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Valuing Historic Cemeteries

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044203/00001

Material Information

Title: Valuing Historic Cemeteries
Physical Description: 1 online resource (131 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Armstrong, Matthew W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: auburn -- cemetery -- grave -- historic -- louis -- mount -- oakland -- preservation -- saint -- tolomato -- value
Historic Preservation -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Historic Preservation thesis, M.H.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study presents a framework that can be used by historic cemeteries to inform and direct interpretive programming that builds upon what visitors will likely see as the most valuable and pertinent aspects of cemetery sites. It also addresses how developing such programming can incorporate other concerns that affect on-site visitation, management, economics, and other issues vital to the long-term stability of such resources. The values associated with historic sites (aspects that people perceive as significant) have been identified by many national stewardship organizations. However, the categories and definitions provided by national organizations are (necessarily) abstract, and difficult to use at the local level, where a more specific framework is needed to identify values for specific heritage sites. For many historic cemeteries, interpretive programming, based on the site-specific characteristics valued by visitors, provides the means to fund upkeep and preservation projects, as well as maintain relevance in the local community. Before such interpretation can be developed, values associated with the site, both existing and potential, must be identified. Four historic cemeteries were chosen for comparative analysis in this study: Tolomato Cemetery in St. Augustine, Florida; St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 in New Orleans, Louisiana; Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta, Georgia; and Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. These cemeteries were chosen to represent a wide range of values, programming, visitation, and other issues. Through an analysis of on-site interpretive programming at the four sites, interviews with administrators, and other research, this study formulated a framework to aid in the development of interpretational programming that addresses: • Cemetery values • Programming considerations A site’s values explain and highlight why people visit, and what makes the site important in the context of the community’s past and its present. The programming considerations represent important concerns and issues that may affect an on-site visit or interpretation at a historic cemetery, but are not immediately apparent to visitors. Some values and considerations are obvious; others, less so. Suggestions are made as to how historic cemeteries can use this framework in the development of interpretational programming, and in directing further investigations into the site-specific values at other cemetery sites.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Matthew W Armstrong.
Thesis: Thesis (M.H.P.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Williams, Sara K.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044203:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044203/00001

Material Information

Title: Valuing Historic Cemeteries
Physical Description: 1 online resource (131 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Armstrong, Matthew W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: auburn -- cemetery -- grave -- historic -- louis -- mount -- oakland -- preservation -- saint -- tolomato -- value
Historic Preservation -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Historic Preservation thesis, M.H.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study presents a framework that can be used by historic cemeteries to inform and direct interpretive programming that builds upon what visitors will likely see as the most valuable and pertinent aspects of cemetery sites. It also addresses how developing such programming can incorporate other concerns that affect on-site visitation, management, economics, and other issues vital to the long-term stability of such resources. The values associated with historic sites (aspects that people perceive as significant) have been identified by many national stewardship organizations. However, the categories and definitions provided by national organizations are (necessarily) abstract, and difficult to use at the local level, where a more specific framework is needed to identify values for specific heritage sites. For many historic cemeteries, interpretive programming, based on the site-specific characteristics valued by visitors, provides the means to fund upkeep and preservation projects, as well as maintain relevance in the local community. Before such interpretation can be developed, values associated with the site, both existing and potential, must be identified. Four historic cemeteries were chosen for comparative analysis in this study: Tolomato Cemetery in St. Augustine, Florida; St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 in New Orleans, Louisiana; Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta, Georgia; and Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. These cemeteries were chosen to represent a wide range of values, programming, visitation, and other issues. Through an analysis of on-site interpretive programming at the four sites, interviews with administrators, and other research, this study formulated a framework to aid in the development of interpretational programming that addresses: • Cemetery values • Programming considerations A site’s values explain and highlight why people visit, and what makes the site important in the context of the community’s past and its present. The programming considerations represent important concerns and issues that may affect an on-site visit or interpretation at a historic cemetery, but are not immediately apparent to visitors. Some values and considerations are obvious; others, less so. Suggestions are made as to how historic cemeteries can use this framework in the development of interpretational programming, and in directing further investigations into the site-specific values at other cemetery sites.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Matthew W Armstrong.
Thesis: Thesis (M.H.P.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Williams, Sara K.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044203:00001


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1 VALUING HISTORIC CEMETERIES By MATTHEW WAYLAND ARMSTRONG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Matthew Wayland Armstrong

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3 Para conservar las cenizas

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank my thesis committee, Kay Williams and Marty Hylton, for their patience and faith in my abilities throughout the thesis p rocess. Additionally, I thank Kay, as well as Pete Prugh, for believing in me and standing up for me when problems arose along the way. I thank my parents, Doug and Terry, and my sister Megan for offering their love, encouragement, and homes to me, even when the process wore on longer than expected. I thank my amazing girlfriend Amy for her love and quiet words of encouragement. I also thank Leslee Keys, for her unwavering support, encouragement, and friendship. I thank Sarah Miller for her constant s upport, positive attitude, and for instilling in me my initial interest in historic cemeteries. I thank Roy Graham for his unfailing encouragement and optimism. I thank Steve Voguit for his supreme joy and enthusiasm not only in revealing the insights th at history can provide, but also in helping and caring for those around him. I thank Carl Halbirt for believing in me, even when I I thank Fred Oettel for his constant faith, help and friendship over the course of my life. I also thank the Tolomato Historic Preservation Association, and in particular, Elizabeth Gessner, for her vast knowledge, her cheerful enthusiasm, and for her constant efforts, most of which go unsung, toward the preservation of the Tolomato Cemetery and involved for their invaluable help and insight in this study: Angie Green at Save Our Cemeteries, David Moore at Oakland Cemetery, and Stephanie Messina at Mount Auburn Cemetery.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 2 BACKGROUND: A HISTORY OF CEMETERIES IN THE U.S. .............................. 17 The Early Cem eteries ................................ ................................ ............................. 17 Catholic Churchyards ................................ ................................ ....................... 17 Graveyards of New England ................................ ................................ ............. 18 Family Burial Grounds ................................ ................................ ...................... 19 Slave Burials ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 20 Changing Customs ................................ ................................ ................................ 21 Un desirables ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 21 Health Concerns ................................ ................................ ............................... 22 Municipal Cemeteries ................................ ................................ ............................. 23 The New Burying Ground Society ................................ ................................ .... 23 Urbanization ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 24 The Rural Cemetery ................................ ................................ ......................... 25 The Lawn Park ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 The Memorial Park ................................ ................................ ........................... 28 3 VALUE ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 30 Heritage ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 30 What is Value? ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 32 Market Values ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 33 Non Market Values ................................ ................................ ........................... 34 Determining Value ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 36 Contingent Valuation ................................ ................................ ........................ 36 Choice Modeling ................................ ................................ ............................... 37 The Usual Suspects: The Large Scale Typologies ................................ ................. 38 The National Register of Historic Places ................................ .......................... 38 English Heritage ................................ ................................ ............................... 40 The Burra Charter ................................ ................................ ............................ 41 Deriving relevant values for cemeteries from abstraction .......................... 43 Value in unexpected places ................................ ................................ ....... 44 Why Interpretation? ................................ ................................ ................................ 45 Funding ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 45

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6 Relevance ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 46 Interpretation as Marketing ................................ ................................ ..................... 48 Interpreting Our Heritage ................................ ................................ .................. 48 Made to Stick ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 49 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 51 4 CASE STUDIES ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 52 Criteria ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 52 Tolomato Cemetery ................................ ................................ ................................ 58 Location ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 58 History ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 58 Operation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 60 Stewardship Group ................................ ................................ ........................... 60 Tours ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 61 Identified Values and Programming Considerations ................................ ......... 62 St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 ................................ ................................ ........................ 65 Location ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 65 History ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 65 Operation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 66 Stewardship Group ................................ ................................ ........................... 67 Tours ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 67 Identified Values And Programming Considerations ................................ ........ 69 Mount Auburn Cemetery ................................ ................................ ......................... 73 Location ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 73 History ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 73 Operation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 74 Stewardship Group ................................ ................................ ........................... 74 Tours ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 75 Identified V alues and Programming Considerations ................................ ......... 76 Oakland Cemetery ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 87 Location ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 87 History ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 87 Operation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 88 Stewardship Group ................................ ................................ ........................... 89 Tours ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 90 Identified Values And Programming Considerations ................................ ........ 91 Discussion of Issues Discovered ................................ ................................ ............ 95 Sacred/Spiritual ................................ ................................ ................................ 95 Supernatural ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 96 Security ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 98 Location ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 98 Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 99 Independent Experience ................................ ................................ ................. 100 Additio nal Issues For Operators And Managers ................................ ................... 100 Stakeholders ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 100 Negative Stakeholders ................................ ................................ ................... 104

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7 National Register Inclusion ................................ ................................ ............. 104 Non profit Status ................................ ................................ ............................ 107 Community Partnerships ................................ ................................ ................ 107 Membership Organizations ................................ ................................ ............. 108 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 110 5 ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ........... 112 Insights From the Cemetery Value Chart ................................ .............................. 112 Recommendations for Framework ................................ ................................ ........ 114 Sugges ted Cemetery Values ................................ ................................ ................ 116 History ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 116 Art ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 116 People/Stories ................................ ................................ ................................ 117 Sacred/Spiritual ................................ ................................ .............................. 117 Preservation ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 118 Supernatural ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 118 Nature ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 119 Programming Considerations ................................ ................................ ............... 120 Economics ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 120 Security ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 120 Location ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 121 Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 121 Independent Experience ................................ ................................ ................. 12 2 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 122 Using The Framework ................................ ................................ .................... 123 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 124 Future Research ................................ ................................ ............................. 125 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 127 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 131

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Overview of case studies, comparing Tolomato, St. Louis No. 1, Oakland, and Mo unt Auburn Cemeteries ................................ ................................ ........... 55 4 2 Interpretational programs at Tolomato Cemetery ................................ ............... 64 4 3 Interpretational programs at St. Louis Cemete ry No. 1 ................................ ....... 71 4 4 Interpretational programs at Mount Auburn Cemetery ................................ ........ 77 4 5 Interpretational programs at Oakland Cemetery ................................ ................. 92 4 6 List of suggested cemetery values ................................ ................................ ... 110 4 7 List of programming considerations for historic cemeteries .............................. 111

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9 Abstract of Thesis P resented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Historic Preservation VALUING HISTORIC CEMETERIES By Matthew Wayland Armstro ng May 2012 Chair: Sara Katherine Williams Major: Historic Preservation This study presents a framework that can be used by historic cemeteries to inform and direct interpretive programming that builds upon what visitors will likely see as the most valuable and pertinent aspects of cemetery sites. It also addresses how developing such programming can incorporate other concerns that affect on site visitation, management, economics, and other issues vital to the long term stability of such resources. The values associated with historic sites ( aspects that people perceive as significant) have been identified by many national stewardship organizations. However, the categories and definitions provided by national organization s are (necessarily) abstract, and difficult to use at the local level, where a more specific framework is needed to identify values for specific heritage sites. For many historic cemeteries, interpretive programming based on the site specific characteristics valued by visitors provides the means to fund upkeep and preservation projects, as well as maintain relevance in the local community. Before such interpretati on can be developed, values associated with the site both exis ting and potential, must be identified.

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10 F our historic cemeteries were chosen for comparative analysis in this study: Tolomato Cemetery in St. Augustine, Florida; St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 in New Orleans, Louisiana; Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta Georgia; an d Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. These cemeteries were chosen to represent a wide range of values, programming, visitation, and other issues. Through an analysis of on site interpretive programming at the four sites interviews w ith administrators and other research, this study formulated a framework to aid in the development of interpretation al programming that addresses: C emetery values P rogramming considerations and what makes the site important in the c ontext of the communi and its present. The programming considerations r epresent important concerns and issues that may affect an on site visit or interpretation at a histor ic cemetery, but are not immediately apparent to visitors. Some values and considerations are obvious; others, less so. Suggestions are made as to how historic cemeteries can use this framework in the development of interpretational program ming, and in directing further investigations into the site specific values at other c emeter y sites

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Monuments will one day need their own memorials...In these straitened times, the living compete with the dead for funding Both respect and history demand that we remember the latter. It is a matter of life and death. 1 In the summer of 2011, Historic Oakland Cemetery was voted the #1 tourist attraction in the city of Atlanta by users of the popular internet travel site Tri pAdvisor. This struck many people as sensational; cemeteries are not typically thought of as successful attractions, particularly when pitted against the competition in a major city like Atlanta (there were 164 attractions listed on TripAvisor for that ci ty at the time). Clearly, Oakland Cemetery is doing something right. Make no mistake; this is a bona fide success story, and one that is unique even among the large, high profile cemeteries. A more common example would be that of Tolomato Cemetery in St. Augustine Florida : the oldest extant planned cemetery in Florida, reserved for Catholic burials cemetery have ebbed and flowed over the years, with Tolomato cu rrently operating on a limited interpretive plan, opened to the public only one day a month. While geographically central to the tourist experience of many visitors, the site may be left out of further interpretation and community memory as both time and interest in the site wane. Unfortunately, cemeteries in the U.S. Many sites have limited finances and limited manpower at their 1 Conservation Bulletin 66, The Heritage of Death (Summer 2011), 23.

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12 disposal. They are usually in some stage of dilapidation requiring active preservation (i.e. funding) and suffering from a degree of disconnection with the general population, which inhibits increased visitation and additional interpretational opportunities. Many of these cemeteries are not in ideal situations, which is remarkable. However, what if aspects of the programming at popular cemeteries like Oakland were identified and defined so other, less developed cemeteries could use them ? The survival of historic cemetery sites hinges on understanding the values associated with them. Values are a collection of traits associated with experiencing an artifact or site. They define why people desire to visit and experience historic sites, and provide the foundation for understanding sites. Because of this importance, it is essential to identify the values before any kind of programs relating to interpretation or preserv ation can take place at the site The identification of values is the necessary first step in any such endeavor, because u ntil they are identified, it will not be clear what needs to be interpreted or preserved, and why. Interpretational programming at sites such as historic cemeteries enables guests to place the site in the context of the local and national history, and te lls the unique stories which make the site s special. Informing visitors helps to secure that a site maintains its relevance as time progresses, and will also aid in securing funding for necessary upkeep and preservation projects. Most people agree that h istoric cemetery sites have value, but pinning down exactly what is valued at a particular cemetery, and by whom, can be difficult Research by preservationists such as Randy Hester reveals

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13 that people may find value in unexpected aspects of a site. 2 To produce programming that engages the visitor, we must know what the visitor values about the site, and why. There are numerous cemeteries in the U.S. with steady visitation and well developed interpretational programming. The values that each cemetery wis hes to communicate to their guests are exhibited in the programs and elements of an on site visit. Revisiting the disparity between the successful cemetery sites and the more common, struggling historic cemetery discussed previously, the question becomes: how can cemeteries who do not yet have an interpretational model in place use the values and other aspects of programming that have been identified by the developed cemeteries to their advantage? Although every cemetery may be different, by comparing th e programming at several historic cemeteries, as well as gaining insight through personal conversation with administrative members at the cemeteries, it is possible to identify a set of values that seemingly relates specifically to cemeteries as well as a list of important programming considerations that affect the experience of an on site visit. These two lists together constitute a framework that could be useful for less developed cemeteries in the U.S. to guide the implementation of interpretational pr ograms, and to inform more in depth valuation studies. This analysis of cemetery values focuses on interpretation because it is a common element in programming at historic cemeteries that attracts guests and generates revenue. Cemeteries are unique herit age resources, and Angie Green, executive director of Save Our Cemeteries in New Orleans, Louisiana, expresses the need for revenue through interpretation : 2 Places: Forum of Design for the Public Realm 2, no. 3 (1985).

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14 The biggest difference [between cemeteries and other heritage sites] is that cemetery property (usua lly) stops being an economic performer once it's gotten to the point where it's historic or culturally significant. The cemetery owner/operator/municipality has a liability on the books that probably never will become a moneymaker...so turning it into a cu ltural/heritage destination is pretty much the only way to use the economics of histo ric preservation in your favor. 3 The second chapter provides a brief history of the development of cemeteries in the United States. The development from colonial churchya rd burials to the privately owned cemeteries of today provides the essential context for the cemeteries that were chosen for case studies. The small sacred plots that developed into arboreal Victorian pleasure grounds paved the way for the public parks en joyed by citizens the nation over. In the aftermath of this, the graveyard has increasingly been a place that is separated from everyday life for most people. However, the artwork, history, and solitude intended for the dead is bringing the living back t o these sites in modern times as tourists. The third chapter addresses the concept of value. Economic value is briefly discussed, but more focus is given to why we value heritage sites, what it means to value them, and how valuation studies are conduct ed. Special attention is given to how value is ascertained by the National Register of Historic Places in the United States, where eligibility requires sites to illustrate adherence to specific sets of criteria; as well as English Heritage, which provides funding and stewardship resources for heritage sites in England; and the Burra Charter, which provides guidelines and a code of ethics for dealing with heritage resources in Australia. The fourth chapter outlines the case studies. The cemeteries chosen for case studies are: 3 Angie Green, e mail message to the author, October 23, 2011.

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15 Tolomato Cemetery, in St. Augustine, Florida St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, in New Orleans, Louisiana Mount Auburn Cemetery, in Cambridge, Massachusetts Oakland Cemetery, in Atlanta, Georgia These sites were chosen because they represent a variety of cemetery styles and sizes. Tolomato and St. Lo uis No. 1 are both small church owned burial grounds that were established in the colonial eras of their respective cities, while Mount Auburn and Oakland are large Rural Cemeteries established in the first half of the 19th century. They also represent a relatively large geographic distribution. Each cemetery is near a popular travel destination, and therefore each has an accessible base of heritage tourists and locals who engage with the site. Each cemetery also has an active interpretational plan in place that is operated by a non profit stewardship group, although each is at different stages of development. By analyzing these four cemeteries that represent different styles and sizes, a sugges ted list of values that seems to pertain to historic cemeteries as a general group as well as a list of programming considerations is identified and presented Personal conversations with administrative personnel from the stewardship groups at the four c emeteries provide supplementary information about the sites that is included in the analysis. The sites are compared by identifying: Location History Ownership Stewardship Group Tours Perceived Values Additional issues that are pertinent to operators and managers of cemetery stewardship groups are also discussed in this chapter. These issues may not necessarily be

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16 apparent to the visitors, and do not manifest in an on site visit as values, but are important to the general experience of all four case stud ies. They include: Stakeholders National Register Inclusion Non profit Status Community Partnerships Membership Organizations In the fifth chapter, an analysis is given, comparing the aspects addressed in chapter four. The result is a suggested list of values and programming considerations that correspond to the historic cemeteries. It is likely that these values, which have provided the foundation for successful interpretive programming at the four case studies, will relate to other historic cemeterie s and could help to inform the development of additional interpretive programs and valuation studies. Suggestions are offered on how other historic cemeteries could use identified framework to their advantage. This chapter also provides an overview of li mitations in the study, as well suggestions for future research. Once a historic cemetery determines its values and significance, the doorway to achieving a successful interpretive plan is opened. With the proper interpretation of values, its stewards can help locals and visitors care about the space with real conviction, and establish its place in the context of the community as a valuable heritage resource.

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17 CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND: A HISTOR Y OF CEMETERIES IN T HE U.S. The Early Cemeteries Cemeteries have go ne through many transformations and developments since the first colonists landed and began dying in the New World. Early places of burial in America bore a close resemblance to their European counterparts, as many settlers brought burial customs with the m from their mother countries instead of adopting the customs of the people they encountered. Catholic Churchyards The early Spanish Catholic settlers were interred in small graveyards near a church, on a separate piece of church owned property, or some times under the floors of the church itself. This was consecrated, or blessed, ground and being buried in such these burial spaces were typically marked with crosses of w ood or stone, depending on what was locally available. Burials were oriented to the east, with the belief that the body would rise facing the east on Judgment Day. 1 Iconography tended to express the love of Christ and the promise of eternal life. Other funerary traditions were imported from the Old World with each wave of settlement in the Americas. Some traditions were modified to fit the new surroundings, but other times the old traditions were symbiotic with the new challenges. For example, the aboveground family tomb was a popular element in French cemeteries. This tradition was transferred easily to St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 in New Orleans, Louisi ana, where the style was also prized for its practicality, given the difficulty of digging g raves 1 Mary Coffin, Death in Early America (New York: Elsevier/Nelson Books, 1976), 166.

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18 in a city below sea level. Opened in 1789, the cemetery is surrounded by a wall of arched brick vaults that encloses the cemetery while providing a dry space for burial; a necessity with a high water table (about three feet below the surface) and he avy rainfall averaging about 64 inches a year. 2 The vaults were constructed of local brick, which was subsequently plastered and whitewashed, with imported marble slabs for markers. Visitor John H. B. Latrobe wrote after a visit in the mid 19th century a bout another burial custom in this city, I was informed that these cells were purchased for various lengths of time varying from 1 to 10 years and some were owned in perpetuity. When the lease expired, the tenant, or what remained of him was removed, whe n the feelings of the relatives could not be shocked by the idea of his being burned instead of buried. 3 Graveyards of New England With the early settlers of New England in the 17th century came the Puritanical shifts in burial practice. A product of the recent Protestant Reformation and shaped by the teachings of John Calvin, these Puritan, and many Separatist, groups desired to body was seen as a mere shell for the immortal soul, and did not merit special treatment once that soul had departed, so their graveyards were treated as secular spaces without plantings to beautify the grounds. 4 There was no order to the burial grounds, and they were crowded, barren and jum bled in appearance. The Puritans rejected any ornamentation that glorified the individual, which they believed lent itself to idolatry. 2 Samuel Wilson, Jr. and Leonard V. Huber, The St. Louis Cemeteries of New Orleans (New Orleans, L A: St. Louis Cathedral, 1963), 6. 3 John E. Semmes, John H. B. Latrobe and His Times, 1803 1891 (Baltimore, MD: The Norman, Remington Co., 1917), 311., Quoted in The St. Louis Cemeteries of New Orleans 5. 4 Blanche Linden Ward, Silent City on a Hill: La Cemetery (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1989), 26.

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19 praise corruptible flesh...to pra 5 Achieving humility and keeping pride in check were important to early settlers, and the dead highlighted into the grave and see a dead body that has been buried there but a month or two, all covered with darkness and corruption, and say whether it is suitable for one to have 6 These views manifested themselves in the concept of e meaning, momento mori was not exclusive to New England, and was commonplace across Europe and other parts of America. The rise of this phenomenon is perhaps best understood in the light that in the mid 17th century, the populations of Europe and Asia actually decreased for the first time since the Black Death. 7 As the 1600s progressed, graveyards increasingly became the canvas for the momento mori credo. A winged r representations of death, the possibility of England. Stones were typically either square slabs, or shaped to represent arched doorways, suggesting the passage into the next life. 8 Family Burial Grounds In contrast to their northern counterparts, the south harbored more colonists of the Anglican persuasion. The graveyards of these settlers shared many of the thematic elements of the earlier Catholics, focusing on the l ove of Christ and the promise of 5 Increase Mather, Meditations on Death (Boston, MA: Timothy Green, 1707). Quoted in Silent City on a Hill 26. 6 William Cooper, A Sermon Concer ning the Laying of Deaths of Others to Heart... (Boston, MA: B. Green for B. Eliot, 1720), 27. 7 David Hackett Fischer, (New York, Oxford University Press, 1989), 112. 8 Allan I. Ludwig, Graven Images: New En gland Stonecarving and its Symbols, 1650 1815 (MIddletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1966), 141 142.

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20 salvation rather than the momento mori of the North. While there were both community and church burial grounds in the South, the family burial ground was developed as a practical alternative for farmers living in the hinte rland. 9 The concept of the family burial ground was completely unique to the American colonies. 10 These plots were situated on parts of the farm or plantation that not suitable for agriculture: in rocky soil, the borders of fields, or on high windswept hi lls. This was a common enough phenomenon to warrant mention of foreign traveller N.P. Willis, who, in the early 1800s, remarked, All through the region I observed that every farm had its grave; and this, not fenced in or secluded, but with the white slab rising from the middle the crop of grain, or a field of potatoes...As a man cannot very well see his barns and cattle from underground, nor, by force of vicinage, rise again with the crops sown around him, I do not very well understand how the custom coul d become so general. 11 The plots were sometimes walled in, and often had plantings with symbolic qualities to beautify the graves. Gardenias, cedars, mimosas, and crape myrtles were common. 12 These burial spaces were carefully tended and managed, either by the families or slaves, in the plantation context. As the families of planters became wealthier, the headstones and memorials tended to become more elaborate. Slave B urials On plantations, owners typically gave slaves a small plot of land for buria ls. The customs associated with these burials drew heavily from the Igbo and Yoruba cultures of West Africa. If the burials were marked, they were done so with stone, wood, shells, 9 Meg Greene, Rest in Peace (Minneapolis, MN: Twenty First Century Books, 2008), 14. 10 Ibid. 11 Nathanial Parker Willis, Rural Letters: And Other Recor ds of Thought at Leisure (New York: Baker and Scribner, 1851), 327. 12 Greene, 15.

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21 iron pipes, or other convenient items. 13 The personal belongings of the d eceased were placed on the grave, in the belief that they would be taken with the departed into the next life. This gave the spaces a noticeably unkempt appearance, was misunderstood by whites, who perceived in some cases that they were using the graveyar ds for garbage disposal. 14 Changing Customs In the period from 1775 to 1830 the small burial grounds within town limits, churchyards, and burial in vaults or crypts beneath churches were still the prevalent forms of burial, although the relative diversity of Christian denominations had diluted the 15 The churches or sometimes local municipalities, maintained the graveyards which let church and city administrators have Undesirables The plots in graveyards were only reserved for those whom the church dee med strangers, the poor, homeless, unbaptized, illegitimate, and the insane. 16 These groups or a origin; after Judas Iscariot returned the 30 shekels he had been paid to betray Jesus, 13 Grave Matters: The Preservation of African American Cemeteries (Columbia, SC: Chicora Foundation, Inc., 1996), 5. 14 Ibid., 11. 15 Douglas Keister, Stories in Stone (New York: MJF Books, 2004), 136. 16 Coffin, 129.

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22 where the potters gathered clay, which was unfit for farming. 17 This was still consecrated ground, although markers were not provided. Health Concerns As time passed a problem with the system became glaringly obvious; the number of dead increased, but the space in which to bury them did not. Whereas it was generally recognized by the early 1800s that proper decomposition required burial in a shroud or wooden coffin beneath five to six feet of free soil, most graveyards were afforded no such luxury. 18 Grave s were opened frequently for new internments, and bodies were stacked like Pringles chips on top of one another in the same grave shaft. Many bodies were mere inches under the topsoil, and in cases where still more room was required; dirt was mounded on t op of a body to conceal it. 19 In the 1830s a breaking point was reached and the situation became so abhorrent that it could no longer escape the moral and sanitary sensibilities of American rchyard, where the mourners sink ankle deep in a rank and offensive mould, mixed with broken bones and 20 Many people began to advocate for complete disestablishment of church control and for the establishment of new burial grounds out side the towns. When these civil arguments fell on deaf ears, the argument of the reformers focused in on the public health risk of exposed decaying corpses in the frequently used grounds. Dr. William Buchan reasoned at the time: 17 Matthew 27:5 7, The Holy Bible King James Version (New York: American Bible Society, 1999). 18 Garden History 11, no. 2 (Autumn 1983 ) : 137. 19 Silent City 26. 20 Basil Hall, Travels in North America in the Years 1827 and 1828, Volume 2 (Edinburgh: Ballantyne and Company, 1829), 206. Quoted from Meg Greene, Rest In Peace

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23 In great cities, so man y things tend to contaminate the air, that it is no wonder that it proves fatal to the inhabitants...It is very common in this country to have churchyards in the middle of populous cities. It is certain that thousands of putrid carcasses, so near the surf ace of the earth in a place where the air is confined, cannot fail to taint it, and that such air, when breathed into th e lungs, must occasion disease. 21 Municipal Cemeteries The New Burying Ground Society In 1796, when such outcry began, a group in New Hav en, Connecticut took action and changed the history of burial grounds in the U.S. forever. The man behind the push was Connecticut Senator James Hillhouse, who at that point had already served in the ess. 22 Hillhouse started the New Burying Ground Society and purchased property outside of New Haven for new internments, with plots laid out in a geometric fashion by designer Josiah Meig. 23 A corporation was formed so that the Society members were the own ers of the property, as opposed to church or government officials, and were therefore able to determine for though it was not associated with a church, the New Burying G round (today known as the Grove Street Cemetery) was considered legally protected sacred ground. Experiments with similar incarnations were attempted over the next several decades, some succeeding, others failing. Regardless of its longevity, the New Bur ying Ground development. 21 Coffin, 128. 22 Biographical Di rectory of the United States Congress accessed 10/20/2011, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000618 23 Greene, 210.

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24 Urbanization Burial grounds were being established on the outside of towns and cities, and with these new options for internment, many local gov ernments began passing legislation that prohibited burial within city limits in the older, crowded cemeteries. At the same time in the larger cities, the working population was submitting to a general despondency with their increasingly urbanized surround ings while the industrial complex continued to grow. The Second Industrial Revolution came in the mid 19th century, and the age of steel bloomed with the introduction of the Bessemer converter in 1855. 24 When the ancestors of many of these new urbanites h ad stepped off their 25 Unfortunately, as industrialization and urbanization progressed through the early 19th century, people began to see the American landscape less as something cultivated and more as a landscape that had been corrupted. The city no longer blended in with nature. In fact, it was consuming it. People desired to return to nature, and many Americans that had moved from the country into the cities to f ind work began to romanticize nature. Reverend Amos Blanchard echoed the sentiments of many when he said in 1841 that his, "secret wish that when death shall have torn his beloved ones from his embrace, and when [he] himself shall have died, they might re pose together, where they should never be disturbed by the encroachments of a crowded and swelling population of the living...." 26 24 The Quarterly Journal of Economics 80, no 2 (May, 1966): 169. 25 The New England Quarterly 47, no. 2 (June 1974): 199. 26 Ibid., 202.

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25 The Rural Cemetery The Rural Cemetery Movement sprang from these bucolic longings. There needed to be a counterbalance to th e crowded streets and the black pillars of coal fire smoke, and Rural Cemeteries would provide that counterbalance. As a professor in botany and medicine at Harvard College, Jacob Bigelow knew a thing or two about personal well being In his quest to all eviate some of the woes of urban life, and instill some of that well being in the people of Boston, Bigelow led a group along with the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1831 and purchased 72 acres of farmland about four miles from Boston. 27 Mount Aubu rn Cemetery, the first rural cemetery, was thus born from the personal designs of Bigelow, and largely influenced by the English Garden Movement and the Pre Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, France. Whereas Pre Lachaise was a Parisian garden that was converte d into a cemetery, Mount Auburn was designed, from inception, as a cemetery. These intricately planned, sylvan spaces with their winding pathways and broad alleys provided a sharp contrast to city life and became a sanctuary and recreational space for the living, as well as resting place for the dead. The names of the new rural cemeteries also evoked bucolic charm: Laurel Hill in Philadelphia, Laurel Grove in Savanna h, Green wood in Brooklyn, Allegheny in Pittsburgh, Oakland in Atlanta. Cemeteries experie nced somewhat of a Golden Age of popularity during the Victorian Era (1832 1901), and perceptions of death shifted; the tragic nature of the situation did not spring from the death of a loved one, but more so from the possibility 27 Blanche Linden eisure Uses of Nineteenth Cemeteries & Grave Markers: Voices of American Culture ed. Richard E. Meyer (Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989), 293.

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26 that they might go unmourn ed or forgotten. 28 Concepts about the state of death became a bit more obtuse as well, with imagery of the dead as one merely sleeping, or conversely, woken from a dream evoked on epitaphs. Consider that this movement alence; the word comes from the Greek meaning, Because of the natural setting and botanical diversity, people visited cemeteries and enjoyed them as public garden space. It is hard to imagine our modern communities w ithout gardens and green spaces, but such public parks and gardens did not exist in the 1830s, and these first rural cemeteries constituted the first large open public spaces in the United States. 29 Similarly, this was also the first opportunity for the ge neral public to view works of art (the hand carved statuary and memorials), and visitors would take walks and picnic among the graves. The cemeteries often sold guidebooks to accommodate guests on a visit that would show them particular natural feature s such as lakes and highlight the graves of prominent citizens and celebrities. Throughout the 1850s and 60s, additions were made to further accommodate the crowds of visitors to Mount Auburn, including a gazebo with a pump house and public bathrooms. 30 Prominent American landscape architect and designer Andrew Jackson Downing recreation they present...people seem to go there to enjoy themselves, and not to 28 Debi Hacker, The Iconography of Death (Columbia, SC: Chicora Foundation, Inc ., 2001), 1. 29 Donald S. Murakami and Howard F. Ostrout, Jr., Mount Auburn Cemetery (Cambridge, MA: Department of Landscape Architecture, Harvard University, 1976), 6. 30 Silent City 316 318.

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27 indulge 31 In a great instance of foreshadowing, 32 However, all good things must pass, and the success of the rural cemeteries led to their eventual downfall. They too became overcrowded, and many lacked the appropriate staff to keep the cemeteries in proper order. Maintenance was uneven, which was compounded by the fact that there was no uniformity between plots so it did not take long for many cemeteries to seem cluttered and unkempt. 33 But the real coup de grce for rural cemeteries were the immense casualties of the American Civil War, which destroyed much of the sentimentalism that had accompanied cemeteries and the Victorian culture; death was once again grotesque and tragic. 34 Public parks were beginning to be established in many large cities, and the monopoly that cemeteries had on the public space was being broken up. The cemeterie s had shown the popularity of public natural spaces, and designers acted accordingly. Fredrick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux designed Central Park in 1857, and borrowed many ideas from the rural cemeteries. 35 The Lawn Park Parks drew inspiration from the cemeteries, and following suit, the cemeteries looked to the new public parks for their next stage in development. The Landscape Lawn or Lawn Park movement came next (1855 1917). The movement was started by a landscape architect named Adolph Strauch who was well known for open designs 31 Rural Essays ed. George William Curtis (New York: Leavitt & Allen, 1857), 144. 32 Ibid. 33 Greene, 40. 34 Ibid. 35 Bender, 210

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28 using light, lawn, and large spaces. 36 Strauch wanted a landscape that would plot to plot in the rural cemeteries. 37 Cemeteries became un iform in landscaping and design, which included limiting the types of plantings, eliminating curbing and iron fencing around graves, eliminating footstones, and providing a standardized headstone (six inches off the ground). 38 The plants that were intended to imitate nature were removed and replaced with carefully designed gardens, and ornamentation was restricted. The care and maintenance of plots was taken out of the hands of the actual plot owners and placed with the cemeteries themselves, who were cons idered the experts and authorities. The unified look not only provided a certain aesthetic, but it also lowered costs dramatically. In 1883, lots at Mount Auburn were ranging from $225 a lot at Spring Grove (the first lawn park) ranged from $90 to $150. 39 The invention of the lawn mower by Edwin Budding in 1830, and subsequent developments to the technology facilitated a dramatic shift in cemetery maintenance. 40 The machines were paire d with new varieties of grass, a combination that made cemeteries both easier and cheaper to maintain. The Memorial Park The shift to our more current form of cemeteries, the Memorial Park, began in about 1900, when cremation was being revived as a popula r method of disposal 36 APT Bulletin 24, no. 3/4, Conse rving Historic Landscapes (1992): 54. 37 Ibid. 38 Cemetery of Spring Grove: Report for 1857 (Cincinnati, OH: C.F. Bradley & Co., 1857), 32. 39 Greene, 45. 40 Chicago Daily Tribune (Chicago, IL), May 10, 1957.

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29 because it was more affordable and also saved space. Columbariums, walls with nooks for cremation urns, and community mausoleums became more common at cemeteries throughout the country. Also at this time funeral homes and morticians began to assume the duties that went along with death and burials, which were traditionally performed by families. In 1915, designer J. J. Gordon advocated for flush headstones, and waxed standing in the office of some cemetery, even the most beautiful, and seeing the gleaming monuments, silent 41 He believed death should be undetectable in a cemetery, and that a more park like space was desirable. This caught on with attendants, because flat stones allowed for faster mowing and landscaping, and therefore reduced costs. Another impetus was that it was also more democratic for those interred; you would not be able identify someone s social status because all stones would be exactly the same. 42 This marginalization of death is perceived as a atmosphere of joy and wonder, although this is open for debate. 41 Greene, 54. 1 Measuring the Value of Culture: A Report to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (London: Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2010), 12

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30 CHAPTER 3 VALUE Mozart is Mozart because of his music and not because he created a tourist industry in Salzburg or gave his name to decadent chocolate and marzipan Saltzburger kugel. Picasso is important because he taught a century new ways of looking at objects and not because hi s painting in the Bilbao Guggenheim Museum are regenerating an otherwise derelict northern Spanish port. Van Gogh is valued because of the pain or intensity of his images and colours, and not because he made sunflowers and wooden chairs popular. Absolute q uality is paramount in attempting a valuation of the arts; all other factors are interesting, useful but secondary. 1 The above quote is poignant, but downplays the effects of influential people on society. Creating a tourist industry or making sunflowers popular may be secondary values, but they are still values that add to the context of our society and reflect the cultural tastes of different generations. It is these less obvious values that are more difficult to distinguish, but extremely important to understanding a heritage site. Heritage Anyone who has an interest in history and enjoys visiting historic sites is being lured there by among other things, provide the foundation for the interpretation of our heritage. We preserve and protect things because we believe they have value. We spend our time and money visiting places because we believe that value will provide compensation for any expense or inconvenience involved in gaining access to the site. However, that value but rather, many interpretive variations of the same events. 2 Often times these 1 Measuring the Value of Culture: A Report to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (London: Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2010), 12 2 The Public Historian 18, no. 2 (Spring, 1996): 9.

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31 variations, usually representing separate cultural or ethnic groups, are at odds with one These differing points of view must be taken into account when considering heritage and how it is communicated to others (i.e. tourists visiting a heritage site). This is important because, unfortunately, the personal account of the past by one individual cannot speak for the societal whole, and is not useful for gaining broad understanding of 3 But how do we determine these collective memories? From our contemporary vantage point we are able to analyze ho w images of the past reflect the politics and culture of a specific time in history. We can look at the style of dress, the artwork, literary work, and even the architectural artifacts, all of which reflect the values of the political and social context t hat created them. The United States celebrated the 100th anniversary of the American Civil War in 1961 at the height of the Civil Rights Movement, a mere seven years after the landmark Brown v. the Board of Education case, and still two years away from Dr which the nation celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Civil War versus how it chose to commemorate the 150th anniversary in 20 11 is particularly striking. In 1961, the heroism and the notion of the war as a fight between brothers was prominent, whereas the 2011 commemorations focused more on inclusiveness, and obtaining a bigger picture of the war by highlighting the stories of all the were involved, including women, 3 Ibid., 10.

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32 A frican Americans, Native A mericans, and immigrant groups. 4 These value reflections will, of course, vary drastically between different cultural, ethnic, and racial groups. f the past are remembered in common, 5 Few would argue with the sentiment that there is a big difference between an official history, that government agencies such as the military and the National Park Service give to maint ain the political status quo, and the history of the common man, which serves to strengthen the ties of family and local community. Due to this incongruity, there are multiple official histories as well as multiple vernacular histories. 6 These histories p rovide the context that must be considered when determining values, because in these multiple histories there are multiple, conflicting, values. What is Value? Values are the foundation of all interpretation and preservation projects. Interpretation is the primary medium through which the public becomes informed and involved with a site. 7 Since the survival of historic sites depend on this involvement, survival depend s on identifying the values associated with it. Thus, the first question importa nt guiding factors that should be considered in answering this question. First, 4 National Geographic News April 7, 2011, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/04/110407 civil war 150th anniversary fort sumter battle/ 5 Glassberg, 9. 6 Ibid ., 12. 7 Freeman Tilden, Interpreting our Heritage (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967), 32 33.

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33 8 A combination of values, which must be mapped out. One must consider values that may be relevant for certain groups of people and not for others. These values are often interlaced and may have complex relations with one another. This leads to the second p oint for consideration, that heritage values are contingent, not objectively given. 9 A value is not simply discovered and indelibly attached to a site for all time. When performing a value assessment, it is crucial to have a good understanding of the con text of the site. Mason 10 association with a changing context, values can ch ange an d develop through time. Market Values There are two main categories of values: use, or market values; and non use, or non market values. 11 The use values are those that are captured and recorded in the market, such as admission prices. These are fairly s traightforward and can be quantified, which makes them very desirable for government or private groups direct user interaction and questions of benefits (anything that in creases human well being) and costs (anything that decreases human well being). These are expressed using the economic concepts Willingness to Pay (WTP), paying for a benefit or for the 8 Assessing the Values of Cultural Herit age ed. Marta de la Torre (Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, 2002), 8. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid., 16. 11 Ibid., 13.

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34 avoidance of a cost; and Willingness to Accept (WTA), receiving compe nsation for accepting a cost or forgoing a benefit. 12 Some groups may choose to evaluate maintenance cost or use what is known as the Hedonic Pricing Method. This method assumes that the price of a house or site is associated with a bundle of characterist ics, which may include a listing on the National Register of Historic Places, whether a famous person lived at the site, if a historic event took place there, or if it was built by a notable architect. 13 These characteristics may be non market in nature, b ut they serve to produce a market value. Non Market Values In contrast, the non market values are usually determined by interviews, questionnaires, or surveys conducted with active or potential users. Investigations of non market value aim to capture t hree things: intrinsic values the individual experiences of heritage ; instrumental values which relate to social or economic aspects of heritage ; and institutional values which are the processes and techniques that an institution can use to create publi c value 14 To an extent, these surveys can be economic valuations as well, as one can determine how much an individual would be willing to spend or donate to protect a cherished heritage site. These non market quantifiable, and are therefore not typically captured by the market. Despite this, they are still imperative to understanding a site. Randall Mason groups such values conveniently into the following categories: 12 Assessing the Values of Cu ltural Heritage ed. Marta de la Torre (Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, 2002), 53. 13 Ibid., 54. 14 the Public Value of Heritage Conference, Royal Geographic Society, London, January 25 26, 2006), 1.

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35 Hist orical Spiritual Political Educational Aesthetic (in this case, referring to the sensory aspects of a site or artifact) Artistic 15 An may end with the determination of a market value. The results of such a study are mo re tangible, and more readily useful for local governments or businesses defending the existence of a property on the basis of its impact on the local economy through revenue generation or taxes. However, numbers that would result in this type of valuatio n process only show part of the picture. Yes, it is important that tourists may plan a vacation around a visit to a historic site, as those tourists then give patronage to local restaurants, shops, and inns. But in focusing solely on this economic value, the values that form the foundation of why the tourists are drawn to the site in the first place are ignored. They may even be downplayed as the primary draw to the site, with credit instead given to a recent advertising campaign instead of the sociocult ural values. Another reason that investigations may stop with market values is that, while there are several ways of obtaining non market values, there is currently no standardized or agreed upon method. While market and non market values are interrel ated, the process of determining market values for historic cemetery sites is beyond the scope of this investigation, which focuses on the sociocultural values of cemeteries. 15 Mason, 8.

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36 Determining Value Contingent Valuation Two forms of determining sociocultural value that are widely used are the Contingent Valuation Method (CV) and what is known as Choice Modeling (CM), although both options have their critics. 16 These both involve talking directly with stakeholders, and obtaining individual responses to questio ns. For a historic site, this direct feedback from people that use the resource is much more useful than trying to determine trends and correlations among visitors, and make assumptions as to the results of their experience. Instead, the CV and CM survey s can explain exactly how and why visitors are visiting a site. In a CV survey, non market values are assessed in a situation that simulates the real market. 17 This is done by asking the survey group their willingness to pay or willingness to accept cond itions, given certain scenarios with the heritage resource in question. For example, would they pay two dollars extra on admission to a historic cemetery if the admission included a special tour of the gardens and plantings and explained the symbolism of certain plants and flowers in cemeteries? Would they mind paying an extra twenty five cents per hour at all downtown parking meters if the extra funds were used exclusively to repair damaged headstones in a historic cemetery? The values that relate to a and can be assessed easily. One problem with this type of survey is that some people are uncomfortable with assigning a dollar value to heritage resources. They may be concerned that by 16 Ibid., 22. 17 Ibid.

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37 underv aluing a resource they will seem stingy, heartless, or not knowledgeable of appropriate costs. By overvaluing, they may be concerned with seeming disingenuous if they would not actually be willing to accept the cost in a real world situation, beyond the s commodified These omissions can skew data and create margins of error that render the results inconclusive. Choice Modeling In a CM survey, some of the shortcomings of the CV are r esolved. Instead of presenting a specific issue and addressing prices, subjects are given alternative descriptions about some aspect of the site or artifact in question, and are asked to either rank, rate, or choose: rank the various alternatives in order of preference, rate each alternative according to a preference scale, or choose their most preferred alternative out of the set. 18 An example would be: following in order of prefer ence for how this time will be spent: Take a guided tour of the cemetery that focuses on headstone artwork; Take a tour that relates the history of the city through visiting the graves of famous citizens; Take a tour that focuses on the plants and anima ls you may find in a cemetery; Take a self guided tour; Spend the time photographing headstones; Spend the time walking through in quiet reflection; 18 Mourato, 64.

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38 Although these are presented as two different meth ods for determining the values of a site, the best valuation assessment would include a combination of these methods. The Usual Suspects: The Large Scale Typologies Stewardship groups that operate on a national level, such as the National Park Service and English Heritage, have been created in many countries to help protect heritage resources. To aid in this process, the groups often provide a framework for defining values in relation to heritage sites. Due to the scope of resources being considered at a national level, the categories of value are intentionally broad and vague. This is helpful for drawing comparisons and grouping resources that are not directly similar with one another. While this intentional vagueness is beneficial on a large scale, it does not offer any practical use for an individual site. However, despite the nebulous definition of the larger typologies, they do provide a great starting point for developing a more refined framework as focus is narrowed to evaluate specific categories of sites, such as cemeteries. The National Register of Historic Places In the United States, the first step for many historic sites to increase their prominence, and opportunity for longevity, is inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, wh ich is maintained by the National Park Service under the U.S. Department of the Interior. For sites to be listed on the National Register, they must meet at least one requirement of a specific set of four criteria. These criteria are a cursory exploratio n into the values of a site. The criteria are as follows: Criterion A : Event A ssociation with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history, Criterion B : Person A ssociation with the lives of significant persons i n or past,

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39 Criterion C : Design/Construction E mbodiment of distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguis hable entity whose components may lack individual distinction, Criterion D : Information potential Yielding or likely to yield, information important in history or prehistory 19 However, cemeteries and individual graves are part of a special set of proper ties that need to meet requirements beyond these to be listed on the National Register. The National Park Service refers to these as Criteria Considerations, and they also apply to sits including religious properties, relocated structures, modern resource s (less than 50 years old), and resources that are commemorative in nature. The National Register has published bulletins for each of these types of resources to guide in the evaluation and listing process, and includes navigation through the Criteria Con siderations. Bulletin number 41 relates specifically to cemeteries and burial places. A final requirement set forth by the Criteria for Evaluation for all sites nominated to the National Register is that sites must retain historic integrity. There are s even factors of integrity that must be accounted for in the evaluation: location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. 20 Integrity is also affected by the accumulation of all non historic features on a site as well. 19 National Register Bulletin ( Washington, DC, 1997) 11 21. 20 National Register Bulletin (U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service) 41 (1992): 18

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40 Eng lish Heritage The Historic Building and Monuments Commission for England is a government group in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media, and Sport (DCMS), and is more commonly known as English Heritage. The group is tasked with protecting the historic resources of England. Studies in England have shown that there are four distinct values that cemeteries offer to modern visitors: historical, ecological, education, and leisure (or amenity). 21 Guided by these four values, English 2005, which is a guide to cemetery preservation and management. 22 The case for cemeteries in England as unique resources that garner special consideration (which could also apply to US cemeteries requiring Criteri warp, and have not been modified, adapted, overlaid, or even destroyed, as has so much else 23 Despite such studies by English Heritage, the DCMS published a re port in 2010, that market valuations should be focused on as the primary force in guiding valuation studies in the UK. 24 The report draws heavily from the Green Book prod uced by HM Treasury in 2003, which outlines advice on policy appraisal and evaluation using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). While the study does make a good outline of the nature of sociocultural values, it also seems to suggest that the processes for determ ining such 21 Ken Warpole, Cemeteries, Churchyards and Burial Grounds (London: Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, 2005), 5. 22 Roger Bowdler, Seamus Hanna, and Jenifer White, Paradise Preserved: An Introduction to the Assessme nt, Evaluation, Conservation and Management of Historic Cemeteries (London: English Heritage, 2007). 23 Warpole, 5. 24 Measuring the Value of Culture: A Report to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (London: Department for Culture, Med ia and Sport, 2010).

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41 values are plagued by confusion and ambiguity to the point of rendering their application to policy impractical. It falls back on the CBA methods of the Green Book and states that none of the methods for determining sociocultural value fit wit h the recommendations of the Green Book economics are the most useful for government decisions makers wishing to measure an d make judgments 25 Similar policy makers in the U.S. and other countries throughout the world would undoubtedly echo this sentiment, with its focus on the market value Interestingly, the preferre d method of valuation in the Green Book is the Contingent Valuation method, which Randall Mason highlighted as a good method for determining sociocultural values in his report for the Getty Institute. 26 The Burra Charter When the Inte rnational Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) met in Burra, South Australia in 1979, the Australian National Committee of ICOMOS was only three years old. The document that was produced in the meeting, The Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultur al Significance, otherwise known as the Burra Charter, provides guidelines for dealing with the heritage resources of the country as well as a code of ethics. The document serves as a benchmark in the preservation of heritage values for countries around t he world. 25 Ibid., 9. 26 Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage ed. Marta de la Torre (Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, 2002).

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42 The guidelines set forth in the Burra Charter have a particular resonance in Australia because many of the resources pertaining to the culture of the Aboriginal population are at risk. The Aboriginal Australians have no written language, so th e culture is passed down orally and through pictographs, and incorporates many natural and geological features in the landscape. Since an understanding of value is paramount to the preservation of these resources, Australia ICOMOS had an urgent need to pr understandin 27 Interviews, surveys, field documentation, and oral histories are recommended mediums for gathering input from stakeholders. Compliance with the Charter also requires that a cultural herita ge report be compiled before the implementation of a conservation policy on a site. The Charter suggests that professionals in all relevant disciplines should exclusively be responsible for an investigation into the cultural significance of a property or artifact. The Charter establishes four categories of values that are to be considered with their implications for past, present and future users. These categories are: aesthetic regarding aspects of sensory perception; historic regarding the influence by or on a historic figure, event, phase, or activity; scientific (or research ), regarding the rarity, quality or representativeness of the data involved and its ability to contribute more information; 27 Th e Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance 1999, (Burra, SA: Australian Committee of ICOMOS, 1979), 10.

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43 and social regarding the qualities for which a place h as become a focus of spiritual, political, national or other cultural sentiment to a majority or minority group. 28 Deriving relevant values for cemeteries from abstraction The concern of this investigation is the specific values associated with histori c cemeteries. As stated, the intentionally vague frameworks for categorizing value within the National Register, English Heritage, and the Burra Charter are helpful in comparing dissimilar heritage sites. However, these typologies are not focused enough to be used when considering specific groups of heritage sites. Through an analysis of interpretational programming at four historic cemeteries (Tolomato Cemetery, St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, Oakland Cemetery, and Mount Auburn) along with conversations with administrators of the stewardship groups at the four sites, a chart of suggested values, that seem to relate to all four historic cemeteries, is identified This new framework takes the concepts provided by the national stewardship groups out of abstract ion and provides a more focused list of values that is more appropriate for an individual historic cemetery. Still, all cemeteries are different. While this refined framework will not cover all values associated with all cemeteries, it will provide a ref ined framework of values to serve as a foundation for questionnaires and additional research that will identify the specific values associated with other cemetery sites A survey will serve as a sieve, for a more fine grained evaluation. In this way, the suggested set of cemetery values will serve as an investigative tool for historic cemeteries developing interpretational plans of their own. 28 Ibid., 12.

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44 Value in unexpected places The suggested list of cemetery values could be used to help inform an investig ation into the specific values of individual cemetery sites With a framework of values that relates directly to cemeteries, a stewardship group will have a direction when deciding what questions to ask in a survey to identify more specific values and dev elop It could also be a helpful tool in deciding what elements to focus on for tours and other interpretational programming. A survey process, utilizing the contingent valuation and choice modeling methods previously discussed, is necessary to determine specific values that are obvious, and others that are less obvious. The first a survey or questionnaire is vital, given that people may find value in unexpected aspects of a site. Randy Hester discovered in his survey for the town of Manteo, North Carolina that spaces in the community that were most valued by the citizens were not obvious or expected. When the community was seeking new development opportunities there was a fear that the local character and valued facets of day to day life in Manteo might be in buildings and spaces that exemplify and reinforce the lifestyles and rituals of life in the ir town, valued mostly in the subconscious of the community 29 Through the study, it was determined that locals valued certain locations for the ir role in community traditions such as where the Christmas tree was placed every year during the holidays, or t he post office parking lot where citizens congregated to catch up on local gossip. 30 29 Hester, 15 30 Ibid., 10.

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45 additional parking spaces for tourists, which may ease traffic congestion, or another r etail store that would generate money and jobs for the community. Surprisingly, only two places identified in the Sacred Structure were in areas where historic resources were afforded legal protection. 31 Similarly surprising results were found in a stud y in the UK regarding if people agreed that museums should be allowed to display human remains. Amid speculation of the impropriety of such treatment, particularly within the Anglican faith, a survey commissioned by English Heritage in 2009 showed that 91 % of respondents agreed that remains should be displayed. 32 Other questions indicated that many of those surveyed also felt that the remains should be at least 100 years old, and that the identity of the individual should be unknown. Why Interpretatio n? Funding The values identified in the analysis of the four cemeteries could also help inform and provide suggestions for other cemetery sites that wish to develop interpretive programming. This begs the question as to why interpretation is needed at h istoric two reasons. The first is that interpretation can provide the opportunity for funding that is needed to ensure the survival of a site. Preservation project s, as well as general maintenance, are necessary. Active cemeteries may not have this issue, as the fees charged for burial at the site are used for maintenance and upkeep. However, most 31 Ibid., 15. 32 Conservation Bulletin 66, The Heritage of Death (Summer 2011): 12.

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46 historic cemeteries are not active and therefore have no such reven ue stream. Natural processes alone are enough to cause the deterioration and breakdown of historic headstones, but the impact of human traffic in a historic cemetery also takes massive tolls. The need for preservation and maintenance will be inevitable a nd interpretive programming should fund it. Angie Green, executive director of Save Our Cemeteries, explains this : The biggest difference [between cemeteries and other heritage sites] is that cemetery property (usually) stops being an economic performer o nce it's gotten to the point where it's historic or culturally significant. The cemetery owner/operator/municipality has a liability on the books that probably never will become a moneymaker...so turning it into a cultural/heritage destination is pretty mu ch the only way to use the economics of historic preservation in your favor. 33 Relevance The second reason is that interpretation is needed to keep the site relevant in the context of the local community. Freeman Tilden provides us with the proverb li ke 34 If the site is left out when the local history is told, then there is a risk that people will forget why it is important, and wh at it represents to the local heritage. People will know that it is an old cemetery, with old stones and old Although it may sound like an oversimplification, perhaps the most important goal of the in terpretational programs, shared by all the cemeteries under analysis, is to tell need to come 33 Angie Green, e mail message to the author, October 23, 2011. 34 Freeman Tilden, Interpreting our Heritage (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967), 38.

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47 35 Visitors need to know that that the interpretation and the information the cemetery can provide them is essential to their understanding of the city. For Moore, a tour which highlights the elements of why the site is important in the context of the surrounding community and in the context of national history should be developed as a foundational tour that can be given to the guests once they are in the cemetery. After this is accomplished, specialty tours should be developed as supple mental to the standard tour, and stories are the foundation of these specialty tours: stories about the individuals, events, symbols, materials, and the ecosystem of the space that explains why the cemetery is the way it appears in present times. These st ories help to focus and clarify certain aspects of the cemetery out of the abstraction of the general tour. media, echoes this sentiment when asked why a cemetery should engage the p ublic 36 Given the way in which guides are chosen at St. Louis No. 1, it is clear that stories are certainly encouraged. Most of these guides selected end up being academics and performers, and the stories and personal anecdotes help to personalize the site and make it relevant to visitors. A quick look at the specialty tours listed at Mount Auburn will confirm that many are indeed the stories of particular incidents or individuals associated with the cemetery Elizabeth Gessner, President of the Tolomato Cemetery Preservation Association, described Tolomato as, to mid 19th century site that has a remarkable concentration of the stories of many of the people who lived through and carried out the t ransition of St. Augustine from Spanish colony to US state, and then moved through the Civil War into what was 35 David Moore, personal conversation with author, October 7, 2011. 36 Chad Elkins, personal conversation with author, August 5, 2011.

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48 37 Gessner also identified the stories and personalities of those buried at Tolomato, along with an wishes to impart to visitors. Interpretation as Marketing Interpreting Our Heritage It is in the telling of stories that brings u s to the nexus between interpretation and marketing for a historic site. As previously stated, this study has a strong focus interpretational programming and the values that are experienced and communicated to guests as part of an on site experience which provide an unparalleled understanding of the site in the context of the local history. Interpretation brings people to the site, and their participation in this on site programming justifies the cost of admission, or the price for a specialty tour. With out this source of revenue, historic cemeteries would struggle mightily to fund the maintenance and preservation projects that ensure the perpetuity of the site. In this light, interpretation can be directly responsible for the survival of a historic ceme tery site. Marketing for a site makes the promise that guests will leave with the stories that give a fuller understanding of the cemetery, and by extension, the city in which in which it resides, and the nation. Interpretation can serve to actually del iver on that promise. Freeman Tilden, considered to be the Father of Interpretation for the National Park Service, outlined a framework in Interpreting Our Heritage for creating a successful interpretational program: 37 Elizabeth Gessner, personal conversation with author, September 1, 2011.

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49 A ny int erpretation that does not somehow relate what is being displayed or described to something within the personality or experience of the visitor will be sterile. Raw material and its product Information, as such is not interpretation. Interpretation is rev elation based upon information, but they are entirely different things. However, all interpretation includes information. Interpretation is an art, which combines many arts, whether materials presented are scientific, historical, or architectural. Not instruction but provocation The chief aim of interpretation is not instruction, but provocation. Toward a perfect whole Interpretation should aim to present a whole rather than a part, and must address itself to the whole man rather t han any phase. For the younger mind Interpretation addressed to children should not be a dilution of the presentation to adults, but should follow a fundamentally different approach 38 Made to Stick This framework obviously creates a very clear path for developing an interpretive program, and it is one that the National Park Service has been using with great list profiled in the book Made to Stick by Chip and Da n Heath. The Heath brothers wrote Made to Stick to aid teachers, non profits, and marketing groups in sculpting their 38 Tilden, 9.

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50 nutshell, the list showcases how to make an idea mor e marketable. Like Tilden, the Heath brothers create a framework to guide the process that includes six guiding points: Simplicity I dentifying the essential core of an idea. Unexpectedness V C oncreteness M aking ideas clear by explaining them in terms of human actions and in terms of sensory information. Credibility I dentifying how to make people believe the ideas. Emotional G etting people to care about ideas by making them feel something for them. Stories T elling stories so people will act on the ideas 39 The two lists correspond thusly: Raw material and its product: Simplicity Not instruction but provocation: Unexpectedness Toward a perfect whole: Concreteness For the younger mind: N/A considering Tilden had worked with interpretation through National Park Rangers, whose credibility is implied. Es sentially, this list illustrates the correlation between the interpretation and the marketing of a site, with both the processes and the goals (understanding and funding) being similar. This, perhaps, shows that heritage sites planning on developing inter pretive programming need to also consider researching marketing strategies (Made to Stick, et al.), and understanding that interpretation is not only for the benefit of the guest, it is for the benefit of the site as well As mentioned, 39 Chip Heath and Dan Heath, Made To Stick ( New York, NY: Random House, 2007), 16 18.

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51 interpretation fun ds preservation projects. Using the insights from the Heath brothers, aspects of a site that patrons value, the marketing framework illustrated by the Heath brothers se eks to tap into the values of those who are experiencing resource. This is the groundwork for taking values that have been identified for sites, and translating them into programming and interpretation for visitors. This is something that would be helpfu l for other cemeteries to investigate if they are seeking to develop their own on site interpretation. Summary Values inform as to why sites and artifacts are important, and how they related to the context of the local and national history. For historic cemetery sites are valued for a number of different reasons by a number of different people, but these values must first be identified so they can be presented in the best way to visitors. This identification is the first step in developing any interpreta tional programming or preservation plan at a historic cemetery. Since interpretation is an important way to raise revenue to fund preservation programs at cemeteries, the values will be essential in providing the foundation for interpretational programmin g. In the following chapter, four case studies will be presented and compared to identify common values that seem to relate to the four cemetery sites. By comparing the on site interpretational programming, as well insights from personal conversations wi groups, a list of suggested cemetery values, as well as a list of important programming considerations which affect an on site visit to the cemetery sites are identified. Other cemetery sites throughout the U.S likely share these values and considerations.

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52 CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDIES The larger typologies for value that heritage sites use as a guid e, such as English Heritage, the Burra Charter, and the National Register are intentionally vague and are not specif ic enough to be functional to an individual site. A more focused typology is needed for historic cemeteries to conduct informed valuation studies to ide ntify specific values on a case by case basis, and also as an aid to develop interpretational programmi ng. A common set of values and programming considerations that is seemingly shared by the case studies is identified by comparing the on site interpretive programming of four historic cemeteries, along with insights gathered from personal conversations wi th administrative members of the cemetery stewardship groups. Elements relating to programming that are shared by all four cemeteries are also considered in the analysis, and include: stakeholders, National Register inclusion, non profit status, safety, c ommunity partnerships, and membership organizations. The value set that is identified is a suggestion on what values are shared by similar historic cemeteries, and will possibly provide a more focused framework to assess the specific values at other cemet eries. The values and considerations are both based off a visitor having an on site experience. By providing a basis for the investigation into the specific values of cemetery sites, the suggested set of cemetery values and considerations can help inform and inspire efforts to interpret and preserve other historic cemeteries. Criteria Four cemeteries were selected for analysis for the study: Tolomato Cemetery, in St. Augustine, Florida St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, in New Orleans, Louisiana Mount Auburn Ce metery, in Cambridge, Massachusetts

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53 Oakland Cemetery, in Atlanta, Georgia Although the sample group of cemeteries is small, they were chosen because they represented a range of variables, based of a specific set of criteria. Geographic range T he cemete ries cover a relatively large area of distribution in the Eastern U.S. However, one limited presented with this is that three of the four cemeteries are located in the Southern U.S. Age and cemetery type range T he cemeteries were established in periods r anging from the colonial period to the mid 19th century. As a result of this, two of the cemeteries (Tolomato and St. Louis No. 1) are smaller church owned graveyards located in the downtowns of their respective cities, whereas the other two are much larg Historic materials range B ecause of the range in age, the cemeteries encapsulate a large range of historic material, and showcase memorial and funerary art traditions that spa n centuries and highlight their development through time. Programming development range A ll cemeteries in the study have active stewardship groups in place that are responsible for coordinating both interpretational programming and preservation efforts. However, t he cemeteries are all at a different stage in the development of the ir interpretational programming. T here seem to be correlations between different criteria that define this. The larger, Rural Cemeteries offer more interpretive programming, and the larger cemeteries are also younger than their church owned counterparts. Therefore, it appears that in the context of this study, there is a direct correlation between the age of a cemetery and the scope of interpretational programming that is off ered at the site. Although Tolomato Cemetery is

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54 the least developed of the four cemeteries, it was included in the study because it is not stagnant in its development and is striving to grow in what programming is offered at the site. Due to this this, i t represents a small cemetery with limited offerings that is working to grow A chart was produced (Table 4 1) which lists the basic information of each cemetery and the range of interpretive programs offered at each. The focus of the programming identi fied in the chart relates to an on site visit to the respective cemeteries, and does not account for other resources that can be accessed off site, such as through a cemeteries website. The interpretational programming on the chart appears skewed because of the different stages in development between the programs at each cemetery. The disparity in programming also corresponds with the size of the cemetery in question. Tolomato and St. Louis No. 1 (both occupying less than one acre each) offer one general tour. Mount Auburn and Oakland offer a number of specialty tours in addition to a standard tour. With the tours and interpretive opportunities presented for comparison, the themes and values that are shared by the cemeteries are identified.

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55 Table 4 1. Overview of case studies, comparing Tolomato, St. Louis No. 1, Oakland, and Mount Auburn Cemeteries Comparative Criteria Oakland Mt. Auburn Tolomato St. Louis No. 1 Year Est. renamed Oakland in 1872 1831 Used as a Mission site as early as 1726, officially used as Catholic burial ground in 1777. Last burial in 1884 1789 Type Rural Rural/Memory Garden Church Church Management Municipally Owned (City of Atlanta) Privately Owned Cathedral Basilica of St. Augusti ne Archdiocese of New Orleans Active Current lot owners have the option of selling lots for burials Yes No Yes, less than 12 internments per year Location East of downtown Atlanta, GA West of urban Cambridge, MA Downtown area, St. Augustine, FL Bo rders French Quarter and residential neighborhood in New Orleans, LA

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56 Table 4 1. Continued Comparative Criteria Oakland Mt. Auburn Tolomato St. Louis No. 1 No. of Visitors per Year 20,000+ 20,000+ 500+ 6,000 (paying guests) Tours 1 standard tour (1 .5 hrs. ) and 15 specialty topic hour) 3 self guided tours (1 is driving tour) advanced reservations for guided group tours Self guided and guided tours available 3rd Saturday of every month, 11am 3pm SOC offers guided tours that give gen eral history and specific interest of guides (1.5 hrs. ) Special Events 4 per year (3 of which are in October) private rentals are also available Numerous events per month, including specialty tours, lectures or forums Currently, events are only offere d to TCPA members (lectures, specialty tours) 4 public lectures, 1 public seminar/training day, the Metairie Race, All Saints Day Celebration, also All Saints Day Masquerade Fundraiser Hours Every Day, 8am 8pm 8am 5pm Oct April, 8am 7pm May August 3rd Saturday of every month, 11am 3pm 7 am 2:30pm M F, 7am 12pm Sat

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57 Table 4 1. Continued Comparative Criteria Oakland Mt. Auburn Tolomato St. Louis No. 1 Fees Self guided tours and access is free. All guided tours are $10 for adults, $5 for children, students, and seniors. Free for members Free for general access. Fee for self guided tours and for specialty tours. The cost for special events varies. Free, donations encouraged $12 for adults, free for children under 12 Size 88 acres/70,000 buri als 175 acres/ 93,000+ burials 170 ft. x 170 ft. 1,000 burials Slightly less than 1 acre, 10,000 burials

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58 Tolomato Cemetery Location Tolomato Cemetery is located in the historic downtown area of St. Augustine, Florida. The main entrance is on Cordova St reet, near the intersection with Orange Street. Before it was filled in in the late 19th century, Cordova Street was the Maria Sanchez Creek, and it marked the western boundary of the colonial city. Tolomato originally would have sat just outside of the walled city. Cordova Street is the main two way street for tourists driving between the visitor center and parking garage, on the north end of the historic downtown, and the Plaza de la Constitucin, which was the center of the historic city. The wooden crosses that once filled the cemetery have all rotted away, leaving just over 100 vaults and headstones on the 170 feet by 170 feet square lot to represent the estimated 1,000 burials at the site. History Tolomato Cemetery was not the original cemetery for the Spanish citizens in colonial St. Augustine. Originally a Franciscan mission named Our Lady of Guadeloupe of the Tolomato sat on the land that is now the cemetery, which at the time was just outside the walls of the city proper. The village was estab lished for refugees of Tolomato Indians, from the Guale region (in coastal southeast Georgia). The natives were displaced in the wake of a British slave raid led by English Colonel James Moore on the Spanish mission sites of that area in 1702, and forced to retreat closer to the safety of the garrison at St. Augustine. 1 There would have been a cemetery associated with the mission chapel for the members of the mission, so this time period, between 1 Jerald T. Milanich, The Timucua (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, Ltd., 1996), 286.

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59 1720 and 1763, is the earliest incarnation of the site bein g partly used as a cemetery. 2 When the British gained control of Florida from the Spanish in 1763, the site was abandoned. In 1777, a group of roughly 600 Greek, Italian, Minorcan and Corsican indentured servants (collectively identified as the Minorcan s) from a failed indigo plantation in New Smyrna arrived at the city gates, seeking sanctuary. They were permitted to stay (Minorca fell under British control with the same treaty that had awarded them East and West Florida), and Dr. Pedro Camps, the Mino Tolomato mission site as a cemetery for the Catholic refugees from Governor Patrick Tonyn. 3 When the British evacuated Florida following American victory in the Revolutionary War, the Minorcans stayed, and the Spanish ret urned 1784. They discovered the active Catholic cemetery used by the Minorcans and so Tolomato Tolomato the oldest extant planned cemetery in the United States. 4 The many of the names that appear in Tolomato are those of the early Minorcan families and the site remains an important part of the heritage of their descendants, many of whom are still living in St. Augustine area to this day. When Florida was ceded to the Unit ed States in 1821, the Public Cemetery (today known as the Huguenot Cemetery) was established to accommodate the influx of regarding health and sanitation as the 19th centu ry wore on, and the last official burial 2 nell University, 2010), 5. 3 article), 2. 4 Ibid., 3.

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60 took place in 1884, after which San Lorenzo Cemetery was established on the outskirts of the city. 5 Tolomato Cemetery languished with periodic surges in interest and attempts at prese rvation, but time took its toll and many of the markers are in need of repair. The interpretation provided at Tolomato aims to raise the funds to preserve the deteriorating graves. Operation The Cathedral Basilica of St. Augustine currently manages Tolomato with mowing and most gener al maintenance performed by parish employees. Management was transferred to the Cathedral Basilica from the Diocese of St. Augustine in 2004. Stewardship G roup In August of 2010, following a conditions assessment and the drafting of a preservation plan fo r the cemetery by Cornell University graduate student Matthew Kear, the Tolomato Cemetery Preservation Association (TCPA) was established to facilitate the preservation and interpretation of the cemetery. 6 Kear identified the physical preservation issues that needed to be addressed at the site, documenting the condition of each stone in the cemetery and making recommendations as to t heir preservation. He made the suggestion of establishing the TCPA to facilitate the preservation of the site, and to reliev e the Cathedral Basilica from the financial burden of managing Tolomato. On the issue of interpretation, Kear made suggestions as to how the TCPA should reach out the community: promote the cemetery, offer interpretational activities, offer educational op portunities, network with local groups and 5 Kear, 17. 6 stine,

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61 businesses, become an active member of the local heritage community, and fundraise. 7 However, as the main focus of his study was addressing preservation concerns, outlining exactly what these aspects, including i nterpretation, should focus on was outside the scope of his study. He laid the groundwork for the first step, the creation of the TCPA, but it was up to the group to determine what interpretation they would provide at the site. Until the organization of the TCPA, the cemetery was only accessible to the public on days when the groundskeeper was tending the site, and only sparse signage offered any interpretation. The TCPA is an entirely volunteer run not for profit group, and is currently in the process o f obtaining official 501(c)3 status. The group has undertaken several minor stabilization and preservation projects, funded by donations from tours and membership dues. The main goals of the TCPA are interpreting the cemetery site, fostering a deeper un derstanding of the culturally diverse preservation abroad. Tours Currently, the TCPA offers guided and self guided tours at Tolomato on the third Saturday of every m onth from 11 a.m. until 3 p.m. Because of limited financial resources, the TCPA can only advertise the tour using free online resources including a website, blog, and Facebook account. The tour is given free of charge, although a donation is suggested. A TCPA docent leads guided tours, while self guided tours are navigated using a These stations are also the points in which the 7 Kear, 103.

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62 statio ns cover the following topics: the Tolomato Indian village and Spanish mission system in La Florida, the Minorcan refugees who arrived in 1777, grave robbing (which bot h graves of Confederate soldiers and the graves of free African Americans who served with the U. S. Colored Troops, devastating epidemics, changes to the cemetery during the Gilded Age, and the graves of several pastors and a bishop which outline the Catho lic history in early Florida. Although the TCPA does not offer a paranormal tour, it is undeniable that there are people who are initially drawn to the site with paranormal interests. The gates of the cemetery are a regular stop on the nightly walking gho st tours in the city. Although the stories are complete fabrications for the most part, there is no denial that many visitors to St. Augustine are interested in the topic of the paranormal. Regardless of whether there is an emotional investment in the to pic or if the interest stems mostly from its entertainment potential, this is the context in which many visitors first encounter the cemetery, and as such, it cannot be overlooked as an associated aspect of the site. The TCPA has distanced itself from thi s subject, as it is seen as an impediment to understanding and appreciating the factual history of the site, as well as being disrespectful to the dead in Tolomato. Identified Values and Programming Considerations Through analysis of the aspects o f the site, and its interpretational programming, highlighted above, the following potential values are identified: History Art

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63 People/Stories Preservation Sacred/Spiritual Supernatural The following programming considerations were also identified: Econo mics Security Location Independent experience (identified because a self guided tour is offered)

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64 Table 4 2. Interpretational programs at Tolomato Cemetery Standard Tours (3rd Saturday of every month) Specialty Tours Special Events Speakers Other Gui ded Tour, ten stations which highlight specific areas of cemetery N/A free N/A N/A Self Guided Tour, using map outlining same ten stations as guided tour

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65 St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 Location St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 is in the hi storic downtown area of New Orleans, Louisiana. One wall of the cemetery borders the historic French Quarter, while residential housing surrounds the rest It is square lot bounded by Basin, St. Louis, Conti, and Treme Streets. The site is less than one acre, although it was originally a bit larger before Basin St. and Treme St. were cut through in the early 19th century. History cemetery in colonial New Orleans, it is the o ldest remaining cemetery in the city today. Because the city of New Orleans sits below sea level and the ground is very swampy, digging graves for the deceased was problematic from the beginning. The designers of St. Louis No. 1 overcame these unique cha llenges by creating above ground tombs to house individuals and families. Originally, these tombs were created from locally made, soft bricks that were plastered and whitewashed. 8 In the mid 1800s some elegant marble vaults began to be introduced to the cemetery. Local masons and architects built most of the brick and marble tombs in the cemetery The neo classical style is the most common throughout the vaults at the cemetery, although some vaults from later in the 19th century (mainly those made of ma rble) show elements of the Romantic revival style. Although it is a Catholic cemetery today, there was originally a Protestant section in the rear of the lot, with Catholic and Protestant sections occupying about 300 square 8 National Register of Historic Places, St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 New Orleans, Orleans County, Louisiana, National Register #75000855, 2.

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66 feet each. 9 However, when Trem e St. was cut through the back of the cemetery in 1822, the Protestant burials were moved to the Girod St. Cemetery. St. Louis has been in continuous use and occupation since it was first opened which makes for a large and active descendant population at the site, and religious holidays (such as All Souls Day) draw many local visitors through the gates. Among the locally and nationally significant artists, politicians, poets, voodoo queens, and aristocrats buried in St. Louis are also the remains of soldi ers from the Revolutionary War, the 1814 war against the British, the Civil War, Vietnam War, and remains of soldiers from current conflicts in the Middle East. Perhaps the ambience of the cemetery that contemporary visitors seek out is best evoked by Sav unusual character of the tombs, the legends surrounding the historical figures who occupy them, and the aura of the romantic Louisiana past, have been the basis of much literature on 10 Operation Official ownership of St. Louis No. 1 falls to the Archdiocese of New Orleans. The Archdiocese was responsible for unwittingly catalyzing the cemetery preservation movement: After they announced plans to d emolish and replace the historic wall vaults enclosing St. Louis No. 2 with a chain link fence, local preservationists, historians, and descendants, rallied to protect the historic cemeteries of New Orleans. 11 The stewardship group Save Our Cemeteries was formed and many of the sites were listed 9 Wilson, 7. 10 National Register, St. Loui s 3. 11 Save Our Cemeteries accessed 10/24/2011, www.saveourcemeteries.org/mission history/

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67 currently represents one of Save Our Cemeteries greatest partnerships in local cemetery preservation. Stewardship G rou p The group that is responsible for the interpretation of St. Louis No.1 is the non profit Save Our Cemeteries. The group was formed in 1974 in response to a threat to St. Louis Cemetery No. 2 and has since racked up a list of preservation accolades while serving as a model to other cemetery preservation groups throughout the nation. Save Our Cemeteries is actually responsible for the stewardship of all 31 historic cemeteries in New Orleans, although preservation efforts are focused on cemeteries that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, or eligible for listing. Of the four cemeteries being analyzed, Save Our Cemeteries is the only group with a primary focus on preservation. The interpretational tours, along with private donations, fun draising events, and memberships with Save Our Cemeteries, help to generate revenue for these efforts. Tours The cemetery is open to the public free of charge, and other private tour companies in New Orleans offer tours through the cemetery. However, Sav e Our Cemeteries is the only non profit group offering tours, and the only one dedicated to the preservation of the cemeteries of New Orleans. The tours are currently offered on Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday, lasting one and a half hours, and co sting

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68 docents who guide the tours are all unpaid volunteers, 90% of each tour admission goes directly to preservation funding. 12 Perhaps because of the dedication to funding preservation, Save Our Cemeteries is also unique in the way tour guides are selected. The group selects its guides based on the amount of research they have conducted, or how learned they are on the subject of the cemetery. They are also preferre d to have a specialty area of interest on which they can impart to guests on the tour. 13 These docents are encouraged to be constantly researching and learning more about the site. While guides at most historic sites are encouraged to bring personal anec dotes and research to their tours, they typically work within the framework of a scripted tour. With Save Our Cemeteries, the docents create the tours, which places a great deal of responsibility with the guides but also fosters a deep emotional and intel lectual investment in the site. 14 This also ensures that each tour is unique, driven by the idiosyncrasies of individual guides, which encourages repeat visits as guests know they will learn something new each time, without the fear that they are receivin simultaneously in St. Louis No.1. Since it is impossible for two tours to occupy the same space, each guide must be able to expand their tour based on the graves in the area that they are currently in, w ith the possibility that they may not be able to travel to all spaces if they are occupied. 12 Save Our Cemeteries accessed 10/24/2011, www.saveourcemeteries.org/st louis cemetery no 1 tour/ 13 Angie Green, personal conversation with author, October 12, 2011. 14 Ibid.

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69 Identified Values And Programming Considerations An important thing to understand about St. Louis No. 1 is that the sanctity of the cemetery, because it is still ac tive, is very important to the fabric of the local community. The vaults in the cemetery contain the remains of many individuals, who share a common placard or ledger, which lists the names of those entombed. The community sees these vaults as a very tan gible connection between generations of families. Because all of the family is interred together and allowed to decay into dust together, the visits to the vaults are to remember all the family together; there is no veneration to a particular individual i n the cemetery. 15 This allows for a much closer connection between family members who are deceased and those who are living, and for the locals, also serves to make the cemeteries less macabre. s makes the tour difficult to classify in terms of values exhibited in the interpretation. While one tour guide may choose to highlight the practice and tendency to romanticize voodoo in New Orleans history and its manifestations in the cemetery, another may highlight the artwork on the tombs, and another on famous interments. However, as active preservation is practically constant in the historic cemetery, such work provides a perfect vignette for tour guides. Preservation, as the primary goal of Save O ur Cemeteries, is always discussed. 16 Through analysis of the aspects of the site, and its interpretational programming, highlighted above, the following potential values are identified: History Art 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid.

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70 People/Stories Preservation Sacred/Spiritual Supernatura l The following programming considerations were also identified: Economics Security Location Education (focus given with lecture series and school tours)

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71 Table 4 3. Interpretational programs at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 Standard Tour Spe cialty Tour Special Events Speakers Other Tours given by hired guides each guide creates his/her own tour N/A Metairie Cemetery 5k Race and fundraiser, 11/13 4 public lectures a year, free, depending on the venue Schoo l Tours All Saints Day religious celebration at cemetery, 11/1 free Light All Saints Soiree masquerade dance and fundraiser, 11/13, $55 members, $65 non members discussion of Paula Lecture North & South Louisiana

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72 Table 4 3. Continued Standard Tour Specialty Tour Special Events Speakers Other Funeral Service, Burial Preparations, and the Dynamics of Gri investigation of the Original St. Peter

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73 Mount Auburn Cemetery Location Mount Auburn is a nondenominational cemetery that spans the border of Watertown and Cambridge in Massachusetts. The original 72 acr e lot purchased by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1831 was expanded with the purchase of surrounding land during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to its present size of 175 acres. 17 The cemetery sits on the bluffs above the Charles River directly west of Cambridge, and only two miles away from the Harvard University campus. It is bounded by Mount Auburn St., Coolidge Ave., Grove St., Cottage St., and the Sand Banks Cemetery. Because the cemetery was designed as a Rural Cemetery, it nat urally appeared on the outskirts of the urban Boston area. Though it not terribly far to drive to the cemetery, it is not part of immediate Boston or Cambridge experience. One must make a point to travel there for a visit, as it is not within walking dis tance. History In addition to being the first rural cemetery in the United States, Mount Auburn also holds the distinction as being the catalyst for the greater Rural Cemetery Movement that spread throughout the entire nation, as well as the forebear of our public parks. The history and role of Mount Auburn in cemetery development was discussed S (page 25). After cremation gained popularity starting in the 20th century, Mount Auburn began allo cating space for the interring cremated remains. Another element of note for Mount Auburn is the impressive horticultural collection on site. About 6,000 trees share the cemetery with 17 National Register of Historic Places, Mou nt Auburn Cemetery Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, National Register #75000254, 19.

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74 the dead, with 600 varieties and 75 genera having been recorded (and l abeled for the benefit of visitors), as well as about 250 species of shrubs and ground covers 18 Having this vast diversity in trees and other plantings was essential to achieve the bucolic atmosphere of a rural cemetery. Time wore on and urban centers c ontinued to sprawl into the hinterland, and b y the mid 20th century the maintenance of public parks began to wane. haven from the city, and bird watching became popular as well. 19 O peration From its creation in 1831, Mount Auburn has been a privately owned cemetery. In addition, it has also been continuously active. This means that the cemetery can be advertising for its services while also providing interpretation to the site. Mo ney that is budgeted toward advertising for the company also benefits the interpretational programming and expands the visibility of the cemetery with a lower cost to the stewardship group. Stewardship G roup As the cemetery was a tourist attraction since i ts inception, there have been constant efforts to interpret the site. The Friends of Mount Auburn group was established in 1986 to focus on the preservation of the historic cemetery. In 1990 the Friends group was declared a non profit educational trust, and were instrumental in getting the site designated as a National Historic Landmark in 2003. While they do fund numerous preservation projects at the cemetery, the on site interpretation, specialty programs, and lectures clearly demand the primary focus of the group. 18 Ibid., 12. 19 Ibid., 24.

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75 Tours The Friends of Mount Auburn offer a self guided tour as well as numerous specialty guided tours. The cemetery is open for free to guests who do not wish to partake in the tours. These guests include tourists as well as locals. Be ing a Rural Cemetery, there are many winding paths through the cemetery, passing the beautiful funerary art, as well as magnificent trees and flowerbeds. This is an ideal place for local joggers to come for a run, or for others wishing to take a walk thro ugh an oasis and escape the urban Boston landscape. For visitors who are interested in the tours, an informational brochure, an audio walking tour, and a driving audio tour are all available, with both audio tours costing $7.00 to rent or $15.00 to purcha se. There are also specialty guided tours offered throughout the year, costing $5.00 for members and $10.00 for non members. Certain tours are seasonally specific, such as a fall foliage tour and tours focusing on migratory birds in the fall and spring ( see Table 4 1). The group also offers public lectures, many of which are free, ranging from topics such as preservation, Civil War history, medicinal plants, and end life counseling. In addition there are workshops, preservation demonstrations, and a mo nthly book club. Most special events are $10.00 for members and $15.00 for non members, although some events are free. A full list of these programs can be se en in Table 4 4 While Mount Auburn has an incredible multitude of tours compared to the other cemeteries in the case study, there are specific tours that are more popular and well attended than others. with monuments, history, and art, are consistently well attended throug hout the year, as

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76 20 Private group tours can also be scheduled at Mount Auburn, and it is quite telling that these almost always focus on horticulture or birding. 21 Identified Values and Programming Considerations The Friends of Mount Auburn identify areas of value as a navigational aspect of their website, which includes History, People, Plants, Art, and Wildlife. A calendar of events produced by the Friend s of Mount Auburn twice a year also groups specialty tours and events into the following categories (expanding slightly from the website): History, People, Horticulture, Wildlife, Art Family Oriented Programs, and Preservation. Through analysis of the aspe cts of the site, and its interpretational programming, highlighted above, the following values are identified: History Art People/Stories Preservation Spiritual/Sacred (because the cemetery is still active) Nature The following programming considerations were also identified: Economics Security Education (focus given with school tours and lecture programs) Independent experience (because a self guided tour is offered) 20 Stephanie Messina, External Affairs Department Assistant, Mount Auburn Cemetery, e mail message to the author, December 5, 2011. 21 Ibid.

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77 Table 4 4. Interpretational programs at Mount Auburn Cemetery Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Specialty Tours, ($5 members, $10 non members) Special Events Speakers Others Sweet Auburn 75 min. Self Guided Audio Tour, $7 rental, $15 purchase Discover Mount Auburn Monthly Walking Tour Eyes on Owls identifying owls in NE, including live ow ls, 2/18, $8 members, $12 non members Green Burials at Mount Auburn, 1/14, 7/26, free School Tours Changing Tastes 75 min. Self Guided Audio Tour, $7 rental, $15 purchase Cherubs & Angels tour about ornamentation, exploring the grounds, 1/8 Longfel low Birthday Celebration annual day long event, 2/25, free free, Private Guided Tours Reflections 1 hour Self Guided driving tour, $7 rental, $15 purchase Clever Evergreens searching for green in the winter months, 2/5 Charles River Cleanup Earth Day event, 4/16, free Garden Spaces & Interment Gardens, 1/19, free Mt. Auburn Book Club Meetings, monthly meetings, free Symbols of Passage ornamentation tour, 3/17 Rocks and Minerals family event, the ro cks/minerals that make up the sculptures/monuments of the cemetery, 4/20, $10 members, $15 non members Beautiful Types: Transcendentalism at Mt. Auburn, 1/28, $5 members, $10 non members Tree & Shrub Pruning Workshop, 3/13, $10 members, $15 non members

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78 Table 4 4. Continued Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Specialty Tours, ($5 members, $10 non members) Special Events Speakers Others Winter Tree and Shrub Identification and Signs of Spring, 3/21 Coffeehouse & Open Mic 4/28, free Greening the Gr eenhouse, 2/23, free Good Bugs for Bad Bugs Workshop keeping plants healthy organically, 3/24, 4/9, $5 members, $10 non members Forgotten Nobility walking tour, 4/10, What Lives in the Dell? Family event, Video and walk to witness annual salamander migration, and other reptiles and amphibians, 5/5, $10 members, $15 non members Fervent Spirits Abolitionists in the Civil War talk, 3/3, $5 members, $10 non members Docent Training, 3/27 29, free Plants from the Bible, 4/17 Virt uosity at Mt Auburn May Concert, 5/7, $10 members, $15 non members A 21st Century Vision how Mt Auburn changed the way Americans thought about landscape/nature, free Bird Photography Workshop, 4/21, 4/23, $10 members, $15 non members

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79 Table 4 4. Continued Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Specialty Tours, ($5 members, $10 non members) Special Events Speakers Others Spring Migrants at Mt. Auburn birding tour, 4/19, 4/21, 4/26, 4/28, 5/3, 5/5, 5/10, 5/17 Family Nature Walk, Family e vent, 5/15, $10 members, $15 non members Education & Empowerment Month, 3/31, $5 members, $10 non members Preservation Demonstrations, 5/7, 5/21, free Shakespeare and Mt. Auburn graves of famous Shakespearian actors and graves with his quotes, 4/23 An Artful Collaboration June Concert, 6/11, $10 members, $15 non members Warbler Migration at Mt. Auburn, 4/13, $5 members, $10 non members Monument Inscription Workshop learning to record and decipher inscriptions, and asses monume nt conditions, 5/22, 8/27, free Many Sides of Sumner visiting graves of Charles Sumner and his friends, 4/30 Circles and Spirals Family event walking tour, 6/18, $10 members, $15 non members Baltimore and the Pratt Street Riot early Civil War era lecture, 4/19, free Tree Sketching Workshop, 7/31, 8/7, $10 members, $15 non members

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80 Table 4 4. Continued Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Specialty Tours, ($5 members, $10 non members) Special Events Speakers Others The Miracle of Migration spring migration at its best, 5/4 Wine Tasting at Washington Tower, 8/11, free members, $10 non members Everlasting Ties: Mt. Auburn/Watertown special series, 4/26, free Love Those Leaves Family Program, fall activities, free for members, 10/16, $10 non memb ers Memories of Mothers mothers day stroll, 5/8 Destination Watertown: The Armenians of Hood Rubber screening of new documentary, 6/25, free Preserving an American Treasure preservation efforts at Mt Auburn, 5/1, free Fall Bulb Planting Workshop, 10/20, free Notable Visitors, 5/21 Explorers & Inventors Family event exploring and walking tour, 9/10, $10 members, $15 non members preservation and sustainability at Mount Auburn, 5/13, free Paradise Highlighting picturesque views and showcasing some historic photos, 6/5, Mt Auburn to Arlington Cemetery walk to historic Arlington Street cemetery in Watertown, 9/18, free Harriet Hosmer Mt Auburn/Watertown special series, 5/15, free

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81 Table 4 4. Continued Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Specialty Tours, ($5 members, $10 non members) Special Events Speakers Others Tomb, Obelisk, Sphinx tour of Egyptian Revival Monuments, 6/9 A Visit with Edgar Allen Poe 10/6, $10 members, $25 non members Records of Enduring Value introduction to Mt Auburns Historical Collections, 5/26, free Pride Week Walk visit graves of distinguished homosexual Bostonians, in conjunction with Boston Pride Week, 6/12 living history Civil War era music performance, 11/12, $10 members, $15 non members The Healing Qualities of Medicinal Plants, 7/21, $10 members, $15 non members From Lichens to Lindens: A Walk Through Plant Evolution, 6/14 Holiday Wrea th Making Workshop, 12/1, $20 members, $30 non members Preparing for End of Life Issues, 9/20, free Native Shrubs, walking horticulture tour, 6/18 Candle Lighting Service annual remembrance ceremony, 12/20, free Mary Baker Eddy history lecture, 1 0/13, Free

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82 Table 4 4. Continued Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Specialty Tours, ($5 members, $10 non members) Special Events Speakers Others Stamp of Notoriety stroll to discuss stamps, covers, and postmarks that relate to Mt Auburn residents, 6/1 9 Understanding Cremation, 1/21, 10/22, 4/16, 7/16, free Breeding Birds of Mt Auburn birding tour to see nests and hatchlings, 6/20 Retirement Puzzle, 10/24, free Fanny & Fanny tour highlighting the lives of 2 famous authors, 6/ 25 Preserving a Horticultural Treasure, 11/17, Free Perennials for your Garden horticulture tour, 6/26 Forests in Transition, 12/14, $10 members, $15 non members

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83 Table 4 4. Continued Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Specialty Tours, ($5 members, $ 10 non members) Special Events Speakers Others Homesteads & Topography physical remnants of the landscape before the cemetery, 7/10, free Documenting the Garden of Graves, Horticulture Records of Mt. Auburn, 12/15, free Groundcovers: Ubiquitous to Unique horticulture tour, 7/18 A Time Travelers Tour of Mt. Auburn what changed since 1858, 7/20 Summer Blooming Trees & Shrubs, 7/27 From Greenhouse to Garden horticulture walk following seeds to garden, 7/30

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84 Table 4 4. Continued Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Specialty Tours, ($5 members, $10 non members) Special Events Speakers Others A Beloved Summer Get away, visiting graves of summer visitors, 8/4 In Search of Butterflies & Dragonflies nature tour, 8/1 0 In the Face of Conflict tour to learn about Cantabridgian revolutionaries, 8/13, free The Arcadian Necropolis tour of classical monuments, 8/16 Organic Cut Flower Gardens horticulture tour of greenhouse and gardens, 8/20

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85 Table 4 4. Continued Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Specialty Tours, ($5 members, $10 non members) Special Events Speakers Others Stories in Stone Meaning of symbols on monuments and the connection to deceased, 8/21 Mt Auburns Nighthawks bird watching tour, 8/30 31 Fall Migrants at Mt Auburn bird watching tour, 9/8 Medical Firsts visiting graves of medical pioneers, 9/17 Bully for Teddy! Living history walking tour, 10/10

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86 Table 4 4. Continued Standard Tours, (Mon. Sat) Speci alty Tours, ($5 members, $10 non members) Special Events Speakers Evening Owl Walk bird watching tour of Northern Saw whet Owls, 10/18, free (members only event) Awash in Color fall foliage walk, 10/23, 11/6, Theologians, Clergypersons, and Bishops walking tour, 11/20

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87 Oakland Cemetery Location Oakland Cemetery is located in Atlanta, Georgia, just northeast of the confluence of Interstate 75/Interstate 85 and Interstate 20, the crosshairs of the city. Because this was built as a Rural Cemetery, like Mount Auburn, it is on the fringes of the urban downtown area, although the suburban sprawl has grown considerably since its establishment. The cemetery is not part of the downtown experience, as it is not within walking distance of the dow ntown attractions. While the cemetery is only one and a half miles away from the downtown district, the labyrinthine traffic patterns and conditions of Atlanta make even traveling short distance difficult, and time consuming. The cemetery is bounded by M emorial Dr., Boulevard Dr., Oakland Ave., and the Georgia Railroad. The sprawling 88 acre grounds provide the final resting place for about 70,000 Atlantans. History Oakland Cemetery, also from the era of the Rural Cemetery Movement, was an 8 acre parcel, and was slowly added to with additional purchases in 1855, 1857, and 1866. 22 All the purchases had been made by the time the brick wall and entrance gates were constructed in 1896, which brought Oakland to its current size of 88 acres. The cemetery has sizable Confederate veteran, African American, and Jewish sections, as well as the graves of many historically significance individuals. These would include the 22 National Register of Historic Places, Oakland Cemetery Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, National Register #76000627, 3.

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88 American mayor; Margaret Mitchell Marsh, author of Gone With the Wind; and Bobby Jones, famous golfer and founder famous residents. The pride of the cemetery, however, rests in the vast collection of Victorian cemetery art. The styles embodied in the numerous graves, memorials, and mausolea i nclude Gothic, Neo classical, Beaux arts, Egyptian Revival, and even some examples of Eastlake ornamentation. 23 Many of the mausolea also incorporate decorative stained glass work. The craftsmanship of such markers showcases the patterns and progressions of funerary art through the 19th and 20th centuries. Operation infrastructure at the cemetery However, lot owners themselves are responsible for the making end of life plans dec ides they want to be buried at Oakland, the sextant is contacted and he puts the family in touch with a lot owner at Oakland who has indicated that they may be willing to sell the yet unused lot. 24 If a deal is reached, ownership of the lot is transferred and the space is occupied when the interested individual passes away. 23 Ibid., 8 9. 24 David Moore, personal conversation with author, October 7, 2011.

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89 Stewardship G roup The descendants of many of the historic markers and plots are no longer living in Atlanta and are therefore unavailable to maintain them. Thankfully, the non pro fit stewardship group known as the Historic Oakland Foundation oversees the preservation, interpretation, and general grounds keeping of the cemetery, and helps to maintain such unattended plots. In addition to this, the Foundation organizes and runs the tours and special events, operates a gift shop on site, puts out a newsletter and other publications, and coordinates preservation efforts at Oakland. The group has a Recreation, and Cultural Affairs, which lays out the responsibilities of each group. The Historic Oakland Foundation was established in 1976, immediately following site interpretation, Historic Oakland h as exemplified in another arena that has contributed greatly to the recent high marks with online travel sites: social media. As was previously in the Introduction, Oakland Cemetery was voted the number one tourist attraction in the city of Atlanta by us has a huge web presence, which increases the visibility of what Oakland has to offer to the local community, and connects to a public that might not otherwise think of vi siting a cemetery on a trip to Atlanta. This push is due mostly to the work of volunteer Chad Facebook, Twitter, and Foursquare. Users are encouraged to share pictures a nd experiences, as well as check back frequently for updates on future events.

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90 Tours The interpretational model at Oakland suites the heavily trafficked site well. Self guided tours are free and available every day of the week, while guided tours are onl y offered on the weekends. A one hour standard tour entitled Sights, Symbols & Stories of Oakland covers the general history and layout of Oakland three times per weekend day (10a.m., 2p.m. and 5:30p.m.). In the winter months this is dropped down to one tour per weekend day (2p.m.). Then, each weekend night at 6:30p.m. a Specialty Tour is offered. Oakland has 15 different specialty tours that rotate throughout the year, some of which are seasonally specific, such as the Capturing the Spirit of Oakland H alloween Tours, occurring on the weekend preceding Halloween (see Table 4 1). In this way, guests are given ample opportunity to return to learn about specific aspects of the cemetery at the end of the day. Additionally, these tours are set up to be arou nd sunset, giving unique lighting opportunities for photography. All guided tours are $10.00 for adults, $5.00 for children, seniors, and students, and free for members. Oakland also recently introduced a free cell phone tour featuring African American h istory in Atlanta and in the cemetery. In addition to all this, Historical Oakland Foundation hosts several free special events at the cemetery each year. These include the very popular Sunday in the Park Victorian Street Fair, the Run Like Hell 5k Race (both of which (both of which happen in May). Oakland provides a free downloadable newsletter which includes a calendar of upcoming events and tours. The newsletter also has

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91 the newsletter, members and potential visitors can easily keep up with the events and tours at Oakland and plan an informed trip to the site. David Moore, Executive Director of the Historic Oakland Foundation, explains that, 1 Identified Values A nd Programming Considerations Through analysis of the aspects of the site, and its interpretational programming, highlighted above, the following values are identified: History Budget Art People/Stories Preservation Supernatural Independent experience Educ ation Nature The following programming considerations were also identified: Economics Security Education Independent experience 1 Greg Clarkson and David Moore, Oaklan d Cemetery (explore404) Video, 2:32, June 16, 2011, oaklandcemetery.com/short_video.html

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92 Table 4 5 Interpretational programs at Oakland Cemetery Standard Tour, (Weekends, March Nov 10, 2, 5:30, Dec March, 2) Twil ight Tours, (Weekends March Oct., 6:30pm) Special Events Speakers Other Sights, Symbols & Stories of Oakland Oakland and the Civil War Annual Shindig fundraising event with music, food, silent auction, 3/24, $50 hi re to have them come and give presentation School Tours African American Cell Phone Tour 3 panels set up with additional info, free Pioneers of Atlanta: The First 20 Years descendants come and share family history, refreshments, 5/ 1, free Private Guided Tours Victorian Symbolism at Oakland Tunes from the Tombs 100 music acts perform around the cemetery with food by local vendors 5 /21 22, $10 for one day and $15 for both days 2nd Saturdays the 2nd Saturday of every month ( except December) is open for volunteers to come and assist with general landscaping duties

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93 Table 4 5. Continued Standard Tour, (Weekends, March Nov 10, 2, 5:30, Dec March, 2) Twilight Tours, (Weekends March Oct., 6:30pm) Special Events Speakers Ot her African American History at Oakland Gone with the Wind 75th Anniversary guided tours by costumed guides and cocktails, 6/12, $20 Dying in 19th Century Atlanta Jewish Grounds of Oakland Margaret Mitchell and Gone With the Wind T he Women of Oakland Art and Architecture of Death Epitaphs The Immortality of Words

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94 Table 4 5. Continued Standard Tour, (Weekends, March Nov 10, 2, 5:30, Dec March, 2) Twilight Tours, (Weekends March Oct., 6:30pm) Special Events Speak ers Other Fear and Accusation: The Leo Frank Story Odd Fellows, Red Men and More: Fraternal Organizations at Oakland Mayors of Atlanta Love Stories of Oakland

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95 Discussion of Issues Discovered When comparing the four sites, certain i ssues were identified that need ed further clarification The terminology that is used to describe some of the less obvious values and considerations is presented here to provide that clarification. The distinct design features of the cemeteries, with tho se of the Rural Cemeteries being inherently different from the smaller church owned cemeteries constitute much of the basic disparity between them in th e identified values and programming considerations The following clarifications are given for values and the programming considerations so that they may be better understood within the context of this study. Further clarifications are give n in Chapte r 5. Sacred/Spiritual with Tolomato and St. Louis No. 1 because of their association and operation by religious institutions, and also because of the role they have played in the religious heritage of their loca l communities. As mentioned, St. Louis No. 1 is considered a very spiritual site, with a very active descendant community. The burial of important Catholic figures in Tolomato gives it a spiritual focus as well. Mount Auburn is still an active cemetery, and it is not uncommon for visitors to see a funeral taking place in the newer areas, or mourners visiting the graves of loved ones. The staff at Mount Auburn ensure that visitors are very aware of this with signage so the sacred nature of the site is hi ghlighted in the visitor experience. The end of life programming and lectures that are offered on site at Mount Auburn also reinforce this. Although this was not a value identified with Oakland, it does not mean that the cemetery is not reverent toward t he dead or that they are not mindful of them.

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96 Of course, Oakland identifies itself as a cemetery and the dead are respected, but Tolomato and St. Louis No.1 are church cemeteries, and Mount Auburn is still active (making its focus on current burials somet hing of a hint at advertising). At Oakland the reverence is implied and is not a value that is stressed as heavily through the interpretational programming at the site as much as the other three sites. Supernatural The topic of the supernatural is not o ne that that should be dwelled on, but it does that manifests in the visitor more than the cemetery groups that provide the tours. Obviously, no stewardship group want s paranormal investigations, which are steeped in here say and superstition, to trump the interpretational programs that are founded on sound historical evidence and research. Death is mysterious to most people, and so then cemeteries are mysterious by as backdrop for so many ghost stories, horror movies, and urban legends has made it an inescapable part of the paranormal lexicon in the eyes of popular culture. Although none of the cemeteries above offer a gh ost tour, it is noted that Tolomato is a stop for many of the walking ghost tours in St. Augustine, as St. Louis is a stop for similar tours in New Orleans (but not the Save Our Cemeteries tours). However, the practice and role of voodoo in New Orleans hi story and culture is brought up and asked about on Halloween tours are some of the most popular of the year, and fill up quickly. It is assumed that because Mount Auburn is stil l an active cemetery, the association with any aspect of the paranormal is strongly discouraged, as this may deter future clients.

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97 Although paranormal tours often forgo facts in favor of shock and awe fabrications, there may be a benefit. It is suggeste d that, although the paranormal appetites of guests need not be indulged with a specific tour, the value should not necessarily be discouraged or ignored. It is necessary for cemeteries tours to provide an informed and authentic experience for the guests, but it must be done without alienating a potentially large audience that may have been drawn to the site in the first have spent large amounts of money and time indulging, and a specialized industry has grown to support those indulgences. It is indeed a controversial issue, but a study done in St. Augustine suggests that since these visitors with paranormal interests kn ow that they are able to obtain historical information through other outlets (such as daytime tours), the goal of attending a ghost tour is not to obtain factual information, but instead to have an experience. 25 This makes the true commodity of a ghost to ur the memory of that experience. Furthermore, 85% of ghost tour participants who were surveyed in the study did a follow up visit to historical sites mentioned in the tours during their regular business hours (paying admission for many of those visits), with 15% visiting four or more sites. 26 This would suggest that people partaking in ghost tours are not doing them in lieu of a site visit, but instead are treating them as a supplemental experience. Since such tours may introduce new audiences to herita ge resources such as cemeteries, and those 25 Global Tourism and Cultural Heritage, 2010 Society for Economic Anthropology Annual Meeting, Tampa, FL, April 8 10 2010). 26 Ibid.

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98 audiences may then come and spend money to take a tour, which contributes to the preservation of the site, the paranormal tour is a phenomenon that cannot be ignored. S ecurity Revenue generated by the stewardshi p groups, either by donations or other activities, helps to fund preservation efforts at the site. These efforts protect the headstones and cemetery grounds, which ensures the longevity of the cemetery. In turn, the cemetery can also make the neighborhoo d a safer place. In the case of Oakland, the cemetery was a secluded area prior to the establishment of the Historic Oakland Foundation, and one that provided a veil for clandestine incidents of questionable legality. When a site gets known for such secl usion, it can become a magnet for similar incidents and the surrounding neighborhoods suffer. When the Foundation was established, the cemetery was maintained again, and attention was being drawn to it. Once the seclusion was compromised, the illegal act ivities and incidents of crime decreased, and the neighborhoods benefited. Thus, the cemetery security programming consideration that is identified at each of the four cemeteries a nd one that other historic cemeteries using these considerations should recognize the importance of Location consideration was identified for Tolomato and St. Louis No. 1 because of their proximity to their respective historic downtown cent ers, which are central to the tourist experience for most visitors. The cemeteries were designed this way historically so that burials would occur close to the religious institutions that managed them. The Rural Cemeteries, Mount Auburn and Oakland, were intentionally

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99 placed the outskirts of the urban areas, making their current proximity to other heritage and tourist sites less than ideal. However, since they are in a more rural setting and were designed to function as arboreal pleasure grounds on the h interland of cities it makes Mount Auburn and Oakland cemeteries more difficult to get to. One has to be intentionally travelling to them, as they will not be stumbled upon in a typical visit to the city due to their distance from the city centers and ot her tourist destinations. It is also because of this distance that allows the cemeteries to occupy a greater amount of horticultural collections and wildlife present at the Rural Cemeteries. While these may not relate to all cemeteries in the study, they are still important to include as they are central to the visitor experience for Rural Cemeteries, and are assets for similar cemeteries wishing to develop programming. Edu cation consideration was identified at all cemeteries except for Tolomato. This is not to say that Tolomato does not value educating its visitors. Educating visitors mission. However, in the con text of this investigation, programming beyond site tours that is offered to guests. St. Louis No.1, Oakland, and Mount Auburn all offer school tours and lectures on a range of topics. M ount Auburn also offers workshops throughout the year, which are popular. At this point, Tolomato does not offer any school tours or additional lectures, and therefore is not associated consideration

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100 Independen t Experience was identified at the cemeteries that offer a self guided tour. This is helpful for visitors who are on a tight schedule, those who have young children, or those who are only interested in a particul ar aspect or gravesite in the cemetery. While one would prefer all guests to leave with the same information, the guided tour option is not always a feasible option for all visitors. As mentioned above, St. Louis No.1 has a unique approach to their inter pretation and the guided tour is central to that experience. Because of this, was not identified as a programming consideration associated with St. Louis No. 1. Additional Issues For Operators And Managers The following issue s were identified in the comparison of the four sites, and are presented as issues that are pertinent for operators and managers of cemeteries and stewardship groups, but ones that may not be necessarily apparent to general visitors or as part of the exper ience of an on site visit. Because all the issues were present at the four case studies, and influenced the programming and operation of the sites, they are seen as useful information for anyone seeking to utilize the suggested values and programming cons iderations at a historic cemetery site. Stakeholders Before administering any type of survey, it is crucial to identify all the stakeholders of the cemetery. These are essentially the audiences that a stewardship group is reaching out to, and audiences t hat are believed to have a vested interest in the cemetery. One can expect this to be an extensive list. These can be identified as very general categories, or specific ones. The following list was inferred from the

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101 comparison of the four cemeteries, as groups that share proximity with the sites or were catered to in the interpretational programs. This list will include: Anyone involved at an administrative level with the cemetery or associated stewardship group Volunteers Neighbors, and locals that gen eral live who come into contact with the site frequently Nearby businesses Nearby restaurants This will also include the diverse types of visitors that the cemetery attracts including: Members Tourists Adults Children Family groups Elderly Budget travelers Photographers Historians Military Historians Genealogists Cemetery buffs Nature enthusiasts Descendent groups Associated cultural groups Associated ethnic groups Associated religious groups Veterans groups Fraternal organizations whose members are b uried at the site Care must be taken by anyone drafting a site specific valuation study to ensure that all these stakeholders will be considered when developing interpretational programming for a cemetery site, and that all will be represented in the rand om sample

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102 if a cemetery site should choose to conduct a survey to determine the specific values of the site. Certain values will resonate differently with different stakeholders. For example, t than what they can get back home) whereas locals see a landscape as a web of memory locations and social 27 Also, it has been shown that certain groups find value in unexpected or unlikely places. Interest in [cemeteries] goes beyond the a esthetic and amenity value, considerable though this is; at any one time there may be amateurs or experts recording the monuments for what they tell us of our ancestors, or the work of artisans and artists. Or they may be interested in the rare lichens gro wing upon them, the ancient yew trees that shade them, some many thousands of years old, and all the other flora and fauna. 28 Since interpretation is geared toward stakeholders, the subjects of the tours will then also define the stakeholders that visit th e cemetery to a degree. Any historic cemetery will have numerous stakeholders, but those that relate to the interpretational tours will stand out. Elizabeth Gessner of Tolomato identifies some of the stakeholders of Tolomato as such: Budget vacationers (families that cannot afford more expensive attractions) Locals that walk by and have never seen inside before Paranormal tourists Genealogists Those with interest in art or are artists themselves looking to take advantage of a picturesque environment (ph otographers painters, etc. ) Heritage tourists 27 Glassberg, 20. 28 Conservation Bulletin 66, The Herita ge of Death (Summer 2011): 29.

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103 Fans of author Eugenia Price (the main character of her historical fiction novels is buried in Tolomato) Heritage group members (Greeks, Minorcans, Haitians, Cubans) Civil War buffs Catholics Visitors of speci fic historical figures (Felix Varela, Augustin Verot, Georges General taphophiles ( a person who enjoys cemeteries) 29 Angie Green of Save Our Cemeteries identifies those she sees as the primary stakeh olders in St. Louis No. 1 as: Save Our Cemeteries, The Catholic Archdiocese (which owns St. Louis No. 1) Members of the Catholic church Each family/owners of a vault (of which, there are 800 1000) Any relatives/close friends of the deceased (there are 10 ,000 individuals buried in St. Louis) The professional ownership interests of workers, preservationists, and other craftsmen Genealogists Archives/records holders (which are scattered throughout the cemetery and include members of local municipalities, pri vate history organizations, and the church) Tour guides Tour guide licensing/enforcement agencies Police officers (who patrol the cemeteries) Tourists 29 Elizabeth Gessner, e mail message to the author, September 1, 2011.

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104 Neighbors (St. Louis No. 1 is in the French Quarter, and two sides of the cemetery back up to residenti al areas) 30 Negative S takeholders that influence policy and decision making for Save Our Cemeteries because of a negative influence. It is important to identify such group s for the sake of mitigating potential problems in the future. This would include: Looters Vandals Criminals that utilize the secluded nature of the cemetery The homeless (which pose the largest vandalism threat of any group ) These negative stakeholde rs represent a group that all historic cemeteries will have to deal with. National Register Inclusion There are two highly recommended steps for cemeteries to expand their base of stakeholders, both of which have been achieved, or are in the process of being achieved, by all four cemeteries under analysis. These two steps are: being listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and having a stewardship organization with 501(c)3 non profit designation associated with the site. Achieving a Nation al Register listing is an important goal for all historic cemeteries planning on developing interpretational programs. Listing provides a distinct association with the National Register, and by virtue of that, the National Park Service. The distinction i s one that may be equated with quality, professionalism, and longevity. The air of gravitas that listing fosters will help to distinguish the cemetery from other sites in the vicinity, thus making the site more visible. This can be achieved through indiv idual 30 Angie Green, personal conversation with the author, October 12, 2011.

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105 listing, or listing as a contributing resource to the historic theme of a historic district. Tolomato Cemetery has National Register status as the latter, and is listed as a contributing feature for the Model Land Company Tract, a historic district in downtown St. Augustine. The other three cemeteries are listed individually. Mount Auburn is association with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history ; and Criterion C, the embodiment of distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack indi vidual distinction 31 It is also listed with Criteria Consideration D, which pertains specifically to cemeteries and states that a cemetery is eligible for listing if it derives its primary significance from graves of persons of transcendent importance, f rom age, from distinctive design features, or from association with historic events 32 identifies the areas of significance for the property as Architecture, Art, Community Planning and Development, Landsc ape Architecture, Material Culture, and Social History. 33 Similarly, Oakland is listed under Criterion C, with Criteria Consideration D with the areas of significance identified as Art, Landscape Architecture, Sculpture, and Cultural History 34 31 tional Register Criterion for National Register Bulletin (Washington, DC, 1997) 12, 17. 32 Ibid., 34. 33 National Register of Historic Places, Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, National Register #75000254. 34 N ational Register of Historic Places, Oakland Cemetery, Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, National Register #76000627.

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106 St Louis No. 1 is listed under Criterion B, having an association with the lives of persons significant in our past as well as Criterion C. 35 It also includes Criteria Consideration D. In St. Louis No. 1 the areas of significance are identified as Architecture, Art, Literature, Military, Religion, Sculpture. 36 Oakland was evaluated and considered to be significant at the local level, whereas Mount Auburn and St. Louis were both determined to be significant on a national level. It can be observed that of the th ree cemeteries that are individually listed, all are listed under at least Criterion C, and all are eligible with Criteria Consideration D. This provides a good starting point for other historic cemeteries wishing to take the first steps in this process. As long as a historic cemetery is reasonably documented and has not been relocated, Criteria Consideration D should provide the grounds for eligibility to the National Register. Also, the three cemeteries all shared several of the same areas of significa nce: Art and Sculpture (listed as Material Culture for Mount Auburn). This coincides with the listing under Criterion C. Mount Auburn and Oakland both list Landscape Architecture as an area of significance, and since St. Louis required above ground buria ls, and is therefore built up to accommodate that, the built up nature and appearance of the site (listed as Architecture for St. Louis) constitutes its landscape as well. These areas of significance identified in the nomination forms, particularly the on es that all three cemeteries share, constitute some of the values that the cemeteries have identified and wish to impart to guests through interpretation. 35 36 National Register of Historic Places, St.Louis Cemetery No. 1, Ne w Orleans, Orleans County, Louisiana, National Register #75000855.

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107 Non profit Status The second thing that can be done to expand a base of stakeholders is to establ ish a 501(c)3 non profit group that is associated with the cemetery. Each of the four cemeteries has a non profit stewardship organization that is responsible for interpretation and preservation at the site (although Tolomato is still working on paperwork to obtain 501(c)3 status). Gaining this designation is phenomenally helpful for several reasons. The clear advantage is that anyone who donates, which includes the dues towards a membership program, can get a tax write off for that amount. Also, having a non profit group associated with the cemetery adds a degree of professionalism and accountability to the site, while also implying longevity. Donors know how the money will be spent and are likely to have more trust in the site. Community Partnerships An important outreach component of three of the cemeteries are school tours (this is not yet in place at Tolomato). David Moore, executive director of the Historic Oakland Foundation, suggests that developing school tours is an essential way cemeteries c an form strong community relations, and is a visible positive impact that people can identify with. 37 Oakland contributes to the local community by providing school tours that highlight different aspects of the cemetery and cater to different subjects stu died at different grades. School groups are also common fixtures in St. Louis No. 1; 8th grade students are the most common age group since students in Louisiana study local history in the grade. With these age groups, what you talk about can be ju st as important as what you do talk about. The subjects of prostitution and violence that make up a part of the local history are not mentioned, in favor of the less seedy stories 3 7 David Moore, personal conversation with author, October 7, 2011.

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108 associated with the cemetery. These elements are included on regular tours and the individual tour guides may censure as they see fit with whatever the demographics of the tour are. Partnering with organizations in the community is important as well. All the stewardship groups are closely associated with the local historical societies. In addition to that, each cemetery has another entity that it partners with frequently. For Tolomato Cemetery this would be the Cathedral Basilica, St. Benedict the Moor Church (two local Catholic churches in downtown St. Augustine) and the Di ocese of St. Augustine. Mount Auburn has close ties with the Massachusetts Horticultural Society (the group that originally purchased the land for the cemetery), St. Louis No. 1 with Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans, and Oakland often partners with the City of Atlanta. For the two larger cemeteries (Oakland and Mount Auburn), offering special programming for families and children is an important part of interpretation. Since general admission to the cemeteries is free (the only charge being for tou rs and some special events), they are popular weekend spots for families on a budget. This makes economics for families include scavenger hunts at Oakland and nature cleanups at Mount Auburn. Mount Auburn also offers additional programs for families with children, which are focused on subjects such as nature, wildlife, geology, history, and even mathematics. These more in depth tours at Mount Auburn are offered at a fee. Of fering a safe and educational space for family outings is another extra benefit for the community. Membership Organizations After telling the stories to the cemetery, the four cemeteries sampled all offer visitors the opportunity to become a part of the st ories. Membership programs are a

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109 common way to raise revenue for a cemetery and offer benefits for frequent visitors. If a cemetery has 501(c)3 non profit established, membership dues can be considered a charitable, tax deductible donation. There ar e common benefits of membership that are shared by the four cemeteries. A member at any one will receive a newsletter from the cemetery that keeps members up to date. Members are also eligible to attend tours and special events for free or at a discounte d rate. Oakland and Mount Auburn offer discounts on gift shop items. The price for an individual membership averages at about $35.00 between the four cemeteries. At Mount Auburn, an important privilege of membership is that members receive advanced noti ce for specialty tours and programs, hence an advanced opportunity to make a reservation for those events. The result is that when a popular specialty tour is offered it is booked to capacity almost exclusively with members before the public (the non memb ers) has an opportunity to sign up. 38 Such disparity in the demographics of the popular tours is an indication that this practice of membership prioritization is popular, and actively taken advantage of. However, these benefits are more symbolic than anything. Although people who membership, the impetus for joining is the fact that membership dues go toward the preservation and protection of the cemeteries. David Moore be lieves that many people join the membership groups for the feeling that they have contributed to an important cultural and historical site and that there participation has made a difference. 39 It gives 38 Stephanie Messina, External Affairs Department Assistant, Mount Auburn Cemetery, e mail message to the author, Decembe r 5, 2011. 39 David Moore, Executive Director, Historic Oakland Foundation, personal conversation with the author, October 10, 2011.

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110 people who feel a connection to the site, w h ether the y are descendants, neighbors, 40 A strong membership program is confirmation that the site is being values, and that th e values that the stakeholders feel strong connections with are being presented in a way that makes them relevant. Summary With the comparison of the four case studies a set of suggested values and programming considerations is identified that seems to re late to historic cemetery sites. These two lists were developed by looking at the on site interpretational programming of the case studies, conversations with the administrative members of stewardship groups, and the issues for operators and managers. Th e lists are presented as they correspond to each cemetery in Table 4 6 and Table 4 7. The two lists together constitute a framework that can be used to inform investigations at other historic cemeteries into the more refined, site specific values and also inform the development of on site interpretational programming. Suggestions for how this framework can be effectively implemented are presented in the following chapter. Table 4 6. List of suggested cemetery values Tolomato St. Louis Oakland Mt Auburn H istory History History History Art Art Art Art People/Stories People/Stories People/Stories People/Stories Preservation Preservation Preservation Preservation Sacred/Spiritual Sacred/Spiritual Sacred/spiritual Supernatural Supernatural Supernatural Nature Nature 40 Ibid.

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111 Table 4 7. List of programming considerations for historic cemeteries Tolomato St. Louis Oakland Mt Auburn Economics Economics Economics Economics Security Security Security Security Location Location Education Education Educati on Independent experience Independent experience Independent experience

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112 CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION Really, the only thing that the dead want is to be remembered, and getting people back into a cemetery does just that. Even if they are dressed i n funny costumes, wearing binoculars, hav ing a picnic, or running a 5K. 1 Insights From the Cemetery Value Chart The chart s of suggested cemetery values (Table 4 6) and programming considerations (Table 4 7) provide a more refined framework for cemetery sit es, compared to the models of the national stewa rdship groups These larger typologies, purposefully broad to relate to as many heritage types as possible are helpful when comparing dissimilar sites, but as the focus is narrowed to historic cem eteries or specific resources, the categories are less helpful. The specific values set out for English Heritage are: Historical Ecological Education Leisure (or Amenity) The value categories identified by the Burra Charter are: Aesthetic (regarding aspects of se nsory perception) Historic Scientific Social The socio cultural values (as opposed to those of an economic nature) that were identified by Randal Mason in the study for the Getty Institute are: Historical Spiritual Political Educational Aesthetic (regardi ng aspects of sensory perception) 1 Angie Green, e mail message to the author, October 23, 2011.

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113 Artistic The values that are required for eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places are: Event s People Design/Construction Information potential As mentioned, these categories of value are intentionally br oad By representing abstract concepts, they are able to relate to the largest number of heritage sites, while not catering to the idiosyncrasies of one type of site. Naturally, historic cemeteries exhibit different values than historic industrial sites, medieval castles, and aboriginal ceremonial sites. However, using the abstractions listed above, such sites can be grouped and compared. To focus specifically on cemetery sites, more concrete, and practical, fields of value that relate specifically to t he resource must be pulled out of that abstraction. The chart illustrates the values that were identified that seem to most closely relate to historic cemeteries. By comparing the interpretational programs of the four cemeteries as well as operational is sues shared by them, it has been determined that these values are likely to correspond to other historic cemeteries in the United States. This is not to say that the values identified can be applied universally, to any historic cemetery. While still abst ract, this list of values, along with the list of programming considerations, provide a more focused framework which can aid other cemeteries in identifying the specific values associated with their site. The se list s should be used to inform cemetery grou ps of what has worked for other cemeteries with successful, a ctive interpretational programs: programs that fund the necessary preservation work at the sites.

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114 The list illustrates that some values are specific to the larger, rural cemeteries (Mount Aubur n and Oakland) and not to the smaller church cemeteries (St. Louis No.1 and Tolomato). It also shows that the interests of local citizens are important, as well as those of the tourist. In some cases the role of the cemetery has expanded beyond its origi nal intention, while in others such as the Rural Cemeteries, people are once again using them as they were originally intended. Such insights exhibited in the list s will inform the investigations of other cemeteries, and can be built upon in the form of s urveys and questionnaires. The complete list of suggested values for historic ce meteries is as follows (see Table 4 6 and Table 4 7 for the correspondence to specific cemeteries): History Art People/Stories Preservation Sacred/Spiritual Supernatural Natu re The complete list of programming considerations identified in the study is as follows: Economics Security Location Education Independent experiences Recommendations for Framework Some brief suggestions are provided on how the set of cemetery values an d considerations identified by this study can by applied and further tested and refined This is intended to guide the investigation process for studies into the specific values

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115 conducted at other historic cemeteries. Designing functional contingent valu ation studies or choice modeling surveys is beyond the scope of the investigation. By creating a dialogue with the public using surveys, questionnaires, along with personal dialogue with the stakeholders, a cemetery can guide its future initiatives and m ake sure that what they are offering is in line with what the public wants. This is especially important if an additional admission fee will be charged. The groundwork for this is determining why the survey is being conducted. Is it to find out if there is enough interest to sustain an interpretational program? Is it the gather data on the types of options that people would like to see in an interpretational program? Is it to decide the themes of special events or lecture topics? Surveys should be des igned with the specific goal in mind. For a cemetery to get the most benefit from the suggested value list, it needs to be categorized so it will be known which values from the chart will be relevant, and which will not. Is the cemetery a rural cemetery away from the city center, or a church or municipal cemetery closer to a commercial downtown district? Is it still active? To a smaller church cemetery the values that pertain exclusively to Mount Auburn and Oakland on the chart will likely not apply. instructive, as it will indicate what most people know the cemetery for, whether it is a particular burial, memori al, or perhaps an urban legend. The following presents how the terms used for values and considerations are defined within the context of this study, and suggestions as to how they may be incorporated in a valuation study done by another historic cemetery

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116 Suggested Cemetery Values History However, this should be focused to identify how the cemetery best communicates certain aspects to visitors. Does the cemeter y exemplify certain styles and developments in cemetery design, or gravestone symbolism? The cemetery may be the only place in the community where certain facets of history are evident. The various ethnic histories represented in the cemetery need to be documented and showcased. Military headstones are very distinct, and serve as a record of the military heritage of a community. A survey may indicate which wars the public would like to hear more about in a tour. A cemetery will likely be the only tangi ble reminder in a community of the effects of epidemic diseases, and the realities of life before the benefits of modern medicine. A list of all such options could be made in a survey, and participants could be asked to check which options they would be i nterested in learning more about in a cemetery tour. Art value is manifested in the craftsmanship and architecture of gravestones, vaults, tombs, and other memorials on site, and possibly the landscape of the site itself. Similar to narrowing aspects of the art and architecture interest visitors the most. The development of trends in funerary art would be easy to show, as would the meaning behind symbolism that appears on dif ferent gravestones. In the case of the tombs, vaults, or mausoleums, explaining the construction and how the dead were placed inside may be interesting to guests. The memorials that we see in the cemeteries were not cheap, and certain

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117 conclusions about w ealth distribution among those buried in a cemetery can be made based on the size, amount of embellishment, and the material the markers are made of. People/Stories there will a vast multitude of stories that can be told at any cemetery. Every person interred is likely to have a story. However, only a selection of these stories can be told. There may be famous individuals and prominent citizens, or famous feuds and love stories that the tombs will tell. It is important to identify which of these stories will resonate most with visitors, and whose story will enrich the understanding of the local history. Often, the names of local streets and landmarks originated with th ose that may be found in the cemetery, which may be a good angle for a specialty tour. The same would be most interesting) could inform which individuals and stories to focus on as well. Sacred/Spiritual value is inherent to cemeteries, it may not be deemed appropriate for special focus in a tour. Questions in a survey on w hether or not visitors would come to a cemetery for s piritual or sacred reasons will reveal this. However, if a cemetery has roots in a particular church or belief, it will be an important part of the story to tell. There may be prominent members of the religious community buried at the site, and visiting these graves in a tour may be an adequate way to incorporate this into the experience.

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118 Preservation important to communicate to the visitors. Preservation work justifies the costs associated with taking the tours. A survey question may determine if participants would be willing to pay more for a tour if they knew the money was going toward restoring a specific monument or another preservation project, rather th an just a general preservation fund. Visitors may want to see preservationists in action during a visit as well, which may mean that instead of closing a cemetery to do work, it is opened up to the public, with docents on hand to explain the process to gu ests. Supernatural sensitively. There is a profound interest in some visitors in the paranormal, and its perceived connection to cemeteries (as they have featured prominently in many horror movies and ghost stories), but focusing on such an aspect can seem irreverent or irresponsible, from the standpoint of a steward of heritage. Nighttime tours may be a way to indulge this value. The more sinister stories (those of murder o r those not folk heritage of the community, but which treats them as simply legends. Presenting an authentic representation of the resource is paramount, and trumps the desire of the public to experience something ghoulish.

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119 Nature nature relevant, to t he rural cemeteries. As these sites were designed to be a natural setting, there is often a horticultural legacy that supports this. This may give unique seasonal opportunities as we have seen with Mount Auburn and Oakland. Fall foliage tours and bloom ing spring floral tours are extremely popular at other cemeteries. Knowing the specific plantings in the cemetery will be instrumental in developing such a tour. Certain plants and trees held symbolic meaning in the context of mourning, and such symbolis m could be the foundation for a fascinating horticultural tour. Also, certain groups in the community, such as garden clubs, may be interested in booking special tours, or offering their volunteer services. These options can be determined with the proper ly directed survey questions. also incorporates wildlife that can be present in a historic cemetery. While this facet is only recognized in specialty tours for Mount Auburn in this investigation, the popularity of such tours is so grea t that it warr ants special mention. Birding is an incredibly popular activity at Mount Auburn, and as such, birding tours cost more than standard tours, and almost always book to capacity. There may be other animals that make their home in the cemetery t hat could be the focus of a specialty tour as well. An animal habitat in a cemetery is very safe, because it is almost always a guarantee that the site will never be developed. While wildlife may not be pertinent to every cemetery, it provides the founda tion of popular programming at some, and it is worth making it a part of the initial investigation. Such programming would also change places reserved for the dead, not ha vens for plant and wildlife.

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120 Programming Considerations The following are the important considerations that affect an on site visit, but are not captured in the values identified for historic cemeteries. These were additional insights that arose when com paring the four case studies, which have the potential to be very helpful for operators or managers of historic cemeteries, or those designing interpretational programming. Economics is important, as admission to the four e valuated cemeteries was free, and it was the tours that required an additional fee or suggested donation. Because cemeteries are typically tranquil environments, and may even have expensive pathways on the grounds (a common element in the Rural Cemeteries ), they may provide an ideal setting for uses other than interpretational tours, such as jogging or dog walking. Taking a cue from some other Rural Cemeteries, admission is typically free for those using the trails purely for exercise and recreational pur poses. This helps to cast the cemetery in a very positive light in the context of the community. By ranking stewardship groups can gauge whether or not this would be suit able. Security security consideration is one that is considered to be inherent to a cemetery with a developed interpretational program, and frequent presence at the cemetery. By frequenting the cemetery, and keeping the space maintained, those tha t would seek its seclusion for illegal activity will no longer be able to operate in the shadows. Such illegal activity will cease and the surrounding neighborhoods will benefit. Also, people can visit the cemetery without any fear of personal danger or harm.

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121 Location consideration is also one that can be considered inherent For smaller cemeteries and churchyards closer to downtown areas, the proximity to other attractions is valuable because a visit does not mean a significant deviation from the other activities of the day. The Rural Cemeteries appear on the edge of urban areas and historic downtowns, because they were originally designed to be away from the major population centers. This means that, in the case s of Oakland and Mount A uburn, one has to make a special trip to visit such sit es, as they are not in close proximity to other attractions in their respective cities. On the other side of the coin, loca tion can also be a boon to the Rural C emeteries especially if there is an ef fort to reach out to potential visitors who may want an escape from the bustle of the urban landscape. Education brainer; of course we want the visitors to learn when they take a tour, and interpretation is a very enriching form of education. This consideration is specifically referring to educational programming beyond the scope of what is offered with the normal interpretive tours. School tours are common in cemeteries, and by checking with local schools and teachers it can be determined what aspects of the cemetery could be worked into the curriculum of the students. Most grade school students study history during a specific year of school, and a trip to a cemetery could be a great fit for their studies There may be t he opportunity to offer some preservation training or photography programs at the cemetery as well Questions on the survey regarding what people would like to see offered at the cemetery would answer this, as well as questions that rank a desire to parti cipate in an educational program at the cemetery on a pre determined scale.

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122 Independe nt Experience may be dictated, to a certain extent, by the resources available to the stewardship group. In the context of this study, guided tour at the cemetery, in lieu of guided tours led by docents. If it would not be appropriate or safe to let visitors roam around on their own while not under t he watch of a docent, then an independent experience is not a luxury that can be afforded. Additionally, the information and dialogue that a visitor will have with a docent may be paramount to the experience of the site, such as at St. Louis No. 1. Howev er, it is important to consider that some visitors may be on a tighter schedule than others. Consider that a visitor has a half an hour to visit a cemetery, but the only tour that is offered is an hour long guided tour or nothing at all In this case, it may mean the visitor skip s over the cemetery entirely Other visitors may wish to take more time at particular points of interest than the docents and photographers may wish to focus on different areas than where the guided tours are going. For this re ason, self guided tours are a nice option to keep open. This can be determined in a survey by asking participants how they would like to spend their time in a cemetery; the options could range from taking a guided tour, taking a self guided tour, going of f alone to read the stones, taking photographs, enjoying a picnic, etc. Summary The analysis of the programming at four different cemeteries in the U.S., and discussions with those involved with them, has given a suggested list of values associated with th ose cemeteries as well as a list of programming considerations that can further assist and guide other historic cemeteries in more detailed studies While

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123 the typologies used by national stewardship groups are useful in comparing many dissimilar sites, t hey are not as helpful when evaluating a specific type of heritage resource. By taking the abstract co ncepts presented by such groups, expanding them to a meaningful scope for historic cemetery sites and including the list of cemetery programming conside rations an informed framework has been developed that may be helpful to other historic cemeteries. It is important to recognize that the lists are based off what has worked at other cemeteries, so there is a high potential that these values and considera tions will provide helpful insight to similar historic sites Using The Framework The list of suggested values and programming considerations is meant to be a tool for other historic cemeteries. So how can these be utilized to their fullest potential? Essentially, the lists will best serve as the foundation for more refined studies into specific values and programming at other historic cemeteries. The lists were created with a focus on historic cemeteries, so they will be able to informed an informed foundation to any investigation, and provide a basis f or a more refined exploration. The lists will help to define what stakeholders value about the site, and why they find them important. The values and considerations will be helpful for informing any q uestionnaires or surveys that a site may undertake to investigate specific values. The identified values could be used to frame groups of questions on such a survey. They may also be useful in an investigation into what topics guests may be interested in for new specialty tours, or special events at a cemetery site. In this way, they will help to identify what sort of programs and events visitors will want to see on the site, and what they will enjoy participating in. A questionnaire to guests would be useful for this

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124 tour/lecture on common plantings in the cemetery and their symbolic meaning, or one about the work of a local stone carver who provided many gravestones for the cemetery in the 19 th The lists could potentially inform a discussion group, and guide in talking to stakeholders about individual aspects of a site. This could help to aid in the preservation of the site. It may be able to determine the type of fundraising events would be profitable for the cemetery, or which projects have the most resonance with stakeholders and would be likely to serve as the basis for such a fundraiser. For additional donation, or pay to attend a special tour or event if you knew all proceeds would be going towards the restoration of the memorial for the cities first mayor? Or for the restoration of the graves Anot her important way to incorporate these lists would be as part of a five or ten year plan for the preservation and interpretation of a cemetery. As mentioned in the study, values are not static and will change over time. The lists will provide the foundation for tracking s uch changes and developing programs through the years that accurately reflect their context. Valuing the historic cemetery sites of the United States is the first step in preserving them, and we cannot expect future generations to understand why these sit es are important and worth protecting unless we start valuing them in this day and age Limitations Unfortunately, this study is not without its shortcomings. Cemeteries in the United States have a long and illustrious history, with each wave of im migrants bringing their

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125 cemetery history outlined for the sake of this study was primarily that of white Christians of European descent. Likewise, the cemeteries chosen for case study analysis reflected the bias in the presented history. In this context, the values that were extrapolated from the interpretational programs of the cemeteries therefore also represented those of white Christians of European descent. The sugges ted values determined in this study will not necessarily correspond with ethnic cemeteries that represent differing burial traditions, so they will not be useful ubiquitously for all historic cemeteries in the United States. Another issue is that, throug h the method of case study analysis, only the programs offered by the cemeteries were able to be analyzed, and not direct feedback from guests themselves. By only looking at the interpretational programs certain values that are not recognized by the tours are unaccounted for, such the safety and tranquility. The type of contingent valuation study and interview process necessary to retrieve such guest feedback was beyond the scope of this investigation. Future Research Based on the investigati future research is great. The four cemeteries chosen for the case study were dramatically different in scale, age, and content so that a wide swath of values in historic cemeteries could be acco unted for. In a future study, the value sets identified in this study could be applied to a small group of cemeteries that share similar properties. In this way, the set of values could be tailored and made specific for different types of historic cemete ries (i.e. rural cemeteries, churchyards, different ethnic cemeteries). Every cemetery is unique, and the values assessed in this study will not be intrinsic to all cemeteries, but those that have been shown to be similar between the four very

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126 different c emeteries of Tolomato, Oakland, St. Louis No. 1, and Mount Auburn. The values identified should provide a decent basis for future studies. Additionally, future studies should be made which incorporate the values identified here into contingent valuation a ssessments and surveys that can be tailored for individual cemeteries and completed by patrons. The identified values can guide the questions for such surveys. Collecting and documenting the reactions from guests and feedback with the stakeholders that a re participating in the interpretational programs at important heritage resources.

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127 LIST OF REFERENCES The Quarterly Journal of Economics 80, no. 2 (May, 1966): 167 189. The New England Quarterly 47, no. 2 (June 1974): 196 211. proaches to Landscape Preservation Treatment at Mount Auburn APT Bulletin 24, no. 3/4, Conserving Historic Landscapes (1992): 52 58. Conservation Bulletin 66, The Heritage of Death (Summer 2011): 23 27. Bowdler, Roger, Seamus Hanna, and Jenifer White. Paradise Preserved: An Introduction to the Assessment, Evaluation, Conservation and Management of Historic Cemeteries. London: English Heritage, 2007. The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance 1999. Burra, SA: Australian Committee of ICOMOS, 1979. Conservation Bulletin 66, The Heritage of Death (Summer 2011): 11 13. Clarkson, Greg, and David Moore. Oakland Cemetery (explore404) Video, 2:32. June 16, 2011. oaklandcemetery.com/short_video.html Coffin, Mary. Death in Early America. New York: Elsevier/Nelson Books, 1976. Garden History 11, no. 2 (Autumn 1983): 133 156. Rural Essays edited by George William Curtis, 138 146. New York: Leavitt & Allen, 1 857. Conservation Bulletin 66, The Heritage of Death (Summer 2011): 29 31. Elkins, Chad. Personal conversation with author, August 5, 2011. Fischer, David Hackett. British Folkways in America. New York, Oxford University Press, 1989. The Public Historian 18, no. 2 (Spring, 1996): 7 23.

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128 Grave Matters: The Preservation of African American Cemeteries. Colu mbia, SC: Chicora Foundation, Inc., 1996. Green, Angie. Executive director, Save Our Cemeteries. E mail message to the author, October 23, 2011. Green, Angie. Executive director, Save Our Cemeteries. Personal conversation with author, October 12, 2011 Greene, Meg. Rest in Peace. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty First Century Books, 2008 Gessner, Elizabeth. E mail message to the author, September 1, 2011. Gessner, Elizabeth. President, Tolomato Cemetery Preservation Association. Personal conversation with a uthor, September 1, 2011. Hacker, Debi. The Iconography of Death. Columbia, SC: Chicora Foundation, Inc., 2001. Heath, Chip, and Dan Heath. Made To Stick. New York, NY: Random House, 2007. Places: Forum of Design for the Public Realm 2, no. 3 (1985): 10 22. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Accessed 10/20/2011. ht tp://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000618 National Geographic News April 7, 2011. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/04/110407 civil war 150th anniversary fort sumter battle/ Augustine, Flo Keister, Douglas. Stories in Stone. New York: MJF Books, 2004. Unpublished article. Linden Ward, Blanche. Silent City o Mount Auburn Cemetery. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1989.

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129 Linden Uses of Nineteenth Cemeter ies & Grave Markers: Voices of American Culture Edited by Richard E. Meyer. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989. Ludwig, Allan I. Graven Images: New England Stonecarving and its Symbols, 1650 1815. MIddletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1966. Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage edited by Marta de la Torre, 5 30. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, 2002. Matthew 27:5 7. The Hol y Bible King James Version. New York: American Bible Society, 1999. Messina, Stephanie. External Affairs Department Assistant, Mount Auburn Cemetery, e mail message to the author, December 5, 2011. Milanich, Jerald T. The Timucua. Oxford, UK: Blackwel l Publishers, Ltd., 1996. Contested Economies: Global Tourism and Cultural Heritage, 2010 Society f or Economic Anthropology Annual Meeting, Tampa, FL, April 8 10 2010. Moore, David. Executive director, Historic Oakland Foundation. Personal conversation with author, October 7, 2011. aluation of C ultural Heritage: Assessin g the Values of Cultural Heritage edited by Marta de la Torre, 51 76. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, 2002. Murakami, Donald S., and Howard F. Ostrout, Jr. Mount Auburn Cemetery. Cambridge MA: Department of Landscape Architecture, Harvard University, 1976. National Register of Historic Places. Mount Auburn Cemetery Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, National Register #75000254. National Register of Historic Places. Oakland Ce metery Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, National Register #76000627. National Register of Historic Places. St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 New Orleans, Orleans County, Louisiana, National Register #75000855.

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130 Measuring the Value of Culture: A Report to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. London: Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2010. Chicago Daily Tribune (Chicago, IL), May 10, 1957. ational Register Bulletin 41: Guidelines National Register Bulletin U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 41, 1992. Save Our Cemet eries Accessed October 24, 2011. www.saveourcemeteries.org/mission history/ Save Our Cemeteries Accessed October 24, 2011. www.saveourcemeteries.org/st louis cemetery no 1 tour/ Conference review: Capturing the Public Value of Heritage. Presentation at the Capturing the Public Value of Heritage Conference at the Royal Geographic Society, London, January 25 26, 2006. Cemetery of Spring Grove: Report for 1857 Cincinnati, OH: C.F. Bradley & Co., 1857. Tild en, Freeman. Interpreting our Heritage. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967. National Register Bulletin. Washing ton, DC, 1997. Warpole, Ken. Cemeteries, Churchyards and Burial Grounds London: Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, 2005. Willis, Nathanial Parker. Rural Letters: And Other Records of Thought at Leisure. New York: Baker and Scribne r, 1851. Wilson, Samuel, Jr., and Leonard V. Huber. The St. Louis Cemeteries of New Orleans. New Orleans, LA: St. Louis Cathedral, 1963).

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131 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Matthew Wayland Armstrong was born in Deland, Florida. Matthew is the son of Douglas Armst rong and Terry Armstrong, and has a younger sister, Megan Armstrong. He grew up in Ormond Beach, Florida and graduated from Spruce Creek High School in 2004. While obtaining a Bachelors Degree in History from Flagler College, Matthew began volunteering w an internship with city archaeologist, Carl Halbirt. Also, during his senior year at Flagler, he started an internship with the Florida Public Archaeology Network (FPAN), under the Northea appreciation for heritage resources, and the importance of public outreach and advocacy in the disciplines of history and archaeology. After graduating Flagler in 2007, he was hired on at FPAN as Outreach Assistant. Also during this time is when he met Leslee Keys, who suggested pursuing studies in historic preservation. Matthew began his studies at the University of Florida in 2008. While attending UF, Matthew worked as the Site Supervisor at the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Museum in St. Augustine, Florida from 2009 to 2011. Upon graduating with a Master of Historic Preservation, he hopes to continue studies in cemetery preservation, as well as his volunteer work with the T olomato Cemetery in St. Augustine.