. Rosenmller, Mathias Kiefersauer or Thomas Kronthaler popularize the Heimatfilm again by presenting the genre in a mo dern way. The modern Heimatfilme are coming of age stories, staging children or young adults as their protagonists. Instead of traditional folk music, s cenes are accompanied by contemporary rock melodies, exe mplified in Rosenmllers Wer f rher s tirbt i st lnger t ot (2006, Grave Decisions ) Whereas the foreign and modern has been vehemently rejected in the traditional Heimatfilm, it is now part of the protagonists everyday life. The female main character in Rosenmllers Beste Zeit (2007, Good Times ) even has the desire to leave her hometown behind and travel to America. Travelling characters that cross the borders of Heimat call the understanding of Heimat as a limited space into question. The fourth c hapter analyze s how the mobility of people affects the spatiality of Heimat. Mobile characters, such as migrants, tourists, and guest workers redefine t he Heimat idea suggesting that Heimat is not a spatial concept anymore, but rather an internal sense of belon ging which is not restricted to a certain locale Heimat, which was originally associated with a rural setting, can therefore also be present in urban spaces as demonstrated in the Stadtheimatfilm epitomized by Edgar Reitz Die zweite Heimat Chronik e iner Jugend ( 199 3 Heimat II: A Chronicle of a Generation ) After discussing the genres Kino der Fremdheit and Kino der Mtissage which both deal with the Soul Kitchen (2009) displays how the sense of Heimat is presented in a city film about Hamburg. The discussion of two episodes of the anthology film Paris, Je Taime (2006, Paris, I love
13 You ) examines h o w the tourist figure as well as a Muslim immigrant experience the notion of Heimat in Paris when crossing international borders.
14 CHAPTER 2 RURAL HEIMAT Introduction Die Natur Jedem erscheint sie in einer eigenen Gestalt. Sie verbirgt sich in tausend Namen und Termen und ist immer dieselbe. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Goethes Werke Band XIII In praising the beauty of nature in its valuable diversity, the German Heimatfilm genre stages the rural setting as its main protagonist. Pristine German landscapes and Austrian mountain sceneries represent the major sites of the Heimatfilm. Thes e natural settings, however, can be experienced in various ways by the protagonists, or, as Goethe puts it, "to each [nature] ap pears in a unique form" ( 47). After introducing the reasons for the emergence of the Heimatfilm genre, as well as its characteri stic features, this chapter examines three different paradigms of the 1950s Heimatfilm. In Grn ist die Heide (1951, The Heath is Green ), the protagonist experiences nature as a place of comfort. Wolfgang Schleif s Die Mdels vom Immenhof (1955, The Immenh of Girls ) stages nature as an alien realm for the city dweller, and for the female protagonist in Die Geierwally (1956, Geierwally ), nature becomes a site of uncanniness. H eimatfilm in Post War Germany When asking Germans which film genre they associate wi th their own country, many of them will most likely answer with the Heimatfilm genre. This genre plays a Film/Genre film scholar Rick Altman argues that film genres are created by their audience and always feature a strong connection to the cultural er a in which they were produced ( 26 27 ). With this in mind, it
15 appears that the German Heimatfilm mainly developed as a consequence to historical events. Even though Heimatfilme could be traced back to the beginnings of film production, they reached their peak in the 1950s (Steiner 253). This newly discovered genre of the Heimatfilm replaced the so called Trmmerfilm (rubbl e film), which thematized Germanys political defeat in World War II. Viewers were confronted with postwar images of destroyed cities and occupying armies, whereas the depoliticized Heimatfilm offered an alternative cinema to spectators, and thus helped cr eating a Heimatlosigkeit No Place Like Home 81). The Heimatfilm became a crucial part of German culture and gave Germans back what they were longing for: Their old Heimat before it was destroyed by the war. right to Heimat (von Moltke, No Place Like Home 7). For Johannes von Moltke, Heimat in the Heimatfilm has a particular No Place Like Home 5). Thus, the Heimatfilm was an opportunity for Germans to escape their postwar trauma at least on screen. The term He imat, which can be loosely translated with longing was omnipresent in postwar Germany, as many film titles show: Sohn ohne Heimat (1955, Son Without Heimat ), Und ewig ruft die Heimat (1955, Heimat calls Forever ), Wer die Heimat liebt (1957 Holy Heritage ), Heimatlos (1958, Without Heimat ), Einmal noch die Heimat sehn (1958, Seeing Heimat One More Time ) to name just a few. These films allow spectators to immerse themselves in a romanticized idyll of
16 untouched landscapes and harmonious living conditions in a committed Gemeinschaft (local community) in which provinciality, morality, and tradition dominate the peoples everyday life. One does not necessarily have to watch the myr iad Heimatfilme to be able to characterize their common features. Film titles such as Schwarzwaldmdel (1950, Black Forest Girl ), Grn ist die Heide (1951, The Heath is Green ), Die schne Tlzerin (1952, The Beautiful Girl From Bad Tlz ), Das Wirtshaus im Spessa rt (195 8 The Inn at Spessart ), Gru und Kuss vom Tegernsee (1957, Greetings and A Kiss from Lake Tegernsee ) immediately map out the geography of the Heimatfilm plots, which are mainly located in Austria, Bavaria or other parts of Germany. Even the d ifferent types of landscapes recur, such as mountains, lakes, forests, and heathlands. The sets of the Heimatfilm are consequently remote locales far away from modern urban settings. Furthermore, the Heimatfilms characters are evidently mainly peasants ( Der fidele Bauer / The Merry Peasant 1951), landlords ( Die Wirtin vom Wrthersee / The Landlady from Lake Wrthersee 1952), hunters ( Der Jger vom Roteck / The Hunter from Roteck 195 6 ), fishermen ( Die Fischer vom Heiligensee / The Fishermen from Lake He iligensee 1955), priests ( Der Pfarrer von St. Michael / The Priest From St. Miche l, 1957), doctors ( Die Landrztin vom Tegernsee / Lady Country Doctor 1958), and shepherds ( Der Schfer vom Trutzberg / The Sheperd of Trutzberg 1959 ). Although offering s pectators an escape from reality, the German Heimatfilm was Heimatlosigkeit ( homelessness ) and di splacement (Hake 109). In Rosen Resli (1954,
17 Rose Girl Resli ) the young orphan girl Resi lives with a foster family after losing her parents. The Immenhof trilogy (1955 1957) tells the story of the orphaned siblings Barbara (nicknamed Dick), Brigitte (nick named Dalli), and Angela who, after their flight from East Prussia, moved to Immenhof in Schleswig Holstein to live with their grandmother Oma Jantzen. These and more examples demonstrate that, albeit harmony dominated the depicted Heimat idyll, victims of the war peopled these films. Additionally, harmony in the Heimatfilm was threatened by generational conflicts as well a (Hake 110). The Heimatfilm genre thereby a fictional framework for coming to term s with the loss of nation and for every Heimatfilm has a happy ending and unifies displaced families or creates new ones. Hans Deppes Grn ist die Heide exemplifies this ubi quitous notion of Heimatlosigkeit in postwar Germany Heimatlosigkeit in Deppes Grn ist die Heide According to film critic Claudius Seidl, Hans Deppes Grn ist die Heide a remake of the historical backdrop of World War II. The main character Lder Ldersen, an Eastern refugee, settles down with his daughter Helga in the Luneburg Heath. Helga s oon adapts to her new environment, and feels attracted to the local game warden Rainer. But Ldersen sticks to his old habits and poaches in the woods even though it is against the law in his new home. Ldersens behavior disrupts the peace of the local co mmunity, but his compulsion to poach in the local woods has different reasons than just a passion for hunting. To Helga he mentions that the forest is the only place in his
18 forget about all the misery. Its not only the hunting instinct According to von Moltke, Ldersens habit No Place Like Home 4). Ldersen tries heile Welt No Place Like Home 80). In Grn ist die Heide the director displays this sense of displacement through his characters who ar e suffering from Heimweh ( homesickness ) The towns district judge mentions that he is in charge of all the expellees and describes the sense of time basis, and I experience it every day. Homesickness can be a very serious illness Amry, the notion of homesickness equals self alienation ( 43 ). As a consequence, Heimweh has an immediate impact on the question of identity and self image. Furthermore, the longing for a home of t he displaced and alienate d characters in Deppes film affect s their physical well being significantly. According to his cousin, Ldersen seems to be very depressed and distraught when suffering from Heimweh he has his moods, his homesickness, then the re is nothing to do with him. Then the man becomes melancholic. Then he runs around quite distressed emotional state directly relates to the degree of his homesickness. But n ot only Ldersen suffers from Heimweh in Deppes film, there a re multiple characters from other countries dealing with the same sense of displacement as well. Thus, the Heimatfilm can be described as a genre dealing with "conflicts over borders, territory, and identity" (King 131).
19 Even though Ldersen suffers from H eimweh he eventually realizes that he has found a new home when facing the question of leaving again. After the local police officer is found dead, Rainer suspects Ldersen Even though he proves his innocence, Ldersen agrees to leave town with his daugh ter to flee to the anonymity of the city. Before he leaves, Ldersen recognizes that he already found a zweite Heimat (new homeland) within the community and gives a farewell speech at the local Schtzenfest (local folk festival). With his speech he repres ents all the other refugees in town and found a second home here" (Fig. 2 1. A). He adds that people should not judge him, since nobody will understand what it means to be without Heimat, before they were forced to leave home. Through finding a second home in the Luneburg Heath, Ldersen home again. The natural beauty comforted me a nd made me forget what I have lost. I was close to losing myself. But through the goodwill and understanding you have shown No Place Like Home 4). Figure 2 1. Ldersen giving his speech (A). Ldersen in harmon y with nature. (B) Ldersens speech reveals that he was able to surmount homesickness through the experience of nature and the sympathy of his community which enabled him to find
20 f having and consequently his sense of Heimat again. Heimat therefore becomes a site for identification. For Ldersen, the sense of Heimat is closely connected to the un ity of man and nature. Through the beauty of nature, Ldersen was able to regain his inner harmony as well as master the experience of his loss (Fig. 2 1. B). After his farewell speech, Ldersen leaves the Schtzenfest in order to see the heath one last ti me. Near the forest he sees a man killing dear and decides to confront him. But when Ldersen approaches the man he gets shot and wounded. The police, who patrolled the woods during the folk festival, catch the man immediately. The hunter eventually turns out to be the murder of the local police officer, thus attesting Ldersens innocence in the end. Ldersens speech also suggests that one can find Heimat only through its absence and the resulting experience of homelessness. Deppes protagonist experience d what it means to feel heimatlos when he came as a refugee in the beginning of the film. But when he announces to leave the Luneburg Heath for the city, the villagers respond with rejection, thus emphasizing the discrepancy between city and country. They reject the city lif e and argue they would there. For the villagers, the understanding of the city as an unhealthy place of social anonymity. As he listens to their comments, Ldersen recognizes that he is not ready to leave. The place that made him feel homeless in the beginning, has gradually become a new home for him and his city, Ldersen nee No Place Like Home 81). A fter the
21 police arrest the murderer, Ldersen decides to stay in the village. For him, the Luneburg Heimatlosigkeit and restlessness into Heimat No Place Like Home 81). In Grn ist die Heide director Hans Deppe depicts the notion of Heimat as a No Place Like Home 89). The portrayal of a relocatable sense of home suggests a reconsideration of the spatial politics commonly associated with the term Heimat Deppes protagonist exemplifies this mobility by demonstrating his shifting experience of Heimat. Although initially experiencing a sense of alienation and homelessness, L dersen finds a zweite Heimat after the war. Through the natural beauty of the Luneburg Heath and a new sense of Gemeinschaft Ldersen is able to overcome the dominating postwar syndrome of Heimatlosigkeit. The Heimatfilm as Travel Narrative In order to alleviate the collective notion of displacement, it became more and more important to focus on the individuals physical and spiritual well being. Questions of self and identity dominated the German nation of the 1950s, and consequently evoked the developm ent of another cinematic genre, the travel or vacation film. These overlapped with the Heimatfilm genre (Hake 110). For Sabine Hake, the vacation film omotional vehicle for new recreational activities and consumerist Ferien vom Ich ( 195 2 Vacation from the Self ) or Ferien in Tirol (1955, Vacation in Tirol audiences how to take (Hake 111). These pressures were ubiquitous in postwar Germany and forced people to
22 face significant economic issues while still struggling with questions of identity and belonging. The search f or the self and a new Heimat were dominating German minds after the war, and were therefore expressed cinematically. Heimats spatial politics were not merely interested in the worshipping of the pristine beauty of nature, but also in the act of travelling through spaces. Gertraud Steiner quotes a line of Luis Trenkers Der verlorene Sohn (1934, The Lost Son Heimat, in order to discover (or rediscover) it. These travel narratives were not only a crucial instrument in defining German identity, but also a fundamental contribution to cross imaginary journeys to foreign locations helped to prepare Germ an audiences for dealing with different cultures and nationalities, including the growing number of Italian, Spanish, and Greek Gastarbeiter German Wirtschaftswunder (Economic M iracle), myriad immigrants from several European countries moved to Germany to help fuel the postwar boom. Through the depiction of foreign places and people on screen, the German audience became aware of the existent cultural differences and could prepare for the arrival of the mig rating labor force. One popular Heimatfilm which features characteristics of the travel film is Die Mdels vom Immenhof (1955, The Immenhof Girls ), the film adaption of Ursula Bruns book Dick und Dalli und die Ponies ( The Snow Ponys ). The story is set in Schleswig Holstein during the year 1954. The orphaned sisters Dick, Dalli and Angela live with their grandmother Oma Jantzen at Immenhof, a manor house the Jantzens have owned
23 for years. The sisters help their grandmother running the pony breeding busines s, but Oma Jantzen is struggling with finances and is about to lose all her possessions at an auction. She already leased the old foresters house to Jochen von Roth who tries to establish a riding school at his stud farm. Amid this crisis, the Jantzens ar e expecting a distant relative from the city, who is about to spent his holiday at Immenhof. Ethelbert, with his posh attire and arrogant attitude, is not quite what Dick, Dalli, and their friends expected. Constantly making a fool of himself, Ethelbert so on becomes the misfit of the group. Only Dick feels drawn to him and tries to integrate him nevertheless. Another romance is blossoming between Angela and Jochen, who supports Oma Jantzen in keeping Immenhof in the end. The films opening immediately intr oduces Immenhof as the perfect vacation destination and points out the necessity of a healthy way of life. The first image shows an idyllic view of a lake, followed by a long shot of the Immenhof manor. These two shots are connected by a peaceful score and fading titles in order to suggest the closeness from Immenhof to the recreation area. The following shots show Angela passing by some ponies running around freely at the lakeside. Only clothed in a swim suit and a bathrobe, Angela is heading back to the m ain building, where Oma Jantzen is leaning out of the window. She takes a deep breath and calls for her other granddaughters to get out of bed. While the girls are getting ready, Oma Jantzen prepares breakfast on the pat io. As Dalli refuses to do her usual workout before breakfast, Oma Jantzen points out the importance of a healthy body and mind and says:
24 of her granddaughters. She therefore exemplifies a role model for th e spectators, who should be encouraged to be mindful of their own physical well being. The Jantzens as well as Jochen von Roth expect vacationers in Schleswig Holstein, who almost exclusively praise th e resort for its beauty. As Dick and Dalli pick up thei r guest Ethelbert from the train station, they meet Jochen who is also waiting for his new guests to arrive. He is holding up a sign and calls for his guests with Reiterparadies hier, bitte his H eimat as a paradise for travelers. Jochens guests are very excited as they see his guests is one British woman who is surprised by the beauty of the German landscape: ts lovely here. I never knew Germany was such a lovely country however is not able to adjust to his new environment immediately. What Mrs. Fowler just admired and lauded seems to be nothing special to Ethelbert. He feels rather bored by Dick a and modern city environment, Ethelbert does not feel comfortable in the countryside and struggles integrating with the community. Ethelbert thus exemplifies the stereotypical Heima tfilm figure of the stranger. Heimat and Fremde The notion of Heimat is generally associated with traditional ideas and thus opposed to the modern and foreign. Von Moltke quotes a dictionary en try from 1959 by Oskar Khler wh ich defines Heimat as follows: encompasses a totality of life [ Lebensganzheit ], and where they [ the people ] perceive Fremde No Place Like Home 10). In Die Mdels vom Immenhof the tourist Ethelbert represents this foreign
25 territory and has difficulties to adjust and integrate into his new rural environment. Before Ethelberts arrival, the sisters Dick and Dalli cannot hide their excitement about meeting their distant relative from the big city. However, Dalli emphasizes the disparity between rural and urban life concerning the social and educational environment with a blunt remark finally meet sane people. Ethel berts social behavior and clothing style signify his urban origins and stand in stark contrast to the rural community. A short sequence of shots introduces the pastoral setting surrounding Immenhof, as well as Dick and Dalli as a part of the local communi ty. On their way to the train station, the sisters sing a song while passing by beautiful landscapes with their pony coach. They wave at a shepherd driving his sheep and their friends who are working in the fields. These few shots demonstrate the close rel ationship of the villagers within the trope of Heimat. For Ethelbert however, it seems to be quite a challenge to accept the rules of this community. As a city dweller, Ethelbert is accustomed to a fully developed infrastructure which enables him to travel with modern means of transportation. Therefore, he is highly bemused when finding out that he is supposed to travel with a pony coach to get to Immenhof. When Ethelbert pays a carrier to carry his luggage from the station, Dalli calls him a "braggart," an d mentions that there were so many things she would rather buy. This scene portrays the city as a place in which sufficient financial means are treated as a natural necessity and status symbol, whereas money in the displayed rural setting receives a higher value. Compared to the girls, who were singing and entertaining each other on the way to the station, Ethelbert brought a radio to listen to during the train ride. He points out that he
26 enjoys modern entertainment and goes to the movies or dancing on a regular basis, course, nowadays that is supposed to be part of the education of the Central European refer riding their ponies arrival, two contrasting worlds collide. Both Dalli and Ethelbert find each other "weird," Dalli, however, is at the same time fascinated by her guest, who seems to be from another world. Whereas the girls are wearing simple shirts and shorts, Ethelbert seems to have the perfect attire for every occasion. He wears blazers with ties during his first lunc h with the Jantzens and a custom made red and white riding dress when riding the ponies Not only Ethelbert s appearance evokes rejection, his rather arrogant attitude towards the villagers also prevent s his social integration into the c ommunity. His formal and eloquent way of talking, which reflect s his social background and education, causes laughter among the villagers. When Dick suggests to go swimming, Ethelbert points out the necessity of "acclimating" to his new environment first. Ethelberts vocabulary and the reaction of his communication partners indicate an existing language barrier between him and the local community. However, Ethelbert insists on pursuing his lifestyle, especially regarding his nutrition and health. He routine ly takes dietary supplements along with his meals, but Oma Jantzen explains that they treat illness in a close circle of friends also approach Ethelbert with hostility, after he made a derogatory remark about Mans, the son of the local blacksmith. As Dick feels drawn to him
27 mean! Just because he is different from you." But when Ethelbert forces her to dance with him in a caf a few days later, Dick feels humiliated and finally turns away from him as well. Now Ethelbert finally realizes that his attitude and boastful behavior is keeping him from becoming a part of the community. The direct or solves the conflict between Ethelbert and the community in a way that links Heimat t o humanism. When Ethelbert tries to approach Dick once again, she walks away from him in grieve over the ponies Oma Jantzen had to sell. Ethelbert thinks the Jantzens sh out the emotional value of their ponies. According to her, Ethelbert lacks the ability to understand that. While saying that, she points at her heart and leaves him behind. Not onl y Oma Jantzen tries to reach him with her speech, Jochen also challenges Ethelberts conscience and encourages him to change and reach out for others. He points out the importance of giving and supporting each other within a community, and claims that only start b being part of a community requires a sense of altruism and empathy. The character Ethelbert, determined to become a part of the community, undergoes a remarkable change in the las t part of the film which is expressed through the change of his app earance as well as his behavior. Ethelbert, this time dressed in a casual red shirt and shorts, meets Dick who is working at a river embankment in the
28 forest. When he offers his help, Dick sends him away by pointing out that this would not be the right work for him to do. When Ethelbert desperately jumps into the creek, he afraid of dirt. I dont want to be for Ethelbert who has learned how to give and care about others in the community. He saves Mans when he is about to drown in the lake and helps Dick caring for an injured foal that he saved during a th understorm. Through his actions, Ethelbert demonstrates humanistic qualities and is accepted as a part of the collective. Although he is used to the anonymity of the city, he realizes the importance of a community at the end of the film. Heimat, Gender, a nd the Uncanny Besides idyllic depictions of the rural and questions of identity and the self, gender roles and the notion of the uncanny play a crucial role in Heimat scholarship. Peter ( imagined by m e n ) The perfect giving birth, whereas her emotional qualities were seen as a "potential source of weakness and disease" (Blickle 84). Consequently, Heimat becomes a "key site for the enforcement of outdat ed gender norms" and patriarchal conceptions (von Moltke, No Place Like Home 118). These ideas are displayed to a significant extent in Franz Caps Die Geierwally (1956, Geierwally ), one of four different screen adaptions of Wilh elmine von Hillerns bestseller by the same title (1875). Set in the Austrian Alps, Die Geierwally depicts the typical Heimat locale. Wally, later nicknamed Geierwally after rescuing a little vulture, is forced by her father to marry farmer Vinzenz. Wally however is attracted to hunter Josef
29 and is determined to marry him. For disregarding her fathers rules, Wally is exiled to a mountain farm, where she tames a young vulture. In Caps film, Wallys father represents the stereotypical figure of the Heimatfi lms patriarch. He displays his derogatory attitude towards women in the opening scene of the film. As he enters the kitchen, Wallys father immediately asks his maid Luckard for food. When she answers she thought he would have eaten in town, he severely c ommands her to do what he expression for women) have to "be in cahoots." Luckard is worried about Wally who seems depressed due to a conflict with her father. When Luckard confronts him afterwards, he threatens her and tells her to stay out of the education of his daughter. Cap s film exemplifies a patriarchal hierarchy in which women, who oppose this system, are penalized for their misbehavior. Her fathers patriarchal nor ms and Wallys firm and emancipated personality cause the main conflict in the film. Wally is introduced as a strong and independent woman, admired by men for her wildness. This is underscored when Wally passes by two men on top of a coach, looking down to them. She is determined to make her own decisions, and thus evokes a conflict with her father. He wants his daughter to marry farmer Vinzenz and seals the deal with his future son in law with a drink in the kitchen. Wally protests against this decision, a nd not only provokes the rage of her father, but also upsets Vinzenz, who insits on having the right points out that he does not need his daughters permission to find the right man for her. He does not takes Wallys needs into account, and makes clear that he owns his
30 cattle or a horse. Thats written in the bible This scene illu strates the fathers outdated gender norms which are closely linked to his Catholic beliefs. He is convinced of his right to treat women like a possession, and penalizes his daughter for her opposition. As a punishment, her father sends Wally to the Alm a mountain farm on a glacier. When the maid tries to stand up for Wally, she gets attacked by Wallys father both verbally and physically. After this confrontation, Luckard has to leave the farm instantly. These conflicts demonstrate how women in the patria rchal construct of Heimat were penalized when disrespecting a mans hierarchical position. They were exiled from their home as an immediate consequence. Caps Geierwally also demonstrates how Heimat can become an uncanny place for women who refuse to follo w the rules of the local community. According to Freud, dimension, which can be found in the opposite of home ( 148 ). The film depicts u ncanniness in two scenes. In the firs t scene, Wally is sent to the Alm as a punishment. As the camera captures the glacier panorama, the image of the snow covered mountains is accompanied by a dramatic string melody to underscore the threat of this natural setting. When farm hand Lorenz warns her, Wally points out that she is not at the Alm on his own. This uncanniness is depicted visually through the sudden appearance of heavy fog. Wally still acts unconc erned and Lorenz mentions that she must have the devil in her. Wally answers that it is not the devil, but love that gives her strength. Uncanniness is expressed in the natural environment within the exterior mise en sc ne. As a harsh wind blows, the fog g ets even denser, and Wally starts worrying
31 about Lorenz after he left. When she calls for him, all she hears is her own echo reverberating from the cliff. The editing technique used in the following sequence demonstrates Wallys emerging panic on a visual and aural level. A medium shot of her is cross cut with shots of the rock cliff and thick clouds appearing on the blue sky. These images are accompanied by Wallys echoes, which are rising in tone and eventually end in a scream of ultimate despair. The sce nes climax is depicted through the superimposition of Wallys face in a close up shot and streaming clouds that seem to surround a nd gradually swallow her (Fig. 2 2. A D). Whereas the Austrian Alps are captured as picturesque scenery in various Heimatfilm e they become a site of uncanniness for Wally in Caps film. Figure 2 2. Wally at the Alm, experiencing nature as an uncanny place (A D). In a later scene, Wally has to face the same uncanny feeling within the trope of Heimat. Wally returns to town and inherits the farm after her father dies. She seems to be accepted in the community again, and is convinced to win Josefs heart at a local
32 Schtzenfest Josef invited her to dance with him, but this turns out to be a staged act of humiliation. Josef tries to penalize Wally, since she mistakenly offended Afra by stating she would be an easy girl. Wally insulted Afra out of jealousy, as she was not aware of the fact, that Afra is Josefs niece. Josef humiliates her in front of the townsfolk and leaves. The d irector employs the same editing technique as in the scene at the Alm We see Wally in a close up shot, her eyes widened by shock and embarrassment. She is surrounded by numerous people laughing at her. As they start to dance, Wallys pale face is superimp osed with the dancing townsfolk around her. Her petrified look contrasts the joyous folk music which accompanies the scene. Heimat in Caps Die Geierwally is presented as a realm in which traditional ge nder roles as well as patriarchal norms are predominan t values that have to be obeyed. Women in the film suffer under male dominance expressed through verbal and physical violence. Refusing to accept the rules of patriarchy, Wally learns that Heimat is a place that penalizes female emancipation. Her vigorous temper and independence, as well as her emotional mind are not accepted by her father who is determined to decide about his daughters marriage partner. Heimat becomes an uncanny experience, and thus unhomely for Wally. The natural setting of Heimat, whic h seemed to be a place of retreat for Ldersen, now turns into a threatening place for Caps female protagonist. While representing home and security for the main character in Grn ist die Heide the local community in die Geierwally becomes a site of humi liation for Wally. Although the representation of Heimat and its association with home and security in a natural setting is a different one in Caps film, D i e Geierwally closes with the characteristical happy ending when Wally and Josef reunite.
33 Conclusio n The rural setting constitutes a fundamental element of the traditional Heimatfilm of the 1950s. Alpine sceneries as well as pictorial landscapes such as vast grasslands, lakesides, lush forests and heathlands become the focal point of the Heimatfilm plo t. The characters perform their labor in nature, create bonds in nature, and even find love in nature. However, the rural setting of the traditional Heimatfilm can take on different meanings for its characters. For Ldersen, nature becomes a site of comfor t and identification, and the only place where he is able to overcome the notion of homelessness. For Ethelbert, on the other hand, nature represents an alien locale to which he has to adapt first. Through his confrontation with Dick at the river embankmen t, Ethelbert literally "jumps" into his new environment and absorbs nature metaphorically when bedaubing his clothes. For Wally in turn, the natural realm becomes a site of uncanniness when she is sent to the Alm as a punishment for her actions. Nonethele ss, all three films praise the natural setting and make it a prominent element of the cinematic representation. Detailed visual descriptions of colorful landscapes highlight the significance of the rural locale, and acknowledge nature as another main chara cter of the traditional Heimatfilm genre.
34 CHAPTER 3 MODERN HEIMAT Introduction Die Heimat ist ja nie schner, als wenn man in der Fremde von ihr spricht. Horst Wolfram Geiler Die Frau, die man liebt Whereas die Fremde has been depicted as a threateni ng foreign territory in the traditional Heimatfilm, it is portrayed as a space of security and wish fulfillment in the subsequent Heimatfilm genres. With the emergence of the critical Heimatfilm, the province is transformed into a place of bigotry and viol ence, as featured in Peter Fleischmanns Jagdszenen aus Niederbayern (1969, Hunting Scenes from Bavaria ). For Fleischmanns protagonist, ostracized by the village community, the city thus provides the possibility of a safe escape. The contemporary Heimatfi lm in turn, exemplified by the film s of Marcus H. Rosenmller, illustrates the province as a rural idyll, but represents the foreign territory as a space of wish fulfillment and self realization, as demonstrated in his works Wer frher stirbt ist lnger t ot (2006, Grave Decisions ) and Beste Zeit (2007, Good Time s ). Dismantling of the Rural Idyll: The Notion of Anti Heimat As a time of continuous change, the 1960s marked a cultural and historical turning point. The Heimatfilmwelle of the 1950s eventually ab ated when the Oberhausener Manifest transformed German film culture significantly. In 1962, young German filmmakers signed a manifesto, which rejected Papas Kino epitomized by the traditional Heimatfilm (von Moltke, No Place Like Home 203). The manifesto demanded a new German feature film which should not only aim to please the consumer society, but meet certain artistic expectations as well. The young filmmakers, such as Edgar Reitz or
35 Alexander Kluge, assured that they are "collectively prepared to take economic risks," in order to enforce their claim (Knight 30). They stated that New German Cinema ( Neuer Deutscher Film reflect the innovative, experimental cinematic language of the youn g directors (Knight 30). These directors endeavored to employ film not only as entertainment medium, but to encourage their audience to think and reflect critically The Heimatfilm genre of the 1950s, with its trivial and predictable plots, could not sati sfy the demands of the young German filmmakers. Idyllic, unrealistic scenarios were the main reason to attract audiences after the war, since recurring motifs and predictable happy endings evoked a sense of stability and security. Through the Heimatfilme Germans were able to find their desired idyll on screen and thus had an opportunity to experience a heile W elt through the medium film. This suppression of reality signifies a psychological escapism into an imaginary world. In this respect, Willi Hfig men tions in his standard work Der deutsche Heimatfilm 1947 1960 the Heimatfilms similarities with fairy tales. Hfig states that both the fairy tale as well as the Trivialfilm a film primarily aiming to entertain the audience and thus, according to Hfig also including the German Heimatfilm war realities, but instead depicts an idyllic world set in a remote province. In order to meet the requirements of the young filmmakers, the Heimatfilm genre had to be modified significantly, and a new notion of Anti Heimat emerged. The Heimat idyll including the depiction of a heile Welt is "destroyed" in this genre of the Anti ner ). Represented by directors such
36 as Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Peter Fleischmann, and Volker Schlndorff, this newly established genre displayed the social structures in postwar Germany from a different Alpenwestern ). This new notion of Anti Heimat revealed the inner view of the films characters in an authentic and unadorned way. I nstead of untouched landscapes and loving couples, the critical Heimatfilme depicted rural life and peasantry with all its harsh realities. Hence, the local in the Anti ruptures, of unreconciled hierarchies and stark class divisions, of prejudice and No Place Like Home 206). Protagonists were mainly victims of the war and outsiders in any form in order to demonstrate that the clichd Heimat idyll of the 1950s portrayed a false and dist orted image of the past ( Donner ). Donner thus argues that the Anti Heimatfilm with its authentic depiction of social Heimat idyll, as Hans Deppe and his contemporaries of t he 1950s depicted it, did not exist anymore. Jagdszenen aus Niederbayern (1969, Hunting Scenes from Bavaria ) exemplifies this notion of Anti Heimat both on a narrative and aesthetic level (Buchheim). The film is set in the small village Unholzing in Lower Bavaria, which turns out to be the exact opposite of the idyllic province introduced by the traditional Heimatfilm. When mechanic Abram returns from a short stay in the city to his hometown, he is suspec ted of being homosexual and gradually becomes the outsider of the conservative local community. The villagers avoid
37 Abram, who they think has spent his time in prison when he left Unholzing for the city. Accused of touching a mentally handicapped boy, Abra m decides to leave Unholzing again. The situation escalates when maid Hannelore claims to expect Abrams child. Out of panic, Abram attacks her with a knife and escapes to the forest. Each member of the local community takes part in the ensuing manhunt. Al though Fleischmanns Jagdszenen displays the typical setting of the traditional Heimatfilm most scenes are set at the farm, the local tavern, or the church the depicted community and their rural lifestyle both reflect Anti Heimat remarkably forthright The village Unholzing is depicted as a place of hostility and malevolent atmosphere. Abram, the homosexual ex convict, is not the only outsider in Fleischmanns film. The locals gossip about w idow Maria, who "could have respected a certain period of mour ning" after her husbands death, before publicly displaying her love for farm hand Volker with the wooden leg. Marias mentally handicapped son Ernstl as well as a group of Turkish guest workers are taunted by the villagers for their disability to commun icate in proper German. Maid Hannelore, constantly surrounded by men, is known as the towns "easy girl." When her affection for Abram is not returned, she decides to give in to Volker, who promises to reimburse her at a later point. Men in Fleischmanns f ilm are portrayed as violent and lecherous in their behavior towards women. A scene in the pig pen dramatically stages this violence when Hannelore, drunken and defenseless, tries to escape a group of farm hands groping and mocking her. Fleischmanns chara cters do not represent the typical Heimat community which is characterized by a sense of togetherness and security. Rather, Unholzing is marked by parochial, distrustful villagers who enjoy infidelity, gossiping, and ostracizing outsiders.
38 Fleischmanns fi emphasizing the notion of Anti Heimat through its characters ( Buchheim) The same hostility seems to be predominant within family constellations. Whereas values like reliability, trustfulness, and love defined a strong family bond in the traditional Heimatfilm the opposite is the case in Fleischmanns film. When Abram returns from the city, his mother does not say a word to her son when he arrives at the bus station. Abrams mother Barbara, tir ed of justifying herself against the continuous gossip about her son, sends Abram away with the words: "You dont have any right! One has no right when one is against nature! I hope theyll beat you until you leave voluntarily." Barbara joins the hostile a ttitude directed against Abram, since it is "important what people say, I want to live with them." For Abrams mother, staying part of the local community is more important than the relationship to her own son. She assures that she made every effort to rai se Abram as a decent man, but that even locking him up and beating him did not prevent him from becoming a pervert. In the Anti Heimatfilm, the domestic realm becomes a site of violence where fragile family bonds are prevalent. In addition to Fleischmann s narrative depiction of social structures within the local community, the director communicates the notion of Anti Heimat on a visual level as well. The films mise en sc ne captures the harsh realities of farm life through an authentic play, as well as through Alain Derobes documentary camera. Mainly shot with amateur actors, most of them the actual inhabitants of the Bavarian village Unholzing, the film represents rural lifestyle in a convincing and genuine way (Johnson). With its black and white foot age, Fleischmanns film forms a stark contrast to the
39 traditional Heimatfilm with its colorful illustration of the rural setting. The camera relentlessly captures the notion of Anti Heimat without distorting or euphemizing the daily routine of peasant life One sequence explicitly shows the slaughtering of a pig, a picture that surely would not have be en part of a 1950s Heimatfilm. Numerous close ups document the process of slaughtering, skinning, and gutting the pig, portraying the killing of animals as pa rt of the villagers everyday life. The staged violence seems to be a banality for the children, as they integrate parts of the dead pig into their play (Fig. 3 1. A B). Through the blunt depiction of killing, drinking and sex as element of the communitys daily routine, Fleischmanns Jagdszenen becomes a counter image of the 1950s Heimatfilm. Figure 3 1. The children include the slaughtered pig in their play (A B). One similarity of Fleischmanns Jagdszenen and the traditional Heimatfilm is the still n oticeable antagonism between city and country. When Maria states : bringing all those scandals to our vil lage? We are just fighting back, she implies that Abram, who has just returned from the city, has a bad influence on the village society. Abram s mother points out that, although his homosexuality might be "modern" in the city, lifestyle is different in the village. Barbaras remark underscores the conservative values of the village society which demand conformity in order be accepted as a
40 member of the community. As Abram refuses to adjust, he gets arrested in the end, while Unholzing celebrates at a local festival the restoration of the ostensible idyll. Fleischmanns film suggests that the urban setting, albeit associated with negative connotat ions in the traditional Heimatfilm, might indeed offer better living conditions for Abram than the hostile community of Unholzing. Thus, the critical Heimatfilm turns "the values of staying and leaving upside down," suggesting that the flight to the city a llows outsiders to remain true to their values and principles (von Moltke, No Place Like Home 206). Whereas the traditional Heimatfilm presented Heimat as a place of shelter, the depiction of the city as a "safe haven" links the village to a notion of unca nniness in the critical Heimatfilm (von Moltke, No Place Like Home 206). According to Daniel Alexander Schacht, Heimat in the Anti Heimatfilm is no longer a place of security ; the restricted village world rather becomes an uncanny place for the protagonist (215). Just as in Fleischmanns film, the city represents a desire d destination for characters in contemporary Heimat c inema. The following section examine s two contemporary works of the Bavarian Heimatfilm director Marcus H. Rosenmller, who redefined th e traditional Heimat concept and presented it in a modern way. The Renaissance of Heimat in Contemporary German Cinema: The Modern Heimatfilm of Marcus H. Rosenmller Although Heimat was considered critically during the late 1960s, the concept of Heimat st ill continued to be present on the German screen thereafter. Even the forerunner of the Heimatfilm, the Bergfilm (mountain film), celebrated a comeback in the first decade of the twenty first century with Philipp Stlzls Nordwand (2008, North Face ) or Jos eph Vilsmaiers Nanga Parbat (2010). The Bavarian director Marcus H. Rosenmller is one of the leading contemporary Heimatfilm directors, since his films
41 recall the original idea of Heimat and present it in a modern way. The setting of the modern Heimatfil m continues the conventions of its forerunner: Remote villages far from the big city, surrounded by mountains, lakes, and vast corn fields or grasslands. However, Rosenmller gradually transcend s the gap between Heimat and the foreign; his characters even display a high affinity for mobility and travel. The main characters in Rosenmllers films are also part of a local com munity; but instead of portraying the life of peasants struggling with the challenges of everyday life, the plots of the modern Heimatfi lm often focus on the issues the peasants children have to face. By depicting the conflicts young adults are experiencing, Rosenmllers modern Heimatfilm often overlaps with the coming of age drama. Therefore, this rediscovered genre has become a crucial part of popular German cinema, since it addresses the target group of the feature film industry. Statistics show that German films have been on the upswing during the last years ( Figure 3 2.) According to SPIO ( Head Organization of the Germ an Film Indus try ), the number of visitors of German films has risen from 13.1 million up to 34.1 million between 1994 and 2006, which means a growth of more than 100% (spio.de). Surveys show that German films gained popularity within the past few years, especially amon g young audiences with a high affinity for audio visual media. The reason for that are qualities like "authenticity, content and good dialogs" (ffa.de). Besides comedies, such as Der Schuh des Manitu (2001, Manitou's Shoe ), and historical films, such as Da s Leben der Anderen (2006, The Lives of Others ), the modern Heimatfilm constitutes another popular genre for German audiences.
42 Figure 3 2. The German film: number of moviegoers from 1994 2006 in million. Rosenmllers Wer frher stirbt ist lnger tot (2006, Grave Decisions ) attracted 1.8 million moviegoers, not only in Bavaria, but in the whole republic (Buchheim). The directors success of bringing back nostalgic images of the Austro German landscapes on screen shows that the Heimatfilm is far from be ing a dying genre. Rosenmllers productions demonstrate that the concept of Heimat is still omnipresent in German minds and film culture. The Sound of Heimat in Wer frher stirbt, ist lnger tot Rosenmllers debut feature Wer frher stirbt, ist lnger to t exemplifies the modern Heimatfilm in various ways. The film tells a Bavarian Lausbubengeschichte (rascal story) about 11 year old Sebastian, who lives with his widowed father Lorenz and his brother Franz in Germringen. Sebastian gets in trouble almost ev ery day, most of the time unintentionally. When he finds out that his mother died at his birthday, Sebastian feels responsible for her death. His feelings of guilt dominate his life and even his dreams, since Sebastian is convinced to be punished with purg atory for all of his sins. To avoid this divine punishment, he starts to look for an easy way to become
43 immortal. As his plan of making amends through finding a new wife for his father turns out to be difficult to realize, Sebastian decides to learn how to play the guitar and become an immortal rock star. Whereas typical German folk music accompanied the plot of the t raditional Heimatfilm, Rosenmllers film is characterized by modern rock melodies. This change of music entails a change of focus regarding t he locus of Heimat. In Grn ist die Heide, music functions both as commentary on the plot, as well as a contribution to the No Place Like Home 90). The opening sequen ce of Grn ist die Heide starts with a slow pan over the branches of a tree before the titles roll. A song introduces the setting and the camera reveals three singers as source of the music. While singing their song, they stroll through the countryside and praise the Luneburg Whereas Deppe places the locus of Heimat in nature, and thus an exterior space, Rosenmller locates Heimat within his characters. He does not characterize the setting of his film trough music, but rather us es music in order to express a characters emotion or to create emotional links between characters. For the protagonist, music creates an emotional link between him and his mother. Sebastians feelings of guilt for his mothers death prevent his feelings o Rosenmllers Heimat is associated with an interior space. Sebastian thinks he has to become immortal in order to solve his inner conflict. But in the end, it is music which helps him regaining his Heimat. Mus ic plays a crucial role in Rosenmllers Wer frher stirbt, ist lnger tot and expresses, in combination with modern camera techniques, the films main idea of
44 immo rtality. The films opening shows a radio station on top of a mountain which is gradually ap proached by the camera through a helicopter shot. The ensuing cut to the interior of the radio station is followed by successive close up shots of photographs showing rock legends such as Kurt Cobain and Elvis Presley. The scene is accompanied by a catchy rock melody playing on the radio which underscores the setting in this opening sequence. After the radio host Alfred announced to play the same rock song again, the camera leaves the radio station through the window to introduce the surrounding area with a nother helicopter shot. The unfastened camera creates new dimensions of space by being able to cross the cinematic frames. Within a few seconds, the spectator is able to "travel" from the interior of the radio station to the outside of the building, thus b ecoming an equal part of the camera eye. In addition, Rosenmller employs the time lapse technique in order to increase the cameras pace, which conveys a feeling of floating and weightlessness to the spectator. This camera technique combined with the soun dtrack already establishes the basic emotion Rosenmllers film expresses: that rock music liberates and enables immortality. Rosenmller employs this first rock song in order to introduce the main characters and the conflict of his film. The radio host, who chooses to play the song twice, since it costumes hanging on a clothes rail, and each seems to be standing for a certain musical genre. Next, we see a truck driver listening to the same song on the radio. He turns up the volume and moves along with the music. The driver is crosscut with Sebastian riding his bike at the farmyard and listening to the same song on his portable radio. As the music rises, both scenes inte rsect in an accident in which Sebastian is
45 thrown off his bike. At this point, Rosenmller confronts the spectator with death for the first time, the main topic of his film. Even though the spectator believes that Sebastian is dead when lying in the street after a few seconds, the boy stands up with the simple accidently kills his brothers rabbits. Franz then confronts him with the fact that Sebastian is also responsible f or his mothers death. Music in Wer frher stirbt, ist lnger tot helps Sebastian in coming to terms with his mothers death and thus in finding Heimat within himself. Therefore, Rosenmller not only includes music on an aural level, but also as a main el ement of the narrative. At a field trip to the radio station, Sebastian and his classmates learn about music from Alfred who is shocked that the children do not know rock legend Jimi Hendrix. After Alfred tells them that Jimi Hendrix is dead and yet immort al through his music, Sebastian decides to make music as well. When he finds his mothers old guitar, the instrument is presented as holy and valuable. Through lighting, Rosenmller casts this key scene as a very important moment for Sebastian. As the boy slowly opens the guitar case, a light shines out of it and lightens up his face (Fig. 3 3. A B). Figure 3 3. Sebastian opens the guitar case (A), and his face lightens up. (B)
46 When Sebastian plays along a record of the fictional rock star John Ferdinand Woodstock, he immerges into a short reverie, imagining how it would be to play on stage with a rock band. Rosenmller uses a similar camera technique as in the films opening sequence. The camera slowly circles around the room in the tavern, with Sebastia n always in focus in the middle of the frame, making it appear as if the room is moving around Sebastian, who is suddenly surrounded by a rock band which is playing the song al ong with him (Figure 3 4. A D). Figure 3 4. Sebastian playing along the recor d while the room is slowly rotating around him (A B) until he is suddenly surrounded by a rock band (C D). Playing guitar means being close to his mother to Sebastian. He practices everyday and even commits a crime by stealing a new guitar after the old on e breaks. Sebastians commitment to music helps him in coming to terms with his strong feelings of guilt. In the end, we see Sebastian playing a song on his guitar at the radio station, music, Sebastian is finally able to get over his mothers death and realizes that it is not him
47 who became immortal, but the memory of his mother. Hence, Sebastian finally finds Heimat within himself. Rosenmller and Uncanniness The notion of the uncanny is also present in Rosenmllers modern Heimatfilm Wer frher stirbt, ist lnger tot Compared to Caps Die Geierwally where uncanniness and the protagonists fears are mainly expressed through camera work and editing techni ques (as discussed in chapter two ), Rosenmller includes the notion of the uncanny on a narrative level. As in Caps Die Geierwally the notion of the uncanny is Heimatlosigkeit Whereas Wally felt heimatl os on top of the mountain and at the local folk festival among the villagers, Sebastian feels the same way at home. As long as he is haunted by guilt, he suffers nightmares and the fear of being punished with purgatory. But as soon as he finds a way of com ing to terms with his feelings of guilt for his mothers death, which has been the source of his Heimatlosigkeit his fears disappear. When Sebastian plays a song at the radio station in the last scene, Alfred tells him that he is finally about to become i mmortal. Even though this was Sebastians motivation in Instead of depicting the protagonists fears through close ups, Sebastians fears are visually narrated through his rec urring nightmares and imaginations. After Sebastian found out about the actual circumstances of his mothers death, he suffers from insomnia. Meanwhile, his fathers friends rehearse a play about a trial of a witch downstairs in the tavern. Through the air shaft, their voices carry to Sebastians room, and the trial of the witch in the play becomes part of his dream. We see him running through heavy rain to the local cemetery where he kneels down at his mothers grave,
48 apologizing for causing her death. Sud denly, a hand is reaching out of the grave, and Sebastian starts from his sleep. But the nightmare is not over yet and he finds himself at a trial, being judged for all of his sins with purgatory. Besides Sebastians nightmares, the uncanny is also present ed through his fantasies and reveries during the day. At a birthday party, Sebastian tells a local folk tale about the burning of witches at the Danninger Lake. His story is visualized as a dream sequence, which shows a burning witch that puts a spell on h er murderers who end up dying in the swamp. At the next full moon, the children go to the swamp to find out, if the folk tale is true. They actually see Lorenz and Sebastians teacher Veronika in the lake who they mistakenly consider as the undead bog peop le of the folk tale. Sebastians vivid imagination takes the uncanny to another level and makes it part of his own reality. After his fathers friends jokingly tell him that he needs to find a vampire to make him immortal, Sebastian is convinced to see one on the train in a later scene. Rosenmller depicts the uncanny not only as a subliminal feeling, but as part of his protagonists daily reality. Uncanniness is omnipresent in Sebastians life as well as in his dreams, and stems from his anxieties and vivi d fantasies. Nonetheless, Rosenmller embeds the notion of the uncanny in an ironic and humorous way in his film. City and Country: A Convergence Whereas the modern urban setting was depicted as the foreign other in the traditional Heimatfilm, Rosenmlle rs film overcomes the gulf between the city and the country. In Wer frher stirbt, ist lnger tot the city constitutes a place of wish fulfillment for the protagonist Sebastian. After his mothers guitar broke during a fight with his father, Sebastian dec ides to replace the instrument with a new guitar from the music store in the city. In a later scene, we see Sebastian entering the cabin of a train, which
49 creates a link between the urban and the rural setting. Through modern means of transportation, Sebas tian is able to travel back and forth between h is Heimat Germringen and the city of Munich. It is noticeable how easy it seems for the young boy to cross the borders, since Sebastian is only used to ride his bike or drive through the village on a tractor. It appears as if travelling between city and country is a familiar matter for the protagonist. He has no difficulties in orientating himself at Munichs central station or in the city itself, and knows where to go without a city map. Even though both space s are linked through the travel sequence, the next scene emphasizes the differences between the country and the city when Sebastian arrives at the music store. When Sebastian learns that he is not able to afford a new guitar, he tries to apply the rules of a rural community by asking for the possibility to put the instrument on tab If a customer is not able to pay right away, this would be a common procedure in a rural setting, since the local community is usually familiar with all of its members. But in t he city, Sebastian learns, it is not possible. Therefore, he decides that stealing the guitar is his only option. By traveling to the city in order to get a new guitar, the urban setting becomes a place of wish fulfillment for Sebastian. Since the guitar i s also becoming the main factor in regaining Heimat for him, the antagonism between city and country is almost abrogated. Language also creates a link between the urban and the rural setting in Rosenmllers film. Sebastian lives in a community, which empl oys the Bavarian dialect as the basis for communication. When Sebastian arrives at the music store in the city, however, the sales man is talking to him with a Bavarian dialect as well. This creates a communicative convergence between the city and the coun try dwellers, reducing the
50 discrepancy between the urban and the rural setting. The representatives of both locales are able to approach each other and communicate without difficulties. When the police drive Sebastian back to Germringen, the policeman talk s to Sebastians father with a Bavarian dialect as well. Furthermore, by crossing the borders between the two locales city and country again, Rosenmller emphasizes the connection between the two as well as the protagonists affinity for mobility. Compared to the traditional Heimatfilm, which mainly depicted the city dwellers coming to the countryside, Rosenmllers protagonist travels from the country to the city. Leaving their Heimat behind seems to be no obstacle for the villager anymore. Rosenmllers W er frher stirbt, ist lnger t ot displays an affinity for mobility, traveling and the foreign as part of the modern Heimat concept. The protagonist travels to the big city to fulfill his wish of a new guitar. In Rosenmllers film Beste Zeit (2007, Good Ti me s ), this affinity for traveling is even more intensified and expressed as a longing for the foreign. Whereas Sebastian only traveled to the next city, the main character in Beste Zeit decides to leave Germany to go to a foreign country. Leaving Heimat Be hind in Rosenmllers Beste Zeit Beste Zeit also set in a small Bavarian village, tells the story of farmers daughter Kati, who gets the opportunity to leave her hometown Tandern to take part in a student exchange program with America for one year. Even though this is what she longed for, she realizes that her Bavarian Heimat might be the place where she actually wants to be. Therefore she has to decide, whether she prefers to stay with her friends and family, or if she is finally ready to live her dream of freedom and independence by traveling to another country.
51 In Beste Zeit the notion of Heimat is ubiquitous and, just as in the traditional Heimatfilm, located in a rural setting. In the opening scene, the two main characters Kati and her best girlfrie nd Jo meet in the early morning to watch the sun rising on top of a hill. This scene emphasizes the beauty of nature and how it is perceived by the girls. Throughout the film, nature plays an important role and becomes a secret retreat for Kati and Jo. Non etheless, Kati does not see her home as paradise, like Dick and Dalli see Immenhof for example. Kati feels caged and limited at their little farm in Tandern and is convinced that she is only able to experience freedom abroad. Many times, we see her sneakin g out of her window and climbing down the balcony at night to go out. Her rejection of Tandern suggests that Heimat for her means limitation and dependence. Katis feeling of being trapped is contrasted to the myriad long shots of the vast fields of Tander n. But the possibility of finding freedom in nature is prevented by the omnipresent conflict between Kati and her father. Katis father is presented as the typical patriarch of the Heimatfilm. Yet, his way of parenting seems more comprehensible for the sp ectator as opposed to the patriarch in Die Geierwally since his actions seem reasonable and mainly result from his fear of letting his daughter leave. Rosenmller depicts him as head of the family, being responsible for all important matters at the far m as well as in the house. Just as the father of Wally, Katis father does not like her boyfriend and tells her how to behave in several situations. When the family is working in the fields, he complains about Katis work ethic. In a later scene, he suspec ts Kati of having smoked cigarettes. Kati reacts like a typical teenager at her age and gives her father a defiant response. He, in turn,
52 to leave soon, and that she even thinks about continuing her academic future in America. As her father wont believe her, she gets angry and throws the pitchfork on the ground. When her father asks her to pick it up again, Kati demonstrates her feeling of Die Geierwally Kati is not sent away by her father, she rather decides to leave on her own. Nonetheless, one can sense that both Kati and her father are afrai d of her leaving home, but at this point, none of them is able to communicate their feelings. Fusion of Heimat with t he Foreign In Beste Zeit Rosenmller depicts the foreign as an omnipresent element of Heimat. The Bavarian village Tandern is situated at a flight lane and the director uses various shots of planes gliding through the sky. While watching those planes, Kati realizes how easy it could be to leave her Heimat Tandern behind by just taking the next plane to America. By interrupting the plot with long shots of planes, the director constantly reminds Kati and the spectator of the connection and proximity between the two locales Heimat and Fremde thus foregrounding the element of traveling again. After Kati receives the acceptance letter from the Am erican exchange organization, her ambivalent reaction reveals her doubts and fears concerning the decision of going abroad. Her best friend Jo is excited when she hears about the news, but Kati is afraid to miss everything when she leaves Germany for one w hole year. The next scene pinpoints Katis inner conflict and the juxtaposition of Heimat and the foreign ( Figure 3 5. A D). Kati tries to find some time to think in nature, and rereads the letter while sitting in the meadow under a tree. This tree embodie s Katis secret retreat and is therefore an important part of her Heimat. The camera slowly approaches Kati who longingly
53 watches the vast fields surrounding her, holding the letter and information brochures of the exchange organization in her hands in a m edium shot. Rosenmller cuts to an extreme close up of Katis eyes, first watching the horizon before slowly turning up to the sky where the paths of t w o planes intersect and leave a cross behind. This image echoes an earlier scene, where Kati and Jo promi se, that their paths will always cross. The shot of the planes is followed by a series of different shots of Kati, lying in the grass or leaning against the tree while reading through the different brochures. The branches of the tree and the blue sky are c overed when Kati lifts up her hands holding a brochure and the frame is fully occupied by pictures of Manhattans Skyline and the Statue of Liberty. This scene links images of Tanderns nature with images of America, therefore combining the two locales on a visual level. Figure 3 5. Kati is looking up and sees two planes cross ing (A B). The next frame shows her natural surroundings (C), followed by the brochure with pictures of America filling the frame (D). Besides connecting Heimat and the foreign visu ally, Rosenmller also links Tandern and America through his use of language. Katis mother decides to take an
54 English language class to be able to communicate with her daughter when she leaves. Shortly before the above discussed scene, Kati is chatting wi th her mother in the driveway of their house. Their conversation consists of both English sentences and since Katis mother, who possesses only little English skills, tra nslates the Bavarian This also adds a humorous dimension to the scene. Kati participates in this bilingual languages connects Katis Bavarian culture with the foreign American culture on a linguistic level. The modern Heimatfilm of Marcus H. Rosenmller do es not only differ from the traditional Heimatfilm in terms of aesthetics due to technological progress a nd thus greater visual possibilities but mainly through a visible shift of the locus and the idea of Heimat itself. Rosenmllers protagonists developed an affinity for traveling and are not afraid to cross borders to experience the foreign. Instead of d epicting the foreign as a threat, Rosenmller ascribes an element of attraction to the foreign space. Even though Kati is not able to leave Tandern in the end of the film, Rosenmller addresses the topic of travelling again in the sequel Beste Gegend (2008 Best Place ). Through depicting the idea of travel and the attraction to the foreign, the modern Heimatfilm suggests a mobility of the locus of Heimat and thus conveys the possibility that Heimat itself is able to cross borders or can even be present in a n urban setting. Conclusion After Oberhausen, which marked a turning point in German film history and culture, the Heimatfilm as well as the understanding of the Heimat concept underwent a significant change. The Anti Heimatfilm, with its critical depictio n of the village society,
5 5 deconstructs the cliched rural idyll as it was introduced by the traditional post war Heimatfilm. Instead, the province becomes a realm in which fascist politics dominate peasant life. As opposed to the Heimatfilm of the 1950s, th e social dynamics of the village community in the critical Heimatfilm are mainly characterized by the physical crudeness of its peasant characters. Heimat, which used to be a site of security, is presented as a place of social bigotry and violence in the A nti Heimatfilm. The flight to the city therefore becomes an appealing possibility for the outsider, who is not accepted by the local village community. Contemporary filmmaker Marcus H. Rosenmller reconciles the country dwellers with the province, but simu ltaneously portrays an affinity for the foreign locale. For Rosenmllers characters, crossing the borders between the rural and the urban locale is presented as a matter of daily routine, even the opportunity to leave Germany for a foreign country offers a chance for self realization beyond the familiar borders. In depicting traveling characters, Rosenmller suggests that the notion of Heimat has a mobile dimension, and is not necessarily a limited space. This conception is further investigated in the las t chapter of this study, which examines the notion of home from the perspective of mobile characters, such as the tourist or the migrant. This raises the question, whether Heimat represents an exclusively German concept, or if the concept of Heimat could b e reconsidered as a global idea.
56 CHAPTER 4 URBAN HEIMAT Introduction Heimat ist kein geographischer Begriff. Man trgt sie in sich selbst. Andrej Sinjawskij H aving a Heimat, means having a home, which in most cases equals the place where one is born and grows up. This raises the question, if immigrants, travelers, or guest workers, people who are forced to or willingly change places, are able to find a new home beyond their birthplace. How does the mobility of people affect the spatiality of Heimat? T his chapter examines the spatial aspects of the term Heimat, suggesting that Heimat cannot be localized within certain geographic borders, but rather represents an inner sense of belonging and identity. Therefore, Heimat can be created or recreated in mult iple places, even beyond the rural locale and outside the German borders. Fatih Soul Kitchen (2009) replaces the provincial setting of the traditional Heimatfilm with the urban spaces of Hamburg, where his protagonists come together around food and and underscores its mobile characteristic. This chapter furthermore suggests, that the Heimat idea is not necessarily restricted to German cinema, but that the notion of H eimat can be experienced individually, even in a global context. In discussing two episodes of the anthology film Paris, Je T aime (2006, Paris, I love You ), this chapter explores how Heimat is experienced by both an American tourist visiting the French ca pital, as well as a Muslim immigrant with Paris as permanent place of residence. in: Hamer, Mark.
57 Heimat in The City? Although commonly conceived as a place within geographic borders, Heimat includes a mobile characteristic which needs to be considered in the definition of the term. Many scholars have associated Heimat with a rural setting and thus emphasized the particular spatial dimension of the concept of homeland. Hermann Bausinger for e xample claims that even though it may not be possible to delimit Heimat with a ny precision, it can be located in space (von Moltke, No Place Like Home 10). However, this claim does not fully reflect the development of the term Heimat. In her article New Places, New Identities: The (Ever)Changing Concept of Heimat, Uta Larkey sta tes that the traditional Heimat concept, which generally included a "spatial aspect closely connected to a particular region or even neighborhood," was modified during the past few years (24). According to Larkey, the traditional concept of Heimat shifted in the second half of the twentieth century to what she calls "postmodern Heimat," which includes "identity, reflection and self reflection, the loss of Heimat and even multiple Heimaten (24). Eduard Beutner, the editor of Ferne Heimat n ahe Fremde: Bei Dichtern und Nachdenkern also mentions a tendency of having more than one home, to have several "Heimaten" (16). In defining the word Heimat, Beutner mentions the term (non place), and states that people indeed need an Ortsfestigkeit (a per manent positioning), but one which always changes (Beutner 7 8). Consequently, Heimat can be identified as a mobile concept, one that is in fact rather rooted within a person than in that persons environment. Therefore, Heimat is not necessarily restricte d within the boundaries of an enclosed locale but rather expresses an internal sense of belonging which can travel with people through spaces.
58 The possibility to experience Heimat in an urban setting is dependent on the sensual and physical interaction o f the individual with its surrounding. In his book Stadt als Heimat Schrifts tellerinnen und Schriftsteller ussern sich zu Stadtgestalt, Geborgenheit und Entfremdung which is addressed to city planners, inhabitants as well as visitors of a city, Swiss a uthor Hans Boesch explains how the city as a living space can become Heimat. He mentions that rootlessness and alienation can indeed be the logical consequences of changing surroundings (Boesch 16). However, it is important to rfahrbare Umwelt," that is to say an environment in which inhabitants are able to experience their surrounding with all their senses (Boesch 25). n childhood, one develops a stabilizing element an anchor point, a landmark, and a buoy in the chaos, which we can return to the possibilities of a sensual environment could not be preserved or recreated in a new surrou nding (Boesch 25). Boesch concludes that experiencing Heimat in an urban for inter personal relationships as well as vivid, sensual contacts (Boesch 29). With perform and contribute to their community, and thus identify with it (Boesch 29). Apart from the ext erior circumstances, Boesch also mentions an interior dimension when (30).
59 Not only does the individual need to sensually experience the urban locale, but also contribute phy sically to their environment. According to Swiss writer Erika Burkart, consequence, people are able to create another Heimat beyond their place of birth "through the investment of physical labour and a concomitant spiritual attachment" (Boa experiences which shape the memories connected to that place (Stavenhagen 45). Hence, the sensual experience of ones surrounding, self reflection, identification, as well as physical investment and self realization play a crucial role in the creation or recreation of Heima t in an urban setting. Heimat a nd Modernity: The Stadtheimatfilm Even though the terms Heimat and city seem to be mutually exclusive in respect of their conception of modernity, there is a link between the two locales. As opposed to Heimat, the city repres ents an urban space usually associated with modernity, velocity, and technology which, in contrast to the quiet rural life, produces "quickly changing impressions on individuals" (Mennel 25). Alon Confino points out that scholars used to label Heimat as an antimodern concept, and that this perceived contradiction between modernity and Heimat was "a result of the putative dichotomy between modern and hand mourning the past preservation of national roots and the continuation of modernity and the prosperity it and modernity, which imp lies a connection between Heimat and the city.
60 City and Heimat converge in the genre of the "urban Heimatfilm," epitomized by Reitzs saga Die zweite Heimat Chronik einer Jugend ( 1993, Heimat II: A Chronicle of a Generation ) which redefines the Heimat c oncept as an idealistic idea. In Home Again: Revisiting the New German Cinema in Edgar Reitzs Die Zweite Heimat (1993) scholar Johannes von Moltke discusses a subgenre identified by a group of authors as the "urban Heimatfilm ," or the "'Stadtheimatfilm'" (121). Edgar Reitz, whose "obsession with Heimat [has] already become a sort of trademark of the director," relocates the sequel to his 1984 series Heimat Eine Deutsche Chronik ( Heimat A German Chronicle ) from the fictional village Schabbach to the Ba varian metropolis Munich (von Moltke, Home Again 119). Die zweite Heimat Chronik einer Jugend starts with the departure of Hermann Simon, who is leaving the province, his Heimat Schabbach, behind in order to study music at the Munich conservatory. Even t hough both series are concerned with the generic and cultural dimensions of Heimat, it seems that Die Zweite Heimat ascribes a reversed meaning to that term and rather becomes the counterpart to Heimat than its sequel (von Moltke, Home Again 119 120). Ju st like Hermann, who first has to acquaint himself with his new urban environment, the audience of the series has to get used to the new setting the director chose for his sequel (von Moltke, Home Again 120). Although Hermanns plan to attend university me ans leaving behind his place of birth and childhood, he seems to be determined to make himself a new home in Munich, a second home. Hermann describes his departure as a second birth: "I was born a second time. Not by my mother this time, but out of my own head. I set out to look for my 'second home' ['zweite Heimat']" (von Moltke, Home Again 120). However, Hermanns intention of recreating Heimat in the new urban setting negates the
61 stereotypical terms such as community, birthplace, and familiarity, with wh ich Heimat is commonly associated (von Moltke, Home Again 121). In fact, Hermann is convinced to find all the aspects of Heimat in art: "Music shall be my only love and my Heimat (von Moltke, Home Again 120). Hermanns redefinition of Heimat demonstrates that the dimensions of that term apparently go beyond its spatial boundaries, suggesting that Heimat originates within oneself, through ones ideals, or as Hermann would put it, "out of ones head." Hence, Heimat is not tied to a certain locale anymore, b ut rather to a place which establishes and forms identities, and which allows for choosing "ones 'authentic' self" (von Moltke, Home Again 121). This includes the possibility of devoting oneself to ones passions, fulfilling ones dreams and experiencing love, in Hermanns case, a love for music. These qualifications are not limited to a certain territory, but can be fulfilled in multiple places. This also implies that one is not limited to only one Heimat, or a second Heimat, but rather multiple Heimaten, or one which is extensible. In the TV documentary Adeus und Goodbye (2001, directed by Peter Patzak ), which traces the reasons for the emigration of Germans, former journalist and writer Manfred von Conta talks about his "ever expanding Heimat" in an inte rview: "'First, I went to school in Berlin, and that was my Heimat Then I was evacuated to East Prussia... after that evacuation to Upper Franconia. Then my Heimat was Berlin and East Prussia, and Upper Franconia. Then I lived in Munich and Vienna... My H eimat became even bigger'" (Larkey 32). The notion of Heimat can be experienced in multiple places, even when crossing national or international borders, like guest workers, immigrants, or travelers do.
62 The Cinema of Inbetween Experiencing the foreign and the notion of alienation as results of a life between two cultures are the key issues of the so called "Kino der Fremdheit" (cinema of foreignness), which emerged in Germany between the 1970s and 1980s (Seelen, Fremdheit und Entfremdung ). According to See len, this new genre developed out of an "impulse of fright at the coldness of the own society" ( Fremdheit und Entfremdung ). Facing a language barrier, social rejection, and thus social as well as cultural marginalization consequently led to estrangement a nd alienation in the new living space. By labeling it as "cinema of social accusation," Seelen emphasizes the misery guest workers and other immigrants had to face when coming to Germany ( Fremdheit und Entfremdung ). Hence, this cinema became an "attorney" of the depicted minority which did not have a political voice at that time (Seelen, Fremdheit und Entfremdung ). Helma Sanders Brahm s film Shirins Hochze it (1975, Shirins Wedding ) exemplifies this cinema of foreignness. Shirin (Ayten Erten) leaves her s mall Turkish hometown behind in order to be reunited with Mahmud (Aras ren), a man to whom she was promised as a young girl and who is now guest worker in Germany. After arriving in Cologne, Shirin has to face the difficulties of immigrating and settling down as a foreigner. Her situation gets hopeless and prostitution seems to be the only way for her to survive. Other films, which exemplify the cinema of foreignness, such as Katzelmacher (1969), Angst essen Seele auf (1974, Ali: Fear Eats the Soul ), In de r Fremde (197 4 Alien ), or Aus der Ferne sehe ich dieses Land (1977 I See This Land From Afar ) also deal with the complexities of migration and integration. Seelen points out, that this "Kino der Fremdheit," which takes up a didactic humanistic position in cinema, was followed by another genre called "Kino der
63 Mtissage" ("cinema of inbetween") which was mainly represented by the third generation of migrants ( Das Kino der doppelten Kulturen 4). The French term mtissage means "hybrid form," and therefore reflects the commingling of two different cultures. The cinema of mtissage does not represent the alienation of the first generation anymore, or the question of integration or returning to the home country, but rather deals with the banalities of living inbetween two cultures: In the 1980s, therefore, the cinema of emigration, the cinema of foreignness, has to separate itself from the cinema of mtissage, a cinema which reflects on the irreversibility of cultural commingling and the life between (at leas t) two cultures. The cinema of mtissage is able to secretly diminish the subject of foreignness, but instead focuses on the everyday life between two cultures (Seelen, Das Kino der doppelten Kulturen 4). Since the Turkish make up the largest group of the migrants in Germany, Turkish German filmmakers are the "engine" of the cinema of mtissage (Seelen, Zwischen den Kulturen ). Directors such as Fatih A Kurz und Schmerzlos ), Thomas Arslan ( Dealer ), Y ksel Yavuz ( Aprilkinder ), and Kutlu Ataman ( Lola und Bilidikid ) share a "fearless aesthetic in their representation of images and self images" (Seelen, Zwischen den Kulturen ). Thus, the cinema of mtis sage creates a "new realism" within German cinema by offering an authentic perspective of living in between cultures, while at the same time creating a critical outlook on Germany for the German audience (Seelen, Zwischen den Kulturen ). S oul Kitchen : A Tu rkish German Heimatfilm In Fatih German chef Zinos (Adam Bousdoukos, also co writer of the screenplay) runs a decrepit restaurant named soul kitchen in a run down warehouse in the Wilhelmsburg suburb of Hamburg. Zinos seems to be dogged by bad luck: stricken by back pain, Zinos is not able to work in the kitchen
64 anymore. He hires the vigorous gourmet chef Shayn (Birol nel), who frightens away Zinos regular working class clientele with his fancy menu. The tax inspector and the health department want to close him down, while Zinos ambitious girlfriend Nadine (Pheline Roggan) accepts a job offer from China. Overwhelmed by the situation, Zinos decides to follow Nadine to Shanghai and puts his brother Illias (Moritz Bleibtreu) in charge of the rest aurant. However, as a convicted criminal on day release, Illias soon gambles away his brothers beloved restaurant in a poker game. After learning about the new man on Nadines side, Zinos returns and finds out that he has also lost his soul kitchen. Gree k Zinos has found a home in the city of Hamburg, which is portrayed in the film as modern, fast paced, and popular living space. focus on his birthplace Hamburg, also to communicate his own belonging: "In recent years, there was indeed a kind of correspondenc e between me and the press about my films and on the issue, where I actually belong. This dialogue is continued through Soul Kitchen since he had the feeling to still owe a film t o the city in which he was born (Behrens). In his film, he continuously includes shots of the city, its infrastructure, and nightlife. Zinos is moving through the city by car and train, and we repeatedly see images of the citys streets, bridges, as well a and lively club scene in order to give an authentic personal image of Hamburg. In an Hamburg which were about to be closed down, and which he therefore wanted to
65 capture in his film: "There is one scene in Soul Kitchen which is set in the Mojo Club, this legendary place on the Reeperbahn, shortly before it was closed down for good. Wow, the parties we had there! Tho se were key experiences in my life, Ive even met Prince there" (Borcholte 2). By depicting the "beautiful city" of Hamburg as "the place to portrayal of Hamburg reach his German audience, even his Italian and Canadian Soul Kitchen on international film festivals, responded positively according to the director: "Everybody kind of wants to move to Hamburg now. himself labels Soul Kitchen as Heimatfilm, thus making a connection between the city and Heimat: "I am not a country bumpkin, but more of a big city g uy, but city can be Heimat, too (Behrens). ty of Hamburg primarily through their restaurant soul kitchen, which becomes a site of home and Heimat in Hamburg instead of letting them leave first, as he did in previous fi lms: "Since Hamburg is my Heimat, and I wanted to close a circle, this time, the protagonists do not find their true identity at the end of the world. In this film, the heroes defend their Heimat." (Behrens). Zinos, whose friend Neumann is interested in bu ying the restaurant soul kitchen, stresses his emotional connection to his place: "I dont know, if I want to sell. That is my place, you know what I mean? Ive built it with my own hands. Ive laid the pipes, installed the toilettes, collected tables and chairs from the bulk garbage. I feel attached to that place." Zinos thus reflects that one is able to experience the notion of Heimat through physical labour and commitment. He built the soul kitchen with his own
66 hands and ran the place for several years. These memories capture Zinos emotional attachment to the restaurant, which he experiences as a part of his Heimat Hamburg. In a later scene, the restaurant becomes the site of the protagonists reunification with his brother. Illias, on day release on th e weekends, visits his brother in the restaurant to ask for a job. One can sense the situation of the brothers relationship when Zinos immediately suspects that Illias has broken out of prison. Instead, Illias wants to pretend to have a job to be able to get released on the weekdays as well. He makes Zinos sign a forged contract and asks him for some money. After spending some time together, Illias realizes how important the relationship to his brother actually is and helps him transform the soul kitchen i nto Hamburgs hotspot for food and dancing. After most guests have left the restaurant, Illias plays a pop song with a traditional Balkan melody, and joins his brother on the dance floor. Both embrace each other and share a cigarette. The camera slowly cir cles around them, capturing the closeness of the two brothers in that sequence. The soundtrack as well as the cinematography express the blending of the two cultures the brothers grew up with. Therefore, the soul kitchen helps Zinos and Illias to reconnect and becomes a reason for family bonding. The soul kitchen becomes a crucial part of the brothers life, a part for which they even commit a crime, thus risking the freedom of convict Illias. When Zinos is about to leave Germany for China, we see him pack ing a photograph of the soul kitchen, which once again demonstrates his emotional attachment to his restaurant in Hamburg. When Zinos finds out about Nadines new partner, he returns to Hamburg where he is confronted with the sale of soul kitchen. Illias, whom he has put in charge of the soul kitchen before his departure, lost the place through gambling. In order to get the
67 restaurant back, the brothers decide to break into the notarys office to steal the already signed contract. For Zinos and his brother, the soul kitchen represents not merely a place for soul food and soul music, it also reflects a bit of their own soul and thus represents a piec new German Heimat. However, the sense of Heimat is not necessarily tied to Germany and Germanness, but may, as a mobile concept, go beyond the borders of Germany. In the anthology fi lm Paris, Je Taime (2006, Paris, I love You ), the two characters Carol, a lonely American tourist in her fifties, and Zarka, a young Muslim girl, experience the notion of a new Heimat in the French capital. Paris, Je Taime : Heimat Abroad Directed by 22 d ifferent filmmakers, Paris, Je Taime is a collective vision of life in the city of love. This portrait of Paris is as diverse as the contributing directors who each gave a different view on the French capital by depicting unusual and random encounters in the streets of Paris. The film consists of 18 short episodes, each of which is dedicated to one of the capitals arrondissements (neighborhoods). The films final episode 14e A rrondissement written and directed by Alexander Payne, tells the story about th e American tourist Carol ( Margo Martindale ) who is on her first trip to Europe. The middle age postwoman from Denver describes the highlights of her six day tour to Paris to her French class. She reads out her story with a rough American accent, which acc ompanies the picture as a voice over. In the beginning of her travel report, one can sense Carols longing for Paris when she mentions that it has always been her dream to see the French capital. Carol points out, that she especially "loved the museums and streets of Paris," two characteristic sites of the modern urban setting. She emphasizes that she intends to have a "genuine foreign adventure," and thus tries to adapt to the
68 Parisian way of life and speak French at every opportunity. As an "independent w oman," Carol is determined to experience Paris on her own, and decides not to be part of a guided city tour. She wants to discover the French capital by foot, and can therefore be compared to a flaneur, the key figure in nineteenth century Paris . w ho wandered the city aimlessly and sought refuge in the crowd (Mennel 27). For Carol, her stay in Paris becomes a moment of self reflection: "However, during those days, I had many thoughts about my life." Even after that short period of time, Carol alr eady ponders about the possibility to become a part of Paris and move to the city. On a stroll through an alley, she imagines "delivering mail every day on a street like this and meeting the people who live here." Through her self reflection and openness t o the foreign, Carol establishes the basis for the creation of Heimat. Even though Carols reason for choosing Paris as travel destination is to find love, she does not find love on a social level, but rather through experiencing the notion of Heimat. Thro ughout her trip, Carol does not participate in any kind of social interaction, instead she spends her days walking alone through the city streets or eating alone in a restaurant. When she talks about general opinions she heard about Paris, she reveals her longing for love: "They say it is where artists find inspiration. They say it is where people go to find something new in their lives. They say it is where you can find love." When she adds that she naturally does not expect that to happen to a woman at he r age, one can guess that she hopes it would happen. In a later scene, Carol enjoys the view over Paris from an observation deck and admits her longing for a partner with whom to share her experiences. However, Carol eventually falls in love when sitting o n a bench in the city park. Yet, the feeling of love she experiences cannot
69 be compared to a feeling she had experienced with a partner before, but rather a feeling of love for the city: Sitting there, alone in a foreign country, far from my job and every one I know, a feeling came over me. It was like remembering something I'd never known before or had always been waiting for, but I didn't know what. Maybe it was something I'd forgotten or something I've been missing all my life. All I can say is that I fe lt, at the same time, joy and sadness. But not too much sadness, because I felt alive. Yes, alive. That was the moment I fell in love with Paris. And I felt Paris fall in love with me. Carol experiences Heimat in Paris, even though she is not quite able to determine the feeling she has. Peter Blickle ascribes an "underlying binary structure" to the concept of Heimat which is therefore expressed through "antinormal binary pairings" (85). In Carols case, these pairings are "Heimat foreign" and "joy sadne ss." Even though she is not in her familiar surroundings, Carol senses something that she has been missing. For Carol, this longing was an unconscious longing which she has not been aware of. According to Vilm Flusser, "Heimat lies beyond waking conscious ness," which therefore precisely reflects Carols description (17). Carols experience in Paris suggests that Heimat is not only location independent, but also temporally unrestricted. The journey, marked through spatial and temporal impermanence, displays a contradiction to the idea of Heimat. The tourist figure therefore represents the opposite of a person searching for permanent residency, and thus a home. Nonetheless, this paradox demonstrates that the Heimat experience is not necessarily restricted to a certain period of time. Finding a Second Home in Paris The films third episode, directed by Indian British filmmaker Gurinder Chadha tells the story of Muslim Zarka, for whom the French metropolis became Heimat. The episode opens with a long shot of th e city center. As the camera slowly zooms out, the
70 title Quais de Seine fades in, accompanied by a rhythmic pop melody. The next cut introduces the banks of the Seine as the setting, while at the same time pointing out the main theme of this episode. We se e the back of a young blonde girl wearing tight low rise jeans and walking by a group of three young men sitting by the river. The men start taunting her as she passes them, revealing their condescending attitude toward women. Next, we see an attractive Th ai woman walking by, and one of the men provocatively asks her for a Thai massage. The men continue to flirt with two African American women, except for Francois (Cyril Descours), who notices the young Muslim girl Zarka (Lela Bekhti) secretly watching the m. When Zarka stumbles on a stone and falls on the sidewalk, Francois helps her adjusting her hijab to cover her hair. When he accidentally covers Zarkas face with the fabric, both start laughing. By adding a racial dimension to the film, the director emp hasizes the fact that Paris is a city of multicultural encounters, which can be characterized by rejection and hostility. For the Muslim Zarka that means facing the challenge of finding a new Heimat in a city where her faith and beliefs might not be accept ed by everyone. Francois friends exemplify that hostility when they ask their friend if he had a crush on "that brown girl." They cannot comprehend why Francois helped Zarka and warn him: "Fool, you touch her and Osama will personally bomb your ass." Sinc e her faith is a crucial part of her identity, and thus her Heimat, Zarka tries to maintain that part of her lifestyle. When Francois asks her, why she would cover up her pretty face, Zarka explains that she chooses to do so, since her hijab reflects her b eliefs and expresses who she is: "When I wear this I feel part of a faith, an identity." Attending mosque represents another habit that Zarka wants to maintain in her life in Paris. Zarkas religion, as well as the lifestyle
71 connected to her faith define h er identity and therefore are a piece of her Heimat. In practicing her religion in her new surrounding, Zarka is able to recreate that piece of her Heimat in the city of Paris. In order to fully adapt to her new surroundings and find a second home in Par is, Zarka is determined to become a journalist and promote cultural exchange as ambassador of her country. In their dialog at the Seine, Zarka already taught Francois about her faith, who is now determined to see the Muslim girl again. On his way to the mo sque, the image of Francois walking through the streets of Paris is accompanied by typical Indian sounds which reflects the commingling of the two different cultures. After reaching the mosque, Francois meets Zarka and her grandfather on the street. Zarka s grandfather invites him to join them on their way home, and another dialog develops. He appreciates the fact that Francois is a history student, as "knowing your history is very important." When Zarkas grandfather points out the importance of the histo ry of a country, he implies the fact that history shaped his identity and understanding of the world, and therefore represents a part of his Heimat. He then mentions that his granddaughter is striving to be a journalist for Le Monde a French daily paper. The French term "le monde" ("the world") in this case reflects Zarkas wish for intercultural exchange and understanding. The intersection of two cultures is a fundamental part in (re)creating Heimat. Only through the foreign, the self becomes visible and can be upraised to the level of reflexivity (Gebhard 17). "Heimat is being opened for the foreign through the intersection of cultures," which is a requirement for creating a second home in the foreign place (Gebhard 17). For Gebhard, the pristine meanin g of Heimat gets
72 lost when moving through a foreign space. However, this process is necessary in order to recreate Heimat on another level: Through the spatial and temporal movements, the foreign and the native commingle. Heimat is deprived of its instinc tiveness, but only then becomes visible, and can be acquired t hrough reflection, action, and communication. Thus, Heimat can newly emerge on another level (18). For the Muslim girl Zarka, this new Heimat is Paris. The Paris she experiences might be a different one, but this is what she is eager to communicate as a journalist. Her grandfather summarizes it as follows: She wants to write about France, but her France. God willing Conclusion The traditional concept of Heimat being an exclusively rural locale shifted in the past decades. Whereas the 1950s Heimatfilm was solely set in the province, perceiving the foreign territory of the city as a threat, contemporary cinema also displays the urban spaces of metropolises as a site for the Heimat experien ce. This shift consequently reevaluates the idea of Heimat, which rather epitomizes an internal sense of belonging than a spatially enclosed sphere. The notion of Heimat therefore receives a mobile component, which allows individuals to create a second hom e, or even multiple homes in other locales beyond their place of birth. This concept of Heimat especially applies to mobile characters such as the migrant or guest worker, as represented in the Cinema of Mtissage Even a momentarily traveling character li ke the tourist is able to experience the notion of home in a foreign place, which also redefines the temporal aspects of Heimat. Although usually associated with the memories of childhood experiences, Heimat represents a temporally independent concept whic h can come into play even within a limited period of time. The twentieth century notion of Heimat, which emerged
73 in the immediate German post war condition of homelessness, profoundly changed in the past decades so that it cannot be located in a particular space or time anymore, but can rather be understood as an individual sense of identity within a global context.
74 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION The cinematic representation of Heimat reflects the transformation of the term. The 1950s, which marked the peak of the German Heimatfilm genre, represented the Heimat locale as shelter for the homeless, who lost their home during World War II In depicting a heile Welt set in a peaceful, rural community, the traditional Heimatfilm of the 1950s presented a counter image to the preceding Trmmerfilm genre, which depicted the aftermath caused by the ravages of World War II. Nature in traditional Heimat cinema played a crucial role and determined the spatiality of Heimat within the borders of the German province. Considered as an antimodern concept, Heimat used to imply an underlying antagonism between the country and the foreign territory, mainly epitomized by the modern urban realm. With the Oberhausen Manifesto in 1962, which boldly declared the old cinema dead, German film production aimed to compete in the export market dominated by the U.S Determined to use the medium film to educate rather than entertain, the young filmmakers promoted the emergence of the critical Heimatfilm. In depicting a notion of Anti Heimat both on a narrative and aesthetic level, the critical Heimatfilm set a new tone in the representation of the Heimat idea. The romanticized rural idyll of the traditional Heimatfilm was replaced by a more critical depiction of the German province, mainly expres sed through patriarchal hierarchies and social inequalities. Through the Anti Heimatfilm, the term Heimat lost its connotations of being the safe haven and a secure shelter, thus presenting the flight to the big city as a reasonable possibility. This possibil ity, in turn, is reflected in modern Heimat cinema, which reconciles the Heimat locale with the urban space. The modern Heimatfilm does not depict the foreign
75 territory as a threat anymore, but rather displays the city as a place of wish fulfillment and se lf realization. The characters of the modern Heimatfilm, which are mainly young adults, voluntarily cross borders in order to explore the foreign space beyond their familiar Heimat. Instead of rejecting the unknown realm of the city or a foreign country, t he modern Heimatfilm characters display an affinity for travelling as well as a sense of curiosity for the foreign. In an era of globalization, traveling characters reevaluate the traditional concept of home, which was spatially and temporally defined in t he traditional Heimatfilm as the pre war rural locale. In contemporary films, however, multi nationality as well as mobility dominate the cinematic narrations. Mobile characters, such as the tourist, guest worker, and immigrant transform the traditional co ncept of Heimat significantly and demonstrate the possibility of finding a second home beyond Heimat. The individuals mobility is thus reflected in the depiction of a mobile Heimat, which can be determined as an inner notion of home independent of spatial boundaries. Hence, Heimat can also be experienced in an urban setting, as exemplified by the genre of the urban Heimatfilm. The ever changing notion of Heimat was, is, and will most likely always be part of German and international film culture, since the medium film itself embodies Heimat in several ways. An individuals basic need for grounding, security, and identity can be fulfilled by the cinema, which both represents a medium of identification for the spectator, as well as the possibility of retreati ng to a place of peace and security.
76 LIST OF REFERENCES Altman, Rick. Film/Genre London: BFI Publishing, 1999. Amry, Jean. At the Mind s Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor on Ausschwitz and Its Realities Trans. Sidney Rosenfeld and Stella P. Rosen feld. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980. Behrens, Volker. Filmregisseur Fatih Ak n ber Soul Kitchen : Helden verteidigen ihre Heimat ." KN online 22 Sep. 2009. Web. 22 Jan. 2012 < http://www.kn online.de/schleswig_holstein/kultur/114413 Filmregisseur Fatih Akin ueber Soul Kitchen Die Helden verteidigen ihre Heimat.html > Beutner, Eduard, and Karlheinz Rossbacher eds. Ferne Heimat n ahe Fremde: Bei Dichtern und Nachdenkern Wrzb urg: Knigshausen & Neumann, 2008. Beste Zeit Dir. Marcus H. Rosenmller. Perf. Anna Maria Sturm, Rosalie Thomass, Ferdinand Schmidt Modrow. Constantin, 2007. Blickle, Peter. Heimat: A Critical Theory of The German Idea of Homeland Rochester: Camden Hous e, 2002. Boa, Elizabeth, and Rachel Palfreyman Heimat A German Dream: Regional Loyalties and National Identity in German Culture, 1890 1990 New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Borcholte Andreas Soul Kitchen Regisseur Fatih Akin : Ich hatte B ock zu lachen .' Spiegel Online 23 Dec. 2009 Web. 22 Jan. 2012 < http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/kino/0,1518,668682,00.html > Boesch, Hans. Stadt als Heimat Schriftstellerinnen und Sc hriftsteller ussern sich zu Stadtgestalt, Geborgenheit und Entfremdung Zrich: vdf, 1993. Confino, Alon The Nation as a Local Metaphor: Wrttemberg, Imperial Germany, and National Memory, 1871 1918 Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. FFA Info 1/10, 11 Feb. 2010: 16 pages. Web. 8 Oct. 2011 < http://www.ffa.de/downloads/publikationen/ffa_intern/FFA_info_1_2010.pdf > Die Geierwally Dir. Franz Cap. Perf. Barbara Rtting Carl Mhner Franz Pfaudler Unitas Film, 1956. Die Mdels vom Immenhof Dir. Wolfgang Schleif Perf. Angelika Meissner Voelkner Heidi Brhl Matthias Fuchs Arca Film, 1955.
77 Donner, Wolf. dyll i st kaputt: Der k ritische Heimatfilm: Eine n eue Gattung Zeit Online 11 February 1972. Web. 7 Oct. 2011 < http://www.zeit.de/1972/06/das idyll ist kaputt > Elsaesser, Thomas. New Germa n Cinema: A History New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989. Flusser, Vilm. "Wohnung beziehen in der Heimatlosigkeit." Von der Freiheit des Migranten: Einsprche gegen den Nationalismus Bensheim: Bollmann, 1994, 15 30 Freud, Sigmund. The Uncanny New York: Penguin, 2003. Gebhard, Gunther, Oliver Geisler and Steffen Schrter, ed s Heimat: Konturen und Konjunkturen eines umstrittenen Konzepts Bielefeld: Transcript, 2007. Geiler, Horst Wolfram. Die Frau, die man liebt Zrich: Sanssouci, 1959. Go ethe, Johann W olfgang von and Erich Trunz ed Goethes Werke Band XIII : Naturwissenschaftliche Schriften I. Grn ist die Heide Dir. Hans Deppe. Perf. Sonja Ziemann Rudolf Prack Hans Stwe Berolina Film, 1951. Hake, Sabine. Germ an National Cinema London: Routledge, 2002. Hamer, Mark. Ein Projekt und Ausstellung von Mark Web. 20 Feb. 2012 < http://www.gedanken in bildern.de/ > film BR Online Ed s Buchheim, Iris Micha el Kubitza, Undine Fraatz. 2008. Web. 8 Oct. 2011 < http://www.br online.de/kultur/film/heimatfilm special DID120324157996/a lmenrausch und bauernsterben der neue heimatfilm jagdszenen aus niederbayern ID1201598356196.xml > Hfig, Willi. Der d eutsche Heimatfilm 1947 1960 Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke Verlag, 1973. Jagdszenen aus Niederbayern Dir. Peter Fleischmann. Perf. Marti n Sperr, Angela Winkler, Else Quecke. Alpha, 1969. Johnson, Albert. "Hunting Scenes From Bavaria." San Francisco International Film Festival 2011. Web. 18 Feb 2012. < http ://history.sffs.org/films/film_details.php?id=2321&searchfield= > Green is the Heath : Spat ial Politics and Emergent West German Identity. Light Motives Eds. Halle, Randall and Margaret McCarthy. Detroit: Wayne State University P ress, 2003.
78 Knight, Julia. Women and the New German Cinema London: Verso, 1992. Larkey, Uta. "New Places, New Identities: The (Ever) Changing Concept of Heimat." German Politics & Society 26.2 (2008): 24 44. Web. 9 May 2011. Mennel, Barbara. Cities and Ci nema New York: Routledge, 2008. Paris, Je Taime Dir. Alexander Payne, Gurinder Chadha Perf. Margo Martindale Cyril Descours Lela Bekhti Senator, 2006. Sandmeyer, Peter. "Was ist Heimat?" S tern. de 15 Dec ember 2004 Web. 11 February 2012. < http://www.stern.de/politik/deutschland/grundbeduerfnis was ist heimat 533320.html > Schacht, Daniel Alexander. Fluchtpunkt Provinz: Der neue Heimatfilm zwischen 19 68 und 1972 Mnster: MakS, 1991. Der Freitag 5 March 1999. Web. 7 Oct. 2011 < http:// www.freitag.de/1999/10/99101402.htm > --. "Das Kino der do ppelten Kulturen / Le Cinema du mtissage / The Cinema of inbetween: Erster Streifzug durch ein unbekanntes Kino Terrain." epd Film Nr. 12, Dezember 2000 Web. 22 Jan. 2012 < http://www.filmportal.de/public/pics/IEPics/d1/03D8FBEE873A4C20856ACAADA 2376272_mat_seexxlen_neu.pdf > --. "Durch die Heimat und so weiter: Heimatfilme Schlagerfilme und Ferienfilme der fnfziger Jahre." Zwischen Ges tern u nd Morgen : Westdeutscher Nachkriegsfilm 1946 1962 Frankfurt am Main: Deutsches Filmmuseum, 1989. --Fremdheit und Entfremdung Migration als Thema in den Filmen der 1970er bis 1980er Jahre Goethe Institut Juni 2003. Web. 22 Jan. 2012 < http://www.goethe.de/kue/flm/fmg/de47136.htm > --Zwischen den Kulturen Das Kino der dritten Migranten Generation Goethe Institut Juni 2003. Web. 22 Jan. 2012 < http://www.goethe.de/kue/flm/fmg/de47146.htm > Seidl, Claudius. Der d eutsche Film der Fnfziger Jahre Munich: Heyne, 1987. Soul Kitchen Dir. Fatih Akin. Perf. Adam Bousdoukos Moritz Bleibtreu Birol nel Pandora, 2009 SPIO Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. Besucher deutscher Kinofilme 1994 2006 in Mio Web. 8 Oct. 2011 < http://www.spio.de/index.asp?SeitID=379&TID=3 >. Stavenhagen, Kurt. Heimat als L ebenssinn Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1948.
79 Steine r, Gertraud. "Vom Bergfilm zum n euen Heimatfilm : Wie ideologisch ist der Heimatfilm?" Modern Austrian Literature 30.3/4 (1997): 253 264. von Moltke, Johannes. "Home Again: Revisiting the New German Cinema in Edgar Reitz's Die Zweite Heimat (1993)." Cinema Journal 42, no. 3 (Spring 2003): 114 143. --. No Place Like Home: Locations of Heimat in German Cinema Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2005. Wer frher stirbt ist lnger tot Dir. Marcus H. Rosenmller. Perf. Marcus Krojer, Fritz Karl, Jule Ronstedt. Roxy, 2006.
80 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH A fter receiving a Bachelor of Arts in f ilm and m edia s tudies from the Macromedia School of Media and Communicatio n Munich, Jennif er Dester received scholarships in 2010 through the VDAC (Federation of German American Clubs) as well as the Fulbright Commission, enabling her to study at the University of Florida. She received her M.A. from the University of Florida in the spring of 20 12. Her academic interests include international film, film genres and film aesthetics.