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Construction Industry Attitudes towards the Building Information Modeling Process

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043834/00001

Material Information

Title: Construction Industry Attitudes towards the Building Information Modeling Process
Physical Description: 1 online resource (52 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Valladares, Carolina Maria
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: bim
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: On the cutting edge of technology, building information modeling (BIM) creates a computable representation of a facility including all physical and functional characteristics and its related project life cycle and facility maintenance information. Clear and implementable legal frameworks of BIM, like AIA-E202 and ConsensusDocs 301, have made it feasible to integrate BIM into projects. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of BIM on future project delivery. The results show that the industry is moving towards more integration and collaboration in project teams to seize new opportunities, move fast, and stay focused. This study addresses current views on BIM, future use of BIM, BIM trends and a comparison of views on BIM by BIM users and non-BIM users.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Carolina Maria Valladares.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
Local: Co-adviser: Olbina, Svetlana.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043834:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043834/00001

Material Information

Title: Construction Industry Attitudes towards the Building Information Modeling Process
Physical Description: 1 online resource (52 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Valladares, Carolina Maria
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: bim
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: On the cutting edge of technology, building information modeling (BIM) creates a computable representation of a facility including all physical and functional characteristics and its related project life cycle and facility maintenance information. Clear and implementable legal frameworks of BIM, like AIA-E202 and ConsensusDocs 301, have made it feasible to integrate BIM into projects. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of BIM on future project delivery. The results show that the industry is moving towards more integration and collaboration in project teams to seize new opportunities, move fast, and stay focused. This study addresses current views on BIM, future use of BIM, BIM trends and a comparison of views on BIM by BIM users and non-BIM users.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Carolina Maria Valladares.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
Local: Co-adviser: Olbina, Svetlana.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043834:00001


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1 CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING PROCESS By C AROLINA M ARIA V ALLADARES A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREME NTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 C arolina M aria V alladares

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3 To my mom and d ad

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my parents for their help and support and for instilling in me a Their unwavering love and guidance has allowed me to strive and to reach for new heights. I would like to thank Dr. R. Raymond Issa, Dr. Svetlana Olbina, and Dr. E. Douglas Lucas who have patiently taught and guided me through my education and have equipped me with the skills needed to succeed in my chosen career

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPT ERS 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ ........................... 10 Structure of Research ................................ ................................ ............................. 10 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 12 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 12 Potential Benefits of BIM to AEC Industry ................................ ............................... 12 BIM is not a 3D CAD Application ................................ ................................ ............ 1 3 BIM for Facilitie s Management ................................ ................................ ............... 14 Standards and Data Exchange ................................ ................................ ............... 15 Contract Language ................................ ................................ ................................ 16 Contract Documents ................................ ................................ ............................... 16 AIA E 202 and Consensus Docs 301 ................................ ................................ ..... 18 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY ................................ ....................... 20 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 20 Survey Questionnaire Design ................................ ................................ ................. 20 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 20 Current Economy ................................ ................................ ............................. 23 Thoughts about BIM ................................ ................................ ......................... 24 Future BIM Use ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Views on Adopting BIM ................................ ................................ .................... 24 ................................ ................................ ........... 25 Industry Trends ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 Overall Assessment ................................ ................................ ......................... 26 Respondents ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 26

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6 4 SURVEY RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Demographic Results ................................ ................................ .............................. 27 Current Economy Results ................................ ................................ ....................... 32 Thoughts about BIM and the Future Use of BIM Re sults ................................ ........ 34 Views on Adopting BIM Results ................................ ................................ .............. 36 Current BIM Users Views on BIM Results ................................ .............................. 37 Industry Trends Results ................................ ................................ .......................... 38 Overall Assessment Results ................................ ................................ ................... 39 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ....................... 40 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 40 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ................................ 41 APPENDIX: S URVEY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 42 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 50 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 52

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7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Years with Current Firm (Q2) (n=39). ................................ ................................ 27 4 2 Role in Firm (Q3) (n=39). ................................ ................................ ................... 28 4 3 Company/Organization Project Type (Q7) n=37 ................................ ................ 29 4 4 Firms Most Effective Project Delivery Method (Q 9) (n=38). .............................. 29 4 5 Number of Employees (Q 11) (n=39). ................................ ................................ 30 4 6 Average Contract Size (Q 12) (n=39). ................................ ................................ 31 4 7 Annual C ontract Size (Q 13) (n=39). ................................ ................................ .. 32 4 8 Economy Assessment (Q 20) (n=39). ................................ ................................ 33 4 9 Construction Economy Assessment (Q 21) ( n=39) ................................ ............ 34 4 10 Change in economy before utilize BIM (Q 24) (n=37). ................................ ...... 34 4 11 Thought about BIM (Q 26 & 27) (n=39). ................................ ............................ 35 4 12 Future of BIM (Q 28) (n=39). ................................ ................................ ............. 36 4 13 Views on Adopting BIM (Q 29, 30 & 31) (n=10). ................................ ............... 37 4 14 Current BIM users Views on BIM (32, 33 &34) (n=25). ................................ ..... 38

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8 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S AEC Architecture Engineering and Construction AGC Associated of General Contractors for America AIA American Institute of Architects ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers BIM Building Information Modeling CAD Computer Aided Design CD301 ConsensusDocs 301 COB ie Construction Operations Building Information Exchange E202 AIA E20 2 EJCDC Engineers Joint Contract Documents Committee FM Facilities Management IPD Integrated Project Design N/A Not applicable NBIMS National Building Information Model Standard

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE B UILDING INFORMATION MOD ELING PROCESS By C arolina Maria Valladar es D ecember 2011 Chair: Raymond Issa Cochair: Svetlana Olbina Major: Building Construction On the cutting edge of technology, b uilding i nformation m odeling (BIM) creates a computable represe ntation of a facility including all physical and functional characteristics and its related project life cycle and facility maintenance information. Clear and implementable legal frameworks of BIM, like AIA E202 and ConsensusDocs 301, have made it feasible to integrate BIM into projects. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of BIM on future project delivery. The results show that the industry is moving towards more integration and collaboration in project teams to seize new opportunities, move fast, and stay focused. This study addresses current vie ws on BIM, future use of BIM, BIM trends and a comparison of views on BIM by BIM users and non BIM users.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose of Study Throughout the Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry Building Information Modeling (B IM) has become the latest technology software in use BIM requires interdisciplinary collaboration. A BIM model can provide information on a building for its construction and which can be used up through its lifecycle. Using BIM quantity takeoffs can be ta ken for estimates and can be used by manufacturers for product fabrication. T he model can also be used to analyze the building ( e.g. energy analysis and daylight studies ). The purpose of this study is 1) determine current BIM trends and to compare compa nies of different sizes. 2) Compare between BIM investment decisions and the current economy. 3) Identify the industries current and future views of BIM. 4) Compare views on BIM between BIM users and non BIM users. Research Methodology The research was do ne in two stages. The first stage was a literature review. This was done to gain already known information and shar e d knowledge on BIM. The second stage was done through a survey. The survey was created to determine the impact that BIM will have on future project delivery systems. A series of questions address ed the factors that might possibly affect BIM use. Structure of Research Chapter 2 provides a literature review on BIM. It discusse d potential benefits of BIM to the AEC industry discussing its pros an d cons. The literature review explored BIM for facilities management and its standards and data exchange. It discussed

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11 contract language and the contract drafting process. The literature review also included a comparison between the AIA E 202 and Consensus Docs 301 standard contracts and their impact on BIM use Chapter 3 provides the research methodology and survey design. The survey consisted of 42 questions which were broken down into eight parts. The survey was sent out to AEC firms of varying sizes acr oss the US and Canada. Chapter 4 provides the results of the survey and shows the comparisons made between the information gained from the survey results. Chapter 5 provides the conclusions and recommendations for further study and suggests improvements to the survey questionnaire

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12 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Overview The literature review consists of seven sections. The first section discuses potential benefits of BIM to the AEC industry. The second section discusses the differences between BIM and 3D CA D. The third section discussed BIM for facilities management. The fourth section discuses BIM standards and data exchange. The last three section discuses the contract drafting process AIAE 202 and Consensus Docs 301contract documents. Potential Benefits of BIM to AEC Industry Building information modeling (BIM) is the latest technology in the construction profession (Weygant 2011). B uilding system s and subsystems can be represented in a 3D digital model. BIM serves as a database that records the building development and its association with the building components in an actual visual model. BIM creates a centralized data source which allows access to various parties of all disciplines that allows the 3D model to be updated. Errors and conflicts are reduce d by identifying them with in BIM. This all can be done before the project even breaks ground (Rowlinson et al. 2010; East et al. 2007). BIM also offers a stage to improve interdisciplinary collaboration, manage change and extend support information throu ghout the building lifecycle ( Sabol 2008 ; Smith et al. 2009). Collaboration between all members on a team is promoted through BIM, it allows for a smooth process for adding information to a project design before the project is well underway (Weygant 2011; Katz et al. 2010). BIM software can perform analysis on the data contained in the model, which can allow suppliers to take material estimates

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13 from the model and allow facility managers to monitor the building through its entire lifecycle. The BIM process holds potential cost savings. Less design conflict less quality issues, a shorter project time and greater team collaboration result in fewer delays and cost overruns. Because of this, more owners are utilizing the BIM process and putting more emphasis o n the building delivery process and its impact on their business (Eastman et al. 2011; Rowlinson et al. 2010). BIM is not a 3D CAD Application CAD is able to produce 3D models, but BIM is not a 3D CAD application CAD drawings contain geometric data like lines, arcs and surfaces that represent location and design of the building components. In CAD the elements can be tagged with information, but it is not enough to provide users with needed information related to the relationships between components in th e model and objects ( Sabol 2008 ; Weygant 2011). BIM is able to bring together information that describes the physical aspects of a building and its components. Unlike 2D CAD drawings, BIM is able to do this in an integrated manner When drawing a wall in BIM, the wall itself is a unit. All the layers and components like thickness, type and assemblies are carried with that wall (Weygant 2011). It includes dimensions, fire ratings of partitions structural characteristics, unit costs, and warranties of mecha nical equipment (Matsuzaki 2007; Smith et al. 2006). BIM pushes more environmental ly friendly In BIM, building components are virtually simulated. All objects have an identity and attribute. A wall exists as a wall and has wall characteristics. BIM can track material types and quantities, space and equipment, all as information applications. Material

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14 quantities and their properties can be easily extracted. Durin g the design process, information can be attached to the building components to include life cycle and maintenance criteria instructions or manufacture r specifications, which allows an information base to be integrated and available to the building owner or operator ( Sabol 2008 ). BIM promises a collaborative, highly rich project delivery environment. BIM has the capability of reducing costs by enabling changes in project delivery to run smoothly. Decisions and changes implemented within BIM have a reduced impact on time and cost. A BIM model is created very accurately. Having a 3D model enables more diverse parties to be involved. Communication is more effective, efficient and reinforced through a visual understanding ( Sabol 2008 ). A 3D model is able to pr ovide views which bring clarity to conditions that would typically elude a user who is interpreting standard 2D construction documents (Eastman et al. 2011). The model can generate quantities and data which can produce estimates and allow workflow to run m ore smoothly. At project turnover, BIM can deliver data that is more structu red and complete (Jernigan 2008). BIM for Facilities Management In the post construction phase, managing construction documents is an essential task for the successful management of the building (Goedert et al. 2008). BIM is offering a new stage for building management and for the building s physical assets to function. BIM provides a joined storehouse of all the building components. Building facility management and maintenance is optimized by exporting the building and equipment information which will be used for the lifetime of the building (Eastman et al. 2011) Facility management (FM) encompass es multiple disciplines and is face d with the challenges of improving and standardiz ing the information that is required for day to day

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15 operations of a building to function as well to provide reliable and organized manageable data to upper management. There is a wide range of data systems which service a wide range of needs. With CAD, rev isions or rework is often needed to make the drawings useful for FM. The FM requirements are wide and diverse. FM functions are not naturally graphic and require tedious work when building configurations or attributes change (Sabol 2008). Standards and Dat a Exchange There are s everal BIM software programs includ ing : Autodesk Revit Architecture, Bentley Architecture and Graphisoft ArchiCAD. As for file format, there is no universal BIM file format. This makes it difficult to transfer information between BIM programs. However, there is a move towards standardization (Katz et al. 2010). National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) committee was formed in early 2006 to provide a common standard for describing facility information in order to support the the physical and functional characteristics of a facility and it serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its lif of an open standard for information exchange is encouraged but is not yet widely supported by software applications (Arayici 2008). The US Army Corps of Engineers Research Lab is developing the Construction Operations Building Information Exchange ( COB ie ). COB ie is being developed to create a standardized template for information handovers to operations and maintenance entities. This approach gets information which continues to increase throughou t the planning, design, and constructions process and manages them. The appropriate

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16 standard will be determined based on information need, available technologies, and industry direction ( Sabol 2008 ). Until a standardized format is achieved, software inter operability and data format should be addressed in the contr act documents for BIM projects. Contract Language Contracts establish the rules of engagement, write out the mission and bind capital and intellectual property together. It is important to define the scope of work; the owners project requirements, the responsibilities of all parties and understand the project specific customization which all parties agree to act ( Knight 2008 ). Clearly drafted contracts lay out the work to be accomplished by definin g the responsibilities of the conditions of the contract, and the technical conditions of the specifications, the specifications, the drawings and addendums issued p rior to the bid. Contracts cover the importance of the agreement that defines compensation a nd type of payment (e.g. unit price, lump sum), the bond requirements (payment and performance), insurance limits, and the contract time to complete the work (calen dar days).The contract at times may also include Special Conditions that are used to amend the General Conditions and foresee various future risks by assigning these between parties. The contract may become larger as the list of potential risk increases ho wever; a well written contract can effectively reduce potential disagreements. Contract Documents The most commonly used standard forms of agreement are produced by a range of trade associations and professional societies including: the American Institut e of Architects (AIA), Engineers Joint Contract Documents Co mmittee (EJCDC), the

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17 Associated General Contractors of America (AGC), and the Design Build Institute of America (DBIA) ( Knight 2008 ). The Engineers Joint C ontract Documents Committee (EJCDC) deve loped their own set of contract documents. Their objective documents are updated and represent the latest and top thinking in contractual agreements between all parties involved in engineering construction and design projects. The EJCDC includes over 15 p rofession al engineering owners, contractor s, designers, and risk management associations like the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Council of Engineering Companies, NSPE's Professional Engineers in Private Practice Division, and the Associ ated General Contractors of America ( ASCE 1996 2011). EJCDC Contract Documents are peer reviewed and created by experienced industry experts, they reduce conflict and litigation and they are user friendly and easily customized. EJCDC have contract docum en ts for collections, construction, owner and engineer, design build, engineer and sub consultant, environmental remediation, funding a gency editions, p rocurement and more. The America n Institute of Architects, (AIA) has over 100 forms and contract to compri se the AIA Contract Documents. The Contract Documents are defined by their relationship and involvement in design and construction projects. The AIA documents are prepared in accord ance with the owner, designer, contractor, and engineers. The AIA have be en fine tuning their documents for 120 years and have achieved a widely recognized standard of contracts. AIA documents and the industry influence each other. The AIA continually is revising documents and has standardized documents for Design Build, differ ent types of management and international practices.

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18 The AIA uses a committee drafting process. The committee is composed of practicing architects who have been appointed based on their regional diversity, experience and practice. As well as using the in put of a committee, the AIA also evaluates the feedback of the owners, contractors, engineers, subcontractors, sureties and others. AIA E 202 and Consensus Docs 301 One of the biggest BIM concerns that contractors and others had was the legal framework for BIM that until recently remained unsettled. With AIA E202 (E202) and ConsensusDocs 301 (CD 301), that is no longer the case. The E202 contract document and CD 301 addendum are not just a product by contractors, they were developed by a forum comprised of representatives of owners, architects, suppliers, fabricators, subcontractors, contractors, and construction lawyers who came together to draft a document that would be accepted industry wide (Lowe et al. 2009). CD 301 helps construction professionals to safely implement BIM. With this BIM addendum, parties maintain their traditional roles. The distinction between design and construction is preserved. The design professional is still responsible for design and the contractor is responsible for the mea ns and methods of construction (Lowe et al. 2008; Lowe et al. 2009). The CD 301 does not replace the governing contracts and is intended to be used with various types of project delivery methods The CD 301 BIM addendum requires that all project participan ts agree upon a BIM execution plan. This plan maps out responsibilities and is more detailed than the addendum (Haynes 2009). The BIM addendum sets forth a framework for licensing intellectual property rights. The E202 is a contract document that dictates the development of a BIM project. E202 specifies who is responsible for authoring each element in the model and defines

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19 the extent to which model users down the line can use and rely on the model for pricing and construction. The E202 promotes interoperab ility with file formatting and providing common definitions to avoid confusion. E202 and CD 301 are not intended to be stand alone document s, but were constructed to comple ment already existing contract documents. E202 is based on model elements. It ident ifies expected levels of development and specifies permissible users. CD 301 maintains a Spearin role. It focuses on planning and relies on the BIM execution plan. It is important to scope the BIM modeling work for the project and the parties responsible f or each model component BIM deliverables, model access, risk limitations and standard are addressed. The E202 poses some concerns with its rigid approach. A CD 301 concern is its complex definition of the model (MCCA 2009; Haynes 2009; Haynes 2009).

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20 C HA PTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Overview The research data was collected in two stages. The first stage was through a literature review w h ere analysis was conducted to establish already known information on BIM contracts and applications. After the initial review, in the second stage, research data was collected through surveys to identify industry perceptions towards the BIM process and future implications of BIM. The list of respondents was selected from the Associated General Contractors for Ameri ca (AGC) member ship directory and d irect contacts with practicing architects and e ngineers They were selected based on location: Florida, California, and Toronto Canada and b ased on company type: contractors, specialty contractors, engineers, and archi tects. Survey Questionnaire Design The survey consists of eight segments: 1) Demographics; 2) Current Economy; 3) Thoughts about BIM; 4) Future BIM u se; 5) Views on Adopting BIM; 6) Current BIM users, Views on BIM; 7) Industry Trends; and 8) Overall Asses sment. Each segment in the survey is explained in further detail in the following sections. The entire survey can be found in Appendix A. Demographics The demographic section was divided into two parts The first part of the section was used to gain person al information on the respondent. It was important to get information on the respondents The second part of this section was used to gain information on the respondents firm. It context.

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21 Question 1: What degr ee do you hold? This question was asked to gain background information on the respondent. It helped to distinguish between the educational background of the respondent and their actual current field of work Question 2: How long have you been with your current firm? This question was asked to aid in further analysis of the information given b y the respondent on their firm. They were able to choose from: 0 5 years, 5 10 years, 10 15 years, and 15+ years. T he assumption is the longer a respondent has bee n with their firm; the more accurate ly they can represent the firm. Question 3: What position do you hold in your firm ? This question was asked to identify the role held by the respondent within the firm They were able to choose from : Owner, Architect, Engineer, Project Manager and other The respondents had different levels of experience and they needed to be identified because for example, a marketing manager would have no influence on changing company work flow to adopt BIM and would not be included in the analysis of the survey results. Question 4: Do you have any experience with BIM? Question 5: If not, are you aware of the BIM approach? Question 6: Are you aware of the benefits of BIM? The se questions w ere asked to find out the respondents fami liarity with BIM, as well as, find out whether or not the respondent have had any experience with BIM. These questions start to define the views held by the respondents. Question 7: Company/Organization Project Type. The purpose of this question was to determine the type of projects carried out by the firm Respondents were able to choose from : commercial, residential, industrial, transportation heavy civil and other This information was used to compare between project type and BIM use.

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22 Question 8: Pr imary Company/Organizational Project Delivery Method. The purpose of this question was to determine the primary project delivery method used by the firm The respondents were able to choose from : Design Bid Build, Construction Management, and Constructio n Management at Risk, Design Build, and Integrated Project Delivery. Question 9: What project delivery method does your firm consider to be most effective? This question was asked to determine the firm s most preferred project delivery method. The respo ndents were able to choose from: General Contracting, Construction Management, and Construction Management at Risk, Design Build, and primary project delivery method may be Construction Management, but the respondent may consider Design Build to be more effective. Question 10: In what region of the United States does your firm operate? Question 11: What is the size of your firm in number of employees? Question 12: What is t he average construction contract size executed by your firm? Question 13: What is the annual contract volume that your firm executes? The purpose of these questions was to understand the size of the firm and compare it to BIM use The firm size was det ermi ned by the number of employees. R espondents could choose: 0 50, 50 150, 150 500, and 500+. Firm size was also determined by its average contract size per project R espondents could choose: $0 1 million, $1 10 million, $10 25 million, $25 50 million, $5 0 75 million, $75 100 million, and $100 million+. The firm size was also determined by Respondents could choose from: $0 50 million, $50 250 million, $250 500 million, $500 $1 billion, and $1 billion+

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23 Question 14: Does your firm utilize BIM software? Question 15: Is your firm aware of the benefits of BIM? The purpose of these questions was to find out the firm s familiarity with BIM and to find out whether or not the firm has had any experience with BIM. These questio ns start to define views held by the firm. Question 16: Has the use of BIM created a more integrated project among party members? This question was aimed toward current BIM users. This question was asked to determine future implication of BIM. Question 17: Has your firm experienced a lack of interoperability between construction software? Question 18: Does the lack of interoperability between software hinder project success? Question 19: Will a better integration of project software lead to a more succes sful project ? The purpose of these questions was to draw a connection between smooth project execution, construction software, and collaborating disciplines. These questions were asked to determine the future implication of BIM. Current Economy The pur pose of this section was to gauge the respondent s view on the current economy and its effects on future investments and decisions regarding BIM. Question 20: What is your assessment of the current economic situation? Question 21: What is your assessment o f the current construction economy? Question 22: Would your firm consider changing your business model to accommodate BIM given the current economy? Question 23: After evaluating the benefits of BIM, would you consider implementing BIM i f economic conditio ns were optimum? Question 24: How long do you believe it will take before economic conditions permit a change in business model to utilize BIM? Question 25: Is the current economy preventing your firm from investing in improvements for the future? These questions were asked in order to see the

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24 and to see how the respondents viewed BIM in the economy, as well as, gauge any relationship between the current economy and BIM u se or future BIM use. Thoughts about BIM The purpose of this section was to gain an understanding on what the current industry thoughts were on BIM. The respondents were asked to rank the following statements on a rating scale of 1=strongly agree, 2= sli ghtly a gree, 3=neither agree nor disagree, 4= slightly disagree, 5= strongly disagree and 6=Do not know. Questions 26 : (a) Unless specifications are linked to the 3D model, it is not BIM. (b) BIM is the future of project information management. (c) The ind ustry is not clear enough on what BIM is yet. Question 27: (a) BIM leads to bland buildings. (b) BIM is all about real time collaboration. (c) BIM is all about software. (d) BIM is just a synonym for 3D CAD drawing. Future BIM Use The purpose of this sect ion was to identify whether or not the respondents currently intend to use BIM and determine future implications of BIM. The respondents were asked to complete sentences by using a rating scale of 1=for all projects, 2=for the majority of projects, 3=for a minority of projects. Question 18: (a) We currently use BIM ; (b) (c) In three years time, we will use BIM (d) In five years time, we will use BIM Views on Adopting BIM T his section was for those who wer e not using BIM. The purpose of this section was to determine the view held by those who are not using BIM. The respondents were asked to rank the following statements on a rating scale of 1=strongly agree, 2= slightly

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25 a gree, 3=neither agree nor disagree, 4= slightly disa gree, 5= strongly disagree and 6=Do not know. Questions 29 : (a) Adopting BIM would increase speed of delivery. (b) Adopting BIM would increase coordination of construction documents. (c) Adopting BIM would improve productivity due to easy retrieval of info rmation. (D) Adopting BIM would increase our profitability. Question 30: (a) Adopting BIM would bring cost efficiencies to our operations. (b) Adopting BIM would require changes in our work flow. (c) BIM is too expensive for us to consider at the moment. ( d) Adopting BIM would make traditional specifications redundant within the organization. Question 31: (a) I would rather not adopt BIM. (b) Clients will increasingly insist on us adopting BIM Current Users Views on BIM This section was for those who wer e currently using BIM. The purpose of this section was to determine the view s of BIM held by those who were currently using BIM. The respondents were asked to rank the following statements on a rating scale of 1=strongly agree, 2= slightly a gree, 3=neither agree nor disagree, 4= slightly disagree, 5= strongly disagree and 6=Do not know. Question 32: (a) Adopting BIM has increased the speed of delivery. (b) Adopting BIM has increased coordination of construction documents. (c) Adopting BIM has improved produ ctivity due to easy retrieval of information. (d) Adopting BIM has improved visualization. Question 33: (a) Adopting BIM has increased profitability. (b) Adopting BIM has brought cost efficiencies to our operations. (c) Adopting BIM has required changes in our workflow. (d) Adopting BIM has made traditional specifications redundant within our organization. Question 34: (a) We have adopted BIM successfully. (b) I would have preferred that we had not adopted BIM.

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26 Industry Trends The purpose of this section w as to see what trend s were growing in the industry and if BIM would lend itself to a similar growth. Question 35: Are owners becoming more knowledgeable of the construction process. Question 36: Are owners becoming more aware of their project needs? Questi on 37: Are owners demanding more integration among project members? Question 38: Are you aware of the endorsements of BIM by the AIA and the AGC? Question 39: Do you agree with the endorsement of BIM? Question 40: Do complex projects lend themselves to a B IM approach? Question 41: Does the increase in utilization of design build lend itself to a similar growth in BIM? These questions establish that BIM is known to the industry, and shows future implications of BIM. Overall Assessment The purpose of thi s section was to rank the current economy, technological issues (including BIM), government involvement, industry tre nds and increased allocations fro m most influential to least influential This was done to determine what most influences a sions to use BIM. Respondents In September 2011 a survey was conducted to determine the impact of BIM on the future of project delivery. There were 71 companies who received an invite to participate in the survey The target list of companies included Arc hitectural, Engineering and General Contractors. There were 39 respondents who completed the survey.

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27 CHAPTER 4 SURVEY RESULTS Demographic Results Respondents were asked questions about themselves and their firm to gain a better understanding of their bac kground. This information was used to group respondents and better understand the survey results. This section of the survey addressed the 39 individual respondents. Almost all of the respondents (90%) replied to the first question with over 50% (24) ha ving b s degrees and 17% (6) having a m Architecture As shown in Figure 4 1, 33% (13) of the respondents had been with their firm for 15 plus years. From there, the results tapered down with 26%(10) of the respondents having been with their firm from five to 10 years, 23% (9) of the respondents having been with their firm from 10 to 15 years and 18% (7) of the respondents having been with their firm for five years or less. Figure 4 1 Years with Current Firm (Q2) ( n=39 ).

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28 The types of positions held by the respondents were Owners, Architects, Project Managers and more. Architects (18%, 7) and Project Manager (26%, 10) made up almost half of the respondents. Owners made up 15% (6) of the respondents and BIM Managers, Designers, Presidents, Vice Presidents and more made up the other 41% (16). As shown in Figure 4 2, out of 38 respondents, 28 (74%) have had experience with BIM; while a little over a quarter, 10 of the responde nts (26%), have not. Even though 10 respondents had no experience with BIM almost all (8) of them were aware of the BIM approach. As for the benefits of BIM, 38 (97%) out of 39 respondents were aware of its benefits. Figure 4 2 Role in Firm (Q3) ( n=39 ). Questions 7 through 19 of the survey inquired about the respondent firms In order to develop a broader understanding of the firms, the respondents were asked to select the project type or types that their company worked on The types of company project included commercial, residential, industrial, municipal and military. As shown in Figure 4 3, most of the companies (41%, 15) did commercial projects. The next highest category for project type was industrial, which was selec ted by nine of 37 respondents

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29 (24%). There was a very small percentage (3%, 1) that did residential work. Most of the respondents (4 2 % 16 ) considered design build to be the most effective project delivery firm The general contracting delivery method was next with 21% (8) of the respondents. Next was construction management at risk with 16% (6) of the respondents and finally, construction management had 3% (1) of the respondents. These results are shown in Figure 4 4 Figure 4 3 Company/Organization Project Type (Q7) n=37 Figure 4 4. Firms Most Effective Project Delivery Method (Q 9) ( n=38 ). A majority of the respondent (81%, 28) operated in the South region of the United States. (TX, OK, AR, LA, M S, AL, TN, KY, WV, VA, NC, SC, GA, FL, DE, MD). The

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30 West region made up 8% (3) of the respondents. (WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, CO, NM, AK, HI). The Northeast made up 8% (3) of the respondents (PA, NY, NJ, CT, RI, MA, ME, VT, NH). Canada was represented by five respondents (13%). Firm size was determined by the number of employees. This and annual contract volume were addressed to compare BIM use with the firm size and project size. As shown in Figure 4 5., most of the respondents (49%, 18) came from firms with 500 plus employees. More than a quarter of the respondents, (28%, 11) came from firms with 50 to 150 employees. Next, 15% (6) of the respondents came from firms with 50 employees or less. Lastly, 8% (3) of the respondents came from firms with 150 to 500 employees. Figure 4 5 Number of Employees (Q 11) ( n=39 ). Firms that executed an average construction contract size of $1 10 million had the largest percentage of respondents (31%, 12 ) Firms that executed an average cons truction contract size of $1 0 25 million had the next largest percentage of respondents ( 23 %, 9 ). Firms that executed an average construction contract size of $ 0 1 million had a percentage of respondents ( 5 %, 2 ). F irms that executed an average construction contract size of $ 25 50 million had the same percentage of respondents

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31 ( 10 %, 4 ). F irms that executed an average construction contract size of $ 5 0 75 million had the same percentage of respondents ( 8 %, 3 ). Four respondents (10%) worked in f irms that execut ed an average construction contract size of $ 75 1 00 million Firms that executed an average construction contract size of over $100 million had the same percentage of respondents ( 13 %, 5 ). These results are shown in Figure 4 6. Figure 4 6 Average Contract Size (Q 12) ( n=39 ). The largest percentage of the respondents (33%, 13) represented firms that execute d an annual contract volume of $1 billion plus. The second largest percentage of respondents (28%, 11) represented firms tha t execute d an annual contract volume of $50 250 million. Next, 21 % ( 8 ) of the respondents represent ed firms that execute d an annual contract volume of $ 50 million or less Lastly 41 % ( 16 ) of the respondents represent ed firms that execute d an annual contra ct volume of $ 2 50 million to $1 billion These results are shown in Figure 4 7. Not all of the firms represented by the respondents utilized BIM software. Even though over 95% (36) of the respondents were aware of the benefits of BIM, 27% (10) of the resp ondents did not utilize BIM. This information was used to distinguish between

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32 BIM users and non BIM users for questions 29 through 34 in the survey. More than half of the respondents believed that BIM has created a more integrated project between project members. Over 60% of the respondents agreed that a lack of interoperability existed between construction software, which hindered projects success and almost all respondents (92%) agreed that the better project software integration, the more successful the project. Figure 4 7. Annual Contract Size (Q 13) ( n=39 ). Current Economy Results The respondents were asked questions on the current economy. The questions in this section were used investment decis ions regarding the adoption of BIM. As shown in Figure 4 8, while 33% (13) of the respondents assessed the current economy to be fair, 31% (12) considered the economy to be either poor or below average. As shown in Figure 4 9, when asked to assess the cons truction economy, 47% (18) of the respondents considered it to be poor while 11% (4) considered it to be below average, and 37% (14) considered it to be

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33 fair. For both the current economy and construction economy, 5% (2) of the respondents considered it to be above average. Given the current economy, 58% (21) of the respondents would consider changing their business model to accommodate BIM. If economic conditions were optimum, 83% (30) of the respondents would consider implementing BIM. As seen in Figure 4 10, over half of the respondents believed that it will take three years or less before the economic conditions permit a change in their business model to utilize BIM. According to 71% (27) of the respondents, the current economy is not preventing them fr om investing in improvements for the future. Figure 4 8 Economy Assessment (Q 20) ( n=39 ).

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34 Figure 4 9 Construction Economy Assessment (Q 21) ( n=39 ) Figure 4 10 Change in economy before utilize BIM (Q 24) ( n=37 ). Thoughts about BIM and the Future U se of BIM Results The purpose of this section was to gain knowledge on the current perception held by the industry on BIM. In order to do this, respondents were asked to agree or disagree to a set of statements. As shown in Figure 4 11, over 70% (27) of th e respondents agree d that BIM does not lead to bland building Unless specifications are linked to the 3D model, 37% (14) of the respondents agree d that it is not BIM and 42% (16)

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35 disagree d that it is not BIM Over half of the respondents (71%, 27) disagre e d that BIM is just a synonym for 3D CAD drawings. Over a quarter of the respondents ( 27%, 10) agreed that BIM is all about software, while 34% (13) of the respondents disagree d According to 63% (24) of the respondents, the industry is not clear enough on what BIM is yet, but 77% (29) of the respondents see BIM as the future of project information management. In order to determine the future of BIM respondents were asked about how they might use BIM in the future. Over 50% (18) of the respondents already used BIM for a minority of projects. As shown in Figure 4 12, as the years progress, the respondents saw respondents saw themselves using BIM for all of their projects. In three years time, 31% (11) of the respondents saw themselves using BIM for all of their projects. In five years time, 42% (15) of the respondents saw themselves using BIM for all of their projects. Figure 4 11 Thought about BIM (Q 26 & 27) ( n=39 ).

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36 Figure 4 12 Future of BIM (Q 28) ( n=39 ). Views on Adopting BIM Results The purpose of this section was to gain views from non BIM users on adopting BIM and to make a comparison between views from BIM users and non BIM users. The information gained from question 14 i n the survey was used to distinguish between the two. Of the 39 respondents, 26 % ( 10 ) of them were non BIM users. The respondents were asked to agree or disagree to a set of statements. As shown in Figure 4 13, 30% ( 3 ) of the respondents agreed that adopt ing BIM would increase speed of delivery and 40% ( 4 ) agreed that adopting BIM would increase their profitability. Sixty percent ( 6 ) of the respondents agreed that adopting BIM would improve productivity due to easy retrieval of information, as well, 70 % ( 7 ) agreed that adopting BIM would increase the coordination of construction documents. While 60% ( 6 ) of the respondents were neutral, 20% ( 2 ) of the respondents agreed that BIM was

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37 too expensive to consider for the moment, while 20% disagreed. Seventy perce nt ( 7 ) of the respondents agreed that changes in their workflow would have to be made if BIM was adopted. Of the respondents, 30% ( 3 ) agreed that adopting BIM would bring cost efficiencies to their operations as 40% ( 4 ) remained neutral. While 50% ( 5 ) of t he respondents were neutral, 20% ( 2 ) agreed that adopting BIM would make traditional specifications redundant within the organization, while 30% ( 3 ) disagreed. Of the respondents, 30% ( 3 ) agreed that clients will increasingly insist on them adopting BIM. Figure 4 13 Views on Adopting BIM (Q 29, 30 & 31) ( n=10 ). Current BIM Users Views on BIM Results The purpose of this section was to gain perceptions from BIM users who have already adopted BIM. Earlier information gained from question 14 in the survey a llowed the respondents to be separated into BIM users and non BIM users. Out of 39 respondents, 29 were BIM users. The respondents were asked to agree or disagree to a set of statements. As shown in Figure 4 14, 44% (11) of the respondents agreed that ado pting BIM would increase speed of delivery and 48% (17) agreed that adopting BIM had increase

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38 their profitability. Over half of the respondents, (52%, 18) agreed that adopting BIM had improved productivity due to easy retrieval of information, as well, 72% (18) agreed that adopting BIM had increase the coordination of construction documents. Sixty percent of the respondents (15) agreed that adopting BIM had brought changes to their workflow. Of the respondents, 52% (13) agreed that adopting BIM had brought cost efficiencies to their operations while 24% (6) remained neutral and 12% (3) did not agree that adopting BIM had brought cost efficiencies to their operations. While 20% (5) of the respondents were neutral, 8% (2) agreed that adopting BIM had make trad itional specifications redundant within the organization, while 60% (15) disagreed that adopting BIM had make traditional specifications redundant within the organization. Over a quarter of the respondents (78%, 22) agreed that BIM had improved visualizati on. Fifty six percent (14) of the respondents had successfully adopted BIM and 4% (1) of the respondents preferred that they had not adopted BIM. Figure 4 14 Current BIM users V iews on BIM (32, 33 &34) ( n=2 5 ). Industry Trends Results The purpose of thi s section was to see what trends were growing in the industry and if BIM would lend itself to a similar growth. O ver 75% (29) of the respondents

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3 9 believed o wners were becoming more aware of the construction process and 68% (25) believed o wners were becoming more aware of their project needs. Owners are demanding more integration among project members. Of the respondents, 68% (25) were aware of BIM endorsements by the AIA and AGC and 88% (28) of the respondents agreed with the endorsements. Almost all of the respondents (97%) believed complex projects had lent themselves towards BIM and 94% (34) of t he respondents believed that the increase of utilization in design build lends itself to a similar growth in BIM. Overall Assessment Results The current economy, technological issues, governmental involvement, industry trends, and increased allocation were five factors given to be ranked as most influential most influential to least, the factors ranked as follows: technological issues, industrial trends, increased allocation of risk, current economy, and government involvement.

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40 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion s B uilding Information Modeling (BIM) is curren tly being used in the construction industry and is part of its future. Innovation and technology push the boundaries of progress and BIM is the front runner. Owners are moving towards more integrated design and BIM allows for integration and coordination of all disciplines. As BIM use progresses, contract documents will be updated and revised which will assist in the increasing adoption of BIM BIM has already made a mark in the construction industry and more people are getting on board to move forward BIM models involve diverse parties and are a more efficient and effective way to communicate. Clarity in communication is a major BIM advantage along with the ability to generate quantities, estimates, and a smooth turnover. Companies continually invest i n future improvements and BIM is part of that future. The following objectives were used to evaluate the information gained from the literature review and data collected by the survey : determine current BIM trends and compare to companies of different si zes. 2) Compare between BIM investment decisions and the current economy. 3) Identify the industries current and future views of BIM. 4) Compare views on BIM between BIM users and non BIM users. As owners become more knowledgeable of the construction proc ess and more aware of the benefits of BIM, the construction industry will utilize BIM regularly. Larger companies are found using BIM more so than smaller companies. Currently, the construction economy is viewed as being below average and not improving for another three years; but the economy is not preventing companies from using or investing in

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41 BIM, or in improvements for the future. As for the future of BIM, the survey suggests that BIM will continue to grow and be use d within the AEC industry. Both BIM users and non BIM users shared similar views on BIM. They generally agreed that BIM increases speed of delivery, that BIM increases coordination of construction documents, and that BIM improved productivity and profitability. Twenty percent of the non BIM users thought that BIM would make traditional specifications redundant within the organization, while sixty percent of the BIM users revealed this not to be the case. Recommendations for Future Research The following is a list of improvements that need to be made to the survey. These improvements will fo rm a survey of higher quality more clarity The se using BIM. The section Current BIM Users Views on BIM (for those using BIM, respondents answered both sections and mere ly thought questions were repeating. With these sections, there needs to be a already to Q uestion 7 do es not allow for multiple selections when more than one may apply. In the survey question 8 was thrown out. Respondents were asked to select their d in to respondents selecting more than one option and did not yield their primary delivery method which resulted in unclear and unusable result s Question 10 needs to be change d if the survey is to be sent to non US firms.

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42 APPENDIX SURVEY Page 1 Heading The objective of this survey is to determine the impact that Building Information Modeling (BIM) will have on the future of project delivery in the construction industry. After a review of r ecent studies and articles a list of factors has been compiled that may influence the rate and extent of the onset of BIM. A series of questions will first ascertain the demographics of the respondents. A series of questions will then address the factors t hat may possibly affect BIM and construction project delivery. Page 1 Heading Demographics Page 1 Question 1 Open Ended Comments Box What degree do you hold? Page 1 Question 2 Choice One Answer (Bullets) How long have you been wit h your current firm? 0 5 years 5 10 years 10 15 years 15+ years Page 1 Question 3 Choice One Answer (Bullets) What position do you hold within your firm? Owner Architect Superintendent Project Manager Other, please specify Page 1 Question 4 Yes or No Do you have any experience with the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach?

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43 Yes No Page 1 Question 5 Yes or No If not, are you aware of the BIM approach? Yes No Page 1 Question 6 Yes or No Are you aware of the benefits of BI M? Yes No Page 1 Question 7 Choice One Answer (Bullets) Company / Organization Project Type: (Please select all that apply.) Commercial Residential Industrial Transportation Heavy Civil Other, please specify Page 1 Question 8 Choice One A nswer (Bullets) Primary Company/ Organizational Project Delivery Method: (Please Select all that applies .) Design Bid Build (DBB) Construction Management Construction Management at Risk Design Build Integrated Project Delivery Other, please specify Pag e 1 Question 9 Choice One Answer (Bullets) What project delivery method does your firm consider to be the most effective? General Contracting Construction Management Construction Management at Risk Design Build Other, please specify

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44 Page 1 Ques tion 10 Choice One Answer (Bullets) In what region of the United States does your firm operate? Northeast (PA, NY, NJ CT RI MA ME, VT, NH) South (TX, OK, AR, LA, MS, AL, TN, KY, WV, VA, NC, SC, GA, FL DE, MD) Midwest (ND, SD, NE, KS, MN, IA, MO, WI, IL, IN, MI, OH) West (WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, CO, NM, AK, HI) Page 1 Question 11 Choice One Answer (Bullets) What is the size of your firm in number of employees? 0 50 50 150 150 500 500+ Page 1 Question 12 Choice One Answer (Bullets) What is the average construction contract size executed by your firm? $0 1 million $1 10 million $10 25 million $25 50 million $50 75 million $75 100 million Over $100 million Page 1 Question 13 Choice One Answer (Bullets) What is the annual contr act volume that your firm executes? $0 50 million $50 250 million $250 500 million $500million $1 billion $1 billion + Page 1 Question 14 Yes or No Does your firm utilize BIM software? Yes No Page 1 Question 15 Yes or No Is your firm aware of the benefits of BIM?

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45 Yes No Page 1 Question 16 Yes or No Has the use of BIM created a more integrated project among party members? Yes No Page 1 Question 17 Yes or No Has your firm experienced a lack of interoperability between constructio n software? Yes No Page 1 Question 18 Yes or No Does a lack of interoperability between software hinder project success? Yes No Page 1 Question 19 Yes or No Will a better integration of project software lead to a more successful project? Yes No Page 1 Heading The Current Economy Page 1 Question 20 Choice One Answer (Bullets) What is your assessment of the current economic situation? Poor Below average Fair Above average Excellent Page 1 Question 21 Choice One Answer (Bull ets) What is your assessment of the current construction economy? Poor Below average

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46 Fair Above average Excellent Page 1 Question 22 Yes or No Would your firm consider changing your business model to accommodate BIM given the current economic situa tion? Yes No Page 1 Question 23 Yes or No After evaluating the benefits of BIM would you consider implementing BIM if economic conditions were optimum? Yes No Page 1 Question 24 Choice One Answer (Bullets) How long do you believe it will ta ke before economic conditions permit a change in business model to utilize BIM? 0 3 years 3 6 years 6 10 years 10 15 years 15+ years Never Page 1 Question 25 Yes or No Is the current economy preventing your firm from investing in improvements for th e future? Yes No Page 1 Heading Thoughts About BIM Page 1 Question 26 Rating Scale Matrix Rating Scale: 1= Strongly agree, 2= Slightly agree, 3= Neither agree nor disagree, 4= Slightly disagree, 5= Strongly disagree, 6= Do not know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unless specifications are linked to the 3D model, it is not BIM 1 2 3 4 5 6 BIM is the future of project information management 1 2 3 4 5 6 The industry is not clear enough on what BIM is yet 1 2 3 4 5 6

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47 Page 1 Question 27 Rating Scale Matrix Rating Scale: 1= Strongly agree, 2= Slightly agree, 3= Neither agree nor disagree, 4= Slightly disagree, 5= Strongly disagree, 6= Do not know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 BIM leads to bland buildings 1 2 3 4 5 6 BI M is all about real time collaboration 1 2 3 4 5 6 BIM is all about software 1 2 3 4 5 6 BIM is just a synonym for 3D CAD drawing s 1 2 3 4 5 6 Page 1 Heading Future of BIM Page 1 Question 28 Rating Scale Matrix Rating Scale: 1= For all projects, 2= For the majority of projects, 3= For a minority of projects. 1 2 3 We currently use BIM.. 1 2 3 In one time, we will use BIM.. 1 2 3 In three years time, we will use BIM.. 1 2 3 In five years time, we will use BIM.. 1 2 3 Page 1 Heading Views on adopting BIM Page 1 Question 29 Rating Scale Matrix Rating Scale: 1= Strongly agree, 2= Slightly agree, 3= Neither agree nor disagree, 4= Slightly disagree, 5= Stron gly disagree, 6= Do not know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM would increase speed of delivery 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM would increase coordination of construction documents 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM would improve productivity due to easy retrieval of information 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM would increase our profitability 1 2 3 4 5 6 Page 1 Question 30 Rating Scale Matrix Rating Scale: 1= Strongly agree, 2= Slightly agree, 3= Neither agree nor disagree 4= Slightly disagree, 5= Strongly disagree, 6= Do not know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM would bring cost efficiencies to our operations 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM would require changes in our work flow 1 2 3 4 5 6 BIM is too expe nsive for us to consider at the moment 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM would make traditional specifications redundant within the organization 1 2 3 4 5 6

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48 Page 2 Question 31 Rating Scale Matrix Rating Scale: 1= Strongly agree, 2= Slightly agree, 3= Neither agree nor disagree, 4= Slightly disagree, 5= Strongly disagree, 6= Do not know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I would rather not adopt BIM 1 2 3 4 5 6 Clients will increasingly insist on us adopting BIM 1 2 3 4 5 6 Page 2 Heading For those using BIM, Views on adopting BIM Page 2 Question 32 Rating Scale Matrix Rating Scale: 1= Strongly agree, 2= Slightly agree, 3= Neither agree nor disagree, 4= Slightly disagree, 5= Strongly disagree, 6= Do not know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM has increased the speed of delivery 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM has increased coordination of construction documents 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM has improved productivity due to easy retrieval of information 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM has improved visualizati on 1 2 3 4 5 6 Page 2 Question 33 Rating Scale Matrix Rating Scale: 1= Strongly agree, 2= Slightly agree, 3= Neither agree nor disagree, 4= Slightly disagree, 5= Strongly disagree, 6= Do not know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM has increas ed our profitability 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM has brought cost efficiencies to our operations 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM has required changes in our work flow 1 2 3 4 5 6 Adopting BIM has made traditional specificati ons redundant within our organization 1 2 3 4 5 6 Page 2 Question 34 Rating Scale Matrix Rating Scale: 1= Strongly agree, 2= Slightly agree, 3= Neither agree nor disagree, 4= Slightly disagree, 5= Strongly disagree, 6= Do not know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 We have adopted BIM successfully 1 2 3 4 5 6 I would have preferred that we had not adopted BIM 1 2 3 4 5 6 Page 2 Heading Industry Trends Page 2 Question 35 Yes or No Are owners becoming more knowledgeable o f the construction process? Yes No Page 2 Question 36 Yes or No Are owners becoming more aware of their project needs? Yes No

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49 Page 2 Question 37 Yes or No Are owners demanding more integration among project members? Yes No Page 2 Question 38 Yes or No Are you aware of the endorsement of BIM by the AIA and the AGC? Yes No Page 2 Question 39 Yes or No Do you agree with the endorsements of BIM? Yes No Page 2 Question 40 Yes or No Do complex projects lend themselves toward a BIM ap proach? Yes No Page 2 Question 41 Yes or No Does the increase in utilization of design build lend itself to a similar growth in BIM? Yes No Page 2 Heading Overall Assessment Page 2 Question 42 Ranking Question Rank the following factors fro consideration of implementing BIM? (Use numbers from 1 5, with 1 being the most influential and 5 the least influential. Please avoid ties between factors) 1 2 3 4 5 The current econom y 1 2 3 4 5 Technological issues (including BIM ) 1 2 3 4 5 Government involvemen t 1 2 3 4 5 Industry trend s 1 2 3 4 5 Increased allocation of ris k 1 2 3 4 5 Page 2 Question 43 Open Ended O ne Line If you would you like to receive a copy of the results of this survey, please enter your company email below.

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50 LIST OF REFERENCES AIA. (2008). "Document E202 Building Information Modeling Protocol Exhibit." Document E202TM, American Institute o f Architects. Arayici, Y. (2008). "Towards building information modeling for existing structures", Structural Survey, Vol. 26 Iss: 3, 210 222. ASCE. (1996 Engineers. ( http://ascestore.aip.org/shop.do?cID=4 ). Addendum. k: A Guide to 9. Journal of Building Information Modeling, 2007 28 35. Goedert, J., and Meadati, P. (200 Management, 509 516. A Comparison of the CD301 and E202 BIM LLP Construction Watch, 1 3. Building Information 2009, ( http://www.pepehazard.com/publications/newsletters/detail.cfm?id=143 .) Jernigan, F. ( 220. Katz, G., a Construction2010 Conference, 6 10 Contractors Association of America, Scottsdale Arizona, Omaha & Lincoln Nebraska, 1 50. ASHRAE Journal Vol. 50 Issue 9, 72 80. 3.

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51 Lowe, R., and M Lawyer, 1 9. ding Conference Proceedings, 572 577. Construction Strategies, The Power of Process in the Built Environment, 1 13. (http://www.wbdg.org/design/bim.php), (October 15, 2006). Implementation Guide for A rchitects, Engineers, Constructors and Real Estate Asset 123. 15.

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52 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Carolina Valladares was born in 1988 in Gainesville Flori da to the parents of R odolfo and Maria Valladares. The fifth of seven children Carolina quickly became her favorite. Since very young, Carolina liked accompanying her father to his construction work site and she later even became his assistant dur ing the summer as he traveled for work. It was no surprise when Carolina entered the Rinker School of Building Construction at the University of Florida Carolina did the dual enrolment program a t Santa Fe College, and graduated high school from Westwood Hills Academy in 2006 with her A ssociate of A rts degree In 2010 she graduated from the Univers ity of Florida with a minor in landscape a rchitecture and a Bachelor in Design, Cum Lade. In the summer of 2011 she interne d at CH2MHILL gaining experience in marketing company projects, creating basi c design doc templates, and creating process mechanical and architectural drawings. Carolina is pursuing concurrent m aster degree s in building construction and a rchitecture. Car olina plan s on graduating with her Master of Science in Building Constru ction in December 2011 and her m aster rchitecture in May 2013.