Analysis of the Relationship between the Posterior Airway Space and Molar Classification in Children Aged 10-15

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Analysis of the Relationship between the Posterior Airway Space and Molar Classification in Children Aged 10-15
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english
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Rubensteen, Evan G
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University of Florida
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Degree:
Master's ( M.S.)
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University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Dental Sciences, Dentistry
Committee Chair:
Dolce, Calogero
Committee Members:
Mcgorray, Susan P
Wheeler, Timothy T

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Subjects / Keywords:
airway -- Class I -- Class II -- Class III
Dentistry -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
occlusion
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Dental Sciences thesis, M.S.
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
In this study we investigated the difference in the posterior airway volume, area and minimum axial area between patients with Class I, Class II, and Class III dental malocclusions as well as patients with cleft lip with or without cleft palate aged 10-15. While numerous studies have examined the relationship between mandibular retrognathia and the anatomy of the posterior airway, few have specifically addressed the relationship between molar occlusion and posterior airway anatomy, and none have done so in children. Since a class II molar relationship predominates in mandibular retrognathia, we suspected that there should be a similar relationship between anatomy and molar occlusion. Subjects were found by a retrospective search of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) folder of University of Florida College of Dentistry (UFCD) Department of Orthodontics after IRB approval was obtained. We started with an initial goal of finding 100 patients to be split into 4 separate categories. 25 Class I, Class II and Class III dental malocclusion patients were found, but only 19 cleft lip with or without cleft palate patients were found in the database. The total number of subjects in our study was therefore only 94. Age at scan, sex, race, right molar classification and left molar classification were recorded for each subject based on their dental chart. Cephalometric measurements were made from lateral cephalometric x-rays produced from CBCT data by the Dolphin Imaging Suite v.11. SNA, SNB, ANB and Sn-GoGn were recorded. Airway data was also calculated by the same imaging software based on volume renders the software built based on recorded CBCT data. The posterior airway was drawn from the following 4 points, Basion, ANS, the most lateral inferior portion of C2 and menton. The upper and lower borders for minimum axial area were then defined and the upper and lower limits of the “box.” Total airway volume, total airway area and minimum axial area were recorded for each subject. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients showed that SNB and ANB were properly related to molar score. There were no statistically significant differences were found between groups for any of the variables examined other than SNA (ANOVA p=0.0232) and ANB (ANOVA p<0.0001). The best four variable model was age at scan, sngogn, Class II and sex (R2 = 0.11). Molar occlusion was not significantly related to airway area, airway volume or minimum axial area. The sample size was small and since this was a retrospective study, additional data (such as height, weight) that could be influencing the results, were not available. Additionally, most of these scans were taken for orthodontic indications, such as ectopic eruption of canines, which could have an impact on molar classification. A more homogenous sample might yield different results. The goal of this pilot study was to assess if molar occlusion could be used as a clinical indicator of patients with different posterior airway anatomy. The study, however, with its limited sample size found no relationship between molar occlusion and the posterior airway. Larger studies with control over additional variables could yield different results.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Evan G Rubensteen.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2012.
General Note:
Adviser: Dolce, Calogero.
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RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-05-31

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1 ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE POSTERIOR AIRWAY SPACE AND MOLAR CLASSIFICATION IN CHILDREN AGED 10-15 By EVAN G. RUBENSTEEN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Evan G. Rubensteen

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3 To my family, friends and teachers

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my family for providing and nurtu ring my potential. I thank my research mentor, Dr. Dolce, for his guidance and direct ion. I would also like to thank Dr. Susan McGorray for her help with obtaining IRB approva l and with the statistical analysis for my project. Dr. Timothy Wheeler and Dr. Charles Widmer have also provided my instrumental guidance throughout my residen cy. I thank all of my teachers, past and present, who have contributed to my educat ion. Last but not least, I acknowledge financial and/or logistical support from t he University of Flor ida Department of Orthodontics, the University of Flor ida Graduate Student C ouncil, the American Association of Orthodontists, the Southern Association of Orthodontists and the Florida Association of Orthodontists.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDG MENTS .................................................................................................. 4LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ 6LIST OF FI GURES .......................................................................................................... 7LIST OF ABBR EVIATIONS ............................................................................................. 8ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................... 9CHAPTER 1 INTRODUC TION .................................................................................................... 122 METHOD S .............................................................................................................. 153 RESULT S ............................................................................................................... 184 DISCUSSI ON ......................................................................................................... 225 CONCLUS ION ........................................................................................................ 26LIST OF RE FERENCES ............................................................................................... 27BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................................ 29

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6 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Variability am ongst groups ................................................................................. 203-2 Variability am ongst groups ................................................................................. 203-3 Variability amongst gr oups ................................................................................. 213-4 Pearson correlation c oefficients age at sc an ...................................................... 213-5 Pearson correlation coe fficients mola r score ...................................................... 21

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Borders of airway ................................................................................................ 162-2 Maximum and minimum borders of ai rway with minimu m axial area .................. 162-3 Volume render of airw ay ..................................................................................... 173-1 Sex by group ...................................................................................................... 193-2 Race by group .................................................................................................... 20

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8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ANB A cephalometric measurement of angle between A point and B point CBCT Cone beam computerized tomography DICOM Digital imaging and co mmunications in medicine IRB Institutional review board OSA Obstructive sleep apnea SNA Sella, nasion, A point angle SNB Sella, nasion, B point angle SN-GoGn Sella, nasion to gonion, gnathion also known as mandibular plane angle UFCD University of Florida College of Dentistry

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9 Abstract of Thesis Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for t he Degree of Master of Science ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE POSTERIOR AIRWAY SPACE AND MOLAR CLASSIFICATION IN CHILDREN AGED 10-15 By Evan G. Rubensteen May 2012 Chair: Calogero Dolce Major: Dental Sci ences Orthodontics In this study we investigated the differenc e in the posterior airway volume, area and minimum axial area between patients with Class I, Class II, and Class III dental malocclusions as well as patients with cle ft lip with or without cl eft palate aged 10-15. While numerous studies have examined the relationship between mandibular retrognathia and the anatomy of t he posterior airway, few have specifically addressed the relationship between molar occlusion an d posterior airway anatomy, and none have done so in children. Since a class II mola r relationship predominates in mandibular retrognathia, we suspected that there shoul d be a similar relationship between anatomy and molar occlusion. Subjects were found by a retrospective search of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) folder of University of Florida College of Dentistry (UFCD) Department of Orthodontics after IRB approval was obtained. We started with an initial goal of finding 100 patients to be split into 4 separate categories. 25 Class I, Class II and Class III dental malocclus ion patients were found, but only 19 cleft lip with or without cleft palate patient s were found in the database. The total number of subjects in our st udy was therefore only 94. Age at scan, sex, race, right

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10 molar classification and left molar classifi cation were recorded for each subject based on their dental chart. Cephalometric m easurements were made from lateral cephalometric x-rays produced from CBCT dat a by the Dolphin Imaging Suite v.11. SNA, SNB, ANB and Sn-GoGn we re recorded. Airway data was also calculated by the same imaging software based on volume r enders the software built based on recorded CBCT data. The posterior airway was drawn from the following 4 points, Basion, ANS, the most lateral inferior portion of C2 and menton. The upper and lower borders for minimum axial area were then defined and the upper and lower limits of the “box.” Total airway volume, total airway area and mi nimum axial area were recorded for each subject. Pearson and Spearman correlation coeffici ents showed that SNB and ANB were properly related to molar score. There were no statistically significant differences were found between groups for any of the vari ables examined other than SNA (ANOVA p=0.0232) and ANB (ANOVA p<0.0001). The best f our variable model was age at scan, sngogn, Class II and sex (R2 = 0.11). Molar occlusion was not significantly rela ted to airway area, airway volume or minimum axial area. The sample size was small and since this was a retrospective study, additional data (such as height, weight) t hat could be influencing the results, were not available. Additionally, most of these scans were taken for orthodontic indications, such as ectopic eruption of canines, which could have an impact on molar classification. A more homogenous sample might yield different results. The goal of this pilot study was to assess if molar occlusion could be used as a clinical indicator of patient s with different posterior airw ay anatomy. The study, however,

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11 with its limited sample size found no relati onship between molar occlusion and the posterior airway. Larger studies with cont rol over additional variables could yield different results.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Multiple studies have shown that airway problems are significantly related to different types of malocclusions and can cause different dentofacial anomalies.1,2 Patients with class II malocclusion have been shown to have smaller oropharyngeal volumes than class I and class III patients.3 In patients with obstructive sleep apnea, for example, the size and position of the mandibl e is different, there is an enlargement of the posterior airway space and size of t he tongue and the soft palate is different from those that are unaffected.4 For the most part, the airway assessment in these patients has been done on two-dimensional lateral cephalograms.5 The lateral cephalogram, however, is not an ideal instrum ent to make airway assessments6 because it is cannot identify the soft tissue contour of the airw ay in the axial dimension. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scanning is a more useful adjunct in diagnosing airway disorders because it can also take in to account the axial plane which is also physiologically the most relevant.7,8 An additional benefit to CBCT is that it exposes the patient to reduced radiation than a conventional medical CT. Acrylic model reproduction of CBCT data has shown to be reliable and accurate when compared to software made measurements.9 Due to its inability to definitively diagnosis the disorder, CT imaging is not routinely used in the work up for a patient with OSA. Despite this, it cl early has a role in providing

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13 definitive imaging of the soft tissue and bony structures that can be risk factors for OSA.10 Some authors, however, promote its usage for diagn osis by looking in deviations from normal in the oropharnyx,11 retropharyngeal tissue12 or palate, uvula, and lingua.13 As of late there has been a large push to use cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging for routine diagnostic orthodontic im aging. CBCT yields additional useful information in treatment planning with low addi tional radiation a nd exposure risk to patients. It also has very little magnific ation and greater anatomical reproducibility, approximately 1% and 1mm, respectively than the standard panoramic and lateral cephalometric x-rays.14 Relevant to OSA, it has al so been shown that patients of different craniofacial patterns on which the orthodontist focuses his therapy have differing posterior airway space volumes, as would make sense based on the position of the lower jaw in these different craniofacia l patterns. For example, patients with Class II craniofacial patterns have a significantly narrower pharyngeal airway than those with Class III craniofacial patterns.15 Additionally, studies anal yzing orthodontic treatment with mandibular repositioning appliances have found that t hey improve and reduce the symptoms of OSA by enl arging the pharynx in the lateral plane at the retropalatal and retroglossal levels of the pharynx.16 Others have found enlargem ent in the upper airway as well, with statistically significant expansion in the nasooropharynx area (p<.014; p<.050) and in the angle between t he hard and the soft palate (p<.001).17 The goal of this project was to examine if a relationship exists between different malocclusions and the anatomy of the posterior airway. As detailed above, the existing literature has shown that there is a re lationship between mandibular retrognathia and posterior anatomy. Since class II ma loclussion predominates in mandibular

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14 retrognathia, it should also be negatively co rrelated to the anatomy of the posterior airway. This project will also add to the curre nt literature by including a population with craniofacial anomalies which mi ght be able to show how deficient growth processes can affect the volume of the poste rior airway. This project will al so help to support or refute the relatively small body of lit erature few studies with rela tively small sample sizes that exist on this topic. Additionally, th is study also looked for variations amongst different ethnic groups and for children in the age group 10-15, the population most relevant to practicing orthodont ists. Importantly, the pharyngeal structures grow rapidly until 13 years of age and followed by a quie scent period for children aged 14-18. This study will hopefully be able to relate some of this change to changes in malocclusion. Our null hypothesis was that there are no significant relationships between posterior airway volume and malocclusion in children and adolescents aged 10-15. Our alternative hypothesis was that there are significant rela tionships between posterior airway volume and malocclusion in children and adolescents aged 10-15.

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15 CHAPTER 2 METHODS After IRB approval was obtai ned, the DICOM folder of the UFCD Department of Orthodontics was reviewed with the goal of obtaining 100 subjects. To be included in the study, subjects were identified as aged 10-15 and had to have a complete CBCT scan. Subjects were excluded from the study if they had any missing teeth, insufficient CBCT data, were outside the age range, or had any medical condition which in the opinion of the investigators results in a deviation from a normal grown pattern, other than cleft lip with or without cle ft palate. Subjects were to be placed into 3 groups based upon their occlusion, until each group had 25 s ubjects. Only 19 patients with cleft lip with or without cleft palate that fulfilled our inclusion criteria existed in the database, so our final sample consisted of 94 subjects. In addition to right and left molar occlusion, age at CBCT, date of birth, sex and race we re recorded based on information provided in the patient’s dental chart. Each subjects CBCT was then used by the Dolphin Imaging Suite v.11 to produce a lateral cephalometric x-ray and a volume render of the posterior airway. SNA,SNB, ANB and Sn-GoGn were t he cephalometric values recorded for each subject. The posterior airway was drawn by connecting the following 4 points, Basion, ANS, the most lateral inferior portion of C3 and menton. (Figure 2-1) The upper and lower borders for minimum axial area were then defined as the upper and lower limits of Basion –ANS and C3-menton. (Fi gure 2-2). Molar class was scored as Class II full cusp = 1, Class II cusp = 2, Class II cusp = 3, Class II cusp = 4, Class I = 5, Class III 1/4 cusp = 6, Class II cusp = 7, Class II 3/4 cusp = 8 and Class III full cusp = 9. The data was analyzed by ANOVA, KruskalWalls, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between minimum

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16 axial area and demographic charac teristics, molar class, and cephalometric measures. A p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Figure 2-1. Borders of airway Figure 2-2. Maximum and minimum border s of airway with minimum axial area

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17 Figure 2-3. Volume render of airway

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18 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS There were 94 subjects in our sample. Fifty were female and 44 were female. There were 23 subjects in the African American and Asian category and 71 subjects were included in the Caucasian and Hispani c category. No differences were found within groups for either sex or race wit h chi square p-values of of 0.54 and 0.72, respectively (Figures 3-1 and 3-2). There were no differences between groups for the variables age at scan (p=0.19), SNB (p=0.24) Sn-GoGn (p=0.16), airway area (p=0.77), airway volume (p=0.24) and mi nimum axial area (p=0.49), wh ile there were for SNA and ANB (Tables 1-3). The ANOVA p-value for SN A was 0.02 and by the Kruskal-Walls test was 0.04. The ANOVA p-value and Kruskal-Wa lls p-value for ANB were both <0.0001. The significance of ANB is intuitive becaus e ANB is the cephalometric measurement most involved in jaw relationship, which is a difference we were specifically aiming to create between our groups. The SNA differenc e could also be explained by our study design, as cleft patients and class III pat ients tend to have a degree of maxillary hypoplasia. By the Pearson correlation coe fficient, molar scores we re properly related to SNB and ANB (p-value of <0.0001). ANB was negatively correlated and molar score was positively correlated with p-values of 0.0049 and 0.0224 to the age at scan. This was expected with our sample as molar occlus ion tends to class I as the child loses their primary teeth and moves to the permanent dentition. ANB, is also known to decrease as the mandible grows as the child ages. Age at scan was also highly correlated, p-value <0.0001, with the airway area and mildly correlated with airway volume (p-value <0.0001) and minimum axial ar ea (p-value 0.0047). (Table 3-4) Airway size has also been shown elsewhere in the lit erature to increase wit h increasing age.

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19 Spearman correlation coefficients yielded similar results. We used linear regression to try and find the variables that would best fit our data points. Our four best models were: 1 variable model: age at scan (R2 = 0.08), 2 variable model: age at scan, sngogn (R2 = 0.10), 3 variable model: age at scan, sngogn, Class II (R2 = 0.11), 4 variable model: age at scan, sngogn, Class II, sex (R2 = 0.11). In our best 2 m odels, only age at scan was significant. Figure 3-1. Sex by group

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20 Figure 3-2. Race by group Table 3-1. Variability amongst groups. Molar class group Mean age Minimum Maximum Class I 13.1 10.8 15.5 Class II 12.5 10.2 15.6 Class III 13.4 10.8 15.5 Cleft lip and palate 12.9 11 15.9 ANOVA P-value 0.2 Table 3-2. Variability amongst groups. Molar class group SNA SNB ANB Sn-GoGn Class I 83.5 (4.1) 79.4(3.2) 4.1(2.5) 32.8(4.3) Class II 84.4(5.0) 78.5(4. 4) 5.9(2.7) 32(5.4) Class III 81.1(5.5) 80.5(5. 8) 0.6(3.5) 36.0(7.7) Cleft lip and palate 80.3(5.7) 77. 8(5.1) 2.4(3.8) 33.9(7.8) ANOVA P-value 0.02 0.2 0.0001 0.16

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21 Table 3-3. Variability amongst groups. Molar class group Airway area mm2 Airway volume mm3 Minimum area mm2 Class I 609.2 (180.1) 13261 ( 5131.8) 153.7 (82.4) Class II 591.8 (216.9) 12741 (7153.1) 126.2(87.4) Class III 629.2 (176.8) 14018 (5642) 161.7(86.7) Cleft lip and palate 571.6 (178. 6) 12668 (6718.4) 139(93.2) ANOVA P-value 0.77 0.24 0.49 Table 3-4. Pearson correlation coefficients age at scan Molar score SNA SNB ANB SnGoGn Airway area mm2 Airway volume mm3 Minimum axial area mm2 Age at scan 0.29 -0.13 0.04 -0. 24 0.034 0.43 0.46 0.29 Pvalue 0.0049 0.21 0.68 0.02 0. 73 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.005 Table 3-5. Pearson correlation coefficients molar score. SNA SNB ANB SnGoGn Airway area mm2 Airway volume mm3 Minimum axial area mm2 Molar score -0.13 0.30 -0.56 0.18 0.12 0.09 0.12 P-value 0.23 0.003 <0.0001 0.08 0.22 0.40 0.27

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22 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION Based on our results, we fail to reject our null hypothesis. In our sample, there was no relationship for children aged 10-15 between molar occlusion and the volume, overall area or minimum axial area of the posterior airway. T hese results are particularly disappointing, because numerous studies have shown that a relationship exists between the position of the lower jaw and the pos terior airway. Since the lower jaw also controls the position of the lower molar, whic h determines molar classi fication, it follows that molar classification s hould be related to the posterior airway. There was a significant difference between our groups when it came to the relationship between the jaws, which we evaluated cephalometrically through ANB. Other published studies seem to contradict our results. In a sample of 27 children, Kim et al., when looking at ANB, did find that mean total airway volume, from the epiglottis up the nasopharynx to the nasal cavity, was significantly smaller in mandibular retr ognathic patients than those with a normal anteroposterior skeletal relationship. Our study did not include the nasal cavity within its measurement. Additionally, in support of our results, the total vo lume measurements of the 4 subregions of the airway were not st atistically significant between the 2 groups that they examined, class I and class II pat ients. This study only examined ANB and not molar occlusion.18 Other studies tried to find relationship s between the airway and class III skeletal malocclusion patients. Hong et al. in a samp le of 60 subjects with a mean age of 26 +/4.5 years found that in their class III subjec ts, the lower part of the pharyngeal airway and the volume of the upper par t of the pharyngeal airway we re greater than in their

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23 Class I malocclusion patients. There was a negative correlation between the upper part of the pharyngeal airway with ANB and the Wits appraisal. There was a positive correlation between the volume and SNB, AP DI, pogonion to Nasion perpendicular, gonial angle and FMA.19 Iwasaki et al. did examine dental malocclus ion. They found that the Class III group showed statistically larger oropharyngeal area and width compar ed with the Class I group. Class III severity was positively corre lated with area in a study of 45 children. Their sample however, had a lower average age 8.6 +/-1.0 years and used different borders to define the airway than we did in our study.20 Grauer et al. in a study of 62 pat ients (mean age approximately 25) found a statistically significant relationship betw een anteroposterior jaw relationship and the volume of the inferior component of the airway The investigators also found statistically significant relationships between airway volu me and the size of the face with regard to sex. 21 El et al. in a sample of 101 patients f ound that there was a significant difference for the oropharyngeal volume for the Class II I mandibular protrusion patients and the Class II mandibular retrusive subjects had the lowest values. Their minimum axial area was the variable that was best correl ated with Oropharyngeal airway volume.22 Not all studies in the published literature contr adict our results Alves et al., in an study of 60 adult subjects (all patients above the age of 15) found sim ilar results to ours. While the class III group had a larger ar ea and volume and the class II group had a smaller area and volume, the results revealed that the majority of airway measurements were not affected by degree of malocclusio n and no statistical significance was found.23

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24 Unfortunately, there is little uniformity amongst these studies and most of the studies were done with adult subjects. The st udies used different borders for their airways – some included the nasal cavity as well, some divided the airway into three planes and some used the same borders as our study. The studies also used different CBCT scanners, all of which have different resolutions whic h could impact the volume produced by the different studies’ software pr ograms. Additionally, most studies used different software prog rams to analyze and build the airways. We therefore have identified a few possi ble confounders that could explain our results as would be importance if other studies were to be pursued. First, our sample size was small and not ideally homogenous. Due to the retrospective nature of our study, we were forced to utilize the patient s we had in our database. We used the full range of molar classification, for example, from cusp to full cusp and beyond. Perhaps a sample that consisted of only fu ll cusp occlusions would yield different results. Another possible confounder could be the children’s weight. Numerous studies have shown a link between obesity and decreased posterior volume – and obstructive sleep apnea. Height and weight were unknown variables in our study because they were not part of the patient’s charts. A th ird confounder was that most of these scans were taken for orthodontic indications. CBCT’s are not taken as a routine diagnostic aid in the UFCD Orthodontic Clinic. Many of these patients had scans taken due to the presence of impacted teeth, pr edominantly canines. An impac ted canine, in the maxilla and mandible can impact molar occlusion, in either direction, depending on its location. An additional problem could be our software itself, as the Dolphin Imagine Suite v.11 may be unable to detect differences that woul d be significant based on the proprietary

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25 algorithms it uses to make its calculations. We also did not record overjet, which may possibly have been a better indicator of the ja w relationships than molar occlusion. We also did not assess if patients had symptoms of upper respiratory infection, pharyngeal pathology such as adenoid hypertrophy and tonsil litis or a history of adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy. Lastly, despite calibration ov er multiple scans, there is always the possibility of investigator error. Future studies will hopefully take these confounders into account. In the investigators opinion, an ideal study woul d be one in which a prospective population was collected for which height and weight was recorded, no tooth impactions were present, and occlusion class was based on full cusp malocclusion only. Additionally, it would be interested to blind the study to whether or not the subject had obstructive sleep apnea or not. The clinical relevance fo r the size of the posterior lies in its importance in identifying obstruc tive sleep apnea. An ideal sample would consists of a larger sample with the items identified abov e as a control and with a second group that had obstructive respiratory problems to see if molar occlusion could be used as clinical indicator.

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26 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Molar occlusion by itself is not a sufficient indicator of airway volume, airway area or minimum axial area. Our findings do not nece ssarily contradict t he existing literature, but do not actively support it either. Further research with additional variables and a larger, homogenous sample size might lead to a better predictive model with regard to the relationships between occlusion and t he posterior airway. Early diagnosis of different skeletal patterns and their im pact on posterior airway anatomy can be paramount in helping a child resume obtain no rmal skeletal structure before the growth potential is lost. Additionally, early detection of obstructive sleep apnea, resulting from obstruction of the posterior can result in effective treatment modalities before the diseases co-morbidities can manifest.

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27 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 Linder-Aronson S. Respiratory function in relation to facial morphology and the dentition. British Journal of Orthodontics 1979; 6: 59–71. 2 Kirjavainen M, Kirjavainen T. Upper airw ay dimensions in Class II malocclusion. Effects of headgear treatment. Angle Orthodontist 2007; 77: 1046–1053. 3 Hakan E, Palomo JM. Airway volume fo r different skeletal patterns. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentof acial Orthopedics 2011; 139:e511-e521. 4 Ogawa T, Enciso R, Shintaku W H, Clark GT. Evaluation of cross-section airway configuration of obstructive sleep apnea. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 2007; 103: 102–108. 5 Martin O, Muelas L, Vinas MJ. Nas opharyngeal cephalometric study of ideal occlusions. American Journal of Ort hodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2006; 130: 436 e431–e439. 6 Lenza MG, Lenza de O. MM, Dalstra M, Me lsen B, Cattaneo PM: An analysis of different approaches to the assessment of upper airway morphology: a CBCT study Orthod Craniofac Res 2010;13:96–105. 7 Aboudara C, Nielsen I, Huang J C, Maki K, Miller A J, Hatcher D. Comparison of airway space with conventional lateral headfilms and 3-dimensional reconstruction from cone-beam computed tomography. Am erican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedi cs 2009; 135: 468–479. 8 Schwab R J. Upper airway imaging. Clin ics in Chest Medicine 1998; 19: 33–54. 9 Ghoneima A, Kula K. Accuracy and relia bility of cone-beam computed tomography for airway volume analysis. Eur J Orthodontics 2011; Epub ahead of print. 10 Yucel A, Unlu M, Haktanir A, Acar M, Fi dan F. Evaluation of the upper airway crosssectional area changes in different degrees of severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: cephalometric and dynamic CT study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Nov-Dec;26(10):2624-9. 11 Yucel A, Unlu M, Haktanir A, Acar M, Fi dan F. Evaluation of the upper airway crosssectional area chan changes in different degrees of severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: cephalometric and dynamic ct study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Nov-Dec;26(10):2624-9. 12 Caballero P, Alvarez-Sala R, Garca-R o F, Prados C, Hernn MA, Villamor J, Alvarez-Sala JL. Ct in the evaluation of the upper airway in healthy subjects and in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndr ome. Chest. 1998 J an;113(1):111-6.

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28 13 Li S, Qu S, Dong X, Chen D, Dong W, Wang G, Shi H, Yu Y. The upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrom e. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2002 Jun;16(6):280-2. 14 Chang HS, Baik HS. A proposal of landmar ks for craniofacial analysis using threedimensional CT imaging. Korean J Orthod 2002 Oct;32(5):313-325. Korean. 15 Kim YI, Kim SS, Son WS, Park SB. P haryngeal airway analysis of different craniofacial morphology using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Korean J Orthod. 2009 Jun;39( 3):136-145. Korean. 16 Kyung SH, Park YC, Pae EK. Obstru ctive sleep apnea patients with the oral appliance experience pharyngeal size and shape changes in three dimensions. Angle Orthod. 2005 Jan;75(1):15-22. 17 Cozza P, Ballanti F, Castellano M, Fanu cci E. Role of computed tomography in the evaluation of orthodontic tr eatment in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). Prog Ort hod. 2008;9(1):6-16. 18 Kim YJ, Hong JS, Hwang PI, Park YH. Thr ee-dimensional analysis of pharyngeal airway in preadolescent children with differ ent anteroposterior skeletal patterns. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010 Ma r; 137 (3):306e1-11; discussion 306-7. 19 Hong JS, Oh KM, Kim BR, Kim YJ, Park YH. Three-dimensional analysis of pharyngeal airway volume in adults with ant erior position of the mandible. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011 Oct; 140(4):e161-9. 20 Iwasaki Y, Hayasaki H, Takemoto Y, K anomi R, Yamasaki Y. Oropharyngeal airway in children with Classs III maloclu ssion evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography. Am J Orthod Dentofacia l Orthop. 2009 Sep; 136(3):318e1-9; discussion 318-9. 21 Grauer D, Cevidanes LS, St yner MA, Ackerman JL, Pro ffit WR. Pharyngeal airway volume and shape from cone-beam comput ed tomography:relationship to facial morphology. Am J Orthod Dentofac ial Orthop. 2009 Dec; 136(6):805-14. 22 El H, Palomo JM. An airway study of different maxillary and mandibular sagittal positions. Eur J Orthod. 2011 Oct 31. (epub ahead of print) 23 Alves PV, Zhao L, O’Gara M, Pate k PK, Bolognese AM. Three-dimensional cephalometric study of upper airway spac e in skeletal class II and III healthy patients. J Craniofac Surg 2008 Nov; 19(6):1497-507.

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29 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Evan G. Rubensteen was born in South Flori da and raised in Hollywood, Florida. He graduated from MAST Academy in 2001 and NYU with honors in 2005, where he majored in political science and religious st udies and minored in chem istry. He then moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where he received his D.M.D. degree from the Harvard School of Dental Medicine. He is ex pected to receive a Master of Science in dental sciences as well as a Certificate in Or thodontics from the University of Florida in the spring of 2012. Evan plans on moving back to South Fl orida after graduation to begin his orthodontic career.