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Technology Expenditures

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044091/00001

Material Information

Title: Technology Expenditures A Policy Analysis in a Selected School and Return on Investment
Physical Description: 1 online resource (164 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ferguson, Tim
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: education -- integration -- learning -- teaching -- technology
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Educational Leadership thesis, Ed.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The process of retooling schools to prepare students for the Twenty-First Century requires that schools invest in technology resources and ongoing professional development for teachers to support the transformation of teaching and learning practices through technology integration. Technology resources are still considered to be educational enhancements rather than essential tools for teaching and learning in most schools across the country. School budget constraints require that school districts reexamine expenditures regarding the investment in technology resources and the impact on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine the current policies related to the ability of schools to purchase technology and related support services including an analysis of the investment made in technology and the impact on the transformation of classroom teaching and learning practices for the Twenty-First Century. This study includes an analysis of policies guiding the development of school budgets including additional funding sources based on federal, state, and district policies related to technology and related professional development for teachers. The study builds on current studies related to one to one technology access for students. An analysis of the financial impact of purchasing technology will assist schools in looking at the reallocation of resources and the design of Twenty-First Century technology rich classrooms. The study examines the changing attitudes and beliefs of students, teachers, parents, community members and administrators regarding the development of policies to support retooling of classrooms and the purchase of technology resources for schools. The results of the study will serve as a resource to other schools interested in the transformation of teaching and learning practices for Twenty-First Century classrooms.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tim Ferguson.
Thesis: Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Wood, R. Craig.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044091:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0044091/00001

Material Information

Title: Technology Expenditures A Policy Analysis in a Selected School and Return on Investment
Physical Description: 1 online resource (164 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ferguson, Tim
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: education -- integration -- learning -- teaching -- technology
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Educational Leadership thesis, Ed.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The process of retooling schools to prepare students for the Twenty-First Century requires that schools invest in technology resources and ongoing professional development for teachers to support the transformation of teaching and learning practices through technology integration. Technology resources are still considered to be educational enhancements rather than essential tools for teaching and learning in most schools across the country. School budget constraints require that school districts reexamine expenditures regarding the investment in technology resources and the impact on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine the current policies related to the ability of schools to purchase technology and related support services including an analysis of the investment made in technology and the impact on the transformation of classroom teaching and learning practices for the Twenty-First Century. This study includes an analysis of policies guiding the development of school budgets including additional funding sources based on federal, state, and district policies related to technology and related professional development for teachers. The study builds on current studies related to one to one technology access for students. An analysis of the financial impact of purchasing technology will assist schools in looking at the reallocation of resources and the design of Twenty-First Century technology rich classrooms. The study examines the changing attitudes and beliefs of students, teachers, parents, community members and administrators regarding the development of policies to support retooling of classrooms and the purchase of technology resources for schools. The results of the study will serve as a resource to other schools interested in the transformation of teaching and learning practices for Twenty-First Century classrooms.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tim Ferguson.
Thesis: Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local: Adviser: Wood, R. Craig.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID: UFE0044091:00001


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1 TECHNOLOGY EXPENDITURES: A POLICY ANALYSI S IN A SELECTED SCHOOL AND RETURN ON INVESTMENT By TIMOTHY BRIAN FERGUSON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVE RSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FUL FILLMENT OF TH E REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DE GREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Timothy Brian Ferguson

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3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT My dissertation is dedicated to all of those individuals who have supported me throughout this person al and professiona l journey in achieving my goals. My loving wife Marcy, our children, grandchildren and parents have always provided the support and encouragement I need to achieve my professional goals. My Collier County Executive Doctoral Cohort has p rovided the professional support, collegiality and encouragement to maintain the journey through completion of this degree. To the teachers, staff, students and parents of Veterans Memorial Elementary School, thank on of transforming teaching and learning to support Twenty First Century skills and the role that technology plays in achieving high levels of learning and support for all students.

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4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMEN T ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 6 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 7 DEFINITION OF TERMS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 1 2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY ................................ ................................ ..................... 14 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 14 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 17 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 18 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 19 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 19 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 20 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 21 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 21 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 22 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ........................ 23 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 23 Federal, State and Local District Technology Plans ................................ ............................... 25 Twenty First Century Teaching and Learning Skill s ................................ ............................. 31 Technology and Increased Student Achievement ................................ ................................ ... 39 Defining Technology Integration ................................ ................................ ........................... 43 Barriers in the Use of Technology ................................ ................................ .......................... 46 Technology Applications in Twenty First Century Classrooms ................................ ............ 49 Technology Applications and Student Achi evement ................................ ............................. 56 Professional Development for Teachers ................................ ................................ ................. 58 The Cost of Technology in Schools ................................ ................................ ........................ 59 Funding for Technology in Schools ................................ ................................ ....................... 61 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 63 3 RESEARCH DESIGN METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ............ 73 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 73 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 74 Inventory of Teacher Technology Skills ................................ ................................ ................ 77

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5 Beliefs About Teaching with Technology Survey ................................ ................................ .. 78 Expert Focus Group ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 79 Design of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 80 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 80 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA ................................ .............................. 83 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 83 Analysis of Federal, State and Selected School District Policies ................................ ........... 84 Federal Policy Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 84 State Policy Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 88 District Policy Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 90 Selected Elementary School Data ................................ ................................ ................... 95 The Inventory of Teacher Techn ology Skills (ITTS) ................................ ............................. 98 Beliefs About Teaching with Technology Survey (BATT) ................................ ................... 99 Expert Focus Group ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 100 Triangulation Analysis of the Data ................................ ................................ ....................... 104 Limitations of the Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 108 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 108 5 IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ............................... 131 Policy Development ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 133 Twenty First Century Skills ................................ ................................ ................................ 135 Technology Integration ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 138 Professional Development ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 141 Student Achievement ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 144 Twenty First Century Technology Rich Prototype Classrooms ................................ .......... 146 Summary/Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 148 APPENDIX A TEACHER SURVEY ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 151 B INVENTORY OF TEACHER TECHNOLOGY SKILLS (ITTS) ................................ ...... 152 C EXPERT FOCUS GROUP QUALITATIVE DAT A COLLECTION METHOD AND PROCESS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 154 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 155 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 164

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6 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 NETP goals and recommendations ................................ ................................ .................... 66 2 2 ................................ ................................ ............. 69 2 3 Twenty First Century Partnership key elements ................................ ................................ 69 2 4 Twenty First Century partnership skills ................................ ................................ ............ 71 2 5 Project RED 2010 survey independent variables ................................ ............................... 72 4 1 2009 Florida technology plan ................................ ................................ .......................... 110 4 2 Selected school district strategic technology plan ................................ ........................... 111 4 3 2009 10 Selected school district technology needs assessment survey ........................... 112 4 4 Selected school district 2011 12 technology budget ................................ ....................... 113 4 5 Selected school district 2011 12 technology standards ................................ ................... 113 4 6 Selected school district 2011 12 technology costs ................................ .......................... 113 4 7 Selected elementary school 2011 12 school demographics ................................ ............. 114 4 8 Student proficiency scores of selected elementary schools in selected school district .... 114 4 9 Selected elementary school 2011 12 school technology data ................................ .......... 115 4 10 Selected elementary school 2011 12 school tech nology integration data ....................... 115 4 11 Selected elementary school 2011 12 technology integration matrix ............................... 115 4 12 Selected elementary sch ool 2010 school technology survey data ................................ ... 116 4 13 Selected elementary school technology integration framework Vision: ......................... 119 4 14 Selec ted elementary school ITTS 2011 teacher technology assessment data .................. 120 4 15 Selected elementary school, selected school district and state 2011 technology assessment data comparison data ................................ ................................ ..................... 121 4 16 Selected elementary school 2011 BATT survey data ................................ ...................... 122 4 17 Selected elementary school 2011 expert focus group interview questi on data ............... 123

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 RMC Research Model for Assessing Student Achievement in a Technology Rich Learning Environment ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 72

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8 DEFINITION OF TERMS A DAPTIVE CONTENT : Digital instructional materials that adjust difficulty based on user responses. 1 B LENDED L EARNING : Combines online learning with other modes of instructional delivery. Combines online and face to face instruction and learning. 2 B LOGS : pages. 3 D IFFERENTIATED I NSTRUCTION : The process of providing varying types and levels of instruction and support for students based on indi vidual learning needs. 4 D IGITAL LITERACY What students and teachers need to know and be able to do in order to function successfully in a technological environment. 5 D IGITAL I MMIGRANTS : Individuals born before the information era. 6 D IGITAL N ATIVES : I ndividuals born during the information era. 7 E MBEDDED P ROFESSIONAL D EVELOPMENT AND S UPPORT : Process used to design and deliver job embedded professional development and ongoing support for teachers integrating technology into teaching and learning practi ces. 8 E NGAGED L EARNING : A comprehensive model of instruction that refers to a student centered learning approach using higher level thinking and application skills along with a classroom learning 1 Foundation f or Excellence in Education, Digital Learning Now! ( Tallahassee, FL: Digital Learning Council, December, 1, 2010): 16. 2 Ibid., 18. 3 Meg Ormiston, Creating a Digital rich Classroom ( Bl oomington, IN: Solution Tree Press 2011 ): 54. 4 U.S. Department of Educati on Office of Educational Technology. Transforming American Education Learning Powered by Technology. National Education Technology Plan 2010, (Alexandria, VA: US Departme nt of Education November, 2010 ): 12 5 Ibid., 10. 6 Marc Prensky, On The Horizon Vol. 9, (5), (October 2001) :1. 7 Ibid., 1 8 Transforming American Education 29

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9 environment that is collaborative and project based. 9 G ES TURE B ASED C OMPUTING : Technology devices that are controlled by natural body movements. 10 H YBRID L EARNING : The blending of multiple modes of learning with technology resources. 11 T HE I NTERNATIONAL S OCIETY FOR T ECHNOLOGY IN E DUCATION (ISTE): The internat ional organization that has developed technology learning standards. 12 L EARNING M ANAGEMENT S YSTEMS (LMS): Includes content management, communication tools, instructional tools and assessment tools. 13 M OBILE C OMPUTING : Network capable devices for students 14 N ET G ENERATION : A new demographic term for students whose knowledge and application of technology requires learning to be fun, entertaining, customized, flexible and immediate. 15 O NE TO O NE T ECHNOLOGY : Providing every student with access to technology resources throughout the student day. 16 O PEN C ONTENT : Open access to learning materials and resources impacting the way students study and learn. 17 9 Transforming American Education 29 10 Johnson, Levine, Smith, and Stone, The 2010 Horizon Report 25. 11 Digital Learning Now! 16 12 Ormiston, Cr eating a Digital r ich Classroom 12. 13 T. Greaves, J Hayes, L.Wilson, M. Gielniak, and R. Peterson. Project Red The Technology Factor: Nine Keys to Student Achievement and Cost Effectiveness. MDR, www.proj ect.RED.org.(2010) : 26. 14 Johnson, Levine, Smith, and Stone, The 2010 Horizon Report, 9. 15 Marc Prensky The Role of Technolog y in Teaching and the Classroom, Educational Technology, ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Educational Technology 2008 ): 5 16 Damian Bebel Rac hel Kay One to One Computing: A Summary of the Quantitative Results From the Berkshire Wireless Learning Initiative The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment Vol. 9, (2), Boston, MA., ( January, 2010 ): 6 17 Johnson., Levine, Smith, and Stone, The 2010 Horizon Report, 13.

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10 P ODCASTING : Refers to an audio file that has been recorded for playback on a computer. 18 S IMPLE A UGMENTED R EALITY : Specialized equipment and applications as overlays to digital material. 19 S OCIAL L EARNING : Like Facebook for schools, social learning platforms provide a messaging and content sharing among groups. Leading platforms manage privacy issues. 20 T EC HNOLOGICAL F LUENCY : What students and teachers need to know and be able to do in order to function successfully in a technological environment. 21 T ECHNOLOGY I NTEGRATION : The effective use of technology resources as part of the teaching and learning proce ss. 22 T ECHNOLOGICAL P EDAGOGICAL AND C ONTENT K NOWLEDGE (TPACK): The framework used to think about the effective integration of technology into the classroom learning environment. 23 T ECHNOLOGY P ROFICIENCY : The measurement of the technology knowledge and skil l application of individuals. 24 V IRTUAL C LASSROOM : Place for teachers and students to interact and collaborate in real time. Using webcams, chat box and class discussion features all conducted online. 25 V ISUAL D ATA A NALYSIS : A way of discovering and under standing patterns in large data sets through visual interpretation. 26 18 Ormiston, Creating a Digital rich Classroom 27 19 Johnson, Levine, Smith, and Stone, The 2010 Horizon Report, 21. 20 Digital Learning Now! 16 21 Transforming American Educatio n, 10 22 Khe Foon Hew, Thomas Brush Integrating Techno logy Into K 12 Teaching and Learning: Current Knowledge Gaps and Reco mmendations for Future Research, (Singapore BV: Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Springer Sc ience and Business Media December, 2006 ): 224 225 23 Drew Polly Laur ie Brantley TPACK: Where Do We Go Now? Tech Trends 53, (5), East Lansing, MI., ( September/October 2009 ): 46 24 Transforming American Education 83 25 Digital Learning Now! 16 26 Johnson, Levine, Smith, and Stone, The 2010 Horizon Report, 29.

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11 V OICE O VER IP: Voice/video over Internet Protocol is a software that uses an Internet connection to allow communication among people with IP capabilities. 27 W EB 2.0: Also known as Read /Write Web, is associated with technology applications that promote collaboration. 28 27 Ormisto n, Creating a Digital rich Classroom ,131 28 Ibid.,1 2

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12 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Deg ree of Doctor of Education TECHNOLOGY EXPENDITURES: A POLICY ANALYSIS IN A SE LECTED SCHOOL AND RETURN ON INVESTMENT By Timothy Brian Ferguson August 2012 Chair: R. Craig Wood Major: Educational Leadership The process of retooling schools to prepare students fo r the Twenty First Century requires that schools invest in technology resources and ongoing professional development for teachers to support the transformation of teaching and learning practices through technology integration. Technology resources are stil l considered to be educational enhancements rather than essential tools for teaching and learning in most schools across the country. School budget constraints require that school districts reexamine expenditures regarding the investment in technology reso urces and the impact on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine the current policies related to the ability of schools to purchase technology and related support services including an analysis of the investment made in technology and the impact on the transformation of classroom teaching and learning practices for the Twenty First Century. This study includes an analysis of policies guiding the development of school budgets including additional funding sources based on federal, state, and district policies related to technology and related professional development for teachers. The study builds on current studies related to one to one technology access for students. An analysis of the financial impact of purchasing technology will assis t schools in

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13 looking at the reallocation of resources and the design of Twenty First Century technology rich classrooms. The study examines the changing attitudes and beliefs of students, teachers, parents, community members and administrators regarding th e development of policies to support retooling of classrooms and the purchase of technology resources for schools. The results of the study will serve as a resource to other schools interested in the transformation of teaching and learning practices for Tw enty First Century classrooms.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Introduction School reform initiatives intended to prepare students with Twenty First C entury skills require a change in teaching and learning practices with an emphasis on the integratio n of transforming teaching and learning through increased access to and use of technology in schools and classrooms has been near the top of most educational r eform agendas since the early 1 technology. 2 The availability and u se of technology for these types of learners is not viewed as a entire lives surrounded by and using computers, video games, digital music players, video cams, ce 3 Net G eneration students expect a world of instant information, graphics, music, and personal contacts available to them at all times whether they are at school, at home, or in the community. 4 Althoug h technology resources are evident in most classrooms today, the effective use and integration of technology to further enhance teaching and learning practices is not pervasive in e very classroom. A great majority of teachers were born before the digital a to learn to use technology as a part of their instructional practices and have been required to 1 Larry Cuban, Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2001). 2 ): 1 6. 3 Ibid., 1. 4 Howard Pitler, Kathleen Flynn, and Barbara Gaddy, Is a Laptop Initiative in Your Future? (Aurora, CO: Mid Continent Research for Education and Learning, 2004): 1 6.

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15 5 The struggle for m any educators today is that the students they teach speak an entirely different language as a result of being born at a different time in the world of technology development. Educators for the Twenty F irst C entury must begin to think like the students in c lassrooms today and transform teacher of the future must not only be accomplished in instructional techniques and technology, but also the integration of technolo gy into the curriculum 6 The integrat i on of technology, including one to one laptop computing along with emerging mobile technologies used by students is an initiative that is gaining momentum in schools across the nation. Once thought to be cost pro hibitive, the purchase of technology resources for schools is now becoming more affordable, and studies of school districts across the country indicate that classrooms have more access to technology resources than ever before. 7 Providing students with a la ptop can have a far reaching impact on how teachers teach and how students learn. An associated expense of purchasing technology for classrooms is providing ongoing professional development and support to teachers as they integrate technology resources int o teaching and learning practices. This is an expense often times overlooked in school district budgets and often the first expense to be elimi nated during times of financial cutbacks. 8 Successful technology integration models include the successful collab oration of teachers 5 Prensky, 6. 6 Jolene Dockstade r, st Century Know the What, Why, and How of Technology Integration THE Journal (Technology Horizons In Education) Vol. 26, (1999). 7 Thomas Greaves, Jeanne Hayes, Leslie Wilson, and Michael Gielniak, Project Red Key Findings; Revolutio nizing Education (Washington, D.C.: Presentation, ISTE Conference 2010 ) 8 Arnie Duncan, The New Normal: Doing More With Less, Remarks from U.S. Education Commission at the Bang for the Buck in Schooling, ( U.S. Department of Edu cation, Washington, D.C. November 17, 2010 )

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16 development around technology integration, mutually supportive and reciprocal relationships are created to support learning community development 9 Preparing students with the knowledge and skills they need to be successful in the Twenty First C entury requires a retooling of schools to include new and emerging technology resources. The Twenty First Century Workforce C ommission National Alliance of Business has identified skills that students need in the Twenty First C 10 These Twenty F irst C entury skills that students need include digital literacy through the understanding of scientific and technology literacy skills along with the development of visual, cultural and global awareness skills. The ability for students to develop their critical and creative think ing skills along with the development of teamwork and strong communication skil ls are identified as important Twenty First C entury skills. The analysis of research included a review of policies related to the purchase and use of technology from the state, district and individual school levels. Educational reform efforts over the past twenty years have included efforts to increase technology resources in schools through federal and state technology grants as well as the use of local capital funds. The integration of technology and the impact to teaching and learning strategies indicates that through the meaningful use of technology resources students demonstrate higher levels of engagement, increased access to learning resources and more immediate feedb ack and 9 Leslie Williams, Linda Atkinson, Linda Cole, Jean McGregor Cate and Mary Improving Educational Quality Through Technology Enriched Learning Communities for Success in the Global Economy Paper pres ented at the meeting of the American Educational Res earch Association, (Chicago, IL: April, 2007): 294 302. 10 National Alliance of Business, st Century Workforce, Executive Summary, (Washington, D.C., 2000): 5.

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17 customization of learning strategies. 11 The ability of the teacher to differentiate instruction in order to meet the individual needs of every student is enhanced through the use of technology resources. 12 This policy analysis research study examined the investment of technology in a selected elementary school and the return on that investment. Statement of the Problem The process of retooling schools to prepare students for the Twenty First C entury requires that schools invest in technology resources and ongoing professional development for teachers to support the transformation of teaching and learning practices through technology integration. 13 School budgets continue to be stretched as a result of the increased costs associated with educating all st udents in order to meet federal and state mandates under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 14 Technology resources are still considered to be educational enhancements rather than essential tools for teaching and learning in most schools across the country. School budget constraints require that local school districts reexamine expenditures regarding the investment in technology resources and the impact on student achievement. As schools begin to address the learning needs of students born during the interne t age, classrooms also need to change. The access to technology along with the integrat ion of technology resources should become a funding priority for Twenty First C entury classrooms. Current educational policies regarding the purchase of technology reso urces and support services may not provide the 11 KheFoon Hew Thomas Bush Integrating Technology Into K 12 Teaching and Learning: Current Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations for Future Research Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Springer Science and Business Media (Singapore, BV: December, 2006 ): 224 252. 12 J.L. Herman, Evaluating the Effects of Technology in School Reform. Techno logy and Education Reform. (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, San Francisco,1994 ): 133 167. 13 Allan Collins and Richard Halverson, Rethinking Education In The Age of Technology (New York: Teachers Co llege, Columbia University, 2009 ) 14 Duncan, The New Normal November 17, 2010.

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18 flexibility that school districts need in order to ensure that technology is available to all stude nts in Twenty First C entury classrooms. Funds are often times categorical and do not provide the flexibility t o be used in ways that support the expanded use of technology in classrooms. 15 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to examine the current policies related to the ability of schools to purchase technology and related support services including an analysis of the investment made in technology and the impact on the transformation of classroom teaching and learning practices for the T went y First C entury. The access of technology resources for every student along with the necessary funding to repla ce outdated instructional technology resources with new and emerging technology is a problem faced by school districts across the nation. This study included an analysis of policies guiding the development of school budgets including additional funding sou rces based on federal, state, and district policies re lated to technology and professional development for teachers in a selected elementary school. The results of the study will serv e as a resource to other school districts interested in the transformatio n of teach ing and learning practices for Twenty First C entury classrooms. The National Educational Technology Plan (NETP) released in April, 2010 by the U.S. Department of Education outlined the role that technology implementation plays in the transformati on of American Education into Twenty First C entury learning. Outlined in the plan are five key areas for the integration of technology: learning, assessment, teaching, infrastructure, and productivity. 16 The study builds on current research studies rel ated to one to one technology access for students, increased student achievement and the importance of professional development for 15 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Re d, 1 121. 16 U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology. Transforming American Educ ation Learning Powered by Technology, National Education Technology Plan 2010 (Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Education 2010): 1 87.

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19 teachers. An analysis of the financial impact of purchasing technology resources will assist schools in looking at the reall ocation of resources and the design of Twenty First C entury technology ric h classrooms. The study examined the changing attitudes and beliefs of students, teachers, parents, community members, and administrators in a selected elementary school regarding th e development of policies to support the retooling of classrooms and the purchase of technology resources for schools. Systemic school wide reform intended to increase student achievement requires a reallocation of district and school resources in o rder to provide access to technology resources for students along with ongoing professional development and support to teachers to effectively integrate teaching and learni ng experiences for students in Twenty First C entury classrooms. 17 The study examined current policies related to the purchase and use of technology resource s in a selected elementary school Research Questions How are financial resources used in schools to ensure access to technology along with the training and support for teache rs in a se lected school ? What are the technology resources necessary in a Twenty First Century classroom and what are the costs to provide these resourc es in a selected school ? How does the financial investment of technology in the classroom impact teaching and stud ent learning for increased student achieveme nt in a selected school ? Instrumentation Using a mixed methods descriptive analysis case st udy approach, the study analyzed the policies of the federal, state and a selected local school district regarding the p urchase of technology resources. The focus of the case study was on an elementary school in a selected 17 Transforming American Education 22.

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20 school currently implementing one to one laptop technology resources for students. The emphasis of the descriptive case study examined the financial inve stment of technology in this school including the investment in ongoing professional development and support to teachers in the transformation of teaching and learning practices in the classroom. A quantitative analysis of the technology skills of teachers was conducted over time to examine the correlation of increased technology competence of teachers related to the integration of technology and increased student engagement and achiev ement. Included in the study was a quantitative analysis of the attitude s and beliefs of teachers in the identified school as a result of the increased access and use of technology in the cl assroom. The study also included qualitative research data collected from an expert focus group composed of educators, business and commu nity members involved with the selected elementary school Theoretical Framework Research suggests that student achievement is positively impacted by the use of technology in the classroom. 18 The quality of instruct ion in the classroom is related to the kno wledge and skill level of the teacher. 19 The study conducted by Culp, Honey and Mandinach examined the relationship between student achievement and the use of technolo gy resources in the classroom. The increased knowledge and skills of students and teachers using technology and society in which students must succeed has become a global one, in large part due to 18 Katie McMillan Culp Margaret Honey, and Ellen Mandinach, A Retrospective on T wenty Years of Education Technology Policy. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology October 2003 ): 1 29 19 Willard Daggett Preparing U.S. Schools for the 21 st Century ( Rexford, N.Y.: International Center for Lead ership in Education June, 2008 ): 1 20

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21 20 The study analyzed the financial impact of expenditures on technology resources in the classroom and the relationship to the transformation of teaching and learning practices for the Twenty First C entury in the selected elementary school Limitations of the Study The descriptive case study is limi ted to one elementary school located in a selected Florida school district. Identified classrooms and tea chers for the study analysis was based on the willingness of individuals to participate in the study sample. A baseline assessment of the current knowl edge and skill level of each participant in the study was used and measured over the duration of the descriptive case study. The study did not examine the beliefs of the teachers prior to the collection of research data. Significance of the Study The study serve s as a resource for other schools interested in the transformation of teaching and learning practices through the integration of technology resources in the classroom. The study builds on the current resear ch related to the impact of one to on e technology access for students and increased student achievement. The importance of professional development and ongoing support to teachers engaged in classroom reform efforts was evaluated. The analysis of the financial impact of purchasing technology resources a nd related support services was conducted to assist s chool personnel in looking at the reallocation of the necessa ry resources for the design of Twenty First C entury classrooms. Examining the changing attitudes and beliefs of students, teachers parents, community members and administrators as a result of increased acces s to and use of technology provide s valuable information for school district personnel interested in the reallocation of resources and the retooling of their schools. 20 Daggett, Preparing U.S. Schools for the 21 st Century, 5

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22 Summary Pr eparing students for the Twenty First C entury requires a reallocation of resources and the retooling of schools and classrooms focused on the access and use of technology resources as an essential element for Twenty First C entury teaching and learning prac tices. 21 In high performing schools technology is used regularly as a tool to actively engage students in the learning process. 22 Technology enhances teaching and instruction in ways to support higher level thinking skills and application of learning. 23 Stude utilizing technology as a part of every aspect of their lives. 24 Those in the field of education today believe that t he cla ssroom learning environment should be designed to include the access and use of technology res ources as a meaningful component to effective teaching and learning best practices These educational theorists argue that teachers in classrooms today should be provided with the tools, training and support needed to ensure that all students are meaningf ully engaged in quality teaching and learning experiences that result in high levels of learning and achievement. 25 Educational theorists believe that t he allocation and use of the fina ncial resources of a school should be in alignment with the kinds of cla ssrooms and learning experiences student s need to be successful in the Twenty First C entury. Retooling of classrooms, instructional practices and available resources are essential elements to systemic school reform initiatives in American schools today. 21 Daggett, Preparing U.S. School s, 1 22 22 Ibid ., 1. 23 W Heinecke L. Blasi, N. Milman, and L. Washington, New Directions in the Evaluation of the Effectiv enes s of Educational Technology, (Washington, D.C.: Technology, U.S. Department of Education 1999 ) 24 L Harris Intel Teach for the Future: Meeting the Ch allenge of No Child Left Behind, ( New York: L eslie Harris logy 2002 ): 1 10 25 Daggett, Preparing U.S. School s, 1 22

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23 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE Introduction On February 17, 2009, President Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This legislation has set into motion an educational reform initiative known as Race to the Top which allocated $4.35 billion in competitive state grants to support education innovation designed to incre ase student achievement, close the achievement gap, improve high school graduation and prepare students for success in college as well as in the wor kforce. 1 As a result of this legislation, curr ently 46 states have secured Race to the Top state grants to implement educational reform measures including the adoption of National Common Core Standards, building state and national technology data base syst ems to support collaboration and sharing of best instructional practices, recruitment, development and retention of effective teachers and principals and the implementation of systemic reform efforts to turn around low achieving school. 2 Educational reform efforts across the country included i n the Race to the Top initiative are focused on the use of technology resources to effectively redesign teaching and learning opportunities to increase student achievement and prepare students for the Twenty First C ent ury. The research related to the direct correlation of the use of technology applications in the classroom and increased student achievement appear to be incomplete and lacking empirical data. The relationship between the use of technology in the classroom and increased student achievement appears to be difficult to measure due to varying methodologies being used as well as the inability to control all of the research variables including the types of technology used, the 1 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Funding. Race to the Top (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education 2007 ): 1 2. 2 Ibid.,3.

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24 level of knowledge and training of t eachers and the consistency of applications between teachers, school and school districts. 3 The literature review examined current federal, state, and a local ing technology expenditures. This policy analysis examined the r elationship between technology expenditures and other allocate d expenditures in education. This policy analysis reviewed the flexibility of current policies to support the purchase of technology resources. A review of the literature included an analysis of technology integration efforts in education over the past ten years and the changes to teaching and learning practices as the result of the increased access and use of technology in classrooms. The belief that technology can positively impact student lear ning has resulted in government initiatives to support the integration of technology in schools. In their book Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology Allan Collins and Richard Halverson, discuss the changes in education over the past 150 years as a result of changes in society from the industrial age to the information age. The future of education requires rethinking schools with a focus on lifelong learning and the development of expertise through the use of technology resources. If schools are tr uly to prepare students for the future then they need to include technology similar to the workplace, as an integrated part of teaching and learning as a foundational aspect of educational reform in the twenty first century. (sic) 4 The belief that technolog y can positively impact student learning has led to government created programs for the integration of technology in schools. 5 The Race to the Top, federally funded educational reform initiative includes funding opportunities to state legislatures committe d to the use of technology as part of educational reform plans. 6 The increased use of 3 J.L. Herman. Evaluating the Effects of Technology in School Reform, Technology and E ducation Reform, (San Francisco: Jossey Bass 1994 ): 133 167. 4 Allan Collins and Richard Halverson Rethinking Edu cation in The Age of Technology (New York: Teachers Col lege, Columbia University 2009 ): 62 63 5 Project Tomorrow. www.tomorroworg/speakup/pdfs/SU10_3EofEd ucation(Students)pdf ( 2011 ): 5 6 Race to the Top 1 29

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25 one to one technology applications for students was analyzed through the review of literature. The importance of ongoing professional development and ongoing support to t eachers necessary to make changes to teaching and learning practices in the use of integrated technology resources was identified throughout the literature. Due to the l ack of empirical data directly linked to the use of technology resources to improve stu dent achievement, the literature review and research studie s cited are based upon the work of those individuals who are practitione rs in the field of education and who through their research in the field have collected data of best practices as well as pro mising practices to support the increased performance of students. As technology continues to evolve its role in supporting improved teaching and learning is supported in the literature. Federal, State and Local District Technology Plans Policy analysis related to technology expenditures at the federal and state level appear to be limited. Federal level policies have deferred policy decisions regarding technology expenditures to the state and local levels. A review of education technology policies over th e past twenty years as conducted by the U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology, identifies three common key themes in a review of federal level technology policies. Beginning with the 1983, Nation at Risk report, technology has been identified as a critical element in school reform efforts. 7 The three common themes appearing in current technology policies are: 1. T echnology as a tool for addressing chal lenges in teaching and learning 2. T echnology as a change agent for transforming teachi ng and learning practices 7 National Commission on Excellence in Education. A Nation at Risk: The Imperative of Educational Reform (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education 1983 ): 1 12

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26 3. T echnology as a central force in achieving economic competiveness in a global world. 8 These three rationales for investing in educational technology surface again and again throughout the last twenty years. They are also highly i nterconnected. At the core, each of these rationales is based on recognition that technology is embodiment and the means of much of the social and economic change in the past century. There is also an acknowledgement that integrating technologies into the instructional fabric of teaching and learning in our society requires commitment, focus and resources from multiple stakeholders. Policy documents have been used consistently to garner support and sustain momentum over time. 9 As a compli ment to The Race to the Top educational reform initiative, a National Education Technology Plan 2010 (NETP) was recently developed and presented by the US Department of Education Office of Educational Technology. 10 The plan, entitled Transforming American Education Learning P owered by Technology highlights technology based learning and assessment systems as an essential component of educational reform initiatives designed to improve student learning and the ability to generate data to be used for continuous improvement in tea ching and learning. The plan outlines the importance of using technology resources to support teacher collaboration and ongoing professional learning. The challenge for educational systems in the implementation of technology resources is to redesign teachi ng and learning opportunities for all students that support engaging and relevant learning experiences for school and life given the limited financial resources and equity of technology resources to all students. The plan discusses the importance of establ ishing an infrastructure that provides every student and educator with the needed technology resources to ensure high levels of learning and achievement for every student. Education systems are encouraged to rethink assumptions about 8 Transforming American Education 2 3 9 Katie McMillan Culp Margaret Honey, and Ellen Mandinach A Retrospective on Twenty Years of Education Technology Policy (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Education al Technology October, 2003 ): 6 10 Transforming American E ducation 25 36

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27 teaching and learning need of customized learning curriculum rather than standardized ones and the organization and structure of schools designed to fit the individual learning ne eds of students. Technolo gy can play an essential role in educational reform efforts. The NETP presents five goals that address the key components of educational policy development utilizing technology resources in educational reform: learning, assessment, teaching, infrastructure and productivity. 11 The goals and recommendations of the NETP ar e outlined in Table 2 1. Each of the identified goals is listed along with recommendations for states to consider in the development of state technology plans. In a review of The State Educat ional Technology Directors Association (SETDA) 2011 report on educational technolo gy trends, the report identified that state level technology leadership is essential to achieving educational goals and priorities. 12 The report outlined four key strategies necessary to achieve the national education goals in preparing students for a global world: 1. The need to build a Twenty First C entury infrastructure that provides technology access to all students in order to provide equity, innovation and improvement in t he educational environment. 2. Supporting the development of educator effectiveness through the sustained professional development of teachers to effectively integrate technology in the teaching, learning and assessment processes. 3. Developing and replicat ing innovative models of learning through the use of online and blended learning models in technology rich learning environments, including personalized learning models. 11 Transforming American Education 51 62 12 R. Jones, C. Fox, and D. Levin. State Technology Leadership Essential for 21 st Century Learning, Annual Report, State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA), www.setda.org ( 2011 ): 5

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28 4. The preparation of all students for college and Twenty First C entury careers by en suring higher order thinking and application skills necessary for success. 13 To support each state Dep artment of Education in achieving these outcomes federal technology grant funds are made available through Title II, Part D grant funding sources 14 These federal funds are made available to states each year to improve student academic achievement using technology, to assist students in becoming technologically literate and to support technology integration through teacher training and curriculum developmen t. During the 2010 fiscal year, $93 million was appropriated to state level technology grants. 15 State awarded grants were made available to support technology initiatives at the individual school district level to implement the identified goals and recomme ndations of the NETP 16 along with the allocation of resources to support technology integration at the state and local levels builds on the recommendations identified in the NETP. 17 The state of Fl plan included the establishment of twelve identified technology goals that encompass three categories: learning environment, access and support. 18 Learning environment goals were designed to engage students in their learning. The Florida technology plan identified goals designed to increase access to digital learning opportunities for students in schools Support 13 J ones, Fox, and Levine, State Technology Leadership 65 14 Ibid ., 29 30. 15 Ibid., 30 16 Transforming American Education 6 7 17 Florida Department of Education Office of School Support and Technology Programs, Chartin g a Course for www.floridatechplan.org ( 2009 ): 1 49 18 Ibid., 2 4

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29 goals were developed to increase student learning rates. 19 Table 2 tec hnology goals identified in the state technology plan along with a definition of the goal and the identified framework component to achieve implementation of the technology goal. The Florida Department of Education requires that school districts submit a technology plan addressing essential components identified in the state technology plan in order to be eligible for state technology grant funds 20 The requirements of the district plan must address the following components : 1. Mission and Vision 2. General Intro duction and Background 3. Needs Assessment and Goals 4. Funding Plan 5. Technology Acquisition Plan 6. Access 7. User Support Plan 8. Staff Training Plan 9. Program Evaluation 10. E Rate Program Planning Criteria 11. NCLB Enhancing Education Through Technology Part I Application 21 The selected schoo l district technology plan for 2011 2014 is aligned with th e requirements outlined in the s tate of Florida tec hnology plan and identified students will utilize technology to engage in critical thinking, pr oblem solving and effective learning experiences. All students will be afforded the opportunity of access to technologies, which will promote enhancement of communication and an in depth understanding across all academic 22 The district plan i dentified specific goals to support the infusion of technology throu ghout the district; 19 Charting the Course, 2 4. 20 Ibid., 29 30. 21 Ibid., 13 28.

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30 t echnology ac cess for all students and staff; a cquisition of appropriate technologies to support educational initiatives; e stablishment of technology competencies for s tudents and staff members; s upport advanced technology learning opportunities to promote academic challenges for students; p rovide staff training to support current and future technology applications; s upport technology infrastructure to enable connec tivit y between schools/district including video, voice and data communi cation; d evelopment of minimum technological standards to support the purchase and continued expansion of technolo gy resources and infrastructure; e stablished effective and efficient technol ogy sta ndards, policies and procedures; c ommunication systems to inform stakeholders of ongoing technology initiatives; d evelopment of business, government and education partnerships to support technology initiatives; a llocation of appropriate human resour ces to support technology curriculum initiatives; a dequate financial support to secure necessary technologies to sustain ongoing and new initiatives; e stablished plans for short and long term maintenance, upgrading and acquisition of technology equipment a nd support materials; o ngoing assessment of technology implementation, involving students, teachers, administrators, support staff, parents and community members. 23 The review of the literature regarding funding to states for t he purchase of technology reso urces appear s to be restricted to grant resources coming through state technology grant allocations from the federal government level and distributed to individual school districts State educational agencies direct the allocation of technology grants thro ugh the development of 22 Russell Clukey Thoma s Petry, and Traci Dami, District School Board of Collier County District Technology Plan 2011 2014. (Naples, FL: The District School Boa rd of Collier County 2011): 5 6. 23 Ibid., 31 33.

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31 district technology plans which identify those priorities supported by federal grant funds. 24 Local school district technology budgets include the use of capital funds to support the purchase of technology hardware including managemen t informational support systems. 25 The selected school d istrict technology plan included funding sources from state grants as well as local capital funds. Included in the district technology plan is a School Board adopted policy for the selection and purcha se of technology resources following a clearly identified bidding process. 26 In reviewing technology plans and policies at the federal 27 state 28 and local school district levels 29 the r eview of the literature supported a common set of technology goals and objectives as well as a clear alignment of resources allocated at each level. All technology plans are required to include a direct correlation of how technology expenditures will directly impact student achievement efforts. Other district allocated funds including state textbook allocations as well as federal Title II, Part D grant funds do include a provision to permit a portion of the allocation for technology resources including hardware and software purchases. 30 Twenty First Century Teaching and Learnin g Skills and skills they need to complete in a global economy are also different. The students in classrooms from pre kindergarten through college are the first genera tion to grow up with access to a wide variety of new and emerging technology resources. These students have spent their 24 Charting a Course 29 30 25 Dis trict Technology Plan, 21 22. 26 Ibid.,72 74. 27 Transforming American Education 19 24. 28 Charting a Course 29 30 29 Dis trict Technology Plan, 21 22. 30 Transforming American Education 19 24.

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32 entire life surrounded by technology and the majority of their lives using technology. The average college student spends less than 5,00 0 hours reading and more than 10,000 hours playing video games and over 20,000 hours watching television. 31 The instructional approaches and resources used in classrooms are not compatible w ith these changes. The majority of teachers in ave grown up in a different time and therefore have difficulty relating to the needs of students today. 32 approach to teaching and learning. 33 Students today live in a customized world Students have the ability to customize their lives through their buddy lists, Facebook, ringtones and websites Digital literacy is defined as the understanding and us e of basic scientific and technological literacy, 34 In addition to improvement of core academic areas, Twenty First C entury learning requires that students develop additional skill s to be successful in a global world. A public/private partnership of educators and business leaders formed an organization in 2002 to assist with the creation of successful models of learning that incorporate Twenty First C entury skills into educational s ystems. The Partnership for 21 st Century Skills has become an influential guiding force in the development of educational reform efforts at the federal and state level over the past several years. 35 31 Marc Prensky Do They Really Think Differently? On the Horizon NCB University Press, Vol. 9, ( 6 ) Cambr idge, MA., ( December, 2001 ): 1 9 32 Marc Prensky Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants On the Horizon N CB University Press, Vol. 9 (5), Cambridge, MA., ( October, 2001 ): 1 6 33 Ibid., 1 6. 34 National Alliance of Business. st Century Wo rkforce, Executive Summary, ( Wa shington, D.C. 2000 ): 5 35 Partnership For 21 st Century Skills, Learning for the 21 st Century, www.21stcenturyskills.org ( 2009 )

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33 States and school districts have established rigorous sta ndards, assessments and accountability measures a concerted effort that has involved thousands of educators, employers and community members nationwide. Schools have responded with strategies to improve teaching and learning. There remains, however, a pr ofound gap between the knowledge and skills most students learn in school and the knowledge and skills they need in typical Twenty First C entury communities and workplaces. 36 Through the work of the Twenty First Century Partnership a framework was establish ed to build common language for Twenty First C entury skills. The framework identified six key elements necessary to support the development of Twenty First C entury le arning skills Table 2 3 identifies the Twenty First Century core themes of learning and th e skills that all students need to demonstrate in order to be proficient in school and the workplace. In addition to the digital literacy Twenty First C entury skills, students need to develop inventive thinking skills and interactive communication skills t o produce quality results. Table 2 4 provides a more detailed outline of the Twenty First Century skills necessary for success including the development of intellectual capital, social and personal skills and the results achieved through student learning and performance indicators. 37 students that have the technology knowledge and skills that exceed those of their parents and teachers. These students are d efined as a demographic group made up the new digital media culture, learns, works, plays, communicates, shops, and creates communities very differently than their 38 36 Learning for the 21 st Century, www.21stcenturyskills.org 2009. 37 Marc Prensky The Role of Technolog y in Teaching and the Classroom, Educational Technology, ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Educational Technology 2008 ): 5 38 Randall Hoyer A Look at the Technolog y Cultural Divide http://www.eschoolnews.com ( March 31, 2010 )

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34 highly enga ging and fun. Students expect to have constant interaction with learning experiences and immediate feedback that is customized to their learning needs. If the American education system is to prepare its students to meet the demands of an increasingly tech nological world, indeed if it is to be effective at all, it must twenty first century (sic) need a technology based education to survive in a technological world. 39 The Natio nal Education Technology Plan (NETP) released in April 2010 by the US De partment of Education identified information and communication technologies as important elements in an educational model for the Twenty First C entury. 40 The plan identified five key ar the core of virtually every aspect of our daily lives and work, we must leverage it to provide 41 The International Center for Leadership in Education in partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundat ion is to identify a coherent systems approach to educational reform initiatives and the development of Twen ty First C entury schools. 42 The work of these organizations on behalf of educational reform efforts at the national level have been instrumental in the development of the National Common Core Standards included in the Race to the Top federal grant initiativ e. 43 It is important to note that including this research as part of the literature review was based upon the identification of 39 Willard Daggett Preparing Students for Their Technological Future. (Rexford, N.Y.: International Center for Leader ship in Education May, 2010 ): 1 12 40 Transforming American Education 12 41 Ibid., 12 42 Daggett, Preparing Student s, 1 12 43 Willard Daggett Preparing U.S. Schools for the 21 st Century, (Rexford, N.Y.: International Center for Leadership in Educat ion June, 2008): 1 12.

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35 best practices representing the views of those in the field of education. The center believes that effective and sustained school improvement is based on a rigorous and relevant curriculum for all students and that the relationships between teacher and student and student to student matter greatly to the learning process. 44 Their research on effective schools has identified three cha racteristics found in a coherent systems approach: 1. Students must be actively engaged in their own learning and take responsibility for their learning. Academic improvement comes when students are actively involved. 2. The curriculum for students must have c ontent that is academically rigorous and relevant to students. Through their active engagement in the learning process, students see the relevance to their learning. 3. Teachers must have up to date knowledge and skills to effectively instruct students. T hey must have a strong foundation in student learning theory as well as content knowledge. They must incorporate relevancy into what they teach to support the needs of the Twenty First Century learner. 45 The 2010 Horizon Report 46 a qualitative research p roject established in 2002, identified emerging technologies that are predicted to have an impact on teaching and learning for the future. The research findings of the Horizon Report identified six technologies that have been predicted to impact Twenty Fir st C entury teaching and learning: Mobile computing : The ability to access network capable devices that students already have as part of the teaching and learning process in classrooms. Open content : The ability for students to access learning content and o nline resources at anytime and in any place. Electronic books : The availability and use of electronic reading devices. 44 Daggett, Preparing U.S. Schools, 1 12. 45 Ibid., 1 2. 46 L. Johnson, A. Levine, R. Smith, and S. Stone. The 2010 Horizon Report (Austin, TX: The New Media Consortium 2010 ): 1 35

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36 Simple augmented reality : The ability to access technology resources through the use of applications made portable through a variety of t echnologies. Gesture Based computing : Technological devices that is accessible and controllable by natural movements of the body. Visual data analysis : The ability to visually analyze large amounts of data. This type of technology blends statistics, data a nalysis and visualization strategies. 47 Based on the recommendations of leaders in the fields of business, industry, technology and education, the advisory board that oversees the development of the Horizon Report and supported by a 2007 report of the Amer ican Association of Colleges and Universities 48 gain experience in research, experimentation, problem based learning and other forms of creative 49 A new tech nological player to the field of educational reform headed by former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, is the Digital Learning Council formed in 2010. 50 The council is made up a 100 leaders from education, business and technology to assist in the development of a roadmap elements and identified the actions that need to be taken by lawmakers and policymakers to foster high quality, customized education for all students. This in cludes technology enhanced learning in traditional schools, online, and virtual learning, and blended learning that combines 47 Johnson, Levine, Smith and Stone, The 2010 Horizon Report, 6 7 48 Ibid., 6 7. 49 Ibid., 35 50 Found ation for Excellence in Education. Digital Learning Now! (Tallahassee, FL: Digital Lea rning Council December 1, 2010 ): 1 20

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37 51 The council has identified ten elements of high quality digital learning: 1. Student Eligibility : All st udents are digital learners. 2. Student Access : All students have access to high quality digital content and online courses. 3. Personalized Learning : All students will have the opportunity to customize their learning through the use of digital content. 4. Advanc ement : Students progress based on demonstrated competency. 5. Content : Digital content, instructional materials, online and blended learning are all high quality. 6. Instruction : Digital content and teachers are high quality. 7. Providers : All students have access to multiple high quality providers. 8. Assessment and Accountability : Student learning is the metric for evaluating the quality of content and instruction. 9. Funding : To create incentives for performance, options and innovation. 10. Delivery : Infrastructure suppo rts digital learning. 52 As schools transform themselves in order to meet the changes of the Twenty First C entury and prepare students for a rapidly changing global world, they should also transform the culture of schools through the ongoing use of new and e merging technologies. The role of teachers and administrators should be to regularly use technology tools and resources to support student learning. In her article, Transforming Schools for the 21 st Century, Leslie Wilson speaks to the role of teachers and administrators in making the needed changes in education, You are significantly changing the culture of education. You are guided by where schools need 51 Digital Learning Now!, 6 52 Ibid., 7 13

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38 which information moves dictates your looking forward and forging ahead (the window of the future). 53 In order to support the process of moving technology forw ard in schools Wilson identified seve ral ideas to sup port the vision; c ommunicate technol ogy goals at all levels; c ollaborate a shared vision of technology application among stakeholders; i dentify and include all possible funding sources as part of the technology vision and plan; a ddress misconceptions and inaccurate information about technology in educa tion and the global marketplace; s upport the fear and apprehension of staff members in the use of technology as part of the teaching and learning process encouraging risk taking; p rovide opportunities to mo del the effective use of technology integration and t he benefits to student learning; c reate cadres of teachers who support and are able to problem solve the integration of technology resources into th e teaching and learning process; m onitor technology i mplementation through the use of formative and summative evaluations of technology use. 54 The reality is that students are bored in classrooms today with traditional teaching practices. 55 Without the meaningful use of technology to support Twenty First C ent ury teaching and learning skills students will not be prepared for the future. The integration of technology in the classroom provides the opportunity to customize teaching and learning to meaningfully engage students and 53 Leslie Wilson, Transforming Schools for the 21 st Century, Pr oject Red, (Lansing, MI: One to One Institute 2009 ): 1 54 Ibid., 1 2 55 Ibid.,1.

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39 to meet their individual needs an d interests. 56 The role of the teacher in the Twenty First C entury classrooms has changed from being one of the keepe of knowledge and information to one of facilitator of the teaching and learning process. The integration and use of technology resourc es in the classroom provides students with the information and tools necessary and the application of Twenty First C entury skills. We are entering an era of rapid change. The future will be much different from the past. Our definitions of educated and lit eracy from the 20 th C entury may not apply to the same degree in the 21 st Other skills needed for the adult roles that our students will assume will be quite different. We need to look closely today at how and what we teach, and we must be prepared to reco gnize how that mix needs to change. 57 Technology and Increased Student Achievement Technology can play a huge role in increasing educational productivity, but not just as an add on or for high bo osting productivity is to leverage transformational change in the educational system to improve outcomes for children. To do so, requires a fundamental rethinking of the structure and delivery of education in the United States. 58 This quote appeared in the 2010 Project RED ( R evolutionizing Ed ucation): The Technology Factor, Nine Keys to Student Achievement and Cost Effectiveness, a comprehensive study of technology schools in the United States made by U.S. Department of Education Secretary, Arne Duncan 59 The study was conducted in over 997 schools in forty nine states and 56 Marc Prensky Reaching the Reluctant Learner Educational Technology Vol. 65, (6), (March, 2008): 40 45. 57 Willard Daggett Technology 2008: Preparing Students for Our Changing World (Rexford, N.Y.: International Center f or Leadership in Education January, 2003 ): 4 58 T. Greaves J. Hayes, L.Wilson, M. Gielniak, and R. Peterson. Project Red The Technology Factor: Nine Keys to Student Achi evement and Cost Effectiveness. MDR, www.project.RED.org .( 2010 ): 6 59 Arnie Duncan The New Normal: Doing More With Less, Remarks from U.S. Education Commission at the (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, November 17, 2010 )

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40 the District of Columbia to look at the impact of technology applications, student achievement and cost effectiveness. The project identified three goals: 1. Identify the impact of technology applications and improved academic achievement. 2. Research the potentially positive financial impact of technology in schools. 3. Examine the impact of one to one computing on student performance and education budgets. 60 Based on these identified goals, Proje ct RED developed three hypotheses to be tested : P roperly implemented educational technology can substantially improve student achievement P roperly implemented educational technology can be r evenue positive at all levels: federal, state and loca l Contin uous access to a computing device for every student leads to increased academic achievement and financial benefits. 61 The survey design included a comprehensive review of technology rich schools across the country identifying eleven common Education Succe ss Measures (ESMs) identified as impacting increased student achievement and cost effectiveness. The ESM s identified in the study included: 1. Disciplinary action rate 2. Drop out rate 3. High stakes test scores 4. Paper and copying expenses 5. Paperwork reduction 6. Teac her attendance 7. AP course enrollment 8. College attendance plans 9. Course completion rates 10. Dual/joint enrollment in college 11. Graduation rates 62 60 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 2 61 Ibid., 2 62 Ibid., 3 4

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41 Based upon insights generated from the ESMs survey questions were developed regarding twenty two independent variable s. As part of the data analysis the twenty two independent variables and the eleven education success measures were correlated. Table 2 5 identifies the independent variables used in the survey of schools. Project RED is the first larg e scale national stud y attempted to identify and prioritize those factors that positively impact technology implementation in identified schools. The study confirmed the hypothesi s that schools that employed one to one student to computer ratios along with key implementation f actors outperform other schools and are able to identify strategies for improving education producing a significant return on investment and the transformation of teaching and learning. The results of the study iden tified nine key factors that were linked most closely to educational success: 1. Intervention classes; integration of technology into every intervention class period. 2. Change management leadership by the principal; time is provided for teacher professional learning and collaboration. 3. Online collabo ration; students use technology daily for online collaboration. 4. Technology is integrated into core curriculum, daily and weekly. 5. Online formative assessments; assessments are conducted weekly. 6. Student computer ratio; lower ratios improve outcomes. 7. Virtual field trips; with more frequent use, virtual field trips are powerful tools for learning. 8. Search engines; daily use by students. 9. Principal training; principals are trained in strategies to obtain teacher buy in, best practices and technology transformed l earning. 63 63 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red, 107 108

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42 The nine factors identified in the study contribute to important implications for improved instruction resulting i n increased student achievement : P ersonalized teaching and learning; when every student has access to technology the opportunity fo r students to work independently and at their own pace increases along with the opportunity for teachers to a ddress individual student needs O nline formative and summative assessments; ongoing and immediate feedback and data allows for individualized adj ustment to the learning process for students S tudent engagement; technology resources and varied learning methods engage s tudents in the learning process F requent use of technology; when technology is integrated into all aspects of instruction includin g core instruction and intervention strategies, students and teachers have the opportunity to practice and improve their skills on an ongoing basis. 64 A meta analysis study that examined the effectiveness of teaching and learning using technology and stude nt academic outcomes found that teachers instructional practices changed as a result of the use of technology providing a more student centered approach to learning along with the ability to individualize instruction to meet the needs of students. 65 This p edagogical change in instruction provided more opportunities for students to collaborate with other students, and to have more choice s in how learning was demonstrated and provided a more active role for students in t he learn ing process. The results of the study indicated a positive effect of teaching and learning and student learning outcomes. 66 The impact of technology on student achievement is an area that research has been working on for many years. An analysis conducted by RMC Research Corporation has d ocumented that student achievement can be impacted by technology in looking at the 64 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red, 89 96 65 Hersh Waxman Ming Fen Lin, Georgette Michko. A Meta Analysis of the Effectiveness of Teaching With Technology on Student Outcomes, (Naperville, IL: Learning Associates December, 2003): 15. 66 Ibid., 15.

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43 relationship between student motivation, metacognition, learning processes and learning outcomes in a technology rich learning environment. 67 The study included an analysis of the work of Sternberg who suggested that level of expertise to 68 segments that all impact student learning and achievemen t. Through the development of higher order thinking and application skills students demonstrate long term student achievement. Technology integration supports student achievement through the learning process of inquiry and the application of learning outco students are learning how to learn; they are learning new skills that will help them both in school and in the workplace; they are learning how to dialogue with professionals and use feedback; they are motivated to stay in school. 69 Figure 2 1 provides a graphic representation of the RMC research model for assessing student achievement in a technology rich classroom. Defining Technology Integration Technology integration is identified in the research as a strategy for raising student achievement. The use of technology as part of the instructional process has been attributed to increased achievement of students on standardized tests, the improvement of critical thinking skills along with improved motiv ation to learn on the part of students. There is no clear common definition of technology integration in K 12 schools. 70 67 Lorraine Sherry Shelley Billig Daniel J esse Deborah Watson Acosta. Assessing the Impact of Instructional Technology on Student Achievement. WEB Project, 2000.Evaluation. www.thejournal.com ( February, 2001 ): 4 5 68 Ibid., 4 5 69 Ibid., 2. 70 Damian Bebell Educational Outcomes and Research From 1:1 Computing Settings The Journal of Technology Learning and Assessment Vol. 9, (1), Boston, MA., ( January, 2010 ): 9

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44 For some researchers technology integration is defined by the type and amount of computer usage in the classroom while others view techn ology in terms of how technology resources are used to impact teaching and learning practices in the classroom to increase student learning and achievement. 71 efficiently in the general content area s to allow students to learn how to apply computer skills in 72 When effectively integrated into curriculum, technology tools can extend learning in powerf ul ways. The internet and multimedia can provide students and teachers with up to date, primary source material; ways to collaborate with students, teachers and experts around the world; opportunities for expressing understanding via images, sound, and tex t. Technology provides numerous links to articles, resources, exemplars, and professional development modules. 73 The integration of technology in classrooms is a complex process that requires the alignment of instructional practices to curriculum standards. According to technology integration study that looked at the change process of teaching practices over time which supported the integration of technology included five stages: entry, adoption, adaption, appropriation and invention. 74 During the entry stage teachers rely on text based materials to support technology integration. During the entry stage teachers use technology based activities such as keyboarding and skil l practice activities. As teachers move into the adoption stage they begin the process of 71 S. Hennessy K. Ruthven, and S. Brindley. Teaching Perspectives on Integr ating ICT Into Subject Teaching: Commitment, Constraints, Caution, and Change Journal of Curriculum Studies Vol.3, (2), Ontario, Canada, ( 2005 ): 155 192 72 Jolene Dockstader Teachers of the 21 st Century Know the What, Why and How of Technology Integrat ion Technology Horizons in Education Vol. 26, Chatsworth, GA., ( 1999 ): 24 73 Edutopia. Technology Integration George Lucas Foundation, http://www.edutopia.org/php/keyword.php?id=137 ,( March 14 2008 ): 1 74 Steven Mills Be the Technology: A Developmental Model for Evaluating Technology Integration Journal of Research on Technology in Education Vol. 35,(3), Chesapeake, VA., (Spring, 2003): 382 401.

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45 integrating technology into classroom instructional practices. In the appropriation stage teachers understand the effectiveness of technology integration to support the teaching and learning process. At the invention stage learning becomes student centered and technology is viewed as a tool for integration and student directed learning providing for opportunities to engage students in project based learning and to individualize learning. 75 be accomplished in instructi onal techniques and technology, but also the integration of 76 The principles of constructivist learning theory are supported by the integration of technology in the teaching and learning process. Constructivist learning mode ls support learning as both an individual and personal event. Based on the work of educational research, the qual ities of constructivist include : L earners bring unique prior knowledge, experience and be liefs to the learning situation L earning is int ernall y controlled and mediated K nowledge is constructed in multiple ways, through a variety of tools, reso urces, experiences and contexts L earning is a process of accommodation, assimilation, or rejection to construct new conceptual structures, meaningful re pres entations, or new mental models L earning is both a n active and reflective process S ocial interaction introduces multiple perspectives through reflection, collaboration, negotiation, and shared meaning. 77 Constructivism provides valuable insight for classroom teachers who want to use technology to support student learning. Computers offer opportunities for enhancing intellectual growth and learner centered classrooms can help students 75 401. 76 Dockstader, Teachers of the 21 st Century 25 77 J. Brooks and M.G. Brooks. In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms. (Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Deve l opment 1993 ): 37 42

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46 connect the curriculum with their personal experiences and innate a bilities to learn. These classrooms have the most promise for successful technology integration. 78 Barriers in the Use of Technology A review of the research related to technology integration studies indicates identified barriers of technology integration i n schools was found to be associated with one or more of six identified categories. The categories identified include: 1. Resources 79 2. Knowledge and Skills 80 3. Institutions 81 4. Attitudes and Beliefs 82 5. Assessment and Culture 83 The lack of technology resources was iden tified as the primary barrier to the use and integration of technology in schools. The lack of technology resources including the time necessary to use the available resources along with the technological support necessary to effectively use technology wer e cited as barriers to technology integration. 84 The lack of technology includes the availability of computers, peripherals and software. 85 Without the availability of technology there is little chance that integration will occur as part of teaching and lear ning in the classroom. 86 Teachers indicate that the time to preview technology resources as well as the time 78 Brooks and Brooks, In Search of Understanding 37. 79 KheFoon Hew Thomas Brush Integrating Technology Into K 12 Teaching and Learning: Current Knowledge Gaps and Reco mmendations for Future Research. (Singapore, B.V.: Association fo r Educational Communications and Technology, Springer Science and Business Media December, 2006 ): 226 227. 80 Ibid., 227 228. 81 Ibid., 228 229. 82 Ibid., 229 230. 83 Ibid., 231 232. 84 Ibid., 233. 85 Ibid., 232 233. 86 Ibid., 235 236.

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47 needed to develop integrated units and lessons was identified as a barrier to effective techno logy integration. 87 The lack of ac cess to technology su pport personnel available to assist classroom integration was identified as a critical need for schools. 88 A 2010 national survey of teachers conducted by MetLife reveals that educators consider the ability to differentiate instruction for students as essen tial for success in student learning. The study showed that teachers feel that more access to technology along with more opportunities for collaboration will assist better meeting the needs of all students. Having access to online resources would enable te achers to better individualize learning for every student. 89 The lack of knowledge and skills necessary for technology integration were identified as a barrier toward the transformation of teaching and learning practices in the classroom. 90 The lack of tech nology knowledge and skills was reported by teachers as a barrier to their ability to fully use and integrate technology into classroom practices. 91 Professional development for teachers has traditionally focused primarily on the operations of technology an d not on the transformation of instructional approaches using technology resources which is viewed as a critical element to effective technology integration. 92 Additionally, the management of technology resources in the classroom has been an area that teach ers have not had specific training and support. The meaningful integration of technology in classrooms requires a change 87 Hew and Brush, Integrating Tec hnology, 242 244. 88 Ibid., 235 236. 89 Me t Life. Preparing Students for College and Careers: A Survey of Teachers, Students, Parents and Fortune 1000 Executives (New York: MetLife In surance Company May, 2011 ): 1 22 90 Ibid.,19 20. 91 Ibid., 20. 92 Ibid., 21.

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48 in the organization and management in the classroom to effectively increase student achievement by maximizing teaching and learning exp eriences. 93 The institutional barriers identified by technology integration include leadership and planning on the part of the teachers within the school A primary factor in the effective integration of technology is the understanding and commitment of th e school/district leadership personnel. The school principal must demonstrate an understanding of the importance of technology integration as well as a commitment to ensuring that teachers have the resources, time and support needed to ensure that technolo gy integration occurs in every classroom. Having a flexible structure and a school day time schedule to allow access to technology resources is necessary for the effective integration of technology into classroom instructional practices. Students must have access to technology resources in ways that promote the use of technology as a meaningful part of the teaching and learning process. 94 Teacher attitudes and beliefs toward technology can be another major barrier to technology integration. 95 Teacher attitud es and beliefs toward the use of technology are linked to their knowledge and comfort level in the use of technology and their view of the relevance of the integration as part of the teaching and learning process. 96 Teachers have to see the value of the int egration of technology and the benefits to student learning. 93 N. Training Teachers to Use New Technologies Impacts Multiple Ecologies: Evid British Journal of Educational Technology Vol. 40, (5), UK., ( 2008 ): 861 878 94 Hew and Brush, Integrating Technolog y 224 252 95 R. Hermans, J. Tondeur, M.M. Valcke, and J. Van Braak, Educational Beliefs as Predictors of ICT Use in the Classroom. (San Francisco: Paper presented at the convention of the American Educational Research Association 2006 ) 96 Ibid., 5.

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49 Assessment as it relates to technology integration is defined as a strategy to measure student learning. 97 Assessment includes both formative and summative and includes both formal standardized a ssessments as well as informal assessment strategies to measure student learning and progress. The pressures of high stake testing initiatives have been reported as barriers to technology integration by teachers. The No Child Left Behind A ct of 2001 has pl aced greater emphasis on testing and has focused on more comparative test scores of students, which undercuts the potential of technology integration to individualize the learning opportunities for students. 98 The emphasis on standardized testing practices has resulted in a financial investment in computer based testing practices rather than enhancement of teaching and learning practices. 99 Cultural barriers related to the integration of technology include the identification of institutional practices that r estrict the use of technology as part of effective instructional practices. I f technology integration were to be a meaningful part of every classroom and school it should be part of the established culture of the school and universally supported by all the stakeholders within the organization. To overcome the barriers of technology integration, the review of literature identified five main areas to address: The first is to have a shared vision and a school/district technology plan to guide and direct the al location and effective use of technology resources to support technology integration and increased student achievement. 100 The second area is to begin the process of reallocating financial resources to address the need for 97 M. Joh nston and N. Cooley. What We Know About Supporting New Models of Teaching and Learning Through Technology. (Arlington, VA: Educational Re search Service 2001 ): 1 16 98 L. Meyer. Survey Finds Strong Support for Educational Technology. The Journal www.thejournal.com ( March 14, 2011 ): 5 7 99 Les Foltos. Technology and Student Achi evement, (Seattle, WA: New Horizons for Learning, December, 2002): 7 100 Hew and Brush, Integrating Technology 224 252.

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50 more technology resources in classr ooms. 101 The third area to address is the ongoing process required to change the attitudes and beliefs of adults regarding the role technology plays in T w enty F irst C entury teaching and learning. 102 The fourth area needed for technology integration is the need to provide ongoing, job embedded professional development and support to teachers. 103 The final area to address is the need to reexamine the role technology plays in standards based assessment strategies to support more individualized teaching and learning. 104 Technology Applications in Twenty First Century Classrooms and expect that technology will be integrated in all aspects of teaching and learning. 105 Education policymak ers and educators recognize the needs of students and the benefits of including technology as an integrated part of teaching and learning. An initiative that many school districts across the countr y are exploring is providing o ne to one laptop technology f a laptop in the hands of every student has far reaching implications on the way educators think 106 A school district in Irving, Texas conducted a five yea r study of the impact of one to one laptop 101 J. E. Hughes, S.P. K Content focused Technology Inquiry Groups: Cases of Teacher Learning and Technology Integration Journal of Educational Computing Research, Vol. 32, (4), Fairfax, VA., (2005): 367 380. 102 W. Heinecke, L. Blasi, N. Milman, and L. Washingt on. New Directions in the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Educational Technology. (Washington, D.C.: Technology, U.S. Department of Education 1999 ) 103 Tara Jeffs and Savilla Banister Enhancin g Collaboration and Skill Acquisitio Journal of Technology and Teacher Education Vol.14 (2),Chesapeake, VA., ( Summer, 2006 ): 1 23 104 Hew and Brush, Integrating Technology 224 252 105 Ibid., 224. 106 Alice Owen, Sam Farsail, Ger ald Knezek, and Rhonda Christensen Teaching in the One to One Classroom. Learning and Leading with Technology, (Chesapeake, VA: International Cen ter for Education in Technology December/January, 2005 06 ): 12

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51 technology for students. The evaluation survey results indicated a higher level of student motivation and engagement on the part of students. The survey found that teachers faced with the challenge of changing the way they had been traditionally taught require that they had to learn new technology applications in order to keep up with the knowledge and skill levels of their students. The results of the study indicated that the single greatest change that occurred h ad to do with the role the teacher played in the classroom changing from one of delivery of instruction to guiding and facilitating student learning. Teacher feedback indicated that they believed that students learned more by having access to laptops and w ere able to access new information much easier. 107 The belief on the part o f educators who advocate for one to one laptop technology applications is that increased access and use of computers including a wide variety of digital tools will lead to improved te aching and learning and promoting more critical thinking skills on the part of students. A research study conducted in the state of Massachusetts reviewed several one to one laptop projects in school districts in the state. 108 The study looked at the simila rities and diff e rences that existed between one to one environments, the established learning expectations, funding sources as well as implementation plans and professional development training for teachers. The results of the study identified the followin g findings: 1. The increas e d resources provided by the one to one technology resources resulted in increased use of a variety of technology by both students and teachers. 2. Teachers play an essential role in th e successful integration of one to one technology applications in classrooms. 107 Owen, Farsail, Knezek, and Christensen, Teach ing in the One to One Classroo m, 12 16 108 Damian Bebell, Rachel Kay One to One Computing: A Summary of the Quantitative Results From the Berkshire Wireless Learning Initiative The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment Vol. 9 (2), Boston, MA. ( January, 2010 ): 1 59

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52 3. School based leadership was critical to the successful implementation and support of one to one technology initiatives. 4. Teacher preparation and ongoing professi onal development and support were determined to be the single most impo rtant factor of a successful one to one laptop initiative. 5. Increased student achievement was noted in all laptop studies and was attributed to changes in how teaching and learning occurred in the classroom as well as marked increases in stude nt motivation and engagement as a result of having access to one to one technology resources in the school. 109 The analysis of multiple one to one laptop technology application studies showed t hat successful implementation can be associated with changes to outcomes. The increased access and use of technology on the part of both students and teachers had a direct effect on the quality of instruction as well and the increase in student learning and achievement. A direct correlation between increased student achievement and student motivation and engagement was noted in the study. 110 A 1996 Microsoft Corporation laptop technology project entitled Anytime, Anywhere Learning Project complied research over a five year pe riod to examine the impact of laptop programs and outcomes for students and teachers. The study showed positive results for student learning and the delivery of curriculum by teachers in classrooms. 111 Key evaluation findings of the study include both outco mes for both students and teachers. Student outcomes identified : L aptop students spend more time engaging in collaborative work L aptop students participate in more project based instruction L aptops lead to more students writin g and to higher quality writ ing 109 Bebell and Kay, One to One 59 110 Ibid., 16 17 111 Learning With Technology: The Impact of Laptop Use on Student Achievement The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment Vol. 3, ( 2), Boston, MA., (January, 2005): 1 38.

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53 L aptops increase access to information and im proved research analysis skills L aptop students were collaborators; interacti ng with others about their work L aptop students were able to b etter direct their own learning L aptop students reported a great er relianc e on active learning strategies L aptop students engage in problem solving and critical thinking behaviors L aptop students consistently show deeper and more flexible uses of technology resources L aptop students spend more time doing homework using computers. 112 Teacher o utcomes identified : T eachers who use laptops use more constr uctivist approaches to teaching T eachers who use laptops feel mor e empowered in their classrooms T eachers who use laptops spend less time lecturing. 113 In 2003, the S tate of Florida commissioned a statewide ad hoc advisory task force to conduct a comprehensive study of laptop initiatives across the United States. The task force entitled s in all learning environments related to student success in grades kindergarten through twelve. 114 The task force identified three issues to address in the study: 1. A review of national and state laptop initiatives to identify best practices and their correla tion to student achievement and other measures of success. 2. A cost/benefit analysis of mobile technology as defined by anytime, anywhere authentic learning. 112 Learning 113 Ibid., 6. 114 Tina Barrios. Laptops for Learning Laptops for Learning Task Force (Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education March, 2004 ): 1 99

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54 3. An examination of educational equity opportunitie s to ensure students will have Twenty First C entu ry learning skills. 115 As a result of the task forces review of existing laptop initiatives, relevant research and literature along with the collective knowledge and experience of task force members the following recommendations were made to support continu ed laptop initiatives in the State of Florida : A ll students must have access to appropriate tools and to challenging curriculum in order to bridge the digital divide by moving beyond basics toward Twenty F irst C entury skills 116 Twenty First C entury curr iculum must be infused with skills needed for living and working in a global society. Skills include information and communication skills, thinking and problem solving skills and interpersonal and self directional skills 117 T eachers must create instructi onal environments in which students use higher order cognitive skills to construct meaning, build knowledge, engage in disciplined inquiry, and work on products that have value beyond school 118 S uccessful professional development must be continuous and o ngoing. It must provide mentoring and coaching to teachers, provide meaningful feedback, and hold teachers accountable for implementing instructional strategies and student learning 119 P re service teachers must experience good technology role models, have access to a laptop computer to support coursework and have field experiences that include opportunities to teach in a one to one environment 120 S tudents and teachers must have access to rich multimedia resources to: extend their world and life experiences, engage their senses, incorporate into their own multimedia projects and provide building blocks of instruction 121 115 Barrios, Laptops for Learning, 7. 116 Ibid., 27. 117 Ibid., 27. 118 Ibid., 27. 119 Ibid., 28. 120 Ibid., 27. 121 Ibid., 28.

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55 L aptop hardware and software must be sufficient to allow students to be creators of content, not merely passive receivers of content 122 T ech support procedures and planning must be adequate to prevent disruptions in laptop availability 123 I n addition to the testing of basic skills, students should be given the opportunity to demonstrate Twenty First Century skills through the use of technology infused, authentic assessments. Assessment should become more integrated with instruction. 124 The overwhelming conclusion derived from the study of research related to technology applications and the impact to te aching and learning was that one to one lear ning experiences provide many positive outcomes for student s, teachers and the community. A comprehensive analysis of both quantitative and qualitative studies of one t o one laptop programs, reflect the following learning outcomes; i mproved writing skill s and depth of student research; i ncreased student interest in learning and ow nership of the learning process; i mprovement in student and staff attendance; r educti on in student behavior problems; i ncreased parenta l interest in school activities; i m proved stu dent and staff morale; a reduction in lecture/presentation instruction and increase in project based learning activities. 125 122 Barrios, Laptops for Learning 28. 123 Ibid., 28. 124 Ibid., 28. 125 Ibid., 24 26.

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56 Although the research on one to one learning programs is positive, the rapid pace of technology changes makes it difficult for res earch to keep up. In addition to conducting more extensive rese a rch on the direct impact of one to one technology and increased student achievement outcomes, current measurement practices must be developed to measure T wenty First C entury teaching, learning and curriculum. Most educational assessments in widespread use today have thus only measured a knowledge in a real world environment. The assessment of Twenty First C entury (s ic) skills will help foster the application of higher order thinking and promote critical feedback to inform instruction and student learning. 126 Technology Applications and Student Achievement The relationship between the use of technology in the classroom and the correlation to increased student achievement appears to be difficult to measure due to varying methodologies being used as well as the inability to control all of the research variables that impact student learning and achievement. 127 n on this massive investment in classroom technology seems even more questionable when parents, policymakers, and educators look for evidence of the impact on student achievement. Supporters of educational technology continue to believe that technology wil l make a difference in academic achievement, but tend to rely on anecdotal evidence about student motivation and their development of critical thinking skills to support this belief. They have been forced to depend on faith and their observat ions in a larg e measure because there still is very little scientifically based research to gauge the effectiveness of technology. 128 Some of the early research of technology and increased student achievement indicate that part of the problem is that educators have not al ways been clear as to the outcomes they are seeking in bringing technology applications into the classroom. Is the goal of technology 126 Margaret Honey. onal Technology. ( Newton, MA: Education Devel opment Center, Inc. July 21, 2001 ): 1 127 Collins and Halverson, Rethinking Education 129 128 Corry Murray. Webcast Probes Meaning of Scientifically Based Research (Bethesda, MD: Remarks From John Bailey, Directo r of Educational Technology, U.S. Department of Educatio n, eSchool News, October 22, 2002 )

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57 integration to achieve increased test scores as measured by standardized testing, to provide more access to information fo 129 An early meta analysis study conducted indicated that student achievement showed moderate gains as the result of the increased use of technology in the classroom. 130 The results of the me ta analysis study indicated that technology had a n impact on student achievement : W hen properly implemented technology did increase student achievement as measured by test scores. T he increased interactions between the student and teacher and the prese nce skills in problem solving and inquiry skills increased student achievement as measured by test scores. S tudents from computer enriched learning environments demonstrated bett er behavior, less absenteeism and lower dropout rates. C omputer assisted instruction was especially beneficial to identified at risk student populations. 131 More recent studies of the impact of technology and student achievement indicate that the stronge st correlations between technology and increased student achievement can be directly linked to improved technology integration and changes to approaches to teaching and learning. 132 The study identified four common principles that impac t increased student ac hievement : Teachers and what they do, not just the integration of technology, had the knowledge, skills and attitudes about the integration of technology were the best predictors of incr eased student achievement. 129 Heinecke, Blasi, Milman, and Washington, Effectiv eness of Educational Technology, 1999. 130 Does Computer Technology Improve Student Le arning and Achievement? How, When and Under What Conditions? Journal of Educational Computing Research, Vol. 20, ( 4 ), Baywood Publishing Company, Amityville, NY. ( 1999 ): 329 343 131 Ibid., 341 342. 132 G.L.Waddoups, Technology Integration, Cur riculum and Stud ent Achievement (Portland, OR: A Review of Scientifically based Research and Implications for Easy Tech. Learning 2004 ): 1 32

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58 Curriculum design is an essential element to effective technology integration. As teachers design and implement curriculum they must address changes to teaching and learning through the integration of technology to impact studen t achievement. The use of technology resources must be flexible and pervasive in all aspects of the teaching and learning environment if increased student achievement is to be achieved. Students need multiple opportunities to use technology resources acros s curriculum areas, in multiple ways and to be provided with immediate and strategic feedback of their learning and achievement. The expansion of and consistent use of ongoing formative assessment to assist with planning for effective technology integra tion as well as monitoring student progress is an essential element for increased student achievement. 133 computers can help us teach the same old things in t he same old ways. Instead, school leaders have the opportunity to combine technology with emerging models of teaching and learning to transform education. 134 Professional Development for Teachers In order to change teaching and learning practices through th e meaningful integration of technology resources in the classroom, ongoing targ et professional development should be The review of literature identifies ongoing professional development and support to tea chers as an important consideration for technology integration. The need for professional development related to new and emerging technologies is well documented. What is becoming increasingly clear is the need for a specific kind of professional developm 133 Waddoups, Technology Integration, 25 27 134 M. Johnston and N. Cooley. What We Know About Supporting New Models of Teaching and L earning Through Technology (Arlington, VA: Educational R esearch Service 2001 ): 3

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59 Therefore, skills training, although important, can no longer be the sole focus of learning opportunities for teachers. 135 Research on the success of technology initiatives identifies the importance of tra ining along with ongoing mentoring and coaching to support the transformation of learning environments supported by technology resources. According to a Florida School Technology and Readiness (STaR) Survey of Florida Schools, two thirds of professional d evelopment time related to technology is spent learning to use applications and only 28% is devoted to curriculum going hands on professional development program in which teachers lea rn applications in the context of an actual project that they will be implementing with their classes. 136 term collaborative manner, and the goal is to change the learning e nvironment itself. This mirrors the digital native creating an environment for learning 137 The North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) has identified some guide lines for developing effective professional development to support teacher training and effective technology integration. 138 The following elements are helpful in planning technology focused professional development: A connection to student learning. Hands o n technology use. Variety in learning experiences. Curriculum specific applications. Identification of new roles for teachers. 135 Howard Pitler, Kathleen Flynn and Gaddy, Barbara Is a Laptop Initiative in Your Future? (Aurora, CO: Mid Continent Research for Education and Learning September, 2004 ): 2 136 Barrios, Laptops for Learning 18 137 Pitler, Flynn and Gaddy, Is a Laptop Init iative, 4 5. 138 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Technology in Schools: Suggestions, Tools, and Guidelines for Assessing Technology in Ele men tary and Secondary Education, (Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education 2002 )

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60 Collegial approaches to learning. Active participation of teachers. Ongoing support and continuous learning. Sufficient time for learning, planning and practice. Technical assistance and support. Administrative support. Adequate resources. Continuous funding and built in evaluation. 139 The Cost of Technology in Schools According to the Project RED study conducted in approximately one thousand schools across the United States in 2009, the cost of technology implementation varied wid e ly with costs to implement one to one technology varied from over $1 000.00 per student to as little as $250.00 per student annually. 140 The variation of co st impact is dependent on the type of hardware used, the established cycle for updating technology resources, the amount of professional development committed to technology integration and amount of software and enhancements purchased. 141 In order to determ ine the exact cost of a technology investment for a classroom or school, the ratio of student to computer needs to be determined. Suggested ratios range from one to one to a three to one with the projected costs being reduced with an increased ratio. One o f the areas discussed in the study that schools and districts need to consider is the cost savings benefit of a long term investment and the cost savings associated with purchasing technology resources as opposed to print resources. Initial investments may seem high but in the long run the cost can be reduced when resources are updated electronically rather than replacing textbooks and consumable resources. Much of the online technology resources used today can be 139 North Central Regional Education Laboratory Professional Development Guidelines (Washington, D.C.: Council for Educational Development and Research 1992 ): 2 140 Greaves, Ha yes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 112. 141 Ibid., 112.

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61 accessed online and would not need to be pu rchased. The reduction in printing and paper costs were also identified as cost savings measures. 142 Funding for Technology in Schools Race to the Top educational reform initiative state and local school districts have opp ortunities to secure funding for technology enhancements to support improved teaching and learning strategies. 143 financial resources to states and districts to promote innovative instructional practices facilitate t 144 T he State Educational Technology (Ed. Tech.) Grants Program provided $269 million dollars in technology grants to states beginning in 2009. 145 The primary purpose of Ed. Tech Grants is to used to assist every student in reaching technology proficiency, encourage effective technology integration, support professional development f or teachers and assist with the development of 146 new and emerging technologies, create new state of the art learning environments, offer new training and ongoing s upport to teachers to enable all students to acquire the technology skills 147 142 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 112. 143 Race to the Top, 1 29. 144 Transforming American Education 3 4 145 Ibid., 20. 146 Ibid., 21. 147 Ibid ., 27 28.

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62 The cost of technology implementation can vary greatly among districts depending on the level of commitment to providing tech nology resources in classrooms as well as the plan for upgrading and replacing technology resources. Education has often failed to replicate the success of other industry sectors in automating and transforming through technology, in large part due to the c hallenge real or perceived of allocating the necessary initial capital budget to start such initiatives. Very few substantial research efforts have examined the cost savings and revenue enhancements (increased tax revenues) that can be directly attribute d to educational technology. 148 The benefit of implementing educational technology in schools has the potential to outweigh the cost if implemented correctly according to the findings of the study. I t appears from the review of the literature that many barr iers stand in the way of schools moving forward with technology implementation 149 Educational leaders and policymakers at the federal, state, district and school based levels can help in removing these barriers through a comprehensive review and revision to policies. K 12 education expenditures have increased at over twice the rate of inflation from 1965 2005, yet U.S. school districts continue to deal with the problems of disengaged students and low achievement. Education leaders and policymakers are looking for ways to improve the quality of outcomes while slowing the growth of expenditures. The positive financial impact of properly implemented educational technology can contribute substantially to the solution. 150 The P roject RED report data indicated that ed ucational leaders and policymakers can assist with implementation of technology resources and support through the following actions: Consider educational technology to be an investment rather than an expense. Look outside the box, since most financial adva ntages come through re engineering. 148 Greaves, Hayes, Wil son, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 112 113. 149 Ibid., 114. 150 Ibid., 123.

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63 Insist on accountability. Technology investments must be coupled with a commitment to academic improvement, along with appropriate penalties when technology is poorly implemented. Tie academic performance to financial results. Require that cost savings measures be aligned to cost expense reductions to further promote and enhance technology applications. Require that the institution of education understands and embraces the challenges of change management. Support leadership and vision development at all levels governors, chief state school officers, superintendents and principals Provide legislative relief so that superintendents can realize the full benefits of technology in schools. Insist on standard metric s to ensure that technology cost benefit analysis is part of school reform, especially in regard to sustainability and s caling. Build awareness of the key implementation factors and cost benefit information among school administrators. 151 Summary It is argued that t eaching and learning for the Twenty First C entury requires a new set of quarters of top education officials around the world believe that technology can pla y a major role in how 152 The results of the survey indicated that educational leaders see the potential for technology to improve employment opportunities for graduates, increase distanc e learning opportunities, increase student engagement, communication, collaboration and the research skills of students. To effectively incorporate technology into schools, educators must understand the imperatives of the technologies that are driving this revolution. We have encapsulated those imperatives as customization, interaction, and learner control. 151 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 124. 152 Meyer, Support for Educational Technolog y, 5

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64 Customization refers to providing people with the knowledge they want when they want it supporting and guiding people individually as they learn. Intera ction refers to the ability of computers to give learners immediate feedback and to engage learners actively in accomplishing realistic tasks. Learner control refers to putting learners in charge of their own learning whenever possible, so they can feel ow nership and can direct their learning wherever their interests take them. 153 Educational leaders see technology implementation as a strategy to reduce overall educational costs. 154 The investment is technology resources to support increas ed student achievement for the Twenty First C entury requires new ways of teaching and learning. The integration of technology into classroom instructional practices including the development of inquiry based, student centered, interdisciplinary collaborative teaching and learni ng practices produces higher levels of learning and achievement on the part of students. Technology is identified as the catalyst for changing classrooms and instru ctional practices of teachers. Professional development is considered an essential component to the retooling of classrooms and schools for the Twenty F irst C entury. States continue to look for ways to fund technology resources including the reallocation of funding from instructional material budgets to support the purchase of technology resource s. Most recently, the availability of online instructional materials and resources once restricted to printed text materials, has reignited the discussion for the need to continue technology expansion in response to decreasing federal, state and local dist rict education budgets. Federal government technology grants provide states and school districts with opportunities to further enhance technology and technology integration opportunities in schools. One to the point where the exception becomes the rule and a new technology becomes commonplace. Research is beginning to yield empirical evidence that such initiatives are 153 Collins and Halverson, Rethinking Education 2009 154 Meyer, Sup po rt for Educational Technology, 5 6

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65 improving student achievement. Policymakers and school leaders should consider evaluating ways to fund one to one laptop initiatives in their schools as part of their plans for the future. While some will look through the lens of the digital immigrant and wonder, how can we afford this? The digital nat ive will come along and wonder h ow could they not have funded this?

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66 T able 2 1 NETP g oals and r ecommendations 1.0 Learning: Engage and Empower 2.0 Assessment: Measure What Matters 3.0 Teaching: Prepare and Connect 4.0 Infrastructure Access and Enable 5.0 Productivity: Redesign and Transforms All learners will have engaging and empowering experiences both in an out of school to prepare them to be active, creative, knowledgeable ethical participants in our globally networked society. Our education system at all levels will leverage the power of technology to measure what matters and use assessment data for continuous improvement. Professional educators will be supported individually and in teams by technology that connects them to data, content, resources, expertise, and learning exp eriences that enable and inspire more effective teaching for all learners. All students and educators will have access to a comprehensive infrastructure for learning when and where they need it. Our education system at all levels will redesign processes an d structures to take advantage of the power of technology to improve learning outcomes while making more efficient use of time, money and staff 1.1 States should continue to revise, create, and implement standard and learning objectives using technology for all content areas that reflect 21 st century expertise and the power of technology to improve learning. 2.1 State, districts, and others should design, develop and implement assessments that give students, educators, and stakeholders timely and actiona ble feedback about student learning to improve achievement and instructional practices. 3.1 Expand opportunities for educators to have access to technology based content, resources, and tools were and when they need them. 4.1 Ensure students and educator s have broad band access to the Internet and adequate wireless connectivity both in and out of school 5.1 Develop and adopt a common definition of productivity in education and more relevant and meaningful measures of outcome, along with improved polici es and technologies for managing costs, including those for procurement. 1.2 States, district, and others should develop and implement learning resources that exploit the flexibility and power of technology to reach all learners anytime and anywhere 2.2 C onduct research and development that explores how embedded assessment technologies, such as simulations, collaborative environments virtual worlds, games and cognitive tutors, can be used to engage/motivate learners while assessing complex 3.2 Leverage soc ial networking technologies and platforms to create communities of practice that provide career long personal learning opportunities for educators within and across schools, pre service education institutions/professi onal organizations. 4.2 Ensure that ev ery student and educator has at least one Internet access device and appropriate software and resources for research, communication, multimedia content creation, and collaboration for use in and out of school 5.2 Rethink basic assumptions in our education system that inhibit leveraging technology to improve learning starting with our current practice of organizing student and educator learning around seat time instead of the demonstration of competencies.

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67 Table 2 1 Continued 1.0 Learning: Engage and Empower 2.0 Assessment: Measure What Matters 3.0 Teaching: Prepare and Connect 4.0 Infrastructure Access and Enable 5.0 Productivity: Redesign and Transforms All learners will have engaging and empowering experiences both in an out of school to prepar e them to be active, creative, knowledgeable ethical participants in our globally networked society. Our education system at all levels will leverage the power of technology to measure what matters and use assessment data for continuous improvement. Profes sional educators will be supported individually and in teams by technology that connects them to data, content, resources, expertise, and learning experiences that enable and inspire more effective teaching for all learners. All students and educators will have access to a comprehensive infrastructure for learning when and where they need it. Our education system at all levels will redesign processes and structures to take advantage of the power of technology to improve learning outcomes while making more e fficient use of time, money and staff 1.4 Use advances in learning sciences and technology to enhance STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) learning and develop, adopt and evaluate new methodologies with the potential to inspire/enable a ll learners to excel in STEM 2.4 Conduct research and development that explores how Universal Design for Learning can enable the best accommodations for all students to ensure we are assessing what we intend to measure rather than extraneous abilities a st udent needs to respond to the assessment task. 2.5 Revise practice, policies and regulations to ensure privacy and information protection while enabling a model of assessment that includes ongoing gathering and sharing of data on student learning and continuous improvement. 4.5 Develop/use interoperability standards for content and student learning data to enable collecting and sharing resources and collecting, sharing, and analyzing data to improve decision making at all levels of our educational system.

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68 Table 2 1 Continued 1.0 Learning: Engage and Empower 2.0 Assessment: Measure What Matters 3.0 Teaching: Prepare and Connect 4.0 Infrastructure Access and Enable 5.0 Productivity: Redesign and Transforms All learners will have engaging and empowering experiences both in an out of school to prepare them to be active, creative, knowledgeable ethical participants in our globally networked society. Our education system at all levels will leverage the power of technology to measure what matters and use assessment data for continuous improvement. Professional educators will be supported individually and in teams by technology that connects them to data, content, resources, expertise, and learning experiences that enable and inspire more effective teaching for all learners. All students and educators will have access to a comprehensive infrastructure for learning when and where they need it. Our education system at all levels will redesign processes and structures to take advantage of the power of t echnology to improve learning outcomes while making more efficient use of time, money and staff 4.6 Develop/use interoperability standards for financial data to enable data driven decision making, productivity advances, and continuous improvement at al l levels of our educational system. Source: U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology. Transforming American Education Powered by Technology, ( November, 2010 )

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69 Table 2 2 oals Digital Age Literacy Inventive Thinking Intellectual Capital Interactive Communication Social/Personal Skills Quality, State of the Art Results Basic, Scientific, and Technological Literacies Students learn to write critically, write persuasively, think and reason logically and are able to solve complex problems in math and science Adaptability/Managing Complexity and Self Direction Students are able to identify and react to changing conditions, identify new skills required and independently plan and execute plans anticipating changes and systems. Teaming / Collaboration Students must be able to make collaborate and communicate with others to make decisions. Effectively use informational technology both individually and as part of group collaborati on. Prioritizing, Planning, and Managing for Results Students must be able to think at high levels of complexity, plan carefully, manage and anticipate contingencies. They must be flexible and think creatively to anticipate unexpected outcomes. Visual a nd Informational Literacy Students need good visualization skills identify patterns, communicate using imagery, accessing .and evaluating information accurately and creatively. Curiosity, Creativity and Risk taking Students need to demonstrate creativity and life long learning including risk taking behaviors in learning. Personal and Social Responsibility Students need to demonstrate ethics and values to guide the application of science and technology and their roles as informed citizens at all levels. Effective Use of Real World Tools Students must be able to use digital tools to solve problems. They must be able to choose appropriate tools for the task and apply them to real world problems. Cultural Literacy and Global Awareness Students need to kn ow, understand and appreciate other cultures, including cultural formations as norms are formed in a technological society. Higher Order Thinking and Sound Reasoning Students need to think creatively, make decisions, solve problems, knowing how to learn a nd reason. They must be able to plan, design and execute and evaluate solutions and processes effectively using technological tools. Interactive Communication Students understand how to communicate using technology. They must be able to communicate throug h a wide range of media including etiquette specific to particular environments. High Quality Results with Real World Application Students learn through authentic and real world applications providing deeper learning and insights. Technology plays an imp ortant role in providing these learning experiences

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70 Table 2 3 Tw enty First Century Partnership key e lements Twenty First Century Core Themes Twenty First Century Skills Emphasis on core subjects. Development of knowledge and applica tions of core subject at a higher level of learning. Emphasis on learning skills. Continuous lifelong learning of information and communication skills, thinking and problem solving skills, and interpersonal and self directional skills. Use of Twenty Firs t Century tools to develop learning skills. Use of digital learning tools for learning in everyday life and the workplace. Teaching and learning in a Twenty First Century context. Learning of academic skills through real world authentic learning experienc es. Teach and learn Twenty First Century content. Learning of content skills necessary for success in communities and the workplace: global awareness, financial, economic, business, and civic literacy. Use of Twenty First Century assessments that measur e Twenty First Century skills. Use of both high quality standardized assessments for accountability as well as classroom assessments for improved teaching and learning.

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71 Table 2 4 Twenty First Century partnership s kills Digital Age Literacy cs Inventive Thinking Intellectual Capital Interactive Communication Social/Personal Skills Quality, State of the Art Results B asic, Scientific, and Technological Literacies Students learn to write critically, write persuasively, think and reason logically and are able to solve complex problems in math and science. Adaptability/Managing Complexity and Self Direction Students are able to identify and react to changing conditions, identify new skills required and independently plan and execute plans anticipating changes and systems. Teaming / Collaboration Students must be able to make collaborate and communicate with others to make decisions. Effectively use informational technology b oth individually and as part of group collaboration. Prioritizing, Planning, and Managing for Results Students must be able to think at high levels of complexity, plan carefully, manage and anticipate contingencies. The y must be flexible and think creatively to anticipate unexpected outcomes. Visual and Informational Literacy Students need good visualization skills identify patterns, communicate using imagery, accessing and evaluating information accurately and c reatively. Curiosity, Creativity and Risk taking Students need to demonstrate creativity and life long learning including risk taking behaviors in learning. Personal and Social Responsibility Students need to demonstrate ethics and values to guide the a pplication of science and technology and their roles as informed citizens at all levels. Effective Use of Real World Tools Students must be able to use digital tools to solve problems. They must be able to choose appropriate tools for the task and apply them to real world problems. Cultural Literacy and Global Awareness Students need to know, understand and appreciate other cultures, including cultural formations as norms are formed in a technological society. Higher Order Thinking and Sound Reasoning Students need to think creatively, make decisions, solve problems, knowing how to learn and reason. They must be able to plan, design and execute and evaluate solutions and processes effectively using Interactive Communication Students understand how to communicate using technology. They must be able to communicate through a wide range of media including etiquette specific to particular environments. High Quality Results with Real World Application Students learn through authentic and real world applica tions providing deeper learning and insights. Technology plays an technological tools. important role in providing these learning experiences Source: 21 st Century Workforce Commission National Alliance of Business. Twenty First Century Skills, ( 2010 )

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72 Table 2 5 Project RED 2010 survey independent v ariables 1.Types of devices 12.Principal training 2.School usage patterns 13.Principal leadership role 3.Levels of use by subjects 14.Teacher professional training 4.Primary impetus of the p rogram 15.Professional learning budget 5.Sources of funding 16.Technology systems reliability 6.Parental involvement 17.Network accessibility 7.Teachers to student issued devices 18.Internet connection speed 8.Technology plan quality 19.Student comp uter ratio 9.Program sustainability 20.Grades covered 10.Pedagogical models / usage patterns 21.Year / length of implementation 11.Classroom type / frequency of use 22.Type of institution Figure 2 1 RMC Research Model for Assessing Student Ach ievement in a Technology Rich Learning Environment Motivation Metacognition Inquiry Learning (process) Application of Skills (product) Student Achievment

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73 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN METH ODOLOGY Introduction The purpose of this descriptive analysis case study was to examine the current federal, state and local educational finance policies that support the allocation and integration of technology and technology resources to support the teaching and learning process in a Twenty First C entury school and classroom. The three research questions identified in the study provided the framework used to guide the re view of the literature as well as the data collected. The first research question: How are financial resources used in schools to ensure access to technology along with training and support for teacher s in a selected elementary school is addressed through the review of federal, state and local school district policies and procedures regarding the purchase of and access to technology resources? The policy analysis reviewed the changes in funding policies necessary to support technology integration including the allocation of technology resources, professional development and ongoing teacher support to enhance Twenty First C entury teaching and learning practices. As financial resources become scarcer in the current economy, the continued investment in technolo gy resources becomes one of careful review and consideration. The second research question: What are the technology resources necessary in a Twenty First Century classroom and what are the costs to provide these resourc es in a selected elementary school are addressed through an extensive review of technology studies from the field of education conducted by those in the field. The return on investment for t echnology expenditures was reviewed as part of the study. The descriptive case study include d a quant itative analysis of the technology skills of teachers in a selected elementary school who were actively using technology resources as measured by a state approved technology

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74 assessment. A second quantitative measure was a survey of the attitudes and belief s of the teachers in the selected elementary school about the integration of technology and the impact to the teaching and learning process. A third source of data collected, as part of the descriptive case study analysis, was a qualitative analysis using data collected from an expert focus group of individuals representing education, business and the community. The sel ection of focus group members was based on their involvement with the selected school as a member of their respective representative group. Through the use of targeted interview questions, each focus group participant was asked his/her opinion and perspective about the allocation and use of technology resources to support teaching and learning practices in the Twenty First C entury. The inform ation collected from each of the data sources was analyzed and used to answer the identified research questions in the descriptive analysis case study. The third research question posed in the study: How does the financial investment of technology in the c lassroom impact teaching and learning for increased student achi evement was a question that did not have empiric al research data to support therefore data was based on more inferential findings from the field and focused more on the research related to bes t practices and promising practices from the field of education and the impa ct to student achievement. D ata collected and reviewed from the selected school district and selected school was reviewed but the direct impact of technology integration and increa sed student achievement could not be directed correlated. Instrumentation A Complementary Policy Research methodology was used to review how policies at the federal, state, and local school district level support the financial resources in schools to ens ure

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75 access to technology along with the training and support for teachers. 1 An Integration Framework was used to answer the research question using a mixed methods descriptive analysis. 2 The selection of this methodology was made in order to examine educat ional research and the influence on technology policy development. Quantitative data were collected through two surveys of the teachers in a selected elementary school. The firs t source of quantitative data was from an assessment of teacher technology skil ls. An online technology assessment used by the Florida Department of Education 3 was used to collect quantitative data of the technology skills of individual teachers in the areas of basic operations, productivity, communication, research, planning, manage ment, instruction and social, ethical, legal and human issues. The assessment instrument developed specifically for the Florida Department of Education Office of Educational Technology by an independent contractor in 2004. 4 The test design included sound t est development procedures to ensure that the test items were closely aligned to the identified technology standards as outlined from the International Society for Technology in Education. 5 A field test was conducted according to a sound research design an d sampling plan. Test quality was evaluated by considering item analysis, test reliability, and test validity measures. The secon d source of quantitative data was regarding the availability and use o f technology in the classroom. The online beliefs survey 1 Gary Sykes, Barbara Schneider, David Plank, and Timothy Ford. Handbook of Education Policy Research, ( New York: Routledge; American Education Research Association, 2009): 113 128. 2 Ibid., 168. 3 Florida Department of Edu cation, Office of Technology, Inventory of Teacher Technology Skills (ITTS) http://itts.flinnovates.org/inventory/index.aspx ( 2005 ) 4 Cynthia Parshall, Christine Harmes, Gianna Rendina Gobi off, and Peggy Jones. Teacher Technology Literacy Inventory Development and Field Test Enhancing Education Through Technology (EETT) Part II Competitive Opportunity, Florida Department of Education Office of Educational Technology, Tallahassee, FL. (2003) 5 International Society for Technology in Education. National Educational Standards for Teachers : Preparing teachers to use technology. Eugene, OR, (2002).

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76 instrument was developed by the North Central Instrument Library and Data Repository. 6 The t hird source of data collected was qualitative information from an expert fo cus group of individuals represe nting education, business and the community. Focus group participants were all asked the same set of research questions about the allocation and use of technology in schools. Each participant was asked to provide his/her opinion and perspective as a member of one of the target groups. The information collected thr ough the focus interview was compiled, analyzed and reported as a part of the data collected to answer the questions identified in the descriptive analysis case study The desc riptive analysis cas e study used a triangulation mixed methods design. Both quan t itative and qualitative data were collected at the s ame time. Data collected was analyzed and reported separately as individual data sets. The information from each data set was compared to each other and an interpretation of data was drawn to address the research questions identified in the descriptive analysis case study. 7 To answer the research question on how financial resources are used in schools to ensure access to technology along with tra ining and support for teacher s i n a selected elementary school the quantitative data from the teacher inventory and the beliefs survey directly correlate to the investment of technology, the resources identified and made available in the selected school district and selected elementary school were add ressed. The data collected and analyzed from the review of the research along with data of the selected school district and selected elementary school including the expect focus group data addressed the secon d and third identified study research questions on the types of technology resources necessary in a Twenty First Century Classroom and the cost associated with providing the technology. The investment 6 North Centra l Regional Education Laboratory, Beliefs About Teaching with Technology (BATT), (Washi ngton, DC: Council for Educational Development and Rese arch). 7 John Creswell. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research ( New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall 2008 ): 551 595

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77 in technology and the impact on student achievement was discussed through the policy review as well as the data from the selected school district and selected elementary school. Inventory of Teacher Technology Skills The Inventory of Teacher Technology Skills (ITTS) 8 is an assessment instrument used by the F lorida Department of Education Office of Technology to support the allocation of technology resources and the awarding of technology grants to school districts throughout the state of Florida. Field tested by the Florida Department of Education in 2004, th e ITTS assessment includes six technology assessment components including an assessment of basic technology operations and productivity within each component area. The areas assessed include d : 1. Basic operations assessment includes the development of databa ses and the use of graphics. 2. Productivity assessment includes the use of word processing, spreadsheets and databases. 3. Communication assessments include the use of E mail, video and multimedia presentations. 4. Research assessment includes conducting res earch and the ability to use a browser. 5. Planning, Management and Instruction assessment includes the use of technology for both planning and instructional purposes. 6. Social, Ethical, Legal and Human Issues assessment includes technology use policies, moni toring of students, safety and security and copyright and digital citations. 9 To access the online I TTS assessment each teacher logged on directly through the state website linked directly to the instrument. The teacher taking the assessment inventory se lect ed 8 Inventory of Teacher Techno logy Skills (ITTS) 2005. 9 North Central Regional Education Laboratory, Beliefs About Teaching with Technology (BATT) (Washington, D.C.: Council for Educational Developmen t and Research).

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78 the name of the school district and individual school site to be included in the assessment. Each participant cre ated a login account using his/her individual Email address and to identify an individual password. Participants complete d the online as sessment of each of the six sections of the technology inventory. A score was obtained upon completion of each of the subtests f or the ITTS. A summary report was generated and sent to each participant after completing the entire inventory. A summary report of each person taking the assessment was generated with both individual cohort summary reports and comp osite scores for each subtest was provided The administration time for the ITTS was estimated to be one hour to complete. 10 Beliefs About Teaching with Technology Survey The Beliefs About Teaching with Technology (BATT) survey is an attitude and beliefs contextual beliefs about using technology in the classroom. 11 The survey includes fourteen questions related to resource s, professional development, internet access, quality software, classroom structures, administrative support, parental support and teacher support to effectively utilize technology in the classroom. The BATT survey uses a Likert type scale of 1 strongly d isagree to 5 strongly agree. Participants were asked to respond to each question based on his/her knowledge and experiences in using technology. The same series of questions was presented twice in the survey. The first time the questi on was presente d in t he survey, the question was framed within the context of the effective use of technology in the classroom and the impact on the teaching and learning process. The second time the survey question was presented it was framed within the context of the access to technology at the school and classroom levels. The BA TT survey was conducted online and was 10 Inventory of Teacher Technology Skills (ITTS) 2005. 11 Beliefs Abo ut Teaching with Technology ( BATT ).

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79 made accessible to participants through the district online electronic learning system. A report summary of participant responses ind icating a confidence interva l was generated for review and analysis. The BATT survey was estimated to take about 20 minutes to complete. Expert Focus Group An expert focus group composed of eight individuals representing education, business, and the community was assembled with the p urpose of collecting qualitative data representing their opinions and perspectives about the allocation and use of technology resources to support teaching and learning in the Twenty First C entury. The design of the expert focus group and the process used for collecting data followed an identified framework for collecting and analyzing data in a focus group research study. 12 The selection of the focus group members was based on years as a member of one of the target groups. The pers pectives of focus group members were based upon their opinions and perspectives about the role of technology and technology integration in the selected elementary school. Each focus group member was as ked to respond to the same set of research questions. Data collected from each focus group interview was transcribed by the researcher and provided to each participant to validate that the information was an accurate reflection of the responses of each foc us group parti cipant The qu alitative data collected were used to support the quantitative data collected from the teacher technology inventory and beliefs way o f collecting qu alitative data, which essentially involves engaging a small number of people 12 International Journal of Qualitative Methods 8, 3, (2009): 1 1 7, International Institute For Qualitative Methodology (IIQM), University of Alberta, Canada.

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80 13 The collective responses of the focus group members provides a limited sample of the general perspectives of the representative sample groups of the selected elementary school related to the identified research questions of the study. The focus group research questions presented to each participant: 1. What role do you believe that tec hnology skills development plays in the Twenty First Century classroom? 2. What are the technology resources that you believe need to be included in a Twenty First Century classroom? 3. How do you believe that professional development and support to teachers in the area of technology integration should be provided to be most effective? 4. How do you believe that schools should determine the allocation of resources toward the purchase of technology? 5. What elements do you believe should be included in the develo pment of federal, state and district policies related to the purchase of technology resources? Design of the Study The descriptive case study included a policy analysis of federal, state and district policies regarding the allocation of technology resourc es to support teaching and learning for the Twenty First C entury. The study included a descriptive case study of a selected elementary school that has committed to utilizing technology resources to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning. The st udy followed a triangulation m ixed methods design and included quantitative data assessing the technology skills of teachers in a selected elementary school along with an assessment of their attitudes and beliefs related to the integration of technology in the classroom as the primary sources of data. 13 S. Wilkinson. Focus Group Research, Qualitative Research Theory, Method and Practic e, (Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage, 2004 ): 177 199

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81 A secondary data source include d a small qualitative study using an expert focus group of educators, business and community participants to include their opinions and perspectives on the development of T w enty First C entury teaching and learning skills. Included in the descriptive analysis was a review of the financial impact required to establish a Twenty First C entury technology classroom including recommendations for equipping a classroom and the e xpected return on the investment. Summary The des criptive analysis study included a review of policies at the fede ral, state and district level identifying the process for the allocation of funds to support technology integration. In addition to a policy analysis, quantitative da ta was collected from a selected elementary school staff located in a Florida school district who has committed to utilizing technology resources to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning. An exert focus group of educat ion, business and communi ty members was used to collect qualitative data regarding their opinions and perspectives about the allocation and integration of technology to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning. The descriptive analysis study addr essed the identified three research questions: 1. How are the financial resources used in schools to ensure access to technology along with training and support for teache rs in a selected elementary school ? 2. What are the technology resources necessary in a Tw enty First Century classroom and what are the costs to provide these resources in a selected elementary school ? 3. How does the financial investment of technology in the classroom impact teaching and student learning for increased student achieveme nt in a se lected elementary school ? The information collected from the descriptive analysis case study of the selected elementary school will provide a resource to other schools and school districts committed to utilizing

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82 technology resources in ways that support i mproved teaching and increased student achievement necessary for success in school and the workplace in the Twenty First Century. face the challenge of harnessing the power of learning technologies at the same time as the pendulum of educatio n policy is swinging away from creativity toward policies based on standardizing schools and emphasizing the kinds of accountability practices that paralyze risk 14 14 Allan Collins and Richard Halve rson. Rethinking Edu cation in The Age of Technology, (New York: Teache rs College, 2009 ): 120

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83 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPR ETATION OF DATA Introduction D ata collected an d ana lyzed in the study included both a policy analysis as well as a mixed methods descriptive case study analysis. The policy analysis included a review of current federal, state esources. The case stu dy descriptive analysis included data collected from a selected elementary school in a selected s chool district implementing one to one laptop technology for stude n ts in the selected school. D ata collected included a quantitative data analysis of both the technology skills of about the use of integration of t echnology resources to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning. An a dditional source of data collected in the study included a qualitative analysis of data from an identified expert focus group composed of educators, business, community and parent representatives and their perspectives on the allocation and integrat ion of technology resources in Twenty First C entury classrooms. The qualitative data collected was analyzed using a triangulation mixed methods design to address the identified research questions in the study: 1. How are the financial resources used in schools to en sure access to technology along with training and support for teache rs in a selected elementary school ? 2. What are the technology resources necessary in a Twenty First Century classroom and what are the costs to provide these resourc es in a selected element ary school ? 3. How does the financial investment in technology in the classroom impact teaching and student learning for increased student achievement in a selected elementary school ?

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84 Analysis of Federal, State and Selected School District Policies Federal Policy Analysis The 2010 National Education Technology Plan (NETP), developed by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology id entifies the implementation and use of technology resources as the mo del for learning in the Twenty First C entury. 1 The NETP presents a model of learning powered by technology, with goals and recommendations in five essential areas: learning, assessment, teaching, infrastructure, and productivity. The pl an also identifies far reaching grand oblems that should be funded and coordinated at the national level. 2 The NETP outlines each of the learning goal areas and the impact of technology resource s in order for individual state legislatures to development and implement technology plans clearly a ligned to the national technology plan. The first goal identified in the NETP as Learning: Engage and Empower is intended to increase learning opportunities for all students as well as to ensure that learning is aligned to the individual needs of every stu dent. This model of learning using technology resources provides a comprehensiv e focus on what students should know, how they learn best and the opportunities they need to ensure they learn to a mastery level. 3 The second model of learning identified in th e NETP is Assessment: Measures What Matters. 4 The effective use of technology based assessments can provide teachers with the data needed about based assessments can be used formatively to diag nosis and modify the conditions of learning and instructional practices while 1 U.S. Department of Education O ffice of Educational Technology, Transforming American Education Learning Powered by Technology, National Education Technology Pla n 2010, (Washington, D.C.: U S Department of Education, November, 2010 ) 2 Ibid., 8. 3 Ibid ., 8. 4 Ibid., 25 38.

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85 at the same time determining what students have learned for grading and accountability 5 The third learning goal model outlined in the NETP focuses on Teaching: Prepare and Connect. 6 The mode l identified the importance of building the knowledge and skill level of teachers to utilize technology for connected learning in the Twenty First C entury classroom. In a connected teaching model, classroom educators are fully connec ted to learning tools for using the data; to content, resources, and systems that empower them to create, manage, and access engaging and relevant learning experiences; and directly to their students in support of learning both in and out of school. 7 The f ourth learning goal model identified in the NETP entitled Infrastructure: Access and Enable, outlines the comprehensive technology infrastructure necessary to ensure that every student and teacher has the necessary resources to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning principles. Although we have adopted technology in many aspects of education today, a comprehensive infrastructure for learning is necessary to move us beyond the traditional model of educators and students in classrooms to a learni ng model that brings together teaching teams and students in classrooms, labs, libraries, museums, workplaces, and homes anywhere in the world where people have access devices and an adequate internet connection. 8 The fifth learning goal model identified i n the NETP; Productivity: Redesign and Transform discussed the need to redesign and transform teaching and lea rning to meet the needs of the Twenty First C entury. The ability of technol ogy applications to personalize learning for all students was identifie d as a strategy to ensure that all students are learning and progressing toward mastery of identified curriculum standards essential for graduation and success in the workforce. 5 Transforming American Education 9. 6 Ibid ., 39 50. 7 Ibid., 10. 8 Ibid ., 11.

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86 rovide decision makers with a reliable, accurate and complete view of the financial performance of our education 9 For each of the five learning goal models identifi ed in the NETP the plan included specific technology goals and recomm endations to assist states in the development of technology policies and plans to support learning goals and outcomes. The Department of Education has a role in identifying effective strategies and implementation practices, encouraging, promoting, and acti vely supporting innovation and best practices in states and districts, and nurturing collaboration that help states and districts leverage resources so the best ideas can be scaled up. 10 The NETP identified seven suggested pr iorities for state legislatures to address in the development of technology policies and plans pledging support to states in order to implement technology initiatives. The identified priorities include d : 1. Assembling educational stakeholders to share knowledge and insights and expertise t o collaborate on technology plans to be shared nationally. 2. Support state efforts to develop technology policies to ensure 24/7 access of internet and mobile technology resou rces for students and educators. 3. Assist states in the transformation from print based classrooms to the integration of digital learning resources in classrooms. 4. Provide funding for online communities of practice to support the connection of teachers to data, resources and experts. 5. Assist school districts with the continued focus o n research and development initiatives to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning practices. 6. Encourage school districts to move to more integrated models of teaching and learning using technology in classrooms. 7. Lead a national initiative in education to increase the productivity of schools to increase student achievement and to work with states, districts, and schools to build their capacity. 11 9 Transforming American Education 12. 10 Ibid., 19. 11 Ibid. 23 24

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87 As state legislatures address the learning models, priorities, goals and objectives of the NETP and the Race to the Top initiative, the identified priorities to guid e the development of policies designed to support technology planning and implementation the national organization that serves as information and networking group the State Education Tec hnology D irectors Association ( SETDA ), has developed four key strategies to assist state legislatures in achieving national educational goals: Building a Twenty First Century Infrastructure; suggests that states build a technology infrastructure to support equity, innovation and improvement in schools and classrooms using technology. Supporting Educator Effectiveness; implementation of high quality professional development to support integration of technology into the teaching and learning process. Deve loping and Scaling Innovative Learning Models; implementation of new approaches to teaching and learning that effectively meet the needs of all students. These approaches include online and blended l earning, technology access, and pe rsonalized learning e nvironment goals to increase student achievement through the use of technology in the classroom Preparing All Students for College and Twenty First Century Careers; development of higher level thinking and application skills for students to ensure readine ss for college and careers. Instructional approaches that include the development of science, technology, engineering, math (STEM), project based collaborative learning along with digital and open content learning models support preparing students for th e Twenty First C entury. 12 National funding sources including Race to the Top 13 state grants, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title I and II D Enhancing Education Through Technology state 12 R. Jones, C. Fox and D. Levin. State Technology Leadership Essential for 21 st Century Learning, (Tallahassee, FL: Annual Report, State Educational Technology Directors Association 2011 )

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88 competitive grants included in the No Child Left Beh ind Act of 2001 14 along with the Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 15 are identified sou rces of support to assist state legislatures and local school districts with the implementation of technology initiatives. These sources of funding to supp ort educational reform identify three legislative purposes: 1. To improve student academic improvement by using technology in schools. 2. To assist every student in becoming te chnologically literate. 3. To encourage the effective integration of technology through p rofessional development for teachers and curriculum development. 16 The identified legislative priorities outlined in the federal technology policy are designed to guide the development of state and local school district technology plans to ensure access t o technology and technology resources intended to increase student achievement. State Policy Analysis ents globally competitive. 17 The 1. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Literacy: The plan identifies specific opportunities for students to develop ICT ski lls. 13 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Funding. Race to the Top (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education 2007 ): 1 29 14 U.S. Department of Education, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Elementary and Sec ondary Education Act Public Law 111 5, Statue 115, Section 523, the Omnibus Appropriati ons Act, 2009, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education March 11, 2009 ): 1 9 15 U.S. Department of Education, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization 2004. Public Law 10 8 446, Statue 2647, 108 th Congress, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education 2004 ): 1 166 16 Jones, Fox, and Levin, State Technology Leadership 2011. 17 Florida Department of Education Office of School Support and Technology Programs, Charting a Course for Inf www.floridatechplan.org ( 2009 ): 1 49

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89 2. Digital Content: The transformation of the delivery of instructional content in schools from print to digital content to support effective teaching and learning. 3. Teacher Training: The emphasis of ongoing professional development and ongoing support to teachers in using technology as a tool for teaching and learning. 4. Personal Learning Systems: To provide all students with access to technology resources including data and tools to support individual learning. 5. Technology Based Assessments: The use of tech nology based assessments to provide both educators and students with better and more immediate feedback to support instructional planning and delivery. 6. Student Data: The development of student data systems to provide more and more in depth data about stude nts to support teacher planning and decision making. 18 For the past decade, Florida has begun to embrace the technological revolution in support of excellence in education. Florida was first in the nation to offer a statewide virtual school. The success of Florida Virtual School demonstrates the effectiveness of statewide e fforts to expand student learning opportunities utilizing the educational potential of technology. 19 In the development of Florida Department of Education technology plan the six themes of the framework are included in three essential conditions to be met in order for Florida school districts to move forward in technology applications supporting educational excellence in teaching and learning: Learning Environment : The ability to meet the in dividual learning needs of every student through the use of technology resources to support engagement and learning. Access to tools, content, infrastructure, and data : Access of technology resources for every student, including mobile technology, digit al content and tool based software. 18 Charting the Course, 1 49 19 Ibid., 4.

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90 Training and support for educators, staff and leadership : Ongoing professional development and support for educators and students to utilize digital tools effectively. 20 nology goals that fall into the three identified categories of learning environment, access, and support. Each of the goals includes an action plan for long range goal attainment along with an identified eighteen month funding timeline to support implement ation. In the action plan each goal identifies the following components to support successful implementation: Funding/People/Resources on hand : Identification of the resources needed to accomplish the goal. Actions: Identified actions that need to occur t o reach the desired goal. Measureable Outcomes: Perceived outcomes as a result of the implementation of activities over a period of time. Impact on State Board of Education Goals: Impact of technology goals as a result of long term implementation. 21 One o f the data elements included in the development of Fl an implementation of technology goals and resources. School districts are required to complete the annual technology inventories and assessments as part of the individual district technology planning process. The access of technology funding through federal and state grant sources annual ly is determined based upon data collected through the technology needs assessment. Table 4 1: 2009 technology plan g oals identified technology assessment data collected from Florida school districts through the asses sment process. In elementary school classrooms 57 20 Charting the Course 4. 21 Ibid., 15.

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91 percent reported that students have ac c ess to computers compared to 35 percent of middle schools and 28 percent of high schools. Sixty five percent of teachers in the dis tricts indicated that they were prepared to teach using digital content materials and resources 90 percent of the schools i ndicated that students have access to student software resources and applications 78 percent of schools reported increased community awareness efforts of the importance of technology in the classroom Forty three percent of elementar y schools, 35 percent of middle schools and 29 percent of high schools reported entry level knowledge and skills to support the integration of technology into the teaching and learning process The state technology plan provides the framework for the development of local schoo l district technology plans and provides the funding mechanism for access of technology funding from the federal government sources. District Policy Analysis A requirement of each school district in the state of Florida is to submit a district technology plan every three years. 22 Districts are expected to submit an updated technology plan covering the essential components as identified in the state technology plan. It is recommended that the plan cover a period of three years and emphasizes the need to co nsider periodic revisions to take advantage of new hardware, software and telecommunications opportunities. The updated district technology plan will be a strategic, long range, (three year) technology plan that will satisfy all state and federal requireme nts for participation in state and federal grant funding programs. 23 plan and addresses the components of the state and federal technology plans. Funding to s upport 22 Race to the Top 1 29 23 Russell Clukey, Thomas Petry, and Traci Dami, District School Board of Collier County Dist rict Technology Plan 2011 2014. (Naples, FL: The District School Board of Collier County 2011 ): 4

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92 technology and comes from a variety of funding source s including : Federal funding Race to the Top 24 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I and II D 25 IDEA 26 e Rate 27 operational funding. e Rate funding is a revenue source reimbursed to school districts from the federal government based on the telecommunication investments made by school districts. The District has requested e Rate funding internal connections for the school year. The funding provides the District with the ability to purchase network communications hardware such as switches, routers, wireless access points, etc. at a very significant discount. For this year, the district filed a group of 32 school sites for this funding level. These schools have a weighted average funding amount of 86%. This means if funding is approved for these 32 schools, the District will pay 14% of the equipment costs while e Rate will reimburse 86%. This will enable the District to refresh a very large amount of network equipment with minimal out of pocket expenses. 28 Table 4 2: Selected school district s trategic technology p lan, identif ied the funding needed to implement the district technology plan initiatives utilizing funding through Federal Title II Part D grant sources. The primary goal of the federal technology grant funding is to improve student achievement throug h the use of tech nology, to support the technology literacy of all students and to promote technology integration through teacher training and curriculum development. An annual needs assessment survey assists in the monitoring of grant funds provided to support the distric t technology plan as well as assisting with planning for needed professional development. 29 Table 4 3: 2009 10 24 Race to the Top 1 29 25 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 1 9 26 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 1 166 27 Universal Service Administrative Company. E Rate Discounts for Schools and Libraries Federal Communications Commission (FCC), USAC School and Libraries Division (SLD), www.usac.org 28 Clukey, Petry, and Dami, Dist rict Technology Plan 2011 2014, 50 29 Ibid., 50

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93 District technology needs assessment s urvey provided data collected from the selected questions about technology and technology resources in the classroom as part of the instructional process. The table reports the percentage of strongly agree/agree to the technology needs assessment question posed in the survey. The district needs assessme nt indicates the highes t percentage of agreement at 97 percent for the indicators of technology resources as tools for lesson design, gathering information for lessons, lesson presentation and the integration of technology into learning activities as the m ost valuable components of technology resources in the classroom. The use of technology resources to engage students in learning, to support collaboration and inquiry based learning activities were identified as strong indicators for technology resources i n the classroom were identified as the next highes t percentage of agreement at 96 percent The lowest areas of agreement included teaching students to critically evaluate technology informa tion at 80 percent and the use of M imeo technology resources at 61 percent agreement. The data collected from the selected school district technology needs assessment provides information intended to assist the district with future technology planning and expenditures. The selected school district technology needs assessm ent supports the identified research questions of the study: how are financial resources used to ensure access to technology along with training and support and what are the technology resources necessa ry in a selected elementary school The selected scho ol district technology plan budget includes funding from several sources including e Rate 30 federal Title II D 31 local capital outlay and district operational funding. 32 30 Clukey, Petry, and Dami, Dist rict Technology Plan 2011 2014, 50 31 Ibid., 21. 32 Ibid., 21

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94 Table 4 4: Selected school district 2011 12 technology budget outlined the selected sc hool district technology budget for t he 2011 12 school year. Table 4 5: Selected school district 2011 12 technology standards outlined the district technology standards including the standards for classroom technology resources including the allocatio n of computer to student ratios for the se lected school district. Table 4 6: Selected school district 2011 12 classroom technology s tandards outlined the cost per classroom for the technology retrofit as outlined in the technology standards for the selected sch ool district. The cost is based on 2011 12 district technology bids for a classroom of 22 students. In 2007 a new elementary school opened in the selected school district. The school was identified as a Professional Development School (PDS) in partnership with a local state university and committed to implementing a number of educational reform initiatives intended to support increased student achievement and the more effective performance of all staff members. The selection of this school as a PDS was the result of collaborative planning betwe en the selected school district, the selected elementary the school principal and the local state university College of Education administration and professors. Serving as a research and design elementary school withi n the region working in partnership with the local university faculty the schoo l committed to sharing best practices for Twenty First C entury teaching and learning with other schools. Through the PDS partnership the school services as an educational train ing site for pre service t eachers. One of the identified Twenty First C entury educational initi atives that the school committed to over the past four years is the increased use of technology resources to support enhanced teaching and learning experiences f or students The teachers of this selected elementary school committed to ongoing and sustained professio nal development in the area of

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95 Twenty First C entury teaching and learning including the integration of technology to support improved learning experien ces for all students. Selected Elementary School Data The selected elementary school is located in a n urban size school district in Florida. Established in 2007, the school is a $25 million dollar state of the art facility. The entire campus is wireless a nd contains the same technology resources as every other school in the district. The addition of one to one laptop technology for both staff members and all students in second through fifth grades was purchased using additional capital outlay funding as a technology pilot for the school district As a Professional Development School (PDS) the school serves as a resource to other schools in the district utilizing technology to support teaching and learning for the Twenty First C entury. R esearch data collec ted from the selecte d elementary school was identified to address the research question regarding the technology resources necessary in a Twenty First Century classroom and the cost to provide these resources in a classroom. The achievement of students in the school is among the top performing schools in the school district school grading system. Table 4 7 s elected elementary school data 2011: identified school demogr aphic information about the school including enrollment and school subgroup demographic data. Table 4 8 provided a comparison of student proficiency data based on the 2011 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) of 14 non Title 1 elementary schools in the selected school di strict. The data presented looked at 4 indicators: percentage of students at the proficient level, the percentage of students making gains, the percentage of students in the lowest 25 percentile making gains and the school grade desi gna tion. The proficiency level of students in the selected elementary school was the same or higher than 4 of the 14 non Title 1 elementary

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96 schools in the selected school district. The percentage of students making gains in the selected elementary school w as the same or higher than 11 of the 14 non Title 1 elementary schools in the selected school district. In the selected elementary school, the lowest 25 percentile of students making gains was the same or higher than 8 of the 14 non Title 1 schools in the selected school non Title 1 elementary schools in the selected school district. T he selected elementary school participated in a technology school survey in 2010 as part of a requirement of the school district to report access to technology by each of the schools in the school district to the state 33 The Florida Department of Education survey 34 provides data annually to the state and federal government about the acc ess to and types of technology resource s found in each school. Table 4 9 s elected elementary school technology data outlined information gathered through the annual school needs assessment survey related to access to technology in the school and home envir technology r esources in the classroom. D ata in the table indicates that 100 percent of the teachers in the selected elementary school use technology on a regular basis to support te aching and learning and t hat 95 percent of teachers are prepared to use digital resources as a primary source instructional resource materials. In Table 4 10 s chool technology integration data identified the technology integration readiness level of teachers from the selected sch ool district collected through the annual te chnology needs assessment. D ata presented correlates the technology integration readiness level of teachers in the selected elementary school with teachers in the selected school district with the teachers in the state. In the selected elementary school, da ta 33 Florida Department of Education, Office of Technology, In ventory of Teacher Technology Skills (ITTS) http://itts.flinnovates.org/inventory/index.aspx ( 2005 ) 34 Ibid., http://itts.flinn ovates.org/inventory/index.aspx

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97 collected indicated that 50 percent integration which is higher than the district and state percentages. Table 4 11 technology integration matrix outlined the criteria used for the identification of teacher readiness for technology integr ation in the classroom. Table 4 12 s elected elementary school access to technology survey provided data regarding the number of technology resources and applications curren tly available in the selected elementary school. Included in the survey needs assessment data is the number of students that have access to technology resources at home, along with the frequency and intended uses of technology in the classroom. The profess ional development participation of teachers in the selected elementary school along with the allocation of funding to support technology integration in the school is identified. D ata also included the process used to evaluate student technology literacy as well as the estimated time spent using technology in the selected elementary school. The outreach efforts of the selected elementary school to support the school community with the integration of technology, along with the ongoing integration and use of t echnolog y resources in the classroom was inclu ded in the data collected. D ata collected from the selected elem entary school indicated that 90 percent of students h ave access to technology and 80 percent have internet access at ho me. D ata indicated that 10 0 percent of teachers have participated in technol ogy integration training and 98 percent of teachers are ready to use digital content resource materials in the classroom. As a technology pilot, the selected elementary school developed a technology inte gration framework to guide the development and implementation of technology integration activities for the selected elementary school. Table 4 13 s elected elementary school technology integration framework included the identification of a vision, purpose, desired outcomes, activities and an evaluation component to support the integration of technology in the classroom. The technology

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98 integration plan includes specific outcomes for students, staff, and families related to the integration of technology for Tw enty First Century teaching and learning. The Inventory of Teacher Technology Skills (ITTS) The teachers in the selected elementary school completed a technology assessment instrument used by the Florida Department of Educatio n Office of Technology. 35 The s urvey assesses six technology components including basic technology operations and productivity within each identified component area. The areas assessed in the survey include d : 1. basic o perations including the develo pment of databases and graphics, 2. p roducti vity skills including word process ing, spreadsheets and databases, 3. c ommunication skills including the use of E mail, video and multimedia, 4. r esearch skills includi ng the ability to use a browser, 5. p lanning, management and instruction skills and the use of te chnology for both plan ning and instructional purposes, and 6. s ocial, ethical, legal and human issues including the use of policies, monitoring students, safety, security and copyright and digital citations. The survey asses sment w as completed online by f orty seven teachers in the selec ted elementary school. Table 4 14 : s elected elementary s chool 2011 teacher technology assessment data id entified the results of the survey of the selected elementary school teachers with a composite percentage score of prof iciency for each of the identified technology assessment components. Communication, planning, management and instruction were the areas with the highest composite scores of 97 percent. Productivity was next with 94 percent followed by Ba sic Operations & Co ncepts at 93 percent The performance indicator with the lowest compo site score was Research with 86 percent and Social, Ethical, Legal and Human Issues was second last 35 Inventory of Teacher Technology Skills (ITTS), 2005.

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99 with 90 percent Table 4 15 : s elected elementary scho ol selected school district with state 2011 t echnology assessment data provided a comparison of the averag e scores of teachers on the survey from the selected elementary school, the selected school district and the state level comparisons The data collected from the selected elementary s chool in dicated that the skill levels of teachers are above the district and state levels in all areas except for Ethical, Legal and Human Issues which is 3 percent below the district percentage but 14 percent above the state percentage. Beliefs About Teac hing with Technology Survey (BATT) The teachers in the selected elementary school were asked to complete a technology belief survey. 36 T he online survey consisted of twenty eight questions designed to assess the beliefs of teachers using technology in two a rea s : (1) the ability to effectively use technology in the classroom and (2) the ability of their beliefs about the use of technology in the classroom occurring in their school. The survey used a Likert assessment scale with five indicators: strongly disag ree, disagree, n either disagree/agree, agree, and strongly agree. The o nline survey was completed by forty seven teachers in the selected elementary school. Table 4.16 : Sele cted elementary school 2011 BATT survey data indicated the survey questions and th e distribution of participant scores including the mean, standard deviation, the standard error and the confidence response interval for each of the BATT survey questions. d access Agree and a one represents Strongly Disagree. Professional development opportunities using technology support from administrators, time to let students use technology, and proper 36 North Central Regional Education Laboratory. Beliefs About Teaching with Technology (BATT), (Washington, D.C.: Council for Educational Developmen t and Research).

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100 connections were the next highest mean at 4.7. The lowest mean was 4.0 for support from parents and the second lowest mean was 4.1 for support from other teachers and smaller class sizes. to the internet and support from administrators had the highest rankings of 4.8. The next highest mean ranking was 4.5 for professional development opportunities using technology and the quality of softwa re. The lowest mean for ability of these factors to occur in your school was smaller class size at 3.9. Support from parents and time to plan for technology implementation were the second lowest at 4.0. T he beliefs survey results indicate d a strong agreeme nt in both the effective integration and use of technology in the classroom along with the ability of technology resources occurring at the school. In the series of belief questions regarding the effective integration and use of technology in the classroom the highest responses indicated that the teacher respondents felt they had the necessary technology resources including access to the internet to effectively integrate and utilize technology in the classroom. The lowest response from participants was in t he area of support from parents in the effective integration and use of technology in the teaching and learning process. A review of participant responses to the series of questions related to the presence of technology resources in the school to support t he integration and use of technology, the highest participant responses indicated support from school administrators as a factor to support technology integration and use in the school. The lowest rated responses in this section referenced the need for mor e time and smaller classroom sizes necessary to the effective integration and use of technology resources at the school level.

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101 D ata collected from the technology skills invento ry along with data from the teacher beliefs survey provide evidence of the impac t of technology resources on the teaching and learning process. Specifically the data addresses two of the identified research questions of the study: 1. How are the financial resources used in schools to ensure access to technology along with training and su pport for teache rs in a selected elementary school ? 2. What are the technology resources necessary in a Twenty First Century classroom and what are the costs to provide these resourc es in a selected elementary school ? Expert Focus Group The purpose of the ex pert focus group was to collect information from the selected members representing education, business, community and parent groups. 37 Each of the selected participants was familiar with the selected elementary school as a member of their respective group. The knowledge and skill levels of the focus group members related to technology varied and thei r opinions and perspectives were intended to provide a representative sampling of the selected elementary school stakeholder groups. The questions designed an d asked of each focus group participant involved gathering their opinions and perspectives related to technology integration, professional development and the development of policies for the allocation of tech nology resources necessary for Twenty F irst C en tury teaching and learning skills. group research is a way of collecting qualitative data, which essentially involves engaging a small number of people in an informal discussion focused around a particular topic or set of 38 The collective pe rspectives of the focus group along with the comprehensive review of educational research literature was used to articulate what a Twenty First C entury technology 37 Anth International Journal of Qualitative Methods 8, 3, (2009): 1 17, International Institute For Qualitativ e Methodology (IIQM), University of Alberta, Canada. 38

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102 prototype classroom needs to look like and what technology resources and supports are needed to promote high levels of student learning and engagement. The focus group included eight selected participants representing education, business, community and parents. Participants were selected based on their knowledge and experiences with the selected e lementary school over the past four years as a member of their respective representative group. Direct knowledge and experience with technology integration varied among focus group members and ranged from direct application of technology resources in the s chool to the indirect observation of technology resources to the teaching and learning process. Each focus group participant was asked to respond to the same series of questions. The design o f the focus group questions was done after a review of the liter ature regarding technology resources and the inve stment in technology by schools and is aligned to the research question s identified in the study. Q ualitative data was collected in a narrative form targeting the descriptive analysis study research question s identified in the study The expert focus group, similar to a consumer focus group, followed an explanatory mixed methods research design forma t. The questions presented to each focus group member: 1. What role do you believe that technology skill developm ent plays in the Twenty First C entury classroom? 39 2. What are the technology resources that you beli eve need to be included in a Twenty F irst Century prototype classroom? 40 3. How do you believe that professional development and support to teachers in the area of technology integration should be provided to be most effective? 41 4. How do you believe that school districts and schools should determine the allocation of resources toward the purchase of technology? 42 39 Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey Preparing Students for Mastery of 21 st Century Skills, 21 st Century Skills, Rethinking How Students Le arn (Bloomington, IN: Soluti on Tree Press 2010 ): 221 240 40 Meg Ormis ton, Creating a Digital rich Classroom (Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press 2011 ) 41 S. Gronseth, Equipping the Next Generation of Teachers: Technology Preparation and Practice. (Blooming ton, IN: Department of Instructional Systems Technology, India na University 2007 )

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103 5. What elements do you believe should be included in t he development of federal, state and district policies related to the purchase of technology resources? 43 Table 4 17 : s elected elementary school 2011 expert focus group interview question d ata included the narrative data collected from each of the foc us gr oup participants through a structured interview data collect ion method. The questions presented to each focus group mem ber were designed to address two of the research questions in the study: (1) How are the financial resources used in schools to ensure a ccess to technology along with training and support for teache rs in a selected elementary school ? (2) What are the technology resources necessary in a Twenty First Century classroom and what are the costs to provide these resourc es in a selected elementary school ? (3) How does the financial investment of technology in the classroom impact teaching and student learning for increased student achieveme nt in a selected elementary school ? The table includes the exact responses of each focus group member An anal ysis of data collected from the expert focus group indicated the following commonalities among all focus group participant responses: 1. A shared belief that financial resources should be allocated to support the purchase of and integration of technology in t he classroom. 2. Respondents shared a similar belief that flexibility in how allocated funds are used was recommended. 3. Professional development of teachers in the effective use of technology resources including the integration of technology was a shared p erspective of all focus group members. 4. The focus group supported the current technology resources provided in a prototype technology classroom and recommended that as new technology emerges that the Twenty 42 T. Greaves, J. Hayes, L. Wilson, M. Gielniak, and R. Peterson. Project Red The Technology Factor: Nine Keys to Student Achievement and Cost Effectiveness. MDR, www.project.RED.org (2010 ): 1 168. 43 Katie McMillan Culp, Margaret Honey, and Ellen Mandin ach, A Retrospective on Twenty Years of Education Technology Policy (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, O ffice of Educat ional Technology October 2003 ): 1 28.

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104 First Century classroom and consider these techno logies as strategies to further enhance teaching and learning in the classroom. Triangulation Analysis of the Data In addition to a policy analysis of the federal, state, selected school district and the selected elementary sc hool, three sources of data w as collected to address the descriptive analysis research study questions. D ata sources collected and reported in the mixed methods analysis include two quantitative a nd one qualitative data measures: Inventory of Teacher Technology Skills (ITTS) 44 the Bel iefs About Teaching with Technology (BATT) 45 and the Expert Focus Group 46 structured interview questions. Through a review and analysis of each of the data sources a triangulation analysis was conducted looking at the results of the quantitative measures al ong with the qualitative data as a secondary source to corroborate the overall data findings. 47 The identified i nterpretations of the data provide support to the identified r esearch questions included in the descriptive analysis study. The first interpr etat ion of the data collected was that financial resources used in schools to ensure acc ess to technology including the professional development training and support for teachers includes building a strong set of shared beliefs regarding the importance of tech nology integration and applications to support Twenty First Century teac hing and learning. Teachers should believe that technology is an important part of the teaching and learning process today and that both teachers and students should have access to th e technology resources necessary to effectively impact student learning and increased performance. Equally important to a set of shared beliefs is the development of 44 Inventory of Teacher Technology Skills (ITTS) 2005. 45 Beliefs About Teaching with Technology (BATT ). 46 A Qualitative Fra 17 47 John Creswell Educational Research: Pl anning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall 2008 ) : 648.

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105 strong technology skills for all teachers through ongoing professional development and su pport. Many teachers in classrooms today are not native technology users, and have had to learn how to effectively use technology in the classroom to support the learning of students who were born in an era of technology use. Through ongoing and meaningful professional development and support to teachers, classroom instructional practices can be retooled to include the effective integration and use of technology applications in the classroom. This transformation of traditional classrooms can result in high er levels of engagement for all students as well as the ability to better individualize the learning for all students. Policy development at the federal, state and selected school district level all support the meaningful integration and use of technology resources in the classroom. 48 The development of comprehensive technology plans support the allocation of resources necessary to purchase technology resources for schools and the classroom. The second interpretation of the data is that t he technol ogy resou rces necessary in the Twenty First C entury and the cost associated with providing these resources are important considerations to the effective integration and use of technology in the classroom. A variety of funding sources identified through the review o f federal, state and local technology plans indicate that technology is considered a crit ical element to be included in Twenty First C entury schools and classrooms. State and district technology plans identify technology resources to effectively support t eaching in learning. Through the availability of federal and state technology grants along with local capital funding along with the used district operational dollars the investment in technology is a reality for school districts and schools even in the f ace of shrinking budgets. The research shows that an investment in technology actually saves school districts 48 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 43 62.

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106 money in the long run. 49 District plans need to include provisions for upgrading and replacing technology resources over time. These identified tec hnology resources include mobile technology such as laptops, video projectors, mimeo interactive whiteboards, classroom sound systems, mobile assessments systems, digital cameras, printers and digital management and storage systems. The infrastructure to s upport the Twenty First C entury classroom should include wireless internet access including fiber optics to support high speed technology access including voice, video and multimedia presentation capabilities. The cost to equip a Twenty F irst Century tec hn ology classroom including one to one access for students is estimated to be approximately $23,000.00. The cost to maintain the classroom technology yearly is included in the district technology plan for the selected school district and provides an equitabl e distribution of technology funds to support technology in the classroom. The third interpretation of data is that the financial investment in technology resources for classrooms is considered to be an overall cost savings measure for school districts aft er the initial investment is made. With the increasing availability of online instructional resources, including electronic textbooks, schools that ma ke the investment needed for a Twenty First C entury classroom are equipping the teachers and students with the resources necessary to ensure that every student has the opportunity to learn and achieve at high levels. Through the use of online technology resources access to learning is available to students at all times. The ability to customize learning activi ties to address the individual learning needs and styles of all students is an important element to ensuring that all students achieve Twenty First C entury learning standards at high levels of learning and application. Teaching and learning using technolog y 49 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 12 1 9.

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107 resources has the ability to meaningfully engage students, providing them with a wide variety of presentation methods as well as immediate assessment and feedback to support learning. In addition to the direct impact that technology can have on student learning and achievement, it with specific data about performance to more effectively support teaching and learning. Through the availability of technology, teachers can access high quality resources, professional developm ent along with the ability for teachers to collaborate with one another virtually. Twenty First C entury teaching and learning requires T wenty First C entury technology resources to ensure increased student achievement. 50 The three interpretations o utlined fr om an analysis of data collected provide a clear correlation to the first two research question s identified in the study. D ata indicates that the financial resources used in the selected elementary school ensure access to technology along with training and support to teachers. The selected school district and the selected elementary school have identified the technology resources necessary in a Twenty First Century classroom and identified the cost associated with setting up a prototype technology classroom The third research question identified in the study looked at the financial investment of technology in the classroom and the impact to teaching and learning for incr eased student achievement. D ata analysis of the skill levels along with the beliefs of t eachers in the selected elementary school support the financial investment of technology in the classroom to imp act teaching and learning. D ata from the sel ected elementary school looked at student achievement based on one year of student proficiency score s could not be directly correlated to the use of and integration of technology resources in the classroom. Although inco nclusive, data suggested that technology resources may have a direct impact on student proficiency gains by providing additional 50 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 111 126.

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108 instruc tion, support and increased engagement in learning as supported through the research on technology applications in the classroom and Twenty First Century teaching and learning. Limitations of the Data The review and analysis of technology policies was rest ricted to a case study review of federal policies in addition to only one state, one selected school district and one selected elementary school located in the state of Florida. The quantitative sample group included only willing participants in a selected elementary school with a relatively small sample size of forty seven out of sixty five participants. The assessment of technology skills was representative of the acquisition of technology proficiency gained over the past school year while the descriptive analysis case study was being conducted. The student achievement data was restricted to only one year of data from a state assessment and could not be directly correlated to technology use in the classroom. The qualitative data collected through the focus group interview questions included a small sample size of eight participants representing education, business, community and parent groups all of whom had some level of direct knowledge and involvement in the selected elementary school and the technology integration pilot project. Summary The preparation of students in the Twenty First C entury suggests a retooling of the classroom to support the integration and increased access to tec hnology resources. The Twenty First C entury classroom begins with a shar ed set of beliefs held by teachers and administrators that technology is an essential component to high quality teaching and learning. In addition to a common set of beliefs both teachers and students must have the necessary knowledge of technology and the ability to use resources to support teaching and learning. High quality ongoing professional development and support for both teachers and students r elated to technology is essential to successful technology integration and applications to teaching and

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109 le arning. School distr icts and individual schools should invest wisely in technology resources including professional development and support to ensure that classroom instruction fully utilizes technology and tech nology applications to support Twenty First C entury teaching and engaged and focused learning for all students. The investment of technolo gy and technology resources should be an ongoing priority for school districts and individual sc hool s committed to Twenty First C entury classrooms. With shrinking federal, state and local school district resources the investment in technology is considered an investment in the future of education and the successful learning and performance of all students. If teachers are to be held accountable for the learnin g outc omes of students they need to be provided with the necessary technology resources and tools to support the design, delivery and assessment of high quality learning and increased student performance. Although not directly correlated to the data collected t he investment in technology resources to support increased student achievement is belief supported in the research and held by educators in the field and considered a best practice for improved teaching and learning practices. It is important to note that data collected in this study related to the use of technology resources in the classroom and increased student achievement collected is at the initial stages of investigation and will require additional time and a more in depth analysis to establish a dire ct relationship.

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110 Table 4 1 2009 Florida technology p lan Technology Assessment Assessment Data Access to Computers in the school; student access to computers in schools Elementary: 57% classroom, 21% laptops, 15% lab and 5% media center Middle: 35% classroom, 27% laptops, 19% lab, 7% media center High: 28% classroom, 24% laptops, 18% lab, 8% media center Technology Devices; access to digital cameras, projectors, whiteboards, video, scanners, multimedia resources State ratio: 1:10 classrooms Di gital Content 65% of teachers indicated they are prepared to teach using digital content.27% of schools indicate access as a barrier to use of digital content resources Software Access for Students: word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, reference, FCAT tools, video, integrated learning systems, graphics, concept mapping, multimedia and simulation 90% of schools indicate student access to student software applications, word processing, spreadsheets and presentation software. 50% of schools have a ccess to multimedia software, concept mapping and simulation software. Frequency of Student Software Use: research, drill/practice, integrated learning systems, multimedia, simulation 50% of schools indicate that students have access to computers sever al times a week.50% indicating use as less than once a week. Monitoring of Student Technology Literacy: classroom observation, performance assessments, objective assessments, self assessments, portfolios, surveys 80% classroom observation, 60% performa nce assessments, 45% objective assessments, 28% self assessments, 28% portfolios, 28% surveys, 5% do es not monitor student technology use by students. Technology Spending: district and school spending on technology resources including hardware and softw are 25% indicated spending more than $20,000 annually, 18% spent $10,000 $20,000 annually 18% spent $5,000 $10,000. annuall y, 39% spent less th an $5,000 annually. of time spent on professional development includin g a variety of delivery models 42% hands on training, 22% coaching / mentoring, 15% lecture/demonstration, 11% online training, 9% tutorial Community Technology Access: efforts made by school districts and schools to increase technology awareness in th e community 78% of schools reported making efforts to increase community awareness of technology, 42% allow access to technology at school. 17% provided community access outside of school and 43% did not provide access to technology by the community. 57 % of schools do not include parents in technology training plans and opportunities Internet Safety: provide training, and informational materials to students, staff and parents. 67% of schools train personnel about internet safety, 50% distribute intern et safety materials to parents, 35% of schools are working with law enforcement agencies. Technology Integration: Levels of technology integration as reported by school district and schools: entry, adoption, adaption, innovation and transformation Ent ry: Elementary. 45%, Middle: 35%, High: 29% Adoption: Elementary: 19%, Middle: 26%, High 27% Adaption: Elementary: 7%, Middle: 10%, High: 12% Innovation: Elementary: 21%, Middle: 19%, High: 20% Transformation:Elementary:8%, Middle: 10%, High: 11% Source : Florida Department of Education Office of School Support and Technology Programs, Charting a Course www.floridateachplan.org ( 2009 )

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111 Ta ble 4 2 Selected school district s trategic technology p lan T echnology Strategic Plan Vision Statement: All students will have access to technology and will effectively utilize that technology to complete s chool prepared for ongoing learning as well as c ommunity and global responsibilities. Technology Strategic Plan Mission Statement: Infuse technology throughout the school system to provide exceptional educational opportunities to motivate and engage each student. Technology Strategic Plan Essential S trat egies: Technology access and availability for all students and staff. Acquisition of appropriate technologies to create sound educational forums. Technology infrastructure to enable connectivity between and within buildings for video, voice and data co mmunication. Effective and efficient technology standards, policies and procedures Appropriate human resources to maintain and support curriculum initiatives. Adequate financial support to secure the necessary technologies to sustain ongoing and new initi atives. Technology Strategic Plan Supporting Strategies : 1. Establishment of staff and student technology competency goals. 2. Appropriate staff development training which will ensure current and future uses of technology in education. 3. Advanced technology relate d courses for those who desire greater academic challenge. 4. Development of minimum technological standards to assure that all purchases support future expansion of the infrastructure. 5. Communication systems to inform all stakeholders of ongoing technology in itiatives. 6. Development of business, government and education partnerships to support technology initiatives. 7. Establishment of short and long term maintenance, upgrading and acquisition plan for all technology equipment and support materials. 8. Ongoing assess ment of technology implementation, involving students, teachers, a d ministrators, support staff, parents and community members. Technology Strategic Plan Values : All students can utilize technology to exceed high performance standards and must be p rovided w ith opportunities to meet this challenge. All use of technology must be focused on supporting student success. We must use technology styles and to provide essential support to meet Technology should be used to promote effective collaborative work, both within the school community and with the wider community, which will produce success for students. All decision making regarding the procurement and use of tec hnology must be based o n evidence and the best interest of students. We have the ability to meet state and federal government requirements with regard to technology. Source : Russell Clukey, Thomas Petry, and Traci Dami. District School Board of Collier C ounty District Technology Plan 2011 2014. The District School Board of Collier County, Naples, FL

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112 Table 4 3. 2009 10 Selected school district technology needs assessment s urvey Questions Assessment Results (Strongly Agree/Agree) The classroom pr esen tation technology allows me to make my lessons more visually and audibly interesting to my students. 97% I use technology to gather information for my lessons. 97% Students are more engaged during instruction because I am able to use a wider variety of media during my lessons. 95% I teach my students how to evaluate the accuracy and bias of information gathered using technology. 80% I believe that technology related activities improve student achievement through higher order thinking activities. 9 1% The classroom presentation technology saves me time when teaching a lesson by allowing the whole class to view the website or document together. 94% My students hear more clearly because of the audio enhancement system used in classrooms. 83% The classroom presentation technology helps me with effective classroom management by allowing quick display of exercises and assignments. 91% Projecting activities and projects on the board encourages students to learn, discuss and discover collaboratively 96% Use of audio and visual technology enhances student presentations. 96% The classroom presentation technology provides children with disabilities in vision and hearing an improved environment for learning. 96% The projector is an essential tool for my instruction. 97% The Mimeo is an essential tool for my instruction. 61% The document camera is an essential part of my instruction. 95% Infusing technology based learning activities into my lessons is necessary to prepare students for the future 97% Source: Russell Clukey, Thomas Petry, and Traci Dami. District School Board of Collier County District Technology Plan 2011 2014. The District School Board of Collier County, Naples, FL.

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113 Table 4 4. Selected school district 2011 12 technology b udget Sources of Funding Budgeted Amount e Rate Telecommunications $1,100,000.00 Title II D: ETT Grant Funding $ 212,580.75 District Capital Funding $6,208,475.00 District Operational Funding $3,953,400.00 Total District Technology Budget $11, 474,455.75 Source: Russell Clukey, Thomas Petry, and Traci Dami. District School Board of Collier County District Technology Plan 2011 2014. Table 4 5. Selected school district 2011 12 technology s tandards Elementary Middle High School Student Comput er 2.8:1 2.9:1 3.5:1 Teacher Computer 1:1 1:1 1:1 Mobile Lab 170:1 170:1 170:1 Video Projector 1 1 1 Document Camera 1 1 1 Mimeo 1 1 1 Printer 1 1 1 VIOP 2 line 1 1 1 Sourc e: Russell Clukey, Thomas Petry, and Traci Dami. District School Board o f Collier County District Technology Plan 2011 2014 Table 4 6. Selected school district 2011 12 technology c osts Technology Resources Estimated Cost Document Camera $ 459.00 Video projector $ 614.00 Laptop computer: cost per student $ 670 .00 Laser printer $ 169.00 Digital camera $ 125.00 Classroom sound system $ 1,150.00 Classroom response system $ 1,800.00 Mimeo interactive system $ 2,000.00 VIOP 2 line $ 300.00 Fiber optics/network support $ 1,000.00 Misc. cables, switches, electrical power strips $ 183.33 Total Cost Per Classroom $ 23,000.00 Sourc e: Russell Clukey, Thomas Petry, and Traci Dami. District School Board of Collier County District Technology Plan 2011 2014.

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114 Table 4 7. Selected elementary sc hool 2011 12 school d emographics Enrollment 982 Kindergarten Grade 5 Percentage Gender Male Gender Female 509 473 52%, 48% Exceptional Student Education (ESE) 177 18% Limited English Proficient (LEP) 147 15% Non English Speaking (ELL) 243 25% Economically Needy 342 35% Race: Multi racial 33 3% Race: White 689 70% Race: Black 42 4% Race: Hispanic 165 18% Race: Haitian 24 2% Race: Asian 27% 3% Source: The District School Board of Collier County Data Warehouse. www.collierschools.com ( 2011 ) Table 4 8 Studen t proficiency scores of selected elementary schools in selected school d istrict School % Meeting Standards % Making Gains Lowest 25% Making Gains School Grade District 69% 65% 61% B BCE 75% 65% 58% A CES 83% 61% 51% B CPE 80% 58% 57% B EES 75% 58% 59% B LOE 88% 66% 69% A LPE 89% 64% 55% B NPE 82% 63% 63% A OES 86% 66% 51% B PES 70% 61% 53% B PME 93% 77% 70% A SGE 92% 74% 73% A TBE 83% 63% 54% A VES 90% 73% 64% A VME 80 % 66% 59% A Source: The District School Board of Collier County Data Warehouse. www.collierschools.com (2011).

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115 Table 4 9 Selected elementary school 2011 12 school technology d ata Access to Technolo gy Students with technology and access at home 90% Digital Learning Environment Teachers who regularly use technology 100% Readiness for Digital Content Teachers ready for primary instructional materials delivered in digital format 95% Community Acc ess Technology access provided to the community Available during school day Source: The District School Board of Collier County Data Warehouse. www.collierschools.com (2011). Table 4 10 Selected element ary school 2011 12 school technology integration d ata Category School District State None Use 0% 1% 0% Entry Level 5% 18% 29% Adoption Level 5% 23% 27% Adaption Level 20% 24% 12% Infusion Level 50% 28% 20% Transformation Level 20% 6% 11% Source: Th e District School Board of Collier County Data Warehouse. www.collierschools.com (2011). Table 4 11 Selected elementary school 2011 12 technology integration m atrix Entry Adoption Adaption Infusion Tran sformation The teacher uses technology to deliver curriculum content to students. The teacher directs students in the conventional use of tool based software. The teacher encourages adaption of tool based software b y allowing students to select a tool and modify its use to accomplish the tasks. The teacher creates a learning environment that infuses the power of technology tools throughout the day and across subjects. The tea cher creates a rich learning environment in which students regularly engage in activities that would not be possible without technology. Source: The District School Board of Collier County Data Warehouse www.collierschools.com ( 2011 )

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116 Table 4 12 Selected elementary school 2010 school technology survey d ata Access to Technology Survey Indicator School Survey Response The total number of desktop and mobile computers (includin g tablet PCs and net books; excluding handheld devices such as IPAQ, Palms, etc.) in the school for student use. Desktops 101 Mobile Computers 794 The number of desktops and mobile computers for students using the definition of a modern computer below. Platform PC Desktops 101 Mobile Computers 794 The number of student desktop/mobile computers (including modern/non modern) at the school with internet access. High speed wired 101 High speed wireless 794 The number of teacher or administrativ e (non instructional computers that meet fiscal specifications of modern computer specifications. Teacher desktops 22 Teacher laptops 70 Administrative desktops 5 Administrative laptops 5 The number of computers (student and teacher/administrator) runni ng on the identified operating system. Windows XP Desktops 128 Mobile computers 869 The number of mobile computers used in the school. Mobile computers on a mobile cart are available to all students in grades 2 5 How is the school implementing thin cli ent computing or virtual machines? The school is not using thin client or virtual machines The number and type of digital devices available at the school. Projection devices 62 Large screen monitor 1 Interactive whiteboards 62 Digital cameras 19 Digital video cameras 3 Digital scientific probes 1 Document cameras 62 Sound enhancement systems 62 Wireless interactive slates 2 Devices purchased for the school and the intended user. HP IPAQ administration The percentage of students that have computers and internet access at home. Computer 90% Internet Access 80% Percentage of student computers at the school with identified software. Concept mapping 100%, Graphics 100% Presentation software 100%, Spreadsheet 100% Video editing 100%, Web authorin g 20% Robust wordprocessing 100%, Open source productivitysuites 100%, FCAT/standardized test prep tools 100%, Int egrated learning systems 100% Content specific skills/practice tutor ials 100% General Reference tools 100%

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117 Table 4 12. Continue d Access to Technology Survey Indicator School Survey Response How often students at the school use identified software? Drill/practice daily I ntegrated Learning Systems several times a week Creativity tools weekly Simulation software weekly Tool based s oftware weekly Research several times a week Communication not at all Web 2.0 not at all The percentage of teachers in the school that regularly use technology in the following ways. Administrative tasks 100% Email 100% Web 2.0 50% Analysis of student assessment information 100% Video conferencing, Webinars 60% Webpage publishing 50% Podcasting 25% The number of staff members that participated in professional development opportunities addressing the integration of technology into the curriculum from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009. 100% The percentage of the money spent on technology in the school is devoted to specific areas. Professional Development 10% Technology Hardware 50% Software/Licenses/Digital Content 12% Technical Support 20% Instruct ional Technology Support 5% Supplies 3% How does the school evaluate student technology literacy? C lassroom observation, objective assessments, performance assessments, portfolios, self assessments, surveys The estimated percentage of teachers in the school that are ready for the primary instructional materials in the classroom to be delivered in a digital format. 98% What does the school perceive is the primary barrier to using digitally delivered instructional materials in the school? Need for prof essional development and instructional support What contributions does the school technology program make to parents or the community? We are making an effort to increase technology awareness. We offer technology access at the school. How is technology a ccess provided for the community? Community may access technology on the campus during school hours. Who may participate in technology training offered to the community and parents? Any community member may participate

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118 Table 4 12. Continued Access to Technology Survey Indicator School Survey Response The percentage of teachers in the school that fit into identified categories of technology integration. Limited use or does not use technology for instruction 0% Uses technology to deliver curriculum c ontent and students work independently on drill/practice computer skills ( entry) 5% Directs students in conventional use of tool based software (adoption) 5% Encourages adoption of tool based software allowing students to choose and use technology to a ccomplish tasks(adaption) 10% C reates a learning environment that infuses technology tools throughout the day and across subject areas (infusion) 20% Creates a rich learning environment in which students regularly engage in activities that would be impo ssible to achieve without technology (transformation) 60% What methods is the school employing to address cyber safety? Train personnel about topics such as plagiarism, copyright laws/cyber bullying. Distribute informational materials to parents on inter net safety. Provide teachers and parents websites and other resources about Internet Safety. Working with law enforcement to provide teachers, parents and students with Internet Safety websites, resources and training. Internet filtering and monitoring. How is teacher technology literacy evaluated in the school? C lassroom observation, objective assessment, performance assessments, portfolios How is the school currently using the Technology Integration Matrix? Teacher professional development, technolog y integration planning

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119 Table 4 13. Selected elementary school technology integration f ramework Vision: To enhance the teaching and learning opportunities and experiences for students, faculty, staff and families through the meaningful integration of t echnology. Purpose : Preparing students for success in the twenty first century requires new and different methods of teaching and learning to support the importance of technology applications of today and for the future. Desired o utcomes for students: To component for daily teaching and learning experiences in the classroom, as well as opportunities to apply learning outside of the school. To expose students to the reso urces afforded through technology integration and to increase d student engagement and provide accelerated learning experiences. Desired outcomes for s taff : To assist staff with the knowledge and application skills to effectively integrate technology resour ces into daily classroom teaching and learning experiences. To establish school wide structures and processes to effectively utilize technology as both a tool for planning, instruction and assessment for students along with a tool to enhance communication and collaboration with students, colleagues and families. Desired outcomes for f amilies : To assist families in understanding the importance of technology integration in the classroom as an important element in preparing students for future success. To esta blish effective home/school communication and collaboration utilizing technology resources in meaningful ways. Activities : 1. Conduct baseline, formative and outcome assessments of teachers and students related to the knowledge and application of technology s kills. 2. Provide ongoing training, coaching and support to teachers and students in the areas of technology applications and technology integration. 3. To collaborate with business, community and university partners to support increased application o f technolog y as an essential tool for teaching and learning. 4. Conduct inquiry based action research related to the impact of technology integration on teaching and learning outcomes for both teachers and students. 5. Establish an annual technology integration plan for th e school. 6. Serve as a training center and resource site for technology integration within the school, district and community. Evaluation : Assessment of student/teacher skills as a result of focused and strategic technology integration and professional devel opment. Assess the impact of technology integration on student achievement and increased student engagement. Evaluate the effectiveness of school wide structures, policies and procedures related to technology as a tool for communication and collaboration.

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120 Table 4 14 Selected elementary school ITTS 2011 teacher t echno logy assessment d ata Performance Indicators Composite School Average Score 1. Basic Operations & Concepts : Locate and open file Adjust the volume of the computer Safe a file to a specific lo cation Print a file in a specific printer Locate and open applications Quit applications Create and name folders Organize files and folders Rename files and folders Check cables for pr oper attachment to computers and peripherals Recover from a software failure 93% 2. Productivity : Word Processing: recognizing a word processing program, create a new document, enter and format text (fonts, size, emphasis), copy cut, and paste text Spreads heets: recognize a spreadsheet, create a spreadsheet, enter data into a spreadsheet, edit data into an existing spreadsheet, create a chart (graph) with data in a spreadsheet Database : recognize a database program, enter data into an existing database, edi t data into an existing database Graphics : recognize a graphics program, recognize graphics file formats, resize graphical objects in a document, identify tools of graphics software, add graphics (i.e. pictures, photos, or clip art) to a document 94% 3. Com munication Email: compose and send email message, reply to an email message (reply to sender, reply to all), open an email attachment, attach a file to an email message, recognize an email program Video: play a video clip on a computer Presentation: recogn ize a slideshow presentation, open and play an existing slideshow presentation, add text to a slide within a presentation 97% 4. Research : Research Skills: search online databases and reference software, recognize search strategies, identify appropriate se arch strategies, evaluate search results, evaluate the accuracy and creditability of information obtained through the Internet Browser Use: recognize a browser, identify the elements of a browser, identify the elements of a webpage, Type a URL into the add ress bar, Bookmark a site (using bookmark or Favorite), recognize links on a webpage, open a new browser window 86%

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121 Table 4 14. Continued Performance Indicators Composite School Average Score 5. Planning, Management & Instruction Planning and Manageme nt: identify basic uses of word processing, spreadsheet, graphic programs and uses of communication tools Instruction: identify basic instructional uses of word processing, spreadsheet, data base, graphic, communication tools and concept mapping programs 9 7% 6. Social, Ethical, Legal and Human Issues Evaluate teacher use of technology in the classroom with regard to Acceptable Use Policy for employees. Evaluate student use of technology in the classroom with regard to Acceptable Use Policy for students. Judg e appropriateness of posting student information on the Internet. Identify safety and security issues with regard to technology and the Internet. Identify fair use practices and copyright policy. Properly cite digital resources. 90% Table 4 15 Selecte d elementary school, selected school district and s tate 2011 technology assessment data comparison d ata ITTS Comparison School District State Basic Operations 93% 92% 82% Productivity 94% 93% 83% Communication 97% 97% 88% Research 86% 84% 78% Plan ning, Management & Instruction 97% 96% 86% Social, Ethical, Legal/Human Issues 90% 93% 84%

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122 Table 4 16 Selected elementary school 2011 BATT survey d ata Survey Question Mean Standard Deviation Standard Error Confidence Interval The abili ty to effectively use technology in the Resources (funding, equipment, etc.) 4.6 .531 .087 4.478 4.820 Professional development opportunities on using technology 4.7 .519 .082 4.514 4.836 Access to the Internet 4.8 .397 .058 4.690 4.91 9 Quality software 4.5 .580 .086 4.332 4.668 Physical classroom structures (outlets, tables, space, etc.) 4.4 .258 .039 4.296 4.448 Support from school administrators 4.7 .513 .076 4.526 4.822 S upport from parents 4.0 .437 .064 3.896 4.149 Suppor t from other teachers 4.1 .456 .067 3.913 4.176 Technical support (technician) 4.5 .616 .091 4.300 4.656 Time to plan for technology implementation 4.6 .531 .087 4.478 4.820 Time to let students use technology 4.7 .469 .069 4.538 4.809 Smaller class si zes 4.1 .790 .119 3.883 4.350 Mobile equipment (laptops) 4.5 ..651 .096 4.312 4.688 P roper connections (computer to projector, etc. 4.7 .469 .069 4.538 4.809 Ability of these factors to occur in your Resources (funding, equipment, etc.) 4.3 .129 .019 4.287 4.364 Professional development opportunities on using technology 4.5 .579 .085 4.289 4.624 Access to the Internet 4.8 .462 .068 4.649 4.916 Quality software 4.5 .580 .086 4.311 4.646 Physical classroom structures (outlets, table s, space, etc.) 4.4 .577 .085 4.268 4.601 Support from school administrators 4.8 .412 .061 4.663 4.902 Support from parents 4.0 .707 .104 3.817 4.226 S upport fro m other teachers 4.3 .758 .113 4.021 4.457 Technical support. (technician) 4.4 .693 .10 2 4.126 4.526 T ime to plan for technology implementation 4.0 .921 .136 3.756 4.288 Time to let students use technology 4.2 .757 .112 4.020 4.458 Smaller class sizes 3.9 .462 .070 3.721 3.994 Mobile equipment (laptops) 4.4 .709 .022 4.375 4.462 Proper connections (computer to projector, et c.) 4.4 .713 .105 4.250 4.663

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123 Table 4 17 Selected elementary school 2011 expert focus group interview question d ata Question 1: What role do you believe that technology skill development plays in the Twenty F irst Century classroom? Education I believe that technology skill development should play a primary role in the 21st century technology skill development in all areas of employment. classroom and not provide them with technology for learning would be as inappropriate as not providing them with electricity and indoor plumbing. While students are constantly surrounded by technology, as educators we have a critical responsibility to help them learn students. Business This question implicitly asks f or the role of technology in education, which makes indispensable to keep in mind that neither technology, nor education are ends themselves; they rather are means to build certain attitudes, abilities, knowledge and behavior primarily management. Provided that an education system has a defined, known and clear must be to support, en hance and multiply the realization of that visioning in a way that is holistic, sustainable, competitive, and cost effective. The answer to what kind of neighbor, citizen or American, education is supposed to bring about, cannot be overshadowed, assumed or taken for granted, as it determines the role of technology in education. Education is not merely the realm of standards, scores and tests; nor should it be a theater for ideological fighting or political agendas. Education is a matter of values for societ y building; thus technologies must not be idolized, nor become a substitute for substance, values and human spirit building and this is, precisely, the crossroad where education and technology meet business; all of them are determined by values. Technology in education society. The current economic crisis has showed the powerful role of information and communication technologies used for speculation with worthless financ ial instruments around the world, which led the so people who have not being made accountable, nor respo nsible. Does the USA needs better century, society, economy and power, all of them, are not merely information based, but knowledge based and that shapes the role of technology in the classroom; it must strengthen conditions to create, escalate, renovate and innovate knowledge in all classroom stakeholders: students, teachers parents and administrators. Technology must lead change, not restrain it. Technology plays a very important role in the 21st Century classroom. Classroom technology reflects the tools used in relevant applications found in an array of industries, and reflects effective learning tools for students to meet or exceed district/ state/national standards.

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124 Table 4 17. Continued Community driving a car, most kn ow how to drive but very few understand what is under the hood. While this is ok, there are certain things about a car that you should know that are not on a are c ertain tech skills that students need to know also (error messages and why certain things do not work, etc.). The problem is, like their understanding of an automobile most very integrate the technology into the lesson in meaningful ways. Parent co mmunication and vital in its importance. With that said, we must teach students to be proficient users. I believe that technology skill development is critical to the classroom. We work so hard to teach to students in all different learning languages an d intelligences. Technology is just one more of those languages. It is much easier to learn when multiple senses are included in the introduction of new topics. With technology in the classroom, kids get to hear a teacher speak on a topic, maybe do some manipulatives, watch a short video clip, do a virtual lab with multiple outcomes or solutions, play a game to reinforce skills, and be assessed on their knowledge. Having the skills to use different types of technology is a critical part of a classroom. Kids today need to be able to decipher and weed through all of the information that is made available to them through the internet. There are different tools and programs that will assist a child in understanding the different information that is availa ble. What is fact or research based and what is opinion driven information? Kids need to be exposed to the information and formats so they can learn which information they want to rely on. When tasked with a project in class, they need to be able to use d ifferent tools to create answers to questions that are asked by a teacher. A paper, although still very important in their education and development, may be less creative and not as appealing to the world because we can get the same information portrayed by a video or pod cast, a three fold brochure, a quiz interface using Mimio or other programs available, spreadsheets, power point, blogs, or an app on an iPad. All of these things require a child to organize their thoughts, but on top of organizing their thoughts, there is more science in the form of technology use involved. Plus they also have to take in to consideration the visual appeal of the project, forcing coordination of colors, outfits, music, and ultimate presentation. A paper does require thi s also, but on a much smaller scale with word processing that is available. A child only needs to ensure that their spacing and margins are correct and the cover sheet looks good. With a podcast or video, there are many facets to consider; organization o f the event, editing of the video, outfits, props, music, and of course the script. It seems that having more technology in the class forces our students and teachers to evaluate all aspects of a project, not just the written word. This prepares them to g o out and face the world. It is critical to have in the classroom, because not all families have the resources or the knowledge on how to use the technology today. If we are training our kids to be contenders in the future, they have to know how to use th e systems that are available in the world today. They may not be the same systems in the future, but they will be the basis of what is to come. I was recently in Europe and the bus stops have touch interface screens to find out information on the street c orners. It seems that the rest of the world is implementing technology faster in everyday situations. Granted it was only a bus stop, but you have to know how to access and use the information to travel around the world. Business in the 21st century is g lobal, not really local anymore. You can work with clients and peers all over the world and communicate for free via Skype and other programs, work on updating a project on the screen at the same time and send almost all information instantly. If we do n ot start training our students today, they will be even further behind going forward. Kids around the world speak multiply languages and are

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125 Table 4 17. Continued using technology in their everyday lives to travel around their country. We have to make sure that our children ar e being shown the skills and technology to compete. Also many things seem to interface with a computer or piece of technology, they need to be updated or connected to work. It is critical for kids to be given an opportunity to learn how to plug and play, troubleshoot, update and connect systems and software. For example, to check e books out of the library to my nook, I had to register my nook, download software to my computer, authorize my computer, authorize my nook, login to the library, search and che ck out the books, download the books to the computer and then transfer data to the nook. Of course I ran in to a technical glitch and had to check three different help sites (Barnes & Noble, the library and Adobe) none of which had a solution. So I went t o Google and found a blog that had technical questions answered and after troubleshooting my system, I was able to get all the pieces of technology to connect. This took about 2 hours to accomplish. This was just so that I could borrow some books from the library. Troubleshooting skills are part of math and science. It seems today and going forward they are going to be a requirement to compete. I have a bank account also that you just scan your check and upload the document to deposit money in the bank. Everything is done online because the bank does not have a brick and mortar building. These are everyday skills, not some extraneous thing that 1 or 2 people are attempting. Troubleshooting is an integral part of technology. It forces you to solve a pro blem, look at the possible options the creative problem solving comes into play. This is the same as working through a proof in geometry or a derivation in a science class. In fact, these skills may be even easier to see because with equipment there are things to plug or unplug and touch whereas with a proof or derivation, it is strictly math and science knowledge that will help one solve the problem. It seems these skills will only assist kids going forward in critical thinking and problem solving. They all need to be integrated into the 21st century classroom. It gives kids realistic situations when faced with problem solving a software and technology issue. Plus they will most likely be helping their parents accomplish these tasks at home, so they will see why the skills are relevant. It forces them to organize thoughts and go through a problem methodically. It seems these traits are what kids need to write, so lve math problems and excel in science and it may be more fun for them to learn it through putting technology together! Since we simply cannot predict how technology will shape jobs in the future, I believe students need opportunities for enhanced commun ication and critical thinking, collaboration, and tools to foster creativity and publication. Technology provides the best framework in which these skills can be taught and encouraged. Question 2: What are the technology resources that you believe need to be included in a Twenty First Century prototype classroom? Education Technology resources that I believe need to be integrated in a 21st century prototype classroom would be the following: Mimeo or SMART board, document camera, digital cameras, indivi dual handheld notebooks or laptops, microphones for surround sound, access to internet for instructional materials and resources and various instructional software. Each classroom should provide the tools for students to use for their intake of informati on as well as production of it. I think the following items would be the current basic set up with changes made as new technology becomes available. Personal device per student This could be a laptop, tablet, e reader, telephone or whatever appropriate device is invented next. It should allow students to receive, create and share information. Storage should allow for recharging of batteries and the cabinet should be as small as possible and allow for easy access of devices and cords. Projector. A proje ctor allows for the group to conveniently see a computer screen. Teacher Devices Teachers need a computer for their desk (laptop or desktop), but they also need some type of handheld item. It could be a

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126 Table 4 17. Continued tablet or telephone, but it needs to be loaded with software that allows teachers to input and receive information from anywhere in the classroom about individual student data. Sound system; A sound system should help all people hear more clearly in the classroom. A few hand held mics in each classroom for the students would also be helpful. Software, Office, Mimio, DyKnow, production, others as dictated by student and teacher needs. Cameras provide the opportunity to Skype and to create digital and video content. Phone; there should be a desktop phone in e ach classroom. A handheld phone could provide teachers with the opportunity to use it for multiple tasks. Quick network connections throughout the campus. Multiple electrical outlets with the ability to adjust the light. Headphones so that for student productions. Community If I had a magic wand, it would be one to one computing. The ability for each student to access the Internet whenever the need arises, whether i t is in each classroom or in a lab or media center, students need access to all kinds of digital media to provide them the ability to express themselves in alternative ways (besides text based media). We need all of the presentation tools like video proj ectors and interactive whiteboards but we also need easy access to the internet and communication tools for each student. Parent The resources are: (1) computers with current software programs (processing, publishing, editing, spreadsheet, design software to help towards website design, and gaming), (2)touch screen based technology (iPad or iTouch), (3)video or filming capabilities, (4)cameras, (5)systems that introduce robotics (Lego, soda can robots, etc.) (6) Mimio or something similar, (7) social netw orking opportunities (perhaps lead by the teacher for class assignments and small discussions) (8) e book readers (Nook, Kindle, etc.). Any collaborative tool(s) that allows students to communicate and collaborate real time, provide feedback, and foster networking applications. Question 3: How do you believe that professional development and support to teachers in the area of technology integration should be provided to be most effective? Edu cation Professional development and support to teachers in the area of technology integration with technology. Training should be ongoing and change with the needs of the teachers and students. Teachers deserve support in a multitude of ways. They sometimes feel that their students are more technically adept than the adults in the room and that can feel intimidating. A few large group sessions can be helpful, but th ey should be few and far between. It is a good way to give out basic information that all teachers need. Small groups based on teacher need/choice provide the opportunity to learn a new skill with a few other voices of interested people. Business I bel ieve people most people are instinctively reluctant to change. In the case of teachers it is reasonable to assume that if they do not see any personal gain in technology adoption, they will not easily embrace it. Therefore administrators need to plan strat egies to stimulate technology usage by teachers, such as: (1) Technology must be equally accessible, not a praise the coolness and convenience of the new technology, leading by example. (3) Trying etc, since the more they see interesting personal applications of the new technology, the more engaged they will be in the classroo m. (4) Nowadays quite often children are more adroit to technology than grown ups; that creates opportunities for students to teach teachers and, by the way, being more conscious about what teaching entails. (5) Create some reward, competitions, and prizes for teachers to apply creatively technologies in the

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127 Table 4 17. Continued Technology usage and maintenance nee ds to be a collaborative experience between teacher and tech support people.(8) Definitely teachers and students are final user of technologies adopted by schools, therefore they MUST be consulted prior any technology acquisition. Likewise, overtime, their feedback and evaluation have to be considered before technology (10) Technology, indeed, needs to be fun, user friendly and visibly relevant and useful. Technology i n the classroom is not to: (1) Be a substitute for bad teaching, (2) Require that all teachers need to be geeks. Professional development that scaffolds training going from exposure to hardware and software, to operational practice, to classroom applicat ion as integrated into lesson planning, and relevant to real world applications. It also includes a paradigm shift allowing students to use technology in the classroom that aligns to how technology is used innovatively in real world practice. Community You need to have someone in the schools who understanding both instruction and technology. Usually this is the media specialist or someone trained in these areas. Ideally there would be more than one individual who can do this, one to act as support and on e who can get up in front of a group (students and teachers) and teach. I do not believe that there is one correct way as we all learn differently and are starting from different levels of knowledge. So we must meet each learner/educator where they are and support them in moving forward through face to face training, web based training, coaching etc. Parent Training time has to be afforded to the teachers to be able to learn some of the newer technologies. When I worked as a consultant introducing a new computer based program to a company, it was critical to provide training in a group setting and then offer one to one training for the folks whose jobs were most significantly modified by the new programs. Learning how to use the program as a tool and to its capacity with respect to their job actually helped them free up more time for other aspects of their job. It is very easy to spend thousands of dollars on new technology and not follow through and spend the money for the training. If that is the case and we do not allow people time to learn the system and do not provide knowledgeable people to train on the new technology, we should not even given the iPa ds to take home and play with for a week. Let them download apps, surf the internet, work on loading some pictures or music and just play with the system. Then training on how we plan to use it in the schools should be conducted for the group. This shoul d be videoed or recorded so that it can be made available later for the teachers to review. After a month of using the programs then a follow up training, even 10 minutes to reiterate or present new possibilities would be beneficial. Of course there are t he leads or experts that are available to help on an ongoing basis too. Perhaps having the leads create cool tips that go out weekly or have a forum for the teachers to share how they are using the different apps or functionality in the classroom to make a difference. If it is training only at the district level, I believe that there will be a disconnect. Teachers do not always have time to wait 6 weeks for the district to get to their school to do extra training. Creating training that is run as a webinar or over a site that requires using or checking a social network or blog might help create the understanding better. It is hard to force a teacher to learn a new software program, so creating training that makes them use the programs seems the best way to get them on the system and playing around with it. For example, not all teachers use Angel because they do not know how to go in and add new information to it like a quick weekly update on what is going on in the classroom. Perhaps passing information f or the teachers that requires them to respond by posting to Angel would help them learn the program better so that it can be used to its potential instead of a hit or miss

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128 Table 4 17. Continued depending on the classroom. As a parent, it would be great to go in and see the cal endar of events for the classroom available, it does not need to be a minute by minute, but it would be nice to see that my kids have a test next Wednesday or the essential question wrap up project is due in two weeks. Having training leads that have learn ed the technology is very helpful. It is great when they can show how it is helpful in their classroom and be the point of contact if someone needs help. Maybe having the leads create mini lessons or problems that the untrained can go in and solve would be helpful. Most of the time just getting an individual to play with the new technology is all that it takes to make them feel comfortable. I think that it would be fun with some of the technology to do a training that includes the kids. They do not have the fear of breaking the program or technology that some of us older people might have. They will push the envelope and find things that the technical leads may not have found. It might be a fun way of letting the school community come together and lear n something new. If the kids can pick it up and play, then the teachers will be able to also. Besides there may be parents that are well versed in the Integration with curr iculum material and concept acquisition is the best way to develop teacher effectiveness in the area of technology. Providing examples and non examples of student and teacher work as well as sustained, hands on opportunities for skill development is criti cal. Question 4: How do you believe that school districts and schools should determine the allocation of financial resources to support the purchase of technology for classrooms? Education I believe that school districts and schools should involve scho ol administrators, parents, students and the community in determining the allocation of resources to purchase technology. The use of technology not only benefits students preparing them for the workplace it also can save the district money by increasing ac cessibility with current instructional resources. School districts must assume that technology expenses are as critical as electrical dollars. needs to include replac ement parts and continual updating of resources. The district budget should pay for all of the basic costs and then additional dollars should be given to those schools willing to be technology leaders. Curriculum leaders should decide what should be purch ased and then the technology department should be expected to support it. The design. The tech department should support what the curriculum leaders deem necessary. B usiness I wonder why public schools have to pay royalties, with taxpayer money, to technology s wrong with open source software for tasks that are so simple like word processing? Technology, first and foremost is an investment, a costly one; as such, schools need to follow the same rationale for technology investment as private companies do, which means: (1)Needs assessment, (2) Stakeholder involvement, (3)Competing technology providers, (4) Financial planning, (5) Usage monitoring and evaluation, (6) Upgrade planning. In practice, district should be able to monitor how technology is actually being used in the classroom and learn from technology purchasing decisions must include technology for the administrative side not only for teaching, technology that faci litates planning, budgeting, communications, interaction between schools, etc. The School Board, as well as its sub committees should have more frequent retreats, deliberations and assessments on technology with feedback from chambers of commerce, busines s leaders, universities and, indeed, technology companies in the region. However, I do not see school district administrators,

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129 Table 4 17. Continued superintendents, board members, etc. as the most technology wise people, which perhaps means that decisions end up being made by purchasing agents who are not versed on pedagogic issues. I believe, in any case those leading people should be trained on basics of technology applied to education. Why purchasing and not leasing, renting or other cost effective solutions already availabl e in the marketplace? Technology allocations are determined by the desired outcomes of student learning, defined by meeting or exceeding the standards. Community There needs to be an allocation for on going training and support equal to at least 10 15 % of all technology purchases. I believe that it should be a team approach taking advantage of the expertise of those hired in technology area combined with school based personnel, teachers and students all utilizing the expertise within the district and experts outside the district as resources. Parent I do not know how the district currently allocates funds. I think that it is important to allocate funding not only for the technology but also the training of the end users. If we are training one perso n in the district are they really getting out to all of the schools? Or are they taking months to get around to the schools to provide the training. I think that it is important to look at what are the possible programs and technology available. What is the energy level around new programs and implementation? I would say 6 months is a good amount of time for individuals to start to feel comfortable with a new system. Resources need to account for at least 3 months of pre launch time for a few people to b e testing and looking for incompatibilities system wide and possibilities that reach past the initial scope of the item. So when looking at allocating funds, I would include funding that spans almost a year in the implementation of new technology, the cap ital expense and the training and support program that goes with it. I also believe it is important to look for grant opportunities that can benefit the whole district or some schools to pilot different types of technology. This provides a great opportuni ty to see how the different types of technology enhance learning. From those opportunities a district or school will be able to determine how to allocate and train for a district wide implementation of newer technologies. I believe school districts should strive for both horizontal and vertical equity when it comes to the allocation and purchase of technology resources. Horizontal equity ensures that all schools have a base allocation of technology purchased with school funds. However, I believe schools that have additional needs (students with lack of technology access at home or student with assistive technology needs) or show initiative in expanding/piloting technolo gy tools should be allowed to do so. Question 5: What elements do you believe should be included in the development of federal, state and district policies related to the purchase of technology resources. Education It is imperative that all stakeholders including parents, students, teachers, administrators and community members give input into developing policies related to the purchase of technology resources. Business needs to communicate the importance of including technology as an integral part of a c workplace. Policies should be based on teaching the Common Core, American Association of School Librarians (AASL), and International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) standards. Common Core curri culum standards (http://www.corestandards.org/) should provide a more level playing field for all students across our nation. The American Association of School Librarians and the International Standards for Technology organizations provide the educationa l bridges from technology to content areas. Federal and state governments should not only mandate, but actually fund the push for universal technology for all schools.

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130 Table 4 17. Continued Business Answers to this question entail too much more than opinions on technology an d education. They require legal knowledge of federal, state and local procurement laws that I am not familiar with. However, I believe that beyond and above legal considerations, technology acquisition for education, must follow objectives of: (1)Relevance (2) Not being brand or fashion and accountability, (5) Achieve world class standards, (6) Open and equal competition between providers, (7) Work against monopolies, (8) Foste r innovation, (9) Achieve cost effectiveness standards. Technology is aligned with curriculum, standards and assessments, just as textbooks have been. Technology funding is embedded into the desired outcomes of student learning, going from nice to have, to must have. Community That no technology can be purchased without consideration for upgrades and on going training. Most importantly they need to understand the needs from infrastructure to handheld devices that make these classrooms possible and then understand the important role of Parent I think that it would be great if businesses that generate these technologies were given discounts for assisting schools. Grante d that may be a little to idealistic to be possible, but it would be great to have companies such as Apple, Cisco along with the software companies of the world to donate or provide better negotiated rates for schools to bring in their products. This wou ld also include training too. It is important for all levels to make sure that training and support for the technology is also included in the policies. A $200,000 software implementation does nothing but take up memory and slow down a server if the knowl edge on how to use the program is not there. In the State of Florida, I wonder how much money is spent each year on sending out new FCAT workbooks and teaching material for science, math, language arts and social studies. I have seen boxes of that around the school with a hundred copies from multiple years. What does the state spend on printing, warehousing, and shipping? Would it be better to evaluate the cost of a software based program or e reader that requires a few minutes of downloading time and ca n be used for multiple years and courses. The publishing industry likes the margins that e books present, they do not have to pay for printing, storing and shipping. The educational powers that be should be looking at how these things can help over ti me to cut costs on all of the paper. Technology purchases should be made upon researched based, best practices information and should be a collaborative effort so that all stakeholders understand the technology direction of a school district. I pers onally do not feel that the elimination of the Enhancing Education Through Technology (E2T2) grant will ensure the integration of technology within other federal grants. Mandating quality program evaluation components within technology policies should als o be considered.

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131 CHAPTER 5 IMPLICATIONS AND REC OMMENDATIONS Introduction The purpose of the descriptive analysis case study was to examine current federal, state and a lo cal selected school district policy related to the purchase and use of technology resources including professional development to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning standards. The descriptive analysis case study identified three research questions to guide the review of the research along with the data collected and ana lyzed within the study. The first research question looked at how the financial resources used in schools to provide the access to technology resources including training and support for teachers was addressed through federal, state and a local selected sc hool distri ct policies. The second research question identified in the descriptive analysis case study looked at what technology resources are necessary in a Twenty First Century classroom and what are the costs to provide these resourc es in a selected ele mentary school The third research question identified in the descriptive analysis case study looked at how the financial investment of technology in the classroom impacts teaching and student learning for increased student achieveme nt in a selected elemen tary school School districts across the nation are faced with increased expectations for student achievement while at the same time are faced with shrinking school budgets. The access to technology resources by teachers and students is considered an essen tial componen t in preparing students in the Twenty First C entury. In the 21 st century, a highly effective teacher blends the use of modern tools, equipment, and content with innovative teaching approaches to support student learning. As well, good teacher s understand just how vital educational technology is to that goal. 95 percent of teachers agree that educational technology engages

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132 ( ) and 93 percent of teachers agree that educational vement 1 The descriptive analysis case study included a review of the current literature regarding the use of technology resource s in the classroom including one to one technology access for students, the impact of technology on student achievement and the importance of professional development and support for teachers in the transformation of classrooms for the Twenty First C entury. An analysis of the financial investment of technology and the return on investment in ers and policymakers are looking for ways to improve the quality of outcomes while slowing the growth of expenditures. The positive impact of 2 The descriptive case s tudy examined the changing attitudes and beliefs of students, teachers, parents, business and community members in a selected elementary school as a result of the access to and integration of technology in a Twenty First C entury classroom. The attitudes an d beliefs of the members of the selected elementary school reflect those of the larger educational community and support the need for continued development of educational policies designed to further integrate technology into the teaching and learning proc ess and to raise student achievement. Through the development of federal, state, and local school district policies, the financial resources used in schools, will continue to increase the access to technology for students including the training and support needed for teachers to further enhance teaching and learning and to increase student achievement. 1 Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. A Project of Scholastic and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, http://scholastic.com/primarysources/download.asp 2010 ) 2 T Greaves, J. Hayes, L. Wilson, M. Gielniak, and R. Peterson. Project Red The Technology Factor: Nine Keys to Student Achievement and Cost Effectiv eness. MDR, www.project.RED.org ( 2010 ).

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133 Policy Development In an era of system wide education reform as evidenced by the current Race to the Top 3 federal grant initiative s state and local scho ol districts are required to review current policies and achievement. 4 The ability to effectively coordinate federal and state grant funding sources along with local sc 5 In order to better utilize federal a nd state funding three recommendations for policymakers were identified: 6 (1) Policymakers should promote educational efficiency including a reform of federal and state government funding sources. (2) The need to reform school and district management syst ems to include improved technology and tools to support better teaching and learning outcomes for students. (3) To provide better approaches to district and school funding other than the traditional categorical funding formulas currently used by federal an d state agencies. 7 As policymakers at the federal, state and local levels review and revise educational funding policies it will be important for them to have a clearly defined goal of the role of technology resources that support the desired outcome of in creased student achievement. 3 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Funding. Race to the Top (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education 2007 ): 1 29 4 Race to the Top, 2. 5 Center for American Progress Return on Educational Investment, http://www.americanprogress.com ., ( January 19, 2011 ): 40 6 Ibid., 40 42. 7 Ibid., 40

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134 The se policies will directly impact the financial investment of tech nolog y in schools and have an effect on the teaching and learning process and the return on these investments for increased student performance. The overall goal of technology policies and plans is the successful integration of policies should address three major areas: vision, access and integration. Vision pertains to what is exp ected from the technology overall. Access refers to the acquisition, deployment, and availability of technology to target audiences. Integration of technology is the development and implementation of strategies that make technology useful and capable of ac complishing the vision. 8 To support the development of polices at the federal, state and local school district level the following questions provide a framework to guide policy development and the investment in technology: 1. How can polices be developed so t hat technology initiatives can be more focused on the needs of teachers and the improvement of teaching and learning over time? 9 2. How can educational policy be aligned to current educational accountability and equity issues? 10 3. How can policies build on p ast successful practices that demonstrate the impact of technology on educational reform? 11 The development of policies to guide school districts in the investment in technology resources for scho ols is an important component toward achieving the identifi ed educational reform goals outlined in the federal Race to the Top initiative currently guiding states and public education 8 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statisti cs. Technology in Schools: Suggestions, Tools, and Guidelines for Assessing Technology in Ele mentary and Secondary Education. (Washington, D.C.: National Fo rum on Education Statistics November, 2002 ): 42 9 Katie McMillan Culp, Margaret Honey, and Ellen Man dinach. A Retrospective on Twenty Years of Education Technology Policy. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Of fice of Educational Technology, October 2003 ): 23 24 10 Ibid ., 23 24 11 Ibid., 23 24

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135 today. 12 This descriptive analysis research study inc luded a review of the current literature from practitioners in the field of edu cation supporting suggested best practices and the need for the increased access to and the use of technology in the classroom to further enhance the te aching and learning process for improved student achievement. When federal, state and local school distr ict policies are closely aligned with identified goals for increased student achievement, the return on the investment in technology resources including training and s upport for teacher s can be realized. Twenty First Century Skills An essential element i n educational reform and supported by the retooling of educational policy is the expansion of te aching and learning to include Twenty First C entury skills for all students. st Century Economy depends directly on how well and deeply Americans reach a new level of literacy 21 st Century Literacy that includes strong academic skills, thinking, reasoning, teamwork and proficiency in using technology. 13 Twenty First C entury skills include the core academic subjects in addition to critical and creative thinking, problem solving and teamwork skills. The effective use and integration of technology skills supports collaboration and problem based learning approaches designed to support Twenty First C entury skills. Reading, math and science are the foundations of student achievement. But to need another set of knowledge and skills. These 21 st century skills include the development of global awarene ss and the ability to collaborate and communicate and analyze and address problems. And they need to rely on critical thinking and problem solving to create innovative solutions to the issues facing our world. Every 12 Race to the Top 1 29 13 National Alliance of Busin ess. st Century Workforce, (Washington, D.C.: Executive Summary 2000 ): 5

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136 child should have the opportunity to acq uire and master these skills and our schools play a vital role in making this happen. 14 The expansion of digital learning resources made available through technology, have resulted in federal and local school districts to look for ways to increase student access to technology in order to access digital learning resources. In 2010, former Florida Governor Jeb Bush and former West Virginia Governor Bob Wise began a national campaign called Digital Learning Now! 15 with the goal of reforming educational policies to include online and digital learning resources. As educ ation is redesigned to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning skills, technology is now considered a primary and essential element to addressing the learning needs of all students and in creasing student achievement. The Foundation for Excellence in Education the agency managing the Digital Learning Now! initiative identified the 10 Elements of High Quality Digital Learning: 1. Student Eligibility; All students are digital learners 2. Student Access ; All students have access to high quality digital content and online courses. 3. Personalized Learning ; All students can customize their education using digital content through an approved provider. 4. Advancement ; Students progress based on demonstr ated competency. 5. Content ; Digital content, instructional materials, and online blended learning courses are high quality. 6. Instruction ; Digital instruction and teachers are high quality. 7. Providers ; All students have access to multiple high quality provi ders. 14 P artnership For 21 st Century Skills, Framework for 21 st Century Learning, Quote from Michael Dell, CEO, Dell, Inc. www.21centuryskills.org (2009): 4. 15 Foundati on for Excellence in Education, Digital Learning Now! (Tallahassee, FL: Digital Learning Council December, 1, 2010 ): 1 20

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137 8. Assessment and Accountability ; Student learning is the metric for evaluating the quality of content and instruction. 9. Funding ; Funding creates incentives for performance, options and innovation. 10. Delivery ; Infrastructure supports digital learning. 16 In the State of Florida, the 2011 Legislature passed a digital learning bill that incorporates the ten elements identified for high quality digital learning, requiring that high school students take an online course as part of graduation requirements alo ng with the expansion of online courses, blended learning opportunities for all students and the expansion of technology based assessment measures. 17 This current legislation will have a direct impact on future policy development related to the purchase of technology resources to schools. This descriptive analysis case study identifies the technology resources necessary to support a Twenty First Century classroom along with the costs associated with providing these resources. This recent legislation provides a clear direction from the legislature that school districts need to continue reviewing and developing policies to ensure that technology resources are provided in classrooms and that the financial investment in technology supports the transformation of t eaching and learning for increased student achievement. The Twenty First Century classroom should include technology resources including ongoing training and support to teachers to ensure that students have access to technology to support learning. As deci sions are made regarding the purchase of and access to online digital resources, the investment in technology will be critical to the future success of school districts throughout the state of Florida. 16 Digital Learning Now!, 7 13 17 Florida House of Representatives, House Bill #CS?CS?HB7 197 Digital Learning, Education Committee, Appropriations Committee, K 20 Innovation Subcommittee, (Tallahassee, FL: 2011).

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138 Technology Integration With the increased access of technology resources to students and teachers it is very important that technology is effectively integrated into the teaching and learning process to support the learning and increased performance for all students. We know that Twenty First C entury skills must include the effective use of technology. 18 Classroom environments should be retooled to include technology integration into the teach ing and learning process. In a Twenty First C entury technology rich classroom, teachers are using a variety of t echnol ogy skills and resources, and are continually being asked to learn new techniques to support teaching and learning. 19 The role of the school administrator is essential in supporting teachers in making these necessary changes to the classroom. 20 The availabil ity of the technology resources including the needed professional development and support necessary to effectively integrate technology into the teaching and learning process is a critical element in the transformation of classroom teaching and learning. 21 The work conducted in the case study of a selected elementary school is evident by the commitment of teachers and administrators toward the integration of technology into the teaching and learning process. The school has learne d some valuable lessons in th e journey to transform teaching and learni ng for the Twenty First C entur y. The followi ng recommendations support the research questions identified in this descriptive analysis case study of the selected school district and selected elementary school. T he a nalysis of 18 U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology. Transforming American Education Learning Powered by Technology, Nati onal Education Technology Plan 2010, (Alexandria, VA: U S Departmen t of Education November, 2010 ): 1 87 19 Transforming Education, 5 6. 20 R. J ones, C. Fox and D. Levin. State Technology Leadership Essential for 21 st Century Learning. Annual Report, State Ed ucational Technology Directors Association (SETDA), www.setda.org ( 2011 ): 1 25 21 M. Johnston and N. Cooley. What We Know About Supporting New Models of Teaching and Learning Through Technology. (Arlington, VA: Educatio nal Re search Service 2001 ): 1 16

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139 established selected school district policies along with the data collected address the research question identified in the study; how are financial resources used in schools to ensure access to technology along with training and support for tea chers in a selected school and provide the basis for the following suggested recommendations: Consistently communicate to all stakeholders; teachers, students, parents business and community members educational goals and Twenty First Century teaching and l earning skills. Build a shared vision among all stakeholders of the importance of technology goals and ongoing learning and integration of technology as part of the teaching and learning process. Expand the funding sources at the federal, st ate, local sc hool district and s chool level to support the vision of technology integration and the importance of technology and technology resources in the classroom. Provide ongoing professional development and support to teachers to support the effective change in attitudes and beliefs about technology as well as increased knowledge and skills necessary for technology integration. Redesign curriculum, instruction and assessment strategies to effectively integrate technology into the teaching and learning process. Create networks of support for teachers effectively using technology resources in the classroom. Increase formative assessment measures and resources to include assessing Twenty F irst C entury skills including technology proficiency and application. As s chool districts and individual schools begin the transformation of teaching and learning to effectively integrate technolo gy into the classroom, the following areas and recommendations address the research question about how the investment of technology in the classroom impact teaching and learning for increased student achievement and sho uld be considered in both the development of policies and when the financial investments in technology resources are determined:

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140 1. The impact required in the school culture to support technology integration. The development of a well crafted technology plan to support the purchase of technology at the school district and indi vidual school levels is critical to policy development and technology investments. 2. The development of the leadership capacity o f administrators to support the expansion of technology integration at the school level. Establishing a strong vision of technology integration along with ongoing training and support to teachers is critical to supporting technolo gy integration and increased student achievement. 3. and are committed to technology integration. This group will serve as the guiding force in the transformation of schools and classrooms integrating technology. 4. The importance of educating all stakeholders in the transformation of teaching and learning to support Twenty First Century teaching and learning skills. In addition to staff, parents, community and business partners ne ed to understand and support the increased integration of technology and technology resources in the Twenty First Century classroom. 5. The need for well developed strategic plans including measurable outcomes to support the purchase of technology resources for classrooms. The strategic plan will ensure that technology resources are aligned with identified student performance goals along with justification for technology investments. 6. The development of long range plans to address the integration of new and e merging technologies over time. As new technology continues to emerge they need to be effectively integrated to support Twenty First Century teaching and learning. 7. The importance of celebrating the growth and development of teachers and students as a res ult of effective technology integration for Twenty F irst teaching and learning skills. Ongoing professional development and learning are critical to the success of both teachers and students and must be a critical part of technology integration in schools. 8. Technology integration is considered as important to the transformation of classrooms for the Twenty First Century as is the required financial investment in technology resources for classrooms. Without the meaningful and sustained integration of techno logy into the teaching and learning process, technology will not have the needed impact to student learning and performance.

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141 Creating our Future: Students Speak Up about their Vision for 21 st have their own vision for how technology should be used effectively within in of us to catch up to their vision! Students are already very effectively implementing this student vision of socially based, un tethered and digitally rich learning on their own, in and out of school. 22 Professional Development Providing teachers with ongoing professional development and support in the use an d integration of technology is an essential e lement in the development of a Twenty First C entury classroom. In the selected elementary school featured in the descriptive analysis case study, professional development was an important element in the success of the school and the integr ation of technology to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning skills. D ata collected in the stud y related to the skill level of teachers in the area of technology applications, along with attitudes and beliefs about te chnology use in the classroom support the transformation of teaching and learning using technology in the selected elementary school included in the study. As the knowledge and skill level of teachers increased, their attitudes and beliefs about the use of and the integration of technology also increased. To support the development of increased skill levels of teachers along with changing attitudes and beliefs about technology integration in the classroom, t he selected elementary school looked for innovat ive ways over the past four years to provide ongoing professional development and support for teachers. One of the most successful innovations has been to provide a flexible work week schedule so that time on one afternoon each week could be used for ongoi ng sustained professional development and collaborative learning. By adopting this flexible schedule the school has been able to provide an additional fifty hours of professional 22 Project Tomorrow. www.tomorroworg/speakup/pdfs/SU10_3EofEducation(Students)pdf ( 2011 ): 3

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142 development for teachers each year. Additionally the school has created onlin e professional development resources to support teachers with immediate and specific professional development and support in the use of and integration of technology. An important element to the success of the integration of technology into to school has been developing strong networks of support among teachers who embrace and are comfortable with technology integration. Rather than providing technology training with the sole purpose of learning the technology application, the approach the school has taken is to identify the Twenty First C entury teaching and learning skills necessary for increased student achievement and then to integrate the technology as both a tool for enhancing instruction and also for the management of student achievement data and deci sion making. Through the use of a train the trainer model, the school continues to build the capacity of the staff in the a reas of technology applications and the ongoing support needed for technology integration. The ability for teachers to collaborate an d support one another with the trans formation of the classroom for Twenty First C entury teaching and learning has provided a strong and supportive school culture with a shared set of beliefs about the importance of technology to the teaching and learning p rocess. We are within reach of creating a culture of learning where our students own more of their own learning and where they are creating content that benefits their classmates, and even students around the world. This redefines the role of the learner a traditional method from the teacher to the students now evolves to the whole class self directed and interdependent. 23 As teachers build their knowledge and skills in the effective use of technology the learning environment of the class room is transformed to support Twenty First C entury learning skills for students. The ability of teachers to use technolog y to support individual learning needs of 23 Allan Novembe r. Technology Rich, Information Poor. 21 st Century Skills: Rethinking How Students Learn. (Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree, Bloomington 2010 ): 282

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143 students becomes a major element in addressing the learning needs of all students and raising student performance. When teachers have the appropriate professional development and support, they have the ability to e ffectively integrate technology into the curriculum planning, lesson delivery, monitoring of student progress and the assessment of learning outcomes for all students. In a comprehensive review of the literature it should be noted that there is not empiri cal data currently to support the impact of technology integration and increased student achievement. The following recommendations are based on a review of the current literature of best practices as well as promising practices for technology integration a long with data collected in the study to address the research question of how financial resources are used in schools to ensure access to technology along with training and support for teachers. T he importance of ongoing and sustained professional devel opment and support to teachers in the use o f and integration of technology to support teaching and learning in the Twenty First Century classroom provide the basis for the following recommendations: 1. Curriculum development should be fully integrated and in clude technology applications in every aspect of the teaching and learning process. 2. Professional development can build the capacity of the learning organization to support the integration of new and emerging technologies. 3. The creation of a culture of p rofessional learning and shared success is important to effective integration of technology in the teaching and learning process. 4. Teacher evaluation systems must reflect and assess the knowledge and skill levels of teachers to effectively integrate technology resources into the teaching and learning process with the goal of increasing student achievement. The more powerful that technology becomes, the more indispensabl e good teachers are. If we expect teachers to use technology in ways that enrich and enhance student achievement, we must provide them with the professional development

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144 they need to develop the confidence and skills to apply technology, and an understandin g of how technology supports standards based education. 24 Student Achievement The descriptive analysis case study looked at the financial investment of technology in the classroom and the impact to teaching and learning for increased student achievement. T he review o f the literature along with data collected from the selected elementary school did not provide a direct correlation between technology integration and increased student achievement. The current research on technology use in the class room does su ggest t hat technology has a positive impact on increased student achievement. As teachers develop their knowledge and skills in the effective use of and integration of technology in the classroom, increases in student achievement are also achieve d The dat a collected from the selected elementar y school although not conclusive after only one year of data suggests that the use of technology does support increased student achievement as referenced by increased student achievement gains on state achievement mea sures. The research of best practices as well as identified promising practices suggests that the use of technology pr ovides the opportunity for increased access to specific instruction targeting the individual academic needs of students. The effective int egration of technology resources in the classroom engages the Twenty First C entury learner, is available to the student at all times, and provides immediate feedback about learning for both the student and the teacher Learning through the use of technolog y resources can be customized to meet the individual learning needs of all students, providing multiple opportunities to learn and to practice new skills. One of the most powerful promises offered by technology is that learning will become more engaging. E ducation will be directed more toward what people want 24 Michael Fullan. hree Stories of Educational Reform: Inside; Inside/Out; Outside/In Kappan Professional Journal, www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kfulooo4.htm ( 1998 ): 4

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145 potential gain stems from the capability of computers to customize education to the particular needs and abilities of the i ndividual learner. 25 The research included in this descriptive analysis study supports the premise that technology has the greatest impact on student achievement when it is integrated in ways that support the individual learning needs and interests of stude nts. Knowing what motivates and engages students in the learning process is an important consideration in designing learning opportunities to increase student achievement. The opportunity to individualize instruction aligned with identified curriculum stan dards allows teaching and learning to be focused and strategic resulting in increased levels of learning and student achievement. The integration of technology offers expanded choices for students along with the opportunity to differentiate learning strate gies to address the needs of student needs. Technology can no longer be considered in isolation but rather a tool for carefully planning instructing and monitoring student learning outcomes an d increased student achievement results. A recommendation for the effective integration of technology into the teaching and learning process to support increased student achievement comes as a result of a well designed school district technology plan. When developing a technology plan to support student achievement t he following strategies are recommended as a result of a review of the literature of best practices, an analysis of technology policies and the data collected in the study addressing the research question about the investment in technology and the impact o f teaching and learning for increased student achievement : 1. Use technology to support student learning in all content areas linking the application of technology to state and district educational standards. 25 Collins and Halverson, Rethinking Edu cation, 109

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146 2. Technology applications should be fully integrat ed into all content areas and not a set of isolated skills for students to master. 3. Technology resources should be used to collect, organize, and analyze student achievement data. When used effectively technology can support the effective planning, del ivery and assessment of curriculum learning standards. 4. Technology provides the opportunity to individualize learning, provide multiple opportunities for learning and practice as well as immediate and focused feedback for students related to their learni ng and those of the learning outcomes. Recent research studies of the relationship between technology integration and student achievement indicate that when learning activities are designed as inquiry based teaching with an emphasis on higher level skills of critical thinking and problem solving and are paired with technology applications, that student s learn more and at deeper levels of understanding. 26 Research studies highlight the importance of rethinking our beliefs about technology. Educators can no longer accept the belief that technology is a silver Improvements in student learning occur when techno logy is paired with instructional strategies like project based instruction, which actively involves students in intellectually complex work that demands higher order thinking and problem solving. 27 Twenty First Century Technology Rich Prototype Classroom s The challenge facing school districts and individual schools as they move forward with the transformation of classrooms utilizing technology resources is to identify what technology resources are essen tial in the classrooms for the Twenty First C entury. Th e development of a comprehensive technology plan to guide the purchase of technology resources is an important first step in moving technology into the Twenty F irst Century classroom. In addition to the initial purchase of technology resources the ability to maintain and replace technology hardware and 26 Cara Brannigan. tech Program is Raising Stu dent Achievement (Bethesda, MA: eSchool News, June 5, 2002 ) 27 Les Foltos. Technology and Student Achievement, (Seattle, WA: New Horizons for Learning. Seattle, December, 2002 ): 3

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147 software applications are important components of the technology plan. As outlined and discussed in the descriptive analysis case study, the selected school district and elementary school have followed the di integral in the curriculum and instruction will be readily accessible without checking it o ut or 28 The r ec ommendations for equipping the Twenty First C entury technology classroom based on a review of the literature and the data collected in the descriptive analysis case study to address the research question w hat are the technology resources necessary in a Twenty First Century classroom and the costs to provide these resources : Laptop for the teacher Laptops for every student Video projector Interactive whiteboard Classroom sound system Document camera Classro om student response system Wireless network system IP voice telephone D ata collected from the selected school district and selected elementary school in the descriptive analysi s case study identified the technology resources necessary for a Twenty First Century classroom and the initial c ost associated to provide these resources. It should be noted that the cost of technology resources does change over time and that in many instanc es the cost decreases as the availability of technology resources increase s. In the selected school district estimated technology costs for a protot ype technology classroom reflect initial start up costs and the current market value of identified technology resources recommended. 28 Meg Ormiston, Creating a Digital rich Classroom (Bloomington, IN: Soluti on Tree Press, 2011 ), 77.

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148 Summary /Conclusion The proces s of retooling scho ols for the Twenty First C entury suggests that schools and school districts invest in technology resources along with ongoing professional development for teachers to support the transformation of teaching and learning practices through meaningful technolo gy integration. As federal, state and local school districts face declining revenue sources and smaller educational funding, the investment in technology has become even more important to educational reform initiatives. are looking for ways to improve the quality of outcomes while slowing the growth of expenditures. The positive financial impact of properly implemented educational technology can contribute substantially to 29 The descriptive policy analysis c ase study identified three research questions that guided the inquiry process data collection and analysis of this study: 1. How are financial resources used in schools to ensure access to technology along with the training and support for teachers in a sel ected elementary school ? 2. What are the techn ology resources necessary in a Twenty F irst C entury classroom? 3. How does the financial investment in technology in the classroom impact teaching and learning for increased student achievement in a selected eleme ntary s chool ? The results of the descriptive analysis case study included a review of federal, state and a policies related to the inves tment in technology to support Twenty First C entury teaching and learning skills. The recommendations for educators and policymakers regarding the investment in technology resources suggest that the barriers to funding sources can be removed, allowing for more flexibility to school districts to purchase 29 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 125.

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149 technology resources. The following a re recommendatio ns to be considered when developing policies to guide the purchase of technology resources for the classroom: 30 Consider educational technology to be an investment rather than an expense. Look outside the box for financial resources by re e ngineering existing funding sources. Insist on accountability for technology investments. The integration of technology in schools and classrooms must be paire d with a commitment to academic improvement. Tie performance outcomes to financial results. Rev ise educatio nal policies that drive cost savings over time. Engage the school community in understanding the need for change in current instructional practices to support improved teaching and learning using technology resources. Support leadership and t he development of a shared vision for technology integration at all levels of the educational organization. Lobby for legislative reform to enable more flexibility in using allocated funding to support technology integration. The descriptive analysis c as e study provided a comprehensive review of federal, state and ources are needed for a Twenty First C entury technology rich classroom. Through the effective integration of t echnology resources students demonstrate higher levels of engagement, increased access to learning resources, more opportunities to learn, and the ability to receive immediate feedback and customized learning experiences all support ing increased student pe rformance and achievement. The results of the study based upon the current research of best practices and promising practices from practitioners in the field of education with knowledge and expertise in the area of technology integration suggest ed that the investment in technology does provide a substantial return on the investment when carefully planned, implemented and monitored. The 30 Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, and Peterson, Project Red 125.

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150 hope is that this descr iptive analysis case study can serve as a resource to other schools interested in the transformation of teaching and learning pr actices through increased use of technology for Twenty First C entury classrooms An important conclusion of this study indicates that the research related to the use of technology and technology resources in the classroom does n ot yet include substantive data and that this study provides an initial investigation of policy analysis and will require additional time and a more in depth analysis of data collected in the field to draw a direct correlation to the use of technology in t he classroom and increased student achievement.

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151 APPENDIX A TEACHER SURVEY Beliefs About Teaching With Technology (BATT) Instrument Source: The South Central Instrument Library and Data Repository The following factors would enable me to be an effec tive teacher: Suppose your goal is to effectively use technology in your classroom. Listed below are a number of school environmental support factors that may have an impact on this goal. Please indicate the degree to which you believe each factor will ena ble you to effectively use technology. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Disagree nor Agree Agree Strongly Agree Resources (funding, equipment, etc.) Professional development opportunities on using technology Access to the internet Quality software Physical classroom structures (electrical outlets, tables, space, etc.) Support from school administrators Support from parents Support from other teachers Technical support (BTC, IT) Time to plan f or technology implementation Time to let students use technology Smaller class sizes Mobile technology (laptops, etc.) Proper connections (computer, projector, etc.) How likely is it that these factors will occur in your sc hool? Please indicate the likelihood that these factors will occur or be available to you. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Disagree nor Agree Agree Strongly Agree Resources (funding, equipment, etc.) Professional development opportunities on using technology Access to the internet Quality software Physical classroom structures (electrical outlets, tables, space, etc.) Support from school administrators Support from parents Support from other teachers Technical support (BTC, IT) Time to plan for technology implementation Time to let students use technology Smaller class sizes Mobile technology (laptops, etc.) Proper connections (computer, projector, etc.)

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152 APPEND IX B INVENTORY OF TEACHER TECHNOLOGY SKILLS (I TTS) Source: Florida Department of Education Office of Instructional Technology 1. Basic Operations Locate and open a file Adjust the volume of the computer Save a file in a specific location Save a file under a Print a file to a specific printer Locate and open applications Quit applications Create and name folders Organize files and folders Remove files and folders Check cables for proper attachment to comput er and peripherals Recover from a software failure Create a chart (graph) with the data in a spreadsheet Recognize a data base program Enter data into an existing database Recognize a graphics program Recognize graphics file formats Resize graphical object s in a document Identify tools of graphics software Add a graphic (i.e. picture, photos, clip art) to a document Recognize a browser Identify the elements of a browser Identify the elements of a web page Type a URL into the address bar Bookmark a site (usi ng bookmark or Favorite) Recognize links on a web page Open a new browser window Properly cite digital resources 2. Productivity Recognize a word processing program Create a new document Enter and format text (fonts, size, emphasis) Cut, copy, and paste tex t Recognize a spreadsheet program Identify elements of a spreadsheet Create a spreadsheet

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153 Enter data into a spreadsheet Enter data in an existing spreadsheet 3. Communication Compose and send an email message Reply to an email message (reply to sender, repl y to all) Open an email attachment Attach a file to an email message Recognize an email program Play a video clip on a computer Recognize a slideshow presentation Open and play an existing slide show presentation Add text to a slide within a presentation 4. Research Search online databases and reference software Recognize search strategies Identify appropriate search strategies Evaluate search results Evaluate the accuracy and creditability of information obtained through the internet 5. Planning, Management and Instruction Identify basic uses of word processing programs Identify basic uses of spreadsheet programs Identify basic uses of database programs Identify basic uses of graphics programs Identify basic uses of communication tools Identify basic instruct ional uses of word processing programs Identify basic instructional uses of spreadsheet programs Identify basic instructional uses of database programs Identify basic instructional uses of graphics programs Identify basic instructional uses of communicatio n tools 6. Social, Ethic, Legal and Human Issues Evaluate teacher use of technology in the classroom with regard to an Acceptable Use Policy for employees Evaluate student use of technology in the classroom with regard to an Acceptable Use Policy for student s Judge appropriateness of posting student information on the interned Identify safety and security issues with regard to technology and the Internet Identify fair use practices/copyright policy

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154 APPENDIX C EXPERT FOCUS GROUP Q UALITATIVE DATA COLL ECTION ME THOD AND PROCESS Purpose To collect information from an identified focus group representing: education, business, community and parents regarding their perspectives of what technology in schools is needed to provide Twenty First Century teaching and learni ng skills. The collective perspectives of the focus group along with a comprehensive review of the educational research literature was used to identify what a Twenty First Century technology prototype classroom would look like and what technology resources and support is recommended to achieve high levels of student learning and engagement. Process for Collecting and Reporting Data Each of the focus group members was asked to respond to the same series of research questions. The qualitative data collected from the focus group was used to support the quantitative data collected in the study, targeting the descriptive analysis research questions identified. The expert focus group similar to a consumer focus group followed an explanatory mixed methods research design format. The opinions of the focus group was compiled and included as part of secondary data sources and analyzed within the descriptive research study. Focus Group Questions 1. What role do you believe that technology skill development plays in the T wenty First Century classroom? 2. What are the technology resources that you believe need to be included in a Twenty First Century prototype classroom? 3. How do you believe that professional development and support to teachers in the area of technology integrat ion should be provided to be most effective? 4. How do you believe that school districts and schools should determine the allocation of resources toward the purchase of technology? 5. What elements do you believe should be included in the development of federal, state, and district policies related to the purchase of technology? Focus Group Membership Member ID Representative Group Member Profile 1 Education Classroom teach er with 15 years of experience; 10 years in the selected school district and 4 years at t he selected school. 2 Education Instructional support teacher with 30 years of experience ; 5 years in the selected school district and 4 years at the selected school. 3 Business 26 years in business field. Member of community foundation board with direc t application to the selected school district. 4 Business 15 years of international business experience and representative of minority community business groups with direct connection to the selected school district and selected school. 5 Community 12 y ears as a community member representing the selected school district advisory committee. 6 Community S chool volunteer; 3 at the selected school. 7 Parent Parent of 2 students attending the selected elementary school. 8 Parent Parent of 1 student attending the selected elementary school.

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155 REFERENCES Barrios, Tina Laptops for Learning Laptops for Learning Task, (March, 2004). Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee, FL: 1 99. Bauer, J. and Kenton, J. Winter. Toward Technolog y Integration in the Schools: Why It Happening? Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 13(4), (Winter, 2005): 1 41. Bebell, Damian, Kay, Rachel. One to One Computing: A Summary of the Quantitative Results From the Berkshire Wireless Lea rning Initiative The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment 9: ( 1 ), (2010):1 59. Bebell, Damian and Educational Outcomes and Research From 1:1 Computing Settings The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment 9: ( 1), ( 2010): 1 15). Bebell, Damian, Russell, M., and Measuring Uses: Why Multiple Measures are More Revealing Journ al of Research on Technology in Education, 37: (1) (2004): 45 63. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Pr imary Sources: Schools ( 2010). A Project of Scholastic and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. http://scholastic.com/primarysources/download.asp Bonifa z, Alejandra, Zucker, Andrew Lessons Learned About Providing Laptops for All Students Journal of Educational Computing Research, 30: (4), (2004): 371 386. Brannigan, Cara. tech Program is Raising Student Achievement (June 5, 20 02), eSchool, News, Bethesda, MD. Brooks, J. and Brooks, M.G. In Search of Understandi ng: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms (1993), Association for Supervision and Curriculum Developmen t, (ASCD), Alexandria, VA.: 37 42. Cengiz, James, Demirtas, Hak an. Learning With Technology: The Impact of Laptop Use on Student Achievement The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 3, (2), (January, 2005): 1 38. Center for American Progress. Return on Educational Investment, (January, 11, 2011), http://www.americanprogress.com Clukey, Russell, Petry, Thomas, and Dami, Traci. District School B oard of Collier County District Technology Plan 2011 2014 (2011), The District School Board of C ollier County, Naples, FL: 1 71.

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156 Collins, Allan and Halverson, Richard. Rethinking Education in The Age of Technology. New York: Teachers College, Columbia Unive rsity, 2009. Creswell, John. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quan titative and Qualitative Research New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Cuban, Larry. Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom Cambridge, MA: Harvard Universi ty Press, 2001. Daggett, Willard. Technology 2008: Preparing Students for Our Cha nging World (January, 2003), International Center for Leadership in Educati on, Rexford, NY: 1 4. _____ Preparing Students for Their Technological Future (May, 2010) Inte rnational Center for Leadership in Education, Re xford, NY: 1 12. _____ Preparin g U.S. Schools for the 21 st Century (June, 2008), International Center for Leadership in Educa tion, Rexford, N.Y: 1 20. Davis, M., Ash, K. Students Seek the Right Fit Education Week, (March 17, 2011), Langhome, PA. Davis, N., Preston, C., Sahin, I. T raining Teachers to Use Ne w Technologies Impacts Multiple Ecologies: Evidence From a National Initiative British Journal of Educational Technology 40, (5), (2008): 861 878. Devaney, Laura. March, Study Reveals Educators Most Valued Technologies. eScho ol N ews, (June 28, 2010), Bethesda, MD. _____. Study Reveals in Ed Tech Success. eSchool New s, June 28, 2010), Bethesda, MD. District School Board of Collier County Data Warehouse (2011), www.c ollierschools.com/datawarehouse Dockstader, Jolene. Teachers of the 21 st Century Know the What, Why and How of Technology Integration, Technology Horizons in Education 26, (1999): 2 3 29. Duncan, Arne The New Normal: Doing More With Less, Remarks fr om U.S. Education Bang for the Buck in Schooling, (November 17, 2010), U.S. Department of Education, Was hington, D.C. Edutopia. Technology Integration George Lucas Foundation, March 14, 2008), http://www.edutopia.org/php/keyword.php?id=137 Fisher, Douglas, Frey, Nancy. Preparing Students for Mastery of 21 st Century Skills, 21 st Century Skills, Rethinking How Students Learn, (2010), Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree: 221 240.

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157 Florida Association of School Administrators Assessment of Information Technol ogy for The District School Board of Collier County, (2010). Florida Department of Education Office of School Support and Technology Programs Charting (2009) :1 49, www.floridatechplan.org Florida Department of Education, Office of Technology Invento ry of Teacher Technology Skills (ITTS) (2005), http://itts.flinnovates.org/inventory/index.aspx F lorida House of Representatives. House Bill #CS/CS/HB7197 Digital Learning Education Committee Appropriation Committee, K 12. Tallahassee, FL, (2011): 1 14. Foltos, Les. Technology and Student Achievement, New Horizons for Learni ng, Seattle WA: (December, 2002): 1 7. Foundat ion for Excellence in Education. Digital Learning Now! Digital Learning Council, Tal lahassee, FL, (De cember 1, 2010): 1 20. Fullan, Michael. Three Stories of Educational Reform: Inside; Inside/Out; Outside/In, (pp.4 7), Kappan Professional Journal, www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kfulooo4.htm Bloomington IN, 1998. Glazer, Evan, Hannafin, Michael. Promoting Technology In tegration Through Collaborative Apprenticeship Educational Technology Research and Development 53, (4), (2005): 57 67. Gray, L., Thomas, N., and Lewis, L. y in U.S. Schools National Center of Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, (2010), U.S. Department of E ducation, Washington, D.C.: 1 21. Greaves, Thomas, Hayes, Jeanne, Wilson, Leslie, Gielniak, Michael. Project Red Key Findings; Revolut ionizing Education (2010), Pres entation, ISTE Conference, Washington, D.C. Greaves, T., Hayes, J., Wilson, L., Gielniak, M., and Peterson, R. The Technology Factor: Nine Keys to Student Achievement and Cost Effectiveness, (2010), MDR, Encinitas, CA: 1 168. Green, Tim, Donovan, Loretta, Bass, Kim. Taking Lapt ops School wide: A Professional Learning Community Approach, Learning and Leading with Techno logy, (August, 2010), Eugene, OR: 12 15. Gronseth, S. Equipping the Next Generation of Teachers: Techno logy Preparation and Practice. (2007), Department of Instructional Systems Technology, Indiana Un iversity, Bloomington, IN.

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164 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tim Ferguson is currently the Principal of Veterans Memorial Elementary School in Collier County, Florida. He is the founding Principal of the first established Professional Development School (PDS) in Collier County. The school opened in 2007 in partnership with Flori da Gulf Coast University C ollege of Education to provide training and field experiences for university students preparing to be teachers. Tim has served as both a building and district level administrator for the past 16 years. As a classroom teacher for 1 3 years prior to becoming an administrator, Tim has taught at all levels as both a general education and special education teacher. His accomplishments as a career educator include a 1992 recognition as a Lee County Golden Apple Teacher, teaching Kindergar ten at Diplomat Elementary School. In 2004, Tim was recognized by the District School Board of Collier County Instructional Leadership Department as the in recognition for his work in integrating technology into classroom instruction while serving as Principal of Shadowlawn Elementary School. Tim leaders in the areas of clinical education, mentoring and instructional leadershi p. Tim is a 2010 graduate of the Harvard School Leaders Institute and has his certification as a Principal Mentor through the National Association of Elementary School Principals. Selected as one of the initial doctoral cohort members throu gh the Universit y of Florida LEA D Executive Doctorial Program and The District School Board of Collier County, Tim completed his Doctor of Education degree through the Uni versity of Florida (2012). His m aster s d egree in Educational Leadership is from Western Michigan Uni versity (1986) and Bachelor of Science is from Central Michigan University (1981). Tim and his wife Marcy have 5 grown children and 4 grandchildren and are active members of t heir community both serving on several community non profit boards.