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Big Changes in a Small County

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044159/00001

Material Information

Title: Big Changes in a Small County a Case Study of Economic Development in Wyandotte County, Kansas
Physical Description: 1 online resource (131 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Caper, Brian A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: development -- economic -- incentives -- kansas -- nascar -- sports -- wyandotte
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: As recently as the early 1990s, Wyandotte County was an area in distress. Characterized by racial issues, a population characterized by low income, and an inept local government, the future of the County looked grim. However, after a series of significant political and economic developments over the last fifteen years, Wyandotte County is now one of the top tourist destinations in Kansas. This thesis explores the effects of Wyandotte County’s economic development efforts from 1995 to the present. A case study is used to review and analyze data from a variety of sources. Among the data studied are: demographic information, employment figures, business data, location quotients, aerial maps, and traffic counts. The study also looks at the net economic effects on the County’s residents and the potential for replication of the economic efforts in other locations. During the course of the study, Wyandotte County experienced the consolidation of its government with Kansas City, Kansas, the creation of Sales Tax Revenue Bonds, the construction of the Kansas Speedway, and the development of Village West, a major retail and entertainment district. These changes led to significant changes in the number of new businesses in the County. However, they failed to create many new jobs; instead, they redistributed jobs from one industry to another. The results of the study indicate that the economic development efforts of Wyandotte County failed to create a significant economic impact on the citizens of the County. Despite the changes, the County lags behind the State of Kansas and the nation in median household income, the poverty rate, and education. In addition, many of the potential economic benefits from the Kansas Speedway and Village West are tied up in the repayment of the Sales Tax Revenue Bonds, and therefore not contributing towards the County’s financial situation.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brian A Caper.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Blanco, Andre.
Local: Co-adviser: Jourdan, Dawn.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044159:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044159/00001

Material Information

Title: Big Changes in a Small County a Case Study of Economic Development in Wyandotte County, Kansas
Physical Description: 1 online resource (131 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Caper, Brian A
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: development -- economic -- incentives -- kansas -- nascar -- sports -- wyandotte
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: As recently as the early 1990s, Wyandotte County was an area in distress. Characterized by racial issues, a population characterized by low income, and an inept local government, the future of the County looked grim. However, after a series of significant political and economic developments over the last fifteen years, Wyandotte County is now one of the top tourist destinations in Kansas. This thesis explores the effects of Wyandotte County’s economic development efforts from 1995 to the present. A case study is used to review and analyze data from a variety of sources. Among the data studied are: demographic information, employment figures, business data, location quotients, aerial maps, and traffic counts. The study also looks at the net economic effects on the County’s residents and the potential for replication of the economic efforts in other locations. During the course of the study, Wyandotte County experienced the consolidation of its government with Kansas City, Kansas, the creation of Sales Tax Revenue Bonds, the construction of the Kansas Speedway, and the development of Village West, a major retail and entertainment district. These changes led to significant changes in the number of new businesses in the County. However, they failed to create many new jobs; instead, they redistributed jobs from one industry to another. The results of the study indicate that the economic development efforts of Wyandotte County failed to create a significant economic impact on the citizens of the County. Despite the changes, the County lags behind the State of Kansas and the nation in median household income, the poverty rate, and education. In addition, many of the potential economic benefits from the Kansas Speedway and Village West are tied up in the repayment of the Sales Tax Revenue Bonds, and therefore not contributing towards the County’s financial situation.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brian A Caper.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Blanco, Andre.
Local: Co-adviser: Jourdan, Dawn.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044159:00001


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1 BIG CHANGES IN A SMALL COUNTY: A CASE STUDY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN WYANDOTTE COUNTY, KANSAS By BRIAN ALAN CAPER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Brian Alan Caper

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3 To my family and friends

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my parents for their encouragement and persistence in keeping me on task and focused. My thesis committee, Dr. Andres Blanco, Dr. Dawn Jourdan, and Dr. Ruth Steiner, provided me with a considerable amount of direction and assistance i n making both actual and theoretical connections. I am very thankful to my friends, family, and colleagues who listened to my issues and provided guidance throughout this process. I especially need to thank Mr. Michael Grimm from the Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas. Mr. Grimm was an invaluable resource and connection; without his constant assistance, this thesis would not be possible.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Research Question and Objectives ................................ ................................ ........ 12 Organization ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 12 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ................................ ................................ .............. 14 Economic Development at the Local Level ................................ ............................. 14 The Role of Taxes in Economic Development ................................ ........................ 18 History of Tax Incentives ................................ ................................ .................. 18 Economic Impact of Tax Incentives ................................ ................................ .. 19 Sports as an Economic Development Tool ................................ ............................. 21 Studies with Zero or Negative Economic Effects ................................ .............. 22 Studies with Positive Economic Effects ................................ ............................ 24 Economic Impacts of NASCAR ................................ ................................ ............... 27 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 29 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 31 Study Approach ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 31 Data ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 32 Criticisms of Case Studies ................................ ................................ ................ 33 Su mmary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 34 4 HISTORY OF WYANDOTTE COUNTY, KANSAS ................................ ................. 36 Wyandotte County, Kansas Overview ................................ ................................ .... 36 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 36 Consolidating the Government ................................ ................................ ......... 37 STAR Bonds ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 38 The Kansas Speedway ................................ ................................ ..................... 39 Village West ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 41 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 42

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6 5 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 46 Demographic Data ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 46 Business Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 48 Building Permit Reports ................................ ................................ .......................... 50 Empl oyment Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 51 Quarterly Workforce Indicators ................................ ................................ ......... 51 Economic Profiles ................................ ................................ ............................. 53 Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas Employment Data ................................ ................................ .......................... 54 Location Quotients ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 56 Aerial Maps ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 58 Traffic Counts ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 59 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 62 6 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 86 Occurrence and Effects of Economic Development ................................ ................ 86 Net Economic Effects on Wyandotte County ................................ .......................... 89 Catalysts of Economic Development ................................ ................................ ...... 90 Replication Potential of Economic Development Activity ................................ ........ 92 7 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 94 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 94 Limitations of this Study ................................ ................................ .......................... 96 Recommendations for Further Research ................................ ................................ 96 APPENDIX A DEMOGRA P H IC DATA ................................ ................................ .......................... 97 B BUSINESS LICENSES BY CENSUS TRACT ................................ ........................ 99 C BUILDING PERMIT REPORT DATA ................................ ................................ .... 100 D EMPLOYMENT RAW DATA ................................ ................................ ................. 101 E LOCATION QUOTIENT RAW DATA ................................ ................................ .... 108 F AERIAL MAPS ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 120 G TRAFFIC MAPS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 124 LIST OF REFE RENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 12 7 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 131

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Data and sources for economic analysis ................................ ............................ 35 5 1 Wyandotte County employment, 2001 2010 ................................ ...................... 80 5 2 Wyandotte County employment, 2001 2010, percent change ............................ 81 5 3 Location quotient, Wyandotte County ................................ ................................ 82 5 4 Location quotient, Kansas ................................ ................................ .................. 84

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Map of Wyandotte County ................................ ................................ .................. 44 4 2 Kansas Speedway loca tion ................................ ................................ ................ 45 5 1 Percent change in population ................................ ................................ ............. 64 5 2 Educational attainment ................................ ................................ ....................... 65 5 3 Median household income ................................ ................................ .................. 66 5 4 New business permits by year ................................ ................................ ............ 67 5 5 New business permit map ................................ ................................ .................. 68 5 6 Non residential permits issued by year ................................ ............................... 69 5 7 Value of new construction ................................ ................................ .................. 70 5 8 Total employment for Wyandotte County ................................ ........................... 71 5 9 Total employment for Kansas ................................ ................................ ............. 72 5 10 Jobs created in Wyandotte County ................................ ................................ ..... 73 5 11 Net job flows in Wyandotte County ................................ ................................ ..... 74 5 12 Average monthly earnings for Wyandotte County ................................ .............. 75 5 13 Average monthly earning for Kansas ................................ ................................ .. 76 5 14 Total full time & part time employment in Wyandotte County ............................. 77 5 15 Total full time & part time employment in Kansas ................................ .............. 78 5 16 Average earnings per job ................................ ................................ ................... 79

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning BIG CHANGES IN A SMALL COUNTY: A CASE STUDY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN WYANDOTTE COUNTY, KANSAS By Brian Alan Caper May 2012 Chair: Andres Blanco Cochair: Dawn Jourdan Major: Urban and Regional Planning As recently as the early 1990s, Wyandotte County was an area in distress. Characterized by racial issues, a population characterized by low income, and an inept local government, the future of the c ounty looked grim. However, after a series of significant pol itical and economic developments over the last fifteen years, Wyandotte County is now one of the top tourist destinations in Kansas. efforts from 1995 to the present. A case study is used to review and analyze data from a variety of sources. Among the data studied are: demographic information, employment figures, business data, location quotients, aerial maps, and traffic counts. The study also looks at t he net economic effects on the c replication of the economic efforts in other locations. During the course of the study, Wyandotte County experienced the consolidation of its government with Kansas City, Kansas, the creation of Sales Tax Reven ue Bonds, the construction of the Kansas Speedway, and the development of Village West, a major retail and entertainment district. These changes led to significant changes in the

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10 n umber of new businesses in the c ounty. However, they failed to create many n ew jobs; instead, they redistributed jobs from one industry to another. The results of the study indicate that the economic development efforts of Wyandotte County failed to create a significant economic impact on the citizens of the c ounty. Despite the changes, the c ounty lags behind the State of Kansas and the nation in median household income, the poverty rate, and education. In addition, many of the potential economic benefits from the Kansas Speedway and Village West are tied up in the repayment of the Sales Tax Revenue Bonds, and therefor e not contributing towards the c

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Local governments constantly strive to strengthen their tax base, add jobs to their economy, entice both big and small businesses to their community, and improve the quality of life for their citizens. Economic development is one tool by which governments and other related organizations seek to accomplish these tasks. Economic development comes in a multitude of forms. Incentives, new construction, renovations, financing programs, rebates, and partnerships are just a few ways that cities, states, chambers of commerce, independent organizations, and other entities look to expand the economic activity in their area and spur growth. Economic development is a complex, dynamic, and expansive field. It is often difficult to assess the effectiveness of any economi c development efforts until years after the program, policy, or development has been incentive, they often look at what their neighbors, and ultimately competitors, are doin g to entice business growth and the workforce that comes with it. One area that claims to have had tremendous economic success in a relatively short time period is Wyandotte County, Kansas. Once an afterthought for tourism, Wyandotte County now boasts ove r 10 million visitors annually and a public private investment of over one billion dollars ( Taylor, 2010). Since 1995, the c ounty has seen the consolidation of its city county government, a state wide innovative tax financing program, the construction of a NASCAR racetrack, and the creation of a 400 acre entertainment district. While many studies have been published looking at the effects of these types of economic events individually, very few places have experienced so many political and economically driv en changes so quickly. Therefore, few studies look at how

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12 these events may work in tandem and what benefits or detriments, if any, may develop as a result of each event relating to another. This thesis is a longitudinal case study of Wyandotte County, Kan sas. The study will examine at the econo mic development efforts of the c ounty and then assess the effectiveness of those efforts. Due to the fact that there are an immeasurable amount of will focus on the c passage of a sales tax revenue bond, the construction of a racetrack, and the development of an entertainment district. Research Question and Object ives determine the potential for replication in other areas, this work will address the following question: What were the total and net effects of the economic development efforts tak en by the Unified Government of Wyandotte County, Kansas from 1995 to the present? The primary focus this study is seeking to achieve is to inform other economic development agencies of potential policies and projects for economic development by studying w hat actions had the greatest economic impact on Wyandotte County. Organization This thesis is written in seven chapters. Chapter 2 analyzes previous literature written about the causes and effects of economic development, particularly as they relate to taxation, government, and sports, and then provides a set of ideas and theories that will be analyzed in relation to the results of t his study. Chapter 3 explains the methodology used in this case study. Chapter 4 provides a background of Wyandotte

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13 County and discusses the major dev elopments that occurred in the c ounty during the period of this study. Chapter 5 details the results and f indings obtained from the case study. Chapter 6 discusses those results and relates them back to the theoretical framework of this thesis. Chapter 7 presents a conclusion of this work, describes its limitations, and provides suggestions for future research

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14 CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWOR K Economic development is a broad, well documented topic. Numerous studies, theories, and editorials have been published on economic development and its many facets However, due to the number and variety of publications, there are often conflicting views on how to create economic development and the effectiveness of programs geared towards generating development. In order to gain a stronger understanding of the catalysts of economic development and the ro le they play this chapter will focus on key points of economic development as they relate to Wyandotte County. Due to the overwhelming volume of literature on economic development, it is not possible to identify every trend, study, and model; instead, a f ew studies will be looked at more comprehensively. First, literature regarding local economic development will be reviewed and analyzed. Next, the role of taxes and tax incentives in economic development will be reviewed. Then, this chapter will focus on t he effect sports play as an economic development tool. Following, studies on the economics of NASCAR will be analyzed separately from the other sports studies, as NASCAR is particularly pertinent to the study area. Finally, the literature will be evaluated on what it means to this study and how it relates specifically to Wyandotte County, Kansas. Economic Development at the Local Level Defining exactly what economic development is difficult and varies greatly between states, cities, and other such entities. The concept of economic growth and economic development are often used interchangeably, but Wolman & Spitzley (1996)

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15 increase in the economic well being of area residents, us ually manifested by positive (Wolman & Spitzley, 1996, p.116). As such, economic development can be defined in a very narrow or very broad sense. Land development, urban re newal, and real estate are several of the many areas it can extend into. Economic development theory and practice also spans across disciplines. It can be found in theories and discussions in disciplines of political science, sociology, economics, real est ate, engineering, and urban planning. This mix of focuses and disciplines lends towards economic development being a broad and wide field. States often have offices that oversee economic development programs and legislation. However, it is on the local lev el that most of the work is done and whose entities often play the largest role in economic development on a day to day basis. In their work Wolman & Spitzley (1996) reviewed a wide range of literature on local economic development to determine the force s behind local economic development activity. They surmised the reason local governments engage in economic of capital across fixed geographic boundaries within a highly fragmented system of local situation, cities must improve their attractiveness by engaging in economic development activities. By improving their attractiveness, they can en tice businesses and a labor force to locate within their boundaries, thereby improving their market position (Peterson, 1981). Economic development efforts similar to those in the United States can be witnessed in much of the Western World, where local gov ernments are less

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16 fragmented. Despite the difference in local government structure the policies adopted by local governments are similar. Wolman and Spitzley contribute this similarity to the fied land use that & Spitzley, pg 118). Local governments push for economic development because, in part, they profit from the increase in land value and land development. While the primary goals of economic development, as laid out by Wolman & Spitzley, are increasing employment, income, or both; they are quick to comment that those goals are not mutually consistent. It is possible to increase employment by lowering income or attracting residents from outside the local boundaries (Wolman & Spitzley, 1996). Economic development comes in many forms, including policies, tools, and activities. Policies may be either supply side or demand side. Certain economic development activities aim to attract economic development through supply side factors and other activi ties look to the demand side factors such as expanding or creating new markets for goods and services and promotion businesses creation and expansion from within. Eisinger (1988) identifies supply side economic development activities as traditional and dem and side activities as entrepreneurial (Eisinger, 1988). Examples of traditional economic development include: tax incentives, infrastructure investment, policy, enterprise zones, and land development. Entrepreneurial economic development programs include business incubators, venture capital financing, small business support, and job training programs. Where traditional approaches look to public intervention to attract economic activity, entrepreneurial approaches look to the use of government to shape mark et structure and opportunity (Wolman & Spitzley, 1996). A

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17 study by Reese (1993) identified 55 different tools that were used in economic development. Reese then grouped the tools into four general categories: marketing factors (brochures, visits to potenti al businesses), financial factors (incentives), land and property management factors (land acquisition, transfer of development rights), and governance/infrastructure factors (historic preservation, public safety) (Reese, 1993). Fleischmann, Green, and Kw ong (1992) also developed a classification of economic development tools. They identified nine different categories: loan incentives, financial incentives, regulatory reform, historic preservation, developmental land management, aesthetic improvement, revi talization activities, activities to attract and/or retain business, and management of city facilities (Fleischmann, Green, Kwong, 1992). Public infrastructure projects have routinely been noted as a way to create economic activity through the development of new jobs. Infrastructure projects create attractive to potential businesses and households (Eberts, 1990). A study conducted by Randall Eberts in 1990, titled Public Inf rastructure and Regional Economic Development analyzed the economic effects of infrastructure improvements on various cities throughout the United States. Eberts concluded that public investment in infrastructure projects had the greatest economic activit y on distressed cities and Sunbelt cities. Sunbelt cities often have less stock in public infrastructure when compared with their northern counterparts. Eberts concluded the study demonstrated the importance of cities to ensure their current infrastructure was constantly being maintained, improved, and expanded in order to support future infrastructure growth (Eberts, 1990).

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18 If local governments have similar goals of increasing employment and income, why is there variation in the types of economic developme nt activities that these governments engage in? Wolman & Spitzley hypothesize this is due to the fiscal needs, economic growth, and deindustrialization of each locality. Other factors play into this variation as well. The needs of the citizens, competition from other local governments, the structure of the government, and the size of the population all help to fracture the amount and types of economic development that governments engage in. Some forms of economic development might be better suited to a smal l rural area, whereas other forms might be better suited to a large city (Wolman & Spitzley, 1996). The Role of Taxes in Economic D evelopment Government economic development entities routinely use tax credits and exemptions as a way to incentivize busines ses to locate or expand within their region. Often these tax incentives come with a stipulation requiring a certain amount of job creation, average wage, or capital improvement. Despite the widespread use of these types of incentives, many believe they are ultimately ineffective and view it as a form of corporate welfare They argue that businesses would likely make the same decisions and take the same actions, regardless of incentives, if it is ultimately good for the business; therefore, the need to subsid ize these corporate decisions with government incentives is purely moot (Buss, 2001). History of Tax Incentives The idea of offering tax incentives to businesses is an old one. In the late 1700s New Jersey offered Alexander Hamilton tax incentives to place a factory in their state. This practice spread to other cities and states and soon became common place. By the mid 20 th century, almost half of the United States had some form of tax incentives in

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19 place (Buss, 2001). As cities and states created new tax i ncentives to try to differentiate themselves from one another, their neighbors were quick to create the same incentive in order to remain competitive. By 1995, 25 states used each of the 15 most common forms of tax incentives and 12 of the most common tax incentives were used by two thirds of the states (Buss, 2001). As more and more tax incentives were created, the need to justify their use became a larger issue. Generally, government entities do not consider these incentives to be a detriment to the publi c since the incentives are usually considered as free money. They represent the revenue foregone, rather than an expense on the government. Additionally, without the incentive, it is often assumed that the businesses would resort to moving elsewhere, so wi th or without the incentive, there is still same end result. It is also generally believed that the long term benefits of the jobs created and improvement to the quality of life will far outweigh the costs of losing out on tax revenue (Buss, 2001). Tax inc entives are favored by politicians since they can credit themselves when the incentives go well and blame the economy when they go bad. Also, since a majority of tax incentives do not require approval from a public board, nor are they part of the budgeting process, the public remains relatively unaware of businesses that are receiving incentives or the potential amount of those incentives (Buss, 2001). Economic Impact of Tax Incentives Most literature focuses on whether tax incentives are either effective or ineffective. Due to the amount of studies, and in part the amount of opinions, it is easy to choose a study that reinforces either side of the argument. The results of tax incentive literature vary widely between studies. This variation is attributable to numerous factors including the locations studied, the methods used, and the time periods during which the study

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20 occurred. The variety of results observed makes it difficult to accurately assess the economic impact and effectiveness of tax incentives. A Luger and Suho Bae found that 3.6% of all new jobs reported were induced through incentives. By that reasoning, the cost per induced job was approximately $147,463 on average in 1 999. This shows that the employment effect of tax incentives is quite low. However, the researchers acknowledge that there are benefits to these incentives beyond employment, such as increased productivity, which are not accounted for (Luger & Bae, 2005). University and Georgia State University concluded that 3 in 10 jobs created in the state were attributable to the tax credit. They also credited the program with providing th e state with additional revenue and less additional expenditures as a result of the increased economic activity from the jobs created. Their study concluded that the state stood to gain a net fiscal benefit between $359 and $5,936 per job created under the program depending on whether the jobs went to new residents or current residents. They also noted the incentive provided an improved business climate in the state (Ihlanfeldt & Sjoquist, 2001). Terry Buss is quick to dismiss these studies in his study, Th e Effect of State Tax Incentives on Economic Growth and Firm Location Decisions: An Overview of the Literature He claims it is not possible to determine how, when, and where taxes should matter to states. Although tax incentives might be necessary for fir ms to increase their viability in particular locations, it is not possible to determine which businesses or where

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21 (Buss, 2001). Instead of evaluating the effectiveness of current incentives, he lies out a set of policy provisions that tax incentive program s should conform to in order to best serve their intended purpose. Buss claims that policy makers should r equire cost benefit studies prior to awarding tax incentives to firms, periodic evaluations of all tax incentive programs, sunset provisions for all e conomic development legislation in order to terminate poorly performing programs, truth and disclosure in financing provisions, legally binding performance contracts, as well as e mbed incentive programs in strategic plans, e liminate entitlements to incenti ves, a ward incentives only if they do not put other business in less competitive positions, a void redistributing wealth through incentives, c oncentrate on diverse sectors, a nd encourage public participation. Buss concludes his study with the claim that thi s set of criteria leads to better tax incentive programs and therefore better economic development activities and results (Buss, 2001). Literature shows that tax incentives have been a large part of economic development for centuries. However, they still remain a contested a topic. Due to the number of variables that play into the success or failure of an economy it is difficult to isolate the effects of one particular subsidy or program. The conducted studies give wildly different results and provide no c ensus for determining the effectiveness of tax incentives on the well being of a business or on a community. Sports as an E conomic D evelopment T ool Numerous studies have been conducted examining the effectiveness of sports as an economic development tool. This portion of the theoretical framework will review and analyze previous works that discuss the effects that sports and stadiums have on an area and the effectiveness of sports as an economic development tool. The use of sports for economic development i s widely debated and as such, t hese works often

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22 have contradicting viewpoints and results; therefore, this section is broken into studies that claim sports have zero or negative economic effects and studies that claim sports have positive economic effects. Studies with Zero or N egative E conomic E ffects A study conducted by John Siegfried and Andrew Zimbalist found that the average cost of facility construction rose from $3.8 million in the 1950s to $200 million in the late 1990s. A s sport leagues expanded, cities began intense competition promising more attractive facilities and lease deals than the others. The study reasoned that cities were willing to construct facilities for new teams rather than offer cash subsidies for six reasons. First, the constructi on may help secure political support for the expenditure from contractors, property owners, and labor unions. Second, a team is usually leased to the stadium for 20 or 30 years, tying that team to the city. Third, the stadium provides an ongoing incentive for the team to perform well, which in turn will keep attendance high. Fourth, the 1986 Tax Reform Act has indirectly caused taxpayers throughout the nation to subsidize local sports facilities. Fifth, by demonstrating that the only subsidies they will pro vide are in the form of a facility, other potential subsidy recipients may be deterred from asking. Finally, cash subsidies are viewed politically unhealthy for politicians (Siegfried & Zimbalist, 2000). The study finds professional sports teams do not pro mote economic development for three reasons: the substitution effect, extensive leakages, and the negative effect on local government budgets. It is argued that without a sports franchise in town, the potential ticket holder would spend their money on a d ifferent form of entertainment in the same city. Additionally, fifty five to sixty percent of the major team revenues go to player compensation, with the remaining percent going to owners for other expenses.

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23 The money passed to players rarely is spent on t he local economy, since they spend a majority of their time traveling. Also, if the city agrees to finance the project through public debt, budgetary gaps are likely, requiring the city to terminate services or lic subsidies for new stadiums and arenas are commonly justified on the basis of economic benefits they will confer on the local economy rather than on public consumption externalities or on the value of an 2000). A study conducted by Robert A. Baade (1994) developed a test for the statistical significance of pro fessional hosted a professional team in baseball, football, basketball, or hockey or a new professional sports stadium or arena ten years old or less. The test adjusted for economic activity that would mimic national, regional, and state trends and looked for economic activity that was inspired by a factor unique to the city in the form of per capita personal income growth. The results of the model found that in 30 of the 32 MSAs had a change in the number of sports teams no significant relationship between presence of a professional team and per capita personal income growth. One city had a statistically positive relationship and one city had a statistically negative relationship. Of the 30 MSAs where there was a change in the number of stadiums, 27 had no significant relationship between the presence of a stadium and per capita personal in come growth. All three cases that did have a significant relationship were significantly negative. Baade also looked at the impact that sports teams and stadiums have on per capita personal income growth on a regional level. The 32 MSAs were divided into 8

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24 statistically significant impact on the region. However, the presence of a new stadium had a statistically significant presence in 4 of the 8 regions. In the Rocky Mount ain region and in the Southwest region, the relationship was positive between stadiums and per capital personal income growth. In the Far West region and the New England region, that relationship was negative. Since no teams had a statistically significant relationship to a region, Baade concludes that the economic effects of a sports team do not extend throughout an entire region. In the discussion and conclusion of the study, Baade states the types of jobs induced by stadiums are usually low paying, low s killed, and seasonal. Additionally, he concludes sports do not expand spending, but only realign spending. Therefore he believes public funding in professional sports and stadiums are not a sound economic investment (Baade, 1994). Studies with P ositive E c onomic E ffects Timothy Chapin, an assistant professor in Urban and Regional Planning at Florida n due to common perceptions that those were among the most successful downtown sited sports facilities. Both parks are located in the downtown and connected visually and physically with their surroundings and both feature a mix of uses on site, such as res taurants, office space, and retail. Chapin analyzed these stadiums to determine if Robertson in his 1995 work, Downtown Redevelopment Strategies in the United States: An End of the Century Assessment. The first of these objectives was to generate spillover spending benefits for the surrounding district, meaning underutilized or vacant buildings surrounding the project should have some form of conversion to a higher use.

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25 N ext, Robertson claimed an activity generator must generate new construction in the district. Finally, the generator must rejuvenate a blighted area (Robertson, 1995). Chapin evaluated these two stadiums against the three objectives set by Robertson to asce rtain the effectiveness of the stadiums as redevelopment catalysts. the redevelopment of downtown Baltimore, but instead incorporated an area of the City that was industrial in to a tourist destination. He believed that the redevelopment of experiencing strong redevelopment prior to the construction of Camden Yards. Additionally, much of the land avail able for redevelopment surrounding Camden Yards has been transformed into parking, thereby pushing potential redevelopment sites away from the stadium. Chapin suggests that Camden Yards is responsible for some of the larger tenants that located in renovate d areas downtown, particularly ESPNZone, who would have bypassed opening in Baltimore altogether had it not been for the success of Camden Yards (Chapin, 2004). In contrast to Camden Yards, Gateway did provide ample redevelopment opportunities in downtown Cleveland. The downtown area has seen a significant number of new projects since the opening of Gateway. Vacant housing in the area has since been renovated and now serves as market rate housing for the middle upper class. From 1994 2004 over seven residen tial projects with over 800 total combined units have opened near the stadium. Those residential properties led to an inflow of development of retail, restaurants, and commerci al property. However, Chapin points

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26 out that all this redevelopment came at a cost. Many of the businesses in existence prior to the construction of Gateway were quickly shut down as the neighborhood gentrified. Additionally, the development of the area ca me at the expense of development in downtown Cleveland. Money that might have been spent on activities and development downtown shifted to the Gateway area as a result of the stadium. The massive exodus as businesses left for the newer and more successful Gateway. This supports the idea that a city only has a limited potential for entertainment districts and the growth and success of one district may ultimately disrupt the growth and succe ss of another (Chapin, 2004). Charles Tu (2005) published a study looking at the relationship between housing values and FedEx Field in Washington D.C. Tu employed a hedonic pricing model on the properties surrounding the stadium. He compared the price bet ween single family homes located in close proximity to the stadium versus the price of single family housing with similar attributes located a distance from the stadium. The model showed that properties close to the stadium sold at a discount, but further analysis revealed the price differential between housing close to the stadium and housing further away existed well before the stadium was built. However, the price gap started to narrow once the announcement of the stadium site was made. The price gap shr unk even more once the stadium was complete. Houses within 2.5 miles of the stadium saw the largest increase in price improvement. The study estimates the aggregate increase in property value after construction of FedEx Field was $42 million. Tu identifies several factors that might have led to the price improvement by creating external benefits to local residents. The government funded nearly $70 million in road improvements around the stadium

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27 site. The stadium also created employment opportunities for an area that was primarily a low income, minority community. The stadium also provided a recreational outlet for the neighborhood and surrounding community. Ultimately, the study concluded that FedEx Field went against the majority of thought, that believes s tadiums adversely affect housing values, and actually helped to increase the housing value around the of a stadium outweighs the effects of negative externalities on th 2005). Economic Impacts of NASCAR NASCAR events are different from other sporting events due the infrequency of the races and size of the venues. The largest National Football League stadium is MetLife Stadium, home to the New York Giants and the New York Jets, with a capacity of 82,500 (MetLife Stadium, 2012). By comparison, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway is over three times as large, with a permanent seat capacity of 257,325. This figure does not include other non permanent seating, suc h as the track lawn. Although there is no formal number, some estimates project a crowd of nearly 500,000 on race day ( Cavin, 2004). NASCAR tracks are more scarce then other sporting venues, which make them more of a regional draw. A study using the IMPLA N Economic Model determined the economic impact the Darlington Raceway had on the Pee Dee region in South Carolina. The Pee Dee region is in the northeastern corner of the state and serves as a tourist area with beaches, amusement parks, and golf. The Darl ington Raceway holds two weekend races a year, the Southern 500 and Darlington 200, and has a yearly direct economic impact of $29,672,352, while also creating an indirect and induced impact of $16,547,705, for a

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28 total economic impact of $46,220,057. Taxes on the event brought the local, county, state, and federal government $2,693,611. The economic activity produced 908 direct or indirect jobs throughout the Pee Dee region in South Carolina. The study estimated that over 156,075 non regional race fans visi ted the area during the races (Bernthal & Regan, 2004). This data in this study provides data that is a compelling incentive for governments to invest in attracting similar events. A separate study, NASCAR as a Public Good looked at the effects of a NASCAR race on residential rents in the surrounding area. The researchers created a hedonic model of the rental price of housing to determine if the addition of a race track added any local economic value. The model tested for different track variables based on the type of race held at the track (Cup, Grand National, or Truck) and interactions based on the track and the surrounding area. Through the model, it was demonstrated that NASCAR variables are different on central city a nd non central city housing. No track variable proved to be significant to central city housing. However, the track itself did have a statistically significant positive effect on central city housing. In non central city housing, the model reported a decre ase in rent by 9.2% and 7.2% for Cup and Truck Series races, but an increase in rent by 19.8% for Grand National Series races. Authors contribute this large disparity in the effects on rent to a limited sample set. The study concluded that the presence of a track alone had a positive influence on the rental price of housing, particularly in central city housing; however, specific individual races had little or negative economic effect and were primarily not statistically significant. This indicates that the real economic benefit from a NASCAR track comes from non race related activities. The authors conclude that there is not enough evidence to indicate

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29 specific races are encouraging economic development in the area (Coates & Gearhart, 2007). These studies provide somewhat conflicting views and evidence in the economic impact on NASCAR tracks. Although they looked at different variables, it is logical to imply the effects seen by one study should somehow flow into the other. If rents are increasing, it can b e construed that the location is becoming more desirable and demand is increasing, which in turn would lead to a larger economic impact. Similarly, if an area is seeing a large direct and indirect economic impact, it could be argued that rents in the area would go for a higher premium. While the IMPLAN study showed a very large impact on the immediate and surrounding areas, the hedonic model study demonstrated that the effects of NASCAR related events on rents was marginal at best. Summary This chapter exam ines several studies and papers across several different aspects of economic development. The practice of local economic development has been identified and rationalized. These represent only a small fraction of the available literature on the various topi cs within economic development. It is important to understand how these studies correlate to the theories and practices of economic development and how that can translate to the Wyandotte County area. The literature has laid a ground work for why governmen ts partake in economic development and the various ways they do so. One particular way governments aim to attract businesses is through the use of tax incentives. There are several different types of tax incentives, ranging from rebates to exemptions to ta x increment financing. The effectiveness of these incentives is difficult to access and unfortunately most of the literature available is inconclusive as to which incentives will effectively work and which will not. One

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30 incentive that is not heavily discus sed in literature is Sales Tax Revenue Bonds (STAR Bonds), an incentive that was used in the development of the Kansas Speedway and neighboring Village West project. This incentive will be reviewed more thoroughly later in this work. A popular, and contro versial, form of economic development is the use of using sports and stadiums to spur development. Sports are a particularly contentious issue when determining their effectiveness on economic development, with strong opinions in favor and against its use. As witnessed through the studies, it seems universally agreed upon that externalities play a large part in the positive and negative economic impacts of stadiums. The type of sport and location of the venue also play an important role in the economic impac t of the area. Many the studies provide conflicting reports on whether the impacts provided by sports and venues are positive, negative, or zero. Additionally, several of the studies that do exhibit economic development from sports related activities fail to demonstrate whether the changes are truly the creation of new development, or the redistribution of development from other areas or potential projects. Sports, combined with the tax incentives and other economic development tools associated with them, a re often analyzed to better understand their effects and the legitimacy of using sports as a driver of economic development, only to find that there is no clear consensus or easy universal answer.

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31 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This thesis seeks to determine if Wyandotte County, Kansas experienced economic development and growth from 1995 to the present. This work looks to identify the major causes of any economic development witnessed. By understanding what termine the potential for replicating those catalysts in other communities as a way to foster economic development in other parts of the country. Wyandotte County was selected as the study area for this thesis due to the amount of large changes that have o ccurred within the c ounty in a short p eriod of time. Since 1995, the c ounty quickly saw its tourism numbers increase drastically and is now one of the most visited areas in the State of Kansas (Fact Sheet, 2012). This chapter will lay the foundation for th e process in which this study was conducted. Study Approach This thesis is a longitudinal case study of Wyandotte County, Kansas. Various sources of data will be reviewed and analyzed to determine if any economic development activity occurred from 1995 to the present, what caused that economic development activity, and if it is possible to replicate that economic activity in another location. This study originally developed as a quantitative analysis of the economic impact of the Kansas Speedway on the surr ounding area. However, after further researching the history and background of Wyandotte County, it became apparent that the Kansas Speedway was only one major development in a series of major events for Wyandotte County. Additionally, as discussed in the theoretical framework, there is a large volume of studies on the economic effects of sports and stadiums on a

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32 community. While careful not to discredit any of the previous data and studies conducted, the results often contradict one another, leading to amb iguity as to the true quantitative effects of sports on economic development and the best way in which to measure its effects. Given those circumstances, this thesis evolved to study the c ounty as a whole, looking for economic trends and spikes from 1995 t o the present and then tying those trends to t he activities occurring in the c ounty, to determine what caused the observed changes. A case study was chosen as the method for this study due to the fact that case studies provide the flexibility to organize volumes of information about a case and then examine the information in order to seek patterns and themes (Kumar, 2005). The study conducted in this work is investigating the occurrence of economic development in Wyandotte County within real life context, by incorporating numerous constantly changing variables. Additionally, the study relies on multiple sources of evidence and attempts to triangulate the data into the occurrence of one or more economic development generating events (Yin, 2009). Data This study will rely on both qualitative and quantitative data from a variety of sources in order to answer the question set forth in the beginning of this work. In order to determine whether any economic development occurred, data regarding demographics, emplo yment, construction, traffic counts, location quotients, aerial maps, and business related data will be analyzed. Once the data has been studied and analyzed it will be linked to events happening in Wyandotte County at that point in time, in order to isola te what event, or events, was causing the changes seen in the data.

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33 Once the changes in data are correlated with economic producing events, the potential for replicating for those effects in other economies will be theorized. The data analyzed in this stu dy consists of primarily secondary data from government agencies including: the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the U.S. Census Bureau, and various departments of the Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas, as outlined in Table 3 1. Due to differences in the time periods and methods these departments use to collect and report data, not all sources are available for the entire time span of this study. To account for this, each source will be anal yzed independently of the data available. Once a change or trend is identified within that source, it will then be compared to other sources for further analysis. The analysis will be performed with the aid of tables, charts, and maps, developed from data pertaining to Wyandotte County. The data will be analyzed and compared to the data for the State of Kansas and the U.S., when necessary, to identify any special variations or trends that would indicate changes, growth, or decay of economic activity. Criti cisms of Case S tudies Critics of case studies view the method as a less desirable form of inquiry than other research methods, as they tend to be less rigorous than other methods. Robert Yin identifies four common criticisms of case studies in his book Cas e Study Research First, case studies are open to biases from the author that can influence the direction of the findings, as well as the conclusion of the study. It is possible to deliberately alter the evidence, by omitting data or overemphasizing the im portance of a piece of data, in order to more effectively demonstrate a particular point. Second, case studies are objected to because they do not provide a large opportunity for scientific generalization.

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34 The goal of a case study is to expand and generali ze theories, not to compute statistical data. As such, single case studies have the goal of creating a generalized analysis rather than a particular analysis. The third criticism of case studies is that they take too long to perform and often result in len gthy narratives. Finally, a case study is a type of non experimental method; therefore, they are not designed to provide direct analysis of in a particular way. Yin is quick to comment that case studies are difficult to perform because the skills for performing a good case study has not been defined (Yin, 2009). While several of these criticisms cannot be directly addressed, efforts will be taken to minimize bias by revi ewing and evaluating each source of data equally. Summary This thesis will analyze sets of qualitative and quantitative data through a case study design. A case study was selected due to the fact this study will cope with a large set of variables and mult iple sources of evidence. The evidence will be cross examined with other data, in order to identify irregularities in the data. Once patterns and irregularities in the data are identified, they will be matched with major events occurring in Wyandotte Count y, Kansas at that time in order to determine what was causing the fluctuations in the data. Once all the data has been studied, the potential for the replication of the results in other areas will be contemplated and theorized.

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35 Table 3 1. Data and s ources for e conomic a nalysis Data Source Quarterly Workforce Indicators U.S. Census Bureau Regional Economic Profiles U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis Demographic Data U.S. Census Bureau Location Quotients U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Wyandotte County Employment Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas Traffic Count Maps Kansas Department of Transportation Aerial Images Google Earth Business License Data Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas Building Permit Report Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas

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36 CHAPTER 4 HISTORY OF WYANDOTTE COUNTY, KANSAS It is important to understand the context in which Wyandotte County, Kansas fits into the surrounding areas of Kansas and neighbo ring Missouri. As of 1995, the c ounty was considered an inner ring suburb of the Kansas City metropolitan area. It was an area in political turmoil and faced social issues focused on income and race (Brinson, 2006). Kansas City, Kansas, w 1990s, Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas underwent a series of events that changed the area from a once forgotten and condemned area to one of the most not able and popular commercial districts (Brinson, 2006). Wyandotte County, Kansas Overview Wyandotte County is located in northeast Kansas. It is the smallest county in Kansas, by land size. The c ounty is located primarily between the Kansas and Missouri Riv ers. The county seat and most populous city is Kansas City, Kansas, with a population of 145,786 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010a). A map of Wyandotte County and its location within the State of Kansas is portrayed in Figure 4 1. Demographics According to the 20 10 U.S. Census, the population of Wyandotte County is 157,505. The c nearly 30% of the popul ation under the age of 18. The c ounty is more racially diverse than the State with a racial compos ition of approximately 57% White, 27% Black, and 26% Hispanic of any race (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010a). The median household income is $37,293, compared to the State median income of $48,257. The mean household

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37 income of Wyandotte County is $47,212, less th per capita income for Wy andotte County is $17,750. The c ounty has a high poverty rate with 24.3% of citizens living below the poverty level (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010b). The c ounty also has a lower educational attainme nt than the rest of the State with 14.5% of the State of Kansas (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010c). The unemployment rate in 2010 was 10.4%, higher than the state unemployment rate o f 7.0% (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012). The cost of living index for the Kansas City Metropolitan Area is 99.4 according Index for 2011, implying the cost of living for the area is very close to the average cost of living for the United States (ACCRA, 2012). Consolidating the Government The b iggest governmental change the c ounty experienced in recent times came in 1997 when residents voted to consolidate Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas into one political unit, the Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas. The process of consolidation was a long one, with the idea being first presented in the early 1990s. Facing rising costs for services and an ev er eroding tax base, the local governments agreed to consolidate several city services including trash pickup, police and jails, and snow plowing services in 1991. Although the idea of consolidation was popular with the general public, it drew ire from sev eral local city politicians who saw the move shift power away from the city and towards the county. However, as time progressed the idea of consolidating other government services started to gain momentum. A task force was created to study the effects of c onsolidation and what, if any, potential savings the consolidation would bring to the

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38 area. After assessing the potential effects, the task force recommended consolidation re commendation to consolidate in 1995. The Kansas Legislature reviewed the study and approved a public vote for consolidation. Then in 1997, a public vote was held to determine if the c ity and c ounty would consolidate. The voters approved consolidation by a vote of three to two and the Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas was formed (Brinson, 2006). STAR Bonds An important development factor that had profound impacts on Wyandotte County, during the study period, was the development a nd utilization of STAR bonds, sales tax revenue bonds used to finance major economic development projects. The State of Kansas was the first to pass STAR bonds as a form of economic incentive. The incentive was initially created to help finance a Wizard of Oz theme park, which was never developed. The Kansas Speedway became the first project to receive the incentive. STAR bonds were also used to finance the Village West project. To date, over $520 million in STAR bonds have been issued in Kansas (Duggan, 20 12). In STAR bonds, sales tax revenues generated by the development are used to pay off the bond. STAR bonds are issued generally by city governments and have a 20 year repayment period. However, an exception was made for the Kansas Speedway, which has a 3 0 year repayment period (Kansas Legislator, 2012). Despite being issued by the government, the bonds are ultimately purchased by investors. Therefore, if a project fails to generate enough revenue to repay the bond, the State maintains zero liability and the obligation rests with the investors who purchased the bonds (About Kansas City, 2012).

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39 statewide and regional destination, and include a high quality innovative entertainment an d tourism attraction, containing unique features which will increase tourism, generate significant positive and diverse economic and fiscal impacts and be capable of project m ust have at least a $50 million capital investment and $50 million in projected gross annual sales revenue. Projects involving gambling are excluded from the use of STAR Bonds (Kansas Legislator, 2012). Additionally, public benefits must exceed the public costs for the project to be eligible. The financing through STAR bonds should be less than fifty percent of the total projects costs (Guidance to STAR Bond Applicants, 2012). The Kansas Speedway s history was the construction of the Kansas Speedway. In 1996, the ISC announced that it was considering expanding to the Kansas City area by building a speedway designed to hold several types of races. Upon the initial announcement, several counties in t he area started to develop proposals for the track. Johnson County, Kansas and Platte and Clay Counties, Missouri all made bids for the racetrack. After reviewing the sites the counties nominated for the track, the ISC first eliminated Clay County, citing too many infrastructure issues. After a visit to the Daytona Speedway in Florida, Johnson County removed itself from contention, deciding that a racetrack would ruin the small town feel of their selected site. The proposal also faced criticism from residen ts who felt the track was too close to residential areas. That left only Platte County, which had a small budget and was unable to offer the incentives that the ISC was seeking, and Wyandotte

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40 County. Though initially declining to place a bid, Wyandotte Cou nty reversed its position, hoping to keep Kansas in the picture. The Kansas Legislature allowed Wyandotte County to grant tax incentives for the speedway. In addition, Johnson County, Wyandotte County sales tax revenues due to the economic benefits they would receive from the nearby speedway. After reviewing the bid from Wyandotte County, the ISC announced they would negotiate exclusively with the c co nsideration (Brinson, 2006). Government officials and ISC representatives agreed to locate the track near the intersection of Interstate 435 and Interstate 70. The location of the racetrack is indicated in Figure 4 attractor. However, it was occupied by 136 residences and four businesses. Through the use of eminent domain, the c ounty the acquisition of property led to major litigatio n from the property holders. They argue that the speedway represented a private entity and therefore eminent domain could not be used. However, the Kansas Supreme Court upheld the use of eminent domain to take private property for economic development purp oses. The Court held that the Kansas Speedway was a valid project for public purposes and therefore ruled that eminent domain authority could be exercised. Years after the case, the Legislature city that exercises eminent domain to acquire propert y must compensate the property owner with at least 200 percent of the appraised valuation eminent domain statute (Briefing book, 2011).

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41 The ISC decided to build the track in two phases. Phase One was the 75,000 seat track, costing $198 mil lion, and Phase Two added double the initial capacity from Phase One, costing an additional $54 million. As part of the incentives offered, the ISC was granted a 30 year abatement on property taxes, received money from revenue bonds, generated from tax inc rement financing and sales taxes, and also revenue to repay the bonds. ISC was granted a total of $107 million from the revenue funds, $67 million came from thirty year tax increment bonds and $40 million from state issued STAR bonds (Brinson, 2006). Const stadium in May 1999. In May of 2000, NASCAR and Indy Racing League announced they would hold races at the speedway starting in 2001. The project was completed in early 2001 and held its fi rst event in June 2001, the NASCAR Winston West Series Kansas 150 (Kansas Speedway, 2012). Since its construction, the speedway has hosted several different racing circuits including: the Indy Racing League, NASCAR Busch Series, NASCAR Winston Series, NASC AR Truck Series, and the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. Currently, the speedway hosts four major races a year (Kansas Speedway, 2012). In 2012, the Kansas Speedway opened the Hollywood Casino, a $441 million, 95,000 square foot casino that overlooks turn two of the speedway. The casino has created 1,000 jobs and is projected to host 4 million people a year, giving the area an estimated $220 million economic boost (FoxNews, 2012). Village West Following construction of the Kansas Speedway, the Unified Government announced they planned to build a 400 acre tourism district adjacent to the speedway. The development would cost $236.6 million dollars, an attractor to the area on a year

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42 round basis, not just on race day. Officials originally estimated the project would generate $10 million in property taxes in its first four years, $5 million annually after that, and create 3,350 permanent jobs (Brinson, 2006). Village West quickly became the Today, Village W est is home to a diverse range of shopping, dining, hotel, and entertainment attractions. Some of the attractions in the area include: The Legends at Village West (an outdoor mall with 1.2 million square feet of gross leasable area), Legends Theatre (an 86 ,916 square foot, 14 screen movie theater), four hotels combining for over 350 rooms, Community America Ballpark (multipurpose stadium), the Great Wolf Lodge (Indoor waterpark and resort), and a Major League Soccer stadium, LIVESTRONG Sporting Park (Villag e West, 2012). In addition to developments within the immediate Village West development, the surrounding area has also seen an increase in economic activity. Schlitterbahn Vacation Village, a 370 acre, $750 million development that includes a waterpark, h otel, and 750,000 square feet of retail space, opened in 2009 next to Village West (Schlitterbahn, 2012). Summary Wyandotte County underwent a series of major changes that saw the consolidation of city county government; the passage of a unique economic development financing tool; the construction of a NASCAR series raceway; and the development of a multi million doll ar, 400 acre entertainment district. For the purposes of this study, it is assumed that these changes would have created some economic changes within the c ounty. In Chapter 5 various sources of data will be evaluated in order to determine what, if any, ec onomic development occurred in the c ounty. Once that development is identified, the data will be cross referenced with the history of the

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43 c ounty in order to determine what events had an economic change on Wyandotte County, Kansas. Finally, those results wi ll be analyzed in order to determine the potential for the replication of the economic development witnessed in Wyandotte County in other areas.

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44 Figure 4 1. Map o f Wyandotte County

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45 Figur e 4 2. Kansas Speedway location

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46 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS This chapt er details the results of the case study analysis using the sources of data defined in Table 3 1. In order to determine if any economic development activity occurred in Wyandotte County, each of the sources of data will be reviewed and analyzed, looking fo r any trends or deviations that may indicate a change by an outside force. These sources will first be studied individually to determine if any changes took place. After analyzing the individual components, they will be combined together to see if there ar e any trends in the data. This will ultimately be used to identify if economic development took place in Wyandotte County. Since the data is provided through several different sources, not all data will be available for the entire time period of the study. Additionally, due to the differences in collecting and reporting data, certain information may be inconsistent across the different sources. Demographic Data In order to evaluate any fundamental changes in the composition of the population of Wyandotte Co unty, data from the 2000 Census, 2010 Census, and 2010 American Community Survey was reviewed and analyzed. The data reviewed includes population, age, housing, race, education, and income. This data can be found in Appendix A. Between 2000 and 2010, the population of Wyandotte County remained fairly constant, shrinking by 0.24% from 157,882 in 2000 to 157,505 in 2010. In contrast, all the counties surrounding Wyandotte County saw an increase in population. Figure 5 1 shows the percent change in populat ion from 2000 to 2010 by county. The median age of Wyandotte County also remained fairly constant, increasing just slightly to 32.8 from 32.5 in 2000. The housing market showed a shift towards renter occupied housing from

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47 2000 2010, as the number of renter oc cupied housing increased by 4.49% and the number of owner occupied housing decreased by 6.12% in that time period. By comparison, the number of renter occupied housing increased by 12.3% and the number of owner occupied housing increased by 4.84% in the St ate of Kansas. This indicates that the State saw a similar shift towards renter occupied housing as it increased at a faster rate; however, unlike Wyandotte County, the State did not see a decrease in owner occupied housing. The population of Wyandotte Cou nty also saw a racial shift, as the number of Hispanic residents (of any race) increased by 64.84%. The State saw a similar increase, as the number of Hispanic residents (of any race) grew by 59.38% during the period of the study. Hispanic residents repres ented 16% of races, African Americans saw the biggest decline in population, shrinking by 11.14%. This was very dissimilar than the State which saw an 8.86% increase in t he African American population. Wyandotte County saw an impressive increase in the educational attainment of the population, with increases in nearly every category of attainment. The c s degree and a 19.19% increase in the number of residents with a graduate or professional degree. However, despite the observed increases, Wyandotte County still lags behind the State of Kansas and the United States in educational attainment. Figure 5 2 sh ows the growth in the percent of population with a high school education and the percent of population United States. Finally, Wyandotte County saw an increase in both the me dian and mean household income by 10.39% and 11.07%, respectively. Most notably, the County

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48 witnessed a 144% increase in the number of residents earning over $150,000 a year. The median household income for Wyandotte County was $37,293 in 2010, well below the state and national average. Just over 21% of Wyandotte County is living below the poverty level, approximately 9% higher than the state average. Although Wyandotte County experienced growth in the median household income, it did not equal the growth se en on the state and national level, as witnessed in Figure 5 3 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010a; 2010b; 2010c 2010d ). The results from the demographic analysis indicate that Wyandotte County did undergo significant changes racially, educationally, and economica lly. Wyandotte County saw definite increases in educational attainment and median household income. However, even with these increases the gap between Wyandotte County, the State of Kansas, and the United States continued to grow in regards to median house hold income. While none of this data necessarily indicates economic development, i t does identify changes in the c and background to changes witnessed in other data sets. Business Data The Uniform Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas provided the author with data on the number of business licenses issued from 1995 2010. This data will be reviewed and analyzed to determine new business growth by year. The data will also be plotted b y Census tract to identify which areas experienced the most development from 1995 to 2010. The data used in this part of the analysis is located in Appendix B. The Uniform Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas, issued 3,330 business licens es between 1995 and 2010. 2009 saw the highest amount of new

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49 business licenses issued at 399 and 1998 saw the lowest amount at 67. The greatest increase in licenses issued occurred between 2003 and 2004, when there was a 63% increase in issued licenses. Ov erall, there was a steady increase in the number of licenses issued from 1995 2010. The average number of new business license issued increased by 13% annua lly over the study period. The c ounty saw at least 250 new licenses issued annually from 2004 2010 ( Business license data, 2011). Figure 5 4 charts the number of businesses licenses issued by year. The data was also plotted by census tract to determine which areas of the c ounty saw the largest increase in new businesses over the course of the study. Fig ure 5 5 portrays this data. The area including the Kansas Speedway and Village West saw the greatest increase in new businesses, with 222 business licenses issued for the area between 1995 and 2010. The area north of Kansas Speedway and Village West saw an average of 56 new businesses during the study period. The area between U.S. 24 and Parallel Parkway also saw a sizeable increase in the number of new businesses. Downtown saw a mix of results, with the highest downtown tract issuing 90 business licenses a nd the lowest downtown tract issuing 8 business licenses. The southeast area of the c ounty along Interstate 35 and the Kansas River also saw a large amount of new businesses, indicating there may be a separate catalyst in that area or potential spillover e ffects from the surrounding counties. The southwest region of the c ounty only saw 1 new business per tract. Overall, the map shows the number of new businesses was fairly spread across the c ounty; however, the Kansas Speedway area, the U.S. 24 area, and th e southeast section of the c ounty saw the greatest amount of new businesses (Business license data, 2011).

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50 The analysis from this part of the results shows that there was a considerable amount of new business development located around the Kansas Speedway and Village West, U.S. 24, and the Interstate 25/Riverfront area in Southeast Wyandotte County. A majority of the new business activity occurred after 2003, when the c ounty experienced a 63% increase in business permits in a single year. The analysis revea ls that the c ounty has seen a steady increase in new business activity, indicating that a kind of catalyst was at work, driving up the number of new business for Wyandotte County, which saw a 389% increase in new business in 2010, when compared to the number of new businesses in 1995 (Business license data, 2011). Building Permit Reports This section will analyze and review the annual building permits reports for Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas. Due to availability of data the number non residential building permits will be reviewed from 1998 2010; however, the value of non residential new construction will only be reviewed from 2003 2010 as those are the only years the value of construction is documented. This analysis wi ll look for trends in new development or in the value of new development. Additionally, the locations of new development will be analyzed for 2003 2010. The data used in this section can be found in Appendix C. Between 1998 and 2010, Wyandotte County issue d 392 new non residential building permits. The most permits issued in any year was 47 in 2005, the least was 19 in 2010. Figure 5 6 illustrates this data. The data does not seem to fit any particular trend, randomly increasing and decreasing by year. When looking at the value of those permits from 2003 2010, there was $507 million in new construction. In 2010, there was just over $200 million in new non residential construction. A new soccer stadium,

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51 constructed in Village West, accounted for nearly $125 m illion of the $200 million in construction in 2010. Similar to the number of permits, the value of construction shows no general patterns or trends over the period of the study (Building Permit Summary Reports, 2010). Figure 5 7 contains a chart of the val ue of new construction by year. In reviewing the largest projects, as defined by value, a majority of the new construction was located in the Village West area. Schlitterbahn Kansas City, LIVESTRONG Sporting Park, and several major retail stores (WalMart, Kohls, Best Buy, Target, and JC Pennys) provided the largest economic impact, in terms of value of construction created between 2003 and 2010. Nearly all of these projects were located in and around Village West. Although Village West did not have a majori ty of the number of new non residential construction projects, it did have a majority of the value of new non residential construction projects (Building Permit Summary Reports, 2010). Employment Data Several sources of economic data will be analyzed including Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI) from the U.S. Census Bureau, Economic Profiles from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, and annual employment data from the Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas. The analysis of thi s data will indicate any major changes in employment during the study period. Additionally, it will identify any shifts or trends in the type of industry in regards to employment. Due to the difference in reporting for each source, there may be some incons istency across sources. The data used in this analysis is located in Appendix D. Quarterly Workforce Indicators Analyzing the QWI data indicates that the total employment for Wyandotte County remained fairly consistent during the course of the study. Apply ing a linear trend line to

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52 the data indicates a total overall growth of 12 jobs per year in Wyandotte County. The highest quarter of total employment was in the third quarter of 1998. The lowest quarter of total employment was in the third quarter of 2003. Figure 5 8 shows a graph of the quarterly total employment for Wyandotte County. By comparison, the State of Kansas saw a higher, and more consistent, total overall employment growth than Wyandotte County. A chart of this data is demonstrated in Figure 5 9. Wyandotte County experienced a spike in job creation in the third quarter of 1997, the second quarter of 1998, the third quarter of 1999, and the second quarter of 2001. In those quarters 8,259, 9,211, 12,812, and 7,630 jobs were created, respectively. These quarters represented the outliers for the time period. It is possible that the spikes in job creation in those quarters were a result of the construction and opening of the Kansas Speedway and Village West. The jobs created for the other quarters pr imarily varied between 2,000 and 4,000 jobs (Quarterly workforce indicators, 2012). Figure 5 10 illustrates the jobs created during this time period. The net job flows for Wyandotte County indicates the number of jobs created versus the number of jobs los t. The greatest increase in net jobs was during the third quarter of 1999, where 9,998 net jobs were created. The greatest decline in net jobs occurred in the same year during the first quarter when 4,368 jobs were lost (Quarterly workforce indicators, 201 2). Figure 5 11 shows the net job flows for Wyandotte County during the study period. The last data set to be analyzed from the QWI data is the average monthly earnings. Wyandotte County experienced a steady increase in average monthly earning over the tim e period of the study. Applying a linear trend line to the data indicates the

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53 average monthly earnings increased by an average of $21.30 a quarter. When compared with the State of Kansas, the average monthly earnings for Wyandotte County were higher for th e length of the study and increased a greater rate (Quarterly workforce indicators, 2012). Figures 5 12 and 5 13 illustrate this data for Wyandotte County and the State of Kansas, respectively. Economic Profiles Using the CA30 Regional Economic Profiles da ta from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, this section examines total full time and part time employment, average earnings per job, and per capita personal income for Wyandotte County and the State of Kansas. The data will be reviewed and analyzed for any t rends or significant changes that occurred during the time period. Due to the availability of data, this study will only analyze activity between 1995 and 2009. Wyandotte County experienced a fairly consistent number of jobs from 1995 2009, fluctuating be tween 91,000 and 98,000 jobs during the time period. The area saw a peak of activity in 2001, followed by two years of decline before beginning to increase again. This trend mirrors the trend for the State of Kansas, which saw a steady increase until 2001, followed by two years of decline before starting to increase again. Both Wyandotte County and the State of Kansas witnessed a decline in jobs between 2008 and 2009 of around 2%. Overall, Wyandotte County saw a 4.2% increase in the total number of jobs bet ween 1999 and 2009, while the State saw a 13.8% increase in the total number of jobs (Regional economic profiles, 2012). Figures 5 14 and 5 15 illustrate the total full time and part time employment for Wyandotte County and the State of Kansas, respectivel y.

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54 The average earnings per job steadily increased in Kansas and Wyandotte County from 1995 2009. The c study. During the study period, the average earnings per job rose by 48.8% in Wyandotte C ounty and 67.6% in the State of Kansas. Despite the larger increase, the State average still trailed the average earnings per job of Wyandotte County by $7,042 in 2009 (Regional economic profiles, 2012). A chart of this data is located in Figure 5 16. Alth ough Wyandotte County experienced higher average earnings per job, the State of Kansas had a higher per capita personal income during the study period. 1995 to $28,779 in 2009 The State of Kansas had a slightly larger increase of 79.1%, growing from $21,870 in 1995 to $39,173 in 2009. Since this data does not account for inflation, it cannot be used to determine any form of economic growth, but as a comparison against the Wyan dotte County and State of Kansas set of data, it can be determined that the State experienced a higher and slightly faster increasing per capita personal income (Regional economic profiles, 2012). Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kan sas Employment Data The Unified Government provided a list of employment by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) sector from 2001 2010. The data will be reviewed and analyzed in order to determine if any shifts in employment have occurred. The number of employees by NAICS can be found in Table 5 1. The percent change in employees by NAICS for each year can be found in Table 5 2.

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55 In 2001, the two largest industries for employment were government and manufacturing, with 17,216 and 13,907 emp loyees respectively. By 2010, the two largest industries were government and health care and social assistance, with 15,408 and 12,751 employees respectively. Despite growth in the health care sector, none of the major projects and developments in Wyandott e County directly relate to that particular industry. The biggest growth by a NAICS sector was accommodation and food services, which grew 191% from 2001 to 2010. The growth in the accommodation sector may be directly related to the construction of the Kan sas Speedway and Village West. Other big growers over the time period were health care and social assistance, education services, administrative and support services, and retail trade. Several sectors saw a drop in employees, the largest drop was in the pr ofessional, scientific, and technical services sector. Construction and transportation and warehousing both experienced a drop of over 25% in employment during the time frame. Although accommodation and food services saw the biggest overall growth, the sec tor began to lose employment after 2006, creating a bell shaped employment trend (Employee data, 2012). The data studied indicates that there was a shift in the types of employment from 2001 to 2010. The job base of Wyandotte County shifted away from manuf acturing and industrial based jobs and towards service based jobs. There was also a decrease in real estate and construction jobs indicating that development might have slowed over the course of the study. A majority of the construction jobs lost occurred after 2008, indicating the national economic downturn at that time may be responsible for the large decrease observed in that sector (Employee data, 2012).

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56 Location Quotients Location quotients are a measure by which industrial activity of a selected area can be compared to the industrial activity of a base region. The location quotients provide a ratio that indicates whether a particular industry has a higher concentration or lower concentration of employment compared to the base area. For the purpose of t his study, Wyandotte County will be compared to the United States, in order to determine if any trends occurred that may signify the growth or decline of any NAICS sector industries when compared against the United States as a whole. The location quotients of Wyandotte County will also be compared to the location quotients of the State of Kansas. If the location quotient of an industry is greater than 1, then Wyandotte has a higher concentration of employment in that industry compared to the rest of the Cou ntry, or State, respectively. Similarly, if the location quotient is less than 1, then Wyandotte County has a lower concentration of employment compared to the Country/State. Both the location quotient data for Wyandotte County and the State of Kansas will use the United States as the base. Due to the availability of this data, only the Years 2001 through 2010 will be analyzed. Additionally, in order to preserve the confidentially of certain businesses, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics will not disclose location quotients for specific NAICS sectors during select years. The data used in determining the location quotients for Wyandotte County and the State of Kansas is available in Appendix E. Transportation and warehousing had the highest location quotient for Wyandotte County; however, this category has steadily declined from 2001 2010, moving from 4.0 in 2001 to 2.9 in 2010. Despite the decrease, Wyandotte County remained very concentrated in this sector when compared with the United States. Two sectors s aw a

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57 large increase in concentration during the study period: health care & social assistance and administrative & support services. Each increased their location quotients from less than one to over one between 2001 and 2010, indicating a potential shift in the industries of employment within the c ounty. Manufacturing also had a location quotient above one for the length of the study period, indicating a high concentration of manufacturing jobs in Wyandotte County. Only one sector fell from above one to be low one during study, other services, which is comprised of several types of employment, including repair and maintenance; personal and laundry services; and religious, civic, professional, and other such similar organizations. Educational services had the lowest location quotient at 0.18, indicating a very sparse number of employees in the industry compared to the U.S. average (Location Quotients, 2012). When compared to the State of Kansas, Wyandotte County has a much greater concentration of employees in transportation and warehousing. As mentioned above, the sector had a location quotient of 2.9 for Wyandotte County in 2010, which is high concentration for the information sector and finance and insurance sector is much lower in Wyandotte County than the State of Kansas (Location Quotients, 2012). The location quotients for Wyandotte County are located in Table 5 quotients are found in Table 5 4. The location quotient information is useful in indicating which industries are more prevalent in a particular area. The results of this study indicate that there was a shift in employment for particular industries. When compared to the location quotie nts of the State, it is clear that the transportation and warehousing sector is very heavily

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58 concentrated in the c ounty. However, as the location quotients show the sector is gradually becoming less concentrated, while health care and social assistance and administrative and support services are becoming more concentrated. Aerial Maps Aerial maps from 1995, 2002, 2003, 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012 will be reviewed in order to view any new, large developments in Wyandotte County. This data will provide insight into the areas that saw new large scale development and construction during the time period. The current and historic images for this section were obtained through Google Earth. The images used in this section of the study are located in Appendix F. Betwe en 1995 and 2002, three primary developments can be observed. The first is the Kansas Speedway, the second is the accompanying Village West project, and finally there is an expansion of businesses along the riverfront. In 2003, the Village West project con tinues to evolve and expand, but no other developments are plainly observable. Between 2003 and 2006, there is a noticeable increase in the density of development along the waterfront. Additionally, there is an observed increase in developments on U.S. 24 and Parallel Parkway between Kansas City, Kansas and Village West. From 2006 to 2008, there are no noticeable changes or development in Wyandotte County. Between 2008 and 2010, the most significant change is the further expansion of the Village West area. Land to the north and east of Village West appear to be under continuous development. Finally, between 2010 and 2012 the Village West area undergoes noticeable growth and development, noticeably in the lands to the north of Village West. There also appears to be pockets of residential development in the area north of Interstate 70 and west of Interstate 435 (Google Earth, 2012).

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59 While these maps cannot clearly identify that economic development occurred, they do support other data, demonstrating that constr uction and development occurred in Wyandotte County over the study period. This analysis can only account for new construction; it cannot identify where economic development in the form of rehabilitation or occupying an existing building occurred. Accordin g to the aerials, the area that saw the most new development between 1995 and 2012 was the west half of Wyandotte County. When comparing the 1995 Aerial Image with the 2012 Aerial Image, it is apparent that there was a substantial increase in residential a nd commercial activity north of Interstate 70 and west of Interstate 435. The area along the river also saw an increase in the density of structures during the study period, as did U.S. 24 and Parallel Parkway. However, there were no substantial changes in development noticeable in the downtown Kansas City, Kansas area from 1995 2012 (Google Earth, 2012). Several areas in Wyandotte County experienced noticeable new construction within the study period, including those near the Kansas Speedway and Village We st, two major attractors in the c ounty today. Traffic Counts Traffic counts are way one to determine if activity in area has changed in some fundamental way. They can signal if there are any significant changes to the road network and its use. While this d ata alone is a poor indicator to determine if any economic development occurred, and it is possible to observe changes in traffic counts brought on by non development related issues, such as a road closure or new available route in and out of an area, this adds another layer to consider when analyzing changes in an area. Due to the inconclusive nature of this data, the traffic count data used in this section will not be used to conclude whether economic activity occurred, but will be

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60 used to indicate possib le areas within Wyandotte County where development may have occurred. Based on availability of data, the traffic maps from 2004, 2008, and 2011 will be analyzed. These maps are provided in Appendix G. In 2004, the most heavily traveled road was Interstate 35 along the southeast edge of Wyandotte County, with 118,000 vehicles a day. Interstate 35 primarily serves as route connecting Kansas City, Missouri, to the east of Wyandotte County, and Johnson County, to the south of Wyandotte County. As the Interstate enters the State of Missouri and Johnson County, the traffic count remains primarily the same, potentially indicating that a majority of traffic users are traveling through Wyandotte County, rather than stopping in it. The traffic count for that stretch r emained fairly constant in the 2008 and 2011 traffic count maps. While this does not rule out the possibility of economic development in the area, the lack of an increase in traffic and the high percentage of likely pass through traffic may indicate a lack of any large scale economic development projects in that area (Traffic Count Map, 2004; 2008; 2011). Many of the major roads throughout downtown Kansas City, Kansas saw a decrease in traffic from 2004 2011. The roads with the biggest drops in traffic were U.S. 69 and U.S. 24, seeing a decrease of 30% and 20% in traffic respectively. While many of the mino r roads in downtown Kansas City saw slight decreases from 2004 2008, the two major interstates between Kansas City, Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri saw sizable increases. Interstate 70 recorded a 28% increase in traffic during that time period. Since thes e traffic counts do not report the flow of traffic, it is not possible to determine if the increase in traffic was directed towards Kansas City, Kansas or Kansas

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61 City, Missouri. Both major interstates between the cities saw a decrease in traffic from 2008 2011 (Traffic Count Map, 2004; 2008; 2011). West of the City, Interstate 70 saw an increase in traffic from the split with State Road 32 to the c ounty boundary. The largest increase in traffic occurred at the intersection of Interstate 70 and Interstate 43 5, which is the location of the Kansas Speedway and Village West. Parallel Parkway, which runs from downtown Kansas City, Kansas to the c 2004 and 2011, Parallel Parkway saw a 61.4% increa se in traffic near the Village West development. Nearly all the local roads north of Interstate 70 and west of Interstate 435 also observed an increase in traffic, with the biggest gains occurring around the Village West development area. This widespread c onstant increase in traffic in both state highways and city streets is a strong indicator of that development of some kind happened in that area. The data from the traffic counts indicates that some form of economic development occurred in the western ha lf of Wyandotte County, near the Kansas Speedway and Village West. While the traffic in western Wyandotte County increased, the overall traffic in and around Kansas City, Kansas, decreased during the study period. The traffic counts on c d, Interstate 35, remained relatively constant; however, it appears that a majority of the traffic only passed through Wyandotte County between Kansas City, Missouri and Johnson County, Kansas. The traffic counts discussed in this section provide insight i nto potential changes in flows and number of travelers in the Wyandotte County region before, during, and after several of the major developments in the area occurred. This could provide further

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62 support for the other data presented in this chapter, present ing a more comprehensive look at the changes that occurring in the c ounty over the time period being studied. Summary Several types of data have been presented, reviewed, and analyzed to better understand their relationship to the time period in which Wyan dotte County underwent several changes, as discussed in Chapter 4. Numerous sources of economic related data have been provided to present the most complete picture possible of how the economic profile of the c ounty may have changed. Overall, there are sev eral key points from each data set that, when combined, helps to better understand the changes that may or may not have taken place, and how those compare to state and national trends. Demographic, business development, building, employment, industry sect or, visual, and transportation data have all been studied. The demographic data indicated that Wyandotte County experienced changes in the population, become more racially diverse and more educated. However, Wyandotte County still lags behind the state and national averages in terms of educational attainment and median income. The businesses data indicates that the c ounty experienced a steady increase in the number of new business permits issued annually. It also indicated that a substantial amount of the b usiness permits were issued for the Village West area, the U.S. 24 and Parallel Parkway area, and the southeast area of the c ounty. The building reports corroborated the business permit data and pointed toward the Village West as the primary area for large scale new development in terms of the overall value of the project. The employment data showed several different trends over the study period. The first trend was a strong increase in employment from 1999 2001, followed by a period where net job flows rem ained fairly consistent between gains and losses in employment between

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63 2002 and 2010. The second trend was a shift in employment away from the transportation and construction sectors and towards health care and professional services. These trends were repe ated in the location quotient study. The aerial maps and traffic studies confirmed the data from the business data and building reports, identifying the Village West area as the primary region for development during the study period. Individually, these so urces do not provide concrete evidence that economic development occurred. Chapter 6 will further analyze these results in the context of the history and background of Wyandotte County in order to answer the research question and objective identified in th e beginning of this work and review the results as a whole to determine whether or not economic development occurred in Wyandotte County.

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64 Figure 5 1. Percent change in population (Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010d)

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65 Figure 5 2 Educational a ttainment

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66 Figure 5 3 Median household income

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67 Figure 5 4. New business permits by year

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68 Figure 5 5 New b usiness p ermit m ap

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69 Figure 5 6 Non residential p ermits i ss ued by y ear

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70 Figure 5 7 Value of n ew c onstruction

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71 Figure 5 8 Total e mployment for Wyandotte County

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72 Figure 5 9 Total e mployment for Kansas

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73 Figure 5 10 Jobs c reated in Wyandotte County

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74 Figure 5 1 1 Net j ob f lows in Wyandotte County

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75 Figure 5 12 Average monthly e arnings for Wyandotte County

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76 Figure 5 1 3 Average m onthly e arning for Kansas

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77 Figure 5 14 Total f ull time & p art t ime e mployment in Wyandotte County

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78 Fig ure 5 15 Total f ull t ime & p art t ime e mployment in Kansas

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79 Figure 5 1 6 Average e arnings per j ob

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80 Table 5 1. Wyandotte County employment, 2001 2010 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 Ag., Mining, Util. 88 87 80 67 75 74 76 73 75 71 Construction 3,335 3,735 4,240 4,463 4,611 4,342 4,077 4,201 4,625 4,593 Manufacturing 11,431 10,866 11,548 11,952 12,486 12,414 12,402 12,316 12,857 13,907 Wholesale Trade 4,536 4,742 5,348 5,013 4,977 4,886 5,205 5,212 6,028 5,738 Retail Trade 7,101 6,938 7,078 6,911 6,593 6,286 6,306 5,625 4,902 4,786 Trans/Warehousing 7,036 7,313 8,205 8,478 7,809 7,644 8,323 8,765 9,113 9,481 Information 399 400 471 523 460 302 342 346 291 362 Finance & Insurance 1,214 1,290 1,313 1,317 1,375 1,263 1,267 1,358 1,250 1,396 Real Estate 688 824 813 756 689 764 832 842 937 910 Profess./ Tech Services 1,419 1,439 1,507 1,362 1,308 1,258 1,196 1,375 1,948 2,378 Mgmt. of Companies 879 871 852 850 883 737 556 561 679 850 Admin. & Waste Services 6,105 4,950 4,361 3,867 3,586 3,770 3,458 3,182 3,243 3,484 Educ. Services 273 240 245 242 230 211 234 199 214 168 Health Care /Social Asst. 12,751 12,278 11,822 11,292 10,761 10,429 9,975 9,777 7,175 6,954 Arts, Entertainment Rec. 634 575 609 742 942 808 1,191 1,194 813 831 Accommodation 510 485 578 551 605 561 250 228 147 175 Food 3,932 4,373 4,404 4,972 5,077 4,319 3,770 3,646 3,546 3,533 Other Services 1,937 1,921 2,025 2,115 1,889 1,872 1,812 1,918 2,329 2,522 Govt. 15,408 15,373 15,524 15,217 14,959 14,722 14,602 14,310 17,177 17,216 Total 79,674 78,700 81,022 80,689 79,313 76,660 75,874 75,128 77,349 79,355

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81 Table 5 2. Wyandotte County employment, 2001 2010, percent c hange 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 Change from 2001 2010 Ag., Mining, Util. 0.57% 8.72% 19.33% 9.73% 0.34% 2.30% 4.11% 2.67% 5.63% 23.59% Construction 10.72% 11.90% 5.00% 3.20% 6.18% 6.51% 2.95% 9.17% 0.70% 27.39% Manufacturing 5.20% 5.90% 3.38% 4.28% 0.58% 0.10% 0.70% 4.21% 7.55% 17.80% Wholesale Trade 4.34% 11.33% 6.68% 0.72% 1.86% 6.13% 0.13% 13.54% 5.05% 20.95% Retail Trade 2.35% 1.98% 2.43% 4.82% 4.89% 0.33% 12.11% 14.75% 2.42% 48.36% Trans/Warehous ing 3.79% 10.87% 3.23% 8.57% 2.16% 8.16% 5.04% 3.82% 3.88% 25.79% Information 0.25% 15.17% 9.85% 13.58% 52.27% 11.62% 1.16% 18.90% 19.61% 10.15% Finance & Insurance 5.87% 1.71% 0.32% 4.25% 8.93% 0.36% 6.70% 8.64% 10.46% 13.02% Real Estate 16.53% 1.38% 7.50% 9.80% 9.82% 8.20% 1.19% 10.14% 2.97% 24.40% Profess./ Tech Services 1.42% 4.48% 10.65% 4.07% 3.97% 5.20% 13.02% 29.41% 18.08% 40.35% Mgmt. of Companies 0.89% 2.23% 0.18% 3.74% 19.84% 32.55% 0.89% 17.38% 20.12% 3.35% Admin. & Waste Services 23.32% 13.52% 12.78% 7.82% 4.86% 9.01% 8.67% 1.88% 6.92% 75.22% Educ. Services 13.85% 1.84% 1.03% 5.45% 8.77% 9.83% 17.59% 7.01% 27.38% 62.65% Health Care /Social Asst. 3.85% 3.85% 4.69% 4.94% 3.18% 4.55% 2.03% 36.26% 3.18% 83.36% Arts, Entertainment, Rec. 10.40% 5.67% 17.92% 21.25% 16.69% 32.20% 0.25% 46.86% 2.17% 23.68% Accommodation 5.00% 16.08% 5.04% 9.01% 7.84% 124.40% 9.89% 55.03% 16.14% 191.14% Food 10.09% 0.70% 11.42% 2.06% 17.55% 14.55% 3.40% 2.82% 0.37% 11.29% Other Services 0.79% 5.14% 4.25% 11.98% 0.91% 3.31% 5.53% 17.65% 7.65% 23.22% Govt. 0.23% 0.98% 2.02% 1.73% 1.61% 0.82% 2.04% 16.69% 0.23% 10.50% Total 1.24% 2.87% 0.41% 1.73% 3.46% 1.04% 0.99% 2.87% 2.53% 0.40%

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82 Table 5 3. Location q uotient, Wyandotte County 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Base Industry: Total, all industries 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data NAICS 22 Utilities No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data NAICS 23 Construction 1.20 1.24 1.11 1.04 1.07 1.05 1.02 1.03 1.06 1.00 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 1.49 1.52 1.51 1.54 1.56 1.55 1.51 1.49 1.55 1.65 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 1.76 1.92 No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data NAICS 44 45 Retail trade No data No data 0.67 0.74 0.73 0.75 0.75 0.80 0.81 0.81 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 0.61 0.53 0.37 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.34 0.32 0.31 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.87 0.72 0.60 0.58 0.76 0.86 0.80 0.78 0.79 0.78 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.76 0.83 0.94 1.17 1.36

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83 Table 5 3. Continued 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 NAICS 61 Educational services 0.16 0.20 0.17 0.20 0.15 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.18 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 0.94 0.96 1.26 1.26 1.30 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.31 1.30 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 4.02 4.10 3.93 3.68 3.35 3.26 3.45 3.33 3.10 2.97 NAICS 51 Information 0.18 0.16 0.19 0.20 0.18 0.28 0.30 0.27 0.24 0.24 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 0.43 0.40 0.42 0.39 0.38 0.40 0.38 0.39 0.39 0.37 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 0.77 0.83 0.73 0.71 0.63 0.56 0.62 0.67 0.71 0.59 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 0.82 0.81 1.17 1.14 0.77 0.81 0.66 0.53 0.50 0.55 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 0.65 0.63 0.62 0.67 0.80 0.89 0.85 0.75 0.74 0.66 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 1.06 0.96 0.80 0.75 0.77 0.76 0.83 0.78 0.74 0.74 NAICS 99 Unclassified No data No data No data No data No data No data No data No data 0.03 No data

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84 Table 5 4. Location q uotient, Kansas 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Base Industry: Total, all industries 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.75 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.86 0.88 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 1.30 1.30 1.33 1.39 1.40 1.47 1.44 1.40 1.28 1.30 NAICS 22 Utilities 1.26 1.19 1.26 1.31 1.37 1.38 1.37 1.37 1.38 1.44 NAICS 23 Construction 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.89 0.89 0.93 0.98 1.00 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 1.20 1.20 1.21 1.27 1.32 1.34 1.38 1.42 1.42 1.41 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 1.08 1.09 1.07 1.09 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.07 1.10 1.11 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 1.04 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.99 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 0.78 0.77 0.80 0.83 0.80 0.81 0.80 0.80 0.82 0.82 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.73 0.68 0.64 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.63 0.73 0.73 0.83 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 0.84 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.88 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.96

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85 Table 5 4. Continued 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 NAICS 61 Educational services 0.50 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.55 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.52 0.54 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.03 1.02 1.01 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 0.98 1.00 1.02 1.01 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.98 0.99 NAICS 51 Information 1.46 1.52 1.51 1.38 1.34 1.34 1.39 1.32 1.24 1.10 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 0.93 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.01 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 0.76 0.74 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.74 0.76 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 0.79 0.78 0.76 0.76 0.69 0.75 0.72 0.68 0.69 0.70 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.93 0.91 0.91 0.91 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 0.91 0.91 0.92 0.91 0.90 0.87 0.87 0.85 0.84 0.84 NAICS 99 Unclassified No data No data No data 0.00 No data 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.00

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86 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION This chapter brings together the work from previous chapters to ultimately decide if the question driving this study can be answered. It cross references the results from the data sets presented in Chapter 5 with each oth er in order to identify if the observed results occur across multiple sources. These results will be also analyzed in light of the major events discussed in Chapter 4, if applicable, in order to determine what event, or events, caused the observed changes. Together, this will determine if economic development did occur, how, and if it is the possible to replicating the economic development witnessed in Wyandotte County elsewhere. Occurrence and Effects of Economic Development The research objective in this work was to determine the total and net effects of the economic development efforts taken by Wyandotte County, Kansas. This was done by studying demographic, business license, building permit, employment, industry, physical, and transportation data. After reviewing and analyzing these data sets developed by several sources, it is apparent that some level of development did occur in Wyandotte County during the course of the study; however, the economic impact on the area is mor e unclear. Economic data indicates an increase in the number of businesses and a several major development projects, demonstrating economic development in the form of businesses growth. Employment related data does not support or contradict the occurrence of economic development; however the results raise concerns about the economic impact the projects had within the c ounty and their overall effectiveness. The c ounty failed to generate many new jobs; however, there was an above average

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87 increase in the aver age earnings per job. Additionally, the data shows there was a shift in the primary industries in the c ounty during the study period, leading to the possibility of economic development in some specific industries and not in others. The industry sectors that experienced increases include those that can be linked to the major developments in the c ounty, which would, in part, account for an increase in services and a decrease in space available or ease of transportation and warehousing. Wyandotte County experienced several major development projects over the course of the study, the largest in size and cost be ing the Kansas Speedway. Shortly after the construction of the Kansas Speedway, Village West was built on adjacent property, further adding to the economic development potential of the area. This is supported by the valuation of building permits and increa se in business licenses in the area. In addition, the aerial maps show that the section of Wyandotte County around the Speedway and Village West saw an explosion of growth over the course of the study. Traffic increases in the area also indicate that more cars traveled in and around this area. Together, the business permit data, the value of new construction, the physical changes in the land, and the increased volumes of traffic all indicate and support that economic development did indeed occur in this are a of Wyandotte County. The recent addition of new large projects, such as Schlitterbahn Kansas City and LIVESTRONG Sporting Park, indicate the region is still experiencing strong development and could potentially continue to support this theory in future s tudies. The area directly around the Speedway and Village West was not the only one to experience increased development during the course of the study. U.S. 24 and Parallel Parkway also saw a large increase in new development between the Village West area

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88 and downtown Kansas City, Kansas, supported by the increase in traffic counts, aerial map analysis, and business data which all indicate an increase in economic activity. This supports the conclusion that there is a convergence of business related data th at supports the theory that development occurred in Wyandotte County from 1995 to the present. The employment related data does not present a case to confirm or deny the existence of economic development. While the c ounty did experience some fluctuations i n employment over the period of the study, multiple sources indicate total number of employment was relatively consistent. These results demonstrate that the c ounty did not experience economic development in terms of job creation. However, as witnessed in the Quarterly Workforce Indicators and the Economic Profiles, the jobs in the c ounty tend to pay higher than the State average. Additionally, the increase in wages for Wyandotte County grew at a faster rate than the average increase in wages for the State of Kansas. The employment data from the Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas and the location quotients indicate there was a shift in the major industries of the employment. The health care and administrative services sectors saw strong gains in employment, while the construction and transportation sectors witnessed declines in employment. This data does not, on its own, present a strong case for employment changes as a direct result of the Speedway and other major developments in the area. The gains in the health care and administrative services are completely unrelated to any of the major developments during the course of the study. This raises the issue that many of the observed business related trends and developments may be unr elated to the economic development efforts taken by the

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89 Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas. The results of the employment data inject doubt into the economic development impact of the c largest developments. In addition, the lack of overall job growth indicates that the major projects did little to create jobs, but rather redistributed jobs away from one industry and moved them towards a different industry. When the results of the demographic data are included in the analy sis, it can be concluded that a majority of the jobs created were likely low wage jobs. Therefore, the employment related data indicates that the projects had little, if any, positive economic effects on the residents of Wyandotte County in terms of jobs c reation and employment. While it is not possible to either confirm or deny the existence of economic development, as it relates to employment, the results of this study do support the creation of economic development as related to new businesses and busin ess growth. Overall, it appears the Village West area was responsible for the majority economic development in the c ounty. However, it is unknown if this could have occurred without the Speedway project, something that will be explored later in this chapte r. Net Economic Effects on Wyandotte County While the results of the study show that development occurred through the creation of new businesses and projects, the effects of these projects are unclear. The Kansas Speedway and Village West areas cost over o ne billion dollars to construct, yet few net jobs were created and the c ounty still lags behind Kansas and the nation in terms of household income, poverty rate, and education. This section will look at the net economic effects of the projects and attempt to deduce their overall effectiveness. As demonstrated in the business data, aerial data, and traffic count data, there has been a strong increase in development in Wyandotte County. A large portion of that

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90 development is concentrated in and around Village West. However, since many of the major tenants of Village West were funded by STAR bonds, the sales tax revenue generated by those tenants has gone to repay the bond rather than being invested into the community. Additionally, nearly all the developments in Village West are retail or accommodation oriented, which are historically lower paying jobs, which may explain why the c ounty lags behind Kansas in median household income. When combining the employment and business data, it becomes even more apparent that the projects have not created large economic benefits for the local residents. According the QWI data, 3,629 net jobs were created over the period of the study. Assuming an investment of one billion dollars, as reported by the Unified Government of Wy andotte County and Kansas City, Kansas, each job cost $275,558 dollars to create, nearly 8 times the median household income for the c ounty. Also, as previously mentioned, one of the largest employment sectors in Wyandotte County, health care, is unrelated to the economic development efforts taken by the c ounty. There are potential effects that cannot be fully captured in this study including the effect of tourism on the area and the spillover effects of the developments on the surrounding counties. It is impossible to determine whether Wyandotte County would have done better, the same, or worse without the actions taken by the c ounty to build the Kansas Speedway and Village West. However, when reviewing the net effects of the c pea r that the residents of the c ounty have not directly benefited economically from the Kansas Speedway and Village West. Catalysts of Economic Development From 1995 to the present, two main projects stand out in the history of development in Wyandotte County : the Kansas Speedway and Village West. A study of

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91 the history of these projects, how they developed, and their effects, combined with supporting business data, indicates a snowball effect of new development throughout the area. The area now boasts dozens of large department and specialty stores, several major hotels, a theater, two sporting stadiums, an indoor water park and a major outdoor water park, and a major casino. While it is it not possible to determine whether any of these projects would have occ urred without the presence of the Kansas Speedway and Village West, it seems highly likely that a clustering effect took place in the region, with the construction of one sporting venue and an entertainment district leading to the attraction of other sport ing venues and entertainment related developments. Underlying the more obvious roles of the Kansas Speedway and Village West as catalysts for the economic development in the region is the role of STAR Bonds. The bonds were a major incentive for both proje cts and a unique tool for Kansas, as the only state with such an incentive at the time. The use of STAR bonds, along with other economic incentives helped to originally sway the ISC to invest in Wyandotte County and select it as the site for the Kansas Spe edway. In addition, the bonds were The theoretical framework examined several studies involving sports. While the results of those studies were often conflicting, they agreed that sports an d stadiums create a series of externalities on the surrounding area. This study indicates that the Kansas Speedway affected a number of positive externalities on the region. The increase in visitors to the region led to the development of Village West, whi ch added additional externalities, eventually leading to the addition of a Major League Soccer

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9 2 team and a $175 million stadium to house them, a $441 million dollar casino, and other substantial construction projects. The spillover from the Kansas Speedway and Village West has led to over one billion dollars of investment in the region and transformed the area into the largest tourism district in the State of Kansas (Taylor, 2010). Replication Potential of Economic Development Activity This study provides evidence of economic development activity in Wyandotte County and indicated the primary catalysts for the observed activity in the STAR Bonds, Kansas Speedway, and Village West. A potential implication of these results is the possibility of replication. W ould the economic development efforts taken by Wyandotte County be possible in another area and is it reasonable to expect similar results? The history of Wyandotte County suggests that there are several factors that present potential issues when seeking t o replicate the activities driving this instance of economic development. First is the availability of STAR bonds. As discussed previously, STAR bonds are a vital piece in the incentives issued to both the Kansas Speedway and Village West. At that time, th e State of Kansas was the only state that employed sales tax revenue bonds as an incentive for new businesses. Since then, several other states have developed similar programs, changing the dynamic of their use and effectiveness (Duggan, 2012). However, th is research indicates that having a sales tax revenue bond program or similar incentive would be highly likely, or even necessary, in order to replicate these results elsewhere. NASCAR racetracks are scarce, which presents another complication in determini ng if these tools could be replicated. The Kansas Speedway was a catalyst for the economic development seen in Wyandotte County. Currently, there are 21 tracks as part of the Sprint Cup Series. The most recent additions to the list of host tracks were

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93 the Chicagoland Speedway and the Kansas Speedway in 2001 (Tracks, 2012). As observed in the theoretical framework, previous research indicates NASCAR tracks provide a different set of economic effects than other stadiums; the addition of another type of stadiu m is not truly a viable substitute for a NASCAR track. While this study provides no indication that the economic development results seen in Wyandotte County cannot be replicated in other areas, the history of the c ounty does indicate that the area experie nced several changes almost simultaneously. These changes together led to the economic transformation of the area. In order to perfectly replicate the economic development of Wyandotte County, several factors would need to align perfectly, making it highly unlikely th at the economic effects of the c ounty would be able to be replicated identically. In analyzing the data and results of that data, there are no obvious indicators that signaled whether this set of economic development policies and tools would be able to be replicated. There are too many factors that could contribute, including the economic climate, land available for development, and willing clientele to frequent the establishments. Therefore, on data alone, there is insufficient evidence to indi cate whether the economic development that occurred in Wyandotte County would be able to be replicated.

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94 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION As recently as the early 1990s, Wyandotte County was an area in distress. Characterized by racial issues, a population characterized by low incomes, and inept government, the future of the c ounty looked grim. However, after a series of significant politica l and economic developments in the last fifteen years, Wyandotte County underwent a series of development and now boasts 10 million annual visitors. Since the construction of the Kansas Speedway, the area has experienced more than one billion dollars in co mbined public and private investment (Taylor, 2010). This study reviewed the major changes in Wyandotte County from 1995 to the development efforts. In doing so, the net economic effects of the developments on the c those efforts in other areas was assessed. Conclusions There are two major areas that were studied to determine economic developmen t: business and employment data. The results of this study indicate that Wyandotte County did experience economic development in the form of new businesses, particularly in the Village West area. However, the results of economic development in terms of emp loyment were inconclusive. Despite heavy investment in the Kansas Speedway and Village West, the c ounty saw only minor gains in employment. Additionally, the c ounty underwent a shift in the types of employment, as the health care sector and administrative sector saw substantial growth, while the c employment sectors, like transportation, saw a decline. Despite the strong increase in

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95 new development, the c ounty still lags behind Kansas and the nation in several economic related demographics i ncluding median household income, poverty rate, and education. Additionally, this study is unable to determine whether Wyandotte County would have found itself in a better, equal, or worse position had it not been for the economic development efforts taken by the c ounty. An analysis of the net economic effects of the developments shows that the projects have not contributed a major economic benefit to the residents of Wyandotte County. The number of jobs created over the course of the study was minimal, wit h many of the jobs being low wage. Also, the sales tax revenues generated by the new projects are tied up in the repayment o f STAR bonds, meaning that the c ounty has yet to benefit from any potential income brought into the area through tourism. The Kansas Speedway and Village West are identified as the primary drivers of economic development in the c ounty through the use of business data, aerial maps, and traffic counts. The Kansas Speedway and Village West had positive spillover effects and led to the add ition of two more sport venues, numerous hotels, a mega mall, a casino, several major retailers, and a 370 acre water park. The major catalyst for these developments was STAR bonds, which were instrumental in the development of the Kansas Speedway and Vill age West. The ability to replicate the economic development of Wyandotte County in other regions is inconclusive. While there is nothing that would prevent the replication of results, numerous factors would need to occur. The economic development experienc ed in Wyandotte County is a result of numerous simultaneous develo pments. A large portion of the c

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96 Speedway; however, the scarcity and lack of recent expansion of NASCAR tracks makes it unlikely th at an area will be in a similar position as Wyandotte County in order to replicate the results. Limitations of this Study This study was limited by time and availability of data. Efforts to obtain data on tourism information, planning efforts, income data, and tax reports were unsuccessful. This data might have further confirmed or rejected the results of this study. Additionally, much of the data gathered for this study was unavailable for the entire length of this study. With more time and detailed inform ation, a more intensive case study could have been executed, providing further conclusions to the research question and objectives. Recommendations for Further Research The economic development effects of sports and taxing incentives is an area in need of further research. Despite the volumes of studies conducted on the causes and effects of economic development, very few attempt to look at how multiple activities are interrelated in an effort to generate economic development. While several studies have exa mined the economic impacts of NASCAR tracks, there are other events at play development and impacts, as witnessed in Wyandotte County. Economic development does not occur alone ; it is influenced by several factors simultaneously. Future studies can examine how these factors are intertwined. In addition, it would be interesting to study the other counties surrounding Wyandotte County to see if the economic development of Wyandott e County has created any spillover effects in nearby areas, as suspected by those who developed the Kansas Speedway incentives.

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97 APPENDIX A DEMOGRA P H IC DATA 2010 Census 2000 Census % Change Total population 157,505 100.0 157,882 100.0 0.24% Under 5 years 13,712 8.7% 12,759 8.1% 7.47% 5 to 9 years 12,424 7.9% 12,698 8.0% 2.16% 10 to 14 years 11,401 7.2% 12,252 7.8% 6.95% 15 to 19 years 11,153 7.1% 12,099 7.7% 7.82% 20 to 24 years 10,859 6.9% 11,617 7.4% 6.52% 25 to 29 years 23,849 15.1% 22,939 14.5% 3.97% 35 to 44 years 19,762 12.5% 23,628 15.0% 16.36% 45 to 54 years 21,180 13.4% 19,152 12.1% 10.59% 55 to 59 years 9,063 5.8% 6,729 4.3% 34.69% 60 to 64 years 7,297 4.6% 5,489 3.5% 32.94% 65 to 74 years 8,974 5.7% 9,736 6.2% 7.83% 75 to 84 years 5,521 3.5% 6,558 4.2% 15.81% 85 years and over 2,310 1.5% 2,226 1.4% 3.77% Median age (years) 32.8 (X) 32.5 (X) 0.92% Male population 77,702 49.3 77,071 48.8 0.82% Female population 79,803 50.7 80,811 51.2 1.25% Occupied housing units 58,399 100.0 59,700 100.0 2.18% Owner occupied housing units 35,231 60.3 37,527 62.9 6.12% Renter occupied housing units 23,168 39.7 22,173 37.1 4.49% Average household size of owner occupied units 2.71 (X) 2.69 (X) 0.74% Average household size of renter occupied units 2.62 (X) 2.50 (X) 4.80% White 86,056 54.6 91,856 58.2 6.31% Black or African American 39,742 25.2 44,724 28.3 11.14% American Indian and Alaska Native 1,297 0.8 1,175 0.7 10.38% Asian 3,958 2.5 2,568 1.6 54.13% Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 41,633 26.4 25,257 16.0 64.84%

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98 2010 American Community Survey 2000 Census % Change Educational Attainment Population 25 years and over 97,674 100.0 96,608 100.0 1.10% Less than 9th grade 10,365 10.6% 8,567 8.9% 20.99% 9th to 12th grade, no diploma 9,831 10.1% 16,554 17.1% 40.61% High school graduate (includes equivalency) 34,504 35.3% 33,098 34.3% 4.25% Some college, no degree 22,418 23.0% 21,238 22.0% 5.56% Associate's degree 6,348 6.5% 5,515 5.7% 15.10% Bachelor's degree 9,183 9.4% 7,420 7.7% 23.76% Graduate or professional degree 5,025 5.1% 4,216 4.4% 19.19% Percent high school graduate or higher 79 (X) 74.0 (X) 7.16% Percent bachelor's degree or higher 15 (X) 12.0 (X) 20.83% Total households 54,411 100.0 59,710 100.0 8.87% Less than $10,000 7,328 13.5% 7,607 12.7% 3.67% $10,000 to $14,999 3,543 6.5% 4,571 7.7% 22.49% $15,000 to $24,999 7,083 13.0% 9,304 15.6% 23.87% $25,000 to $34,999 7,421 13.6% 9,243 15.5% 19.71% $35,000 to $49,999 8,755 16.1% 10,833 18.1% 19.18% $50,000 to $74,999 10,090 18.5% 10,580 17.7% 4.63% $75,000 to $99,999 5,264 9.7% 4,738 7.9% 11.10% $100,000 to $149,999 3,370 6.2% 2,197 3.7% 53.39% $150,000 to $199,999 962 1.8% 304 0.5% 216.45% $200,000 or more 595 1.1% 333 0.6% 78.68% Median household income (dollars) 37,293 (X) 33,784 (X) 10.39% Mean household income (dollars) 47,212 (X) 42,507 (X) 11.07%

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99 APPENDIX B BUSINESS LICENSES BY CENSUS TRACT Row Labels = Census Tract Number 0 4 43804 62 40001 86 43901 6 40002 19 43902 13 40200 14 43903 53 40300 11 43904 69 40400 27 43905 44 40500 17 44001 66 40600 25 44002 1 40700 36 44003 27 40800 15 44004 44 40900 21 44101 30 40902 2 44102 72 41000 22 44103 107 41100 8 44104 80 41101 1 44201 64 41102 3 44202 49 41200 32 44301 37 41201 7 44302 25 41202 4 44303 27 41300 74 44400 45 41500 37 44500 34 41600 53 44601 51 41700 90 44602 2 41800 72 44702 1 41900 38 44703 222 42001 14 44704 37 42002 17 44801 2 42100 70 44803 64 42200 21 44804 49 42300 61 44806 1 42400 50 44900 1 42501 61 45000 82 42502 32 45100 57 42600 129 45200 94 42700 55 (blank) 109 42800 40 43000 41 43301 21 43400 86 43500 22 43600 82 43700 33 43802 17 43803 33

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100 APPENDIX C BUILDING PERMIT REPORT DATA 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Permits (#) 25 25 29 31 39 24 40 47 30 22 29 32 19 Value ($) 127758 30 391184 77 771021 92 338696 21 4451733 2 6126959 0 3823382 0 2003007 31

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101 APPENDIX D EMPLOYMENT RAW DATA Wyandotte County, Monthly Earnings Q 1 1995 2557 Q1 2003 2205 Q2 1995 3126 Q2 2003 3482 Q3 1995 3289 Q3 2003 4067 Q4 1995 3289 Q4 2003 2663 Q1 1996 4406 Q1 2004 2226 Q2 1996 3800 Q2 2004 3059 Q3 1996 3769 Q3 2004 3085 Q4 1996 2302 Q4 2004 2440 Q1 1997 3476 Q1 2005 3660 Q2 1997 3130 Q2 2005 3201 Q3 1997 8259 Q3 2005 3060 Q4 1997 3912 Q4 2005 2780 Q1 1998 3702 Q1 2006 3844 Q2 1998 9211 Q2 2006 3202 Q3 1998 2863 Q3 2006 3032 Q4 1998 2991 Q4 2006 2543 Q1 1999 2899 Q1 2007 2635 Q2 1999 3247 Q2 2007 3641 Q3 1999 12812 Q3 2007 2455 Q4 1999 3535 Q4 2007 2350 Q1 2000 3592 Q1 2008 2572 Q2 2000 3725 Q2 2008 3040 Q3 2000 3352 Q3 2008 3089 Q4 2000 2010 Q4 2008 2024 Q1 2001 3076 Q1 2009 1789 Q2 2001 7630 Q2 2009 3159 Q3 2001 3165 Q3 2009 2926 Q4 2001 2276 Q4 2009 2980 Q1 2002 2203 Q1 2010 2150 Q2 2002 2974 Q2 2010 2739 Q3 2002 3353 Q3 2010 3072 Q4 2002 2076 Q4 2010 2871

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102 Wyandotte County, Job Creation Q1 1995 2557 Q1 2003 2205 Q2 1995 3126 Q2 2003 3482 Q3 1995 3289 Q3 2003 4067 Q4 1995 3289 Q4 2003 2663 Q1 1996 4406 Q1 2004 2226 Q2 1996 3800 Q2 2004 3059 Q3 1996 3769 Q3 2004 3085 Q4 1996 2302 Q4 2004 2440 Q1 1997 3476 Q1 2005 3660 Q2 1997 3130 Q2 2005 3201 Q3 1997 8259 Q3 2005 3060 Q4 1997 3912 Q4 2005 2780 Q1 1998 3702 Q1 2006 3844 Q2 1998 9211 Q2 2006 3202 Q3 1998 2863 Q3 2006 3032 Q4 1998 2991 Q4 2006 2543 Q1 1999 2899 Q1 2007 2635 Q2 1999 3247 Q2 2007 3641 Q3 1999 12812 Q3 2007 2455 Q4 1999 3535 Q4 2007 2350 Q1 2000 3592 Q1 2008 2572 Q2 2000 3725 Q2 2008 3040 Q3 2000 3352 Q3 2008 3089 Q4 2000 2010 Q4 2008 2024 Q1 2001 3076 Q1 2009 1789 Q2 2001 7630 Q2 2009 3159 Q3 2001 3165 Q3 2009 2926 Q4 2001 2276 Q4 2009 2980 Q1 2002 2203 Q1 2010 2150 Q2 2002 2974 Q2 2010 2739 Q3 2002 3353 Q3 2010 3072 Q4 2002 2076 Q4 2010 2871

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103 Wyandotte County, Net Job Flows Q1 1995 139 Q1 2003 845 Q2 1995 748 Q2 2003 299 Q3 1995 146 Q3 2003 1454 Q4 1995 332 Q4 2003 887 Q1 1996 1771 Q1 2004 294 Q2 1996 797 Q2 2004 324 Q3 1996 839 Q3 2004 186 Q4 1996 1274 Q4 2004 947 Q1 1997 4015 Q1 2005 1347 Q2 1997 456 Q2 2005 584 Q3 1997 4525 Q3 2005 322 Q4 1997 346 Q4 2005 72 Q1 1998 1302 Q1 2006 1495 Q2 1998 5664 Q2 2006 824 Q3 1998 3140 Q3 2006 517 Q4 1998 966 Q4 2006 964 Q1 1999 4368 Q1 2007 83 Q2 1999 16 Q2 2007 722 Q3 1999 9998 Q3 2007 61 Q4 1999 334 Q4 2007 879 Q1 2000 974 Q1 2008 68 Q2 2000 2945 Q2 2008 274 Q3 2000 342 Q3 2008 772 Q4 2000 2208 Q4 2008 2571 Q1 2001 51 Q1 2009 1471 Q2 2001 4769 Q2 2009 470 Q3 2001 300 Q3 2009 79 Q4 2001 1554 Q4 2009 425 Q1 2002 531 Q1 2010 343 Q2 2002 232 Q2 2010 38 Q3 2002 423 Q3 2010 983 Q4 2002 2073 Q4 2010 894

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104 Wyandotte County, Total Employment Q1 1995 60724 Q1 2003 59688 Q2 1995 61554 Q2 2003 59173 Q3 1995 61149 Q3 2003 58012 Q4 1995 61844 Q4 2003 61483 Q1 1996 60199 Q1 2004 58328 Q2 1996 62414 Q2 2004 60506 Q3 1996 62429 Q3 2004 59585 Q4 1996 64368 Q4 2004 60757 Q1 1997 63281 Q1 2005 58207 Q2 1997 60275 Q2 2005 60500 Q3 1997 58659 Q3 2005 60316 Q4 1997 64042 Q4 2005 61105 Q1 1998 60859 Q1 2006 59979 Q2 1998 62959 Q2 2006 62485 Q3 1998 68031 Q3 2006 61793 Q4 1998 66098 Q4 2006 64367 Q1 1999 62766 Q1 2007 63617 Q2 1999 60464 Q2 2007 64929 Q3 1999 58354 Q3 2007 64142 Q4 1999 65949 Q4 2007 65245 Q1 2000 64440 Q1 2008 63325 Q2 2000 66793 Q2 2008 64687 Q3 2000 61882 Q3 2008 62821 Q4 2000 62803 Q4 2008 65556 Q1 2001 60562 Q1 2009 61800 Q2 2001 60257 Q2 2009 61722 Q3 2001 64291 Q3 2009 61683 Q4 2001 65146 Q4 2009 63438 Q1 2002 61668 Q1 2010 62529 Q2 2002 63743 Q2 2010 64231 Q3 2002 62029 Q3 2010 62623 Q4 2002 64090 Q4 2010 64353

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105 State of Kansas, Average Monthly Employment Q1 1995 $2,006.00 Q1 2003 $2,581.40 Q2 1995 $2,066.40 Q2 2003 $2,608.80 Q3 1995 $2,014.80 Q3 2003 $2,593.40 Q4 1995 $2,197.40 Q4 2003 $2,758.80 Q1 1996 $2,067.20 Q1 2004 $2,645.80 Q2 1996 $2,144.60 Q2 2004 $2,692.60 Q3 1996 $2,082.60 Q3 2004 $2,709.20 Q4 1996 $2,272.60 Q4 2004 $2,936.00 Q1 1997 $2,129.20 Q1 2005 $2,684.60 Q2 1997 $2,211.00 Q2 2005 $2,787.60 Q3 1997 $2,167.00 Q3 2005 $2,849.60 Q4 1997 $2,391.60 Q4 2005 $2,928.40 Q1 1998 $2,218.80 Q1 2006 $2,886.80 Q2 1998 $2,343.60 Q2 2006 $2,926.60 Q3 1998 $2,259.40 Q3 2006 $2,853.40 Q4 1998 $2,517.40 Q4 2006 $3,131.20 Q1 1999 $2,216.20 Q1 2007 $3,047.00 Q2 1999 $2,371.80 Q2 2007 $3,069.60 Q3 1999 $2,343.80 Q3 2007 $2,965.80 Q4 1999 $2,604.00 Q4 2007 $3,229.60 Q1 2000 $2,421.40 Q1 2008 $3,104.80 Q2 2000 $2,472.40 Q2 2008 $3,139.80 Q3 2000 $2,445.80 Q3 2008 $3,060.80 Q4 2000 $2,593.00 Q4 2008 $3,288.60 Q1 2001 $2,498.20 Q1 2009 $3,021.80 Q2 2001 $2,551.60 Q2 2009 $3,083.40 Q3 2001 $2,512.60 Q3 2009 $2,989.80 Q4 2001 $2,658.80 Q4 2009 $3,333.60 Q1 2002 $2,555.00 Q1 2010 $2,989.60 Q2 2002 $2,596.40 Q2 2010 $3,169.40 Q3 2002 $2,540.00 Q3 2010 $3,113.00 Q4 2002 $2,680.60 Q4 2010 $3,433.20

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106 State of Kansas, Total Employment Q1 1995 1123188 Q1 2003 1256757 Q2 1995 1153190 Q2 2003 1274551 Q3 1995 1146073 Q3 2003 1254456 Q4 1995 1166941 Q4 2003 1273706 Q1 1996 1149272 Q1 2004 1243408 Q2 1996 1187548 Q2 2004 1285941 Q3 1996 1181202 Q3 2004 1282289 Q4 1996 1203104 Q4 2004 1294781 Q1 1997 1180551 Q1 2005 1258226 Q2 1997 1226672 Q2 2005 1295928 Q3 1997 1231973 Q3 2005 1283556 Q4 1997 1246125 Q4 2005 1280780 Q1 1998 1224362 Q1 2006 1256752 Q2 1998 1259827 Q2 2006 1300102 Q3 1998 1268106 Q3 2006 1297714 Q4 1998 1286073 Q4 2006 1327334 Q1 1999 1247182 Q1 2007 1304760 Q2 1999 1286885 Q2 2007 1339958 Q3 1999 1285458 Q3 2007 1345970 Q4 1999 1297294 Q4 2007 1356346 Q1 2000 1273274 Q1 2008 1328357 Q2 2000 1306468 Q2 2008 1356492 Q3 2000 1289316 Q3 2008 1344938 Q4 2000 1305882 Q4 2008 1358354 Q1 2001 1290051 Q1 2009 1311106 Q2 2001 1309911 Q2 2009 1308919 Q3 2001 1298939 Q3 2009 1286050 Q4 2001 1308183 Q4 2009 1293949 Q1 2002 1272351 Q1 2010 1255597 Q2 2002 1306394 Q2 2010 1280486 Q3 2002 1281840 Q3 2010 1274111 Q4 2002 1292665 Q4 2010 1291349

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107 Regional Economic Profiles (Bureau of Economic Analysis) State of Kansas Total full time and part time employment: 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 160006 3 163216 1 167680 6 172388 3 173888 6 175787 5 177070 8 174843 8 173712 8 174654 0 176074 7 179432 9 184408 3 185875 5 182035 0 Average earnings per job: 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 26396 27678 28711 30054 31490 32961 34459 35165 37517 39083 40448 41939 42762 44768 44248 Wyandotte County Total full time and part time employment: 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 92073 91750 92644 92425 92035 93590 94930 93052 91481 91959 92726 95720 97742 97915 95923 Average earnings per job: 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 34461 35012 35819 37403 38961 40316 41410 43336 45667 46895 47340 49177 49552 51673 51290

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108 APPENDIX E LOCATION QUOTIENT RA W DATA 2001 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 109,304,802 62,106 1,083,162 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,170,570 ND 8,661 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 535,189 ND 6,878 NAICS 22 Utilities 599,899 ND 7,468 NAICS 23 Construction 6,773,512 4,604 64,325 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 16,386,001 13,907 194,628 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,730,294 5,738 61,393 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 15,179,753 ND 156,811 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 6,871,441 2,377 52,798 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,716,130 846 12,361 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 7,737,320 3,480 64,186 NAICS 61 Educational services 1,883,564 168 9,373 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 12,966,103 6,954 136,563 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 4,138,146 9,445 40,162 NAICS 51 Information 3,591,995 362 51,952 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 5,642,689 1,390 52,190 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,036,285 896 15,404 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,784,330 831 14,013

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109 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 10,100,636 3,726 95,957 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,206,345 2,531 38,039 NAICS 99 Unclassified 254,603 NC NC 2002 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 107,577,281 59,955 1,064,161 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,155,890 ND 8,874 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 505,979 ND 6,505 NAICS 22 Utilities 592,152 ND 6,997 NAICS 23 Construction 6,683,553 4,605 62,955 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 15,209,192 12,842 181,079 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,617,456 6,018 60,776 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 15,018,588 ND 153,957 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 6,654,743 1,949 50,891 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,695,554 680 11,477 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 7,589,300 3,225 63,984 NAICS 61 Educational services 1,951,003 216 9,637 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 13,395,715 7,173 140,293 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 3,989,116 9,107 39,368 NAICS 51 Information 3,364,485 291 50,745

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110 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 5,678,156 1,250 53,891 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,028,109 942 14,897 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,798,621 813 13,866 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 10,197,329 3,596 95,868 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,246,011 2,276 38,104 NAICS 99 Unclassified 206,330 NC NC 2003 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 107,065,553 60,575 1,048,871 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,156,242 ND 8,935 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 500,103 ND 6,513 NAICS 22 Utilities 575,877 ND 7,119 NAICS 23 Construction 6,672,360 4,203 62,707 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 14,459,712 12,315 171,664 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,589,032 ND 58,809 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 14,930,765 5,622 151,214 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 6,638,679 1,371 51,837 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,660,137 561 10,480 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 7,559,641 3,179 61,929 NAICS 61 Educational services 2,016,163 199 9,771

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111 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 13,721,850 9,774 143,766 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 3,946,170 8,768 39,566 NAICS 51 Information 3,180,752 346 46,932 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 5,782,062 1,358 54,763 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,044,868 840 14,975 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,816,902 1,198 13,471 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 10,345,336 3,638 95,837 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,261,165 1,919 38,582 NAICS 99 Unclassified 207,738 NC NC 2004 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 108,490,066 61,268 1,058,858 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,155,106 ND 8,994 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 519,931 ND 7,039 NAICS 22 Utilities 563,931 ND 7,206 NAICS 23 Construction 6,916,398 4,074 63,000 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 14,257,380 12,402 176,504 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,642,537 ND 59,840 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 15,060,686 6,296 151,056 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 6,768,868 1,196 54,661

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112 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,696,537 556 9,288 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 7,829,371 3,474 64,310 NAICS 61 Educational services 2,079,232 234 10,029 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 14,005,731 9,975 146,633 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 4,009,165 8,321 39,562 NAICS 51 Information 3,099,633 342 41,663 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 5,813,299 1,267 54,731 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,077,487 828 15,219 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,852,920 1,191 13,722 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 10,614,677 4,019 97,311 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,287,999 1,811 38,088 NAICS 99 Unclassified 239,179 NC 3 2005 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 110,611,016 61,917 1,067,241 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,163,629 ND 9,635 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 560,416 ND 7,580 NAICS 22 Utilities 550,593 ND 7,273 NAICS 23 Construction 7,269,317 4,344 62,902 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 14,190,394 12,415 180,240

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113 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,752,802 ND 59,590 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 15,256,340 6,271 148,756 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 7,055,427 1,257 54,537 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,743,214 737 9,621 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 8,071,211 3,772 68,395 NAICS 61 Educational services 2,144,340 181 11,476 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 14,335,141 10,453 148,581 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 4,098,553 7,678 39,477 NAICS 51 Information 3,056,431 303 39,559 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 5,912,592 1,261 54,996 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,125,259 755 15,415 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,867,996 808 12,513 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 10,871,471 4,866 99,307 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,324,015 1,873 37,387 NAICS 99 Unclassified 261,876 NC NC 2006 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 112,718,858 64,268 1,085,952 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,160,179 ND 9,528 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 616,598 ND 8,731 NAICS 22 Utilities 546,521 ND 7,283

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114 NAICS 23 Construction 7,602,148 4,555 64,867 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 14,110,663 12,449 182,714 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,885,194 ND 60,073 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 15,370,040 6,584 148,481 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 7,392,850 1,312 57,934 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,785,257 871 10,061 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 8,291,573 3,584 71,666 NAICS 61 Educational services 2,207,199 230 10,700 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 14,709,028 10,822 150,484 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 4,204,514 7,804 40,220 NAICS 51 Information 3,040,577 486 39,382 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 6,007,468 1,363 56,441 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,154,595 687 15,385 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,901,194 877 13,699 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 11,123,421 5,630 101,579 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,364,889 1,891 36,704 NAICS 99 Unclassified 244,951 NC 21 2007 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 114,012,221 65,690 1,111,791 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,166,333 ND 9,523 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 660,276 ND 9,259

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115 NAICS 22 Utilities 549,539 ND 7,334 NAICS 23 Construction 7,562,732 4,456 65,818 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 13,833,022 12,031 185,755 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,987,206 ND 61,559 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 15,509,017 6,743 148,973 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 7,635,062 1,375 59,551 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,839,616 850 11,371 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 8,385,118 4,003 75,938 NAICS 61 Educational services 2,284,556 242 11,262 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 15,148,606 11,327 154,800 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 4,292,445 8,539 41,738 NAICS 51 Information 3,029,789 523 41,014 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 5,992,373 1,317 57,941 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,153,608 770 15,412 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,953,899 742 13,766 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 11,373,660 5,565 103,020 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,438,439 2,115 37,730 NAICS 99 Unclassified 216,926 NC 28

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116 2008 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 113,188,643 65,406 1,117,851 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,169,029 ND 9,618 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 713,398 ND 9,846 NAICS 22 Utilities 557,983 ND 7,567 NAICS 23 Construction 7,124,886 4,232 65,211 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 13,382,697 11,520 187,151 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,954,915 ND 63,009 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 15,307,933 7,052 147,258 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 7,816,999 1,517 61,971 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,895,417 852 13,734 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 7,992,864 4,343 74,754 NAICS 61 Educational services 2,366,800 244 12,198 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 15,587,303 11,822 159,117 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 4,271,969 8,212 41,306 NAICS 51 Information 2,989,161 471 38,890 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 5,857,197 1,316 57,405 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,111,179 813 15,053 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,978,461 604 13,376

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117 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 11,417,016 4,971 102,692 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,484,907 2,023 37,603 NAICS 99 Unclassified 208,532 NC 91 2009 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 106,947,104 63,383 1,066,664 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,142,192 ND 9,743 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 641,366 ND 8,167 NAICS 22 Utilities 560,713 ND 7,725 NAICS 23 Construction 5,948,837 3,720 58,104 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 11,810,371 10,862 167,057 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,561,787 ND 60,895 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 14,544,111 6,939 142,256 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 7,479,760 1,439 60,876 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,855,139 871 13,536 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 7,153,937 4,955 68,666 NAICS 61 Educational services 2,419,382 240 12,611 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 15,902,253 12,316 161,917 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 3,985,037 7,313 39,066 NAICS 51 Information 2,807,721 400 34,764

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118 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 5,618,477 1,292 55,860 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 1,971,344 824 14,490 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,921,653 575 13,168 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 11,079,375 4,875 101,010 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,369,780 1,923 36,730 NAICS 99 Unclassified 173,872 3 23 2010 Industry U.S. TOTAL Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas -Statewide Base Industry: Total, all industries 106,201,232 64,235 1,047,456 NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,146,962 ND 9,948 NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 651,631 ND 8,352 NAICS 22 Utilities 551,287 ND 7,810 NAICS 23 Construction 5,489,499 3,328 54,344 NAICS 31 33 Manufacturing 11,487,496 11,439 159,771 NAICS 42 Wholesale trade 5,466,463 ND 59,710 NAICS 44 45 Retail trade 14,481,324 7,073 140,838 NAICS 54 Professional and technical services 7,457,913 1,413 60,486 NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises 1,854,778 879 15,262 NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services 7,399,320 6,082 69,997 NAICS 61 Educational services 2,460,150 273 13,075 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance 16,196,009 12,754 161,574

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119 NAICS 48 49 Transportation and warehousing 3,943,659 7,075 38,436 NAICS 51 Information 2,703,886 399 29,425 NAICS 52 Finance and insurance 5,486,241 1,214 54,801 NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 1,915,571 688 14,338 NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,903,739 634 13,096 NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services 11,103,075 4,432 100,084 NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration 4,349,563 1,937 36,104 NAICS 99 Unclassified 152,667 NC 7

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120 APPENDIX F AERIAL MAPS 1995 2002

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121 2003 2006

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122 2008 2010

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123 2012

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124 APPENDIX G TRAFFIC MAPS

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125

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126

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127 LIST OF REFERENCES ACCRA. 2011. ACCRA Cost of Living Index Data for Third Quarter 2011. Council for Community and Economic Research; Arlington, VA. Associated Press. 2012 Casino O pens O verlooking Turn 2 at Kansas Speedway. Retrieved from http:// www.foxnews.com Baade, R. 1 994. Stadiums, Professional S ports, and E conomic D evelopment: Assessing the R eality. Heartland Institute, Heartland Policy Study 62: 1 39. Baade, R. 1 996. Professional Sports as C atalysts for M etropolitan E conomic D evelopment. Journal of Urban Affairs 18(1): 1 17. Bernthal, M acetrack o n a Rural C ommunity and R egion. Sport Marketing Quarterly 13 : 26 34. Brinson, N. 2006. Political, Economic, and Cultural Revival in Kansas City, Kansas. Department of Geography and the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Kansas, THESIS B ureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. 2012. Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/data/ Buss, T. 2001. The Effe ct of S tate T ax I ncentives of E conomic Growth and F irm Location Decisions: An Overview of the L iterature. Economic Development Quarterly 15 : 90 105. Cavin, C. 2004. Take a S eat: Study P C apacity at 257,325. USA Today Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/sports/motor/irl/indy500/2004 05 27 attendance count_x.htm Chapin, rban Redevelopment C Journal of the American Planning Association 70(2) : 193 209. Coates, D ; ood. Working Paper Series, Paper No. 07 14, North American Association of Sports Economics, International Association of Sports Economists. Duggan, B. 2012. B onds V ary Reno Gazette Journal. Retrieved from http://www.rgj.com/article/20120124/NEWS/301230022/States STAR bonds vary Eberts, R. 1990. Public Infrastructure and Regional Economic D evelopment. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. R etrieved from http://clevelandfed.org/research/review

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128 Eisinger, P. 1988. The Rise of the E ntrepreneurial S tate. Milwaukee WI : University of Wisconsin Press. Flei schmann, A; Green, G.P.; Kwong, T.M. 1992. C ity to do? A C omparison of C entral Cities, Suburbs, and Nonmetropolitan C ommunities. Urban Affair s Quarterly 27: 145 154. Google Earth. 2 012. Wyandotte County, Kansas. Aerial Map. Ihlanfeldt, K; Sjoquist, D. 2001. Conducting an A E conomic D evelopment T ax I ncentive P rogram. Economic Development Quarterly 15 : 217 228. Kansas Department of Commerce. 2012. Guidance to ST AR Retrieved from h ttp://www.kansascommerce.com/DocumentView.aspx?DID=75 Kansas Depar tment of Transportation, 2004. Traffic C ount M ap of Kansas City Metro A rea Kansas Department of Transportation, 200 8 Traffic C ount M ap of Kansas City Metro A rea Kansas Dep artment of Transportation, 2011 Traffic C ount M ap of Kansas City Metro A rea Kansas Le gislative Research Department. 2011. B riefing B ook. Retrieved from http://www.kspace.org/bitstream/1984/20756/1/2011BriefingBook.pdf Kansas Legislator Briefing Book. 2012. Economic Development: H 1 Statewide STAR Bond Authority. Retrieved fr om http://skyways.lib.ks.us/ksleg/KLRD/Publications/2012Briefs/H 1 StatewideSTARBondAuthority.pdf Kansas Speedway. 2012. Kansas Speedway H istory Retrieved from http://www.kansasspeedway.com/Track Info/History.aspx Kumar, R. 2005. Research Methodology: A Step by Step Guide for Beginners. Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA : SAGE Publications Inc. Location Quotients. 2012. Location Quotient Calculator. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://data.bls.gov/location_quotient/ControllerServlet Luger, M ; Bae, S. 2005. The Effectiveness of S tate Business T ax I ncentive P rograms: The Case of North Carolina. Economic Development Quarterly 19: 327 345. MetLife Stadium. 2012 Retrieved from http://www.metlifestadi um.com

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129 Pacione, M. 2001. Urban Geography: A Global P erspective. F irst Edition. London : Routledge Peterson, P.E. 1981. City Limits. Chicago IL : University of Chicago Press. Reese, L. A. 1993. Categories of Local Economic Development Techniques: An E mpirical A nalysis. Policy Studies Journal 21 : 492 506 Robertson, K. 1995. Downtown R edevelopment S trategies in the United States. Journal of the American Planning Association 61(4) : 429 438. Schli tterbahn. 2012. Schlitterbahn Vacation Village F act S hee t Retrieved from http://www.schlitterbahn.com/news/kc.asp Siegfried, J ; Zimbalist, A. 2 000. The Economics of Sports F acilities and T heir C ommunities. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(3) : 95 114. Taylor, M. 2010. Village West Tourism District. Retrieved from http://www.wycokck.org/uploadedFi les/Departments/County_Administration/Info% 20Brief Village%20West%20Tourism%20District%20(2010).pdf ThinkKC. 2012. evelopments Retrieved from http://thinkkc. com/NewsEvents/TopDevelopments/TopDevelopments.php Tu, C. 2005. How Does a N ew S ports S tadium Affect H ousing V alues? The Case of FedEx Field. Land Economics 81(3) : 379 395. Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas. 2012. About Kansas City, Kansas Retrieved from http://www.wycokck.org/InternetDept.aspx?id=16384&menu_id=1358 Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, Kansas. 2012. Village West. Retrieved from http:// www.wycokck.org/InternetDept.aspx?id=16192&banner=15284 Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas Ci ty, Kansas, Research Division. 2 011. Building Permit Summary Reports 2003 2010. Unified Government of Wyandotte County and Kansas City, K ansas, Research Division. 2011 Business license data 1995 2010. U.S. Census Bureau. 2010 a Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics : 2010. Wyandotte County. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml U.S. Census Bureau. 2010 b ACS Selected Economic Characteristics. Wyandotte County. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml

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130 U.S. Census Bureau. 2 010 c ACS Selected Social Characteristics in the United States. Wyandotte County. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml U.S. Census Bureau. 2010d. 2010 Census Redistricting Data Summary File. Retrieved f rom http://www.census.gov U.S. Census Bureau, Cent er for Economic Studies. 201 2 Quarterly W orkforce I ndicators U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2012. Regional E conomic P rofiles Wolman, H; Sp itzley, D. 1996. ocal E conomic D evelopment. Economic Development Quarterly 10 : 115 150. Yin, R.K. 2009 Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Fourth Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

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131 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brian Caper graduate d with a Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning from the University of Florida in May of 2012 He received his d egree in business administration from the University of Florida in 2009, majoring in finance and minoring in urban and regional planning and leadership. During his graduate and undergraduate studies, Brian completed several internships, including serving as an Economic Development Intern for the City of Gainesville, Florida and an Economic Development Intern f or Hillsborough County, Florida. Brian was born in Kankakee, Illinois and grew up in a suburb of Chicago Illinois He moved to Tampa, Florida as a freshman in high school. Cu rrently Brian lives in St. Petersburg, Florida where he works as an Economic Dev elopment Analyst for the City of St. Petersburg.