<%BANNER%>

The Media Portrayals of American Women in Chinese Eyes

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044259/00001

Material Information

Title: The Media Portrayals of American Women in Chinese Eyes an Analysis of How Chinese Perceive American Women and How U.S. Tv Serials Influence Those Perceptions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (77 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Xu, Xinwen
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agenda -- chinese -- exposure -- gender -- media -- reliance -- serials -- stereotype -- tv -- women -- younger
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study explores how Chinese individuals perceive American women and how U.S. TV serials influence those perceptions. Through sending out online surveys via a most popular social network- Renren, the study tried to identify the specific perceptions of American women that the participants had and the American TV serials that contributed most to those perceptions. The aim of the study is trying to establish an association between watching American TV serials and perceiving American women, exploring the differences among respondents' perceptions of American women in terms of gender, and examining Chinese male and female audiences' attitudes toward the influence of watching American TV serials. The results of the study didn't indicate significant correlation between the exposure, which is measured in hours, and perceiving American women, but suggested a strong correlation between American TV serials reliance and understanding American women as open-minded, independent, sexual open, professional, and aggressive. Six most watched American TV serials were found in the study. They are: Prison Break, Friends, The Big Bang Theory, Gossip Girl, Sex and The City, and Desperate Housewives. Compared with female respondents, the male respondents in the study were found being more likely to perceive American women as arrogant, violent, and mostly housewives. Additionally, male audiences tend to think female are more susceptible to the influence of watching American TV serials, while women prefer to think men are more affected in perceiving American women.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Xinwen Xu.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Wanta, Wayne M.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044259:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044259/00001

Material Information

Title: The Media Portrayals of American Women in Chinese Eyes an Analysis of How Chinese Perceive American Women and How U.S. Tv Serials Influence Those Perceptions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (77 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Xu, Xinwen
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agenda -- chinese -- exposure -- gender -- media -- reliance -- serials -- stereotype -- tv -- women -- younger
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study explores how Chinese individuals perceive American women and how U.S. TV serials influence those perceptions. Through sending out online surveys via a most popular social network- Renren, the study tried to identify the specific perceptions of American women that the participants had and the American TV serials that contributed most to those perceptions. The aim of the study is trying to establish an association between watching American TV serials and perceiving American women, exploring the differences among respondents' perceptions of American women in terms of gender, and examining Chinese male and female audiences' attitudes toward the influence of watching American TV serials. The results of the study didn't indicate significant correlation between the exposure, which is measured in hours, and perceiving American women, but suggested a strong correlation between American TV serials reliance and understanding American women as open-minded, independent, sexual open, professional, and aggressive. Six most watched American TV serials were found in the study. They are: Prison Break, Friends, The Big Bang Theory, Gossip Girl, Sex and The City, and Desperate Housewives. Compared with female respondents, the male respondents in the study were found being more likely to perceive American women as arrogant, violent, and mostly housewives. Additionally, male audiences tend to think female are more susceptible to the influence of watching American TV serials, while women prefer to think men are more affected in perceiving American women.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Xinwen Xu.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Wanta, Wayne M.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044259:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 THE MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF AMERICAN WOMEN IN CHINESE EYES: AN ANALYSIS OF HOW CHINESE PERCEIVE AMERICAN WOMEN AN D HOW U.S. TV SERIALS INFLUENCE THOSE PERCEPTIONS By XINWEN XU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE U NIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DE GREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

PAGE 2

2 2012 Xinwen Xu

PAGE 3

3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I want to express my sincerest thanks to Dr. Wayne Wanta, the chair o f my thesis committee, for being patient all the time and giving me enlightened suggestions. Only with his help and encouragement can I successfully complete this paper. I appreciate his quiet kindness and all the effort he spent in reviewing this thesis. I am also grateful to my committee members, Dr. Robyn Goodman and Dr. Lu Zheng. I am indebted to them for all the invaluable advices on this paper. I also want to acknowledge Dr. Norm Lewis for his kindness to attend the final defense of this thesis and sh are his keen insight. Finally, I owe a special shared their thoughts and opinions.

PAGE 4

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 6 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 Stereotyping and Media ................................ ................................ .......................... 11 Popularity of American TV Serials in China ................................ ............................ 13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 16 Women Stereotypes in Mass Media ................................ ................................ ....... 17 Cultivation Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 19 Cultivation Theory and Gender Role Attitudes ................................ ........................ 20 ................................ ................................ .............. 22 Agenda Setting and its Common Attributes of Women .................. 26 The Third Person Effect ................................ ................................ .......................... 27 Research Questions and Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ..... 30 3 METHOD SURVEY ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 Survey Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 32 Measurement o f the Stereotypes Variable ................................ .............................. 33 Measurement of the American TV Serials Exposure Variable ................................ 34 Measurement of Previous Contact Variab le ................................ ............................ 34 Media Reliance and Personal Contact Reliance ................................ ..................... 35 Measurement of Gender and Third Person Effect ................................ .................. 35 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 36 Stereotypes on American Women ................................ ................................ .......... 36 Reliance on Media and Personal Contact ................................ ............................... 38 American TV Serials Exposure ................................ ................................ ............... 40 Gender and Perceptions of American Women ................................ ........................ 44 Gender and Influence of American TV Serials ................................ ........................ 45 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 48

PAGE 5

5 ................................ .......... 48 American TV Serials Exposure and Reliance ................................ ......................... 50 Most Popular/Influential American TV Serials ................................ ......................... 52 Personal Contact and Stereotypes ................................ ................................ ......... 53 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 55 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT FORM ................................ ................................ ............... 60 B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ .................. 62 C SURVEY RESULTS AMERICAN TV SERIALS WATCHING FREQUENCY ......... 70 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 71 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 77

PAGE 6

6 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 eptions of American Women ................................ ....................... 38 4 2 Independent Sample T Test (1) ................................ ................................ .......... 42 4 3 Independent Sample T Test (2) ................................ ................................ .......... 43 4 4 Correlations between American TV Serials Reliance or Exposure and Perceptions of American Women ................................ ................................ ....... 44 4 5 Differences Between Male and Female Respondent American Women ................................ ................................ ............................... 45

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Importance of Sources for Information about American Women ........................ 39 4 2 Frequency of Contact with Americans ................................ ................................ 40 4 3 Frequency of Watching Those American TV Serials ................................ .......... 42 4 4 American TV Serials ................................ ................................ ........................... 47

PAGE 8

8 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication THE MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF AMERICAN WOMEN IN CHINESE EYES: AN ANALYSIS OF HOW CHINESE PERCEIVE AMERICAN WOMEN AN D HOW U.S. TV SERIALS INFLUENCE THOSE PERCEPTIONS By Xinwen Xu May 2012 Ch air: Wayne Wanta Major: Mass Communication This study explores how Chinese individuals perceive American women and how U.S. TV serials influence those perceptions. Through sending out online surveys via a most popular social network Renren, the study tri ed to identify the specific perceptions of American women that the participants had and the American TV serials that contributed most to those perceptions. The aim of the study is trying to establish an association between watching American TV serial s and perceiving American women, influence of watching American TV serials. The results of the s exposure, which is measured in hours, and perceiving American women, but suggested a strong correlation between American TV serials reliance and understanding American women as open minded, independe nt, sexual open, professional, and aggressive. Six most watched American TV serials were found in the study. They are: Prison Break, Friends, The Big Bang Theory, Gossip Girl, Sex and The City, and Desperate

PAGE 9

9 Housewives. Compared with female respondents, th e male respondents in the study were found being more likely to perceive American women as arrogant, violent, and mostly housewives. Additionally, male audiences tend to think female are more susceptible to the influence of watching American TV serials, wh ile women prefer to think men are more affected in perceiving American women.

PAGE 10

10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Mass media have opened up possibilities of stimulating and accelerating development for uplifting the status of women and children. However, if it rem ains uncontrolled and unguided, this ongoing communication revolution could have negative effects on the lives of women. Nowadays we still see and watch media reports of media particularly in electronic media ( Kual & Sahni, 2010 ) Although the differences between male and females roles are smaller in this modern society, mass media, especially electronic media, still perpetuate traditional gender stereotypes. Women are ba sically depicted as performing a decorative function and being marginal to national growth and development (Kual & Sahni, 2010). In the content and setting of most of the television productions, women have been placed primarily in certain popular stereotyp always compromising and negotiating, and who appear less competent. According to an importa nt impact on the thought patterns of general public. In a typical eastern country like China, whose culture, value, and lifestyle influence on audiences when it comes to group cultures. Given to the fact that most of the Chinese audiences still barely have the chance to directly interact with people from another country, their perceptions rely heavily on media messages for information about d ifferent cultures. And sometimes, Chinese people, e specially the young generation, are told to do so. For example, high school

PAGE 11

11 students in China have been suggested to watch American TV programs and listen to American broadcasts regularly in order to impro ve their English and have a better perception and behavior, Chinese viewers are the se lected as subjects in this research. Since the purpose of the study is to determine how American TV Serials viewing in China is influencing perceptions about American women, more than 800 online surveys were sent out to University students and recent gradu ates in the mainland of China through a very popular Chinese social network Renren Stereotyping a nd Media Mass media entertain and bring people new perspectives about others. Audiences tend to take information they receive from the media for granted. I sense out of the overwhelming amount of information we receive, we necessarily categorize and generalize, sometimes relying on stereotypes widely held beliefs about uch bigger, more complex and transitory than we can know (Samovar & Porter, 2001, p. 268). Thus, stereotypes are convenient and expeditious ways to help us with our classifications and make our minds process information more efficiently (Samovar & Porter, 2001; James, 2006). We may learn stereotypes from direct experience of interactions with people n Seiter hand experiences with members of stereotyped s media

PAGE 12

12 (including newspapers, radio, TV and the Internet) are powerful presences in almost every culture and often the major source for forming stereotypes of foreigners with whom most people have never interacted (Harris, 2004; Zhu, 2007). For many peopl e, media representations are the only source of information about other cultures (Harris, 2004; Zhu, 2007). This concept can be further explained by the study conducted by imag that there is a correlation between consuming media portrayals (images) and the resulting of evaluations of out based attributions, and st ereotypes (Mastro, 2009). The modest but significant associations between viewing media portrayals of race or ethnicity and outcomes of race based attributions and stereotypes are revealed by related research. In their book, Martin and Nakayama (2010) also assert that many familiar stereotypes of ethnic groups are represented in the media (p. 363). The idea can be supported by other studies. The findings of those media stereotype studies show that mass media may have an effect on creating stereotypes of cer tain social groups. For example, Katz and Braly (1933) found a high level of consistency in the adjectives respondents associate with the African American stereotype, such as lazy, ignorant, loud, athletic, poor, criminal, hostile and etc. (James, 2006, p. which characterizes all Asians and Asian Americans as hardworking and serious (Martin & Nakayama, 2010, p. 205). The media stereotyping also can be found in cross cultural studies. As Zhu (2007) states, stereotypes of Americans in China have not only been affected by Chinese mass media, but also by American entertainment media. In 1999,

PAGE 13

13 1999; Zhu, 200 7). A previous study by Tan (1982) has identified six major themes of American stereotypes in American television programs learned by Chinese audience, violence, affluence, sex and beauty, individualism, and negative stereotyping of various ethnic groups ( Zhu, 2007, p. 20 ) Popularity o f American TV Serials i n China International contacts have been facilitated by development of new technology, information systems, and globalized economy (Samovar & Porter, 2001). Thus, the media fluidity became international has created a more informed citizenry and galvanized them behind issues and policies of media. Usually, mass media have been accused of leading the public into forming negative judgments and stereotyping of outside groups (Gorhanm, 2006). As a part of mass media, television serials play an important role in Chinese pop culture in forming and behavior. Chinese government had cut off the formal introduction of American TV broadcast in recent years. Compared to Korean and Japanese TV serials, there is only a small ly according to Rong Cai (2008), the broadcast ratio of all foreign made TV serials was for TV serials a powerful alternative to the formal broadcast model (Rong Cai, 2008 )

PAGE 14

14 and the rapidly spreading of Internet use, the number of audiences of American readily available in the video market and also on Internet. Besides, it is found that a round 40 percent of TV serials available on the video market was produced outside Mainland China (Rong Cai, 2008). Meanwhile, some other Chinese scholars (2008) have argued that American TV serials seem more appealing to audiences, especially the younger g eneration in Mainland China, when culture for Chinese audiences (IfMay.com, n.d.). According to the news related to the copy right dis putes between the American entertainment industry and Chinese online TV companies, there are considerable 2010). Chinese audiences who consume those serials do so not onl y through their traditional media (including TV channels and the DVD rental industry) but also from the web or Peer to Peer (P2P) software. PPStream software, Tudou and Youku websites are considered the most frequently used. Youku and Tudou hold 22.5 and 1 8.5 percent respectively the online video market share according to the CASBAA news (Xinyi, 2010). PPStream accounts for 8.9 percent and has 65 million users (Hudong, n.d.). American TV serials have a huge audience overseas who follows and there are some s erials which are considered the most popular, classic, and have been discussed in I

PAGE 15

15 American life and construct a certain image of United States. As such, a Chinese audience is the ideal group to try to ascertain the influence that American TV serials may have on the way that out groups perceive the United States and the lifestyle of its citizens. Many studies showed the concerns about how Americans form stereotypes of co cultures within the United States or other cultures (Ford, 1997; Murphy, 1998; Z hu, 2007), but seldom paid attention to how stereotypes of Americans, especially American women, are created by people from outside of the United States. In addition, there are s pecifically focuses on American television serials. This study focuses on the correlation between American TV serials and the stereotypes the Chinese have regarding American women. In order to determine the comparison of stereotypes formed under the influe nce of American TV serials and direct interaction experiences, the study concentrates on the perceptions of young people who live in China and have little or no direct interpersonal communication experience with Americans. With this as background, the fol lowing review looks at the relationship between audiences and media texts. It begins with a discussion of theories used to explain media effects, reviews second level agenda setting theory and cultivation theory and their limitations in order to illustrate the media effects as long term perspectives. This study also explores the differences of perception by gender under the third person. It then proposes the core research questions for the study

PAGE 16

16 CHAPTE R 2 LITERATURE REVIEW There are two key assumptions need to be addressed here to support the research presented in this study. The first is that mass media have diverse effects on perceptions about the larger social group of a foreign culture is shaped largely through indirect experience media exposure via Internet, television, film, magazine, news coverage, etc. The study focuses on American TV serials because Chinese audiences, particularly the younger generation, have a heavy exposure to popular American TV serials over decades. 58.9 percent of American Literature review viewers in China are 19 to 25 years old, and 35.2 percent of them fall into the age range of 26 40 (Jingyi Duan, 2009). Morever, according to Rong Cai (2008), American Literature review TV serials seem more appealing to Chinese young generation audiences when compared to Korean and Japanese TV serials. The other assumption is that this study supposes American TV serials are one of the primary sources if not the primary source of information about American culture and people, especially American women. Furthermore, it is also assumed that as a most important form of information medium, American TV serials contributes dramatically to the stereotypes that ex ist about American women. As Walter Lippmann (1922) claimed intimate acqu The subtlest and most pervasive of all influences are those which create and maintain the repertory of stereotypes. We are told about the world before we see it. We imagine most things before we experience

PAGE 17

17 them. And those perceptions, unless education has made us acutely aware, govern deeply the whole process of p ) Women Stereotypes i n Mass Media Why is this study specifically about women? As the hidden forces shape us and our world view, often without us being aware that they are doing this, mass media have promoted certain gender roles by produ cing stereotypical media images of men and dramatically reinforces gender based stereotypes. The father, Homer, is the breadwinner and the mother, Marge, is the homemaker. Also, the girl, Lisa, is portrayed as intelligent and well heaved, while the boy, Bart, is portrayed as playful and naughty. According to Julia T. Wood (1994), of the many influences on how we view men and women, media are the most pervasive and one of the most powerful. Numerous former studies had found that, when compared to men, women have been underrepresented in mass media (Armstrong, 2004), and that when women are present they are typically scantily dressed and related to stereotypical roles (Collins, 2011) Typically women are portrayed as sex objects who are usually young, thin, passive, dependent, enmeshed in relationships, and often incompetent and dumb. Female characters have been depicted primarily as traditional roles trying to improve their appearanc es and taking care of homes and people (Wood, 1994). Dramatic programming is a tried and true form of television entertainment. It represents a critical ingredient of television programming during both daytime and evening broadcasting (Ceulemans & Fauconn ier, 1979). It is reported that television portrays women less frequently and less often in central roles than men. Male characters far outnumbered females in both major and supporting roles when it comes to American dramatic programming on prime time TV ( Ceulemans &

PAGE 18

18 Fauconnier, 1979). Even in this 21st century, women are still presented in a example. Although three of the four leading female characters are portrayed as indepe ndent professionals, on the other hand, they are still depicted as women devoted to seeking romantic relationship and marriage. When it comes to relationships between similarl y depicted in ways that reinforce media stereotypes on both men and women. For instance, women in romantic relationships are still identified as being dependent on Merm up her identity as a mermaid and sacrifices her beautiful voice to the evil witch in order to get accepted by her human lover the prince. Obviously, this fairy tale wel l illustrates the asymmetrical relationship between women and men that is more subtly conveyed in other media productions. Additionally, women in media representations of relationships are usually portrayed as helpless and incompetent individuals who need men coming to their rescue. There are many examples can be addressed here to support this female leading character from her incompetence at the end of the story and live happily together. This study is trying to find out whether women are still portrayed in those stereotypical ways in modern popular American TV serials and what exactly the ste reotypes are

PAGE 19

19 Cultivation Theory Cultivation theory is a social theory developed by George Gerbner and Larry socialization and everyday information (mostly in the form of ent ertainment) of otherwise television viewing may cultivate and form impressions within individuals through exposure to television. In other words, cultivation theory suggests tha t exposure to values about society. In contrast to media priming, cultivation theory examines the long term effects of media exposure. Simply speaking, the cultivati on research explores the central hypothesis that those who spend more time watching television are more likely to perceive the real world in ways that reflect the most common and recurrent messages s television (Morgan & Shanahan, 1999). Most of the related research starts with examining the divergence between the real Rothfuss and Mayes (1981), aiming to explore the relat ionship between exposure to soap operas and perceptions about people and events in the real world, found that the amount of exposure correlated significantly with increased perception of the number of certain professionals (doctors and lawyers) and people who have been divorced, have been in jail, and have committed crimes in the real world. The researchers found that heavy viewers, when asked to estimate the number of professionals and the problems

PAGE 20

20 of illegitimacy in society, gave answers much closer to th e soap opera reality than did light viewers and non viewers. Other researchers have also studied the effects of television on international audiences. For example, Jorge A. Aguilar (2005) aimed to explore how Nicaraguan citizens perceived the lifestyle of Americans and to analyze how particular messages States from friends and families It seems that they tend to rely on the messages perceived from television program to draw certain conclusions about U.S. lifestyles, both in its fictional and non fictional form. Gabriel Weimann (1984) also found that the media tend to reinforce existing attitudes perception of the American lifestyle by using cultivation analysis appr oach. His findings concerning the impact of heavy viewing of American television programs on the overestimation of wealth and living standard in United States stand side by side with the conclusions of other cultivation studies relating to different aspect s of social reality, like crime, violence, sexual behavior, etc Cultivation Theory a nd Gender Role Attitudes perceptions of, and attitudes toward, culture or value, violence or crime, others have applied the theory to a wider range of various topics, including opinions pertaining to gender roles. Cultivation scholars have also studied the relationship between television viewing and traditional gender role attitudes. Most of the c ultivation scholars have

PAGE 21

21 viewed women as a marginalized social group, given to the fact that they are usually underrepresented and over victimized in the typical world of television (Shanahan & Morgan, 1999). Moreover, they also stated that television pref (p.96). In order to examine whether television viewing cultivates traditional gender role attitudes and contribute to the maintenance of the st atus quo, Japanese scholar Shinichi Saito (2007) found that television viewing was related to more traditional attitudes regarding gender roles among many respondents, like females, highly educated respondents, or political moderates. In other words, with regard to attitudes toward gender roles, television tends to decelerate social changes through cultivating traditional perceptions among many views particularly females. Based on the results of abundant content analyses of American television portrayals o f women, Signorielli (1989) claimed that women in prime time TV programs image is that women, particularly if married, should stay at home, take good care of children, and leave the world of work to men. Even if women are portrayed as professionals who work outside, they are often casted in traditional female occupations study, she cond ucted a cultivation analysis using four survey questions (e.g. Women should take care of running their homes and leaving running the country up to men? Do you agree or disagree?). The result of the study indicated a statistically significant

PAGE 22

22 correlation be tween television viewing and certain perceptions and opinions toward gender roles. However, even though cultivation theory has been placed among the most important contributions yet made to scientific and public understanding of media effects, not everyone in the field has a strong confidence on the validity of cultivation findings. For instance, Hirsch (1980) claimed that the effects of television viewing are minimal if a social status rather than only how many hours of television are watched. Besides, cultivations theory had been analyzed in terms of some specific program types in other ween television viewing and attitudes toward social reality when the random categorization of viewers and date were altered The core assertion of cultivation theory is that heavier television program viewers should have a per portrayals and images than light television viewers. However, cultivation theory is troubling not only because of its validity concerns mentioned above, but its or instance, previous cultivation studies about of the diverse cultural, social e conomical, and political perspectives that American citizens, especially American women, may have. selective in the messages they deliver about the objects and issues in the so ciety, but

PAGE 23

23 accessibility to certain information and so has the potential ability to limit or to shape In media studies, initially emphasized by McCombs and Shaw in 1972, the agenda setting function in mass media has been examined by scholars over decades. It describes the influence of the news coverage on the salience of public issues among the general public (Lopez Escobar, Llamas, McCombs & Lennon, 1998). Over the first two decades, agenda setting research had mainly detailed the patterns in issue salience transfer from the media agenda to the general public agenda (Ghanem, 1997). In other words, research de alt with how news media transfer issues emphasized in news coverage to the general public. Scholars had most traditionally studied the agenda usually issues and political ca ndidates, in the news leads to the increased public However, since the end of last century, researchers have identified that beyond the a pubi c thinks about and how public thinks about it. It deals with the specific attributes/characteristics of an issue/object and how this agenda of attributes/characteristics also influences public opinion (McCombs, Shaw & Hugh, 1997). Built on the basic/first level of agenda setting hypothesis, the second level of

PAGE 24

24 agenda setting involves two major hypotheses about attribute salience (McCombs, Shaw & Hugh, 1997): 1. The way an issue or other object is covered in the media (the attributes emphasized in the news) affects the way the public thinks about that object. 2. The way an issue or other object is covered in the media (the attributes emphasized in the news) affects the salience of that object on the public agenda. In addition to the object salience, the cont emporary interpretation of second level agenda setting theory has linked the concept with media framing by suggesting that media attention can affect how individuals think about an object or issue by emphasizing certain attributes and ignoring others (Kiou sis, Mitrook, Wu & Seltzer, 2006). In the study, an attribute can be thought of as a characteristic, quality, or social status that describes American women in popular American TV dramas. If the TV dramas, for example, focus on the aggressiveness of an Ame rican woman in the story, For decades, many former second level agenda setting studies mostly focused on news media. However, there are also studies examining the theory on n on news resources. Golan, Kiousis and McDaniel (2004) examined the second level agenda setting function of televised political advertisements in the context of the 2004 U.S. presidential election. In order to find out how the advertising agendas of the Bus h and and attributes (Golan, Kiousis & McDaniel, 2004), the authors conducted two separate content analyses of political advertisements and television newscasts to compare the agenda of candidate issues and attributes between them and then conducted a public

PAGE 25

25 opinion survey based on the data they had collected from the prior content analyses. Built on the analysis of comparing the responses to the survey, the authors found the salience of affective attributes in political ads can affect perceived object salience as Kiousis & McDaniel, 2004). That is to say, the result of the study provid ed evidence for second level agenda setting influence between political ads and public opinion. Most of the second level agenda setting studies have focused on non fictional television programming such as newscasts and advertising instead of dramas or TV s erials. However, some studies have indicated that various patterns can be applied in fictional programs and entertainment media. The study attempts to examine the second level agenda setting in a relatively new context American TV serials. According to Ho lbrook and Hill (2005), little attention has been paid to the effects of agenda setting in entertainment media, regardless of the fact that entertainment programs make up a much larger portion of television programming and enjoy a larger audience group tha n do television news programs. In the study, Holbrook and Hill examined second level agenda setting by trying to found out how television crime perception about the president in a political perspective. The results of the study not only indicated a positive correlation between the continuous exposures to crime drama viewing television TV serials frequency, duration, and consistency of media message exposure. In other words,

PAGE 26

26 compared with news media, TV serials as a major form of entertainment media ranks higher in both intensity (including frequency and duration) and consistency Agenda S etting a nd its Common Attributes o f Women about women. By reading television program synopses in TV Guide, Gre enberg & Collete (1997) had found that most women in programming were described as housewives or unskilled labor while men were cast as professionals of some sort. In more interpersonal/relational actions and fewer decisional, political and Sahni (2010), although women in television entertainment programs were depicted in a traditional st ereotypical way as non thinking, sacrificing, and suffering beings, other about women in commercial advertisements and TV serials in Kerala found that women were cast as selfis h, actively aggressive, sexist, insensitive and female chauvinist. And those relatively new stereotypes of women are not limited in ads and TV serials. In Lady appealing, was described as extremely aggressive and abusive. While media play an important role for changes, in most of the popular music videos, female characters are still cast mainl y in romantic relationships or in a sexual appealing way with an ideal body shape image. Given to the fact that media messages are believed to have an influence on

PAGE 27

27 women deliv ered through various media may also exert a significant impact on both The Third Person Effect Media messages have never been perceived and understood by their audiences in an identical way beca use of gender differences, cultural issues, social factors, etc. Audience analysis has sought to understand how media audiences cognitively digest, filter, and organize the media messages with which they come across. However, it does not generally answer h ow television audiences perceive the media effects on others. It influenced by the information sent via mass media than themselves. Originally recognized by Davison (1983), the other discrepancy, demonstrates that individuals presume that others will be more susceptible to media effects than they themselves are. During the decades since Davison first published his findings, su pporting evidences for the third person effect theory have been found for various media content, including rap music, product and political advertising, pornography, and dramatic television programs (Hoffner, Plotkin, Buchanan, Anderson, Kamigaki, Hubbs, K owalczyk, Silberg & Pastorek, 2001). Basically two major hypotheses the perceptual hypothesis and the behavioral hypothesis have been developed in the prior studies. Although recent studies are more focused on exploring the behavioral hypothesis which sugg ests that perceived perceptual hypotheses more. The Perceptual Hypothesis, which suggests that people tend to believe that others are more vulnerable to media influences than they are

PAGE 28

28 (McLeod, Detenber & Eveland, Jr, 2001) has gained considerable attention from researchers and scholars. During the decades of studies, two most important moderator variables have been identified in the third person effect perception research: social d esirability and social distance. Results concluded that the third person effect would be increased/strengthened when the media message is perceived as socially undesirable. Person Effect in Perceptions of th e rate others as more affected by television violence than themselves in terms of mean world perceptions and aggression. Other researchers argued that individuals p refer to overestimate media effects on others, but underestimate media effects on themselves to preserve a positive self a conservative country like China, which value never losing face most in its culture, Chinese audiences would be most reluctant to admit that the media texts (e.g. pornography, violent contents) exert a larger influence on themselves if those messages are recognized as socially undesirable. The present study is trying to examine the third person effect in perceptions of the influence of American TV serials on Chinese viewers. In terms of the huge cultural/value differences/conflicts between China and United States, the dominant content in Am erican TV serials might stimulate and produce a strong third person effect on Chinese audiences. Additionally, other alternative factors that can possibly contribute to Third Person Effect phenomenon (such as demographic, liking for, and the degree of exp osure to

PAGE 29

29 television programs) have been discussed by researchers as well (Hoffner, Plotkin, Buchanan, Anderson, Kamigaki, Hubbs, Kowalczyk, Silberg & Pastorek, 2001). In a study conducted in Singapore (Wu & Koo, 2001), a conservative country similar to Ch ina, researchers found that perceived likelihood of exposure to content might affect the third person effect. And this assumption is also supported by other Person Effect, Gender, and P believe that men are more likely to have a higher degree of exposure to online pornography, thus are potentially easier to be negatively affected via watching it. Jensen and Dines (1998) co ncluded that Internet pornography seemed to strengthen "traditional constructions of men's power over women in the forms of hierarchy, objectification, submission, and violence" (p. 23). Actually few studies have ever specifically explored whether the gend er factor would contribute to the third person effect. However, because of the fact that most of the female characters cast in American TV serials, particularly leading characters, are portrayed as blond, attractive, sexy appealing, and sometimes fragile, it worth trying to find out how men or women the reverse? In addition, some research contends that audiences with long term exposure to specific types of content tend to believe that they have developed resistance to media effects (e.g., Gunther, 1995). However, most of those studies were focused on examining the third person effect in te rms of negative media effects. The present study

PAGE 30

30 tends to explore whether Chinese audiences would develop a strong third person effect in terms of stereotypical televised portrayals of American women by watching American TV serials in a long run Res earch Questions and Hypotheses The present study examines how Chinese audiences, in developing certain perceptions about American women, decode the messages in American TV serials and others in terms of gender and social class. Centering on trying to achieve these goals the following research questions and hypotheses were addressed here. Many prior media studies suggest that exposure to media, especially long term groups. In the conte xt of electronic media, it is concluded by many Cultivation theory researchers and scholars that people who spend more time watching television shows. Thus, the first hypothesis is : Hypothesis 1 : The degree of exposure to American TV serials is positively correlated with stereotypical perceptions on American women. People who spend more time watching American TV serials in their daily time are more likely to have stereo types/misperceptions about American women. Third distinct with themselves

PAGE 31

31 Hypothesis 2 : Chi nese audiences tend to assume that other people are more likely to have stereotypical perceptions about American women under the influence of watching American TV serials. serials Therefore, the first research question is concerned with the specific perceptions/misperceptions the respondents in the study : Research Question 1 : What are the perceptions that the Chinese respondents have of the American women in terms of personality, sexuality, socio economic status, job opportunities, and leisure activities? The study also aimed to produce a list of some specific American TV serials that were contributing to stereotypical images and messages about American women. So the second research questions is : Research Question 2 : What specific American TV serials contribute most to the way Chinese audiences perceive American women? Audiences receive and interpret media message in different ways, because of factors such as gender, age, and social status. In order to find out whether gender research question is addressed : Research Question 3 : perceptions on American women in terms of gender and age ?

PAGE 32

32 CHAPTE R 3 METHOD SURVEY The purpose of the present study is to examine how the TV serials texts produced in the United States are influencing o ut as the only resource that Chinese audiences depend on in coming to certain stereotypical perceptions on American women, but working as one of many various channels such as direct interpersonal communication and/or other media (e.g. radio, newspapers, social networks, etc.). Therefore, it is also necessary to explore what perceptions in general about American women that Chinese audienc es have and the role American TV serials plays in those perceptions. Based on the hypotheses and research questions, an online questionnaire was designed and 800 (maximum number) copies of the questionnaire were sent out to university students or recent g raduates through the most popular Chinese social network Renren. Built on the fact that 58.9% of American TV serials viewers in China are 19 to 25 years old and 35.2% of them fall into the age range of 26 40 (Jingyi Duan, 2009), university students and r ecent graduates are chosen to be the respondents in the study. The other reason is that most of the users of the social network are college students and recent graduates from different provinces and cities all over China, which can help increase the genera lizability of the study results Survey Design The survey was designed to test the effect of exposure to American TV serials and previous contact on the specific stereotypes of American women and the valence of those stereotypes (positive; negative; neut ral)

PAGE 33

33 Measurem ent of the Stereotypes Variable Most of the prior stereotype studies emphasized the attributes of ethnic groups. For instance, Katz and Braly (1933) applied an adjective checklist in their study in order to find out what racial stereotypes c ollege students may have. The checklist, consisting five adjectives to describe each different ethnic group. Then researchers counted the frequency of each attribute on the list. However, even though many researchers and scholars have used the measurement in studies, it has been criticized for years because it fails to capture the structure of stereotypes (Funk, Horowitz, Lipshitz, & Young, 1976) and compare the weights that the different subject groups assigned to solved this problem by asking the subjects to evaluate the five ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Chicanos, Asians and American Indi ans) by apportioning each of them a percentage number in terms of each character trait, which included artistic, lazy, cruel, shrewd, scientific, intelligent, industrious, pugnacious, sportsmanlike, and superstitious. Finally, the researchers added the per centage weights together and divided them by the total number of respondents, then came up with an arithmetic average weight for each character trait. The survey employed in the present study uses a pre defined list of 15 attributes, given to the potential that a free response methodology would yield virtually limitless 5 (1 represents strongly di sagree; 2 slightly disagree; 3 n either di sagree nor agree; 4 slightly agree; 5 strongly agree). The advantage of adopting a Likert

PAGE 34

34 meaningful numerical values and allows for T (Zhu, 2007) Measurement of t h e American TV Serials Exposure Variable In order to measure media effects, particularly the effect of exposure to American TV Serials, both cultivation research and the second level agenda setting studies hodology. Cultivation research usually involves analyzing the relationship between the degree of media exposure and level agenda setting analysis is a method of first identifying the specific attributes from television representations and then In the current study design, respondents were asked to report the number of hours they spend watching American TV serials each w eek. In order to find out what specific TV serials contributed most to their perceptions toward American women, the respondents are asked to report how often they watch each TV serial from a list Measureme nt of Previous Contact Variable The number of cont acts and degrees of relationship were used to measure previous contact with people from another cultural group in many prior media effect studies. (e.g. Zhu, 2007) This measurement is also employed in the current study. Respondents are asked to report whet her they ever had any kind of relationship with Americans and how often they are in contact with the Americans. They are also asked 9

PAGE 35

35 Media Reliance a nd Personal Contact Reliance Other than measuring media exposure, viewing motivations, and previous contacts in numbers, the present study also sought to find out whether the Chinese audiences mainly depend on mass media or interpersonal communication in forming attitudes. The respondents are asked to rate the importance of the news media, magazines, radio, TV serials, social media, and previous interpersonal communication in their und erstanding of American women on a 0 of people who depend mostly on personal contact and the perceptions of who rely mainly on mass media, especially TV serials Measurement o f Gender a nd Third Person Effect In order to examine the role of gender in Third person Effect in the study, the participants were asked how much they think the perceptions male/female audiences have about American women are affected by American TV serials. They will be also asked to rate the degree of the influence on a 0 9 scale with 0 representing slightly influenced and 9 representing strongly influenced

PAGE 36

36 CHAPTE R 4 FINDINGS Convenience samp les of Chinese college students and recent graduates were drawn from different places around the mainland of China via the Chinese social network Renren.com. A total of 435 participants responded to the survey link and filled in the online questionnaire. social network friends. Additionally, recruiters in the study tried to draw participants from different majors and to obtain gender balance. All data were entered into SPSS for analysis. Four hu ndred twenty valid responses from the sample were collected. Among them, 10% (N= 43) responded that they had never watched American TV serials. Thus, only 377 survey responses were used in the further data analysis. In the sample, 16% (N=61) of the partici convey the gender information. There were 53% (N=167) male respondents and 47% (N=149) females. Among 290 participants who responded to the age question, there were 60% (N=174) aged from 24 to 26, 22.07% (N=64) aged from 21 to 23, and 13.1% (N=38) aged from 18 to 20. Forty eight percent (N=148) were currently enroll in college, and 52% (N=164) were recent graduates. Among those who were still in college, 56% (N=85) were graduate students, 26% (N=40) were freshmen. Thirty percent of the respondents (N=94) majored in Business, 23% (N=71) in Computer and Information Science, 17% (N=54) in Engineering, 12% (N=38) in Foreign languages and Literature, and the rest of them were from various other majors or undeclared Stereotypes o n American W omen Respondents were asked to rate their degree of agreement on the following attributes: open minded, easy going, sexual open, Blondie, native, aggressive, mostly

PAGE 37

37 housewives, independent, professional, fashion, arrogant, violent, have less job opportun ities than men, love working out, and do not love to commit to marriage. With 1 mean score from the sample, indicating how the respondents perceive this attribute as ty pical of American women. In response to the first research question in the current study trying to explore what are the specific perceptions that the Chinese respondents have of American women, results show that respondents agreed that 3 out of 15 attribu tes are more typical of American women, as their arithmetic average score on a 5 point scale exceeded 3.7, indicating relatively stronger perceptions on those attributes. These three attributes are: open minded (M=3.92), independent (M=3.86), and sexual op en (M=3.72). Additionally, another 6 attributes have mean ratings range from 3.4 3.7, indicating moderate perceptions. They are: easy going (M=3.64), fashion (M=3.61), love working out (M=3.61), professional (M=3.53), aggressive (M=3.50), and Blondie (M=3. 41). It was found that the arithmetic mean scores of all the 15 attributes had exceeded at least 2.5, which means that no strong disagreement is conveyed on those attributes. See the Table on the following page

PAGE 38

38 Table 4 1 Samp Mean Standard Deviation Open minded 3.92 0.78 Independent 3.86 0.75 Sexual open 3.72 0.88 Easy going 3.64 0.60 Fashion 3.61 0.80 Love working out 3.61 0.74 Professional 3.53 0.73 Aggressive 3.50 0.76 Blondie 3.41 0.92 Do not love to commit to marriage 3.04 0.73 Arrogant 2.86 0.65 Have less job opportunities than men 2.79 0.74 Nave 2.68 0.79 Mostly housewives 2.54 0.79 Violent 2.53 0.74 Reliance o n Media a nd Personal Contact Responde nts were also asked to rate the importance of the news media, magazines, radio, TV serials, social media, and previous interpersonal contact in their understanding of American women on a 0 the ratings from the respondents

PAGE 39

39 Figure 4 1 Importance of Sources for Information about American Women From the above graph we can tell that the respondents considered TV serials (M=6.84) as the most important source of information about American women, while previous interpersonal contact (M=4.79) ranked the penultimate place among the six sources. To some extent it suggested that electronic media, especially American TV women. Additionally, respondents in the study were asked to rate the degree of the influence of American TV serials on their perceptions of American women on a 0 9 level of 5 to 9, which indicate stronger influence. At the same time, the study r esults confirmed the presumption in the study about the 65% of the respondents (N=211) reported that they had a relationship with Americans, 44% of them (N=91) contacted Ame ricans less than once a year. The following graph

PAGE 40

40 shows how often the respondents contact with the Americans they have relationship with Figure 4 2 Frequency of Contact with Americans The graph indicates that only 10% of the r espondents are in contact with the Americans with more than once a week. Based on the two graphs above, in other words, respondents in the study do rely heavily on media messages rather than personal contact in understanding American women. There is a stro ng association TV serials American TV Serials Exposure The Hypothesis 1 in the current study relates to the relationship between exposure to American TV serials and the stere otypical perceptions of American women. It predicts that Chinese audiences who spend more time watching American TV serials are more likely to have stereotypical perceptions on American women. Respondents

PAGE 41

41 were asked to report how many hours they spend on w atching American TV serials in a typical week, what kind of TV serials do they prefer to watch, and the frequency of watching following TV serials: 24, American Idol, Bones, Criminal Minds, Desperate Housewives, Every Loves Raymond, Friends, Gossip Girl, H eroes, House, How I Met Your Mother, Lie to Me, Lost, Miami Vice, Nikita, Prison Break, Sex and the City, The Big Bang Theory, The X Files, and Vampires Diaries. The research question 2 in the study explores the specific American TV serials that contribut e most to Chinese percentage of respondents who reported their frequency of watching those American rison N In order to determine the relationship between watching those six TV serials and the perceptions of American women, an independent sample T test was done to test a significant difference between the group of respondents who watch at least four out of American women. In other words, respondents who often watch any four of the six TV serials are more likely to have stronger agr eement on the 15 attributes about American women. The results are presented in the following table :

PAGE 42

42 Table 4 2 Independent Sample T Test (1) Category Mean Standard Deviation T P (T<= t) Watch at least four of the six watched mo 6.971 2.467 1.943 0.029 6.102 2.676 women in the current study Figure 4 3 Frequency of Watching Those American TV Serials

PAGE 43

43 No significant correlations were found between the e xposure to American TV serials (Measured in hours per week) and perceiving American women in those stereotypical ways, except perceiving American women as independent. The Table 4.4 shows that the degree of exposure to American TV serials is negatively cor related to perceiving American women as independent (r= .114, p<0.05). However, an independent sample T test reveals some differences in perceiving American women between those Chinese audiences who are exposed to 4 hours or more than 4 hours of American TV serials (heavy TV serials consumption group) and those who are exposed to less than 4 hours of American TV serials (light TV serials consumption group). For example, the respondents who watch American TV serials for 4 or more than 4 hours in a typical w eek are more likely to perceive American women as open minded (p<0.05) and sexual open (p<0.05) Table 4 3 Independent Sample T Test (2) Perception Category Mean Standard Deviation T P (T<= t) < 4 hours 3.891 0.909 1.781 0.03 9 Open minded >= 4 hours 4.074 Sexual Opened < 4 hours 3.673 0.987 1.789 0.038 >= 4 hours 3.868 However, significant correlations were found between relying on the American TV serials in understanding American women and perce iving American women as open minded (r=.165, p<.05), independent (r=.157, p<.05), sexual open (r=.197, p<.05), professional (r=.109, p<.05), and aggressive (r=.227, p<.05). There is no significant correlations were found in the other perceptions, such as e asy going (r=.047, p<.05),

PAGE 44

44 fashion (r=.065, p<.05), love working out (r=.099, p<.05), and Blondie (r= .003, p<.05). Results are presented in the following table : Table 4 4. Correlations between American TV Serials Reliance or Exposu re and Perceptions of American Women The Importance of American TV Serials as a Source of Information for Understanding American Women The Hours that Spent on Watching American TV Serials Per Week Aggressive .227* .000 Sexual Open .197* .089 Open min ded .165* .045 Independent .157* .114* Professional .109* .001 Love Working Out .099 .050 Have less job opportunities than men .099 .091 Nave .098 .003 Violent .074 .044 Arrogant .067 .068 Fashion .065 .050 Easy going .047 .040 Do not love to commit to marriage .033 .056 Blondie .003 .021 Mostly Housewives .005 .051 Gender and Perceptions of American Women In order to answer Research question 3 about the differences among Chinese nder, results show that compared with female respondents, male audiences tend to agree more on the following table:

PAGE 45

45 Table 4 5 American Women Perception Gender Mean Standard Deviation T P (T<= t) Mostly Housewives Male 2.658 0.893 2.320 0.011 Female 2.425 0.871 Arrogant Male 2.974 0.842 2.461 0.007 Female 2.750 0.757 Violent Male 2.669 0.817 2.940 0.001 Female 2.383 0.887 Although the differences were only found in perceiving American women as the results still suggest that gender issue in different ways. And interestingly, the three attributes, which out of the 9 mostly agreed perceptions in the study, are all negative ones. The possible explanation for the finding will be discussed in the discussion Gender and Influence of American TV Serials In order to examine the third person effect in the study, the Hypothesis 2 relates to the assumption that Chines e audiences tend to think other people will be more affected by American TV serials in perceiving American women than they are. The current study particularly tries to find out whether there is any difference between male and female ard the media influence. All respondents were asked to rate the influence of watching American TV serials on themselves, male audiences, and female audiences, on a scale of 0 9 with 0

PAGE 46

46 American TV serials on themselves, while 66.8% of the male (N=111) rated themselves re that in the current study most of the respondents admitted the influence of watching American TV serials in understanding American women. The following graph tells that, 71.78% of the male respondents (N=117) rated over In other words, in the study male respondents tend to think female audiences will be more affected by the influence of watching American TV serials in perceiving American women. At the same time, 73.97% of the female he degree of the influence on male. That is to say, in the current study, female respondents tended to think male audiences are more affected by watching American TV serials in understanding American women. Therefore, in terms of gender difference, the Hyp othesis 2 is partially supported in the study: Male audiences tend to think female are more affected by American TV serials, while female audiences prefer to think male are more affected by them in perceiving American women

PAGE 47

47 Figure 4 4 American TV Serials

PAGE 48

48 CHAPTE R 5 DISCUSSION In this section, the findings will be discussed. The results of the online survey yielded many interesting findings, some consistent wit h former studies while others were not. The possible explanations wi ll be addressed in this section First of all, the findings of the current study support the statement that stereotypes of American women exist among Chinese audiences. The fifteen attributes in the study were chosen based on previous literature. According to Hampson (1987) and Anderson (1968), open minded, easy going, independent, professional, and fashion are positive attributes (Social d esirability or likableness values exceed the median value). Five attributes were perceived as negative in the study, particularly for Chinese. They are: sexual open, nave, aggressive, arrogant, and violent. The rest of the attributes are not covered by H ampson & Anderson. They are: Blondie, mostly housewives, have less job opportunities than men, love working out, and do not love to commit to marriage, which are all rated as neutral traits in the study. It is not surprising that the respondents agree on t he typicality of the three attributes open minded, independent, and sexual open most in terms of personality and leisure activities, such as having less job opportuniti es than men and loving working out, were not rated highly in the study. One of the possible explanations is that activities while focusing on their personality and sexualit y when perceiving American women. Given to the fact that 44% of the respondents were in contact with the

PAGE 49

49 Americans they know less than once a year, the alternative explanation is that the American TV serials they rely heavily in understanding American wome n address less on the career and leisure activity but more on personality and sexuality. It is a little out of expectation that the average mean of each attribute is lower than 4, which indicates a significantly strong perception. The maximum value of the mean is explanation for this result. In a typical eastern country like China, where people have been educated state wide to behave in a moderate way and refuse to give absolut e answers, it is not that trying to maintain balance and harmony from directing the mind to a state of constant equilibrium. Therefore, it is possible that the respondents might rate the perceptions lower than that way. Additionally, based on the results, it seems that the male respondents perceive American women differently from female respondents in these three attributes: mostly housewives, arrogant, and violent. The finding shows that compared with female media, especially in the electronic media. One explanation of the difference is that Chinese female respondents may have a stronger group identity (both American women and

PAGE 50

50 preserve their self esteem or self worth brings about favoring the ingroup people. In other wor the study, for most of the modern Chinese women, it is a relatively negative stereotype of wo attr ibutes: arrogant and violent. The other possible explanation is that male respondents in the study watched more action American TV serials in which female roles were depicted more arrogant and violent. It is worth to find out in the future study American TV Serials Exposure and Reliance American TV serials (M=6.84) has been suggested to be the most influential exposure to American TV serials in a typical week is not sig nificant related to having more/stronger stereotypical perceptions of American women. It does follow Potter and attitudes toward social reality when the random catego rization of viewers and data were altered, given to the fact that most of the respondents are college students and recent graduates and recruited through the social network. The only association indicated by the data analysis results is that the more resp ondents watched American TV serials the less they perceive American women as as more independent when they spent more time on watching Hollywood movies. It also

PAGE 51

51 does not follow the assumption in the current study that people who spend more time on watching American TV serials are more likely to perceive American women in those and so value independence and self va The possible explanation for the finding is that American women are still been mispresented and mostly depicted as dependent, especially compared with American men, in the moder n American TV serials. For instance, one of the leading female characters in Desperate Housewives Lynette Scavo had been depicted as a mother who has 5 kids but also a very successful professional career working in advertising industry. But in the season 8, when she thought she could bring up her children alone and take care of the whole family with her separation from her husband, she had a And then she decided to s tart trying to experiment with new dates. Similar examples Although, no significant liner relationship is established in the study between the hours spent on watching American TV serials and perceptions of American women, the study found that people who watch American TV serials for 4 or more hours in a week are more likely to perceive American women as open minded and sexual open. Watching Ameri can TV serials 4 hours or more per week is defined as the heavy TV

PAGE 52

52 serials consumption group in the study, because according to the most recent media statistics about average television viewing hours by country, Chinese people watch television programs les s than 18 hours per week. Additionally, given to the fact that 48% (N=153) of the respondents are college students who have very limited time watching TV serials either on television or through the Internet, it is reasonable to define people who spend more than 4 hours out of their limited time on watching American TV serials as a heavy American TV serials viewing group. Therefore, despite the no significant correlation result, more time spent on watching American drama may be a contributing factor for perc eptions of American women as being open minded and sexual open Most Popular/Influential American TV Serials Six American TV serials were found being the most watched among the respondents in the current study. They are: Prison Break, Friends, The Big Ban g Theory, Gossip Girl, Sex and The City, and Desperate Housewives. Popular American TV serials kept in the questionnaire. However, according to the answer, 25 more American TV serials were added when asked to write down any other American TV serials they often watched but had not been provided i n the list. It shows that American TV serials have gained much more attention and following in the mainland of China. The study found that respondents who often watch at least four of the six TV serials mentioned above are more likely to have stronger agr eement on the 15 perceptions of American women. It is not surprising that these six American TV serials

PAGE 53

53 as the most influential and popular American comedy in China accordin g to in Li Yan & China because of the humorous story plots and fashion. Many other examples can be draw here to illustrate the popularity of American TV serials in China It is really worth trying to explore the reasons (e.g. viewing motivations) behind this trend and how this trend will change in future study Personal Contact and Stereotypes The current study found that only 65% of the respondents reported that they e ver had a relationship with Americans. And among them, 44% said they contact the Americans less than once a year. It supports the presumption in the study that although the Chinese younger generation has been offered many various ways to access people from relationships with outgroup members. Therefore, the effect of personal contact has been excluded in the study as a predictor of stereotypical perceptions of American women. Howeve r, personal contact especially in close and meaningful relationships with people from another culture group was shown to be a strong predictor of positive stereotypes of another group in many previous studies. (e.g. Mastro & Tropp, 2004; Allport, 1954). At the same time, it is believed that lacking of this kind of contact will foster prejudice and form negative stereotypes (Armstrong, Neuendorf, & Brentar, 1992). To some extent, it helps explain another finding in the study.

PAGE 54

54 Respondents were asked to add a ny other perceptions they have of American women if they are not included in the 20 attributes. It turned out that most of the perceptions are strongly prejudiced. Ten respondents reported other perceptions they had of American women, which included sense of humor, crazy, big boobs and full hips, strong desire of controlling, and a strong dislike for Chinese

PAGE 55

55 CHAPTE R 6 CONCLUSION This study has not only increased the general knowledge of media effects and stereotyping, but also established a relationshi p between media reliance and stereotypical perceptions. It confirmed the association between stereotyping American women and watching American TV serials. Stereotypes of American women construct minded, independent, easy going, fashionable, professional, and love working out in the study. However, American women are also perceived in a prejudiced way as being sexual open (strong perception), aggressive (moderate perception), and Blondie (moderate perception). The study found that lacking of personal contact with Americans might be a contributor to the prejudice and negative stereotypes. Therefore, close interracial contact should be encouraged and efforts need to be made to increase the chance to interpersonally communicate with people from United States in the mainland of China, such as recruiting more international students in the college programs, having more cultural exchange projects, creating more investment opportunities for foreigners, etc. This study supports the theoretical perspectives of the second level of agenda American women as open minded, independent, sexual open, professional, and aggressive is related to the American TV serials attribute agenda. Based on previous literature, those are common attributes of women delivered through entertainment media, especially television. The study found that the more the Chinese audiences rely on American TV s erials in understanding American women, the more they tend to perceive American women in those attributes. In other words, American TV serials have

PAGE 56

56 and perceptions toward women. The current study suggests that the heavy (>=4 hours) vs. light (<4 hours) viewers among the younger generation in China might cause differences in perceptions. However, no positive correlation between exposure to American TV serials and perception s of American women was found. But it does not mean that American TV serials have little effect in China, since a strong correlation was established between the American TV serials reliance and perceptions of American women in the study. Therefore, in futu re media effect studies in China, cultivation effects of entertainment media can be determined by not only focusing on comparing the differences of perceptions between heavy vs. light media users, but by comparing the as well. Consistent with previous third person effect studies, the result of the study also supports the theoretical perspectives of the theory in terms of the gender difference. Chinese male audiences in the study are tended to think women are more sus ceptible to the influence of watching American TV serials than men, while Chinese female audiences tended to think men are more likely to be affected by American TV serials in understanding American women. Overall, the study supports the important role of American TV serials in Chinese refute some of the common stereotypes. Although no direct positive correlation was established between American TV serials exposure and pe rceiving American women,

PAGE 57

57 there is reason to be concerned because a positive correlation was found between There are weakness and limitations in the current study. First of all, t he representative of the sample was not ensured to the highest extent. Convenience samples were employed in the study. Since respondents were recruited through the social network, the geographic locations remain unknown. Additionally, the study is limited by the sample size. A total of 435 valid responses were received. In the future study, larger size and more representative samples need to be achieved to promote the power of the statistical process employed in the study. Secondly, the respondents in the study were asked to report the level of agreement on the attributes and the importance of the sources in understanding American women on a likert scale. The self report is highly subjective. Cultural values, personalities, and personal preferences can resu lt in differences in the answers. For in the same country. Variances may exist among the respondents. For instance, some edy and cartoons were given in the list, many of the respondents may still understand differently. Another weakness of the study might be that respondents were asked to report their media consumption, media reliance, personal contact, and perceptions on A merican women at the same time. It is possible that they have a self conscious of the

PAGE 58

58 purpose of the study and give inaccurate answers, particularly given to the fact that 10 percent of the respondents major in communication who may have a better understan ding of the importance of media effect and be more familiar with media effect research. Therefore, in future research, separating the measurement of stereotypes and media consumption may eliminate this concern. Finally, the English version of the survey an d the Chinese version do not exactly match, even though strong efforts were made to achieve a perfect translation. People from different culture group may perceive some terms differently. For example, y perceive it positively because of the cultural denotation. Future research should be conducted in different universities in different cities in China. A separate two stage research can be carried out so that respondents do not associate the stereotypical perceptions with media reliance and media exposure. It will be interesting to examine the effect of watching American TV serials on other groups of people than college students and recent graduates. Compared with college student, high school and middle s chool students may be even more affected by American TV serials since they may have less interracial contact with Americans. Thus, the results might be different if they were included in the current study. The study found that compared with male respondent s, women are less likely to perceive American women in a negative or prejudiced way, such as perceiving them as violent, arrogant, and mostly housewives. It will be interesting to trying to find out whether there is any difference in perceiving American wo men in terms of other factors, such as personal income and social economic status, in future studies.

PAGE 59

59 In addition, the availability and accessibility of American TV serials in China should be explored in the future. The result of the current study might be different if the two variables were included. For example, if a person who has extremely limited access to American TV serials while still spending 3 hours per week on watching them, the The current study should be ameliorated in the future and conducted on different group of samples and in different places. It will not only help examine the degree of the effect of watching TV serials and identify the source of stereotyping, but raise the awareness of television industry to be more responsible and try to reduce the prejudice and negative stereotypes on other racial groups as well

PAGE 60

60 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT FORM The Media Portrayals of American Women in Chinese Eyes: An Analysis of How C hinese Perceive American Women and How U.S. TV Serials Influences Those Perceptions Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: This is a study about media effect that is bei ng conducted by Xinwen Xu, graduate student at college of Journalism and Mass Communication in University of Florida. The perceptions about American women. What you w ill be asked to do in the study: You will complete an online survey. The survey includes questions about your media reliance and American TV Serials viewing habits. Other survey questions will address your perceptions of American women, your opinion on th e degree of the influence that watching American TV Serials has on other people, and the quantity and quality of previous contacts with people from other culture groups. We also will ask for some demographic information (e.g., age, gender, education level, etc.) so that we can accurately describe the general traits of the participants in the study. Time required: 10 15 minutes Risks and Benefits/Compensation: No risks or discomforts are anticipated from taking part in this study. If you feel uncomforta ble with a question, you can skip that question or withdraw from the study altogether. If you decide to quit at any time before you have finished the questionnaire, your answers will NOT be recorded. You will be contributing to knowledge about televised me dia effect and the role that American TV Serials plays in stereotyping. There will be no further compensation for the participants in the study. Confidentiality: Your identity and responses will be kept confidential to the extent provide by law. We will NOT know your IP address when you respond to the Internet survey. Your

PAGE 61

61 information will be assigned a code number. Only the researchers will see your individual survey responses. Decision to quit at any time: Your participation is voluntary; you are fr ee to withdraw your participation from this study at any time. If you do not want to continue, you can simply leave this website. If you do not click on the "submit" button at the end of the survey, your answers and participation will not be recorded. You also may choose to skip any questions that you do not wish to answer. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Xinwen Xu, Graduate Student, College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Florida, Weimer Hall, PO Box 118400, Gai nesville, FL 32611, fiona122@ufl.edu Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. By beginnin g the survey, you acknowledge that you have read this information and agree to participate in this research, with the knowledge that you are free to withdraw your participation at any time without penalty

PAGE 62

62 APPENDIX B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Q1 Have you ever watched American TV Serials? Yes (1) No (2) If No Is Selected, Then Skip To End of Survey Q2 How many hours do you spend on watching American TV Serials in a typical week? Less than 1 hours (1) 1 2 hours (2) 2 3 hours (3) 3 4 hours (4) 4 5 hours (5) 5 6 hours (6) 6 7 hours (7) 7 8 hours (8) 8 9 hours (9) 9 10 hours (10) More than 10 hours (11) Q3 What kind of American TV Serials do you prefer to watch? You may choose more than one if applicable. Action/Adventure (1) Animation (2) Comedy (3) Roma nce (4) Reality (5) Science Fiction (6)

PAGE 63

63 Q4 How often do you watch following American TV Serials?

PAGE 64

64

PAGE 65

65 Q5 Here are some perceptions about American Women. Please choose to show whether you are in favor of it or against it. Q6 What are your perceptions about American Women if it is not provided in the list above?

PAGE 66

66 Q7 Please choose one number to indicate the degree of the influence on a 0 9 scale with 0 representing "not at all influenced" and 9 representing "Strongly influenced". Q8 Have you ever had any kind of relationship with an American? Yes (1) No (2) If No Is Selected, Then Skip To Q10...

PAGE 67

67 Q9 How often do you contact with the Americans you have relationship with? Less than Once a Year (1) Once a Year (2) 2 3 Times a Year (3) Once a Month (4) 2 3 Times a Month (5) Once a Week (6) 2 3 Times a Week (7) Daily (8) Q10 Please indicate the degree of the relationship on a 0 9 scale with 0 representing "distant relationship" and 9 representing "close relationship". { CHOICE 1} (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 (5) 5 (6) 6 (7) 7 (8) 8 (9) 9 (10)

PAGE 68

68 Q11 Please rate the importance of the following medium tool in your understanding of American women on a 0 9 scale with 0 representing "not important at all" and 9 rep resenting "very important". This page will go over basic demographic information. Please fill it in as completely as possible. Q12 What is your gender? Male (1) Female (2) Q13 What is your age? Q14 Are you currently enrolled in and attending college ? Yes (1) No (2) If No Is Selected, Then Skip To Q16... Q15 What is your classification in college? Freshman/First year (1) Sophomore (2) Junior (3) Senior (4) Graduate Student (5) Unclassified (6)

PAGE 69

69 Q16 Which of these fields best describes your major, or your anticipated major? You may indicate more than one if applicable. Agricutlre (1) Biological/Life Sciences (biology, biochemistry, botany, zoology, etc.) (2) Business (accounting, business administration, marketing, management, etc.) (3) Communication ( journalism, advertising, PR, speech, television/radio, etc.) (4) Computer and Information Sciences (5) Education (6) Engineering (7) Ethic, Culture Studies, and area studies (8) Foreign Languages and Literature (English, Spanish, French, etc.) (9) Health r elated Fields (nursing, physical therapy, health technology, etc.) (10) History (11) History (12) Humanities (literature, philosophy, religion, etc.) (13) Liberal/General Studies (14) Mathematics (15) Multi/Interdisciplinary Studies (international relation s, ecology, environmental studies, etc.) (16) Parks, Recreation, Leisure Studies, Sports Management (17) Physical Sciences (physics, chemistry, astronomy, earth science, etc.) (18) Pre professional (pre dental, pre medical, pre veterinary) (19) Public Admi nistration (city management, law enforcement, etc.) (20) Social Sciences (anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, sociology, etc.) (21) Visual and Performing Arts (art, music, theater, etc.) (22) Undecided (23) Other (24) __________________ __

PAGE 70

70 APPENDIX C SURVEY RESULTS AMERICAN TV SERIALS WATCHING FREQUENCY Mean Standard Deviation 24 3.30 0.98 American Idol 3.29 0.88 Bones 3.66 0.75 Criminal Minds 3.28 1.03 Desperate Housewives 2.86 1.15 Every Loves Raymond 3.52 0.78 Fr iends 2.19 1.08 Gossip Girl 2.50 1.13 Heroes 2.96 1.13 House 3.47 0.90 How I Met Your Mother 3.36 1.04 Lie To Me 2.94 1.19 Lost 3.15 1.02 Miami Vice 3.57 0.84 Nikita 3.16 1.16 Other 2.90 1.12 Prison Break 2.11 1.11 Sex And The City 2. 91 1.23 The Big Bang Theory 2.22 1.00 The X Files 3.30 1.24 Vampires Diaries 2.90 1.46

PAGE 71

71 LIST OF REFERENCES Aguilar, J.A. (2005). Viewing America: A Qualitative Analysis of How Nicaraguan Citizens Perceive U.S. Lifestyles and How U.S. Tele vision Programming Influences Those Perceptions. University of Florida. Allport, G. W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. MA: Addison Wesley American TV audience research in China. (2008). From: http://www.ifmay.com/web/movie/review/20080407330.html Anderson, N.H. (1968). Likableness ratings of 555 personality trait words. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 9(3), 272 279. Armstrong, B., Neuendorf K., & Brentar, J. (1992). TV entertainment, news, and racial perceptions of college students. Journal of Communications 42, 153 175. Armstrong, Cory L. (2004). The Influence of Reporter Gender on Source Selection in Newspa per Stories. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterl, 81 (1), pp. 139 54. Beaver, P.D., Hou, L., & Wang, X. (1995). Rural Chinese Women: Two Faces of Economic Reform. Modern China Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 205 232. Beng AKSU. (2005). Barbie Against Superman: Gender Stereotypes and Gender Equity in the Classroom. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies Vol.1, No.1, April 2005. Berg, L.R.V., & Streckfuss, D. (1992) Prime and the World of Work: A Demographic Profile. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 36(2)195 209. Brosius, H.B., Engel, D. (1996). The Causes of Third Person Effects: Unrealistic Optimism, Impersonal Imapct, or Generalized Negative Attitud es towards Media Influence? International Journal of Public Opinion Research 8 (2). Buerkel Rothfuss, N.L. & Mayes, S. (1981). Soap Opera Viewing: The Cultivation Effect. Journal of Communication Cai, R. (2008). Carnivalesque Pleasure: The Audio visual Market and the Consumption of Television Drama. TV Drama in China pp. 129 141. Hong Kong University Press.

PAGE 72

72 Ceulemans, M. & Fauconnier, G. (1979). Mass Media: The Image, Role, and Social Conditions of Women. A colle ction and analysis of research materials. United Nations Educational. Collins, R.L. (2011). Content Analysis of Gender Roles in Media: Where Are We Now and Where Should We Go?. Sex Roles, 64:290 298. Davison, W. P. (1 983). The third pers on effect in communication. Public Opinion Quarterly 47, 1 1 3. Kaoshi Zhoukan Vol 24. Duck, J. M., & Mullin, B. A. (1995). The perceived impact of the mass m edia: Reconsidering the third person effect. European Journal of Social Psychology 25, 77 93. Ford, T. E. (1997). Effects of Stereotypical Television Portrayals of African Americans on Person Perception. Social Psychology Quarter ly 60 (3), pp. 266 275. Funk, S.G., Horowitz, A. D., Lipshitz, R., & Young, F.W.(1976). The Perceived Structure of American Ethnic Groups: The Use of Multidimensional Scaling in Stereotype Research. Sociometry 39(2), 116 130. Ga hualnt, A. (2002). Women in advertisements, Films and Serials in Kerela. Retrieved from: http://www.ibnlive.com Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1994). Growing Up with Television: T he Cultivation Perspective. In J. Bryant & D. Zillman (Eds.), Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research (pp. 17 41). Hillsdale, NJ: Erbaum. Ghanem, S. (1997). Filling in the Tapestry: The Second Level of Agenda Setting. Commu nication and Democracy: Exploring the Intellectual Frontiers in Agenda Setting Theory 3 14. Psychology Press. Golan, G.J., Kiousis, S.K., & McDaniel, M.L. (2004). Second Level Agenda Setting and Political Advertising: Investing the Transf er of Issue and Attribute Saliency During the 2004 US Presidential Election. Journalism Studies Vol. 8, No 3. Gorham, B. (2006). News Media's relationship with stereotyping: The linguistic intergroup bias in response to crime news Journal of Communication 56, pp. 289 380.

PAGE 73

73 Greenberg, B.S., & Collette, L. (1997) The Changing Faces on TV: An Analysis of New Season Demography, 1966 1992. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 41(1)1 13. Guichard, C. P. & Connolly, M.A. (1997). Ethnic Groups Stereotypes: A New Look at the Old Problem. The Journal of Negro Education 46 (3), 344 357. Gunther, A. C. (1995). Overrating the X rating: The Third person Perception and Support for Censorship o f Pornography. Journal of Communication 45(1), 27 38. Hampson, S. E., Goldberg, L.R., & John, O.P. (1987). Category breadth And Social Desirability Values for 573 Personality Terms. European Journal of Personality 1, 241 258. H arris, R. J. (2004). A Cognitive Psychology of Mass Communication. Mahwah & London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Viewer and Other Anomalies: A s On Cultivation Analysis. Communications Research, 7, 403 456. Hoffner, C., Plotkin, R. S., Buchanan, M., Anderson, J. D., Kamigaki, S.K., Hubbs, L.A., Kowalczyk, L., Silberg, K., & Pastorek, A. (2001). The Third Person Effect in Perceptions of the Influence of Television Violence Journal of Communication International Communication Association. Holbrook, R.A. & Hill, T.G. (2005). Agenda Setting and Priming in Prime Time Television: Crime Dramas as Political Cu es, Political Communication 22:3, 277 295. 2 from Hudong: http://www.hudong.com/wiki/%E5%BC%A0%E6%B4%AA%E7%A6%B9 James, N. W. (2006). Intercultural Communication: A Contextual Approa ch (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication. Jensen, R. & Dines, D. (1998). The content of mass marketed pornography. In G. Dines, R. Jensen, & A. Russo (Eds.), Pornography: The Production and Consumption of Inequality (pp. 65 1 00). New York: Routledge. Katz, D. & Braly, K.W. (1933). Racial Stereotypes of 100 College Students. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 28, 280 290.

PAGE 74

74 Kiousis, S., Mitrook, M., Wu, X., & Seltzer, T. (2006). First and Second Level Agenda Building and Agenda Setting Effects: Exploring the Linkages Among Candidate News Releases, Media Coverage, and Public Opinion During the 2002 Florida Gubernatorial Election, Journal of Public Relations Research 18:3, 265 28 5. Kual, S. & Sahni, S. (2010). Portrayal of Women in Television (TV) Serials. Stu Home Comm Sci 4(1): 15 20. Lippmann, W. (1922) Public Opinion. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Lo, V. & Wei, R. (2002). Third Person Effect, Gender, and Po rnography on the lnternet, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 46:1, 13 33 Lopez Escobar, E., Llamas, J. P., & McCombs, M. E. (1998). Agenda Setting and Community Consensus: First and Second Level Effects. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 10, 335 348. Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2010). Understanding Intercultural Transitions (5 ed.). Nwe York: McGraw Hill. Mastro, D. (2009). Effects of Racial and Ethnic Stereotyping. In J. Bryant, & M. B. Oliver, Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research (p. 325). New York: Routledge. Mastro, D.E., & Tropp, L.R. (2004). The Effects of Interracial Contact, Attitudes, and Stereotypical Portrayals on Evaluations of Black Television Sitcom Characters. Communication Research Reports 21(2), 119 129. McCombs, M.E., Shaw, D.L., & Weaver, D.H. (1997). Communication and Democracy: Exploring the Intellectual Frontiers in Agenda Setting Theory. Psychology Press. Mc Cullagh, C. (2002). Media Power: A Sociological Introduction. New York, NY: Palgrave. McLeod, D.M., Detenber, B.H., & Eveland, W.P. Jr. (2001). Behind the Third Person Effect: Differentiating Perceptual Processes for Self and Other. Journal of Communication International Communication Association. Molleda, J. C. (2011). Advancing the Theory of Cross National Conflict Shifting; A Case Discussion and Quantitative Content Analysis of a Transnational Crisis' Newswi re Coverage. International Journal of Strategic Communication 5, pp. 49 70.

PAGE 75

75 Murphy, S. T. (1998). The Impact of Factual versus Fictional Media Portrayals on Cultural Stereotypes. Annals of the American Academy of Political and So cial Science 560, pp. 165 178. Potter, W.J. (1991) The Linearity Assumption in Cultivation Research. Human Communication Research, 17(4) 562 583. Potter, W.J. (1991). Examining Cultivation From a Psychological Perspective: Component Sub pro cesses. Communication Research 18 (1), 77 102. Saito, S. (2007). Television and the Cultivation of Gender Role Attitudes in Japan: Does Television Contribute to the Maintenance of the Status Quo?. Journal of Communication, 57 (2007) 511 5 31. International Communication Association. Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (2001). Communication Between Cultures (4 ed.). Stamford: Wadsworth. Seiter, E. (1986). Stereotypes and the Media: A Re evaluation. Journal of Communicati on Spring, pp. 14 26. Shanahan, J. & Morgan, M. (1999). Television and its Viewers. Cultivation Theory and Research Cambridge University Press. Shenzhen Daily. (2010). Overseas drama restricted on video Web sites. Retrieved from Shen zhen Daily: http://www1.szdaily.com/content/2010 12/14/content_5170691.htm Signorielli, N. (1989). Television and Conceptions About Sex Roles: Maintaining Conventio nality and the Status Quo. Sex Roles 21, 337 356. Sina. (2008). 13 great American TV to share. Retrieved from Sina: http://edu.sina.com.cn/en/2008 09 02/093743783.shtml Tajfel, H. (1981). Social stereotypes and social groups. In J.C. Turner and H. Giles (Eds), Intergroup behaviour Oxford: Blackwell. Tan, A. S. (1982). Television use and social stereotype. Journalism Quarterly 59 (1), pp. 119 122. Television Viewing (Most Recent) By Country. Media Statistics. From: http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/med_tel_vie media television viewing UNESCO. (1999). Statistical Yearboo. UNESCO.

PAGE 76

76 Weimann, G. (1984). Images of Life in America: the Impact of American T.V. in Israel International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol. 8. Pp. 185 197. Pergamon Press Ltd. Wood, J.T. (1994). Gendered Media: The Influence of Media on Views of Gender. Gendered Lives: Communication, Gen der, and Culture Chapter 9, pp. 231 244. Wadsworth Publishing. Wu, W. & Koo, S.H. (2001). Perceived Effects of Sexuality Explicit Internet Content: The Third Person Effect in Singapore. J & MC Quarterly 78(2), 260 274. Xinyi, Y. (2010). China's Online Video Market Posts $93.15 mln in Q3 revenue. Retrieved from CASBAA: http://www.casbaa.com/media and resources/news center/cas baa news/1432 chinas online video market posts 9315 mln in q3 revenue Drama in the Mainland of China. From: http://media.people.com.cn/GB/5292697.html Zhu, L. (2007). Media Effects on Chinese and American Stereotypes in College Settings. The University of Texas at Arligton.

PAGE 77

77 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Xinwen Xu was born in Hunan, China, in 1989 She received a bachelor in business m anagement from Beijing Union University in 2010. She graduated with a Master of Arts in Mass Communication in 2012 from the University of Florida. In the future she hopes to become a professional in marke ting communication as well as a communication strategist in marketing industry.