|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help|
This item has the following downloads:
1 CINEMATIC EXPLORATIONS OF THE UNCANNY: A STUDY OF TURKISH GERMAN CINEMA By A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
3 To my family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, I would like to thank my parents for moving our family to Germany when my siblings and I were young children. Our initial experience abroad gave me the opportunity to learn a foreign language and personally connect with German culture. I am truly bl essed for all of the opportunities that my parents made possible for me. I thank my parents for their unending support, and for their constant encouragement to pursue all of my various interests. Furthermore, I would like to express my gratitude to the me mbers of the German section of the Langu ages, Literatures and Cultures D epartment at the University of Florida for the continuous support, and for allowing me the possibility to pursue a r. Eric Kligerman for advising this thesis, and for their helpful reviews and feedback. Finally, I thank Travis Huffman for his love and support throughout this process, and for taking care of me when I needed it most.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 6 CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 8 2 WEST GERMAN DEPICTIONS OF TURKISH MIGRANTS: UNCANNY SELF AND OTHER IDENTITY NEGOTIATIONS ................................ ............................. 16 Germany, Gastarbeiter and Identity Negotiations ................................ .................. 16 The Freudian Uncanny and Constructing the Self through the Other ..................... 19 Gastarbeiter and Migrants in German Cinema ................................ ....................... 21 Shirins Hochzeit ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 23 Vierzig Quadratmeter Deutschland ................................ ................................ ......... 26 Yasemin ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 28 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 31 3 SECOND GENERATION MIGRANTS ON SCREEN: CULTURAL HYBRIDITY AND THE UNCANNY ................................ ................................ ............................. 33 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 33 Hybridity, In Between, and the Uncanny ................................ ................................ 34 Aprilkinder Jerichow and the Uncanny in Cultural Hybridity ................................ .. 37 Aprilkinder ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 38 Jerichow ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 43 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 48 4 TURKISH GERMAN TRANSNATIONAL CINEMA AND THE UNCANNY .............. 50 I ntroduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 50 Identity Negotiations: The Freudian Double in Turkish German Transnational Film ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 53 Ich bin die Tochter meiner Mutter ................................ ................................ ........... 56 Auf der anderen Seite ................................ ................................ ............................. 62 Almanya Willkommen in Deutschland ................................ ................................ ..... 66 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 70 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 72 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 74 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 80
6 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts CINEMATIC EXPLORATIONS OF THE UNCANNY: A STUDY OF TURKISH GERMAN CINEMA By May 2012 Chair: Barbara Mennel Major: German In contemporary global ized society, complex patterns of mobility and settlement have altered perceptions of belonging, cultural identity, and Heimat In Germany, encounters and the many experim ents with hybridization, appropriation, and transculturation has been most noticeable in the case of Turkish directors working in 1 Filmic narratives depicting the experiences of Turkish migrants, Germans with a Turkish background, and of Ge cultural reconsiderations of what it means to be German. Increasingly, Germany must see its self as a multicultural, de facto country of immig ration. In this thesis, I discuss representations of first and second generation Turkish migrants in films by native German and Turkish German directors. More specifically, I gical element involved in the on screen identity negotiations presented in the films that I 1 Hake, Sabine. German National Cinema New York: Routledge, 2002. 194.
7 discuss. While some Turkish German films suggest a pl easure associated with hybridity, the on screen identity negotiations that I discuss in this thesis demonstrate complex, continuous processes that not always result in enjoyment. Rather, feelings of estrangement, alienation, and unclear categorizations of belonging and identity emerge. These representations indicate the complexities of belonging in Germany with a m igrant work of the imagination 2 2 Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. 4.
8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Ich gehe jetzt rein one of the female protagonists expresses the complexities of belonging with a migrant background in Germany. She states: Als Auslnder wirst du immer wieder trotzdem ander s behandelt und, dass kann ich nicht mehr abhaben. Also auf sowas haben wir echt keinen Bock mehr, berall fremd zu sein. Das, was aus meinem Leben ist, ist nur meine Herkunft Trkisch. Ich fhle mich eigentlich auch nicht mehr Trkisch, aber ich mu ss mich Trkisch fhlen. 1 term documentation, portrays the lives of five female Turkish German soccer enthusiasts in Germany, and highlights the social difficulties associated with cultural hybridity. Feelings of belonging, national identity as well as Heimat appear complicated, unclear, and questioned. The above protagonist in foreign neither fully German nor Turkish. She des cribes the lack of a clear sense of belonging; an uncanny feeling of simultaneously being at home while not feeling at home. In this thesis, I discuss cinematic representations of first and second generation migrants 2 with a Turkish background in Germany I am particularly interested in involved in on screen identity negotiations in films portraying Turkish German migrants. The films discussed in this thesis by the directo rs Helma Sanders Brahms, Tevfik 1 cannot stand it anymore. I just do not want it anymore, to be forei gn everywhere In my life, only my 2 In the Turkish German context, first generation refers to migrants who moved from Turkey to Germany themselves. Second generation refers to the children of migrants who were either born in Germany or who came to Germany at a young age.
9 Yasemin and Nesrin Samdereli cinematically display the presence of migrant groups and Germans with a migrant background in Germany, thus visual changing socio cultural landscape. The representations encourage reevaluations of Germany as an increasingly multiethnic society and de facto country of immigratio n. The on screen identity negotiations in the films discussed involve both migrant groups and native Germans. The representations call for audiences to reassess notions of belonging, identity, and Heimat and consider developments such as cultural hybri dity and the category of the transnational as elements present in contemporary, globalized sense of being in the world has changed (Papastergiadis 1 plex patterns of movement across national boundaries, and the articulation of new forms of identity by minority groups have destabilized the foundations of the nation (Papastergiadis 2). In Germany, these contemporary changes emerged in large part Wirtschaftwunder (economic miracle). During this time, labor migrants were hired as Gastarbeiter (guest workers) to ly considered Gastarbeiter to be a temporary labor force, and expected them to return to their countries of origin after working in West Germany. However as Mary Fulbrook Gast arbeiter
10 Germany come from a migrant background, of which 2.5 million have Turkish roots, creati ng the largest migrant group in Germany (Nordbruch 5). The addition of migrants as an immigration country. It furthermore encourages discussions of German identity and recon siderations what it means to be German. Ruth Mandel, in her book Cosmopolitan Anxieties: Turkish Challenges to Citizenship and Belonging in Germany German and Turkish German filmmaker s explore questions involving German identity and the status of Germans with a Turkish background in German society throughout their films. Initial representations of Turkish migrants in Germany took place during the time of New German Cinema, which is als o where I begin my discussion in C Katzelmacher (1969) and Angst essen Seele auf ( Ali: Fear Eats Soul 1974) or Helma Sanders Shirins Hoch zeit ( are depicted as victims, totally incapable of communicating and interacting with splaying
11 3 Berlin in Berlin (1993), ate the nation from 4). Other film scholars, such as Randall Halle in his book German Film After Germany: Toward a Transnational Aesthetic also discusses a shift toward more transnational representations in German cinema In these later films, focus more on ongoing discussions of transnationalism, hybridit y, and living between and across both Germany and Turkey. Therefore in this thesis, I continue my discussion with explorations of hybridity and transnationalism in German films by German and Turkish German directors. this thesis In this thesis, I aim to show how hybrid and transnational on screen identity negotiations appear as ongoing processes. My discussion demonstrates these as complex and continuous, and calls attention to uncanny c haracteristics evoked on screen. Sigmund Fre 3 Pleasures of Hybridity: Black British Dissolving Views: New Writings on British Cinema Ed. Andrew Higson.
12 what was once well k the uncanny as arising out of something familiar it is a familiarity that becomes not everything new and unfamiliar is frightening (125). A consideration of the German word unheimlich (uncanny) may shed light on how the uncanny is linked to familia rity. Unheimlich is rooted in the word heim which heimlich designates that which is homely and familiar, but also secret. Unheimlich, on the other hand, signifies deliberately approached the definition of unheimlich by way of that of its apparent opposite, heimlich thereby exposing the disturbing affi liations between the two and Not solely that which is unfamiliar evokes the uncanny, rather the uncanny emerges from unfamiliarity that includes familiarity; a familiarity that is disrupted. A ccording to Nicholas Royle: The uncanny involves feelings of uncertainty But the uncanny is not simply an experience of strangeness and alienation. More specifically, it is a peculiar commingling of the familiar and unfamiliar. It can take the fo rm of something familiar unexpectedly arising in a strange and unfamiliar context, or of something strange and unfamiliar unexpectedly arising in a familiar context. (1) what is outside. The uncanny has to do with a strangeness of framing and borders, an German characters experience the uncanny arising out of identity negotiations and out
13 of familiar spaces rendered strange. Uncanniness appears as visual doubling, visualizing the self through the other, the expression of ambiguous borders, and the spatial conflation of familiar and unfamiliar. In Chapter 1 I discuss Helma Sand ers Shirins Hochzeit ( Wedding Vierzig Quadratmeter Deutschland ( 40 Square Meters of Germany 1986) as films focusing on the experiences of Gastarbeiter and first generation migrants traveling to and living within Germany. These cinematic C hapter 1 they also engage in discussions of post World War II West German identity. As Sabine Hake explains, representation of t popularized images on screen allow audiences to evaluate Germa n society and culture where the familiar (self) visualizes its own situation through identification with the or foreigner) on screen. In Chapte r 1 film Yasemin (1988), which exemplifies an early portrayal of second generation migrant In Chapter 2 my focus turns to representations of cultural hybrid ity in Germany. Aprilkinder ( April Children Jerichow
14 (2008), second generation, Turkish German characters demonstrate cultural hybridity on of hybridity, from his book The Location of Culture to the on screen identity negotiations in Aprilkinder and Jerichow. Cultural hybridity appears spatially in various urban settings that mix Turkish and German characteristics, as well as in hybrid (Tu rkish German) but something else besides, in of identity demonstrate ambiguity and a blurring of clear affiliation s. Rather than viewing hybridity in these films as a clear pleasure or liberation, an uncanny blurring of positions creates the feeling of Entfremdung or estrangement that implicates both migrant and native German characters. The blurring of boundaries and the intermingling of familiar and unfamiliar elements evokes the uncanny in these films, and encourages a reconsideration of the meaning of German identity and culture in contemporary globalization. In Chapter 3 I discuss cinematic representations of r eversed or return journeys from Germany to Turkey, 4 where Turkish German characters follow the Spuren (traces) of their past to explore their cultural roots and origins. The films that I explore in C hapter 3 Ich bin di e Tochter meiner Mutter ( I am my Auf der anderen Seite ( On the Edge of Heaven Almanya Willkommen in Deutschland ( Almanya Welcome to Germany 2011), exemplify transnational de pictions that allow audiences to reimagine cultural communities as more fluid, rather than confined or fixed 4 It is reversed, because the earlier films portray or imply the journey from Turkey to Germany. Here, the journey from Germany to Turkey tak es place.
15 categories. Through narrative travel, the characters in these films reconnect with their Turkish cultural roots, and negotiate a transnational cult ural identity. The motif of the double emerges within these filmic narratives, which according to Freud is one of the most prominent motifs producing an uncanny affect (141). The on screen doubling prevents a utopic perception of transnationalism, and inst ead demonstrates transnational identity negotiations as complex and continuous processes. These films, while depicting the experiences and views of migrants, also play a cultural landscape, and Germany as a multicultural country of immigration. As suggested, Turkish German films may depict a complex space of negotiation between multiple affinities that needs t o be explored.
16 CHAPTER 2 WEST GERMAN DEPICTIO NS OF TURKISH MIGRAN TS: UNCANNY SELF AND OTHER IDENTITY NEGOT IATIONS Germany, Gastarbeiter and Identity Negotiations In 1964, Armando Rodrigues, the one millionth guest worker, arrived in the Federal Republic of Germany to partake in the West German labor recruitment program worker s Wirtschaftswunder built, in the prime home village in Portugal (Chin 1). During the economic miracle, labor recruitment aimed at ensuring the continuous presence of a strong labor force that would fuel the expanding German economy. West German policy makers initiated bilateral agreements with numerous countr ies such as Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Morocco, Portugal, Tunisia, and Yugoslavia to regulate the recruitment and movement of guest workers (Ilcan 61). Images taken of Rodrigues upon his arrival circulated in various German newspapers across the country As the one millionth guest worker, Rodrigues and explanation of the process that redefinition of national culture and identity in an increasingly multiethnic, multicultural circulating images of mig rant workers in Germany. Germans saw a socio cultural change taking place within their own cultural community.
17 The increasing presence of guest workers, and their circulati ng images through print and visual media, confronted Germans with a new perspective of post World War II place in the most important and enduring question of the postwar peri od: How would portrayals of guest workers also play an important role in this discussion, prompting cultural landsca pe. Films such as Helma Sanders Shirins Hochzeit ( 1976), Tevfik Vierzig Quadratmeter Deutschland ( 40 Square Meters of Germany 1986), and Yasemin (1988) challenge German audiences to both evaluate the status o Germany. According to Arjun Appadurai in Modernity at Large media and migration work of the imagination The imagination, according to Appadurai, does not constitute a place for escape, but discussed in C hapter 2 exemplify the construction of changing national imaginaries through cultural landscape, affecting the work of German imaginations. Narrating the experiences of Turk ish migrants in West Germany, Shirins Hochzeit Vierzig Quadratmeter and Yasemin disseminate cultural imaginations of Germany. The representation of Turkish migrants in Germany is significant, because the Turkish community forms the largest minority group in Germany today (Pratt 188). More
18 specifically, however, these films focus on the experiences of Turkish migrant women, claims that women in Turkish C hapter 2 also pre on Turkish women who were oppressed by their patriarchal fathers, brothers or husbands, excluded from the public sphere, and confined in enclosed 67). The Turkish women in Shirins Hochzeit Vierzig Quadratmeter and Yasemin all German society, while also engaging in a more generalized oppression under patriarchy. Through these cinematic narratives therefore, not only German audiences, but more specifically German women can identify with the Turkish women on screen. These films create another challenge to German i status as a country of immigration. West German policy makers did not see Germany as an immigration country. Rather, they saw guest workers as temporary residents in Germany, and expected guest workers to return to their count ries of origin. Often, they even provided guest workers incentives to return (Ilcan 62). Despite these efforts, many permanently settled in Germany. In the 1970s, numerous foreign laborers, especially Turkish, applied for visas for their families to join t hem (Chin 10). Guest workers thus began to raise their children in Germany. Eventually, over two million foreigners resided
19 in West Germany, encouraging German policy makers to create a formal policy of discussed in C hapter 2 especially Yasemin depict the settlement of migrant families, suggesting a lasting presence of immigration. Immigration into Germany prompted new political and social questions. Chin This suggests that immigration not only affect ed the socio cultural perceptions and others) on screen, prompt German selv es to engage in an understanding of German culture and German identities in postwar Germany. This process, an understanding of das Heimliche (the homely). The Turkish German films discussed here represent an uncanniness at work within the identity negotiations and constructions of postwar German selves. The Turkish migran t characters presented on screen, while of German identity. The self and the other do not appear as mutually exclusive parts, but rather each play a key role in the co nstruction of postwar German identity. The Freudian Uncanny and Constructing the Self t hrough the Other presence of two parts, the self and other, both contribute toward a cohesive
20 he more accurately and clearly explains the uncanny through its apparent opposite heimlich, heimisch, vertraut (secret, homely/canny, trusted/familiar) (124). Freud goes f the hidden and has come to light. To arrive at this conclusion, Freud contrasts the by first understanding that which is heimlich. Defining unheimlich in terms of its antithesis, heimlich, implicates the lack of distinct, separate categories between the two. The unheimlich lives within the heimlich, and vice versa. In this light, the othe r appears to play a role in a full understanding the self they generate each other. In cinematic depictions of Turkish migrants in the films discussed in C hapter 2 we see an uncanny dynamic at play, where images of the other on screen facilitate discussions of German society, cultural change, and identity. According to Randall consciousness is not a property of the self but an aspect untimely of inter Saunders, in the book The Essence and the Margin: National Identities and Collective Memories in Contemporary European Culture, also contends that in the construction of
21 a collective, cultural imaginary it is essential to determine where one does and does not st be seen as a crucial element in social and cultural history, particularly contributive to German imaginaries of nation and identity. Since these initial depictions of difference arise after the war when Germany was rebuilding itself, they particularly c ontribute toward only way to know the other is by letting the other speak about me, by giving the other he other, I remain in fact caught in the process of defining or demarcating my self Shirins Hochzeit, Vierzig Quadratmeter, and Yasemin all narrate the experiences of Turkish migrant characters in the films from a first person perspective, showing personalized narratives of guest workers and migrants. Through these representations, creation of a self identity. This idea of understanding and constructing the self through the other reflects the Freudian definition of the uncanny where the other is a part of the self. Another uncanny element arises in the fact that these films show the The films discussed in C hapter 2 focus on the stories of societal others previously hidden or secret stories that through cinema come to light. Gastarbeiter and Migrants in German Cinema Presenting the persp ective of strangers in German society and the changing socio cultural German landscape, the films Shirins Hochzeit, Vierzig Quadratmeter and
22 Yasemin alterity and intercultural tensions (Burns 133). In these films, guest workers and migrants appear as societal victims on the margins of mainstream German society. Shirins Hochzeit, Vierzig Quadratme ter and Yasemin fall within the frame of New German Cinema, which took up the issue of identity, while also attempting to provide Elsaesser explains that New German C inema went beyond sole entertainment, and the cinematic experience, viewers e ngaged in an act of self consciousness and self awareness (Elsaesser 5). The depiction of Turkish migrants in German films exemplifies this cinematic experience, allowing for introspection and a reevaluation of German identity. The uncanny, in the films di scussed in C hapter 2 not only affects the other at the margins of society, but also each individual experience. Through these films, German audiences can engage in an evaluation of the place of foreigners within German society, their own place within soci ety, and ultimately contemplate German postwar identity. Shirins Hochzeit and Vierzig Quadratmeter exemplify both the Arbeiterfilm and Frauenfilm of New German Cinema. The Frauenfilm usually refers to films by women Arbeiterfilm focuses on the lives and experiences of the German working class, usually combining documentary and feature film styles,
23 aiming to bring about a change of p olitical consciousness in the viewer (Collins and Porter 19). Both films depict the working class in Germany through economic migrants, while also victimizing female characters, coming from a Turkish patriarchal environment (Rings 18). According to Deniz G ktrk, these films form part of the common discourse about the victimization of Turkish women, while also confirming the subnational placing 11). Both films, however also, reflect an identification with the other, d emonstrating an uncanny dynamic on screen. Shirins Hochzeit Shirins Hochzeit not only men worked as labor migrants in Germany. The protagonist, Shirin, travels from her rural Turkish village to urban Germany in search of her betrothed Mahmut in Kln. Mahmut had migrated to Germany to work, and had forgotten about Shirin in the that of the filmmaker Helma Sande rs experience. Shirin narrates the story from the perspective of the present looking back, as if she were reevaluating and processing her experiences on screen. The film shows how Shirin initially comes to Germa ny after escaping an arranged marriage in her village. Shirin, determined to find Mahmut, works as both a factory worker and an office through her experience as a guest worke r and woman in Germany. At one point in the dialog with the other narrator, Sanders Brahms Shirin conveys the shared experience
24 a more violent turn after she is laid off from her jobs and raped by her boss. In her desperation to find a job and a place to l ive, Shirin turns to a German man offering her what she requires. Shirin explains that she knew the risk she was taking, but that she ures Shirin, along with two other German women, in various male guest worker dormitories. In one such dormitory, she finally encounters Mahmut. In a dream, she fantasizes Mahmut pulling her out from underneath a grave of dirt, as if he would save her from her current situation. Yet after Mahmut is finished having sex with Shirin, she awakens from her dream only to move on to the next customer. In the end, her pimp shoots her, and abandons her to die alone in a dark corner of a dead end street. According to Guido Rings, the female characters are victims of violence and ings 19). Burns furthermore explains that the film acts as a generalize own ot cultural foreignness in Germany, evidenced through her dress, headscarf, language, and moments of cultural misunderstandings, the dialogue between the German narrator and Shirin thro ughout the film proposes an identification between the two. The dialogue exchange connects both German and Turkish women as they share the same cinematic
25 experience of Shir her own German culture through the perspective of the other, reflecting an uncanny and evaluation of Ger man culture. According to John Davidson, the filmmaker shows her desire at solidarity with Shirin in Shirins Hochzeit (70). The film loses sight of the different situations in which the two women find themselves in West Germany (Davidson 70). The film w hile exploring how one can understand and evaluate the self through the other, also evokes the uncanny through use of the Verfremdungseffekt prompting viewers to maintain a critical view of the situation presented to them on hoots her, Shirin decides that she wants to return home. She looks into the camera and says: looks directly into the camera at the viewer, the filmmaker employs a Brecht ian Verfremdungseffekt he them (Diamond 45). Furthermore, the effect intends to bring viewers into a more re also prompted, in Shirins Hochzeit to engage in a self evaluation through the other, while also being reminded of their own estrangement. The liminality, exclusion, and oppression projected on screen through Shirin, prompts Germans, especially women, t o see their own otherness.
26 Vierzig Quadratmeter Deutschland Vierzig Quadratmeter Deutschland, similar to Shirins Hochzeit victimizes the female character, who is also a migrant from rural Turkey moving to a city in Germany. The female protagonist, Turna, travels to Germany to live with her guest worker husband. Throughout the film, Turna occupies an enclosed, confining space within the square meter apartment. The combination of little dialogue and a series of close up shots of Turna enhance the confining, enclosed feeling of the film. Dursun, her guest worker husband, forbids her to leave the apartment. He claims that he locks her in to extreme distress, as well as mental deterioration. She expresses feeling like a prisoned animal and as buried alive. However, she cannot courageously confront her husband, even though she practices doing so in a mirror. In the end, after Dursun dies of a seizure, Turna is able to leave the apartment and go outside in Germany for the first time. However, her freedom in the end remains limited. We witness a lack of understanding between Turna and German characters from her encounters with them in her apartment building. She appears incapable of communicating with her German neighbors. The film also reflects the inability of Germans to communicate with and understand her. Turna, through the difference in her appearance and language, presents German characters with alterity that confro nts them within a once familiar living space. The familiar space, to a certain level, now appears foreign and uncanny. In the end, Turna, who is months pregnant, must confront the foreign space of Germany alone
27 sense of credibility to popular perceptions of violent patriarchal Turkish men and 45). It also (196). Vierzig Quadratmeter perpetuates negative stereotypes of Turkish migrants in Germany, as well as the supposed incompatibility between the two cultures. Yet, the film also confronts German audiences with changes taking place within their own socio cultural landscape, reflecting a strangeness permeating the familiar. Yet, Turna is not the only figure trapped in a confined space. Through a window in the apartment, Turna connects with a young German girl on crutches. Both the dynamic in the confrontation. Regardless of ethnicity, both see their own spatial enclosure in the other, allowing for a connection and evaluation of their own circumstance and condition. Turna and the little girl show each other their dolls and wave at each other through the window in a playful gesture. Yet, the little girl is eventual ly drawn away from the window by her mother, who seemingly disapproves of their distanced contact. When peering outside of her window, her only access to outside spaces, Turna also sees a prostitute on the street corner. Day in and day out, the same woman goes to the same place, just as Turna occupies the same space. Turna also sees other Germans on their balconies, which in a sense allows for the perception, characters occupy en closed spaces. Even Dursun is enclosed as he moves from the
28 apartment, to work in a factory, and back to the apartment. This reflects the status of, not only guest workers and migrants, but of the working class in modernity more broadly. Members of the wor king class in German society also appear as confined to more general confinements in Germany that seem to primarily affect the working class and women. Yasemin In th is self titled film, the female protagonist, Yasemin, also appears as a subject to similar Turkish patriarchal environments depicted in Shirins Hochzeit and Vierzig Quadratmeter Frauenfilm or Arbeiterfilm Yasemin confronts the issue of hyphenated identity that of living within and between two cultures. Yasemin demonstrates an ability to adapt to both German and Turkish culture. This hyphenated identity emerges as a new change to the German socio cultural landscape with second generation migrants. The film presents migrants as a lasting presence in German society, and encourages a reevaluation of Germany as a country of immigration. It also encourages German audiences to see hyphenated identi ty as a continuing development in Germany. With Yasemin one of the earliest films about Turkish immigrant families in the German context, Hark Bohm represents the critical youth film (Hake 175). The film, also
29 cultures, especially through her appearance. For example, she lowers her skirt on her way home from school, and removes and puts on her heads carf to fit her environment. ust save Yasemin from iconographic embodiment of the migrant woman in Europe, the traces of which still dominate public imaginary, debates, and policies through such topics as honor killing Among the most popular German productions in the 1980s, Yasemin shows and However, it also shows hybridi ty as a new development in German society through the existance in both Turkish and German culture. Fragments of both become embodied by Yasemin, contradicting the idea of culture as clearly defined totalities. This demonstrates uncannines s through blurred boundaries between self/other, insider/outsider, and raises issues and questions of belonging for the second home and strange or estranged at the same time, or to feel not at home even when one Turkish environments, which serves to show that she can fit into both, but that she has
30 environment and vise versa. In a sense, she has to perform both parts. The film, while novels, and stories, characters Yasemin film complicates perceptions of clear boundaries between insider and outsider and even cultural landscape. In the film, Germans even appear as others in Turk ish spaces the once familiar not fit in. He tries to enter into and interact with Yasemin at the wedding, but is unable to only see Yasemin from a distance, whether watching her from the sideline or trying to language and culture at a bookstore. Yet in the family. Before Yasemin is sent back to Turkey by her father, Jan comes and drives away with her on his motorbike. As Gktrk explains, with this ending the film d the view that German
31 Yasemin presents the development and presence of second generation migrants in German society, who negotiate between Turkish and German cultural affiliations. Thus, Germans see changes to their socio cultural community on screen, and can engage in constructions o f changing German identities through visually presented others. Yasemin like Shirins Hochzeit and Vierzig Quadratmeter common phantasy of victimised Turkish women who, especially when young and beautiful, need to be rescued from their p changes and reflect on estrangement and otherness taking place within Germany. These film provide a space where the self and ot her, the familiar and the unfamiliar, can meet and engage in German postwar identity negotiation and construction. Conclusion Films representing guest workers and migrants in German society engage audiences in reevaluations of German socio cul tural developments and changes. The films evoke the uncanny by showing strangers in familiar German spaces, such as apartments, German streets, and work spaces, which asks audiences to engage in reevaluations of German identity. The cinematic narratives al so evoke the uncanny by displaying previously hidden stories of the others or of strangers in German society on screen. These stories come to light through cinema, and contribute to the imagination and perception of postwar Germany. The films also demonstr ate how the other plays a role in the construction of the self. Just as the Heimliche helps to shed light onto that which is unheimlich depictions of guest workers and migrants in German society help
32 shed light on postwar Germany. German characters in the se films, such as the little girl in Vierzig Quadratmeter or women in Shirins Hochzeit identify with and reflect on their own situations through the other, and Germans also become others as does Jan in Yasemin The films discussed in C hapter 2 depict Germ any as a country of immigration, where migrants appear as a lasting presence in German spaces, affecting German cultural imaginaries.
33 CHAPTER 3 SECOND GENERATION MIGRANTS ON SCREEN: CULTURAL HYB RIDITY AND THE UNCANNY Introduction The collapse of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and re unification in Germany moment of change, not only affected by the re unification of East and West Germany, but also by the presence of non ethnic German others on German soil. Today, over sixteen million 1 people in Germany come from a migrant background, 2.5 million of which are from Tur kish origins, making up the largest migrant community in Germany (Nordbruch 5). The increasing presence of non ethnic Germans in Germany, after decades of guest worker programs and immigration, prompts discussions involving the de facto country of immigration. Many guest workers, originally expected to return to their countries of origin, continue to live, work, and raise families in Germany, which is also represented in cinema. According to film s cholar Sabine Hake, a younger generation of filmmakers in Germany, appearing after re Filmmakers of both ethnic G erman and migrant backgrounds explore German identity and belonging, and portray the changing German landscape. Cinematic representations of German society in the 1990s and 2000s continue to portray the life of non ethnic German incomers and settlers, but shift focus to second generation migrants 1 19.5% of the total population (Nordbruch 5).
34 on Aprilkinder ( April Children 1998) and Jerichow (2008) portray cultural hybridity and the complexities that second generation migrants experience, especia lly regarding national identity and belonging. Without producing clear boundaries or categorizations of identity, cultural hybridity in these films results in an uncanny feeling of in between. As hybridity in these filmic examples destabilizes established, clear notions of national and cultural belonging, second generation migrants demonstrate an uncanny, split, and fractured self that engages in complex negotiations of belonging that are, as Homi Bhabha says, esides, in the films show, the fractured self is not exclusively linked to migrants, indicating perhaps a disseminated phenomenon of cultural hybridity in modernity that not only affects hybrid, second generation migrants, but al so ethnic Germans living in increasingly hybrid environments. Hybridity, In Between, and the Uncanny Homi Bhabha discusses hybridity and in betweenness in his book, The Location of Culture as key terms toward an understanding of culture, society, and pol itics in demonstrate higher levels of complexity (35 fin de sicle we find ourselves in the moment of transit where space and time cross to produce complex figures of difference and identity, past and present, inside and outside, inclusion and Hybridity exemplifies one of these complex structures in contemporary
35 neither the one nor the other Hybridity denotes on the one hand a coming together of various cultural and linguistic genealogies, on the other hand a movement away from these genealogies toward newer, fresher, hitherto unseen, unread, or unexperienced manifestations of complex cu ltural experiences, primarily at the metropolitan centers of immigrant populations in the West. (122) situates itself in movement; it locates itself in the act of dislocation; it abandons the discussion, cultural hybridity takes on uncanny characteristics the blurring of boundaries that is a mark of the uncanny (Linville 24) allow ing the migrant to be at das Unheimliche ) literally as the unhomely (1 3). According to experience of extra territorialization, estrangement, and ambivalence of the post tions of second generation migrants in Germany, who demonstrate an ambivalence and estrangement from cultural hybridity on screen. To Bhabha, migrants live in between as on 42). Since the subject neither clearly adheres to one nor the other, belonging and cultural identity evoke an uncanniness arising out of arbitrary, blurred positions a nd categorizations. Although Bhabha focuses on colonial relationships, David Huddard
36 explains that these characterize also the migrant experience (53), and therefore can apply to readings of Turkish German works as well. Furthermore as Aprilkinder and Jeri chow demonstrate, cultural hybridity also affects native German characters in Germany, who experience uncanniness through the increasingly cultural hybridization of German spaces. What was once familiar appears strange. Film scholar Deniz Gktrk ap 4). Turkish Bhabha as well as other post c 3 5). As Bhabha something begins its presencing (5) 2 being lost between two cultur German films, by using humor and mutual mimicry, show prison of sub national pater 251 255). exploration of twenty first century Turkish German literature. She argues against 2 Poetry, Language, Thought New York: Harper & Row, 1971. 152 h something stops but, as the Greeks recognized, the boundary is that from which something begins its presencing
37 situati ng Turkish 4), and Adelso n and uncanniness experienced through migration, and allows us to see Turkish German Both Gktrk and Adelson draw attention to the mutual reflection developing between non ethnic Germans an d ethnic Germans in Germany today, not only placing the migrant experience as a part of German history and culture, but as Christina Aprilkinder and Jerichow non ethnic German s as well as ethnic Germans engage in the topic of migration, showing disorientation and cultural hybridity as not exclusively migrant experiences, but shared by ethnic Germans in Germany as well. This mutual encounter may, as Gktrk contends, represent a potential pleasure and humor to be found through hybridity in films such as Berlin in Berlin (1993) and Im Juli (2000). However, as portrayed in other films, such as Aprilkinder and Jerichow hybridity paints a more problematic, less celebratory notion. T hese films do not show a pleasure, but rather demonstrate an uncanny feeling of in between, from which subjects can negotiate belonging, but neither necessarily find it nor are liberated from the space. Aprilkinder Jerichow and the Uncanny in Cultural Hy bridity Aprilkinder and Jerichow exemplify an uncanny dynamic at play regarding subject identity and belonging that reflects the uncanny, which Bhabha also discusses
38 in his conceptualizations of hybridity and in betweenness. In these films, the dynamic also affects ethnic German subjects, suggesting the presence of ambiguity in identity and belonging to a wider audience living in increasingly hybrid environments. Although hybridity would seem to rectify multiple affinities within the individu al, it rather highlights Aprilkinder and Jerichow not only show the complexities, but also question the actual possibility of belonging in a contemporary, globalized, and culturally hybrid societ ies. Relationships often result in estrangement and alienation, even among family members. Also in these films, modern subjects longingly try to create and re create home and a sense of belonging within the increasingly hybridized environments. Yet, these fail to permanently materialize. Aprilkinder Aprilkinder tells the story of a Kurdish migrant family in Hamburg (Berghahn n.p). The title of this film refers to the children of guest workers that are conceived in July, during the Father Yavuz himself immigrated to Hamburg in 1980 at the age of sixteen with his guest worker father. He is known for directing fiction as well as documentary films (Gktrk, m Aprilkinder ( April Children ) adapted from his earlier documentary, Mein Vater der Gastarbeiter 3 ( My Father the Guest worker 1994) (Halle, 3 Yavuz did not have the proper permission to film at the companies where his father worked, and ultimately therefore the documentary
39 Apr ilkinder depicts cultural hybridity and the contact of Turkish and German elements that create culturally hybrid spaces and identities. Although the narrative takes place in an urban environment, the individual characters operate outside of mainstream cult ure, occupying in between, hybrid spaces, such as the family apartment, the urban streets, the meat packing factory, and the brothel. These spaces are mixed with both German and non German people, languages, and cultural characteristics. According to Chris tina Kraenzle, Yavuz engages in reconceptualization of Heimat 19 language, or ethnicity, but als o by socio this way, in between positions in Aprilkinder is not reserved for migrant characters, but is also occupied by ethnic Germans. Cultural hybridity acts as a way to bring migrants and Germans together in a seemingly transnational way, but rather than resulting in cultural hybridity, and an inescapable in between space. Socially, familially, and personally migrant and Germ an characters experience an uncanny estrangement, division, and blurring of familiarity although they occupy the same spaces. Aprilkinder focuses on the second generation migrant, Cem, who works in a German meat processing factory, and develops a romanti c relationship with a prostitute, present hybridity on German soil by intermingli ng German and non German culture, people, languages, and music. Although Cem would seemingly fit into these Turkish
40 German hybrid environments, as he is both Turkish and German, he does not. Cem does not actively or fully engage with either his co workers or his family. Whether in the Turkish brothel or in the German club, Cem sits at the bar and passively gazes at his surroundings, highlighting his in between status. Cultural hybridity, as demonstrated through Cem, does not enable a pleasure empowering him to confidently engage in his environment or surroundings. highlights the tension between familial traditions and assimilated desire. Cem lives in an apartment with his parents, his brother Mehmet, and his sister Dilan. Through the children, the family and the living space become hybrid environments, resulting in an uncanny division, estrangement, and a generational clash between family members. According to Kraenzle, the children wishes for him to marry his cousin, Ce m must sacrifice his personal relationship to Kim. Cem chooses to uphold familial traditions, while his brother Mehmet opts to follow his own personal desires to attain money and material gain through organized crime on the street. The street scenes and Me Kurz und Schmerzlos ( Short Sharp Shock 1998) and Thomas Geschwister ( Brothers and Sisters 1997) 4 clearly placing him away from mainstream society. He is also alienat 4 and Ghettocentrism in Thomas Arslan's Brothers and Sisters Short Sharp Shock New German Criti que.
41 Cem in the brothel and Mehment on the streets which produces different outcomes, as Cem chooses to follow the tradition al, familial path, and Mehmet a criminal one. The sister Dilan also negotiates between her culturally hybrid affiliations. On the one hand, she is a dutiful daughter that does her chores as she is told, but on the other obedient and dutiful young woman. She also secretly explores her own sexuality with of these examples, the div ision demonstrates the complexity of hybridity, and characterizes a sense of loss within familial relationships. According to Mennel, loss is involved in hybridity, for which theories discussing the play and pleasure of hybridity Aprilkinder this loss is seen when choices between hybrid affiliations have to be made. Cem, for example, cannot please his family and still have his relationship with Kim. He must choose, and either way he chooses, he experiences a loss, but not an escape from either in between spaces or alienation. The film also shows estrangement through language use in the culturally hybrid familial space. Both children and parents exclude each other from their conversations, alienating them from one ano ther. The children speak German, which their mother does not speak, and the parents use Kurdish to exclude their children (Kraenzle 96). The household, as a space that should be homely and familiar, is rendered unhomely or unheimlich through its hybridity in which parents are alienated from their children, children from their parents, and siblings from each other. The father at one point even children. The key dynami c in this space is the Entfremdung or estrangement. According
42 private and the public become part of each other, forcing upon us a vision that is as divided as it is disor Aprilkinder the infiltration of cultural hybridity (unfamiliar elements) into the home (a familiar space) changes the familial dynamic and environment, resulting in uncanny estrangement between family members. Alienation, however, also affects Kim, the main ethnic German character in the film. Through marginalized ethnic German characters, Yavuz shows that experiences of in the Turkish club, where she works, is especially evidenced when the Turkish owner dismisses her and tells her that no one wants a German in his club. Kim becomes the outsider, portraying the comp lexity of belonging in the changing Germany for Germans as well. The combination of her socio economic status and her occupation in a culturally terms with the changing make culturally hybrid spaces uncannily alienates the German character Kim just as it alienates Cem and his family. In a final scene, Kim and Cem make love in the stairwell, an in between space of tran sition. Kim, however, abruptly pushes him off and runs away, realizing that they cannot be together. This scene also implies the lack of liberation through hybridity or from the in between, commenting on cultural hybridity not as a pleasure or a unifying i ntermingling, but rather as a complicated dynamic. It
43 experience in the final scene of th the subjective position of Cem and spins around the room, not only describing the problematic transition from one immigrant generation to another (Halft 14), but also the potential lack of control over and alienating experience of cultural hybridity. Jerichow Another film portraying the complexity of cultural hybridity for non ethnic Germans and ethnic Germans in post unification Germany is Jerichow a re working of the twice filmed noir crime novel The Pos tman Always Rings Twice by James M. Cain (King 2). The director, Christian Petzold, sets Jerichow in a rural, sparsely inhabited environment in the Prignitz region, Northwest of Berlin. Prignitz represents, for Petzold, post 5 Petzold depicts the German Heimat in the film as an increasingly hybrid space with the development of businesses owned and operated by migrants. Hybridization, a mixing, is Heimatfilm noir noir films traditionally focus on urban modernity, whereas the Heimatfilm fixates on the countryside, making them appear as incongruous genres. However, the combination of these seemingly incompatible groups, reflects the very essence of hybridity. In this way, Jerichow itself is neither fully one nor the other, and reflects dynamics of modernity, the development of hybrid spaces and the increasing importance of capital, in the German Heimat The characters in the film, operating within changing, hybrid spaces, demonstrate a renegotiation of the German Heimat and the difficulty of belonging. 5
44 The characters in this fi lm, a second generation Turkish migrant and two ethnic more specifically this process i n a rural, post fordian environment. 6 In its filmic construction, Petzold connects the Heimat to modernity and capital. It is the site where migrants have settled, opened businesses, and contributed to the cultural hybridization of the German landscape. Wi th shots of the train passing through the province, and visual depictions of Imbissstuben owned and operated by migrants, the German Heimat connects the hybridization in modernity with the changing Germany, which complicates a sense of belonging for both e thnic Germans and migrants. The three characters in the film, two ethnic Germans, Thomas and Laura, and Ali, a second generation migrant from Turkey, all experience alienation, yet seek to create Heimat and belonging. Heimat building in the film takes plac e in the private spheres. Rather than showing scenes of Heim the private sphere presented by two houses and the baltic ocean (King 15). This representation uncannily brings the private to a public space, as the private sphere indeed becomes description of the uncanny everything that was intended to stay secret that has come to the open (132). Bringing thes e private dynamics to the public and depicting the experience on screen. The German Heimat in the film is shown as one in flux and change. As people in contemporary so ciety continually migrate to urban centers for better opportunities and 6 See Jerichow DVD extras.
45 jobs, the traditional space of the German Heimat i.e. the province, increasingly empties out. In various shots, the film indeed focuses solely on the empty streets and roads, enhancin g an alienated, emptying feel. Another notable change demonstrated in the film are the various shots that take place in non ethnic German migrant environments. King Imbissbuden discount characters Thomas and Ali, we see the increasing presence of Turkish and Asian Imbissstuben in the German Heimat depicting a hybridized environment. The mixing of Heimat feel uncanny. The film also strongly references economic exchange (King 13), and similar to Aprilkinder thematizes socio economic status. In this way, the film links the modern Heimat to capital, while demonstrating how characters weigh socio economic relationships over personal ones. However in Jerichow migrant characters demonstrate enhanced capital control as the owners and operators of lucrative food businesses. Poverty and debt is connected to the two ethnic German characters. Since the second generation migrant character Ali demonstrates economic success, Turkish German relations appear in a different light. In this new Heimat the ethnic German characters work for the migr ant character. Yet, all are still afflicted in the search for belonging. In post unification, post fordian Heimat as it is imagined in the film, presents characters of the second generation migrant in the film acts as only one part of the larger picture of hybridity, fragmentation, and in betweenness.
46 As the characters, however, c ontinually seek belonging and Heimat in post unification, post fordist Germany, it becomes clear that money cannot buy a sense of home or belonging, even though money in the film takes precedence over personal relationships, friendships, and love, which is generation Turkish migrant character Ali, however, cannot find love, friendship or al success as the operator of an betweenness. His material success does not liberate him. On the one hand, he is, as Alasdair King suggests, one who left his country of origin when he was two years old, and is not particularly familiar with it. He hrough stories and memories. The only belonging Ali creates is a fantasy Heimat on the beach that can, however, only last temporarily. By getting drunk and dancing to Turkish music by the ocean, Ali feels a membered dance movements communicate this constructed hybrid Turkish Heimat on the German beach, as he alienated, as he dances and drinks by himself, gazed upon by his wife Laura and employee Thomas, disinterested in interacting with him. Evidently, as represented in the between the two,
47 dynamic. Heimat and belonging for Ali exists in dreams and fantasies, which is neither here nor there. He may dream of going to Turkey, for example when he tells Thomas about a fictional property he purchased in Turkey for himself and Laura, but in the end, Belonging and Heimat does not only pose problems for Ali, but also for the ethnic Germans Laura and Thomas. Thomas returns to the region to start a new life after a Thomas inherits h is childhood house, and intends to renovate it, reflecting also his internal desire to recreate a sense of home and belonging in Germany. Thomas represents an outsider lacking belonging in a place that should be his home. Although ethnically German, Thomas does not seem to belong in the unified, post fordian the Arbeitsamt 1989 and the fall of the Berlin Wall. The fact that he is also unemployed reflects the status of many people from East Germany, who were unemployed after re unification. The development of fordist economics in Germany posed a hardship for many former East Germans, just as it does for Tho mas in the film. According to Brad Prager, the film disjunctions and disillusionment, rather than (as) a bright line that separates the past e past separation of East and West Germany uncannily
48 and in between position as not a member of mainstream German society, yet still German. ffers from socio economic hardships, and even spent time in jail for having high debt. She married Ali, because he would pay off her economic interests. Ali seeks fr iendship with Thomas, but is not sure how to achieve it, evidenced by the clumsy embraces in the film (King 10). With Laura, Ali seeks love, but does not receive any. At times, Ali exhibits brutal, controlling, jealous, and suspicious feelings towards Laur a and even Thomas, further complicating the notion of relationships in post fordist society. Laura represents a character seeking freedom and escape from her debts in a loveless marriage that ends in an adulterous relationship e. According to King, the film presents a specific approach to contemporary Turkish affected and outcast by changing ec onomic circumstances in Germany (10). They relationships become the main currency for relationships in post fordian society, and the representation of migrant businesses and the succ essful migrant in the German Heimat alter perceptions of the German space. Belonging and the creation of an actual sense of home in the end, do not materialize. Conclusion Both Jerichow and Aprilkinder show hybridity and in betweenness as characte ristic of both migrants and ethnic Germans. Alienation in these films affects all characters, which concludes in either an unending dizzying, as the final scene of
49 Aprilkinder Jerichow These strongly express the di demonstrates an uncanny blurring of positions and Entfremdung from familiarity in these films. Culturally hybrid subjects, as well as subjects living in culturally hybrid s paces, engage in complex negotiations of identity and belonging in changing, hybridizing environments. Through cinematic depictions of second generation migrants, audiences can visualize the dynamics of a culturally hybrid existence, while also envisioning new forms of belonging, national identity, and Heimat A closer look also shows ethnic demonstrates characteristics of contemporary, globalized society in which identity a nd belonging, rather than resulting in clear categories, become complex negotiations and bet and hybridity. Aprilkinder and Jerichow furthermore visually display and shed light on dynamics present in contemporary society, which Nikos Papastergiadis describes as (Papastergiadis 3). Turkish German works in Germany are part of German culture, and engage in complex portrayals and discussions of identity and belonging in contemporary Germany.
50 CHAPTER 4 TURKISH GERMAN TRANSNATIONAL CINEMA AND THE UNCAN NY Introduction mobility and travel, along with increased migration patterns in globalization, call for new co nceptualizations of cultural communities and artistic production. Many scholars have turned to the concept of the transnational to describe contemporary socio cultural dynamics. Transnationalism enables cultural imaginations to focus on the mobility and fl concerned with the politics of recognition and dynamics of inclusion or exclusion within beyond the nati 1 (Gktrk and Wolbert 3). As a concept, transnationalism emerged in anthropological social type that maintains multiple relations across national borders (Waldinger 5 6). Increasingly, film scholars and critics explore transnationalism in cinema, questioning how this category challenges traditional understandings of national cinema and c ultural borders, and how it engages in re conceptualizations of migrant, cultural communities in contemporary society. In the German context, Turkish German cinema is a part of a cinema of border 1 Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling Beyond the Nation (1998).
51 194, 216). More recent Turkish Ben Annemin Ich bin die Tochter meiner Mutter ( 1996), Fatih Auf der anderen Seite ( On the Edge of Heaven 2007), and the 2011 film Almanya Willkommen in Deutschland ( Almanya Welcome to Germany ) by the sisters Yasemin and Nesrin Samdereli, exemplify transnational depictions that enable German audiences to reassess the German socio cultural landscape. As Arjun Appadurai describes in Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization electronic mass media provide resources for self imagining as an everyday social proj Appadurai, the globalization of media and migration transforms the work of the imagination (9). Through mass media and technological developments in modern globalization, the perceived span of socio cultural communities widens, giving rise to a transnational aesthetic or world view. In the context of contemporary globalization, societies appear to be more connected through international institutions and modern technologies that enable affordable and readily available communication and travel op portunities. Since the representation of society through visual media impacts perceptions, cinema, as a popular visual media, plays an important role in the shifting socio cultural views, and can encourage transnational cultural imaginations. Randall Hal le, in German Film after Germany: Towards a Transnational Aesthetic describes transnationalism as a cultural dynamic, designating sociopolitical ideational processes (5). Transnationalism allows us to perceive and imagine cultural communities as fluid rat her than confined, enabling the view of migrants as maintaining affiliations and ties across national boundaries. Within a transnational framework,
52 migrants can identify with multiple places and cultures, rather than having to choose between host and home Kaya explains, many Turkish Germans have made both Turkey and Germany into their own practical and symbolic habitat s; Turkish connected to various places and people across national borders. Indeed, many Turkish heir homeland by maintaining kinship and friendship ties, but also by remaining involved politically, economically, and culturally in transnational ties of Turkish Germans in Germany, and show how many migrants are not fully focused on only one society, but rather bridge both societies. Second generation migrants especially fit within a transnational framework, since, as Peggy Levitt explains, many are raised within a transn ational social field (1226). Many children of migrants (i.e. second generation migrants ) do not simply between their country of familial origin or place of residence they rather create a complex set of practices (Lev itt 1239). The Turkish German films discussed in C hapter 4 Ich bin die Tochter meiner Mutter Auf der anderen Seite and Almanya visually display this dynamic within the narrative setting of travel. Second generation migrant characters appear in the film s as highly mobile and able to adapt to various places, highlighting important transnational characteristics. In disseminating the view of transnational inhabitants on screen, the films also act to alter perceptions of migrants and cultures in contemporary societies as belonging to fixed or
53 static categories in cultural imaginaries. Through these journeys, the films display identity negotiations and the discovery of cultural roots, as well as an uncanny doubling involved in the process. Identity Negotiatio ns: The Freudian Double in Turkish German Transnational Film In each of the films discussed in C hapter 4 the protagonists embark on a 2 roots and origins. Through pict ures and stories, the characters follow the Spuren (traces) and ruins of the past to discover and understand their familial roots, and in the process gain a fuller understanding of the self. This undertaking highlights identity as something always in the p rocess of becoming rather than as a fixed category. generation migrants describe a fluidity of identities, and a myriad of ways in which their identities are expressed as a direct result of shifting ethnic and nation demonstrate this adaptability to mult iple places as an important transnational characteristic of second generation migrant characters on screen. The characters cinematically move back, forth, and between Turkey and Germany, fitting a transnational aesthetic. The journey creates a space where second generation migrant characters can engage on a quest toward self discovery by exploring their cultural roots and familial history across national borders. 2 the journey from Turkey to Germany by first generation migrants. Here, the journey from Germany to Turkey takes place with second generation migrant s.
54 Within these filmic narratives, however, the motif of the double emerges, maintaining a level of complexity in the on screen transnational identity negotiations. Transnational migrants, like Turkish German second generation migrant characters, to the construction of celebrating a utopian reconciliation of multiple national and cultural affinities, these films maintain identity constructions as complex through the motif of the double an uncanny emergence c haracteristic of second generation migrant characters in the films. prevents a utopic vision of transnationalism. There are still complexities and multiplicities under negotiation on citizen is by definit ion the subject who must be recognized, transnationalism can quickly and Rowden 11). The Freudian motif of the double, and the uncanniness evoked therein, disrupts any stra ight forward recognition or definition of second generation characters in these films. y across national borders necessarily entails significant emotional conflict and C hapter 4 be a lost connection to cultural roots or to a part of the second generation migrant
55 ch journey to cultural origins. However, an uncanny doubling occurs, which becomes more apparent throughout the narrative journeys and in instances that visual manifest. For Sigmu nd Freud, the double is one of the most prominent motifs producing an uncanny become 142). Doubling evokes an uncanny feeling of the existence of another self within the self an other within. According to Freud, doubling initially occurred in an attempt to preserve the self case of second generation migrant characters, the double can thus result from holding on to multiple cultural affinities in an attempt to pr The Turkish German characters hold on to both Germany and Turkey as socio cultural so to say, a doubling occurs, allowing s econd generation migrant characters to maintain an identity in both places. Maintaing these ties is an important characteristic of 489). Therefore, we can see doubling as characteristic of some filmic imaginations of transnational inhabitants, who seek to maintain ties and identify with multiple places across borders.
56 Both a Turkish and German self exist at the same time as parts of the same single individual. Freud, however, extends h is theory of the double by including an element of double is a creation that belongs to a primitive phase in our mental development, a phase that we have surmounted, in whi (Freud 143). The double was originally a wish fulfillment, and what has been repressed is a stage of development (Mller 132). According to Lis Mller, Freud modifies his conceptualization of the uncanny in his discussion of the double. Rather than showing return of that which has been repressed or explain why the uncanny element of the double arises in the return journey for second generation migrant characters in the films. It forgotten, or faded cultural ties back to light. Although the cinematic return journeys in Ich bin die Tochter meiner Mutter Auf der anderen Seite and Almanya display the transnational ties of second generation migrant characters, they also demonstrate a psychological process of the uncanny: return and doubling. Ich bin die Tochter meiner Mutter Ich bin die Tochter meiner Mutter emerged as a project from the Munich film school (Lwisch 129). It premiered at the 1 996 Berlinale, and won second prize at the Munich documentary film festival that same year (Lwisch 129). As Henriette Lwisch explains in an interview with Seyhan Derin, the film up of her mother, who throughout her life, stoo d in the
57 However, this autobiographical documentary film goes beyond a simple portrayal of her po rtrays a journey of self discovery that explores origins and a side of her own past that she hardly knew, or with which she had become disconnected. In learning about her mother, she also learns more about her self, and reestablishes both familial and cult ural ties. Seyhan Derin explores her familial history and origins by returning to the Turkish village where she was born. As a small child, she moved with her mother and three young sisters to live with her father, a guestworker, in Germany. As Mennel ex plains, confidently claim Germanness, while advancing a cinematic language that integrates German, Turkish, and trans national journey where she, as the main character, reconnects with her cultural roots, and demonstrates transnational cultural ties through her fluid interactions in both Germany and Turkey. Derin comfortably moves within and between German and Turkish cul ture, as she reconstructs and processes her familial past and origins. Letters Leitmotif pieces of her past. A compulsion to return, however, prompts her journey. She expresses in the film that her childhood would visit her in her dreams, and that she had to come back to this place (in reference to the Turkish village whence her family came). The compulsion shows a, perhaps unconscious, desire to reconnect with this other part of he rself. During her journey, she comes to terms with and accepts this other part of
58 her self, represented by a little girl in reoccurring black and white scenes. The little girl, her double, represents her childhood self he double generation migrant, which she, however, eventually accepts. Ich bin die Tochter meiner Mutter begins with a letter that Derin wrote to her father. Her niece finds the lette r along with various family pictures in a box. Her niece, representing the third generation, can only read some of the words in the letter that is written in Turkish. This early scene shows the generational changes between the second and the third generat ion. This transnational characteristic the ability to effectively communicate in both Turkish and German links more closely to second generation migrants, like Derin, than to subsequent ones like her niece, who requires etter and the pictures. Second generation migrants, in this scene, play an important role in translating between the first and the third generation and in connecting the two. Although the past and familial history presents itself through these found items at times second generation migrants may need to help subsequent generations understand them. In the letter to her father, Derin describes the difficulties and problems in her family life. A voice over reading the letter recounts the conflict that existed between the father and the children. As the letter claims, they did not understand why he went to the gambling halls, or why he drank so much, why he left home when they were teenagers, because her father wanted to send them back to Turkey. She and her sisters stayed in Germany, which split the family apart. The
59 journey that Derin takes, therefore, not only represents a reconnection with cultural roots and self discov ery, but also a journey that confronts this family conflict. She expresses in another letter, this time written to her mother, how little about her mother she knows. Her the male side as the more important, Derin claims. During her journey, she seeks to uncover this miss counter narr ative to the patriarchal perspective, and contests the popularized images of migrant women in the 1980s found in cinematic portrayals like 40 Square Meters of Germany or imagination, they tend ed to appear trapped in claustrophobic space and scenarios of provides her with a new perspective, and she learns to see her mother as a self sufficient and independent village woman. As she explains, this blatantly contradicts the image formed in Germany. past. They visit their old, barely standing house, for example, with collapsed walls and broken stone. Her mother describes the hard work that she had to do. As her mother tells Derin her stories, Derin realizes how strong and independent of a person her mother is, contradicting perceptions of Turkish women as dependent and reliant on
60 men However, a repeated line in the film by the women that their husbands must know best, disrupts seeing the women in a fully unsubmissive or unsubservient light. The women in the film still display obedience to their husbands. On the one hand, the women ma intain such traditions, but also appear to be more than capable of taking care of themselves and their children. Various scenes in the documentary depict the village own absence, exemplifying the image of a self sufficient, capable woman. She even tells Derin that after three days of giving birth to her, nonetheless alone, she had to return to w ork to provide for the family. When Derin asks her mother if this life was hard for her, she responds by saying that she did what she had to do to make money and provide. Although her mother appears obedient and dutiful to her husband, she nonetheless main tains an image of an independent, self reliant woman. Derin says in the film that she developed a feeling of pride that she had a mother, who despite keeping up with traditions externally, mastered her life through inward strength. She gains a new insight to her past and origins, and uncovers this part of herself that was once foreign to her. She reconnects with her mother in a new way, and learns to see her origins differently, allowing her to identify with this piece of herself. Symbolically, repeated sce nes of a little Derin reconnects with her past self and origins. emerges from t ime to time of a young girl on a train. This girl traveling in the in between
61 discovery. The girl is alone in the train cabin, and she repeatedly shakes the door handle, but i t will not open. As Mennel explains, the film moves beyond documentary film conventions, and highlights sociological and psychological elements of migration is doubled by the representation of her alter ego as a little girl, she is also demonstrates transnational affiliations. In the final scene with the little girl, Derin shows herself explaining to the little girl how to perform the black and white sequence. This acts as a Brechtian Verf remdungseffekt (Rendi 88). It draws attention to the scene, but disrupts any close identification with the character. This doubling mixed with travel also prevents us from seeing her identity negotiation or self exploration as a completed project. Derin sa ys in the film that the journey continues, which she also visually expresses through shots of the moving train. In the final scene, the little girl appears in two places at the same time. One stands by an old abandoned house in a field by the village, an d the other girl is in the the train a gesture that suggests a coming to terms with both identities. As the girl on the train continues her journey, she takes her other Turkish side with her. Yet through the doubling, we see her identity negotiation as ongoing. The doubling represents the sides. Rather, they stay separate sid es of the whole that are continuously
62 negotiated. Through her journey she learns to accept both her Turkish origins and German existence. She is able to maintain both as a part of herself, displaying her transnational cultural affiliation. Auf der anderen Seite Auf der anderen Seite also depicts a transnational journey where the protagonist engages in both a reconnection with cultural roots as well as familial reconciliation. The German film directors in Ge rmany, Bear award with his film Gegen die Wand which was the first German film in eighteen filmmaker to ( German Film 164). Although other filmmakers also imagine transnational culture on Auf der anderen Seite depicts life as a transnational inhabitant through the protagonist Nejat, but also expresses important aspects of globalization. According to Mennel, the film captures globalization brought on by increased speed of transportation and communication technologies connected and able to cross borders more freely, demonstrating the effect of e nhanced technology in contemporary globalization. Although the film depicts a transnational aesthetic and features of globalization, it furthermore portrays a reconnection with cultural roots and familial reconciliation through the protagonist Nejat. Throu gh this second generation Turkish German migrant character, we witness a transnational
63 identity negotiation on screen where doubling occurs through cinematic spaces portrayed. Many scenarios taking place in the film repeat, but are set in different pla ces and narrative structure. Repeated individual shots are embedded in parallel for example, exemplify a doubling of scenes. The former takes place in Germany, whereas the latter takes place in Turkey and ends in violence. Doubling occurs in other scenes an girlfriend. The scenes of the airlines transporting their bodies back to their countries of er in crossing in time and space captures contemporary mobility under globalization 14). After the tragic deaths, the family members left behind rekindle ties and seek reconciliation with each other. Another type of spatial doubling occurs in the film through the protagonist Nejat, who creates a pseudo German space in Turkey. This doubling demonstr ates identity negotiation as a transnational inhabitant. It also displays a socio cultural change
64 atial doubling, he expresses and explores his own cultural identity, enabling him to connect with his Turkish roots and seek to amend ties with his father. Nejat, a German studies professor in Hamburg, portrays a character that seems comfortable and at home in both Germany and Turkey. He demonstrates high spatial and linguistic mobility as he travels through and between the urban and rural spaces of Germany and Turkey, representing a transnational inhabitant in globalized society. Yet, often when Neja t spends time with his father, and even during a dinner scene with Ali and Yeter, Nejat seems to prefer to use German over Turkish, even though he is fluent in Turkish. During the dinner scene with Ali and Yeter, for example, he responds to them in German despite the fact that they ask him questions in Turkish and talk to each other in Turkish. In scenes such as this one, Nejat shows a level of uneasiness or lack of interest toward using Turkish, which perhaps demonstrates a lack of connection to his cultur al roots. A disconnect also appears in his relationship to his father. Ali expresses to him that it is impossible to talk to him, for example. In another scene, Nejat yells at his father brek 3 Ali claimed that the brek was bad for his health. Nejat angrily confronts him, and Ali responds by telling him to stay out of son relationship heightens when Nejat rejects having a father 4 While Nejat travels to and across Turkey to connect with his cultural origins, he also realizes his need to reconnect 3 A type of Turkish pastry. 4 In Turkey, Nejat is asked about his father, and he responds by saying that a murderer is not my father. Earlier in the film, his father accidentally killed Yeter, a Turkish prostitute who was living with him.
65 celebrated on the day of Bayram he travels to Trabzon in the Black Sea region to find his father. This is also the site of his actual familial heritage, and where his father still owned a house. Before traveling to Trabzon, Nejat lived alone in Turkey and was therefore only able to explore his cultur al origins to a certain level. We typically see him alone in interior spaces like his German bookstore in Turkey. However with his father in Trabzon, he would be able to discover his cultural heritage on a more personal, familial level, and experience his with his father, therefore, also allows him the opportunity to truly explore his origins. Yet, we do not see the actual reconciliation between father and son take place on screen. After drivin ocean to wait for him. Reuniting with his father remains an open ended question in the screen as an on going process. Schuld ore for sale, he feels and of Ayten at a young age. He duplicates a picture of Yeter and hangs them up as fliers around the town, hoping that Ayten will recognize t he picture and contact him. While hanging up the pictures, he comes across a bookstore owned by a German. He walks into the bookstore and greets the store owner in German who seems stunned and thrilled to hear his native language. Nejat asks the owner why he wants to sell the
66 bookstore, and the owner explains how he has been in Turkey for almost ten years. The store owner tells him that he suddenly found himself missing Germany, and the German language as well. He states that he simply has Heimweh (homesick ness). Nejat says that he understands. His decision to then purchase the store suggests his own Heimweh that he may have experienced away from Turkey the Heimat that was a part of him, but from which he may have felt disconnected. In this scene, Nejat sh ows that he misses Turkey, or feels some compulsion to return to Turkey and reconnect with his roots. The German bookstore allows him to stay in Turkey and maintain his German identity. It also demonstrates a double of his space in Germany, as a German stu dies professor and lecturer of Goethe. Through the doubling of his spatial environment, he can negotiate his cultural ties to Germany while connecting with his cultural roots in Turkey. He exhibits transnational culture through these ties, and the doubling of his German spatial environment allows him to keep both of these connections alive and present. Almanya Willkommen in Deutschland The 2011 film Almanya by the sisters Yasemin and Nesrin Samdereli also exemplifies a transnational, return journey to cult ural roots. However this film, rather than focusing on travel by second generation migrants, depicts a family journey. The first second and third generation Turkish German migrants travel back to their Anatolian village in Turkey together. The filmmake rs expressed how they wanted to change the common depiction of Turks in Germany, and show something different in this film. Yasemin Samdereli, quoted in Reuters years that the issue of Turks in Germany is often cast in a negative light and it was quite tiring. My own family tried very hard to face up to the new challenges (when they
67 story of familial migration to Germany, but rather than showing difficulty and difference negatively, they use the opportunity to cast these in a humorous light. They show comedic elements in intercultural connections, as the migrant family tries to adapt to their new life in Germany. A third gener ation migrant character, Canan, tells the family story of their migration to Germany to her small cousin Cenk, who curiously wants to know who or what he is German or Turkish? The family goes on a journey to their cultural origins, an Anatolian village i n Turkey, allowing both the second and third generation migrant characters to reconnect and discover their cultural roots and origins. Turkish and German at the same time, evidenced in a later scene in the film portraying the characters along side their doubles, the visual manifestation of their former selves. The film opens up with a scene showing family pictures. The first picture shows ator, as a small child with her grandfather, and then another picture of her family on their trip in Turkey taken shortly before her grandfather died. Her grandfather, Hseyin, initially came to Germany as a guestworker. During this opening sequence, black and white video clips show people coming to work in Germany during the Wirtschaftswunder (economic miracle). In September 1964, Hseyin came to Germany as the one millionth and one guestworker, portrayed in a comical scene where he could have been the fam ous one millionth guestworker to come to Germany. The pictures in this scene document their familial past, and as Canan tells the story this past enters the present through recounted memories on screen. In another picture this time given to Cenk by Hseyin
68 The picture shows the countryside of their village. Hseyin tells Cenk that the picture (our homeland). Confused Cenk takes the picture, angrily puts the picture down o scene, it highlights the d ifficulty of overcoming fixed categorizations. At school, Cenk through the journey that they take. For Cenk, the complicated question of his identity and belongin g confronted him in school. His teacher, for example, asks him where he is from during a simple Germany when asked, but the teacher then asks him from where his father comes He says Anatolia, which does not appear on their European map that cuts off at Istanbul. He is thus placed off the map in an area further east, locating him outside of Europe in a place that is visually nonexistent. Even though Cenk appears unfamiliar wi th his familial the place where he is from. In another school scene, the boys wanted to play a game of soccer Germans against Turks. Cenk, unsure of where to go, is shoved by another boy w ho says to the Germans that they can have him; that he cannot even speak Turkish. The other children categorize Cenk even though he himself cannot decidedly figure out to which side he belongs. The various people at his school, his classmates and teacher, categorize him and tell him where he belongs. Yet in a contradicting fashion, his German teacher places him in Turkey, while his Turkish classmates ascribe him to Germany. He
69 appears to be in both, but neither at the same time. However, as his cousin Canan tells him and as he learns on the journey in Turkey, he can be both German and Turkish at the same time. The journey, while connecting Cenk and his family members with their past, also allows them to understand themselves and negotiate their transnational ties. At a family dinner, the grandfather surprises the family with the news that he bought a house in Turkey in their old village. He wants to take them on vacation to the village, the space of their familial past, to renovate the house. The film follow s the family along the Turkish roads that they travel in a rented van. Along the drive, Canan tells the Germany rather than return to Turkey. Unfortunately, the family soon discovers that Hseyin passed away during the drive. They go to their old village to burry him there. During the ceremony, a doubling visually emerges on screen. Cenk looks around at the crowd and sees his grandmother holding the hand of her former self the young women that she used to be when the family migrated to Germany. As Cenk peers around, he sees all of his relatives with their doubles. He sees his dad as a baby, because he was born in Germany. Next, he sees his aunt and uncles with their Turkish childhood generation migrant family members reconnected with their cultural roots, giving rise to the emergence of their double. The double visually represents the psychological process and negotiation of identity, which can consist of both Turkish and German sides. Cenk smiles; he seems to understand that both selves create the whole, and that the Turkish and German self create each individual in his family.
70 A similar doubling scene repe ats after the family finds the house that Hseyin purchased. When they arrive at the house, they realize that it is actually a ruin with a door, but without walls, a roof, or a floor. From these ruins and pieces, however, the family can rebuild their on ho use, reflecting the psychological dynamic at play. With the pieces of our own past, we can negotiate our own identities and belonging. In another scene, we see the family members and their doubles, their present and former selves, sitting in the grass, bet ween the outline of the house, interacting with one another. The of everything that happened before us and our experiences. We are every person that influenced us; we ar e everything that happens after we are gone. 5 The film shows that we create our identities through interactions and connections, and that we take our experiences and past selves with us regardless of where in the world we end up. Conclusion In the films, Ich bin die Tochter meiner Mutter Auf der anderen Seite and Almanya the double appears as a reoccurring theme that can manifest both at an individual level and spatially. These doublings, emerging during return journeys to cultural origins, allow secon d generation migrant characters to negotiate a transnational cultural identity and belonging between German and Turkish culture. The double maintains and visually conveys a level of complexity within these identity negotiations, which prevents any utopic v iew of transnationalism. Rather, these negotiations remain complex, on going processes. The figure of the double visually displays how both a 5 sind die Summe all dessen was vor uns geschah. All dessen was unter unseren Augen getan wurde. All dessen was uns angetan wurde. Wir sind jeder Mensch und jedes Ding dessen dasein uns einflusste oder von uns beinflusst wurde. Wir sind alles was geschiet na chdem wir nicht mehr sind und
71 Turkish and German self remains alive and present within the individual. In the films discussed in C hapter 4 we s ee the second generation migrants embrace their transnational identity, and come to terms with or accept their cultural roots as a part of themselves. The films also demonstrate the significance of visual media such as photography and the importance of rec ounting memories and storytelling as ways to connect with familial past and cultural origins. These aid the journeys of self discovery and identity formation. The films discussed here depict the transnational migrant as an established community in contempo rary society. As Halle explains: Unlike the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when emigration generally meant the loss of engagement with the country of origin, the new transnational migrants are no longer forever dislocated from their homeland s. There is a routine of travel and contact that is not a matter of being in 168) The cinematic portrayal of these migrants encourages a reevaluation of fixed socio cultural categories, cultural identities, and belonging in contemporary, globalized societies within cultural imaginaries.
72 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Throughout the modern period, people created a sense of belonging through allegiance to a nation state (Papastergiadis 2). Yet, increasingly complex patterns of movement across national boundaries, along with new expressions of identity by minority groups have destabilized this foundation (Papastergiadis 2). Although the nation state remains an important political and legal organizing principle in the world, socio cultural belonging and identity based on nation state affiliations and ties appears under ques tion and negotiation. Turkish German cultural productions exemplify this shift in perception by depicting cultural hybridity and transnationalism as contemporary cultural imaginations of belonging. Electronic media, such as cinema, has especially new resources and new disciplines for the construction of imagined selves and Wirtschaftswunder Turkish migrants formed a lasting presence in German society, changing perceptions of what it means t o be German. Turkish German cinema opens up a space to negotiate these discussions, and reassess notions of belonging, identity, and Heimat in contemporary, globalized society. Although more cross cultural, cross national imaginations of belonging, such a s transnationalism, have emerged, they do not necessarily indicate a sense of completion diasporic communities and facilitated the critique of the nation state, but this in itself has not necessarily produced greater levels of freedom and cross (6). The negotiations of identity and belonging are not completed processes.
73 As demonstrated in this thesis, Turkish German cinema and representations of and changing socio cultural landscape. On screen identity negotiations in the films discussed, reflect complex, continuous processes of discussion, and evoke uncanny dy namics and characteristics. The presence of uncanny elements maintains a level of complexity, and disturbs any clear sense of outsider/insider and Heimat The uncanny arises from familiarity that becomes strange, which affects both Turkish migrants, German s with a Turkish background, and native Germans in the films discussed in this thesis. Rather than portraying clear pictures of pleasures associated with hybridity, the German films have cont ributed to the repoliticisation of cinema around issues of identity and their Germans and Germans with a migrant background experience these shifts, and participate in redef initions of German.
74 LIST OF REFERENCES Gender and Germanness: Cultural Productions of Nation Ed. Patricia Herminghouse and Magda Mueller. Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1997. 305 322. The Turkish Turn in Contemporary German Literature: Toward a New Critical Grammar of Migration New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Almanya Willkommen in Deutschland Dir. Yasemin Samdereli. Perf. Vedat Erincin, Fahri gn Yardim, Lilay Huser. Roxy Film and Infa Film, 2011. The German Quarterly 75.2 (Spring 2002): 144 159. Appadurai, Arjun. Modernity at Large: Cultur al Dimensions of Globalization Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Aprilkinder Dir. Yksel Yavuz. Perf. Erdal Yildiz, Blent Sharif, Senem Tepe. Zero Film GmbH and Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF), 1998. New Cinemas: Journal of Contemporary Film 4.3 (2006): 141 157. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture New York: Routledge, 1994. Blickle, Peter. Heimat: A C ritical Theory of the German Idea of Homeland New York: Camden House, 2002. Bloom, Harold. Bertold Brecht Broomall: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002. German Cinema: From Cultural Resistance to Transnational German Cinema Si nce Unification Ed. David Clarke. New York: Continuum, 2006. 127 150. Byrne, Eleanor. Homi K. Bhabha New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Chin, Rita. The Guest Worker Question in Postwar Germany Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Collins, R ichard, and Vincent Porter. WDR and the Arbeiterfilm: Fassbinder, Ziewer, and Others London: BFI, 1981. Coulson, Anthony. Exiles and Migrants: Crossing Thresholds in European Culture and Society Sussex: Academic Press, 1997.
75 David, Huddard. Homi K. Bhabha New York : Routledge, 2005. Davidson, John E. Deterritorializing the New German Cinema Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999. Diamond, Elin. Unmaking Mimesis: Essays on Feminism and Theater London: Routledge, 1997. Elsaesser, Th omas. New German Cinema: A History New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 1989. Transnational Cinema: The Film Reader Ed. Elizabeth Ezra and Terry Rowden. New York: Routledge, 2006. 1 14. Freud, Sigmund. The Uncanny Trans. David McLintock. New York: Penguin Books, 2003. Fulbrook, Mary. A History of Germany 1918 2008: The Divided Nation Malden: Wiley Blackwell Publishing, 2009. sh Delight German Fright: Migrant Identities in Transnational Transnational Communities Programme Working Paper Series 1999. June 2010 www.transcomm.ox.ac.uk/working %20papers/mediated.pdf Spaces in European Cinema Ed. Myrto Konstantarakos. Portland: Intellect Books, 2000. 64 76. "Beyond Paternalism: Turkish German Traffic in Cinema." The German Cinema Book. Ed. by Tim Bergfelder, Erica Carter, Deniz Gktrk. London: British Film Institute, 2002: 248 256. Kleine Freiheit / A Little Bit of Freedom Transit 1.1 (2004) http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1qw9r66b New German Critique 92 (2004): 3 4. Hake, Sabine. German National Cinema New York: Routledge, 2002. trkisc her Konstellationen im filmischen German as a Foreign Language 3 (2010): 4 39. Halle, Randall. German Film After Germany: Toward a Transnational Aesthetic Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008.
76 Baby I will Make You Sweat and La Moderna Poesia Film Philosophy 14.1 (2010): 103 121. Heidegger, Martin. Poetry, Language, Thought Trans. Albert Hofstadter. New York: Perennical Classics, 2011. Ich bin die Tochter meiner Mutter Dir. Seyhan Derin. Perf. Seyhan Derin, Ilknur Bahadir, Emine Sevgi zdamar. Hochschule fr Fernsehen und Film Mnchen (HFF), 1996. Ich gehe jetzt rein Dir. Aysun Bademsoy. Perf. Arzu Calkilic, Gabrielle Trkan Celik, Nalan Keser, Safiye Kok, Nazan Yavas. Das Kleine Fernsehspiel (ZDF) and Harun Farocki Filmproduktion, 2008. Ilcan, Suzan. Longing in Belonging: the Cultural Politics of Settlement Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2002. Jerichow Dir. Christian Petzold. Perf. Benno Frmann, Nina Hoss, Hilmi Szer. ARTE, Bayrischer Rundfunk (BR), and Schramm Film Koerner & Weber See, 2008. German Studies Review 30.3 (2007): 483 502. King, Ala Jerichow Transit 6.1 (2010): 1 22. Aprilkinder and Kleine Freiheit The German Quarterly 82.1 (Winter 2009): 90 108. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 35.7 (2009): 1225 1242. Linville, Susan E. History Films, Wome Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004. Ben annemin kiziyim ( I Am My Triangulated Visions: Women in Recent German Cinema borg Von Zadow. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998. 129 135. Films Dissolving Views: New Writings on British Cinema Ed. Andr ew Higson. London: Cassell, 1996. 202 215.
77 Mandel, Ruth. Cosmopolitan Anxieties: Turkish Challenges to Citizenship and Belonging in Germany Durham: Duke University Press, 2008. Reuters.com Reuters, 12 Feb. 2011. 20 Jan. 2012. Masschelein, Anneleen. The Unconcept: the Freudian Uncanny in Late Twentieth Century Theory Albany: Suny Press, 2011. Mazierska, Ewa and Laura Rascaroli. Introduction. Crossing New Europe: Postmodern Travel and the European Road Movie Ed. Mazierska, Ewa and Laura Rascaroli. London: Wallflower Press, 2006. 1 9. Women i n German Yearbook 18 (2002): 45 66. Bruce Lee in Kreuzberg and Scarface in Altona: Transnational Auteurism and Ghettocentrism in Thomas Arslan's Brothers and Sisters and 's Short Sharp Shock New German Critique 87 (2002): 133 156. --The Edge of Heaven Transit 50.1 (2009): 1 27. German as a Foreign Language 3 (2010): 40 55. Mller, Lis. The Freudian Reading Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991. Naficy, Hamid. An Accented Cinema: Exilic and Diasporic Filmmaking Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001. Center for Mellemststudier (September 2011): 1 25. http://www.sdu.dk/Om_SDU/Institutte r_centre/C_Mellemoest/Videncenter/Arkiv/2 011/1109 Papastergiadis, Nikos. The Turbulence of Migration: Globalization, Deterritorialization and Hybridity Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000. Petzold, Christian. "Jerichow: Kurzinhalt." Jerichow: Ein Film Von Christian Petzold Web. 8 Oct. 2011. http://www.jerichow der film.de/kurzinhalt.html
78 From the Bonn to the Berlin Republic: German at the Twentieth Anniversary of Unification Ed. Jeffrey Anderson and Eric Langenbacher. Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2010. 115 129. omen The Anthropology of Globalization: a Reader Ed. Jonathan Xavier Inda and Renato Rosaldo. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2008. 184 211. German a s a Foreign Language 3 (2006): 78 93. German as a Foreign Language 1 (2008): 6 39. Royle, Nicholas. The Uncanny New York: Manchester University Pre ss, 2003. The Essence and the Margin: National Identities and Collective Memories in Contemporary European Culture Ed. Laura Rorato and Anna Saunders. Amsterdam: Rodopi B.V., 2009. 9 20. Shirins Hochzeit Dir. Helma Sanders Brahms. Perf. Ayten Erten, Jrgen Prochnow, Aras ren. Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR), 1976. Journal of Social Sciences, Special Issue on Youth and Migration (2008) 10: 23 33. Alterity, Identity, Image: Selves and Others in Society and Scholarship Ed. R. Corbey and J. Th. Leerssen. Am sterdam: Rodopi B.V., 1991. 1 16. Vidler, Anthony. The Architectural Uncanny: Essays in the Modern Unhomely Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1992. Vierzig Quadratmeter Deutschland Demir Gkgl. Studio Hamburg 1986. Oxford Handbook of International Relations. Ed. Mark Rosenblum and Daniel Tichenor. (F orthcoming). www.soc.ucla.edu/faculty/ waldinger /pdf/C1.pdf
79 Yasemin Dir. Hark Bohm. Perf. Ayse Romey, Uwe Bohm, Sener Sen. Hamburger Kino Kompanie and Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF), 1988.
80 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH degrees in German, political science, and international s tudies from Colorado State University in 2010. She has studied abroad in Freiburg, and participated in an internship w ith the Department of State at the U.S. Consulate in Hamburg. Meghan is currently pursuing a degree from the University of Florida in German, and seeks to continue her studies at the PhD level. At the University of Florida, Meghan has taught under graduate level German language classes in face to face, hybrid, and on line environments. Her research interests in clude foreign language pedagogy, digital and computer mediated learning practi ces, German film, contemporary European studies, and theoretica l notions of travel.