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1 CLASS STRUGGLE AS REFLECTION OF SPA SOCIO CULTURAL IDENTITY IN ENRIQUE OPERA GOYESCAS (1916) By LING FUNG CHAN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLM ENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2 012
2 2 012 Ling Fung Chan
3 To Dad and Mom
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This dissertation would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of many p rofessors and scholars. I express my deepest gratitude to my supervisory committee chair, Dr. Silvio dos Santos for his ardent support o f my research His critical mind, commitment to research, and enthusiasm have been a source of inspiration. His honest and thoughtful advice guided me throughout this project It wa s a privilege for me to have his patien t supervision o f my research. I also thank my committee members, Dr. Leslie Odom, Dr. Authur Jennings, Dr. Peter Bergmann and Prof. Boaz Sharon for their support my research. Their genuine attention and concern was vital. I also thank Dr. David Kushner and Dr. Anthony Offerle for their guidance during my study in the University of Florida. I am indebted to scholars whose pioneering work on Enrique Granados established the groundwork for my research. I express my gratitude to Dr Walter Clark from the University of Riverside Dr Miriam Perandones Loranzo from the University of Oviedo, and Dr. Douglas Riva, authoritative pianist and researcher o f Enrique Gran works. T heir eagerness to offer archival documents and other necessary secondary literature we re valuable to the complet ion of this dissertation. I also thank Dr. Carol Hess from Michigan State University and Dr. Joseph Jones from the University of Kentucky for their answers to my various questions about Goyescas. Throughout my research process I have received assi stance from many libraries and archivists I am grateful to Imma Cusc from Museu de la Msica in Barcelona for giving me unrestricted access to Enrique sketches and for organizing and reproducing necessary archival documents I also thank Rosa Monalt and Iris Torregrossa Romerosa from the Biblioteca de Catalunya in Barcelona for their
5 guidance i n accessing Grana archive in the Library. I thank Cintia Matamoros from the Acadmia Marshall for allowing me to study the original manuscript of the Intermezzo and her generosity i n offering me books about the history of the Acadmia Granados Marshall as gift s during my trip to Barcelona. Lastly, I thank John O'Neill from the Hispanic Society of America ; John Pennino from the Metropolitan Opera Archive ; and Maria Isabel Molestina from the Morgan Library and Museum for their warm hospitality and assistance d uring my research trip to New York. I am deeply thankful to the University of Florida, particularly the School of Music, the College of Fine Arts the Center for European Studies and the Student Government for their generous financial support of my disser tation and of my Spanish language study. I am blessed to have t heir confidence in my research I would also like to acknowledge the help I received from my friends and colleagues. I thank Aaron Keebaugh, who despit e the geographical distance, early offered comments and proofread ing I am also grateful to Morgan Rich for her critical insight on my dissertation. I am particularly grateful to Anne Taylor for her professional editing in the final stage s Finally, without the continuous support and understandin g from my parents, I would never have been able to pursue my study of musicology, a field they are totally unfamiliar with. I am particularly thankful for their willingness to allow me their only daughter, to study overseas for near ly a decade. To them I dedicate this work.
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 LIST OF EXAMPLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 15 2 REINV ................................ ................................ ............. 25 3 GENESIS OF THE MUSIC AND LIBRETTO OF THE OPERA GOYESCAS .......... 51 From Ovillejos Goyescas ......... 53 Revision, Tonadillas and the Opera Goyescas ................................ ...... 63 Recontextualizing the P iano Suite to the Opera ................................ ..................... 72 Other Preparatory Works of Goyescas ................................ ................................ ... 76 The Collaboration of Granados and Periquet in Goyescas ................................ ..... 78 4 PEPA AS AN EXAMPLAR OF MAJA ................................ ................................ ..... 84 Pepa as the Queen of Majos and Majas ................................ ................................ 85 Pepa Controls her Lover Paquiro ................................ ................................ ............ 89 Pepa Struggles with the Aristocratic Characters ................................ ..................... 98 s Identity as a Maja ................................ ................................ ...................... 112 Rosario as the Antithesis of Pepa ................................ ................................ ......... 120 5 FROM LOVE CONFLICT TO CLASS CONFLICT: THE CONFRONTATION BETWEEN PAQUIRO AND FERNANDO ................................ ............................. 130 The Love Attitude of the Majos ................................ ................................ ............. 131 The Love Conflict between Paquiro and Fernando ................................ ............... 138 6 CONCLUS ION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 165 APPENDIX A TONAL STRUCTURE AND THEMATIC SOURCES OF THE OPERA ................. 170 B COMPARISON BETWEEN THE OPERA AND THE PIANO SUITE GOYESCAS 177
7 C SKETCHES FOR THE OPERA GOYESCAS ................................ ....................... 179 First Set of Preliminary Sketches ................................ ................................ .......... 179 Second Set of Preliminary Sketches ................................ ................................ ..... 182 Third Set of Preliminary Sketches ................................ ................................ ......... 185 The Fourth Set of Preliminary Sketches ................................ ............................... 188 An Extra Page o f Sketch: Fandando de Candil ................................ ..................... 189 WORKS CITED ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 190 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 196
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 rsonal notebook with preliminary sketches of the opera Goyescas ................................ ................................ ................................ 56 3 2 The relationship between the opera, the piano suite, and other preparatory works. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 74 4 1 Comparison of the G Major sections in relation to Pepa and Rosario .............. 124 5 1 Tonal structures of the Pelele scene (I/1) and the baile de candil scene (II/1). 148 5 2 Juxtaposition of the text of in Tableau I scene 3 mm.15 17 and in Tableau II scene 2 mm.122 126 ................................ ................................ ........................ 158 A 1 Tonal structure and thematic sources of the opera ................................ ........... 170 B 1 Comparison between the opera and the piano suite Goyescas ....................... 177
9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 .......................... 32 2 2 El Pelele ................................ ................................ ................ 34 2 3 Tal Para Cual ................................ ................................ ......... 36 2 4 El Amor y la Muerte ................................ ............................... 37 2 5 Y Son Fier s ................................ ................................ .......... 39 2 6 Que Valor ................................ ................................ ............... 39 3 1 La Gallina Ciega ................................ ................................ .. 54 5 1 Summary of Modulation Process in Granados, Goyescas, Tableau II Scene 2, mm. 69 72 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 153
10 LIST OF EXAMPLES Example page 3 1 ................................ 61 3 2 .. 63 3 3 ................................ ............ 65 3 4 Granados, tonadilla 9. ................................ .............. 71 3 5 Goyescas mm. 29 32. ......... 71 3 6 tonadilla ................ 75 3 7 Granados, Jcara (Danza para cantar y bailar for Piano), Op.14, mm. 49 53. ... 76 3 8 Goyescas mm. 245 249. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 77 3 9 Goyescas Tableau III Scene 2, mm. 97 98 ................................ ................................ ........................... 77 4 1 Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I Scene 2, mm. 1 4 ................................ ............ 85 4 2 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 2, mm. 22 39 ................................ ........ 87 4 3 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 2, mm. 40 51 ................................ ........ 89 4 4 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 1, mm. 47 51 ................................ ........ 90 4 5 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 2, mm. 51 60 ................................ ........ 92 4 6 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 1, mm.1 4 ................................ ............ 92 4 7 Granados, Goyescas Table au I Scene 2, mm. 61 68 ................................ ........ 93 4 8 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 2, mm. 69 76 ................................ ........ 94 4 9 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 2, mm. 224 227 ................................ .... 95 4 10 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 3, mm.106 109 ................................ ..... 96 4 11 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 2, mm. 136 1 37 ................................ .... 96 4 12 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 3, mm. 115 118 ................................ .... 97 4 13 Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I Scene 3, mm.34 41 ................................ ......... 99
11 4 14 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 3, mm. 42 62 ................................ ...... 100 4 15 Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I Scene 3, mm. 95 98 ................................ ...... 101 4 16 Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I Scene 3, mm. 99 105 ................................ .... 101 4 17 Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I Scene 3, mm. 99 105 ................................ .... 103 4 18 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 1, majos and majas exalt the women 13 ................................ ................................ .................... 104 4 19 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 1, Pepa 52 61 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 104 4 20 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 1, mm.103 117 ................................ .. 107 4 21 Granados, Goyescas, Tablea u II Scene 2, mm. 1 7 ................................ ......... 108 4 22 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 2, mm. 12 18 ................................ ..... 109 4 23 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 2 mm.30 32 ................................ ...... 1 10 4 24 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 2, mm. 78 80 ................................ ..... 111 4 25 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 3, mm. 1 18 ................................ ....... 113 4 26 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 3, mm.19 48 ................................ ...... 116 4 27 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 3, mm. 49 53 ................................ ..... 118 4 28 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III Scene 3, mm. 1 11 ................................ ...... 121 4 29 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 3, mm. 73 77 ................................ ...... 122 4 30 Granados, tonadilla 12. ................................ ...... 123 4 31 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III Scene 1, mm. 53 63 ................................ .... 125 4 32 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III Scene I, mm. 130 170 ................................ 126 4 33 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III scene 3, Fernando utters his last farewell to Rosario mm. 75 84 ................................ ................................ ...................... 127 5 1 Granados, Goyescas Tableau 1 Scene 1, mm.1 5 ................................ .......... 132 5 2 Granados, Goyescas Tableau 1 Scene 1, mm.52 53 ................................ ...... 133 5 3 Granados, Goyescas Tableau 1 Scene 1, mm.60 61 ................................ ...... 134
12 5 4 Granados, Goyescas Tableau 1 Scene 1, mm. 86 97 ................................ ..... 136 5 5 Granados, El Pelele mm.70 83 ................................ ................................ ........ 137 5 6 mm. 129 137. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 139 5 7 17. ................. 139 5 8 Granados, Goyescas part 17 ................................ ................................ ... 140 5 9 15 .......... 141 5 10 Gr anados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 3, mm. 1 5 ................................ .......... 142 5 11 Goyescas mm. 57 64 ........ 142 5 12 Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I Scene 3, mm.18 music ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 142 5 13 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 3, mm. 106 113 ................................ .. 146 5 14 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I Scene 3, mm. 122 127 ................................ .. 147 5 15 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 1, mm.72 75 ................................ ...... 149 5 16 Granados, Goyescas, Tableau II Scene 2, mm. 68 69 ................................ ..... 151 5 17 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 2, mm.69 72 ................................ ...... 152 5 18 Gr anados, Goyescas, Tableau II Scene 2, mm. 78 81 ................................ ..... 155 5 19 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II Scene 2, mm. 91 95 ................................ ..... 156 5 20 Granados, Go yescas Tableau II Scene 2, mm. 100 102 ................................ 157 5 21 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III Scene 2, mm. 41 46 ................................ .... 159 5 22 The original sketch Apuntes para mis obras. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 159 5 23 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III Scene 2, mm. 47 48 ................................ .... 160 5 24 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III Scene 2, mm.89 96 ................................ ..... 160 5 25 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III Scene 2, mm.114 118 ................................ 161 5 26 Granado s, Goyescas Tableau III Scene 2, mm. 150 157 ................................ 162
13 5 27 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III Scene 2, mm. 37 38 ................................ .... 162 5 28 Granados, Goy escas Tableau III Scene 2, mm. 73 84 ................................ .... 163
14 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CLASS STRUGG LE AS REFLECTION OF SPA SOCIO CULTURAL IDENTITY IN ENRIQUE OPERA GOYESCAS (1916) By Ling Fung Chan A ugust 2 012 Chair: Silvio dos Santos Major: Music My study examines Enrique Granados s opera Goyescas in the context of Spanish culture at the turn of the century. It explore s how Granados and his librettist Fernando Periquet reflect ed their Spanish socio cultural milieu in t he opera through recall ing the art of Francisco Goya (1746 1828) a century earlier Of particular importance is the way t he y render t he main characters in the opera in order to convey issues related to class struggle s, an unexamined area in recent Granados scholarship Using approaches that combine a study of Granados s music sketches and preliminary plot sketche s with an anal ysis of the finished work, I illustrate how the genesis of s plot evol ve s from mingling of class es to class struggle. In addition, I discuss how earlier compositions, such as Ovillejos T onadillas and the piano suite Goyescas became pr eparatory works for the opera. M y analysis shed s light on how Granados portray ed the strength of majos and majas the plebeian social class in Madrid, through quo ting his preparatory works for the opera as well as through specific tonal structural design Ultimately, I demonstrate how Granados and Periquet turn ed the opera s main characters into symbols of class, culture and national identity in early twentieth century Spain
15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The last scene of Enrique opera Goyescas a c ollaboration between the composer and librettist Fernando Periquet, presents several elements that convey the meaning and moral message of the opera as a whole. I Fernando mortally wound ed by his rival Paquiro dies T his scene is his series Los Caprichos Goya provided the following description for this etching in the Prado Museum Manuscript: Ve aqu un amante de Calderon que por no sa berse rer de su competidor muere en brazos de su querida y la pierde por su temeridad. No conviene sacar la espada muy a menudo. 1 ( One sees here a lover from a figure out of Caldern, who not knowing how to taunt his competitor, dies in the arms of his b eloved and loses her because of his temerity. One should not draw the sword too often.) This work also survives in the Ayala manuscript, which has another description that conveys a similar idea in a condensed form: No conviene sacar la espada muchas veces : los amores exponen a pendencias y desafos (It is not convenient to draw the sword too many times: love provoke s brawls and duels ) As a Captain of the Royal Guard, Fernando would ostensibly have the strength to win any duel, and yet he is defeated by t he majo Paquiro, a plebeian who fights for 1 Conde de la Viaza Goya: su tiempo, su vida, su obras (Madrid: Tipografa de Manuel G. Hernndez, 1887), 331. A similar interpretation of this etching can be found in the Madrid Biblioteca Nacional Manuscript I choose to quote the interpretat ion in the Prado Museum Manuscript and Ayala manuscript because the librettist Fernando Periquet consulted the book Goya: su tiempo, su vida, su obras when he prepared his lecture on the history of tonadilla. Therefore, it is likely he knew these interpret ations. See Fernando Periquet, Apuntes para la historia de la tonadilla y de las tonadil ( Barcelona: Tip. La academica, ronda de la Universidad, 19 15), 16.
16 2 In ad dition, in T ableau II Scene 2 of Enrique opera Goyescas, the majas message, asserting majos and nobles should not be seen toget her, for it always ends By transforming the two dimensional characters into speaking characters in the opera, Granados and Periquet turn the love affair depicted a representation of the strength of the lower class, which is capable of defeat ing the Royal authority This observation suggest s that the opera feature s a struggle between two different c lasses embodied by the argument between Ferna ndo a member of the nobility, and Paquiro a plebeian character The struggle between classes in Goy escas is embodied not only by the male characters but also by the female characters. Rosario, a Duchess interest ed in the culture, dres s es as a maja and participates in the social activit ies W hen Paquiro invites Rosario to visit the baile de candil a candlelight ball that the aristocrat should not attend because of its low social standing, he informs the audience that Rosario once visited such a gathering in the past 3 rticipation in this candlelight ball therefore creates the il lusion that she is accessible to Paquiro though 2 Majo s, and their women counterpart majas, time distinguish ing themselves with their bohemian character and elaborate o utfits. While the majos are boastful characters, the majas are quarrelsome figures. Once provoked, they alway resolve conflicts symbols of anti French t raditionalists. See Timothy Mitchell, Blood Sport: A Social History of Spanish Bullfighting (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 58 61; John A. Moore, Ramn de la Cruz (New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc. 1972), 26; Carmen Martn Gaite, Lo ve Customs in Eighteenth Century Spain (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), 61 62. 3 Baile de candil, a candlelight ball, is a type of nocturnal festival found in the working class and gypsy quarters. It is a wild party of artisans, bullfight ers, gypies, and women who work for the tobacco factory. Upper class people seldom attended this type of entertainment. Nonetheless, in the seventeeth century, upper class people who wished to imitate the lower class would get together with the plebeian fo r entainment. But the upper classes would attend the baile de candil incognito. The parties were famous for their music, particularly flamenco. See Anna Ivanova, The Dance in Spain (New York: Praeger Publishers,1970),150. Also refer to Clara and Nidia Schu Goyescas Libretto Productions, http://students.brown.edu/Brown_Opera_Productions/wordpress/?p=13 (accessed Jan 5, 2010).
17 she is a d uchess. Consequently, stir s the anger and jealousy of maja Pepa. also provokes Fernando to visit the candlelight ball with her s o he can humiliate Paquiro imitation of the plebeian culture therefore, ironically becomes the catalyst for a struggle between With the above plot the librettist managed to portray the conceived in the opera Goyescas. Periquet, in his article about how the opera Goyescas was conceived, explained how he interpreted the cl epoch: Goya poca significa amores y pasiones, en punto a sentimientos; y soc ialmente, una mezcla extraa de todas las clases, algo asi como un albor de democracia que pona los toreros junto a las duquesas Era, pues, cuestin de presenter esa mezcla social envolviendo amores trgicos, como siempre lo son cuando en ellos culebr ean celos y rivalidades. 4 ( The Goya epoch means loves and passions in terms of feelings; and socially, a strange mixture of all the classes, something like a dawn of democracy that placed the bullfighter next to the duchesses I t was, therefore, a ma tter of presenting this social mixture involving with tragic love affair s, as they always are when jealo usies and rivalries interweave among them). 5 This statement explains how Periquet established a plot that turned the love conflict into an emblem for c lass conflict According to Periquet, while this mixture of social classes between classes this interaction resulted in conflict between classes because of jealousies and rivalries. T he juxtaposition of classes in s epoch was not peaceful at all. 4 Las Novedades June 27, 1915 Clipping from the Hispanic Society of America, New York. 5 Las Novedades June 27, 1915
18 While Periquet was preoccupied with the interaction and tension between classes popular culture fostered by the majos and majas particularly the style of dre ss and gestures shown in psicologa de Goya y de su paleta; por lo tanto, de su maja, seora; du su majo aristocratic; de l y de la Duquesa da Alba aquel blanco rosa de las mejillas, contrastando con las blondas y terciopelo negro con alamares; aquellos cuerpos de cinturas cimbreantes, manos de ncar y carmn, posadas sobre azabaches, me han trastornado. (I have concentrated my entire personality in Goyescas : I fell in lo ve with the psychology of Goya and his palette; with his lady like majas ; his aristocratic majo ; with him and the Duchess of Alba That rosy whiteness of the cheeks contrasted with lace and black velvet with jet, those supple waist figures with mother of pearl and jasmine like hands resting on black tissue have dazzled me.) 6 opinion revealed that even the Duchess of Alba, a noble woman Goya painted in different guises, dressed like a maja and imitated the gestures. Also, i t depiction of the women in costume that stimulated his romantic imagination to compose Goyescas 7 Mo st importantly, Goyescas actually reflects the sociocultural environment of early twent ieth century Spain, an observ ation supported by recent studies Samulski Parekh briefly discusse d the class interaction of the opera in her dissertation on the piano suite by Granados According to Samulski Parekh, on the 6 Enrique Granados to Joaquim Malats, December 11, 1910. Quoted and translated in Walter Clark, Enr ique Granados: Poet of the Piano (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006) 123, 223. 7 maja paintings were a vital source of inspiration for Granados, which can be further tonadillas. According to Granados, the Goya paintin Naked maja ) inspired him to compose his first tonadilla maja New York Times Dec 19, 1915
19 threshold of the twen tieth century, Spaniards had a growing awa reness o f national character To achieve this goal, Spaniards aimed at creating of democracy 8 As a result, t his sociocultural environment particularly the majismo mirage of a classless 9 Indeed, in opera Goyescas, the aristocrats frequent ly interact with the majos and majas Nonetheless, the plot of Goyescas emphasizes the dominating aspects of the majos and majas cultural milie u rather than a peaceful class interaction. Granados recontextualized the music from his piano suite Goyescas and his other earlier compositions to portray this aspect of culture as I will demonstrate in this dissertation. Joseph Jones suggest ed simila ri ties between socio political events in and early twentieth century Spain 10 These similarit ies encouraged Granados to justify aspects of Spanish culture by He placed Goyescas in the soc io political context of the afterma th of the Spanish American War (1898), in which Spaniards were shocked by the defeat of their country This humiliation provoked the Spaniards to draw parallel s between the Spanish American War and the Napoleon ic War in 1808, which was also a combat with a foreign country. As Jones sugge sts those 8 Mary Samulski Pa Goyescas by Enrique ( DMA thesis, University of Missouri, Kansa City, 1988), 92 9 As Samulski Parekh explained, majismo is a phenomenon fostered by the majos and majas. Since the aristocrats in Goy majos and majas such as their flamboyant style of dress, music and dance, merry making, and even bullfights, they joined this popular pastimes with these lower class Madrilenians. I will further explain this phenomen on in the following chapter. 10 Joseph Jones, "Recreando musica de teatral del siglo XVIII: colaboraciones entre el compositor Enrique Granados (1867 1916) y el libretista (1873 1940) (parte I)." Dieciocho: Hispanic Enlightenment 23 no. 2 (2000): 183. http://go.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA82477888&v=2.1&u=gain40375&it=r&p=Lit RC&sw=w ( a ccessed Jan uary 16 2012 ).
20 artists whose works became heroic emblems of the Spaniards suffering from the defeat in 1898. One of them was the playwright Ramn de la Cru z, w hose satirical sainetes frequently depicted Because the year 1896 was the 150 th the intense admiration of Goya became a mania after 1898 11 As a result, the works by Cruz and Go ya became major sources of inspiration for Granados to compose his opera Goyescas. ifies the relationship between the socio po litical environment of his time, he does not analyze how Granad os used music to represent the socio political development in time Walter Clark further discusse d how the mus i c of Goyescas related to the socio political context of time 12 d efea t in the Spanish American War, a group of Spanish writers, collectively known as strove to redefin e humiliation. Miguel de Unamuno, one of the leading writers, focused on Castile and Madrid as the center of national regeneration. He formulated the term intrahistoria (intrahistory), a concept implying the deep and eternal Spanish soul. Instead of major events, dates, and figures, the intrahistoria focuses on the n g, unrecorded history of 13 It is formulated by the collective unconscious of common 11 Jone s, "Recreando musica de teatral 183. 12 See National Identity in Diagonal: Journal of the Center for Iberian and Latin American Music no.1 (Febru ary 25, 2005), http://www.cilam.ucr.edu/diagonal/issues/2005/contents.html (accessed Jan 13, 20 11 ) ; also Walter Clark, Enrique Granados: the Poet of Piano (New York: Oxford Univers ity Press, 2006), 110 145. 13 Clark, Enrique Granados, 112.
21 people which ultimately establishes the permanent spirit. 14 As Clark explains, although this immortal soul of Spain under the concept of intrahistoria is el usive, 15 Clark says quotidian life and people of Spain thr ough evocation of its folk and popular music, particularly the culture of the majos and majas in 16 Because of the comprehensive nature of his biography on Granados, however, Clark does not examine in detail how the portrays the d ominating aspects of the majismo phenomenon and its impact on the aristocrat ic characters in detail. The studies mentioned above do not explore the relationship between reinventing Goya in Goyescas and how Goyescas represents the struggle between social classes in twentieth I argue that the opera emphasizes the strength of the majos and majas in Spain through their success in dominating the aristocrats during the class struggle. This portrayal lower class citizens, who the twentieth centu ry. To achieve this goal I stud ied preliminary sketches of the plot, his earlier preparatory compositions for the opera, the different versions of opera manuscripts, and the finished work. My a nalys es illustrate how Granados use s tonal structur es and 14 Clark, Enrique Granados, 112. 15 in, the Eternal Maja 16 Clark, Enrique Granados 112.
22 thematic material from Spanish tonadillas to portray the overwhelming popular culture of the majos and majas particularly the strength of Pepa as a maja In addition, my stud y reveal s that Granados use s tonal struct u re s to juxtapose the plebeians P epa and Paquiro with the aristocrats Fernando and Rosario, thus reinforc ing the pernicious consequence o f defying the love attitude of the majos and majas Ultimately, I demonstrate how Granados and Periquet turned the main characters into symbols of class gender, and national identity. Chapter 2 gives an overview on how the reinvent ion of Goyescas relates to his own social milieu in early twentieth century Spain with a particular focus on class struggle issues I explain how Gr anados and Periquet conceive d and his time in relation to the Spanish national identity. They believe d the popular culture and prevalent love attitude of the majos and majas in the essence of the Spa nish spirit. In additi on, the degeneration of the authorities in early twentieth century Spain stimulated Spa nish intellectuals sympathy to the rural lower class, and even idealize d them in Spanish literature. This idea therefore is akin to the emphasis on the culture of majos and majas portrayed in the opera Goyescas. Chapter 3 traces the genesis of the music and libretto of the Goyescas. I provide evidence that Granados had been continuously planning the opera since 1910 when he was composing the piano suite I also argue th at after creating the twelve T onadillas en estilo antiguo with Periquet, Granados was inspired by ealization of the plebeian class therefore rearranged and recontextualized his piano suite and other preparatory works for the opera. As a resul t, the music al characterization of the opera
23 underscores the strength of the majos and majas which I explore in detail in Chapter s 3 and 4. Chapter 4 analyzes how Granados use s tonal structure and thematic idea s to portray Pepa as the most powerful charac ter in the opera In order to portray Pepa as imagined queen of the people Granados establishes tonal structure s for the majos and majas to prepare for her G Major first entrance on stage. In addition, t he majos and majas exalt Pepa with strong dance ges tures, which will be use d to portray Pepa revenge o n the aristocratic characters on of the candlelight ball scene in T ableau II. To reinforce maja identity, specific tonal structures are establish ed to portray the Duchess Rosario as Pepa antithesis Chapter 5 demonstrates how Granados uses tonal structures to portray the confrontation between Paquiro and Fernando. I explain how Granados portray s sudden shift of tonality during his first entrance. Gran ad os also establishes the key of E flat Major expression of love In Tableau I Scene 3 Granados quote s a theme from Blas de tonadilla expression of love toward Rosar io, whi of the amorous activities of the majos and majas I also explain how Granados related the pelele game with the baile de candil ( candle light ball ) as love rituals, in which Fernando is designated as an ill fate d p elele. Chapter 6 elaborates on the preceding chapte rs relat ing the Spanish socio cultural aspects that Granados and Periquet strive to express in their opera. In ad dition, I suggest how the class struggle issue s portray ed in the opera pave d the way for hi s
24 younger contemporary Manuel de Falla to adapt similar scenes and plebeian culture to reinforce the strength of the people.
25 CHAPTER 2 PAIN The opera Goyescas i s a work of its time. As discussed in Chapter 1 th e opera reflect s the prevalence time, and also resonate s with the propaganda of national regeneration at the turn of the twentieth century in Spain T he se Spanish intellectuals assert ed that collective unc onscious practices characterize d an eternal, unaltered Spanish nationa l spirit. This view of nationalism, the organic and naturalistic national identity expressed in Spanish society enab led Granados and Periquet to re present the spirit of Spain through rei epoch 1 As Granados assert s Les chefs me qui sut traduire aussi parfaitement les actes 2 (Goya is the genius representative of Spain The masterpiece s of Goya immortalized him by exalting our national life. I subordinate my inspiration to that of the man who knew so perfectly how to convey the actions and moments that are peculiar to the people of Spain. ) Granados use d on the national life Goya exalt ed in his masterpiece ; there fore, t he national life depict ed in ed to the people in time. Also, if Granados claim ed were able to convey the actions and moments peculiar to the Spanish people to 1 For a detail ed explanation on nationalist discourse s see Anthony D. Smith, Nationalism: Theory Ideology, History, 2 nd ed. (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2010), 55. 2 S.I.M. Revue musicale 10, suppl. 1 4 (1914): 1 4. Quoted in Clark, Enrique Granados 225 n57
26 eighteenth century Spain. Granados believe d the spirit of Spanish people exude d in The librettist Fernando Periquet share d view o f the eternal spirit of Spain and also understood how this ideology is reflect ed in piano suite Goyesca s a work ultimately transformed into the music for the opera This piano suite consists of six individual pieces, and each one has its own title. The entire piano suite reflecting focus on portraying the love culture of the majos and majas According to Periquet, no son sin o estados pasionales del alma, hondos, febriles, que Granados quiso poner en el siglo XVIII, pero que no significa [u]n poca ni ambiente, porque ello pudo situarse en cualquier tiempo. Sin embargo, la estructura de todas esas compositions es, sin duda, de las ms pura cepa espaola a la vez que de un exquisite modernismo exento de extravagancias. 3 Maja s of the soul, deep, feverish, that Granados wanted to place in the eighteenth century. But this does not mean an epoch nor an ambiance, because he could situate [ these pieces ] at any time. Nonetheless, the structure of all those compositions is, no doubt, with the most pure Spanish root and a t the s ame time with a sense of exquisite modernism without superfluous extravagances.) I music in the piano suite Goyescas bears the essence of Spanish spirit that can be situated in any time. At the same time, modern musi cal language enable s the events happen ed in time. With this understanding of music al language and his shared interest in Goya Periquet endeavored to create the libretto of the o pera 3 Fernando La revista del mundo (April, 1916): 1 80
27 Goyescas by recontextualizing Granados music with his words. 4 As Perique t said while class interaction this interaction actually resulted in conflict between classes becau se of jealousies and rivalries. 5 In addition, a ccording Periquet La opera espaola modera: Goyescas eople suffered from tyranny, hunger, and illiteracy. 6 It was a period of wars and revolutions. King Charles IV did not gov ern; Queen Maria Luisa enjoyed the low popular culture, participated in the baile de candil a candlelight ball with low social standing, and even committed adultery with the guardsman Manuel Godoy. Most scandalously, the King appointed Godoy, promoted him from guardsman to Prime Minister, to do most administrative work. As a result, Godoy was described as an inferior governor by his contemporaries. 7 Here is how Periquet conceived the sociocultural environment in Goya Era, realmente, perversa aque lla sociedad? Tal vez s, en sus clases superiores. Mas no en el pueblo, eterno nio, cndido, y bondadoso. Sin que yo pretenda formular una acusacin contra la alta sociedad espaola de entonces, que tuvo tipos ejemplares, s afirmo que a la degeneraci n de gran parte de su nobleza debi el pueblo su abyeccin aparente. 8 (Was that society really so p erverse ? Perhaps yes, in the higher classes; but not the people, eternally young, simple and good natured. I do not attempt to formulate an accusation agains time, which had exemplar types; I do affirm that the people's apparent abjection was due to the degeneration of the great part of its nobility. ) 4 Las Novedades June 27, 1915 Clipping from the Hispanic Society of America, New York. 5 6 178 79. 7 178 79. 8
28 ss and his criticism of of commoners prevail ing over aristocratic characters, thus representing the strength of the plebeian class. is similar to the Spanish society in Granados time. John Milton has suggest ed that as an artist who constantly interact ed with the aristocracy and wealthy entrepreneur s seeking patronage, Granados f the aristocracy in Madrid, just as he could observe the foibles and defects of the alta burguesia of 9 for the lower class and i n the majas idealized Spain in Goyescas and in turn, re ndered socio political aspects of early twentieth century Spain in terms of the class struggle In this chapter, I argue that Granados and Periquet correlated the plebeian in their time with the maj os and majas T he aristocrats, the Captain of the Royal Guard Fernando and the Duchess Rosario, represent the upper strata in Spain. As a result, the reinvention of Goya and the confrontation between two differe nt classes of characters in the opera becomes the embodiment of conflict between the lower and upper strata In majas the proletarian women, we re the prototype of Periquet once expressed hi s admiration of the majas by 9 Diagonal: Journal of the Center for Iberian and Latin American Music, no. 1 (2005), accessed Jan 13, 2011, http://www.cilam.ucr.edu/diagonal/issues/2005/contents.html
29 juxtaposing them in Apuntes para la historia de la tonadilla He quoted a song by ti Paquete, with the following text: Vale ms un cachet de cualquier maja que todos los halagos de las madamas. Porque se arguye que todo esto es cario, y el otro, embuste. 10 (A slap in the face from any maja is worth more than all the compliments from the madamas; because it is argued that the first is all tenderness, and the other, deception.) Periquet explained t animated spirit of the lower class Madrid citizens against the gallic mani a of the upper classes) As menti oned, the majas represented Spanish traditional virtues, the symbols of anti French traditionalists. 11 The madamas mentioned are the upper class ladies who embraced French culture which represented the spirit of the Enlightenment. This comment, therefore, lower and Indeed, comparison of the upper and lower class reflected the dichotomy between Spanish traditional values and French enlightened ideology. This dic hotomy ultimately induced the With the increased presence of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain during the eighteenth century, the influence of French culture in Iberia was unstoppable. The aristocrats were suddenly aware that Spain was labeled a 10 Fernando Periquet, Apuntes para la historia de la tonadilla y de las t ( Barcelona: Tip. La academica, ronda de la Universidad, 19 15), 16. 11 Timothy Mitchell, Blood Sport: A Social History of Spanish Bullfighting (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 56.
30 embrace the prestigious new foreign styles. 12 By contrast the lower strata of Spanish society considered this influence of French culture an invasion, stimulat ing the lower s increasing consciou sness of national identity. T he Spanish pueblo, resenting the new enlightened Spain, w as mobilized. They saw the a ristocracy that embraced French culture as a threat to threatened values the traditional value and culture develope d over centuries. 13 While the tension between foreign culture and tradition al values induced conflict between classes in Spain, the French Revolution altered this situation. As is well known, the French Revolution featured the establishment of a new republi c an government. It abolished the power of the Catholic Church and the old monarch y If Spain followed the French model for regeneration, it would ultimately demolish the Spanish monarch y to imitat e French culture b egan to decline. 14 Meanwhile, lower class majos and majas created their own styles of dress and culture than those of the French influenced aristocrats. These majos and majas distinguished themselves with their bohemian character and elaborate outfits. Ult imately, this fashion becomes so overwhelmingly successful that in the second half of the eighteenth century, the nobility strived to imitat e the style and mannerism of these plebeians 15 12 Mitchell, Blood Sport 57 13 Mitchell, Blood Sport 60 61. 14 Gwyn A. Williams, Goya and the Impossible Revolution (New York: Pantheon Books, 1976), 21. 15 Mitchell, Blood Sport, 63 64
31 The overwhelming success of majismo not only promoted the culture of the plebeian class, and also created a n illusion of classlessness that Periquet envisioned. 16 Goya were the most persuasive visual illustrations of this trend. Two famous ladies of the Royal families, the Queen Mara Lusia and the Duchess of Alba offered commission s to Goya for painting their portraits in maja dress. T hey also participated in entertainment As Periquet observes, La propia Reina Maria Luisa (ciertamente no modelo de cordura) velada por neg ro manto, y acompaada por otras d amas, presenci en Lavapis ms de un baile de candil sin duda. 17 (The genuine Queen Maria Luisa (certainly not a model of sanity) veiled herself with a black cloak and accompanied by other ladies, attended in Lavapis more than a baile de candil without doubt.) The Duchess of Alba also enjoyed imitating the majas culture According to Susan Waldman, the behavior of this stunning beauty always struck her contemporaries. She loved popular festivals, singing, and dancing. The Marquis always condemned her be havior 18 She was nonetheless famous for her flirtatious character and extramarital affairs. According to Hughes, her magnetic character mesmerized Goya, who painted her on several occasions in maja costume One of the most representative paintings is Portrait o which shows the Duchess dressed in the black maja attire. 19 16 6. 17 18 Susann Waldmann, Goya and the Duchess of A lba (Munich: Prestel, Pegasus library, 1998), 15. 19 Robert Hughes, Goya (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003), 162.
32 Figure 2 1. Francis The Portrait of the Duchess of Alba in Black 20 Nonetheless the aristocracy underestimated the democratic potential of the majismo phenomenon they enjoyed The dominating majismo phenomenon encouraged the plebian to work collective ly for a single purpose such as protest against the perverse nobility. Th e majos and majas existing on the margins of the society hence became a potential threat to the ruling monarchy. Second, the imitation of the majas and majos was a symptom of the court aristocracy The twentieth century Spanish writer Jos Ortega y Gasset described this tendency as 20 Francisco http://commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File:Goya_alba2.jpg (accessed April 4, 2012).
33 21 As Ortega y Gassaet said while other countries regarded the lifestyle of the aristocracy with admiration and t ried to imitate it, Spain revers al of this norm was clearly an absurdity. And this absurdity became the pillar of Spanish life for several generations. 22 undoubtedly reflected the socio cultural a mbience of Spain. In with the social turmoil. Before working for the king, Goya was already a man of the Spanish pueblo He adored the tonadillas and bullfight, and he was fascinated by the majos and their street life in Madrid 23 In his early tapestry cartoon, Goya emphasize s tonal harmony and delicate coloring, and the dominant mood i s always optimistic. 24 usually featured people enjoy ing themselves Several years aft er the ruling of King Charles IV, however, 25 In addition, Goya began portraying the tension between sexes with a satirical nuance For example, his well known tapestry cartoon El Pelele ( The Straw Mannequin 1792 ), a work that Granados adopted for the s etting of the first scene of the opera, depicts four young women enjoying themselves in a carnival. They toss a male mannequin up into the air with a blanket. Although the tapestry cartoon portrays a cheerful carnival activity, according to art historian R obert Hug h es, it ref l 21 Pierre Gassier, Goya: A Witness of His Times ( New York : Alpine Fine Arts Collection 1985), 69. 22 Gassier, Goya 69. 23 Williams, T he Impossible Revolution 29. 24 F rancis D. Klingender, Goya in the Democratic Tradition (New York: Schocken Books, 1968), 56. 25 Klingender, Goya 56.
34 over men, and on what seemed to him the waning of traditional Spanish masculinity 26 Granados, inspired by this tapestry cartoon, created the music for the first scene of the opera Goyesc as. Fig ure 2 2 El Pelele 27 Goya s pessimistic and cynical portrayal of his society further i ncreased through his Los Caprichos created between 1797 and 1798, and published in 1799. Each of these Caprichos has subtitles and commentari es. While the subtitles were in the style of 26 Hughes, Goya 100 27 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F ile:El_pelele.jpg (accessed March 27, 2012).
35 the popular Spanish proverbs called refrnes the commentaries were formulated as a kind of moral code. 28 Frequently, these etching s implicitly ridiculed the licentious behavior, corruption and stupidity of the r oyalty and aristocrats. 29 For example, Goya s Tal para cual (Two of a K ind), the fifth etching of the Capricho s series depicts a young lady and a cavalier flirting with each other, a s two old women, pretend ing to be praying the rosary, gossip behind the m. The librettist Periquetwould most likely know about the following commentaries 30 : Commentaries i n the Prado Museum Manuscript: Muchas veces se ha disputado si los hombres son peores que las mujeres, lo contrario. Los vicios de unos y ot ros vienen de la mala educacin: donde quiera que los hombres sean perversos, las mujeres lo sern tambin. Tan b uena cabeza tiene la seorita que se representa en esta estampa con el pisaverde que la est dando conversacin: y en cuanto las dos viejas, tan infame es la una como la otra. (It has often been disputed whether men are worse than women, or whether the reverse be true. The vices of both come from bad education ; w herever society wants its men to be perverse, women will also be likewise. The you ng lady pictured in this print is just as knowing as this young fop engaging her in conversation, and as regards the two old women, one is just as vile as the other). 31 Commentaries the i n Ayala Manuscript: Mara Luisa y Godoy (Maria Luisa and Godoy) Acco rdi ng to the commentaries, this etching satirically criticize s the illicit love affair between the Queen M ara L uisa and Manuel Godoy. Goya, therefore, emphasized the moral degeneration to the nobilities. 28 Oto Bihalgi Merin, trans John E. Woods (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1981), 13. 29 Bihalgi Merin, 13. 30 Conde de la Viaza Goya: su tiempo, su vida, su obras (Madrid: Tipografa de Manuel G. Hernndez, 1887), 3 29 31 Bihalgi Merin, Francisco Goya Caprichos 15.
36 Fig ure 2 3 Tal Para Cual 32 Under the inspiration of this etching, Granados compose d Los Requi e bros (The Flatteries), the first piece of the pian o suite Goyescas The p iece was then trans formed into T ableau I Scene 3 in the opera, in which Fernando accuses Rosario for having an affair with Paquiro The gossipers in this etching were transform ed into majos and majas laugh ing at this aristocratic couple with Pepa Anoth er Capricho ( Love and Death ), depicts a young woman holding her dying lover in her arms. This etching was ultimately transformed into the scene setting of the last scene of the opera, in which Fernando is killed by the bullfighter Paq 32 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/El_pelele.jpg (accessed March 27, 2012).
37 Fig ure 2 4 Francisco El A mor y la M uerte 33 T his etching satir izes an imprudent soldier lead in g himself to death because of an unnecessary duel. He overestimates his strength, and draws his sword too often 34 The two Caprichos just discussed reveal how Goya portrayed the socio cultural climate of Spain. Since the opera Goyescas portrays how the plebe ian characters overcome the power exerted by these aristocratic figures, these two Caprichos provide insight into how Granados set the scene for the opera to ridicule the aristocratic characters Rosario and Fernando 33 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/El_amor_y_la_muerte.jpg (accessed March 27, 2012). 34 Conde de la Viaza Goya: su tiempo, su vida, su obras (Madrid: Tipografa de Manuel G. Hernndez, 1887), 331.
38 Goya was also aware of the political p roblems of his time. After ten years of lost wars from 1793 to 1802, the monarchy was incapable at defending its colonies and even its own territory. 35 Ultimately, the King had to dismiss Manuel Godoy and abdicated himself in the uprising in Aranj u ez in Mar ch 1808. 36 Further after Napoleon enthroned his brother Joseph Bonaparte as the King of Spain some nobility and bureaucra ts known as the afrancesados, supported the French govern occu p ation of Spain. 37 T he plebian class, who embraced Spain traditi onal culture and value s took the lead in resisting Napoleon. Within this context, Goya recorded the bloody and viole n t scenes he saw in this fearful time in his etchings Los desastre de la Guerra (Th e Disasters of War) Some of the etchings from this seri es, however, shows Y son fier s wild beasts) depicts a wom a n spearing a French soldier while holding a child to her waist. This is an eloquent exaltation of the Spanish plebeian wom ability to fight fiercely in the war. 38 35 Spain had wars with Fren ch from 1793 to 1795, and then ag ainst England from 1796 to 1802 See Spanish History S ince 1808 ed. Jos Alvarez Junco (London: Arnold, 2000), 18. 36 37 Burdiel 38 Alfonso E. Prez Snchez and Julin Gllego, Goya: The Complete Etchings and Lithographs (New York: Prestel, 1995), 94.
39 Figure 2 5. Fra Y S on F ier s 39 show s the courageous Augustina of Aragon stand ing on the bodies of the dead artillerymen and fir ing a cannon in defen s e of Saragossa This is a monumental portrayal of a historically veri fiable event. 40 Figure 2 Que V alor 41 39 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Goya Guerra_%2805%29.jpg (accessed April 10. 2012). 40 Snchez and Gllego, Goya 95. 41 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Qu_valor%21.jpg (accessed April 10, 2012)
40 Although the House of Bourbon was finally able to restore the monarchy in 1874, t he decline of the aristocracy in Spain continued T he Spanish bourgeoisie w as also allowed to buy aristocratic title s or marry into economically needy noble families 42 Furthermore American war in 1898 exposed military weakness. The defeat stimulated popular sentiments against monarch y 43 The left wing Republicans were all too willing to stir up popular and working class dissent Together they revolted against the conservative Restoration regime. 44 The soc ial disorder caused by the increase of popular uprisings compelled intellectuals and artists to seek a new solution. As a result, w riters and artists search ed for a new Span ish collective and individual identity from within the rural peasantry and urban wo rking class 45 Joaqun Costa, a incorporate the working class in the project of national reconstruction and aspired to speak for the people in this group. He critici ze d the unjust and dangerous exploitation of the rural lower classes. He also expressed admiration for popular culture and dialects through political, linguistic and artistic means. 46 Another intellectual, Angel Ganivet, favored traditional and popular cult ure He argued against certain elements of modern 42 Mary Lee Bretz, in Encounter s Across Borders: The Changing Visions of Spanish Modernism, 1890 1930 ( London: Associated University Presses, 2001 ), 348. 43 Fin de si cle in Nationalism and the Nation in the Iberian Peninsula, ed. Clare Mar Molinero and Angel Smith (Washington: Berg, 1996), 109. 44 98 in in The Crisis of 1898: Colonial Redistribution and Nationalist Mobilization Press, 1999), 175. 45 Bretz, 46 Bretz, Gender
41 urban planning in Granada la bella (1896). He emphasized the importance of listening to the opinion of the pueblo 47 Idearium Espaol (1896 97) fu rther reveals the humble, anonymous people of of intrahistor i a he claimed that there was too much emphasis on the great figures and great events of history, but the liv es of the common people w ere ignored. 48 Ganivet said son el archivo y el depsito de los sentimientos 49 (The proletarian classes are the archive and the deposit of the inexplicable and intense sentiments of the country). This social condition a dded to the growing presence and power of the lower classes. Within this context strikes demonstrations, and political movement s such as socialism and anarchism grew significantly around 190 0. 50 The conf lict between the authority and workers reached its climax in the Tragic Week of July 1 909 in Barcelona. It was aggression in Morocco after the los s of Cuba and Philippi nes in the Spanish American W ar. The unjust conscription system in this military aggression further provoked the criticism of the proletariat reservists toward the government led by the Prime Minister of Spain, Antonio Maura. 51 While wealthy citizens 47 Bretz, 48 Hubert Ramsden, The 1898 Movement in Spain: Toward s a Reinterpretation with Specia l and ( Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1974), 119. 49 ngel Ganivet, Idearium espaol (Madrid: Librera General de Victoriano Surez, 1905), 66. 50 Nol Valis, The Culture of Curs ilera : Bad Taste, Kitsch, and Class in Modern Spain ( Durham: Duke University Press, 2002 ), 27. 51 Joan Connelly Ullman, The Tragic Week: A Study of Anticlericalism in Spain, 1875 1912 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968), 129 135, 141, 312 313
42 c ould pay to avoid the military service, the rese rvists who had thought themselves free of any further obligation to military service were obliged to fight for the colonial war 52 Spanish Socialist and labor leader Pablo Iglesia seeking border support for the antiwar protest, spread the idea that this w ar was solely for the benefit of Spanish investors, whose financial interest was threatened by the tribes in the Rif while they searched for iron mines. 53 54 When t he reservists and the workers became resentful of the privileged class they welcomed S o cialist party direction for the antiwar demonstration The delegates of the Catalan Social Federation described the war in Morocco as a produ ct of the class struggle provoked proletariat and the representative on this occasion, even more than on any other, of 55 As a result, i t turned into a violent and prolonged confrontation with the authoritative powe r 56 Even th ough Granados had no involvement in the political event during Tragic Week, as one of the citizens in Barcelona, he definitely suffered from the social turmoil. As he expressed his anguish in his letter to Malats in August 26, me of many things.) 57 Under this social context, Granados composed the piano suite 52 Ul lman, Tragic Week 132. 53 Ullman, Tragic Week 133. 54 Ullman, Tragic Week 133. 55 Ullman, Tragic Week 134. 56 Balfour, The Lion and the Pig ; also see Ullman, The Tragic Week, 132. 57 Granados to Malats, Barcelona, August 26, 1909. Cited and translated in Carol Hess, Enrique Granados: A Bio Bibliography (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), 104.
43 Goyescas : Los majos enamo rados As I will show in Chapter 3 Granados also began planning the opera Goyescas around 1910 a work that ultimately has the theme of confrontation between the lower and upper strata of the society. Although Granados had no overt opinion on the social c lass conflict he had been acquiring compositional experiences on portraying the confrontation between two different classes since 1894. In th at year, San Antonio de la Florida which was also the occasion that Granad os and Periquet first met 58 As Walter Clark observ ed, San Antonio de la Florida deeply impressed Granados. Shortly after its premiere Granados wrote a musical dedication to Albniz and expressed his support. 59 Although the music in the opera Goyescas does not have much in common with this zarzuela the class conflict issue s expresse d in zarzuela resemble those of Goyescas Both zarzuela s involve two different classes of ma le protagonists in a conflict caused by a woman. Setting in Madrid, Enrique Cifuentes a young liberal under arrest by the authorities is a rival of the conservative Lesmes Clasparra Lesmes plan s to arrest Enrique so he can acquire Lesmes Irene, the woman he loves At the end of San Antonio de la Florida a friend of Enrique of Justice. Therefore, Enrique is free d from arrest and rejoices in his triumph with Irene. The San Antonio de la Florida most likely provided the impetus for Granados to compose Ovillejos, La gallina ciega (1897), with libretto by 58 o pera espaola moderna 180; also see Walter Clark, Enrique Granados : Poet of the Piano (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 116. 59 Clark, Enrique Granados, 114.
44 Jos Feli u y Codina 60 Ovillejos was the first composition Granados attempted to recreate aspects of h It includes the Duke and Duchess of Ovillejo, an upper class couple, and also lower class types such as majos, majas, servants and cooks Most importantly, Granados recycled portion s of its music for the fo r his opera Goyescas Granados rearranged portion s of music from Ovillejos to present Pepa as the imagined queen of the majos and majas as I will show in Chapter 4. first opera Mara del Carmen ( c.1896 1898), composed in collaboration with the same librettist Feli y Codina also has a plot about two men from different classes struggl ing with one another for a woman Pencho, a plebeian resident in rural Murcia fights for water rights for irrigation. During the fight, he wounds the local elite Javier. attempts to save him through nursing Javier. Meanwhile, Javier is moved by Mara del Carmen and even begins to love her. T o save Pencho, Mara del Carmen agree s to marry Javie r so that Pencho will be free from prosecution. Pencho, furiously refuses, causing Pencho and Javier to duel again. Unexpectedly, even before the duel, the unfortunate Javier realizes he suffers from incurable tuberculosis ; thus he decides to give up Mara del Carmen and even helps her and Pencho and her to escape. As the discussion above reveals, Granados composed a few works representing class conflict even before the year 1900. T hrough their friendship of mor e than twenty years, the lower class would likely have influenced Granados to convey conflict between classes as he composed the music for the opera. In addition, 60 Clark, Enrique Granados 114.
45 since Periquet provided a brief plot in the f or m of Spanish Romance and segu i dilla for Granados to rearrange his m usic for the opera, Granados was thus confined to s brief plot while he recontextualiz e d his earlier compositions for the opera Goyescas In f act, the portrayal of a matador killing an authoritative military figure in Goyescas proves that Granados and Periquet were aware of the defiance of authority. Jack Randolph Conrad, Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at Southwestern Univerisity suggest ed that Spanish males ha ve a strong sense of individualism, and they manifest by defying authority in all forms. 61 To seek an outlet to release the aggression, the bull became a symbol of the hatred authority in Spain and the ritual of the bullfight becomes a method for releas ing hostilities generated by the restriction s of Church or state. 62 Ultimately, killing a bull or watching the killing of a bull bec ame a cultural expression for the Spaniards to release their deep ly repressed anti authoritarian deep stream 63 Building on this interpretation of bullfighting, the argument between Paquiro and Fernando can be also interpret ed as a ritual of bullfighting While the majos view t y, Pepa and other majos an d maja s constantly comment 61 Jack Randolph Conrad, The Horn and The Sword (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1957), 188 208. a sserted that Spaniard hates the idea of following anyone, and that the Spaniard delights in showing his disrespect for authorities. This Spanish character of individualism is also supported by Spanish philosopher Miguel de Unamuno and writer Po Baroja in Spain, the Root and the Flower: An Interpretation of Spain and the Spanish People, 3 rd ed (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), 12, 36. 62 Conrad, Horn and The Sword 188 90 also see Mitchell, Blood Sport 121 22. 63 Conrad, Horn and The Sword 191.
46 on or even provoke the argument between Fernando and Paquiro. To interpret this while Pepa and other majos and maja resembl e the audience waitin g for the bull to be killed Furthermore, since no noble bull exists in the opera, t he Captain of the Royal Guard Fernando becomes the target of defiance. Instead of killing a real bull, the bullfighter Paquiro kill s Fernando near the end of the opera. Gra nados and Periquet express ed a veiled manifesto that the defiance of the nobility is too overwhelming to be repressed by the ritual o f bull killing. A real authority figure member ha d to be killed. Furthermore, in the majismo phenomenon of majos, particularly the bullfighters were seen as charis matic heroes of the people. They were master s of risk taking public demonstrations. 64 T he activity of bullfighting however, was constantly banned by the monarchy from 1750 to 1808 be cause of the French enlightenment influence. The aristocrats who supported the French enlightenment value criticized the activity of bullfighting as too barbarous, and raising an animal to be slaughtered was an economic wast e. 65 Nonetheless, the ban o n bu llfight ing was ineffective The public ignored the ban, and ban had to be repeatedly enforced during this period 66 Perhaps there was no bullfight scene in the opera because Granados and Per i quet observed historical ban of bullfighting me. Ferna can also be interpreted as the consequence of the authority defying the culture of the ordinary people To 64 Mitchell, Blood Sport 62. 65 Carrie B. Douglass, Bulls, Bullfighting, and Spanish Identities ( Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1997), 102. 66 Douglass, Bullfighting, and Spanish Identities 222 n 7.
47 empower the lower class, Granados and Periq u et assigned the bullfighter used Paquiro to kill Fernand o, the Captain of the Royal Guard. T he majos and majas rural / urban working class in time were of similar social status. Granados and Periquet allowed the majos and majas to stand for the lower class citizens of early twentieth century Spain First, after Spa defeat in the Spanish American War, Spanish artists increased the awareness of their national identity, and thus sought an emblem to represent their national character. With the celebration of the 150 th majos and majas the figures fre Granados and Periquet strive to depict Second preoccupation with the lower class majos and majas and the ir culture wa s aligned to Spa in national values asserted by the intellectuals of his time As mentioned, American War dichotomized the view national identity The defeat raised a debate on whether Spain should have continued to advocate its tra ditional values or followed foreign contemporary culture. Unamuno suggested bridging these two opposite ideologies. In his En torno al casticismo (1895), Unamuno made a claim that Espaa est por descubrir y slo la descubrir n espaoles europeizados (Spain is about to be discover e d and will 67 As Walter Clark asserts, in Goyescas reinvent s the Spanish national identity because 67 Miguel de Unamuno, En torno al casticismo ed. ( Madrid : Biblioteca Nueva, 1996), 166
48 Granados nostalgic attraction to Castile and Madrid ca. 1800 would find expression in a musical language that was thoroughly modern and thoroughly Spanish, European and casticista at the same time, thus bridging the gap between liberal and conservative even as Unamuno had pr escribed. 68 The ideological correspondence of Goyescas work can also be explained by examining how mentor, Felipe Pedrell, created a Spanish national opera Por n uestra m sica (1891) fortunately no country can escape modifies i ts background to offer a new common mold to all nations. It is clear that today a Spanish composer cannot ignore current [European] theories What is important is that the that the inspiration be unique, if not the system. In reality, this is what is found in the lyrical schools that proudly en though they mutually influence each other. 69 This doctrine therefore, resembles on how to bridge Spanish traditional value with contemporary European ideology doctrine also correspond s eory of intrahistoria. As mentioned above intrahistoria focuses on the eternal spirit established by the collective unconscious of common people. Therefore the culture of the majos and majas that Granados adored consists of the eternal spirit of Spain an d In addition as the librettist Periquet once commented, 68 National Identity in Diagonal: Journal of the Center for Iberian and Latin American Mus ic no.1 (February 25, 2005), http://www.cilam.ucr.edu/diagonal/issues/2005/contents.html (accessed Jan 13, 20 11 ) 69 Felipe Pedrell, Por nue stra m sica (Bellaterra: Universitat Aut noma of Barcelona, 1991), 9 10. Also see Elizabeth Anne Seitz Manuel de Falla's years in Paris, 1907 1914 ( Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1995), 285
49 musical language has 70 Through his original and contemporary music language, Granados nal spirit of Spain. In addition Granados fulfilled another of s by using Spanish folk songs to creat e nationalistic opera. According to Pedrell, The genre of short pieces that in German is called the Lied is the popular song transformed. By widening the frame of reference so that the Lied national lyric opera is the same Lied only enlarged? The national lyric opera necessary to transform elements?. The national lyric opera therefore is the Lied developed in adequate proportions to the drama. It is a transformation of popular song. In popular son g there exists the artistic temperament of a country from which its character emanates. 71 By corresponding Spanish popular song s with the more wide spread German Lied Pedrell elevated Spanish songs to be on a par with contemporary trend s, while maintaining the essence of Spanish music Because the national lyric opera is the expansion and transformation of Spanish popular song, Granados quoted his tonadillas ( a set of Spanish lied er with text by Periquet ) in the opera As a result, Granados successfully ful fill ed Granados further followed the doctrine of Pedrell by emphasizing the significance of the majos and majas turning the chorus into a nation al populace. On chor al writing, Pedrell said eblo, y no, nicamente, los 72 It expresses 70 La opera 71 Pedrell, Por nuestra msica 40 41. Seitz Falla's years in Paris, 1907 1914 308 09. 72 Pedrell, Por nuestra msica, 34.
50 73 Indeed, the chorus of majos and majas in the opera Goyescas is a prominent group of the populace In T ableau I, the chorus of majos and majas glorify the ir love attitude and love philosophy metaphorically through the pelele game They also establish ed th e majos and majas as a unified community by setting the chorus to exalt their imagined queen Pepa, as the representative figure of their community In the baile de candil in T ableau II, Granados and Periquet allow the chorus to comment on the argument and express the moral messages and also to participate in the conflict with the aristocratic characters While Granados and Periquet creat e d two rituals, the pelele game and the baile de candil for the majos and majas to glorify their love attitude and Pepa t hey d id not design a single ritual for praising the aristocratic characters. Thus Granados and Periquet underscore d the nation that majos and majas are more important than the aristocrat in conveying national values In the next chapter, I illustrated the unique genesis process of the opera Goyescas. I provide evidence that Granados began to plan the plot of the opera while composing the piano suite in 1910 S ketches produced during this time reveal that Granados was already attuned the subject of clas s interaction. After collaborati ng with Periquet, the plot of the opera evolves from class interaction into class conflict. 73 Pedrell, Por nuestra msica, 26.
51 CHAPTER 3 GENESIS OF THE MUSIC AND LIBRETTO OF THE OPERA GOYESCAS T he opera Goyescas has one of the most unique origins i n the his tory of opera T he came before a concrete libretto was formed. Goyescas was first composed as a piano suite from 1909 to 1911 Later, Granados adapted the music from the piano suite for the opera, with Fernando Periquet creating a libretto G ranados offered a brief explanation on the genesis of the opera in a handwritten note on the title page of the piano vocal score manuscript, La partitura de la obra "Goyescas o los majos enamorados," esta basada en la coleccion titulada 'Goyescas o Los maj os enamorados," obra para piano compuesta en 1910 y compuesto de los fragmentos siguientes: "El pelele," "La calesa," "Requiebros," "El coloquio en la reja," "El fandango de candil," "La maja y el ruisenor," "El amor y la muerte" y "Serenata del muerto," o riginales de don Enrique Granados acopladas mas tarde y entresacando de ellas su libro don Fernando Periquet. A instancias de don Enrique Granados fue adaptado dicho libro a la musica en 1914 1 Lantern lit Fand i r Enrique Granados, S ir Fernando Periquet later adjusted and picked these pieces up for his libretto. To the request of Sr. Enrique Granado s, the said libretto was adapted to music in 1914 ) This statement implies that all the pieces of the piano suite were completed before the Periquet began to construct a libretto of the opera. In 19 14, the libretto was adapted to music. Periquet also provided a detail ed account on the genesis of the opera which was published in the New York Times on Jan uary 23, 1916 According to Periquet, one day 1 Enrique Granados, Goyescas: Literas y Calesas Los Majos Enamorados Jul y 14 1914 Manuscript score Hispanic Society of Ameri ca.
52 Granados talked with him about putting t he melodies from the piano suite on to the stage Planeado el asunto, expselo a Granados, que lo acogi como suyo. Luego escrib en romance y seguidilla espaoles el libro, no para que sobre mi letra se colocar la msica, sino para que el maestro Granados dejara vagar su fantasia por las escenas mas As escribi su encantadora partitura, sin p a labras, en absoluta libertad. 2 ( After I finished planning the subject, I showed it to Granados, who welcomed it as his own. Then, I wrote the book in [the s tyle of] Spanish romance and seguidilla not so my verse will be pl aced above the music; but so maestro Granados could let his fancy roam over my scenes. Therefore he worte the delightful score, without words, in absolute freedom.) After Granados fin ished the music, the two men stayed in house in Vilasar de Mar for almost a month While there, Periquet attempted to fit his text to music note by note. 3 Their accounts d o not offer the full picture o f the gen esis of the opera however. Ernest Newman once raised question s about this issue in the Musical Times as early as 1917: Did Granados conceive the whole of the music first of all for the pianoforte, and then adapt it for voices and orchestra? Or did he writ e the scenes first of all in this latter form, and then reduce them for the pianoforte? Or were some written first of all for the pianoforte, and other first of all for the voice? Or did he imagine the music in the first place for the pianoforte, but with a vague programmed picture in his mind, or a vague suggestion of words and gestures springing up here and there and guiding the melodies 4 remind us that while Granados and Periquet explain how they collaborated with each other to complete the opera, these statements do not tell us about how Granados first conceived his Goyescas project. The apparent programmatic 2 Goyescas Las Novadades July 27 191 5 3 Goyescas, 6. 4 Goyescas The Musical Times, Au gust 1, 1917
53 nature of the piano suite Goyescas impli es the possibility that Granados had his own dramatic plot of the opera in mind as he composed the piano suite. In this chapter, I argue that the genesis of the opera Goyescas was a long term project much more complicated than the accounts given by either Granados or Periquet. Through analyzing the original so urces, sketches and manu scripts, I demonstrate that Granados had planned his project on a Goya inspired theatrical work as early as the 1890s. Granados later transformed some of the ideas from his first Goya inspired theatrical work Ovillejos La gallina ciega into the opera Goy escas In addition, I provide evidence that Granados actually began to conceive the plot of the opera Goyescas while he was composing the first book of the piano suite around 1910. From Ovillejos to P reliminary S ketches of the O pera Goyescas Gr anados and Periquet saw the premiere of San Antonio de la Florida in 1894, a work that offered the impetus for Granad os to compose work in a similar fashion, particularly the reference to 5 From then on his Castilian theatrical works were always related to uprising against the authorities, or to ridicul ing the aristocrats. One such example is his first Goya inspired theatrical work Ovillejos La gallina ciega with libretto by Jos Feli y Codina It wa s composed after visit to the Prado museum in 1896, the sesquicentennial of 6 Its plot has many similarities with the opera Goyescas This work is set around the year of 1790, only ten years from the setting of the opera Goyescas. I n addition, this zarzuela contains a plot with the element reinforcing the dominating 5 Walter Clark, Isaac Albniz: Portrait of a Romantic (New York: Oxford Univer sity Press, 2002), 114 117. 6 Walter Clark, Enrique Granados: Poet of the Piano (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006) 39.
54 culture of the majos and majas and their influence on the aristocrats, an aspect similar to the plot of the Goyescas. In addition, Periquet was also inspired by this thea trical work. He realize d the subtitle of Ovillejos was the title of famous tapestry cartoon s and design ed the the majos and majas costume by followin g this tapestry cartoon. His costume design c an be found in his not ebook Decorado, Vestuario, Accesorios (Goyescas: Dec orated, Clothing, Accessories) in the Hispanic Society of America. 7 Figure 3 1. Francisco La G allina C iega 8 Although Granados consider ed Ovillejos a failure, he recycle d a section of the music for a piano suite with the same title, which ultimately became another preparatory work for the opera. As Granados confesse d in the 1915 issue of Musical America 7 Fernando Periquet, Goyescas : Decorado, Vestuario, Accesorios B1172, Hispanic Society of America, New York. 8 Francisco Goya, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/La_Gallina_Ciega.jpg (accessed March 27, 2012).
55 About seventeen years ago I put forth a work which failed. It doubtless deserved failure; nevertheless, I was broken hearted over the matter. Whatever may have been its faults as a whole, I felt convinced of the value of certain portio ns of it and these I carefully preserved. In 1909 I took them up once more, reshaped them into a s uite for piano. The conception I had coincidentally, types and scenes as set forth by Goya. 9 Since Ovillejos is a music o theatrical work, one may wonder why Granados decided to arrange it into a piano suite rather than revis ing it as a theatrical work. Granados, however, continuously create d a Goya inspired composition in theatrical form while composing the piano suite. I n his biography of Granados Antonio Fernandez Cid reproduced four sets of preliminary sketches of the opera plot from one of personal notebooks. 10 Even though Granados did not date these sketches, as Walter Clark observed, th ese extensive notes would have been written before libretto ) is merely indicated by a couple of dashes. These dashes i ndicate that Granados had not yet decided the librettist of the op era. 11 Indeed, examining 9 8 page personal notebook preserved in the Museu de la Msica in Barcelona provide s evidence that Granados began to write these sketches around 1910 12 The f ollowing table summarizes the various content of this notebook: 9 Goyescas Musical America 23 (1915): 3. 10 The author of this dissertation also transcribe d noteboo k in the appendix of this dissertation, which is slightly different from the one published in Antonio Fernandez Cid Gr anados (Madrid: Samardn Ediciones, 1956), 279 90 11 Clark, Enrique Granados 143. 12 Enrique Granados Personal Sketchbook, 05.2348, Museu de la Msica Barcelona.
56 T able 3 1. Content of p ersonal n otebook with p reliminary s ketches of the o pera Goyescas Pages Content 1 33 34 44 45 52 52 57 58 75 76 83 84 90 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 9 6 9 7 9 8 idea o f reforming the Acadmia Granados First s et of p reliminary s ketches Second s et of p reliminary s ketches Blank p ages Plan and b udget for p ublishing an e f irst b ook) of Goyescas Draft of a c ontract to be s igned with Casa Dotesio for Publishing Goyescas Third s et of p reliminary s ketch es Blank p ages Fourth s et of p reliminary s ketches Blank p ages Crossed o ut p reliminary s ketches of the Fandango s cene The first two sets of preliminary sketches of the opera are separated from the third and fourth set s of preliminary sketches (Table 3 1) B etween the second and third sets of sketches, the notebook contains calculation s on the budget required for printing the piano suite Goyescas, and the draft of the contract for publishing the first book of Goyescas through the Casa Dotesio. Since the fi rst two sets of preliminary plot sketches appear ed before the budget calculation on printing the first book of the piano suite, it appears that the opera had been planned before the first book of the piano suite was published by Casa Dotesio in 1912. Also, the draft of the contract implied that Granados had already planned an orchestrat ion of the piano suite. Granados drafted in the contract the following requirements, numbered 10 and 1 1 : 10 a La instrumentaci n para orquesta de estas obras, podr ha c e rla quien decian de comun acuerdo, autor y editor. 11 a El coste de la instrumentaci n sera satisfecho en la siguiente proporci n: 75 por ciento por el editor y el 25 por % por el autor
57 Most importantly, even thoug h the signed section of the contract was crossed out, it provides further evidence on when the plot sketches were written. It appears in page 82 of the notebook: Firmado en la ciudad de Barcelona a de de 1910. (Signed in the city of Barcelona on (date) of (month) of 1910). Since this draft of contract was written after the first two sets of preliminary sketches located o n pages 34 to 52, we can infer that Granados wrote the preliminary sketches of the opera while composing the first book of piano suite in 1910. A n a nalysis of the preliminary autograph sketches and notes reveals that Granados ha d the class interaction in mind as he wrote these sketches. Granados indicate d this id ea in the third set of sketches with the following ge This mixture of classes, however, involves a duel and a death scene. This idea is justified by the estocada Deat h). As the first set of preliminary sketches reveal s Granados thought of the Duchess a s akin to a maja. He addressed her as la Maja duquesa, or even just La Maja, maja enters into her palace) reveals. Grana statement suggests that he envisioned the main character to be an embodiment of the Duchess of Alba as he, had seen in Goya nd the Duchess of Alba was known for maja like behavior. 13 W hile the finish ed product of Goyescas emphasizes the strength and character of the plebeian maja Pepa, in these preliminary sketches, Granados ha d yet to formulate a plebeian maja as one of the 13 for Production
58 main characters. In the first set of sketches, Granados plan ned to have two main female characters: development in the first set of plot sketches. plan o f using the La calesa to announce the arrival of main characters can be first traced through the third set of the preliminary outline. The music in this set of the outline ith charm Manolo and Manola ) 14 is ultimately used for the majos and majas to exalt the manola in chapter 4 the charm and wit of majas are Granados used to describe the quality of the manolos and manolas Although Granados use d the music from La Calesa for the arrival of the manolos and manolas in the third set of preliminary outline at the end of the notes, in the fourth set, he change d h is mind and use d this music to accompany the arrival of the nobles. arriving with her maid in the calesa ( s edan). Soon another calesa arrives carrying D. G. Lucientes. In addition, in the third ros Granados use d phrase s s ois la reina en gracia y I n the finished work, however, only the maja Pepa arrives on stage with the calesa and is accompanied by mus ic from calesa and she is the one re ceiv ing reina 14 Manolo and Manola are types of majos and majas. This fact is also reflected in Periquet, in which he addresses the manola Pepa as a maja. See Periquet, : Goyesc 182.
59 or the queen. A nother form of transportation, a l itera the final work. The l itera 15 A ssign ing forms of transportation to characters reflects that Granados and Periquet intended to differentiate the Duchess Rosario from her rival, the maja Pepa, who arrives on stage by Calesa This allowed Granados and Periquet t o underscore the differences betw een classes represented in the opera attempt on La calesa together is crucial for representing the majas This idea can be first traced in the third set of the prelimina ry outline. Granados place d the music of La calesa gente de cali To be sure, Pepa, one of the main characters in the finished work, is the most widely praised character in the opera. Granados and Periquet use many dance gestures maja as I will demonstrate next Chapter In the fourth set of note s Granados change d the positio n of the music from La calesa and put it after the pelele scene This ultimately becomes the position in the finished maja identity through dance, since Granados labels the activity of tossing the pel ele (doing the dance of pelele ). As I explain in the music analysis of Chapter s 3 and 4 the dance and the game pelele are the activities that reflect the love attitude of the majos and majas T he correlation of these two act ivities with the music of La calesa reflects 15 Joseph Jones, "Recreando musica teatral del siglo XVIII: colaboraciones entre el compositor Enrique Granados (1867 1916) y el libretista (1873 1940) (parte II)." Dieciocho: Hispanic Enlightenment 24.1 (2001): 121, Literature Resource Center We b. http://go.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA82477765&v=2.1&u=gain40375&it=r&p=LitRC&sw=w
60 scheme for establishing Pepa as the emblem of the love attitude of the majos and majas. In addition to the preliminary sketches mentioned above several sketches of the piano suite further illustrate that Granados planned to compose Goyescas as a theatrical work while he was composing Goyescas as a piano suite simu l taneously While the final version of the piano suite Goyescas has two books and 6 pieces, the second book actually has two pieces fewer t han originally planned. According to one of Gran ados s on October 8, 1911 about preparing an edition of the piano suite Goyescas, Granados lists the pieces of the second book as follows : 16 5. La Calesa (The Sedan Chair) 6. Ria y estocada (Brawl and Thrus t) 7. El amor y la muerte (Love and Death) 8. Ep logo: La Ultima Serenate (Epilogue: The Last Serenade) The fifth piece, La Calesa w as not ultimately completed as a piano piece in the finished work of the piano suite nd written statement in the title page of the piano pieces from the suite that was transformed into the music of opera. This implies that the opera scenes. In fact the scene La Calesa can be found in an earlier theatrical of Granados Ovillejos La gallina ciega. Most importantly, as just mentioned Granados quoted part of the music from La Calesa in the third set of prelim inary sketches to underscore the entrance of the main characters. Ultimately, music was integrated into the introductory music for T ableau I Scene 2 In this scene, the majos 16 Enrique Granados, Correspond encias, Hemeroteca MDMB R10567, Museu de la Msica, Barcelona.
61 and majas exalt the entrance of the maja Pepa their imagined queen an d the most powerful character in the opera. Similarly, although Granados did not complete the piece Ria y estocada (Brawl and Thrust) for the piano suite, the title of this piece appears in the first set of preliminary sketches for the opera in the b egi nning of the T his scene is followed by the scene y la muerte (Love and Death), a scene with the same title of the penultimate piece of the piano suite; therefore, it is possible Granados plan n ed a duel sce ne and a death scene for the opera while composing the piano suite. A sketch of the piano pieces Ria y estocada reveals that Granados intended to group a duel scene and a death scene together (Example 3 1 ). Example 3 1 A Ske 17 17 Enrique Granados Partituroteca 02.1540 2, Museu de la Msica Barcelona.
62 This order of the grouping of these two pieces is the same as the order of the titles in the first set of preliminary sketches, which was written around 1910. Also, as the letter mentioned above reveals, Granados kept this order when he was preparing an edition of the piano suite Goyescas letter, the first set of preliminary sketches and the music sketch in Example 3 2 prove that Granados had the dr amatic idea of the opera Goyescas in mind while he was composing the piano suite in 1910 and 1911. Another sketch of the piano suite reveals that Granados planned to transform the piano suite music into the opera when he almost completed the suite ( Exampl e 3 2 ). four measures of music in this sketch show s that this is a sketch of the last piece of the piano suite Goyescas: ade of the Spectrum). composed for the piano suite. 18 At the bottom portion of the sketch, we can see that Granados attempted to draft the title of a theatrical work: Los majos enamorado s Escena Goyesca which will be a theatrical work cuadros y una vision pictures and a vision or macabre caprice, idea given and music given b y Enrique Granad os). 18 Clark, Enrique Granados 121. It is not certain that Gra composed for the piano suite Goyescas.
63 Example 3 2 Barcelona. 19 Ovillejos Revision Tonadillas and the O pera Goyescas Although Granados revised Ovillejos as a piano suite in 1909 rather than a theatrical work in itself Granados later revised Ovillejos as a theatrical work, which became important preparatory work for the opera Goyescas. In the first half of Apuntes para mis obras (Notes of My Works), a personal notebook of 19 Enrique Granados Partituroteca 02.1532, Museu de la Msica Barcelona.
64 Granados are sketches of Ovillejos La gallina ciega 20 According to the orchestral manuscript of Ovillejos in Biblioteca de Catalunya Granados began to compose Ovillejos in 1897 21 Therefore, one may argue that Granados wrote the sketches of Ovillejos in Apuntes para mis obras around that time. Nonetheless, these sketches could also have been written before or around 1912 after he finished composing the piano suite. Apuntes para mis obras wit h sketches concentrate on Goya i nspired compositions, which contain portions of m usic that Granados borrowed for the opera Goyescas Nonetheless as the notebook contains no sketches of the piano suite Goyescas a work composed from 1909 to late 1911. The second half of this notebook contains sketches of his tonadillas another set of preparatory works of Goyescas that began in 1912 22 Second on 10 June 1912 reflects that he was polishing Ovillejos for the performance in July 1913, sainete, Espagnol, XVIII si cle rempli d e seguigillas, calescas, sainete in eighteenth century style filled with seguigillas, calescas, 23 Therefore it is likely that the sketches of Ovillejos in Apuntes para mis obras were made around 1912 during his revision. 20 Apuntes para mis obras is now preserv ed in the Morgan Library and Museum, New York. The Morgan Library and Museum has put images of this notebook in its online music manuscript collection. 21 Enrique Granados, Ovillejos La gallina ciega A12 GRA115, Biblioteca de Catalunya Barcelona. 22 The year 1912 is justified by Granados and Periquet See New York Times (1857 1922), Dec 19, 1915 ; also Fern ando Periquet, El liberal, April 13, 1916. 23 Carol Hess, Enrique Granados: A Bio Bibliography (New York: Greenwook Press, 1991), 105. The same letter, which dated June 10, 1912, is quoted in Clark, Enrique Granados, 142; Mary Samulski P Goyescas ( DMA thesis, University of Missouri Kansa City,1988 ) 208 ; and rical Works of Enrique Granados ( Ph.D. diss., University of Liverpool, 1992 ) 45.
65 Ovillejos La gallina ciega shows various importances on its influence to Goyescas. First, a fragment among the sketches in Apuntes para mis obras st scene of the opera Goyescas The El Pelele motive can be found in the third system of the sketches in Example 3 3 24 Example 3 3 A sketch from Apuntes para mis obras Second as discussed above, Granados once intended to compose the theatri cal version of Goyescas indicated. This original two act structure of Goyescas is similar to a sainete that 24 Enrique Granados, Selections (Sketches) Granados sketchbook: autograph manuscript, 23 accessed 13 February, 2012 http://www.themorgan.org/music/manuscript/114565 This motive also becomes tonadilla
66 Granados was composing with Goyescas at the same time. A let ter to Martinez Sierra on 13 December 1913, Tengo ahora en trabajo y estoy dedicado con gran actividad a ello, Los Majos enamorados; drama lirico en un acto y tres cuadros, extraido de mi obra "Goyescas" Estoy tambien acabando un sainete en dos actos, le tra de Feliu y Codina; ademas preparando una coleccion de obras para piano, para mi editorial Schirmer de los E Unidos. 25 (Now I am in work and I am dedicated to a great activity to it, Los Majos enamorados ; a lyric drama in one act and three tableaux, ex tracted from my I am also finishing a sainete in two acts, with libretto by Feliu y Codina; also I am preparing a collection of work for piano, for my publisher Schirmer of the United States.) sainete in two acts, with libretto Ovillejos. To be sure, the finish ed product only has one act, but as his correspondence to Martinez Sierra reveals, Granados was working on the opera Goyescas while he was revising Ovillejos and the cultur al and cast setting of the two works are quite similar to each other I t is certain that Ovillejos was an important preparatory work of the opera Goyescas The influences of Ovillejos to the opera Goyescas are further revealed in an incomplete orchestral m anuscript with the title Goyescas written in the front cover of the score. 26 Granados occasionally wrote the libretto text in this orchestral manuscript, and d at 9 January 25 Joseph Jones, "Recreando musica de teatral del siglo XVIII: colaboraciones entre el compositor Enrique Granados (1867 1916) y el libretista (1873 194 0) (parte I)." Dieciocho: Hispanic Enlightenment 23.2 (2000): 183. http://go.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA82477888&v= 2.1&u=gain40375&it=r&p=Lit RC&sw=w This correspondence is also quoted in Miriam Perandones Lozano, "Revisin biogrfica y esttica del compositor Enrique Granados y Campia (1867 1916)". Oviedo: Servitec, 2009, 146. 26 ral manuscript, 05.1567, Mu seu de la Msica Barcelona.
67 the same as the second Tableau of the finish work of the opera Goyescas. T he character setting is very close to the finished work of the opera as well. Ovillejos consists of two main male and female characters, including a leading maja character and an aristocratic couple as in the opera Goyescas Nonetheless, it is doubtful that manuscript The music and the character setting suggest this is more likely a revised version of Ovillejos than the opera Goyescas. In addition to the fact that none of the music from the piano suite Goyescas appears in this orchestral manuscript, it has a scene title Ovillejos. Also, the score has the characters Sandalia and Querubin, the characters in Ovillejos as well In addition, Granados always addresses his opera as Goyesca rather than Goyescas This fact is illustrated on the piano vocal manuscript (1914) in the Hispanic Society of America, and the 1915 version of orchestral manuscript that finis hed in the Vilasar de Mar. 27 As Jean Rogers Longland further points out, i n addressing t he opera as Goyesca is also revealed by through the contract between composer and librettist, and the official photographs of the New York production. 28 The title of the opera eventually becomes Goyescas only because of the prevailing careless usage of the public relat ing this opera to the popular piano suite Goyescas. 29 Therefore, it is possible that when this orchestral manuscript was discovered after death its similarities with the opera Goyescas confused someone to label it 27 I thank Dr. Douglas Riva and Prof. Walter Clark for allowing me to consult their personal copy of this orchestral manuscript. 28 Goyesca Notes Hispan ic (New York: Hispanic Society of America, 1945), 98. 29 Goyesca 98.
68 as Goyescas on the front cover. Regardless of its spurious identity this manuscript reveals the kind of ideas Granados borrowed from Ovillejos to the opera Goyescas The 12 Tonadillas en estilo antiguo is another crucial set of preparatory work s for the opera Goyescas. T h e ch ro nological order o f Tonadillas offers evidence on i n composing the opera Goyescas As sketches of the piano pieces and related letters by Granados reveal, Granados was continuously planning the dramatic development of the opera while he was composing the piano suite between 1910 and 1911. Yet Granados made the following statement in a letter sent to Ernest Schelling on 10 June1912: I will not hide from you, dear friend, that the recent success of my works will serve to help me later to concentrate quietly on my great work, the lyric and all my life. 30 Although Granados said the success of his works in 1912 would help him compose the opera Goyescas it seems that Granados stopped working on Goyescas in 1912 because he was working on other compositions. Later on, a letter to Martinez Sierra on 13 December 1913 reflects that Granados was working on the opera again 31 It seems that bet ween 1912 and 1913 Granados put the opera Goyescas aside and dedicated himself to composing the Tonadillas a set of work s inspired by the majos and majas These Tonadillas allowed Granados to formulate ideas for the upcoming project the ope ra Goyescas. Furthermore, it seems Granados wished to retain a sense of consistency between the context of the Tonadillas and the opera 30 Enrique Granados to Ernest Schelling, June 10, 1912. Quoted in Mary Samulski Comprehensive Study of the Piano Suite Goyescas ( DMA t hesis, University of Missouri Kansa City,1988 ) rical Works of Enrique Granados ( Ph.D. diss., University of Liverpool, 1992 ) 45. 31 Jones, musica de teatral (parte II), 183; Lozano, "Revisin biogrfica 14 6.
69 Goyescas because he requested the same librettist, Fernando Periquet, to provide text for both works. The interaction o f the Tonadillas and Goyescas suggests that Granados inten d ed to follow including Spanish popular song in a national lyric opera As explained in Chapter 1, Pedrell believed that t he national lyric opera is the transformation of the S panish popular song, the Spnaish Lied developed into adequate proportion of the lyric drama. 32 Sharing an interest i work ed together for the Tonadillas and the opera Goyescas in sequence to achive the goal of creating a k ind of national opera. As I illustrate, some of the motives from the tonadillas ultimately became thematic material in the opera. T he compositional process of the Tonadillas reveals further similarities with the opera Goyescas. According to Periquet erence to the genesis of the tonadilla maja Un da, en 1912, sintiendo desbordarse en mi corazn mi viejo afecto por Goya y su obra, pens evocarla por todos los medios: con el libro, con la escena, con la cancin Compuse un romance que su identificacin con ciertos entusiasmos mos. Y, en efecto, puso entera su alma en aquella tonadilla, primera de la serie publicada, y origen indudable del actual renacimiento de la cancin espaola que as aleteaba en los corrales como en los alczares. 33 (A day in 1912, the overflow feeling in my heart on my old affection for Goya and his work, I intended to evoke it by all means: with a book, with a scene, with a maja Who can put it with music better than Granados? I went to him, certain of his identification with assuredly enthusiasm of mine. And, indeed, put all his soul in that tonadilla, the first of the pu blished series, and the undoubted origin of the modern renaissance of the Spanish song that just hovered in the courtyard and in the palaces.) 32 Felipe Pedrell, Por nue stra m sica (Bellaterra: Universitat Autnoma of Barcelona, 1991) 40 41. 33 El Liberal April 13, 1916.
70 This statement corresponds to claim in his interview in the New York Times that the first tonadilla h maja 34 Nonetheless, the compositional processes of other tonadillas differ A s Douglas Riva discover ed from the sketches in Apuntes para mis obras the text of tonadillas that Granados wr ote in the Apuntes is different from the finish ed version. This observation reveals that Granados attempted to compose the text and the music of most of the tonadillas before he collaborated with Periquet 35 It is likely after Periquet and Granados finished their first tonadilla ma ja ame so involved in this project that he proceeded to create the music for the tonadillas according to the drawing and text he envision e d Later, he turn ed to Periquet again to fit in the new version of text. 36 Granados also used th is unconventional compositional technique for his opera Goyescas This indicates that Granados strove to maintain total control of the music and narrative development of the opera. Using the same compositional process for Tonadillas and the opera, Granados fulfill ed Lied to opera. Further significance of his tonadillas can be traced from statement in his Apuntes para mis obras, Coleccin de Tonadillas escrit as en modo clsico (originales): Estas tonadill as son originales, no son las conocidas anteriormente y armonjadas. He querido crear la coleccin que me sirve de documento para la obra Goyescas. Y ha de saberse que a excepcin de Los R equiebros y Las 34 SM7 35 as: Most Personal Manuscript and What It Diagonal: Journal of the Center for Iberian and Latin American Music no.1 ( February 2005), accessed Jan 7, 2011, http:// www.cilam.ucr.edu/diagonal/previous/issue1/riva.htm1 36 Jones, "musica de teatral (parte I) 183.
71 Q uejas en ninguna otra de mis Goyescas se encuentra n temas populares. Hecho en modo popular, s, pero original e s. 37 ( A Collection of Tonadillas written i n the classic mode (originals): These Tonadillas are originals; they are not those previously known and harmonized. I wanted to create a collection that woul d serve me as a document for the piano suite Goyescas And it has to be known that with the exceptions of Los requiebros and Las quejas in no other of my Goyescas do you encounter popular themes. They are written in a popular style, yes, but originals. ) P robably what Granados meant in this statement is that the tonadillas contain the same popular spirit reinvented the document for the piano suite Goyescas. More importantly, some of the thematic materials appear i n both the piano suite and the opera Goyescas further evidence o f how Granados recontextualized the music of the piano suite in his opera Goyescas For example mm. 8 La maja dolor o sa maja ), a song of a maja lament ing the death of a majo appears in mm.29 Grille) of the piano suite Example 3 4 Granados tonadilla 9 Example 3 5 Granados Goyescas mm. 29 32. 37 Enrique Granados, Selections (Sketches) Granados sketchbook: autograph manuscript, 41 accesse d 13 February, 201 2, http://www.themorgan.org/music/manuscript/114565
72 (Conversation through the grille) the piece with thematic material from maja ) was transformed into the love duet between Rosario and Fernand o before Fernando duels with Paqurio. This arrangement implies that Rosario is the sorrow ful female character in the opera, and the dead character she lament s for will be Fernando. Like Ovillejos, sketches of the Tonadillas Apuntes para mis obras. Although Granados did not transfor m all the thematic sketches from the Apuntes into a complete tonadilla, some of them were quoted in the opera. In addition, Granados offer ed title s to these fragments of themes, thus explain ing their extramusical context. For example, the theme l Majo (The Love of a Majo ) is extracted This theme ultimately became Rosario Fernando to stay when he attempt s to leave Rosario for the duel with Paquiro. As I will illustrate in Chapter 4, t h is e flat minor melody becomes an implication Recontextualizing the Piano Suite to the Opera Granados borrowed most of the music from the piano suite Goyescas for the opera Research stud ies on the piano suite and the opera show similarities and rearranging the piano suite for the opera ha ve yet to be examined. This section illustrates how Granados recontextual ized the music from the piano suite for the opera with the intention of emphasizing the love attitude of the majos and majas One of the fundamental differences between the piano suite and the opera is the number of main characters. While only a majo and a maja are represented in the piano suite four main characters exist in the opera: an aristocratic couple and a majo and
73 maja. The majo and maja in the piano suite, however, seems to refer to the aristocrats imitat ing the culture of majos and majas. T hree pieces of evidence prove this observation. First, a round 1910, Granados was preoccupied with aristocratic posing as majos and majas 38 Second, i n the preliminary sketches also written around 1910 Granados addressed the Duchess as La maja Duquesa. Third t he music that highlights the entrance of Paquiro and Pepa has no relationship with the music in the piano suite. 39 Most o f the piano pieces in the piano suite were recontextualized to depict the piece of the piano suite. Since Granados design ated that the majo in the piano suite dies at the end, we can infer that in the suite, Granados focused on depicting how the couple of aristocratic majo and maja suffers in the conte xt of the dominating culture of the majos and majas. The opera, however, focuses on portray how the real majos and majas overcome the power exerted by the aristocrats through their dominanting culture. Granados rearrange d the order of the pieces from the piano suite and combine d the music from other preparatory works for the opera (Table 3 2) A lthough most of the pieces from the piano su ite are included for the opera, he excluded the Granados originally expect ed p logo: Serenata del be part of the opera Goyescas In the finished work however, Granados decided to delete this piece 38 Enrique Granados to Malats, December 11, 1910. Quoted in Clark, Enrique Granados, 123, 11n 223. 39 El Pelele, a piece is sometimes considered to be a part of the piano suite, the piece does not follow the narrative of the piano suite.
74 Table 3 2. The relationship between the opera, the piano suite and other preparatory works 40 Tableaux 41 Scenes Piano s uit e Order in published score I 1 Introduction: themes from Las currutacas modestas El pelele (mm. 1 105) Portion from Ovillejos Los requiebros (mm. 296 310) --1 3 Los requiebros (mm. 1 174) El pelele (mm. 11 14; mm. 100 21) 1 -II 2 El fandango de candil (mm. 1 111; 162 177) With a polyphonic section features with themes from Las currutacas modestas New Fandango music not from the piano suite 3 --III La maja y el ruiseor Coloquio el la reja El amor y la muerte 4 2 5 T his piano piece is about the ghost of a dead majo serenad ing his beloved. A ccording Ros (It is a fantasy that describes the imaginative appearance of Fernando to Rosario a year after his death). 42 The dead Fernando appe ars as a ghost and expresses his passionate memories of his lo ve relationship with 40 This table gives a big picture of on how Granados rearranges his preparatory works for the opera. For a meaure by measure analys is, see appendix A of this dissertation. 41 Goyescas is an one act opera divided into three tableaux. 42 Francisco Gandara, "Reminiscencias de Granados Novedades April 9, 1916.
75 Rosario. As Granados once confessed, however, the piece Serenade of the Specter is omitted because it is unfitted with the theatrical arrangement. 43 Since t he opera focuses on the strength and culture of the majos and majas after his death would not be appropriate to finish th e opera In addition, Granados rearranged the order of the music from Los Requiebros as he borrowed its music for t he opera (Table 3 2) Before Los Requiebros in Tableau I Scene 3 he puts forward mm. 296 310 as the transition between Tableau I Scene 2 and Scene 3 This rearrangement enabled Granados to emphasize part of a popular melody the refrain from Blas de Laser Example 3 6 is the original refrain Example 3 6 tonadilla Trpili Translation of text With the tripili, tripili, trpala, Tirana is singing and dancing Go ahead, girl! I graciously concede that you are stealing my spirit. The text of the original tonadilla dancing steals one s spirit. Granados recontextualized this theme passi when she first appear s on stage in the opera. As I will illustrate in the next two chapters Granados mani pulates this theme throughout the whole opera in varying dramatic situation s In using this theme as the 43 Gandara, "Reminiscencias de Granados 12 13.
76 fundamental element of the opera, Granados again follow s f using Spanish popular song to creat e a national lyr i c opera Other Preparatory Works of Goyescas Other thematic material from his piano character pieces can also be found i n Goyescas One is Jcara (Danza para cantar y bailar). Jcara is an antecedent of tonadillas, a song or type of dance depicting the knavish life. It is most likely derived from the word Jcara 44 According to Glibert Chase, Jcara usuall y 45 S ince Granados us ed this t heme in the piano suite, he seems to have already assigned the fate of the character associat ed with this theme The theme from mm. 49 53/108 113 of Jcara (Figure 3 7) was adapted in Serenata Del (Epilogue: Serenade of the Spectrum) of the piano suite Goyescas The theme is placed near the end of the piece at mm. 245 249, before the disappearance of spect re (Figure 3 8). Therefore, it symbolically represents declamation of love to Rosario and reminiscence of their past happiness with the jcara theme, just before he disappears. Example 3 7. Granados Jcara (Danza para cantar y ba ilar for Piano), Op.14, mm. 49 53. 44 J oan Corominas, Dicciona rio criti co etimollgico de la lengua castellana 4 vols (Bern: Francke, 1954), 2:1022 23, quoted in Frank Koonce, Baroque G uitar in Spain and the New World (Mel bay Publications, 2006), 49. 45 Gilbert Chase, The Music of Spain (New York: Dover Publications 1959), 104.
77 Example 3 8 Granados Goyescas mm. 245 249. As mention ed earlier the Jcara theme relate s to Fern appears in Tableau III Scene 2 97 98 ) wh en Fernando expresses his passion for D us I can feel the power). Exampl e 3 9 Granados Goyescas Tablea u III S cene 2, mm. 97 98 Although Fernando defies the and culture Granados recontextualized the theme of Jcara to indicate that Fernando trusts the love of the Duchess R osario who imitates the majas particularly how they behave flirtatiously This conflicting situation becomes the catalyst for imprudent behavior toward the majos especially Paquiro which ultimately result s in his death. A s Walter Clark observ e d the contrapuntal and harmonic complexity of this J cara s quotation is very different from
78 any Jcara 46 This observation also explains that Granados, in order to represent how the plebeian culture dominates the aristocra cy in his time, u sed his contemporary music language to reinvent a similar cultural aspect in The Collaboration of Granado s and Periquet in Goyescas music inevitablely caused argument between the composer and librettist Periquet said he quarrel ed with Granados as if they were schoolboys while he fitted his text to music. Here is one of the most famous episode s of their quarrel when they create text and music for Fernando and Paquiro to arrange a duel : l, por salvar una idea, yo, por no hallar su expression dentro de contadas slabas. Ejemplo: dos personajes deben concertar un duelo dentro de cuatro notas musicales, o sea en cuatro slabas Cmo lograrlo? El msico no quera aadi espaola, formas Y reimos, y a punto estuvimos de tirarnos a la cabeza libretto y partitura 47 He wanting to save an idea, I, cannot find its expression within the counted syllables. For example: two people must agree on a duel with in four musical notes or with four syllables How can I achieve this ? The musician did not want to add even one more note I could not find in the Spanish language, any form to fit this and we quarreled, and were a bout is understandable These extremely limited number s of notes seem ed insufficient for Periquet to create text for the duel arrangement between Fernando and Paquiro Periquet l ater confess ed that the process actually worked, 46 Clark, Enrique Granados 131. 47 Opera News, 7/12 (January 29, 1916): 4.
79 allowing Granados to arrive at what he needed 48 Since the music for th e duel arrangement between Fernando and Paquiro is not adapted from any part of the piano suite or other preparatory works of the opera, the question of why Granados so stubbornly refuse d to add even one more note for this passage has yet to be answered As I will discuss in Chapter 4, Granados attempt ed to create a structural correlation between this passage of duel arrangement with an arg ument passage between Fernando and Paquiro near the end of T ableau I Scene 3 By doing so, Granados was able to correlate the return of the f andango ball at the end of T ableau II and the re turn of the pelele game in Tableau I As mentioned Granados equate s the pelele game to T he action in the fandango ball symbolized by a pelele game shows how women control men. Limiting the notes in this passage of duel arrangement between Fer na ndo and Paquiro enables Granados to maintain structural similarity with the argument between Fernando and Paquiro near the end of T ableau I Scene 3, thus the pelele love game. Granados and Periquet continuously polish ed the opera after it took shape i n 1914 until its first premiere in N ew York in 1916 As is known, Granados attempted to schedule the opera to be performed at the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barc elona during the 1914 15 seasons without success Nonetheless, according to Granados, his suppor ters from Paris, particularly the Socit Nationale des Auteurs, encourage d him to present the opera Goyescas in Paris. 49 With the help of Ernest Schelling, Granados was introduced to the Spanish baritone Emilio de Gogorza, who helped Granados 48 6. 49 Gandara, "Reminiscenci as de Granados, 12 13.
80 arrange an au dition of the opera for Jacques Rouch the director of the Paris O pera, in June 1914. 50 Since the existing piano vocal manuscript was signed and dated by Granados on 28 May 1914, what Granados performed for th is opera audition in Paris would have been very close to this version. 51 As a matter of fact, only a day after Granados finished this manuscript, he wrote a let ter to inform Ernest Schelling extrait de Goyescas on from the Goyescas (that is for Schirmer) to the gentlemen of the Opera. 52 This letter implies that Gr anados prepared this piano vocal manuscript not only for his audition in Paris, but also for future publication through G. Schirmer, a publisher in the United States. A fter Granados played his Goyescas for Monsieur Rouch the work was accepted and enthusi astically supported by the Committee of the Grand Opera of Paris on 15 June 1914, as Granados indicate d on the title page of the piano vocal manuscript of the opera. 53 Nonetheless, a close examination of this piano vocal manuscript reveals that the polypho nic section in second scene of Tableau II had not been finished yet. While the chorus section has all the notes and text, most of the vocal lines for the soloists are still missing. Occasionally Granados jot ted down motives on the soloists vocal lines, but 50 T he Opera Goyesca 51 This manuscript is now preserv ed in the Hispanic Society of America, New York. 52 Enrique Granados to Ernest Schelling, May 29, 1914. Ernest Schelling Archive University of Maryland, Colleg e Park. 53 The official letter that Jacques Rouch sent to Granados is dated June 22, 1914. Rouch mentioned that the opera would be expected to be performed in 1915.
81 Periquet still ha d not provided text for these vocal lines. Granados continue d to polish 54 With the outbreak of the First World War a few weeks later the opera production was postponed indefinitely an d thus the opera could not be performed in Paris. 55 Fortunately, in the same year, Rudolph E. Schirmer, p resident of the publish ing house G. Schirmer, expressed his interest in opera Goyescas to Ernest n, Schirmer promise d to discuss with Giulio Gatti Casazza, the general manager of the New York Metropolitan Opera, the possibility of producing the opera in the Metropolitan Opera House. 56 A letter from Rudolph Schirmer to Granados show s that Granados and Periquet still continuously strove to improv e their opera in the first half of 1915. In this letter, Rudolph Schirmer mentioned some problems as the singers rehearsed the opera, Hay alguna discrepancia entre el libretto que nos mando y el texto de la par titura y estamos en duda acerca de cual debemos seguir. Sin embargo al consultar sobre el particular con el Sr. Schelling nos dijo que siguiramos el de la partitura sin hacer caso del otro. As lo hemos hecho y espero merezca su aprobacin. No hace mucho le escrib sobre a partitura de orquesta, que debe estar en nuestras manos a la mayor brevedad a fin de poder tener el material preparado para cuando se necesite en Paris y en la opera de aqu. Ruego a Ud., que no se hagan esperar. 57 54 Longland, T he Opera Goyesca 55 According to Manuel de Falla, the opera was pla nned to be premiere at the Paris Opra in the On Music and Musicians, trans David Urman and J.M. Thomson (London, Boston: Marion Boyars Publishers, 1979), 7 8. 56 Rudolp h Schirmer to Ernest Schelling, July 5, 1914. Quoted in Carol Hess, Enrique Granados: A Bio Bibliography (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), 108, B400. 57 Rudolph Schirmer to Enrique Granados, May 11, 1915 MBMB10527 5. Museu de la Msica, Barcelona.
82 ( There is discrepancy between the libretto you sent to us and the text in the score and we are in doubt that which to follow. However after consulting this matter with Mr. Schelling, he told us that we should follow that of the score and ignore the other. Thus we have done that and I expect to deserve your approval. Not long ago I wrote about the orchestral score, that it should be in our hands as soon as possible in order to have the material prepared for Paris when it is necessary and the opera performance here. I beg you ple ase do not wait. ) This letter show s that although the singers of the Metropolitan opera had already started rehearsing the vocal scores sent by Granados, the composer was still polishing and revising the orchestral score of the opera. We can also infer tha t in the process of the revisions, Periquet produced several versions of the libretto that had already existed, and Granados mistakenly sent the librettos and score with different version s of text. After receiving this letter Granados isolated himself i n his cottage at Vilasar de Mar for most of the summer of 1915 to finish the detail of the orchestration. 58 In the 1915 manuscript, Granados added more vocal lines for the soloists in the polyphonic section, and Periquet filled in his new text as well. Comp ar ed with the piano vocal manuscript finished in 28 May 1914, t he only place the music and text remain almost intact in this section is mm. 70 72, where the majos and majas con usas, no par ace a nadie bien, ni es natural oblemen seems neither right nor natural to anyone). Therefore, the piano vocal manuscript reflects that when Granados and Periquet worked on this section in 1914 they already schemed to portray the theme of the class struggle In this chapter, I analyze d the genesis of the music and libretto of the opera from Granados preliminary sketche s in 1910. T hese preliminary sketches show that 58 H ess, Enrique Granados 29.
83 Granados was conscious of the interaction between classes. A strong indication on the conflict between classes and the em phasis of the plebeian class characters, however, ha d yet to be formulated when these sketches were written In addition, the last set of the unfinished preliminary outline reflects i dea of highlighting main female characters. Also, the transportation used to underscore the entrance of the main characters ultimately becomes the transportation of the maja Pepa in the finish ed work. After Granados collaborated with Periquet to create tonadillas Granados was idealization of the plebeian majas Based on the doctrine of his mentor Felipe Pedrell that a national lyric opera is the enlargement of Spanish popular song, Granados invite d Periquet again to provide text for his opera Goyescas. As a result, Goyescas be c ame a Spanish nationalistic opera that emphasizes the strength of the majos and majas In addition Granados accomplishe d his goal o f creating Spanish In the next two chapters, I will focus on analyzing how Granados portray ed the strength of the majos and majas through tonal structures and thematic materials. To achieve this goal, I analyze two case studies of the musical characterization of two major plebeian characters in the opera: Pepa (Chapter 4) an d Paquiro (Chapter 5).
84 CHAPTER 4 PEPA AS AN EXAMPLAR OF MAJA In Tableau I Scene 2 boasting the power of her personality, Pepa introduces herself as someone to be praised more so than the queen of Spain. This is a strong statement coming from a com moner, who would otherwise have no chance of climbing the social ladder. Her statement is immediately contrasted to that of Rosario, a member of the nobility, whose presence disturbs the society of the majos and majas. This position of po wer which proves to be true among the majos and majas dictates the course of this chapter: Pepa determines most of the action in the opera. W hile the ot h er female character, Rosario, has received more attention in the secondary literature, this has yet to be examined. 1 In this chapter I argue that Granados ma kes a significant effort to portray Pepa as a strong character represent ing Pepa as an imagined queen from the beginning of the opera This later set her up as the representative of the co llective honor of the majos and majas. In T ableau II, Granados assigned a specific tonal structural pattern to portray how Pepa prevails over her rival Rosario by controlling the actions of the two male characters U ltimately specific tonal gestures hel p Pepa assert her strong maja identity. Furthermore, in T ableau III, the reappearance of the tonal areas and thematic material s established f or Pepa in T ableau I Scene 2 enable s Granados to compare Pepa with Rosario 1 Goyescas by Enrique Granados: An Investigation of Stylistic Influences and Performance Practice with
85 Pepa as the Queen of M ajos and M ajas To highlight Pepa as the imagined queen of the majos and majas in the opera, the chorus is set to prepare for entrance through text ual and tonal structure s The chorus preparation begins in D Major which later acquires the dominant function in prepar at ion Major B uilding on this D Major section, the majos and majas applaud Pe pa as a dancer indicat ed by the Pepa The majos and majas cheer Pepa with strong gestures such as clap ping hands and yell i ng reflect ing the enthusiastic reception of Pepa. Example 4 1. Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I S cene 2, mm. 1 4 T hese dance gestures reappear in the last candlelight ball scene in Tableau II. The majos and majas once again use these gestures to in prevailing over the aristocrat ic cha racters
86 The text of the chorus also reflects Pepa in the opinion of the majos and majas Tenors Esa chiquilla parece en s llevar ms sal de la que encierra enter o el mar. (a Pepa) ¡Ms! ¡Ms sal! (That gal seems to carry in herself more salt than the entire sea. To Pepa: more, more salt!) Basses (a Pepa) ¡Ms! ¡Ms sal! (To Pepa: more, more salt!) Sopranos and Altos (a la calesa) ¡La gracia nadie a Pepa puedela ne gar! (To the carriage): No one can deny Pepa charm! A ccording to this text, the majos and majas constantly use the word sal to describe sal is used to describ e To describe someone as hav ing sal means t his person can speak cleverly, can sing and dance by instinct, without learn ing how. 2 This is a further justification on the majos and majas to exalt Pepa as a dancer. Right before Pepa begins to sing her solo, the D Major established by the majos and ma jas immediately shifts into the V7 of G Major Then, it proceeds to a new G Major section as a resolution for the expectation established by the majos and majas ( Example 4 2) The text of this G Major statement reflects the honor she receives : 3 Pepa: Si r eina ya coronada viniese hoy, no fuera ms aclamada de lo que soy ( If a reigning queen had come today, she would not have been more acclaimed than I am) 2 On the definition of sal see Michael Angelo De Vitis, A Spanish Reader for Beginners (Boston: All yn and Bacon,1917), 105; and Fabiola Franco and Karl C. Sandberg Spanish for Reading: A Self Instructional Course 3 I am extremel y grateful for Prof. Silvio dos Santos for sharing his insight on tonal
87 Example 4 2. Granados, Goyescas Tableau I S cene 2, mm. 22 39 As Example 4 2 demonstrates, entrance music i s divided i nto four phrases, modulating from G Major to g minor, returning to G Major again at the last chord. In the beginning, Pepa acknowledges the praise she receives in a passage reinforced by the key of G Major A s ignificant shift oc curs in the second half of her solo as the third phrase suddenly shift s to B flat M ajor. This shift re call s the unexpected shift of key for
88 the Pelele scene from D Major to B flat M ajor 4 s happily) symbolically represents Pepa flirtation with the majos as the Pelele game symbolically represents the flirtatious attitude the majos and majas In the fourth phrase the music modulates to g minor, in turn create s a melodic line that alludes to a D Phrygian scale. T his D Phrygian gesture will become crucial for the ton al structure in T ableau II, in which it represent s that Pepa mon i tors the action s of her people. and a popular maja the characterization given by Granados and Periquet, Pepa is respected and adored by all the majos and majas like statement, the music immediately modulate s back to G M ajor, when the majas invite Pepa to join their activity as one of them. T his action is also portrayed thematically by the quotation of the Pelele game moti f in the orchestral accompaniment, with Periquet text for the majas are among your p eople as I am) ( Example 4 3). As the example below demonstrates the majos Madrid does not have a street worthy of such a princess who knows how to captivate majos ). With this acclaim from the majos the Pelele motive in G M ajor affirms that the majos They acknowledge Pepa as the one who knows best how to play the Pelele love game 4 In T ableau I Scene 1 Granados set the key for the Pelele scene by shifting unexpectedly from D major to B flat major. It proceeds from a dominant seventh of D to its flatted submediant chord (bVI), which becomes the tonic chord of the Pelele scene.
89 Example 4 3 Granados, Goyesca s Tableau I S cene 2, mm. 40 51 Pepa Controls her Lover Paquiro To further illustrate maja a chromatic harmonic progression is used to portray to captivate the majos At the end of T ableau I Scene 2 the comple te refrain borrowed from Blas de Laserna shows how Paquiro betray s Pepa because of Rosario. Ultimately, tonal areas in relation to the key area of G Major are established to portray how Pepa tactful ly regain s her control of P aquiro s o she can take revenge on Rosario.
90 As the majos say Pepa has more sal than the entire sea, a chromatic harm onic progression with a descending bass line is used T he majos describe Pepa as a vate majos ) (Example 4 3) On unstable, with the chromatic harmonies underscore d by a descending bass line (mm. 47 50). This chromatic harmonic progression with a descending bass line re calls a similar harmonic progression in the Pelele scene, when the majas puso a montones la sal i n Madrd) ( Example 4 4) In fact, s text describe s a place or a maja with plenty of sal a chromati c progression with descending bass line is used to reinforce this idea ( Example 4 3 ) 5 Example 4 4 Granados, Goyescas T ableau I S cene 1, mm. 47 51 To reinforce how Pepa captivates the majos new thematic material and rhythmic pattern is established for the majos to praise Pepa as an enticing dancer In second part 5 Even though the music of the Pelele scene (first scene of tableau I) was mostly adapted from the piano piece with the same title, mm. 48 51 f rom Figure 4 4 was new music fragment that Granados composed for the opera. This new music further justifie s the idea that Granados modifie d his music to s text on the p il es of sal God donates to Madrid.
91 tonadilla majos praise Pepa with the following text: Veo en t tal arte que solo al mirarte, hay ya que adorarte. Cual t no h izo Dios ni dos. ( I see in you with such skill that only to look at you, one must adore you. Like you God made no other .) T (Example 3 6) is a tonadilla about Triana, a singer and actress, whose singing an As Example 4 5 demonstrate s, the triplet rhythm that underscore s the exaltation foreshadows the fundamental rhythmic pattern of the first candlelight ball scene in T ableau II ( Example 4 6 ) All of these thematic and rh ythmic design s further reveal the intent to portray Pepa as a dancer. T he unpredictable chromatic harmonic progression throughout this quotation of Blas d call s the chromatic descending passage used to describe a person wi th plenty of sal thus reinforc ing In the same passage when the majos (Like you God made no other ), the added accents on the weak beats momentarily distort the triple meter. As a result Pe is not only portrayed as a remarkable dancer with much flexibility, but also ability to manipulate the desire through the unpredictable gestures The phrase with distorted triple meter finally ends in the d minor chord is t he same as the beginning of the first fandango scene This harmonic and rhythmic arrangement symbolically a nticipate s in controlling men at the candlelight ball ( Example 4 5 ).
92 Example 4 5 Granados, Goyescas T ableau I S cene 2, mm. 51 60 Example 4 6. Granados, Goyescas T ableau II S cene 1, mm.1 4
93 the short duet of Pepa and Paquiro. Paqu iro complains about Pepa demanding homage from him yet his complaint is in vain As the last two measure s of Example 4 5 show s, the harmonic progression to B Major (V7/III III in G Major ) is stablized when the majas ). Paquiro, however, cannot tolerate dain to Pepa eyes demand slavery). At the same time, the B chord is turned into the V of E Major (V7/E). As a result, Paquiro change s the statement of admiration for Pepa in B Major ( Example 4 5 last measure ) as a dominant preparation for his criticism to Pepa in E Major ( Example 4 7). Example 4 7. Granados, Goyescas T ableau I S cene 2, mm. 61 68 Although Paquiro attempts to kee p Pepa under his control with this sudden shift of tonality P epa is able to resolve t as demonstrated when the dominant seventh of E Major resolves to the E Major tonic chord. She sings the E Major tonic note at a higher pitch, claim ing f e and healt h). Even though Paquiro states you have many majos after you), Paquiro emphasize s
94 singing a leap of a sixth from B to G sharp. This large leap suggest s that despite Paquiro disdains (desdeoso) of like, Paquiro ha s to a cknoledge the s trength and power that Pepa ha s. is quoted in an The skill resembles that of Paquiro, indicating they are a good match for each other As Example 4 8 reveals, although t he intricate tonal progression roughly outlines a descending circle of fifth s this seemingly erratic desc ending progression symbolically r epresents Pepa and Paquiro as the masters of seduction. Example 4 8. Granados, Goyescas Tableau I S cene 2, mm. 69 76 According to the majos ey are both charming. They are a good match, because they resemble one another). Indeed, in the solo entrance music of Paquiro and Pepa in Tableau I, the key area become s unstable once they pay compliment and tease with the majos and majas. The intricate h armonic progression for of these two gallardos
95 In addition, the charm of Pepa and Paquiro is alluded by the candlelight ball dance rhythmic motive ( Example 4 9 ). This dance rhythmic motive not only assert s the ir similarities with each other but also defines their identity one more time This dance motive appears near the end of Tableau I Scene 2 as the majos ans majas comment abou t the charm of Pepa and Paquiro. Example 4 9. Granados Goyescas Tableau I S cene 2, mm. 224 227 As Example 4 9 reveals, after the majas comment on candlelight ball rhythmic pattern in V7/e articulate s their com ment, while the same modified candlelight ball rhythmic patte n in V7/d is used to articulate the comment about her you are going to heaven!) While the V7/e chord re call s the dominant seventh of E Major that Paqui ro establishes for his conversation with Pepa in this scene ( Example 4 7 first measure), the V7/d chord here foreshadows the op ening of the candlelight ball scene beginning with a similar figuration ( Example 4 6 ). When Pepa attempts to take
96 revenge on the aristocrats, the majos sing this rhythmic pattern again as a stragedy to assert their identity by Although Paquiro betrays Pepa because of Rosario, Periquet designate s Pepa t o at the candlelight b all, the place where Paquiro was first attract ed to Rosario. After she notices that Fernando intent s on bring Rosario over there for defending his hono r, Pepa informs Fernando about the time of the candlelight ball and lets him visit the candlelight ba ll using the motive from the second part of the flat Major the tonal area of the Pelele scene in Tableau I Scene 1 Example 4 10. Granados, Goyescas Tableau I S cene 3 mm.106 109 This moti ve is quoted several times in the previous scene. It first appears when the majos praise Pepa as a skillful dancer and Paquiro is a good match for her in T ableau I Scene 2 ( Example 4 5 and Example 4 8 ) I t appears again when Paquiro glorifies that among the beauties, she stands out) as Rosario first appears on stage in E flat Major a key area represent s expression of love ( Example 4 11) Example 4 11. Granados, Goyescas T ableau I S cene 2, mm. 136 137 T o take her revenge, Pepa l et s Paquiro fulfill his wish o f inviting another woman to dance at the candlelight ball, but incites his rival Fernando, to be present as well.
97 Pepa pretends bo o sting Fernando self pride in front of the majas : tain!) in E flat Major expression of love, with the modified thematic material that Paquiro sings to express his love for Rosario Example 4 12. Granados, Goyescas T ableau I S cene 3, mm. 115 118 As the Example 4 12 re veals, a lthough flat Major the use of unique E flat tonic chords, such as tonic eleventh chord and tonic thirteen chord distort the stable E flat Major sonority. In addition, the last measure of this statement suddenly shifts to the V7 /D thus further emphasiz ing statement. T his demonstrates as well as how Pepa entraps Fernando to visit the candlelight ball with Rosario As soon as the aristocrats visit t he candlelight ball, she can obtain the opportunity to prevail over Rosario in her own territory with her people, thus regain ing her control over Paquiro.
98 Pepa Struggles with the Aristocrat ic Characters As the imagined queen of the majos and majas Pepa st rives for revenge to retain her honor from Rosario and Fernando whose p resence causes disruption in her environment To scheme of revenge, specific tonal area s and thematic material is used to foreshadow enge from T ableau I Sc ene 2 As discussed for the majos and majas emphasize s Pepa and Paquiro In short duet with Paquiro however, Paquiro show s disdain for illustrated by the key of E Major P epa then vow s her revenge with in E Major when Rosario sings this motive in T ableau I Scene 3 As Example 4 13 reveals, Pepa sings the countermelody with quintuplets, with the orchestral accompaniment play ing the sam e figuration at the same time. These quintuplet rhythms are inherited from the piano suite The complex rhythmic figuration s for the orchestral accompaniment vocal line simutane ously it is kept intact. Moreover, the performance direction c olle voci is added for the violin section, reinforc ing the orchestral accompaniment should is therefore reinforced by those quintuplets, which makes sure her voice can be heard whi le Rosario Pepa: Poco poder el mio ha de ser, sino me adueo de esa mujer. ¡Y tenaz ser mi empeo! (Little power will I wield if I cannot prevail over this woman. And I must be persistent!)
99 Example 4 13. Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I S cene 3, mm.34 41 Since Fernando becomes frustrated with Rosario ad o pting the love game the key of G is used become a representation of in her r evenge. Once Rosario ask s Fernando the music immediately leads back to a G augmented chord Rosario lies i n the key areas of G, B, and D from mm. 44 62 outlining a G Major triad, Major key ( Example 4 14).
100 Example 4 14. Granados, Goyescas Tableau I S cene 3, mm. 42 62 Once Fernando commands Rosario to visit the candlelight ball with him to prove fidelity, Pepa immediately gets ready to take revenge say ing as an aside commentary: them be wary there, of me). Pepa says in front of the majos and majas prueba sin saber donde la lleva to difficult test without knowing how it will end) with the second part Major ( Example 3 15). Since this is motif that Pepa sings when she vows revenge for Rosario the reappearance of the second part of the re Major confirms that Pepa is able to sh ow her power and take her revenge
101 Example 4 15. Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I S cene 3, mm. 95 98 (Example 4 16) is support ed by her majos and majas : same moti f in G Major S ince the majos and majas forebode that Rosario and Fernando will end up in tragedy at the candlelight ball. Exampl e 4 16. Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I S cene 3, mm. 99 105
102 After Fernando tell s to Paquiro that he will visit the candlelight ball t hree types of thematic materials coalesce for the return of the Pelele scene indicat ing that the majas will ultimately prev ail over Fernando (Example 4 17). T he first type of thematic material is the ostinato rhythmic pattern This thematic idea is bor rowed from T ableau I Scene 2 when the majos glorify Pepa during her entrance. In this instance, Periquet change s the te perhaps I enjoy pleasure which I have never enjoy ed before), implying that th e joy should have relationship with Pepa. The modified motif thematic material quoted (Example 4 17) as th e majos glorify the importance of the majas in this country (campo) As mentioned, Pepa vow s revenge using thi s motif in T ableau I Scene 3 This is also the moti f that Pepa sings to announce the time of the ca ndlelight ball to Fernando. All of these ideas impl y that Fernando will become the Pelele for Pepa to ex act her revenge on Rosario. The third type, the theme from tonadilla violin section (Example 4 17) the first scene of the opera, in which the majos and majas praise the joy exudes in Madrid through practicing their Pelele love game. Although the theme relates to the D Major joyful atmosphere as it appears t he first Tableau it is also the theme constantly reiterated in B flat Major throughout the argument between Fernando and the majos in T ableau II Scene 2 i ndicates that although the Pelele love game begins with a joyful atmosphere, the joy of this Pelele love game wil l end with an unexpected twist. This twist is justified by the upcoming argument at the
103 candlelight ball scene, in which Fernando will become the ill fated Pelele All these thematic quotation s echo fire) when Fernando insists on visiting the candlelight ball. Example 4 17. Granados, Goyescas, Tableau I S cene 3, mm. 99 105 Setting the stage for Pepa to take revenge on Rosario, the c andlelight ball scene begins with the triplet rhythm figuration discusse d in T ableau I Scene 2 As mentioned, the modified fandango triplet dance rhythm since T ableau I Scene 2 is established as a thematic preparation for portraying how Pepa leads her majo s and majas to assert their identity in this scene In this passage the fandango dance rhythm appears in its original form ( Example 4 6 ).
104 The overall thematic and textual design for the beginning of the first candlelight ball scene of T ableau II emphasiz e s that the conflict between Pepa and Rosario is about the identity of the majas W hile the dominant key is used as preparation for entry solo, the majos and majas exalt Pepa as if cheer ing for a brilliant dancer. Similarly in this first candleligh t ball scene, the thematic ideas for the majos and majas are used to exalt the women dancers (bailadoras) as a preparation for taunt to Rosario ( Example 4 1 8 ). Example 4 1 8 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 1, majos and majas exalt the women 13 Example 4 1 9 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S taunting statement, mm. 52 61 The statements in Example s 4 18 and 4 19 begin wit h the same melodic shape. The melody features four ascending notes that begin with the l eading tone of d minor, and a turn like sixteenth note figure, adding Spanish flavor to th e them e. As a result, praising
105 becomes a metaphor for the strength of the majas setting the scene for Pepa to taunt the high born Rosario later Pe riquet underscore s the relationship between these two statements by using preterit tense At first glance, the stage direction in Example 4 18 seems to denote the majos and majas praising the dance happening on sta ge. Yet fu lindo el pi k) is in past tense, signifying that the dance in this scene arouses the majos and majas memories about a dance event in the pas t. Similar grammatic al rule appl y taunting statement: ( A Great Lady, wanted so much to see and [actually] saw it that she put herself in the midst of the candlel ight ball) Again, the word s the past tense, i ndicat ing Pepa complain t f visiting the candlelight ball. W e can also infer that the dainty dancing feet in t his candlelight ball remind the majos and majas of the dance event Rosario once visited. The relationsh ip of the two statements above reflects how the majos and majas support Pepa when she protests against the disturbance from the aristocrats. In addition, al though Paquiro is attract ed to Rosario, all the majos and majas believe that only a real s dancing feet T he majos and majas praise the majas dancing in the beginning of the scene as a way to bolster Pepa for her upcoming argument with Rosario. shows she cares more her identity as a maja than about Rosario As the majas claim in the first scene of the
106 majas y majos son en toda occasion modelos de pass majas and majos, o n all occasion s candlelight ball intrude s on the territory of the majos and majas and offends Pepa because Rosario take s away Pepa in such a location Fernand s the anger of all the majos and majas in T ableau II Scene 1 Pepa lead s her majos and majas to taunt Rosario one more time at the end of the scene. While the thematic idea Example 4 19, here it appear s in d minor, the same tonal center the majas and majos use to praise beginning of the candlelight ball This arrangement shows on Rosario is supported by the majos and majas since the aristocrats of their candlelight ball is a matter of challenging their identity. As the imagined queen of the people, Pepa has the power to control t he argument at the candlelight ball. Tonal anticipation is created to foreshadow the power Pepa has manifest ed here since her first entrance in the opera As mentioned on the analysis of Pepa sing s in D Phrygian descending scale, area m odulates to g minor. Coincidentally, the main key s in this scene ( d minor b flat minor e flat minor E flat Major d minor) underscore the essential notes that constitute a D Phrygian scale: D, B flat, and E flat. For this reason, the tonal arrangem and controls the action of the majos and majas from the moment she appears in the opera.
107 In add ition, challenge to the nobles becomes the catalyst of the argument among Fernando Paquiro, and other majos in the n ext scene, T ableau II Scene 2 Pepa leads the majas to taunt one more time with the same d minor phrase as at the beginning of the s cene, in which the majos and majas praise the dainty dancing feet. They conclude this taunting statement ( Example 4 2 0 ) the same word the majos and majas used to cheer Pepa during her first entrance Example 4 2 0 Granados, Goyesca s Tableau II S cene 1, mm.103 117
108 Th e word sung with such vehemence, reaffirms the identity of the majos in fron t of the nobles os trajo no fu la danza, no hay aqu un majo what brought you here was not the dance, there is not among us a majo not offended by your joke) in the beginning of the next scene ( Example 4 2 1 ). has dance gesture as an affirmation of t he identity of the majos and majas as well, such as a rhythmic motif the ostinato of the first candlelight ball scene. Example 4 2 1 Granados, Goyescas, Tableau II S cene 2, mm. 1 7 T he tonal a rea reinforce s that Pepa is determine d to conclude the argument tragically. As mentioned above, Pepa ironically commen t s on decision to visit the candlelight ball, telling the majas captain!) in the key of E flat Major only protection, Fernando, by incit ing Paquiro to kill him Therefore, in the seco nd scene of the T to prevent a more serious argument: that I regret your attempt) in E flat Major Pepa, however, does the opposite by continuously provok ing the two men by sarcastically
109 How trul y brave you are !) within the E flat Major established by Paquiro Changes from E flat into the root of the French sixth chord in the key of G are followed by the majas Major chord, the dominant of g minor. P ulling the tonality back to G signifies Pepa this argument into a tragic conclusion ( Example 4 2 2 ) Example 4 2 2 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 2, mm. 12 18
110 Once Pepa provokes the argument between Fernando and Paquiro, the majos and majas foreshadow (at last it seems that they will settle this tragically), and with the V I progression in G Major po sition of power. Example 4 2 3 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 2, mm. 30 32 When the text hints that Fernando must win with his life the music stays in the G key area from measure 35 to 36, with the following text: Pepa: un capit n que aqu trae su amor. (A capitan who brings his lover to here) Majas (Soprano): No hay ms salida que conquistarla con la vida! (This is no solution but to conquest her with life) Majos (Tenor): No hay m s salida que resolverlas con la vi da. (This is no solution but to resolve these arguments with life) As the text shows, the majos and majas f or e shadow that one must conque r Rosario and must resolve these arguments with life. Pepa while the music stays in the key area of G This textual and tonal pattern becomes a warning
111 for Fernando Using the key area of G suggests that Pe pa which ultimately leads to his death. over Fernando at the climax of the argument, Fernando sings a theme that alludes to a G Phrygian scale as he boasts in front of the majos for the last time before a duel with Paqu i ro is arranged. Example 4 2 4 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 2, mm. 78 80 This G Phrygian scale appears after Pepa say the theme Fernando sings in his boasting statement is derived from the comment re fu lindo e l pi que al bailar supo hablar, as they use the dancing feet to reinforce their identity. The thematic and tonal center arrangement suggest s that Fernando criticizes the majos as dandies dance and flirt but have no manly courage. This stat ement anger s the majos. Thus, the majos (tenor) are arranged to sing the majo aqu podra tener majo here could have such patience). All this anger and confusion results in a duel between Fernando and Paquiro and leads to death. Most important this G Phrygian is also the tonal area of the next scene, in which Pepa is exalted by the majos and majas for leading them to prevail over the aristocrats
112 Identity a s a M aja As discussed above specific dance gesture s are always used to metaphorically present maja. D ntrance in T ableau I Scene 2 the chorus is assign ed to cheer Pepa as a dancer With the similar use of dance metaphor s Pepa succe eds i n guiding the majas to tak e revenge o n the aristocratic cha racters with her in T ableau II Scene 2 leads the majas to perform a brilliant dance. In the last scene of the T ableau II, the fandango finale the chorus uses the metaphors of dan ce to affirm the identiy. In addition to dance gesture s the same reappears for the majos and majas i n deriding the aristocratic characters. While D Major is used as dominant prepa ration for Major e ntrance in T ableau I Scene 2 here, the same D Major to G Major progression is used to underscore the identity of the majas and exalt their bravery i n prevailing over the aristocrats. This scene begins in D major with twelve meas ures of no singing Once the majos say foot can say!), the D chord shifts its function as the dominant of G. The D chord then is followed by the dominant thirteenth of G Major lasting for five measures with the following text: Majas (Alto) ¡Esto es Madrid y majeza, donaire, sal y guapeza! ¡Ol! (This is Madrid and majeza, 6 charm, salt and beauty! Ol!) Majos (Tenor) ¡Ol! 6 The unique quality of the maj os and majas According to Michael P. Thompson, majeza historically associated with the figure of the majo (and female maja ) as representatives of the popular culture of Madrid in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as portrayed dramatically by Ra mn de la (Bristol, UK: Intellect, 2007), 149.
113 Majas (Soprano) ¡Esto es Madrid y majeza! ¡Ol! (This is Madrid and majeza! Ol!) The D Major dance section becomes the dominant preparation for the majos and majas to assert Madrid as their land and affirm their identity (Example 4 25). Example 4 2 5 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S ce ne 3, mm. 1 18 The dance represents the essence of majeza that contributes to the charm of Madrid Thus a unique textural structure is used to reinforce this message. A short melodic phrase building on a dactylic rhythmic pattern is first presented by th e bass voice, and then imitated in turn by the alto and soprano. Once the female voices enter, they majeza ) with the same dactylic rhythm pattern derived (What thing sometimes a dancing foot can say!) W ith t he gradual thickening of texture the overall sonic effect intensifies the exaltation of Madrid and majeza Once the female
114 sing at each beat while the majas majos and majas join together, exclaim ing beat, cumulat ing to fortississimo. With all the dance idioms, the exaltation of the majos and ma jas assert i ng of their identity, the opening of the fandango finale establishes a strong foundation for the majos to glorify the majas in the approaching G Major section. This tonal arrangement therefore reinforces the majas who are the embodiment of maje za and represent the essence of Madrid. T he majas phrase ( specif ies that the approaching section in the key are a of G is about prais ing the majas like Pepa as the model of majeza. W hen Pepa resume s the fandango at t he end of Tableau II Scene 2 she say ance begins, and there is grace; even the air is impregnated with majeza ). The majas r efers to the dance that announcement Sal, as mentioned, is the charming quality of the majas Since the majos claim that Pepa carries more sal than the entire sea Pepa is a significant character contribut ing to the majeza in Madrid. Lastly, the word guapeza denotes a good looking style of dress and bravery courage and resolution in danger. 7 Since Pepa successfully takes revenge on the high born Rosario y ing, her courage deserves respect from the majos and majas particularly because she is not a woman with high social 7 n Diccionario de la lengua espaola, 22 nd ed. (Madrid: Editorial Espasa Calpe, 2001) accessed Nov 7, 2011, http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta?TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=guapeza
115 status. A s the forthcoming music and text in this scene portrays, Pepa represents the collective honor of the majos and majas. Since Pepa prevail s over the aristocrats in the previous scenes as a dancer le ading her majas to an electrified dance the majos exalt Pepa and the majas with the dance related text and gestures from the previous scene. The f ollowing text is the majos statement in the key o f G section after the D Major dominant preparatory section. All the m ajos (tenor and bass) : Jams goz quien no bail. Jams bailar v yo, cual hoy aqu se vi. ( Never enjoyed those who did not dance I have never seen such dance l ike one here tod ay). [ A las bailadoras] (to the women dancers) Tenor: En vindote esos pis, poco importa ya morir despus. ( In seeing your dancing feet, it does not matter to die afterward ). Bass: Un majo es siervo fiel de esos pi es (A majo is a faithful servant of those feet) Tenor: ¡Pepa! ¡Venga ese cantar! ¡Que bien se hace esperar! (Pepa! ) Bass: ¡Pepa! ¡Venga el cantar, el cantar! (Pepa! Come for the singing, the s inging!) The past tense, signifying the dance they have just seen In this instance, the majos c ompliment Pepa and the majas for courage in prevail ing ov er the aristocrats with dance metaphors T he majos majas during the conflict enjoy experiencing the sal the majas exude. T hey clai m they never enjoyed those who did not dance The majas brave action asserts their strong identity in front of the aristocrat s As a result, the majos pay homage to the majas feet, it does not matter to die a fterward the ( [ dancing with ] the heel) was added in the orchestral manuscript, when the majos say
116 most intense castanet rhythm in the whole scene. As a result, the music, text and stage direction imp lies how the majos seeing Pepa led the majas to prevail over the aristocrats as if they watch a brilliant dance that they have never seen. This arrangement therefore echoes the Example 4 2 6 Gra nados, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 3, mm.19 48
117 the new metric and tonal design in this G key section also reflects how Pepa leads the majas to prevail over the aristocrats. First, the rhythmic sense is intensified by switching the mete r from 3/4 to 3/8, and changing the tempo marking from Allegro moderato to Allegro assai. 8 The intensified dance, therefore, reflects the excitement on seeing how the majas support Pepa to challenge the aristocratic characters. Second, even though t he one sharp key signature in this section signifies G Major the G Phrygian sounding is used in a G Major section by adding the accidentals A flat, B flat and E flat. With the added castanets and guitar for this G Major section in G Phrygian sonority, the majeza of Pepa and the majas is enhanced musically. To highlight Pepa among all the majas Granados revised the orchestration to prepar e the majos ex alt ation of Before the majos exalt the texture of the orchestration is compara tively thin. Even th ough the brass instruments are originally arranged orchestral manuscript reveals, most of the music is deleted from brass section (19 measures total the majos exclaim name, the brass section joins the full orchestr he orchestral textu re is reduced t o emphasiz e ( Example 4 2 7 ) 8 The tempo markings mention here are based on the orchestral manuscript. Even though the tempo markings in the published vocal piano score are different from the orchestral manuscript, they also reflect the intensification of rhythm. While the D major sect ion has the tempo marking Allegro Granados switched it to Allegro muy ritmado (Allegro, very rhythmical) for this new section in G.
118 Example 4 2 7 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 3, mm. 49 53
119 In addition to modifying the orchestration, specific harmony and dance gestures reinforce d Pepa as the exemplar of the maja majos sing the bVI chord in G, the E flat maja is what she ought to be) a song that the majos and majas invited Pepa to join eight measures later. Therefore, an E flat harmony and tonal center is used to indicate that this song is specifically for Pepa. Furthermore, the majos and majas applaud Pepa with similar gestures a t her first e ntrance in T ableau I Scene 2 As the majos and majas invite Pepa to have a song (¡ Venga ese cantar!), a stage direction at mm. 56 (animating the dancer by clapping hands) is included as the majas 1 This is the same gesture (jaleando a Pepa) used when the majos a nd majas al arrangement underscores that Pepa is the exemplar of the majas maja epitomizes how a maja should behave, and also affirms that Pep s what a real maja should be. Here maja Text Translation La maja si es que ha de ser, Conforme Dios lo mand Tres cosas ha de saber: Arrancar moos, querer, y olvidar al que olvid. La maja si es que ha de ser. M aja is what she ought to be, According to what God mandated Three things she must know: To pull hair to love, and to forget he who forgets her! M aja is what she ought to be. 1 This gesture is given in the G. Schirmer edition of piano vocal score, even though it was misspelled as alejando The or iginal piano vocal manuscript, wh ich is now preserv ed in the Hispanic Society of America, has the correct spelling.
120 maja. She loves Paquiro fights with Rosario for Paquiro, resum es the candlelight ball to forget Pepa, therefore, embodies the love attitude T he chorus also articulates every statement of the soloist with r this dancing foot!). With the text connects the dancing foot with the identity of a maja Periquet relating danc e as the symbol of the identity of the maja at the same time their love attitude. Praising the dancing feet is therefore a metaphorical exalt ation of the quality of a maja. both literal ly and metaphorical ly Literally, it expresses the gracefulness of the dance. Metaphorically, it can be interpreted as acceptance or forgiveness of infidelity, Rosario as the Antithesis of Pepa To underscore the significance of Pepa in T ableau II, t onal structure s and motives are used to portray Rosario as her antithesis in T ableau III. Altho ugh Pepa does not sing in T ableau III the ton al areas and motives are recapitulated from the previous scenes to underscore the devastating consequence of Rosario imitating the love attitude After Fernando is mortally wound ed by Paquiro at the end of Tableau III, Scene 2, Scene 3 begins with a dramatic quintuplet rhythm in orchestral introduction
121 Example 4 2 8 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III S cene 3, mm. 1 11 T his quintuplet rhythmic pattern (Example 4 28) re call s the one discussed in T ableau I Scene 3 ( Example 4 13) Th e example illustra tes how the quintuplet rhythm is used to enhance Pepa vows for revenge as she strives to T his is not the first time this quintuplet rhythm appears. It first appears in the Pelele scene, as the majas express their gratitude for Paquiro coquettish character of the majas. T his rhythmic pattern reinforces how the majas attempt to use their alluring power to control the majos. T his quintuplet rhythmic pattern is also used in T ableau I Scene 3 to r epresent Rosario imitating the majas attitude ( Example 4 29 ). Rosario sing s this quintuplet rhythm as she attempt s to convince Fe rnando of her faithfulness: entrust my entire being, and I die of love). attempt to imitate the love game of Pelele to captivate Fernando.
122 Example 4 29 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I S cene 3, mm. 73 77 T his quin the last scene of the opera Granados describes this opening moti f in this way: E l tema que fue de amor y ahora aparece con toda fuerza y en el registro grave del (It was th e theme of love, and now it appears with great force and in the grave register of the piano) 2 The forceful and grave expression of the love theme here represents the fateful consequence s of Rosario trying to imitate the love attitude Example 4 29 show s that the motive appears two times. The first time (mm. 1) in b flat minor (mm. 1) the tonic minor of the Pelele game scene The second time is in e flat minor (mm. 6) the imitatio n of the love attitude causes Fernando becomes an ill fate Pelele who is defeated by Paquiro. In addition to th e quintuplet rhythm the Lento sections that alternate with this in Example 4 2 8 further reinforce c death is caused imitation of the love attitude The descending moti fs in these Lento come from the motif from tonadilla s orrowful maja ) 2 This explanation is given in program note for his own performance of the piano ra nados, May 1915. It is now preserv ed in the Museu de la Msica Th e program note is also transcribed and translated by Douglas Riva Goyescas for P
123 in a modified version ( Example 4 3 0 ) Although this is a tonadi lla about a maja mourn ing about the death of her majo, Granados recontextualized the theme for the high born show s intention to indicate the tragic result of a noble woman imitat ing th e Pelele love game. Example 4 3 0 Granados tonadilla 12 Most important, the key of G is also used to queen like status among the majas with the consequence imitating the love attitude of majas Table 4 1 like entrance statement in Tableau I Scene 2 with A lthough both statements have similar tonal structures and mainly stay in the key of G their contexts are against each other. P statement reveals that many majos support her as their imagined queen; while Rosario mourns that she loses the only man she pursue d alone onstage. like entrance can be justified by ana purpose. Twelve measures are cut modulates to e minor, b minor and D Major (mm. 147 158 of the piano piece) As a re is centered on G Major and Granados i s able to link the two characters who practice the love attitude but with different consequences.
124 Table 4 1. Comparison of the G Major sections in relation to Pepa and Rosario method o f drawing a parallel between and the love attitude of the maja can be also traced from Rosa ¡Amor! ¡Amor! Por siempre adios (Love! Love! Goodbye forever!) in this coda of the opera. The music for this phrase solo scene in T ableau III Scene 1 ( Example 4 3 1 ). This is a scene inherited from the fourt h piece of the original piano suite, (the Maja and the Nightingale ). The title reflects scheme for recontextulizing this piano piece to correlate Rosario as a maja. Pepa Ke ys Rosario Keys Si reina ya coronada viniese hoy, no fuera ms aclamada de lo que soy G ¡Muerto! ¡Perd, Dios santo, todo el encanto de que fu en pos. ¡Amor! ¡Amor! ¡Amor! G Al ve ros palpito alegremete (the majos and majas are playing Pelele game) Bb G Veo a mis majos, veo a mi gente g, ends in G Major chord ¡Oh! ¡Misterio!¡Oh! parti cularly toward Rosario) G V9/V ii4/2/V bVI/ G or VI/g(Eb) g Orchestral music (With performance direction: desplmase junto al cuerpo de Fernando) g The majos and majas invit e Pepa as their friend to join in their Pelele game. The Pelele moti f appears in G Major G On stage alone, with g
125 Example 4 3 1 Granados Goyescas Tableau III S cene 1, mm. 53 63 Furthermore, this recapitulate d portion of music is about Rosario falls into rapture of her own fantasy of love. As Example 4 3 2 reveals, t his passage features wit h the four sixteenth note turns like figurations that create the sonority re sembl e the quintuplets rhythm mentioned above The turn like figuration also re call s candlelight ball scene, in which the majas dancing feet captivate the majos. With the Phrygian sonority of this section and G expression music enhances the idea that Rosario indulges in the maja culture, particulary their love attitude The r symbo li zes Rosario reminiscence of her love adv e nture and how she captivates her men as if she is a maja ( Example 4 3 2 ). As this portion of music is recapitulated for the coda of the opera, most of the features from that passage are retained such as the tur n like figuration and the Phrygian sonority is also retained. Nonetheless slight modificatio ns of this borrowed passage are made for this coda First, the original F sharp Major passage is transformed into G Major in this c oda,
126 correlating Major queen like entrance. T his key represents manner of captivating the majos Second, the a r peggiated pattern of change s to a syncopated rhythm This syncopated rhythm only appears in this scene when Fernando utters his last words to Rosario ( Example 4 3 3 ) love attitude caus in sorrow) is put This marking therefore represents that the love attitude entices Rosario, yet this manner eventually cause s he r to suffer because it condemn s Fernando to death. Example 4 3 2 Granados Goyescas Tableau III S cene I, mm. 130 170
127 Example 4 3 3 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III scene 3, Fernando utters his last farewell to Rosario, mm. 75 84 As Rosario return s to reality after her last reminiscence of love attitude she indulges, she realizes her life is full of captivity, as her statement vida un reveals. By contrast Pepa Pelele love game wins her acclaim. T he music for (Table 4 1) momenta rily modulates to B flat Major This modulation represents Pepa looking forward to joining the Pelele game with her majos and majas. A s her fellow majos and majas welcome Pepa to join their Pelele game, the rhythmic moti f of the Pelele game immediately reappears in G Major a key that represent s like power. This is a n acknowledge ment i n play ing this Pelele love game. A s the Pelele scene music returns at the end of T ableau I Scene 3 for the last time in the opera all the majos and majas say maja blood of majas turns you on; love spouts forth and ca sts its net, the best of life!) L ove majos and majas to enjoy the Pelele love game, which is essential
128 Rosario lament s her life as Fernando dies as an ill fated Pelele use of g minor in both st ateme n ts from Pepa and Rosario also served the purpose of comparing and contrasting their consequences o f practicing the Pelele love game. Both statements of Pepa and Rosario modulate to g minor for a while. The g majas in the Pelele scene, the majos warn Paquiro: started off on the right foot today ), with the tonality momentarily modulat ing to g minor. This statement impli es that Paquiro is unlucky in love A s Paquiro expresses his passion to Rosario in E flat Major with the complete he music temporarily modulates to g minor. A ll of these g with other women explain t he sudden modulation to g minor. modulates back to Pep of G Major i ndicat ing Pepa will regain her control of Paquiro through the support of her majos and majas In contrast Major again. W hen Rosario ore so in death), the G Major tonal center becomes distracted. Suddenly, Rosario say s y !) with notes constructing a E flat Major chord, representing her last last reminiscence of attention This E flat Major chord eve ntually becomes the submediant chord in g minor. With
129 funeral bell sonority. Despite this m odulation from G Major to g min o r the last three measure of the orchestral postlude conclude the opera in G Major signif ying Pepa su c cess i n prevailing over Rosario. This is the ultimate glory of the majas. I n this Chapter I have shown how Pepa is po rtrayed as the imagine d queen of her majos through dance gestures and tonal preparation for her first entrance S pecific tonal structure s are arranged to portray how Pepa takes revenge on Rosario and dominates Fernando in the candlelight ball scenes. Since i n prevailing over the aristocrats has symbolic importance i n strengthening the identity, the tonal progression use d to is recapitulated when the majos and majas celebrate her su c cess in the fandango ball fina le Lastly, to reinforce the difference between Pepa as a genuine maja mere imitation of the culture and love attitude the opera ends in the key of G to symbolically represent Rosario as the antithesis of Pepa While Pepa is portraye d as a queen during her G Major entrance statement, the key of G is recapitulated at the end of the opera, when Rosario laments on stage alone While intricate tonal and thematic structure portray how Pepa takes revenge on Rosario, specific tonal p rogress ions port ray the confrontation of Fernando and Paquiro, the two major male characters in the opera Goyescas In Chapter 5 I show how tonal and thematic structure s are used to represent over action
130 CHAPTER 5 FROM LOVE CONFL ICT TO CLASS CONFLIC T: THE CONFRONTATION BE TWEEN PAQUIRO AND FERNANDO At the end of T ableau III Scene 2 Paquiro mortally wounds his rival Fernando. As a member of the commoners, Paquiro would not be expected to have the strength to kill a Captain of the R oyal Guard with formal military training. This fateful encounter is seemingly the result of a love conflict that started in Tableau I Scene 3 when Paquiro flirted with Rosario, who seemed to be out of her environment. This conflict is in tensified in the T ableau 2 where Fernando personal adversity to Paquiro arises during the baile de candil, the territory of the majos and majas which In that scene, the majos and majas make the following prophetic majos con usas no se deben juntos ver pues siempre acaban mal. Ya ver este usa si es que en pos de guerra va, que aqu, slo est. majos and the lordships should not be seen together, for it always ends badly. Soon this nobleman will see that if it is war he pursues, h i s will is alone. ) His action provokes the majos and majas to support Paquiro protest against Fernando Paquiro, as a majo and bullfighter, ultimately kill s Fernando to retain his honor as a majo In this chapter, I argue that Granados and Periquet transf ormed the love conflict between Paquiro and Fernando into a symbol for class struggle through tonal structure and text design. On the surface, the conflict between Paquiro and Fernando is a result of their love of the same woman Rosario. But tonal struct ure s and text design in the Pelele game scene and candlelight ball scene reinforce the idea of a dominating love attitude of the majos and majas as the essence of Madrid, the symbol for Spanish cultural identity.
131 The Love Attitude of the M ajos To turn th e love conflict between Fernando and Paquiro into a symbol of class conflict, different attitude s of love are established to differentiate the upper and lower classes men. In the world of the majos and majas the majos endeavor to please their majas yet v ery often the love relationships between the majos and majas are not absolutely sincere This attitude is different from the Captain of Royal Guard Fernando, who seeks a serious love relationship with Rosario ostensibly under the rules of chivalry When P aquiro attempts to seduce Rosario, Fernando f ights for the only woman he pursues. This conflict between the two different classes of men is induced by jealousy rivalry and honor To turn this love conflict into a symbol of class struggle, tonal structure and text are establishe d at the beginning of the opera These designs are used to show how the aristocrat s eventually succumbed to the culture of majos and majas. The tonal structure established for the Pelele game in T ableau I Scene 1 reflects the flir tatious and deceptive love attitude of majos The scene begins in D Major as in the orchestral prelude. Unexpectedly, while the dominant seventh chord is about to resolve to the tonic chord of D Major in the fifth measure, the tonality suddenly shifts from D Major to B flat Major through chromatic modulation with the deceptive cadence V bVI. 1 Once the music modulates to B Pelele Pelele ), the majas (sopranos) state the central theme of the opera, e por amar vendr a dar en Pelele e who trusts in love without 1 Once aga in, I am thankful for Prof. Silvio dos Santos for pointing out the deceptive sonic effect created for the Pelele scene through deceptive cadence. This observation is vital for me to notice how pelele, ranados signifies Fernando as a pelele in Tableau I Scene 3 through tonal structure.
132 bei ng careful will end up like a Pelele ). This game of tossing a Pelele (mannequin) metaphorically warns how a majo should be careful of his love attitude If men trust i n love too blindly or too serious ly they will ultimately fall under the contr o l of the women like mannequin s being tossed up and down (Example 5 1). Example 5 1. Granados, Goyescas Tableau 1 S cene 1, mm.1 5
133 Modulation by means of deceptive cadence is a device for emphasizing this warning of love attitude throughout the Pelele game in Tableau I Scene 1 with the Pelele Pelele ) as reinforcement. For example, from measures 52 to 53, when the majos e!), the music modulates from F Major to c minor through a deceptive cadence of F Major The V6/5 in F Major proceeds to the half diminished vi6/5, which become s the pivot chord ii 6/5 of c minor (Example 5 2). E xample 5 2 Granados, Goyescas Tableau 1 S cene 1, mm.52 53 Another example can be found from mm. 60 to 61. After the majas no de ingratas nos tachis, que esa gracia que nos veis y que os hace suspirar, ¡rissa y D o not accuse us of bein g ungrateful, if the charm you see in us makes you sigh. Laughter and humor and confidence! Only a majo only a majo create s enjoyment). The music once again modulates by means of
134 deceptive cadence (V bVI) from c minor to Ab Major Once again with the stag e Pelele Pelele ), the new Ab Major section depicts the action of the majos and majas tossing the Pelele Example 5 3 Granados, Goyescas Tableau 1 S cene 1, mm.60 61 The text in Pelele scene hints that love relationships between majos and majas are not totally sincere. And this is reinforced musically through deceptive cadences. Although the majos strive to flirt with the majas in this Pelele game, they are not the Pelele who trusts in love without being careful. They say ser un Pelele n ada me duele Pelele not hing harms me ); however, they actually say nte unos labios mintiendo Faced wit h lying lips, I stand my ground). Similarly, the majas confess
135 Always does love delight in flirtatio oven viejo siempre un lovers will always pursue me ). Since they enjoy being pursued, the might not fix their love towa rd one lover. As the majos doubt, qu tendran que ofrecen y no dan? eyes. What will they have that they do not offer? ), it seems that the majas are reserved to offer all of their love to their majos. The majos por lo herm os And because of their beauty they are even more dangerous). These statements characterize therefore the flirtations nature of the pelele game between majos and majas The tonal structure and harmonic progression for Paquir shows how the majos flirt with the majas apparently without serious commitment. To spotlight for the Pelele scene shifts from B flat Major to E flat Major when Paquiro begins to sing his first so lo. T his shift of tonal structure is unexpected. W hile the majas (soprano) say (Example 5 4) the majos always to the majas melodic pattern (soprano) and the orchestral melodi c pattern distorted the original V7 chord in the original B flat Major tonal center. This distorted V7 chord in B flat Major should resolve the tonic chord. Instead, the B flat chord in the next measure becomes the V7/Eb The key signatures also changes fr om two flats to three flats. U sing t his melodic and tona that desire. His love is insincere.
136 The melodic and harmonic structure of rst solo in the opera further vocal line instead of keeping the original melody in the piano suite (Example 5 5). Example 5 4. Granados, Goyescas Tableau 1 S cene 1, mm 86 97
137 Example 5 5. Granados El Pelele mm.70 83
138 Furthermore, as the harmonic analysis in Example 5 4 shows, the secondary dominants destabilize the E flat Major tonal center. Also, when Paquiro attempts to show how the majas conquer him spiritually with phrases and how the intoxicates all around you ), the music momentarily modulates b ack to B flat Major the key area of the Pelele game. As mentioned earlier before Paqui ro sings his first solo, the V7/Bb on the phrase center suddenly shift s to E flat Major once Paquiro begins to sing. Therefore, the return of the B flat Major f that distortion, that is, corresponds to the desire as if being the Pelele s Nonetheless, the modulation to B flat is mo mentary. At the next measure, the music immediately returns to E flat Major underscor ing expression of love. This tonal and harmonic arrangement indicates that Paquiro posts himself as the Pelele wh en he flatters them, but actually he is not their Pelele because his love is insincere. In this chapter, I contrast this type of behavior and musical characterization is contrasted with that of Fernando, who always attempts to control Rosario in order to conquer her. The Love Conflict between P aquiro and Fernando To portray the love conflict between Paquiro and Fernando, Granados used the to in Rosario This music also functions in representing Fernando o disrupt f for Rosario, the key of E flat Major is us ed for Paquiro to sing the complete refrain from
139 (Example 3 7 ), express ing his admiration to her when s he arrive on stage at the end of the second scene of Tableau 1 (Example 5 6). Example 5 6. Granados, Goyescas, Tableau 1 S cene 2, Paqui ro exalts beauty mm. 129 137. When th is refrain is reprised to begin T ableau I Scene 3, however, the refrain is interrupted and distorted after Paquiro realizes Rosario is seeking someone else instead of him (Example 5 7) Example 5 17.
140 When Rosario first appears on stage (Example 5 7) and s earch es for Fernando, she repeats T he refrain is interrupted by new music ( mm. 5 17 ) when Paquiro questions whom Rosario has been seeking. 2 In to visit baile de candil the plebeian social gathering where he apparently had met her at some point in the past Unexpectedly, Fernando appears, and Paquiro realizes Rosario was seeking Fernando and not him. W hen the finally returns, Fernando sing s it instead of Paquiro The harm onic progression of the reprised refrain suspected affair with Paquiro T he reprise of this refrain is still in E flat Major (Exam ple 5 8) but the tonal center is constantly destabilized by secondary dominants. This type of harmonic progression flat Major solo in the opera, when he offers compliments to the majas. Example 5 8 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I S in the second 17 2 The add ed music is an original arrangement from the piano suite. As Walter Clark suggests, Granados recasts this refrain of tonadilla as a jota, f two distinct copla (verse) melodies from the original and an estribillo estribillo is own invention. See Walter Clark, Enrique Granados : Poet of the Piano (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006) 125 128.
141 In this instance, Fernando uses the same type of harmonic progression to question As a result, the interruption between the two phrases of the and the distorted harmony in the return of the second of the ongoing activities of the majos and maj as by readjusting the meter. T he music for this scene wa progressions are retained, the meter is transformed from 3/8 to 3/4. Before Fernando starts singi ng in the opera, two 3/8 measures of music from Los Requiebros (Example 5 9) in the piano suite are combined into one 3/4 measure for the beginning of T ableau I Scene 3 (Example 5 10). The note values of Examples 5 9 and 5 10 mostly remain the same. Once Fernando complain s about however, each 3/8 measure from the piano suite (Example 5 11) is transformed into a 3/4 measure (Example 5 12). As a result, t he note values of the original piano music are doubled. From here on the whol e scene proceeds with the meter readjustment made for Fernando whose strong presence in the scene disturbs the joyful activities of the majos and majas. Example 5 9. G ranados the piano suite Goyescas, mm. 7 15
142 Example 5 10. Granados, Goyescas Tableau I S cene 3, mm. 1 5 Example 5 11 Granados m the piano suite Goyescas mm. 57 64 Example 5 12. Granados, Goyescas, Tabl eau I S cene 3, mm.18 25. entrance music
143 Nonetheless, the chromatic modulation by means of deceptive cadence V bVI soon return s, drawing a close relationship between the actions of Fernando with those representing a Pelele After Rosario strives to convinc e Fernando to let go of his jealousy, Pepa and the majas laugh at the aristocrat ic couple in F Major with the following comment: Pepa and the majas : Ja ja ja ja, difcil fuera adivinar lo que en amor puede pasar Ja ja ja ja el caso es singular, ja ja ja ja. (Ha ha ha ha, difficult it would be to guess what may happen with love Ha ha ha ha the case is unique, ha ha ha ha ). As Pepa and the majas they finish this statement in a V7 chord of F Major with Paquiro and the m ajos sing ing a transition with a bVI6/4 chord that leads to a D flat Major dialogue between Fernando and Rosario: Fernando: ¡Ojal, con nuestro amor! Rosario: Yo en t cifro mi bien entero, y de amor muero Fernando: ¡Si un baile fuiste un da que vuelvas a l, quiero! (Fernando: Hopefully, with our love! Rosario: In you I entrust my entire being, and I die of love. Fernando: If one day you went to a ball, then there I want you to return!) This type of modulation established by the V bVI always relates to the love game of tossing Pelele This instance is particularly important, because it indicates that Fernando will be the Pelele. T his instance finally reveals the meaning of the V bVI progression that appears earlier in the opera. In Tableau I Scene 1 the music suddenly shifts from D Major to B flat Major with the V Pelele ) that underscores the action of tossing Pelele when the majos and majas c laim that
144 Madrid exudes its joy Once the mu sic settles in B flat Major the warning is given, who trusts in love without being careful will end up a Pelele This unexpected tonal progression implies that the joy of Madrid will end with a twist, which is caused by love affairs. For the second t ime in the same scene, the majas say being ungrateful, if the charm you see in us makes you sigh. Laughter and humor and confidence! Only a majo s he does everything against this statement. As he starts singing for the first time in the opera, he accuses Rosario of infidelity. His appearance does not bring joy to the ongoing activit ies of the majos and majas but shows them how jealous y provokes his anger Fernando decides to seek justice and honor by visiting the baile de candil with Rosario in the D flat Major section. The use of the D flat key is crucial for portraying Fernando as an ill fated Pelele is depicted by b flat minor, the relative minor of D flat Major and also the tonic minor of the Pelele game in B flat Major This tonal arrangement is crucial in turning into a premonition of death The B aile de C andil: From Love Conflict to Class Conflict Origina lly, the conflict between Fernando and Paquiro is only personal Nonetheless, Fernando seeks honor at the baile de candil, the territory of the majos and majas to resolve his personal love conflict in such a location is disrespect ful t o the majos and majas. His attempt to show his power and honor in such an activity results in a socio cultural clash with all the majos and majas. In fact Fernando personal conflict is transformed in the opera into a class struggle during the baile de c andil
145 idea to denot e the baile de candil as a rite of Pelele can be traced through his preliminary sketches of the plot. In the third set of these preliminary sketches, Granados already addressed the activity of tossing the Pelele as l Pelele 1 Pelele scene also reflects that he Pelele love game with the candlelight ball. As the majas say in the Pelele scene gen candle originally meant a gathering of rude and bully like people, usually at a ball, breaking into a fight once a candle is knocked to the ground. The term is also used to describe a bully or an impulsive man pretending to have authority and offer ing promise s that cannot be fulfilled. 2 T he evidence above indicates that Fernando is the Pelele and zascandil i s i mplie d As a Captain of the Royal Guard, Fernando believes he is stronger than all the majos and has the authority to control them. T he majos o f his haughty behavior at the candlelight ball proves that Fernando overestimate d his strength and ability. T he tonal s tructure near the end of T ableau I Scene 3 also reflects how Fernando becomes a Pelele Once Pepa tell s Fernando the time of the candlelight ball, the tonality immediately returns to B flat Major the key area of 1 Enrique Granados Personal Sketchbook, 05.2348, Museu de la Msica, Barcelona Also see Antonio Fernandez Cid, Gr anados (Madrid: Samardn Ediciones, 1956), 289. 2 See Jos Mara Sbarbi y Osuna, El refranero general espaol, parte recopilado, y parte compuesto, Vol umes 7 8 (Madrid: Fuentenebro, 1874), 61; Manuel Vzquez Montalbn, Galndez (New York: Atheneum, 1992), 71.
146 the Pelele s cene ( Example 5 13) To specify the candlelight ball as the rite of Pelele for eliminating Fernando, Fernando promise s to visit the candlelight ball with the same moti f that Pepa sings in B flat Major Example 5 13. Granados, Goyescas Tableau I S cene 3, mm. 106 113 B efore the music from the Pelele scene returns as the conclusion to T ableau I, Fernando haughtily tells Paquiro he will visit the candlelight ball with Rosario in the key
147 of e flat minor, the tonic minor of the key area that represents Paquiro love. As the opera unfolds, the tonal center e flat minor reappears when the dramatic about toward Rosario. Paquiro then says r there you will hear what I say to you!) in B flat Major immediately followed by the return of the Pelele scene music in m. 127 ( Example 5 14). Example 5 1 4 Granados, Goyescas Tableau I S cene 3, mm. 122 127 The t onal structure shown above is vital f or representing the baile de candil in Tableau II Scene 1 as the Pelele rite for Fernando. The key areas from the Pelele scene in Tableau I Scene 1 are recapitulated and alternated into the tonic minor key areas in Tableau II Scene 1 As a result, while th e tonic Major key areas show the majos and majas enjoy ing themselves in the Pelele game in Tableau I Scene 1 the tonic minor key areas shows t baile de candil. Table 5 1 shows the tonal structure of the two scenes
148 Table 5 1. Tonal s tructure s of the Pelele scene (I/1) and the baile de candil scene (II/1). Tonal structure of Tableau I Scene 1 ( Pelele game) Tonal structure of Tableau II Scene 1 ( baile de candil ) D Madrid exudes he r joy everywhere d Praising the dancing feet (in preterit tense) Bb Pelele game and the and attitude of love bb Fernando arrive d with Rosario, attempting to control them and hush them to taunt Rosario Eb Paquiro flirts with the majas eb Eb Majos and majas complain Paquiro ironically asks Fernando to see if Rosario want s to dance; Fernando why he brings Rosario to this candlelight ball D Majos and majas announce P d Fernando confesses to Rosario that it is not easy to leave the candlelight ball; Pepa leads the majas to taunt Rosario together. The majos and majas enjoy the Pelele game in Tableau I Scene 1 which is represented by B flat Major. The P elele rite for Fernando in the baile de candil, however, is a struggle between Fernando and the majos. To portray this conflict, Granados used the key of b flat minor, the tonic minor of B flat Major as soon as Fernando arrive s to the baile de candil with Rosario. This harmonic structure creates an antithesis with the joyful atmosphere in the Pelele game. majas in the Pelele action at the candlelight ball, Granados used the key area E flat Major a nd its tonic minor e flat minor. As mentioned, the majos are used to flirting with the majas and compliment ing them. Fernando, by contrast, proves his honor and power in front of Rosario by attempting to intimidate the majas who taunt Rosario in the baile de candil This behavior provokes every anger They criticize his haughtiness in the key of
149 e personal conflict with Paquiro escalates into a struggle between c lasses. Example 5 1 5. Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 1, mm.72 75 On arriving at the baile de candil invitation to Rosario, but also arouses the anger of every majo present This behavior defies the subc ultural codes of the majos After all of majos and majas complain about Fernando, Paquiro ironically asks Fernando in E flat Major Seor, en vez de habla r Sir, rather than speak, see if the lady would like to dance). Paqui majo identity. Fernando does not back down, though. In the same E flat Major key area, Fernando provokingly says he brought Rosario to the baile de candil relentle ss provocation proves him to be the ill fated Pelele by the majos and majas in this baile de candil The B flat key signature that encloses the second scene of baile de candil indicates that the whole argument is equivalent to a rite of Pelele Fu rthermore, Fernando raises his provoking statement to another level, with the intention of condemning all the majos :
150 ¡Ni atisbos de valor veo en derredor! Ningun valor qu, no veo en derredor ni atisbos de valor. Pens hallar aqu un hombre, pero no hay tal. (Not even a hint of courage do I see around me! No courage here, I see around me not even a hint of courage! I thought I would find here a man, but there is none.) his life. After the majos say that modulates to b flat minor, the tonic minor of the Pelele scene in Tableau I Sce ne 1 At the same time, the candlelight ball theme (Example 5 16) for Paquiro and the majos (bass) is quoted to sing with the following text : Paquiro: (con serenidad que luego no puede conserver) No acepto aqu el reto. (with calmness that h e soon loses) I do not accept your challenge here. Majos (bass): Fatal, fatal! Fatal, fatal! By singing this fandango theme, Paquiro reaffirms his identity as a majo, and also anticipating Fernando daring to challenge t he maj os. A measure after the majos the tonal structure and text underscore the conflicts caused by this mixture of classes in the baile de candil (Example 5 17). From this point on, the tonal center becomes unstable; indicating an intensification of the argument between classes most of which is recapitulated from the previous scenes for the purpose of expressing the struggle between classes.
151 Example 5 16. Granados, Goyescas, Tableau II S cene 2, mm. 68 69
152 Example 5 1 7 Granad os, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 2 mm.69 72 This t onal progression is established in order to show how Fernando aggravates his personal love conflict to class struggle. Once the majos majos con usas, no par ece a nadie bien, ni es natural ( Majos with noblemen seems neit her right nor natural to anyone) the tonal center b flat minor suddenly jumps to D flat Major through the III chord in b flat minor without any harmonic preparation. As mentioned earlier the tonal center D flat Major first appears when Fernando decide s to visit the candlelight Major like entrance in the opera. Since the t onal relationship between D flat Major to G Major is far removed it implies that Fernando bring ing Rosario to the baile de candil an activity incited by Pepa, is a wrong decision. This type of plebeian candlelight ball would
153 not be appropriate for a nobl ewoman such as Rosario. The abnormal modulation from D flat Major a key area represent ing to f sharp minor here has a similar meaning in the heat of the argument in the baile de candil. The tonal and harmonic progression in Figure 5 1 shows how the modulations proceed. T o portray the majos of Pepa, D Major is used as the dominant key area in like entrance. In this instance, D flat Major is established as the dominant preparation for f This importance to him in an unnatural way. As this tonal progression shows, to establish a dominant key area preparation to Ro sharp minor, the III in b flat has to be used as th e tonic chord of D flat Major. D flat Major, the tonal area represen ting aration to G flat Major. Then, G flat Major needed to be enharmonically shifted to f sharp minor. Figure 5 1. Summary of Modulation Process in Granados, Goyescas, Tableau II S cene 2, mm. 69 72 T he majos (bass) and majas (alto) make the following prophetic comment with a chain of repeated D flats in this abno rmal modulation process: Maj a s (alto): Majos con usas no se deben juntos ver pues siempre acaban mal. ( Majos and nobles should not be seen tog ether, for it always ends badly). Majos (bass): M ajos con usas, no parece a nadie bien, ni es natural. ( Majos with noblemen seems neit her right nor natural to anyone).
154 As the majas (alto Majos and nobles should not be seen together, for it always end s badly). With the tonal center b flat minor, the tonic minor of the Pelele game as introduction to this abnormal tonal progression argument with people from another social class; therefore anticipate that soon he will suffer a fatal conseq uence W hile Fernando in E flat Major to initiate the argument in this scene the same tonal area is used when Fernando escalate s the argument into a clash with all the majos and majas In the heat of argument, Fernando taunts P aquiro with the following phrase: Fernando: Pens hallar aqu un hombre pero no hay tal. (Se abalanza hacia Paquiro) I thought I would find here a man, but there is none. (Rushing to Paquiro) With the and the modulation to E flat Major a key insult seems specifically point ing toward Paquiro. valor and his identity as a bullfighter. T he majos and majas however, are convinced that Fernando insult s not only Paquiro but also the identity. statement reflects, his insult includes all the majos. The majos (tenor) also express their anger by singing the same candlelight ball theme that Fernando uses to taunt Paquiro, Majos (tenor): Ni un majo aqu podra tener paciencia ya. Not a majo here could have patience anymore. The candlelight ball theme Fernando and the majos sing is borrowed from the fir st candlelight siempre fe lindo el pi que al bailar supo hablar (Always was the lovely dancing foot that knew how to communicate).
155 to signifies that Fernando derides Paquiro as only a majo know s how to flirt with women and enjoy dancing. Yet this is also the love attitude the majos practice. The majas is not limit ed majos ) as the stage direction indicate s es caso de temer que si alguien aqu sobre l v, The majos and majas are convinced the confli ct between Fernando and Paquiro has escalated to a struggle between classes. As a result, Paquiro and the majos a duel with Fernando. Example 5 18. Granados, Goyescas, Tableau II S c ene 2, mm. 78 81
156 To show Fernando as an ill fate d Pelele Paquiro arrange s the duel with Fernando with a chain of B flat notes, through the Prado. And we will finish this at once). Paquiro then announces t f Example 5 19 ). This is exactly the same motive Rosario sings when the whole argument scene first stabilizes in B flat Major ). Although the moti f Paquiro sings here is also in B flat, the distort ed harmonic progression i statement reflects this is not a peaceful conclusion : i t ends with a duel between Fernando and Paquiro T his is also the same moti f that begins the opera, when the majos and majas say that Madrid exudes her radiant joy everywhere before the Pelele s in love without being careful will become a Pelele the progression V bVI implies that the joy in Madrid will end with a twist. Now the reason of that twist is clear. The joy from the love game of the majas and majas is transformed into a clash between the Captain of the Royal Guard and the majos and majas This conflict results in a duel between Fernando and Paquiro. Example 5 19. Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 2, mm. 91 95 In addition, Paquiro resumes the candlelight ball as a way to stand against Fer love attitude As ment ioned above, near the climax of the
157 argument, Fernando bullies Paquiro in an E flat Major fandango theme that he cannot find a real man at the candlelight ball After Fernando and Rosario leave the candlelight ball Paquiro immediately exclaim s to the majo s and majas (Fandango, hurry!) to resume the dancing (Example 5 20). The music immediately modulates to B flat Major with the brief return of a moti f f he sings to express his admiration for beauty. T his arrangement symbolically represents that Paquiro uses dance and the moti f identity as a majo Example 5 2 0 Granados, Goyescas Tableau II S cene 2, mm. 100 102 To further signif y Fernando as the Pele le majos and majas, a baile de candil and the return of the Pelele game near the end o f Tableau I Scene 3 (Table 5 2). W statements in I/3 and II/2 signify his challenge I/3 and II/2 signif y that he will take revenge on duel arranged between Fernando and Paquiro before the resumption of the candlelight ball contextually echo es their inflamed conv ersation before the Pelele music return s in T ableau I Scene 3 More important, while the Pelele game returns after their
158 conversation in I/3, the candlelight ball resumes after their duel is arranged in II/2. This allows Granados to correlate the Pelele ga me with the baile de candil Table 5 2. Juxtaposition of the text of in Tableau I scene 3 mm.15 17 and in Tableau II scene 2 mm.122 126 I/3, mm. 122 126 (before the resumption of the pelele game) II/2, mm. 91 93 (before the resumption of the baile de c andil ) Fernando (Rosario and I will visit the candlelight ball together) (What time will the duel be ?) Paquiro (Go, for there you will hear what I say to you!) o. Y acabamos de (At ten. In the Prado. We will finish this at one) The Twilight of Fernando Before Fernando has a duel with Paquiro, he sing s a duet with Rosario in T ableau III Scene 2 The tonal area arrangement for this duet reflects how Fe always under the shadow of Paquiro, and the love attitude of the majos and majas that Rosario imitates. Although this scene has a complex tonal structure, it stays in e flat minor most of the time. As mentioned, e flat minor represents half of the duet, the unstable tonality at the beginning of this scene soon settles in to e flat minor at the eighth measure of this scene. Yet Rosario is surprise d at to her interest in the love attitude of majos and majas : the love game of Pelele overreaction, the music immediately modulates the music to b flat minor when Rosario refutes Ferna would give importan ce to
159 such things) In addition, the modified version of a theme called (the love of m ajo ) is used for Rosario refutation ( Example 5 21). of the tonadilla Apuntes para mis obras ( Example 5 22). It is first us ed in the first candlelight ball scene in e flat minor, when the majos crit icize i n his personal conflict with Paquiro Using theme here in b flat minor, Rosario shows disdain for the expression of love in the Pelele love game. Example 5 2 1 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III S cene 2, mm. 41 46 Example 5 2 2 Apuntes para mis obras. 1 1 Enrique Granados, Selections (Sketches) Granados sketchbook: autograph manuscript, 39, accessed 13 February, 2012, http://www.themorgan.org/music/manuscript/114565
160 Fernando replies to Rosario in anger o not know what love is!) after b flat minor. Example 5 2 3 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III S cene 2, mm. 47 48 Even a the tonal area is still confined in the E flat key area for twenty five m easures. This use of the E flat key area further implies with Rosario. Modal mixture (Example 5 24) is used to create a t int of e flat minor in this passage, although it is actually in E flat Major This perpetuates the idea that relationship w it h Fernando will not be smooth if she practices the love attitude of the majas Example 5 2 4 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III S cene 2, mm.89 96
161 A fter Rosario promises Fernando her faith (Example 5 25) the music finally modulates away from the E flat and B flat key area Yo he de lograr que tu f por mi, siempre sea cual so, quiero siempre ver en tu faz reflejados el amor y la paz. ( I will make it possible that your faith in me always will be as I dreamed. I want always to see in your face the reflecti on of love and peace ). Example 5 2 5 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III S cene 2, mm.114 118 Ironically, just after Fernando swear s he will not doubt Rosario anymore with text the music immediately returns to e flat minor as Fernando sees Paqui ro on his way to the duel with Fernando This sudden change from E flat Major to e flat minor signif ies the iron y that Fernando still decide s to fig ht with Paquiro. More important while the complete theme has never been used before in the scene, it finally appears when Rosario begs Fernando to stay toward
162 Example 5 2 6 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III S cene 2, mm. 150 157 In the last scene of the opera, the fatal consequence of Fernando defying the Pelele love attitude is portrayed using the key of b flat minor and the thematic material from the previous scenes. Despite the excessive chromaic nature of this scene, when Fernando mourns and utters h is last words, the music is stabilized in b flat minor. For instance, at mm. 37 38, Fernando say struggle). Meanwhile, the quintuplet rhythm, a rhythmic pattern used when Rosario expresses her passion as i f she is a maja reappears in the cellos. Therefore, it signifies love attitude creates a devastating consequence for Fernando. Example 5 2 7 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III S cene 2, mm. 37 38
163 T his quintuplet rhythm (Example 5 27) is followed by a modification of the beginning moti f This is the motive where Paquiro expresses his passion for is Rosario, a dream of beauty!) ( Example 5 6 ). T his moti f is also the first phrase R osario sings in the whole opera: El sitio y la hora son; pero l no vino and time are correct, but Fernando has not come to me) ( Example 5 7) The use of this moti f reflects that the iron y fact that while Rosario seek s for end of the opera. All of these thematic materials in the key of b flat minor symbolically represe nts Fernando ultimate defeat. It is for Fernando to end up as an ill fated Pelele T is us ed again as an introduction for Fernando los dos ¡Mi bien! both of us My love! Goodbye!) in b flat minor ( Example 5 28 ) Example 5 28 Granados, Goyescas Tableau III S cene 2, mm. 73 84
164 To conclude, the different love attitudes of Fernando and the majos are contrasted by means of tonal structures and t hematic materials. These tonal and thematic arrangements enhance the idea that the majas are more pleased by i n defying their love attitude In addition, Paquiro, as a commoner, d oes successfully become acqu ainted with the high born Rosario H e even dares to court her as he sees h er again T ableau I Scene 3 showing Fernando therefore raise s his personal dispute with Paquiro into a c lash with all the majos and majas at the candlelight ball, a place that designates Fernando as an ill fated Pelele Although Rosario rejects advance he still runs after her In contrast although Fernando has a high military rank as Captain of t he Royal Guard, he treats the commoner Paquiro as his chief rival throughout the entire opera T he reccur ent appearances of the themes from majo emphasize s Fernando constan tly under the shadow of P aquiro Eventually, his disdain for the culture of the maj o s become the source of his fate, but also reinforces the strength of the plebeian class, represented by the bullfighter Paquiro
165 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION As I argue in the preceding chapters, the Goyescas symbolically represents the socio cultural development in early twentieth century Spain through the idealization of plebeian class At the turn of the twentieth century, Spain suffered from the defeat of th e Spanish American War and the imperial power and m iltiary strength. To be sure, Granados, as an artist constantly requir ing patronage from the aristocrats, could not directly criticize these socio political events in his works. In addition, as stated earlier, Granados was sensitive to criticism of his compositions in relation to political aspects. 1 Therefore, given the perceived similarities in soci o political events, Granados an d Periquet reinvent ed their opera Goyescas to refl time. The opera Goyescas thus emphasized the dominat ing plebeian culture a long lasting cultural phenomenon dating from in to the twentieth c entury. Granados and Periquet put the Pelele game ( the love attitude of the majos and majas ) as the first scene of the opera to manifest the power of the plebeian majas They portray ed the captivating power in the eyes of their majos and how the m ajos are willing to be controlled by their majas. Also, Pepa is crowned by the majos as their imagined queen. The charm and culture is so powerful that the Duchess Rosario, a high born character in the opera, imitate s their behavior by visiting the candlelight ball and practice s their Pelele love game Ironically, this imitation of the 1 This idea is mentioned in Chapter 1. See Pablo Vila San Juan, Papeles ntimos de Enrique Granados (Barcelona: Amigos de Granados, 1966), 78.
166 culture is what causes her trouble. Although Rosario practices this culture, her first entrance in the opera shows her afraid and embarrassed in front of the m ajos and majas. maja s culture irritates her lover Fernando. Since Rosario appears to engage in attempts to take revenge on Paquiro and all the majos ultimately leading to his death. Granados and Periquet therefore, reinforce the strength of the majos and majas by portraying the tragic consequences of disrespecting their culture. Chapters 3 and 4, I present case studies showing how Granados use d tonal structure to portray Pepa and Paq uiro as representations of the plebeian strength. To further reinforce their strength, key structures are arranged to show Rosario, the Duchess who mocks the maja love attitude becom ing the antithesis of the real maja Pepa. Similarly, b flat min or, the tonic minor of the Pelele scene, is established for Fernando to utter his last words at the end of the opera. By using the tonic minor of the Pelele scene at the end of the opera Granados present s Fernando as an ill fated Pelele The unsettling sociopolitical environment and the musical taste of general audiences in the early twentieth century constrained the development of a Spanish national opera. Nonetheless, this type of sociocultural environment inspired Spanish composers to construct theatr ical work that idealize d the plebeian class at the turn of the early twentieth century Is a ac Albniz, a contemporary Spanish composer and friend, compose d the zarzuela San Antonio de la Florida that also has the theme of class conflict. In add ition to the political reasons, a love affair is also the cause of the conflict between two men from different classes zarzuela Ultimately,
167 the liberal force prevails over the conservative authority. Granados was impressed by this zarzuela a nd its premiere allowed Periquet to meet Granados for the first time It was then zarzuela that established the possibility for future collob o ration with Periquet Around 1896, Granados compose d the zarzuela Ovillejos la gallina ciega which San Antonio de la Florida, has a similar them e of ridiculing the aristocrats Granados believe d that this work is a failure, but did not totally abandon Ovillejos. As Walter Clark suggest ed two unsettling events, the death of his f riend Albniz and the social turmoil of Tragic Week in 1909, probably persuaded Granados to create a work for the ages 2 Granados then rethought the possibilities of creating a Goya inspired composition, thus composing the piano suite Goyescas with referen ce to Ovillejos Meanwhile, as shown in Chapter 3 Granados had never withdr a w n his desire to create a national opera. As a matter of fact he planned the opera Goyescas while composing the piano suite As a result, Granados recycled part of the Ovillejos for his piano suite, and also used part of Ovillejos hematic material for the opera. Another Spanish composer, Manuel de Falla, composed the zarzuela La vida breve (1904 1913) which involves a plot about class interaction through love relationship and sy mpathy for the loyality of a plebian woman. In La vida breve (The Short Li f e), a gypsy girl Salud falls in love with Paco, the son of a wealthy landowner. While Paco pretends to be faithful to her, he is already engaged to Carmela, a woman of his social st anding. When she visits the wedding and confront s with Paco. Salud, unexpectedly, falls dead in front 2 Walter Clark, Enrique Gran ados : Poet of the Piano (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006) 122.
168 of El amor bru jo 3 By using the worker of life hardship to begin the first act of La vida breve and lovesickness, de Falla underscored the impoverishment of the lower class and foreshadowed Sal This musical atmosphere creates a great contrast to the upper middle class wedding of Paco and Carmela that begins the second act. 4 As a result, de Falla reinforced the pungent reality that the lower class Salud and the upper middle class Paco belong to two different worlds. Most important contribution to the opera Goyescas inspire d de Falla to incorporate similar scene setting and synopsis in his ballet El sombrero de tres picos (The Three Cornered Hat) (1917). It is a r evised ballet of de ballet El corregidor y la molinera portrays the strength and bravery of the plebian class, the Miller and his wife. The synopsis of the ballet is derived from a novel by Pedro Antonio de Alarcn, in which a faithful wife The plot i nvolves with the element of two men from different classes fight ing for a woman as in the opera Goyescas. This ballet is divided into two ac ts. In A ct O ne, the Miller expels the magistrate, attempt ing to seduce his wife. Th is arouses the animosity of the magistrate. In Act Two when the Miller dances to entertain his guests, the entertainment is mes to arrest the Miller so the magistrate resembles 3 Carol Hess, Manuel de Falla and Modernism in Spain, 1898 1936 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2001), 53. 4 19 University, 1995), 114
169 aggression toward the majos and majas in the fandango ball of Goyescas In addition, the change of ending in its revised version recall s how the plot of Goyescas evo lve s from the juxtaposition of classes to the struggle between classes with plebian class ultimately prevailing While the original pantomime ballet El corregidor y la molinera ends with a slapstick fistfight among the Miller the and the magistrate the revised ballet clearly reflect s that the Miller effects revenge o n the magistrate This newer version of ballet has a revised ending, in which the Mi tossing up and down the effigy of the magistrate, tapestry cartoon El Pelele This final gesture of ridicule is comparable to how Fernando bec o me s an ill fated Pelele in the opera Goyescas. T he infl uence of Goyescas to de Goyescas i s a work of its time.
170 APPENDIX A TONAL STRUCTURE AND THEMATIC SOURCES OF THE OPERA Table A 1. Tonal structure and thematic sources of the opera Tonality Remarks on themes I: Introduction mm. 1 18 mm. 2, 4, 5 mm.16 17 D Callejos mm. 1 2 Las carrulacas modestas mm. 5 8 mm.18 22 *mm. 18 20 *mm. 20 23 D Las currutacas modestas mm. 8 9 Las currutacas modestas mm. 5 8 I / 1 El Pelele A : mm. 23 88 *mm. 30 31 *mm. 76 77 B : mm. 89 117 *mm. 93 96 *mm. 102 104 *mm. 1 08 116 A : mm. 118 130 *mm. 129 30 Bb V7/g g V7/g g Eb *V7/Eb Eb Bb *Bb Bb D *D ejor v sla que acompaada por un zascandil. Las currutacas modestas mm. 1 4 Majos chorus comments on Paquiro as a seduc e r (the bass line appears in Prelude mm. 11 13) Las carrula cas modestas mm. 5 8 I / 2 La calesa A : mm. 1 23 B : mm. 24 89 *mm. 32 38 *mm. 40 42 *mm. 51 89 *mm. 61 68 *mm. 69 75 D G Sudden shift to Bb (Pelele) g V7/G G G F E D V7/E E C F Bb V/B La calesa from Los Ovillejos Pelele motive in orchestra Triana del Tr pili (2) with fandango rhythm in the orchestra Triana del Tr pili (2) *mm. 76 80 *mm. 82 89 A : mm. 90 129 mm. 129 136 B D D V7/Eb Eb Triana del Tr pili (1) Triana del Tr pili (1) Paquiro sing s Triana del Trpili (complete copla)
171 Table A 1. Continued Tonality Remarks on themes I / 3 mm. 1 17 mm. 18 33 mm. 34 50 mm. 51 57 mm. 58 66 mm. 66 72 mm. 73 87 mm. 87 9 1 mm. 9 5 10 5 mm. 10 7 121 mm. 122 124 mm. 125 161 *mm. 127 134 *mm. 135 161 Eb Eb E B D F Db G G Bb eb Bb Bb (two measures of the piano sui te in 6/8 = one measure in the opera in 3/4 Triana del Trpili (2): note value from the piano suite is doubled (6/8 3/4) Triana del Trpili (2) Triana del Tripili (1) Triana del Tripili (1) Db tonailty reappears in II:2 when the majos chorus comments that Here Fernando state s he should go to the baile de candil with Rosario. In addition, Db (C#) is the note that being emphasize d at the beginning of III:1 These repeated notes introduce Rosario if nightingale complains the monarch of the day This implies the conflict between Triana del Tripili (1) Triana del Tripili (2) x2 Triana del Tripili (2) Triana del Tripili (2) Triana del Tripili (2) Triana del Tripili (2); I:2 ostinato pattern Pelele theme return Intermezzo A : mm. 1 59 *mm. 14 17 *mm. 28 31 *mm. 54 58 B : mm. 60 94 *mm. 83 86 A : mm. 95 119 *mm. 95 98 Coda mm. 120 154 eb chain of 7th chords Eb eb Eb Jcara mm. 9 12 Jcara mm. 9 12 Similar to III:3 mm. 2 5 Blas de Triana del Tripili (1) Jcara mm. 9 12 Triana del Tripili (2) II / 1 A : mm. 1 35 B : mm. 35 94 *mm. 35 71 *mm. 72 83 *mm. 84 94 A : mm. 95 117 d bb eb Eb d (end in V chord) El Amor de Majo 1st portion (Eb G A b Bb)
172 Table A 1. Continued Tonality Remarks on themes II / 2 mm. 1 7 mm. 8 11 mm. 12 17 mm. 18 24 *mm. 19 20 *mm. 21 22 *mm. 21 23 mm. 25 29 F Seq: C G Bb F Eb D Eb Varies trans Amor y odio mm. 22 27 mm.8 11 repeats in III:2 mm. 62 7 1 mm.12 17 repeats in III:2 mm. 62 71 Las currutacas modestas mm. 1 3 (violin) Fernando vocal line = El majo olvidado mm. 37 39 Triplet pattern from Callejo/Opera intro (cello) mm. 30 32 mm. 33 34 mm. 35 36 mm. 37 44 mm. 45 51 *mm. 45 49 mm. 52 55 *mm. 52 54 mm. 56 61 mm. 62 69 *mm. 63 65 *mm. 66 69 mm. 70 75 *mm. 70 72 *mm. 71 *mm. 73 74 mm. 75 81 *mm. 75 76 *mm. 77 *mm. 78 81 mm. 82 120 *mm. 91 93 *mm. 94 e G g Eb g g Bb Bb Bb g Bb Bb bb Bb g bb bb A f# A A Eb A Modulating to Eb Extremely chromatic T ransition to next scene (varies) Fre+6/eb + note G V7/Bb Las currutacas modestas mm. 15 17 Las currutacas modestas mm. 17 19 Las currutacas modestas mm. 5 12 Las currutacas modestas mm. 5 9 Las currutacas modestas mm. 5 8 Las currutacas modestas mm. 6 8. At mm. 64 65 the tonality to what trap, my God, have I fallen!) Fandango theme appears in b b minor whe n the majos (bass) fandango theme with See note on II 2 chorus. This passage indicates that majos and gentry should not get toge ther; Las currutacas modestas mm. 6 7 in Db Rosario sings the fandango theme in f# minor (F Gb Ab A) Las currutacas modestas mm. 6 7 Las currutacas modestas mm. 6 7 Las currutacas modestas mm. 6 7 in Bb Fernando and majos (tenor) sing the fandango them e (II:1, mm. 26 29); mm.78 80: Las currutacas modestas mm. 8 11 As Paquiro announces the time for the duel, he recites the mm. 8 9 in Bb
173 Tab le A 1. Continued Tonality Remarks on themes II / 3 mm. 1 18 mm. 19 63 mm. 64 98 mm. 99 108 mm. 108 116 D G Phrygian Eb G Phrygian G Granados still keeps the G key signature (one F#) Interludio 1 52 *mm. 38 41 d E E Sueo del Poeta (Es cenas Poeticas) mm. 13 14, also the same moti f as III:2 mm. 78 81 III / 1 Intro: mm.1 6 A : mm. 7 25 A 1 : mm. 26 34 A 2 : mm. 35 46 A 3 : mm. 47 51 Interlude: mm. 52 63 *mm. 53 Transition: vii7/e f# f# b f# f# V7/F# N lo F# Gre+6/b 1) S ound modal 2) E mphasis G (the b6) A 4 : mm. 64 81 *mm. 72 81 f# C# N ightingale song III / 2 A : mm. 1 77 mm. 1 27 mm. 28 40 *mm. 29 32 *mm. 37 40 mm. 41 55 *mm. 41 46 *mm. 54 57 *mm. 58 *mm. 62 71 *mm. 70 73 B : mm 78 113 *mm. 78 81 *mm. 82 83 *mm. 84 86 *mm. 89 91 *mm. 93 95 *mm. 97 98 *mm. 106 107 Eb D D bb bb F bb F Ab A Eb La maja dolorsa (I): mm. 8 11 La maja dolorsa (I): mm. 8 11 El amor de majo in Apuntes (m.2 is cut) La maja dolorsa (I): mm. 8 11 El amor de majo 1st measure The same music as II:2, mm. 8 17 La maja dolorsa (I): mm. 8 11 Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 13 14 Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 13 14 Sueo del Poeta from Escena s Poeticas mm. 13 14 Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 10 12 (Eplogo mm.204 207 has the same melody) Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 10 12 Eplogo mm. 204 207 has the same melody Jcara mm. 108 113
174 Table A 1. Continued Tonali ty Remarks on themes C : mm. 114 132 *mm. 114 116 *mm. 117 119 *mm. 120 122 *mm. 124 125 *mm. 126 127 D : mm. 133 174 *mm. 150 157 Trans: mm. 175 194 *mm. 170 171 *mm. 174 175 *mm. 178 179 D A G eb c mel ody in F Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 10 12 (modified) La maja dolorsa (I): mm. 8 11 Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 10 12 (modified) Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 10 12 (modified) Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeti cas mm. 10 12 (modified) El amor del majo (1st time in its entirety ) Fandango theme mm. mm. 9 10 Trombone melodic fragment from mm. 85 86, later appears in III:3 mm. 121 death. Ironically, here Fernando says back) when he leaves Rosario for the duel. M m.78 79, Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 13 14 (modified) III / 3 A : mm. 1 36 *mm. 1 2 *mm. 2 5 *mm. 6 7 *mm. 8 11 *mm. 12 13 *mm. 14 *mm. 22 24 mm. 25 bb eb Gb b a G bb Ger+6/eb C hain of Fre+6 eb (resolution from m.2) chain of Fre+6 b V4/3/Ab Gb b Granados called This moti f is also a modified version of the theme in III:2, mm. 78 83, when Rosario t ell s Fernando life is thorny, but with my caresses, yours will be short, and you will spend your life delightfully, which you can see in my eyes. Ironically, here Fernando is dying. Theme use d in Sueo del poeta mm. 13 14. End at V7/Db. Refer to the meani ng of Db from note on II:2 chorus. 9 End at V7/C, which becomes the Ger+6/b This chord re call 53, 55, and 56 with the same harmony. Nightingale the me, III:1 mm 939 Same harmony and moti f from the theme in III:2, mm. 82 83, when Rosario said Fernando should enjoy himself entirely through her caresses. However, here it is follow ed by a highly chromatic passage while Rosario scream Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 13 14 (modified); interludo: mm. 38 40 Sueo del poeta mm. 13 14, ( i.e. mm.1 2 in this scene ) Similar harmonic progression from mm. 62 66, also II:2 mm. 8 12 tema de amor
175 Table A 1. Continued Tonality Remarks on themes B : mm. 37 49 *mm. 45 47 C :mm. 50 76 *mm. 50 52 *mm. 55 57 *mm. 64 *mm. 65 66 *mm. 68 69 *mm. 70 71 *mm. 73 D : mm. 77 129 *mm. 81 85 *mm. 85 88 *mm. 90 99 *mm. 93 96 *mm. 99 107 *mm. 108 112 Trans to coda: mm. 113 129 *mm. 117 120 *mm. 121 129 bb Gb seq: Gb: I V E: I V Gb A d a bb Gb A d d V9/a a bb bb eb bb G bb Db eb ii7 V7 I 7 IV7 ii7/eb V7/eb eb eb modulate back to bb f# G G Sueo del poeta mm. 13 14. Sueo del poeta mm. 13 14; same harmony and motive as III:2 mm. 84. While in III:2 Fernando said Rosario calms his heart here Rosario begs Fernando that if he speak s he gives her life (V que su hablas, vida me ds) Fandango theme from II:1, mm. 33, as Rosario and Fernando arrive s at the baile de candil The same moti f as mm. 12 13, which is also the Nightingale theme from III:1, mm. 42 Modif ied Blas de Laserna theme moti f from I:2 mm. 2 3, where she was supposed to meet Fernando before Fernando saw Paquiro flirt with Rosairo. Now it sounds like it is the time and place for Fernando to die Nightingale theme from III:1 mm. 35 36, when Rosario (the nightingale is enslaved by her love for her singer) Modified moti f from I:3 mm. 2 3 Nightinga le theme, the same one as in mm. 12 13 in this scene Modified Los Requiebros moti f from I:3 mm. 2 going to meet Fernando. Here she ask do you say goodbye?) Continue the Los Requiebro s moti f The same themes as i n mm. 80 89 (nightingale theme), followed by Blas de Laserna theme from Los Requiebros Equal to mm. 1188 1191, a half step higher Similar to mm. 22 24 (Gb); basically the sa me as interludio mm. 38 41 (E)
176 Table A 1. Continued Tonality Remarks on themes Coda mm. 130 170 *mm. 139 140 *mm. 143 145 *mm. 152 1 6 7 *mm. 168 170 G VI of g g G A passage from III:I 52 60 (F#), here a half step h igher. Sueo del Poeta from Escenas Poeticas mm. 13 14; III:2 mm. 84 86. See I:3, mm. 134 135. Even though the Paquiro praises Rosario beauty in Eb Major when Rosario first arrives on stage, the majas stop singing in a g minor chord when they Major chord in g minor. Therefore, it is just a reverse Libro de horas mm. 10 13 and mm. 27 35
177 APPENDIX B COMPARISON BETWEEN THE OPERA AND THE PI ANO SUITE GOYESCAS Table B 1. Comparison between the opera and the piano suite Goyescas The o pera The b orrowed m usic Tableau I scene I (mm.1 130) mm.1 22 mm.23 47 mm.48 56 mm.57 58 mm.59 60 mm.61 65 mm.66 68 mm.69 115 mm.118 123 El Pelele (mm.1 121) W ith use of tonadillas Callejeo and Las currutacas modetas mm.1 27 Different from El Pelele mm.39 40 Different from El Pelele mm.41 45 Different from El Pelele mm.52 97 mm.100 105 (the remaining portion of the piano piece will return at t he end of I:3) Tableau I scene II (mm.131 266) Los Ovillejos music, with fandango rhythm Tableau I scene III (mm.267 426) mm. 1 7 mm. 7 11 mm. 13 106 mm. 107 126 mm.127 129 mm. 130 134 mm. 135 155 Los Requiebros (mm.1 358) mm. 8 19 mm.24 32 mm.47 1 46 mm.155 174 A transition to the return of El Pelele music. Trana del Trpili and the melodic fragment from Las currutacas modestas proceed simultaneously El Pelele mm.11 14 El Pelele mm.100 12 1 Tableau II scene I mm. 1 32 mm. 33 34 mm. 35 42 mm. 43 102 mm. 103 114 mm. 115 117 El fandango de candil mm.1 32 mm.37 38 mm.40 47 mm.52 111 mm.162 173 mm.175 177 Tableau II scene II (mm.610 845) mm. 8 17 mm. 30 79 Final (el Fandango) (mm. 1 116 ) Coloqui o en la reja mm.64 71 F rom Las Currutacas Modestas New music
178 Table B 1. Continued The o pera The b orrowed m usic Tableau III scene I (mm. 1 81 ) mm. 7 25 mm. 26 57 mm. 58 71 mm. 72 mm.73 mm.74 mm.75 mm. 76 81 La Maja y el Ruse or mm.1 19 mm.24 51 mm.54 67 mm 68 70 (modified) mm.71 (modified) mm.72 (modified) mm.74 mm.76 81 Tableau III scene II (mm. 1 1 3 2) mm. 4 42 mm. 43 86 mm. 87 1 64 Coloquio el la reja mm.3 42 mm.45 88 mm.103 180 Tableau III scen e III (mm.1173 1341) mm. 1 71 mm. 72 115 mm. 116 mm.1 17 1 19 mm.1 20 12 3 mm.12 4 151 mm. 152 170 El Amor y la Muerte mm.1 71 mm.89 132 mm.136 mm.138 140 mm.143 146 mm.159 187 mm.190 206
179 APPENDIX C TRANSCRIPTION OF FOUR SETS OF PRELIMINARY SKETCHES FOR THE OPERA GOYESCAS The following transcription is Enrique four sets of preliminary sketches of the opera. This is based on one of the notebooks that mentioned in Chapter 2. It is preserved in Museu de la Msica in Barcelona, with inventory number 05.2348. First Set of Preliminary Sketches p.34 Drama lirico en un acto y cuatro duadros Libro de M sica de E. Granados. p.35 Personajes: El Rey Carlos IV que aparecer con su squito, por el fondo de la escena, sin tomar parte con la accin. de artista, amante de la Duquesa. p.36 C apit n de la Escolta Damas y Caballeros de la Corte del Rey Majos y majas, chisperos, etc. --La acci n en Madrid en tiem po de Carlos IV. La escena representa una calle de Mad rid concocida, donde hay un palacio. El palacio de los Duques de X. Por un lado dar esta palacio a una p.37 plaza a cuyo fondo se ver una callejuela estrecha. De izquierda a derecha representar una calle; a esta calle y del l ado izquier do dara una rej a del palacio. Esta reja ser de un trabajo art stic o de grande m rito y estar adornada con flores. A la derecha y en un ngulo de primer trmino habr un banco de piedra d forma que d frente al espectador. Cerca de la reja que queda dercrita y que debe dar tambien frente al espectador, habr colgado un farol clsico, de los que se apaaban con aceite y estar colgado de una cuerda, colocada de manera que p.38 parezca que atr aviesa la calle figurada de izqu i erda a derecha, algun que farol calgado y figu nado a la lejos. (Derecha e izquerda las del espectador.)
180 Preludio Con garbo etc. Telon p.38 Cuadro 1 o escena 1 a Un grupo de estudiantes cruza lentamente la escena cantando unas seguidillas alguna que otra paraja de majos y majas y usias cruzan e n distintas p.39 direcciones la escena. Sigue la acci n que se de sarro llar s egun convenga: Escena 2a Los requiebros (Hay que buscar un episodio intermedio) Queda sala la escena y aparecen por la izquierda la maja Duquesa seguida a pocos pasos p or su majo (final de los Requiebr os) La maja entra en su palacio La orquesta va describiendo el sentimiento amo r oso, bre v es momentos hasta que aparece el claro de luna. La noc h e p.40 queda en una calma potica de encanto y de un sentir inefables. Escena 3a (Coloquio en la reja) S e abre lentamente la reja y se ve acercarse poco a poco a ella, al Majo Amador de la Duquesa X. Duo de amor | | | Final del cuadro primero p.41 Cuadro Segundo El Fand a ngo de Candil. Reunin de majos, chisperos, et, et, en un teatillo sala de los de clsico estilo descritas ya p or Ramn de la Cruz. El velon col g ando en medio de la habitaci n, sala a teatrillo. Escena 1 a Coro y bailes. Mas tarde entran la Du q uesa y su amante, vestidos de majos. Recibidos con grandes agasajos los usi as 167 son invitada s a la danza en la que toman parte breves moment o s. Pequeos incidente s de color que dan por resultado un disgust o entre los amantes. 167 Antonio Fernandez
181 p.42 Final del cuadro Segundo. --Cuadro tercero. Jardines del palacio Real de Aranjuez. Fiesta de Corte. Juegos e intrigas. Trajes de la poca y algunos vestidos de majos, que por su porte se comprender que son gentes nobles. El rival aparece en es cena; debiendo aprov echar la oc asi n del disgust o y despecho de la maja Duquesa, la galantea. El amante exige a su amada una entrevista que tiene lugar en p.43 el palacio de la Duquesa durante el cuadro cuarto y ltimo. Cuadro cua tr o y ltimo Escena 1 a El amante maj o, sale de casa de la Duquesa; esta sale a despedirle a la reja. Entre tanto se acercan tres o cuatro embozados, uno de los cuales, (que deber ser el Capitan de la escolta cualquier otro personage, segun convenga) intent acercarse a la reja, salindole al encuentro el majo amante. p.44 Escena 2 a Ria y estocada Pelean brevemente los dos rivales: La Duquesa intenta impeder el duelo; sale y llega justament e en el momento que es herido de muerte su amado que cae muerto en sus brazos. De saparerien por el fondo los tres embozados. Escena 3 a ultima El amor y la muerte Fin.
182 Second Set of Preliminary Sketches p.45 M sica Preludio et. Telon et. Va siguiendo el desarrolo de este de t ema mientras van pasando los estudiantes o estudiantina, que perdindose a lo lejos; luego se inicia el tema de los requiebros Hasta que llega el tema Contralto Contesta el majo
183 Ella El Siguen todos los requiebros con final p.46 di stinto de los de piano y garboso, entrando en su palacio la Duquesa maja p.47 V a la orquestra dejando poco a poco el tema de requiebros hasta enlazarse con la otra escena. Merda Quedan citados para la noche en la noche en la reja, como era en ellos mucho la costumbre. El majo sale por la derecha. p.48 Escena 2 a Entran por la izquierda D n rival del Majo y D n --
184 p.49 Tarde de fiesta Puede empezar la obra con el Pelele. Fiesta en la pradera. Seguidillas et et Siguen lo s Requiebros salen los majos enamorados. La Maja: Gracias seor; el corazn de esta maja no sabe ciertamente de quin es pero seguro sde este momento, nace el odio en este personaje) El majo y D n m irada que, denota el odio rival. p.50 Sigue la fiesta y termina el primer cuadro con la presencia en escena de los personajes secundarios que quedan haciend o comentarios. Unas mujerzuelas quedan tambin cuchicheando. 2 o Cuadro Duo en la reja Durante la mutaci n un preludio que prepara la vuelta de los majos a Madrid. Calle y plaza: palacio de la maja Duquesa. Coloquio en la reja. p.51 F in del primer acto --Act 2 o Jar dn de Aranjuez. L a maja sentada en un banco de m rmol al pie de un grande rbol donde canta el ruiseor. Canta sus aoranzas la maja.
185 Third Set of Preliminary Sketches p.84 Los majos enamorados Drama lirico en 2 actos y 5 cuadros de --E. Granados --Personages: La maja Du q uesa ficial. Majas, majos, chisperos, estudi antes. Derecha e izquier d a las del espectador. p.85 La acci n en Madrid en tiempo de Carlo s IV Acto 1 Cuadro 1 Lugar de la pradera de San Isidro, que deber ser copiado del cl e bre cuadro de Goya, titulado el Pelele. Tarde de fiesta. Reunidos majos, majas, chisperos, usas, etc tera, etc tera, figura que han terminado de comer y estn manteando un pelele, como en el cuadro de Goya. Grupos pintorescos y de notas de color, que recuerdan la obra de Goya. Escena 1a 1) El Pelele 2) Seguidillas de estudiate Escena 2a La maja Duquesa oficial p.86 de la escolta (Ms tarde). Estudiantes, majos, etc tera 3) Los Requiebros (Escena de galanteos, en que toman parte todos.) El Oficial pide una cita a la Maja Duquesa, y sta le dice que no es por l por quien va la (El oficial se aleja ofendido en su amor propio.) D. : Mucho tiempo ha que busco el momento. Ella: El momento llej en la pradera.
186 (Van mezclndoes los majos y estudiantes, en grupos o partes requebrando algunos a las majas y obros comentado con alguna que otra copla, interc a p.86 lada en los requiebros. La escena de animndo se terminando con cantos radiantes de felicidad. Cruza la escena en Segundo trmino, el oficial del brazo de su amigo. La maja Duquesa, sale con su Donecella por la derecha, seguida de su amante, que antes de abandoner la escena cruza una m irada de odio con el oficial. Figura la puesta de sol. La mica va poco a poco pasando a un calor potico. El oficial que se ha quedano siguiendo con la vista a los majos enamorados, a instancias de su amigo marcha c on ste por la izquerda, lentamente y en actitud altiva y despreciativa. Dos mujerzuelas pasan de izquierda a derecha, comentado la actitud del oficial y sealando hacia donde se han dirigido los dos amantes; todo indica que han notado la escena. Oscurece. Telon p.87 La m sica queda cada voz m s petica. --Cuadro 2o Escena 1a --La escena representa una calle de Madrid conocida, donde est el Palacio de los Duques de X. Por un lado, dar este palacio a una plaza y a cuyo fondo h abr una callejuela estrecha. De izquierda a derecha, figurar una calle, en esta calle y al lado izquierdo, estar el palacio que formar esquina conla plaza, hacia la mitad del ancho del scenario. Fernte al espectador habr una rej a del palacio de un tra bajo art stic o de gran mrito. Al lado derecho, en el bordi llo de la plaza un banco de piedra, con respaldo de piedra tambin. Colgado de una cuerda un farol, en primer trmino ; otro figurados a los lejos. p.88 Estudiantina que pasa y se pierde en los le jos. Escena 2a Se acerca el majo amante con capa es p adn y guitarra. Junto a la reja puntea los bordones de su guitarra. Se abre lentamente la ventana y aparece detrs de la reja florida, la maja. T odo es misterio y poesa Coloquio en la reja Fin del 1e acto. p. 89 La escena representa los jardines de Aranjuez L a maja duques a sentada en un banco de mrmol. Es la puesta de sol. Canta la maja s us quejas y s us presentimientos de la muerte del majo. Van cayendo lentamente una serie de velos que convierten la escena en una fantstica visi n.
187 La serenata del muerto Terminada la visi n, la orquesta va gradualmente pasando al Fandango de Candil: la escena se va aclarando poco a poco, hasta que se presenta a la vista el teatrillo de p.90 X donde se hallan reunidos seorones majos y todas clases de gentes, en abigarrada mezcla. Fandango de candil ------------------p.91 En su calesa con todo el rumbo y sal llegando va la gente de calidad. Manolos y manolas ----En la Mancola El Pelele Muchac hoas hacienda bailar el Pelele. Grupos distintos: majos, chisperos, oficiales y unas viejas cuchich onas.
188 The Fourth Set of Preliminary Sketches p.9 4 La Moncloa van paseando en grupos, damas, caba lleros, petimetres, majos manolos, oficiales, militares, otros en bancos, etc., etc. A poco llega una calesa, con Constanza y su doncella. Poco despus llega otra, con D. G. Lucientes. Algunas muchachas mantean un pelele. Va iniciandose el tema de los p.9 5 El Sois la reina en gracia y donaire. Ella De ese modo me veis por galante. El Ella El Vuestros ojos me matan, Vuestra sonrisa y encanto Me roban la calma ¡Oh!, maja, maja, y seora De Gracia y nobleza. od al que muere de amor. Ella. Si es que en amar sois maestro como en la palabra los sos.
189 An Extra Page of Sketch: Fandando de Candil After two blank pages, in the last page of this notebook (p.9 8 ), Granados attempted to create a sketch on the action in the Fandango de Candil. Although he crossed it out, intention to single out this scene for plan ning the action implicates that Granados pays special attention to this scene. Following is the transcription of this sketch.
190 WORKS CITED I) Primary Sources Printed Music Granados, Enrique. Goyescas: Los Majos Enamorados. Barcelona: Casa Dotesio, 1912. Granados, Enrique. Edited by Manuel Garca Morante. Barcelona: Trit, 1996. Granados, Enrique. Integ ral para piano Goyescas 1, Volume 3. Edited by Alicia de Larocha and Douglas Riva. Barcelona: Editorial Boileau, 2002. Granados, Enrique. Integral para piano Goyescas 2, Volume 4. Edited by Alicia de Larocha and Douglas Riva. Barcelona: Editorial B oileau, 2002. Goyescas: An Opera in Three Tableaux. New Yor k and Mexico: G. Schirmer, 1915 Manuscript Scores of Enrique Granados Granados, Enrique. El Pelele. Undated sketches. Barcelona: Museu de la Msica 02. 1460 1. Goyescas Intermezzo orc hestral manuscript score. New York: G. Schirmer, 1915. Barcelona: Acadmia Gran ados Marshall. Goyescas: Literas y Calesas Los majos enamorados Opera score (autography) May 28, 1914. New York: Hispanic Society of America MS.B123. Goyesca. Los majos enamorados Undated sketches. Barcelona: Museu de la Msica, 02.1532. Goyesca Opera orchestral manuscript score ( autography) finished in Vilasar de Mar. New York: G.Schirmer, 1915. Goyescas: Orquestra. Autograph manusc rip t, 9 January 1914. Barcelona: Museu de la Msica. 05.1567. Ria y estocada Undated sketches. Barcelona: Museu de la Msica, 02.1540 2. Selections (Sketches) Granados sketchbook: autograph manuscript, [1890 1916]. http://www.themorgan.org/music/manuscript/114565 (accessed February 13, 2012)
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196 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ling Fung Chan, born in Hong Kong receive d her Ph.D in m usicology at the University of Florida (UF). She holds the degrees MMus in p iano p erformance from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and BMus in piano from the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts. She was a g raduate a ssistant to p rofessors in m usic h istory and a p i ano i nstructor in the m usic p r eparatory s chool during her study at CM U. Under the supervision of Dr. Anthony Offerle, she has been working with the UF opera workshop as a graduate assistant accompanist for five years. She also taught i ntroduction to m usic l iterature c lasses from 2009 to 2010.