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Pulsed Field Gradient NMR Study of Sorbate Transport in Carbon Molecular Sieves and SBA-16 Materials

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043821/00001

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Title: Pulsed Field Gradient NMR Study of Sorbate Transport in Carbon Molecular Sieves and SBA-16 Materials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (47 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kanungo, Rohit
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: cms -- diffusion -- nanoscale -- pfg-nmr -- sba-16 -- separation -- transport
Chemical Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Chemical Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This work presents results of diffusion studies of sorbate molecules in selected microporous and mesoporous materials at various length scales of displacements. The materials investigated were carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes and BTEB (viz., 1, 4-bis (triethoxysilyl)-benzene) SBA-16. CMS membranes show promise for applications in separations of mixtures of small gas molecules, while SBA-16 can be used as an active and selective catalyst in bio-diesel production. For both types of applications diffusion of guest molecules in the micropore networks of these materials is expected to play an important role. Diffusion studies were performed by a pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR technique that combines advantages of high field (17.6 T) NMR and high magnetic field gradients (up to 30 T/m). This technique has been recently introduced at the University of Florida in collaboration with the National Magnet Lab. In addition to a more conventional proton PFG NMR, also carbon-13 PFG NMR was used.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Rohit Kanungo.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Vasenkov, Sergey.

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Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043821:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043821/00001

Material Information

Title: Pulsed Field Gradient NMR Study of Sorbate Transport in Carbon Molecular Sieves and SBA-16 Materials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (47 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kanungo, Rohit
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: cms -- diffusion -- nanoscale -- pfg-nmr -- sba-16 -- separation -- transport
Chemical Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Chemical Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This work presents results of diffusion studies of sorbate molecules in selected microporous and mesoporous materials at various length scales of displacements. The materials investigated were carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes and BTEB (viz., 1, 4-bis (triethoxysilyl)-benzene) SBA-16. CMS membranes show promise for applications in separations of mixtures of small gas molecules, while SBA-16 can be used as an active and selective catalyst in bio-diesel production. For both types of applications diffusion of guest molecules in the micropore networks of these materials is expected to play an important role. Diffusion studies were performed by a pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR technique that combines advantages of high field (17.6 T) NMR and high magnetic field gradients (up to 30 T/m). This technique has been recently introduced at the University of Florida in collaboration with the National Magnet Lab. In addition to a more conventional proton PFG NMR, also carbon-13 PFG NMR was used.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Rohit Kanungo.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Vasenkov, Sergey.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043821:00001


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1 PULSED FIELD GRADIENT NMR STUDY OF SORBATE TRANSPORT IN CARBON MOLECULAR SIEVES AND SBA 16 MATERIALS By ROHIT KANUNGO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE RE QUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Rohit Kanungo

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3

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I express my sincere thanks and gratitude towards my esteemed research advisor Dr. Sergey Vasen kov for his constant encouragement and inspiring guidance I have learned a lot while working under him. I will like to thank my project collaborators Mr. Robert Mueller and Mr Sen Ming Wang for their immense help and support. Discussions with them always gave me new perspective and ideas. I will also thank my lab mates Ms. Aakanksha Katihar & Mr. Eric Hazelbaker for their company and friendship. I am gr ateful to the staff at Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy (AMRIS) facility for being v ery helpful while conducting measurements. Special thanks to Dr. Daniel Plant for his technical support and valuable advice Lastly I My family has been a great inspiratio n to me. They taught me, guided me and always helped me in selecting the right path. I am very thankful to my mom and dad for always supporting me.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 Molecular Transport in Porous Materials ................................ ................................ 12 Basics of Diffusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 12 Basics of NMR ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 15 Longitudinal & Transverse Magnetization ................................ ......................... 16 Relaxation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 17 Signal Detection ................................ ................................ ............................... 18 Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) NMR ................................ ................................ ......... 18 PFG NMR Stimulated Echo Longitudinal Encode Decode Pulse Sequence .... 19 PFG NMR Stimulated Echo with Bipolar Gradients Pulse Sequence ............... 23 Generalized Attenuation Equation ................................ ................................ .... 24 2 TRANSPORT IN SBA 16 MATERIALS ................................ ................................ ... 25 Motivation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 25 Experimental Details ................................ ................................ ............................... 25 Materials and Sample Preparation ................................ ................................ ... 25 PFG NMR Measurements Details ................................ ................................ .... 28 13 C PFG NMR Measurements ................................ ................................ .... 29 1 H PFG NMR Measurements ................................ ................................ ..... 29 Results and Discussion ................................ ................................ ........................... 30 Work in Progress ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 35 3 TRANSPORT IN CARBON MOLECULAR SIEVES ................................ ................ 36 Motivation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 36 Experimental Details ................................ ................................ ............................... 37 Materials and Sample Preparation ................................ ................................ ... 37 PFG NMR Measurements Details ................................ ................................ .... 38 Results and Discussion ................................ ................................ ........................... 39 Work in Progress ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 44

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6 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 45 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 47

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Textural properties for SBA 16 materials obtained from the measurements of the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms ................................ ..................... 26 2 2 Results of the fitting of 13 C and 1 H PFG NMR attenuation curves for methyl oleate diffusion in SBA 16 materials ................................ ................................ ... 33 3 1 Results of the fitting of 13 C and 1 H PFG NMR attenuati on curves for methane diff usion in CMS ................................ ................................ ................................ 43

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Schematic picture showing behavior of spins in the presence of external magnetic field ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 16 1 2 Schematic representation of spin precession in presence of an external magnetic field and a fter application of r.f. pulse ................................ ........... 17 1 3 S chematic of the PFG NMR stimulated echo longitudinal encode decode or longitudinal eddy current delay pulse sequence ................................ ................. 19 1 4 Schematic of the PFG NMR stimulated echo pulse sequence with bipolar gradients ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 23 2 1 SEM images of samples of SBA 16 130 (a), SBA 16 100 (b ), SBA 16 80 (c), SBA 16 60 (d) ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 27 2 2 PFG NMR attenuati on curves measured for diffusion of methyl ole ate in the sample of SBA 16 130 ................................ ................................ ....................... 32 3 1 Examples of PFG NMR attenuation curves measured for methane diffusion in 6FDA/BPDA(1:1) DAM CMS using proto n and 13 C PFG NMR ...................... 40 3 2 Dependences of the methane self diffusion coeffici ent on the root MSD ........... 41 3 3 Temperature dependences of the methane self diffusion coefficient .................. 42

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9 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S BET BET adsorption isotherm CMS Carbon molecular sieves FID Free Induction Decay MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging MSD Mean square displacement NMR Nuclear Mag netic Resonance PFGNMR Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance PGSTE LED PFG NMR stimulated echo longitudinal endode decode pulse sequence r.f. pulse Radio frequency pulse SBA16 Santa Barbara Amorphous materials type 16; SEM Scanning Electron Micr oscopy TEM Transmission Electron Microscopy The amplitude of the applied external static magnetic field The amplitude of the oscillating applied magnetic field due to a radio frequency pulse Concentration of molecules Diffusion coefficient Activation energy for diffusion g Amplitude of magnetic field gradient Flux of molecules or ions m i Amplitude of magnetic moment due to individual spin Amplitude of net transverse magnetization Amplitude of net magnetization along z axis

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10 Equilibrium value of net magnetization along z axis Probability density Radial coordinate of position of molecule/nuclear spin in spherical coordinate system Mean square displacement Gas constan t Time Effective diffusion time Absolute temperature Longitudinal NMR relaxation time Transverse NMR relaxation time Duration between the fourth and fifth r.f. pulse in PGSTE LED pulse sequence for eddy current dissipation z coordinate of position of molecule/ nuclear spin Gyromagnetic ratio Duration of magnetic field gradient pulse Diffusion time Duration between the first and second r.f. pulse in PFG NMR stimulated echo pulse sequence Duration between the second and third r.f. pulse in PFG NMR stimulated echo pulse sequence Amplitude of signal attenuation in PFG NMR experiment 0 Larmor frequency

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the R equirements for the Degree of Master of Science PULSED FIELD GRADIENT NMR STUDY OF SORBATE TRANSPORT IN C ARBON MOLECULAR SIEVES AND SBA 16 MATERIALS By Rohit Kanungo December 2011 Chair: Sergey Vasenkov Major: Chemical Engineering This work present s results of diffusion studies of sorbate molecules in selected microporous and mesoporous materials at various length scales of displacements The materials investigated were carbon mol ecular sieve (CMS) membranes and BTEB (viz., 1, 4 bis (triethox ysilyl) benzene) SBA 16. CMS membranes show promise for applications in separations of mixtures of small gas molecules while SBA 16 can be used as an active and selective catalyst in b io d iesel production. For both types of applications diffusion of guest molecules in the micropore networks of these materials is expected to play an important role. Diffusion studies were performed by a pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR technique that combines advantages of high field (17.6 T) NMR and high magnetic field gradients (up to 30 T/m). This technique has been recently introduced at the University of Florida in collaboration with th e National Magnet Lab. In addition to a more conventional proton PFG NMR, also 13 C PFG NMR was used

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12 CHAPTER 1 I NTRODUCTION Molecular Transport in Porous Materials Porous materials have many industrial applications in which transport of sorbate molecule s at very small i. e micrometer or sub micrometer length scales play a vital role In many cases macroscopic properties are controlled by transport properties at such small length scales 1 Porous membranes and catalysts often contain interconnected networks of pore s of different sizes, i.e. networks of micropores with pore sizes a pproaching the sizes of molecules and much larger meso and/or macropores. In recent years there has been significant progress in the area of sorbate diffusion where pore systems have uniform or similar pore sizes. However, understanding of molecular transp or t in heterogeneous systems where network of pores with different non uniform pore sizes are present is rather limited This thesis r eports investigation of self diff usion on various relevant length scales with the help of pulsed field gradient NMR Suc h investigation allowed obtaining detailed information about transport properties in carbon molecular sieves and SBA 16 materials Basics of Diffusion Diffusion process can be defined as a random, thermal motion of molecules and can be described by two bas ic modes: transport diffusion and self diffusion. Transport diffusion involves the movement of molecules in order to eliminate macroscopic gradients of chemical potential ( which was earlier understood to be concentration gradient) while self diffusion occu rs in the absence of macroscopic concentration or chemical potential gradients. The transport diffusion coefficient describes the

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13 relationship between the flux of molecules and a concentration gradient und er non equilibrium conditions. According to the Fic 2 3 of diffusion, mass flux in direction can be written as (1.1) where ) is their conce ntration, and is the corresponding diffusion coefficient. For small molecular concentration is often independent of concentration but it can be a function of the concentration at large concentrations. Application of Equation 1.1 in combination with t he mass balance written for an elementary volume element leads to (1.2) For the case where is independent of concentration, the above equation simplifies to (1.3) S elf diffusion is the random translational motion of molecules driven by thermal energy which occurs in the absence of a macroscopic gradient of chemical potential. I f one considers an uneven distribution of labeled and unlabeled molecu les under conditions when overall molecular concentration remains the same at each p oint of the considered volume, the self Law The diffusi ve flux of labeled molecules can be written is (1.4) where is the con centration of the labeled molecules and is self diffusivity For a general case of one, two or three dimension Equation 1. 4 can be written as

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14 (1.5) where is the self diffusion coefficient, is the position in space, is the time and is the concentration of (l abeled) molecules moving in one, two or three dimensional space. es can be written as (1.6) Thermal stochastic motion of molecules will cause the concentration gradient to approach the zero value with increasing diffusion time. Since overall molecular concentration rem ains the sa me for all positions, t he self diffusion coefficient in equation can be placed before the first gradient operator. Equation 1.6 can be solved by replacing the spatially dependent concentration term with a term describing the probability that a mole cule will diffuse from its initial position to the position after time The solution gives a Gaussian distribution that is also known as diffusion propagator 4 (1.7) w here is the probability that a molecule with an initial position, will migrate to a final position, after time and is the self diffusivity. The Einstein relation 5 can be easily derived from the diffusion propagator ( Equation 1.7 ) (1.8) where is the mean square displacement (MSD) in the case of 3 dimensional diffusion This equation offers another way of defining self diffusion coefficients of molecules

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15 Basics of NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of atomic nucl ei NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus. Many scientific fields exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physics, crystals, and non crystalline materials through NMR spectroscopy. NMR is also routinely used in advanced medical imaging techniques, such as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A tomic nuclei possess a quantum mechanical property called spin angular momentum or spin. It is actually an intrinsic property of elementary particles, inc luding protons and neutrons making up atomic nuclei. Nuclei with non zero spin angular momentum also have an intrinsic magnetic moment and hence are called magnetically active. In the absence of any external magnetic field the distribution of spin polariza tion axes and corresponding magnetic moments of individual nuclei in a macroscopic sample is completely isotropic. Therefore, net nuclear magnetization in the sample is zero (Figure 1 1a) However, when an external magnetic field is applied, it exerts a to rque on the nuclear magnetic moment of individual nuclei and causes the spin polarization to move on a cone always keeping the same angle between the directions of magnetic moment and the field (Fig 1 2a). Such type of motion is known as precession The fre quency of precession which is referred to as the Larmor frequency 6 7 is given by (1.9)

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16 where is the gyromagnetic ratio of the nucleus under observation and and is the amplitude of static magnetic field. Figure 1 1. (a) Schematic picture showing that i n the absence of external magnet ic field, the net magnetic moment is zero; (b) Schematic picture showing that in the presence of external magnetic field a net longitudinal magnetization is developed. The longitudinal magnetization M 0 is the vector su m of individual magnetic moments m i 8 Longitudinal & Transverse Magnetization In the absence of external magnetic field the spin polarizations of the sample is isotropic As a result, there is no n et magnetization in the sample. On applicat ion of external magnetic field, the isotropy of spin polarizations break and a thermal equilibrium is reached, which results in the formation of a net macroscopic nuclear magnetization in the sample along the direction of the applied magnetic field (Fig 1 1b ). This direction is also referred to as the longitudinal direction. In NMR, nuclear magnetization is detected in a plane perpendicular to longitudinal direction. This is achieved by application of additional oscillating magnetic field in the dir ection normal to the direction of static magnetic field The frequency of the field is kept sufficiently close to the Larmor frequency resulting in resonance phenomenon Since Larmor frequency is in range of radio frequency (r.f.), application of field is also

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17 referred to as application of an r.f. pulse in NMR jargon. The duration of r.f. pulse can be chosen in such a way that it tilts the net magnetization by 90 Once r.f. pulse is turned off, the direction of the net magnetization gra dually returns to the direction of the static external magnetic field due to a relaxation process. Figure 1 2 (a) Schematic representation of spin precession in presence of an external magnetic field, (b) After applic ation of r.f. pulse, t he transverse magnetization precesses in the transverse plane with Larmor frequency Relaxation The process of returning of the net nuclear magnetization to its equilibrium state is referred to as NMR relaxation. Two typ es of NMR relaxation can be distinguished: 1) (Transverse) relaxation and 2) (Longitudinal) relaxation 7 9 NMR relaxation is the process that arises due to the decay of transverse magnetization to zero. This decay occurs due to the perturbations of the local magnetic field by neighboring nuclear spins and electronic clouds and due to the fluctuating microscopic magnetic field. The net rate of tr ansverse relaxation can be characterized by a time constant as shown in the following equation

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18 (1.10) where is the net transverse magnetization at time and is the Transverse NMR relaxation time. NMR relaxation is a process that concerns with the gradual growth of the net nuclear magnetization to its equilibrium value along the direction in the presence of a static magnetic field. After the application of 90 r.f. pulse the net magnetization grows along the direction and fo r which rate of growth can by characterized by (1.11) where i s the net longitudinal magnetization at time t is the net equilibrium magnetization, which points along direction. The Equation 1 .11 holds for the cases when the net longitudinal magnetization is equal to zero at in presence of an external magnetic field. Signal Detection The precessing transverse magnetization after application of a radio frequency pulse oscillates at a ve ry well defined frequency. This rotating magnetic moment generates an electric field due to which an oscillating electric current flow in the signal detection coil placed near the sample. The oscillating electric current induced by the precessing nuclear t ransverse magnetization is called the NMR signal or free induction decay (FID). Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) NMR Pulsed field gradient NMR spectroscopy allows for direct measurements of mean square displacement (MSD) as well as of the related diffusivi ty an d the diffusion propagator PFG NMR exploits the fact the Larmor frequency of the precession of the

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19 nuclear spins is field dependent. Application of a gradient of magnetic field along the direction allows for the labeling of the positions of nuclear spi ns along this direction based on their Larmor frequency. In PFG NMR, a gradient of magnetic field along the direction is applied when the net nuclear magnetization is in the transverse plane. The Larmor frequency of precession under the influence of mag netic field gradient is given by (1.12) where is the Larmor frequency, is the gyromagnetic ratio, denotes the amplitude of the static external magnetic field along the direc tion and is the linear gradient of the magnetic field superimposed on the field and is the spatial coordinat e along the axis. Equation 1.12 shows that application of the magnetic field gradients thus makes the Larmor frequency to be positio n dependant, effectively labeling the nuclear spins based on their spatial coordinate along the z direction. PFG NMR Stimulated Echo Longitudinal Encode Decode Pulse Sequence Figure 1 3. Schematic of the PFG NMR stimulated ech o longitudinal encode decode or longitudinal eddy current delay pulse sequence (PGSTE LED) 10 11 In PFG NMR pulse sequences, magnetic field gradient is a pplied during at least two short time intervals, when magnetization is in the transverse plane. Figure 1 3

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20 shows schematic presentation of the PFG NMR stimulated echo longitudinal encode decode or longitudinal eddy current delay pulse sequence (PGSTE LED) 10 11 This sequence is a modified version of the PFG NMR stimulated echo pulse sequence 12 13 (PGSTE) This sequence consists of five r.f. ( ) p ulses First r.f. pulse is followed by application of a field gradient of am plitude and duration The first r.f. pulse bring s the longitudinal magnetization to the trans verse plane. A ll nuclear spins experience the same magnetic field and prec ess at the same Larmor frequency up till this point. Hence the initial phase of all the spins in the transverse plane can be assumed to be equal to zero. Application of the first field gradient pulse makes the Larmor frequency of spins at various position s in the sample to precess at different rates As a result the individual spin magnetization vectors that contribute to the net transverse magnetization de phase Due to de phasing the amplitude of the net transverse magnetization is reduced The time bet ween the first and second gradient ( ) is fixed and is approximately equal to the effective d iffusion time of the measurement The second r.f. pulse orients the net magnetization from the transverse plane to the z axis. Third r.f. pulse agai n tilts the magnetization from the z axis back to the transverse plane. The combination of the second and third pulses invert the accumulated phase differences in the transver se plane, such that for any pair of spins the positive phase differences becomes nega tive and vice versa 14 17 After third r.f. pulse the magnetic field gradients of the same duration and amplitude are applied again. Due to self diffusion of molecules, the positions of nuclear spins change and the applications of the gradient pulses thus do not refocus the transverse ma gnetization As a result, t he extent of the decrease of the

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21 intensity of the refocused transverse magneti zation contains information about the mean square displacements of the molecules. A quantitative treatment of the experiment to relate the signal atte nuation to the molecular diffusion can be carried out by determining the net phase accumulated by individual spins and using this phase to calculate the vector sum of individual magnetic moments by the end of pulse sequence. The projection of the individua l magnetization vectors on the direction that coincides with that of the transverse magnetization immediately after the application of first r.f. pulse is proportional to the cosine of the phase of nuclear spins. A further treatment uses the diffusi on propagator which gives probability that a molecule initially at the position can be found after time at a position with the coordinates between to to calculate the net transverse magnetizat ion at the end of the pulse sequence This allows one to derive the expression for the signal attenuation for the case of normal (i.e. Fickian) diffusion (1.13) where the effective diffusion time denoted by is given by Substit uting Einstein relation ( Equation 1.11 ) into Equation 1.13 gives (1.14) where i s the mean square displacement f or isotropic t hree dimensional diffusion in a homogen eous medium where diffusion coefficient is expected to be the same in all directions Typically, in a PFG NMR experiment the signal attenuation is recorded as a function of the square of the field gradient strength under the conditions when all the

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22 other parameters of the pulse sequence are kept constant. Such dependencies of on are referred to as the attenuation curves. The attenuation curves allow for a direct determination of the mean square displace ments and the corresponding diffusivities using the equations of the type Equation 1.13 1.14 This sequence offers a particular advantage for PFG NMR diffusion studies of materials, which exhibit shorter longitudinal relaxation than transverse relaxation, i.e. For this sequence the signal is reduced due to relaxation only during the two time intervals of duration when the magnetization is in the transverse plane. The diffusion time can be increased in this sequen ce in a broad range by increasing the time interval This provides a possibility to perform PFG NMR diffusion measurements on systems/materials using diffusion times much larger than NMR relaxation times. PG STE LED contai ns two additional r.f. pulses separated by the time at the end of the sequence. The function of these two pulses is to change the direction of the net magnetization from the transverse plane to the longitudinal plane (alon g z) for the time interval and then bring it back to the transverse plane for detection. The modification is introduced to shield the acquired signal from disturbing effects of the eddy currents generated due to rapid gradient s witching. When field gradient pulses (especially high amplitude pulses) are switched on or off, the changing magnetic field can introduce eddy currents in the gradient coils which, in turn, cause magnetic field inhomogeneity. Such field inhomogeneity is un desirable during signal detection and can be avoided by increasing the time delay between the end of second field gradient pulse and the beginning of acquisition, to allow for eddy current dissipation. PGSTE LED

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23 sequence addresses this problem by taking th e net magnetization from the transverse plane to the longitudinal direction ( z) axis, which is followed by a delay for eddy current dissipation. This delay is known as the LED delay. Signal is reduced only due to NMR relaxation during the LED delay. PGSTE LED sequence thus offers a clear advantage over the PFG NMR stimulated echo pulse sequence under the measurement conditions characterized by short NMR relaxation times couple d with the need for large field gradients, which are likely to introduce disturbing eddy currents. PFG NMR Stimulated Echo with Bipolar Gradients Pulse Sequence Figure 1 4 shows a schematic for the PFG NMR stimulated echo pulse sequence with bi polar grad ients 18 21 i.e. the 13 interval sequence Figure 1 4. Schematic of the PFG NMR stimulated echo pulse sequence with bipolar gradients. This pulse sequence uses b ipolar gradients to suppress artifacts due to magnetic susceptibility, also referred to as internal gradients. This sequence gives advantage when the sample is characterized by different magnetic susceptibilities in differe nt locations within the sample. T his may lead to extra attenuation of the signal and can introduce systematic artifacts in the measurements of self diffusion. Alternating pulsed field gradients are used to suppress susceptibility induced artifacts in diffusion experiments For the case of an isotropic normal diffusion

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24 the expression for the signal attenuation using the 13 interval pulse sequence is given by 19 (1.15) where is the effective diffusion time given by Generalized Attenuation Equation The general form of attenuation equation for normal isotropic diffus ion used for all the pulse sequences discussed above can be simplified to the following form (1.16) where for PGSTE LED pulse sequence and for the 13 interval pulse sequence. The effective diffusion time for PGSTE LED and for the 13 interval sequence. In the case where the PF G NMR sample contains ensembles of molecules, each diffusing with a unique characteristic diffusivity, the attenu ation equation can be expressed as a summation of several weighted exponential terms (1.17) where is the fraction of i th ensemble of molecules.

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25 CHAPTER 2 TRANSPORT IN SBA 1 6 MATERIALS SBA 16 is a porous silica with large (5 15 nm) cage like mesopores arranged in a three dim ensional cubic body centered Im m symmetry 22 23 E lectron crystallography studies 24 for SBA 16 suggest that each mesopore i s connected to eight n eighboring mesopores by microporous channels. These materials are of high interest for their application in catalysis. This thesis reports the PFG NMR results for diffusion of methyl oleate molecules in the BTEB (viz., 1, 4 bis (triet hoxysilyl) benzene) SBA 16 material s Motivation The existence of a 3 dimensional system of relatively large pores makes mesoporous silica of the SBA 16 type an attractive candidate as a catalyst support for catalytic production of biodiesel, viz. fatty a cid methyl esters. Using these materials for the catalytic production of biodiesel from triglycerides, which can be extracted from marine algae shows potential for addressing increasing needs in fuels. Understanding transport properties of such relatively large sorbate molecules in the pore system of SBA 16 is of high importance for catalysis in this type of materials. The diffusion studies were performed using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR. In addition to traditional 1 H PFG NMR 13 C PFG NMR was also use d to obtain quantitative knowledge of methyl oleate self diffusio n inside BTEB SBA 16 particles. Experimental Details Materials and Sample Preparation Four samples of mesoporous silica SBA 16 were supplied by the research group of Dr. Serge Kaliaguine from Universit Lava l Canada. The samples were synthesized using the procedure reported by Cho et al. 11 T he four samples are primarily distinguished from

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26 each other due to a difference in the pore sizes. Such difference was a consequence of using different temperatures for hydrothermal treatment (aging). The samples are denoted as SBA 1 6 T with the aging temp erature T expressed in degrees Celsius. Sample characterization data (SEM and TEM) was provided to us by research group of Dr. Dong Yan Zhao, Fudan University Table 2 1 shows the data obtained from Nitrogen adsorption/ desorption isotherms provided by Dr. Table 2 1 Textural properties for SBA 1 6 materials obtained from the measurements of the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. S BET m 2 g 1 S DFT m 2 g 1 V t cm 3 g 1 V DFT cm 3 g 1 V mic cm 3 g 1 Dp des nm Dp adsBJH nm Dp DFT nm SBA 1 6 130 830 758 0.74 0.64 0.13 3.6 7.1 10.5 (1.4) SBA 16 100 677 694 0.53 0.48 0.14 3.5 6.2 9.4(1.4) SBA 16 80 452 498 0.39 0.32 0.10 3.3 5.0 8.2(1.4) SBA 16 60 415 429 0.31 0.27 0.08 3.3 4.7 8.1(1.3) S BET is the nitrogen BET specific surface area ca lculated from the isotherm analysis in the relative pressure range of 0.10 0.20; S DFT is the specific surface area estimated using the NLDFT method. V t is the total pore volume at relative pressure 0.97 .; V DFT is the total pore volume, V mic, is the total m icro pore volume Dp des is evalua ted using the desorption branch, Dp adsBJH is the pore size getting from adsorption BJH, D PDFT is the primary mesopore cage diameter estimated using the NLDFT method. Table 2 1 shows results of the characterization of textur al properties of the samples. The data in the table were obtained from the measurements of the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms (not shown). These data indicate that in SBA 1 6 130 the diameter of the primary mesopores is largest and the thickness o f the walls separ ating these mesopores is smallest in comparison to other samples. The mean particle sizes, as estimated from SEM of sample s (Figure 2 1 ) for SBA 16 130, SBA 16 100, SBA 16 80 and SBA 16 100 are 3 m 2 m 6 m and 4 m respectively.

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27 PFG NMR samples were prepared in a 5 mm NMR tube. Around 50 mg of SBA 16 was introduced in NMR tube. The NMR tube was connected to a custom made vacuum system and samples were activated under high vacuum at around 380 K for 24 hours. Activated sample was sepa rated from vacuum system and then methyl oleate (99.9% purity ) was added to the sample. The sorbate quantity was just sufficient to ensure that the bed of SBA 16 particles is completely covered with the liquid sorbate This is done to ensure that all mesop ores and mic ropores of the SBA 16 particles are filled with the sorbate. Upon loading, the NMR tube was flame sealed. Figure 2 1. SEM images of samples of SBA 16 130 (a), SBA 16 100 (b), SBA 16 80 (c), SBA 16 60 (d).

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28 PFG NMR M easurements Details Diffusion studies were performed by proton and 13 C PFG NMR using a wide bore 17.6 T Bruker BioSpin spectrometer. Magnetic field gradients with the amplitude up to 30 T/m were generated using diff60 diffusion probe and Great60 gradient a mplifier (Bruker BioSpin). Diffusion measurements were carried out using 13 interval PFG NMR sequence with bipolar gradients 18 22 and PFG NMR stimulated echo sequen ce with the longitudinal eddy current delay (PGSTE LED) 22 25 Since susceptibility effects were not e xpected while performing 13 C PFG NMR (low ) measurements, PGSTE LED sequence was used for diffusion measurement. PGSTE LED signal is less affected by NMR relaxation as compared to 13 interval sequence. With proton PFG NMR measurements 13 interval s equence was used to avoid any susceptibility eff ects in diffusion measurements. Due to abundant signal from proton NM R NMR relaxation affects was not significant. In both measurements, NMR spectra of the sorbate consiste d of a single line. It was verified that the line shape does not depend on the gradient amplitude. Effective diffusivities were obtained from biexponential/triexponential fit of PFG NMR attenuation curves using Equation 1.17. The estimated fraction of the sorbate inside the meso and micropores of the SBA 16 particles for all samples was in between 7% and 15% of the total sorbate added. This thesis reports PFG NMR diffusion results only for SBA 16 130 material. Diffusion studies of the other SBA 1 6 samples listed in Table 2 1 are in progress.

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29 13 C PFG NMR Measurements Values of gradient duration and effective diffusion time were kept constant for measurement for each attenuation curve. Measurements were performed at different diffusion times but maximum effective diffusion time was restricted to 38.7 ms due to poor signal to noise r atio at higher diffusion times. The maximum gradient amplitude was around 26 T/m and the gradient duration was around 1.5 ms. The duration between first and second r.f pulses of the PGSTE LED sequences was between 3 and 4 ms. Transverse NMR relaxation time for 13 C PFG NMR was found to be in the range between 11 and 16 ms for the sorbate fraction inside the pores. For bulk sorbate it was found to be between 51 and 77ms. The NMR relaxation times were determined using the standard Carr Pu rcell Meiboom Gill (CPMG) sequence 15 22 The corresponding values of the longitudinal NMR relaxation times were between 650 and 750ms. These values were measured by the standard inversion recovery sequence and correspond to bulk sorbate. relaxation times of sorbate inside the pores could not be measured because the contributi on of this sorbate fraction to the total NMR signal was relatively small. C 13 PFG NMR measurements g a ve an advantage of measuring diffusivities at very low length scales. 1 H PFG NMR Measurements As in 13 C PFG NMR measurements, v alues of gradient duration and effective diffusion time were kept constant for measurement for each attenuation curve. Effective diffusion times of up to 255.3 ms were used in these measurements. T he maximum gradient amplitude was around 26 T/m and the gradient durati on was varied between 0.6 ms and 1. 0 ms. The duration between the first and second r.f pulses of

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30 the 13 Interval sequence was 3.2 ms. Transverse NMR relaxation time for proton PFG NMR was determined using the standard Carr Purcell Meiboom G ill (CPMG) sequence 15 22 It was found to be 3 ms for the so rbate fraction inside the pores and 60 ms f or the bulk sorbate The corresponding values of the longitudinal NMR relaxation times were 49 ms for sorbate fraction inside the pores and 899 ms for the bulk sorbate. Unlike 13 C measurements the relaxation times were determine d by the 13 interval sequence. Results and Discussion Figure 2 2 presents 13 C and proton PFG NMR attenuation curves measured at 298 K for diffusion of methyl oleate in SBA 16 130. The measurements were performed fo r a range of diffusion times. Fig. 2 3 shows that the attenuation curves are not mono exponential. This indicates that t here is more than one ensemble of sorbate molecules characterized by the same diffusivity. It is also seen in the figure that the attenuation curves show some dependence on the effective diffusion time. Table 2 2 presents the result of fitting of the 13 C a nd 1 H PFG NMR attenuation curves using Equation 1.17 with n=2 or 3 13 C PFG NMR attenuation curve s can be fitted satisfactorily by assuming the presence of two ensemble s of molecules while 3 components are required to fit the proton PFG NMR attenuation cu rves The absence of the third ensemble with the smallest diffusivity in the 13 C PFG NMR results is due to poor signal to noise ratio s at high gradient amplitudes. Low signal to noise ratios are consequences of the low g yromagnetic ratio of 13 C nuclei and of the fact that the measurements were performed at natural abundance of 13 C nuclei In addition to the ensemble diffusivities and their fractions Table 2 2 also presents the corresponding values of the square roots of the

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31 mean square displacements (MSD) The MSD values were calculated using the Einstein relation ( Equation 1.8) The pattern of changing of the attenuation curves with increasing diffusion time is similar to that observed for the transition from the intra crystalline diffusion (i.e. diffusion i nside porous particles) to long range diffusion ( i.e. diffusion between many porous particles) in beds of zeolite crystals 1 22

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32 Figure 2 2 PFG NMR attenuation curves measured for diffusion of methyl oleate in the sample of SBA 16 130. The measureme nts were performed at T = 298 K. (a) 13 C PFG NMR attenuation curves for the following effective diffusion times: 3.8 ms ( ), 8.7 ms ( ), 18.7 ms ( ), 38.7 ms ( ). Solid lines show the best fit curves obtained by usi ng Equation 1.17 with n=2 (b) Proton PFG NMR attenuation curves for the following effective diffusion times: 7.5 ms ( ), 31.5 ms ( ), 63.5 ms ( ), 255.3 ms ( ). Solid lines show the best fit curves obtained by using Equation 1.17 with n=3

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33 Table 2 2. Results of the fitting of 13 C and 1 H PFG NMR attenuation curves in Figure 2 2 by Equation 1.17 with n=2 or 3. The values of root MSD were obtained using Equation 1 .8. t eff (ms) D 1 (m 2 /s) p 1 < r 2 1 > 1/2 D 2 (m 2 /s) p 2 < r 2 2 > 1/2 D 3 (m 2 /s) p 3 < r 2 3 > 1/2 13 C PFG NMR Measurements 3.8 (1.70.2)x10 10 0.890.04 2.00.1 (2.81.2)x10 11 0.110.04 0.80.1 N/A N/A N/A 8.7 (1.60.2)x10 10 0.900.05 2.90.2 (2.51.2)x10 11 0.100.03 1.10.1 N/A N/A N/A 18.7 (1.40.1)x10 10 0.930.06 4.00.2 (2.31.0)x10 11 0.070.02 1.70.1 N/A N/A N/A 38.7 (1.40.1)x10 10 0.940.06 5.70.3 (1.81.0)x10 11 0.060.02 2.10.1 N/A N/A N/A 1 H PFG NMR Measurements 7.5 (1.60.2)x10 10 0.98 0. 05 2.70.2 (7.34.0)x10 12 0.0 10 0.001 0.60.1 ( 1.3 0.1)x10 12 0.010 0.2 0.01 31.5 (1.30.1)x10 10 0.98 0. 04 5.00.3 (1.50.5)x10 11 0.012 0.001 1.7 0.1 (9.0 1.0)x10 13 0.004 0.40.02 63.5 (1.20.1) x10 10 0.98 0 .04 6.80.3 (1.80.5)x10 11 0.014 0.001 2.6 0.2 (8.30.8)x10 13 0.003 0.60.04 255.3 (1.20.1) x10 10 0.99 0 .03 13.61.0 (2.00.6)x10 11 0.013 0.002 5 .50.3 (5.6 0.6)x10 13 0.001* 0.9 0.06 *experimental uncertainty in the range of 10%

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34 It is seen in Table 2 2 that the diffusivities of the ensembles 1 and 2 obtained by pr oton and 13 C PFG NMR are the same within the experimental uncertainty. This observed agreement allow us to rule out any types of artifacts, including disturbing influence of the magnetic susceptibility ef fects, in our diffusion data. T he first ensemble i n Table 2 2 can be assigned to long range diffusion based on the following consideration. It is seen that the fraction of this ensemble increases with increasing diffusion time and the root MSD values at higher diffusion times are much larger than the charac teristic sizes of SBA 16 130. Also, the diffusivity of first ensemble is very close to the self diffusivity of pure methyl oleate ( 1.8 x 10 10 m 2 s 1 ). This is true for both 13 C and 1 H PFG NMR measurements. From here on, focus will be on 1 H PFG NMR measure ments as these measurements reports presence of all the ensembles. For the third ensemble, maximum value of the root MSD is 1 m which is less than the characteristic size of SBA 16 130 and fraction of molecules decrease with the increasing effective diffu sion time. Hence ensemble 2 corresponds to intraparticle diffusion. For the second ensemble, though the maximum root MSD value is larger than the characteristic size of the SBA 16 130, the diffusivity of this ensemble differs from the diffusivity of first ensemble by an order of magnitude. Hence, we can conclude that e nsemble 2 represents d iffusion of sorbate molecules that diffused part of the time inside the porous particles and part of the time in the liquid phase between the particles. It is important t o note that the observed dependencies of the PFG NMR attenuation curves on diffusion time can be affected by the longitudinal NMR relaxation process if the time constant of this process ( ) for methyl oleate is smaller than or comparable with the diff usion time. For proton PFG NMR measurements, for fraction

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35 of sorbate inside the pores is 49 ms which is comparable to the diffusion times used. Hence the fraction s of the molecular ensembles diffusing inside the pores decrease with the increasing di ffusion time due to longitudinal relaxation. Based on the above discussion and results it can be concluded that intraparticle diffusivity of methyl oleate in SBA 16 130 is around 1.3 x10 12 m 2 s 1 i.e. the diffusivity of the ensemble 3 at th e smallest dif fusion time used. Work in Progress The presented study investigates transport in a single SBA 16 material. Work is currently in progress to study transport properties in different SBA 16 materials with different pore dimensions. Sorbate s other than methy l oleate also need to be considered for transport studies to understand an e ffect of molecular size on transport properties

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36 CHAPTER 3 TRANSPORT IN CARBON MOLECULAR SIEVES Carbon Molecular sieves (CMS) me mbranes are microporous amorphous structures formed by pyrolysis of a base polymer. The pores of CMS membranes consist of a distribution of selective ultra micropores ( < 6 ) and slightly larger micropores (6 20 ) 26 27 Foley et al. 28 described the unique features and structural characteristics o f carbon molecular sieves Its structure is considered to be consisting of d isordered graphitic platelets of carbon separated by interstitial spaces. The size of the gaps are dete rmined by several factors, such as the presence of foreign atoms between the layers, hanging side groups, and cross linking chains of carbon atoms. T he presence of capping groups on the edges of the layers a lso influences the pore structure. CMS membranes are a promising class of materials for energy efficient separation of gas mixtures consisting of similarly sized molecules such as N 2 /O 2 and CO 2 /CH 4 29 30 Motivation There has been a lot of research on transport in CMS membranes where the focus is on benchmarks relevant for applications namely permeability and selectiv ity under specific conditions 26 27 However, o f interest is the ability to predict transport properties under all conditions and to understand how the complex pore structure of CMS membranes influences transport. This requires knowledge of self diffusion in a broad range of length scales, including length scales as small 1 m under well defined conditions of loading, temperature, etc. U ntil now detailed microscopic studies of diffusion of light gases in a broad range of length s cales inside CMS membranes are

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37 not reported in the literature. T his is the first study of self diffusion in CMS membranes to our knowledge. High field and high gradient PFG NMR was used to perform diffusion studies in CMS membranes. The PFG NMR measuremen ts were carried out at different temperatures and for different diffusion times corresponding to different mean square displacements (MSDs) of sorbate molecules. The results reported below demonstrate that these measurements show high potential for uncover ing the relationship between structural properties and transport in materials with a complex micropore structure. Experimental Details Materials and Sample Preparation Three samples of carbon molecular sieves were supplied by the research group of Dr. Will iam Koros from G eorgia Institute of Technology The three CMS samples investigated were 6FDA/BPDA(1:1) DAM CMS pyrolized in an inert gas (6FDA/BPDA), Matrimid CMS pyrolized in an iner t gas ( Matrimid Sample 1), and Matrimid CMS pyrolized under vacuum ( M atrimid Sample 2). 6FDA/BPDA was synthesized as describe by Kiyono et al. 26 and Matrimid Sa mple 1 and Matrimid Sample 2 were obtained commercially. PFG NMR samples were prepared in a 5 mm NMR tube. NM R tube with the sample inside was connec ted to the custom made vacuum system and samples were activated under high vacuum in the tube furnace at activation temperature of about 360 K for 24 hours. The so rbate used in this experiment was 99% iso topic purity 13 C methane purchase from Sigma Aldrich The samples were loaded with sorbate to an equilibrium pressure of 380 5 torr and then sealed using a torch.

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38 PFG NMR Measurements Details Diffusion studies were performed by proton and 13 C PFG NMR using a wide bore 17.6 T Bruker BioSpin spectrometer. M agnetic field gradients with the amplitude up to 30 T/m were generated using diff60 diffusion probe and Great60 gradient amplifier (Bruker BioSpin). Diffusion measurements were carried out using the 13 interval PFG NMR sequence with bipolar gradients 18 22 and the PFG NMR stimulated echo sequence with the longitudinal eddy current delay (PGSTE LED) 22 25 The former sequence allows reducing or even completely eliminating the disturbing influence of magnetic susceptibility effects. Susceptibility effects are expected f or heterogeneous porous materials such as stacks of membrane pieces studied in this work. The advantage of the latter sequence is related to the possibility of reducing influence of the transverse ( ) NMR relaxation on the measured signal For PGSTE LED sequence the absence of disturbing susceptibility effects and other measurement artifacts was confirmed by using the following two strategies: (1 ) it was verified that proton and 13 C PFG NMR diffu sion data measured for the same diffusing species in the same samples and under the same conditions coincide within the e xperimental uncertainty, and (2 ) it was checked that an increase of the time interval between the first and second radiofrequenc y pulses of PGSTE LED sequence (while keeping the effective diffusion time constant) does not change the measured diffusivities. 13 C PFG NMR was employed in addition to the more traditional 1 H PFG NMR to take advantage of the longer 13 C T2 relaxation times that are typically observed for guest molecules confined in nanopores. The 13 interval and PGSTE LED sequences were used to measure PFG NMR attenuation curves, i.e. dependencies of the intensity of PFG NMR signal (A) on the amplitude of the magnetic

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39 field gradient (g). The signal intensity was obtained by measuring amplitude of NMR lines of the sorbate molecules or area under these lines. The proton and 13 C NMR spectra of each type of sorbate consisted of a single line. It was verified that within the expe rimental uncertainty the line shape does not depend on the gradient amplitude. The PFG NMR attenuation curves provide direct information on effective diffusivities. Effective diffusivities were obtained from monoexponential fit of the PFG NMR attenuation curves using Equation 1.17. Results and Discussion For all the measurements performed it was observed that the PFG NMR attenuation curves show mono exponential behavior in agreement with Equation 1.17 where This indicates that under any given measurement conditions used there is no significant distribution over methane self diffusion coefficient inside membrane pieces of each studied membrane sample. It was also observed that t he diffusion data for methane measured under the same conditions by 1 H and 13 C PFG NMR were identical within the experimental uncertainty. Figure 3 1 presents the proton and 13 C PFG NMR attenuation curves measured for diffusion of 13 C labeled methane which coincide with each other The agreement between the diffusivities measured at very different resonance frequencies of 750 and 188.6 MHz corresponding, respectively, to 1 H and 13 C nuclei provide strong evidence that the reported diffusion data are not dist orted by the magnetic susceptibility effects or b y any other disturbing effects.

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40 Figure 3 1. Examples of PFG NMR attenuation curves measured for methane diffusion in 6FDA/BPDA(1:1) DAM CMS using proton ( ) and 13 C ( ) PFG NMR. The measurements were p erformed for the effective diffusion time of 9 ms at T = 321 K. T he 13 interval and PGSTE LED PFG NMR pulse sequences were used for proton and 13 C measurements, respectively. The line shows the result of fitting both attenuation curves by Equation 1 .17 with Table 3 1 shows the methane diffusivities in CMS and the corresponding values of root MSD obtained by fitting the measured PFG NMR attenuation curves by Equation 1.17 with and Equation 1.8. The diffusion data are reported for the broad range of temperatures and effective diffusion times. In all cases the reported values of root MSD were much smaller than the smallest dimension (i.e. thickness 50 m) of the membrane pieces. It can be concluded that the measured diffusivities correspond to int ra membrane diffusion under conditions when the boundaries of the membrane pieces do not influence the diffusion behavior. Table 3 1 indicates that within the experimental uncertainty the intra membrane diffusivities of methane do not change with increasin g values of the root MSD. This is illustrated in Figure 3 2 which presents

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41 examples of the measured dependencies of the methane diffusivities on the root MSD. These data demonstrate that the diffusion properties of the studied membranes remain homogeneous over a broad range of length scales starting with the length scales as small as 600 nm. Figure 3 2. Dependences of the methane self diffusion coefficient on the root MSD at T = 297 K for 6FDA/BPDA(1:1) CMS Sample 1 ( ), and Matri mid CMS Sample 2 ( ). The data was obtained using Equation 1 .17 with and Equation 1.8 It is shown in Figure 3 3 that the temperature dependence of the methane self diffusivity in the three membrane is in agreement with the Arrhenius law ( Equation 3.1 ) which yields th e e stimated activ ation energies between 7 15 kJ/ mol for the 6FDA/BPDA(1:1) DAM CMS membran e sample and 3 14 kJ/ mol for both Matrimid CMS membrane samples. (3.1)

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42 w here A is the pre exponential factor, is the activation energy, is the temperature and is the gas constant. W ithin experimental uncertainty, the activation energies of all membranes are identical despite having different self diffusivities. These results suggest that that the 6FDA /BPDA (1:1) DAM CMS sample has a higher relative abundance of pores permeable to methane than both Matrimid CMS samples. Figure 3 3. Temperature dependences of the methane self diffusion coefficient measured by PFG NMR for the effective diffusion time 9 ms in 6FDA/BPDA(1:1) DAM ( ), and Matrimid CMS Sample 2 ( ).

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43 Table 3 1. Results of the fitting of 13 C and 1 H PFG NMR attenuation curves for methane diffusion in: 6FDA/BPDA DAM(1:1) Matrimid Sample 1 and Sample 2. Sample T (K) t eff (ms) D (m 2 s 1 ) Root MSD (m) 6FDA/BPDA DAM carbon molecular sieve loaded with methane 297 9 (1.4 0.2) 10 10 2.7 0.2 19 (1.3 0.2) 10 10 3.8 0.3 29 (1.4 0.2) 10 10 4.9 0.3 39 (1.1 0.2) 10 10 5 .0 0.3 79 (9.5 1.3) 10 11 6.7 0.5 159 (9.8 1.4) 10 11 9.7 0.7 319 (1.1 0.1) 10 10 14 1 319 9 (1.7 0.2) 10 10 3 .0 0.2 19 (1.5 0.2) 10 10 4.1 0.3 39 (1.5 0.2) 10 10 5.9 0.4 340 9 (2.2 0.3) 10 10 3.4 0.2 19 (2.2 0.3) 10 10 5 .0 0.3 39 (2 .0 0.3) 10 10 6.8 0.5 353 9 (2.7 0.4) 10 10 3.8 0.3 19 (2.6 0.4) 10 10 5.4 0.4 39 (2.4 0.3) 10 10 7.5 0.5 Matrimid carbon molecular sieve loaded with methane ( 1 ) 297 9 (6.5 1.3) 10 12 0.6 0.06 19 (4 .6 0.9) 10 12 0.7 0. 1 39 (6.2 1.2) 10 12 1.2 0.1 79 (4.7 1 .0 ) 10 12 1.5 0. 2 159 (4 .0 0.9) 10 12 2 .0 0.2 359 (4 .0 1 .0 ) 10 12 2.9 0. 4 339 9 (9.4 2 .0 ) 10 12 0.7 0.07 356 9 (1.2 0.2) 10 11 0.8 0.05 Ma trimid carbon molecular sieve loaded with methane (2 ) 297 9 (7.5 1.5) 10 12 0.6 0.1 39 (6.4 1.3) 10 12 1.2 0.1 336 9 (8.5 1.5) 10 12 0.7 0.1 356 9 (1.3 0.2) 10 11 0.8 0.1 Diffusivity values were obtained using Equation 1.1 7 with The values of root MSD were obtained using Equation 1.8. Results correspond to diffusion measurements at different temperatures ( T ) and effective diffusion times ( t eff ). The data obtained by 13 C PFG NMR are labeled by (*). Rest of the data was obtain ed by 1 H PFG NMR

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44 It is seen in Figure 3 3 that for any temperature used the methane self diffusivity in 6FDA/BPDA is about an order of magnitude higher t han in that in Matrimid Sample 1 and Matrimid Sample 2. At the same time, the corresponding methane dif fusivities in the latter two samples were found to be the same within the experimental uncertainty. This observation is consistent with the expectation of a smaller average pore size and narrower distribution over pore sizes in Matrimid Sample 1 and Matrim id Sample 2 in comparison with those in 6FDA/BPDA 26 Work in Progress Diffusion studies with CO 2 as sorbate molecule in the 6FDA/BPDA and Matrimid CMS samples are in progress. Further, investigation of transport properties for a mixture of CH 4 / CO 2 is necessary to obtain selec tivity information. Also, effect of different loadings on transport properties needs to be investigated.

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45 LIST OF REFERENCES (1) Krger, J.; Ruthven, D. M. Diffusion in zeolites and other microporous solids; Wiley New York, 1992. (2) Fick, A. E. Ann. Phys. 1855, 94, 59. (3) Fick, A. E. Phil. Mag. 1855, 10, 30. (4) Crank, J. The Mathematics of Diffusion; Oxford University Press: New York, 2004. (5) Krger, J.; Vasenkov, S.; Auerbach, S. M. Diffusio n in Zeolites. In Handbook of Zeolite Science and Technology; Auerbach, S. M., Carrado, K. A., Dutta, P. K., Eds.; Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, Basel, 2003; pp 341. (6) Levitt, M. H. Spin dynamics : basics of nuclear magnetic resonance; John Wiley & Son s: Chichester ; New York, 2001. (7) Keeler, J. Understanding NMR spectroscopy, 2nd ed.; John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, 2010. (8) Levitt, M. H. Spin dynamics : basics of nuclear magnetic resonance, 2nd ed.; John Wiley & Sons: Chichester, England ; Hobok en, NJ, 2008. (9) Callaghan, P. T. Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy; Clarendon Press : New York, 1991. (10) Gibbs, S. J.; Johnson, C. S. Journal of Magnetic Resonance (1969) 1991, 93, 395. (11) Cho, E. B.; Kim, D.; Grka, J.; Jaroniec, M. J. Mater. Chem. 2009, 19, 2076. (12) Tanner, J. E. Journal of Chemical Physics 1970, 52, 2523. (13) Stallmach, F.; Galvosas, P. Spin Echo NMR Diffusion Studies. In Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy; Webb, G. A., Ed.; Academic Press, 2007; Vol. Volum e 61; pp 51. (14) Hahn, E. L. Physical Review 1950, 80, 580. (15) Carr, H. Y.; Purcell, E. M. Physical Review 1954, 94, 630. (16) Stejskal, E. O.; Tanner, J. E. Journal of Chemical Physics 1965, 42, 288. (17) Tanner, J. E. Review of Scientific Instrume nts 1965, 36, 1086.

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46 (18) Cotts, R. M.; Hoch, M. J. R.; Sun, T.; Markert, J. T. J. Magn. Reson. 1989, 83, 252. (19) Galvosas, P.; Stallmach, F.; Seiffert, G.; Krger, J.; Kaess, U.; Majer, G. J. Magn. Reson. 2001, 151, 260. (20) Wu, D. H.; Chen, A. D.; J ohnson, C. S. Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Series A 1995, 115, 260. (21) Wider, G.; Dotsch, V.; Wuthrich, K. Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Series A 1994, 108, 255. (22) Zhao, D. Y.; Feng, J. L.; Huo, Q. S.; Melosh, N.; Fredrickson, G. H.; Chmelka, B. F.; Stucky, G. D. SCIENCE 1998, 279, 548. (23) Sakamoto, Y.; Kaneda, M.; Terasaki, O.; Zhao, D. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Stucky, G.; Shin, H. J.; Ryoo, R. Nature 2000, 408, 449. (24) Serra, E.; Mayoral, .; Sakamoto, Y.; Blanco, R. M.; Daz, I. Microporous and me soporous materials 2008, 114, 201. (25) Gibbs, S. J.; Johnson Jr., C. S. J. Magn. Reson. 1991, 93, 395. (26) Kiyono, M.; Williams, P. J.; Koros, W. J. Carbon 2010. (27) Suda, H.; Haraya, K. Chem. Commun. 1997, 93. (28) Foley, H. C. Microporous Material s 1995, 4, 407. (29) Ismail, A. F.; David, L. Journal of membrane science 2001, 193, 1. (30) Bernardo, P.; Drioli, E.; Golemme, G. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2009, 48, 4638.

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47 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Rohit Kanungo was born in 1986 at Jaipur India to Prem Prakash and Beena Kanungo He grew up there with his parents and younger brother Parth Kanungo and all his early schooling was done in Jaipur He attended the University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology (formerly DCET) Panj ab University, Chandigarh, India and earned a Bachelor of Chemical Engineering in 2008 Then he worked as a Process Engineer at Samsung Engineering India Pvt. Ltd. Noida Ind i a for 18 months In January 2010 he enrolled at Unive rsity of Florida (UF) Gain esville and earned a Master of Science in chemical e ngineering in 2011