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Emotional Intelligence and Career Maturity of Millennials in College

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044254/00001

Material Information

Title: Emotional Intelligence and Career Maturity of Millennials in College
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Giraud, Viviana M
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: career -- emotional -- employability -- generation -- intelligence -- leadership -- maturity -- millennial -- student
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The millennial generation is slowly entering the workforce, while the majority is in high school or in college, the impact they will have on organizations is still unknown. This research aims to explore the employability and factors relating to in millennials in college. The purpose of this study is to identify the emotional intelligence and career maturity levels of millennials in college. The theoretical frameworks used in this study were the theories of emotional intelligence, career maturity, and employability. The sample of this study is all undergraduate and graduate students in a department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at a southern land-grant institution, the University of Florida (UF). The five constructs of emotional intelligence that were measured are relating well to others, emotional mentoring, managing emotions, self-awareness, and self-motivation. The attitude scale of career maturity was measured. An online survey tool was used to administer the survey to participants. The results showed that three generations existed in the department, Millennials, Gen X, and Baby Boomers. Generational differences exist regarding career maturity and emotional intelligence. Undergraduate students perceive themselves to have a higher ability in emotional intelligence than graduate students. Females and males scored differently on emotional intelligence scales and career maturity. Student classification and age were the only constructs that were statistically significant with career maturity. Therefore, as an individual increases in age and student classification, career maturity increases as well. The findings of this study suggest that curriculum should reflect needed development in undergraduates in ethics, communication, and soft skill development. The researcher recommends that having high emotional intelligence and high career maturity contributes to employability.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Viviana M Giraud.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Stedman, Nicole Lamee Perez.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044254:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044254/00001

Material Information

Title: Emotional Intelligence and Career Maturity of Millennials in College
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Giraud, Viviana M
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: career -- emotional -- employability -- generation -- intelligence -- leadership -- maturity -- millennial -- student
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The millennial generation is slowly entering the workforce, while the majority is in high school or in college, the impact they will have on organizations is still unknown. This research aims to explore the employability and factors relating to in millennials in college. The purpose of this study is to identify the emotional intelligence and career maturity levels of millennials in college. The theoretical frameworks used in this study were the theories of emotional intelligence, career maturity, and employability. The sample of this study is all undergraduate and graduate students in a department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at a southern land-grant institution, the University of Florida (UF). The five constructs of emotional intelligence that were measured are relating well to others, emotional mentoring, managing emotions, self-awareness, and self-motivation. The attitude scale of career maturity was measured. An online survey tool was used to administer the survey to participants. The results showed that three generations existed in the department, Millennials, Gen X, and Baby Boomers. Generational differences exist regarding career maturity and emotional intelligence. Undergraduate students perceive themselves to have a higher ability in emotional intelligence than graduate students. Females and males scored differently on emotional intelligence scales and career maturity. Student classification and age were the only constructs that were statistically significant with career maturity. Therefore, as an individual increases in age and student classification, career maturity increases as well. The findings of this study suggest that curriculum should reflect needed development in undergraduates in ethics, communication, and soft skill development. The researcher recommends that having high emotional intelligence and high career maturity contributes to employability.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Viviana M Giraud.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Stedman, Nicole Lamee Perez.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044254:00001


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1 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CAREER MATURITY OF MILLENNIALS IN COLLEGE By VIVIANA MARIE GIRAUD A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Viviana Marie Giraud

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The past two years were the hardest and I want to acknowledge those individuals who provided support and guidance. To my mother, m y role model for the strong woman I aspire to be, you will always inspire me. Dad, thank you for always checking up on me and giving me a reality check when I needed one. I would like to thank my brothers and my grandparents for your encouragement. To my b est friend Sara, though we are miles apart, you were always encouraging me, thank you. Thank you to my committee chair and advisor, Dr. Nicole Stedman, thank you for answering all of my questions and letting me find my way. I could have never done this wi becoming a professional and you have taught me how to be passionate about what I do. I would also like to thank my committee member, Dr. Ricky Telg, thank you for challenging me. F or your guidance and support throughout the years, it means a lot to me. Good luck with those undergrads. Working in the AEC department was a great experience. I have learned so much, thank you to all of the faculty, staff and students that taught me somet hing each day. A special thank you to Dr. Hartmann, you are a wonderful person to work for. I have learned so much from you and it has made me a better person. To my co workers and peers, we have helped each other through it all. You are all wonderful peo ple and I wish you happiness and success, especially my friends in Rolfs 406. Timothy, thank you for having patience with me. Your unconditional love and support means more than you w ill ever know, you are the best.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 13 Millennials ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 14 Millennials in the Workplace ................................ ................................ ................... 16 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 19 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 19 Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 20 Signif icance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 20 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 22 Limitations and Assumptions ................................ ................................ .................. 22 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 23 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 24 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 24 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 24 Theory of Emotional Intelligence ................................ ................................ ...... 24 Career Development ................................ ................................ ........................ 29 Related Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 31 Conceptual Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 35 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 37 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 38 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 38 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 38 Population ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 39 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 40 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 42 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 43 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 44

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6 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 45 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 45 Demographics of Respondents ................................ ................................ ............... 46 Objective One: Determine the Level of Emotional Intelligence of Students. ..... 49 Objective Two: Determine the Level of Career Maturity of Students. ............... 56 Objective Three: Identify the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Career Maturity of Students. ................................ ................................ .. 58 Objective Four: Identify the Perceived Values in the Workplace Held by Students. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 59 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 60 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ....................... 61 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 61 Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 61 Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 62 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 62 Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ .............................. 62 Objective One: Determine the Level of Emotional Intelligence of Students. ..... 62 Objective Two: Determine the Level of Career Maturity of Stu dents. ............... 64 Objective Three: Identify the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Career Maturity of Students. ................................ ................................ .. 65 Objectiv e Four: Identify The Perceived Values in the Workplace Held by Students. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 65 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 66 Objective One: Determine the Level of Emotional Intelligence of Students. ..... 66 Objective Two: Determine the Level of Career Maturity of Students. ............... 66 Objective Three: I dentify the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Career Maturity of Students. ................................ ................................ .. 66 Objective Four: Identify the Perceived Values in the Workplace Held by Students. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 66 Discussion and Implications ................................ ................................ .................... 67 National Research Agenda ................................ ................................ ............... 72 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 73 Recommendations for Practice ................................ ................................ ........ 73 Recommendations for Research ................................ ................................ ...... 75 Co nclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 78 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT FORM ................................ ................................ ............... 79 B IRB APPROVAL ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 80 C CAREER MATURITY INVENTORY ATTITUDE SCALE ................................ ....... 81 D DEVELOPING YOUR EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT ................... 85

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7 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 88 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 95

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8 L IST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 ................................ ................................ .......................... 42 4 1 Respondents by Generational Cohort ................................ ................................ 47 4 2 Respondents by Gender ................................ ................................ ..................... 47 4 3 Respondents by Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ................... 47 4 4 Classification of Respondents ................................ ................................ ............ 48 4 5 Respondents by Student Classification ................................ .............................. 49 4 6 Perception of Their Ability to Exercise Emotional Intelligence ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 50 4 7 Emotional Intelligence Scales and Age ................................ .............................. 51 4 8 Emotional Intelligence Scales and Race ................................ ............................ 52 4 9 Emotional Intelligence and Gender ................................ ................................ ..... 53 4 10 Emotional Intelligence Scales and Student Classification ................................ .. 54 4 11 One way analysis of variance between emotional intelligence and age ............. 55 4 12 One way analysis of variance between emotional intelligence and race ............ 55 4 13 One way analysis of variance between emotional intelligence and gender ........ 55 4 14 One way analysis of variance between emotional intelligence and .................... 56 4 15 ................................ ................................ 56 4 16 Career maturity and Age ................................ ................................ .................... 56 4 17 Career maturity and Race ................................ ................................ .................. 57 4 18 Career maturity and Gender ................................ ................................ ............... 57 4 19 Career maturity and student classification ................................ .......................... 57 4 20 One way analysis of variance between Career matu rity and demographics ...... 58 4 21 ................................ ................................ ................. 59

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9 LIST OF F IGURES Figure page 2 1 He uristic model of employability ................................ ................................ ........ 34 2 2 The conceptual model created to illustrate employability using emotional intelligence and career maturity as predictors for the generation of Mil lennials. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 36 4 1 The conceptual model created to illustrate employability using emotional intelligence and career maturity as predictors for the generation of Millennials. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 71

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10 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S CALS College of Agricultural and Life Sciences CMI Career Maturity Inventory EI Emotional Intelligence

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CAREER MATURITY OF MILLENNIALS IN COLLEGE By Viviana Marie Giraud May 2012 Chair: Nicole Stedman Major: Agricultural Education and Communicati on The millennial generation is slowly entering the workforce, while the majority is in high school or in college, the impact they will have on organizations is still unknown. This research aims to explore the employability and factors relating to in mill ennials in college. The purpose of this study is to identify the emotional intelligence and career maturity levels o f millennials in college The th eoretical frameworks used in this study were the theories of emotional intelligence, career maturity, and employability The sample of this study is all undergra duate and graduate students in a department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at a southern land grant institution, the University of Florida (UF). Th e five constructs of e motiona l intelligence that were measured are relating well to others, emotional mentoring, managing emotions, self awareness, and self motivation. The attitude scale of c areer matu rity was measured An online survey tool was used to administer the survey to parti cipants. The results showed that three generations existed in the department, Millennials, Gen X, and Baby Boomers. Generational differences exist regarding career maturity

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12 and emotional intelligence. Undergraduate students perceive themselves to have a hi gher ability in emotional intelligence than graduate students. Females and males scored differently on emotional intelligence scales and career maturity Student classification and age were the only constructs that were statistically significant with care er maturity Therefore, as an individual increases in age and student classification, career maturity increases as well. The findings of this study suggest that curriculum should reflect needed development in undergraduates in ethics, communication, and s oft skill development. The researcher recommends that having high emotional intelligence and high career maturity contributes to employability.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction Generational cohorts have been named after a myriad of factor s, such as m onumental events, demographics, social movements, and pop culture (Pew Research Center, 2010). Researchers have had contradictory opinions as to the exact dates of each generational cohort, and variations have been available with no consensus (Tulgan, 2000 ). Another issue in generational studies has been the controversy over their necessity. The first standpoint implied that generational studies have not been necessary, based on the theory that all generations in their early adulthood have been examined and seen as entitled (Cappelli, 2010). This area believes that it is important to consider the history, personality, and values of each generation in an organizational setting (Smola & Sutton 2002). An exponential increase in research and popular media has b een occurring in regards to generational cohorts in the workplace since the late 1990s, placing an emphasis on how they will work together (Zemke, Raines, & Filipzak, 2000; Lancaster & Stillman, 2002). The population has become very diverse in recent time s, especially diverse in ethnicity, gender, and age (Gist, Stevens, & Bavetta, 1991). In the workforce, there have been four generations since 2000 The four generations are Veterans, Baby Boomers, Gen X, and the Millennials. The Veteran generation was born before 1946, (Pew Research Center, 2010). The Baby Boomers were born between 1946 and 1964. They received their name because of t he boom in birth rates after World War II (Pew Research Center, 2010). Next, those in Generation X

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14 were born between the years of 1965 to 1980. This generation has been described as disliking authority and being independent (Pew Research Center, 2010; Tul gan, 2000). The Millennial generation was born between the years of 1981 to 2000 (Howe & Strauss, 2000). Millennials are the newest generation to enter the workforce (Pew Research Center, 2010). Millennials the book, Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069 This book contributed to the examination of generational cohorts in the history of the U. S. and k, Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation (2000) focused on Millennial research and gave rise to the popularization of the Millennials in the popular media and research. Millennial research began in the early 2000s, when the Millennials started ente ring college and the workforce (Howe & Strauss, 2000). Researchers ascribe to one of the two schools of thought on Millennials: whether Millennials are the best or the worst generation. Researchers, who believe Millennials are the worst generation, critic ize Millennials for their self entitlement, obsession with television, communication solely through online means or text messaging, and desire for high achievement with minimal effort (Bauerlein, 2008). Conversly, the researchers that believe Millennials a re the greatest generation adheres team oriented, high achieving, confident, pressured, conventional, and full of promise (Howe & Strauss, 2000). The seven traits have not been agreed upo n by all researchers because of the lack of consensus on the Millennials. An undisputed characteristic of Millennials has been that they are high achieving and they demand and

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15 question everything (Cooney, 2007). These personality traits have been distres sing employers. Employers believe Millennials are pretentious and show lack of communication, leadership, group collaboration, and conflict management skills before entering the workplace (Boussiakou, Boussiakou, & Kalkani; 2006; Ha rtman & McCambridge, 2011). Millennials have been described as self centered high achievers who would clash in the corporate culture (Safer, 2007; Kowske, Rasch, & Wiley, 2010). Millennials have been said to behave quite differently than Baby Boomers and G en Xers, not including the typical attitudes that come with the young age, a possible cause of that being technology and social media (Deal, Altman, & Rogelberg, 2010). Their parents have been described as protective and allowing them to live at home until their thirties (Pew Research Center, 2010). The Millennial generation is the most racially diverse of all generations (Pew Research Center, 2009). to become the generat depressed economy, they have not been able to find jobs (Pew Research Center, 2010). College attendance has never been this high in history, a contributing factor being community college enrollment (Pew Research Center, 2010). According to Deal, are arriving with low levels of general knowledge on which to build the educational foundation they will need presidents believe incoming freshman arrive less prepared for college, but the reason as to why Millennials are less prepared is unknown (Pew Research Center, 2010).

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16 Millennials in the Workpl ace there is little research on Millennials entering or in the workforce (Kowske, Rasch, & Wiley; 2010). Millennials are working with three other generations in the workpla ce: Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Veterans (McCuiston, Wooldridge, & Pierce, 2004). This mix of employees and leaders having varying styles and goals has presented challenges that need to be considered. It has been suggested that if employers provide employ ees with trust and opportunities and bosses who are competent, then all employees of all generations will work together (Deal, Altman, & Rogelberg, 2010). Unfortunately, all generations are worried in the recession; Baby Boomers and Veterans are anxious ab out retirement, Gen Xers are concerned about their future benefits, and Millennials cannot find jobs (Deal, Altman, & Rogelberg, 2010). According to the Pew entrants into th e labor force have often found themselves among the last hired and the Employers want to know what the Millennials are like and what their abilities are. Millennials want to be valued at their organizations and they emp hasize a balance between work and personal life, which means that it needs to be reflected in their employers (Smola & Sutton, 2002). Conversely, Millennials sleep with their iPods, are glued to their Facebook pages, while impatiently waiting to start earn ing six figures and unwilling to adapt to the organizational structures before them (Alsop, 2008). Much is to be learned about what Millennials want out of their careers and what fulfills them. erform in the workforce. For example, the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE)

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17 can survive in the workplace with the other generational cohorts. AgProfessional Magazine came out (Ferri Reed, 2011). On November 11, 2007, CBS broadcast a special on the show 60 employers and researchers are curious that Millennials are entering the workforce but also the general public. Equally important, Millennials grew up ha ving an online presence and being immersed in social media, but how has that impacted their interpersonal skills and the way they interact with people in other areas of their lives? According to Gibbs (1995) in his Time magazine article the author describe d the importance of emotional intelligence: comment was comical, the importance of emotional intelligence in the workplace is emphasized and has been a realistic advantage in t he workplace. Emotional intelligence has been described as the ability to manage emotions intrapersonally and interpersonally (Weisinger, 1998). E ducators need to incorporate emotional intelligence in to curriculum to prepare college students for their pot ential careers (Jaeger, 2003) If Millennials are high achieving and self entitled (Howe & Strauss, 2000), then will they have difficulty interacting with others in the workplace in a team environment? Finding the Millennial impact on organizations will ta ke more time because they are just now graduating college and entering the workforce (Howe & Strauss, 2000). As the U.S. workforce becomes more diverse with gender, ethnici ty, and age, the workplace needs

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18 employees that have interpersonal skills to interac t effectively (Gist, Stevens, & Bavetta, 1991). Interpersonal skills or social competencies aid in communicating effectively to others in any setting. Furthermore, there is a need for higher education educators to facilitate the emotional development of students in college and those entering the workforce (Boussiakou, Boussiakou, & Kalkani; 2006). Students who have been preparing to go into the workforce or college need help understanding how to manage and be aware of their emotions, positive or negative (Boussiakou, Boussiakou, & Kalkani; 2006). According to Boussiakou, Boussiakou, and abilities are a priority for human resources management that gives guidance in hiring and promoting people, and gives directions fo r developmental efforts in large teamwork and communication (Bhavnani & Aldridge, 2000). Since the first of the Millennials turned 18 years old in 2000 and entered the workforce or college, organizations are interested in what Millennials know and how they work (Howe & Strauss, 2000). This is important because employers believe that Millennials are unprepared to enter the workplace; training and education need to addres s these issues (Cooney, 2007). Educators must build a strong foundation in students entering the workforce to develop emotional intelligence and critical thinking (Stedman & Andenoro 2006 ). Since educators prepare students for the workplace, the needs of employers must be addressed (Stedman & Andenoro, 2006). Emotional intelligence assists the development of job Matthews, & Roberts, 2004). Zeidner, Matthews, and Roberts (2004) described

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19 emoti onally intelligent individuals as being more successful, having stronger relationships, and communicating better in their work environments. According to Albrecht (2006), there is a lack of research on emotional intelligence as a broad competency for Mill ennials. Research has switched from the term of interpersonal skills and emotional intelligence has been used interchangeably and is a very broad term; there have been no successful assessments to encompass all the components (Albrecht, 2006). Statement of the Problem There is a growing concern about the impact Millennials will have on organizations, their lack of communication, team skills, and their heavy influe nce of social media and technology relating to their lack of emotional intelligence. Do Millennials have the necessary emotional intelligence and career maturity that is needed for the workplace, in order to be employable? Do Millennials have lower emotion al intelligence because of their heavy influence on social media and online presence? Millennials have been called the most educated generation, yet the most unemployed. Part of that is due to the economy but another part could be due to their inability to transition well into the workplace (Jayson, 2010). The research problem of this study is to examine if Millennials have the necessary emotional intelligences that need to match up with their career needs. Purpose The purpose of this research was to exami ne the role of emotional intelligence and career maturity in Millennials who are in college in the Agricultural Education and Communication department at the University of Florida to ascertain their employability.

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20 A secondary purpose of this study will be to explore the relationship of emotional intelligence and career maturity in Millennials; this will be analyzed to identify if demographic and education variables affect an employable college graduate. Objectives This research will address the following o bjectives: To determine the level of emotional intelligence of students, to determine the level of caree r maturity of students, to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and career maturity of students, and to identify the perceived value s in the workplace held by students. Significance of the Study This study could alleviate concern for employers and determine if Millennials can the workplace. Millenni als need more training in communicating, how to deal with conflict, and working in teams which have been shown to relate somewhat to emotional intelligence (Hartman & McCambridge, 2011). This study can inform researchers on ence but further resea rch is needed. Although the boom in Millennial research began in the early 2000s when the Millennials started entering college, not much is known about their impact on organizations yet (Strauss & Howe, 2002). This study could start the examination of their level of emotional intelligence and their abilities to cope with the skills needed to work with others. Also, this study could possibly find the impacts of Millennials working with other generations in an organizational setting. This study will be beneficial because

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21 educators can use the results to provide Millennials proper training and emotional development, and ensure a smooth transition to the workplace. This could enhance the recruitment and training process for organization s. Results from this study can provide further explanation as to why Millennials are the most educated generation, yet the most unemployed generation (Jayson, 2010). Besides the economy and their lack of experience, emotional intelligence levels could be a factor in the reasons employers are hesitant to hire Millennials and are investing in Millennial research. Educators need to address this to better prepare Millennials for the workforce. If leadership educators understand what employers want and what M illennials lack, the intelligence will give leadership educators insight into what is important to maintaining and advancing their careers. This study could provide directi on for educators to assist students in developing the emotional intelligence needed after graduation. According to the American Association for Agricultural Education 2011 2015 Research Priority Areas, Priority 4 Meaningful, Engaged Learning in All Envir onments aligns with this study: Learners in all agricultural education learning environments will be actively and emotionally engaged in learning, leading to high levels of achievement, life and career read iness, and professional success. (Doe r fert, 2011, pri ority #4) This priority aligns with the study because the purpose of the study is based on developing prepared and professional college graduates for the workplace. This research aims to examine emotional intelligence of Millennial students in agricu ltural colleges. This examination will provide further research for educators to focus on

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22 career maturity in Millennial students. This study will help in identifying the emotional intelligence level of Millennials in college before they graduate and enter the workforce. Through this study, educators could restructure curriculum to ensure the development of emotional intelligence in Millennials to become more employable. Definition of Terms Emotional intelligence Salovey, 1993, p. 433). In this study emotional intelligence was Career Maturity feelings, the subjective reactions, the dispositions that the individual has toward making a career choice and entering the world o f work" (Crites, 1978, p. 3). In this study career maturity will be measured by the attitude scale of the career maturity inventory (Crites, 1978) Limitations and Assumptions Similar to other studies, there are limitations to the validity of the study concerning the generalizability of the population. The youngest Millennials are 10 years old while the oldest are 30 years ol d. There is a 20 year gap, meaning the study cannot be generalizable to the entire population of M illennials. The study can be generaliz ed to the department. It will be able contribute to future research in this area of emotional intelligence and career m aturity of Millennials in college now Also, there is an assumption that the participants of the study have answered the self reported assessment truthfully and understood the operationally defined terms. Self assessments are difficult to use because indi always t he truest. Another limitation would be using an online instrument may not get the response rate needed, especially surveying college students.

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23 Chapter Summary The Millennial generation is the most diverse in history (Pew Research Center, 2010) have been described as self centered high achievers that would clash in the corporate culture (Safer, 2007; Kowske, Rasch, & Wiley, 2010). As Millennials enter and graduate from college, employers are still awaiting their impact on organizations (Howe & Strauss, 2000). The research problem of this study is the inquiry concerning the impact Millennials will have on organizations and their heavy influence of social media and technology relating linking to their lack of emotional intelligence. The purpose of the study is to address the problem by examining the role of emotional intelligence and career maturity in Millennials that are in college. The significance of the study is that it will be beneficial because results from this study can provide further explanation as to why Millennials are the most educated generation yet the most unemployed generation (Jayson, 2010). Through this study, educators could restructure curriculum to ensure the development of emotional int elligence in Millennials to become more employable.

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24 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine the role of emotional intelligence and career maturity of the Millennial that are in college to ascertain the emp loyability of a selected sample of this generation. To achieve this, emotional intelligence and career maturity theories were examined. Also, other variables such as age, gender, race, team and leadership experience, job experience, student classificatio n and career interest were explored. This chapter includes relevant studies, the theoretical framework, and a conceptual model that illustrates the relationship of the theories and factors in this study. Theoretical Framework Theory of Emotional Intellig ence From Darwin to modern researchers, explanations of emotional intelligences have having empathy, adapting, and recognizing and expressing emotions interpersonally (Bar On 2006). These general descriptions of emotional and social intelligences illustrate the portrayal of emotional intelligence of research. Behavioral scientists have been trying to understand how individuals function and why individuals behave a certain wa y. These general descriptions have served as foundations for the individual theories that have arisen by different researchers (Bar On, 2006; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 1997). The concept of emotional social intelligence is the combination of emotional in telligence, interpersonal skills, and the capacities necessary to interact and

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25 communicate effectively and appropriately with others. The concept of social (or emotional) intelligences started with Thorndike in 1920. Thorndike (1920) proposed that social intelligence is similar to the intelligence quotient (I. Q.), which started the impetus of social intelligence research. ncept of personal intelligence has two components, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences (Gardner, 1983). His theory overlapped with the theory of emotional intelligence and directed research to a mixed model of social intelligence. Gardner (1983) defined intrapersonal intelligence as the ability to understand and distinguish among ones feelings. In addition, Gardner (1 983) defined interpersonal intelligence as the ability to determine the feelings of others and behave appropriately. The late 1990s became the emotionally intelligent decade, as research relating to emotional intelligence assessments flourished (Goleman, 1998,; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 1997; Bar On, 1997; Wiesinger, 1998; Carson, Carson, & Birkenmeier, 2000). Emotional intelligence (EI) became a part of popular culture in the United States Emotional Intelligence publ ished in 1995. sense of urgency in the business and management sector to incorporate emotional is a mixed model like Bar intelligences should be considered a collective construct rather than different constructs.

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26 Goleman and Boyatzis continued to publish books on emotional social intelligenc e in the workplace, including the Emotionally Intelligent Workplace (2002) and Primal Leadership (2001). According to Speilberger (2004), the three major emotional social intelligence theories are from Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (1997); Goleman (1998); an d Bar On (2006). Along with their theories, these researchers have also created the three most widely used emotional social intelligence assessments (Speilberger, 2004): Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 1997), the Emotional Competence Inventory (Goleman, 1998) and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar On, 2006). The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test focuses on emotional intelligence as an individual construct. Emotional intelligence is not a part of this model of emotional intelligence, unlike Goleman and Bar and Salovey (1999) hypothesized that emotional intelligence is similar to other intelligences and can be operationalized as a set of capacities. As a result, th ey are credited for establishing that emotional intelligence meets all criteria for a standard intelligence, thus verifying the concept. Emotional and social intelligences are based on similar constructs that overlap. Some researchers have presumed that e motional intelligence stems from the expansive concept of social intelligence (e. g., Bar On, 2000; Gardner, 1983; Goleman, 1995). According to Roberts, Zeidner, and Matthews (2001), emotional intelligence has been criticized for not being a valid intelli gence because of issues relating to reliability validity,

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27 and scoring. However, Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (1999) proved that valid and reliable measures of emotional intelligence can be developed. Emotional intelligence has been shown to have a considera ble influence on human performance. More than 20 studies examined the relationship between emotional social intelligence and physical health, psychological health, academics, social interactions, performance at work and self actualization (Bar On, Handley & Fund, 2005). Bar On, Handley, and Fund (2005) found that one can teach or improve emotional social intelligence to children as well as adults. Research studies on emotional and social intelligence began on children because of a concern about what happe ns when children leave the academic setting and enter postsecondary school or the workforce (Dawda & Hart, 2000). The focus of that research has become the performance of individuals when interacting socially, specifically in the workplace. According to Bar On (2006), it is important to develop the necessary skills to social intelligence is a mixed model that presents emotional intelligence and social intelligence as diffe rent constructs that should be jointed because of their similarities. Bar intrapersonal (emotional) in telligence component and an interpersonal (social) intelligence component (Bar emotional and social components as the basis for using emotional intelligence for assessing the interpersonal skills i intelligence included interpersonal and intrapersonal scales. Under the interpersonal

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28 scale, the sub scales are self awareness, managing emotions, and self motivation. Under the intrapersonal scale, th e sub scales are relating well to others and emotional mentoring. Regarding emotional intelligence and its relation to gender, Parker, Summerfeldt, and Hogan (2004) found that when looking at emotional social intelligence in relation to grade point averag e (GPA) and gender, gender had no significant impact on emotional social intelligence or academic success. Bar On (1997) found no significant differences in gender in relation to emotional social intelligence. Although, Bar On also found that women score d higher on the sub scale of interpersonal skills but males scored higher on intrapersonal skills. Lastly, Dawda and Hart (2000) did not fi nd a relationship between emotional intelligence and gender for Millennial college students. Some researchers have suggested that race provides different contextual factors that could influence results based on cultural backgrounds. However, with regard to emotional and ethnicity, Bar On (1997) found no significant differences in emotional social intelligence between d ifferent races. According to Bar On (1997), when comparing emotional intelligence and age, emotional intelligence levels increase with age. According to a study by Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (1999), results showed adults having higher levels of emotional intelligence than children because of the life experiences they had accumulated. The authors suggested that emotional intelligence starts in childhood and increases until middle age. According to Boyatzis and Saaticioglu (2008), university faculty members have not viewed emotional and social development as part of their job descriptions, but instead, the responsibility of campus career resources. This examination by the authors

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29 suggested that if the faculty does not believe in the development of emotional and social intelligences in students, then students will not receive emotional and social intelligence development because it is not required in the curriculums. Cohen (2006) suggested that emotional social learning has been placed with importance in the research, but there has been little application in education. According to Cherniss and Goleman (2001), the best combination for success is experience and emotional social intelligence. Also, the authors found that when looking at different intelligences like IQ, emotional social intelligence and experience, IQ is the least significant when it comes to success in the workplace. The study of emotional intelligence has been the most important when forecasting success in a leadership setting. Lastly, Chern iss and Goleman (2001) suggested that as one accumulates more experience, emotional intelligence increases. Career Development theory of career development and the life span t heory shined the light on career development in a new perspective (Super, 1980). Super also constructed the Career Development Inventory (CDI), which has become one of the most widely used career notion that individuals have multiple life roles and must be adaptable to plan a career. Nevill and career theory includes the constructs of career identity, career readiness, and career maturity. Career identity is the concept that an indi concept of themselves changes as they grow with experience. Career readiness is described as the capability to be trained in career relevant skills. Career maturity was described as the capability to be challenged and execute demands of work rel ated tasks.

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30 career maturity construct of the study. Nevill found that career maturity was not related to socioeconomic status, but gender has shown significance. In Nevill fema les were found to have higher levels of career maturity than males. Nevill study found that women have higher career maturity than males and more commitment at work and home. This has led to a shift in the research to career development focusing on women. improved career resources, guidance for students, and military specialties. The CDI was constructed to measure an readiness for making choices related to their education and future aspirations ( Savickas & Hartung, 1996). Albert and Luzzo (1999) suggested that social cognitive career theory (SECT) should encourage in dividuals to be more personally involved in the career decision process. This theory challenges individuals to be in tune with their environment, empowerment and have set goals for career development. Luzzo (1995) found that college women scored higher o n all dimensions of career maturity than college men. Also, Nevill and Super (1988) found that women were more committed to work than males in the dimension of career commitment. These findings suggest that women prepare more for careers and are more comm itted to careers, which could be due to the perceptions that women need to work harder in their professional careers. According to Nevill and Super (1988), gender was not found to be related to career maturity and career commitment.

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31 The history of career maturity started with research on high school and college students because career development starts at an early age. Super (1988) suggested that the development of individuals in regards to their career maturity is its prime in early adulthood. He also suggested that college is the most important time to develop the decision making and maturity needed for a career. Career maturity as discussed previously, can differ with individuals, specifically within different cultures. According to Twenge and Cam pbell (2008), it has been suggested that Millennials from different cultures may experience dissimilar life events so a culture may have a different influence on the Millennial generation. Chung (2002) found that women have higher career decision making sk ills, but in a previous study the author found no gender difference. Also, Chung (2002) found that African Americans scored higher on career decision making than Caucasians. These results were different higher scores than other ethnicities. Nevill and Super (1988) found that juniors and seniors in college are more invested in the career planning process and more committed than freshmen and sophomores. Hauw ations about their career, training, job security, and career development are affected by generational influences. Also, Nevill and Super (1988) found that women had less work experience than males because of the ot her roles that they anticipate. Women ha ve anticipated more roles due to childbearing and domestic responsibilities. Related Studies In 2010, the highes t amounts of unemployed or not working 18 29 year olds was recorded in the past 30 years (Pew Research Center, 2010). While criticisms of

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32 Mille nnials are inconsistent, this study shows the perceptions of employers. The unsettling workforce calls for employees to continually learn and adapt to the ever changing workforce (Fugate, Kinicki, & Ashforth, 2004). Since the workforce is changing, employ ees need to be adaptable and have a career identity to survive (Hall & Mirvis, 1995). Lifesty les have changed dramatically in the past 20 years due to technology and societal changes. I ndividuals have to juggle different roles in life and find it difficul t to manage employee role, organizational role, parent role, and others (Fugate, Kinicki, & Ashforth, 2004). In the past ten years, a number of studies have been conducted about the strong relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational perfo rmance (Orme, 2003 ; Bar On, 1997; Bar On, 2006; Bar On, Handley,& Fund, 2006; Handley 1997; Ruderman & Bar On, 2003 ). Orme (2003) found that over 60% of leadership is dependent on emotional social intelligence and 30% of performance in occupations is depe ndent on emotional social intelligence. Research has been conducted on Millennials in the workplace, their motivation, their personalities, and how to work with them in an organizational setting (Howe & Strauss, 2000; Myers & Sadaghiani, 2010; Deal, Altma n, & Rogelberg, 2010). However, there is little research on the employability of Millennials and the factors that influence it. Myers and Sadaghiani (2010) did a study on Millennials in the workplace he marketplace and technologies can enhance organizational communication and productivity because people in this generation grew up on technology and had information readily available.

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33 Bhavnani and Aldridge questioned the education college students rece ive due to the observations of employers: Why do some students flounder on their initial job assignments after graduation, while others move quickly up the career ladder? One common criticism voiced by employers is that new hires do not seem to function we ll in a team based environment. Both groups of respondents polled, industry and academia, agreed that the top two skills needed by graduates seeking employment are teamwork and communication. (2000, p. 1) According to Fugate, Kinicki, and Ashforth (2004) social construct that embodies individual characteristics that foster adaptive cognition, behavior, and affect, and enhance the individual have been expected to obtain the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary to get and maintain the job (Fugate, Kinicki, & Ashforth, 2004). There is not much literature explaining the concept of employability as it relates to organizations and foundational studies (Fugate, K inicki, & Ashforth, 2004). Fugate, Kinicki, and with the research on the need for job seekers to be adaptable in order to be employable. Also, employability is a concept of adapt ability in which individuals recognize opportunities specific to their work (Fugate, Kinicki, & Ashforth, 2004). The three dimensions of employability are career identity, personal adaptability, and social and human capital (Fugate, Kinicki, & Ashforth, 2 004). Employability does not guarantee employment but it can add to the factors of gaining the job (Fugate, Kinicki, & Ashforth, 2004). Fugate, Kinicki, and Ashforth (2004) built the concept of employability based on the work of Ashford and Taylor (1990) Fugate, Kinicki, and Ashforth (2004) suggested

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34 that individuals who are very employable dynamically engage in the context, adapt to their occupational needs, and execute their career identities. To be employable, it has been necessary to adjust behavio rs and cognitions to get the best results out of a situation. Kanfer, Wanberg, and Kantrowitz (2001) suggested six categories of behaviors for employment: personality traits, generalized expectancies, self evaluations, motives, context, and biographical va riables. Self evaluation is a competency of emotional intelligence. Kanfer, Wanberg, and Kantrowitz (2001) proposed that these categories influence the job search process and outcomes. Figure 2 1. Heuristic model of employability (Fugate, Kinicki, & Ashforth, 2004). The model (Figure 2 1) shows the three dimensions of employability and the relationship among them. Fugate, Kinicki, and Ashforth (2004) describe c areer identity as the role one takes in career opportunities as well as the personal dispos itions such knowledge, skills, and abilities

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35 interpersonal skills and the emotional intelligence one exercises in interacting with people on a daily basis. Adaptability and social and human capital a re compo nent s of the emotional intelligence framework Career identity has been identified with career maturity as parts of the career development framework. Since there is overlap in the three theories frameworks, it can be concluded that there are simila rities in the foundations. Therefore, emotional intelligence and career maturity are necessary t o be employable. Conceptual Model A conceptual model (Figure 2 2) was created by the researcher to th eoretically explain the employability of Millennials in c ollege using career maturity and emotional intelligence as predictors. In this model, it has been suggested that career maturity and emotional intelligence influence the employability of Millennials. The conceptual model (Figure 2 2) has multiple compone nts that will be explained briefly, following with how the model functions as operationalized in the study. The individual in the model is a Millennial, operationally defined as those individuals born from 1982 to 2002 (Howe & Strauss, 2002). The demogra phics of the individual (e. g. age, gender, race, student classification, etc.) can affect perceptions, behavior, beliefs, and attitudes. EI refers to emotional Intelligence which is how people manage and express emotions and the ability to use social com petencies (Bar On, 2006). Employability is the construct that exemplifies the individual characteristics that encourage adaptive behavior and enhances the work interface (Fugate, Kinicki, & Ashforth, 2004). Career maturity is the level of maturity and deve lopment an individual has developed on decision making in the world of work (Crites, 1978). The leadership experience is the amount of experience one has in a leadership position in any context.

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36 Job experience is the amount of experience one has had in a w ork setting, internship, or professional environment. Communication requirements signify the necessary interactions with others in a work environment. Technical skills are the necessary requirements to fulfill the specific job i.e. software skills, trade skills Figure 2 2. The conceptual model created to illustrate employability using emotional intelligence and career maturity as predictors for employability the generation of Millennials. The model was created i n order to illustrate the factors and outcomes of employability when Millennials are developing career skills in college. As seen in Figure 2 2, the individual has associated demographic variables levels of education and skills, and personal experiences that have shaped them T he feedback loop connecting the variables produce the individuals levels of emotional intelligence and career maturity An ideal outcome would be an individual wi th a high level of emotional intelligence and high level of career maturity because the chances of employability would increase. An unfavorable outcome Millennial Race Age Gender Classification Low EI High EI High Employability Low Employability Low Career Maturity High Career Maturity Education Leadership experie nce Job Experience Communication requirements Technical Skills Employability based on context Feedback Loop

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37 would be an individual with a low level of emotional intelligence and low level of career maturity becau se the chances of employability would decrease. The outcome of a situation where the individual has inconsistent high and low levels the outcome is unknown because it depends on the context Employab ility is based on the context because some jobs require less interacting with others and more technical skills or more relationship focused and less technical skills Chapter Summary The theories of emotional intelligence and career maturity were discussed in order to provide contextual background for the stud y. The research of Weisinger (1998) relating to emotional social intelligence and Crites (1978) work of career maturity were the foundation for this study. These theories have provided insight into factors that may influence emotional intelligence and ca reer maturity of Millennials in college. Demographic variables were also been examined in order to understand the context of the study. Studies on employability and similar studies were explained to provide more background information. The conceptual mo del (Figure 2 3) was created to visually represent the ideas that relate to the employability of Millennials based on their career maturity and emotional social intelligence.

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38 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction Chapter one introduced the background of the development of emotional intelligence before and during the job entry process. The four generational cohorts in the workplace were explained including their generalized values in the workplace. Chapter two focused on the literature on which emotional in telligence and career maturity is founded upon. The conceptual model created by the researcher was explained as it relates to the study. The concept of employability was discussed regarding Millennials entering the workforce with the skills developed. T h e purpose of the study was to identify the variables emotional social intelligence and career maturity The researcher used the methods in this section to investigate the following objectives of the study: To determine the le vel of emotional intelligence of students, t o determine the level of career maturity of students t o identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and career maturity of students and t o identify the perceived values in the workplace held by stu dents This chapter explains the population of the study and describes the instrument used to collect data. Lastly, data analysis methods for the study are described, ensuring validity and reliability of the instruments. Research Design To address the r esearch objectives a descriptive survey method was used Three questionnaires were used to measure the student demographics and the constructs of

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39 career maturity and emotional intelligence. The predictor variables for the study were age, race, gender, an d student classification. A causal comparative design was deemed appropriate for measuring career maturity and emotional intelligence using instruments already developed and validated. The following is a discussion of the threats to validity in this study History and maturation was not a concern because participants were given seven weeks to complete the questionnaire. The selection of the participants was a threat because a purposive sample was used. Because of this, findings could not be generalized to the population. The instruments had been used in previous research and were reviewed by and to ensure face validity. Subject effects were addressed by respondents remaining anonymous to the re searcher. The proposed research ensured the protection of human subjects because it measure d their interactions and did not physically or mentally harm them. The researcher disclose d information to subjects and their information was kept confidential. Pop ulation The population for this study were undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Florida in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (N=4,000) during the Fall 2011 semester. A purposive sample (n=221) was drawn from students enrolle d in Agricultural Education and Communication Department. In the department of A gricultural Education and Communication department, there are gradua te and undergraduate students. The re is one major in the program; however there are two specializations in the undergraduate program and four specializations in the graduate program. The two specializations in the undergraduate program were agricultural education and communication and leadership development. The specializations of the

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40 one graduate program degre e with four areas of focus: agricultural education, agricultural communication, extension education and agricultural leadership. Results from this purposive sample cannot be generalized to all Millennials but can provide direction for future research re garding Millennials. Research is still inconclusive about the definition of the generational cohorts, but for this study the definitions of Howe and Strauss (2000) was used. Instrumentation The researcher found no single instrument that measures the care er maturity of an individual and their emotional intelligence in order to become more employable. The (DTDM) (Dillman, Smyth, & Christian 2009). This study consisted of a 1 03 item questionnaire to address the research objectives. The questionnaire consisted of sections addressing emotional intelligence, career maturity, and demographics. The outcomes for this study were emotional intelligence and career maturity levels. An expert panel reviewed the content of the qu estionnaire to ascertain their content and face validity. The car eer maturity of Millennials was used in the s tudy to determine the level of maturity during college. A scale of Career Maturity Inventory measure d car eer maturity in the study (Crites, 1978) The first par t of the questionnaire administered to participants was the Attitude Scale of the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) developed by (Crites & Savickas, 1995). The CMI was used to determine the level of career maturity, factors such as independence and decisiveness. The Attitu de Scale inquires about student s feelings regarding entering the world of work (Crites & Savickas, 1995). The inventory was a self reported instrument with 50 items. The researc her adapted the

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41 instrument to a Likert type scale with strongly agree, agree, neither agree/disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. The CMI Administration and Use Manual (Crites, 197 8) provides the stability (r =. 71) and internal consistency (K R 20 co efficient =.74) of the instrument. Crites (1978) approved the instrument to be used with college students, although it is intended for high school students. The emotional intelligence assessment used for the questionnaire is Developing Your Emotional Int elligence developed by Weisinger (1998). This instrument examined social intelligence. The assessment has two scales and five subscales. The intrapersonal scale includes three sub scales: self awareness, managing emotions, self motivation (Weisinger, 1998). The interpersonal scale includes two sub scales: relating well to others and emotional mentoring (Weisinger, 1998). The instrument used a Likert type scale of 1 (low ability) to 7 (high ability). The reliability was established in a similar study examining the emotional intelligence of undergraduate and graduate students in a college of agriculture. The were as follows : self awareness ( 85), managing emotions ( 79), self motivatio n ( 80), relating well to others ( 91 ), and emotional 85) (Stedman, Cannon, Crow, & Sims, 2009). The 12 work Inventory Revised (SWVI R) were used with the constant comparative method in order to code student ended answers to the question: what do you value in a career? The 12 work values are achievement, coworkers, income, security, mental challenge, variety, prestige, independence, creativity, lifestyle, supervision, and work environment ( Robinson &

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42 B etz, 2008). As shown below in Table 3 are presented. Table 3 1 Revised (SWVIR) Achievement Achieve a feeling of success from a job well done Coworkers Have good interactions with fellow workers Creativity Can try out new ideas Income Receive pay raises that keep me ahead of the cost of living Independence Can make decisions on my own Lifestyle Have time enough for leisure activities Mental Challeng e A lways have new problems to solve Prestige Know that others think my work is important Security Know that my position will last Supervision Have a boss who treats me well Variety Do many different things to get my work done Work Environment Work in a good place (clean, warm, well lit, etc.) (Robinson & Betz, 2008, p. 461) The post hoc for emotional intelligence were as follows: self ), relating well to ), ) For career maturity, the post ). The demographic portion of the questionnaire was administered to determine the age, race, education, gender, student classificati on, job experience and leadership experience of the participants. The study was approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board: IRB 02 Protocol #2011 U 0960. Data Collection The survey instrument was administered through Qualtrics an o nline survey administration tool. According to Dillman, Smyth, and Christian (2009) sending surveys

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43 through an online platform can reduce potential response rates, especially in om the researcher. The instrument included the informed consent which participants had to agree to before moving forward to the survey instrument, then the attitude scale of the CMI, the Developing Your Emotional Intelligence, and ended with a thank you. Participants were e mailed the link to the survey every week participants were sent another e mail with the link along with a reminder The researcher used the Dillman Tailored Design Method (DTDM) according to Dillman Smyth, and Christian (2009), to r educe non response error. The survey instrument was available to participants during a seven week period to decrease history effects. An e mail to participants was sent to introduce the study on October 20, 2011 and closed on December 9, 2011. Qualtrics allowed the researcher to only send reminder e mails to participants who had not responded, which alleviated having to send repeated e mails to all participants. Data Analysis The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SP between variables. An analysis of variance and descriptive statistics was used to discover findings. For the first objective in measuring emotional intelligence levels, descr iptives and analysis variance was run with demographic variables. For the second objective in measuring career maturity levels, descriptives and analysis variance was run with demographic variables. For the third objective in identifying the relationship b etween emotional intelligence and career maturity, Pearson Product Moment Correlation s were used to find significance in relationships among key variables. For the fourth objective in identifying the perceived values in the workplace of students, the

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44 const ant comparative method was used ended statements regarding what they value in a career according to the 12 work values mental chall enge, variety, prestige, independence, creativity, lifestyle, supervision, and work environment. Chapter Summary This chapter explained the methods used to meet the objectives of this study as d has a descriptive survey that was administered online. The population and sample of the study were also described as a convenient sample of undergraduate students at the University of Florida. The threats to validity of the study were explained to desc ribe how they were accounted for. The next section will describe the findings of the study.

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45 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Introduction Chapter one described the generational shift in the workplace since the millennium and the introduction of Millennials into the wor kplace. The gap in the research regarding the development of skills during college and the transition to the workplace was also described. The background of the factors that might develop the skills necessary for Millennials to work effectively with othe r generations was discussed. The purpose, assumptions, and limitations of the study were explained as well. The findings of the research will be discussed by the objectives guiding the study. The following objectives were created to assess the competenc e of Millennials now in college: To determine the level of emotional intelli gence of students t o determine the level of career mat urity of students t o identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and career maturity of stu dents, and t o ident ify the perceived values in the workplace held by students. In chapter two, a review of the literature was discussed in depth. The foundational studies for emotional intelligence and career maturity were examined in order gain understanding of the instr umentation chosen for the study. Also, the literature aided the researcher to develop a conceptual model for the research. In chapter three, the methodology of the research was discussed to answer the objectives. The procedures designed to collect data and the population was discussed as well. The data downloaded from Qualtrics w ere then analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (S PSS ).

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46 This chapter will explain the results of the study, starting with the demographics of the sample. The chapter will also discuss the findings of each objective according to the data collected from the students of the AEC department assessing their emotional social intelligence and career maturity. The population of the study is millennials enrolled i n the agricultural educat ion and communication department The sample is the undergraduate and graduate students in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department (AEC) at the University of Florida. As discussed in chapter three, the Agricultura l Education and Communication department at UF has a total of 221 undergraduate and graduate students. This list of students included distance learning, Gainesville campus, and Plant City campus. This study ha d a response rate of 29. 4%. According to Isra el (2009), 28.6% is the necessary response rate for a finite population. T herefore the response rate is acceptable for the sample. There were no significant differences bet ween early and late respondents regarding emotional intelligence or career maturity. Demographics of Respondents The respondents were asked five demographic questions. The demographics were in regards to their gender, race, age, and classification. The researcher grouped age ranges by generations. As stated in chapter one, the age range s used in the study According to Pew Research Center (2010), the age ranges are Millennial cohort II (ages 18 24), Millennial cohort I (ages 25 31), Gen X (ages 32 46), and Baby Boomers (ages 47 and older). Table 4 by generational cohort. Out of the 65 respondents, 58.5% ( n =38) were Millennial cohort

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47 II, 21. 5% ( n =14) were Millennial cohort I, 12. 3% ( n =8) we re Gen X, and 7. 7% ( n =5) of the respondents were Baby Boomers. Table 4 1. Respondents by Generational Cohort n Percent Millennial cohort II 38 58. 5 Millennial cohort I 14 21. 5 Gen X 8 12. 3 Baby Boomers 5 7. 7 Total 65 100 Table 4 2 shows the d istribution of respondents by gender. F emales were a majority with 58. 2% ( n =46) and males were 22. 8% ( n =18). There was one respondent who replied other with 1 3%. Table 4 2. Respondents by Gender n Percent Male 18 22. 8 Female 46 58. 2 Other 1 1. 3 Total 65 Students in the AEC department were asked to choose their ethnic background, see Table 4 3). Th e majority of respondents were W hite/Caucasian wi th 74. 7% ( n =59). Hispanic/L atino students accounted for 3. 8% ( n =3) and other accounted for 3. 8% ( n =3). There were no students who chose American Indian/ Native American, Asian, Black/African American, or Pacific Islander. Table 4 3. Respondent s by Ethnicity n Percent American Indian/Native American 0 0 Asian 0 0 Hispanic/Latino 3 3. 8 Black/Af rican American 0 0 White/Caucasian 59 74. 7 Pacific Islander 0 0 Other 3 3. 8 Total 65

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48 The system used at the University of Florida College of Agricultural and Life Sciences to classify students uses numbers to classify respondents as an agricultur al and life science student. In Table 4 4, respondents classified themselves as follows: n =1 (1. 3%) student identified themselves as 1AG (freshmen), n =1 0 (12. 7%) identified themselves as 3AG (juniors), n =13 (16. 5%) identified themselves as 4AG (seniors), n =3 (3. 8%) identified themselves as 5AG (fifth year), n =26 (32. 9%) identified themselves as n =8 (10. 1%) identified themselves as 8AG n =4 (5. 1%) identified themselves as 9AG (doctoral candidate). T able 4 4. Classification of Respondents n Percent 0AG 0 0 1AG 1 1. 3 2AG 0 0 3AG 10 12. 7 4AG 13 16. 5 5AG 3 3. 8 6AG 0 0 7AG 26 32. 9 8AG 8 10. 1 9AG 4 5. 1 Total 65 100 The specializations for the undergraduate and graduate students are in Table 4 5. Out of the 65 respondents, 43% ( n =27) were undergraduate students and 57% ( n =37) were graduate students. From the undergraduate students, n =13 (46%) were Agricultural Education majors and n =15 (54%) were Communication Leadership Development ma jors. From the graduate students, n =11 (30%) were Agricultural Education students, n =7 (19%) were Extension, n =9 (24%) were Agricultural Leadership, and n =10 (24%) were Agricultural Communication.

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49 Participants were asked if they have ever held a job or e xperienced a professional internship. Two participants responded they have not have had a job, out of the total of 65 students. Table 4 5. Respondents by Student Classification Undergrad students n Percent Agricultural Education 13 46 Communic ation/Lea dership 15 54 Total 100 Graduate students Agricultural Education 11 30 Extension 7 19 Leadership Development 9 24 Agricultural Communication 10 27 Total 37 100 Objective One: Determine the Level o f Emotional Intelligence of Students. Responden ts indicate d their ability of the situation described in the emotional intelligence instrument on a seven point Likert scale The scale ranged from low ability (1) to high ability (7). Details of the instrument can be found in Appendix D, Developing Your Emotional Intelligence (Weisinger, 1998). It includes interpersonal and intrapersonal constructs. The interpersonal scales are self awareness, managing emotions, and self motivation. The intrapersonal scales are emotional mentoring and relating well to others. Overall, respondents scored highest in relating well to others with n =62, M =108, SD =18. 08. As shown in Ta ble 4 6, respondents scored in motional mentoring with n =65, M =70. 49, SD =12. 05; self awareness with n =64, M =64. 58, SD =10. 69; managin g emotions with n =64, M =47. 66, SD =8. 98; and the lowest overall score in self motivation with n =63, M =35. 33, SD =6. 54.

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50 Table 4 Self Perception of Their Ability to Exercise Emotional Intelligence n low high M SD Relating well to others 62 20 140 108. 00 18. 08 Emotional mentoring 65 13 91 70. 49 12. 05 Self awareness 64 12 84 64. 58 10. 69 Managing emotions 64 10 70 47. 66 8. 98 Self motivation 63 7 49 35. 33 6. 54 The following section shows the findings regarding the emotional intelligence scales within each demographic. Table 4 7 provides the results of the emotional intelligence scales through the generational cohorts. In the scale Baby Boomers scored the highest with M =112. 60, SD =19. 68 ( n =5); Mille nnial cohort II scored M =109.1 7, SD =16. 48 ( n =36); Millennial cohort I scored M =105. 36, SD =23. 76 ( n =14); and Gen X scored lowest M =104, SD =13.95 ( n =7). In the scale Baby Boomers scored the highest with M =73. 40, SD =13. 88 ( n =5); Millenn ial cohort II scored M =71. 24, SD =11. 06 ( n =38); Gen X scored M =69. 25, SD =8. 34 ( n =8); and Millennial cohort I scored the lowest M =68. 14, SD =16. 05 ( n =14). In the scale Baby Boomers scored the highest with M =65. 60, SD =14. 67 ( n =37); Millennial cohort II scored M =65. 36, SD =10. 43 ( n =37); Gen X scored M =64. 75, SD =7. 94 ( n =8); and Millennial cohort I scored the lowest M =62. 36, SD =12. 03 ( n =14). In the scale M =49. 64, SD =10. 60 ( n =14); Gen X scored M =49. 25, SD =9. 19 ( n =8); Baby Boomers scored M =48. 20, SD =8. 32 ( n =5); and Millennial II scored lowest M =46. 49, SD =8. 55 ( n =37).

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51 In the scale motivation Gen X scored the highest with M =36. 13, SD =6. 72 ( n =8); Millennial cohort II scored M =35. 36 SD =6. 88 ( n =36); Millennial cohort I scored M =35. 00, SD =6. 15 ( n =14); and Baby Boomers scored lowest M =34. 80, SD =6. 53 ( n =5). Table 4 7. Emotional Intelligence Scales and Age n M SD Relating well to others Baby Boomers 5 112. 60 19. 68 Millennial II 36 109. 17 16. 48 Millennial I 14 105. 36 23. 76 Gen X 7 104. 00 13. 95 Emotional Mentoring Baby Boomers 5 73. 40 13. 88 Millennial II 38 71. 24 11. 06 Gen X 8 69. 25 8. 34 Millennial I 14 68. 14 16. 05 Self Awareness Baby Boomers 5 65. 60 14. 67 Millennial II 37 65. 36 10. 43 Gen X 8 64. 75 7. 94 Millennial I 14 62. 36 12. 03 Managing Emotions Millennial I 14 49. 64 10. 60 Gen X 8 49. 25 9. 19 Baby Boomers 5 48. 20 8. 32 Millennial II 37 46. 49 8. 55 Self Motivation Gen X 8 36. 13 6. 72 Mi llennial II 36 35. 36 6. 88 Millennial I 14 35. 00 6. 15 Baby Boomers 5 34. 80 6. 53 In Table 4 8, the results of the emotional intelligence scales and race are provided. In the scale s scored the highest with M =114 33, SD =20. 52 ( n =3); participants who identified with other scored M =108. 33, SD =12. 74 ( n =3); and White/Caucasian s scored lowest M =107. 64, SD =18. 41 ( n =56). In the scale s scored the highest with M =76. 33, SD =12. 70 ( n =3); partici pants who identified with other scored M =72. 00, SD =7. 21 ( n =3); and

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5 2 White/Caucasian s scored lowest M =70. 12, SD =12. 28 ( n =59). In the scale awareness s scored the highest with M =64. 83, SD =10. 64 ( n =58); Hispanic s scored M =63. 00, SD =15. 39 ( n =3); and participants who identified with other scored lowest M =61. 33, SD =10. 50 ( n =3). I White/Caucasian s scored the highest with M =47. 79, SD =8. 25 ( n =58); participants who identified with other scored M =47. 33, SD =11. 59 ( n = 3); and Hispanic s scored lowest M =45. 33, SD =21. 45 ( n =3). motivation s scored the highest with M =35. 74, SD =5. 91 ( n =57); participants who identified with other scored M =32. 33, SD =6. 35 ( n =3); and Hispanic s scored lowest M =3 0. 67, SD =15. 95 ( n =3). Table 4 8. Emotional Intelligence Scales and Race n M SD Relating well to others Hispanic 3 114. 33 20. 52 Other 3 108. 33 12. 74 White/Caucasian 56 107. 64 18. 41 Emotional Mentoring Hispanic 3 76. 33 12. 70 Other 3 7 2. 00 7. 21 White/Caucasian 59 70. 12 12. 28 Self Awareness White/Caucasian 58 64. 83 10. 64 Hispanic 3 63. 00 15. 39 Other 3 61. 33 10. 50 Managing Emotions White/Caucasian 58 47. 79 8. 25 Other 3 47. 33 11. 59 Hispanic 3 45. 33 21. 45 Se lf Motivation White/Caucasian 57 35. 74 5. 91 Other 3 32. 33 6. 35 Hispanic 3 30. 67 15. 95 In Table 4 9, the results of the emotional intelligence scales and gender are provided. In the participants who identifie d with other scored the highest with M =123, ( n =1); females scored M =109. 50, SD =17. 25 ( n =44);

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53 and males scored lowest M =103. 24, SD =20. 05 ( n =17). In the scale, participants who identified with other scored the highest with M =80, ( n =1); females scored M =71. 37, SD =11. 81 ( n =46); and males scored lowest M =67. 72, SD =12. 71 ( n =18 participants who identified with other scored the highest with M =72, ( n =1); females scored M =65. 18, SD =9. 90 ( n =45); and males scored l owest M =62. 67, SD =12. 69 ( n =18). In the scale, participants who identified with other scored the highest with M =55, ( n =1); males scored M =50. 22, SD =10. 79 ( n =18); and f emales scored lowest M =46. 47, SD =8. 07 ( n =45) In moti participants who identified with other scored the highest with M =36, ( n =1); males scored M =35. 72, SD =7. 49 ( n =18); and females scored lowest M =35. 16, SD =6. 27 ( n =44). Table 4 9. Emotional Intelligence and Gender n M SD Relating well to others Other 1 123. 00 Female 44 109. 50 17. 25 Male 17 103. 24 20. 05 Emotional Mentoring Other 1 80. 00 Female 46 71. 37 11. 81 Male 18 67. 72 12. 71 Self Awareness Other 1 72 Female 45 65. 18 9. 90 Male 18 62. 67 12. 69 Managing Emotions Other 1 55. 00 Male 18 50. 22 10. 79 Female 45 46. 47 8. 07 Self Motivation Other 1 36. 00 Male 18 35. 72 7. 49 Female 44 35. 16 6. 27

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54 Table 4 10. Emotional Intelligence Scales and Student Classification n M SD Relating well to others Undergrad 25 111. 68 18. 48 Grad 37 105.51 17. 60 Emotional Mentoring Undergrad 27 72. 74 12. 28 Grad 38 68. 89 11. 77 Self Awareness Undergrad 27 65. 22 10. 97 Grad 37 64. 11 10. 60 Managing Emotions Undergrad 27 48. 48 10. 16 Grad 37 47. 05 8. 11 S elf Motivation Undergrad 27 36. 26 7. 66 Grad 36 34. 64 5. 55 In Table 4 10, the results of the emotional intelligence scales and student classification are provided. In the scale, relating well to undergraduate students scored the highest wit h M =111. 68, SD =18. 48 ( n =25) and graduate students scored lowest M =105. 51, SD =17. 60 ( n =37). In the scale, undergraduate students scored the highest with M =72. 74, SD =12. 28 ( n =27) and graduate students scored lowest M =68. 89, SD =11. 77 ( n = 38). In the scale, undergraduate students scored the highest with M =65. 22, SD =10. 97 ( n =27) and graduate students scored lowest M =64. 11, SD =10. 60 ( n =37). In the scale, undergraduate students scored the highest with M =48. 48, SD =10. 16 ( n =27) and graduate students scored lowest M =47. 05, SD =8. 11 ( n =37). In the scale, undergraduate students scored the highest with M =36. 26, SD =7. 66 ( n =27) and graduate students scored lowest M =34. 64, SD =5. 55 ( n =36). A one way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences in emotional intelligence and the demographic variables. The demographic variables that were examined are age, race, gender, and student classification. Significant

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55 relationships exist when score s are less than at the 95% confidence interval. There were no significant relationships between emotional intelligence and the demographic variables. Tables 4 11, 4 12, 4 13, and 4 12 illustrate the significance levels. As a note, the c orrelation is sign ificant at the p < .05 level, 2 tailed for the one way analysis of variance. Table 4 11. One way analysis of variance between emotional intelligence and age F Sig. df Eta 2 Relating well to others 360 782 61 018 Emotional mentoring 340 796 64 0 16 Self awareness 256 857 63 013 Managing emotions 515 674 63 025 Self motivation 060 981 62 003 Table 4 12. One way analysis of variance between emotional intelligence and race F Sig. df Eta 2 Relating well to others 190 827 61 006 E motional mentoring 397 674 64 013 Self awareness 182 834 63 006 Managing emotions 106 900 63 003 Self motivation 1. 197 309 62 038 Table 4 13. One way analysis of variance between emotional intelligence and gender F Sig. df Eta 2 Relating well to others 1. 090 343 61 036 Emotional mentoring 907 409 64 028 Self awareness 592 556 63 019 Managing emotions 1. 485 235 63 046 Self motivation 051 950 62 002

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56 Table 4 14. One way analysis of variance between emotional intelligence and Student classification F Sig. df Eta 2 Relating well to others 1. 758 190 61 028 Emotional mentoring 1. 624 207 64 025 Self awareness 167 684 63 003 Managing emotions 390 535 63 006 Self motivation 948 334 62 015 Objective Two : Deter mine the Level of Career Maturity of Students. Respondents used a five point Likert scale to indicate the level of agreement/disagreement to the 50 statements in the instrument. Respondents answered with strongly agree (1) as the lowest score, agree (2), neither disagree/agree (3) as the middle score, disagree (4), and strongly disagree (5) as the highest score. Details of the instrument can be found in Appendix C. The overall scores of respondents are shown in Table 4 15 ( n =62, M =169. 35, SD =17. 77). Table 4 n M SD Career Maturity 62 169. 35 17. 77 Baby Boomers scored higher in career maturity ( n =5, M =177. 80, SD =14. 18). The remaining scores of generational cohorts are shown in Tabl e 4 16. Gen X scored M =175. 63, S D =10. 79 ( n =8); Millennials cohort I scored M =169. 79, SD =14. 82 ( n =14); and Millennial cohort II scored the lowest with M =166. 54, SD =20.17 ( n =35). Table 4 16. Career maturity and Age n M SD Baby Boomers 5 177. 80 14. 18 Gen X 8 175. 63 10. 79 Millennial I 14 169. 79 14. 82 Millennials II 35 166. 54 20.17

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57 Table 4 17 shows the scores of career maturity and race. White/Caucasian scored higher in career maturity ( n =56, M =170. 61, SD =17. 23). Respondents who n =3, M =159. 67, SD =17. 78), and Hispanic scored lower ( n =3, M =155. 67, SD =26. 08). Table 4 17. Career maturity and Race n M SD White/Caucasian 56 170. 61 17. 23 Other 3 159. 67 17. 78 Hispanic 3 155. 67 26. 08 Table 4 18 shows the scores of career maturity and gender Females scored higher in career maturity ( n =43, M =170. 09, SD =17. 42). Males scored in the middle ( n =18, M =169, SD =18. 53), and respondents who identified as other scored lower ( n =1, M =144). Table 4 18. Career maturity and Gender n M SD Female 43 170. 09 17. 42 Male 18 169. 00 18. 53 Other 1 144. 00 The graduate students in the study scored higher in career maturity ( n =37, M =174. 5, SD =15. 43), as shown in Table 4 19. Undergraduate students scored lower in career maturity ( n =25, M =161. 52, SD =18. 39). T able 4 19. Career maturity and student classification n M SD Grad 37 174. 65 15. 43 Undergrad 25 161. 52 18. 39 A one way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences in career maturity and the demographic variables. The demographic variab les that were examined were age, race, gender, and student classification. Significant relationships

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58 exist when scores are less than at the 95% confidence interval. A significance level of .003 exists between career maturity and student classification ( F =9. 244, p < 05). There were no significant relationships between emotional intelligence and age, race, and gender. Table 4 20 illustrates the significance levels for the demographic variables and career maturity. Table 4 20. One way analysis of varianc e between Career maturity and demographics F Sig. Df Eta 2 Age 1. 004 398 61 049 Race 1. 499 232 61 048 Gender 1. 061 353 61 035 Student Classification 9. 244 003 61 134 Objective Three: I dentify the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence a nd Career M aturity of S tudents. The purpose of this objective was to examine any relationships that may have existed between the scales and demographics in the study. The demographic variables that were used in the correlation were age, gender, race, an d classification of graduate and undergraduate students. The constructs used in the correlation were career maturity, relating well to others, emotional mentoring, self awareness, managing emotions, and self motivation. A Pearson product moment correlati on was utilized with all scales of emotional intelligence, career maturity, and demographics. College students had two significant correlations between variables. A low positive correlation was found between career maturity and student classification ( r = .359) and career maturity an d undergrad vs. graduate ( r = 365) (Davis, 1971) According to Davis (1971), v alues of r between +.30 and +. 49 show a moderate positive association. In the correlation, there was no statistical difference among these variab les: gender, race,

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59 relating well to others, managing emotions, self motivation, self awareness, and emotional mentoring. Objective Four: Identify the Perceived Values in the W orkplace Held by Students Participants were asked what they value in a career through free response. The preferred work values regarding a career. The 12 work values scales developed by Super and Betz (2008) were used to analyze the students open ended answers Following are the work values in order of number of students who agree to the importance and the percentage. Achievement scored the highest with n =49 student statements (39. 8%), Coworkers had n =16 (13%), Income had n =9 (7. 3%), Security had n =9 ( 7. 3%), Mental Challenge had n =8 (6. 5%), Variety had n =8 (6. 5%), Prestige had n =7 (5. 7%), Independence had n =5 (4. 1%), Creativity had n =3 (2. 4%), Lifestyle n =3 (2. 4%), Supervision had n =3 (2. 4%), and Work Environment had n =3 (2. 4%). Table 4 21. Participan Frequency Percent Achievement 49 39. 8 Coworkers 16 13. 0 Income 9 7. 3 Security 9 7. 3 Mental Challenge 8 6. 5 Variety 8 6. 5 Prestige 7 5. 7 Independence 5 4. 1 Creativity 3 2. 4 Lifestyle 3 2. 4 Supervision 3 2.4 Work Environment 3 2. 4 Total 123 100. 0

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60 Summary In this chapter, the findings of the study were discussed. The demographics were age, gender, race, and student classification. Each objective was described along with the number of respondents, means, and standard deviat ions. Six constructs were measured during data collection using one way analysis. Those constructs were career maturity, relating well to others, emotional mentoring, self awareness, managing emotions, and self motivation. The findings of the study will be discussed in the following section.

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61 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction Chapter one described the importance of understanding generational differences in the workplace as well as in the process of career maturity The context of the study, college students career development and emotional intelligence, was explained. Chapter two focused on the foundational literature of emotional intelligence and career maturity The theories behind the instruments were described. The conceptual m odel developed by the researcher was explained thoroughly. This chapter was a comprehensive literature review. Chapter three was the methodology of the study. This chapter described the participants, instrumentation, and research design. The process o f data collection and analysis were presented as well. Chapter four presented the research findings of the study. The results of each of the four objectives were explained. This chapter will discuss the results of the study according to the data collect ed from the students of the AEC department assessing their emotional intelligence and career maturity. The conclusions from each objective will be described, as well as the recommendations for practitioners. Purpose The purpose of this research was to ex amine the role of emotional intelligence and career maturity in Millennials who are in college to ascertain the employability o f Millennial college students. The secondary purpose of the study was to explore the

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62 relationship of emotional intelligence and c areer maturity in Millennials. T his will be analyzed to identify if various variables affect an employable college graduate. Objectives This research addressed the following objectives: To determine the level of emotional intell igence of students, t o det ermine the level of career mat urity of students, t o identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and career maturity of students, and t o identify the perceived values in the workplace held by students. Methodology The population of this study was college students in an agricultural education and communication department a t a land grant institution. A purposive sample was taken using 221 undergraduate and graduate students in the AEC department at the University of Florida. Out of 221 student s, 65 responded. This s tudy had a response rate of 29. 4%. Summary of Findings Objective One: Determine the Level of Emotional Intelligence of Students The purpose of this objective was to measure the level of emotional intelligence in the college stud instrument, Developing your Emotional Intelligence. The five constructs in this instrument are self awareness, self motivation, relating well with others, managing emotions, and emotional men toring. Respondents indicated their ability of emotional intelligence using a seven point Likert scale.

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63 Regarding the demographic of age, each generational cohort was compared with each of the five constructs. In the scale relating well to oth Baby Boomers scored the highest with M =112. 60, SD =19. 68 ( n =5) and Gen X scored lowest M =104, SD =13. 95 ( n =7). In the scale emotional mentoring Baby Boomers scored the highest with M =65. 60, SD =14. 67 ( n =37) and Millennial cohort I scored the lowest M =68. 14, SD = 16. 05 ( n =14). In the scale Baby Boomers scored the highest with M =65. 60, SD =14. 67 ( n =37) and Millennial cohort I scored the lowest M =62. 36, SD =12 03 ( n =14). In the scale Millennial cohort I scored the highest with M =49. 64, SD =10. 60 ( n =14) and Millennial II scored lowest M =46. 49, SD =8. 55 ( n =37). In the scale self motivation Gen X scored the highest with M =36. 13, SD =6. 72 ( n =8) and Baby Boomers scored lowest M =34. 80, SD =6. 53 ( n =5). Regarding the groups of ethnicity, each ethnicity was compared with each of the five constructs. In the scale Hispanic s scored the highest with M =114. 33, SD =20. 52 ( n =3) and White/Caucasian s scored lowest M =107. 64, SD =18.41 ( n =56). In the scale Hispanic s scored the highest with M =76. 33, SD =12. 70 ( n =3) and White/Caucasia ns scored lowest M =70. 12, SD =12. 28 ( n =59). In the scale White/Caucasian s scored the highest with M =64. 83, SD =10.64 ( n =58) and participants who identified with oth er scored lowest M =61. 33, SD =10. 50 ( n =3). In the scale managing emotions White/Caucasian s scored the highest with M =47. 79, SD =8. 25 ( n =58) and Hispanic s scored lowest M =45. 33, SD =21. 45 ( n =3). In the scale self motivation White/Caucasian s scored the hi ghest with M =35. 74, SD =5.91 ( n =57) and Hispanic s scored lowest M =30. 67, SD =15. 95 ( n =3).

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64 Regarding gender, each gender group was compared with each of the five constructs. In the scale relating well to others, relating well to others females scored high er than males with M =109. 50, SD =17. 25 ( n =44). In the scale emotional mentoring females scored highest M =71. 37, SD =11. 81 ( n =46). In the scale self awareness females scored highest M =65. 18, SD =9. 90 ( n =45). In the scale managing emotions males scored highest M =50. 22, SD =10. 79 ( n =18). In the scale self motivation males scored highest M =35. 72, SD =7. 49 ( n =18). Regarding student classification, each group was compared with each of the five constructs. In the scale undergradu ate students scored the highest with M =111. 68, SD =18. 48 ( n =25). In the scale emotional mentoring undergraduate students scored the highest with M =72. 74, SD =12. 28 ( n =27). In the scale undergraduate students scored the highest with M =65. 22 SD =10. 97 ( n =27). In the scale managing emotions undergraduate students scored the highest with M =48. 48, SD =10. 16 ( n =27). In the scale self motivation undergraduate students scored the highest with M =36. 26, SD =7. 66 ( n =27). Undergraduate students scor ed higher than graduate students in all five scales. Using a one way ANOVA between the five scales of emotional intelligence and the demographics no statistical significance was found. Objective Two: Determine the Level of Career Maturity of Students T his objective measured career maturity (Crites, 1978) through a five point Likert scale through statements, respondents answered regarding their attitude toward the statements. The overall scores of respondents in career maturity in this study are M =169. 3 5, SD =17. 77 ( n =62).

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65 Regarding each of the demographics, each group was compared with the sores of career maturity. In the demographic group of age, Baby Boomers scored higher in career maturity ( n =5, M =177. 80, SD =14. 18). The scores in age went in order of generation. In relation to race, White/Caucasian s scored higher in career maturity ( n =56, M =170. 61, SD =17. 23). With gender, Females scored higher in career maturity ( n =43, M =170. 09, SD =17. 42). In regards to student classification, graduate students in the study scored higher in career maturity ( n =37, M =174. 5 0 SD =15. 43). There is a statistically significant difference in the mean scores of career maturity between undergraduate and graduate stude nts A significance level of .00 exists between career mat urity and student classification ( F =9. 244, p <. 05). No significant differences between age, race, and gender and career maturity in this study. Objective Three: Identify the Relationship B etween Emotional In telligence and Career Maturity o f Students Th is objective used a Pearson Product Moment Correlation between all of the variables. This includes relating well to others, self motivation, self awareness, emotional mentoring, managing emotions, career maturity, and demographic variables. A low positive correlation was found between career maturity and student classification ( r = .359) and career maturity and undergrad vs. graduate ( r = 365). According to Davis (1971), values of r between +.30 and +. 49 show a moderate positive association. In the corre lation, there was no statistical difference among these variables: gender, race, relating well to others, managing emotions, self motivation, self awareness, and emotional mentoring. Objective Four: I dentify The Perceived Values in the Workplace Held b y S tudents

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66 The researcher used constant comparative method and coding to evaluate developed by Super and Betz (2008) were used to analyze the free responses Achievement score d the highest, with n =49 (39. 8%) students including it as important in their statements. Coworkers was the second highest important value (13%, n =16). Conclusions Objective One: Determine the Level of Emotional Intelligence of Students Females in the AEC department perceive themselves to have a higher ability on relating well to others, emotional mentoring, and self awareness. Males in the AEC department perceive themselves to have a higher ability in managing emotions and self motivation. Generational di fferences are present regarding emotional intelligence, similar to previous research on the topic of traits of generations. Undergraduate students perceive themselves to have a higher ability of emotional intelligence. Objective Two: Determine the Level o f Career Maturity of Students As experience increases with age career maturity increases. Females have higher levels of career maturity than males. Graduate students are more career mature than undergraduates. Objective Three: Identify the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Career Maturity of Students A low positive r elationship between student classification and career maturity was found to be statistically significant. Objective Four: Identify the Perceived Values in the Workplace Held b y Students. The college students in the AEC department value personal achievement and relationships with their coworkers in the workplace.

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67 Discussion and Implications The purpose of the research was to identify the emotional intelligence and career maturi ty levels of college students in the agricultural education and communication department The interpersonal skills and career development obtained by college students while in college are factors which could add to their employability when entering the wor kplace. The concept of emotional intelligence was used in the study awareness, managing emotions, and self motivation. These five scales were measured independently as all are important to balancing intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. These skills are necessary to develop in students before they enter the workplace because the workplace is the most diverse it has ever been. Emotional intelligence has been found t o be related to performance at work (Orme, 2003; Bar On, 1997, 2004, 2006). The variety of diff erent generations found in the department of agricultural education and communication was unexpected The presence of Baby Boomers in the sample was possibly du Generational research has increased since the early 2000s, (Zemke, Raines, & Filipzak, 2000; Lancaster & Stillman, 2002), but there has not be en generational research in a department of agricultural education and communication at a land grant institution. The respondents were a mix of Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials. The Millennials were split up in this study in two groups because of t he literature supporting the two different Millennial cohorts having differences ( Teagle, Mueller, & Lockshin, 2010; Loughlin & Barling, 2001). Baby Boomers perceived themselves to be highest in relating well to others and emotional

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68 mentoring. Baby Boomers come from a different time where face to face relationships are focused on. Baby Boomers grew up with less technology and relied on their interpersonal skills to communicate. The younger Millennial cohort scored close to the Baby Boomers in both of those scales. Also, Baby Boomers and younger Millennial cohort scored the same in self awareness scale. This was an interesting finding in this study. Baby Boomers and the y ounger Millennial cohort were similar in multiple scales, this may be due to the fact tha t both their parents have similar styles The Gen Xers in the study scored highest in self motivation. This is not surprising since this generation has a high tendency toward independence (Howe & Strauss, 2000). The older Millennial cohort scored the hi ghest in managing emotions. There is no literature supporting these results. One reason could be their dependence on technology. Social media and increased technology usage has influenced communication to be impersonal The different generational findings on emotional intelligence were mostly consistent with the traits of each generation found by Howe and Strauss (2000). The findings cannot be generalized to all members of the generational cohorts but gives results on the tendencies of the individuals in th e department of AEC. Undergraduate students perceived themselves to have higher emotional intell igence than graduate students. Undergraduate students in the department of AEC may have scored themselves higher in emotional intelligence because they are re quired to take courses in soft skill development. The department of AEC provides students with courses that are comprehensive in personality assessments, emotional intelligence, leadership theories, interpersonal competencies, and cross cultural competenci es. The types of courses that

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69 develop soft skills, in the department of AEC especially are required for all specializations in all levels of higher education. The undergraduate courses that primarily focus on soft skills are the following: AEC 3414 Leaders hip Development, AEC 4434 Communication and Leadership in Groups and Teams, AEC 3073 Intercultural Communication, AEC 3413 Working with People: Interpersonal Leadership Skills, AEC 4417 Leadership for Personal and Organizational Change, AEC 4930 Communicat ion and Leadership Development Capstone Experience, and Internships for all specializations. At the graduate level, the courses that primarily focus on soft skills are the following: AEC 5302: Professional Skill Development in Agriscience Education I and I I, AEC 5454: Leadership Development for Extension and Community Nonprofit Organizations, AEC 6905 Interpersonal Leadership, AEC 6905 Facilitation of Leadership Programs, and AEC 6905 Organizational Leadership. It is not common that a college requires soft skill courses, however if the sample in the study were required to take soft skill courses, perhaps there is a correlation that can be investigated. It can be developme nt courses required or an unaware of their own inflated narcissistic self perception (Howe & Strauss, 2002). Although this department has a variety in terms of age, the participants were not diverse in race. Respondents wer e a majority of white/Caucasian s tudents. T his is indicative of the makeup of the department w hich has been a traditional agricultural background whose demographics are usually Caucasian and conservative This is due to the AEC department being a historically based agricultural educati on primarily including white/Caucasian students.

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70 There were no significant differences in gender and emotional intelligence in this study, but differences were present. The differences that were present between males and females are consistent with resea rch findings on gender tendencies. Females have higher abilities in relating well to others, self awareness, and emotional mentoring. Females are generally better suited at nurturing and thriving in social interactions. Males are generally higher in sel f motivations and managing emotions in the gender literature. Bar On (1997) found that males score higher in intrapersonal skills and females score higher in interpersonal skills. This study was consistent with his findings on gender and emotional intell igence. In this study, the more experience a person has along with their increasing age, the more mature they exhibit in making decisions about the world of work. This is er maturity, graduate students were more mature than undergraduate students. Females scored higher in career maturity t han males. This finding has been consistent with the literature on females maturing faster than males (Nevill & Super, 1988; Luzzo, 1995; Nevill & Super 1988). However, research reports that women may need to be more mature because they work harder than men when trying to reach their career goals (Nevill & Super 1988). The literature on race and career maturity is consistent with this st udy, in that there is no consistency in findings related to race. This study found a relationship between student classification and career maturity. This means the more experience students have in developing their skills, the more prepared they are for their chosen career. Suggested that this is due to the closer a student is to graduating or the higher the Nevill and Super (1988) also found that the

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71 higher the student classification, the higher the career maturity. They classification, the students are aware that they need to be committed to the career planning process The results of this study show that respondents value personal achievement and relationships with coworkers in a career. Millennials want to be valued at their jobs; Smola and Sutton (200 2) found similar results in their study. Figure 4 1. The conceptual model created to illustrate employability using emotional intelligence and career maturity as predictors for the generation of Millennials. Regarding Millennials and their employability, age, student classification, and gender are important. Race was shown not be signifi cant in this study The older an individual is the more career maturity the individual has. There are a myriad of factors involved in making an individual more employable such as how they interact with others and adapting to the context The literature supports the conceptual model developed by the researcher. Individual Race Age Gender Classification Low EI High EI High Employability Low Employability Low Career Maturity High Car eer Maturity Career Development Education Leadership experience Job Experience Communication requirements Technical Skills Employability based on context F eedback Loop

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72 All generational cohorts have different traits and values regarding the wor kplace, (Deal, Altman, & Rogelberg, 2010) as mentioned earlier, but they are all needed in the workplace. As seen in Figure 4 1, there are different variables that contribute to an ployability. T he feedback loop shows that all variables are connected. However, the variables between emotional intelligence and career maturity need further investigation The models impact for the future can be generalized to educators in all levels of learning but especially in higher education. Also, the mode l provides the student with an understanding of the process of learning and eventually being considered for a job. Educators should use the model for using emotional intelligence and career maturity as predictors for employability. Based on the results fro m the self reported emotional intelligence and career maturity instruments, students in the department of AEC have high employability. However, the construct of employability does not guarantee a job, it increases ones chances. National Research Agenda Acc ording to the American Association for Agricultural Education2011 2015 Research Priority Areas, Priority 4 aligns with this study: Meaningful, Engaged Learning in All Environments. The key outcome of this priority is the following: Learners in all agricu ltural education learning environments will be actively and emotionally engaged in learning, leading to high levels of achievement, life and career readiness, and pro fessional success ( Doerfert 2011) This priority aligns with the study because the purpos e of the study was based on developing prepared and professional college graduates for th e workplace. This research aimed to examine emotional intelligence of Millennial students that in agricultural colleges. This study provide d further research for lea dership educators to focus on career maturity in Millennial students. This study assisted in identifying the

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73 emotional intelligence level of Millennials in college before they graduate and enter the workforce. Through this study, leadership educators coul d restructure curriculum to ensure the development of emotional intelligence in Millennials to become more employable. Recommendations Based on the results and conclusions of this study, the researcher has made recommendations for practitioners and resea rchers. However, generalizability must be approached with caution as the researcher suggests only applying these to the respondents of this research. Recommendations for Practice Educators in higher education need to focus on college students developing st rong foundations in emotional intelligence and career maturity for the workforce. Students should be aware of the needs of employers before they enter the workplace so they will become more employable. Zeidner, Matthews, and Roberts (2004) found that emoti onally intelligent individuals are more successful and have stronger relationships in the workplace. This means that educators must aid in the development of emotional intelligence skills in college students, no matter what age. The Pew Research Center ( 2010) found that universities are accepting the highest amount of college students with lower levels of knowledge. It is recommended that university administrators make efforts to raise standards for all students and make professional development a priori ty. Bhavani and Aldridge (2000) found those employers top priorities when hiring college graduates are teamwork and communication skills. Employers in all industries look for these qualities; therefore team

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74 building and communication courses need to addr ess these needs. A study by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service (Ayers & Stone, 1999) found that their extension core competencies included emotional intelligence competencies as well. In addition, they wanted their professionals to develop these sk ills in order to build a better workforce. This shows that not only educators but the industry is trying to instill emotional intelligence in the workforce by enforcing it as a priority. As shown earlier i n the national research agenda, communication and interpersonal skills have been important in the workforce. Through this study, educators could restructure curriculum to ensure the development of emotional intelligence in Millennials to become more employable. Orme (2003) found that over 60% of leaders hip is dependent on emotional social intelligence and 30% of performance in occupations is dependent on emotional social intelligence. It is recommended that research should be conducted on emotional intelligence and leadership ascension. Based on Orme (20 03), it can be suggested that emotional intelligence plays a role in the process of an individual moving into a leadership position. A student learning emotional intelligence frameworks is not effective without the practice and experience of interacting wi th others. Educators should continue or start implementing emotional intelligence and other soft skills in their courses. More importantly, employers want employees who are adaptable and can maintain multiple roles in the organization (Hall, 1976; Hall, 20 02; Hall & Mirvis, 1995; Mirvis & Hall, 1994). The public sector is also vocal about capacity building, diversity training, and stronger relationship bui lding and collaboration in the sector.

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75 styles have changed; therefore, individuals need to adapt as well (Fugate, Kiniski, & Ashforth, 2004; Ashforth, 2001). Adaptability is a part of emotional intelligence and it is crucial to success in the workplace (Hall, 2002; Pulakos, Arad, Donovan, & Pl amondon, 2000). Myers and and technologies can enhance organizational communication and productivity. Millennials need to be appreciated for their strengths by employer s and not criticized. Recommendations for Research Based on the findings, it is recommended that researchers continue to find how to further develop emotional intelligence in students (Boussiakou, Boussiakou, & Kalkani, 2006). This study should be repli cated within a larger sample to generate generalizabi lity to a group of millennials in order to find if the topic is pertinent to all departments in higher education. Education priorities and employers proclaim to need individuals in the workforce with the ability to build relationships and collaborate cross culturally. But how exactly do they develop those kinds of individuals? It is recommended that more research be conducted on the other potential factors that can ommunication skills before they enter the workforce. It is imperative that researchers determine the level of emotional intelligence and career maturity that Millennials have now, so they can set a level that they need to be at. Lv, Wang, Lin, and Shi (200 8) found in a study with undergraduate students that self efficacy is a mediating variable between emotional intelligence and career maturity. It is recommended that research be done on employers and graduates of the AEC department in order to gain an und erstanding of what is needed to improve on regarding & Heyboer, 2004). Millennials need to be

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76 researched further because of the impact they potentially have on the workplace. More importantly, Millennials are growing up with an online presence, so their needs for the workplace need to be addressed as well. Also, t he role of social media should be addressed since millennials are immersed in social media. How has social media and having an online presence affect millennial impact regarding millennials entering the workplace and having d ifferent skills and values? maturity. Millennials being the newest g eneration in the workforce, organizations are hesitant. However, the researcher suggests that millennials will change the culture of organizations in all sectors across industries. Millennials bring new skills to the workplace, some of which will change th e work interface. Also, communication should be more important because of the variety of generations in the workforce. Orme (2003) and Bar On (2006a) found that about two thirds of leadership is reliant on emotional intelligence. This means that the emot ional intelligence developed is related to the leadership potential of an individual. The researcher recommends further studies on how emotional intelligence, career maturity, and l eadership relate to one another. This topic needs to be further researched not only in student development but in organizations It has been found that there is a strong relationship between emotional intelligence and performance in the workplace (Bar On, 1997; Bar On, 2004; Bar On, 2006; Bar On, Handley & Fund, 2006; Handley, 1997; Ruderman & Bar On, 2003; Orme, 2003). The researcher made a connection between emotional intelligence,

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77 career maturity and employability. Further research should be considered regarding the link between the three constructs based on the results and t Critical thinking and emotional have been linked as having a relationship (Stedman & Andenoro, 2006; Stedman, Cannon, Crow, & Sims, 2009). Individuals with higher levels of critical thinking have a tendency to be more aware and be tter manage their emotional state. The researcher recommends future studies to find the role critical thinking plays in this model. Millennials have been said to be the greatest generation because of their confidence and high achievement (Howe & Strauss, 2 000). These traits that Millennials are said to portray disconcerting employers because millennials might not adapt well to the corporate culture (Safer, 2007; Kowske, Rasch, & Wiley, 2010). According to the Pew Research Center (2010), the millennial gen eration has the most education but is unable to find jobs, but there is no research to support that millennial traits are the traits that make them unemployable. Deal, Altman, and Rogelberg (2010) found that the highest amounts of students are coming to co llege with the lowest levels of knowledge. education (Pew Research Center, 2010). Further research needs to be done as to the preparedness of students before and after college. Literature on generational differences in the workforce need to be reviewed and consensus needs to be reached. Then valuable research can be implemented in education and in organizations. Rivera and Alex (2008) suggest there is a need to prepare the agric ultural workforce in capacity building, diversity, and training to build a stronger network. Another recommendation for future research is to investigate the perceptions of millennials

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78 regarding ethics. Ethics guide decision making in the workplace, emotio nal intelligence and critical thinking of the millennials will certainly impact future decisions when millennials integrate in leadership positions. Millennials are used to mass media, information overload, and access to instant communication. These factor s may affect their ethics and the decisions they will have to face in the workplace. Conclusion This chapter summarized the previous four chapters: introduction, literature review, methodology, and results. The purpose and objectives of the study were re stated. The literature was presented regarding career maturity and emotional intelligence. The methods of the study were explained including the sample and instrumentation. Next, the findings of the four objectives were described in the analysis. This chapter discusses the conclusions of the results and the relation to the national research agenda.

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79 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT FOR M Informed Consent Protocol Title: Employability of Millennials for the Workplace: Emotional Social Competence and Career ma turity Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to examine the role of emotional social intelligence and career maturity in millennials that a re in college to ascertain the employability of millennial college students. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to volunteer to take a self assessment on your emotional intelligence and career maturity on an online administratio n. This assessment will ask you to evaluate yourself on interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships and career aspirations. Also, you will be asked to provide some demographic information. Time required: 45 minutes Risks and Benefits: We do not anti cipate that you will benefit directly or be harmed by participating in this experiment. Compensation: No compensation or credit will be given to participants. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked file in my faculty supervisor's office. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, the list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime w ithout consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Viviana Giraud, Graduate Student, Department of Agricultural Education and Communication, 406 Rolfs Hall, phone 352 273 2093. Nicole Stedman, PhD, College of Agricultural & Life Sciences, 217 Rolfs, 352 273 2585. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: ___________________________________________ Date: _________________ Principal Investigator: ___________________________________ Date: _____ ___________

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80 APPENDIX B IRB APPROVAL

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81 APPENDIX C CAREER MATURITY INVE NTORY ATTITUDE SCALE The Career Maturity Inventory Screening Form A 2 Developed by Dr's. John O. Crites and Mark L. Savickas DIRECTIONS The Career Maturity Inventory Screening For m (Form A 2) has been constructed to survey the various attitudes which are important in making decisions about your career; it is not a personality inventory, an interest inventory, an achievement test, or an aptitude test. The attitude scale, which you a re about to take, asks about your attitudes and feelings toward making a career choice and entering the world of work. Question Agree Disagree 1 Once you choose a job, you can't choose another one. 2 In order to choose a job, you need to know what k ind of person you are. 3 I plan to follow the line of work my parents suggest. 4 I guess everyone has to go to work sooner than later, but I don't look forward to it. 5 You can do any kind of work you want to as long as you try hard. 6 I'm not going to worry about choosing an occupation until I'm out of school. 7 Your job is important because it determines how much you can earn. 8 Work is worthwhile mainly because it lets you buy the things you want. 9 The greatest appe al of a job to me is the opportunity it provides for getting ahead. 10 I often dream about what I want to do, but I really haven't chosen a line of work yet. 11 You should choose a job that allows you to do exactly what you want to do.

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82 12 Y our parents know better than anybody else which occupation you should enter. 13 If I can just help others in my work, I'll be happy. 14 Work is dull and unpleasant. 15 Everyone seems to tell me something different; as a result I don't know what kind of work to choose. 16 I don't know how to go about getting into the kind of work I want to do. 17 There is no point in deciding upon a job when the future is so uncertain. 18 I spend a lot of time wishing I could do work I know I c an never do. 19 I don't know what courses I should take in school. 20 It's probably just as easy to be successful in one occupation as it is in another. 21 By the time you are 15 you should have your mind pretty well made up about the occup ation you intend to enter. 22 Whether you are interested in a particular kind of work is not as important as whether you can do it. 23 I seldom think about the job I want to enter. 24 It doesn't matter which job you choose as long as it pay s well. 25 You can't go very far wrong by following your parents' advice about which job to choose. 26 Working is much like going to school. 27 I am having difficulty preparing myself for the work I want to do. 28 I know very little ab out the requirements of jobs.

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83 29 The job I choose has to give me plenty of freedom to do what I want. 30 The best thing is to do is to try out several jobs, and then choose the one you like best. 31 There is only one occupation for each per son. 32 There are so many things to consider in choosing an occupation, its hard to make a decision. 33 I can't understand how some people can be so certain about what they want to do. 34 As long as I can remember, I've known what kind of w ork I want to do. 35 I want to really accomplish something in my work to make a great discovery or earn a lot of money or help a great number of people. 36 You get into an occupation mostly by chance. 37 It's who you know, not what you kno w that's important in a job. 38 When it comes to choosing a job, I'll make up my own mind. 39 You should choose an occupation which gives you a chance to help others. 40 When I am trying to study, I often find myself daydreaming about what i t will be like when I start working. 41 I have little or no idea what working will be like. 42 You should choose an occupation, then plan how to enter it 43 I really can't find any work that has much appeal to me. 44 You should choo se a job in which you can someday become famous.

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84 45 If you have some doubts about what you want to do, ask your parents or friends for advice or suggestions. 46 Knowing what jobs are open is more important than knowing what you are good at when y ou choose an occupation. 47 The most important part of work is the pleasure that comes from doing it. 48 I keep changing my occupational choice. 49 As far as choosing an occupation is concerned, something will come along sooner or later. 50 You shouldn't worry about choosing a job because you don't have anything to say about it anyway.

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85 APPENDIX D DEVELOPING YOUR EMOT IONAL INTELLIGENCE A SSESSMENT

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88 LIST OF REFERENCES Aiqin, L. ,Mingji, W. Han, L. & Junqi, S. (2008). C areer maturity and emotional intelligence: the mediation effect of self efficac y. Dental School Of S handong University. Department o f Psychology. Peking Univ ersity, Beijing, 44(2) 271 276. Albert, K. A. & Luzzo, D. A. (1999). The role of perceived barriers in career development: A social cognitive perspective. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77 (4), 431. Albrecht, K. (2006), Social Intelligence: The New Science of Success Jossey Bass, San Francisco, CA. Alsop, R. (2008). The trophy kids grow up: how th e Millennial generation is shaking up the w orkplace New York: John Wiley. Ayers, D.& Stone, B. (1999). E xtension organization of the future: linking emotional intelligence and core competencies Journal of Extension, 37 (6). Bar On, R. (2006a). How importa nt is it to educate people to be emotionally intelligent, and can it be done? In R.Bar On J. G. Maree,& M. Elias (Eds. ), Educating people to be emotionally intelligent Johannesburg: Heine mann Educational Publishers, 1 16. Bar On, R. (2006b). The Bar On model of emotional social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18 ,supl. 13 25. Retrieved from http://www.eiconsortium.org/reprints/bar on_model_of_emotiona l social_intelligence.htm Bar On, R. Han dley, R. & Fund, S. (2005). The impact of emotional and social intellig ence on performance. In V. Druskat, F. Sala, and G. Mount (Eds. ), Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work : Current research evidence Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Bauerlein, M. (2008). The dumbest generation: How the digital age stupefies young Americans and jeopardizes our future (or, don't trust anyone under 30) New York, NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin. Benson, G. ,Ploeg, J & Brown, B. (2010). A cross sectional study of emotional intelligence in baccalaureate nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 3 0 49 53. doi:10. 1016/j. nedt. 009. 06. 00 Bh avnani, S. H. & Aldridge, M. D. (2000). Teamwork across disciplinary borders: a bridge betw een college and the work place. Journal of Engineering Education, 89 (1) 13 16

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89 Boussiakou, L. G. Boussiakou, I. K. & Kalkani, E. C. (2006). Student development using emotional intelligence. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education 5(1). Boyatzis, R. E. & Saatcioglu, A. (2008). A 20 year view of trying to develop emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies in graduate management education. Journal of Manag ement Development, 27(1) 92 108. doi: 10. 1108/026217 10810840785 Cappelli, P. (2010). Enough with the generation studies Human Resource Executive Online. Retrieved from http://www.hreonline.com/HRE/story.jsp?storyId=533325364 Cherniss C. & Goleman, D. (2001). Training for emotional intelligence: A model. In C. Cherniss & D. Goleman (Eds. ) The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Chung, B. Y. (2002). Career decision making self efficacy and career commitme nt: gender and ethnic differences among college students. Journal of Career Development, 28 (4). Cohen, J. (2006). Social, emotional, ethical, and academic education: creating a climate for learning, participation in democracy, and well being. Center for So cial and Emotional Education. Harvard Educational Review 76(2) 201 237 Cooney, L. L. (2007). Giving Millennials a leg up: how to avoid the if i knew then what I know now syndrome. Kentucky Law Journal, 96 (4). Retri eved from http://home.heinonline.org/ Crites, J. O. (1978 ). The career maturity inventory (2nd ed.). Monterey, CA: CTB/McGrawHill. Crites, J. O. & Savickas, M. L. (1995). Revision of the career maturity inventory. Journal of Career Assessment, 4 131 138 Dawda, D.& Hart, S. D. (2000). Assessing emotional intelligence: reliability and validity of the Bar on emotional quotient inventory (EQ i) in university students. Personality and Individual Differences. 28 797 812. Deal, J.J. Altman, D. G. ,& Ro gelberg, S. G. (2010). Millennials at work: what we know and what we need to do (if anything). Journal of Business and Psychology, 25 (2) 191 199. doi: 10. 1007/s10869 010 9177 2. De Hauw career perspective and psychologica l contract expectations: does the recession lead to lowered expectatio ns? Journal of Business Psychology 25 :293 302 doi 10. 1007/s10869 010 9162 9.

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90 Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D., & Christian, L. M. (2009). Internet, mail and mixed mode surveys: The tailor ed design method (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. Doerfert, D.L. (Ed. ) (2011). National research agenda: American Association for 2015 Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University, Department of Agricultural Education and Communications. Donnison, S. (2010). Unpacking the Millennials: a cautionary tale for teacher education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 32 (3). Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/vol32/iss3/1/ Estevez, B. J. (2007). Levels of student development in the college of agricultural and life sciences at the University of Florida [electronic resource Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida. Retrieved from http://etd.fcla.edu/UF/UFE0021438/estevez_b.pdf Fugate, M. ,Kinicki, A. J. ,& Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho social construc ts dimensions, and applications. Journal Of Vocationa l Behavior, 65 14 38. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences New York: Basic Books. Gibbs, N. ( 1995 October 2 ). Emotional intelligence: the eq factor. Time Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.time.com Gist, M.E. Stevens, C. & Bavetta, A. G. (1991). Effects of self efficacy and post training intervention on the acquisition and maintenance of complex interpersonal skills. Personnel Psychology, 44 (4), 837 861. Glor ia, A.M. & Hi rd, J. S. (1999). Influences of ethnic and nonethnic variables on the career decision making self efficacy of college students. The Career Development Quarterly, 48, 157 174. Goleman, D. ( 1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books. Goleman, D ,Boyatzis, R. E. ,& Mckee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: realizing the power of emotional intelligence. The Harvard Business Review Press Hogan, R. & Kaiser, R. B. (2005). What we know about leadership Review of General Psychology, 9 (2)169 18. Howe, N. & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: the next great generatio n New York: Vintage Books.

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91 Howe, N. & Strauss, W. (20 03). Millennials go to college USA: Life Course Associates. Jaeger, A. J. (2003). Job competencies and the curriculum: an inqu iry into emotional intelligence in graduate professional education. Research in Higher Education, 44(6) 615 639. Jayson S. (2010, February 23). Study: Millennial generation more educated, less employed. USAToday, Web site: http://www. usatoday. c om Kanfer, R. ,Wanberg, C. R. & Kantrowitz, T. M. 2001. Job search and employment: A personality motivational analysis and meta analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology 86 837 855. Kowske, B J. ,Rasch, R. & Wiley, J. (2010). (L ack of) attitude problem: an empirical examination of generational effects on work attitudes Journal of Business and Psychology, 25 (2) 265 279. d oi: 10. 1007/s10869 010 9171 8 Lancaster, L. C. & Stillman, D. (2002). When Generations Collide Who They Are. Why They Clash. How to Sol ve the Generational Puzzle at Work New York: Harper Business. Loughlin, C. & behaviours. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 74 543 558 Luzzo, D.A. (1995). Gender differenc es in college students' career maturity and perceived barriers in career development. J ournal of Counseling & Development, 73 (3), 319 322. Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence,17 (4), 433 442. doi:10. 1016/0160 2896(93)90010 3 Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997) What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds. ), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implicat ions for educators (pp. 3 31). New York: Basic Books. Mayer, J. D. Caruso, D. & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27 267 298. Mccuiston, V. E. Wooldridge B. R. ,& Pierce, C. K. (2004). Leading the diverse workforce profit, prospects and prog ress. The Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25 (1)73 92. Doi: 10. 1108/01437730410512787 Meijers, F. (1998). The de velopment of a career identity. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 20, 191 207

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92 Mirvis, P. H. ,& Hall, D. T (1994). Psychological success and the boundaryless career. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15 365 380 Myers, K. K. & Sadaghiani, K. (2010). Millennials in the workplace: a communication and p erformance. Journal of Business and Psychology 25(2) 225 238. doi: 10. 1007/s10869 010 9172 7 Nevill, D.D. & Super, D. E. (1988). Career maturity and commitment to work in university students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32 (2)139 15 doi: 10. 1016/0 001 8791(88)90011 5 Orme, G. (2003 ). Emotional intelligence: The cutting edge of interventions in corporate and educational settings. Paper presented Nex us EQ Conference Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Parker, J.D. ,Summerfeldt, L. J. Hogan, M. J. ,& Majeski, S. A. (2004) Emotional intelligence and academic success: examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences 36 ,163 172. doi:10. 1016/S0191 8869(03)00076 X Pew Research Center, (2009). The Millennials Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1437/Millennials profile Pew Research Center (2010).Millennials: Confident Connected Open to change. Retreived from http://pewresearch.org/millennials/ Rivera, W. M. & Alex, G. E. (2008). Human resource development for modernizing the agricultural workforce. Human Resources Development Review, 7 (4), 374 386 Robinson, C. H & Betz, N.E. (2008). A Psychometric Evaluation of Super's Work Journal of Career Assessment, 16 (4), 456 473. doi: 10. 1177/1069072708318903 Saks, A.M. ,& Ashforth, B. E. (1997) Organizational socialization: Making sense of the past and present as a prologue for the future. Journal of Voca tional Behavior, 51 234 279. Savickas, M. L. &Hartung, P. J. (1996). The Career Development Inventory in Review: Psychometric and Research Findings. Journal of Career Assessment, 4 (2) 171 188 doi: 10. 1177/106907279600400204 Schumacher, L. G. & Swan M. K. (1993). Need for formal leadership training for students in a land grant college of agriculture Journal of Agricultural Education. 34( 3)

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93 Smola, K. W. & Sutton, C. D (2002). Generational differences: revisiting generational work values for the n ew millennium. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23 (4) 363 382. DOI: 10. 1002/job.147 Sommers, W.B. (1991). Relationship Between College Student Organization Leadership Experience and Post College Leadership Activity (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved f rom http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/9986/Sommer s_Walter%20B. %20_1992;jsessionid=09B7034DA3FD56916AAF483FC0 C46253?sequence=1 Sosik, H.J. ,& Megerian, L. E. (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance. Group& Organization Management, 24 (3), 367 390. doi:10. 1177/1059601199243006 Sp encer, L. &Spencer, S. (1993). Competence at Work. New York: John Wiley. Spielberger, C. (Ed. ) (2004). Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology Academic Press. Stedman, N. L. & Andenoro, A. C. (2006). Linking emotional intelligence to critical thinking: balancing our curriculum within leadership education. Proceedings of the Association of Leadership Educators Annual Conference Retrieved from http://www.leadersh ipeducators.org/Resources/Documents/Conferences/B ozeman/stedman.pdf Stedman N. Cannon, K. J., Crow, K. S. & Sims S. A. ( 2009, February). Linking critical thinking disposition with emotional intelligence and leadership behavior in undergraduate students enrolled in an agricultural leadership course. Proceedings of the American Association of Agricultural Education, Southern Region Research Conference 209 224. Strauss, W. & Howe, N. (1991). Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 2069 New Yo rk: Quill. Super, D. E. (1973). The career development inventory. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 1 (2), 37 50 doi: 10. 1080/03069887300760201 Super, D. E. (1980). A Life Span, Life Space Approach to Career Development. Journal of Vocationa l Behavior 16 282 298. Suvedi, M. ,& Heyboer, G. (2004) Perceptions of recent graduates and employers about undergraduate programs in the college of agriculture and natural resources at Michigan state university: A follow up study. North American Colle ges and Teachers of Agriculture, 48 (1)

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94 attitudes and behaviour differ from other generations? Refereed paper 5th International Academy of Wine Business Research Conference 8 10 Feb. 2010 Auckland (NZ). Tharenou, P. Latimer, S. & Conroy, D. (1994). How to make it to the top? An advancement. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 402 423. Thorndike, E.L. ( 1920). Intell igence and its uses. 227 235. Tulgan, B. (2000). Managing Generation X: How to Bring Out the Best in Young Talent rev. and updated ed. New York: W. W. Norton. Weisinger, H. (1998). Emotional intelligence at work: The untapp ed edge for success. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Wong, C. S., & Law, K. S. (2002) The e ects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. Leadership Quarterly, 13 243 274. Yeates, K. O. & Selman, R. L. (1989). Emotional intelligence in the schools: Toward an integrative developmental mo del for intervention. Developmental Review, 9 (1), 64 100. doi:10. 1016/0273 2297(89)90024 5 Zeidner, M. Matthews, G. & Roberts, R. D. (2004). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: a critical review. Applied Psychology, 53 (3)371 399. doi: 10. 1111/ j. 1464 0597.2004. 00176. x Zemke, R. Raines, C. & Filipczak, B. (2000). Generations at work: managing the clash of Veterans, boomers, xers, and nexters in your workplace New York: American Management Association Zemke, R. (2001). Here come the Mille nnials. Training, 38(7). Retrieved from

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95 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Viviana Marie Giraud was born in San Juan, Puerto Rico. During her adolescence, she lived in Melbourne, Florida. Ms. Giraud went on to Brevard Community College, earning her Associate of Arts. S he was then accepted to the University of Florida, where she received her Bachelor of Science in agricultural education and communication During her undergraduate career, she specialized in communication and leadership developed and a minor in leadership development. She was active in the student organizations and participated in professional development opportunities. Afterwards, she continued her education at the University of Florida by pursuing her Master of Science in agricultural education and commun ication specializing in leadership development. Following graduation, she hopes to pursue a career in training and development.