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Let's Learn How to Play

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043835/00001

Material Information

Title: Let's Learn How to Play Examining a Brief Child-Parent Relationship Training with HIPPY (Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters)
Physical Description: 1 online resource (72 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Socarras, Kristina
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: african -- american -- filial -- play -- therapy
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Marriage and Family Counseling thesis, M.A.E.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The current study was designed to examine barriers to utilizing counseling services, and family stressors and strengths, in context of a parent-child relationship training for low-income families. The purpose of the current study was also to determine outcomes of the brief Child-Parent Relationship Training, which was designed to improve the parent-child relationship and reduce parental stress. In this study, parents involved with Gainesville HIPPY (Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters) were interviewed before and after participating in a child-parent relationship group. Participants were required to attend three of the four workshops in order to complete the study. The data sources (pre and post-interviews, field notes, weekly process notes, and observations) were analyzed for common themes concerning needs brought up by the parents and changes seen in the participants. In general, results were positive and parents provided helpful feedback for future implementation of this intervention. Several themes emerged about the families' experiences throughout the workshops. All of the parents reported a change in themselves, their children, or the parent-child relationship after completing the workshop. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kristina Socarras.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.E.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Smith, Sondra.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043835:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043835/00001

Material Information

Title: Let's Learn How to Play Examining a Brief Child-Parent Relationship Training with HIPPY (Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters)
Physical Description: 1 online resource (72 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Socarras, Kristina
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: african -- american -- filial -- play -- therapy
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Marriage and Family Counseling thesis, M.A.E.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The current study was designed to examine barriers to utilizing counseling services, and family stressors and strengths, in context of a parent-child relationship training for low-income families. The purpose of the current study was also to determine outcomes of the brief Child-Parent Relationship Training, which was designed to improve the parent-child relationship and reduce parental stress. In this study, parents involved with Gainesville HIPPY (Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters) were interviewed before and after participating in a child-parent relationship group. Participants were required to attend three of the four workshops in order to complete the study. The data sources (pre and post-interviews, field notes, weekly process notes, and observations) were analyzed for common themes concerning needs brought up by the parents and changes seen in the participants. In general, results were positive and parents provided helpful feedback for future implementation of this intervention. Several themes emerged about the families' experiences throughout the workshops. All of the parents reported a change in themselves, their children, or the parent-child relationship after completing the workshop. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kristina Socarras.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.E.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Smith, Sondra.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043835:00001


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1 PARENT RELATIONSHIP TRAINING WITH HIPPY ( HOME INSTRUCTION FOR PARENTS OF PRESCHOOL YOUNGSTERS ) By KRISTINA SOCARRAS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSI TY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Kristina Socarras

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3 To my parents, family and Alan that have shown me unconditional support in everything I do

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful for the support, encouragement, and guidance of my committee chair and mentor, Dr. Sondra Smith Adcock. I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Harry Daniels and Dr. Pete Sherrard. This thesis wo uld not have been possible without their knowledge, guidance, and honesty. I am indebted to many of my colleagues and peers for their encouragement throughout the process of this thesis work. I would also like to thank HIPPY and the parents of HIPPY for su pporting and participating in this research. Lastly, I owe my deepest gratitude to my parents, family, friends, and Alan for all of their love, support, and faith throughout my life.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMEN TS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 9 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 Low Income Family Environment and Counseling ................................ ........... 10 Child Centered Play Therapy ................................ ................................ ........... 13 Filial and Child Parent Relationship Therapy ................................ ................... 15 Multicultural Play and Filial Therapy ................................ ................................ 15 Theoretical Framework: Chi ld Parent Relationship Therapy for Diverse Families .. 17 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 18 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 20 2 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 21 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 21 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 21 Demographic Information. ................................ ................................ ................ 22 Families. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 22 Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 24 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 26 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 26 Researcher Subjectivity ................................ ................................ .......................... 27 Issues Related to Credibility ................................ ................................ ................... 27 3 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 29 Pre Interview ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 29 ................................ ................................ ............. 29 Description of Child and Parent Child Relationship before Workshops. ........... 29 Barriers /Reactions to Attending Workshops. ................................ .................... 30 Goals for the Workshops. ................................ ................................ ................. 31 Strengths. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 31 Stressors. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 32 Barriers. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 33 Strong Need for Safety and Social Support. ................................ ..................... 33 Cultural Issues in Counseling Services. ................................ ........................... 34 Post Interview ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 34 Changes Seen after the Workshops. ................................ ................................ 34 Reactions to the Workshops. ................................ ................................ ............ 35

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6 ................................ ................................ .............. 36 4 DISCU SSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 37 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 39 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 40 Concluding Remarks ................................ ................................ ............................... 44 APPENDIX A Pre Workshop Interview Questions ................................ ................................ ........ 46 B Workshop Outlines ................................ ................................ ................................ 47 C Workshop Materials ................................ ................................ ................................ 49 D Weekly Process Notes ................................ ................................ ............................ 67 E Post Workshop Interview Questions ................................ ................................ ....... 68 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 69 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 72

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7 Abstract Of Thesis Presented To The Graduate School Of The University Of Florida In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of Arts In Education PARENT RELATIONSHIP TRAINING WITH HIPPY ( HOME INSTRUCTION FOR PARENTS OF PRESCHOOL YOUNGSTERS ) By Kri stina Socarras December 2011 Chair: Sondra Smith Adcock Major: Marriage and Family Counseling The current study was designed to examine barriers to utilizing counseling services, and family stressors and strengths, in context of a parent child relations hip training for low income families. The purpose of the current study was also to determine outcomes of the brief Child Parent Relationship Training which was designed to improve the parent child relationship and reduce parental stress. In this study, pa rents involved with Gainesville HIPPY (Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters) were interviewed before and after participating in a child parent relationship group. Participants were required to attend three of the four workshops in order to complete the study. The data sources (pre and post interviews, field notes, weekly process notes, and observations) were analyzed for common themes concerning needs brought up by the parents and changes seen in the participants. In general, results were po sitive and parents provided helpful feedback for future implementation of this workshops. All of the parents reported a change in themselves, their children, or the

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8 parent child relationship after completing the workshop. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed.

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9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The need for providing counseling services for low income, minority families that are accessible, meet their needs, and fit is great. In 2003, nearly 35.9 million people were living in poverty. In addition, the poverty rate for African Americans was 22.5% and 23.2% for Latinos (Baggerly, 2006). These statistics make it increasingly important to tailor coun seling services to the needs of this population. Low income families have many unique strengths, family dynamics, needs, and stressors that make them different from middle and high income families in the United States. When providing counseling services to individuals or families affected by poverty, it is of upmost importance to be sensitive to these differences in order to provide the most useful and effective services possible. Many times barriers that exist for minorities and low income families to uti lize counseling services are not taken into account and can lead to a high counseling drop out rate. As counseling services fail to return after the first session (p. 296). Lyon a (2010) study in which they examined Parent Child Interaction Therapy group in a community mental health setting that primarily serves low income, minority families ant change in parenting behavior, parenting stress, and child behavior for families who completed the study. However, the study had a 67% drop out rate. Garza and Watts (2010) also noted a shortage of culturally appropriate mental health services that a) r eflect the needs of children at an early age and b) use parents as therapeutic partners in delivering services (p. 108).

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10 In summary, it is of utmost importance to create counseling programs and interventions that are adapted for a low income, minority popu lation due to the uniqueness of this population and their high drop out rate in counseling services. This study examined a child parent relationship workshop that was designed to be collaborative with families in order to increase attitudes toward the valu e of play and improve parent child relationships. The researchers worked closely with administrators and families affiliated with Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY), a school readiness program designed to help parents prepare thei r 3, 4, or 5 year olds for preschool. HIPPY is designed to help parents that have limited educational and financial resources. Literature Review Low Income Family Environment and Counseling Families living in poverty face many stressors their middle class counterparts may not face. The stressors low income families face can be environmental (e.g. poor living conditions), psychosocial (e.g. increased family turmoil and violence), and community related (e.g. community violence). Studies have found that child ren living below the poverty line, as defined by the federal government, experience substantially more stressors than do their middle income peers (Evans & English, 2002). Whereas, only a few children from middle income families experienced four or more st ressors, very few of the low income children experienced zero or one stressor (Evans & English, 2002). Stressors such as lower quality housing and greater family turmoil can lead to many negative physical, emotional, and mental health outcomes for children and families living in poverty and also are likely to impact the community at large (Evans & English,

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11 being are often Social sup port, both formal and informal, can play an important role in reducing stressors for families living in poverty. A systematic review by Attree (2005) studied the use of social support as a resource for disadvantaged families. This review found that informa informal support of family and friends provided material and emotional help as well as child care. However, informal social support networks could also be a source of s tress. Attree noted that many times the families receiving support were getting it from other families that were also living in poverty. In addition, families that felt they needed to reciprocate this form of support had lower self esteem, more strained re lationships between the families, and felt as though they were not coping well as parents (Attree, 2005). In addition, Attree reviewed the use and efficacy of formal social support for families living in poverty. The studies she reviewed found that while many parents thought the services were helpful, parents of low income thought the services were not shaped to their needs and were largely impractical. Another hindrance in low income parents taking advantage of formal support services was that they felt t he professionals 335). Therefore, formal social support systems were seen as most helpful when the professionals were non judgmental, showed respect to the parents, and when the low

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12 It ap pears that interventions that combine non judgmental informal and formal social support would be the most effective when working with families living with limited resources. Although it is important to keep in mind the hardships families living in poverty may face, it is also important to remember these families show great resiliency, many strengths, and protective factors. Fraser, Richman, and Galinsky (1999) reference five clusters of protective factors of families who live in poverty (first defined by W erner, 1996), which are temperament, skills and values, family support and structure, network of adults that provide support through life transitions, and the opportunity to receive supplemental education or training (p. 134). In addition, Amatea, Smith Ad cock, and Villares (2006) describe four key domains in family resiliency processes. These domains include family beliefs and expectations, family emotional connectedness, family organizational patterns, and family learning opportunities. Therefore, it may be important for counseling interventions to focus on ways to positively affect these protective factors and resiliency domains for families living in poverty. These interventions may include ways to offer support for parents living in poverty that increas e their current confidence in parenting and nurture the parent child relationship. Orthner, Jones Sanpei, and Williamson (2004) have studied the resilience of low income families. Orthner et al. reference different studies (e.g. Conger & Conger, 2002; Cro snoe, Mistry, & Elder, 2002) that found parental emotional and structural support to cohesiveness, social support, and community ties are all important for family resi lience. This study found that low income families highly value the time they spend together.

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13 These families were also confident in their ability to pull together during difficult times and find solutions to their problems. Orthner et al. note that programs focusing on strengthening relationships and finding ways for family members to spend quality time together helps promote resiliency in low income families. In addition, these authors note the need for education about counseling as there is a stigma towar ds seeking mental health services. Tidwell (2004) cites the no show phenomenon to explain the under utilization of low cost counseling services by low income, African American clients. Tidwell also notes the importance of finding interventions that address the needs of this population to prevent the no show phenomenon. The author also notes that when low income, African American clients receive formal counseling services, they often terminate prematurely. In summary, families living in poverty have many uni que qualities that must be kept in mind when designing interventions for this population. Families affected by poverty have many stressors such as economic, family violence, and community violence. However, low income families also show great resiliency. F or example, these families may depend on family cohesiveness and social support and show confidence in their ability to overcome hardships. It is important to create programs that are respectful to parents living in poverty and their culture, as there is a high termination rate in counseling services for low income families. Child Centered Play Therapy Child centered play therapy (CCPT) is a non directive form of therapy in which the focus is on the child and the child therapist relationship rather than on problem (Guerney, 2001). In CCPT, play is seen as the universal language of children.

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14 CCPT has eight basic principles that were first developed by Axline (as cited by Guerney, 2001). The eight principles are: 1. The therapist must develop a warm, friendly relationship with the child, in which good rapport is established as soon as possible. 2. The therapist accepts the child exactly as he/she is. 3. The therapist establishes a feeling of permissiveness in the relationship so that the child feels free t o express his/her feelings completely. 4. The therapist is alert to recognize the feelings the child is expressing, and reflects those feelings back to him/her in such a manner that he/she gains insight into his/her behavior. 5. The therapist maintains a deep r espect for the child's ability to solve his/her own problems if given an opportunity to do so. The responsibility to make choices and to institute change is the child's. 6. The therapist does not attempt to direct the child's actions or conversation in any m anner. The child leads the way; the therapist follows. 7. The therapist does not attempt to hurry the therapy along. It is a gradual process and is recognized as such by the therapist. 8. The therapist establishes only those limitations that are necessary to a nchor the therapy to the world of reality and to make the child aware of his/her responsibility in the relationship. (p. 19) Child centered play therapy has been found to be an effective modality in therapy with children. Bratton, Ray, Rhine, and Jones (2 005) conducted a meta analysis of research in play therapy. The meta analysis included 93 studies that measured the efficacy of play therapy. They found a large effect size for play therapy in various settings, modalities, theoretical frameworks, and acros s different ages and genders. In addition, this meta analysis examined factors that make play therapy most effective. The authors found that parental involvement plays a big role in the effectiveness of play therapy interventions, especially in the form of filial therapy.

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15 Filial and Child Parent Relationship Therapy Filial therapy (FT) teaches parents how to be a therapeutic agent for their children argues that FT empowers parents and puts them in the role of helper. Therefore, FT Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT) teaches parents the basic skills of CCPT through a ten session group format. Originally developed by Landreth, parents meet weekly for ten weeks to learn how to implement child centered skills in their relationship with their children (Landreth & Bratton, 2006). The parent also has a weekly 30 minute play time parent group session. In CPRT, the parent records the 30 minute playtime and shows it during the group session in order to receive support and guidance in using the skills. Several st udies have found FT and CPRT to be effective treatment modalities. In conducting a meta analysis on play therapy, Bratton et al. (2005) found a larger effect size for filial therapy when compared to individual play therapy with a mental health professional analysis to find the effect size of studies that specifically used CPRT. In doing this, they found a very large treatment effect size for CPRT. Diversity in Play and Filial Therapy Play can be a useful form of therapy when working with children from different cultures, ethnicities, races, and socioeconomic statuses because it is the universal language of children (Drewes, 2005). However, counselors need to be aware and sensitive to t he differences in cultures that may arise (Gil, 2005). With the ever changing demographics in the United States, it is increasingly important to provide

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16 therapeutic interventions that meet the needs of diverse families. Few studies have shown the efficacy of play and filial therapy with multicultural or low income populations. Baggerly (2006) notes the importance of providing services that do not neglect the effects of poverty on children and their parents. Hinman (2003) discusses the importance of play the termination of services, which is a noted concern with minority and low income families (Hinman, 2003). In addition, Gil (2005) names three steps that must be taken in order to provide culturally responsive services. The three steps are building cultural sensitivity, obtaining knowledge responsibly, and developing an active competency or putting the knowledg e into action (p. 7). Sheely and Bratton (2010) examined the use of CPRT with low income African decrease in total problem behaviors and parent child relationship stress In addition, the authors note the importance of using a strengths based method with this population in order to promote parental involvement with their children. Sheely and Bratton discussed some important provisions that made CPRT successful and reduced possible barriers to participation in the study. First, the researchers had direct contact with the parents in order to build greater rapport. Second, they were flexible in scheduling the meetings (e.g. accommodating to work schedules, offering evening se ssions, and providing extra check in time). Third, they provided supplementary services (e.g. prepared meals, meal vouchers, and childcare). Finally, the authors note the importance of providing program

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17 materials that may be difficult for the parents to ob tain due to the financial hardship (e.g. play therapy toys). In summary, when designing counseling interventions that are accessible to low income families from underrepresented groups, several factors must be considered. It is important to work with the families in order to understand their culture and their needs. Solis, Meyers, and Varjas (2004) discussed the need for filial therapists to be aware of culture when working with African American families and the importance of having a discussion with the f professional must put that knowledge into action. In addition, other changes must go into place in order to red uce barriers to utilization (e.g. providing childcare, offering evening sessions, and providing program materials). Theoretical Framework: Child Parent Relationship Therapy for Diverse Families The theoretical framework that guides this study is based on child centered play therapy. This is a non directive approach in which the child takes the lead in therapy sessions. In child thought that the child is able to lead the play therapy session s in order to increase self efficacy, self motivation, and self actualization. This theoretical orientation also holds that during counseling, the counselor focuses on the child and the relationship, not the problem or external behaviors. Most importantly, the therapist accepts the child as he or she is (Guerney, 2001). Child centered play therapy is the foundation for the other theoretical framework for this study, filial therapy. In filial therapy, the focus is on the relationship between the parents and the child. The parents are taught the basic tenets of child centered play

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18 therapy in order to relate to their children better. The use of filial therapy has been shown to reduce parental stress and problem behaviors. It has also been shown to increase par ental acceptance of the child and improve the parent child relationship (Garza & Watts, 2010). Filial therapy approaches are also concerned with improving the relationship between the parents and the counselor as the therapeutic process is demystified. Thr ough filial therapy, parents are able to understand what is done in In addition, this proposed research is guided by a multicultural, or respect for diversity, theoretical framework. T here is a need for greater understanding of these the experiences of families living in poverty in implementing interventions. It is important to work with the families in order to adjust effective programs to fit their needs and help them to achieve their goals. In order to better understand the family, the study is designed to ask parents to identify the barriers to utilizing counseling services and find ways to minimi ze those barriers. Using a child centered/filial and multicultural approach researcher will be able to advocate for more suitable services for them. Purpose of the Study This study was designed to address barriers to low counseling and parenting services, understand the parent child relationship in these families, and assess the ir needs for a parenting/filial group. Therefore, common barriers to attending counseling workshops will be analyzed. As Lyon and Budd (2010) noted, many times counselors are unaware of the barriers parents face when receiving mental

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19 health serv ices (p. 664). The central principles of child centered play therapy, filial therapy, and multiculturalism will be used to conceptualize the needs of this community. In accordance to child centered and filial therapy principles, there will be a focus on th e relationship rather than pathology. This research will add to literature that describes what parents who live in poverty are already doing well. It is important to include families in designing programs and interventions that ar e personal and practical, in order to provide them with a service that is responsive to their needs. The current study extends prior research because it focuses on a participatory action, in that researchers included parents in establishing personal goals for the intervention and responded to questions, concerns, and barriers brought up by the participants. It appears there is a great need for services that are created with community agencies such as, HIPPY to address stressors that may impact the parent ch ild relationship in families living in poverty. Also, there is a need to address multicultural and advocacy issues in play therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess low ps, and meeting personal/familial goals in a CPRT group (especially nurturing the parent child relationship and effective limit setting). This study was designed to examine barriers to utilizing counseling services, stressors and strengths, and t he parent child relationship in low income families. The purpose of the current study also is to determine outcomes of a child parent relationship group designed to improve the parent child relationship and reduce parental stress. Interviewing participatin g families before and after the parenting workshops will help assess the outcomes of the filial workshops.

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20 Research Questions This study will address a variety of research questions. These questions include: 1. 2. How did the workshops affect the parent child relationship? 3. What are barriers to utilizing counseling services for low income families? 4. What are the strengths, limitations, and stressors for these families? 5. What are some cross cultural issues these families ha ve found when using counseling services? To what extent do parents believe their concerns were addressed through the parenting workshops?

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21 CHAPTER 2 METHODS This study examined the effects of a four session workshop on the parent child relationship and par ental stress of families living with limited resources. This will be done through qualitative thematic analysis of parent interviews, field notes, and taped observations during the workshops. Theoretical Framework This study makes use of a constructivist qualitative research design. Constructivist greater interaction between the researchers and participants (Ponterotto, 2005). This study was designed to better understand fro m the participants what they wanted and needed from and how they experienced a child parent relationship workshop. This collaborative approach to research leads to greater understanding between the families and the researchers. It also leads to the flexibility of programs and interventions to fit the needs and lifestyles of the participants and the ir families and community. The researcher believes this is the best way to understand what types of programs families affected by poverty would be most likely to use. It is also a way to empower the parents, as their feedback can be used to refine future implementation of child parent relationship groups. Participants Participants were recruited from Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngste rs (HIPPY) in Gainesville, Florida. Parents were recommended for additional help with parenting.

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22 Investigators of this study sought to recruit four families from Gainesvi lle and four families from Lake Butler. After recruitment, this study included eight families in the Gainesville area and one family in the Lake Butler area. The family from Lake Butler traveled to Gainesville for the workshops. Each family had at least on e child between the ages of 3 5 years old. In order to participate in the study, at least one caregiver and one child had to attend at least three of the four workshops. Of the nine participants in the study, nine completed the pre interviews, seven comple ted the workshops, and six completed the post interviews. Demographic Information Although not all of the families participating in the study were living in poverty, most of the parents were living with limited resources and support. Gainesville HIPPY cu rrently serves 106 families (114 children total). Of the families involved in Gainesville HIPPY, 67% are Black (non Hispanic), 15% are White (non Hispanic), 11% are Hispanic, 2% are Asian, and 5% other. Of the 114 children served by Gainesville HIPPY, 59 ( 51.8%) qualify for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) which serves families that fall below 200% of the poverty line. In a small sample taken of Gainesville HIPPY families, 73% of the families have a household income of $40,000 or less. Approxi mately 11% of the families served life in a rural community and 84% live in and urban community (Gainesville HIPPY, 2010). Families All names have been changed to protect the confidentiality of the families. Some ps will be highlighted. Beatrice, age 22, is an African American, single mother with two children. She lives with her sons Jerry, age 5, and Charlie, age 2. Beatrice was skeptical about using

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23 CPRT techniques with her child because she could not picture her self using the language taught during CPRT. During the post interview, Beatrice shared that she had Her sister, Crystal, also participated in the study. Crystal, age 27, is an African A merican, single mother with one child. She lives with her daughter, Kaitlyn, age 4. Rachel, age 36, is an African American, divorced mother with two children. Her children are Michael, age 12, and Roger, age 5. She lives with her son, Roger, and shares cu stody with her ex husband. Rachel was vocal about her mistrust of University of Florida researchers. Duri ng the first session she said, I told a couple other people about [the workshops] and a lot of people are very skeptical of this Kind of the fact tha always doing studies on the people in the community. Just by nature of the program very bright, young people that are not parents, who are academics, who have no experience with children, but they know a whole lot of theo ry. So this is, you know, just another UF study! She also discussed her discomfort in using play therapy because she felt it was too subjective in nature. Throughout the workshops, Rachel became one of the most active parents. In the post interview, she s Robbie, age 32, is an African American, single mother with four children. She lives with her children Bradley, age 12, Serena, age 7, Bobbie, age 4, and Jada, age 3. Robbie indicated that she was not interested in the topic of the workshops at first, but decided she would try it anyways. Robbie went to all four sessions and later shared that once she got into the works hops, they became more interesting to her. Penelope, age 39, is an African American, single mother with three children. She currently does not have custody of her children, Daniel, age 12, Selma, age 10, and

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24 Albert, age 6. Her mother, Linda, also particip ated in the study. Linda, age 73, has custody of two of her grandchildren, Daniel and Albert. She lives with the two children in her home. Patty, age 36, is an African American, single mother with one child. She lives with her son, Clint, age 4. During th e pre interview, Patty indicated she has difficulty being consistent with disciplining Clint and finds herself yelling at him very often. After completing the study, Patty reported that she has learned different ways to interact with him. Although she said the timing of the workshops was a barrier to attending, Patty was able to complete all three of the required sessions. Sandra, age 29, is an African American, single mother with five children. She lives with her five children Shelly, age 12, Natalie, age 11, Evan, age 7, Paige, age 4, and Nilda, 9 months. At the time of the study, she was also caring for the daughter of a sick friend, Jenny, age 11. Sandra was unable to complete the workshops because of several stresso rs she was facing at the time of the study. Pearl, age 34, is an African American, married mother with two children. She lives with her husband and children, Phil, age 4, and Priscilla, age 2 in Lake Butler. Pearl was unable to complete the study. Proced ures The study began with interviews of the caregivers. The interviews were completed in their homes or at the HIPPY facilities. For every interview there was one interviewer, one person watching the children, and one process observer. Interview questions addressed strengths and limitations of parenting, the parent child relationship,

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25 perceptions of play, goals for a parenting group, and possible barriers to attending parenting workshops (Appendix A). Four filial therapy workshop s essions were offered to t he families (Appendix B). The participating caregiver and child needed to attend at least three of the workshops in order to complete the program. The workshops provided child care and food or refreshments for participating families. Each workshop discusse d different child centered relationship skills: tracking, reflecting, encouragement, and limit setting. In addition to didactic presentations, some of the workshops consisted of a 10 15 minute playtime in which each parent child dyad was able to practice f ilial therapy skills while receiving guidance from group facilitators. The parents were able to choose among a variety of attachment play activities to play with their children (e.g. cotton ball hockey, balloon tennis). At the first workshop, t he particip ants were each given a folder with information about CPRT and each skill covered (Appendix C). The worksheets were either taken or Relationship Therapy (CPRT) Treatment Manual. Each family that successfully completed three sessions, and completed the study, was given a tote bag playroom to keep and use during playtimes at home. The tote bag included toys such as, toy soldiers, baby dolls, baby bottles, crayons, Play Doh, toy vehicles and toy cellular phones. Throughout the course of the workshops, process notes were taken from reports (Appendix D). After the parent child workshops were completed, families participated in a post interview (Appendix E). The post interview addressed satisfaction or dissatisfaction with

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26 the program, changes the parent has seen in herself, the child, or the parent child relationship, and changes they would like to be made to the program. These post interviews were conducted through telephone calls. In addition, through member checking, participants will be provided a summary of findings and asked to provide feedback concerning their accuracy Data Collection Data collected by the researcher were not es, and videotapes. The researchers and volunteer research team members took field notes after each workshop. At the end of each workshop, parents were asked to fill out a form asking what goals they had for the workshop session what they learned, what wa s their favorite part, and how they can use what they learned in their homes (Appendix D). Group leaders and research team members who were process observers kept observation logs throughout the interviews and workshops. The group leaders were asked to kee p a log of what happened during the workshops and their subjective reactions to the workshops. Data Analysis The transcripts from the interviews were analyzed for common themes related to n logs were also analyzed for common themes, needs brought up by the parents, and changes seen in the participants. Three people on the research team independently kept an audit trail while reading the pre and post interviews. The notes were then compared and observations analyzed by at least one person on the research team. These additional data sour ces

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27 were coded to find support for common themes found during the pre and post interviews and further depictions of the relationship between the parents, children, and the process tion logs, and videotapes were also analyzed for additional themes that did not emerge in the pre and post interviews. One member of the research team watched the videotapes from the sessions and took notes on group dynamics, the relationship among group f acilitators and group members, and reactions to the content presented. This analysis was useful in further examining how parents and children experienced the workshops. Researcher Subjectivity The researcher is receiving training and supervision in child c entered play therapy. Therefore, the researcher believes strongly in the power of using play therapy with children and families. This strong adherence to child centered play therapy can lead the researcher to finding positive results for the use of play th erapy with parents. In addition, the researcher is of Latino decent. Being raised by Latino parents gives the researcher a strong sense of pride and connection towards the experience of minorities in the United States She, therefore, seeks ways to help th em retain their culture, as they learn ways of interacting with their children that might seem inconsistent with what they necessary). Issues Related to Credibility A researc h team approach was used to analyze the data and reach consensus on common themes brought up during the data collection phase. Three volunteers analyzed the data separately. In addition, one volunteer research team member analyzed the videotapes. These vol unteers came from the Counselor Education

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28 program at a large Southeastern university and represent a variety of theoretical orientations. In addition, parents will be given an opportunity to review the data and/or the data analysis to ensure the researcher had accurately represented their experience.

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29 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS Research findings are organized around the data sources, beginning with the pre interviews. Findings according to research questions will be illustrated further throughout the results sectio n. Pre Interview erception of Play Parents reported that they play with their children several times a week. These playtimes included several physical activities (e.g. bike riding, swimming) or structured activities (e.g. board games, reading). In addition, playtimes include cultural activities Many parents did not have a clear perception of what play means for a child. However, some parents noted play to be a form of self expression and exploration of th helps them to express themselves because I see, like, with my two kids, it shows a lot nts Description of Child and Parent Child Relationship before Workshops All the parents participating in the study described their relationship with their children in p ositive terms. They indicated they have a strong, close bond with their ever exp

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30 th All the mothers have a close, but stressful relationship with their children. Throughout the pre interviews there was a strong emphasis on negative behaviors the children exhibit and difficulty in being consistent with discipline. However, seve ral was a theme that arose in the data analysis. Several mothers indicated they wanted to get as much help as they could from service providers. Also, some mothers reported b eing unsure of how to handle different discipline issues, which led to more stress in their relationship. Barriers/Reactions to Attending Workshops Parents in the study reacted positively to attending a child parent relationship workshop and showed a stro ng commitment to completing the program. Most parents were unable to name barriers to attending the workshop. Barriers that were named addition, parents named barriers of a practical nature (e.g. lack of transportation, child Parents reported the works hops would be most beneficial if they learned skills they would be able to use in their daily lives. They indicated that it would be easier to learn

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31 from the workshops if everyday parenting examples were used. In addition, role playing, modeling, and open discussions were named as important learning tools for the workshops. Crystal expressed her barrier to utilizing services. Goa ls for the Workshops The most common goal for the workshops named by parents was to learn how to behaviors better). All the parents in the workshop indicated di scipline is a difficult aspect of parenting. In addition, parents wanted to learn how to interact and communicate with effective way to communicate with my child versu Parents noted the importance of building a support system through the workshops. ng styles, techniques, workshops were seen as a way to have some personal time away from their children. Strengths Parents in the studies showed several strengths. A major strength seen throughout the interviews was their commitment to their children. All the parents showed wi llingness to use services that will help them and their children. A common strength

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32 aitlyn] and Parents also expressed a strong sense of community and a need for more social support. Finally, several parents named their faith and religion as a streng th and goal for get their education and be somebody, you know, make something of themsel ves." Stressors These families also face several sources of stress. The sources of stress most time management. When asked what are some stressors related to parenting, Beatrice behaviors that lead to parental stress were aggressiveness, temper tantrums/attitude, c Societal expectations of child rearing was also a theme that surfaced in the pre interviews. Several parents discussed being expected to raise their children a certain or noted the d iscrepancy in trying to discipline her children because the Bible and how she was raised taught her spanking was necessary in raising a child correctly, but the Department of Children and Families (DCF) and other professionals do not condone spanking in child rearing. There was dissonance between how the parents were ra ised, how they are raising their children, and how society tells them they should raise their

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33 Barriers Time and money were see n as the main barriers for these families. The parents and children in the study were involved in several, competing activities. In addition, parents noted not having enough time for themselves as a stressor and limitation. Robbie noted she is always doing something for someone else, but never has time to get stressed out, I go in my room and just try to relax and try to have a little me time, but S trong Need for Safety and Social Support Another theme that arose is the need for safety and social support for these outside or with other children. They discusse d not knowing how to allow their children to venture out and try new things on their own while still keeping them safe. Sandra discussed the workshop being able to help her with this, h so to let my kids be outside. And I want that help in the parenting, for me to have that, not be so closed up, so scared, you know, to let them have that experience. In additio n, parents needed to feel safe in the groups in order to feel welcomed and respected by group facilitators. The feeling of safety seemed to lead to a greater sense of social support and group cohesiveness for the participants. Rachel shared she exchanged t elephone numbers with the other mothers in the group in order to schedule group play times with their children.

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34 Cultural Issues in Counseling Services Parents discussed several issues they would like counselors to be more aware of. Parents noted the need f or differentiated approaches to services in counseling. Several parents suggested that counselors should be more aware of and sensitive to the individual differences in people such as, age, race, culture, and gender. When asked what they wished more counse lors understood about her culture, community, or family, discipline, how we agree on disci welcomed, respected, and understood by group facilitators and service providers. Parents also noted their religion and faith as part of their culture. In addition, parents indicated counselors need to keep in mind spanking is also part of their culture and is seen as a way to protect their children. Patty said, As far as my culture go, African Americans, we do believe in discipline as For instance, if I say a situation where he going to hurt himself with the outlet or something, I might spank him for that because I need him to you, that can take you away from me. P ost Interview Changes Seen after the Workshops All parents participating in the study noted changes in themselves, their children, or their relationship with their children in the post interviews. Parents reported having alternate ways to interact and rea reported talking to their children, recognizing their feelings more, interacting on their

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35 about what I learned sometimes before I react with him (i.e. mistakes, accidents) as learning opportunities with their children. Finally, all parents named at least one CPR T technique (i.e. tracking, reflecting, encouragement, or limit setting) as something they would like to continue doing with their children. For example, Beatrice and Robbie shared they would like to continue using the ACT model and limit setting with thei r children. In addition, Crystal said she would like to continue tracking with her child and giving her choices. Reactions to the Workshops All parents expressed positive reactions to the workshops. Interactions with and support from the group members and group facilitators were seen as positive aspects of the workshops. Rachel discussed building a social support system with the other parents in the workshops and scheduling play times with other moms. Most notably, all parents reported feeling accepted, re spected, involved, understood, or acknowledged by the group facilitators. Parents reported feeling this way because facilitators were responsive to their questions and needs. In addition, parents found the information interesting and relevant to their live s. Parents noted the use of everyday examples and time to practice the new skills helped them find the information relevant. Some parents also named changes they would have made to the workshop program. The most common change parents discussed were the ti me of the workshop. Some parents said they would have preferred an earlier time, as transportation is difficult in the evenings. Also, the workshop competed with other activities parents wanted to participate in that were held in the evenings (e.g. swimmin g lessons, Bible study). Patty shared she would have preferred having a couple of workshops a week for

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36 less time. Another parent suggested having more than four workshops in order to practice the skills more in depth. Childcare was also named as an issue t o the success of the workshop. Rachel noted it was difficult for her to concentrate on the information because she could hear the children in the room nearby. One of the most notable themes was the shift in language from pre to post interviews. In the pre interviews all of the parents described the stress of how to discipline their children. Several parents used terms such as tolerate, handle, or deal with when describing their children. However, in the post interviews most of th e parents did not discuss discipline. The parents spoke more about their relationship with their children and feeling they understood their children more after the workshops. Parents expressed speaking to and interacting with their children more since the workshops ended. When asked about what changes she has seen in herself, her child, or their as adopted some of the language used in the child parent relationship workshops. A majority of the parents did not discuss behavior issues although the behavior issues may have still been present.

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37 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to exa mine the outcomes of a modified CPRT group with low income, African American families. This study was also designed to examine barriers to using counseling services, stressors and strengths, and the parent child relationship in these families. Af ter completing the workshops, they were asked if they saw any changes in themselves, their children, or the parent child relationship. In general, results were positive and parents provided a wealth of feedback for future implementation of this interventio experiences throughout the workshops. All of the parents reported a change in themselves, their children, or the parent child relationship after completing the workshop. In addition, all of the parents named a CPRT technique they would like to CPRT language. The findings of this study are similar to findings in other studies. In a study by Solis, Meyers, and Varjas (2004) in which they used CPRT with an African American mother, the authors found the parent gained greater appreciation for playing with her child. This is similar to the experience of parents in this study. Crystal indicated playtime provided a way for her and her child to relax, My schedule was kinda busy, but once I sit back and I relax and I think In addit ion, she reported allowing her daughter more control during playtimes because she understood the difference between allowing the child control while playing versus allowing the child control during discipline situations. The findings in this study

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38 reflecte For example, Robbie shared that she is now able and the parent child relationship. All of the parents mentioned discipline as a main stressor for themselves and their family during the pre interviews. However, a majority of the parents did not ment ion discipline during the post interviews. The parents discussed changes in themselves and how they react to their children. For example, and kinda acting, like, from tha order to react to the child more appropriately. They also demonstrate a greater emotional state. Findings were also consistent with the results of Evans and English (2002) and Attree (2005). As noted by Evans and English (2002) families living in poverty experience multiple stressors such as, family turmoil and community violence The families in the current study also experienced a variety of stressors. The stressors discussed that social support is a great resource for low income families, but is often lacking. In this study, some of the parents reported that being around other parents that are having similar struggles is a po sitive aspect of the workshops. The current study found that the social support network created by group members and faci litators was a positive outcome of the workshops and helped to

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39 engage the family further in formal social support services. The use of a group format appeared to be successful in building a network of social support for the families in the study. These fin dings are consistent with findings in other studies that found a group format to be more effective than an individual format (Edwards, Ladner, & White, 2007; Sangganjanavanich, Cook, & Rangel Gomez, 2010). In this study, the parents were able to create an informal social support network while also engaging in a formal social support system as evidenced by some of the parents arranging playtime together outside of the workshops. Limitations This study had some limitations to consider when discussing the resu lts found. One of the major limitations of the study is the data was collected through self report. This data may contain social desirability bias because the participants were interviewed directly by the group facilitators, at which time a relationship ha d already been created. Parents may not want to truly express issues they are facing because of social desirability. In addition, no direct observations were taken of the parents, children, and the parent child relationship before or after the workshops. T herefore, there is no baseline of behavior to analyze change. Another limitation is all of the parents did not participate in the post interview. The researcher was unable to reach three of the participants. Finally, th e results of this study do not genera lize to all low income or African American families. Although there is demographic data on the parents HIPPY generally serves, the participants in this study were not asked demographic information (i.e. race, ethnicity, income level).

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40 Implications This st udy has several implications for the use of filial type therapies with African American families of limited resources. It appears that partnering with HIPPY, an already trusted organization in the community, helped put the parents at ease for participating in the study. Although they did not seem to trust the researchers fully at first, the parents trusted HIPPY to provide beneficial services. In the pre interview, one parent shared that although she was not entirely convinced about the topic of the worksho p, she trusted HIPPY to provide them with good speakers and information on the high turn out and low attrition rates. Another implication of the study is the benefit o f using counselors in training for childcare. Although the interventions with children were not directly observed for the purposes of this study, all of the childcare volunteers (except for one undergraduate volunteer) were counselors in training and most had training in child centered play therapy. These volunteers helped provide one on one attention to each child and also in training or volunteers trained in child centered play th erapy may help further changes seen in the playtime. parent child interactions directly b efore and after the workshops are completed. Direct observations can provide a better assessment of the parent child relationship than parental self reports. In addition, direct observations can help eliminate social desirability bias. However, observation s should be conducted in a way that is not

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41 uncomfortable for the parents and helps create trust between the researchers and participants. Observations can be done in a setting that is most comfortable (e.g. home, during HIPPY parent meetings) for the paren ts. In addition, researchers can observe families in a group setting, so parents will not feel as though their parenting skills are not being scrutinized. Another recommendation is to vary the length and time of the workshops throughout the week. It appea rs that offering the parents varying times throughout the week to attend the sessions would have helped make them more accessible and easier to attend. Offering multiple workshops throughout the week can give parents a chance to practice the skills and pro vides a more flexible attendance policy if emergencies should arise. In this study, the workshop format was made more flexible by only requiring the parents to attend three out of the four workshops. Food and refreshments were provided 30 minutes before th e workshop began to allow for participants that were running late. Also, the final session served as a review and opportunity to practice all of the topics covered for parents that may have missed an earlier session. However, as shown by the attrition rate scheduling may continue to be an issue because the parents have differing schedules and are involved in several activities. When the workshops began, the participants seemed hesitant to share about their family life with one another and with the facilit ators. Rachel shared about her sense of mistrust for University of Florida researchers that expect community members to fit the mold of their theories. Penelope shared about her mistrust for counselors when she Hinds (2005) discussed a similar mistrust for

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42 practitioners. She notes the sense of mistrust is engrained in African American culture due to the treatment of African Americans throug between the participants and investigators. Throughout the workshops, a greater sense of community was built amongst the participant s and group facilitators. In the post interviews, all of the participants indicated they felt heard and respected by the group facilitators. Rachel later shared she felt the facilitators were respectful to the group as parents and answered any questions th at arose. She also said the workshops provided a good way to network with other parents and create better relationships with them in that way One of the most successful aspects of the child parent relationship workshops was the use of a group process wit h the parents. All of the sessions were run in a group format in which the parents were divided into two groups and attended mini break out sessions (Appendix B). However, the last session was conducted with just one group were all of the parents participa ted. It appeared this session was the most engaging for the parents. It provided them a chance to practice the skills they learned with each other and also provided the parents more opportunity to bond with one another. As Rachel illustrated, the group for mat of the workshops helped create a network of social support for the mothers. It also helped the mothers engage with and receive support from others that had similar parenting experiences. The use of a group process helped the families feel more at ease with each other and the group facilitators. As the workshops progressed, the parents became more acquainted and comfortable with one another. Some parents expressed that the

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43 interactions with other parents was a beneficial part of the workshops. Penelope shared that the interactions between different group members made the workshops more enjoyable and interesting. During the first session the parents were very quiet and hesitant to share. Some parents did not seem to be interested in the material. For exa mple, Beatrice left for a good portion of the workshop to answer her phone. By the last session, all of the parents were very engaged in the group. Many of them volunteered to demonstrate some of the CPRT skills. As one group facilitator noted, enthusiastic about what they had learned, and seemed receptive to the Playing during the sessions proved to be an integral part of the workshops. Through the use of play activities (e.g. cotton ball ho ckey, balloon tennis, using building blocks), parents were able to practice CPRT skills with each other. The parents were actually able to relax and experience what playing is like for their children. They were also able to play with their children during the workshops. This seemed to be beneficial in two ways. The parents were able to practice the skills under the supervision of the group facilitators. This gave them a more guidance in using the skills. In addition, the parents were not asked to do anythin g outside of the workshops, which may have play therapy activities with the parents and children appeared to also help the group process. The parents were able to laugh with and get to know the group facilitators and group members through the use of play. It appears the modified and condensed schedule of the workshops helped make it easier for parents to attend. All of the workshops were held in the evenings and parents

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44 were only requ ired to attend three of the four sessions. However, further modification of scheduling future workshops may be necessary. Several parents indicated the sessions got out too late and made it difficult for them to participate in other activities or get home at a regular time. In addition, offering more sessions may be necessary for the parents to get more practice using child centered play techniques. Allowing the parents time to practice the techniques with their children during the workshops helped demonstr ate some of the skills learned and also provided quality time for the families. Conclu ding Remarks All of the parents in the post interviews reported positive results and provided feedback on future implementations of these workshops. Through interviews wi th parents before and after, it appears the workshops helped promote the parent child increased their understanding of child centered play therapy and learned how to use tech niques such as, tracking, reflecting, limit setting, and encouragement with their children. All of the parents named a child centered technique they would like to continue using with their children. In addition, some parents indicated they would like to co ntinue using playtime with their children. Robbie noted the workshops helped her in other The workshops were adapted to fit the needs of these families in several ways while also teaching the main points of CPR T (i.e. reflecting, tracking, limit setting, encouragement). The workshops were made easier to attend with a lenient attendance policy, modified schedule, and by providing childcare and food. These changes addressed several of the barriers parents discusse d during the pre interviews. In addition, we asked for feedback from the parents throughout the workshops and related

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45 the skills back to everyday situations they may be experiencing with their children. It appears this helped the parents feel more relaxed around the group facilitators and more involved in adaptation of this workshop. This is demonstrated through the reports that all of the parents felt heard, acknowledged, and respected by the investigators and group facilitators. Finally, b y working in fr om a constructivist framework, the participants and investigator were able to create a relationship that helped each party to understand the other better. This study provided the researcher a better understanding of how to provide services that fit the nee ds and circumstances of African American families living stressors, strengths, and limitations.

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46 APPENDIX A PRE WORKSHOP INTERVIEW Q UESTIONS 1. Name and age 2. Names and ag es of children? 3. Who lives in the home? 4. What are your strengths as a parent? 5. What is the hardest thing about being a parent? What are some stressors you have related to parenting? 6. Are there times you have difficulty with a behavior issues? If so, when? 7. What are you thoughts on how children play? 8. Do you play with your child? How often? And, if so, in what ways? 9. How would you describe your relationship with your child? 10. In what ways do you think you could benefit from parenting workshops? 11. What do you think is n eeded in parenting workshops? 12. How would you feel about attending parenting workshops that teach you ways to play with your children? 13. What would make the parenting workshop practical and most comfortable for you to attend? What would hinder its success? Wh at are your goals for a parenting workshop? 14. What are some things that would stop you from going to parenting workshops? 15. What is something you wish more counselors understood about your culture, community, or family?

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47 APPENDIX B WORKSHOP OUTLINES I. Session O ne A. Check in/introductions B. Introduce what play is and the model/background C. Be with attitudes D. E. Introduce play therapy toys F. Establish individual goals II. Session Two A. Check in/warm up activity B. Break up in to small groups: 1. Reflecting 2. Tracking C. Parent child playtime III. Session Three A. Check in/warm up activity B. Break up into small groups: 1. Limit setting 2. Encouragement vs. praise C. Check out/closing activity IV. Session Four A. Check in/warm up activity B. Large group process

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48 1. D iscussed tracking, reflecting, limit setting, and encouragement vs. praise 2. Practiced different skills with each other C. Parent child playtime

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49 APPENDIX C WORKSHOP MATERIALS

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67 APPENDIX D WEE KLY PROCESS NOTES 1. Goal for today 2. Activities 3. One thing I learned today 4. 5. How I can use this at home

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68 APPENDIX E POST WORKSHOP INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 2. What d id you like about the workshops? What did you not like? 3. Have you seen any changes in yourself, your child, or your relationship with your child? If so, what? 4. What are some things you learned from the workshop that you would like to continue doing? 5. Do you f eel the workshops were relevant to your life circumstances? 6. Do you feel the group facilitators were responsive to your needs? If so, how? 7. Do you feel the group facilitators were respectful and understood you? If so, how? 8. What changes would you make to the workshop to fit your needs?

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69 LIST OF REFERENCES Amatea, E. S., Smith Adcock, S., & Villares, E. (2003). From family deficit to family resilience perspective. Professional Scho ol Counseling, 9 (3), 177 189. Attree, P. (2005). Parenting support in the context of poverty: A meta synthesis of the qualitative evidence. Health and Social Care in the Community, 13 (4), 330 337. Axline, V. M. (1969). Play therapy (rev. ed.). New York: Ba llantine Books. Baggerly, J. (2006). Service learning with children affected by poverty: Facilitating multicultural competence in counseling education students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 34, 244 255. Bratton, S. C., Landreth, G. L., Kellam, T., & Blackard, S. R. (2006). Child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) treatment manual: A 10 session filial therapy model for training parents New York, NY: Routledge. Bratton, S. C., Ray, D., Rhine, T., & Jones, L. (2005). The efficacy of pl ay therapy with children: A meta analytic review of treatment outcomes. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36 (4), 376 390. Conger, R. D., & Conger, K. J. (2002). Resilience in Midwestern families: Selected findings from the first decade of a p rospective, longitudinal study. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 361 373. Crosnoe, R., Mistry, R. S., & Elder, G. H. (2002). Economic disadvantage, family dynamics, and adolescent enrollment in higher education. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 690 7 02. Drewes, A. A. (2005). Suggestions and research on multicultural play therapy In Gil, E. & Drewes, A. A. (Eds.), Cultural issues in play therapy (pp. 72 95 ). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Edwards, N. A., Ladner, J., & White, J. (2007). Perceived ef fectiveness of filial therapy for a Jamaican Mother: A qualitative case study. International Journal of Play Therapy, 16 (1), 36 53. Evans, G.W. & English K. (2002). The environment of poverty: Multiple stressor exposure, psychophysiological stress, and soc ioemotional adjustment. Child Development, 73 (4), 1238 1248. Fraser, M., Richman, J., & Galinsky, M. (1999). Risk, protection, and resilience: toward a conceptual framework for social work practice. Social Work Research, 23(3), 131 143.

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70 Gainesville HIPPY. (2010). Florida HIPPY Demographics Program Report 2009 2010. Gainesville, FL: Gainesville HIPPY. Garza, Y., & Watts, R. E. (2010). Filial therapy and Hispanic values: Common ground for culturally sensitive helping. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88 (1 ), 108 113. Gil, E. (2005). From sensitivity to competence in working across cultures. In Gil, E. & Drewes, A. A. (Eds.), Cultural issues in play therapy (pp. 3 25). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Guerney, L. (2000). Filial therapy into the 21 st centur y. International Journal of Play Therapy, 9 (2), 1 17. Guerney, L. (2001). Child centered play therapy. International Journal of Play Therapy, 10 (2), 13 31. Hinds, S. (2005). In Gil, E. & Drewes, A. A. (Eds.) Cultural issues in play therapy (pp. 115 147 ). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Hinman, C. (2003). Multicultural considerations in the delivery of play therapy services. International Journal of Play Therapy, 12 (2), 107 122. Landreth, G. L., Bratton, S. C. (2006). Child parent relationship therapy (CPRT): A 10 session filial therapy model. New York, NY: Routledge. Lyon, A. R., & Budd, K. S. (2010). A community mental health implementation of Parent Child interaction therapy (PCIT). Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 654 668. Orthner, D.K., Jones Sanpei, H., Williamson, S. (2004). The resilience and strengths of low income families. Family Relations, 53 (2), 159 167. Ponterotto, J. G. (2005). Qualitative research in counseling psychology: A primer on research paradigms and philosophy of science. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52 (2), 126 136. Sangganjanavanich, V. F., Cook, K., & Rangel Gomez, M. (2010). Filial therapy with monolingual Spanish speaking mothers: A phenomenological study. The Family J ournal, 18, 195 201. Schwarzbaum, S. E. (2004). Low income Latinos and dropout: Strategies to prevent dropout. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32 296 306. Sheely, A., & Bratton, S. (2010). A Strengths Based Parenting Intervention with Low Income African American Families. Professional School Counseling 13 (3), 175 183.

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71 Solis, C. M., Meyers, J., Varjas, K. M. (2004). A qualitative case study of the process and impact of filial therapy with an African American parent. International Jour nal of Play Therapy, 13 (2), 99 118. Tidwell, R. (2004). The 'no show' phenomenon and the issue of resistance among African American female patients at an urban health care center. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 26 (1), 1 12. Werner, E. E. (1996). Vuln erable but invincible: High risk children from birth to adulthood. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5 (Suppl. 1), 47 51.

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72 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kristina was born in M iami, FL She lived in Miami her entire life until moving to G ainesville, FL to complete her undergraduate degree. She graduated from the University of Florida December 2008 with a B ach elor of Science in psychology. She began a Master of Arts in Education degree in marriage and family c ounseli ng January 2009. She com pleted her M.A.E. in marriage and family c ounseling December 2011.