<%BANNER%>

The Effect of Two-Color Combinations on Consumer Preference Dimensions in a Retail Environment

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044249/00001

Material Information

Title: The Effect of Two-Color Combinations on Consumer Preference Dimensions in a Retail Environment
Physical Description: 1 online resource (180 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Chang, Yu-Ting
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: color -- combination -- design -- high-end -- preference -- retail
Interior Design -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Considering the lack of knowledge about the effects of two-color combinations within retail interiors, this study employed the Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preference framework to examine the effects of two-color combinations with two levels of complexity (simple versus complex) and coherence (coherent versus incoherent) in the regular and irregular pattern within a boutique store on consumer’s color perceptions and preferences. Complementary hues (yellow/purple) with different value and saturation were manipulated to distinct different complexity and coherence levels. The sample consisted of 153 participants between the ages of 18 and 30 recruited through the Behavior Research Lab at University of Florida. All participants were screened for color vision deficiency before participation in the study. A between-subjects analysis of variance (ANONA) was conducted to examine dependent variables (perception of complexity, coherence, color emotions, store image, arousal states, pleasure states, and preferences). Both the quantitative and qualitative date revealed that the coherence characteristic perceived in the interior context plays a pivot role in color preferences. Due to the simultaneous contrast effect and instability of the yellow hue, the simple (Simple/Coherent and Simple/Incoherent) color palette, appearing as a tonal, pastel complementary color combination, was perceived more coherent with the overall context especially the “high-end” store image of the boutique store and then was more preferred. Moreover, despite the lack of direct statistical supports, the irregular color pattern perceived as more coherent seems more preferred when compared to the regular pattern in the boutique store. In additions, the highly contrasting complementary color combination that aroused more active and vibrant emotions was perceived as a less pleasing and less preferred color scheme, whereas the less contrasting complementary color combination that aroused moderate active and vibrant emotions was perceived as a more pleasing and more preferred color scheme in a retail boutique store. The current study’s findings can help retailers and interior designers in establishing an ideal brand identity for high-end retail environment regarding their color choice but should not be followed blindly without considering thoroughly what consumers need in specific retail settings and the dimensionality issue when planning colors in an interior environment.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Yu-Ting Chang.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Park, Nam-Kyu.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044249:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044249/00001

Material Information

Title: The Effect of Two-Color Combinations on Consumer Preference Dimensions in a Retail Environment
Physical Description: 1 online resource (180 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Chang, Yu-Ting
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: color -- combination -- design -- high-end -- preference -- retail
Interior Design -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Considering the lack of knowledge about the effects of two-color combinations within retail interiors, this study employed the Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preference framework to examine the effects of two-color combinations with two levels of complexity (simple versus complex) and coherence (coherent versus incoherent) in the regular and irregular pattern within a boutique store on consumer’s color perceptions and preferences. Complementary hues (yellow/purple) with different value and saturation were manipulated to distinct different complexity and coherence levels. The sample consisted of 153 participants between the ages of 18 and 30 recruited through the Behavior Research Lab at University of Florida. All participants were screened for color vision deficiency before participation in the study. A between-subjects analysis of variance (ANONA) was conducted to examine dependent variables (perception of complexity, coherence, color emotions, store image, arousal states, pleasure states, and preferences). Both the quantitative and qualitative date revealed that the coherence characteristic perceived in the interior context plays a pivot role in color preferences. Due to the simultaneous contrast effect and instability of the yellow hue, the simple (Simple/Coherent and Simple/Incoherent) color palette, appearing as a tonal, pastel complementary color combination, was perceived more coherent with the overall context especially the “high-end” store image of the boutique store and then was more preferred. Moreover, despite the lack of direct statistical supports, the irregular color pattern perceived as more coherent seems more preferred when compared to the regular pattern in the boutique store. In additions, the highly contrasting complementary color combination that aroused more active and vibrant emotions was perceived as a less pleasing and less preferred color scheme, whereas the less contrasting complementary color combination that aroused moderate active and vibrant emotions was perceived as a more pleasing and more preferred color scheme in a retail boutique store. The current study’s findings can help retailers and interior designers in establishing an ideal brand identity for high-end retail environment regarding their color choice but should not be followed blindly without considering thoroughly what consumers need in specific retail settings and the dimensionality issue when planning colors in an interior environment.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Yu-Ting Chang.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Park, Nam-Kyu.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044249:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 THE EFFECT OF TWO COLOR COMBINATIONS ON CONSUMER PREFERENCE DIMENSIONS IN A RETAIL ENVIRONMENT By YU TING CHANG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREM ENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF INTERIOR DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

PAGE 2

2 2012 Yu Ting Chang

PAGE 3

3 To Chien Chih Chao

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Nam Kyu Park for her invaluable guidance as my committee chairperson and spirit ual support as a mentor. I would also like to thank my other committee member Dr. Margaret Portillo for her precious advice as an expert in color research I would like to thank Dr. Hyun joo Oh the research d irector of David Miller Center for Retailing Edu cation and Research at UF for her help with my data collection This research study would not have been possible without their help. I would like to thank my family and friends in Taiwan and Gainesville for their endless support and encouragement. Their c ompany is invaluable to me. Finally, I would like to dedicate this thesis to my fianc Chien Chin Chao who have been stood by me for seven years. He always encourages and supports me with his endless love. I could not have done this without him

PAGE 5

5 TABLE O F CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 LIST OF TERMS ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 13 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 17 Research Aim & Questions ................................ ................................ ..................... 19 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 23 Color Combinations ................................ ................................ ................................ 23 Color Application in Retail Store Design ................................ ................................ 33 Environmental Preference ................................ ................................ ...................... 37 The Study Framework ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 48 Rationale for Experimental Settings ................................ ................................ ........ 48 Two Color Combination Applications ................................ ................................ ...... 51 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 55 Instruments ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 56 Pilot Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 56 Main Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 57 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 60 Behavior Research Lab ................................ ................................ .................... 60 Data Collection Procedure ................................ ................................ ................ 60 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 61 Pilot Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 62 Main Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 62 4 FINDING S ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 64 Pilot Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 64 Demographic Characteristics of Participants ................................ .................... 64 Two Color Combination s on Color Swatches ................................ ................... 65

PAGE 6

6 Complexity ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 65 Coherence ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 67 Store Images of the Original Store Scene ................................ ........................ 72 Main Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 74 Demographic Characteristics of Participant s ................................ .................... 74 Reliability of Measures ................................ ................................ ..................... 74 Perception of Complexity ................................ ................................ ........................ 75 Regu lar Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ 75 Irregular Pattern ................................ ................................ ............................... 76 Perception of Coherence ................................ ................................ ........................ 77 R egular Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ 78 Irregular Pattern ................................ ................................ ............................... 80 Perception of Color Emotion ................................ ................................ ................... 83 Regular Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ 84 Irregular Pattern ................................ ................................ ............................... 86 Perception of Store Image ................................ ................................ ...................... 90 Regular Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ 90 Irregular Pattern ................................ ................................ ............................... 91 Arousal States ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 92 Regular Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ 93 Irregular Pattern ................................ ................................ ............................... 93 Pleasure States ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 95 Regular Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ 95 Irregular Pattern ................................ ................................ ............................... 96 Two Color Combination Preferences ................................ ................................ ...... 97 Regular Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ 98 Irregular Pattern ................................ ................................ ............................... 98 Qualitative Findings ................................ ................................ ........................ 100 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 113 Perception of Complexity ................................ ................................ ...................... 113 Perception of Coherence ................................ ................................ ...................... 118 Color Emotions ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 122 Perception of Store Image ................................ ................................ .................... 125 Arousal States ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 127 Pleasure States ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 130 Two Color Combination Preference ................................ ................................ ...... 135 Limitations and Future Research ................................ ................................ .......... 144 Conclusion s and Implication ................................ ................................ ................. 148 APPENDIX A IRB APPROVAL ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 152 B CONSENT F ORM ................................ ................................ ................................ 153

PAGE 7

7 C INSTRUMENT PILOT STUDY ................................ ................................ ............ 154 D INSTRUMENT MAIN STUDY ................................ ................................ ............. 157 E CONTENT ANALYSIS STORE IMAGE OF THE ACHROMATIC BOUTIQUE STORE SCENE ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 159 F CONTENT ANALYSIS OF COLOR PREFERENCE ................................ .......... 160 G CONTENT ANALYSIS of MOST PREFERRED AND LEAST PREFERRED SCENE IN THE REGULAR PATTERN SET ................................ ......................... 165 H CONTENT ANALYSIS OF MOST PREFERRED AND LEAST PREFERRED SCENE IN THE IRREGULAR PATTERN SET ................................ ..................... 168 I STUDY COLOR PALETTE FOUR TWO COLOR COMBINATIONS SELECTED FROM THE HSV COLOR MODEL ................................ ................... 172 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 173 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 180

PAGE 8

8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Study color palette. Four two color combinati ons selected from the HSV color model ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 53 4 1 Demographic characteristics of the participants in the pilot study ...................... 65 4 2 Mean and complexity on color swatches ................................ ................................ ............. 66 4 3 swatches ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 66 4 4 coherence on color swatches in the incoherent/coherent scale .......................... 67 4 5 swatches in the incoherent/coherent scale ................................ ......................... 67 4 6 luations of coherence on color swatches in the disharmonious/harmonious scale .............. 69 4 7 ANOVA summary table swatches in the disharmonious/harmo nious scale ................................ .............. 69 4 8 coherence on color swatches in the unbalanced/balanced scale ....................... 70 4 9 ANOVA summary table swatches in the unbalanced /balanced scale ................................ ....................... 70 4 10 Mean and standard deviation (SD) score coherence on color swatches in the dissimilar/similar scale ............................... 71 4 11 ANOVA summary table swatches the diss imilar/similar scale ................................ ................................ .. 71 4 12 Demographic characteristics of the participants in the main study ..................... 74 4 13 Results of reliability an alysis ................................ ................................ ............... 75 4 14 complexity for the regular pattern set ................................ ................................ 76 4 15 ANOVA summary table regular pattern set ................................ ................................ .............................. 76

PAGE 9

9 4 16 complexity for the irregular pattern set ................................ ............................... 77 4 17 ANOVA summary table irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ ............................ 77 4 18 coherence for the regular pattern set ................................ ................................ .. 78 4 19 the regular pattern set ................................ ................................ .............................. 80 4 20 coherence for the irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ 81 4 21 ANOVA summary table irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ ............................ 83 4 22 of color emotions for the regular pattern set ................................ ................................ .... 84 4 23 ANOVA summary table regular pattern set ................................ ................................ .............................. 86 4 24 emotions for the irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ .. 87 4 25 ANOVA summary table evaluation of coherence for the irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ ............................ 89 4 26 image for the regular pattern set ................................ ................................ ......... 90 4 27 ANOVA summary table regular pattern set ................................ ................................ .............................. 91 4 28 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scor image for the irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ ....... 92 4 29 irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ ............................ 92 4 30 arousal states for the regular pattern set ................................ ............................ 93 4 31 ANOVA summ ary table for regular pattern set ................................ ................................ .............................. 93

PAGE 10

10 4 32 arousal states for the irre gular pattern set ................................ .......................... 94 4 33 ANOVA summary table for irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ ............................ 94 4 34 pleasure states for the regular pattern set ................................ .......................... 95 4 35 ANOVA summary table for es for the regular pattern set ................................ ................................ .............................. 96 4 36 pleasure states for the irregular pattern set ................................ ........................ 96 4 37 ANOVA summary table for irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ ............................ 97 4 38 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for parti combination preference for the regular pattern set ................................ ............. 98 4 39 preference for the regular pattern set ................................ ................................ 98 4 40 combination preference for the irregular pattern set ................................ ........... 99 4 41 ANOVA summary table for preference for the irregular pattern set ................................ ............................... 99 4 42 ination preferences among the regular pattern set ................................ ................................ ............................ 100 4 43 Descriptive irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ .......................... 100 4 44 Descriptive distributions of themes emerging from written comments in the ................................ ................................ .......... 101 4 45 Descriptive distributions of themes e merging from written comments in the ................................ ................................ ..... 103 4 46 Descriptive distributions of themes emerging from written comments regarding the most preferred scene in the re gular pattern set .......................... 106 4 47 Descriptive distributions of themes emerging from written comments regarding the least preferred scene in the regular pattern set .......................... 108

PAGE 11

11 4 48 Descriptive distributions of themes emerging from written comments regarding the most preferred scene in the irregular pattern set ........................ 110 4 49 Descriptive di stributions of themes emerging from written comments regarding the least preferred scene in the irregular pattern set ........................ 111 E 1 C ontent analysis s tore image of the achromatic boutique store sc ene .......... 159 F 1 Content analysis of c olor preference ................................ ............................. 160 G 1 Content analysis of m ost preferred and least preferred scene in the regular pattern set ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 165 H 1 Content analysis of m ost preferred and least preferred scene in the irregular pattern set ................................ ................................ .......................... 168 I 1 Study color palette. Four two color combinations selected from the HSV color model ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 172

PAGE 12

12 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Kaplan an d Kaplan environmental preference matrix ................................ ......... 39 2 2 Outline of the M R Model (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974) ................................ ..... 45 2 3 The study framework ................................ ................................ .......................... 48 3 1 The e xperimental achromatic boutique store scene ................................ ........... 51 3 2 Four two color combination swatches ................................ ................................ 54 3 3 Four two color combinations in the regular pattern set ................................ ....... 54 3 4 Four two color combinations in the irregular pattern set ................................ ..... 55 4 1 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants complexity ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 66 4 2 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants coherence in the incoherent /coherent scale ................................ ....................... 68 4 3 Interaction effect for comp lexity by coherence on participants coherence in the disharmonious/harmonious scale ................................ ............ 69 4 4 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants ations of coherence in the unbalanced/balanced scale ................................ ..................... 70 4 5 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants coherence in the dissimilar/similar scale ................................ ............................ 72 4 6 Participants ns of store im ages for the achromatic boutique store scene ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 73 4 7 Interaction effect for com plexity by coherence on participants complexity for the irregular pattern set. ................................ .............................. 77 4 8 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants s of the light/heavy store image for the irregular pattern set. ................................ ..... 89 4 9 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants arousal states for the irregular p attern set. ................................ ......................... 95 4 10 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants pleasure states for the irregular pattern set ................................ ........................ 97

PAGE 13

13 LIST OF TERMS The following terms are used in this study are defined as follows: C OLOR APPEARANCE ATTRIBUTES Hue, value, and saturation (chroma) are the three attributes for describing the color appearance. Hue is identified as the color name, such as red blue etc Saturation, also known as chroma, is a measure of the purity or vividness of h ue. Value is a measure of the lightness of hue (Portillo, 2009). The terms will be interchangeably used in the current study. A DDITIVE COLOR MIXING Additive descri bes color mixing with light which occurred in light producing product, such as computer monitors. When combining color hues, the resul t is lighter and tends to white (Portillo, 2009). S UBTRACTIVE COLOR MIXING Subtractive describes color mixing to black w hich occurred in painting, textile, or printed output. When combining color hues, the result is darker and tends to black (Portillo, 2009) C OMPLEXITY Complexity is one of the four information characteristics from Kaplan and Kaplan preference theory. C omplexity refers to the amount of visual information offered by an environment and has been considered to be a function of the number and variety of elements present (Berlyne, 1971) C OHERENCE Coherence is one of the four information characteristics from Wertheimer, 1924 more general principl e referring to a congruity among the elements of a design while these elements looks like belonging together or there i s some visual connection beyond (Veryzer & Hutchinson, 1998; Deng, 2010). C OLOR COMPLEXITY S aturation (chroma) influence s the perceptio n of color complexity that colors with higher saturation are perceived more complex than low saturated colors (Kller, 1972 ). C OLOR COHERENCE Value influence s the perception of color coherence that unequal value between colors reduce s the harmony (Marsha ll, 1980) T he higher the value of each color in a two color combination the more likely this two color combination is perceived harmonious (Ou & Luo, 200 6 ). A ROUSAL Arousal refers to the degree of stimulation and excitement

PAGE 14

14 caused by the environment ( D onovan & Rossiter, 1982 ). P LEASURE Pleasure refers to the degree to which a person feels happy or satisfied in an environment ( Donovan & Rossiter, 1982 ).

PAGE 15

15 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Interior Design THE EFFECT OF TWO COLOR COMBINATIONS O N CONSUMER PREFERENC E DIMENSIONS IN A RETA IL ENVIRON MENT By Yu Ting Chang May 2012 Chair: Nam Kyu Park Major: Interior Design Considering the lack of knowledge about the effects of two color combinations within retail i nteriors, this study employed the Kaplan and Kaplan environment al preference framework to examine the effects of two color combinations with two levels of complexity (simple versus complex) and coherence (coherent versus incoherent) in the regular and irre gular pattern within a boutique store or perceptions and preferences. Complementary hues (yellow/purple) with different value and saturation w ere manipulated to distinct different complexity and coheren ce levels The sample consisted of 153 participants between the ages of 18 and 30 recruited through the Behavior Research Lab at University of Florida All participants were screened for color vision deficiency before participation in the stud y. A between subjects analysis of variance (ANONA) was conducted to examine dependent variables (perception of complexity, coherence, color emotions, store image, arousal states, pleasure states, and prefer ence s ). B oth the quantitative and qualitative date revealed that the coherence characteristic perceived in the interior context plays a pivot role in color preferences. Due to the simultaneous contrast effect and instability of the yellow hue, the simple

PAGE 16

16 (S imple/ C oherent and S imple/Incoherent ) color pale tte, appe a ring as a tonal, pastel complementary color combination was perceived more coherent with the overall boutique store and then was more preferred. Moreover, despite the lack of direct s tatistical supports, the irregular color pattern perceived as more coherent seems more preferred when compared to the regular pattern in the boutique store In additions the highly contrasting complementar y color combination that aroused more active and vibrant emotions was perceived as a less pleasing and less preferred color scheme, whereas the less contrasting complementary color combination that aroused moderate active and vibrant emotions was perceived as a more pleasing and more preferred color scheme in a retail boutique store. The c urrent study findings can help retailers and interior designers in establishing an ideal brand identity for high end retail environment regarding their color choice but should not be followed blindly without considering thorou ghly what consumers need in specific retail settings and the dimensionality issue when planning colors in an interior environment

PAGE 17

17 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background The effects of colors o n human had been widely studied by many researchers from differe nt domains that colors ha d certain i psychological emotional and cultural responses. For instance, e xposure to different colored stimulus could lead to variations of human performance from physiological responses (i.e. freq uency of eye blinks and finger rhythmic movement ) to productivity (i.e. word typed, ratio of error) at work (K w allek, Soon & Lewis 2007 ). The emotional response toward different colored stimulus also varied. Red had been associated with active, strong, p assionate, warm, and conversely aggressive emotions; g reen had been associated with relaxing, refresh ing and quiet emotions (Mahnke, 1996; Davey, 1998; Saito, 1999 ). Furthermore, t he relationship between color and emotion s closely tie to color preferences ( Kaya & Epps, 2004 ). M any studies regarding col or from the marketing field had also been done but most of them focus on the perspectives of advertising, graphic and packaging design. Though color within shopping environm ents had been examined having influ ence s on store image, purchasing rate, time spent in the store and retail display attraction (Bellizzi, Crowley & Hasty, 1983; Bellizzi & Hite, 1992; Crowley, 1993),color related research regar ding retail environment design aspect is limited. Most of the existi ng color related studies compared the effects color application interior spaces Bellizzi et al. t (hue) color interior settings. Each experiment group from his study exposed to one single color application interior.

PAGE 18

18 Brengman (2004) conduced an 8 (hue) by 2 (saturation) by 2 ( value ) design through applying a total of 32 different color condition s to an experimental store environment. Although the variation of color in hue, saturation and value were taken into account in this study, each experiment group from this study still only exposed to a single color application interior. The result of previous color studies increase d the body of knowledge and reinforce d the effects of color in interior spaces, but the contribution of these studies on preference for single color could barely be helpful in a practical way to interi or designers for shaping color pl anning because colors were always presented together with other colors and never seen in isolation in our daily life from natura l surroundings to interiors (Ou & Luo, 2004 ). In fact, c olors place d in relation to one another could interact with each other in three dimensional spaces such as buildings and interiors, takes on an additional meaning as the impact on aspects such as volume, mass and scale; mood and atmosphere; journe (Smith, 2008, p. 313). In an actual retail environment, there are many d ifferent colors from the logo in store advertisement, merchandise and display fixtures and people often perceptibly or imperceptibly evaluate the harmony of colors (She n & Chen, 1996). Therefore, it is barely adequate to generalize findings on single color in the world, which is full of color combinations (Ou & Luo, 2004). However, effects of color combinat ions on preference had not bee n studied as broadly and intensively as single colors (Camgz, Yener, & Gven, 2002) None of them had studied effects of color combinat ions on preference within a retail environment.

PAGE 19

19 Over the past three decades, some researchers from interior design doma in introduced the Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preference from studies of natural landscape and urban planning in interior env ironmental preference research For example, Suzanne Scott (1989, 1992, & 1993) led the trend and examined the relationship bet ween different visual attributes and preference in different types of interior environment by using black and white slides as stimuli in her serial studies. Later, Ham, Guerin and Scott (2004) extended the study framework and replicated the black and whit e slides from previous research to the cross cultural study on p reference in Interior e nvironments Althoug h the effects of color appli cation were generally acknowledged for inter ior environments, colors were excluded from previous environmental preference research Therefore, this study also introduce d the Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preference theory as the study framework and concentrated on the effect s of two color combinations within an interior space so as to make an effort to fill the g ap between existing literatures and increase the body of knowledge regarding two color combinations within interior design domain. Research Aim & Questions Considering the lack of empirical studies, t his study focused on understanding the effects of differ ent two color combinations on consumer color perceptions and preferences in a high end retail environment The specific objec tives of the current study were to investigate the effects of four two color combinations selected regarding the inter action of two different levels of complexity (simple versus complex) and coherenc e (coherent ver sus incoherent) on individual perception s of complexity, coherence, color emotions, store image, emotional states (arousal and pleasure) and color preference s.

PAGE 20

20 The four two col or combinations were the Simple/ Coherent color combination (SC), Simple/ Incoherent color combination (SI), Comple x/ Coherent color combination (CC), and Complex/ Incoherent color combination (CI). Different c olor appearance attributes were u sed in order to manipulate the different complexity and coherence levels. Complementary hues (yellow and purple) were manipulated among the four combinations based on Munsell color harmony principles. Saturation (chroma) was manipulated for color complexit y, since colors with higher saturation are perceived more complex than low saturated colors (Acking & Kuller, 1972 ; Valdez & Mehrabian, 1994 ). Value was manipulated for color coherence, since colors with higher and equal were perceived more coherent than t he colors with lower and unequal value ( Marshall, 1980; Ou & Luo, 2006). The level of complexity and c oherence was identified as design attributes related to individual perception s in the retail environments and as the predictors of color preferences. If t hese attributes (the level of complexity and cohere nce) contributing to individual color preferences in the high end retail environment and the features of two color combinations contributing to different level of complexity and coherence can be identified interior designer should be able to use the kno wledge to develop and design this type of re tail environments more appealing to consumers. In additions, color appearance attributes have been associated with different color emotions ( Hogg, 1969; Hogg, Goo dman, Porter, Mikellides, & Preddy, 1979 ; Ou & Luo, 200 4 ; Kaya & Epps, 2004 ) Therefore, color emotions were also measured to see how different color appearance attributes of the four two color combinations associated with individual perceptions of color e motions in a high end retail environment.

PAGE 21

21 Color (single color) was identified affecting individual emotional states in retail environments (Bellizzi & Hite, 1992; Crowley, 1993 ; Babin, Hardesty, & Suter, 2003 ; Kaltcheva & Weitz, 2006 ). Emotional states w ere the amount of pleasure and arousal that individuals experienced with in a retail environment (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982, 1994). B oth states of pleasure and arousal were measured to see how the four different two color combinations affected individual emo tional states and generated preference in a high end retail environment. Also, color had been identified as influencing st o re atmosphere by distinguishing retail brand s in retai l environments (Alawadhi, 2009). Hence, store images were measured to see how the four different two color combinations affected individual perceptions of store images in a high end retail environment. Furt hermore, the four two color combinations were applied into two different patte rns (regular versus irregular) in a high end retai l boutique store to understand individual color perceptions and preferences when two color combinations are applied into a different pattern. To accomplish the purposes of this study, the specific research questions are as follows: In a high end retail env ironment, 1. What are the color appearance attributes of two color combinations contributing to different levels of complexity? 2. What are the color appearance attributes of two color combinations contributing to different levels of coherence? 3. How do two color combinations with two different level s of complexity and coherence affect individual perceptions of color emotions? 4. How do two color combinations with two different level s of complexity and coherence affect individual perceptions of store image ?

PAGE 22

22 5. How do two color combinations with two different level s of complexity and coherence affect individual arousal state ? 6. How do two color combinations with two different level s of complexity and coherence affect individual pleasure state ? 7. How do two color combinations w ith two different levels of complexity and coherence affect individual color preferences? 8. How do the four two color combinations in different patterns (regular versus irregular) affect individual perceptions and color preferences differently?

PAGE 23

23 CHAPTER 2 L ITERATURE REVIEW In C hapter 2 literature was reviewed in the following three relevant topics: 1) c olor c ombination s 2) color application in retail store design 3) e nvironmental preference. The study framework has been developed and presented to guide t he current study in the end of C hapter 2 Color Combination s Color is a broad and complex research fi e l d involving visible radiation, color sensation to color psychology etc ( Sharp, 1974; Gao, 2007). T o keep consistency in describing the quality of color amo ng different color research several color systems had been developed for exploring systemic rules regarding different color issues. The Munsell Color Sy stem, as one of the most common color systems in color research (Kaya & Epps, 2004; Kaya & Crosby 2006; Kwallek et al., 2007), was proposed by Albert Munsell in 1905. He (1905) proposed a color system by using three color qualities (hue, value, and chroma), each graded in equal perceptual intervals, to describe his color order system fo r standardizing pigment specification lightness of a color. vividness of hue. They were also know n as the three color appearance attributes. In the Munsell color system the interrelation of color attributes was described in terms of tint, shade, and tone A hue), whereas mixing black to a hue). Therefore, l ight colors are sometimes called tints, and dark colors shades Adding gray to a hue or mixing the hue with its complementary color creates a which

PAGE 24

24 correspond s to the chroma dimension of color A hue with h igh chroma ( saturation ) color look s pure and vivid When a hue was toned it looks grayish and dull The Munsell color system had been wide ly used in color research However, Kuehni (2003) pointed out that the Munsell Color System is not a uniform color system since the units of the hue, value and chroma are not identical in perceived magnitude (Gao, 2007). Therefore the CIELab color space, as one of the most uniform co lor system, was recently used in many color researchers (C hen & Sh en, 1996; Ou & Luo, 2004 2006, 2010, & 2012 ; Deng, 2010). CIELab color model was proposed in 1976 by the CIE ) based on Hurvich and Jameson's (1957) opponent theory of color processing. They claimed that brain will tra nsform color information into a red green system, a yellow blue system, and a lightness system. In the CIELab system, colors are represented by three orthogonal dimensions (L*, a*, b*). L* represents the difference between light (where L*=100) and dark (w here L*=0). A* represents the difference between red (+a*) and green ( a*); b* represents the difference between yellow (+b*) and blue ( b *). Some color research involving manipulations of color appearance attributes in the study stimuli preferred the HSV (Hue, saturation, value) color space, known as HSB (Hue, saturation, brightness ), in the additive system of computer monitor s (Camgo, Yener, & Guvenc 2001 ; Cubukcu & Kahraman, 2008 ) Camgo et al. (2001) studied the effect of three color attributes (hue, v alue saturation) re spectively on preference by presenting the color stimuli generated from the HS B color space on computer monitors Cubukcu and Kahraman (2008 ) presented manipulated photographs of a building exterior on computer monitors as the study sti muli to examine the effect of three

PAGE 25

25 attributes of color (hue, value, and saturation ) generated from the HSV color space on preference s. In the HSV color space, color is represented by a set of three numbers representing hue, saturation, and value Hue valu es vary from 0 to 360. Saturation is measured as a percentage from 0% (white) to 100% (fully saturated color). Value is measured as percentage from 0% (black) to 100% (fully bright color) (Cubukcu & Kahraman, 2008 ) Colors always work together and appea r as interrelated visual sensation s in reality (Gao, 2007). Therefore, how colors works together, and how they interact with each other, particularly how they harmonize with each other as a combination have inter ested many researchers over centuries (Munse ll, 1921; Moon & Spencer, 1944a; Shen & Chen, 1996; Burchett, 2002; Ou & Luo, 200 6 ; Gao 2007 ). In the early color harmony studies, definitions of colo r harmony are diverse (Ou & Luo, 2006 ; Gao, 2007). However, a number of principles seem to be shared in common regarding the three color attributes (Ou & Luo, 2006 ). First, colors can harmonize if they share the same hue (Munsell, 1921; Moo n & Spencer, 1944a). Second, colors can harmonize if they share the same saturation (chroma) (Munsell, 1921; Moon & Spe ncer, 1944a). Third, colors can harmonize if they are complementary in hue (Munsell, 1921; Moon & Spencer, 1944a ; Itten, 1970; Nemcsics, 1980 ). Among the conventional studies, Munsell (1921) proposed that h armony can be created by complementary colo rs wit h the same value and the same chroma or by the colors with t he same hue and same chroma. In the early traditional color scheme, such wheel, the complementary (paint complementary) colors defined as two hues located opposite to each other in a t wo dimensional color wheel For instance, y ellow

PAGE 26

26 and red blue are defined as complementary colors, since y ellow is opposite to red blue on the color circle (Portillo, 2009). have been used in many studies (Granger, 1956 ; Nayatani, 1967, 1969) to derive qualitative rules for color harmony. However, the results were found inconsistent (Gao, 2007). Granger ( 1956 ) claimed that complementary colors are more harmonious. However, Nayatani (1967, 1969) argued that the color pairs with similar hue are more harmonious. Ou and Luo (2006 ) examined individual perceptions of color harmony toward two colo r combinations in the CIELab color space. They compared the findings with conventional color harmony principles and argue d that two col or combinations with similar hue are more harmonious than two color combinations with contrastive hue. The contrastive hue referred to the complementary (red green and yellow blue) in the CIELab color space. The relationships of colors are defined by the distance in the color space where contrastive (c omplementary ) colors are lo cated far away from each other in the color space In short, these studies not only displayed a wide disagree ment over the definition of colo r harmony regarding c omplementary colors but also revealed a complexity within color research that may result from the diversity of color systems. Therefore, i nstead of exploring systemic rules of color harmony in color systems some other researchers studied the per with individual Judd & Wyszecki (1975) stated that w hen two or more colors seen in neighboring areas produce a pleasing effect, they are s aid to produce a color harmony. Granv ille (1987) also described color harmony as the a similar definition of color harmony with Judd and Granville (1975) that when two or more colors are brought

PAGE 27

27 together to produce a satisfying aff ective response, they are said to be harmonized. Furthermore, color harmony was defined as a matter of likes and di slikes (Judd & Wys zecki, 1975). Ou and Luo (2006 the operational definition of colo r harmony in the study of co lor harmony on two color combinations. and concluded that there is a strong correlation between color harmony and color combination preference s. C olor harmony is not the on ly one relationship among color combinations related to preference. Deng (2010) indicated that s imilarity is the most basic relationship among colors re lating to color combination preferences According to the Gestalt theories of figural goodness ( Wertheimer, 1924 ) a good figure (Veryzer & Hutchinson, 1 nit y can refer to a congruity among the elements of a design which makes the elements of a design belong together (Lauer, 1979) Unity can be achieved through visual matching o f design components which increase aesthetic preference (Deng, 2010). Nasar (200 0) stated that coherence is related to the order of an envi (1970) conventional color harmony principles. Besides, Munsell (1921) identified balance r harmony (Ou & Luo, 2006 ). These literatures lead to a conclusion that the similarity of colors can refer t ( Wertheimer, 1924 u (Veryzer & Hutchinson, 1998) of colors and the qualitative

PAGE 28

28 rules for color harmony, since they all related to ( preference ). Another perspective of color relationship associat ed with preference is complexity. According to Berlyne's theory of aesthetic response (1974), preference is determined by the arousal potential of a stimulus. Arousal denotes the degree to which individuals feel stimulated, excited, or active. Arousal incr eases linearly when increa sing the complexity of stimuli (Berlyne 19 60; Mehrabian & Russell 1974). Berlyne (1974) pointed out that viewers' pleasure in response to an object increase with increased complexity, to an optimal level. After that, with increa sed complexity, pleasure begins to decline. In other words, when increasing the complexity of stimuli linearly, the responses will show an inverted U shaped curve for pleasure. That is to say, the optimal arousal potential occurs at moderate levels of arou sal. Kller ( 1993 ) examined the effects of interior color in terms of visual complexity by creating two experimental rooms. One room was full of colors and patterns to represent an ambient surrounding with high visual complexity, whereas another room was colored findings align with Be and gray rooms were both perceived as somewhat unpleasant, closed, and original in character (Kller, 1993 ). They only differed significantly in terms of complexity and unity (coherence). riments (1993 ) were employed to study almost 100 colored varieties of the same room presented either as color s lides of sketches or as full scale mock ups in his early study with Acking (Acking & Kller 1972) They (1972) found that the higher the chromaticity of the interior walls,

PAGE 29

29 the higher the perceived complexity of the room, inversely, the lower the perceive d unity (coherence) of the room ( Acking & Kller 1972 ). The results indicated that the variation visual complexity and coherence. Beside, Valdez and Mehrabian ( 1994) investigated the effects o f color h ue, saturation, and value on individual emotional reactions by Mehrabian pleasure arousal dominance (PAD) scales through the color swatches generated in the Munsell color system They (1994) found that a rousal increased linearly stro ngly with color saturation According to Berlyne's theory of aesthetic response (1974) a rousal increases linearly when increasing the complexity of stimuli That is to say the complexity of stimuli should increase when increasing the color saturation of stimuli (Kaltcheva & Weitz, 2006) However, though existing research depicted the relationship between saturation and complexity of single color stimuli, none of them was about color combinations. In addition, many researchers had examined the relationshi p between the color appearance attributes of color combination and color combination preferences on color swatches or small objects in order to explain why some color pairs are preferred and some are not (Camg z et al., 2002 ; Schloss & Palmer 2011 ; Deng 2010) Camg z and his colleagues (2002 ) investigated the preference on the combination s of foreground background colors on color swatches selected from the HSB color space Eight background colors selected from HSV color space on which color squares of dif fering hues, saturations levels and value levels were presented. They found that colors having maximum saturation and value were most preferred and suggest that increasing of saturation and value levels leads to an increased pleasantness.

PAGE 30

30 Ou and Luo (2006 ) studied color harmony for two color combination on color swatches selected from the CIELab color space. According to the experimental results, they indicated that people tend to feel pleasant when seeing two colors with same hues combined together and tw o colors with higher value combined together. Schloss and Palmer (2011 ) examined preference for the color pair, harmony of the color pair, and preference for figural colors against colored backgrounds on color swatches selected from the CIELab color space They found that color pair preference and harmony both increase as hue similarity increases, but preference relied more strongly on value contrast. Moreover, the color pairs with highly contrastive hues are generally judged to be nei ther preferable nor h armonious. They indicated that thoug h the perceptual complementary colors (red green and yellow blue) in the CIELab color space the results showed there is l ittle evidence of preference for contrastive hue combina tions using the paint complementary colors: yellow purple, blue orange, and red green in the Artist wheel Deng (2010) adopted the visual coherent and complexity perspectives and interpreted them to the CIELab color space for studying preference on color combination through a product self design task He assumed w hat is chosen to apply on the product is what is most preferred by people. T same point in the color space or two distinct, but closely related colors (very close in the color space) should be preferred based on the concept of unity and similarity or two concept of moderated information rate should be preferred. The contrastive col ors (i.e., maximally separated in the color space, such as red and green) should not be most

PAGE 31

31 preferred, since they were in opposition to the visual coherence perspective The result s confirmed his assumptions that people generally combine d colors that were relatively close or exactly match; c olors of the same value that differ greatly in hue or saturati on (e.g. contrastive colors) were seldom combined In addition, many color researchers had examined the relationship between color emotion and color prefere nce on the basis of color attributes, such as hue, value, and chroma. T hey usually ask their study participants to list or rate color s with certain pairs of adjective s so as to define meanings reflection of color and prefer ence. The word pair is known as the color emotion scale Hogg et al. (1979) studied color emotions for simulated interior spaces by using color samples from the Munsell color system They classified 12 color emotion scales and identified the following five factors: dynamism (obt rusiveness) spatial quality, emotional tone, complexity (usualness) and evaluation (preference) on a basis of the three color attributes. They found that dynamism and emotional tone are associate d with chroma and hue, respectively; the spatial quality an d complexity are associated with value However, the evaluation of preference on the pleasant unpleasant scale was not found in connection with any of hue, value and saturation. The results reflected the determinants of evaluative judgments (preference) ar e more complex and independent of the basic color attributes ( Hogg et al., 1979) Ou and Luo (2004) conducted two studies of color emotion and preference for single and two color combinations using color swatches. Based on previous color emotion research, they classified the color emotion responses into the three color appearance attributes based on their study results of single color study. For instance, hue is corresponding to the warm/cool response, value is corresponding to the

PAGE 32

32 heavy/light response, an d saturation is corresponding to the active/passive response. The results of the two color combination study revealed an additive relationship between single color and two color combination emotions which can predict color emotions for two color combinatio n by averaging the color emotions of single colors. However, this relationship does not apply to the color preference on like dislike scale. Moreover, r egarding color preferences, the results aligned with prior studies (Hogg, 1969; 1979) reflecting that ne ither single colors nor two color combinations preferences was found associated with color attributes. These findings implied that color preference for two color combinations has some qualities completely different from those for other color emotions. Ins tead of investigating the relationship between color attributes, color emotions and preferences, c olor symbolism was found affect ing how individuals associate colors with things, objects or physical space and further their preference. Kaya and Epps (2004) emotion associations by using color samples from the Munsell color system. Particular colors have been found associated with positive feelings and highly preferred. One of their findings is that t he ( 7.5Y 9/1 0 ) was generally seen to be energetic and elicited positive emotions including happiness and excitement, because it was associated with the sun and summer time (Kaya & Epps, 2004). The result suggested that though c olor had a strong impact o n our emotions and feelings, color preferences are associated with whether a color evokes positive or negativ e feelings which are dependent on personal preference and individual past experience with the particular color (Kaya & Epps, 2004). In sum, either

PAGE 33

33 single colors o r color combinations preference s involve more complex determinants than the relationships between other color emotions and basic color attributes. Color Application in Retail Store Design Retail store design involves many different design concepts includin g space planning, decoration, graphic design, ergonomics, and advertising to conceptualize and construct the retail space associated with the creation of store atmosphere and the perception of brand (Alawadhi, 2009 ). Store atmosphere can be created through many in store environmental elements, such as lighti ng, music, and scent in a store, and color is identified as one of these elements having store atmosphere creating power for retail environments to develop a distinguished retail brand ( Alawadhi, 2009 ; B ellizzi et al. 1983; Bellizzi & Hite, 1992; Baker, 1992; Crowley, 1993). To investigate the impact of different psychical in store environmental element on consumer in the retail environments, t he Mehrabian and Russell (1974) model ha d been broadly adopt ed in many studies ( Alawadhi, 2009 ; Bellizzi & Hite, 1992; Baker, 1992; Crowley, 1993; Donovan & Rossiter, 1982; Donovan et al., 1994 ; Kaltcheva & Weitz; 2006 ; Park & Farr, 2007 ; Park et al., 20 10 ). Mehrabia n and Russell (1974) (as known the M R model) pro posed a model of stimulus organism response (S O R) to study stimulus within an environment. This model demonstrates that individual emotional state (O) is the median between the physical environment (S) and human be havior (R). The information rate of stimuli within the physical environment refer s to the amount of information in an environment including visual stimuli of value saturation, color hues, texture, shapes, si zes, and the composition of those elements The amount of information directly correlates with the

PAGE 34

34 arousal level (the amount of pleasur e, arousal and dominance) and leads to behavioral responses (approach or avoidance behavior) toward the stimuli. In order to investigate the impact of colors on consume r in the retail environments, Bellizzi et al. (1983) studied effect of five individual color hues in an interior furniture store The study participants were shown life size photographic of the store in five experimental colors projected on the scr een The results suggest ed that cool colored (b lue and green) store environments are preferred over warm colored (red, orange and yellow) store environments, but the warm colors, particularly yellow in color have the power physically drawn particip ants to the experimental wall within the i nterior furniture stores. Although Bellizzi et al. (1983) apply the M R model in their studies, t he finding s not only affect consumer preference s but also psychically attract shopper to a retail display. Later, t he M R model ha d also been applied in some color research for study ing the impact of color on consumer preference and behavior in a retail environment ( Babin et al., 2003 ; Bellizzi & Hite 1992 ) Bellizzi and Hite (1992) compared the effects of red and blue in a retail related context by showing the life size photographic of the simulated interior furniture stores in predominately red or blue projected on screen. They found that a blue hue background can decrease the likelihood of postponing purchase compared to a red hue background. Babin et al. (2003) examine d how color perceptions, alone and in combination with store lighting, influence patronage intentions for fashion oriented store s through a two (color: orange versus blue) by two (lighting: bright versus soft) by two (item price: low versus high) study design. The study participants were asked to read the scenario with a detailed description of a hypothetical fashionable re tail clothing

PAGE 35

35 store. The results suggested that blu e interiors are more preferred associated with greater excitement, higher store patronage intentions and purchase intentions than the orange interiors. Both studies have suggested a positive relationship between pleasure and preference. T hese color studies related to the M R model only examined different color hues respectively N one of them takes the other two attributes of color ( value and saturation) in to consideration until Kaltcheva and Weitz (2006 ) referring th e studies of visual complexity (Berlyne, 1974; Valdez & Mehrabian, 1994 ) us ed different levels of color saturation, color warmth, and complexity of store layout for the manipulations of arousal levels within the stimulus shopping environment t o investigate the relationships of and the emotional responses within a store environment on the M R model. The study participants were shown a picture of a retail store ambience on individual computer screens a nd to imagine visiting the store with a task oriented or recreational motivation. Their study findings showed that w hen consumers have a recreational motivational orientation, high arousal has a positive effect on pleasantness; whereas when consumers have a task oriented motivational orientation, high arousal decreases pleasantness This research indicates that the level of excitement (arousal) retailers should create in their stores based on the shopping motivation of their customers. For instance, it was suggested that a grocery store with more task oriented customers should have less store design with less saturated cooler colors ; a sporting goods retail store with more recreational oriented customers should have more complex layout with warm and highly s aturated colors throughout the store. However, due to the study design, the effects of color could not be segmented from the

PAGE 36

36 study findings. Moreover, like the prior color studies (Bellizzi & Hite, 1992 ; Babin et al., 2003; Valdez & Mehrabian 2004 ), they only examined different color attributes with Therefore, t he impact of colors combinations on consumer in the retail environments C olor can create the store atmosphere for develop ing a distinguished r etail brand in retail environments ( Alawadhi, 2009 ). In other words, t he atmosphere within a retail environment is strongly associated with the brand Hence, the application of colors in of using a neutra l color scheme ( Floor, 2006) since colors can evoke emotion, express personality, influence the mood and the behavior of customers, and stimulate brand (Wheel er 2006). Interesting enough, t he effect of store atmospheres were found varying toward differen t types of product and store. Store atmospheres influenced the perceptions of social identity products such as clothing but had little effect on the perc eptions of utilitarian products (Schlosser, 1998). T he atmosphere around a luxurious brand is more suc cessful in attracting consumers (Schlosser, 2001 ). T create store atmosphere around the branding es pecially for a high end retailing apparel store to attract consum ers than a promotional oriented utilitarian products store F or establishing an ideal store atmosphere, colors application s should be developed based the type of brand identity related to the psychological color studies. The color images and response s from previous color research were systematically collected by Kob ayashi and the Nippon Color and Design Research Institute in 1990. Colors were classified by their image toward different target market for design purpose in this book. They developed over 180 adjective s correlating to individual colors (total of

PAGE 37

37 120 chrom atic colors and 10 achromatic colors) on color images are beneficial, since designers can follow these principles to select colors with appropriate adjective to reflect the store atmosphere based on the targeted market they want to appeal. In the color image scale book, the colors with young flamboyant, merry, enjoyable and vivid image are associated with young, student market; y ellow, especially yellow with bright tone, is particularly associated with youth ful (Kobayashi, 1990). However, alth ough the color image may suggest color scheme for distinguish ing a desired brand and store a tmosphere of interior design to target and appeal a specific type of market, the color palette was developing in two dimensions (color swatches) rather than in an environmental context. Portillo (2009) discussed the issues of color planning for interiors with different case studies in designed spaces. She indicated that colors are actually planned with the consideration of composit ional quality by noted colorists. Applying the color palette to actual three dimensional spaces is a complicated and challenging task. T he interaction of lighting, materials, and form on color placement, viewing distance, scale, and proportion may influenc e the interpretation of color image. Environmental Preference In environmental psychology, t theory is originally developed for explaining why people approach and interact with some natural environments, but fail to approach and interact (i.e. avoid) with other environme nts in the landscape domain (Kaplan & Kaplan, 19 82 ). Complexity, coherence, mystery, and legibility are the four informational variables which are combined to influence people's preference for certain types of landscapes (Kaplan & Kaplan, 19 82 ). Complexity refers to the amount of visual information offered by an

PAGE 38

38 environment (Berlyne, 1971) ; c oherence refers to the visual information offered by the environment unified by symmetry repeating eleme nts and unifying texture s that contribute to a good gestalt (Kaplan & Kaplan, 19 82 ) M ystery refers to the promise of new information if one could travel deeper into the environment relative to the presence of hi dden information within a scene (Kaplan & Kaplan, 19 82 ; Kent, 1989); legibility refers to being able to predict and to maintain orientation throughout the environment (Kaplan & Kaplan, 19 82 ). The different responses are dependent on the satisfact ion of people needs to understand and to explore, w hen they interact with an environment People can either use information in the environment that is allowed immediately perceived or use information in the environment to make inferences so as to achieve these bas ic needs. The two motivations (u nderstanding and e xploration) for approaching and interacting with an enviro nment, and the two approaches (immediate and inferred) to processing information in that environment combined to determine the type of information that is most diagnostic for maki ng an approach/avoidance decision. Kaplan and Kaplan (19 82 ) proposed that certain information characteristics within the environments will support a certain type of understanding or exploration (immediate or in ferred) Then, they drew a two (understanding a nd e xploration) by two (immediate and inferred) matrix. There are a total four categories of environments with different information characteristics shown in Figure 2.1 For instance, environments with more coherence will allow for immediate understanding (belong to the immediate understanding category) while environments with more complexity will allow for immediate exploration (belong to the immediate

PAGE 39

39 exploration category). Environments with more legibility will allow for inferred understanding (belong t o the inferred understanding category) while environments with more mystery will allow for inferred exploration (belong to the inferred exploration category). Coherence, complexity, legibility and mystery present the four environmental preferences with dif ferent information characteristics. Fi gure 2 1. Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preference matrix The theoretical framewo rk and empirical findings in the field of landscape and urban planning has been broadly and intensively referred for investigating the effects of visual attributes and information characteristics within a specific built environment (i.e. a piece of archite cture, faade) regarding certain aspects. For instance, Kent (1989) investigated whether mystery is related to preference for scenes of shopping mall environments. A moderately high positive correlation between mystery and preference was obtained. The resu lts confirmed that mystery is a useful predictor of preference in built environments. Ikemi (2005) examined the effects of mystery on residential facades. It was found that mystery enhances rated preference for residential facades. The results Coherence Orderly, unified, repeated elements, regions Complexity Richness, intricate elements Legibility there and back Mystery Promise of new but related information

PAGE 40

40 reinforced t hat the information characteristics for landscape preference can also be the predictors of preference in built environments. S cott (1989, 1992 & 1993) first applied the Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preference to her series research regarding interior preferences. She examined complexity and mystery as predictors of interior preferences within commonly encountered public, institutional, and commercial interiors. Her findings confirmed that the theoretical perspectives of landscape preference ar e relevant to interior setting. In order to eliminate the potential of eliciting negative responses to distorted color rendition, she only used black and white interior scenes as the study stimuli. Later, Ham, Guerin, and Scott (2004) replicated the black and white slides from previous research to the cross cultural study on preference in interior environments. Unfortunately, the effects of color, as the visual stimulus contributing to the information rate within a physical environment, on interior preferen None of these studies was conducted in retail environments. Until, Giboa and Rafaeli (2003) studied individual emotion response and approach behavior by applying two environmental aesthetics including complexity and order in the retail environments. They used complexity and order as predictor of the three emotional dimensions in the M R model. The emotional responses were found mediating an inverted U relationship between complexity and approach behavior tendencies; order had a positive correlation with approach behavior tendencies. Moreover, the results showed that the complexity and coherence attributes for landscape preference can also be the predictors of interior preferences in the retail environments.

PAGE 41

41 erspective, the purpose of a retail space is selling. To achieve this goal, the displays within a retailing environment should contain elements that are easily understood. Complexity and coherence are the two information characteristics satisfied (Kaplan & Kaplan, 19 87 ). Besides, Giboa and Rafaeli (2003) have suggested the importance of examining complexity and order (coherence) as the predictors of avoi dance behavior tendency in the contents of retail environments. Complexity is considered as distinct information attributes enhancing preference by stimulating or motivating one to explore the environment (Ikemi, 2005). Coherence or order is conceptualized to be as distinct information attributes enhancing preference by making the environment easier to comprehend and reducing the uncertainly posed by its complexity (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1982). Berlyne (1971) suggested that order has an effect above and that of complexity on external environment. That it, applying order to a complex configuration created different effects from those brought about by complexity alone. He reported that when order was added to a set of stimuli with a low level of complexity, the int erest level decreased. In contrast, when order was added to stimuli with high complexity the effects were positive. Interest can be defined as emotional state that represents the perception of complexity (Silvia, 2005a & 2005b). Therefore, when applying or der to a set of stimuli with a low level of complexity, the perception of complexity decreased. In contrast, when applying order to a set of stimuli with high complexity, the perception of complexity increased. ence for higher level of complexity depends upon whether the information is ordered or unordered, because the unordered

PAGE 42

42 complex setting are too difficult to comprehend, that is, complexity provides visual richness, while order structures this diversity and reduces the uncertainty of the scene environment, it may make boring setting more interesting to people (Findlay & Field 1982). In short, these findings suggested that coherence may affect the overall complexity of a n interior scene (Scott, 1993). Donderi (2006) and Pieters (2010) also stated the similar ideas about the impacts of order on design complexity. The following are the several conclusions drawn by Pieters: design compl exity is greater (1) when the objects are dissimilar rather than similar in shapes, textures, orientations, or colors, (2) when the objects form asymmetric rather than symmetric arrangements, (3) when the objects form an irregular rather than a regular pat tern. That is, a dissimilar, asymmetric, and irregular pattern arrangement within a design may increase the perception of design complexity. The Study Framework Guided by the Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preference framework this study examine s the ef fects of two color combinations with two different levels of complexity (simple versus complex) and coherence (coherent versus incoherent) in a boutique store on consumer preference dimensions According to Schlosser (1998 & 2001), the effect of s tore atmospheres varied toward differ ent types of product and store Moreover, it was found m ore effective to create store atmosphere around the branding especially for a high end retailing apparel store to attract consumers than a promotional orien ted uti litarian products store (Schlosser, 1998 & 2001). Therefore, the current study applied the different two color combinations within a boutique store as the study stimuli.

PAGE 43

43 In this study, instead of studying all four information character istics from Kaplan and Kaplan, only complexity and coherence regarding two color combination were examined due to the interest of interplay effect between complexity and coherence within a high end retail environment Besides, Giboa and Rafaeli (2003) have suggested the importance of examining complexity and coherence as the predict ors of consumer behavior s within retail environments. T he two different levels of complexity and coherence regarding two color combination form ed a total of four different two co lor combin ations including the Simple/ C oherent (SC) Simple/ Incoherent (SI) Complex/ Coherent (CC) and Complex/ Incoherent (CI) color combination s in this study. According to previo us literature review, the level of visual complexity regarding single colors is associated with the purity or vividness of color (saturation) ( Acking & Kller ; Valdez & Mehrabian, 1994 ) Although none of existing color research elaborated the relationship between color attributes and perception of complexity regarding color combinations, it was suggested averaging the color emotions of single colors can predict color emotions for two color combination (Ou & Luo, 2004) In color emotion research (Hogg et al. including the simple/complex emotion scale. The literature suggested a link between saturation and complexity regarding color combinations Coherence, referring to the Wertheimer, 1924 u similar to color harmony and regarding co lor combinations

PAGE 44

44 The perceptions of color harmony are associated with variations of three color attributes According to Munsell color harmony principles, h armony can be created by complementary color hues with the same value and the same saturation More over, value olors fall into a natural order, just as musical notes. If a color is lighted or darkened so as to be out of its natural order of tone, then used in combination, the resu lting sc (Marshall,1980, p. 234) Besides, the higher the value of each color in a two color combination, the more likely this two color combination is perc eived harmonious (Ou & Luo, 2006 ). These literature showed a strong link between val ue and coherence regarding color combinations. To control the two different level s of complexity and coherence in the four two color combinations different color attributes associated with the perceptions of complexity and coherence respectively were mani pulated Saturation was manipulated for different two levels of complexity. All the four two color combinations were applied into two different patterns (regular versus irregular) due to the interplay effects between coherence and complexity (Berlyne, 1971 ; Donderi, 2006; Pieters, 2010 ; Rafaeli, 2003 ) Therefore, a total of eight conditi ons were examined as the stimuli in the current study framework. The Mehrabian and Russell (1974) model were also integrated in the current study model as the theoretical base to examine the effects of two different levels of color complexity and coherence on emotional states including pleasure and arousal. Mehrabian and Russell (1974) suggested a stimulus organism response (S O R) model for study i ng emotional and behavior responses toward the stimulus within an environment ( Figure 2 2).

PAGE 45

45 Figure 2 2. Outline of the M R Model (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974) This model demonstrates that individual emotional state (O) is the median be tween the stimuli within physical environment (S) and human behavior (R). The environmental stimuli (S) refer s to the amount of information in an environment including visual stimuli of value saturation, color hues, texture, shapes, sizes, an d composition of those elements. E motional state s ( O ) refer to the amount of arousal, pleasure that users f eel in the physical environment elicited by environmental stimuli (S) Pleasure is the degree to which individuals feel good or pleased i n a condition; arousal is the degree to which individuals feel excited, stimulated or active i n a condition (Park et al., 2010 ). Accordin g to Mehrabian and Russell (1974 ) individual behavioral responses generated by the emotional states (O) among all environments can be categori zed into approach and avoidance Russell (1974) defined the a pproach avoidance responses in a broad sense or away from, an environment or stimulus, degree of attention, exploration, favorabl e attitudes such as verbally or nonverbally expressed preference or liking, approach to a task (the level of & Russell, 1974, p. 96). Based on the M R model, the manipulations of differ ent color attributes ( saturation and value ) formed different level of informa tion rate within the (S) Environmental Stimuli (O) Emotional State: Pleasure Arousal Dominance (R) Human Behavior: Approach Avoidance Mehrabian and Russell Model

PAGE 46

46 high end retail environment which affected individual emotional states of pleasure (vie wers feel pleased, good, happy) and arousal (viewers feel excited, stim ulated, or active) and then further determi ned the individual behavior response (preference) in the high end retail environm ent. Although d ominance is one of the emotional states from the M R model, the basic emotion states of the M R model are defined as pleasure and arousal. Dominance a significant effect on individual approach or avoidance behavior (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982; Ma rcoolyn & Nesdale, 1994; Park & Farr, 2007 ; Park et al., 2010 ) Therefore, only individual states were measured in the current study The measure of pleasure and arousal states were developed in bipolar semantic scales to evaluate individual emotion responses (i.e. pleasing/displeasing; e xcited / calm ) toward the eight conditions wi th different levels of information rate (manipulation of two different level s of complexity and coherence in the regular and irregular pattern) in the high end retail environment. In addition to emotional states color emotions are tied to color prefere nc e ( Kaya & Epps, 2004 ) Different color attributes of two color combination applications may affect individual perceptions of color emotions and then further influence color preferences. Besides, colors can create the store atmosphere for developing a disti nct retail brand and then influence the behavior o f customers (preference) (Wheel er 2006). Therefore, the differences of individual perceptions of color emotions and store images toward the eight conditions in the high end retail environment were also ass essed. Furthermore, different color attributes associated with the perceptions of complexity and coherence were manipulated in the current study based on a review of

PAGE 47

47 color research However, most of them were conducted through color swatches. Brengman (2004) indicated that it was not clear that the findings concerning affective response to color swatches can be generalized to colors a pplied to environment. Therefore, the perceptions of complexity and coherence toward the eight condit ions in the high end retail environment were measured. In sum, and M R model in the study framework for investigating the effect of two different levels of complexity and coherence in a high end retail environment ( boutique store ) on individual perceptions of complexity, cohere nce, color emotion, store image, arousal states, pleasure states, and color preference ( Figure 2 3). Figure 2 3. Th e study framework High end retail environment (boutique)

PAGE 48

48 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY C hapter 3 presents the research methods of this study and rationale for selecting the experimental settings. Next, it discussed the details of experimental method including tw o color combination applications, th e participants the instruments, the date collection procedure and the data analysis in this study. Rationale for Experimental Settings In order to investigate the effects of two c olor combinations in a boutique store on consumer co lor perceptions and preferences, the research participants w ere shown the experiential boutique store scenes on color perspective images. These color images present different two color combination app lications of a bout ique store. Even though the true experimental design has the many advantages of enabling variables to be systematically manipulated, compared, and controlled, the process usually costs highly and requires longer time to process (Sommer & Sommer, 1997) Due to the restriction of budget and timeframe, it is neither time nor cost efficient to conduce true experimental design in the current study According to Stamp s (1990), ratings by people viewing simulated experimental stimuli tend to be simil ar to those given by people rating the actual scenes. Moreover, simulation research provides more control for examining cause effect relationships through isolating particular contexts and manipulating variables ( Groat & Wang, 2002 ; Sommer & Sommer, 1997), since there were different visual stimuli involved in real world situations which were difficult to be accurately isolated (Groat & Wang, 2002). For instance, while studying the relationship between different visual attributes and preference in interiors, Scott (1989, 1992, & 1993) used black and white images as

PAGE 49

49 study stimulus in order to isolate the impact of color or color combination within real world environments. Research on environmental preference ( Ikemi, 2005 ; Kent, 1989; Scott, 1989, 1992, & 1993 ) have generally relied on photographs or other digital media to represent three dimensional space though a two dimensional medium as an alternative method so as to save experimental cost and take advantage from the flexibility of digital media. As mentione d earlier in C hapter 2 Scott (1989, 1992 & 1993) used black and white images of different interior environments in a series of studies. Kent (1989) studied the role of mystery in preferences for shopping mall environment through a group of 45 color slides taken inside the malls, in or from the pedestrian or eating areas. Ikemi (2005) used 12 monotone photomontages to study the effects of mystery on preference for residential faades. More examples of simulation research can be seen that have successfully examined the effects of different visual stimuli on people with interior environment ( Park Jae, & Meneely, 2010 ; Smith, 2009; Suk, 2010). Park et al. (2010 ) used a set of simulated color perspective slides of the hotel guestroom generated by Computer Aide d Design (CAD) and 3d Max software in order to study the effects of lighting in hotel guestroom on the emotional states, preference behavior intentions of consumer. Moreover, it is also beneficial to color related research by using alternative ex perimental media ( Smith, 2009 ). Smith (2009) observed the impacts of environment color through a set of scenes of environment photographed in color or copied from design books. She (2009) found that it is extremely difficult to isolate the impact of a colo r, or a combination of colors in a true experimental Therefore, using alternative research in a color related

PAGE 50

50 research provides more control for examining cause effect relationships through manipulating color stimuli. Moreover, though the color mixing me thods (additive versus subtractive) are different depending on the mediums the researcher selected (computer monitor versus print out), Suk (2010) compared emotional responses to color stimuli on different media and examined that whether a digital media, s uch as a CRT monitor, is comparable to that presented as object colors, such as a paper. The results tend to support that emotional responses to color are universal across the media (Suk, 2010 ). T herefore, individual responses to the simulated store scenes in different two color combinations presented in the additive system of computer screen in the current study may be generalized to colors in the additive system of painting or textile applied to an actual retail environment. The simulated boutique store scene in the current study was adapted from the image taken in a luxurious and moder n oriented boutique store for young adults (Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://us.bape.com/ ) that represented a high end store imag e In order to minimalize the possible effects of other environmental stimuli an d control the manipulations of two color combinations the origin al lighting fixtures and color applications on the ceiling were remov ed and replaced with the achromatic color similar with the surrounding color scheme (Figure 3 1) Different two color comb ination applications were manipulated on the ceiling of the simulated boutique store scene as the study stimuli.

PAGE 51

51 Fi gure 3 1. The experimental achromatic boutique store scene Two Color Combination Applications The color palette for this study w as identified through the three attributes of color (hue, value and saturation) bas ed on previous color literature in Chapter 2 and the color design guild book, the Color Image Scale, published by Shihenobu Kobayashi (1990). First, complementary color hue s were selected, since complementary color hues in hue were strongly associated with color harmony and preference (Munsell, book (1990), yellow, especially bright yellow, wa s particularly associated with youthful and appropriated for targeting young consumer market. Hence, yellow and purple hues were selected as the two color combinations of this study Second, saturation (chroma) influenced the perception of complexity; colo rs with higher saturation were perceived

PAGE 52

52 more complex than low saturat ed colors (Acking & Kuller, 1972 ; Valdez & Mehrabian, 1994 ). Third, perception of harmony (similar to coherence) was influenced by value (value) The higher the value of each color in a color pair, the more likely this pair was perc eived harmonious (Ou & Luo, 2006 ). Besides, the unequal value of colors in a color pair will be perceived as a discordant (incoherent) color scheme (Marshall,1980) The colors were selected from a HSV (hue, satu ration, value) color model, where any color was represented by a set of three numbers representing hue, saturation, and value In HSV system, hue varied from 0 to 360, each representing a distinct color The hue s used in this study included yellow (Hue: 6 0) and purple (Hue: 270 ). Saturation was manipulated for distinguishing the level of complexity (simple versus complex). It was measured as a percentage from 0% (black and white) to 100% (fully saturated color) in HSV system. Both color hues in a pair w (low level of complexity); both color hues in a pair color hue with 100 % saturation Value was manipulated to dis tinct the level of coherence ( coherent versus in coherent). It is measured as percentage from 0% (black) to 100% (fully bright color) in HSV system. Both color hu es in a pair with equal 100 % value unequal level of value (50% ver coherence) As can be seen in Table 3 1, a total of four two color combinations were generate d from the study color palette: 1) Simple Coherent (SC) combination; 2) Simple Incoherent (SI) combination ; 3) Complex Coherent (CC) combination; 4) Complex Incoherent (CI) combination.

PAGE 53

53 Table 3 1. Study color palette. Four two color combinations selected from the HSV color model Two color combination s of yellow and purple Hue () Saturation (%) Value (%) Si mple Coherent (SC) 270 25 100 60 25 100 Simple Incoherent (SI) 270 25 50 60 25 100 Complex Coherent (CC) 270 100 100 60 100 100 Complex Incoherent (CI) 270 100 50 60 100 100 In order to check the manip ulation of the four two color combinations regarding different levels of complexity and coherence prior to the applications of store scenes, each two color combination was made of two 3 by 3 inch color swatches presented side by side without a gap with med ium gray (Hue: 0, Saturation: 0%, Value : 75% in HSV system) background for a pilot study ( Figure 3 2). In order to find out how participants response toward different two color combination design app lications in a boutique store the four two color combinations were applied respec tively in the image of the achromatic boutique store to create two sets of four store scenes with four two color combinations in the regular and irregular pattern. In the regular pattern set, each two

PAGE 54

54 color combination was assigned side by side to form a repeated pattern on the ceiling of the store scene ( Figure 3 3). In the irregular pattern set, each two color combination was assigned randomly to form an irregular pattern on the ceiling of the s to re scene ( Figure 3 4). Figure 3 2 Four two color combination swatches Figure 3 3. Four two color combinations in the regular pattern set Simple/Coherent (SC) Simple/Incoherent (SI) Complex /Coherent ( C C) Complex /Incoherent ( C I) Simple/Coherent (SC) Simple/Incoherent (SI) Complex /Coherent ( C C) Complex /Incoherent ( C I)

PAGE 55

55 Figure 3 4. Four two color combinations in the irregular pattern se t The rationales for applying two sets of patterns were to understand how the levels of complexity and coherence of two color combinations are influenced by design pattern, since the irregularities of elements and their arrangement in the image increase co mplexity. When the objects are dissimilar rather than similar in shapes or form asymmetric rather than symmetric arrangements or form an irregular rather than a regular pattern, the complexity also increase (Berlyne, 1974; Donderi, 2006; Pieters 2010). Hen ce, different two color combination arrangements allow this study to observe the p ossible effect of pattern. All color stimuli in the current study were generated in Photoshop CS 5 and presented in RGB mode and JPG format. Participants The research participants in the pilot study and main st udy were recruited through the Behavior Research L ab in the Retailing Education and Research Center at University of Florida. The Behavior Research L ab was administered in conjunction with t he Marketing Principles (MAR3023) and/or Business Statistics (QMB3250) classes. Simple/Coherent (SC) Simple/Incoherent (SI) Complex /Coherent ( C C) Complex /Incoherent ( C I)

PAGE 56

5 6 They participated voluntarily in return for one extra credit. Participants limited to the range from 18 to 30 years to meet the study focus for the young con Besides, color perception ability was very critical to understand the color combination preference and required for the participants in this study. Therefore, the participants had any visual impairment that cannot be corrected by eyeglasses or con tact lenses (such as color deficiencies ) were excluded from the study. The participant who had architecture and design background was excluded from the experiment since people with design bac kground tend to perceive the environment differently than people with non design background (Gifford, 2002). For using human subject in this study, data were collected after obtaining the (IRB) ( Appendix A). All participants had to review and sign the consent f orm before data collection ( Appendix B). Instruments As the study instruments, two sets of questionnaires were developed for the pilot and main study. Pilot Study The data colle ction instrument for this pilot study was a self administered questionnaire, present in three sections: 1) the manipulations of two color combinations on color swatches; 2) the store image of the achromatic boutique store ; 3) Demographic informatio n. In the S ection One, a tota l of four two color combination swatches were presented. Complexity was assessed by the simple/complex 7 point bipolar semantic scale. Coherence was assessed by a set of four 7 point bipolar semantic scales, including incoheren t/coherent, un balanced/ balanced, dis harmonious/ harmonious,

PAGE 57

57 dis similar/similar. These scales were adopted from prior studies (Shen & Chen, 1996; Ham et al. 2004; Chang & Dooley, 2002, Ou & Luo, 2006 ) relevant to Kaplan and e, Gestalt theories of figural goodn ess and color harmony research In S ection Two, in order to evaluate the store image of the boutique store the original achromatic boutique store scene without any color combination application was present. The perception of store image was assessed by a set of four adjectives on a 7 adopted from the color image scale book (Kobayashi, 1990). In addition, each participant was asked to list adjectives that describe the impression of this store image in an open end question ( Appendix C). In S ection Three, demographic information was collected for each participant s information and back ground such as gender, age, and color vision (color deficiency) in order to control for any confounding variables Main Study The data collection instrument for the main study was a self administe red questionnaire, pr esented in three sections. The S ection One presented a series of questions which was corresp onding to each boutique store scene from the two sets (regular/irregular pattern) of four two color combination applications (SC, SI, CC and CI ) to ascertain the effec t of two color combinations on dependent v ariables including1) preference, 2) pleasure states, 3) arousal states 4) complexity, 5) coherence, 6) color emotions, and 7) store image. The S ection Two was designed to rank two color com bination preference s among the fou r boutique store scenes respectively in the

PAGE 58

58 regular and irregular pattern set. The S ection Three was designed to obtain demographic and background information on each participant ( Appendix D ). Section One. Participants were randomly assigned t o view one of the nine boutique store scenes including one achromatic and the other eight store scenes involving four two color combination applications in two pattern sets and response to each study variable as foll ow: 1) To investigate participants boutique store scene applied with two color combination, participants were asked to rate the preference of the store scene (o verall how much you like this boutique store?) using a 9 po int Likert scale ran ging from dislike like very much explaining what they like or dislike about this scene in two open end questions. 2 ) The measures for pleasure states were selected from Mehrabian a arousal scales (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). The pleasure scale has three items with bipolar semantic differentials, including displeasing/pleasing, ugly/beautiful, and unsatisfying/ satisfying on 7 bipolar semantic scales. 3) The mea sures for arousal arousal scales (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). The arousal scale has two items with bipolar semantic differentials, including calm/excited and relaxed/ tense on 7 bipolar semantic s cales. 4) Complexity was measured using the simple/complex 7 point bipolar semantic scale selected from of six 7 point bipolar semantic scales including incoherent/ coherent, d isharmonious/harmonious, separated/unified, disorderly/orderly, unbalanced/ balanced, and dissimilar/similar (Shen & Chen, 1996; Ham et al. 2004; Chang &

PAGE 59

59 Dooley, 2002, Ou & Luo, 2004 ) Color emotions were measured using 7 ponit bipolar semantic scales lik e those used in prior color emotions research ( Osgood, 1957; Hogg, 1969; Hogg et al., 1979 ; Kobayashi, 1990; Sato, 2000) including dynamic/static, still/vibrant, lifeless/lively, passive/active, light/heavy, and youthful/mature. 7) To verify if pa rticipants perceived the experimental boutique store with two color combination application as a boutique store scene, t he two adjectives associated with the high end store image including sophisticated and upper class from prior pilot study were used in t he main study on 7 point Likert scales Section Two All participants viewed the two sets of four boutique store scenes named scene A through scene D in both the regul ar and irreg ular pattern set They were asked to rank the four boutique store scenes in each s et from the most preferred to the least preferred store scene, "1" as the most preferred one to "4" as the least preferred one I n addition, they were asked to in dicate the reasons for the most and least preferred one in two open end questions. Section Three Demographic information was collected on gender, age, and color vision (color deficiency) in order to control for any confounding variables. Both of the pilo t study and main study used electronic questionnaires created by the Qualtrics Survey Software. The survey combined the study stimuli and questionnaire together which allows participants to view the study stimuli, then directly click or type in the ir ans wers to the computer at the UF Behavior Research L ab.

PAGE 60

60 Data Collection Behavior Research Lab Both of pilot study and ma in study were conducted at the Behavior Research L ab of the Retailing Education and Research Center at University of Florida. The lab is a Bryan Hall at the UF campus. The interior of the behavior research lab was designed with a neutral color scheme. The ceiling and wall were painted in white and the floor was covered with gray carpet. In the behavior research lab, there are two sources of lighting including daylight from the windows on the left side of the room and artificial light from linear pendant light fixtures. To prevent possible disruption of the perceptions of color caused by lighting, all lighting fixtures were turned off and the windows were blocked out to maintain the minimum general lighting througho ut entire experimental sessions. There were 24 stations in the behavior research lab. Each station equipped a PC and 15 inch flat screen monitor Each monitor was set to 1024 x 768 HI Color (16 bit) and adjusted to achieve the same viewing angle and distance from the seat. The carrels had a noise dampening construction that pre vents cross participant interference. An experimenter station was located at the back of the room which allows the researcher to monitor each participant 's workstation through central computer system. Data Collection P rocedure Participants were randomly assigned by the researcher to one station when arriving in the behavior research lab. Although all participants joined this study voluntary for extra class credit, they were asked to read and sign the consent form in the beginning of the data collection in both pilot study and main study ( Appendix B) In

PAGE 61

61 order to minimalize the effect of missing data all questions in the Qualtrics were set up to be force response. A reminder, participants tried to skip any question during the data collection Pilot stud y. In the Section One, all participants were randomly assigned to eval uat e one of the four color swatch Each participant evaluated all the four pairs of color swatches. The sequence of the four color swatches were randomized by the Qualtrics Survey Software In the Section Two, all participants were asked to evaluate the achromatic boutique store scene. In the Section Three all participants were asked to complete the demographic questions. The average length of time for participants to complete the questionnaires was approximately 1 0 15 minute s. Main study. In the Section One e ach participant was randomly assigned to evaluate only one of the nine store scenes incl uding one achromatic boutique store scene and the other eight boutique store scene with four two color combinations in the re gular and irregular pattern set. In Section Two, each set (regular/irregular pattern) of four two colo r combinations boutique store scenes was shown respectively Each participant evaluated all the two sets of four two color combinations. In Section Three participants were asked to complete the demographic questions. The average length of time for participants to complete the questionnaires was approximately 20 25 minutes Data Analysis All the quantitative data collected from the pi lot study and main study was analyzed by using the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences system (SPSS). First, the descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation of each dependent

PAGE 62

62 variable were obtained to determine the distributional ch aracteristics in both pilot study and main study. Pilot S tudy The demographic characteristic of the participants was analyzed by the basic descriptive statistics (frequencies). A within subject s analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for evaluation s of complexity and coherence involving the basic design independent variables (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence ) on two color combination swatches for manipulation check. The alpha level of 0.05 (p value) was used to determine statistical si gnificance. The evaluation of store image toward the achromatic boutique store scene was analyzed by the basic descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation. A content analysis was conducted for the written comments in the questionnaire Mai n S tudy The demograph ic characteristic of participants was analyzed by basic descriptive statistics (frequencies). Then, reliability test w as conducted to assess the intern al consistency of scales using ernal consistency (0.60) was used to determine the reliability of dependent v ariables (Agresti & Finlay, 1997). A between subject s analysis of variance (ANONA) was conducted for dependent variables (preference, arousal states, pleasure states, comp lexity, coherence, color emotion and store image) involving the basic design independent variables (2 levels of comp lexity x 2 levels of coherence) of the four two color combination applications for each regular and irregular pattern set. T he responses reg arding the achromatic boutique store scene were not included in this section. The alpha level of 0.05 (p value) was used to determine statistical significance (Agresti &

PAGE 63

63 Finlay, 1997) The ranking of preference was analyzed by the basic descriptive statist ics (frequencies) to determine the distributional characteristics. Content analyses were conducted for all the qualitative data.

PAGE 64

64 CHAPTER 4 FINDING S C hapter 4 presents the findings of the study. It begins with the pilot study for checking the success of ma nipulations to verify if the experiment worked or not including 1) the manipulation of four two color combination s (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence ) on color swatches 2) the manipulat ion of the high end store image of the achromatic boutique store scene. T he findings of the main study with descriptive statistics on the demographic characteristics of participants and the result s of the are then presented Later, t he findings o f each dependent variable on two sets (regular/ irregular pattern ) of four boutique store scenes are present ed respectively based on the study framework s from Chapter 2. Finally, content analyse s of the qualitative data related to the two color combination preferences are presented in the end of Chapter 4 Pilot Study Demographic C haracteristics of Participants A total of 141 participants participated in the pilot study. Twenty one of 141 participants were eliminated because twenty of them had incomplete responses and o ne participant reported himself as lacking full color vision. Therefore, 120 valid participants were used for data analysis. Table 4 1 presents the frequency and percentage distributions of the participant demographic characteristics. The 120 participants included 50 (41.67%) males and 70 (58.33%) females. The m ajority of participants (76.67%) were 18 to 21 years old, 27 (22.50%) were 21 to 25 years old; one (0.83%) was at age 26 to 30.

PAGE 65

65 Table 4 1. Demographic characte ristics of the participants in the pilot study Two Color C ombination s on Color S watches Data collected from the pilot study ( 120 responses) were conducted to check the manipulation of four two color combination applications (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence ) on color swatches. A within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for evaluations of complexity and coherence involving the basic design independent variables (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence ). There were four pairs of color swatches for the following four two color combinations: Swatch 1 (Simple Coherent), Swatch 2 (Simple Incoherent), S watch 3 (Co mplex Coherent), and Swatch 4 (Complex I ncoherent). Complexity Complexity was measured by a bipolar semantic scale (simple/complex). Table 4 2 shows the mean and standard deviation for participants on color swatches. As can be seen in Table 4 3, the differences between two levels of complexity were statistically significant on evaluation of complexity ( F (1, 119 ) = 35.48 p < .001). All participants evaluated complex color scheme ( M = 4.53 SD = .11) as the more complex combination than the simple color scheme ( M = 2.96 SD = .13 ) The differences between two levels of coherence were statistically significant on evaluation of complexity ( F (1, 119 ) = 11.18 p < .00). All participants evaluated coherent color Characteristics Total (N=120) Characteristics Total (N=120) n % n % Gender (1) Male (2) Female 50 41.67 70 58.33 Age (1) Less than 21 years (2) 21 25 years (3) 26 30 years 92 76.67 27 22.50 1 0. 83

PAGE 66

66 scheme ( M = 3.92 SD = .12) as the more complex color combination than the in coherent color scheme ( M = 3.57 SD = .10 ) A significant two way interaction was obtained ( F (1, 119 ) = 35.48 p < .001). As illustrated in Figure 4 1, all participants evaluated Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) as the most complex color combination ( M = 4.71 SD = 1.54 ) and Swatch 1 (Simple x Coherent) as the least complex color combination ( M = 2.42 SD = 1.30 ) Table 4 2. Mean and standard deviation (SD) s cores for participants complexity on color swatches Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .000 Simple 120 2.96 .11 Complex 120 4.53 .13 Coherence .001 Coherent 120 3.92 12 Incoherent 120 3. 57 .10 C omplexity by Coherence .000 Swatch 1 (Simple x Coherent) 120 2.42 1.30 Swatch 2 (Simple x Incoherent) 120 3.49 1.55 Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) 120 4.71 1.54 Swatch 4 (Complex x Incoherent) 120 4.35 1.73 *7 point Bipolar Seman tic Scale: 1 = Simple ; 7 = Complex Table 4 3. ANOVA summary table for participants swatches Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 296.10 296.10 143.15 .000 *** Coherence 1 15.05 15.05 11.18 .001 ** Comp lexity x Coherence 1 60.92 60.92 35.48 .000 *** Error 119 204.33 1.72 Total 120 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Figure 4 1 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants complexity

PAGE 67

67 Coherence Coher ence was measure by four bipolar semantic scales including incoherent/ coherent/, disharmonious/ harmonious, unbalanced/ balanced, dissimilar/similar. Incoherent/coherent scale. Table 4 4 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for participan ts on color swatches in the incoherent/coherent scale. As can be seen in Table 4 5, the differences between two levels of complexity were statistically significant on evaluation of coherence in incoherent/coherent scale ( F (1, 119 ) = 37.52 p < .001). All participants evaluated simple color scheme ( M = 4.26 SD = .12) as the more coherent combination than the complex color scheme ( M = 3.25 SD = .11 ) A significant two way interaction was obtained ( F (1, 119 ) = 35.48 p < 001). As illustrated in Figure 4 2, all participants evaluated Swatch 1 (Simple x Coherent) as the most coherent color combination ( M = 4.91 SD = 1.59 ) and Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) as the least coherent color combination ( M = 2.69 SD = 1.52 ) Table 4 4. Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants coherence on color swatches in the incoherent/coherent scale Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .000 Simple 120 4.26 .12 Complex 120 3.25 .1 1 Coherence .323 Coherent 120 3.82 .12 Incoherent 120 3.70 .11 Complexity by Coherence .000 Swatch 1 (Simple x Coherent) 120 4.94 1.59 Swatch 2 (Simple x Incoherent) 120 3.58 1.62 Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) 120 2.69 1.52 Swatch 4 (Complex x Incoherent) 120 3.82 1.60 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Incoherent ; 7 = Coherent Table 4 5. ANOVA summary table for participants swatches in the incoherent/coherent scale So urce df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 121.00 121.00 37.52 .000 *** Coherence 1 1.75 1.75 .98 .323

PAGE 68

68 Table 4 5. Continued Source df SS MS F p value Complexity x Coherence 1 186.25 186.25 77.91 .000 *** Error 119 284.50 2.39 Total 120 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Figure 4 2. Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants cohe rence in the incoherent /coherent scale Disharmonious/harmonious scale Table 4 6 shows the mean and standard deviation sores for participants on color swatches in the disharmonious/harmonious scale. In Table 4 7, the diffe rences between two levels of complexity were statistically significant on evaluation of coherence (F (1, 119) = 66.19, p < .001). All participants evaluated simple color scheme (M = 4.31, SD = .1 2) as the more harmonious combination than the comple x color scheme (M = 2.95, SD = .11). The differences between two levels of coherence were statistically significant on evaluation of coherence (F (1, 119) = 6.05, p < .05). All participants evaluated coherent color scheme (M =3.76, SD = .09) as the more harmonious color combination than the incoherent color scheme (M = 3.50, SD = .10). A significant two way interaction was obtained (F (1, 119) = 82.65, p < .001). As illustrated in Figure 4 3, all participants evaluated Swatch 1 (Simple x Coh erent) as the most harmonious color combination (M = 5.16 SD = 1.57 ) and Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) as the least harmonious color combination (M = 2.37 SD = 1.47 )

PAGE 69

69 Table 4 6. Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants ons of coherence on color swatches in the disharmonious/harmonious scale Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .000 Simple 120 4.31 .12 Complex 120 2.95 .11 Coherence .015 Coherent 120 3.76 .09 Incoherent 120 3.50 .10 Complexity by Coherence .000 Swatch 1 (Simple x Coherent) 120 5.16 1.57 Swatch 2 (Simple x Incoherent) 120 3.47 1.74 Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) 120 2.37 1.47 Swatch 4 (Complex x Incoherent) 120 3.54 1.67 *7 point Bip olar Semantic Scale: 1 = disharmonious ; 7 = Harmonious Table 4 7. ANOVA summary table for participants swatches in the disharmonious/harmonious scale Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 221.41 221.41 6 6.19 .000 *** Coherence 1 8.01 8.01 6.05 .015 Complexity x Coherence 1 246.53 246.53 82.65 .000 *** Error 119 354.97 2.98 Total 120 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Figure 4 3. Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants coherence in the disharmonious/harmonious scale Unbalanced/balanced scale. Table 4 8 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for participants coherence on color swatches in the unbalanced/balanced scale. As can be seen in Table 4 9, the differences between two levels of complexity were statistically significant on evaluation of coherence ( F (1, 119 ) = 65.00 p < .001). All participants evaluated simple color scheme ( M = 4.23 SD = .12) as t he more balanced combination than the complex color scheme ( M = 2.97 SD = .10 )

PAGE 70

70 A significant two way interaction was obtained ( F (1, 119 ) = 58.38 p < .001). As illustrated in Figure 4 4, all participants evaluated Swatch 1 (Simple x Coherent) as the most balanced color combination ( M = 4.91 SD = 1.59 ) and Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) as the least balanced color combination ( M = 2.69 SD = 1.52 ) Table 4 8. Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants cohere nce on color swatches in the unbalanced/balanced scale Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .000 Simple 120 4.23 .12 Complex 120 2.97 .10 Coherence .593 Coherent 120 3.63 .09 Incoherent 120 3.57 .10 Complexity by Coherence .000 Swatch 1 (Simple x Coherent) 120 4.90 1.64 Swatch 2 (Simple x Incoherent) 120 3.57 1.82 Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) 120 2.37 1.48 Swatch 4 (Complex x Incoherent) 120 3.57 1.65 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scal e: 1 = Unbalanced ; 7 = Balanced Table 4 9. ANOVA summary table for participants swatches in the unbalanced /balanced scale Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 192.53 192.53 65.00 .000 *** Coherence 1 .53 .53 .39 .593 Complexity x Coherence 1 192.53 192.53 58.38 .000 *** Error 119 392.47 3.30 Total 120 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Figure 4 4. Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants f coherence in the unbalanced/balanced scale

PAGE 71

71 Dissimilar/similar scale. Table 4 10 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for participants on color swatches in the dissimilar/similar scale. In Table 4 11, the diffe rences between two levels of complexity were statistically significant on evaluation of coherence ( F (1, 119 ) = 63.57 p < .001). All participants evaluated simple color scheme ( M = 3.87 SD = .12) as the more similar combination than the complex c olor scheme ( M = 2.66 SD = .10 ) The differences between two levels of coherence were statistically significant on evaluation of coherence ( F (1, 119 ) = 16.70 p < .001). All participants evaluated coherent color scheme ( M = 3.51 SD = .10) as the more similar color combination than the in coherent color scheme ( M = 3.02 SD = .10 ) A significant two way interaction was obtained ( F (1, 119 ) = 61.94 p < .001). As illustrated in Figure 4 5, all participants evaluated Swatch 1 (Simple x Coheren t) as the most similar color combination ( M = 4.69 SD = 1.84 ) and Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) as the least similar color combination ( M = 2.33 SD = 1.39 ) Table 4 10. Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants c oherence on color swatches in the dissimilar/similar scale Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .000 Simple 120 3.87 .12 Complex 120 2.66 .10 Coherence .000 Coherent 120 3.51 .10 Incoherent 120 3.02 .10 Complex ity by Coherence .000 Swatch 1 (Simple x Coherent) 120 4.69 1.84 Swatch 2 (Simple x Incoherent) 120 3.04 1.68 Swatch 3 (Complex x Coherent) 120 2.33 1.39 Swatch 4 (Complex x Incoherent) 120 3.00 1.48 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Dissimilar ; 7 = Similar Table 4 11. ANOVA summary table for participants aluations of coherence on color swatches the dissimilar/similar scale Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 174.00 174.00 63.57 .000 *** Coherence 1 28.52 2 8.52 16.70 .000 ***

PAGE 72

72 Table 4 11. Continued Source df SS MS F p value Complexity x Coherence 1 162.17 162.17 61.94 .000 *** Error 119 311.58 2.62 Total 120 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Figure 4 5. Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants coherence in the dissimilar/similar scale Prior results show that the manipulation of four two co lor combination applications (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence ) on color swatches was successful. The complex color scheme was perceived significantly as the more complex combination. The coherent color scheme was perceived significantly as t he mo re harmonious and similar combination. Store Images of the Original Store S cene Data collected from the pilot study (120 responses) were also conducted to check the manipulation of the h igh end store image of the achromatic boutique store scene select ed in current experiment. All participants were asked to e valuate the achromatic boutique store scene with four adjectives including sophisticated, upper class, modern and traditional on 7 po i mean over six ( M = 6.12 SD = 1.27 ) mean over six ( M = 6.06 SD = 1.00 ) third highest among

PAGE 73

73 these store images ( M = 5.77 SD = 1.27 ) mean less than three ( M = 2.30 SD = 1.34 ) The results show that the manipulation of high end store image of the achromatic boutique store scene in the study experiment was su ccessful. As ex pected, the achromatic boutique store scene represents a Figure 4 6. Participants the achromatic bouti que store scene In addition, participants were asked to list adjectives to describe their overall impression of the achromatic boutique store scene. The study obtained a total of 509 adjectives made by participants A content analysis was c onducted ( Appendix E ). The adjectives with similar meanings were grouped into one category. Each category was renamed as the adjective with highest frequency in the category. For instance, a l 22.97%) were the three most cited categories with frequencies over 100. The adjectives

PAGE 74

74 frequency less than 5) ( Appendix E ). The findi ngs of qualitative analyses were consistent with the quantitative analyses that validate the high end store image. Main Study Demographic C haracteristics of Participants A total of 187 participants participated in the main study. Thirty fo ur of 187 participants were eliminated because thirty two of them had incomplete responses and two reported themselves as colorblind. Therefore, 153 valid participants who met the requirements for the study were used. Table 4 12 presents th e frequency and percentage distributions of the participant demographic characteristics. The total 153 participants were 66 (43.14%) males and 87 (56.86%) females. Majority of participants (65.36%) were 18 to 21 years old, 52 (33.97% ) were 21 to 25 years old, one (0.65%) was 26 to 30 years old. Table 4 12. Demographic characteristics of the participants in the main study Characteristics Total (N=153) Characteristics Total (N=153) n % n % Gender (1) Male (2) Female 66 43.14 87 56.86 Age (1) 18 21 years (2) 21 25 years (3) 26 30 years 100 65.36 52 33.97 1 0. 65 Reliability of M easures performed to evaluate the internal consistency of scales measuring variables of pleasure and arousal states. The results of reliabil ity analysis were employed in Table 4 13. The measures for pleasure and arousal states were selected from Mehrabian and arousal scales (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). To measure

PAGE 75

75 participants ntic scales were combined including displeasing/pleasing, ugly/beautiful, and unsatisfying/ satisfying. The reliability value was very good at 0.91. Participants bipolar semantic scale including relaxe d/tense and excited/calm. The reliability was acceptable at 0.65. Both of the measures for pleasure and arousal states reaching the acceptable level of internal consistency (0.60) were used for further analysis (Agresti & Finlay, 1997) Table 4 13. Results of reliability analysis Variable N of Items Min. Max. Mean SD Pleasure 3 1 7 4.66 1.47 0.91 Arousal 2 1 7 4.24 1.06 0.65 Perception of Complexity A between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for participants ev aluation of complexity involving the basic design independent variables (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence). The analysis was employed for both the regular pattern set and irre gular pattern set in a boutique store Regular Pattern Com plexity was measured by a 7 point bipolar semantic scale (simple/complex). Table 4 1 4 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for participants of complexity for the regular pattern set. As can be en seen in Table 4 1 5 the results of ANOVA test shows no significant differences along any of the dimensions was obtained within the evaluations of complexity. The mean of the scenes with simple color scheme was 3.97 (SD = 1.99) and the mean of the scenes with com plex color scheme was 4.34 (SD = 1.09).

PAGE 76

76 Table 4 14 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants complexity for the regular pattern set Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .419 Simple 35 3.97 1.99 Complex 32 4.34 1.66 Coherenc e .423 Coherent 33 4.33 1.93 Incoherent 34 3.97 1.75 Complexity by Coherence .667 Simple x Coherent 17 4.06 2.14 Simple x Incoherent 18 3.89 1.91 Complex x Coherent 16 4.63 1.71 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.06 1 .61 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Simple ; 7 = Complex Table 4 1 5 ANOVA summary table for participants regular pattern set Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 2.29 2.29 .66 .419 Cohe rence 1 2.24 2.24 .65 .423 Complexity x Coherence 1 .64 .64 .19 .667 Error 63 217.41 3.45 Total 67 1376.00 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Irregular Pattern Table 4 1 6 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for partic ipants evaluations of complexity for the irregular pattern set. As can been seen in Table 4 1 7 a significant main effect on complexity evaluation was complexity levels ( F (1, 63) = 11.87, p < .01). All participants perceived the scene with comple x color scheme ( M = 4.29, SD = 1.61) more complex than the scene with simple color scheme ( M = 2.91, SD = 1.65). A significant two way interaction was obtained ( F (1, 119) = 4.03, p < .0 5). As illustrated in Figure 4 7 the scene with Complex/Coherent colo r combination was perceived as the most complex scene ( M = 4.72, SD = 1.27), and the scene with Simple/Coherent color combination was perceived as the least complex (the simplest) scene ( M = 2.59, SD = 1.54).

PAGE 77

77 Table 4 1 6 Mean and standard deviation (SD) s cores for participants complexity for the irregular pattern set Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .001 Simple 33 2.91 1.65 Complex 34 4.29 1.61 Coherence .752 Coherent 35 3.69 1.76 Incoherent 32 3.5 3 1.78 Complexity by Coherence .049 Simple x Coherent 17 2.59 1.54 Simple x Incoherent 16 3.25 1.73 Complex x Coherent 18 4.72 1.27 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.81 1.83 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Simple ; 7 = Compl ex Table 4 17 ANOVA summary table for participants irregular pattern set Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 30.38 30.38 11.87 .001 ** Coherence 1 .26 .26 .10 .752 Complexity x Coherence 1 10.32 10 .32 4.03 .049 Erro 63 161.17 2.56 Total 67 1078.00 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Figure 4 7 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants complexity for the irregular pattern set. Perception of Coherence A between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for participants evaluation of coherence involving the basic design independent variables (2 levels of

PAGE 78

78 complexity x 2 levels of coherence). The analysis was employed for both the regular pattern set and irregular pattern set in a boutique store Regular Pattern C oherence was measure by six 7 point bipolar semantic scales including incoherent/ coherent/, disharmonious/ harmonious, separated/ unified, disorderly/orderly, un balanced/ balanced, and dissimilar/similar. Table 4 18 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for participants regular pattern set. As can been seen in Table 4 19 the results of ANOVA test shows no significa nt differences along any of the dimensions was obtained within the evaluations of coherence on each bipolar semantic scale. Table 4 18 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants coherence for the regular pattern set Me asure Source n Mean* SD p value Incoherent/Coherent Complexity .448 Simple 35 4.03 1.47 Complex 32 3.72 1.78 Coherence .135 Coherent 33 3.58 1.56 Incoherent 34 4.18 1.64 Complexity by Coherence .827 Simple x Coherent 17 3.76 1.39 Simple x Incoherent 18 4.28 1.53 Complex x Coherent 16 3.38 1.75 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.06 1.81 Disharmonious/Harmonious Complexity .459 Simple 35 3.49 1.76 Complex 32 3.12 2.08 Coherence .718 Coherent 33 3.21 1.88 Incoherent 34 3.41 1.96 Complexity by Coherence .250 Simple x Coherent 17 3.12 1.65 Simple x Incoherent 18 3.83 1.82 Complex x Coherent 16 3. 31 2.15 Complex x Incoherent 16 2.94 2.05

PAGE 79

79 Table 4 18 Continued Measure Source n Mean* SD p value Separated/Unified Complexity .581 Simple 35 3.57 1.67 Complex 32 3.00 1.65 Coherence .651 Coherent 33 3.30 1.72 Incoherent 34 3.29 1.64 Complexity by Coherence .290 Simple x Coherent 17 3.29 1.76 Simple x Incoherent 18 3.83 1.58 Complex x Coherent 16 3.31 1.74 Disorderly/Orderly Complexity .156 Sim ple 35 5.20 1.64 Complex 32 4.59 1.78 Coherence .624 Coherent 33 5.00 1.46 Incoherent 34 4.82 1.96 Complexity by Coherence .243 Simple x Coherent 17 5.06 1.52 Simple x Incoherent 18 5.33 1.78 Complex x Coherent 16 4.94 1.44 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.25 2.05 Unbalanced/Balanced Complexity .082 Simple 35 4.14 2.03 Complex 32 3.28 1.89 Coherence .954 Coherent 33 3.73 2.00 Incoherent 34 3.74 2.02 Complexity by Coherence .273 Simple x Coherent 17 3.88 2.18 Simple x Incoherent 18 4.39 1.91 Complex x Coherent 16 3.56 1.86 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.00 1.93 Dissimilar/Similar Complexity .302 Simple 35 3.94 1.81 Complex 32 3.47 1.83 Coherence .979 Coherent 33 3.70 1.88 Incoherent 34 3.74 1.80 Complexity by Coherence .321 Simple x Coherent 17 3.71 1.76 Simple x Incoherent 18 4 .17 1.89 Complex x Coherent 16 3.69 2.06 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.25 1.61 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Incoherent, Disharmonious, Separated, Disorderly, Unbalanced, Dissimilar ; 7 = Coherent, Harmonious, Unified, Orderly, Balan ced, Similar

PAGE 80

80 Table 4 19 ANOVA summary table for participants regular pattern set Measure Source df SS MS F p value Incoherent/Coherent Complexity 1 1.53 1.53 .58 .448 Coherence 1 6.02 6.02 2.29 .135 Complexity x Coherence 1 .13 .13 .05 .827 Error 63 165.36 165.36 Total 67 1182.00 2.63 Disharmonious/Harmonious Complexity 1 2.05 2.05 .56 .459 Coherence 1 .49 .49 .13 .718 Complexity x Coherence 1 1.97 1.97 1.35 .250 Error 63 232.64 3.69 Total 67 976.00 Separated/Unified Complexity 1 5.31 5.31 1.94 .169 Coherence 1 .03 .03 .01 .916 Complexity x Coherence 1 5.66 5.66 2.06 .156 Error 63 172.90 2.75 Total 67 913.00 Disorderly/Or derly Complexity 1 6.06 6.06 2.07 .156 Coherence 1 .71 .71 .24 .624 Complexity x Coherence 1 3.87 3.87 1.32 255 Error 63 184.88 2.94 Total 67 1811.00 Unbalanced/Balanced Complexity 1 12.20 12.20 3.12 .082 Coherence 1 .01 .01 .00 .954 Complexity x Coherence 1 4.77 4.77 1.22 .273 Error 63 245.98 3.90 Total 67 1196.00 Dissimilar/Similar Complexity 1 3.65 3.65 1.08 .302 Coherence 1 .00 .00 .00 .979 Complexity x Coherence 1 3.37 3.37 1.00 .321 Error 63 212.47 3.37 Total 67 1145.00 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Irregular Pattern Table 4 20 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for participants evaluations of coherence. E ach item w ithin the evaluation of coherence exhibited a significant statistical differences between the complexity levels including

PAGE 81

81 incoherent/coherent ( F (1, 63) = 13.17, p < .01), disharmonious/ harmonious ( F (1, 63) = 21.21, p < .001), separated/ unified ( F (1, 6 3) = 6.20, p < .05), disorderly/orderly ( F (1, 63) = 6.13, p < .05), unbalanced/balanced ( F (1, 63) = 12.76, p < .01), and dissimilar/ similar ( F (1, 63) = 14.84, p < .001) in Table 4 2 1 All participants perceived the scene with simple color sc heme (incoherent/coherent : M = 5.12, SD = 1.50; disharmonious/ harmonious; M = 4.88, SD = 1.47; separated/ unified: M = 4.33, SD = 1.92; disorderly/ orderly: M = 5.61, SD = 1.66; unbalanced/ balanced: M = 5.15, SD = 1.64; dissimilar/ similar: M = 5.00, SD = 1.56) as more coherent, harmonious, unified, orderly, balanced and similar than the scene with complex color scheme (incoherent/coherent : M = 3.60, SD = 1.80; disharmonious/ harmonious; M = 3.03, SD = 1.67; separated/ unified: M = 3.21, S D = 1.75; disorderly/ orderly: M = 4.41, SD = 2.15; unbalanced/ balanced: M = 4.34, SD = 1.96; dissimilar/ similar: M = 3.41, SD = 1.74). Tabl e 4 20 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants coherence for the irregul ar pattern set Measure Source n Mean* SD p value Incoherent/Coherent Complexity .001 Simple 33 5.12 1.50 Complex 34 3.60 1.80 Coherence .908 Coherent 35 4.37 1.75 Incoherent 32 4.3 1.93 Complexity by Coher ence .894 Simple x Coherent 17 5.12 1.41 Simple x Incoherent 16 5.13 1.63 Complex x Coherent 18 3.67 1.78 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.53 1.93 Disharmonious/Harmonious Complexity .000 Simple 33 4.88 1.47 Complex 34 3.03 1.67 Coherence .768 Coherent 35 3.89 1.92 Incoherent 32 4.03 1.73 Complexity by Coherence .535 Simple x Coherent 17 4.94 1.52 Simple x Incoherent 16 4.81 1.47 Complex x Coherent 18 2.89 1.75 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.25 1.65

PAGE 82

82 Table 4 20 Continued Measure Source n Mean* SD p value Separated/Unified Complexity .015 Simple 33 4.33 1.92 Complex 34 3.21 1.75 Coherence .331 Coherent 35 3.54 1.87 Incoherent 32 4.00 1.95 Complexity by Coherence .786 Simple x Coherent 17 4.06 2.08 Simple x Incoherent 16 4.63 1.75 Complex x Coherent 18 3.06 1.55 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.38 2.00 Disorderly/Orderly Complexity .016 Simple 33 5.61 1.66 Complex 34 4.41 2.15 Coherence .741 Coherent 35 4.91 2.09 Incoherent 32 5.09 1.92 Complexity by Coherence .447 Simple x Coherent 17 5.71 1.61 Simple x Incoherent 16 5.50 1.75 Complex x Coherent 18 4.17 2.26 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.69 2.06 Unbalanced/Balanced Complexity .001 Simple 33 5.15 1.64 Complex 34 4.34 1.96 Coherenc e .939 Coherent 35 4.34 1.96 Incoherent 32 4.41 1.83 Complexity by Coherence .106 Simple x Coherent 17 5.47 1.63 Simple x Incoherent 16 4.81 1.64 Complex x Coherent 18 3.28 1.64 Complex x Incoh erent 16 4.00 1.97 Dissimilar/Similar Complexity .000 Simple 33 5.00 1.56 Complex 34 3.41 1.74 Coherence .623 Coherent 35 4.09 1.81 Incoherent 32 4.31 1.87 Complexity by Coherence .843 Simp le x Coherent 17 4.94 1.71 Simple x Incoherent 16 5.06 1.44 Complex x Coherent 18 3.28 1.53 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.56 2.00 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Incoherent, Disharmonious, Separated, Disorderly, Unbalanced, Di ssimilar ; 7 = Coherent, Harmonious, Unified, Orderly, Balanced, Similar

PAGE 83

83 Table 4 21 ANOVA summary table for participants irregular pattern set Measure Source df SS MS F p value Incoherent/ Complexity 1 37 .94 37.94 13.17 .001 ** Coherent Coherence 1 .04 .04 .01 .908 Complexity x Coherence 1 .05 .05 .02 .894 Error 63 181.45 2.88 Total 67 1492.00 Disharmonious/ Complexity 1 54.59 54.59 21.21 .000 *** Harmonious Coherence 1 .23 .2 3 .09 .768 Complexity x Coherence 1 1.00 1.00 .39 .535 Error 63 162.16 2.57 Total 67 1267.00 Separated/ Complexity 1 21.21 21.21 6.20 .015 Unified Coherence 1 3.28 3.28 .96 .331 Complexity x Coherence 1 .25 .25 .07 .786 Error 63 215.39 3.42 Total 67 1188.00 Disorderly/ Complexity 1 23.10 23.10 6.13 .016 Orderly Coherence 1 .41 .41 .11 .741 Complexity x Coherence 1 2.21 2.21 .59 .447 Error 63 237.47 3.77 Total 67 1939.00 Unb alanced/ Complexity 1 37.73 37.73 12.76 .001 ** Balanced Coherence 1 .017 .017 .006 .939 Complexity x Coherence 1 7.96 7.96 2.69 .106 Error 63 186.28 2.96 Total 67 1515.00 Dissimilar/ Complexity 1 41.80 41.80 14.84 .000 *** S imilar Coherence 1 .69 .69 .25 .623 Complexity x Coherence 1 .11 .11 .04 .843 Error 63 177.43 2.82 Total 67 1399.00 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Perception of Col or Emotion A between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for participants evaluation of color emotions involving the basic design independent variables (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence). The analysis was employed for both the regular pattern set and irregular pattern set in a boutiqu e store Color emotions were measured through six 7 point bipolar semantic scales including static/dynamic, still/vibrant, lifeless/ lively, passive/active, light/heavy, and youth/mature.

PAGE 84

84 Regular P attern Table 4 22 shows the mean and standard deviation sc ores for participants evaluations of color emotions for the regular pattern set. As can been seen in Table 4 23 there was a significant difference on evaluations of the light/heavy color emotion between complexity levels ( F (1, 63) = 6.29, p < .0 5) and between coherence levels ( F (1, 63) = 4.23, p < .05). The store scene with complex color scheme ( M = 4.47, SD = 1.69) was perceived heavier than the store scene with simple color scheme ( M = 3.46, SD = 1.63), and the store scene with coherent color scheme ( M = 4.36, SD = 1.77) was perceived heavier than the store scene with incoherent color scheme ( M = 3.53, SD = 1.60). Table 4 22 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants color emotions for the regular pattern set Measure Source n Mean* SD p value Static/Dynamic Complexity .597 Simple 35 4.91 1.38 Complex 32 4.72 1.51 Coherence .245 Coherent 33 4.61 1.60 Incoherent 34 5.03 1.24 Complexity by Coherence .771 Simple x Coherent 17 4.65 1.46 Simple x Incoherent 18 5.17 1.30 Complex x Coherent 16 4.56 1.79 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.88 1.20 Still/Vibrant Complexity .162 Simple 35 4.91 1.63 Complex 32 5.44 1.44 Coherence .532 Coherent 33 5.27 1.61 Incoherent 34 5.06 1.52 Complexity by Coherence .092 Simple x Coherent 17 4.71 1.69 Simple x Incoherent 18 5.11 1.61 Complex x Coherent 16 5.88 1.31 Complex x Incoherent 16 5.00 1.46

PAGE 85

85 Table 4 22 Continued Measure Source n Mean* SD p value Lifeless/Lively Complexity .765 Simple 35 5.34 1.28 Complex 32 5.44 1.39 Coherence .408 Coherent 33 5.52 1.28 Incoherent 34 5.26 1.38 Complexity by Coherence .144 Simple x Coherent 17 5.24 1.35 Simple x Incoherent 18 5.44 1.25 Complex x Coherent 16 5.81 1.17 Complex x Incoherent 16 5.06 1.53 Passive/Active Comple xity .627 Simple 35 4.94 1.61 Complex 32 5.12 1.29 Coherence .254 Coherent 33 5.24 1.58 Incoherent 34 4.82 1.31 Complexity by Coherence .913 Simple x Coherent 17 5.18 1.78 Simple x Incohere nt 18 4.72 1.45 Complex x Coherent 16 5.31 1.40 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.94 1.18 Light/Heavy Complexity .015 Simple 35 3.46 1.63 Complex 32 4.47 1.69 Coherence .0 44 Coherent 33 4.36 1.77 Incoherent 34 3.53 1.60 Complexity by Coherence .986 Simple x Coherent 17 3.88 1.87 Simple x Incoherent 18 3.06 1.31 Complex x Coherent 16 4.87 1.54 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.06 1.77 Youth/Mature Complex ity .146 Simple 35 3.60 1.88 Complex 32 2.97 1.53 Coherence .227 Coherent 33 3.03 1.67 Incoherent 34 3.56 1.80 Complexity by Coherence .853 Simple x Coherent 17 3.29 1.76 Simple x Incoheren t 18 3.89 2.00 Complex x Coherent 16 2.75 1.57 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.19 1.52 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Static, Still, Lifeless, Passive, Light, Youth ; 7 = Dynamic, Vibrant, Lively, Active, Heavy, Mature

PAGE 86

86 Table 4 23 A NOVA summary table for participants regular pattern set Measure Source df SS MS F p value Static/Dynamic Complexity 1 .59 .59 .28 .597 Coherence 1 2.89 2.89 1.38 .245 Complexity x Coherence 1 .18 .18 .09 .771 Error 63 132.07 2.10 Total 67 1693.00 Still/Vibrant Complexity 1 4.68 4.68 2.00 .162 Coherence 1 .92 .92 .40 .532 Complexity x Coherence 1 6.85 6.85 2.93 .092 Error 63 147.06 2.33 Total 67 1946.00 Lifeless/Lively Complexity 1 .16 .16 .09 .765 Coherence 1 1.22 1.22 .69 .408 Complexity x Coherence 1 3.84 3.84 2.18 .144 Error 63 110.88 1.76 Total 67 2061.00 Passive/Active Complexity 1 .52 .52 .24 .627 Coherence 1 2.87 2.87 1.33 .254 Complexity x Coherence 1 .03 .03 .01 .913 Error 63 134.46 2.17 Total 67 1835.00 Light/Heavy Complexity 1 16.70 16.70 6.29 .015 Coherence 1 11.23 11.23 4.23 .0 44 Complexity x Coherence 1 .00 .00 .00 .986 Error 63 167.40 2.66 Total 67 1236.00 Youth/Mature Complexity 1 6.48 6.48 2.16 .146 Coherence 1 4.45 4.45 1.49 .227 Complexity x Coherence 1 .10 .10 .03 .853 Error 63 188.75 3.00 Total 67 929.00 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Irregular P attern Table 4 24 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for participants evaluations of color emotions for the irregular pattern set. As can been seen in Table 4 25 the still/ vibrant ( F (1, 63) = 13.55, p < .001), passive/active ( F (1, 63) = 11.42, p < .01), and light/heavy ( F (1, 63) = 8.86, p < .01) scale within the evaluation of color emotions exhibited a significant statistical differences between the complexity levels. The scene with complex color sche me ( M = 5.50, SD = 1.58) was perceived more

PAGE 87

87 vibrant than the scene with simple color scheme ( M = 3.97, SD = 1.76). The scene with complex color scheme ( M = 5.21, SD = 1.41) was perceived more active than the scene with simple color scheme ( M = 4.00, SD = 1 .48). The scene with complex color scheme ( M = 3.79, SD = 1.65) was perceived heavier than the scene with simple color scheme ( M = 2.70, SD = 1.47). A significant two way interaction was obtained ( F (1, 63 ) = 15.03 p < .001) in the light/heavy scal e. As i llustrated in Figure 4 8 the scene with Complex/ Coherent (CC) color combination was perceived as the heaviest scene ( M = 4.56, SD = 1.29), and the s cene with Simple/ Coherent (SC) color combination was perceived as the lightest scene ( M = 2.18, SD = 1.24 ). Table 4 24 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants color emotions for the irregular pattern set Measure Source n Mean* SD p value Static/Dynamic Complexity .447 Simple 33 4.58 1.09 Comple x 34 4.85 1.64 Coherence .628 Coherent 35 4.80 1.37 Incoherent 32 4.63 1.43 Complexity by Coherence .447 Simple x Coherent 17 4.53 1.13 Simple x Incoherent 16 4.63 1.09 Complex x Coherent 18 5.06 1.5 5 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.63 1.75 Still/Vibrant Complexity .000 Simple 33 3.97 1.76 Complex 34 5.50 1.58 Coherence .828 Coherent 35 4.80 1.88 Incoherent 32 4.69 1.80 Complexity by Coheren ce .947 Simple x Coherent 17 4.00 2.03 Simple x Incoherent 16 3.94 1.48 Complex x Coherent 18 5.56 1.38 Complex x Incoherent 16 5.44 1.83

PAGE 88

88 Table 4 24 Continued Measure Source n Mean* SD p value Lifeless/Lively Complexity .262 Simple 33 4.85 1.37 Complex 34 5.24 1.39 Coherence .644 Coherent 35 4.97 1.47 Incoherent 32 5.12 1.31 Complexity by Coherence .969 Simple x Coherent 17 4.76 1.25 Simple x Incoherent 16 4.94 1.53 Complex x Coherent 18 5.17 1.65 Complex x Incoherent 16 5.31 1.08 Passive/Active Complexity .001 Simple 33 4.00 1.48 Complex 34 5.21 1.41 Coherence .222 Coherent 35 4. 83 1.65 Incoherent 32 4.38 1.43 Complexity by Coherence .119 Simple x Coherent 17 3.94 1.60 Simple x Incoherent 16 4.06 1.39 Complex x Coherent 18 5.67 1.24 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.69 1.45 Light /Heavy Complexity .004 Simple 33 2.70 1.47 Complex 34 3.79 1.65 Coherence .436 Coherent 35 3.40 1.74 Incoherent 32 3.09 1.55 Complexity by Coherence .000 Simple x Coherent 17 2.18 1.24 S imple x Incoherent 16 3.25 1.53 Complex x Coherent 18 4.56 1.29 Complex x Incoherent 16 2.94 1.61 Youth/Mature Complexity .092 Simple 33 3.61 1.75 Complex 34 2.88 1.63 Coherence .554 Coherent 35 3.11 1.75 Incoherent 32 3.38 1.70 Complexity by Coherence .828 Simple x Coherent 17 3.53 1.66 Simple x Incoherent 16 3.69 1.89 Complex x Coherent 18 2.72 1.78 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.06 1.48 *7 point B ipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Static, Still, Lifeless, Passive, Light, Youth ; 7 = Dynamic, Vibrant, Lively, Active, Heavy, Mature

PAGE 89

89 Table 4 25 ANOVA summary table for participants irregular pattern set Measure Sourc e df SS MS F p value Static/Dynamic Complexity 1 1.16 1.16 .58 .447 Coherence 1 .47 .47 .24 .628 Complexity x Coherence 1 1.16 1.16 .58 .447 Error 63 124.68 1.98 Total 67 1618.00 Still/Vibrant Complexity 1 39.00 39.00 13.55 .000 *** Coherence 1 .14 .14 .05 .828 Complexity x Coherence 1 .01 .01 .00 .947 Error 63 181.32 2.88 Total 67 1730.00 Lifeless/Lively Complexity 1 2.52 2.52 1.28 .262 Coherence 1 .42 .42 .22 .644 Complexity x Cohere nce 1 .00 .00 .00 .969 Error 63 123.93 1.97 Total 67 1832.00 Passive/Active Complexity 1 23.08 23.08 11.42 .001 ** Coherence 1 3.07 3.07 1.52 .222 Complexity x Coherence 1 5.06 5.06 2.50 .119 Error 63 127.32 2.02 Total 67 1585.00 Light/Heavy Complexity 1 17.84 17.84 8.86 .004 ** Coherence 1 1.24 1.24 .62 .436 Complexity x Coherence 1 30.26 30.26 15.03 .000 *** Error 63 126.85 2.01 Total 67 888.00 Youth/Mature Complexity 1 8.57 8.57 2.93 .092 Coherence 1 1.04 1.04 .36 .554 Complexity x Coherence 1 .14 .14 .05 .828 Error 63 184.22 2.92 Total 67 897.00 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Figure 4 8 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on parti cipants the light/heavy store image for the irregular pattern set.

PAGE 90

90 Perception of Store I mage A between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for participants evaluation of store image involving the basic design independen t variables (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence). The analysis was employed for both the regular pattern set and irregular pattern set in the experimental boutique store scene. The 7 a gree Regular P attern Table 4 26 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for participants evaluations of store image for the regular pattern set. As can been seen in Table 4 27 both evaluations of sophisticated ( F (1, 63 ) = 4.82 p < .05) and upper class ( F (1, 63 ) = 7.68 p < .01) store image exhibited a significant statistical differences between the two different complexity levels. T he store scene with simple color scheme (sophisticated: M = 5.14, SD = 1.50; upper class: M = 5.54, SD = 1.42) was perceived as the one with more sophisticated and upper class store image than the store scene with complex color scheme (sophisticated: M = 4.22, SD = 1.88; upper class: M = 4.47, SD = 1.70). Table 4 2 6 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants store image for the regular pattern set Measure Source n Mean* SD p value So phisticated Complexity .032 Simple 35 5.14 1.50 Complex 32 4.22 1.88 Coherence .498 Coherent 33 4.55 1.75 Incoherent 34 4.85 1.74 Complexity by Coherence .597 Simple x Coherent 17 4.88 1.45 Simple x Incoherent 18 5.39 1.54

PAGE 91

91 Table 4 2 6 Continued Measure Source n Mean* SD p value Complex x Coherent 16 4.19 2.01 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.25 1.81 Upper Class Complexity .007 Si mple 35 5.54 1.42 Complex 32 4.47 1.70 Coherence .942 Coherent 33 5.00 1.56 Incoherent 34 5.06 1.74 Complexity by Coherence .380 Simple x Coherent 17 5.35 1.46 Simple x Incoherent 18 5.72 1.41 Complex x Coherent 16 4.63 1.63 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.31 1.82 *7 point Likert type scale: 1 = Strongly Disagree ; 9 = Strongly Agree Table 4 27 ANOVA summary table for participants regular patt ern set Measure Source df SS MS F p value Sophisticated Complexity 1 14.04 14.04 4.82 .032 Coherence 1 1.35 1.35 .46 .498 Complexity x Coherence 1 .82 .82 .28 .597 Error 63 183.48 2.91 Total 67 200.03 Upper Class Comple xity 1 19.09 19.09 7.68 .007 ** Coherence 1 .01 .01 .01 .942 Complexity x Coherence 1 1.94 1.94 .78 .380 Error 63 156.68 2.49 Total 67 1873.00 p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001 Irregular P attern Table 4 28 shows the mean and standard deviation scores for participants evaluations of store image for the irregular pattern set. As can been seen in Table 4 29 both evaluations of sophisticated ( F (1, 63 ) = 19.9 p < .001) and upper class ( F (1, 63 ) = 9.46 p < .01) store image exhi bited a significant statistical differences between the complexity levels. All participants perceived the scene with simple color scheme (sophisticated: M = 5.73, SD = 1.10; upper class: M = 5.79, SD = 1.36) as the one with more sophisticated and u pper class store image than the scene with complex color scheme (sophisticated: M = 4.03, SD = 1.90; upper class: M = 4.62, SD = 1.67).

PAGE 92

92 Table 4 28 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants store image for the irreg ular pattern set Measure Source n Mean* SD p value Sophisticated Complexity .000 Simple 33 5.73 1.10 Complex 34 4.03 1.90 Coherence .552 Coherent 35 4.74 1.77 Incoherent 32 5.00 1.78 Complexity by Coherenc e .630 Simple x Coherent 17 5.71 0.85 Simple x Incoherent 16 5.75 1.34 Complex x Coherent 18 3.83 1.95 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.25 1.88 Upper Class Complexity .003 Simple 33 5.79 1.36 C omplex 34 4.62 1.67 Coherence .388 Coherent 35 5.03 1.65 Incoherent 32 5.38 1.60 Complexity by Coherence .675 Simple x Coherent 17 5.71 1.45 Simple x Incoherent 16 5.88 1.31 Complex x Coherent 18 4.3 9 1.61 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.88 1.75 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Incoherent, Disharmonious, Separated, Unbalanced, Dissimilar ; 7 = Coherent, Harmonious, Unified, Balanced, Similar Table 4 29 evaluation of store image for the irregular pattern set Measure Source df SS MS F p value Sophisticated Complexity 1 47.52 47.52 19.19 .000 *** Coherence 1 .89 .89 .36 .552 Complexity x Coherence 1 .58 .58 .23 .630 Error 63 156.03 2.48 Total 67 1792.00 Upper Class Complexity 1 22.43 22.43 9.46 .003 ** Coherence 1 1.79 1.79 .76 .388 Complexity x Coherence 1 .42 .42 .18 .675 Error 63 149.31 2.37 Total 67 1982.00 p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001 Arousal States A between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for participants evaluation of arousal states involving the basic design independent variables (2 levels

PAGE 93

93 of complexity x 2 levels of coherence). The analysis was employed for both th e regular pattern set and irregular pa ttern set in a boutique store Regular P attern Table 4 30 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. As can been seen in Table 4 31 the results of ANOVA test shows no significant interaction effect A signi ficant main effect on arousal states was complexity levels ( F (1, 63 ) = 4.82, p < .05). All participants perceived the scene with complex color scheme ( M = 4.91 SD = 1. 24 ) as the more arousing one than the scene with simple color scheme ( M = 4.19 SD = 1.39 ) Table 4 30 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants arousal states for the regular pattern set Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .032 Simple 35 4.19 1.39 Complex 32 4.91 1.24 Coher ence .877 Coherent 33 4.56 1.36 Incoherent 34 4.50 1.38 Complexity by Coherence .276 Simple x Coherent 17 4.21 1.43 Simple x Incoherent 18 4.17 1.39 Complex x Coherent 16 4.94 1.21 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.88 1.31 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Not Arousing ; 7 = Arousing Table 4 31 ANOVA summary table for participants regular pattern set Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 8.66 8.66 4.82 .032 Cohe rence 1 .04 .04 .02 .877 Complexity x Coherence 1 .00 .00 .00 .972 Error 63 113.22 1.80 Total 67 1486.75 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Irregular Pattern Table 4 32 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. As can been seen in Table 4 33 a significant main effect on arousal states was complexity levels ( F (1, 63 ) =

PAGE 94

94 22.76, p < .001). All participants perceived the scene with complex color scheme ( M = 4.91 SD = 1. 00 ) as the more arousing one than the scene with simple co lor scheme ( M = 3.58 SD = 1.31 ) A significant two way interaction was obtained ( F (1, 119 ) = 4.21 p < .05). As illustrated in Figu re 4 9 the scene with Complex/Coherent color combination was perceived as the most arousing scene ( M = 5.00 SD = .89 ) an d the scene with Simple/Coherent color combination was perceived as the least arousing scene ( M = 3.12 SD = 1.35 ). Table 4 32 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants arousal states for the irregular pattern set Sou rce n Mean* SD p value Complexity .000 Simple 33 3.58 1.31 Complex 34 4.91 1.00 Coherence .175 Coherent 35 4.09 1.47 Incoherent 32 4.44 1.16 Complexity by Coherence .044 Simple x Coherent 17 3.12 1.35 Simple x Incoherent 16 4.06 1.11 Complex x Coherent 18 5.00 .89 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.81 1.12 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Not Arousing ; 7 = Arousing Table 4 33 ANOVA summary table for participants irregul ar pattern set Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 28.95 28.95 22.76 .000 *** Coherence 1 2.40 2.40 1.88 .175 Complexity x Coherence 1 5.46 5.46 4.21 .044 Error 63 80.14 1.27 Total 67 1330.00 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001

PAGE 95

95 Figure 4 9 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants arousal states for the irregular pattern set. Pleasure States A between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for participant s evaluation of pleasure states involving the basic design independent variables (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence). The analysis was employed for both the regular pattern set and irre gular pattern set in a boutique store Regular P attern Table 4 34 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. As can been seen in Table 4 35 the results of ANOVA test shows no significant interaction was obtained. A significant main effect on pleasure states was complexity levels ( F (1, 63 ) = 8. 35 p < .01). T he scene with simple color scheme ( M = 4.87 SD = 1. 38 ) was perceived as the more pleasing one than the scene with complex color scheme ( M = 3.80 SD = 1.59 ) Table 4 34 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants pleasure states for the regular pattern set Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .005 Simple 35 4.87 1.38 Complex 32 3.80 1.59 Coherence .410 Coherent 33 4.19 1.46 Incoherent 34 4.52 1.67

PAGE 96

96 Table 4 34 Continued Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity by Coherence .276 Simple x Coherent 17 4.61 1.36 Simple x Incoherent 18 5.11 1.39 Complex x Coherent 16 3.75 1.48 Complex x Incoherent 16 3.85 1.74 *7 point Bipolar Semantic Scale: 1 = Not Pleasing ; 7 = Pleasing Table 4 35 ANOVA summary table for participants regular pattern set Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 18.68 18.68 8.35 .005 ** Coher ence 1 1.54 1.54 .69 .410 Complexity x Coherence 1 .67 .67 .30 .588 Error 63 141.05 2.24 Total 67 1434.89 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Irregular Pattern Table 4 36 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. As ca n been seen in Tab le 4 37 a significant main effect on pleasure states was complexity levels ( F (1, 63 ) = 16.08, p < .001). All participants perceived the scene with simple color scheme ( M = 5.35 SD = 1. 13 ) as the more pleasing one than the scene with complex colo r scheme ( M = 4.22 SD = 1.18 ) Yet, a two way interaction between complexity and coherence levels approached significance ( F (1, 63 ) = 16.08, p = .05 2). As illustrated in Figure 4 10 the scene with Simple/Coherent color combination was slightly perceived as the most pleasing scene ( M = 5.53 SD = .97 ) and the scene with Complex/Coherent color combination was slightly perceived as the least pleasing scene ( M = 3.87 SD = 1.19 ). Table 4 36 Mean and standard deviation (SD ) scores for participants evaluation of pleasure states for the irregular pattern set Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .000 Simple 33 5.35 1.13 Complex 34 4.22 1.18 Coherence .505 Coherent 35 4.68 1.36 Incoherent 32 4.89 1.19

PAGE 97

97 Table 4 36 Continued Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity by Coherence .052 Simple x Coherent 17 5.53 .97 Simple x Incoherent 16 5.17 1.28 Complex x Coherent 18 3.87 1.19 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.60 1.06 *7 point Bipolar Sema ntic Scale: 1 = Not Pleasing ; 7 = Pleasing Table 4 37 ANOVA summary table for participants irregular pattern set Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 20.62 20.62 16.08 .000 *** Coherence 1 58 .58 .45 .505 Complexity x Coherence 1 5.02 5.02 3.92 .052 Error 63 80.76 1.28 Total 67 1636.44 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Figure 4 10 Interaction effect for complexity by coherence on participants tions of pleasure states for the irregular pattern set Two Color Combination Preferences In this section, t wo different statistical analyses were conducted based on the types of ques tions for studying individual two color combin ation preferences in a boutique store A between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for participants of two color combination preference involving the basic design independent variables (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence). The a nalysis was employed for both the regular pattern set and irregular pattern set in a boutique store

PAGE 98

98 Regular P attern Table 4 38 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. As can been seen in Table 4 39 the results of ANOVA test shows no sign ifi cant interaction A significant main effect on color combination preference was complexity levels ( F (1, 63 ) = 8. 25 p < .01). Regardless coherence levels all participants evaluated simple color scheme ( M = 6.26 SD = 1. 9 6) as their most preferred color combination than the complex color scheme ( M = 4.72 SD = 2.43 ) Table 4 38 Mean and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants color combination preference for the regular pattern set Source n Mean* SD p value Complex ity .006 Simple 35 6.26 1.96 Complex 32 4.72 2.43 Coherence .085 Coherent 33 5.03 2.10 Incoherent 34 6.00 2.44 Complexity by Coherence .359 Simple x Coherent 17 5.53 1.74 Simple x Incoherent 18 6.94 1.96 Complex x Coherent 16 4.50 2.37 Complex x Incoherent 16 4.94 2.54 *9 point Likert type scale: 1 = Dislike Extremely ; 9 = Like Extremely Table 4 39 preference for the re gular pattern set Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 38.51 38.51 8.25 .006 ** Coherence 1 14.34 14.34 3.07 .085 Complexity x Coherence 1 3.99 3.99 .86 .359 Error 63 294.12 4.67 Total 67 2396.00 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 Irregular P attern Table 4 40 shows the mean and standard deviation scores. As can been seen in Table 4 41 the results of ANOVA test shows no significant interaction was obtained. A significant main effect on color combination preference was complex ity levels ( F (1, 63 ) = 4.40, p < .05). Regardless coherence levels all participants evaluated simple color

PAGE 99

99 scheme ( M = 6.70 SD = 1. 9 2) as their most preferred color combination than the complex color scheme ( M = 5.62 SD = 2.10 ) Table 4 40 Me an and standard deviation (SD) scores for participants color combination preference for the irregular pattern set Source n Mean* SD p value Complexity .040 Simple 33 6.70 1.92 Complex 34 5.62 2.10 Coherence 416 Coherent 35 5.94 2.27 Incoherent 32 6.38 1.90 Complexity by Coherence .276 Simple x Coherent 17 6.76 1.92 Simple x Incoherent 16 6.63 2.09 Complex x Coherent 18 5.17 2.36 Complex x Incoherent 16 6.12 1.71 *9 point Likert type scale: 1 = Dislike Extremely ; 9 = Like Extremely Table 4 41 ANOVA summary table for participants evaluation of color combination preference for the irregular pattern set Source df SS MS F p value Complexity 1 18.39 18.39 4.40 .040 Coherence 1 2.80 2.80 .67 .416 Complexity x Coherence 1 5.04 5.04 1.21 .276 Error 63 263.06 4.18 Total 67 2824.00 p < .05 ; ** p < .01 ; *** p < .001 In addition to evaluating the two color combination preferen c es on the 9 point Likert scale, participants were asked to rank the four store scenes of two col or combinations for two pattern sets from the most preferred to least preferred one in order to investigate participants two color combination preference among different sets of four store scenes. Table 4 42 and Table 4 43 show the descriptive statistic of participants for the regular and irregular pattern set s In the regular pattern set, the Scene B ( SI) (47.7%) was ranked as the most preferred one, and the Scene A (SC) (44.4%) was ranked as the second most preferred one. The Scene D (CI) (50.0%) was ranked as the least preferred one, and the Scene C (CC) (41.8%) was ranked as the second least preferre d one. In the irregular pattern set, the

PAGE 100

100 Scene B (SI) (52.9%) was ranked as the most preferred one, and the Scene A (SC) (35.3%) was ranked as the second most preferred one. The Scene D (CI) (58.2%) was ranked as the least prefer red one, and the Scene C (C C) (3 4.0%) was ranked as the second least preferred one. Table 4 42 Descriptive statistic of participants the regular pattern set Regular Pattern Set Scene A ( SC ) Sc ene B ( SI ) Scene C ( CC ) Scene D ( CI ) Total The Most Preferred Scene 68(44.4%) 73(47.7% ) 9(5.9%) 3(2.0%) 153(100%) The Least Preferred Scene 8(5.2%) 4(2.6%) 64(41.8%) 77(50.0%) 153(100%) Table 4 4 3 Descriptive statistic of participants lor combination pr eferences among the ir regular pattern set Irr egular Pattern Set Scene A ( SC ) Scene B ( SI ) Scene C ( CC ) Scene D ( CI ) Total The Most Preferred Scene 54(35.3%) 81(52.9% ) 16(10.5%) 2(1.3%) 153(100%) The Least Preferred Scene 8(5.2%) 4(2.6%) 52(34 .0%) 89(58.2%) 153(100%) Qualitative F indings In order to elaborate on reasons behind two color combination preferences on the quantitative measures, participants were asked two questions as follow : 1) Plea se explain what you like about this boutique store ; 2) Please explain what you dislike about this boutique store A content analysis was conducted that started with the comme nts were identified. Second, all the comments obtained from this study were classified under different identified themes. Later, the frequencies of the comments under each theme were counted for comparisons (Kumar, 2005). Regarding th and dislik all responses from the total of eight boutique store scenes including four scenes in the regular pattern set and four scenes in the irregular pattern set were

PAGE 101

101 categorized into different themes For instance, if a participant color comments under each different theme was calculated. Besides, the comments from eight different scenes wer e coded with different colors ( Appendix F ). 14 comments among the eight different store scenes were made by participants One hundred and six comments were made regarding the four color combinations in the regular pattern set; One hundred and eight com ments were made regarding the four color combinations in the irregular pattern set. As can be seen in Table 4 4 4 the distributions of frequency under each theme in the regular and irregular pattern sets were very similar. Table 4 4 4 Descriptive distributions of themes emerging from written comments in the Theme Scene Composition of the space Store Image Color Shopping Orientation Emotion Lighting Color Pattern Total n % Regular Pattern Set Scene A (SC) 16 8 4 2 1 1 0 32 (30.1%) Scene B (SI) 15 6 1 3 3 1 0 29 (27.4%) Scene C (CC) 9 3 5 1 0 1 1 20 (18.9%) Scene D (CI) 5 7 8 1 1 2 1 25 (23.6%) Total n % 45 (42.5%) 24 (22.6%) 18 (17.0%) 7 (6.6%) 5 (4.7%) 5 (4.7%) 2 (1.9 % ) 106 (100% ) Irregular Pattern Set Scene A (SC) 18 6 7 2 2 0 0 35 (32.4%) Scene B (SI) 9 11 3 0 2 1 0 26 (24.6%) Scene C (CC) 13 3 1 1 1 1 0 20 (18.5%) Scene D (CI) 10 10 3 2 0 2 0 27 (25.0%) Total n % 50 (46.3%) 30 (27.8%) 14 (13.0%) 5 (4.6%) 5 (4.6%) 4 (3.7%) 0 (0.0%) 108 (100%)

PAGE 102

102 T here were two themes eme rging with the frequency over 10 % in both the regular and irregular pattern set. The highest theme (Regular: 42.5%; Irregular: 46.3%) was such as the spaciousness and organization of store. The second highest theme (Regular: 22.6%; Irregular: 27.8%) was related to the contemporary quality of the space The third highest theme (Regular: 17.0%; Irregular: 13.0%) was relate applications on the ceiling and white shelving millwork Although the frequency of the comments related to perceptions of color was relatively higher than the other themes with frequency under 10%, participants perspectives regarding the perception of color were varied among eight scenes especially in the scene s with complex color scheme (CC and CI) Among a total of 32 (Regular: 17.0%; Irregular: 13.0%) comments u some (40.7%) of them shared a similar perspective indicating their liking of the color combination applications on the ceiling : 1) I like the colors ; 2) I like the colorful ceiling ; 3) I like the color design on the ceiling Ho wever, the others (53.1%) shared another perspective indi cating their liking of the achromatic color scheme within the store environment: 1 ) I ; 2) everything is white makes it appealing to the eye Few (6.2%) of them i ndicated their liking of overall color scheme within the store: 1) I like the color scheme ; 2) I like the contrast of the ceiling with the white look of the store regular pat tern set; none of participants pattern set. The qualitative data aligned with prior quantitative findings that there was no impact of pattern on individual preferences.

PAGE 103

103 different store scenes were made by participants Ninety four comments were made regarding the four color combinations in the regular pattern set; seventy one comments were made regarding the four color combinations in the irregular pattern set. As can be seen in Table 4 4 5 the highest theme in both regular (45.7%) and irregular (40.8%) pattern set regarding disliking issue Table 4 4 5 Descriptive distributions of theme s emerging from written comments in the Unlike question, all the comments regarding disliking issue shared a similar perspective indicating their disliking of the colors on the c eiling. In addition, these comments further Theme Scene Composition of the space Store Image Color Shopping Orientatio n Emotion Lighting Color Pattern Total n % Regular Pattern Set Scene A (SC) 2 2 8 5 2 1 4 24 (25.6%) Scene B (SI) 6 5 8 4 2 0 1 26 (24.5%) Scene C (CC) 1 5 14 2 0 0 1 23 (24.5%) Scene D (CI) 3 1 13 0 1 0 3 21 (22.4%) Total n % 12 (12.8%) 13 (13.8%) 43 (45.7% ) 11 (11.7%) 5 (5.3%) 1 (1.1%) 9 (9.6%) 94 (100%) Irregular Pattern Set Scene A (SC) 1 1 4 4 1 0 0 11 (15.5%) Scene B (SI) 6 1 3 3 0 2 0 15 (14.1%) Scene C (CC) 6 3 13 2 3 0 2 29 (40.9%) Scene D (CI) 1 3 9 3 0 0 0 16 (22.5%) Total n % 14 (19.7%) 8 (11.3%) 29 (40.8% ) 12 (16.9%) 4 (5.6%) 2 (2.8%) 2 (2.8%) 71 (100%)

PAGE 104

104 indicated the contradictions between the colors on the ceiling and the perceptions of overall store environment. The results showed the applications of color combinations had somewhat negative effects on participants The colors in the ceiling are distracting and do not fit with the style of the st ore. The purple and yellow roof is too flashy and lowers the elegance of the store. The contrasting colors are unpleasant and distracting from the clothes. The colors on the ceiling seems to cl ash with the other colors in the room and aren't a pleasant combination. color scheme (CC and CI) had higher frequency than the scenes with simple color scheme (SC an SI) in both the regular and irregular pattern s et. As can be seen in Table 4 4 5 there were 43 Twenty seven (62.8 %) comments were made within the scenes with complex color scheme Sixteen (37.2%) comments were made within the scenes with simple color scheme In the irregular pattern, Twenty two (75.9%) comments were made within the scenes with complex color scheme Only seven (24.1%) comments were made within the scenes with simple color s cheme The results provided insight s into prior quantitative analyses. The simple color scheme (SC and SI) were more preferred than the complex color scheme (CC and CI) in the regular and irregular set, since the complex color scheme (CC and CI) contradict ed with the perception of overall store environment more than the simple color scheme (SC and SI) in a boutique store scene.

PAGE 105

105 In previous findings regarding the liking issue, few comments ( n =2, 0.9%) were s. However, some participants ( n = ( n address why people disliked t he regular dislike the pattern, because t he checkered ceiling is sort of distracting suggested that the applications of color combinations in the regular pattern had greater effe cts on participants sliking than the irregular pattern In addition to prior qualitative findings regarding liking and disliking, participants were asked two questions in the two color combination preference ranking section as follow: 1) Please indicate your reasons for the most preferred one; 2) Please indicate your reasons for the least preferred one. A content analysis was conducted respectively for the qualitative data in the regular and irregular pattern set. In the regular pattern set, the only difference betwe en the four store scenes was the two color combination application on the ceiling. As expected, all of 359 comments made by participants were related to perceptions of color regarding their most and least preferred scene in the regular pattern set, and all the responses related to perceptions of color were further categorized into different themes For instance, if a participant said, The frequency of comm ents under each different theme was calculated. Besides, the comments from four different store scenes in the regular pattern set wer e coded with different colors ( Appendix G ).

PAGE 106

106 According to pr ior quantitative analyses, the S cene B (SI) was ranked as t he most preferred scene in the regular pattern set ( n =73, 47.7%). As can be seen in Table 4 4 6 among the eight y nine (52%) comments in the Scene B (SI) thirty one (47.5%) participan ts evaluated the Scene B (SI) as the least over stimulating and the calmest one. Some examples of comments under the arousal theme included the following: 1) I feel calm and relaxed 2) the colors are less harsh on the eyes 3) colors are not overwh elming Table 4 46 Descriptive distributions of themes emerging from written comments regarding the most preferred scene in the regular pattern set Most preferred Theme Scene A (SC) Scene B (SI) Scene C (CC) Scene D (CI) Total n % Color Combination 12 17 2 0 31 (18.1%) Brightness 4 1 4 1 10 (5.8%) Saturation 0 1 0 0 1 (0.6%) Color emotion 12 7 2 0 21 (18.1%) Arousal 22 31 1 1 55 (32.2%) Pleasure 9 5 2 0 16 (9.4%) Store image 1 0 1 0 2 (1.2%) Overall Store Setting 8 17 0 0 25 (14.6%) Total n ( %) 68 (39.8%) 89 (52.0%) 12 (7.0%) 2 (1.2%) 171 (100%) Seventeen (19.1 %) comments were made about liking the The Simple/I ncoherent color combination in the Scene B (SI) was perceived as the most preferred color combination which went well together. Seventeen (19.1%) comments were made about the perception of overall store settings. Par ticipants reported that the Simple/I ncoherent color combination in the Scene B (SI) matched the rest of the store

PAGE 107

107 and also went with the color scheme of store when comparing to other three color combinations. Some examples of comments included the followin g: 1) It seems to blend in more without taking the attention off the setting ; 2) Colors fit the scene the most, without disturbing the entire setup of the store ; 3) the colors fits the closest with the store's color scheme A conclusion can be drawn from these findings to verify why the Scene B (SI) simple/incoherent two simple/incoherent two color combination and the percep tions of overall store settings contributing to participants The scene A (SC ) was ranked as the second preferred scene in the regular pattern set (n= 68, 44.4 %). As can be seen in Table 4 4 6 the eight nine ( 39.8%) comments in the Scene A (SC) shared very similar perspectives with prior findings in the Scene B (SI) regarding the perceptions of arousal the liking of color combination an d perception of overall store settings According to pr ior quantitative analyses the S cene D (CI) was ranked as the least preferred scene in the regular pattern set ( n =77, 50.0%). As can be seen in Table 4 4 7 among the eight y four (44.7%) comments in the Scene D (CI) twenty three (27.4 %) comments were made about disliki ng comments included the following: 1) It has the worst color combination 2) go very well on a ceiling 3) colors don't go together at all and are very uncomplimentary Twenty two (26.2%) commends were made a bout the perceptions of Participants indicated that the color combination in the Scene D (CI) was

PAGE 108

108 too dark. Fifteen comments (17.6%) However, the perceptions of arousal were very different Some participants reported that the color combination in the Scene D (CI) was boring and not exciting. Some people reported that the color combination was too loud and overwhelming. The contradiction among comments reveals that the perception of color may result from individual sensitivity or preference. Table 4 4 7 Descriptive distributions of themes emerging from written comments regarding the least preferred scene in the regular pattern set Least preferred Theme Scene A (SC) Scene B (SI) S cene C (CC) Scene D (CI) Total n % Color Combination 0 2 4 23 29 (15.4%) Brightness 2 0 30 22 54 (28.8%) Color Pattern 1 0 0 0 1 (0.5%) Color emotion 2 0 7 4 13 (6.9%) Arousal 3 0 25 15 43 (22.9%) Pl easure 1 2 12 13 28 (14.9%) Store image 0 0 1 2 3 (1.6%) Overall Store Setting 0 0 12 5 17 (9.0%) Total n ( %) 9 (4.8%) 4 (2.1%) 91 (48.4%) 84 (44.7%) 188 (100%) The Sce ne C (CC) was ranked as the least preferred scene in the regular pattern set ( n = 64, 41.8 %). As can be seen in Table 4 4 7 the comments in Scene C (CC) shared very similar perspectives with prior findings in the Scene D (CI) No variations appeared in the participants who least preferred the Scene C ; uniformly their respondents saw the space as too distracting and overly stimulating.

PAGE 109

109 In the irregular pattern set, the only difference between the four store scenes was the two color combination applica tion on the ceiling. As expected, the majority (97.3 %) of the total 370 comments related to t he perception of color in the most and least preferred scene. Only 10 (2.7%) comments were made about the color pattern scattering in each store scene. According t o prior quantitative analyses, no statistical pattern effect on participants content analysis was conducted for the color related comments. All the responses related to perceptions of color w ere further categorized into different themes. The frequency of comments under each different theme was calculated. Besides, the comments from four different store scenes in the irregular pattern set wer e coded with different colors ( Appendix H ). Accor ding to the quantitative analyses, the results of preference ranking in the regular and irregular p attern set were identical. The S cene B (SI) ( n =81, 58.2%) was ranked as the most preferred scene, and the Scene A (SC) ( n =54, 35.3%) was ranked as the second preferred scene; the S cene D (CI) ( n =89, 58.2%) was ranked as the least preferred scene and the Scene C (CC) ( n =52, 24%) was ranked as the second least preferred scene i n the irregular pattern set. Interesting enough, the comments made by partici pants who most preferred the Scene B (SI) and Scene A (SC) were found very similar to each other and the reasons and examples of comments presented earlier in the regular pattern set. As can be seen in Table 4 4 8 among the 104 (55.3 %) comments in the Sc ene B (SI) twenty nine (27.9%) were made about li king the color combination The comments reflected that the color combination in the Scene B (SI) mixed colors nicely

PAGE 110

110 and looked the best together. T wenty eight ( 26.9 %) comments were made about the percep tion of overall store settings Participants reported that the Simple/I ncoherent color combination in the Scene B (SI) matched the rest of the store and went well with the color scheme of store when comparing to other three color combinations. Tw enty five ( 24.0 participants evaluated the Scene B (SI) as the least over stimulating and the calmest one. Most comments in Scene A (SC) were similar to the comments made about the p erceptions of arousal in the Scene B (SI) Table 4 4 8 Descriptive distributions of themes emerging from written comments regarding the most preferred scene in the irregular pattern set Most preferred Theme Scene A (SC) Scene B (SI) Scene C (CC) Scene D (CI) Total n % Color Combination 6 29 2 0 37 (19.7%) Brightness 1 4 3 0 8 (4.3%) Color Pattern 0 5 4 0 9 (4.8%) Color emotion 10 2 5 1 18 (9.6%) Arousal 24 25 5 0 54 (28.7%) Pleasure 9 7 2 1 19 (10.1%) Store image 2 4 0 0 6 (3.2%) Overall Store Settings 9 28 0 0 37 (19.6%) Total n ( %) 61 (32.4%) 104 ( 55.3 %) 21 ( 11.2 %) 2 (1.1%) 188 (100% ) As can be seen in Table 4 4 9 there was a total of ninety eight (53.8%) comments made in the Scene D (CI) These comments were found very similar to some reasons presented earlier in the regu lar pattern set including disliking (20.4%) and

PAGE 111

111 In addition, thirty six comments were made abo Participants reported that the Complex/I ncoherent color combination in the Scene D (CI) was ugly, unpleasant and less appeasing when comparing to the other three color combinations. Seventeen (17.3%) comments were made about the perception of overall store settings Participants reported that the Scene D (CI) failed to match the rest of the store. Some examples of comments included the following: 1) the c olors do not blend well with the color scheme of store ; 2) the color doesn't look right with the rest of the dcor ; 3) the colors on the ceiling do not blend well with the rest of the atmosphere of the store The comments made by people who least preferred the Scene C (CC) about the the Scene D (CI) Moreover, participants who least preferred the Scene C (CC) indicated that it was too distracti ng and overly stimulating. Table 4 4 9 Descriptive distributions of themes emerging from written comments regarding the least preferred scene in the irregular pattern set Least preferred Theme Scene A (SC) Scene B (SI) Scene C (CC) Scene D (CI) Total n % Color Combination 1 0 0 20 21 (11.5%) Brightness 0 3 24 14 41 (22.5%) Saturation 0 0 0 3 3 (1.6%) Color emotion 3 0 3 2 8 (4.5%) Arousal 4 0 22 6 32 (17.7%) Pleasure 1 1 5 36 43 (23.6%) Store image 0 0 1 0 1 (0.5%) Overall Store Settings 1 0 15 17 33 (18.1%) Total n ( %) 10 (5.5%) 4 (2.2%) 70 (38.5%) 98 (53.8%) 182 (100%)

PAGE 112

112 In sum, the findings of qualitative analyses aligned with the quantitative analysis that participants color combination applications were consistent among the two different pattern set. In other words, no statistical p attern effect on the color combin a tion preferences was found in the current study In addition, the results of quantitative and qualitative analysis ar e discussed further in the C hapter 5 in order to answer the researc h questions posed in Chapter 1

PAGE 113

113 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The main purpose of this study was to understand the effects of two color combination applications in a boutique store on individual perception of complexity and coherence, color emotions, and store images, emotional states of arousal and pleas ure, and color preferences Therefore, these variables and the research questions pos ed in Chapter 1 are reviewed with the previous t heory in Chapter 2 and the findings in Chapter 4 Later, limitations, future research recommen dations, implications and con clusion are presented Perception of C omplexity According to classic color literatures (Acking & Kller, 1972 ; Valdez & Mehrabian, 1994) color saturation (chroma) influenced the perception of complexity; colors with higher saturation were perceived more com plex. Therefore, saturation was manipulated for distinguishing two different complex levels of two color combination used as the environmental stimuli in the study framework In the pilot study, the manipulations of sat uration were shown to contribute t o different complexity levels of two color combinations on color swatches. The results showed that all participants perceived the complex color scheme (CC and CI) as the more complex com bination in comparison with the simple color scheme (SC and SI) on col or swatches (Appendix I). The results supported prior research (Acking & Kller, 1 972; Valdez & Mehrabian, 1994) indicating that saturation was associated with individual perceptions of complexity. Interesting ly the findings of the pilot study revealed t hat individual perceptions of complexity toward the four two color combinations on color swatches were also significantly affected by different coherence levels. All participants evaluated the

PAGE 114

114 coherent color scheme (SC and CC) as the more complex combinati on rather than the in coherent color scheme (SI and CI) The levels of coherence (coherent versus incoherent) were distinguished by color value based on the color harmony research (Marshall, 1980; Ou & Luo, 2006). The findings of the pilot study suggested that value may influence the perception of complexity on color swatches, that it, the color combinations with higher and equal value (Yellow: 100% Purple: 100%) were perceived as more complex than the color combinations with lower and unequal value (Yellow : 50%; Purple: 100%). The results supported the findings of Hogg et al. (1979) color emotions studies indicating that value was associated with the complexity factor of environmental stimuli on the simple/complex emotion scale. Additionally, the results o f the pilot study showed individual perceptions of complexity toward the four different two color combinations on color swatches were significantly influenced by the interaction of complexity (simple versus complex) and coherence (coherent versus incoheren t) levels. Participants perceived the Swatch 3 (Complexity/Coherent) as the most complex color combination and the Swatch 1(Simple/Coherent) as the least complex color combination. Moreover, when applying the four two color combinations into the experiment al achromatic boutique store scene the results align ed with the findings in the pilot study that showed the Complex/Coherent (CC) color combination was perceived as the most complex one and the Simple/Coherent (SC) color combination was perceived as the l east complex one in the irregular pattern set. The findings suggested a positive relationship between individual perceptions of complexity and individual states of arousal toward the four two color combinations in the current high end retail environment, s ince the results of the

PAGE 115

115 perceptions of complexity and the evaluations of arousal states toward different two color combinations remain constant. The result aligned with previous studies (Giboa & Rafaeli, 2003; Kaltcheva & Weitz, 2006) indicating a positive linear relationship between states of arousal and complexity in retail environments. Although the Complex/Coherent (CC) and Complex/Incoherent (CI) color combination shared the same higher saturation (100%) when compared to the simple (25%) color combina tions (SC and SI), participants perceived the Complex/Coherent (CC) color combination as more complex than the Complex/Incoherent (CI) color combination. On the other hand, though the Simple/Coherent (SC) and Simple/Incoherent (SI) color combination shared the same lower saturation (25%) when compared with the Complex (100%) color combinations (SC and SI), participants perceived the Simple/Coherent (SC) color combination as less complex than the Simple/Incoherent (SI) color combination. The results suggeste d that the manipulation of color saturation was not the only factor associated with individual perceptions of complexity The instability of yellow hue and the simultaneous contrast effect of complementary color combinations may provide possible explanati ons for the current Josef Albers (1963, as cited in Portillo, 2009) elaborated on his stance that when two colors especially complementary colors were placed closely together, simultaneous contrast create d an illusion in which the colors appear more saturated in hue. In the current study, the color combination was arranged closely together on the color swatches and the ceiling of the simulated boutique store scene. Although the complementary color hues defined by Munsell were consistently manipulated (yellow:

PAGE 116

116 60; purple: 270) among all the four color combinations in the HSV color space, the complementary hues in the Complex/Coherent (CC) color combination manipulated with full saturation (100%) and full value (100%) appeared as a the most contrast ing one among all the four color combinations. Yellow was noted as an unstable hue which shifted readily when changing in value (lightness) ( Albers 1969). Therefore lowering the value (50%) of the yellow hue in the Complex/Incoherent (CI) color combination made the yellow hue shift to green, so the Complex/Incoherent (CI) (green and bright purple) color combination app eared as a less contrasting one than the Complex/Coherent (CC) (bright yellow and bright purple) color combination (Appendix I) D ue to the effect of simultaneous contrast, the Complex/Coherent (CC) color combination was perceived to be more saturated, so it was perceived as the most complex color combination On the other hand, the complementary hues in the Simple/Coherent (SC) color combination manipulated with low saturation (25%) but full value (100%) appeared as a less contrasting pair. Besides, lowering the value (50%) with a decreased saturation (25%) of the yellow hue in the Simple/Incoherent (SI) color combination made the yel low hue shift to achromatic grey, so the Simple/Coherent (SC) (pastel yellow and pastel purple) color combination app eared as a less contrasting one than the Simple/Incoherent (SI) (grey and pastel purple) color combination. Due to the effect of simultaneo us contrast, the Simple/Coherent (SC) color combination may be perceived as the least complex color combination. Pattern h as been identified as one information characteristic affecting the perception of complexity in a design (Donderi, 2006; Pieters, 2010 ). The objects

PAGE 117

117 arranged in an irregular pattern were perceived as more complex than the objects arranged in a regular pattern (Donderi, 2006; Pieters, 2010) In the present study, although two levels of two independent variables were manipulated in the irr egular pattern set, no statistical sign ificance was found for the perception of complexity in the r egular pattern set. When comparing the mean scores of the independent variables in the regular and irregular pattern set, the findings suggested the regular pattern set was perceived as more complex than the irregular pattern set which seems to contradict the expectation. This may be due to the relationship between color arrangements and the contrast effect in the present study. W hen two colors especially comp lementary colors were placed closely together, simultaneous contrast create d an illusion where in the colors appear ed more saturated in hue (Munsell, 1905) In the current study, the color combination was arranged repetitively and side by side on the ceili ng of the boutique store scene in the regular pattern set. Therefore, overall the color combinations in the regular pattern set may look more saturated than in the irregular pattern set, so the regular pattern set was perceived as more complex. Additional ly, according to Donderi (2006), complexity is greater when the objects in the design form an irregular rather than a regular pattern, with the extreme being a random distribution of objects across space. Though the irregular pattern was formed by randomly assigned square shapes, it was not dramatically different from the regular pattern. The square shapes were still arranged following certain rules for the irregular pattern rather than in an extremely random arrangement by overlapping the color shapes or v arying the spacing between color shape placements. The similarity between

PAGE 118

118 regular and irregular patterns may weaken the impact of color pattern difference on perceptions of complexity. However, it was beyond the scope of the study to examine the effect of color pattern on perceptions of complexity. Beside, due to the study design, each participant only responded to one of the eight boutique store scene for evaluations of each dependent variable. Therefore, it was unclear how color pattern difference affect s perception of complexity in this high end retail environment without comparisons for reference. It was suggested that further studies can replicate and expand the current study framework to investigate the interaction effects of color combinations and pa ttern differences (regular versus irregular) on perceptions of complexity i n a high end retail environment. Moreover the impact of dissimilarity of color combination arrangements (regular versus extremely random arrangement) or irregularity of color shape s (e. g. a mix of square, triangular and round shapes) on perception of complexity in a design ( Donderi, 2006 ; Pieters, 2010 ) can be further assessed in future studies. Perception of Coherence Wertheimer, 1924 u (Veryzer & According to the literature ( Marshall, 1980 ; Ou & Luo, 2006 ) color va lue plays an important role in perceptions of coherence. Marshall (1980) elaborated the qualitative rule that colors with unequal value ( lighted or darkened ) combined as a combination will be perceived as discordant (incoherent). Ou and Luo (2006) investig ated harmony in two color combinations using color swatches selected from CIELab color space for deriving a quantitative model. They found the color combination with a higher value was

PAGE 119

119 more likely to be perceived as harmonious (coherent) (Ou & Luo, 2006). Therefore, value was manipulated for distinguishing two different coherence levels of a two color combination and used as the environmental stimuli in the study framework. The perception of c oherence was measure d by four bipolar semantic scales including i ncoherent/ coherent disharmonious/ harmonious, unbalanced/ balanced, and dissimilar/ similar. Although the reliability value of these scales for measuring coherence individ ual dimensions may show different findings. Additionally, color coherence/incoherence has not been studied much, so studying how each dimension works is worth attention. In the pilot study, the manipulations of value on color swatches seemed to contribute to different coherence levels of two color combinations on the disharmonious/ harmonious and dissimilar/similar scales but not for the incoherent/coherent and unbalanced/ balanced scales. A ll participants perceived the coherent color scheme (SC and CC) as the more harmonious (similar) c olor combination than the incoherent color scheme (SI and CI) However, w hen applying the four two color combinations into the boutique store scene no significant difference was found between coherence levels in both the reg ular and irregular pattern. The results suggested the color harmony principles ( Marshall, 1980 ; Ou & Luo, 2006 ) may work for color swatches but fail to distinguish the coherence levels in an interior context. Interesting ly the findings of the pilot study revealed that individual perceptions of coherence toward the four two color combinations on color swatches were also significantly affected by different complexity levels on each scale. All participants

PAGE 120

120 evaluated the simple color scheme as a more c oherent combination than the complex color scheme on all the four scales T he results of the pilot study suggested a negative correlation between complexity and coherence. When the complexity level of the color combination increased, the perception of coherence d ecreased. The results confirmed assumption (2010) indicating that increasing complexit y implies decreasing similarity and unity in most cases (1972) that the variation of chromaticity can determine s of v isual complexity and coherence. Specifically the color combination s with the high er saturation were not only perceived as more complex but also perceived as less coherent. Additionally, the results of pilot study showed individu al perceptions of coherence toward the four different two color combinations on color swatches were significantly influenced by the interaction of complexity (simple versus complex) and coherence (coherent versus incoherent) levels. Participants perceived the Swatch 1 (Simple/Coherent) as the most coherent color combination and the Swatch 3 (Complex/Coherent) as the l east coherent color combination. Moreover, w hen applying the four two color combinations into the boutique store scene the results aligned th e findings in the pilot study that participants perceived the store scenes with the simple color scheme (SC and SI) as more coherent than those with the complex color scheme (CC and CI) in the irregular pattern set. The findings reconfirmed the negative co rrelation between complexity and coherence In addition, the qualitative findings reflected that the relationship between color combination and the overall environment setting on perceptions of coherence. T he store

PAGE 121

121 scene with a simple color scheme (SC and SI) related to the rest of the store and went with the col or scheme of store, whereas the store scene with a c omplex color scheme (CC and CI) was perceived as not connecting with the rest of the store. According to the Kaplan and Kaplan (1982), how well th e pieces of visual information offered in the environment reinforced each other determines the perceptions of coherence of a scene. Hence, t he store scene with a simple color scheme (SC and SI) was perceived as more coherent. The findings suggested that in dividuals tended to evaluate the coherence of the overall interior context. Therefore, it is not enough to only select colors without considering environmental preferences for the coherence chacterestics. Regarding the perceptions of coherence, unlike the irregular pattern set, no significant difference was found for the independent variables in the regular pattern set. When comparing the mean scores of the independent variables in the regular and irr egular pattern set, the result suggested the irregular p attern set was perceived as more coherent than the regular pattern set. The finding reinforced the negative correlation between complexity and coherence but seemed to oppose the Gestalt theories of figu ral goodness (Wertheimer, 1924) that a coherent (good) figure should be to each other. However, qualitative comments revealed that the irregular pattern was perceived as more coherent than the regular pattern, because the perceptions of coherence regarding color patter n were also associated with the overall interior context especially pattern ti les on the ceiling clashes with the mood and the clothing. That is, the randomly

PAGE 122

122 arranged irregular pattern affected perceptions of the overall store atmosphere, whereas the repetitive regular pattern did not. Hence, the irregular pattern was perceived as more coherent based on Kaplan and Kaplan (1982). However, these assumptions were lack of statistical support, since the present effect of color pattern on perceptions of coherence. Therefore, further studies can replicate and expan d the current study framework to study the interaction effects of color combinations and pattern differences (regular versus irregular) on perceptions of c oherence in a high end retail environment. Color Emotions The four two color combinations with diffe rent complexity and coherence levels as the environmental stimuli in the study framework were also in terms of emotional associations (Hogg, 1969; Hogg et al., 1979; Ou & Luo, 2004; Kaya & Epps, 2004 ). Therefore, color emotions were measured to see how dif ferent color attributes of two color combinations associated with individual perceptions of color emotions in the current high end retail environment. According to Ou and Luo (2004 ), value corresponds to a perception of visual weight ( light /heavy respons e) T he color com bination with higher value should be perceived lighter, whereas the color combination with lower value should be perceived heavier. participants perceived the co herent color scheme (SC and CC) with higher value as heavier one than the incoherent color scheme (SI and CI) in the regular pattern set. T his may be due to the different methodologies Ou and Luo (2004) investigated the relationship between color attribut es and perceptions of color emotions for single and two color combinations through color swatches. However, the current study examined

PAGE 123

123 how color attributes of two color combinations affect individual perceptions of color emotions in a simulated boutique st ore scene. The findings suggested that perception of visual weight for color combinations in a space may be influenced by the overall context of a space and pattern, so the perceptions of visual weight on color swatches and interior context can be compared in the future studies. Moreover, Ou at al. (2010) indicated that context and circumstance play a signific ant role in emotional responses, because t here are many other factors that are likely to be influential in the color emotion responses, such as lighti ng conditions and texture effect These factors can also be considered in the future studies. Additionally, perceptions of visual weight were significantly affected by the complexity levels in both the regular and irregular pattern set. The complex color s cheme (CC and CI) was perceived as heavier, whereas the simple color scheme (SC and SI) was perceived as lighter. Moreover, an interaction effect between complexity and coherence was found in the irregular pattern set. The Complex/Coherent (CC) color schem e was perceived as the heaviest combination, whereas the Simple/Coherent (CI) color scheme was perceived as the lightest combination. The findings suggested a positive correlation between the perceptions of complexity and visual weight (light/heavy). This may be due to the interrelations of the three color dimensions. The tinted (value: 100%) and tonal (saturation: 25%) complementary color hues (yellow/purple) in Simple/Coherent (SC) combination appeared as the pastel (less contrasting) color scheme and ass ociated with light emotion, whereas the tinted (value: 100%) and tonal (saturation: 100%) complementary color hues (yellow/purple) in Complex /Coherent (C C) combination appeared as the bright (highly contrasting) color

PAGE 124

124 scheme and associated with heavy emoti on. The results suggested that the three attributes work as an interrelated sensation influencing individual perceptions of complexity and visual weight in an interior context, so the three dimensions should not be fully isolated in future studies. Althoug and color patterns on perceptions of visual weight, w hen comparing the mean scores of the independent variables in the regular and irregular pattern set, it was found that the regular pattern s et was perceived as heavier than the irregular pattern set The findings reinforced the positive correlation between perceptions of complexity and visual weight and suggested that future study can replicate the current study framework to investig ate the interaction effects of the complexity levels and coherence levels of color combination and color pattern differences on perceptions of visual weight in a high end retail environment. Regarding visual activity, the findings in the irregular pattern set showed the perceptions of still/vibrant and passive/active emotions appeared to be significantly affected by the complexity (saturation) levels. The results confirmed that saturation corresponds to the still/vibrant and passive/active response (H ogg, 1969 & 1979; Ou & Luo, 2004 ) Participants perceived the store scenes with the complex color scheme (CC and CI) as a more vibrant and active combination than the store scenes with simple color scheme (SC and SI) especially in the irregular pattern set. Ber lyne (1974) suggested a positive relationship between complexity, arousal states and visual activity, because the arousal states denote the degree to which indiv arises when increasing the complexity of stimuli in the environment The current study

PAGE 125

125 findings confirmed that the complex color scheme (CC and CI) was perceived as more complex, arousing, and vibrant/active combination than the simple color scheme (SC and SI). Additionally, u nlike the irregular pattern set, no significant difference was found for the independent variables in the regular pattern set regarding visual activity When comparing the mean scores of the independent variables in the regular and irregular pattern set, the findings revealed that applying simple color combination (SC and SI) in a repetitive regular pattern may increase perception of visual activity than in a randomly arranged irregular pattern in the current study. This may be due to positive correlation between complexity and visual activity in the hig h end retail environment. The regular color pattern was perceived as more complex than the irregular pattern set, so individuals perceived the simple color combination in the regular pattern more complex. The results suggested that the possible interaction effects between color combination and color pattern differences on perceptions of visual activity in an interior context can be examined in future studies Perception of Store Image Color is often identified as contributing to store atmosphere by disti nguishing retail brand s (Bellizzi et al., 1983; Bellizzi & Hite, 1992; Baker, 1992; Crowley, 1993 ; Alawadhi, 2009). However, existing studies typically examine the impact of single colors in retail environments. Therefore, this study examined the effects o f two color combinations on individual environment. achromatic boutique store scene was confirmed in the pilot study. All participants agreed t hat the achromatic

PAGE 126

126 store scene image store image was reconfirmed by asking the participants to list adjectives to describe their overall impression of the achromatic boutique store scene in an open end question. The pilot study results supported the intended environmental image in the current study framework. Later, when applying the four two color combinations of different complexity and coherence levels to the achromatic boutique store s cene, the results were confir med with prior color research ( Alawadhi, 2009; Bellizzi et al., 1983; Bellizzi & Hite, 1992; Baker, 1992; Crowley, 1993) and s uggested color combinations influenced on the perceptions of store image (brand) in retail environmen ts The findings showed the complexity levels of color combination in both the regular and irregular pattern set regardless of the coherence difference. All participants agreed the store scenes with simple color scheme (SC and SI) were more sophisticated and upper class than the store scenes with complex color scheme (CC and CI). The qualitative data also reflected that the simple color scheme (SC and SI) reinforced the i mage of overall store setting, whereas the complex color scheme (CC and CI) distracted from it. The results suggested that perception of store images for color combinations in a space may be influenced by the overall context of a space and pattern. However the present study store image. W hen comparing the mean scores of the independent variables in the regular and irregular pattern set, it was found that the ir regular pattern s et was perceived as more sophisticated and upper class one than the regular pattern set

PAGE 127

127 Therefore, it was suggested that future studies can investigate the interaction effects between color combinations and color patterns on perceptions of store image in a high end retail environment. Moreover, the results revealed that applying any of the four two color combinations to the store scene image toward the store scene. The mean scores in both regular and irregular pattern sets were lower overall than the means scores in the achromatic store scene. According to Scott (2008), the environmental colors in a three dimensional space interacted differently depending on the way they were placed and can furthe r influence the perceptions of mood and atmosphere. Moreover, the color and form must be presented to the viewer in a manner that achieves visual unity (Portillo, 2009). T he findings of the current study suggested that, regardless of the variations of valu e, satu ration, and color patterns, applying the color combination dominantly on the one dimensional surface (ceiling) in the interior context may color schemes in the store to achieve current study to examine the impact of color combination applications on perceptions of store image. Therefore, it was suggested that future studies can apply the color combinations to the space in different ways (e.g. blending the color combination three dimensionally) and compare the results with the current study. Arousal States Arousal is a well accepted measure to investigate the r elationship between color stimuli and individual emotional states for the prediction of preference, store patronage and purchase intentions in retail environments (Bellizzi & Hite, 1992; Babin et al., 2003).

PAGE 128

128 However, these previous studies only examined si ngle colors as the environmental stimuli on the M R model in retail environments. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between two color combinations and individual emotional states in the high end retail environments. The states of arousal den ote the degree to which individuals feel stimulated, excited, or active in the environment (Berlyne, 1974). The findings of this study suggested that individual arousal states toward the four different two color combinations in the high end retail environm ents were significantly affected by different complexity levels of the two color combinations in both the regular and irregular pattern set. The results aligned with previous studies indicating that arousal levels can be influenced by color in retail envir onments (Babin et al., 2003 ; Bellizzi & Hite, 1992 ). Moreover, when the complexity level of two color combination increased, the evaluations of arousal states increased in both the regular and irregular pattern set. In other words, all participants perceiv ed the complex color scheme (CC and CI) as a more arousing combination than the simple color scheme (SC and SI). The results not only reinforced the positive linear relationship between arousal and complexity in retail envir onments (Giboa & Rafaeli, 2003), but also supported that individual states of arou sal increased linearly with color saturation in retail environments ( Kaltcheva & Weitz, 2006), since the current study based on the prior c olor complexity research ( Acking & Kller, 1972 ) Additionally, in the irregular pattern set, the results showed that individual states of arousal toward the four different two color combinations were significantly influenced by the interaction of complex ity (simple versus complex) and coherence (coherent versus

PAGE 129

129 incoherent) levels. The Complex/Co herent (CC) color scheme was perceived as the most arousing combination, whereas the Simple/Coherent (SC) color scheme was perceived as the least arousing combinat ion. The findings reinforced the positive correlation between perceptions of complexity and arousal states and suggested that the perceptions of complexity and arousal sta tes. The Complex/Coherent (CC) color appeared more saturated, so it was perceived as the most arousing (complex) color combination; conversely, the Simple/Coherent (SC) color appeared less saturated, so it was perceived as the least arousing (complex) colo r combination. Moreover, the qualitative data reflected that the highly saturated Complex/Coherent (CC) color clashed with the overall neutral color theme in the image (K obayashi, 1990) which was associated with the arousal states scale (Calm/Excited) used in the current study. The findings suggested that the color image created by the Complex/Coherent scheme image of the overall neutral color theme among the four color combinations, so it was perceived as the most arousing color combination. On the other hand, the Simple/Coherent (SC) color appeared as a lower contrasting (less saturated) pair. Therefore, the findings suggested t hat the color image created by the Simple/Coherent (SC) color combination w as theme among the four color combinations, so it was perceived as the least arousing color combination.

PAGE 130

130 Due to the positive linear relationship between arousal and complexity, the irregular pattern set was expecte d to be more arousing than the regular pattern set (Donderi, 2006; Pieters, 2010). However, w hen comparing the mean scores of the independent variables in the regular and irregular pattern set, the results aligned with the findings regarding perceptions of complexity in that the regular pattern set was perceived as more arousing than the ir regular pattern set. Therefore, it was suggested that future studies can investigate the interaction effects between color combinations and color pattern differences on individual arousal states in a high end retail environment. Pleasure States Emotional states indicated the amount of pleasure and arousal that individuals exp erienced within a retail environment. Pleasure denotes the degree to which individuals feels happy or satisfied in an enviro nment (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982; Donovan et al., 1994 ; Kaltcheva & Weitz, 2006; Park et al. 2010 ). The findings of this study reveal ed that individual pleasure states toward the four different two color combinations in the high end retail environments were significantly affected by different complexity levels in both the regular and irregular pattern set. Participants perceived the sim pl e (SC and SI) color as a more pleasing combination than the complex (CC and CI) color The strong connection between the complexity levels of the two color combination environ mental dimensions and state of pleasure in the Mehrabian Russell model. The results also aligned with previous studies indicating that pleasure levels can be influenced by color in retail environments (Bellizzi & Hite, 1992; Crowley, 1993; Babin et al., 20 03).

PAGE 131

131 suggesting a positive correlation between pleasure states and perceptions of coherence. Participants perceived the simple color scheme (SC and SI) as more coherent and pleasing; conversely, participants perceived the complex color scheme (CC and CI) as less coherent and pleasing. Furthermore, a positive relationship was also found between the pleasure states and t wo color combination preference, since t he evaluations of pleasure s ed consistent. The results aligned with previous studies (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974; Donovan & Rossiter, 1982; Kaltcheva & Weitz, 2006; Park et al. 2010 ) and supported t he role of pleasure for determining indiv idual approach avoidance behaviors ( preference ) In addition, the interaction effect between complexity and coherence levels almost reach the significant level ( p= 0.52) in the irregular pattern set. The Simple/Coherent (SC) color scheme was perceived as th e most pleasing combination, whereas the Complex/Coherent (CC) color scheme was perceived as the least pleasing combination. The results suggested a negative correlation between pleasure states and perceptions of complexity rather than the curvilinear rela tionship predicted by prior theory (Berlyne, 1974). A possible explanation may be found in the distribution of complexity rating in the irregular pattern set. Although the rating of the Simple/Coherent (SC) color scheme was relatively low at 2.59 on a 7 po int bipolar scale when compared to the other three color combinations, it was not an extremely low at 0 or 1. The ratings of other color combinations were larger than 3. These ratings suggested the environmental stimuli were perceived as having moderate to high complexity belonging to the negative side of

PAGE 132

132 moderate complexity, so the states of pleasure decreased linearly when the complexity level of color combinations increase d from SI, CI to CC. Additionally, the distribution of arousal states ratings in the irregular pattern set revealed that the rating of the Simple/Coherent (SC) color was relatively low at 3.12 on a 7 point bipolar scale, and the ratings of the other color combinations were larger than 4. The Complex/Coherent (CC) color scheme had the highest rating at 5. According to Bellizi et al. (1983), too much excitement and attraction created by a color scheme within a retail environment may become uncomfortable and irritating The findings aligned with Bellizi et al. (1983) suggesting the Complex/Coherent (CC) color scheme in a boutique store scene may be too arousing for viewers, so it became the most irritating and the least pleasing color combination. Giboa and Ra faeli (2003) found the interplay of complexity (moderate complex) and coherence (high coherent) in a retail design can lead to the highest pleasure and approach tendencies due to the way finding issues. Complex designs may impede navigation, so the introdu cing of coherence chacterestics was needed to facilitate wayfinding within a retail environment. Though their study did not particularly focus on color issues, it gave an insight to the importance of controlling the complexity (arousing) and coherence leve ls to appeal to consumers within a retail According to Kaltcheva and Weitz ( 2006 may moderate the effect of the arousal on the pleasantness of a retail environment (Kaltcheva & Weitz, 2006) W hen consumers have a recreational motivational orientation, high arousal has a positive effect on pleasure states; whereas when consumers have a task oriented motivational orientation, high arousal decreases

PAGE 133

133 p leasure states in retail environment. It was assumed that a boutique store may have predominantly recreational oriented consumers who perceived the highly arousing boutique store scene as the more pleasing one. However, the results seemed to contradict the expectation. This may be due to the types of recreational shoppers in different market segments, since the findings of developed using a simulated ordinary music store scene. Wirtz, Mattila and Tan (2000) noted that peopl e associated specific expectations with specific retail setting. Portillo (2009) also argued that though designing chromatic, highly stimulating physical environment was recommended for the recreational shoppers in some consumer research, such shoppers may differ depending on the market segment. For instance, one of her (Portillo, 2009) case studies in designing a Korean luxury shopping interior noted that, in general, the tonal, sophisticated interiors are more aesthetically pleasing (appealing) to the rec reational shoppers especially in the luxury sector. Therefore, the recreational shopper in a high end sector (boutique store) may differ from a recreational shopper in a low end (ordinary music shop) sector, so their expectations and responses with the ret ail setting are different. The findings suggested that future studies can examine how shopping motivational orientations (task versus recreational) mediate emotional states toward the color combination stimuli in a high end retail environment. In addition the current study findings revealed a positive relationship between visual weight (light/heavy) and pleasure states in the irregular pattern set. The lightest Simple/Coherent (SC) color theme was perceived as the most pleasing one, whereas the heaviest Complex/Coherent (CC) color theme was perceived as the least pleasing one. The perceptions of visual weight in relations to the interrelation of color attributes

PAGE 134

134 h ave been addressed in the prior discussion. The findings suggested the interrelation of colo r attributes should be considered for creating appropriated visual weight in interior context to increase individual pleasure states toward the high end retail environment. A tinted and tonal complementary color hues (yellow/purple) associating with light emotion may be suggested as the color scheme for making a high end retail environment. In addition, classic color preference researcher found that f emales preferred pastel colors, pale and subdued color tones, whereas males preferred brilliant hue tints a nd full colors tones (W arner 1949). Therefore, the pastel, pale and subdue d tonal color scheme in the Simple/Coherent (SC) combination may be perceived as the more pleasing combination by female participants whereas bright and full tonal color scheme in the Complex/Coherent (CC) combination may be perceived as the more pleasing combination by male participants The distribution of demographic chacterestics showed the study sample was composed of more females (56.86 %) than males (43.14 %). Therefore, gende r difference may be involve d in the current study findings. However, it was beyond the study scope to examine the gender differences on each dependents variable, but future studies can further compare the gender effect by a replication of this study. Th ough t color patterns on states of pleasure, w hen comparing the mean scores of the independent variables in the regular and irregular pattern set, it was found that the irregular pat t ern set was perceived as more pleasing one than the regular pattern set. The findings revealed a positive correlation between perceptions of coherence and pleasure states that aligned with Kaplan and Kaplan (1987) indicating that the

PAGE 135

135 coherence characterist ic of a scene can predict preference (pleasure states). The qualitative data revealed that participants perceived the irregular pattern set as more coherent and pleasing due to the relationship between color patterns and the overall interior context especi ally in terms of atmosphere (image). The findings suggested the importance of selecting color patterns while giving consideration to environmental preferences for creating a more pleasing retail environment. In addition, the asymmetry preference was found to be associated with a creative (Runco & Pritzker 1999, p. 363), so it was preferred by creative individuals. The young generation has b een identified as the more creative group. Interestingly, the current study selected participants from ages 18 to 30 years to target young consumers. The results suggested that using the irregular color pattern should be perceived as more creative and plea sing to the young market segment. Future studies can replicate the current study to examine the interaction of color combination and color pattern difference on pleasure states and further compare the age effect by using older adult sample. Two Color Comb ination Preference This study used complexity and coherence characteristics from the Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preference framework regarding two color combinations as the predictors of color preference within a high end retail environment. According to Kaplan and Kaplan (1987), the scene with the complexity characteristic that satisf ies an immediate exploring motivation should be preferred, and the scene with coherence characteristics satisfying an immediate understanding motivation should be preferr ed. Therefore, it was expected that the complex (CC and CI) color scheme was preferred

PAGE 136

136 over the simple (SC and SI) color scheme, and the coherent (SC and CC) color scheme was preferred over the incoherent (SI and CI) color scheme. Moreover, coherence can m ake the environment easier to comprehend and reduc e the uncertainly posed by complexity (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1982 ). P a higher level of complexity depends upon whether the information is ordered or unordered, because the un ordered comple x setting are difficult to comprehend (Ulrich, 1977) Therefore, looking at color combinations regarding the Kaplan and Kaplan enviro nmental preference, it was expected that the Complex/Coherent (CC) color combination would be perceived as the most preferr ed one, and the Complex/ Incoherent (CI) color combination would be perceived as the least preferred one among the four two color combinations in the current study. To investigate this assumption, each participant was asked to evaluate the level of overal l liking (preference) toward one of the eight store scenes. Although it was expected that the complex (CC and CI) color scheme would be preferred over the simple (SC and SI) color scheme, the results show ed that the store scenes with the simple (SC and SI) color scheme were preferred over the store scenes with the complex (CC and CI) color scheme in both the regular and irregular pattern set The possible explanations for this result emerging from prior discussions are as follows: the complex (CC and CI) co lor scheme 1) may exceed the moderate level of complexity (arousal); 2) was perceived less coherent; 3) was perceived heavier in visual weight; 4) was image of the retail environment than the simple color scheme (SC and SI).

PAGE 137

137 First, a ccording to Berlyne's theory of aesthetic response (1974) preference was associated with the arousal level of stimuli within the environment, and viewers' pleasure will increase with in creased complexity, to an optimal level (Berlyne, 1974). W hen increasing the complexity of stimuli linearly, the responses will show an invert ed U shaped curve for pleasure. P leasure plays a pivotal role in determining preference in the M R model (Mehrabia n & Russell, 1974 ). Hence, the possible reason explaining why the store scenes with simple (SC and SI) color schemes were preferred over the store scenes with complex (CC and CI) color schemes is that the level of complexity within the complex color combin ation scene s may exceed the moderate level of arousal l and pleasure. Second, though value failed to distinguish different coherence levels in the interior context, the perc eption of coherence was found significantly influenced by complexity levels due to the interrelation of three color attributes. The simple (SC and SI) color scheme was perceived as the ally pleasing and preferred combination. The results aligned with Kaplan and Kaplan (1987) suggesting that the coherence characteristic of a scene can be used as a predictor for interior preference by future color researcher s with the considerations of the coherence characteristic in the context of s pace. Berlyne (1971) suggested that order (coherence) has the above effect in addition to that of complexity on the external environment. In the current study, the coherence cha ra cteristics seemed more powerful than the complex characteristics in relation to color combination preference. Therefore, it was important to consider the coherence environmental cha ra cteristics when planning colors

PAGE 138

138 to a three dimensional interior. Portillo (2009) and her case studies had revealed that color planning is a complex t ask involving lightning, materiality and dimensionality issues which may affect individual color perceptions and preference. Hence, it was suggested that future studies can replicated this study framework but apply the color schemes to different lighting c onditions, materials, placement and proportion in comparisons with the present study findings. Prior discussion leads to a conclusion that color combination preference seemed strongly supported by both the Kaplan and Kaplan framework and the M R model. Us ing two color combinations as environmental stimuli can evoke emotional responses (arousal and pleasure) in mediating individual color combination preferences in the Mehrabian Russell model between the perceptions of complexity and coherence characteris tics, emotional states and color preferences directly, several correlations observed in prior quantitative findings show a moderate complex (arousal) and high coherent (pleasure) of the simple (SC and SI) color scheme was more preferred, whereas a higher complex (arousal) and lower coherent (pleasure) of complex color scheme (CC and CI) was less preferred. Third, a negative correlation was found between visual weight and color preference in both the re gular and irregular pattern sets The findings revealed that the highly saturated (100%) color scheme (complex color combination) was perceived as heavier an d less preferred. A lighter color scheme is associated with a spacious atmosphere, whereas a heavie r color scheme created an intimate space ( Quinn 1981). The results suggested that the lighter color scheme (SC and SI) was preferred, because

PAGE 139

139 quantitative findings rev ealing that t he spaciousness was often cited, particularly toward the simple (SC and SI) color scheme in both regular and irregular pattern set (Appendix F). According to Dowling (1993), a successful retail design should the creatio ( p. 307). Therefore, the lighter color scheme facilitating the creation of a spacious environment may be ideal for a boutique store. However, it was also noted that consumers may have specifi c expectations with specific retail settings (Wirtz et al., 2000). In other words, people looking for a more intimate and private atmosphere such as high end jewelry shoppers may prefer the heavier color scheme in a retail environment. Hence, future studie s can further examine the perceptions of visual weight on color preference toward different types of stores in comparison with the current Fourth, the perceptions of visual activity (passive/ active, still/ vibrant) positively correlated with the perceptions of complexity and the states of arousal but n egative ly corre lated with color preference s in the irregular pattern set The ratings of visual activity on the 7 point semantic scales revealed that the simple color scheme (SC and SI) crea ted the moderate active ( M: 3.97) and vibrant ( M : 4.00) emotions, whereas the complex color scheme (CC and CI) created the high active ( M: 5.50) and vibrant ( M : 5.21) emotion in a boutique store scene. The results aligned with Berlyne (1974) and Bellizzi e t al. (1983) suggesting th at too much excitement in the complex (CC and CI) color scheme may become uncomfortable and irritating lead ing avoidance behavior (less preferred) in a high end retail environment Though the highly saturated comple x (CC and CI) color scheme seemed over simulating for a boutique

PAGE 140

140 store, it may be an ideal color palette for the other types of store. For instance, Kaltcheva and Weitz (2006) suggested a sporting goods retail store should have a more complex layout and hi ghly saturated colors throughout the store. Therefore, the complex (CC and CI) color scheme may be suitable for this type of retail store to create the active and vibrant emotions. Fifth, when applying two color combinations on the ceiling of the achromatic store scene, results showed that the simpl e (SC and SI) color scheme w as perceived as a more sophisticated and upper class combination than the complex (CC and CI) color scheme in both the regular and irregular pattern set. In other words, the complex yellow purple Kincade and Moye ( 2003 ), Alawadhi ( 2009) and Portillo (2009), the more sophisticated of the store environment, the more it appeals to the up scale customers Therefore, was more preferred. In addition to the evaluations of overall liking toward one of the eigh t store scenes, each participant was asked to rank the four two color combinations store scenes in each regular and irregular pa ttern set from the most preferred to the least preferred one. The results of the preferences rankings aligned with prior evaluat ions of overall liking in that the store scenes with the simple color scheme (SC and SI) were preferred over the store scenes with the complex color scheme (CC and CI) in both the regular and irregular pattern sets. In addition, the Scene B (SI) was ranked as the most preferred one, and the Scene A (SC) was ranked as the second most preferred one. The Scene D

PAGE 141

141 (CI) was ranked as the least preferred one, and the Scene C (CC) was ranked as the second least preferred one Although it was expected that Scene C (CC) was the most preferred one base on Kaplan and Kaplan (1987), all participants preferred the Scene B (SI) the most in both the regular and irregular pattern sets. With a review of qualitative analyses regarding two color combination preferences, possi ble explanations for this confliction occurred. The comments made by participants to explain their preferences in the regular and irregular pattern set shared the following perspectives in common. First of all, the perceptions of the arousal level were ass color combination preferences. The comments showed that the store scene with the simple (SC and SI) color scheme was preferred, because it was less stimulating and distracting; conversely, the store scene with the complex (CC and CI) color scheme was not preferred, because it was too overwhelming and distracting. The findings aligned with prior evaluations of overall liking suggesting the level of complexity within the complex color combination scene s may exceed the moderate l evel of arousal, (Berlyne, 1974). The results reconfirmed Bellizzi that too much excitement and attraction created by colors within a retail environment may become an uncomfortable and irritating overstimulati on which can preferences Second, the perceptions of overall store settings were associated with participant two color combination preferences. The comments showed that the store scene with the simple (SC and SI) color scheme was pref erred, because it matched the rest of the store and went with the color scheme of the store, conversely; the store scene with complex (CC and CI) color scheme was not preferred, because it failed t o match the

PAGE 142

142 rest of the color scheme. A ccording to the Kapl an and Kaplan environmental preference (1982) how well the visual information offered by the environment han gs together determines the perception of coherence and preference of a scene. The qualitative date reflected that participants perceived whether th e visual information evoked by the color scheme hangs together with the overall interior context rather than the color appearance itself for the judgments of coherence. The qualitative date aligned with prior evaluations of overall liking suggesting the si mple (SC and SI) color scheme was perceived as more coherent, thus was preferred over the complex (CC and CI) color scheme. Moreover, due to the interrelations of three color attributes and instability of the yellow hue, the Scene B (SI), with the manipula tions of complementary hues, lower saturation and value, turned out to be a combination with the greyish yellow and pastel purple. Comments reflected that the color combination in the Scene B was preferred, e environment. The results reinforced prior research ( Kincade & Moye, 2003 ; Alawadhi, image (Scene B) was more appealing to up scale customers F urthermore, the qualitative findings aligned with prior color research ( Hogg, 1969, Hogg et al., 1979; K obayashi, 1981; Sato, 2000 ; Kaya & Epps, 2004 ) suggested color h as different psychological meani ngs and associational themes which was clo sely tied to c olor preferences Regarding the evaluations of overall likings w hen comparing the mean scores of the independent variables in the regular and irregular pattern set, it was found that the irregular pat tern set was more preferred than the regular pattern se t. The qualitative

PAGE 143

143 data revealed that the irregular pattern set was more preferred, because it was perceived as a more coherent color pattern in the interior context. The findings aligned with Kaplan and Kaplan (1987) reinforcing that the coherence charact eristic can be used as a predictor for interior preference. In the preference rankings, the store scenes rankings in the regular and irregular pattern set were constant. H owever, when comparing the frequency in each color pattern set, more people selected the Scene B (SI) as their most preferred one rather than the Scene A (SC), and more people selected the Scene D (CI) as their least preferred one rather than the Scene C (CC) in the irregular pattern set. The findings suggested that the irregular pattern had positive effect, leading to a preferred (SI) color combination, whereas the regular pattern had a negative effect, leading to a less preferred (CI) color combination. That is, both the findings in preference ratings and rankings suggested color pattern may influence color preference in a high end retail environment. However, they were not statistical ly support ed. Therefore, it was suggested that future studies can examine the interaction of color combinations and color pattern difference on environmenta l preferences in a high end retail environment. In sum, conflic t s between findings and expectations regarding color combination pref and contextually sensitive than other visual attributes related to enviro n mental preferences. This may explain the paucity of environmental research using the Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preferences. However, the quantitative and qualitative findings of the current study can help advanc e the body of knowledge for the color c ombination preferences in retail environments.

PAGE 144

144 Limitations and Future Research Several limitations may have affected the results in this study. First of all, the simulation research method in the current study has some shortcomings. T h ough the simulation method has its benefit for color related research to examine cause effect relationships by excluding potential ly confounding stimuli su ch as sound, odors, and light that would occur in an actual environment, this advantage may cause possible bias between t he experience of a simulated store scene and the experience of visiting an actual store environment, because of other visual stimuli within an actual retail setting may evoke certain emotional responses and then influence environmental preferences. Munsell (1921, cited in Portillo, 2009) noted that colors may shift in appearance under different lighting conditions or environmental conditions. Besides, the material and dimension differences of colors planning within three dimensional spaces may also influenc e color appearances and how people perceived the environments (Portillo, 2009). Therefore, it was suggested that future studies can apply the color schemes in different lig hting conditions (e. g. bright /dim, warm/cool, natural/artificial), finishes and ma terials selections (e. g. matte/gloss/paint, metal/ wood/glass), placement s (e. g. ceiling/floor/wall) proportion (e. g. accent color/ambient color) for investigating the possible effects on individual color perceptions and preferences in a high end retai l environment. Second, the color palette was selected systemically based on prior color literature for examining the cause effect relationships However, all interactive effects between color attributes and the environmental context were impossible to full y controlled since colors are always seen together and appear as interrelat ed visual sensation (Gao, 2007). C olors placed in three dimensional spaces could interact with each other and

PAGE 145

145 create illusions (Smith, 2008). Moreover, according to the Gestalt pri nciples of perceived as belonging together (Palmer, 1999). That is, not only the intera ction between hue, value and saturation of the color applications but also its relationship with the environmental color scheme may influence individual color perceptions and preference toward an environment. In fact, the present study findings had reveale d the interaction of color attributes on color perceptions and preference. Moreover, individual responses to the color stimuli are involved in the considerations of the overall interior context. Therefore, it was suggested that color combinations should be selected with the considerations of the interactive effect of color attributes and the context of a space in future studies. Third, Schlosser (1998) found that the effect of store atmospheres on different types of product s varied which influenced the pe rceptions of social identity products but had little effect on the of a retail store may differ based on the types of product s and the marketing segment s Moreover, it was noted that peopl e had specific expectations with in specific retail setting s (Wirtz et al., 2000) Their motivational orientations may influence their responses and preferences toward the retail environments (Kaltcheva & Weitz, 2006 ). Additionally, people with the same sho pping motivation may vary in different market segments (Portillo, 2009). Therefore, future studies can examine how shopping motivational orientations (task versus recreational) influence individual color perceptions

PAGE 146

146 and preferences in different types of re tail environments, such as a big box store and department store s to compare with a high end space Fourth, color pattern seemed to have certain impact s on each dependent variable e interaction of color combination and color pattern difference on individual color perceptions and preferences in a high end retail environment. Moreover, ac cording to Pieters (2010), the dissimila rity and irregularity of shapes can increase the perceptio ns of complexity in a design. Yet, the current study only applied the regular and irregular patterns which were formed by the same regular square shapes. Therefore, it is suggested that fu rther studies can expand on the current study f ramework to investi gate how the four two color combinations in more different patterns (e. g. regular/extremely random arrangement) or irregular shapes (e. g. a mix of square, triangular and round shapes) affect individual color perceptions and preferences in a high end reta il environment. Additionally, regardless of color combinations, the irregular pattern seems more (pleasing) preferred than the regular pattern. This may be due to the creativity dimension of the study participants, since a creative individual tends to pre fer asymmetry (Runco & Pritzker 1999). The age effect was often discussed in creativity research ( Simonton 1975; Runco & Pritzker 1999). Besides color pattern preference, the age effect on color image preference was also addressed ( Beke & Kutas 2008). Yet, the current study only targeted the young generation (age 18 30). Therefore, future studies can replicate the current study to examine the age effect on individual color

PAGE 147

147 perceptions and preferences between the regular an irregular pattern with the sam ple of older adults. Fifth, the sample size of this study may be one possible limitation. Though a total of 153 valid participants were used in the current study, the participants were randomly assigned to rate only one of the n ine store scenes including o ne achromatic store scene and the other eight store scenes with four color combinatio ns by two patterns applications. T hat is, the average number of participants within each scene is less than 20. Although the study has found significant results with the e xisting sample size, the result may have more validity and reliability with a larger number of participants Additionally all samples are composed of universities students from marketing programs so they may not represent the actual shoppers of a boutiqu e store Therefore, future studies may be conducted by a replication of this study with a demographic more representative of high end shoppers. Sixth, classic color preference researcher found the a gender difference in color preferences ( Warner, 1949). H owever, there is a wide diversity and argument regarding gender difference in color preference (Ou & Luo, 2012). For instance, Camgo et al., (2001) found gender does not have an effect on color preference. However, it was contradicted 2007) findings. Besides, Ou and Luo (2006) also found a gender difference in the evaluations of color emotions for two color combinations. Yet, none of the existing research compared the gender effect on the perceptions and preference of two color combinat ion in a retail environment. Though this study had recruited both female (56.86 %) and male (43.14 %) participants, but it was beyond the study scope to compare the gender differences in color perceptions and preference.

PAGE 148

148 Therefore, it was suggested that a nother further study can compare the gender effect by replicat ing this study. Seventh, the color symbolism associat ed with color emotions and preference s has been noted as differing across various cultures (Kaya & Epps, 2004). Ou and Luo (2012) found that the cultural difference strongly affected individual two color combination preference. However, none of the existing research examined the cultural effect on the perceptions and preference s of two color combination s in a high end retail environment In th e contemporary global society, many high end retail businesses had expanded their footprint throughout the world, such as Louis Vuitton, Gucci, further research er to identify culturally related differences in color perceptions and preferences by replicating this study with a sample composed of people from various cultural backgrounds (e. g. Caucasian versus Asian) or in different nationals (e. g. USA versus Taiwan). Conclusion s and Implication Color represents one of the most pervasive environmental elements within our daily surroundings, and has been typically examined contextually by researchers. It was found that color plays an important role in creating the store atmosphere, predicting re patronage and purchase intentions in the retail environments. Colors always work together and interact with each other in an actual environment. Therefore, the findings of the single color studies do not guild interior designers in practice. Considering the lack of knowledge regarding the influences of colors as a combination within the store context, this study adopted the Kaplan and Kaplan environmental preference framework using the complex and coherence

PAGE 149

149 characteristic as the predictors for two color combination preferences in a high end retail environment. T he complexity and coherence chacterestics regarding two color combinations were identified through a review of literature and then systematically manipulated by the complementary hues (yellow/purpl e), value, and saturation The manipulation s of the four two color combination applications (2 levels of complexity x 2 levels of coherence) were verifi ed on color swatches. When applying the two color combinations into the store scene, though the complexi ty characteristic still contributed to the sig nificant difference in individual perceptions of complexity, regarding coherence characteristic, no significant difference in the perceptions of coherence was found. According to the Ge stalt principles of perc eption, people tend to visually assemble individual objects into groups or unified wholes (Palmer, 1999), and how well the visual information offered in the environment reinforces itself determines the perceptions of coherence of a scene (Kaplan & Kaplan, strengthen ed these principles suggesting individuals tended to evaluate coherence for the overall store context rather than only the color combination itself. Both the quantitative and qualitative data revealed that the coherenc e characteristic perceived in the interior context plays a pivot role in individual color preferences. Specifically, whether the mood, personality, style, and atmosphere, in relations to the store image evoked by colors, integrated well with the overall st ore context is involved in individual perceptions of coherence and end retail environment is more appealing. Moreover, despite the lack of direct statistical supports, both the quantitative and qualitative data suggested that the forms of the color

PAGE 150

150 placement may influence individual perceptions of coherence and color preferences. A color pattern, irregular pattern in this study, unifying with a high end retail environment is mor e appealing. In other words, individual perceptions of color and preference are involved with the composition of the overall context. In addition to the Kaplan and Kaplan framework, t he Mehrabian and Russell (1974) model w as also in tegrated in the current study to examine how two color combinations as the environmental stimuli affect individual emotional states and then how the emotional states mediate preferences. The results aligned with the M R theory revealing that two color combination s had signif ican t effects on individual states of arousal and pleasure in mediating preferences toward a high end retail environment It was clear that a highly contrasting complementary color combination that aroused more active and vibrant emotions was perceived as a le ss pleasing and less preferred color scheme, whereas a less contrasting complementary color combination that aroused moderate active and vibrant emotions was perceived as a more pleasing and more preferred color scheme in a retail boutique store. Creating store atmosphere s becomes more and more important for the retailers to express the desired brand identity for engaging consumers (Landa, 200 6). The c urrent study findings can help retailers and interior designers in establishing an ideal brand identity f or a high end retail environment regarding their color choice. However, they should not follow the findings blindly without considering thoroughly what the consumers need. Consumer needs differ as a result of their personalities, shopping motivations, and expectations for different store settings. A successful color plan for an interior design should satisfy consumer needs (Portillo, 2009). Therefore, it was risky for the

PAGE 151

151 interior designer to apply the color schemes prescriptively without adapting them to d ifferent store settings. A highly contrasting complementary color scheme may not be ideal for the shoppers who are looking for a light, spacious environment, but it may appeal to the shoppers who are looking for a more intimate, private environment. Additi onally, a tonal, pastel complementary color scheme may work for the shoppers who are looking for a calm, relaxed environment, but it may not satisfy the shoppers who are looking for excitement. Moreover, spatial dimensionality is a critical issue when plan ning colors in an interior environment (Portillo, 2009). The three dimensional form certainly influences t he interpretation of colors. Further color preference sometimes varies across age groups and cohorts. For example, a randomly placed color pattern ma y be perceived as more creative and appealing for young high end retail shoppers, but it may not work as well for older adults. Additionally, a highly contrasting complementary color scheme applied liberally may be too overwhelming for a high end retail en vironment, but used sparingly as the accent color can create an aesthetically pleasing and exciting focal point. In sum, to create a successful design solution, interior designers should develop a color palette by considering both spatial, psychological a nd behavioral considerations rather than just select colors intuitively.

PAGE 152

152 APPENDIX A IRB APPROVAL

PAGE 153

153 APPENDIX B CONSENT FORM The effect of two color combinations on consumer preference dimensions in a retail environment Please read this consent documen t carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the study: The following survey is part of a study that seeks to determine the effects of the different results will help interior designer to develop and design the retail spaces more appealing to shoppers. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to rate four different color conditions generated by computer graphic software. Then, you w ill be given a short survey including your demographic information and perception of the scenes. This questionnaire is expected to take no longer than 15 minutes to complete. Risk and Benefits: There are no expected risks or benefits associated with the st udy. Compensation: There is no compensation for participating in this study. There are no direct benefits to you in completing this survey. Confidentiality: You will NOT be asked to give your name or contact information. Any personal demographic informatio n will only be used to compare your answer to other participants Your responses will be anonymous. Voluntary Participation: Participation is voluntary and you are under no obligation to complete this questionnaire. Right to withdraw from the study : You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. You do not have to answer any questions that you do not want to answer. If you choose to withdraw, please inform the administrator and your questionnaire will be destroyed. If you have any questions about this research project, please feel free to contact Yu ting Chang, Graduate Student at (352) 665 1958 (yutina.chang@gmail.com) and Dr. Park, Nam Kyu, Assistant Professor, Department of Interior Design at (352) 392 0252 ext.338 (npark@ufl.edu). For additional information regarding human participation in research, please contact the Campus Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the University of Florida Gainesville IRB Office at (352)392 0433 _________________________ _______________________ (Yu ting Chang)

PAGE 154

154 APPENDIX C INSTRUMENT PILOT STUDY Section One INSTRUCTIONS: You will be shown four se ts of color combinations. Please evaluate each color combination and answer the following questions. Simple Coherent (SC) This time, please rate your impression of this color combination by using the following adjectives. Simple 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Complex Coherent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Incoherent Disharmonious 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Harmonious Unbalanced 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Balanced Dissimilar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Similar Simple Incoherent (SI) This time, please rate your impression of this color combination by using the following adjectives. Simple 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Complex Coherent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Incoherent Disharmonious 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Harmonious Unbalanced 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Balanced Dissimilar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Similar Complex Coherent (CC) This time, please rate your impression of this color combination by using the following adjectives. Simple 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Complex Coherent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Incoherent Disharmonious 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Harmonious Unbalanced 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Balanced Dissimilar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Similar

PAGE 155

155 Complex Incoherent (CI) This time, please rate your impression of this color combination by using the following adjectives. Simple 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Complex Coherent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Incoherent Disharmonious 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Harmonious Unbalanced 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Balanced Dissimilar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Similar Section Two INSTRUCTIONS: You will be shown a store image of a retail boutique store. Please evaluate the image and answer the following questions. 1. Please rate your impression of overall store image by using the following adjectives. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Upper class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sophisticated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Modern 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Traditional 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Please list adjectives that describe your impression of this store image.

PAGE 156

1 56 Section Three 1. What is your gender? (1) Male (2) Female 2. What is your age? (1) Less than 21 (2)21 25 (3) 26 30 (4) 31 35 (5) more than 35 3. Please indicate your date of birth (Month/Year) 4. Do you have visual impa irments (such as color deficiency ) that cannot be corrected by your glass or contact lenses? (1) Yes (2) No 5. What is your UFID? 6. P lease initial here. Thank you for your participation!

PAGE 157

157 APPENDIX D INSTRUMENT MAIN STUDY Section one INSTRUCTIONS: You will be shown a store image of a retail boutique store. Please evaluate the image and answer the following questions. 1. Overa ll ho w much do you like this boutique store? Dislike Very much 4 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 Like very much 2. Please explain w hat you like about this boutique store. 3. Please explain wha t you dislike about this boutique store 4. Please rate your im pression of this store by using the following adjectives Displeasing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pleasing Ugly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Beautiful Unsatisfying 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Satisfying Rel axed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 tense Excited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 calm 5 This time, please rate your impres sion of the interior colors by u s ing the following adjectives. Simple 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Complex Coherent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Incoherent Discordant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Harmonious Separated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unified Disorderly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Orderly Dissimilar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Similar Unbalanced 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Balanced Dynamic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Static Still 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Vibrant Lifeless 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Lively Passive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Active Light 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Heavy Youthful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mature

PAGE 158

158 6. This time, please rate your impression of overall store image by using the following adjectives. Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Upper class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sophisticated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Section Two 1. What is your gender? (1) Male (2) Female 2. What is your age? (1) Less than 21 (2)21 25 (3) 26 30 (4) 31 35 (5) more than 35 3. Please indicate your date of birth (M onth/Year) 4. Do you have visual impa irments (such as color deficiency ) that cannot be corrected by your glass or contact lenses? (1) Yes (2) No 5. What is your UFID? 6. Please initial here. Thank you for your participation!

PAGE 159

159 APPENDIX E CONTENT ANALYSIS STORE IMAGE OF THE ACHROMATIC BOUTIQUE STORE SCENE Table E 1. Content analysis s tore image of the achromatic boutique store scene Total ( N = 509 ) Category n % Adjective (Frequency) Category n % Adjective (Frequency) Luxurious 122 23.97 Luxurious (67); Expensive (25) High end (20); Upscale (13) Sophisticated (7) Clean 117 22.97 Clean (63); Organized (25) Simple(13); Neat (11) Orderly (3) Modern 121 23.77 Modern (54); Trendy (13) Sleek (13); Fashionable (9) Hip (8); Cool (8) Fancy (5); Chic (3) Stylish (3); Edgy (3) Contemporary (2) Bright 35 6.88 Bright (29); Well lit (6) Nice 33 6.48 Nice (7); Beautiful (6) Comfortable (4); Classy (4) Ele gant (4); Welcoming (4) Pretty (2); Awesome (2) Others 19 3.73 Cold (4); Light (3) Youthful (2); Boring (2) Clustered (2); Unique (2) Unfriendly (2); Soft (2) Exciting (2) White 22 4.33 White (14); Plain (4) Ste rile (4) Open 13 2.56 Open (7); Spacious (4) Big (2) Calm 19 3.74 Calm (13); Relaxed (6) Long 8 1.58 Long (5); Narrow (4)

PAGE 160

160 APPENDIX F CONTENT ANALYSIS OF COLOR PREFERENCE Table F 1. Content analysi s of color preference Themes What you like about the store scene #S F What you dislike about the store scene #S F Color Ceiling design, light color, nice ceiling, I like the ceiling, white, the color scheme, the ceiling, I like the ceiling, colorful, the color on the ceiling, the white wall, the colors on the roof, the ceiling, the clean white, the white walls and shelves, colors, the colorful ceiling, white, the off white floors and walls, the color design on the ceiling, how the plain color of the st ore attracts more attention to the actual clothing, it manages to avoid being too plain and boring with the ceiling design, the roof, cool colors, everything is white makes it appealing to the eye, has subdued colors, so mundane, like the neutral colors, the white shelving, the white walls and floors, the white, kind of like the bright pop of color in the ceiling, colors are pleasant on the eyes, the white walls and floors, the contrast of the ceiling with the white lo ok of the store T 32 Regular Pattern SC 4 SI 1 CC 5 CI 8 Irregular Pattern SC 7 SI 3 CC 1 CI 3 The color of the ceiling, the ceiling color, the ceiling, the colors involved in ceiling, the purple and yellow ceiling doesn't go with the theme the tacky ceiling, the ceiling colors are so tacky, it takes away from the store's clean and trendy atmosphere. the ceiling is a bit over the top, the ceiling color is nice and unique but too out of place with the white colors of the wall and floor, the ceiling does not fit in with the rest of the room, roof color is distracting, the ceiling design, it takes away from the clothes and is a little intimidating, the ceiling color, The thing that throws me off the most is the ceiling, the ceiling, the ceiling the ceiling is tacky, the confusing roof top which bothering eyes, the ceiling, the ceiling, the colors in the ceiling are distracting and do not fit with the style of the store, the ceiling is really annoying, the ceiling, the purple and yellow roof, it is too flashy and lowers the elegance of the store. It doesn't really match the rest of the setup, the ceiling; the contrasting colors are unpleasant and distracting from the clothes, the color on the roof, the ceiling color, the ceiling, the purple and g reen roof looks terrible and it would really annoy me to be in this store, I do not like the ceiling, colors clash and it is very distracting, the colors do not match, the roof colors, the awful ceiling arrangement, the ceiling is too bold and distracting. It also seems to clash with the other colors in the room, and the colors on the ceiling itself aren't a pleasant combination, the colors on the ceiling are offensive, awful ceiling colors, the ceiling appearance, the colors on the ceiling, the purple and yellow ceiling to be at a discord with the rest of the store. It pulls your eye up and away from T 72 Regu lar Pattern SC 8 SI 8 CC 14 CI 13 Irregular Pattern SC 4 SI 3 CC 13 CI 9

PAGE 161

161 store colors of the ceiling, ceiling design and colors, the purple rectangles on the ceiling looks very ta cky, and ruins an otherwise very nice color scheme, colors are crazy, dislike the colors on the ceiling, the design on the ceiling, the colors, colors of ceiling, color of the ceiling, the color of ceiling, the color on the ceiling, the ceiling is totally unrelated to the inside, ugly ceiling colors, the colors on the ceiling. These colors do not go with the theme of the store the store without the ceiling would look elegant, probably expensive but comfortable, the color combination of the ceiling, the col ors on the ceiling, they bring down the essence of a clean and mod space by adding dark and unpleasant colors, the color combination is not that appealing, the ceiling, the roof colors, the ceiling is distracting and very ugly, the ceiling design Lighting The white lighting on the shelves, well lit, bright, bright, the lighting, the ceiling is bright, lights on the ceiling are interesting, the light, it look s bright, the illuminating lights. T 8 Regular Pattern SC 1 SI 1 CC 1 CI 2 Irregular Pattern SC 0 SI 1 CC 1 CI 2 The lighting on the ceiling, the lighting is really intense and bright, the lighting on the clothes, T 3 Regular Pattern SC 1 SI 0 CC 0 CI 0 Irregular Pattern SC 0 SI 2 CC 0 CI 0 Color Pattern The pattern the patterns on the ceiling, T 2 Regular Pattern SC 0 SI 0 CC 1 CI 1 Irregular Pattern SC 0 SI 0 The tiles on the ceiling, clashing w ith the mood and the clothing, the ceiling rectangle pattern, checkerboard ceiling design, vulgar color pattern on the roof, The checkered ceiling is sort of distracting the pattern of lights on the ceiling, the ceiling pattern, ceiling pattern, pattern o f ceiling, the pattern on the ceiling, the way the ceiling of the store is painted is very distracting and takes away from the organization of the store. T 11 Regular Pattern SC 4 SI 1 CC 1 CI 3 Irregular Pattern SC 0 SI 0

PAGE 162

162 CC 0 CI 0 CC 2 CI 0 Composi tion of the Space Big, spacy, openness, very open, organized, very organized, organized, very organized, very organized, very organized, clean, clean, very clean look and does not have a lot of clutter very spacious, spacious, open space, being open, wid e aisle, openness of display, clean, neat, how the clothes are organized, very clean, clean, clean, clean feel, clean, cleanness of display, spacious, spacious, look spacious, very open, room to try on shoes and clothes, the clean appearance, the store lay out, layout, organized, clean, clean and organized, clean, looks clean, clean, well organized, neatly organized not cluttered, items are easily accessible, very clean, spacious, spacious, organization of the racks, very neat, the way the items are display ed, very things space out, the setup, everything is neat, the spacing of the clothes and shoes, the organization of it, it has an interesting layout that makes you feel as if you're walking down a runway instead of just shopping in an ordinary mall, openn ess, open layout, opening space, organization, it is organized, very organized, organization, well organized, well organized, organization, looks clean, neat, clean look, clean, well fit and clean, neat and organized there is a lot of room on the sides of the store, spacious, everything is spaced out, very spacious and open, like the open space, open space, very open space, openness, it is organized, looks clean, very neat and organized, very clean, it is clean, it is well organized, really clean and fres h, looks very organized and neat, the openness, clean, organized, the clean layout, very neat and not cluttered at all, the cleanness, everything looks very clean, organized, very T 105 Regular Pattern SC 16 SI 15 CC 9 CI 5 Irregular Pattern SC 18 SI 9 CC 13 CI 10 slightly too long, like a hallway than a store, things are too spread out, too spread out, an ine fficient use of space, organization is very bad a little narrow, too narrow, things are too spread out, too spread out, an inefficient use of space, organization is very bad, clothes doesn't look organized well, clothes doesn't look organized well too much spacing, there is too much open/ dead space for it to be a retail store, it looks more like a closet than a store, not spacious enough, it looks more like a closet than a store, not spacious enough slightly unorganized slightly unorganized, disorg anized clothing racks, the clothes are not organized in sections, disorganized clothing racks, the clothes are not organized in sections, bareness and empty space, too narrow, narrow, not the most efficient in order to show product T 26 Regular Pattern SC 2 SI 6 CC 1 CI 3 Irregular Pattern SC 1 SI6 CC 6 CI 1

PAGE 163

163 organized, clean and organized, spacing, spacious, the way the shoes are or ganized, well organized, it is very organized, neat and clean, the clean cut look, clean layout and design, organized, clean, the clean lay out of the store, the organization of the store, the layout, open, spacious, nice spacious, very organized, clean, c lean, the organization, clean, organized, organized neatly Shopping O rientation It is easy to scan for what I am looking for. how the clothes have good space to see everything, each item can be seen well, the clothes are very spaced apart ma king it easy to look at the merchandise, the easy view of all the merchandise, how you see the items in the store easily, is easy see things, different store appearance then what the average costumer is used to, I would shop here for the experience, clothi ng looks nice, not too much merchandises, seems easy to find products that you're looking for, making it easy to find anything that I might be looking for, easy to spot the things you like, easy to shop at, everything is easy to see/find, the ability to se e all of merchandise, items are grouped together making them easy to find, they are easy to sort through T 11 Regular Pattern SC 2 SI 3 CC 1 CI 1 Irregular Pattern SC 2 SI 0 CC 1 CI 2 tell if its girls our guys clothes, not my type of clothing, looks like exclusively women's clothes, there aren't many options and the racks look almost empty of clothes, It doesn't have a lot of items for sale, the there is a lot of selection, not many options. It is very limited, feel and not that many clothes, not a lot of clothes, there should be more chairs and more shoes beneath the clothes, doesn't seem like a lot of options are available, the amount of clothi ng are too limited, it doesn't look like they have a large variety it would not have enough selection, there are not many options, Maybe it would be hard to find what you're looking for at first glance, males, the sele ction of clothing is limited, too many shoes, has very little clothes, might take a while to find something, T 23 Regular Pattern SC 5 SI 4 CC 2 CI 0 Irregular Pattern SC 4 SI 3 CC 2 CI 3 Emotion I feel that it has a nice flow and is invit ing, visual appealing, very inviting, interesting it seems more welcoming I will want to stay there for a while, it looks cozy, like the calming colors, inviting and visually satisfying, the ceiling it has a very interesting look aesthetically appea ling. T 9 Regular Pattern SC 1 SI 3 CC 0 CI 1 Irregular Pattern SC 2 SI 2 CC 1 CI 0 not comfortable place to buy clothes, doesn't look comfortable, be afraid to touch anything because it seems too kept, I'd much rather be in a place where I don't feel so pressured to be cool. I'd rather be somewhere that looks comfortable and welcoming, the ceiling is ugly, the center bench seem uncomfortable, too much, the ceiling draws a lot of attention, it is also slightly overwhelming T 9 Regular Patt ern SC 2 SI 2 CC 0 CI 1 Irregular Pattern SC 1 SI 0 CC 3 CI 0

PAGE 164

164 Store Image The modern look, very modern look, chic, modern, modern feel, modern, the modern look, Very modern feel, modern, modern, very classy appeal, unique, very modern, lo oks hip, very stylish, unique, has a modern feel, modern feel, looks modern, the innovative look, modern, the modern feel to it, cool atmosphere, sleek look, look fashionable, looks very modern and classy, elegant, modern, looks modern and trendy, a futur istic feel, the modern layout, cool and modern, modern, very modern looking, unique looking, futuristic, the modern design, very futuristic atmosphere in this store, fancy, sleek looking, it is trendy I like the modern design and feel, post modern stylin g of the room, sleek modern, very modern, modern, looks very modern, modern, edgy, futuristic, cool, modern look, modern look T 31 Regular Pattern SC 8 SI 6 CC 3 CI 7 Irregular Pattern SC 6 SI 11 CC 3 CI 10 Expensive, too trendy, unaffordabl e goods that tells college students on a budget to stay away, how upscale it is because it looks like it would be more expensive, it's too flashy, too futuristic, looks upscale, too modern, how modern it look, looks expensive, very pricey because of the upscale look, looks too expensive, too modern, looks expensive, perceived expensiveness, very expensive taste T 21 Regular Pattern SC 2 SI 5 CC 5 CI 1 Irregular Pattern SC 1 SI 1 CC 3 CI 3

PAGE 165

165 APPENDIX G CONTENT ANALYSIS OF MOST PREFERRED AND L EAST PREFERRED SCENE IN THE REGULAR PATTE RN SET Table G 1. Content analysis of most preferred and least preferred scene in the regular pattern set Themes Most Preferred #S F Least Preferred #S F Color C ombination I like the color combination the most, the colors jump out the least, I like the colors, interesting colors, the color combination was the best, color, color, neutral color, interior colors, light purple and light yellow are a good combination, like the fa ded contrasting colors, colors in the ceiling go best together, color go well together, favorite color scheme like the colors, like the colors, the colors, like the hue of the colors, nice color, like the color combination, the colors, the light green i s the nicest compliment to the light purple, colors are nice, like how black and purple look together, the color combination, like the colors, good color combo, the colors complement each other, colors go well together, colors go together, don't clash too bad together, the colors somewhat match compared to the others the color combination is the best, color T 31 A 12 B 17 C 2 D 0 The black and purple, purple and yellow combination, the bright yellow and purple together, colors are too opposite, colors do not look good together green, and purple, the color combination, color combination, colors are hideous, colors clashing, bad colors, the green, bad color combination, bad color combination, don't complement each other, bad color co mbination, worst color scheme, bad color combination, odd and green together, hate this purple and green combo, the colors, greenish/brown color, colors, color combinations, colors look awful together, colors do not go together, colors don't match, don't go together at all and are very uncomplimentary, the ceiling don't go well together T 29 A 0 B 2 C 4 D 23 Brightness Light purple and light yellow are a good combination, b righter, not too bright, brighter, not as bright as the others bright colors, has brighter colors, bright colors catch the eye, bright color choices are too bright so having them darker looks better T 10 A 4 B 1 C 4 D 1 Bright bright, too bright, too bright, too bright, too bright, too bright, too bright, too bright, Too bright, too bright, Too bright, too bright, Too bright, bright, Too bright, too bright, Too bright, too bright, Too bright, too bright, Too bright, bright, To o bright, bright, too bright, too bright, too bright, so bright, too bright, too bright, bright and hurts your eyes to stare too bright, too dark, too dark, too bright, too dark, too dark, too bright, very dark, too dark, too dark, too dark, too dark, too dark, dark, dark, too dark, too dark, dark, dark, dark, dark, dark T 54 A 2 B 0 C 30 D 22

PAGE 166

166 Saturation like the pastel purple color T 11 A 0 B 1 C 0 D 0 Pastel colors T 1 A 1 B 0 C 0 D 0 Overall Store S ettings Fits in more well with the light atmosphere of the store, it seems to blend in more without taking the attention off the setting, fits the scene the most, without disturbing the entire setup of the store, the colors match with the rest of the store, fit the store and the clothing style offered, the colors match most with the building, fits the closest with the store's color scheme, go well with the colors used in the store, matches the rest of the store, blend better with the store colors blend, the colors fit the theme, go with the color scheme of the store, the colors seem to blend better with the overall store colors, match with the black chair, goes with the store, better matching, color go with the rest of the store, looks goo d in store, go with the rest of the store, the perfect color combination with the rest of the store's theme and colors, colors match the atmosphere, best overall color scheme, colors went well with the interior of the store, blends in the best with the sto re T 25 A 8 B 17 C 0 D 0 Do not match do not blend with the rest of the store, yellow that clashes with the other colors, yellow should never be in a clothing store, yellow doesn't go well with the store, do not flow with the ima ge of the store, clash with the rest of the store, clashes against the colors used in the store, do not fit the store, the yellow color on the ceiling does not match anything in the store, the yellow does not go with anything in the store, colors do not lo ok good together, bad colors and doesn't fit the store, dark colors clash with the spread out look of the clothes and shoes, the dark color contrasts with the store, do not mix well with the white, T 1 7 A 0 B 0 C 12 D 5 Pleas ure Wouldn't give me a headache if I were shopping in the store, not overly shocking, pleasing to the eye, easier to shop in, more pleasing to look, It's not distracting or an eyesore, comfortable, most easy to look at, inviting, easy on the eyes, appealing, most soothing to the eyes, a welcoming, more pleasing, most pleasing, pleasing, prettiest, appealing. T 16 A 9 B 5 C 2 D 0 Ugly, ugliest, ugly, give me a headache shopping there, gives me a headache, intimidating, make me want to leave right away, annoying, ugly, unattractive, ugly, ugly, annoying, yellow is annoying, annoying, makes me want to vomit, ugly colors, ugly colors, ugly, ugly, color is not pleasing to me, unattractive color combination, not very pleasant together, contrast of bright purple and dull brown is unpleasant, ugly, ugly, ugly, colors are ugly T 28 A 1 B 2 C 12 D 13 Arousal The least distracting, makes it a little less distracting, exc iting place to shop, T 55 Dull, too dull not that interesting, boring and barely noticeably, distracting, overwhelming, too much T 43

PAGE 167

167 energized customers in the store, calm colors, calm, least busy and loud, dull, not over bearing, calm, not too intense, not an offensive, calmer, not too overwhelming, the most calming, calm, most calming atmosphere but aren't overwhe lming, not so hard on eyes, calm, easy on eyes isn't wild and crazy, more muted, mute tone, makes the room a calm, not overwhelming, more interesting and subtle, not too loud, not as overwhelming, the most muted, not distracting, Interesting color choices, muted, less distracting, not too dull, are interesting eyes, aren't quite as harsh, calmer not so intense, more relaxed, are not overwhelming, calming appearance, not as distracting, calm and relaxed, calm, not ov erly stimulating, least obnoxious, feel calm and relaxed, relaxed, interesting more calm, not overwhelming, calming, less harsh on the eyes, calm not overwhelming, calm, interesting, but not overwhelming interesting more subtle A 22 B 31 C 1 D 1 going on, too busy, distracting, too bold, distracting, too much contrast, too contrasting and annoying, distracting, too busy, to o bold, distracting, overly stimulating, distracting, too loud, too overpowering, too distracting, too loud, too busy, harsh and overwhelming, too much going on, too overwhelming, too distracting, colors stand out too much Too bold, distracting, too loud, overwhelming, hideous and not exciting, bored, boring, distracting, dull, too dull, bored, distracting, too distracting, busy, the most bothersome A 3 B 0 C 25 D 15 Store I mage Loosens up the theme of sophistication, modern c olor scheme, T 2 A 1 B 0 C 1 D 0 cheapens the store appearance more sophisticated theme to the store, a little too modern T 3 A 0 B 0 C 1 D 2 Color E motion Lighter ,light colored ceiling, the colors are th e lightest, the light colors match the walls and floor well, the colors of this one are toned down, the colors are so light light, lighter, light color, l ighter colors add elegance to the store, light color, light light lights colors, light colored, least vibrant colors, the colors are vivid, not as vibrant as the other choices, a little vibrant most vibrant, colors are vibrant T 21 A 12 B 7 C 2 D 0 Too light, too light, strong color, too vibrant for a store, too vibrant, to o vibrant, too vibrant, too vibrant, too vibrant, too vibrant too heavy, heavy, too heavy, too heavy T 13 A 2 B 0 C 7 D 4

PAGE 168

168 APPENDIX H CONTENT ANALYSIS OF MOST PREFERRED AND LEAST PREFERRED SCENE IN THE IRREGULAR PATTERN SET Tab le H 1. Content analysis of most preferred and least preferred scene in the irregular pattern set Themes Most Preferred #S F Least Preferred #S F Color C ombination Best colors, color scheme, colors, color, nice contrasting colors, color combination colors the color scheme, color scheme, color combination, color combination, color combination, colors go well together, colors, light purple and the gray, like the gray and purple colors together, color combination, colors, muted color purple and black go well together, colors, color combination, colors, good color contrast, color, color combo, color combination, colors somewhat match, the contrast with the colors, colors flow together the best complement each other, colors flow better, nice matching co lors, colors, contrasted nicely, colors mixed nicely, colors look the best together the contrasting colors, colors go well together, T 37 A 6 B 2 9 C 2 D 0 The colors, color combination, colors, color combination, worst color s cheme, color, color, color combination, color combination, color scheme, color combination, color combination, colors, color combination, color combination, colors bad color match, color combination, colors on the ceiling, colors, colors T 21 A 1 B 0 C 0 D 20 Brightness Not too bright, not too bright, not too bright, not as bright, not bright, bright, bright colors, bright, bright colors T 8 A 1 B 4 C 3 D 0 Too dim, dark, too bright, too bright, to o bright too bright, too bright, too bright, too bright, Too bright, too bright, too bright, too bright, yellow is too bright, bright, brightness of the ceiling, too bright, too bright, too bright too bright, too bright, too bright, too bright, too b right, the yellow is too bright, too bright gloomy, too bright, too dark, dark, dark color, too dark, dimmed the store down, too dark, too bright, dark, gloomy, too bright, too gloomy, too dark T 41 A 0 B 3 C 24 D 14

PAGE 169

169 Color Patt ern Pattern is not ove rwhelming, the ceiling pattern matches the store atmosphere shapes are more intriguing with that color scheme, interesting pattern, pattern not simple repetitive shapes, pattern isn't taking away from the clothing, stand out pattern, the pattern is not over bearing T 9 A 0 B 5 C 4 D 0 pattern T 3 A 0 B 0 C 0 D 3 Overall Store S ettings The light colors go well with the light colo red walls and floor, colors on the ceiling blend well with the white on the walls and the floor, colors balance each other, pastel yellow and purple is the most harmonious, light colors match the colors of the shelves and floors, continuous, blend with wa ll, the colors goes better with the white, flowing with the rest of the store, match the seat, fits in more with the color of the furniture and with the darker tone of the clothes/shoes in the store, the dark color of the ceiling blend well with the light purple and the rest of store, colors blend better, blends in the best with the store, blends into the aura of the room, the dark green color seems to flow nicely with the somewhat somber setting which contrasts with the white furniture, go well with the theme of the store, colors mesh fairly well with the theme of the store, blends in the best with the store, the color combo matches well with the rest of the store, the color scheme blends with the rest of the fixtures, muted color like the rest of the sto re, matches the best with the colors already in the store, colors complement the clothes, color gives a good overall contrast of the interior, the dark color really matches the store, It as much as the others, f lows with the design of the store, matches that throughout the store, balance as it ties in T 37 A 9 B 28 C 0 D 0 Colors don't match at all, doesn't math any of the store clothes, does not match t he seating area, the bright yellow and dark purple color is very jarring compared to the light colored floor and walls, colors, doesn't fit with the rest of the store, the color scheme is jarring, neon y clothing and upscale furniture, clash with the store, color contrast, took away from the original atmosphere, too much of a contrast, it took away from the other aspects of the store, does not match anything else in the shop, colors don't fit the store do not blend well with the color scheme of store the color doesn't look right with the rest of the dcor, the colors on the ceiling do not blend well with the rest of the atmosphere of the store, do not flow well together at the store image, two colors seemed to clash, well together, colors clash, colors don't go together, color doesn't go well with the store, dark colors contrast with white furniture of the store, and clashes, colors don't seem to mesh very well, colors did not at all complement each other, colors don't mesh T 33 A 1 B 0 C 15 D 17

PAGE 170

170 well with the rest of the room, color combination, colors somewhat match, the color scheme flows well with the atmosphere, following the color scheme of the store, softer colors complements the store best, colors flow better, colors aren't as contrasting with the store as the other ones Pleasure Pleased, easy going feeling, more inviting, aes thetically pleasing, most attractive, more appealing, most welcoming, more pleasant, easier on the eyes, attractive, more happy looking at it, very pleasing to the eyes, pleasing color scheme, most appealing, colors look pretty together, very pleasant don 't hurt my eyes prettiest, appealing not too hurtful to look at. T 19 A 9 B 7 C 2 D 1 Unattractive, color scheme is very ugly displeasing to look at annoying, does not look good, bothering, ugly, too annoying uninviting an d unappealing, unappealing, color is not appealing at all to the eye, less appealing, Ugly colors, unappealing, ugly colors, less attractive, unpleasant, ugly colors, ugly, ugly, displeasing, ugly, too hard on eyes, hideous, ugly, ugly, bad colors together ugly, ugly color, ugly, hideous color, ugly, ugly color, ugly, ugly color, ugly, ugly color, ugly, ugly, ugly, ugly, colors are ugly together, disgusting, ugly T 43 A 1 B 1 C 5 D 36 Arousal Serene, subdued, energized, dim, not overwhelming, calming, not distracting, not distracting, subtle, subtle, subtle, most calming, calm, calming, dull, calmer, relax, colors add interest without being overwhelming, not too loud, not disrupting, least contrasting, interesting, interesting, i nterestin, not too intense, interesting without being overwhelming, not distracting, Not being distracting and overstimulating, Not too loud or boring, subdued but still interesting, makes me interested, Muted but still interesting, calming, subtle and coo l without attracting too much attention, calmest, relaxed and low key, doesn't distract me too much from the actual clothing, More relaxing, The colors don't overpower the store's decorum, not grabbing my eyes to the roof, The ceiling does not take away fr om the store, not too boring, the roof was not over the top, Very T 54 A 24 B 25 C 5 D 0 looks distracting, busy, makes my eyes hurt, too crazy, too much, and distracting, too distracting, too intense, too much yellow, too much yellow, the yellow is almost blinding, It hurts to look at, it is too much, and distracting, colors are blinding, very distracting and giving me a head ache, stands out too much, too much yellow, too loud, too distracting, too loud and distracting, overstimulate, bor ing, boring, least subtle, boring too dull, distracting T 32 A 4 B 0 C 22 D 6

PAGE 171

171 clam, calming, Calming, interesting, calm color combination, more relaxed feeling, grab my attention more, and it interests me, fun, colors attract me to the store most, really gets my atten tion. Store I mage Sophisticated, modern, sophisticated, still m odern, modern appearance, contemporary f eel and modern look T 6 A 2 B 4 C 0 D 0 it cheapens everything T 1 A 0 B 0 C 1 D 0 Color E motion Light, light, light, light, light, not too heavy, light, light, light, vibrant, lighter, not so vibrant very vibrant and alive, vibrant, cheerful, lively, vibrant, give the store a vibe. T 18 A 10 B 2 C 5 D 1 Too light, faded lighting, too light, too vibrant, too vibrant, too vibrant, too heavy, feel heavy T 8 A 3 B 0 C 3 D 2

PAGE 172

172 APPENDIX I STUDY COLOR PA LETTE FOUR TWO COLOR COMBINATIONS SELECTED FROM THE HSV COLOR MODEL Table I 1. Study color palette. Four two color combinations selected from the HSV color model Two color combination s of yellow and purple Hue () Saturation (%) Value (%) Simple Coheren t (SC) 270 25 100 60 25 100 Simple Incoherent (SI) 270 25 50 60 25 100 Complex Coherent (CC) 270 100 100 60 100 100 Complex Incoherent (CI) 270 100 50 60 100 100

PAGE 173

173 LIST OF REFERENCES Acking, C. A., & Kuller, R. (1972). The perception of an interior as a function of its colour. Ergonomics, 15 645 654. Alawadhi, M. (2009). Retail branding through sensory experience: local case study at Chocolaterie Stam Art and Design (Interior Design) Iowa State Uni versity Albers J. (1963). Interaction of Color. New Haven: Yale University Press Babin, B. J., Hardesty, D. M., & Suter, T. A. (2003). Color and shopping intentions: the intervening effect of price fairness and perceived affect. Journal of Business Rese arch, 56(7) 541 51. Baker, J., Levy, M., & Grewal, D. (1992). An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisions. Journal of Retailing, 68(4) 445 460. BAPE, Co. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://us.bape.com/ Beke, L., & Kutas, G. (2008) Color preference of aged observers compared to young observers. Color Research and Application, 33 381 394. Bellizzi, J., Crowley A., & Hasty R. (1983). The effects of color in store design. Journal of Retailing 59 (Spring), 21 45. Bellizzi, J., & Hite, R. E. (1992). Environmental color, consumer feelings, and purchase likelihood. Psychology and Marketing, 9(5) 347 363. Berlyne, D. E. (1960), Conflict, Arousal, and Curiosity McGraw Hill Series in P sychology McGraw Hill, New York. Berlyne, D. E. (1971). Aesthetics and Psychobiology The Century Psychology Series Appleton Century Crofts, New York. Berlyne, D. E. (1974) Studies in the New Experimental Aesthetics: Steps toward an Objective Psycholog y of Aesthetic Appreciation Wiley, New York. Birren, F. (1969b). The Color primer: a basic treatise on the color system of Wilhelm Ostwald, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Bir twistle G., & Freathy P. (1998). More than just a name above the shop I nte rnational Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 26 No.8. Brengman, M., & Geuens, M. (2004). The four dimensional impact of color on shoppers' emotions. Advances in Consumer Research, 31 122 128. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Busi ness Administration. Burchett, K. E. (2002). Color harmony. Color Research and Application, 27 28 31.

PAGE 174

174 Camgz, N., Yener, C., & Gven, D. (2002). Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference. Color Research and Application 27(3) 199 207. Ca rpenter J. M Moore M., & Fairhurst A. E. (2005). Consumer sh opping value for retail brands, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol. 9 No. 1, Chang, D., Dooley, L., & Tuovinen, L. E. (2002), Gestalt t heory in v isual s creen d esign : A new look at an old subject. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series 26. Crowley, A. E. (1993). The two dimensional impact of color on shopping. Mark Lett 4 59 69. Cubukcu, E. & Kahraman, I. (2008), Hue, saturation, lightness, and building exterior pref erence: An empirical study in Turkey comparing architects' and nonarchitects' evaluative and cognitive judgments. Color Research and Application 33 395 405. Deng, Hui, S. K., & Hutchinson, J. W. (2010). Consumer preference for color combinations: An empi rical analysis of similarity based color relationships, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Accepted 14 July 2010 Donderi, C. (2006) Visual Complexity: A Review, Psychological Bulletin, 132 (1) 73 97. Donovan, R. J., & Rossiter, J. R. (1982). Store atmosphere : An environmental psychology approach. Journal of Retailing, 58(1) 34 57. Donovan, R. J., Rossiter, J. R., Marcoolyn, G., & Nesdale, A. (1994). Store atmosphere and purchasing behavio r Journal of Retailing, 70(3) 283 95 Dowling, R. (1993). Femininity, place and commodities: A r etail case study. Antipode, 25 ( 4 ) 295 319. Floor, K. (2006), Branding a s tore: How to b uild s uccessful r etail b rands in a c hanging m arketplace London & Philadelphia, Kogan Page Publishers. Gao, X. P. (2007). A quantitative stu dy on color harmony. [Doctoral Dissertation], Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HK. Gifford, R. (2002). Environmental psychology: Principles and practice (3rd Ed.) University of Victoria, Canada: Optimal Books. Gilboa, S ., & Anat R (2003 ). Store environ ment, emotions and approach behavior: Applying environmental aesthetics to retailing. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 13 (2) 195 211. Granger, E. (1956). An experimental study of colour preferences. Journal of Gener al Psychology, 52, 3 20.

PAGE 175

175 Granville, W. C. (1987). Color harmony: What is it. Color Research and Application, 12 196 201. Groat, L., & Wang, D. (2002). Architectural Research Methods New York, NY: J. Wiley & Sons. Ham, T. Y., Guerin, D. A., & Scott, S. C. (2004). A cross cultural comparison of preference for visual attributes in interior environments: America and China. Journal of Interior Design, 30(2) 37 50. Hurvich, L. M., & Jameson, D. (1957). An opponent process theory of color vision. Psychological Review, 64 384 404. Hogg, J. (1969). The prediction of semantic differential ratings of color combinations. Journal of General Psychology, 80 141 152. Hogg, J., Goodman, S., Porter, T., Mikellides, B., & Preddy, D. E. (1979). Dimensions and determinants of judg e ment s of colour samples and a simulated interior space by architects and non architects. British Journal of Psychology, 70 231 242. Ikemi, M. (2005). The effects of mystery on preference for residential facades. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25 167 17 3. Itten, J. (1970) The Elements of Colour. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Judd, D. B. & Wyszecki, G. (197 5). Color in business, science and industry. Wiley. Kaltcheva, V.D. & Weitz, B.A. (2006). When should a retailer create an exciting store environ ment? Journal of Marketing, 70 107 118. Kaplan, S. (1987), Aesthetics, affect, and c ognition: Environmental preference from an evolutionary p erspective, Environment and Behavior, 19 3 32. Kaplan, S. & Kaplan, R. (1982 ). Humanscape: Environments for peo ple Ann Arbor, MI: Kaplan, S. & Kaplan, R. (1983 ) Cognition and environment: Functioning in an uncertain world. Kaplan, R., Kaplan S., & Brown T. (1989). Environmental preference: A comparison of four domains of predictors. Environmental and Behavior, 21 509 230. Kaya, N. & Crosby, M. (2006). Color associations with diff erent building types: An experimental study on American college students. Color Research and Application 31 67 71. Kaya, N., & Epps, H. H. (2004). Relationship between Color and Emotion: A Study of College Students. College Student Journal, 38(3) 396 40 5.

PAGE 176

176 Kent, R. L. (1989). The Role of Mystery in Preferences for Shopping Malls. Landscape Journal, 8 28 35 Kincade, D. H., & Moye, L. N. (2003). Shopping orientation segments: Exploring differences in store patronage and attitudes toward retail store enviro nments among female apparel consumers. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 27(1) 58 71. Kobayashi, S. (1981). The Aim and Method of the Color Image Scale. Color Research and Application, 6(2) 93 107. Kobayashi S. (1990). Color Image Scale Tokyo, Kodansha International, Ltd. Koffka, K. (1935). Principles of Gestalt psychology New York: Harcourt, Brace. Kuehni, R. G. (2003). Color Space and Its Division, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kller, R. (1972) A semantic model for describing perceived environme nt. Stockholm: National Swedish Institute for Building Research. Kller, R., Mikellides, B. & Janssens, J. (2009), Color, arousal, and performance A comparison of three experiments. Color Research and Application 34 14 1 152. Kller R Mikellides B. Simulated studies of color, arousal, and comfort. In: Marans RW, Stokols D, editors. Environmental Simulation: Research and Policy Issues. New York: Plenum; 1993. p 163 190. Kller R ., & Mikellid es, B. ( 1993 ) Simulated studies of colour, arousal, and com fort. In : R.W. Marans and D. Stokols, eds. Environmental simulation: research and policy issues. New York: Plenum, 163 190. Kwallek, N., Soon, K., & Lewis, C. M. (2007). Work week productivity, visual complexity, and individual environmental sensitivity in three offices of different color interiors. Color Research and Application 32 130 143. Landa, R. (2005). Designing Brand Experience: Creating Powerful Integrated Brand Solutions. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning Lauer, D. A. (1979). Design basics New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Mahnke, F. H. (1996) Color, Enviroment, and Human Response New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Marshall Editions Ltd. (1980). Color Los Angeles: Knapp Press. Mehrabian, A. (1976). Public Places and Private Spaces: The P sychology of Work, Play, and Living Environments. New York, NY: Basic Books.

PAGE 177

177 Moon P. & Spencer D E. (1944). Geometric formulation of classical color harmony. J Opt Soc Am, 34 46 59. Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. A. (1974). An Approach to Environmental Psychology Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. Munsell, Albert H. (19 21 ) A Grammar of Color Edited by Faber Birren. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Nasar, L. (2000). The evaluative image of places, in W.B. Walsh et al. (eds) Person Environment Psychology (2nd ), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Aassociates Nayatani, N. M. Tsujimoto, A., Ikeda, J. & Namva, S. (1967). A n appraisal of two color harmony by paired comparison method (part 1), Acta Chromatica 1, 221 235. Nayatani, N. M. Tsujimoto, A., Ikeda, J. & Namva S. (1969). A n appraisal of two color harmony by paired comparison method (part 2), Aacta Chromatica, 2 1 15. Nelson, R. P. (1994). The design of advertising Dubuque, IA: WCB Brown & Benchmark Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J., & Tannenbaum, P.H. (1957). The Me asurement of Meaning Urbana:University of Illinois Press. Ou, L., & Luo, M. R., (2004). A study of colour emotion and colour preference, Part I: colour emotions for single colours, Color Research and Application, 29 232 240. Ou L Luo M. R Woodcock A & Wright A. (2004). A study of colour emotion and colour preference. Part II: Colour emotions for two colour combinations. Color Research and Application, 29 292 298. Ou, L., & Luo, M. R. (2006), A colour harmony model for two colour combinations. C olor Research and Application, 31, 191 204. Ou, L., & Luo, M. R. (2011), Additively of color harmony. Color Research and Application, 36, 355 372. Ou, L. & Luo, M. R. (2012), A cross cultural comparison of colour emotion for two colour combinations. Color Research and Application, 37, 23 43. Palmer, E. (1999). Vision Science: Photons to Phenomenology Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book/MIT Press. Park, N. K. & Farr, C. behavioral intentions in a r etail environment: a cross cultural comparison. Journal of Interior Design, 33 17 32.

PAGE 178

178 Park, N. K., Pae, J. Y. & Meneely, J. (2010), Cultural Preferences in Hotel Guestroom Lighting Design. Journal of Interior Design, 36 21 34. Pieters, R., Wedel M., & Batra R. (2010). The Stopping Power of Advertising: Measures and Effects of Visual Complexity. Journal of Marketing, 74 No. 5, pp. 48 60. Portillo, M (2009) Color planning for interiors: an integrated approach to color in designed spaces New York : John Wiley. Runco, M. A. & Pritzker S. R. (1999). Encyclopedia of creativity San Diego : Academic Press. Saito, M. (1999). Blue and seven phenomena among Japanese students. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 89 532 536. Sato, T., Kajiwara, K. Hoshi no, H., & Nakamura, T. (2000). Quantitative evaluation and categorizing of human emotion induced by colour Advances in Colour Science and Technology 3 53 59. Schloss, B. & Palmer E (2011). Aesthetic response to color combinations: preference, harmony, and similarity Attention, Perception and Psychophy sic s 73 551 571 Schlosser, A. E. (1998). Applying the functional theory of attitudes to understanding the influence of store atmosphere on store inferences, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7(4), 345 369. Scott, S. (1989). Preference, mystery, and visual attributes of interiors: A study of relationships. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (11 A), 3386. Scott, S. C. (1 99 2). Visual attribu tes related to preference in interior environments. Journal of interior design 18 (1&2) 7 16 Scott, S. C. (1993). Complexity and mystery as predictors of interior preferences. Journal of Interior Design, 19(1) 25 33. Sharp, D. T. (1974) The Psychology of Colo r and Design Chicago: Nelson Hall Co. Shen, Y. C., & Chen, Y. S. (1996) Quantitative evaluation of color harmony via linguistic based im age scale for interior design. Color Research and Application 21 353 374. Silvia, P. J. (2005a). Cognitive a ppraisals and i nterest in v isual a rt: Exploring an a ppraisal t heory of a esthetic Emotions, Empirical Studies of the Arts, 23 119 133. Silvia, P. J. (2005b) Emotional r esponses to a rt: From c ollation and a rousal to c ognition and e motion, Review of Genera l Psychology, 9 342 357.

PAGE 179

179 Simonton, D. K. (1975 ). Age and literary creativity: A cross cultural and transhistorical survey. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology 6 259 277. Smith, D. (2003) Environmental colouration and/or the design process. Color Resea rch and Application 28, 360 365. Smith, D. (2008) Color person environment relationships. Color Research and Application 33, 312 319. Smith, D. J. & Demirbilek, N. (2009) What is that place? Observations of the impact of environment colour through phot ographic analysis. Proceedings of the 11th Congress of the International Colour Association Sydney. Sommer, B., & Sommer, R. (1997). A practical guide to behavioral research; Tool and Techniques (4th Ed.) New York, NY: Oxford University Press. S tamps A. E. ( 1990 ) Use of photographs to simulate environments: a meta analysis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71 907 913. Suk, H. J. (2010) Emotional response to color across media. Color Research and Application 35, 64 77. Turley, L., & Milliman, R. (2000). A tmospheric Effects on Shopping Behavior: A Review of the Experimental Evidence, Journal of Business Research, 49, 193 211. Ulrich R (1977) Visual landscape performance: a model and application. Man environment Systems, 7 279 293 Valdez, P. & Mehrabian A. (1994). Effects of color on emotions Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 123(4) 394 409. Veryzer, R. W., & Hutchinson, J. W. (1998). The influence of unity and prototypicality on aesthetic responses to new product design. Journal of Consum er Research, 24(4), 374 385. Warner, S. J. (1949 ). The color pr eferences of psychiatric groups Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 63 (6) 25 Psychologische Forschung, 4, 301 3 50. Wheeler, A. (2006). Designing Brand Identity. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc Wirtz, J., Mattila, A. S. & Tan, R. L. P (2000) The moderating role of target arousal on the im pact of affect on satisfaction : a n examination in th e context of service experience Journal of Retailing 76 ( 3 ) 347 3 65.

PAGE 180

180 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Yu Ting Chang was born in Taipei, Taiwan in December 1984 as the second oldest of three children. In June of 2007, she obtained a B achelor of A rts in a dvertising and p ublic r ela tions with a concentration in graphic and interactive media design from Fu Jen Catholic University. After working for one year as a graphic designer, she decided to study graduate school at the University of Florida, in the field of interior design. Her pr imary research interest focuses on color in retail environment s After her May 2012 graduation, Yu Ting plans to work for an interior design firm that specializes in hospitality design in Southern Florida.