Calling, Goals, and Life Satisfaction

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Calling, Goals, and Life Satisfaction a Moderated Mediation Model
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Allan, Blake
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Master's ( M.S.)
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University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Psychology
Committee Chair:
Duffy, Ryan Daniel
Committee Members:
Ardelt, Monika
Heesacker, Martin

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calling -- goals -- satisfaction -- vocation
Psychology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Abstract:
The present study examined the role of goals in the relation between calling and life satisfaction in a diverse, adult sample. Building off the self-concordance model of goal progress, the current study explored if career goal self-efficacy mediated the relation between calling and life satisfaction and if this mediation was moderated by intrinsic, extrinsic, self-transcendence, or physical-self goal aspirations. I found career goal self-efficacy to fully mediate the relation between calling and life satisfaction. Additionally, only self-transcendence goals moderated this mediation such that, for people high in calling, the mediation only existed for those with high self-transcendence goals. These results suggest that people with callings may need to have self-transcendence goals in order to feel confident in their ability to achieve career goals and increase their well-being. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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by Blake Allan.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
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Adviser: Duffy, Ryan Daniel.
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RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-05-31

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1 CALLING, GOALS, AND LIFE SATISFACTION: A MODERATED MEDIATION MODEL By BLAKE A. ALLAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Blake A. Allan

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3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Ryan Duffy for his help throughout this project. I also would like to thank my other committee members, Dr. Monika Ardelt and Dr. Martin Heesacker for their feedback and critiques. Finally, tha nk you to my parents: my mother for giving me unconditional encouragement and my father for always pushing me to do my best.

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4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENT S ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 5 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 6 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 8 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 8 Goal Aspirations and Well Bei ng ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 Calling, Goal Self Efficacy, and Well Being ................................ ................................ ......... 10 The Present Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 2 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 13 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 13 Instruments ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 13 Demographic Covariates. ................................ ................................ ................................ 13 Personality. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 14 Calling. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 14 Career Goal Self Effi cacy. ................................ ................................ .............................. 15 Life Satisfaction. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 15 Goal Content. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 15 Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 16 3 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 17 Preliminary Analyses ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 17 Step 1: Correlations and Media tion ................................ ................................ ........................ 17 Step 2: Testing the Moderated, Mediator Model ................................ ................................ .... 18 4 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 26 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 30 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 35

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5 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Correlations between covariates and study variables. ................................ ....................... 21 3 2 Descriptive statistics and correlations of calling, career goal self efficacy, life satisfaction, and goal aspirations. ................................ ................................ ...................... 22 3 3 Moderated mediation analysis for self mediation of calling and life satisfaction. ................................ ................................ .......... 23

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6 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 Moderated mediation model examining the moderating effect of self transcendence goals on the mediation of calling and life satisfaction by career goal self efficacy. ......... 24 3 2 Self transcendence goals as a moderator of calling and career goal self efficacy. ........... 25

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7 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Flori da in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science CALLING, GOALS, AND LIFE SATISFACTION: A MODERATED MEDIATION MODEL By Blake A. Allan May 2012 Chair: Ryan D. Duffy Major: Psychology The present study ex amined the role of goals in the relation between calling and life satisfaction in a diverse, adult sample. Building off the self concordance model of goal progress, the current study explored if career goal self efficacy mediated the relation between call ing and life satisfaction and if this mediation was moderated by intrinsic, extrinsic, self transcendence, or physical self goal aspirations. I found career goal self efficacy to full y mediate the relation between calling and life satisfaction. Additiona lly, only self transcendence goals moderated this mediation such that, for people high in calling, the mediation only existed for those with high self transcendence goals. These results suggest that people with callings may need to have self transcendence goals in order to feel confident in their ability to achieve career goals and increase their well being. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

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8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Recent scholarship in vocational psychology has begun to fo cus on what it means to have a calling (Dik & Duffy, 2009). Although definitions can vary throughout the literature, Dik and Duffy (2009) proposed an integrated conceptualization of calling as a personally meaningful career that works towards the greater good and originates from a source external to the self (Dik & Duffy, 2009). People who view their careers as callings consistently display higher well being outcomes (e.g. Peterson et al., 2009; Wrzesniewski et al., 1997), often represented by increased l ife meaning or satisfaction within specific life domains (Duffy, Allan, & Dik, 2011; Duffy, & Sedlacek, 2010; Steger et al, 2010). One untapped area of research concerns how callings interact with personal goals, which have also consistently been shown to play an important role in cultivating well being (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). Building off the self concordance model of goal progress (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), the current study explores the role of goals in the link between calling and well being among a diverse sample of adults. Theoretical Framework The self concordance model of goal progress offers a useful framework to understand why calling may be linked to well being outcomes (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). Broadly, this theory describes how goal selectio n and attainment lead to enhanced well being. Following from self determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the model explains how goals are selected along a continuum from externally motivated to intrinsically motivated. Intrinsic or identified goals ar e self concordant concordant goals are pursued more readily and receive greater sustained effort over time, leading to a greater likelihood of goal attainment ( Sheldon & Kasser, 1998 ). S ome research suggests that self efficacy beliefs may also facilitate this process. Previous research has linked self efficacy beliefs

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9 to sustained effort towards goals (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), goal progress ( Koestner et al., 2006 ), and goal commitment (W eiber et al. 2010), all variables that would lead to greater goal attainment. Theoretically, when self concordant goals are achieved, they meet the basic human needs of competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Meeting these psychological needs feels good a nd leads to increases in well being (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). Therefore, in this model, only goals that are self concordant lead to well being. The self concordance model was developed based on self determination theory, which focuses on the continuum o f extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Grouzet and colleagues (2005) extended this model to include another dimension of goal aspirations. The authors conducted a survey of goal content across 15 cultures with 2000 participants and grouped items into 11 g oals, which were not only shared cross culturally but organized in a similar way. Specifically, the authors found the goals to fall on a two dimensional, orthogonal circumplex, with intrinsic goals and extrinsic goals comprising one dimension and physical self goals and self transcendence goals comprising the other. While extrinsic goals (e.g. popularity) are pursued to gain external rewards from others, intrinsic goals (e.g. self acceptance) are pursuits that self actualize the individual (Kasser & Ryan, 1996; Ryan & Deci, 2000; Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). On the other dimension, physical self goals (e.g. hedonism) are concerned with survival and pleasure, whereas self transcendence goals (e.g. community feeling) reflect a desire to have spiritual understan ding and a sense of community. Therefore, Grouzet results suggest that the self concordance model of goal progress could be extended to a new dimension of goal aspiration: self transcendence and physical self goals. Goal Aspirations a nd Well Being A great deal of research has focused on the effects of intrinsic versus extrinsic goals on being, with the majority of studies linking intrinsic goals to positive well being

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10 and extrinsic goals to negative well being (e.g. K asser & Ryan, 1993; Niemec, Ryan, & Deci, 2009; Sebire, Standage, & Vansteenkiste, 2009 ). Although no studies have directly linked the self transcendence goals and physical self goals to life satisfaction, research has connected constructs related to thes e variables to various aspects of well being. For example, community goals are related to higher self esteem and secure attachment (Park et al., 2010), and spiritual goals have specific links to self transcendence strivings, satisfaction with life, meanin g in life, psychological well being, other oriented values, self actualization, and successful interpersonal relationships (Emmons, Cheung, & Tehrani, 1998; Fiorito & Ryan, 2007; Leak, DeNeve, & Greteman, 2007). Moreover, altruistic concerns have been rel ated to other oriented goals and increased relatedness whereas egoistic concerns have been related to decreased relatedness and increased negative affect (Park, et al., 2010). Similarly, self oriented goals have been found to be unrelated to life satisfac tion and negatively related to intimacy and self actualization (Leak, DeNeve, & Greteman, 2007). This research suggests that individuals who adopt intrinsic goals and self transcendence goals are better able to reap the well being benefits of goal attainm ent. Calling, Goal Self Efficacy, and Well Being This foundation of research on the self concordance model, goal aspirations, and their links to well being offers an intriguing framework to explore if and how calling plays a role in this process. Specifi cally, calling could create the impetus for self concordant goals that, when attained through self efficacy beliefs, lead to well being. In the calling literature, findings have linked calling to goal self efficacy, goal self efficacy to well being, and c alling to well being. For example, calling has been linked to career self efficacy strivings (Dik, Sargent, & Steger, efficacy), and to career decision self eff icacy ( Dik & Steger, 2008 ). Moreover, studies have linked goal self efficacy to lower levels of depression and anxiety (Karoly et al., 2008; Offerman

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11 et al., 2006; Pomaki et al., 2006), greater personal growth and positive coping strategies (Kraaij et al ., 2008), increased quality of life (Boersma et al., 2006), and greater career and life satisfaction (Verbruggen & Sels, 2010). Calling has also been linked to a number of well being indicators, such as life satisfaction (Duffy, Allan, & Bott, in press), academic satisfaction (Duffy, Allan, & Dik, 2011), and job satisfaction (Duffy, Dik, & Steger, 2010). Finally, more complex models indicate that self efficacy beliefs can mediate the relation between calling and well being. Specifically, Duffy, Allan, an d Dik (2011) found that career decision self efficacy mediated the relation between calling and academic satisfaction for college students. These findings lend support to a model whereby calling may relate to increased well being via career self efficacy. The Present Study In light of this previous research on both goal aspirations and calling, the present study sought to investigate if 1) Career goal self efficacy (CGSE) mediated the relation between calling and life satisfaction and 2) if this mediati on was moderated by different types of goal aspirations (i.e. intrinsic, extrinsic, physical self, and self transcendence goals). Given that life satisfaction was the dependent variable, I explored potential covariates to include in my analyses. In a revi ew by Diener and colleagues (1999), the authors concluded that marital status, age, and sex do not reliably predict life satisfaction. However, they and several other researchers agree that level of education and income show small but consistent relations to life satisfaction ( Fernandez Ballesteros, Zammarron, and Ruiz 2001; Kahneman & Deaton, 2010). In addition, research has consistently found both neuroticism and extraversion to be important predictors of life satisfaction, with neuroticism representin g negative affectivity and extraversion representing positive affectivity (Costa & McCrae, 1980; Diener et al., 1999; Joshanloo & Afshari, 2011;

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12 Watson & Clark, 1997 ). Therefore, I decided to include income, education, extraversion, and neuroticism as cova riates in the following analyses. For Step 1, based on previous research (e.g. Duffy, Allan, & Dik, 2011), we hypothesized that the link between calling and life satisfaction would be mediated by CDSE. For Step 2, as discussed above, intrinsic and self t ranscendence goals have been linked to well being and extrinsic goals and physical self goals have not. Calling has also been differentially linked to different types of goals. For example, striving for a calling is related to intrinsic motivation and not related to extrinsic motivation or materialism (Dik, Sargent, & Steger, 2008). Having a calling may also be related to self transcendence goals, which focus on striving for a sense of community, conforming to societal norms, and attaining spiritual under standing and growth. By associated with pursuing spiritual goals (Dik, Sa rgent, & Steger, 2008), and colloquial definitions of calling include references to altruistic motives ( Hunter, Dik, & Banning, 2010) and Coulson, Oades, & Stoyles in press) Given this background, I hypothesi zed that the link of calling to CGSE will be more pronounced for adults with intrinsic and self transcendence goals.

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13 CHAPTER 2 METHOD Participants A total of 230 participants aged 18 to 66 completed the survey (M = 30.59, SD = 10.17). Of this group, 45.7% were male (N = 105) and 54.3% were female (N = 125); 53.9% identified as White (N = 124), 34.8% as Asian (N = 80), 3.9% as Hispanic (N = 9), 3.0% as Multiracial (N = 7), 3.0% as African American (N = 7), 1.3% as Other (N = 3), 0.9% as Middle Eastern (N = 2), 0.4% as Native American (N = 1), 0.4% as Pacific Islander (N = 1), and 0.4% were missing (N = 1). Of the participants, 45.2% were American (N = 104), 30% Indian (N = 69), 13% Canadian (N = 30), 6.4% European (N = 15), 1.3% Other Asian (N = 3), 1. 3% Australian (N = 3), 1.3% South American (N = 3), 0.9% South African (N = 2), and 0.4% Mexican (N = 1). In terms of level of education, 38.3% (N = 88) had a graduate or professional degree, 36.1% (N = 83) had a college degree, 16.5% (N = 38) had some co llege, 0.9% (N = 2) had vocational school, 4.3% (N = 10) had a high school diploma, 3.5% (N = 8) had some high school, 0.4% (N = 1) had completed grade school. In terms of income per year, 36.5% (N = 84) made less than $25,000, 28.3% (N = 65) made between $25,000 $50,000, 15.7% (N = 36) made between $51,000 $75,000, 10% (N = 23) made between $76,000 $100,000, 3.5% (N = 8) made between $101,000 $125,000, 3.0% (N = 7) made between $126,000 $150,000, 0.9% (N = 2) made between $151,000 $175,000, 0% (N = 0) made between $176,000 $200,000, 1.7% (N = 4) made over $200,000, and 0.4% (N = 1) were missing. Instruments Demographic C ovariates As covariates, I evaluated income and level of education. Income was assessed with the On average, what is the combine d yearly income o f your household ?

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14 responded on a 9 point scale (1 = less than $25,000 per year to 9 = $200,000+ per year ). Level What is the highest level of education you achieved ? ts answered on a 7 point scale (1 = grade school to 7 = graduate school ). Personality I measured extraversion and neuroticism with subscales of the Mini International Personality Item Pool ( Donnellan, et al., 2006). The subscales consisted of 4 items ea ch rated on a 5 point scale (1 = very inaccurate to 5 = very accurate Am the life of the party Get upset easily consistency for the extraversion ( = .77) and neuroticism ( = .68) subscales. Both extraversion ( r = .88) and neuroticism ( r = .82) had excellent six to nine month test retest reliability. In the study, extraversion positively correlated with self esteem and the Behavioral Activation S ystem (BAS) whereas neuroticism negatively correlated with self esteem and positively correlated with the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS). Extraversion also negatively correlated with anxiety and depression whereas neuroticism positively correlated wit h these variables. The internal consistency of the subscales in the present study was = .79 for extraversion and = .70 for neuroticism. Calling To measure calling, I used the 12 item presence subscale from the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ; Dik, Eldridge, Steger, & Duffy, in press). Items on this subscale were answered on a 4 point scale (1 = not at all true of me to 4 = absolutely true of me ). Sample items I was drawn by something beyond myself to pursue my curren t line of work Dik, Eldridge, Steger, and Duffy found the CVQ presence subscale to correlate positively with work hope, prosocial work orientation, meaning in life, life satisfaction, and other

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15 measures of calling. The authors also reported an internal retest reliability of r = .75. The internal consistency in the present study was = .87. Career Goal Self E fficacy Career goal self efficacy was measured with a scale developed for this study, which was based on Dik, Sa to list five long term or short term career goals they were currently working towards. They then responded on a 5 point scale asking how confident they were in their ability to achieve each goal (1 = not at all confident to 5 = completely confident ). Answers were summed to create CGSE total scores. Principal axis factoring revealed all 5 items to load on a single factor, which explained 36.98% of the variance. This factor had a n eigenvalue of 1.85, and all items loaded at .50 or above. The internal consistency in the present study was = .74. Life Satisfaction Life satisfaction was measured with The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), which consists of 5 items on 7 point scal e (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree ) (Diener The conditions of my life are excellent consistency ( = .87) and test retest reliability ( r = .82). The scale correlated expectedly with other measures of well being, including positive and negative affect. Other researchers have found the SWLS to correlate in the expected directions with measures of self e steem, neuroticism, dysphoria, and euphoria (Arrindell, Heesink, & Feij, 1999). The internal consistency of this scale in the present study was = .88. Goal Content I measured goal aspirations with the Aspiration Index (Grouzet et al., 2005). In this measure, participants rate the personal importance of 47 goals on 9 point scale (1 = not at all

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16 important to 9 = extremely important ). Sample goals different goal domains, which are further grouped into two dimensions on a circumplex. The intrinsic cluster (i.e. community feeling, affiliation, self acceptance, physical health, and safety goals) is set in contrast to the extrinsic cluster (i.e. conformity, image, popularity, and financial success goals), and the self transcendence cluster (i.e. community feeling, spirituali ty, and conformity goals) is set in contrast to the physical self cluster (i.e. financial success, hedonism, safety, and physical health goals). The internal consistency ratings of the four clusters in this study were: intrinsic ( = .91), extrinsic ( = 93), transcendent ( = .89), and physical self ( = .89). Procedure In order to collect data from a diverse, adult sample I recruited participants in two ways. First, a link to the survey was posted on social networking and online classified websites, sp ecifically recruiting employed adults. In this case, people volunteered to complete the survey. Other individuals participated in this study through the online data collection service Mechanical Turk (MTurk), where again employed adults were recruited. This service allows people from across the globe to be compensated for completing surveys online. Buhrmester, Kwang, and Gosling (2011) reviewed this form of data collection and concluded that samples from MTurk were more diverse than other internet surve y methods but were equally valid and reliable. Participants who completed the survey this way received $0.40 for completing the survey. Participants were provided with informed consent and were able to drop out of the study at any time without penalty. In total, 51.58% (N = 163) of the participants joined from the first method, and 48.42% (N = 153) of the participants joined from MTurk.

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17 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS Preliminary Analy s es To ensure the quality and reliability of the data, I conducted several prelimi nary analyses. First, I assessed the data for outliers. Upon inspection of the box plots for each variable, both the intrinsic and physical self goal types appeared to have several outliers. I removed scores that exceeded 3.5 standard deviations above or b elow the means for these variables. I removed three cases in total. Next, I assessed each variable for normality. Neither the skew nor the kurtosis for any variable approached one, and the visually inspected histograms appeared normally distributed. The refore, I assumed my variables to be normally distributed. I also tested for group differences between participants recruited from social networking/online classifieds websites and participants recruited from MTurk. These groups differed on calling, CGSE extrinsic goals, self transcendence goals, physical self goals, income, and gender. However, I ran all the main analyses with the source of data as a covariate, and the pattern of results did not change. Therefore, I left this covariate out of the fina l analyses. As stated above, I included education, income, neuroticism, and extroversion as covariates. Correlations between the covariates and seven study variables are presented in Table 3 1. My analysis plan included two steps. In Step 1, I examined correlations and whether or not CGSE mediated the calling and life satisfaction relation. In Step 2, I tested if the mediation found in Step 1 was moderated by the four goal aspiration types: intrinsic, extrinsic self transcendence, and physical self. Ste p 1: Correlations and Mediation Correlations among study variables are displayed in Table 3 2. As expected, calling, career goal self efficacy, and life satisfaction moderately correlated with one another. Calling correlated most highly with self transc endence goals (.56) and extrinsic goals (.27) but did not

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18 significantly correlate with intrinsic or physical self goals. All goal types moderately correlated with life satisfaction. Next, I proceeded to test if CGSE mediated the relation between calling and life satisfaction. Using the SPSS mediation macro developed by Preacher and Hayes (2008), I performed a m ediation analyses based on 1 000 bootstrapped samples using bias corrected and accelerated 95% confidence intervals Bias co rrecting and accelerat ing adjusts for bias and skewness of the bootstrap distribution. This analysis allowed us to calculate the direct paths between the variables, in the form of regression weights, and the significance of the indirect path, which is the reduction of the relat ion between calling and life satisfaction when CGSE is included in the model. The indirect path is significant when the 95% confidence interval does not include 0. While controlling for income ( b = .38, SE = .27, n.s. ), education ( b = .37, SE = .34, n.s. ) extraversion ( b = .28, SE = .12, p < .05), and neuroticism ( b = .67, SE = .13, p < .001), calling had significant, direct paths to CGSE ( b = .14, SE = .03, p < .001) and life satisfaction ( b = .15, SE = .06, p < .01). CGSE also had a significant direct path to life satisfaction ( b = .52, SE = .12, p < .001). When CGSE was included in the model, calling ceased to have a relation with life satisfaction ( b = .08, SE = .06, n.s. ), and the reduction in this relation was significant ( SE = .03, CI = .03 .13). Therefore, CGSE fully mediated calling and life satisfaction. The total model was significant ( F (6, 196) = 13.28, p < .001) and explained 29% of the variance in life satisfaction. Step 2: Testing the M oderated, M ediator M odel The next step in my analy sis was to test if goal types moderated the mediation found in Step 1 To test moderated mediation, I used the MODMED macro developed by Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (2007). This macro allows us to assess whether a particular mediation effect is contingen t upon the level of a moderating variable by providing coefficients for both the

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19 mediator and the dependent variable models and allowing us to probe whether or not the mediation exists at specified levels of the moderator. Calling and all goal variables w ere centered to control for multicollinearity. I did not find significant moderation for intrinsic, extrinsic, and physical self goals, as evidenced by non significant interactions in the moderated mediation models. However, as depicted in Figure 3 1, se lf transcendence goals did moderate the mediation. Table 3 3 shows the relevant parts of the MODMED output. First, there are two multiple regression models: the mediator variable model predicting CGSE and the dependent variable model predicting life sat isfaction. The interaction between calling and self transcenden ce goals in the mediator model was significant. This interaction is depicted in Figure 3 2 where the lines represent the mean and one standard deviation above and below the mean. As shown, c alling has a stronger relationship to career goal self efficacy for those higher in self transcendence goals. The significant interaction gives us precedent to probe the indirect effect at different levels of the moderator. The default output of MODMED pr ovides normal theory tests of the conditional indirect effects at one standard deviation from the mean. As Table 3 3 shows, the mediation is significant at one standard deviation above the mean, but not at the mean or one standard deviation below it. P reacher and colleagues (200 7 ) recommend verifying these results with bootstrapped standard errors use d to create 95% confidence intervals. Therefore, I probed the conditional indirect effects at the mean and one standard deviation above and below it using 95% bias accelerated and corrected confidence intervals with 5000 bootstrapped samples The confidence intervals at one standard deviation below the mean { .05, .06}, at the mean {0, .08}, and one standard deviation above the mean {.02, .13} corroborated the results from the normal theory tests. Table 3 3 also displays a range of indirect effects at different self transcenden ce

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20 goal values with significance tests calculated using the Johnson Neyman technique. This range of values allows us to identify t he specific value of self transcenden ce goals where the indirect effect becomes significant. As shown in Table 3 3 this value is 80.26.

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21 Table 3 1. Correlations between covariates and study variables. CVQ CGSE SWLS AI_T AI_PS AI_I AI_E Income .10 .03 .10 .10 .01 .01 .15* Level of Education .15 .08 .10 .10 .01 .09 .02 Extraversion .17* .08 .16* .17* .20** .19* .23** Neuroticism .01 .20** .38** .13 .19* .14 .16* = p < .05; ** = p <.01 Note: CVQ = Calling and Voc ation Questionnaire; CGSE = Career Goal Self Efficacy; SWLS = Satisfaction with Life Scale; AI_T = Aspiration Index: Transcendent Goals Subscale; AI_PS = Aspiration Index: Physical Self Goals Subscale; AI_I = Aspiration Index: Intrinsic Goals Subscale; AI_ E = Aspiration Index: Extrinsic Goals Subscale.

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22 Table 3 2. Descriptive statistics and correlations of calling, career goal self efficacy, life satisfaction, and goal aspirations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. Calling 2. Career goal self efficacy .30 ** 3. Life satisfaction .23** .36** 4. Self transcendence goals .56** .34** .32** 5. Physical self goals .05 .24** .34** .41** 6. Intrinsic goals .14 .16* .23** .38** .80** 7. Extrinsic goals .27** .34** .38** .70** .70** .37* Mean 30.80 18.19 23.30 70.06 98.14 165.92 86.13 Standard Deviation 8.04 3.83 7.06 19.72 19.36 24.06 25.99 Note: p < .05, ** p < .01

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23 Table 3 3. Moderated mediation analysis for self mediation of calling and li fe satisfaction. Model Mediator Variable Model Predictor B SE t p Calling .08 .04 1.88 .06 Self transcendence goals .05 .02 3.10 .002** Calling X t ranscenden ce goals .004 .002 2.21 .03* Education .31 .23 1.37 .17 Income .01 .19 .05 .96 Extroversion .02 .08 .31 .76 Neuroticism .19 .08 2.31 .02* Dependent Variable Model Predictor B SE t p CGSE .38 .12 3.16 .001** Education .54 .36 1.51 .13 Income .33 .29 1.14 .25 Extroversion .26 .12 2.11 .04* Neuroticism .76 .13 5.79 .00** Conditional Effects at Self Transcendence 1 SD Self t ranscendence score (a 1 +a 3 W)b 1 SE z p 19.70 .002 .02 .11 .91 0.02 .03 .02 1.56 .12 19.74 .06 .03 2.09 .04* Conditional Effects at Range of Values of Self Transcendence Sel f t ranscendence score (a 1 +a 3 W)b 1 SE z p 64.50 0.02 0.02 1.19 0.23 68.75 0.03 0.02 1.48 0.14 73.00 0.03 0.02 1.71 0.09 77.25 0.04 0.02 1.88 0.06 80.26 0.04 0.02 1.96 0.05* 81.50 0.05 0.02 1.99 0.05* 85.75 0.05 0.03 2.05 0.04* 90.00 0.06 0.03 2.09 0. 04* 94.25 0.06 0.03 2.11 0.04* Note: p < .05, ** p < .01; The conditional indirect effect is calculated (a 1 +a 3 W)b 1 where a 1 is the path from calling to CGSE, a 3 is path from the interaction of calling and transcendent goals to CGSE, W is transcendent go als, and b 1 is the path from CGSE to life satisfaction.

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24 Figure 3 1. Moderated mediation model examining the moderating effect of self transcendence goals on the mediation of calling and life satisfaction by career goal sel f efficacy. Self Transcendence Goals Calling Career Goal Self Efficacy Life Satisfaction

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25 Figure 3 2. Self transcendence goals as a moderator of calling and career goal self efficacy.

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26 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION The primary goal of this study was to explore the links between calling, goal aspirations, and we ll being. Specifically, I investigated if career goal self efficacy mediated the relation between calling and life satisfaction and if goal aspirations moderated this mediation. While controlling for several predictors of life satisfaction (i.e. education income, neuroticism, and extroversion), I found career goal self efficacy to fu lly mediate the relation between calling and life satisfaction. Furthermore, I found that this mediation was moderated by self transcendence goals such that calling was only c onnected to well being through CGSE for those high in self transcendence goals. C orrelations among study variables revealed that calling was most related to self transcendence goals and not related to physical self goals. This finding confirmed my suspic ions and is in line with previous research linking spiritual and community goals to calling and well being (Dik, Sargent, & Steger, 2008; Emmons, Cheung, & Tehrani, 1998; Park et al., 2010). Conversely, calling was related to extrinsic goals but not to in trinsic goals, which disconfirmed my hypotheses and conflicted with previous research linking calling to intrinsic motivation (Dik, Sargent, & Steger, 2008). There may be several reasons for this finding. First, intrinsic goals focus on self actualizatio n, self acceptance, and the acceptance of others. These goals could pursued for personal ends. However, surprisingly, people in my sample who endorsed othe r oriented goals also tended to endorse goals related to money, popularity, and public image. Perhaps people oriented towards the community through their callings may be more aware of popularity or image needs. Regardless, this intriguing finding should be expanded and explored in future research.

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27 The finding that CGSE mediated the relation between calling and life satisfaction supported my initial hypothesis. This suggests that calling may be related to life satisfaction because having a calling increas es career goal self efficacy, which in turn increases well being. In Step 2, my analysis revealed that only self transcendence goals moderated this mediation. In other words, CGSE mediated the relation between calling and life satisfaction only for those high in self intrinsic, extrinsic, or physical self goals. This may mean that in order for people with callings to feel confident about their abilities to accomplish their career goals and reap well being benefits, having high self transcendence goals is important. As previously discussed, callings are careers with other oriented values that often have a component of spirituality (Dik & Duffy, 2009). Clearly, callin gs fit well self transcendence and would provide a means to accomplish self transcendence goals. When people with callings are low in self transcendence goals, there is a discordance between their careers aimed towards prosocial, spiritual gains and their goals that do not share this end. This discordance may cause people to have a lack of confidence in their abilities to achieve their career goals. People who lack confidence in their ability to accomplish career goals may not attain their goals as effec tively, which would lead to well being. Another possible interpretation is offered by self concordance theory. Self concordance theory states that only accomplishing intrinsic goals, which meet basic psychological needs, lead to well being (Sheldon & El liot, 1999). However, this assertion is based on a one dimensional construction of goals: an intrinsic extrinsic dimension. If we consider Grouzet and his (2005) two dimensional model, which includes the self transcendence physical self dimen sion, a new possibility emerges. Perhaps people with callings present a special case within the work domain where the attainment of self transcendence goals is analogous to attaining self

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28 concordant goals, which increases well being. My data suggests tha t this may occur by influencing self efficacy beliefs, which affect goal attainment and subsequent well being. Though this interpretation is tentative given the results, it opens up new avenues for future research. This study had several limitations that suggest areas for future research. For example, the cross sectional nature of this study created several problems. First, causal relationships could not be determined from my data, so the conclusions drawn in the study should be considered tentative. S econd, this study did not allow us to test longitudinal variables important to my theoretical argument, such as goal progress and goal attainment. Future studies should address this by testing the implications of this study. Specifically, my interpretati on implies that calling should predict higher goal attainment and goal progress, which would lead to higher well being. Furthermore, the model suggests that for people with callings this should only occur for those who are not low in self transcendence go als, regardless of their levels of intrinsic, extrinsic, and physical self goals. In addition, c areer goal self efficacy should mediate these relations, especially between self concordant goal formation and goal progress and attainment. Though this study did not take into account the specific content of the career goals rated for self efficacy, future studies should improve on this by assessing self efficacy of goals in specific aspiration domains, such as intrinsic goal self efficacy. In addition, thi s study did not include a number of other goal variables that may play an being. Examples include mastery versus performance goals, approach versus avoidance goals, and constitutive versus instrumental goals. Calling may be particularly related to constitutive goals that, contrary to instrumental goals, are pursued for their own sake, rather than for a specific end (Fowers, Mollica, & Procacci, 2010). However,

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29 this possibly suggests that calling may relate mor e to eudaimonic well being than measures of hedonic well being, such as life satisfaction. Therefore, future studies should address the cross sectional limitation of this study with longitudinal designs and expand on this study by exploring different goal variables and measures of well being. Finally, although I accounted for group differences between my methods of recruitment, obtaining samples from the internet present s several challenges. For example, the MTurk sample included participants from many di fferent countries, including a large number from India. This makes my sample unrepresentative of the American or global population. Future studies should replicate study findings with more controlled samples in order to determine generalizability.

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35 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Born and raised in Perth, Ontario, Canada, Blake now lives in Gainesville, Florida where he is pursuing his PhD in counseling psychology. After receiving his Honors Specialization in Psychol ogy from the University of Western Ontario in 2007, he moved to Vancouver, British Columbia, where he worked as a research coordinator for the University of British Columbia in responsible for running studies examining multiple aspects of mental health, from epilepsy and ADHD to video game addiction. While living in Vancouver, Blake developed an interest in psychotherapy and furthered his education in counseling psychology at U BC. In addition, he began working as a sexual health educator at Options for Sexual Health where he also conducted research. To further his counseling skills, Blake helped design and run a local support group for people experiencing stress due to the rec ession and worked with at risk children and adolescents as an integration support worker. In fall 2010, Blake entered the counseling psychology program at the University of Florida. He has completed his Master of Science degree and is now pursuing his doctorate In addition to working as a therapist and academic adviser within the university, he conducts research on the intersection of positive, counseling, and vocational psychology. In particular, he researches how having meaningful work relates to well being and work related outcomes.