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1 ROUSSEAUIAN LOVE IN THE WORK OF JEAN HONOR FRAGONARD By ASHLEY DIANNA LOWERY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFIL LMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Ashley Dianna Lowery
3 To my parents, Joyce Menigoz and Dennis Lowery
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my thesis committee Dr. Melissa Hyde, Dr. Joyce Tsai and Dr. Sheryl Kroen for their continual support an d guidance through this process. I would also like to thank the art history faculty at Georgia State University and University of Florida for teaching me the necessary skil ls to complete this thesis. T o my friends and family thank you for always listening and making me laugh.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 8 Summary of Thesis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 8 Scholarship on Jean Honor Fragonard in Re lation to Rousseauian Concepts ..... 11 Organization of Chapters ................................ ................................ ........................ 17 2 OVERVIEW OF ROCOCO LOVE AND ITS CRITICS ................................ ............. 21 Gallantry: The Endless Chase ................................ ................................ ................ 23 Libertinage: Pure Physical Pleasure ................................ ................................ ....... 32 ................................ ................................ ........ 36 3 ROUSSEAUIAN CONCEPTS OF LOVE ................................ ................................ 48 Passionate Love and Tempered, Conjugal Love ................................ .................... 51 Ideal Love in Emile ................................ ................................ ................................ 57 Diderot and Rousseauian Art ................................ ................................ .................. 60 4 GS ................................ ......................... 67 Patronage and Social Class ................................ ................................ .................... 67 Rococo Styling of Rousseauian Subjects ................................ ............................... 70 Rococo or Rousseauian Subject Matter ................................ ................................ .. 83 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 87 APPENDIX: LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................... 89 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 92 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 98
6 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Flori da in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Arts ROUSSEAUIAN LOVE IN THE WORK OF JEAN HONOR FRAGONARD By Ashley Dianna Lowery M ay 2012 Chair: Melissa Hyde Major : Art History Rococo paintings in early eighteenth century France generally depicted two types of love: gallant and libertin e. While gallant paintings represented love as a playful game of eternal courtship, libertinage focused on physical eroticism. Th ese two types of rococo love began to decline with the rise of Rousseauian love that emerged during the mid eighteenth century. is an ideal of everlasting love based on emotions and consisted of two types: passionate romance and temper ed, conjugal love. Ideally, Rousseauian love would combine the elements of these two types, allowing passion and reason to intermingle. According to Enlightenment thinkers such as Jean Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot, these types of love were superior to the gallantry and libertinage associated with the French aristocracy. They presented rococo and Rousseauian love as incompatible. Yet, despite these claims, Jean Honor Fragonard unexpectedly used the rococo style and compositions to portray Rousseau ian concepts through out the mid to late eighteenth century. By providing examples of this practice I demonstrate that rococo and Rousseauian love were in a transitional period in eighteenth century France. This meant that the use of the rococo style di d not automatically contradict the Rousseauian values within the paintings.
7 Instead, I view these paintings as having a spectrum of different styles and concepts associated with rococo and Rousseauian love that can ambiguously coexist in a single painting
8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Summary of Thesis Love was the reigning preoccupation in rococo paintings during the early eighteenth century. 1 The subject of love in these artworks which I am labeling as marriages and extra marital affairs. During this period, members of the nobility married for social, political, and economic marital affairs, which was more about recreational pleas ure than family duty, lineage and procreation. Rococo love consists of two intertwining categories, gallantry and libertinage. Gallant paintings show a playful game of eternal courtship that involved a highl y coded system of interactions, such as in Jean (1755) ( Figure A 1). In this image, a blindfolded woman reaches out to touch her male companion who sneaks behind her and playfully touches her cheek with a strand of straw. The composition places the woman front and center in a garden setting typical of rococo gallant paintings. The pastel, painterly brushstrokes emphasizes the playful nature of had been calculated and planned w ith little thought for emotions such as in The Useless Resistance (1764 68 ) ( Figure A 2). Rather than having limited physical contact as in The Useless Resistance is purely about the physical interaction of a woman who playfully attempts to prevent her male companion from moving further sexually. To enhance the eroticism in libertine scenes, painters often set them in an 1 ( primarily ) between opposite sexes.
9 intimate, interior and u sed extremely loose brushwork, the significance of which I will discuss in a later chapter. T he rococo style was inextricably linked with gallantry, libertinage and the aristocracy. As the Revolution neared, the ancien regime heavily came under attack, and by association, so did rococo love and style. As rococo love declined during the mid eighte popularized. 2 is an ideal of everlasting love based on emotions Rousseauian love consists of two categories, passionate romance and conjugal love that coexisted in literature and artworks. The differe nces in these two categories can be Julie or the New Heloise (1761). The novel details the life of Julie, a woman of the nobility who falls in love with her tutor, Saint Preux. She has a passionate love affair with him, which is bot h spiritual and physical, until societal pressures cause her to turn towards virtue and marry the socially acceptable Baron de utlines in his educational treatise, Emile or On Education (1762) an ideal version of love that combines elements of the passionate romance between Julie and Saint Preux and the conjugal love between Julie novels, plays and encyclopedia entries. 3 Unlike rococo love, no one art movement is 2 In this thesis, I will focus on the supporters of Rousseauian love. Although Rousseauian love was popular, it was not the consensus. Suzanne Desan examines critics of Rousseauian love such as women who wanted more rights outside of the private sphere See The Family on Trial in Revolutionary France Berkeley: Universi ty of California Press, 2004). 3 Allan Pasco examines numerous literary sources that promoted passionate romance thro ughout the eighteenth century. See Revolutionary Love in Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century France ( Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Comp any, 2009). Besides literature, encyclopedia entries reinforced the difference between gallantry as a superficial vice and (Rousseauian) love as authentic and virtuous. For
10 associated with concepts of Rousseauian love. For the purp oses of this thesis, however I will use Jean Baptis t The Marriage Contract (1761) ( Figure A 3) to exemplify one kind of painting associated with Rousseauian love 4 In this painting, a young woman and man link arms as her family gathers arou nd to officiate their marriage. The composition is similar to a theater scene with each member in their place and somber colors to fit the seriousness of the subject matter Rather than depicting elite culture, artists such as Greuze often painted the hu mble abodes of the figure s in Rousseauian paintings such as in the sparsely decorated home of The Marriage Contract In contrast to the elite associations of the rococo, Rousseauian ideals became linked with the values of the bourgeoisie. The rise of Rous seauian love and the decline of rococo love were demonstrated through the criticisms of moralists and art critics associated with the Enlightenment such as Denis Diderot. Rococo was condemned as fictitious, frivolous and inferior to Rousseauian e emotions, casting them in terms of mutual exclusivity. Yet, despite these claims, Jean Honor Fragonard unexpectedly used the rococo style and compositions to portray Rousseauian concepts throughout the mid to late eighteenth century, as in The Oath of Love (1780 85) ( Figure A 4). This painting exemplifies a Rousseauian subject full of true emotion, passion and commitment. In the image, a an example of an encyclopedia entry, see Louis chevalier de Jaucourt, "Love, Gallantry," The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project, trans Lyn Thompson Lemaire (Ann Arbor: Scholarly Publishing Office of the University of Michigan Librar y, 2004) http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0000.309 (accessed October 14, 2010) Originally published as "Amour, Galanterie," Encyclopdie ou Dict ionnaire raisonn des sciences, des arts et des mtiers, 17:754 755 (Paris, 1765). 4 For the purposes of t The Marriage Contract as Rousseauian. Bernadette Fort argues against a Rousseauian reading, stating that the bride is eroticized and not in line with Rousseauian moralists. See : Jean s Sexual Contract, i n Framing Women : Changing Frames of Representation from the Enlightenment to Postmodernism ed. Sandra Carroll, et. al ( Max Niemeyer Verlag, 2003), 89 124.
11 young man and women passionately embrace and proclaim their un dying devotion to one another. Judging by their app earance, the couple and setting could have easily Fragonard altered these element s to enhance the subject matter. His darkening of the setting draws attention to and suggests passion rather than playfulness Despite critics constructing competitive concepts of love as static categories, Fragonard created these works during a transition al period when rococo love ceded to Rousseauian love. I use a range of Fragonar ococo and Rousseauian love and their respective artistic styles were malleable, fluid categories. Scholarsh ip on Jean Honor Fragonard in R elation to Rousseauian Concepts to depict Rousseauian con cepts has not gone unnoticed by previous scholars such as Mary Sheriff, Emma Barker, Andrei Molotiu, and Jennifer Milam. 5 Their studies on this subject have created a basic framework that I will flesh out in this thesis. While this summary of their schol arship will explain their opinions further, I also want to bring a discrepancy between their arguments to the forefront. As mentioned earlier, Rousseauian love include s both passionate romance and tempered, conjugal love. When discussing Rousseauian love scholars often fall into one camp or the other without considering how these two categories could coexist Rather than solely focusing on one aspect of Rousseauian love, I will provide a close 5 his section from her work paintings (Manche stor University Press, 2006). r elation to Rousseau and the rococo, see Eroticism and the Body Politic ed. by Lynn Hunt (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1991) 14 40 in Greuze and the Painting of Sentiment (Ca mbridge University Press, 2005), 115 145; and Andrei Molotiu, Allegories of Love (Los Angele s: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2007).
12 ion to how these two categories overlap. In this referencing his literature. Instead, I will be using Rouss Both Mary Sheriff and Emma Barker focus on the concept of domestic bliss in their Emile Although their discussions were not solely on conju gal love theories of domesticity were often tied to the idea l of a tempered, conjugal union as exemplified by the relationship between Julie and Baron de Wolmar in Julie Both Sheriff and Barker are reacting to previous scholarsh 6 They argue that the rococo style and content in these images problematizes the idea that these images are of Rousseauian happy families. Sheriff states that these types of paintings have a more ambiguous meaning than bein g purely rococo or Rousseauian. A Visit to the Wet Nurse (1775) ( Figure A 5) which shows an urban couple from a privileged background watch ing over their newborn in a rural interior. An elderly woman sits in the left hand corner, and is 6 The Art Bulletin 55, no. 4 (1973): 570 583.
13 The subject matter of A Visit to the Wet Nurse differs from the Rousseaui an ideal, because Rousseau frowned upon hiring wet nurses and encouraged women to breast feed themselves. Hiring a wet nurse was a practice of higher society and part of the culture of the rococo. Besides having what could be deemed as rococo content, Sh eriff found the composition of the painting contradictory to Rousseauian beliefs. According to her, the positioning of the man and woman diverges from the ideal of conjugal love and family described in Emile The man cuddles against the bosom of the woma n, highlighting her as the center of the painting. The composition echoes that of The Musical Contest ( Figure A 6) in which the woman dominates the desperate men in the painting. This contradicts Rousseauian concepts of con jugal love in which the father is supposed to be the head of the family especially when children are involved. His position also alludes to the sexual tension between him and his wife. Elite women commonly used wet nurses to preserve their breasts for and so that they could produce more children. However, Rousseau believed that women should not have sexual relations with their husband s while breast feeding in order to preserve their milk Therefore this painting contradicts Ro usseauian In other words, instead of satisfying the needs of her husband as suggested by their positions, she should be breast feeding her child. Despite the supposed contradictory elements to Rousseauian ideals, S heriff does not dismiss it as purely non Rousseauian. Instead, she argues that it is uncertain whether
14 Rousseauian morality, or was designed to justify specific continu 7 receive a simple Rousseauian reading. She admits the ambivalent meanings in the f simple 8 Despite these claims of ambiguity her primar Rousseauian ideals. 9 For example, she argues that the rococo styling in The Good Mother (1773) ( Figure A 7) which had a setting similar to the rococo painting The Swing (1767) ( Figure A 8) was associated with non t did not align with moral meaning. 10 The subject shows a mother in a garden looking after children. Barker points out the signs of sexuality that contradict her supposed role of breast feeding including the white cat (symboli c of female sexuality), unlac ed, low cut bodice, and sly glance. As discussed with Sheriff, this sexuality was frowned upon icate how his paintings are subversiv e. His patrons consisted of the wealthy u pper class who was associated with rococo art and culture As demonstrated by their lifestyle, she argues that they would not have requested moralizing subjects with pure conviction. 7 8 Barker, Greuze 145. 9 Barker, Greuze 116. 10 This work will be discussed further in Chapter 4. Barker, Greuze 119 120.
15 of intings as technique and subject matter contradict the previously conceived happy family scenes. While I acknowledge these contradictions, I concentrate on how these elements were also used to enhance the Rousseauian subject matter rather than be merely subversive to it. Furthermore, rather than focusing my attention on solely the conjugal and maternal theories from Emile I use the term Rousseauian to refer to a broa der and more inclusive range of concepts. In this thesis, Rousseauian love also refers to true emotion that ideally, but not necessarily, leads to marriage and children Passion and sexuality as being considered Rousseauian is left out when discussing Fr domestic scenes. However, this aspect of Rousseauian love is not absent from the scholarship of Andrei Molotiu. novel Julie allegorical paintings such as The Fountain of Love (1785) ( Figure A 9 ) and The Oath of Love ( Figure A 4 ) as pre Romantic. He states that during the 1770s and 1780s, a new movement in literature promoting Romantic love emerged. Romantic love was full of emotion and passion, in comparison to the empty rococo love of previous centuries. paintings as well as his family scenes. He notes that Fragonard certainly used the com positional and stylistic elements of his previous gallant and libertine images in his allegorical paintings. The rococo used representation and anecdote while the alle gories used embodiment and
16 mood. 11 His exploration of these similarities between rococo and Rousseauian models will be furthered detailed in this thesis. However, I will not treat the allegories as if they his is a loaded term and presumes that the Rousseauian model is clearly the superior choice. scenes and Romantic love. He argues that romantic passionate love fed into the more grounded conce pt of happy families. However, romantic love was inherently more unstable because of its passionate nature in comparison to tempered, conjugal love. To rectify this, Fragonard arrests times in the allegorical scenes in order to present them as everlastin g. 12 Molotiu argues that unreasoned passion is the stark contrast between the promotion of rationality found in the morality of encyclopdistes cool reasoning of 13 This is an interesting interpretation in terms of Rousseau. A lthough Rousseau inspired passionate romance, he also is commonly viewed as the champion of tempered, conjugal love. Furthermore, moralists such as Rousseau argued that passionate love could exist concurrently with reason rather than be its enemy. As deta Rousseau also supp orted the concept of reasoned passion that could ideally lead to a 11 Molotiu, 58 67 12 Molotiu, 79 83. 13 Molotiu, 71.
17 demonstrates its complexity. Rather than choosing one concept over another, the (passionate romance, conjugal bliss, and all those in as subversive as previously tho ught. Although no painting can be purely Rousseauian, clearly they can be influenced by these concepts that had emerged by the early eighteenth century. Organization of Chapters As outlined above, the main purpose of this thesis is to describe how Frago nard used rococo imagery and style in his Rousseauian paintings in order to demonstrate that rococo and Rousseauian love are fluid rather than static categories. The next chapter gives examples of the rococo style, composition, and subject matter in Frago courtship as an endless cycle, while libertine paintings have more overtly sexual subject matter. Fragonard adapted his painting style and settings based on subject matter. In gallant paintings such as The Progress of Love series, trees enclose the figures in intimate garden settings filled with statues of Venus and cupids. Fragonard used pastel colors and painterly brushstrokes, except on the porcelain like skin of the figur es. In contrast, libertine scenes are often set in an intimate interior such as a bedroom, which thicker and sketchier. Gallant and libertine paintings came under attack during the mid criticism of rococo love. Rousseau constructed it as having false emotion with its highly coded witticisms and elaborately made up women. In c ertai n respects
18 criticism correlate with remarks I analyze his comments on Franois s work relating him to the gallant women that he portrayed, while he criticized Baudouin for including ambiguous sexuality i n paintings of supposed moral subjects While the second chapter defines rococo love and its faults according to eighteenth century moralists, the third chapter defines the term Rousseauian love and how it became the moral alternative to r ococo love. As mentioned earlier, the term having multiple meanings I intend to flesh out these d ifferent layers of the term by extrapolating the various concepts from letters between Julie and her lover Saint Preux, while the second type is a tempered, conjugal love exemplified by Julie and her husband Baron de Wolmar. Passionate love is characterized by the uniting of two souls, relation to the theological realm, loss of reason, hyperbolic comparisons to their situation as life or death, and the threat of temp featured in Juli e a novel filled with complex characters and imperfect relations between them. Rather than evaluating one type more pertinent than the other one, I use Emile in In Emile Rousseau combines elements of roman tic passion and tempered, conjugal love from Julie The ideal couple has passion and mutual affection that continues throughout the marriage. The husband and
19 wife choose each other based on these emotions rather than having their parents choose based on economic and social status. These characteristics of the three in literature and art works. The second half of the chapter relates Rousseauian concepts to ean Baptiste Greuze. While Diderot criticized artists such as Baudouin for his treatment of marriage scenes, he considered Greuze as the painter of morality. Specifically, I use The Marriage Contract in order to understand how it illustrates Rousseauian concepts such as the separation of gender roles. The next two chapters discuss the rococo and Rousseauian love separately. Although Rousseau expressed disdain for those following rococo love, he also believed that the worldly (elite) people could reform. It is clear that wealthy elites incorporated Rousseauian aspects in their life, while still maintaining their overall rococo culture. 14 Similarly, Fragonard incorporated rococo elements into Rousseauian subject matter, creating a range of combinations bet ween the two concepts in his paintings. In chapter four ideologies demonstrates that the mutual exclusivity constructed by moralists was more complicated than they were made to a works can be separated into family scenes and allegories The family scenes touch upon the domestic theories of Rousseau, but use the gallant rococo mode to portray them. The allegories show an everlasting, roma ntic love that emphasizes passion and 14 Sara Maza and Meredith Martin have shown how aristocrats combined their old customs from the rococo culture with new Rousseauian ideals. They use rose festivals and pleasure diaries as their examples, respectively. Fo r more information, see Sarah Maza, Public Lives and Public Affairs: The Caus es Clbres of Prerevolutionary France (Univers ity of California Press: 1993); and Meredith Martin, Dairy Queens: The Politics of Pastoral Architecture from Catherine de' Medici t o Marie Antoinette (Harvard University Press, 2011)
20 represent the most diluted connections to rococo love. These images need to be examined as having several different meanings that were influenced by the different theories of love circulating during this time. By dis cussing the fluidity of the meanings behind these images, it becomes clear that unlike the myth created by eighteenth century moralists, Rousseauian and rococo concepts of lov e were not mutually exclusive.
21 CHAPTER 2 OVERVIEW OF ROCOCO LOVE AND ITS CRITI CS As mentioned in the introduction, rococo love emerged in literature and art during the early eighteenth century. These works primarily depicted the aristocracy in the acts of gallantry (eternal courtship) and libertinage (reason ed seduction with a phys ical end). Since the aristocracy and upper classes married for economic and political reasons, men and women alike found their emotional and physical pleasure from ephemeral extra marital affairs. Consequently, love was regarded as a fleeting fling rathe r than eternal. In representations of gallantry, this meant picturing courtship as a game or as having an uncertain end in the sequence of events. Libertinage consisted of fleeting moments in physical pleasure that would not last beyond the bedroom. Im ages of g allantry and libertinage depicted in the rococo style became popular during the early eighteenth century. 1 Similar to their conceptual differences, the paintings diverge from one another while still being stylistically rococo. Both categories often are depicted in light, pastel colors, but have different types of settings and brushstrokes. Paintings of gallantry have brighter, pastel tones echoing the lighter metaphor of love as a fleeting game su ch as in the previously discussed The figures wear ornate clothing, even when they are presumably from the countryside. Fragonard set his gallant paintings in elaborate, intimate garden settings where the overgrown greenery encapsulates the figures. Statues of Venus and cupid in these gardens reinforce the subjects of the scene. Fragonard used sweeping brushstrokes, creating movement and sensuality. In 1 The Rococo Interior: Decoration and Social Spaces in Early Eighteenth Century Paris (Yale Un iversity Press: 1995), 117 212
22 contrast, libertine images emphasize the physical eroticism. The figures are seen in various stages of undress. Libertine images primarily are placed in the interior settings, creating an even more private sphere for the physical actions of the figures. C haotic brush strokes are featured heavily in libertine scenes, insinuating a physi cality that enhances the subject matter. Mary Sheriff has provided a basis for these d escriptions. S the eroticism of the painting by emphasizing the disarrayed subject matter. 2 The analysis of gallant and libertine paintings will provide a basis for the last section of this chapter, which outlines Jean Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot critiques of rococo lov e and its associated paintings R s derive love, which he portrayed as containing false sentiment due to its witticisms and artificial, highly adorned women. Diderot used art criticism to espouse his view of rococo paintings as immoral because of their treatment of lo ve. Since Fragonard did not participate i n the Salons after 1767, I Boucher and Pierre Antoine Baudouin to exemplify the opinions of art critics in terms of rococo love These artist s have fairly similar styles, teacher of love rather than trul y feeling emotion. Diderot also compared Boucher to the worldly women when discussing his style of painting In contrast, Diderot labeled Baudouin as a libertine due to his sexualized depictions of moral subject matter. Although moralist s 2 Fragonard: Art and Eroticism (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990), 185 205.
23 constructed ro coco love negatively, the production of rococo paintings did not disappear and continued thro ughout the eighteenth century. Gallantry: The Endless Chase eighteenth century gallan t literature in order to understand the concepts behind the painting. Eighteenth century novels and plays had connections to the seventeenth century novella, as they often reacted against or perpetuated its Christian values of 3 According to Katharine Jenson, seventeenth century salon culture began to perform gallantry, a system of codes that 4 century in the salons. Rather than focusing on a transcendent, spiritual love, this new gallantry concentrated on love as an endless game. The latter type of gallantry is most commonly found in Fra he focus es on the playful aspects rather than the honorable system of codes described by Jenson. Eighteenth century literary works, both serious and comedic, incorporated the traditional morals of seventeenth century Christian love and gallantry, but in more relaxed terms. comedic plays and dramatic novels have the closest connection to the rococo paintings 3 Warren Roberts, Morality and Social Class in Eighteenth Century French Literature and Painting (University of Toronto Pr ess, 1974), 21. 4 Joan DeJean, Fictions of Sappho, 1546 1937 (University of Chicago Press, 1989); and Katharine Ann Jenson, Writing Love: Letters, Women, and the Novel in France 1605 1776 (Carbondale: Southern Illin ois University Press, 1995), 13.
24 exemplifying this practice. 5 s closest counterpart in painting is Watteau, as both portray the conversational aspects of courtship. 6 Marivaux was famous for his witty, spirited banter in his comedic plays, while Watteau painted countless fte galantes such as re (1717) ( Figure A 10) that depicted young elite couples conversing outdoors. 7 These paintings did not show the overt sexual figures as found in libertine images, but exhibited civilized conversations with do not have the overt erotici sm of libertinage, but include subtle sexuality. 8 Marivaux did not support libertinage, and disputed the libertine idea that love was equated with sexual fulfillment. 9 Sarah Cohen s derived from dances that elites performed. 10 These dances had coded sexual undertones writings This allowed elites to have physical interaction without moving away from their coded verbal and non verbal communications. Watteau in fluenced later generations of rococo artists, including Fragonard. Fragonard also highlighted the physical interaction between the figures, despite the fact that the sexual tension is never consummated (at least in the painting). 5 See Daniel Gerould, Gallant and Libertine: Eighteenth Century French Divertissements and Parades (New York: Performing A rts Journal Publications, 1983); Peter Lang, The rococo and Eighteenth Century (New Yo rk: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1987); and Robert Tomlinson, La Fte Galante : Watteau et Marivaux (Geneve: Librairie Droz, 1981). 6 Mary Vidal, and Eighteenth Century France (Yale Un iversity, 1992). 7 Gerould, 9. 8 Culpin, D.J. Marivaux and Reason: A Study in Early Enlightenment Thought (New York: Peter Lang Inc., 1993). 9 Culpin, 36. 10 istocratic Dancing in the 1710s Art History 17 (June 1994): 160 181.
25 Beginning in the 1750s, Fragonard began creating conventional rococo works that can easily be identified as gallantry personified. The majority of these works equated courtship with society games that the aristocracy would play in the gardens at their estates. l uff (1755) ( Figure A 1) provides one of the best examples of how these common society games became a metaphor for love. 11 game that related to the senses. The blindfolded player not only had to physically touch the other players in orde r to play but also had to rely on their other senses besides sight to find them. 12 suitor gently brushes her cheek with a strand of straw. Both are dressed in fantasized peasant clothing, a reference to the members of high society who would dress themselves as shepherds and shepherdesses during their leisure entertainments For example, the aristocracy dressed up to enact passages from popular plays such as Il pastor fido that inc 13 In most likely represent amorini t hat aid the love affairs between the two main figures. 14 represented both love as a game of chance and the blind passion that love can cause. According to Charles Sorel in Recreation gallants (published in 1671 and throughout the eightee 11 Jennifer Milam argues that could have had a Rousseauian association later in the century. Since the woman can see despite the blindfold, she controls her movement with a level of reason. Reason wa s a key element in Rousseauian love. Milam, 24 26. 12 Milam, 19. 13 Milam, 4. 14 Milam 24.
26 blindness of lovers and the disorder of passions and diverse affections that are excited 15 As hinted in this statement, passionate love was compared to a sickness of physical passion game alludes to an by the female figure. As Jennifer Milam observes, the woman looks from her blindfold 16 Diderot who argued that artworks needed to fulfill a moral obligation, pastorals because his figures seemingly knew the exact outcome of the situation. 17 Rousseau echoed these s entiments as he argued that members of high society acted in an extremely coded manner, causing the spontaneity of true love to be stifled. 18 Stylistically, embodies the rococo style and represents the rococo setting. In terms of composition, the woman is the center focus with her body illuminated from an unknown light source. The light plays off the folds in her dress and highlights her heaving breasts. Rather than presenting the robust country women of Rousseauian literature, her body conforms to those of the aristocrats with a delicate figure. She appears to be posing as even her fingers have an air of intentionality and self consciousness. The setting is a garden scene in which the trees and arc hitecture frame the couple. The little children wi ll transform to more direct references of cupids in his later paintings. 15 Milam, 25. 16 Milam, 26. 17 Denis Diderot, Diderot on Art Volume 1: The Salon of 1765 and Notes on Painting trans. John Goodman (New Haven: Yale University Press, 19 95), 28. 18 Jean Jacques Rousseau, Julie or the New Heloise : Letters of Two Lovers Who Live in a Small Town at the Foot of the Alps trans. Philip Stewart and Jean Vach (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1997), 196 205.
27 Fragonard was known for his loose brushstrokes. These are most visible in the tightened his brushwork to depict the delicate porcelain skin of the woman. As Sheriff has shown, t hese painterly touches on the work related to theories on art and society during the period. The Renaissance concepts of sprezzatura (ease), facilit (ease of execution), ngligence (planned imperfections), and lgret (light touches to hide the labor) became important to the performances. 19 The touches of white paint over the fold s in her dress create a sense perceived chaos, but as discussed earlier, the woman looks from under the blindfold indicating her control over the situation. This common motif in gallant scenes, in which everything is scripted despite the appearance of chaos relates to F painting. His brushstrokes appear to be loose and u nplanned but they were intended by the artist. Fragonard polished the elements of in The Progress of Love series, which has become an example of quintessential rococo gallant painting. Madame du Barry commissioned the series of four pai ntings, The Pursuit ( Figure A 11 ), The Lover Crowned ( Figure A 12 ), The Meeting ( Figure A 13 ), and The Love Letters ( Figure A 14 ) (1771 1772), for her pavilion at Louveciennes. 20 Pavilions were known as 19 ainting and the Aestheti in Fragonard: Art and Eroticism (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990), 117 152. 20 Several scholars have written on The Progress of Love series, specifically the order in which the paintings shou ld be vie wed. See Colin B. Bailey, Progress of Love at the Frick Collection (D. Giles Ltd., 2011); Rutgers Art Review (1982): 58 79; The Bu rlington Magazine 114, no. 833
28 nd were used for smaller, private gatherings. 21 would not have dictated the interpretation of the paintings. Although the doors circulated the traffic to an extent, the paintings had no viewing pattern that guests would have followed. Furthermore, no continuous iconographic motifs or figures allude to a connected narrative. 22 As in the paintings, the game of gallant love never had a set ending such as marriage or sexual consummation. Ga llant paintings concentrated more on the endless chase rather than the end. Although no sequential order can be determined, the positioning of the paintings in relation to the openings and closing s of the pavilion influenced how they would be read The Pursuit and The Meeting would have been first seen when entering the pavilion from the Salon du Roi, while The Love Letters and The Lover Crowned would have been seen when entering from the garden. 23 The backdrop of The Meeting and The Pursuit would have b een a garden, a site known for this type of gallant behavior. 24 As 25 Not only does this merge artifice and natural elements, it also creates a parallel between the f igures and actions in the painting to those at the social gathering. 26 The (1972) : 526 534; and in Fragonard: Art and Eroticism (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990), 58 94 ; 21 Sheriff, Fragonard: Art and Eroticism (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990), 71, 72. 22 Sheriff, Fragonard 68. 23 Sheriff, Fragonard 72 24 Sheriff, Fragonard 73 25 Sheriff, Fragonard 73 26 Sheriff, Fragonard 73.
29 audience for this series would have been the guests of Mme du Barry, or nobility and who were attac ked during the mid to late eighteenth c entury. However, the paintings were briefly installed at the Louveciennes until Mme Du Barry replaced it with Joseph Marie Vien (1773 4 ) Two Young Grecian Girls Promise Never to Fall in Love ( Figure A 15) Two You ng Girls Meet with Sleeping Cupid ( Figure A 16) The Lover Crowning His Mistress ( Figure A 17) and Two Lovers Who Swear Eternal Affection ( Figure A 18) Lynn Kirby attributes this change in the commission to the ideolo gical shifts in attitudes towards lo ve during the period. 27 work firmly establishes the narrative and the goals of eternal love that exists between the figures. As mentioned earlier, The Meeting and The Pursuit would most like ly have been viewed together since they were on the same wall. The Meeting shows a girl and boy during a secret rendezvous at the moment when they realize that someone might be approaching. Since the person threatening to end the meeting was outside of t he scene guests could imagine tryst In The Pursuit a man presents a rose to a woman who dashes away from him almost trampling her female companion on the ground. Similar to the centr al female figure could have been plucked from the ballet as she leaps in a pose fit for a dancer. 28 These dance paintings as being a member of high society meant the ability to move with ease and 27 Kirby, 58. 28 Sheriff, Fragonard 76.
30 gra ce at all times. The desperate male lover in The Pursuit was a common motif in paintings of gallantry, and is repeated in The Love Letters and The Lover Crowned In The Love Letters a woman reads a love letter, presumably written by her lover who nuzzle s against the crevice between her neck and shoulder. The Love Letters illustrates the most overt affection out of the series and suggest s while the adjacent painting ( The Lover Crowned ) presents the most artifice d construction of love. T from the 1750s including The Musical Contest a painting of a woman who playfully decides who will win the competition for her heart. In The Musical Contest (1754) ( Figure A 6 ), the woman stretches her arm with the crown of flowers to the man holding the bagpipes, while her upper body in opposition sways towards the man who wraps his arms around her. These musical instruments, as well as fruits and vegetables in other pastorals, were coded with sexual innuendos. 29 who she chooses, as she looks in the direction of the crown rather than the men staring up at her. The two men gaze up toward her in desperation, as she holds their fate in her hands. She is eternally in a suspended state wavering between two men with no decision in sight. This frozen state is echoed in The Lover Crowned as the couple holds their pose purposefully for the artist in the left hand corner to paint them. The artificial ity of the situation reinforces the perceived notion of gallantry as being specious because of the highly coded system that masked emotions. 29 Erotics of Decoration in Fragonard: Art and Eroticism (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990), 95 116.
31 Stylistically, the Du Barry paintings solidified in the 1750s with Bluff Similar to greenery encapsulates the scene to create a private, intimate effect, and statues of Venus and/or cupids reinforce the subject matter of the scenes. However, the figures in The Progress of Love series are further away and the background is more expansive. The painting style is light, pastel tones with painterly brushstrokes. The brushstrokes create a movement in the figures such as in The Pursuit in which the motion of the woman who leaps forward is emphasized by the dynamic tonal brushstrokes. Each stroke moves in a different direction, meeting each other and creating the illusion of a body in motion. In addition, Fragonard delicately placed white highlights throughout the paintings, suggesting an ease and simplici ty of execution. As mentioned earlier, this related to gallantry in which though little effort was involved Unlike the men in this series are feminized and enact similar characteristics as their female counterparts. 30 For example, the man in The Pursuit has similar rosy cheeks, ruby lips, porcelain skin and gentle eyes analogous to the woman that leaps from him. His gestures are delicate and precise. For example he holds a rose delicately between his thumb and pointer finger with his pinky finger gently lifted above the others. This delicate detail demonstrates that As will be discussed later, critics argued that the predominance of women in the public sphere caused the men to adopt feminine characteristics, which is detrimental to society. 30 See Madelyn Gutwirth, The Twiligh t of the Goddesses: Women and Representation in the French Revolution (Rutgers University Press, 1994); and ECS (Fall 1996): 25 58.
32 Libertinage: Pure Physical Pleasure To a lesser extent, Fragonard also represented libertinage in his paintings. Similar to g allantry, libertinage is still about the chase but it had an end in terms of the physical act of pleasure. Libertine images showed more overtly sexual subjects and the physical act instead of the courtship. Libertinage in literature reached its zenith be tween 1740 31 The libertine novel reacted against the seventeenth century Christian version of love, perpetuating an anti romantic vie w that mocked the values of the novella. Libertine literature primarily depicted devious characters who found physical pleasure in reasoned seduction. 32 It is difficult to analyze libertine literature as faithfully illustrating the actions of the aristocr ats, because authors used this literature to criticize the ancien regime purposefully portraying them as lewd and treacherous. For example, authors such as Crbillon fils and Choderlos de Laclos denied that they were libertines or condoned the behavior o f their characters. 33 However, memoirs of the aristocracy reveal themes featured in libertine literature, including the erotic chase and sexual freedom. 34 One image that crosses the boundaries from gallantry to libertinage is The Swing ( Figure A 8 ). Pai nting in the rococo style described earlier with the enclosed garden, statue of cupid, and painterly pastel brushstrokes, The Swing (1767) shows a secret affair between a privileged young woman and man. Similar to The Musical Contest the 31 Michel Feher, The Libe rtine Reader: Eroticism and Enlightenment in Eighteenth Century France (New York: Zone Books, 1997), 10. 32 Feher, 10. 33 Feher, 14. 34 Roberts, 53 57.
33 wom an is the una ttainable goal of the male, desperate lovers. Fragonard uses the direction of the light, the her. She is fully illuminated in the middle of a light source which emerges from a break in the tr ees. The surrounding figures, including the men and the cupid statues, match triangular composition as the young man points towards her with his hand and the older man holds the ropes connected to the swing. Baron de Saint Julien commissioned The Swing from Fragonard after Gabriel Francois Doyen turned the commission down. Charles Coll wro te a journal entry describing an anecdote by Doyen who described Saint such a way that 35 Swinging was an actual pastime for young people in the court. It allowed for a moment of abandoning spectators. 36 as the woman, who presumably knows exactly what she is exposing, kicks off her shoe towards him. Furthermore, the rhythmic motion of the swing metaphorically relates to sexual interc ourse. Despite the first suggestion that this painting is about the extracurricular activity of swinging, this image is centered more on sexual relations between the young woman and man than the gallant images of playful games. 35 Donald The Art Bulletin 64 (1982): 83. 36 Milam, 54 ; and n Esthetics of the Moment: Literature and Art in the French Enlightenment (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996 ) 224.
34 Although there is no consu mmation in the actual image, the fact that they have had, or will have, sexual relations is implied through the code of swinging. Therefore, the painting combines the hidden codes of gallantry with the physical sexuality of libertinage Libertine scenes were often placed in the interior, specifically the bedrooms of the aristocracy. Fragonard painted several useless resistance scenes that can be considered images of libertinage. For example, The Useless Resistance ( 1764 68 ) ( Figure A 2) setting is a be droom, specifically the mattress and blanket that the man and woman cavort for their sexual exploits. In the image, a worldly woman grabs a though the woman shows resistance through her body language they both have pleased looks that allude to their equal enjoyment in this game of cat and mouse. T he audience can also sexually exploit the woman who is compositionally center and highlighted. The ma n her thighs not only to him but to the audience. The positioning of her body with her arms spread wide exposes her breasts and enhances her vulnerability to the viewers. The negligence and facilit in the brushwork enhances the erotic subject matter. 37 Ne gligence refers to the presumed inattention of This type of brushwork accentuates the disheveled subject matter of two lover s in a physical tryst. Rather than having the fairly polished porcelain skin of gallant paintings, Fragonard reveals the direction of each stroke. This exemplifies facilit or appearing to be effortless through a 37 Sheriff, Fragonard 193 198.
35 loose handling of the paint. Fragonard u ses the painterly techniques to promote the image of a sensual woman rather than to create an anatomical correct one. Overall, the physical handling of his brushstrokes mirrors the erotic touching between the man and woman The second image of libertinage that I will discuss is The New Model (c. 1770) ( Figure A 19 ). The painting shows a female model posing for an artist with her breasts exposed. A ing to hide her nakedness However, all three partners have slight smirks that allude to their willing participation. The artist lifts the decide d ly a phallic reference, as she half heartedly attempts to lower it. Rathe r than a connection between two people seen in the previous gallant and libertine paintings, The New Model is all about the eroticism between the three characters but especially the model and the artist Aesthetically, this work mirrors the painting styl e found in The Useless Resistance The negligence and facilit create sensuous characters and a disheveled atmosphere perfect for their sexual adventures. 38 For example, the woman appears to be only grasping at thin strips of cloth rather than a solid for m. At some points, Fragonard accentuates the sketchy atmosphere from The Useless Resistance by painting just enough detail for the out. This painting will come into play later when I 38 Sher iff, Fragonard 193 198.
36 During the mid eighteenth century, moralists such as Rousseau and Diderot har shly criticized rococo love, labeling it as corrupt and immoral. The next section Emile and Julie and attack the general concept of art because of its ties to wealth and luxury. 39 However, his comments are still important in understanding how gallant and libertine paintings, as well as the general rococo culture, were received. Eighteenth century art crit icism, especially by Denis Diderot, took into account the paintings moral value. Therefore, rococo love. As the Revolution neared, rococo love was increasingly criticized because moralists such as Rousseau linked it with the aristocracy which itself was under attack. In Emile and Julie Rousseau connected rococo love with the wealthy elites living in the ced this association because the figures in his gallant paintings were often dressed in fashionably expensive clothing. Furthermore, wealthy women such as Madame du Barry commissioned rococo pa intings during the early to mid eighteenth century. In Julie Rousseau states provoke 40 rature and paintings. While 39 Sheriff, Fragona r d 5. 40 Rousseau, Julie 14.
37 moral values. 41 Another theme that he expresses relates to my earlier discussion of Marivaux and Watteau. In a series of letters, Saint Preux recounts to Julie his experiences in Paris and the women that he encountered. He continually opposes the customs in Paris to those that he feels in his own life One of the differences between true love and that of the worldly people of Paris is the comp licated codes that they adopt in contrast to the simple declarations of those in love. Historically, the aristocracy, nobility and culture elites cre ated a system of codes, verbal and non verbal that only society members could decipher and perform. Sai n t Preux argued that these lovers relied 42 T he simple tone of true sentiment contrasts with the falsity of dressing up a phrase that result s in gallantry. 43 In groups, the jargon b ecomes unintelligible for outsiders such as Saint Preux who argued 44 Despite the constant chatter about sentiments, the wealthy never truly understand real love because sentimen 45 Saint Preux proposes moving from the city to the countryside. During the eighteenth century, the country had the reputation of nurturing a healthier lifestyle, physica 41 Jean Jacques Rousseau, Emile or On Education trans. by Allan Bloom (New York: Basic Books, Inc. Publishers, 1979), 389. 42 Rousseau, Julie 196. 43 Rousseau, Julie 196. 44 Rousseau, Julie 204. 45 Rousseau, Julie 205.
38 46 The customs in Paris not only affected the way that society evoked love through language but also through actions. In terms of marriage, Saint Preux characterizes Paris as a land of adultery that allows its citizens to commit sinful acts without consequence. Marriage for Parisians was merely a minor civil contra to be no more than the consent of two free per sons who agree to live togeth er, to bear the same name, to recognize the same children: but who have, other than that no sort 47 Love is not necessary in such relations hips. Consequently, lovers are passing acquaintances who get together for amusement, for show, out of habit, or for the needs of the moment. The heart has no thing to do with these liaisons, only convenience and certain surface formalities are considered. They consist, if you will, in knowing each other, being together, making arrangements, meeting, even less if that is possible. A liaison on the gallant type lasts a little longer than a social call; it is a collection of pretty conversation and pretty letters filled with portraits maxims, philosophy and wit. With respect to the physical, nothing so mysterious is called for; they have never cleverly discovere d the need to make the moment of desire coincide with the means of satisfying it. 48 concerns part of society that is depicted, commissioned, and most associated with rococo paintings. Acc ording to this interpretation, gallantry and libertinage (as what he describes is not merely courtship with no physicality) is not love at all, but merely the 46 Rousseau, Julie 15. 47 Rousseau, Julie 222. 48 Rousseau, Julie 222.
39 pretense of emotions. It is not an intimate experience between two people but rather a fleeting social event. Rousseau places blame on the women as the leaders of how relationships between couples and families unfold. Although both men and women of high society participate in the rococo language and actions, it is the women who determine the outcom e. According to him, high society women are adorned with an excess of clothing and makeup, which merely hides one faults rather than allowing their true beauty to shine. 49 O ne difference between these women and ideal one s is body type. Worldly women women in the Progress of Love fit this worldly type. They have small frames created by their corset that emphasize their miniscule waists and heaving breasts. They have porcelain like skin that is adorned with makeup especially on their cheeks. Lastly, the women all move with the lightness of dancers, such as in The Pursuit Although t he main woman appears to be briskly leaving her suitor, she leaps gracefully landing on one foot as her other leg extends in a delicate pose. In contrast, proper women are more robust, which is suitable for the life in the dy types reinforce that they live a life of luxury, while more robust women use their bodies for utilitarian purposes. This is also a class issue, as robust women most likely came from the bourgeoisie rather than the luxurious life of the aristocracy. R ousseau expresses the idea that the domination of women in rococo love (and culture more generally) cause men to become effeminate and women to act as men. 49 Rousseau, Emile 372.
40 He champions separate spheres between men and women, especially in the realm of love. In order for a relationship to work, women should remain subordinate to men. In gallantry, women have the power. 50 Saint Preux mentions several times that the 51 The cause for this is partly due to the fact that Paris encourages the sexes to intermingle. In gallant paintings, women are the center of attention as they have control over the men who fawn over them such as in The Swing perspective, the male figures in Fra sexual difference between men and women are lacking. 52 In The Progress of Love series, the men mirror the delicate positioning and appearance of the woman. This interpretation levels the playing field bet ween men and women, allowing for the women to at least appear to dominate. As mentioned earlier, Rousseau did not comment on specific artworks, but his discourse still has value for understanding others art criticism. Eighteenth century art criticism pai d attention to both aesthetic and moral values. A critic who used morals to weigh the worth of the painting was Denis Diderot. Around the time that Rousseau was attracti 53 His notion of virtue is connected to Rousseauian ideals of love, while gallantry and libertinage is the epitome of vice. 50 Rousseau, Julie 221. 51 Rousseau, Julie 220. 52 53 Diderot, Diderot on Art, vol 1 (1765) 225.
41 beca use Fragonard left the Acad mie shortly after the Salon of 1767 to work on private commissions. 54 glory and posterity he is content to shine today in the boudoirs and dressing rooms 55 This is significant because the boudoir was a space of libertinage and gallantry and was associated with wealthy women. scant, I focus on Franois Boucher and Pierre An toine Baudouin in order to demonstrate how Diderot would have hypothetically react ed gallant paintings. Both Boucher and Baudouin created paintings that could be classifie d as gallant and/or libertin e. Their work shares important traits a s both Fragonard and Baudouin were mentored by Boucher and painters acknowledged by Diderot When Fragonard exhibited The Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpents in the Salon of 1767, ence, and 56 y The Musical Contest was confused for a Boucher during Baudouin shed s light on how F 54 Sheriff, Fragonard 8 9. 55 Denis Diderot, Mmoires secrets vol. 13 (London: J. Adamson, 1780 89): 32 33, quoted in Sheriff, Fragonard 8. 56 Denis Diderot, Diderot on Art, Volume 2: Salon of 1767 trans. by John Goodman (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), 260.
42 because he was a contemporary of Fragonard painting similar subject matter throughout the 1760s. 57 tly Autumn (1755) ( Figure A 20 ) from The Four Season series. In this image, a young man holds a bundle of grapes on the lap of a young woman who looks at him with a sly expression. Grap es and other fruit had both sexual and fertility connotations that add ed an implicit eroticism to the painting. 58 Fragonard created similar types of gallant imagery such as The Happy Lovers (1760 65) ( Figure A 21 ). In The Happy Lovers a boy and girl gaze lovingly at one another. He holds a dove (phallic symbol), while she lifts bird. Diderot critiqued these types of pastorals stating that in a good pastoral a but they 59 Gallantry was known for its staged mannerisms, where even the most spont aneous action is planned and perfected. In this comment, Diderot sets up the contrast between rococo love and real (Rousseauian) love. Rococo love is predetermined by the players t whole heartedly. 57 Colin B. Bailey, et al. The Age of Watteau, Chardin and Fragonard ed. Colin B. Bailey (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 240. 58 Sheriff, Fragonard 95 116 59 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol 1 (1765), 28.
43 Autumn and The Happy Lovers are set in the countryside and ostensibly depict the poorer populations such as shepherds and shepherdesses. However, their mannerisms, clothing and appearance relate more to the aristocratic and wealthy pa trons than those in the countryside. Although the women are supposedly from the countryside, their small delicate frames, ornate clothing and made up faces relate to differ ently from those in The Progress of Love series. Her dress is created with luxurious material and adorned with two pink flowers on her right breast. She accessorizes with a small hat tilted to the side of her coiffure. Her face, clearly rouged, gives he r a rosy appearance. Rousseau criticized coquettes, or women who use their wiles to seduce men. He specifically targeted the fashionable women who were known for their false appearances. Diderot made similar comments as Rousseau, stating that 60 As mentioned earlier in The Progress of Love positions. nudes always see in them the rouge, the beauty spots, the powder puffs, and all the little vials of the make 61 draw implied that his paintings have little substance and are all appearance, a criticism similar 60 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 1 (1765), 24. 61 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 1 (1765), 23.
44 to that of gallantry and its coquettes. 62 As mentioned earlier, Rousseau criticized women as having the power in society and creating effeminate men. In these pastorals, both men and women have ruby red lips and cheeks with delicate skin and curled hair. The men are not only feminine in appearance but in their actions, as they take the subord inate position. In Autumn reaches for a grape. She appears to be the knowing, powerful one in comparison to the The Happy Lover exaggerates these features in dangles the bird cage over his head. While Boucher represented gallantry that plagued French society, Diderot labeled Baudouin 63 During s, little lawyers, su bstantial financiers, and other persons 64 Similar to Baudouin, many of nouveau riche. The worldly society that Roussea u consistently mentions is made up of perception of Fragonard would hypotheticall y be very similar to his concept of Baudouin. 62 The Art Bulletin 82 no. 3 (September 2000): 455 458 63 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 1 (1765), 88. 64 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 2 (1767), 164.
45 In order to further understand how Diderot would have viewed Fragonard, I use his The Honest Model (1769) ( Figure A 22 ), which shares the The New Model In The New Model a model, an artist and an unknown woman engage in erotic behavior. All three of them appear to have no guilt or shame, but elicit pleasure out of their behavior. In comparison, Baudouin attempts to create a moral message. In t he work, a model hides her face in shame with one arm and turns her eyes toward the floor. She does not try to cover her nude breasts, and her only cover is a white sheet draped over her thighs. An older woman attempts to drape parts of her clothing over the younger women in an effort to cover her. The artist watches this scene and throws his hands in protest. A white cat sits between the artist and the women, possibly ith its sketchy brushstrokes that show the physicality of the artist. As mentioned earlier, this The painting was ill received because of the ambiguity of the moral message with the u ndercurrent of sexual tension. 65 Although the model hides her face in shame, the painting in the background is almost complete, meaning that she had been posing for him for quite some time. The motivation and identity of the older women was also challenge 66 Despite a gesture at a moral message, the image was still considered as having libertine subject matter. Baron Grimm stated that 65 Sheriff, Fragonard 189. 66 Denis Diderot, Salons vol. 4 (1769), ed. Jean Seznec and Jean Adhmar (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957 67), 95.
46 67 This criticism linked emphasizes sexuality more than the moral message. The females are willing participants, would have been worse. As demonstrated in this chapter, the rococo style and model of love came under with this type of love had to do with its false appearance, its lack of true emotions, and criticisms signifies that these new morals were becoming more widespread. However, paintings and prints of gallantry and libertinage continued throughout the late eighteenth century. d viewing and owning these works. Concurrently, artists created works inspired by Rousseauian concepts, particularly during and after the 1760s. Similar to how Rousseau and Diderot constructed rococo love as morally wrong, they established Rousseauian lo ve as the morally right alternative. According to Diderot, Rousseauian subject matter had to be painted in a way that highlighted moral values. Libertine artists created images such as The Honest Model or The Marriage Bed (which will be discus sed in the third chapter because of its complicated relations to proper, Rousseauian marriage) that Diderot received poorly. Even though Baudouin attempt ed a moral subject matter the execution including the composition and the chosen scene in the narra tive did not 67 Diderot, Salons, vol. 4 (1769), 95.
47 chapter s works by Baudouin or Fragonard are not simply rococo or Rousseauian, but has a myriad of meanings and associations.
48 CHAPTER 3 ROUSSEAUIAN CONCEPTS OF LOVE In contrast to the criticisms of rococo love discussed in the previous chapter, Rousseauian love was praised by moralists. Rousseauian love is a long lasting emotional based relationship that can have varying degrees of passion. Moralists present ed Rousseauian love as the true alternative to false, frivolous rococo love. In this chapter, I examine the term Rousseauian and how it was constructed as the proper way to love during the mid to late eighteenth century. First, I explain the variations in the term Rousseauian in relation to love. As mentioned in the introduction, scholars have presented contradictory meanings of the term, which I intend to examine in this chapter. For example, Mary Sheriff and Emma Barker discuss his paintings based o n Andrei Molotiu uses Rousseau as a precursor to Romanticism. While both of these concepts fall under the term Rousseauian, it is possible to bridge the gap between t hem. In this section, I dissect Rousseauian love into three separate categories. First is the passionate romance that is best exemplified by the relationship between Julie and Saint Preux from the first half of Julie The second is a tempered, conjugal love between Julie and Baron de Wolmar from the second half of Julie. The third is Emile This treatise promotes a compromise between the two types of love in Julie by promoti ng conjugal love that can have passion between the couple. The last section will explain how Rousseau constructed these types of love as ideal in contrast to the rococo love mentioned earlier. Diderot also championed Rousseauian love, praising representa tions of love and family in Jean The Marriage Contract
49 Julie and Emile artworks of Rousseau ian subject matter. However, these works represent two different genres and should be treated accordingly. Julie was a bestselling novel in the eighteenth century. Since Julie is a work of fiction, Rousseau created complex characters that continually ma ke mistakes and redeem themselves. Rather than recounting an idealized portrait of love, Rousseau concocts a messy, complex view of love in which a woman can have several different emotions throughout her lifetime. The novel begins with the passionate lo ve affair between noblewoman Julie and her tutor Saint Preux. At the beginning of their courtship, Saint Preux admits to loving Julie with all his being and pleads her to respond. She eventually reciprocates his feelings and they begin a string of letter s expressing their love. Julie continually questions the purity of their romance. In order to temper their passion and test their love, she encourages Saint Preux to travel with their friend Milton Edward. Because of their separation, Julie becomes viol ently ill causing Saint Preux to return. After consummating their love, Julie marries Baron de Wolmar. At this point, she forgoes a virtuous transformation, and becomes the ideal mother. However, she never obtains the passion that she had with Saint Preux, and she admits her feelings for Saint Preux on her death bed. Neither passionate romance nor conjugal love appears to be the ideal in Julie but the educational treatise Emile does offer an ideal vision of love. Since Emile is an educational treatise, it is important to treat this text differently than Julie In Emile a tutor provides detailed instructions on how to properly rear children. In the first four
50 books, the tutor writes about Emile and how to nurture the male gender, while the fifth partner. The entering of Sophie in this theoretical work begins the extensive discussion of love sexual polit ics, puppets dancing on a string manipulated by the omniscient and 1 ideal concept of love. c haracteristics should be considered as indicative of larger trends during the eighteenth century. Specifically, scholars have studied the affect that Julie had on its readers and late eighteenth century literature and artworks. Julie was a best seller of the eighteenth century with at least seventy editions published before 1800. 2 The novel caused strong emotions among its readers, as fan letters for Rousseau continually mentioned the novel bringing them to tears. In terms of love, the women often wrote fan letters to Rousseau that were inspired the letters of passionate love in Julie. Although the story same path. Merchant Jean Ranson admitted in a letter tha t he imitated both the model of Clarens in Julie as well as the instructions in how to rear children in Emile 3 On a 1 Mary Seidman Trouille, Sexual Politics in the Enlightenment: Women Writers Read Rousseau ( Albany : State University of New York Press, 1997), 39. 2 Robert Darnton, The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History (New York: Basic Books, 1984), 242. 3 Darnton, 241.
51 more widespread level, the latter half of the eighteenth century saw an increase of both romantic and sentimental novels and others that c ombined the two concepts. Revolutionaries pushed for divorce laws so that citizens could choose their partners and marry for love. 4 Therefore, the themes and motifs in the following discussion are it cannot be proven whether literature. Passionate Love and Tempered, Conjugal Love Pas sionate romance was featured in the first half of Julie with the love letters between Julie and Saint case that he did not write these letters, but found and decided to publish them. He argues th at the love between them is real, as the letters are written in an unpolished with 5 This contrasts the polished and calculated witticisms in gallantry. In contrast to the coded sexuality in rococo love, Julie and Saint Preux could not control their flirtations and feelings, or the outcome of their passion. T his wording leads to a repetition of several themes and motifs in their letters including the uniting of two souls, relation to the theological realm, loss of reason, hyperbolic comparisons to their situation as life or death, and the threat of temporality These themes 4 Pasco, 121 148. 5 Rousseau, Julie 10.
52 characterized the motifs in eighteenth century literary works from the passionate romance movement. The first major theme in these letters is the uniting of two souls for eternity. The theme of two souls uniting is the primary way that p assionate love is described by all the souls need to be coupled to realize their f 6 This transcendent bond is often construed in religious terms. idol; places it in Heaven; and just as the enthusiasm of devoutness borrows the language of love so does the en thusiasm of love borrow also the language of 7 This is seen consistently in the letters, particularly with Saint Preux who 8 Anot her major theme in the romantic passion movement is the loss of reason. Throughout the novel Julie and Saint Preux compared their loss of reason as having the 9 All their physical senses are heig htened in this state of delirium. For example, Saint Preux stated that that he 6 Rousseau, Julie 173, 188, 159. 7 Rousseau, Julie 10. 8 Rousseau, Julie 32. 9 Rousseau, Julie 32.
53 etc. 10 As th eir senses are heightened so are the stakes in the relationship, and they compare their state of affairs to life and death situations. After their first kiss sent him into a state of delirium, Saint ate, 11 Similarly, Julie became violently ill after she sent Saint Preux away to travel as a test of their love, and when her father told her that she was to marry his friend. Afraid that Julie would perish, [Julie] so violently that after spending a night in frightful struggles, yesterday, she fell into a burning fever that only increased until fina 12 Julie and Saint Preux eventually succumb to their loss of reason after reuniting with one another. This progression to sexual intercourse is the downside to passionate love. Passion leads to an overflowing of emotions, de sire and lust leading to premarital sex. The threat of indulging in the pleasures of passionate love is a constant motif in the letters of Julie who warns Saint Preux that they need to calm their emotions before their relationship turns physical. In this narrative, sexual intercourse could lead to pregnancy with a man who her family would not approve of as well as the loss of her virtue. As the passionate romance movement continued, premarital sex was not seen as much of a threat as earlier in the centur y. Instead, marriage was deemed inconsequential to true lovers. In Julie the only element standing in their way to marriage was her parents who 10 Rousseau, Julie 95. 11 Rousseau, Julie 52. 12 Rousseau, Julie 76 77.
54 did not approve of his social standing. If she had defied her parents, they could have had a successful life together of conjugal love. The progression to sexual intercourse relates to a more substantial issue with passionate love, temporality. Since passion is characterized as a potential violent emotion, it also has the threat of being fleeting. Julie cont inually laments about this and lasting; now we merely have transports: this insane happiness is more like fits of 13 Since the goal was passion and permanence, authors created tests that lovers would put each other through to prove their love. Alt hough this was present in works during the 1730s, it became a main element during the 1780s and 1790s. Julie tested Saint Julie marries Baron de Wolmar, it would seem tha t Saint short lived. However, on her deathbed Saint Preux was the last words on her lips. She writes to Saint 14 If it was not for societal s tandards, their passionate romance could have hypothetically lasted on earth. In contrast to the love affair with Saint Baron de Wolmar lacked the passion and emotion that she had with Saint Preux. The significanc e of the second half of the novel was not the conjugal love between her and 13 Rousseau, Julie 83. 14 Rousseau, Julie 609 10.
55 Wolmar, but her conversion to becoming a virtuous woman. Rousseau was part of a lineage of authors that focused on women, especially the mother, as the instiller of virtue to soci ety. In the past, virtue was used as a descriptive word, but Rousseau used virtue as a narrative in and of itself, as the main character had to overcome obstacles to become virtuous. 15 Although Rousseau defines the love between Julie and Saint Preux as with Saint true message, and those that are persuaded by the beginning of Julie were already corru pt. Her marriage to Baron de Wolmar is marked with tempered emotions. In letters to Saint Preux, she starkly contrasts the love between them with the reasoned marriage she has with her husband. Emphasizing her pleas earlier in the novel for them to cal m their emotions, she characterizes the love between Julie and Saint Preux as a path to destruction because eventually they would have discovered each other as they are in reality, not as who they worshiped. This will inevitably lead to disaster in a marr iage, as the hands of time will age the partners and their type of love was made for youths. In contrast, she delineates the love she has for Baron de Wolmar in this passage: As for Monsieur de Wolmar, no illusion prepossesses us for each other; we see e ach other such as we are; the sentiment that joins us is not the blind transport of passionate hearts, but the immobile and constant attachment of two honest and reasonable persons who, destined to spend the rest of their lives together are content with th eir lot and try to make it pleasurable for each other. It seems that if we had been created expressively to be joined together it could not have been done more satisfactorily. If his heart were as tender as mine, it would be impossible to prevent so much sensibility on bot h sides from clashing occasional ly, and nothing but quarrels ensuing. If I 15 Lesley H. Walker, ent France (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2008), 33.
56 were as tranquil as he, there would be too much coldness between us, and it would make company less agreeable and pleasing. If he had not loved me, we would get along badly; if had loved me too much, I would have found him importune. Each of us is precisely what the other requires; he enlightens me and I enliven him; we are enhanced by being together and it seems we are destined to constitute but a single soul b etween us, of which he is the intellect and I the will. 16 The portrayal of her marriage seems idyllic, blissful and everlasting. This passage illustrates a couple that is guaranteed to last through time because they have mutual affection for one another, and overall is content with their life together. Not only do they have affection for one another, but their children strengthen their bonds as they are a loving mother and father. If the novel had ended with this concept of love, then there would be no i partner. However, her death scene in the final letters reveals that Saint Preux never left one, perha 17 As exemplified by this statement, the love between them fulfills a purpose. They successfully functioned as a couple because their marriage and children made her into a useful member of society. However, the love between them did not compare to the emotions between Julie and Saint Preux. The different categories of Rousseauian love represented in Julie are indicative of overall trends in literature and the arts during the mid to late eighteenth century. In order to understand how these characteristics described in Julie manifest themselves in The Invocation to 16 Rousseau, Julie 307. 17 Rousseau, Julie 591.
57 Love (1780 85) ( Figure A 23 Votive Offer ing to Cupid (1769) ( Figure A 24) resembles characteristics of the sentimental (tempered, conjugal love) movement. The paintings show a woman interacting with a statue of cupid in the hopes to obtain love. Both of these women are dressed in antiquity clothing in an intimate setting. The the woman clearly has lost her reason as she flings herself o nto the statue with such force that her toes barely touch in the ground. Fragonard emphasizes the force of her Saint Preux, she writes that the love between her and Sai nt 18 arm on her head and one thrusting towards the statue. She is guided only by her sense of touch as she drives full force to it. In contr more sensible. She gently kneels on the ground, with both knees on the pedestal of the statue and her right toe touching the ground. She clasps her hand in a prayer stance with a control that is lacking in Fragonard does not thrust herself blindly into love as the woman in The Invocation of Love but looks peacefully at the statue of cupid with her body planted on the ground. Ideal Love in Emile created shades of grey for his readers, as some became enthralled with the love affair 18 Rousseau, Julie 307.
58 and others focused on the example o f virtue. In order to understand the term Julie A comparison of the novel to his educational treatise, Emile aids in this analysis. As mentioned earlier, this treatise hypot love. Similar to the previous types of love in Julie Rousseau constructs this type of love as honest and true in comparison to rococo love. parents do not condone arranged marriages and allows Sophie to choose her own partner. The philosophy behind this is that marriage should be based on personal happiness and mutual affection rather than on wealth and title. Otherwise, it is a marriage of the two Their eyes and their hearts ought to be their first guide. Their first dut y once they are 19 After meeting each other several times, the tutor tells Emile that he is becoming unnaturally attached to Sophie, and they must travel in order to rectify the situation. If the love between them is st ill there when they come back, then he is free to marry her. Of course, both Sophie and Emile remain faithful and at the end of the treatise they are married and expecting their first child. This is a similar motif to the story of his parents in Rousseau Confessions In Confessions Their love had begun almost with their life: from the age of eight or nine they walked together every night on the Treille, at ten they could no longer be separated. Sympathy, the harmony of souls, strengthened the feeling produced in them by habit. Both, born tender and sensitive, were only 19 Rousseau, Emile 400.
59 waiting for the moment to find the same disposition in someone else, or rather this moment was waiting for them, and each of them threw his heart into the first which opened to receive it. Fate, which seemed to thwart their passion, only enlivened it. Not being able to win his mistress, the young lover was consumed with sorrow; she advised him to travel i n order to forget her. He traveled fruitlessly and returned more in love than ever. He found the one he loved still tender and faithful. After this test nothing remained but for to love each all their lives; they swore to do so, and Heaven blessed their arms of a second wife, but with the name of the first on his lips, and her image at the bottom of his heart. 20 This paragraph sheds light on his portrayal of the ideal love in Emile and the lack of id ealism in Julie love story in Emile More importantly, both Confessions and Emile align with the story of Julie and Saint Preux until the decision about marriage. They all feature a coup le who immediately had mutual affection for one another and the man travels in order to first wife as his last words despite his marriage to another woman. The main d ifference between the narratives in Emile and Confessions and the story of Julie and Saint Preux is the fact that the former couples eventually happily married. Although the novel Julie seemingly separates passionate romance and conjugal love, Emile all ows for both to coexist. As mentioned in the above passage of eventual disappearance: Now he is intoxicated by a nascent passion. His heart opens itself to the first fires of love. Its sweet illusions make him a new universe of delight and enjoyment. He loves a lovable object who is even more lovable for her character than for her person. He hopes for, he expects a return that the 20 Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Confessions and Correspondence, Including the Letters to Malesherbes trans. Christopher Kelly, ed. Chris topher Kelly, et al. (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1995), 6.
60 feels is his due. It is from the similar ity of their hearts, from the conjunction of decent sentiments that their first inclination was formed. This inclination las, it has to end, and end soon. But I shall at least make it last forever in your memory and make you never repent having tasting it. 21 This passage indicates that Emile did feel passion for Sophie similar to the beginning of Saint e affair, as he even compares it to feeling person to see illusions, Emile indicates that passion is inevitable and can be enjoyed in moderation. 22 As he mentions in t he passage, those that had intense feelings at the beginning can have a successful marriage, but the passion eventually disappears. Even if this passion fades the memory of it will last. paintings, a number of subject matters can be considered Rousseauian. This means that varying degrees of sexuality, passion, conjugal love and parenthood can be meanings my aim is not to determine a one to one re Rousseauian concepts that have multiple variations. Diderot and Rousseauian Art the artists Boucher and Baudouin who created gallant and libertine paintings. Even when artists such as Baudouin created a painting with a seemingly moral statement such as in The Honest Model Diderot and others criticized it for its ambiguity. Baudouin created a work 21 Rousseau, Emile 419. 22 Rousseau, Emile 416.
61 entitled The Marriage Bed (1767) ( Figure A 25 ) that showed a woman getting ready to consummate her marriage. 23 In the work, a woman appears to be on the verge of fainting as her husband desperately clings to her. His desperation recalls th e gallant The Musical Contest 24 She is surrounded by women getting the room ready by either lighting the candles, preparing the fi re, or pulling the bed covers. One woman holds onto both the husband and the woman, coaxing the wife to get into the bed. The couple is from the elite culture as indicated by the lavish setting with elaborate printed fabric that extends from the floor to the ceiling. objecting to the caresses of an ordinary rake and who dreads the very threat about 25 Rather than vie wing this as 26 According to his interpretation, the subject does not reflect the devotion between Julie and Saint Preux, nor a tem pered conjugal love. Instead, he interprets it as wrongly sexual. Diderot does not disagree with portraying the consummation of a marriage, as he argues that a better scene would 23 Diderot may have deemed certain sexual practices as wrong, but he explored taboo sexuality in his own novels such as Les Indiscreet Jewels Erica Rand examines the duality of Diderot, his disdain and specifically with The Marriage Bed As Rand argues, Diderot did not have objections to the sexual voyeurism in painting, but preferred to have it in a proper, Rousseauian context of the bourgeois family. One of the main issues of the painting was the predominance of women, especially those near the bride that controlled the scene rath er than the hus band. See Eighteenth Century Studies 25, no. 4 (1992): 495 516. 24 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 2 (1767), 164. 25 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 2 (1767) 165. 26 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 2 (1767) 164.
62 27 His primary is sues are the chambermaids who cloud the sacred bond of marriage, the unwillingness of the wife, and the desperate pleas of the husband. He argues that Greuze would have selected the preceding moment, in which the father and mother send their daughter to her husband. What tenderness! What decency! What delicacy! That a range of acting and expression in the brothers, sisters, parents and friends; how moving would be such a scene! A man who in such circumstances can imagine only a troop of chambermaids is wretched indeed! 28 This comment is significant because he singles out Greuze as the artist he would expect to create a proper, moral subject matter. Diderot also had a similar sentiment in his criticism of The Honest Model stating that Baudouin should 29 Diderot consistently compared the debauchery of Boucher and Baudouin with the morality of Greuze. For example, in the Salon of 1765 he labeled a painter preacher of 30 These statements reinforce how Diderot based his criticisms on the morals of t he painting, not just the aesthetics. He championed Greuze for his expression of proper morals that promoted Rousseauian conjugal love. The quintessential example of a Greuze painting with Rousseauian subject matter is The Marriage Contract ( Figure A 3 ) f rom the Salon of 1761. The Marriage Contract 27 Diderot, Dider ot on Art vol. 2 (1767) 165. 28 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 2 (1767) 165. 29 Diderot, Salons vol. 4 ( 1769 ) 95. moi, abandonnez ces sortes de sujets 30 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 1 (1765) 92 224.
63 shows a betrothal scene, which involved exchanging the dowry, signing the marriage 31 Although the setting is fairly rustic and sparse, most likely depicts a prosper ous farming family because the marriage contract was a common practice of all but the very poor. 32 This countryside setting conformed to Rousseauian ideals, as Rousseau urged his readers to move to the country in Emile Furthermore, Julie and Baron de Wo lmar moved to Clarens, a blissful countryside home. The lengthy, seductive descriptions of Clarens were meant to persuade readers to similarly experience the country. Aesthetically, the painting differs from those of Fragonard, Baudouin, and Boucher. Ra ther than pastel colors, the colors are fairly the playful atmospheres in the paintings of gallantry and libertinage. Although the colors differ, Greuze uses painterly bru shstrokes to create the highlights and details especially within the clothing. However, Greuze is harsher and less delicate in his lain appearance. In contrast, Greuze uses visible gives their skin a rugged texture. This could relate to the life of living in the countryside that is a harder, but a Although she has a petite frame, her body is not as small rococo love paintings. Rousseau urged women to move to the countryside and obtain a 31 Bailey, 262. 32 Bailey, 262; and Barker, Greuze 50.
64 more robust figure. The clothing in The Marriage Contract is simplified in comparison to or the aristocratic figures in The Progress of Love es are less restricting because the material hangs flat against their body rather than extend out like the elaborate costumes of aristocratic women. The composition is similar to a theater stage with each figure in its specific spot. Diderot admired this 33 dispose 34 The Progress of Love Fragonard browns and a flat wall as the backdrop. These compositions relate not only to the state of the ar Diderot mentions that the figures all have their own place, he hypothetically is commenting on the societal positions of the figures. Emma Barker summarizes the subject mat in society primary based on gender. 35 In the painting, the genders are primarily separated with the women on the left and the men on the right. This separation of 33 Diderot, Salon s vol. 1 ( 1761 ) 141 34 Diderot, Diderot on Art vol. 1 (1765) 23. 35 Barker, Greuze 46.
65 genders was a pertinent part to the theories on family in Emile After marriage, the woman had the responsibility of raising the children to become productive members of society and take care of the private sphere, while the hu sband worked in the public sphere. Although women seemingly ruled over the private sphere, the man would actually be in charge of the family. This image illustrates these concepts as the women are on the side of the maids who belong in the private sphere while the father and fianc reside closer to the notary, a public figure. The father is the head of the household as he commands the attention of the room with his expressive outstretched hands. However, he does not reign over the household in a tyrann ical fashion, but tyrannical father who would not allow his daughter to marry her true love, such as in Julie As in Emile Rousseau and other moralists preferred fathers w ho supported their melt with extreme emotion as they cling onto the future bride. According to Rousseau and other moralists, the family became a microcosm for society. Fixing the structure of being stable and proper according to gender. Barker argu 36 composition caused audience members to view the painting like a theater scene. Each emotion caused the audience to feel similar emotions. For 36 Barker, Greuze 46, 49 53.
66 37 Julie success was due to the audience emotional connection with the characters. When Julie went through her virtuous journey, the readers followed suit whether through empathy or mimicry. In The Marriage Contract shows love towards her husband by linking her arm with his and delicately pressing her fingers against his hand. The slight touch of the hand and her downturn gaze alludes to her modesty, as she would not overtly project her love for him but implicitly hint at their passion. 38 Her sexuality has been channeled into the productive social function of marriage. This j ourney of virtue became a purpose of the painting. A poem inspired by the painting told the story of how a financier who only knew loveless marriages in the worldly society changed his ways after viewing the love in this painting. 39 The Marriage Contract p rovides a visual model for Rousseauian love, especially the more tempered paintings in the next chapter. My discussion of rococo and Rousseauian love in chapters two and three constructed them as opposites, similar to Rousseau and style and Rousseauian subject matter. Through this exercise, I demonstrate that rococo and Rousseauian love were in flux. Instead of un derstanding these categories as separate entities, I argue that rococo and Rousseauian love should be considered as fluid categories, in which elements whether stylistically or conceptually can interming le in a variety of combinations. 37 Diderot, Salons vol. 1 (1761), 141. tion douce en le regardant. 38 Barker, Greuze 52. 39 Barker, Greuze 52 3.
67 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS To summarize the previous chapters, rococo love and its artistic manifestations came under attack during the eighteenth century. In its place, moralists constructed lantry and libertinage are different types of rococo love, Rousseauian love had variations that consisted of passionate romance and a tempered, conjugal love. These categories consistently overlapped in artworks and literature, creating a variety of works that can be considered Rousseauian. Despite rococo and Rousseauian love having conceptual differences, Fragonard used the rococo style to portray (ambiguous) Rousseauian concepts throughout his career. 1 paintings, I will demonstrate that rococo and Rousseauian love were in a transitional period in eighteenth century France. This transition period meant that the use of the rococo style did not automatically contradict the Rousseauian values within the pa intings. Patronage and Social Class Before delving into specific works, the issue of patronage and social class needs to be addressed to understand how these paintings would have been viewed by their patrons. As mentioned in the introduction, Emma Barke r argues that the elite classes Her argument falls in with the traditional view that contrasts the tastes of the aristocracy (rococo) with those of the bourgeoisie (Rouss eauian). According to this interpretation, bourgeois values starkly contrasted with and usurped the values of the aristocracy 1 As Sheriff argue s in d the Politics of Reproduction hen I describe has a clear influence of Rousseauian concepts
68 during the mid to late eighteenth century. Beginning in the 1970s, scholars began complicate this viewpoint. For exam ple, Warre n Roberts argued that literary works associated with aristocratic values had parallels with those consisting of bourgeois morals. as been characterized as exuded bourgeois vels such as La Vie de Marianne and Le Payson parvenu (1734) had qualities similar to Julie For example, these types of novels portrayed love as a conversation between the heart and mind, elements that Rousseau emphasized when it came to the moral side o f love. 2 Sara Maza expands on this, asserting that the sentimental movement promoting conjugal love did not derive solely from the bourgeoisie. 3 Sentimental literature portrayed different classes from the middle class to the aristocracy. In other words, associated with Rousseauian love was not just obtainable to the bourgeoisie, but any social class could reform and live a moral life. In Julie Rousseau described a ous transformation into a wife and he believed that they could reform. The criticisms of Rousseau and Diderot also had origins within the aristocracy itself. Anne Th r se de Marguenat de Courcelles, 2 Roberts, 75. 3 al Class in Prerevolutionary in Intimate Encounters: Love and Domesticity in French Painting of the Eighteenth Century ed. R Rand (The Trustee s of Dartmouth College, 1997), 29 48
69 superficial charms, while the men had become callous. She want ed to reestablish distinction, virtue and refinement in the aristocratic circles. 4 nobles. This was also the d artist who successfully depicted Rousseauian subject matter. Both were also the top sellers of prints, whose primary buyers were fashionable bourgeois and aristocratic collectors. Th e bourgeoisie bought prints of traditional rococo subject matter, the aristocracy bought Rousseauian subject matter, and vice versa. For example, Abel Franois Poisson, marquis de Marigny commissioned The Marriage Contract which was praised by D iderot for his approach of the betrothal scene 5 In addition, a poem inspired by the painting described a worldly man who saw it and was influenced by its morality. 6 elements could be commission ed by the wealthy without irony, because both concepts and styles had similar audiences. Instead of viewing the mid to late eighteenth century as elite versus bourgeoisie, or rococo versus Rousseauian, I argue to understand the period as a transitional m oment in which class lines and their associated concepts of love blurred This line of thinking will be applied throughout this chapter. 4 ors and the Language of Rights, 1727 in Intimate Encounters: Love and Domesticity in French Painting of the Eighteenth Century ed. R Rand (The Trustees of Dar t mouth College, 1997), 23. 5 Barker, Greuze 46 48. 6 Barker, Greuze 52 3.
70 Rococo Styling of Rousseauian Subjects The first image that I examine is A Visit to the Wet Nurse ( Figure A 5) an i mage that has been a subject of study by Sheriff and Barker. In this image, Fragonard shows an urban couple from a privileged background gazing at their newborn in a rural interior. 7 The work originally belonged to Jean Francois Leroy de Senneville, a ta x farmer and secretary to the king. When he sold the painting in 1780, the sales catalogue identified it as a scene from the novel of Miss Sara by M. de Saint Lambert. Of course, this does not mean that it was the original intention of Fragonard or de Se nneville for this painting to reference this literature, but it does indicate that it was associated with the narrative of the novel shortly after Fragonard created it. The novel is the story of a privileged English woman, Sara who falls in love with Phil lips an live together happily on a farm. 8 The painting most likely depicts the scene in the novel the while 9 This is clearly a scene that fits into the criteria of Rousseauian concepts. Aesthetically, the painting also incorporates elements fou The Marriage Contract The setting is fairly sparse room in the countryside. As mentioned earlier, this is a common feature in Rousseauian literature and artworks, as the country had physical and mental benefits that the city corrupted. T he frontal positioning of the 7 Mary Sherif 8 Barker, Greuze 143. 9 Saint Lambert Les Saisons (volume includes Sarah Th Greuze 139 40.
71 figures and the relatively flatness of the room gives a theatricality to the image, similar to The Marriage Contract However, the figures do not have the exaggerated The couple has a serene expression, while the older woman and children remain ambiguous in their position in the scene. In role to take on in terms of gender. As argued by Mary Sh er iff, the woman in the corner c ould be the wet nurse but is older than the ideal. The children presumably belong to the couple, but no obvious bond exists between them. Rather than the porcelain skin of texture on the face similar to staggering direction of the brushwork especially in the h ighlights in the forehead, chin, to the simplified rural interior, as the painting is not set in a pristine, high society setting that calls for a polished tone. Although Rousseauian elements in subject matter and style are present throughout the painting, it still has close ties with the rococo style. The loose brushstrokes and ligh ter, golden hues with red tones are rococo in nature. They are not breasts under the dre ss, but uses thick, curving strokes to outline her body and draw
72 necessary in using negligence and facilit as part of erotic brushwork. 10 Besides having connections to libertine paintings, Fragonard also used the composition of his gallant paintings such as The Musical Contes t ( Figure A 6) The position of the woman and man reflect the position of gallantry in which the woman becomes the center and rules over the men i n the painting. In A Visit to the Wet Nurse the man cuddles against the arm of the woman as his head rests just below her breasts. In this pyramidal composition, the woman is the top and center. This contradicts the Rousseauian concept of father as hea d of the family Sheriff states that this is also problematic in relation to eighteenth century wet nurse practices. During the mid eighteenth century women increasingly became criticized for neglecting their womanly duties if they choose to send their c hild to a wet nurse. 11 her child or fulfilling her conjugal duty; she could not do both, for sexual intercourse, 12 In order to have sexual relations with her husband and have more heirs, mothers would send their children to wet nurses. Having the male cuddle against the breast of the woman suggests that he is not only the lover but he displaces the child a decidedly non Rousseauian ideal 13 The composition of the husband and wife can also represent Rousseauian love. In the love letters of Julie and Saint Preux, Rousseau used the language of coquetry in the framework of proper, emotional love. At the beginning of Julie Saint reveal him to b e the desperate male who would do anything his object of love would 10 Sheriff, Fragonard 192 199. 11 12 13
73 accordance with maxims so severe that the purest love appeared to [ her ] the height of 14 She believ ed Saint Preux was making gallant declarations, because coquets often pretended to be sincere to get their prey. As Rousseau argued, 15 However, Saint Preux but she mistook them as false sentiments. This reinforces that gallantry and Rousseauian love can share appearances but not substance. Fragonard has taken the basic composition of gallantry in which the woman is the top of the pyramidal composition and the man clings to her, and has transformed it into the proper stance of conjugal love. The man is not desperately clinging on to her, but they both remain calm, collected, but still affectionate. The end less cycle of courtship becomes a clear decision that the man and woman love one another, and they join together to gaze intently on their newborn. As argued by Sheriff, this painting does not purely conform to Rousseauian ideals, as it ambiguously refere nces an elderly woman as the wet nurse. However, the painting does exemplify how Fragonard used the style and composition of the rococo to broadly convey Rousseauian love between mother and father. Sheriff claims that The Return Home (c. 1776 78) ( Figure A 26 ) is the Rousseauian alternative to The Visit to the Wet Nurse In The Return Home a woman happily greets her husband as their child tugs on his arm and their newborn sleeps peacefully in the crib. An unknown, young woman stands in the background, a nd could 14 Rousseau, Julie 41. 15 Rousseau, Julie 186.
74 be a wet nurse. Her age, unlike the older woman in the previous painting, would make conforms more to Rousseauian concepts. The figures are in clothing more appro priate for the sparse, countryside setting. In The Visit to the Wet Nurse the woman wears an expensive dress that expands out. In The Return Home ficantly robust. Her loose clothing and robust body conforms to the Rousseauian stan dard of proper motherhood. She leans back and is compositionally lower than her partner who leans in her direction. He is the dominating figure in the scene, which conforms men should be the leader in the family. Their positions to the outside world also outside, public world presumably from his occupation. The woman leans toward the crib and is within the private sphere. This theme is more obviously present in Happy Fertility (1776 7) ( Figure A 27 ) In this work, a mother plays with her children in a humble interior setting. All of them act like c hildren by playing with the dog, lying on her legs and wiggling within her arms. This was an important part of The mother is clearly raising her children correctly a nd has a control over the private
75 sphere. The father sticks his head through the window outside of their home. Literally, the father is in the public sphere while the mother is in the private sphere. The couples in The Visit to the Wet Nurse and The Retu rn Home also have different degrees of passion in their relationship. The former has a more tempered, conjugal love as they both lovingly gaze at their newborn in a complacent manner. The latter couple shows more enthusiasm for their reunion. Both have a smiling disposition as the woman grasps his hand. His movement adds a passionate element to their love, alludes to a sexual element in their marriage. Emotional and physical connection was an important factor in Rousseauian love, and was necessary for a marriage to continue. k as mentioned by Sheriff, it was understood by Rousseau as a healthy part of m arriage. Therefore this element in the paintings cannot be considered purely contradictory. If I analyzed the paintings as having literary works, then they could be considered as having non Rousseauian elements the basic constructs of love during the latter half of the eighteenth century. These pa intings were clearly influenced by these concepts whether or not they closely adhere to all the policies in Emile They present couples that not only have an emotional and physical connection, but also a long lasting one. The presence of children alludes to considering the older children. They determine that the couple is not in a continual
76 courtship or that the relationship is purely physical. Instead, the couple has reached a place of stability with a determinate end of marriage and children. Later in his career, Fragonard created work s that focused on the passion and sexuality hinted at in the family scenes. One of these images, Th e Oath of Love (1780 85) ( Figure A 4 ) thou gh thoroughly rococo stylistically, has a darkened rococo palette, setting and figures with a Rousseauian message. In this image, a youthful couple passionately kisses, as the man extends his arm to touch a plaque engraved with the phrase, she flings her arm back as her other arm reaches to touch the plaque, indicating her undying devotion to him. Her reaction correlates with Saint response to Julie and his first kiss. He described his state of mind as impairing his senses and deranging to the marrow 16 The kiss in The Oath of Love caused the girl to uncontrollably fling her hands in the air. Another parallel is that their luscious golden and cream colored clothing blend together, melding their bodies as one. As mentioned in the second chapter, all the characters described pure love as when two souls meld together. The image physically embodies this statement. This type of love certainly conforms to the Aesthetically, this painting borrows from ro coco imagery, especially in terms of scenery and figures. Fragonard created several different versions of The Oath of Love one in a priva te English collection (1780) ( Figure A 28 ) and the other in the Fragonard 16 Rousseau, Julie 51.
77 Museum in Grasse ( Figure A 4 ). The latter presents a darker, more unpolished version, but is also in worse condition which could have affected its appearance. The former was most likely the basis of the print version ( Figure A 29 ) which will be discussed later. 17 When comparing The Oath of Love t The Pursuit from The Progress of Love series, the painting turns the rococo elements into a style that enhances the passion and spontaneity of the situation. The backdrop of the painting has cupid statues and a suggestion of a garden setting. However, Fragonard painted the normally vibrant green trees in a darkened and diluted manner. The dark are in various states of finish, as small bla couple is dressed in fashionable clothing, but is not as detailed or polished as the couple in The Pursuit polished, as the light illuminates its porcelain quality. However, their hands disappear into the plaque, making them almost indistinguishable in the Grasse version. Although it echoes some details of The Pursuit th e simplification of its elements creates a more unpolished appearance. In Julie the style of the love letters between Julie and Saint Preux were unpolished and continually repeated the same sentiments. This style, as Rousseau explained, indicated to the reader that the love between them was true and real as they cannot control themselves to write eloquently. were often made into print s during the eighteenth century. Fragonard did not have a hand in the actual creation of the prin ts, but the prints 17 Molotiu, 22.
78 remained faithful for the most part to the general design. For The Oath of Love the print version increases the rococo elements stylistically by brightening and sharpening the image, emphasizing the lighter colors and rococo garden bac kground. In contrast to clearly visible. Therefore, the print version representations of gallantry. ( Figur e A 30) is a version of The Good Mother (1773) In The Good Mother a woman takes care of her children as a cat cradles her neck in a familiar rococo setting. One child sleeps next to her in the crib, the other stands beside the mother as she gently pats his head and the nurse is present, and it is presumed that the woman is breast feeding her child. Fragonard himself did not connect these two paintings toget her, but those selling and creating the prints saw a connection. When viewing these works as pendants, the link is that a passionate, committed love can lead to children, and it can be achieved in a rococo atmosphere. Barker argues that the sexuality in The Good Mother interferes with the proper feeding; the central figures most direct physical contact is not wit h the infant asleep in the cradle but with a white 18 Although the woman does not have contact with pulls back her hair and wets a washcloth. Her breasts are prominent, and could either 18 Barker, Greuze 120 121.
79 be referencing her sexuality or her nursing capabilities. As mentioned with A Visit to the Wet Nurse and The Return Home the mixing of sexuality and nursing is no t necessarily contradictory. Car ol Duncan argued that the motherhood and sexual satisfaction was not uncommon, as exemplified by the couple in The Return Home who indicate sexual fulfillment through their lovingly glance and body contact. 19 Although Rousseau frowned upon sexual relation s during nursing, they were both an important part of motherhood and marriage. Instead of viewing it as contradictory, it could have been understood as conflating the two roles of being a wife and mother This sexuality is often considered a part of roco co imagery rather than a Rousseauian element in the painting. The print was titled The Good Mother meaning that it was sold as an image of proper motherhood. The pendant prints of The Oath of Love and The Good Mother brought together the concepts of passion, sexuality, marriage, and motherhood in a rococo setting normally associated with fleeting courtships and sexual relations. Although rococo settings have these associations, it does not mean that the subject matter adopts the connotations. The O ath of Love quite literally spells out that these two individuals are pledging their love together forever. This is the opposite of the short The Good Mother setting and allusions to sexuality, it can have Rousseauian subject matter without irony or subversion. In other words, a market audience exists for paintings and prints under the same stylistic umbrella. The Fountain of Love (1785 ) ( Figure A 9 and Figur e A 31 ), starkly differs in tone and appearance from the previous examples that had canonical rococo elements. In 19 72.
80 this work, a man and woman rush in unison towards a fountain that consists of several living cupids who aid in holding a chalice. Similar to The Oath of Love the painting had two versions (one currently in the Getty and the other in the Wallace collection) and a print version ( Figure A 32) 20 the figures in overgrown trees and an abunda nce of cupids. However, he darkened the palette, making the leaves less noticeable as they disappear into the darkness. The greenery blends in with the clouds, creating a mystical atmosphere around the figures. The cupids themselves are alive rather tha n statues, reemphasizing this allegorical fantastical land. The figures in The Fountain of Love add to this atmosphere, as they both wear classical garb which starkly contrasts with the contemporary garb of the previous images. Stylistically, the smooth skin, classical garb and more muscular women are characteristics borrowed from the Neoclassical style that emerged during the latter half of the eighteenth century. These elements place the scene in a timeless realm, which fits the subject matter. The subject matter combines the Rousseauian themes of passion, sexuality and discuss this image in terms of physical sex and conjugal love. 21 The fountain could symbolize an 22 It also had sexual connotations, as it could represent the moment of orgasm in which the fountain often symbolized female sex and the 20 Molotiu, 37. 21 Molotiu. 41. 22 Sheriff, Fragonard 19.
81 overflowing wate r symbolized seminal fluid ( eau de vie ). 23 As I noted earlier, marriage Therefore, these concepts could coincide and still be socially acceptable. In either case, the c ouple certainly represents passionate love, as a sales catalogue a decade 24 As mentioned in the second chapter, the major themes in passionate romantic literature were the uniting of two souls, relation to the theological realm, loss of reason, hyperbolic comparisons to their situation as life or death, and the threat of temporality. Fragonard represents all these elements within The Fountain of Love through his visual language. T he chalice and the cupids (wh ich could represent angels) have theological associations. The concepts of uniting two souls and the loss of reason are presented physically in their bodies. In the image, the man and woman act as one movement rushing towards the fountain. They mirror e forward, staring at the cup with only the tip of their feet on the ground. Saint Preux speak, touched at every point and have e said move the same way in different locations, we would feel the same things as 25 Visually, Fragonard has presented the audience with a couple who are connected physically and emotionally. 23 Sheriff, Fragonard 20. 24 Molotiu, 37. 25 Rousseau, Julie 44.
82 Fragonard emphasized their cohesion and their loss of reason by using extremely ly brushwork throughout the painting, but his wispy handling of the paint in the figures brushstrokes of different intensities. The strands holding her dress is made of a few th in brushes of white paint that does not even connect to the back of her shoulders. hand that reaches behind the woman. His fingers meld into the strands of her dress, The New Model another. In this case, the loose brushwork shows their loss of reason by accentuating t and upper body dissolves into thinner and haphazard brushwork the closer he comes to drinking from the chalice. He is visually lo sing himself on his way to the fountain. The last theme of romantic passion is the threat of temporality, which Andrei Molotiu discusses at length in his study of this painting. As mentioned earlier, figur es have antiquity clothing and reside in a mystical place that features living cupids tumbling in the clouds As mentioned earlier, Fragonard borrows from Neoclassical imagery such as the smooth, statue flesh. In addition, th e setting is devoid of having a true time and place. C onsummating a relationship before marriage was a threat posed by passionate love. However, this conflict subsided near the close of the eighteenth century. Instead, the main threat of passionate love was its
83 temporality. Julie and Saint Preux as well as Emile and Sophie tested their love by sending their men away to travel the world. These tests were to ensure that the feelings between them were true, and therefore long lasting. Molotiu argues that this arresting of time and space settled this problem of passionate love. By arresting time, Fragonard is also preventing any possibility of the love to deteriorate. Rococo or Rousseauian Subject Matter The paintings that I have focused on had Rousseauia n subject matter with influences of the rococo aesthetic. However, these types of combinations also appeared in paintings with rococo subject matter. Rococo love including gallantry and libertinage, continued to be featured in painting s and print s throu ghout the eighteenth century. Fragonard created paintings such as The New Model and The Progress of Love series during the 1770s, and the last painting of The Progress of Love series, Reverie ( Figure A 33 ) in the 1790s. Another example of a libertine pa inting is The Bolt (1778) ( Figure A 34 ). In The Bolt a man pulls a woman towards his body as she attempts to stop him from physically accosting her. She pushes his face with her hand and tries to prevent him from locking the door. Her stance is one of action as only the he is clearly the stronger of the two. Traditionally, this subject matter would be an example of a libertine scene, belonging in the same category as The Useless Resistance The focus is on the sexual interaction between the two, and they appear to have no emotional connection. She does not match his intense look, but throws her head back in protest. Aesthetically, the highlights, especially in t visible, but are exponentially more blended than those of earlier rococo paintings. This is especially exemplified in the red drapery in which Fragonard creates dramatic folds
84 but with more delicate highlights. Although the bedroom is sparsely decorated, it is certainly more detailed than The Useless Resistance as indicated by the smaller details such as the apple near the bedside. Rather than having the lighter pastel tones of previous paintings, dark luscious colors of red and gold are used to create a more dramatic effect. Jennifer Milam compares the subject matter to the popular libertine novel, Dangerous Liaisons by Choderlos de Laclos. In the novel, the older Merteuil encourages the naive Cecile to feign resistance and virtue as a strategy in the libertine world of sexual exploits. 26 However, the work was created during the 1780s, after Rousseauian ideals had become current. Milam argues that the artwork itself can be considered as having a Rousseauian subject matter, as women feigning interest was a Emile Rousseau urged women to feign resistance in order to please men. This is also present in the passionate love narrative, as Julie is the nobler one of the couple who often resisted Saint despite her feelings. Of course, the reasons behind these scenarios vary. In Dangerous Liaisons Merteuil is concerned with maintaining appearances and gaining an upper hand in the game of seduction, one that will not lead to an em otional Emile was to aid in the courtship of a couple that will lead to marriage, while the example in Julie remain virtuous and not succumb to a passionate love. Although the reas oning for women feigning resistance had different motives and outcomes, the appearance of these actions still appear the same when painted. This duality indicates that although 26 Milam, 120.
85 moralists and art critics may have presented these different types of sexualit ies as incompatible, compromises and similarities existed. In sum, Fragonard used his rococo style in paintings to portray Rousseauian subject matter. Although this is important, a broader, ideological point should be made about these paintings. The ro coco style and model of love was primarily associated with the aristocracy and nobility, while the Rousseauian concepts of love were primarily of the new nobility and those a ssociated with rococo culture. Furthermore, prints of these paintings also became popular. The buyers were not necessarily the bourgeoisie but primarily wealthy ones. Despite the fact that the paintings discussed in this chapter display various influenc es of the rococo and Rousseauian concepts, they all catered to the same crowd. Unlike Barker, I argue that this indicates that the rococo demonstrates a transition peri od in which the rococo style and concepts of love still survived while the Rousseauian model became popular. Fragonard did not merely place Rousseauian subject matter into a rococo style of painting. He adapted the rococo style depending upon the subjec t matter. In the family scenes, he created a more rustic atmosphere with harsher brushstrokes that reflected The Marriage Contract In The Visit to the Wet Nurse he transformed the gallant composition of the desperate man and coquette women int o a complacent, affectionate couple. By changing the expression and the motions of the couple from desperation and coy to calm and caring, he transformed the rococo style to enhance the scene of conjugal love. The scenes of passionate love transformed th e rococo settings
86 with dark tonalities to mirror the serious, passionate love between the characters. By The Fountain of Love Fragonard had transformed the rococo into a style that was no longer one that can be easily labeled as such. Yet, the influence of the libertine brushwork and an extremely diluted version of the rococo setting remained. The complexities of these works indicate that the concepts of love were also complex and should no longer be viewed as rococo versus Rousseauian. Instead, I prop ose that these works should be analyzed as if they were on a spectrum. In other words, layers of the rococo style and Rousseauian subject matter overlay one another to create a unique artwork that was influenced by the different discourses of the time.
87 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION The beginning of this thesis discussed two different concepts of love: rococo and Rousseauian. Rococo love consisted of gallantry and libertinage, the former focused on an endless courtship and the latter on brief, sexual encounters Paintings of gallantry depicted the aristocracy frolicking in an intimate garden setting. The painterly brushwork and pastel colors reinforced the playful tone of the painting. Libertine scenes were set in the interior accentuating the private, erotic subject matter, and the brushwork was sketchier, emphasizing the physical and disheveled nature of the subject. Ideally, Rousseauian love was defined as having an undying passion that would lead to a successful marriage and rearing productive members of society. Its basis was a deep emotional and physical connection that would last for eternity. The as though they were a theater production with a stark setting and eve ry member having a specific family role to fulfill. During the mid eighteenth century, moralists and art critics praised Rousseauian love as being the solution against the debauchery of rococo love. According to them, rococo love was a shallow game that the aristocracy played to pass the time. In contrast, Rousseauian love consisted of true emotions that the couple could not help but feel. Consequently, the concept of rococo and Rousseauian love became constructed as mutually exclusive. In contrast, the career of Jean Honor Fragonard exemplifies that these two concepts were more complex. Despite Rousseau constructing rococo and Rousseauian love as opposites, he felt that the wealthy could change their ways and rons were from the upper classes and they
8 8 commissioned both rococo and Rousseauian subject matters. Barker argued that the combination of the rococo style and the Rousseauian subject matter would create a subversive meaning. In contrast, I have demonstra ted that Fragonard tailored the rococo style depending upon the Rousseauian subject matter. In the family scenes, scholars presented the combination of sexuality and motherhood as problematic. I argue that these painting should not be viewed as having a one to one relationship with Rousseauian literature. Instead, the paintings are manifestations of the passionate romance and sentimental movements that Rousseau influenced. In the case of combining sexuality and motherhood, sexuality was needed in a marr iage for it to continue successfully. Therefore, collapsing the timing of these roles indicates the ideal situation before, during and after the child is born and raised. In the passionate scenes, Fragonard uses a diluted version of rococo elements to in dicate the passion between the figures. These paintings signify that rococo and Rousseauian love should be considered as having the ability interweave without being contradictory to one another.
89 APPENDIX LIST OF FIGURES A 1 Jean Honor Fragonard, Blin l uff 1755 116.8 x 91.4 cm, oil on canvas The Toledo Museum of Art Ohio Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fragonard_ _Blind_man%27 s_bluff_game.jpg > A 2 Jean Honor Fragonard The Useless Resistance 1764 68 37 x 42 cm, oil on canvas. Private Collection Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.abcgallery.com/F/fragonar d/fragonard20.html > A 3 Jean Baptiste Greuze, The Marriage Contract 1761, 92 x 117 cm, o il on canvas. Mus e du Louvre, Paris. Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2003 /genre/158 084.htm > A 4 Jean Honor Fragonard, The Oath of Love 1780 85 62 x 51 cm, oil on canvas Grasse (in Molotiu, 24 ) A 5 Jean Honor Fragonard, A Visit to the Wet Nurse c. 177 5 73 x 92 cm oil on canva s National Gallery of Art, Samuel H. Kress Collection Washington D.C. Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/his/CoreArt/art/resources/frag_visit.j pg > A 6 Jean Honor Fragonard The Musical Contest c. 1754, 62 x 74 cm, oil on canvas Wallace Collection London Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.wikipainti ngs.org/en/jean honore fragonard/the musical contest 1755 > A 7 Jean Honor Fragonard, The Good Mother. c. 1773, 48.9 x 39.2 cm, o il on canvas. Private collection. Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/jean honore fragonard/the good mother > A 8 Jean Honor Fragonard The Swing 1767, 81 x 64 cm oil on canvas London, Wallace C ollection Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/jean honore fragonard/the swing 1767 > A 9 Jean Honor Fragonard The Fountain of Love c. 1785, 62.2 x 51.4 cm, oil on canvas J. Paul Getty Museum Los Angeles Accessed 15 March 201 2 < http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=135093 > A 10 Antoine Watteau, re 1 717, 129 x 194 cm, oil on canvas. Louvre Paris. A ccessed 15 March 2012 < http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Embarktion_for_Cythera.jpg > A 11 Jean Honor Fragonard The Pursuit from The Progress of Love series. 1 771 2, 317.8 x 215.5 cm oil on Canvas Frick Collection New York Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://collections.frick.org/view/objects/asitem/items$0040:175 >
90 A 12 Jean Honor Fr agonard The Lover Crowned from The Progress of Love series 1771 2 317.8 x 243.2 cm oil on canvas Frick Collection New York Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://collections.fri ck.org/view/objects/asitem/items$0040:173 > A 13 Jean Honor Fragonard The Meeting from The Progress of Love series. 1771 72, 317.5 x 243.8 cm oil on canvas Frick Collection New York Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://collections.frick.org/view/objects/asitem/items$0040:174 > A 14 Jean Honor Fragonard The Love Letters from The Progress of Love series 1771 2, 317.1 x 216.8 cm oil on canvas New York, Frick Collection. Acce ssed 15 March 2012 < http://collections.frick.org/view/objects/asitem/items$0040:166 > A 15 Joseph Marie Vien, Two Young Grecian Girls Promise Never to Fall in Love 1773, 270 x 230 cm, oil on canvas. Prefecture of Cham ry. (in Bailey, 92) A 16 Joseph Marie Vien, Two Young Girls Meet with Sleeping Cupid 1773, 335 x 194, oil on canvas Mus e du Louvre. Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.wga.hu/html_m/v/vien/progres1.html > A 17 Joseph Marie Vien, The Lover Crowning His Mistress 1774, 335 x 202 cm, oil on canvas. Mus e du Louvre, Paris. Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.wga.hu/html_m/v/vien/progres2. html > A 18 Joseph Marie Vien, Two Lovers Who Swear Eternal Affection 1774, 270 x 240 cm, oil on canvas. Perfecture of Chamb ry. (in Bailey, Love 93) A 19 Jean Honor Fragonard The New Model c. 1770, 34 x 65 cm oil on canvas Muse Jacquemart Andr, Paris Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fragonard_modele.j pg > A 20 Fran ois Boucher Autumn from The Four Seasons 1755 56.5 x 73 cm, oil on canvas Frick Collection, New York. Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://common s.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Four_Seasons,_Autumn_ _Boucher_1755.jpg > A 21 Jean Honor Fragonard The Happy Lovers. 1760 65 90.2 x 121.2 cm, oil on canvas. Norton Simon Museum Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/jean honore fragonard/the happy lovers 1765 > A 22 Pierre Antoine Baudouin, The Honest Model 1769, 40.6 x 35.7 cm gouache wit h touches of graphite on vellum Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fichier:Baudouin,_Pierre_Antoine_ _The_Honest_Model_ _1769.jpg >
91 A 23 Jean Honor Fragonard, The Invocation to Love 1780 85, 52 x 63 cm oil on canvas Private Collection, New York. (in Molotiu, 30 ) A 24 Jean Baptiste Greuze Votive Offering to Cupid 1769, 145.5 x 113 cm, oil on canvas. Wallace Collection London. Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean Baptiste_Greuze_ _Votive_Offering_to_Cupid_ _WGA10660.jpg > A 25 Pierre Antoine Baudouin The Marriage Bed (print version; pain ting lost) 1767. (in Richard Rand, 14) A 26 Jean Honor Fragonard The Return Home c. 1776 78, 54 x 65 cm oil on canvas National Gallery, Washington Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://fr. wahooart.com/A55A04/w.nsf/Opra/BRUE 7YMHAL > A 27 Jean Honor Fragonard Happy Fertility also called the Happy Family c. 1776 77, 53.9 x 65.1 cm oil on canvas National Gallery o f Art, Mrs. W.R. Timken Bequest Washington, D.C., Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.wga.hu/html_m/f/fragonar/father/2/05family.html > A 28 Jean Honor Fragonard The Oath of Love c. 1780, 62 x 54 cm, oil on oval canvas Rothschild collection Buckingham shire (in Molotiu, 23 ) A 29 Jean Mathie u after Jean Honor Fragonard, The Oath of Love. 1786, e ngraving with hand coloring. Los Angeles, Collection UCLA Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts, Hammer Museum Los Angeles Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.clarkart.edu/exhibitions/fragonar d/content/oath of love more.cfm > A 30 Nicolas Delaunay after Jean Honor Fragonard. The Good Mother 1779, Engraving with hand color ing. Collection UCLA Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts, Hammer Museum Los Angeles (in Molotiu, 82 ) A 31 Jean Honor Fragonard, Fountain of Love 1785 88, 63.5 x 50.7 cm, oil on canvas. Wallace Collection, London. (in Molotiu, 39). A 32 Nicolas Fran o is Regnault after Jean Honor Fragonard, Fountain of Love 1785, engraving. Getty Research Institute, Special Collections, Los Angeles. (in Molotiu, 38 ) A 33 Jean Honor Fragonard The Reverie from The Progress of Love series 1790, 317 x 197 cm oil on canvas Frick Collection New York Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://collections.frick.org/view/objects/asitem/items$0040:172 > A 34 Jean Honor Fragonard The Bolt c. 1778, 73 x 92 cm, oil on canvas The Louvre Paris Accessed 15 March 2012 < http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/jean honore fragonard/the bolt >
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98 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ashley Dianna Lowery attended Georgia State University where she received her Bachelor of Arts d egree with a major in art history and a minor in s ociology in Spring 2010. She continued her studies at the University of Florida where she receive d her Master of Arts degree in art h istory with a concentration in eighteenth century studies in Spring 2012.