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Young Taiwanese Male's Emotional Responses to Different Types of Beauty

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043789/00001

Material Information

Title: Young Taiwanese Male's Emotional Responses to Different Types of Beauty
Physical Description: 1 online resource (147 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Chen, Chen-Ting
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: beauty
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Spokesperson may be able to enhance consumer's evaluation of a product when the image of the spokesperson and the characteristics of the product match up. The models/celebrities in advertising may be different in how they are good looking. There were researchers studied female's emotional responses to different types of beauty. This paper shifts the study area to male's emotional responses to beauty types. Three research questions: ?What is the underlying structure of beauty types among men? Are there differences among emotional responses to different types of models? Is Qizhi associated with specific beauty types to men?? were tested by conducting a survey in the study. The AdSAM® was used in the survey to explore male's emotional responses. The results showed that beauty types can be combined into Feminine, Cute and Wild beauty types. These three combined beauty types can be separated to Sexy beauty type (i.e., Wild) and Not-Sexy beauty type (i.e., Feminine and Cute). Despite both High Cute type models and High Feminine type models are not associated with sexiness, they did not generate the same emotional response to males. High Cute models had significantly greater pleasure and arousal than High Wild. However, High Feminine and Low Feminine type models both generated significantly greater pleasure and arousal than High Wild models. Whether models are associated with sexiness did not generate difference within males' dominant feeling. Furthermore, males felt being controlled when facing Low Cute models. Low Feminine model generated great dominance scores for male. Finally, the study also found out that whether models have Qizhi dose not affect male's emotional responses to models. This study intends to help marketers selecting appropriate spokesperson to represent their products.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Chen-Ting Chen.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Sutherland, John C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043789:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043789/00001

Material Information

Title: Young Taiwanese Male's Emotional Responses to Different Types of Beauty
Physical Description: 1 online resource (147 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Chen, Chen-Ting
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: beauty
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Spokesperson may be able to enhance consumer's evaluation of a product when the image of the spokesperson and the characteristics of the product match up. The models/celebrities in advertising may be different in how they are good looking. There were researchers studied female's emotional responses to different types of beauty. This paper shifts the study area to male's emotional responses to beauty types. Three research questions: ?What is the underlying structure of beauty types among men? Are there differences among emotional responses to different types of models? Is Qizhi associated with specific beauty types to men?? were tested by conducting a survey in the study. The AdSAM® was used in the survey to explore male's emotional responses. The results showed that beauty types can be combined into Feminine, Cute and Wild beauty types. These three combined beauty types can be separated to Sexy beauty type (i.e., Wild) and Not-Sexy beauty type (i.e., Feminine and Cute). Despite both High Cute type models and High Feminine type models are not associated with sexiness, they did not generate the same emotional response to males. High Cute models had significantly greater pleasure and arousal than High Wild. However, High Feminine and Low Feminine type models both generated significantly greater pleasure and arousal than High Wild models. Whether models are associated with sexiness did not generate difference within males' dominant feeling. Furthermore, males felt being controlled when facing Low Cute models. Low Feminine model generated great dominance scores for male. Finally, the study also found out that whether models have Qizhi dose not affect male's emotional responses to models. This study intends to help marketers selecting appropriate spokesperson to represent their products.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Chen-Ting Chen.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Sutherland, John C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043789:00001


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1 OF BEAUTY By CHEN TING CHEN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DE GREE OF MA STER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Chen Ting Chen

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3 To my Grandmother, Hisu Chen Chen Tsai, and my parents, Kuei Fang Chen and Shih Feng Chen

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many people have contributed to this paper. I would first lik e to thank my family who gave me power against all the difficulties. Their everlasting love and support encouraged me to finish the thesis. I would also like to thank my chair Dr. Sutherland for all his time instruction and patience throughout this entir e process. In addition, I would like to thank both my committee m embers, Dr. Goodman who gave me many suggestions to organize my thesis, and Dr. Morris who helped me with the analysis. Finally, I would like to thank all my friends in the University of Fl orida and in Taiwan You patiently listened to all the pain I had been through during this year calmed and encouraged me to face what I should confront. Without you helping me to forget all the sorrow, I might still stick in the mud now.

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5 TABLE OF CONT ENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 THE EMOTION AL RESPONSE TO MALES TO NOTIONS OF BEAUTY .............. 11 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 11 The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis ................................ ................................ .......... 11 Significance of the Stu dy ................................ ................................ ........................ 12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 13 Beautiful People as Persuasive Communicators ................................ .................... 13 Cultural Differences in Beauty Portrayals ................................ ............................... 14 Gender Diff erences in Beauty ................................ ................................ ................. 15 The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis ................................ ................................ .......... 20 Beauty Perception in Taiwan ................................ ................................ .................. 23 Beauty Types ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 25 Emotional Response to Beauty ................................ ................................ ............... 31 Engagement Theory ................................ ................................ ............................... 32 Hypothesis ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 33 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 35 Participants and Sampling ................................ ................................ ...................... 36 Questionnaires Design and Procedure ................................ ................................ ... 37 First Part ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 37 Second Part ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 39 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 40 Profile of the Sample ................................ ................................ ............................... 40 RQ1: What is the underlying structure of beauty types among men? ..................... 40 RQ2: Are the re difference s among emotional responses to diffe rent types of models? ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 44 H1: Sexy beauty types (i.e., Wild) will generate higher pleasure feelings in Taiwanese males compared to beauty types that are not associated with sexiness (i.e., Feminine and Cute). ................................ ............................... 46

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6 H2: Sexy beauty types (i.e., Wild) will produce m ore arousal in Taiwanese males compared to beauty types that are not associated with sexiness (i.e., Feminine and Cute). ................................ ................................ .............. 47 H3: Sexy beauty types (i.e., Wild) will engender higher dominance in Taiwanese males compared to beauty types that are not associated with sexiness (i.e., Feminine and Cute). ................................ ............................... 48 RQ3: Is Qizhi associated with specific beauty types to men? ................................ 54 H4: Models that a re associated with Qizhi will generate higher pleasure feelings in Taiwanese males compared to models that are not associated with Qizhi. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 55 H5: Models that are associated with Qizhi will produce more arousal in Taiwanese males compared to models that are not associated with Qizhi. .. 56 H6: Models that are associated with Qizhi will engender higher dominance in Taiwanese males compared to models that are not associated with Qizhi. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 56 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 58 Summary of Results and Findings ................................ ................................ .......... 58 Implications of the Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 60 Limitations and Future Research ................................ ................................ ............ 62 APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SAMPLE UF: ENGLISH VERSION ................................ .. 64 B QUESTIONN AIRE FOR SAMPLE UF: MANDARIN VERSION .............................. 83 C QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SAMPLE TAIWAN: ENGLISH VERSION ...................... 102 D QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SAMPLE TAIWAN: MANDARIN VERSION ................... 121 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 140 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 147

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Demographics of p a rticipants ................................ ................................ ............. 40 4 2 Model r atings by t ype of m odel ................................ ................................ ........... 41 4 3 Factor a nalysis of b eauty t ypes with Varimax Rotation ................................ ...... 42 4 4 Mean s core by c ombined b eauty t ype ................................ ................................ 43 4 5 High, m edium, l ow b eauty t ypes ................................ ................................ ......... 44 4 6 Joint t ypes of m odels ................................ ................................ .......................... 45 4 7 Strength of Pleasure by h igh and l ow l evels of b eauty t ype (9= h igh /1= l ow) ...... 46 4 8 Stren gth of Arousal by h igh and l ow l e vels of b eauty t ype (9= h igh /1= l ow) ........ 48 4 9 Strength of Dominance by h igh and l ow l ev els of b eauty t ype (1= l ow ( b eing c ontrolled) /9= h igh ( i n c ontrol) ................................ ................................ ............ 49 4 10 P leasure, Arousal and Dominance s cores and r anks by b eauty t ype ................. 49 4 11 Mean s cores of Qizhi by b eauty t ypes ................................ ................................ 54 4 12 Pleasure s cores for h igh and l ow l evels of Qizhi (9 = h igh Pleasure/ 1= l ow) ...... 55 4 13 A rousal s cores for h igh and l ow l evels of Qizhi (9 = h igh Arous al/1 = l ow) ......... 56 4 14 Dominance s cores for h igh and l ow l evels of Qizhi (1 = h igh Dominance (being controlled)/9 = l ow (in control)) ................................ ................................ 57 5 1 Comparison of m f e motional r esponse to d ifferent b eauty t ypes. ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 60

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Prototypes of b eauty d im ensions e licited f rom f ashion e ditors ........................... 22 2 2 Photographs of b eauty t ypes. A) Edgy type, B) Sexy Little Women, Intellectual and Wildness types, C) Classic Beauty, Cute Acting and Girl Next Door types. ................................ ................................ ................................ 25 2 2 Photographs of b eauty t ypes. A) Edgy type, B) Sexy Little Women, Intellectual and Wildness types, C) Classic Beauty, Cute Acting and Girl Next Door types Continued. ................................ ................................ .............. 26 2 2 Photographs of b eauty t ypes. A) Edgy type, B) Sexy Little Women, Intellectual and Wildness types, C) Classic Beauty, Cute Acting and Girl Next Door types Continued. ................................ ................................ .............. 27 3 1 Visual s cale of AdSAM ................................ ................................ ...................... 38 4 1 AdSAM m ap of h igh, m edium and l ow Feminine m odels e motional r esponse s m eans gra phed on a Pleasure and Arousal s cale. ............................ 51 4 2 AdSAM m ap of hi gh, m edium and l ow Cute m odels e motional r esponse s m eans g raphed on a Pleasure and Arousal s cale. ................................ ............. 52 4 3 AdS AM m ap of h igh, m edium and l ow Wild m odels e motional r esponse s m eans g raphed on a Pleasure and Arousal s cale. ................................ ............. 53 5 1 High Cute m odels with h igh Pleasure and Arousal. ................................ ............ 61

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising OF BEAUTY By Chen Ting Chen December 2011 Chair: John C. Sutherland Major: Advertising the image of the spokesperson and the characteristics of the product match up. The models/ce lebrities in advertising may be different in how they are good looking. There Three research questions: What is the underlying structure of beauty types among men? Are there differences among emotional responses to different types of conducting a survey in the study. The AdSAM was used in the survey to explore The results showed that beauty types can be combined into Feminine, Cute and Wild beauty types. These three combined beauty types can be separated to Sexy beauty type (i.e., Wild) an d Not Sexy beauty type (i.e., Feminine and Cute). Despite both High Cute type models and High Feminine type models are not associated with sexiness, they did not generate the same emotional response to males. High Cute models had significantly greater plea sure and arousal than High Wild. However, High

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10 Feminine and Low Feminine type models both generated significantly greater pleasure and arousal than High Wild models. Whether models are associated with sexiness did nant feeling. Furthermore, males felt being controlled when facing Low Cute models. Low Feminine model generated great dominance scores for male. Finally, the study also found out that whether models have models. This study intends to help marketers selecting appropriate spokesperson to represent their products.

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11 CHAPTER 1 T HE EMOTIONAL RESPONS E TO MALES TO NOTION S OF BEAUTY Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to extend the work of Goodman, Morris and Goodman, Morris, and Sutherland (2008) exploration of beauty types found two basic dimensions (sexy and cute) of beauty among U.S. females. Models associates wi th sexiness generated lower pleasure, lower arousal and lower dominant feeling among college females. Similarly, Wu (2011) added to this research by exploring the beauty types. sexiness generated lower pleasure and less dominance among Taiwanese females. To the same models used i males. The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis This study works within the b eauty m atch up h ypothesis that suggests using a the spokesperson and the cha racteristics of the product match up (Baker & Churchill, 1977; Kamins, 1990; Solomon, Ashmore & Longo, 1992; Till & Busler, 2000). According to Beauty Match Up Hypothesis, although models/celebrities in advertising are usually beautiful, there may be diffe rences in how they are good looking. Beauty is a multidimensional construct (Solomon et al., 1992). There are various types of good looking. In addition, in advertising, when a model whose type of beauty and image matches the image of the product, it will convey a coherent message.

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12 Significance of the Study Physically attractive models are not only used in advertising that targets females; they are also used in advertising that targets males. This study adds to the Goodman et al. (2008) and Wu (2011) resea rch by contributing analysis of the dimensionality of beauty and how males react to beauty. From a marketing perspective, this study can help advertising agencies and images. In addition, since most studies on beauty have been conducted in Western responses to beauty.

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13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Beautiful People as Persuasive Communicators Many scholars have posited that p social power, intelligence, liking, expertise, and prestige, e.g., to Dion, Berscheid and Walster (1972); Dawson (1986); and Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani and Longo (1991). In short as and that physically attractive people could be more persuasive compared to unattractive people (Caballero & Solomon, 1984; Chaiken, 1979; Mills & Aronson, 1965). In When using attractive models in an advertisement, consumers make better eval uations of the advertisement as well as the advertised product. Caballero and Solomon (1984) also mentioned that advertisers believe in the physical attractiveness stereotype and s will make Homer (1985) indicated that attractiveness of the celebrity endorser would influence persuasion. DeShields, Kara and Kaynak (1996) conducted experiments to tes t how decisions. They found that receivers showed higher purchase intentions when the

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14 salespersons were highly attractive than when the salespersons were unattractive. Mills effective if he announced his intention to persuade; when the communicator was unattractive, his stated intention to persuade had no apparent influence on his effectiveness role in the persuasive process. Moreover, Davies, Goetz and Shackelford (2008) conducted a survey to study if women have greater success than men in using their physical attractivene ss to persuade members of the opposite sex. The results showed that men were frequently persuaded by women when they used their physical attractiveness as a tactic indicating that physical attractiveness generated different levels of influence on males an d females in the persuasive process Cultural Differences in Beauty Portrayals Different cultures may have different perceptions of physical attractiveness. Many researchers compared Western and Asian physical attractiveness and found that Western models u se sexy image more often compared to Asian models to express physical attractiveness. For example, Frith, Cheng, and Shaw (2004) analyzed States. They used the beauty types from the beauty match up hypothesis (Solomon, Ashmore, & Longo, 1992) and found that although Western and Asian models are often dressed in demure clothing, Western models are more often shown in seductive dresses. The result suggested that the Classic bea uty type is to some extent universal

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15 al/Sexy type was used more often with Western models than with Asian models, whereas the Cute/Girl Next Door type appeared more frequently with Asian than with Western models. The Trendy type was used more frequently with Western models than with Asian mod oriented advertisements. The finding of Frith et al. can be linked to the study of Maynard and Taylor (1999). They gathered eight issues of Seventeen magazine, four from Japan and four from the United States, and coded the advertisements containing only female models. The results showed that American models are mor e likely to be portrayed as independent and even defiant in advertisements. In contrast, Japanese models are often portrayed as cute and girlish. Different from the above studies on different beauty types between cultures, nham (2006) tested different physical attractiveness cross culturally by measuring body mass index (BMI) and WHR. In the experiments conducted, they recruited two groups of male participants from Japan and Britain. The participants were asked to rate image s of 50 real women from the least attractive to the most attractive. The results showed that both Japanese and British males preferred women with lower WHR. However, Japanese were more inclined to select women with lower BMIs compared to British. Body shap e was a more important indicator of female attractiveness for Japanese males than for British males. Gender Differences in Beauty Many scholars have used social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) to explore female perceptions of physically attractive mode ls, e.g., Martin and Kennedy (1993) and

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16 He also hypothesized that the exposure to advertising containing idealized images of attractiveness, raises their comparison standard of physical attractiveness, and lowers their self perceptions of physical attrac tiveness. Richins (1991) reported the results of four different studies, from a focus group to an experiment, which supported social comparison theory. He concluded that female college students compared themselves with advertised models. The idealized mode l image lowered satisfaction with self and (1993) experiment to examine the influence of highly attractive models on perception, sel f esteem, and comparison standard, indicated that the tendency of female preadolescents and adolescents to compare themselves to models in advertisements is greater when they have lower self perceptions of physical attractiveness and/or lower self esteem. The result supported standards for physical attractiveness. Baker and Churchill (1977) noted that type of product or topic, sex of receiver and sex of spokesperson can res trict the influence of beauty. Men and women may have different perceptions of physical attractiveness. The researchers suggested that consumers should find the model very desirable when exposed to an advertisement with attractive models of the opposite se x. The results of the Baker and Churchill (1977) experiment provided evidence that attractive models have a greater effect on the

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17 subjects of the opposite sex and that physically attractive models generate higher ratings than unattractive models. Feingold (1990) conducted meta analyses of five research paradigms and found that men tend to value attractiveness more compared to women. Levy, Ariely, Mazar, Chi, Lukas, and Elman (2008) conducted experiments to investigate the differences between men and women in the perceptions of facial beauty. They indicated that healthy men and women perceived heterosexual facial attractiveness similarly, with men providing lower ratings for beautiful males. In addition, t he results of their experiments indicated that men wo uld extend the viewing time of the attractive female faces while women would devote about equal amount of time to viewing both beautiful male and female faces. Moreover, Levy et al. (2008) compared the motivation for viewing the heterosexual faces of both gender and found that motivational effort of men to view beautiful female images was substantially greater compared to the effort of women to view beautiful males. The result of this research supports the findings of Jones, Brace, Jankowiak, Laland, Mussel man, Langlois, Roggman, Prusse, Schweder, and Symons (1995) who mentioned that men are more concerned about the attractiveness of potential sexual partners than women. Byrne, Oliver and Reeves (1968) conducted an experiment asking both males and females t and desirability as a co opposite subjects. Since the results of Byrne et al. (1968) indicated that the same sex stranger in

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18 their experiment was a needless control, Stroebe, Insko, Thompson and Layton (19 71) removed the same sex variables. They conducted an experiment to test male and asked about their liking preference and attitudes toward dating, marriage and working with others in different physically attractive levels (low, medium and high). They found that physical attractiveness had a greater influence on men than on women. The effect of physical attractiveness was more influential for men than for women in terms of wo rking, dating and marriage. Specifically, the effect on dating was the greatest for both male and female subjects. Although in the experiment of Stroebe et al. (1971) judgment toward female beauty was not tested, it still pointed out that physica l attractiveness is an important factor of attraction for men. Mills and Aronson (1965) conducted experiments using a female communicator and male recipients. The results showed that when a very attractive female communicator frankly stated her desire to influence the views of the participants, the effectiveness of persuasion increased. On the contrary, when the communicator was not attractive, there were no differences between the results she showed/did not show s. Caballero and Solomon (1984) indicated that in advertising, when the product fits male image category, attractive female models may not be able to provoke sales from male receivers. In this case, men may be more likely to identify with a model of the sa me gender. Using both verbal and behavioral measures, Chaiken (1979) showed that attractive communicators have a greater persuasive effect on target agreement. Besides, in communication, females showed greater agreement than males.

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19 Dawson (1986) reviewed P determines the physical attractiveness of women and influences the development of stereotypes concerning ideal attractiveness (Dawson, 1986). Most people have different perceptions of female physical attr activeness. Cunningham (1986) conducted two quasi features and the responses of adult males. There were 75 undergraduate males who were asked to evaluate the physical attract iveness of 50 females in the photographs. The results of the first quasi experiment showed that certain features, including higher and wider eyes, a smaller chin, greater distance between eyes, and a smaller nose, were perceived as more attractive by males The results also indicated that male participants would be more willing to engage in self sacrifice and physically risky actions but not monetary investments for women with attractive features, such as wider eyes and smaller nose. Cunningham (1986) also personalities based on different features. For example, they may perceive females with greater eye height and width, smaller nose area, wider cheekbones, higher eyebrows, wider pupils, and wider smiles as more socia ble. Besides facial features, studies (1993) showed that underweight or overweight women are not attractive to college age men. However, normal body weight women with lower waist to hip ratio (WHR) are more attractive compared to women with higher However, Joseph (1982) stated that physical attractiveness is concentrated on facial the most influential

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20 the waist area. The studies cited above demonstrated gender differences in judging beauty. However, the emotion of male receivers is still not clear. The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis Solomon et al. (1992) proposed the beauty match up hypothesis proposing that re searchers have seen physical attractiveness as a firm concept that could be rated on a continuum from low (unattractive) to high (attractive) (Morrow, 1990). Solomon et al. multidim ensional construct replete with nuance rather than a single continuum (i.e., y attractiveness and unattractiveness. In the beauty match 24). Models in advertising who are categorized i nto different beauty types should match the image of product and the message that the product intends to convey. Solomon et al. (1992) claimed that agents and cultural gatekeepers established diverse beauty types. These cultural gatekeepers encode beauty images before distributing them in marketplace. Therefore, Solomon et al. (1992) recruited 18 fashion beauty types. They were employees of the following magazines: Glamou r, Model, Mademoiselle, Taxi, Savvy, and Elle. These editors were required to sort 96

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21 photographs into piles according to similarity of appearance. The photographs were the following criteria: Only above the waist or full body shots No photographs with visible product logos, brand names, or magazine mastheads No model was used more than once Only shots featuring the model alone (i.e., no other people or animals) No pictures t hat deviated markedly from the model size No color photographs Only clothed models Only photographs of sufficiently high quality to permit adequate reproduction The editors were asked to sort models as pictured based on their external appearance. After sor ting those photographs, the editors were required to label different piles of images. Solomon et al. (1992) found that editors perceptually discriminated eight types of beauty, the Sensual, the Cute, the Exotic, the Girl Next Door, the Feminine, the Sex Ki tten, the Trendy, and the Classic Beauty. Since these types are not independent of one another, they categorized them into six types of beauty, Classic Beauty/Feminine, Sensual/Exotic, Cute, Girl Next Door, Sex Kitten, and Trendy (Figure 2 1). In addition to categorizing beauty types, fashion and beauty editors had to rate the match between models and a set of products (perfumes and magazines). According to the results, Solomon et al. (1992) demonstrated good match that are clearl moderate and poor match

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22 Figure 2 1 Prototypes of B eauty D imensions E licited f rom F ashion E ditors (Solomo n, Ashmore & Longo, 1992)

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23 Beauty Perception in Taiwan Taiwan has pluralist culture due to its historical background. From the website of Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan) (Retrieved May 25, 2011), Taiwan was under the rule of Ching dynasty from 1683 to 1895. During more than 200 years of dominion by ancient Chinese dynasty, traditional Confucian values have deeply influenced the culture of Taiwan. After WWII, the Nanjing based Republic of China government took control of Taiwan. In 1 949, the government of ROC retreated to Taiwan and relocated to Taipei. Consequently, Confucianism has had a significant effect on Taiwanese culture. Zhang, Lin, Nonaka, and Beom (2005) suggested that Taiwan society is rooted in Confucianism. Until today, the Analects of Confucius is still a required course for senior high school students in Taiwan (Chian, retrieved May 25, official ideology of 2006, p.469). After being defeated by Japan in 1895, Ching dynasty ceded Taiwan to Japan and Taiwanese started their colonial life lasting for 50 years (Government Information Office, Republic of China, retrieved May 25, 2011). During the 50 years of Japan ese colonization, many Taiwanese developed a special attachment toward Japan. Japanese culture retains its influence over many older Taiwanese (Gold, 1993). Today, the influence of Japanese culture on Taiwan is still obvious. At the end of 1993, Taiwanese government lifted the ban on Japanese television shows. Japanese drama and TV shows soon became part of the popular culture in Taiwan (Yang, Lu, & Hou, 2009). According to Nakano (2002), five channels broadcasted Japanese drama and various shows around th e clock. In addition, Western fashion magazines, such as

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24 1990s. Japanese fashion magazines, such as With, Vivi, and Ray entered the market in the 2000 and took only 5 years to be in the top 5 out of 20 top selling magazines while only 1 out of 20 top selling magazines was Western fashion magazine (Rainmaker XKM, 2011; Yang, Lu, & Hou, 2009). From the evidence mentioned above, Japanese culture has deeply influenced Taiwanese cultur e. The research showed that Japanese fashion has a strong influence on the standard of fashion among Taiwanese females (Yang, Lu, & Hou, 2009). Otherwise, Western culture especially American pop culture also influences Taiwanese culture. In the 1970s, the economy in Taiwan was booming. The use of mass communication increased (Chen, 1998). People in Taiwan wanted to have a democratic society. From the 1980s to the 1990s, many dramatic changes occurred as e abolition of martial law, the transformation from one Representatives and the President (Chen, 1998). Because of the democratic n 1986, the Government Information Office removed the limitation quota concerning foreign movies. Foreign movies, especially Hollywood movies, started to enter the market massively (Chinese Taipei Film Archive, retrieved June 1 2011). In 1993, the legisla tive department approved the legalization of cable television, which gave people in Taiwan more chances to encounter different cultures, especially Hollywood culture (National Communication Commission, retrieved June 1 2011). Currently, there are 11 movie channels operating in Taiwan, out of which seven broadcast Hollywood movies and TV shows all day long (Hohonet retrieved June 1).

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25 To summarize, the culture of Taiwan, especially its popular culture, is the integration of many other cultures. Therefore, o ther cultures also influence Taiwanese Beauty Types Solomon et al. (1992) categorized beauty into eight different types, which were applied widely in many studies. However, the beauty types may not be able t o represent and the models came from New York City modeling agencies. In order to build beauty types that would reflect Taiwanese perspective, Wu (2011) developed seve n beauty types based on Taiwanese culture and the beauty match up hypothesis. She conducted a pre test to pure types. The seven beauty types are Classic Beauty ( / ), Cute Acting ( / ), Girl Next Door ( ), Wildness ( ), Sexy Little Women ( ), Intellectual ( ), and Edgy ( ) ( Figure 2 2). A Figure 2 2 Photographs of Beauty Types Generated by Wu (2011) A) Edgy type B) Sexy Little Women, In tellectual and Wildness types, C) Classic Beauty, Cute Acting and Girl Next Door types

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26 B Figure 2 2 Photographs of Beauty Types Generated by Wu (2011) A) Edgy type, B) Sexy Little Women, Intellectual and Wildness types, C) Classic Beauty, Cute Acting and Girl Next Door types Continued.

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27 C Figure 2 2 Photographs of Beauty Types Generated by Wu (2011) A) Edgy type, B) Sexy Little Women, Intellectual and Wildness types, C) Classic Beauty, Cute Acting and Girl Next Door types. Continued.

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28 According to the online dictionary of Ministry of Education of Taiwanese government (retrieved June 15), the definitions of and include well educated women from notable families. are women who are elegant and moral. In sic Beauty type in Taiwan reflects Confucian philosophy in which women have to perform their courtesy on any occasions. In traditional Confucianism, women were forbidden to expose larger part of their bodies (Tsai, 2006). Moreover, women were subordinates of father and husband and they were required to obey the beliefs embedded in Confucianism, particularly the spirit of were asked to take care of families and usually cou ld not go out and be seen in public. However, with the development of economy and the influence of Western culture, contemporary Taiwanese society has changed. Women now have the opportunity to be economically independent (Tsai, 2006) and attend social act ivities instead of hiding from the public (Li, 2008). Hence, the definition of Classic Beauty type in Taiwan is combined with Confucianism and Western thought (Tsai, 2006). Women who look elegant and well educated may be categorized into the Classic Beaut y type. They can be economically independent. Sometimes, the mass media in Taiwan call this type of Taiwanese culture has been deeply influenced by Japanese culture. The models in Japanese magazines are usually por trayed as girlish and cute (Maynard and Taylor, 1999), which affects Taiwanese beauty types. The definitions of from the online dictionary of Ministry of Education of Taiwanese government (retrieved June 15), are cute and adorable. and are verbs which mean to act and to pretend. Therefore,

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29 the Cute Acting type has the meaning of acting girlish, which is simi lar to the images of Japanese models portrayed in fashion magazines. The Cute Acting type is a compliment when being used to describe young females. The Girl Next Door type, is also used to describe young females (Wu, 2011). However, unlike the Cute Acting style, it refers to pure and innocent girls. The mass media in Taiwan usually connect the Girl Next Door type to adjectives such as pure, fresh, healthy, and sweet (Lin, 2010). A large number of products, such as movies and magazines, from the West ern popular culture changed the attitudes of Taiwanese society toward women. Western models are often portrayed as seductive beauty types and body oriented in mass media (Firth, Cheng, and Shaw, 2004). This kind of image challenged the belief that women ar e forbidden to show their bodies to public (Tsai, 2006). Therefore, Wu (2011) constructed the Wildness type, which is in Mandarin, where means hot. In the dictionary, C., retrieved June 16). means wild and not easily tamed (Ministry of Education, R. O. C.). Mass media usually connect with other adjectives such as sexy and seductive (Vogue, 2010). The Sexy Little Women type (Wu, 2011) is similar to the Wildness type, describi ng sexy females. However, the definition in the dictionary indicates that means sexy and means women who need to be protected (Ministry of Education, R. O. C.). The definitions show that the Sexy Little Kitten type ( ) is tamer compared to

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30 the Wil dness type ( ). is used with adjectives such as sweet and shy in media (Hsieh, 2011). According to Wu (2011), the definition of the Intellectual type includes women who are smart and mature. means wise and rational and means people who are me ntally mature (Ministry of Education, R. O. C.).Some mass media connected with professional, intelligent, and confident images (Gu, 2011; Ko & Hsueh, 2011; Lin, 2011) i s in Mandarin. The definition of (Ministry of Education, R. O. C.). From the mass media in Taiwan, we can often see being connected with bold, independent, offbeat, and innovative images (Vogue, 2009; Ch eng, 2011). Wu (2011) pointed out a special Taiwanese character besides seven beauty types, which is Qizhi ( ). The definition of Qizhi ( ) suggests that family and society Su (2008), there are two common usages of Qizhi in Taiwan. One is that Qizhi is a refined frequently, since women are still required to have manners reflecting the Confucian ideology. In the Confucian context, Taiwanese females are reminded of the importance

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31 and the ways in which women should behave (Su, 2008). Emotional Response to Beauty According to Stout and Leckenby (1988), emotional response to advertising resides i n individuals. Individuals respond to and interact with advertising. There were many studies researching on how advertising evokes emotional response. Beauty is one of the features that may induce emotional response. According n Richins, 1991), advertising images may make women feel unhappy, anxious, or even neurotic. Goodman, Morris, and Sutherland (2008) e surveys test ed onal responses to beauty. In the survey, they collected photographs from fashion magazines and used six beauty types established by Solomon, Ashmore, and Longo (1992). However, the Exotic type, which is defined as women of color, was removed from the Sensu al/Exotic category. The survey had two parts. In the first part, participants had to consider the six beauty categories and rate each photograph on a scale ranging from completely agree to tional responses using AdSAM scale. The results of this study indicated that models associated with sexiness produced least amount of pleasure among college females; sexy models produced lower arousal; and high sexy models made women feel less empowered ( Goodman et al., 2008). influence individuals respo nses We can see there would be some

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32 Belch, Holgerson Belch, and Koppman (1982) demonstrated that bare models (nudity) and suggestive models (suggestiveness) arouse both males and females. A significant effect is noted especially when displaying female nude slides. Men showed greatest physiological reaction to female nudes. Compared to men, nude and suggestive female models made women feel less interested, and women perceived them as more offensive and less appealing. Engagement Theory According to the definition presented by the Advertising Research Found ation a prospect to a brand idea enhanced by its of involvement and a sense of being connected with something. These senses are gene rated when consumers experience a brand idea or media (Barocci, 2006). Therefore, engagement occurs from experiencing (Calder & Malthouse, 2008). Ephron (2005) pointed out that engagement is about the advertising message carried by the program, but not th e program itself. The physically attractive models in the advertising represent the message which marketers want to deliver to consumers. In terms of the research mentioned before, men view attractive female faces longer than they view attractive male face s (Mazar et al., 2008). Male consumers may feel engaged message (Calder & Malthouse, 2008). Males may feel engaged by the attractive models in the advertising, but not like them. People being pulled into or involved with advertising may be because of some rational or emotional reason (Ephron, 2006). Wang (2008) also mentioned that engagement may be driven by emotional bondin g. Therefore, this

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33 research would study the emotions of males who experience physically attractive models in advertising. Hypothesis Studies show that cultural gatekeepers determined the beauty. Cultural gatekeepers shape ideal beauty image and convey it t o receivers through advertising, retail buyers, and mass media (Solonmon, Ashmore, & Longo, 1992). Wu (2011) found seven types of beauty, which Taiwanese audiences can usually see in mass media. Wu (2011) also found that the seven types of beauty were not mutually exclusive to females. Some types can be combined. Therefore, RQ1: What is the underlying structure of beauty types among men? Researches indicated that women feel less pleasure, lower arousal, and less dominance when exposed to sexy beauty types, such as sex kitten (Goodman et al., 2008). According to Wu (2011), to Taiwanese female, beauty types associated with sexiness, such as Wildness, would produce less pleasure and less dominance compared to beauty types not associated with sexiness, such as Classic Beauty. However, some studies demonstrated that men are more interested in sexy or suggestive models (Belch, Holgerson, Belch, & Koppman, 1982) or curvy women ( Singh, 1993). Hence, RQ2: Are the re difference s among emotional responses to different types of models? H1: Sexy beauty types (i.e., Sexy Little Women and Wildness) will generate higher pleasure feelings in Taiwanese males compared to beauty types that are not associated with sexiness (i.e., Classic Beauty, Cute Acting, Girl Next Door, Edgy and Intellectual).

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34 H2: Sexy beauty types (i.e., Sexy Little Women and Wildness) will produce more arousal in Taiwanese males compared to beauty types that are not associated with sexiness (i.e., Classic Beauty, Cute Acting, Girl Next Door, Edgy and Intelle ctual). H3: Sexy beauty types (i.e., Sexy Little Women and Wildness) will engender higher dominance in Taiwanese males compared to beauty types that are not associated with sexiness (i.e., Classic Beauty, Cute Acting, Girl Next Door, Edgy and Intellectual) According to the study of Su (2008), Qizhi originated from the Confucian context, and is commonly used to describe women since women are forbidden to expose their bodies to the public in the traditional Confucian ideology. Wu (2011) studied Taiwanese f associated with Qizhi, they would produce higher pleasure and arousal feelings than models that are not associated with Qizhi. Therefore, RQ3: Is Qizhi associated with specific be auty types to men? H4: Models that are associated with Qizhi will generate higher pleasure feelings in Taiwanese males compared to models that are not associated with Qizhi. H5: Models that are associated with Qizhi will produce more arousal in Taiwanese m ales compared to models that are not associated with Qizhi. H6: Models that are associated with Qizhi will engender higher dominance in Taiwanese males compared to models that are not associated with Qizhi.

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35 CHAPTER 3 METHOD Given the nature of the focu s of this study and the need to provide comparable data to Wu (2011), this study used an online survey to assess reactions of Taiwanese males to different beauty types. According to Babbie (2010), survey is the best method In this study, the researcher used the beauty types addressed by Wu (2011). The models in the photographs a re all Asian. According to the b eauty m atch u p h ypothesis (1992) and Wu (2011), these photographs were: Only above the waist or full body shots No photographs with visible product logos, brand names, or magazine mastheads No model was used more than once Only s hots featuring the model alone (i.e., no other people or animals) No pictures that deviated markedly from the modal size No color photographs Only clothed models Only photographs of sufficiently high quality to permit adequate reproduction In order to pro vide responses from male Taiwanese subjects to compare to female subjects, this study utilized the same photographs used in the Wu study (2011). There were total 14 photographs. The order of the photographs was randomized. Two samples were executed and the difference of them was only the order of photographs in the questionnaires. Questionnaire for Sample UF (which would be specified in Participants and Sampling section) consisted of photographs in the order of CA3, E3, I5, CB1, E5, G5, I3, CA5, W2, S1, Cb3 S2, G3 and W1 ( s ee Figure 2 2). Questionnaire for Sample Taiwan (which would be specified in Participants and Sampling section) consisted of photographs in the order of CA5, W2, S1, Cb3, S2, G3, W1, CA3, E3, I5, CB1, E5, G5 and I3.

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36 Participants and Sampl ing This study utilized several sources for recruiting male Taiwanese participants including the members of Taiwanese Student Association at the University of Florida, the members of the student association called Chenggong and Jingmei high school Alumni U nion at National Cheng Kung University and the users of PTT (telnet://ptt.cc) which is a big BBS (Bulletin Board System) station in Taiwan. PTT is one of the most popular internet social networks in Taiwan which was established by students in National Taiw an University in 1995 (Hsieh, 2009; Chang, 2009). It has more than 1.2 million registered users and usually has average 10,000 users online simultaneously (Huang, Chan & Hyder, 2010). A total of 915 responses from Taiwanese males, aged 18 30, had not been away from Taiwan for more than six years, yielded 597 usable questionnaires. The participants were separated into two sample groups, participants of Sample UF are members of Taiwanese Student Association at the University of Florida and participants of S ample Taiwan are the members of the student association called Chenggong and Jingmei high school Alumni Union at National Cheng Kung University and the users of PTT. There were total 14 photographs of models were used in the study. Sample UF were asked to show their emotional responses to models 1 7 (CA3, E3, I5, CB1, E5, G5 and I3) by AdSAM scale and to rate how models 8 14 (CA5, W2, S1, CB3, S2, G3 and W1) fit each type of beauty. Sample Taiwan were asked to show their emotional responses to models 8 14 ( CA5, W2, S1, CB3, S2, G3 and W1) by AdSAM scale and to rate how models 1 7 (CA3, E3, I5, CB1, E5, G5, and I3) fit each type of beauty.

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37 Questionnaires Design and Procedure The questionnaire contained two parts: AdSAM scale and rating of each model in diff erent types of beauty. First Part The goal of first part of the questionnaire focused on emotional responses to beauty. Subjects were shown a photograph of a model and asked to complete AdSAM as an indicator of their emotional response to the model. Acco rding to the research of Russell and Mehrabian (1977), three dimensions, pleasure displeasure, degree of arousal, and dominance submissiveness, can describe emotions. They conducted two studies. In study one, 200 subjects were required to use different sca les to describe their feelings concerning the situations provided by the researchers. The scales included a measure of pleasure, arousal, and dominance measuring happiness, a rousal, anger, fear, and depression on a 5 point scale (not at all, slightly, moderately, considerable and very strongly). In study two, 300 subjects were required to use the PAD scales to rate emotion denoting terms. In the results of the two studies, Joh pleasure, arousal and dominance are necessary and sufficient to portray the variety of emotional states. The Self Assessment Manikin (SAM) (Lang, 1985) (as cited in Morris, 1995) was create d in order to measure the PAD emotion. SAM uses graphic characters to visually re 3 1). The graphic character is gender and culture free (Goodman et al., 2008) arrayed along a continuou s nine point scale (Morris, 1995). The characters on the pleasure dimension

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38 are arrayed from a smile figure to a frowning figure. Figures on the arousal dimension are arrayed from eyes closed to eyes open. Figures on the dominance dimension are arrayed fro m small one, which represents a feeling of submissiveness, to big one, which represents empowered feeling (Morris, 1995). advertising (Goodman et al., 2008; Morris, Strausbaugh, & Nthange ni, 1996; Morris & Boone, 1998; Wu, 2011). AdSAM is the analysis to apply SAM to advertising, which s, 1995). Figure 3 1 Visual S cale of AdSAM Subjects would watch the photographs first and had to choose one of figures in each rows which best illustrate their feelings.

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39 Second Part The second part of the questionnaire focused on assessing responden perceptions of the models. Participants were asked to rate how well each model fit each type of beauty as in the Wu study (2011) on a 5 point scale, participants were also asked to rate if the Taiwanese Student Association in University of Florida and high school Alumni Union of Nation Cheng Kung University on Facebook. The participants of th e study were informed that the survey would take about five to ten minutes and the information they provided would be confidential. The participants were also told that there were no direct benefit and risk for them by taking the questionnaires. There were no penalty for them and they had the right to withdraw participating at anytime. Subjects were told to ignore anything else which they know about the models and only evaluated the models as pictured. take the questionnaires after reading the informed consent.

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40 CHAPTER 4 R ESULTS Profile of the Sample According to Participants and Sampling section in Chapter 3, there were two samples in the study. Total 597 usable questionnaires included 209 participant s in Sample UF and 388 participants in Sample Taiwan. For data analysis and to provide respondents in Sample UF and randomly taking 209 respondents from 388 respondents i n Sample Taiwan. There were total 418 participants were included and 209 complete answers of each model in the study. All subjects in the study were male Taiwanese and had not left Taiwan for more than six years. 11% of participants were 18 to 20 years old 44% of participants were 21 to 25 years old and 45% of participants were 26 to 30 years old ( Table 4 1). Table 4 1 Demographics of Participants Age Number Percentage 18 to 20 46 11 21 to 25 183 44 26 to 30 189 45 Total 418 100 RQ1: What is the underlying structure of beauty types among men? The average rating of each model regarding how well the model fit the beauty type (5 point scale, 1=Strongly Disagree and 5= Strongly Agree) are presented in Table 4 2. Each photograph was named by the abbre viations of their pre classifications in the Classic Beauty type, CA3 and CA5 were classified into the Cute Acting type, G3 and G5 were classified into the Girl Next Door type, S1 and S2 were classified i nto the Sexy Little Women type, I3 and I5

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41 were classified into the Intellectual type, W1 and W2 were classified into the Wildness type, and E3 and E5 were classified into the Edgy type (Wu, 2011). Table 4 2 Model Ratings by Type of Model Classic Beauty Cute Acting Girl Next Door Sexy Little Women Intellectual Wildness Edgy Model Avg. Avg. Avg. Avg. Avg. Avg. Avg. CB1 Classic Beauty 4.04 2.30 2.77 3.13 3.38 2.39 2.26 CB3 Classic Beauty 4.01 2.96 3.34 3.48 3.84 2.42 2.51 CA3 Cute Acting 1.83 4.22 2.49 2.56 1.56 2.10 2.32 CA5 Cute Acting 1.94 4.29 2.85 2.73 1.72 2.31 2.78 G3 Girl Next Door 2.61 3.73 4.22 2.94 2.47 2.30 2.25 G5 Girl Next Door 2.36 3.67 4.30 2.74 2.18 1.98 1.95 S1 Sexy Little Women 3.49 3.15 3.55 3.96 3.65 3.32 2.85 S2 Sexy Little Wo men 3.51 2.25 2.45 3.67 3.51 3.32 3.11 I3 Intellectual 3.98 1.92 2.16 3.11 3.96 2.8 3.10 I5 Intellectual 3.67 1.63 2.17 2.26 4.15 1.65 2.09 W1 Wildness 2.59 1.87 1.89 2.91 2.99 3.94 4.00 W2 Wildness 2.34 1.68 1.83 3.21 3.25 4.26 3.37 E3 Edgy 1.96 1.56 1.63 2.44 2.83 3.56 4.11 E5 Edgy 1.91 1.45 1.49 1.76 2.34 2.23 3.91 From Table 4 2, males agreed with the pre classifications of the models of CB1 ( M =4.04), CB3 ( M =4.01), CA3 ( M =4.22), CA5 ( M =4.29), G3 ( M =4.22), G5 ( M =4.30), S1 ( M =3.96), S2 ( M =3.67), I5 ( M =4.15), W2 ( M =4.26), E3 ( M =4.11) and E5 ( M =3.91). The models in above photographs were rated with highest scores in their pre classified types which means, male respondents agreed that models above were examples of their pre classification. There were o nly two models which did not get the highest score in their pre classifications, I3 and W1. I3 got highest mean score in the Classic Beauty

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42 type ( M =3.98) which was slightly higher than the score in the Intellectual type ( M =3.96). W1 was rated with highest score in the Edgy type ( M =4.00) instead of the Wildness type ( M =3.94). In these results, male respondents may think that I3 was better classified into the Classic Beauty type instead the Intellectual type. And W1 should be classified into the Edgy type in stead of the Wildness type. A factor an alysis of beauty types (Table 4 3) revealed that the seven types of beauty could be reduced to three factors: the Feminine, the Cute and the Wild. These luations of models and beauty types. Table 4 3 Factor Analysis of Beauty Types with Varimax Rotation Factor 1: Feminine Factor 2: Cute Factor 3: Wild Beauty Type Current Males Wu Females Current Males Wu Females Current Males Wu Females Classic Beau ty .874 .829 .030 .187 .222 .115 Intellectual .892 .804 .147 .382 .161 .178 Cute Acting .242 .176 .884 .871 .061 .105 Girl Next Door .109 .171 .879 .841 .133 .121 Sexy Little Women .510 .473 .490 .265 .474 .625 Wildness .021 .072 .038 .18 6 .853 .847 Edgy .053 .020 .136 .487 .851 .633 the Cute Acting (.884) and the Girl Next Door (.879) loaded together as did the Classic Beauty (.874) and the Intellectual (.892). Simil arly, the Sexy Little Woman was confounded. It had the Edgy (.851) and the the Edgy (.633) was near but not sig nificantly loaded enough to be combined with the Wildness (.847). As a result of this analysis and to assure comparability of the female

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43 and male sets of data, this study created the same combined beauty variables as used the Cute Acting and the Girl Next Door were combined ( the Cute Acting score + the Girl Next Door Score/2); (2) the Classic Beauty and the Intellectual were combined ( the Classic Beauty score + the Intellectual score /2); and (3) the Wildness was used as a single me asure of the Wildness factor. Table 4 4 shows the three combined beauty scores for each model. These reinforce the results of the factor analysis showing how models scored on each factor. For example, I3 Intellectual ( M =3.9689), CB3 Classic Beauty ( M =3.925 8), I5 Intellectual ( M =3.9115) and CB1 Classic Beauty ( M =3.7129) were the models with the highest Feminine scores. The same is true for CA3 Cuting Acting ( M =3.3565) and CA5 Cute Acting ( M =3.5718) which scored highly on the Cute factor. Table 4 4 Mean Sco re by Combined Beauty Type Feminine Cute Wild Model Avg. Std. Dev. Avg. Std. Dev. Avg. Std. Dev. I3 Intellectual 3.9689 0.7241 2.0407 0.7765 2.8000 1.0900 CB3 Classic Beauty 3.9258 0.7535 3.1483 0.9011 2.4200 0.8800 I5 Intellectual 3.9115 0.7455 1.901 9 0.7045 1.6500 0.7580 CB1 Classic Beauty 3.7129 0.7298 2.5335 0.8400 2.3900 0.9340 S1 Sexy Little Kitten 3.5694 0.8583 3.3493 0.9054 3.3200 1.0820 S2 Sexy Little Kitten 3.5072 0.8167 2.3541 0.8020 3.3200 1.0220 W2 Wildness 2.7967 0.7863 1.7536 0.6319 4.2600 0.7210 W1 Wildness 2.7919 0.8638 1.8780 0.7025 3.9400 0.8550 G3 Girl Next Door 2.5383 0.7522 3.9761 0.7480 2.3000 0.7970 E3 Edgy 2.3947 0.8898 1.5933 0.6180 3.5600 1.0460 G5 Girl Next Door 2.2703 0.7467 3.9856 0.7766 1.9800 0.7170 E5 Edgy 2.126 8 0.8754 1.4713 0.5998 2.2300 1.1550 CA5 Cute Acting 1.8325 0.6601 3.5718 0.6931 2.3100 1.0260 CA3 Cute Acting 1.6938 0.5735 3.3565 0.7602 2.1000 0.9460

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44 RQ2: Are the re difference s among emotional responses to different types of models? Since the origina l seven beauty types are combined into three n ew beauty types, Table 4 5 shows the high, medium and low scored models for each combined beauty type ( the Feminine, the Cute and the Wild). This typing was used to examine the differences in emotional response s among high, medium and low model beauty types. Table 4 5 High, Medium, Low Beauty Types Feminine Models Strength Model Feminine Average Rank by Feminine Cute/GND Average Wild Average High I3 3.9689 1 2.0407 2.8000 High CB3 3.9258 2 3.1483 2.4200 Me dium W2 2.7967 7 1.7536 4.2600 Medium W1 2.7919 8 1.8780 3.9400 Low CA5 1.8325 13 3.5718 2.3100 Low CA3 1.6938 14 3.3565 2.1000 Cute Models Strength Model Cute Average Rank by Cute Feminine Average Wild Average High G5 3.9856 1 2.2703 1.9800 High G3 3.9761 2 2.5383 2.3000 Medium CB1 2.5335 7 2.5335 2.3900 Medium S2 2.3541 8 2.3541 3.3200 Low E3 1.5933 13 1.5933 3.5600 Low E5 1.4713 14 1.4713 2.2300 Wild Models Strength Model Wild Average Rank by Wild Feminine Average Cute Average High W2 4.260 0 1 2.7967 1.7536 High W1 3.9400 2 2.7919 1.8780 Medium CB3 2.4200 7 3.9258 3.1483 Medium CB1 2.3900 8 3.7129 2.5335 Low G5 1.9800 13 2.2703 3.9856 Low I5 1.6500 14 3.9115 1.9019 Table 4 5 shows the strongest and weakest models in new beauty types. F or example, model I3 Intellectual ( M =3.9689) and model CB3 Classic Beauty ( M =3.9258) were rated with highest scores in Feminine type; model G5 Girl Next Door ( M =1.9800) and model I5 Intellectual ( M =1.6500) were rated with lowest scores in Wild type. To fin d

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45 out the strongest and weakest models in each combined beauty type would help the research to analyze the emotional responses of participants. Table 4 6 listed out the joint types of each models. Since model CB1, S1 and S2 were not rated significantly hig h er or low er than other models in the three combined beauty types, they would not be discussed in the following study. Table 4 6 Joint Types of Models Model Joint Type Feminine Cute Wild CA3 Low Feminine Low Feminine CA5 Low Feminine Low Feminine CB1 Medium Cute Medium Wild Medium Cute Medium Wild CB3 High Feminine Medium Wild High Feminine Medium Wild E3 Low Cute Low Cute E5 Low Cute Low Cute G3 High Cute High Cute G5 High Cute Low Wild High Cute Low Wild I3 High Feminine Hi gh Feminine I5 Low Wild Low Wild S1 Med High Fem Cute Wild S2 Medium Cute Medium Cute W1 Medium Feminine High Wild Medium Feminine High Wild W2 Medium Feminine High Wild Medium Feminine High Wild Although the types stated in hypotheses wer e Sexy beauty types (i.e., the Sexy Little Women type and the Wildness type) and beauty types which are not associated with sexiness (i.e., the Classic Beauty, the Cute Acting, the Girl Next Door, the Edgy and the Intellectual), the factor analysis showed that seven beauty types could be reduced to three combined types, the Feminine, the Cute and the Wild. The Feminine type was the combination of the Classic Beauty type and the Intellectual type. The Girl

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46 Next Door type and the Cute Acting type were combine d to be the Cute type. And the Wildness type was used as a single measure of the Wild type. Therefore, in the following study, the researcher would only use beauty types which were included in new combined types. H1: Sexy beauty types (i.e., Wild) will gen erate higher pleasure feelings in Taiwanese males compared to beauty types that are not associated with sexiness (i.e., Feminine and Cute). A repeated measures of analysis of variance (Table 4 7) provided evidence that the high and low levels of the differ ent beauty types generated significantly different pleasure ratings (Within group df = 10, F = 70.68, p = .000 and Between group df = 1, F = 7985.82, p = .000). The model representing both High Cute and Low Wild beauty types, G5, along with High Cute (G3), Low Feminine (CA5), High Feminine (I3) models generated the greatest pleasure while High Wild (W1) and Low Cute (E5) generated the least pleasure with mean scores significantly greater than other models and below 5, the midpoint of the 1 9 scale, where 9 = h igh p leasure and 1 = l ow p leasure. Table 4 7 Strength of Pleasure by High and Low Levels of Beauty Type (9=High /1=Low) Model Pleasure Mean Rank Std. Error 95 % Confidence Interval Group Lower Bound Upper Bound High Cute and Low Wild G5 6.28 1 tie .12 6.04 6.52 Low Feminine CA5 6.22 1 tie .10 6.02 6.41 High Cute G3 6.13 1 tie .15 5.83 6.42 High Feminine I3 6.11 1 tie .11 5.90 6.33 High Wild W2 5.95 2 tie .14 5.68 6.22 Low Feminine CA3 5.78 2 tie .13 5.53 6.03 High Feminine CB3 5.41 3 .14 5 .14 5.68 Low Cute E3 4.99 4 tie .12 4.75 5.22 Low Wild I5 4.82 4 tie .13 4.56 5.07 High Wild W1 4.28 5 .13 4.03 4.53 Low Cute E5 3.05 6 .12 2.81 3.29

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47 From Table 4 7, models representing High Cute type (G5 and G3) had greatest pleasure means ( M =6.28 an d M =6.13) which are significantly different with High Wild type (W1) and Low Cute type (E5) which had the least pleasure means ( M =4.28 and M =3.05). The model that was categorized into High Feminine type (I3) and the model that was categorized into Low Femi nine type (CA5) both had great pleasure means ( M =6.11 and M = 6.22). Although beauty types which were associated with sexiness, such as Wild type, had least pleasure means and beauty types which were not associated with sexiness, such as Cute type, had grea test pleasure means, High Feminine type model (I3) and Low Feminine type model (CA5) which were not associated with sexiness both had great pleasure means. Hence, hypothesis 1 is not supported. H2: Sexy beauty types (i.e., Wild) will produce more arousal in Taiwanese males compared to beauty types that are not associated with sexiness (i.e., Feminine and Cute). A repeated measures o f analysis of variance (Table 4 8) provided evidence that the high and low levels of the different beauty types generated sign ificantly different arousal ratings (Within group df = 10, F = 90.25, p = .000 and Between group df = 1, F = 7622.13, p = .000 ). While all the means (Table 4 8) were below 5, the midpoint of the scale where 9 = h igh a rousal and 1 = l ow a rousal, High Cute ( G5 and G3), Low Wild (I5) and High Feminine (I3) and Low Feminine (CA3) models were most arousing. High Wild (W2) and Low Cute (E5) generated the least arousal. Table 4 8 shows that G5 ( M =4.85) and G3 ( M =4.81), which are High Cute type, generated most ar ousing means which were significantly greater than High Wild type (W2, M =3.21) and Low Cute type (E5, M =3.18). However, I3 ( M =4.76), a High Feminine type, and CA3 ( M =4.556), a Low Feminine type, were both getting great arousal means.

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48 Furthermore, High Wild models, W1 and W2, respectively got greatest and lowest arousing means. Thus, the hypothesis 2 is not supported. Table 4 8 Strength of Arousal by High and Low Levels of Beauty Type (9=High /1=Low) Group Model Arousal Mean Rank Std. Error 95 % Confidenc e Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound High Cute and Low Wild G5 4.8 5 1 tie .14 4.58 5.1 2 High Cute G3 4. 81 1 tie .17 4.48 5.14 High Feminine I3 4. 76 1 tie .16 4.4 8 5. 04 High Wild W2 4. 76 1 tie .14 4.4 4 5. 07 Low Feminine CA3 4. 55 1 tie .15 4. 26 4.83 Low Feminine CA5 4. 13 2 .13 3.88 4. 38 High Feminine CB3 3.80 3 tie .14 3.5 3 4.08 Low Cute E3 3.7 8 3 tie .14 3.50 4.0 5 Low Wild I5 3.49 4 .14 3.22 3.76 High Wild W1 3.21 5 tie .13 2.9 6 3.4 7 Low Cute E5 3.18 5 tie .16 2.8 6 3.5 1 H3: Sexy beauty types (i.e., Wild) will engender higher dominance in Taiwanese males compared to beauty types that are not associated with sexiness (i.e., Feminine and Cute). A repeated measures of analysis of variance (Table 4 9) provided evidence that the high and low levels of the different beauty types generated significantly different dominance ratings (Within group df = 10, F = 5.589, p = .000 and Between group df = 1, F = 5066.84, p = .000). Low Cute models (E5 and E3) ge nerated lower dominance ( participants felt more con trolled) scores while High Cute (G3 and G5) and Low Feminine (CA3 and CA5) models generated greater dominance scores ( participants f elt being in control ). Low Feminine models (CA3 and CA5) were pre classified as the Cute Acting type models which were defin ed as women who having cute and girlish image. The definition was similar to the Girl Next Door type. The results showed that models who were associated with cute and girlish images generated greater dominance feelings.

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49 Table 4 9 Strength of Dominanc e by High and Low Levels of Beauty Type (1=Low (Being Controlled) /9=High (In control) Group Model Dominance Mean Rank Std. Error 95 % Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound Low Feminine CA5 5.71 1 tie .14 5.43 5.99 High Cute G3 5.64 1 tie .16 5.32 5.95 Low Feminine CA3 5.53 2 tie .14 5.26 5.80 High Cute and Low Wild G5 5.39 2 tie .13 5.13 5.65 High Feminine CB3 5.39 2 tie .15 5.08 5.69 High Wild W1 5.22 3 tie .16 4.91 5.54 High Wile W2 5.21 3 tie .17 4.87 5.54 Low Wild I5 5.11 3 tie .16 4.80 5.42 High Feminine I3 4.97 3 tie .14 4.69 5.25 Low Cute E3 4.86 3 tie .15 4.55 5.16 Low Cute E5 4.61 4 .19 4.25 4.98 Table 4 9 shows that Low Feminine model, CA5 ( M =5.71), had highest dominance score (feelings of in control) which are significantl y greater than others. Low Cute models, E5 ( M =4.61) and E3 ( M =4.86), generated lower dominance score (feeling of being controlled) than others. Thus, the Hypothesis 3 is not supported. Table 4 10 Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance Scores and Ranks by Beauty Type Group Model Pleasure Mean Rank Arousal Mean Rank Dominance Mean Rank Low Feminine CA5 6.22 1 tie 4.13 2 5.71 1 tie High Cute G3 6.13 1 tie 4.81 1 tie 5.64 1 tie Low Feminine CA3 5.78 2 tie 4.55 1 tie 5.53 2 tie High Feminine CB3 5.41 3 3.80 3 ti e 5.39 2 tie High Cute and Low Wild G5 6.28 1 tie 4.85 1 tie 5.39 2 tie High Wild W1 4.28 5 3.21 4 5.22 3 tie High Wild W2 5.95 2 tie 4.76 5 tie 5.21 3 tie Low Wild I5 4.82 4 3.49 1 tie 5.11 3 tie High Feminine I3 6.11 1 tie 4.76 1 tie 4.97 3 tie Low Cute E3 4.99 4 3.78 3 tie 4.86 3 tie Low Cute E5 3.05 6 3.18 5 tie 4.61 4 Table 4 10 presents the p leasure, a rousal and d ominance scores and their ranks by beauty type. Given the structure of the SAM scale used in this study, one would

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50 expect a positive beauty type to have a high pleasure score ( generating high pleasure), a high arousal score ( generating high arousal) and a high dominance score ( being in control rather than being controlled). Conversely, a negative beauty type would have a low pleasure s core ( generating low pleasure), a low arousal score ( generating low arousal) and a low dominance score ( being controlled rather than being in control ). Using these assumptions, CA5 a L ow Feminine beauty type, generated greatest pleasure and dominance mean s and G3 a High Cute beauty type, generated greatest pleasure, arousal and dominance means, fit the stereot ypical positive beauty type. E5 which is a Low Cute beauty type generated least pleasure, arousal and dominance means, fit the stereotype of a nega tive beauty type. Figure 4 1, 4 2 and 4 3 show the means graphed on the scale of pleasure and arousal. In Figure 4 1, the Feminine models with highest mean scores, I3 and CB3, reside in the upper left quadrant (positive and less aroused). I3 is near the a djective wholesome. CB3 is near the adjective nonchalant. Low Feminine models (CA3 and CA5) also reside in the upper left quadrant and both near adjectives such as modest and wholesome. Models with medium Feminine mean scores (W1 and W2) reside in differen t quadrant. W1 resides in lower left quadrant (negative and less aroused) near adjectives such as unemotional and quietly. W2 resides in upper left quadrant near the adjective wholesome.

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51 Figure 4 1 AdSAM Map of High, Medium and Low Feminine M odels E m otional R esponse s M eans G raphed on a Pleasure and Arousal S cale. In Figure 4 2, the models with highest Cute means, G3 and G5, and the model with medium mean score, CB1 and S2, all reside in the upper left quadrant (positive and less aroused) but are close near adjectives such as wholesome, modest and provocative. The models with lowest

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52 Cute means, E3 and E5, reside in different quadrant. They both reside in left quadrants. E5 resides in lower left quadran t near adjectives such as weary and blas. E3 resides in the middle of vertical axis near the adjectives such as aloof, quietly and indignant. Figure 4 2 AdSAM Map of High, Medium and Low Cute M odels E motional R esponse s M eans G raphed on a Pleasure an d Arousal S cale. Figure 4 3 shows the mean scores of the Wild type models. The model with high Wild mean, W2, the model with medium Wild mean, CB1 and the model with lowest

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53 Wild mean, G5, all reside in upper left quadrant near the adjective wholesome. CB3 which is the medium Wild model reside in upper left quadrant near the adjectives such as nonchalant and aloof. The model W1 with high Wild mean and the model with low Wild mean both reside in lower left quadrant near the adjectives such as unemotional, qui etly and aloof. Figure 4 3 AdSA M Map of High, Medium and Low Wild M odels E motional R esponse s M eans G raphed on a Pleasure and Arousal S cale.

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54 Figures above show only little different in three combined types. Most models reside in upper lef t quadrant ne ar adjectives such as who lesome, modest and provocative RQ3: Is Qizhi associated with specific beauty types to men? Table 4 11 presents the Qizhi mean scores for each model (1= Strongly Agree (the model has Qizhi) and 5 = Strongly Disagree). A repeated me asures analysis of variance (Within subjects df = 13, F = 121.394, p = .000 and Between subjects df = 1, F = 17549.839, p = .000) indicated significant differences in Qizhi among beauty types. CB3, High Feminine and Medium Wild, I3, High Feminine, S1, Medi um to High Feminine, Cute and Wild, and CB1, Medium Cute and Medium Wild, had significantly higher Qizhi scores than other models. Models low in the Cute and the Feminine had the lowest Qizhi scores. Table 4 11 Mean Scores of Qizhi by Beauty Types Group Model Qizhi Mean Rank Std. Error 95 % Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound High Feminine Medium Wild CB3 3.92 1 tie .06 3.80 4.04 High Feminine I3 3.87 1 tie .06 3.76 3.98 Med to High Fem Cute Wild S1 3.86 1 tie .06 3.74 3.98 Medium Cute Medium Wild CB1 3.83 1 tie .06 3.71 3.94 Low Wild I5 3.69 2 .06 3.58 3.81 High Cute G3 3.54 3 tie .06 3.42 3.67 Medium Cute S2 3.51 3 tie .06 3.39 3.64 Low Cute Low Wild G5 3.33 4 .06 3.21 3.46 High Wild Medium Feminine W2 2.96 5 tie .06 2 .76 3.00 High Wild Medium Feminine W1 2.88 5 tie .06 2.76 3.00 Low Cute E3 2.59 6 .06 2.46 2.72 Low Feminine CA5 2.44 7 .06 2.31 2.56 Low Cute E5 2.26 8 .07 2.13 2.40 Low Feminine CA3 2.09 9 .06 1.97 2.22

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55 A Pearson correlation analysis revealed tha t Qizhi scores were significantly related to the three beauty types. Qizhi was significantly an positively correlated to the Feminine (r = .668, p = .000) and to the Cute ( r = .337, p = .000). Qizhi was significantly and negatively related to the Wild (r = .255, p = .000). A multiple regression analysis also produced significant results (df = 3, F = 79.683, p = .000) with significant betas for the Feminine (.619), the Cute (.337) and the Wild (.122). This suggested that Qizhi was a combination of the thre e beauty types mostly feminine, some cute and a little wild H4: Models that are associated with Qizhi will generate higher pleasure feelings in Taiwanese males compared to models that are not associated with Qizhi. A repeated measures analysis of variance (Table 4 12) was used to compare 4 11 for Qizhi scores) and lowest (E5 and CA3) Qizhi scores. The results (Within group df = 3, F = 132.83, p = .000 and Between group df = 1, F = 5246.37, p =.000) indicated significant differences. Table 4 12 Pleasure Scores for High and Low Levels of Qizhi (9 = High Pleasure/ 1=Low) Group Model Pleasure Mean Rank Std. Error 95 % Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound High Qizhi (Hig h Feminine) I3 6.11 1 .11 5.90 6.33 Low Qizhi (Low Feminine) CA3 5.78 2 .13 5.53 6.03 High Qizhi (High Feminine Medium Wild) CB3 5.41 3 .14 5.14 5.68 Low Qizhi (Low Cute) E5 3.05 4 .12 2.81 3.29 Overall the results did not indicate Pleasure wa s related to Qizhi. One of the high Qizhi models (I3) had the highest pleasure score, but the second Qizhi model (CB3) had the third lowest pleasure score. Therefore, the Hypothesis 4 is not supported.

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56 H5: Models that are associated with Qizhi will produce more arousal in Taiwanese males compared to models that are not associated with Qizhi. A repeated measures analysis of variance (Table 4 13) was used to compare 4 11 f or Qizhi sco res) and lowest (E5 and CA3) Qizhi scores. Table 4 13 Arousal Scores for High and Low Levels of Qizhi (9 = High Arousal/1 = Low) Group Model Arousal Mean Rank Std. Error 95 % Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound High Qizhi (High Feminine) I3 4.76 1 tie .14 4.48 5.04 Low Qizhi (Low Feminine) CA3 4.55 1 tie .15 4.26 4.83 High Qizhi (High Feminine Medium Wild) CB3 3.80 2 .14 3.53 4.08 Low Qizhi (Low Cute) E5 3.18 3 .16 2.86 3.51 The results (Within group df = 3, F = 108.882, p = .000 a nd Between group df = 1, F = 4726.954, p =.000) indicated significant differences. However, as with p leasure, the results did not indicate that a rousal was related to Qizhi. One of the high Qizhi models (I3) had the highest arousal score, but the second hi gh Qizhi model (CB3) had the third lowest arousal score. Furthermore, one of the low Qizhi model (E5) generated lowest arousal mean while the other low Qizhi model (CA3) generated the second high arousal mean. Therefore the hypothesis 5 is not supported. H6: Models that are associated with Qizhi will engender higher dominance in Taiwanese males compared to models that are not associated with Qizhi. A repeated measures analysis of variance (Table 4 14) was used to compare s with the highest (CB3 and I3) (see Table 4 11 f or Qizhi scores) and lowest (E5 and CA3) Qizhi scores. The results (Within group df =

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57 3, F = 8.066, p = .000 and Between group df = 1, F = 3213.608, p =.000) indicated significant differences. However the r esults did not indicate d ominance was related to Qizhi. The low Qizhi models (E5) had the lowest dominance score, and the other low Qizhi model (CA3) had the highest dominance score Thus, the hypothesis 6 is not supported. Table 4 14 Dominance Scores f or High and Low Levels of Qizhi (1 = High Dominance (being controlled)/9 = Low (in control)) Group Model Dominance Mean Rank Std. Error 95 % Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound Low Qizhi (Low Cute) E5 4.61 1 tie .19 4.25 4.98 High Qizhi (Hi gh Feminine) I3 4.97 1 tie .14 4.69 5.25 High Qizhi (High Feminine Medium Wild) CB3 5.39 2 tie .15 5.08 5.69 Low Qizhi (Low Feminine) CA3 5.53 2 tie .14 5.26 5.80

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58 C HAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Summary of Results and Findings The main purpose of this stu kinds of beauty types are favored in Taiwan. The results of a factor analysis showed that male evaluations of models are si milar to, but not exactly the same as, female evaluations, as reported by Wu (2011). Among Taiwanese female and male evaluations, the Girl Next Door type and the Cute Acting type factored into the Cute type, while the Classic Beauty type and the Intellectu al type factored into the Feminine Edgy type and the Wildness type do not fall into m utually exclusive categories. Regarding emotional responses to three combined beauty types, High Feminine were significantly more pleasing than High Wild models, which wer e associated with responses showed no difference in pleasure between High Feminine and Low Femi nine models. According to the research mentioned earlier, Taiwanese culture is deeply influenced by Japanese pop culture. In addition, research has indicated that beauty in Japanese culture is often portrayed through the cute and girlish (Maynard & Taylor, 1999). Taiwanese males may thus be affected by Japanese culture and feel that models with a girlish image are more pleasing.

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59 Among Taiwanese men, High Cute and Low Wild models generated significantly greater arousal than High Wild and Low Cute models. How ever, High Wild and Low 2011). In addition, the arousal mean score of each model was below 5, which demonstrates that Taiwanese males did not think the models used in the survey were very arousing. Furthermore, females felt in control when facing High Cute, Low Feminine, and Low Wild models and felt no control when facing High Wild and Low Cute models. Similarly, males felt in control when facing High Cute models, and felt no con trol when facing Low Cute models. Low Feminine models generated significant dominance scores for both males and females. The Low Feminine models in the present study are CA3 and CA5, which were models associated with the cute and girlish image. Models with a girlish image may make Taiwanese males feel in control since these models may look like their little sisters. Although neither High Cute models nor High Feminine models are associated with sexiness, they generated different emotional responses in males. High Cute models generated significantly greater pleasure and arousal than High Wild models, which are the sexy beauty type. However, High Feminine and Low Feminine models both generated significantly greater pleasure and arousal than High Wild models. Wh ether dominant feeling. study showed that High and Medium Qizhi models produced significantly g reater

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60 pleasure and arousal than Low Qizhi models in females. Nevertheless, for men, High Qizhi models did not generate significantly greater pleasure and arousal than Low Qizhi models. For both men and women, High Qizhi models did not have significantly g reater dominance than Low Qizhi models. Table 5 emotional responses to different beauty types (Wu, 2011). Table 5 1. Beauty T ypes. Emotional Response Male Response Female Response Greatest Pleasure High Feminine High Cute Low Feminine High Feminine High Cute Low Wild Least Pleasure High Wild Low Cute High Wild Low Feminine Greatest Arousal High Feminine Low Feminine High Cute High Wild High Feminine High Wild Low Cute Least Arousal High Wild Low Cute Low Feminine Greatest Dominance Low Feminine High Cute Low Feminine Low Wild Least Dominance Low Cute High Feminine High Wild Low Cute Implications of the Study These findings provide advertisers/companies with direction in choosing appropriate models to represent their products. Although the factor analysis revealed two categorizations, Sexy beauty type (i.e., Wild) and Not Sexy beauty type (i.e., Feminine and Cute), the resul ts showed that men may have different feelings about models within one category.

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61 Figure 5 1. High Cute Models with High Pleasure and Arousal. First, the results showed that High Cute models generated high pleasure and high arousal. This implies that mal e audiences would feel positive and interested when facing Cute models. Marketers ca n refer to model G3 and G5 ( Figure 5 1) to select appropriate models. Second, despite previous results indicating that men demonstrate greater physiological reaction to nud e female models than women (Belch et al., 1982), the results of the study showed that males experienced lower pleasure and arousal when viewing sexy models. Thus, marketers and advertising agencies should carefully consider how to portray a sexy image that they want to link to their products to avoid negative and bored reactions. Third, the findings of the study showed that models of the Feminine beauty type did not generate consistent emotional responses in males. Both Low Feminine and High Feminine beaut y types generated feeling of high pleasure and arousal. This may indicate that the Feminine style might not generate strong reactions in men. If marketers want to connect their products to the Feminine image, they have to be precise in their

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62 model selectio n process. Other characteristics of models, such as fame, might need to be considered in the selection process. responses. Thus, marketers do not need to make Qizhi a crucial e lement in model selection when targeting male consumers. Limitations and Future Research Although there were significant findings in the study, there were some limitations. First, some of the models used in the study were celebrities. Despite participant s being asked to answer the questions by first impression of the photographs and to ignore odels used were not in identical poses in the photographs, which may have affected leas but not the least, there were two sample groups in the survey conducted in the present research. Instead of randomly sending out the questionnaires to both samples, all the participants in the Sample Taiwan received one questionnaire and participants in the Sample UF received the other. Although all the participants were required not to have left Taiwan for more than six years, residence in the U.S. may still have influenced There are several suggestions for future research. First, future research could involve focus groups to investigate the different responses to each model and to identify the model characteristics that cause different responses. Sec ond, researchers could

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63 sexy beauty. Furthermore, other researchers could use the seven types of beauty proposed by Wu (2011) to investigate the emotional responses of oth males, especially males in China and Japan, both of which have cultural connections with Taiwa n.

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64 APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SA MPLE UF: ENGLISH VER SION Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in thi s study. Thank you for your participation of this questionnaire. The questionnaire will not take you more than 10 minutes. This questionnaire is conducted by a graduate student of University of Florida who majors in Advertising for final thesis use. The purpose of the questionnaire is twofold. First, to realize your emotional response toward different beauty types. Second, to realize how you categorize different beauty types. In the following questionnaire, you will be asked questions about 14 models in t he photographs. There are no correct or incorrect answers. Please answer every question by first impression, ignoring anything else you know about the model. All the information you provide is confidential. Your identity will be kept confidential to the e xtent provided by law. The information you provide will only be used in academic research. There will be no direct benefit and risk for you by participating in this questionnaire. And there will be no compensation to you for participating in the study. Yo ur participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. If you have any questions about this study, please contact me, Chen Ting Chen, Department of Advertising, University of Florida. E mail: XXXXXXXXX @ufl.edu, Phone number: 352 XXX XXXX or Dr. Sutherland, E mail: XXXXXXXXX @jou.ufl.edu If you have any questions about your rights, please contact IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of F lorida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Thank you for your assistance. Chen Ting Chen I voluntarily participate this questionnaire. I agree

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65 What is your gender? Mal e Female What is your age? Under 18 years old 18 to 20 years old 21 to 25 years old 26 to 30 years old 31 to 35 years old 36 years and over old What is your nationality? Taiwan Others Have you lived in countries other than Taiwan starting 6 years back from now? Yes No

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66 First Part This part of the questionnaire is going t o test your emotional response toward different beauty types by AdSAM. The following graphic characters represent YOU. The first row represents your pleasure degree. The second row shows your arousal. And the final row shows how dominant you feel. Please choose the answer in EACH row which best identifies YOUR feelings. You can choose by the degree you feel. Please answer the questions based on the FIRST IMPRESSION of the models AS PICTURED, ignoring other things you know about them.

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74 Second Part You are required to evaluate the models in different types of beauty. Please using a five point rating scale to answer your opinion about the description below the photograph.

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75 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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76 Strongly Disagree Disagree Nei ther Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the photograph is a Wil dness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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77 Strongly Disagr ee Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the phot ograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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78 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The mo del in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qi zhi

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79 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Ty pe The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the ph otograph has Qizhi

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80 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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81 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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82 Thank you for taking the time to complete the questionnaire.

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83 APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SA MPLE UF: MANDARIN VE RSION E mail: XXXXXXXXX @ufl.edu : 1 352 XXX XXXX Sutherland E mail: XXXXXXXXX @jou.ufl.edu (University of Florida) (The Institutional Review Board (IRB)) :Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2 250 :1 352 392 0433

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102 APPENDIX C QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SA MPLE TAIWAN: ENGLISH VERSION Please read this consent document carefully befor e you decide to participate in this study. Thank you for your participation of this questionnaire. The questionnaire will not take you more than 10 minutes. This questionnaire is conducted by a graduate student of University of Florida who majors in Adve rtising for final thesis use. The purpose of the questionnaire is twofold. First, to realize your emotional response toward different beauty types. Second, to realize how you categorize different beauty types. In the following questionnaire, you will be as ked questions about 14 models in the photographs. There are no correct or incorrect answers. Please answer every question by first impression, ignoring anything else you know about the model. All the information you provide is confidential. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. The information you provide will only be used in academic research. There will be no direct benefit and risk for you by participating in this questionnaire. And there will be no compensation to you for participating in the study. Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. If you have any questions about this study, please contact me, Chen Ting Chen, Department of Advertising, University of Florida. E mail: XXXXXXXXX @ufl.edu, Phone number: 352 XXX XXXX or Dr. Sutherland, E mail: XXXXXXXXX @jou.ufl.edu If you have any questions about your rights, please contact IRB02 O ffice, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Thank you for your assistance. Chen Ting Chen I voluntarily participate this questionnaire. I agree

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103 What is your gender? Male Female What is your age? Under 18 years old 18 to 20 years old 21 to 25 years old 26 to 30 years old 31 to 35 years old 36 years and over old What is your nationality? Taiwan Others Have you lived in countries other than Taiwan starting 6 years back from now? Yes No

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104 First Part This p art of the questionnaire is going to test your emotional response toward different beauty types by AdSAM. The following graphic characters represent YOU. The first row represents your pleasure degree. The second row shows your arousal. And the final row s hows how dominant you feel. Please choose the answer in EACH row which best identifies YOUR feelings. You can choose by the degree you feel. Please answer the questions based on the FIRST IMPRESSION of the models AS PICTURED, ignoring other things you know about them.

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112 Second Part You are required to evaluate the models in different types of beauty. Please using a five point rating scale to answer your opinion about the description below the photograph.

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113 Strongly D isagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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114 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type T he model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph h as Qizhi

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115 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acti ng Type The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in t he photograph has Qizhi

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116 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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1 17 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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118 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Next door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the p hotograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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119 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The model in the photograph is a Classic Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Girl Nex t door Type The model in the photograph is a Cute Acting Type The model in the photograph is a Wildness Type The model in the photograph is a Intellectual Beauty Type The model in the photograph is a Sexy Little Women Type The model in the photograph is a Edgy Type The model in the photograph has Qizhi

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120 Thank you for taking the time to complete the questionnaire.

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121 APPENDIX D QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SA MPLE TAIWAN: MANDARI N VERSION E mail: XXXXXXXXX @ufl.edu : 1 352 XXX XXXX Sutherland E mail: XXXXXXXXX @jou.ufl.edu (University of Florida) (The Institutional Review Board (IRB)) :Box 112250, Univer sity of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250 :1 352 392 0433

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122 18 18 20 21 25 26 3 0 31 35 36 ?

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140 LIST OF REFERENCES Advertising Research Foundation. (2006). Engag ement Retrieved October 11, 2011 from http://www.thearf.org/assets/engagement council. Babbie, E. R. (2010). The practice of social research ( 12th ed. ) Belmont, California, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Baker, M. J. and G. A. Churchill, Jr. (1977). The im pact of physically attractive models on advertising evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(4), 538 555. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3151194 Belch, M. A., Holgerson, B. E., Belch, G. E. & Koppman, J. (1982). Psychophysiological and c ognitive responses to sex in advertising. Advances in Consumer Research 9, 424 427. Retrieved from http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/display.asp?id=6039 Byrne, D., London, O. & Reeves, K. (1968). The effects of physical attractiveness, sex, and attitude s imilarity on interpersonal attraction. Journal of Personality, 36(2), 259 271. doi: 10.1111/j.1467 6494.1968.tb01473.x Caballero, M. J. & Solomon, P. J. (1984). Effects of model attractiveness on sales response. Journal of Advertising, 13(1), 17 23+33. Ret rieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/4188480 Chaiken, S. (1979). Communicator physical attractiveness and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(8), 1387 1397. doi: 10.1037/0022 3514.37.8.1387 Chang, H. J. (2009). Online supportive interactions: Using a network approach to examine communication patterns within a psychosis social support group in Taiwan. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60(7), 1504 1517. doi: 10.1002/asi.21070 Chen, S. Y. (1998) State, media and democracy in Taiwan. Media, Culture & Society, 20, 11 29. doi: 10.1177/016344398020001002 Cheng, Y. W. (2011, June 15). Lady Gaga will visit Taiwan in July. CAN News Retrieved from http://www2.cna.com.tw Chiang, Y. C. (2011). Analects and Mencius are still in syllabus of college entrance exam. The Epoch Times Retrieved from http://www.epochtimes.com Chinese Taipei Film Archive. (n.d.) Movie Memorabilia. Retrieved June 1 2011 from http://www.ctfa.org.tw/history/index.php?id=1099

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141 Cunni ngham, M. R. (1986). Measuring the physical in physical attractiveness: Quasi experiments on the sociobiology of female facial beauty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(5), 925 935. doi: 10.1037/0022 3514.50.5.925 Davies, A. P. C.. (2008). E xploiting the beauty in the eye of beholder: the use of physical attractiveness as a persuasive tactic. Personality and Individual Differences 45, 302 306. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.04.016 Dawson, S. A. (1986). The physical attractiveness phenomena [Review of the book The physical attractiveness phenomena, by G. L. Patzer]. The Journal of Marketing, 50(4), 256 258. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/1251302 DeShields Jr., O. W. Kara, A. & Kaynak, E. (1996). Source effects in purchase decisions: the i mpact of physical attractiveness and accent of salesperson. International Journal of Research in Marketing 13, 89 101. Dion, K., Berscheid, E. & Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24(3), 285 290. doi: 10.1037/h0033731 Eagly, A. H., Makhijani, M. G., Ashmore, R. D. & Longo, L. C. (1991). What is beautiful is good, but...: A meta analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype. Psychological Bulletin 110(1), 109 128. doi: 10.10 37/0033 2909.110.1.109 E phron, E.. (2005, November 21). Engagement explained [Web log post] Retrieved from http://www.ephrononmedia.com/article_archive/articleViewer.asp?origin=AR&articl eID=146&categoryID=16&categoryName=Accountability+ Ephron, E. (2006, J anuary 11). Want Engagement? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.ephrononmedia.com/article_archive/articleViewer.asp?origin=AR&articl eID=148&categoryID=16&categoryName=Accountability+ Feingold, A. (1990). Gender differences in effects of physical att ractiveness on romantic attraction: A comparison across five research paradigms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 981 993. doi: 10.1037/0022 3514.59.5.981 Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison process. Human Relations 7, 117 140. Firth, K. T., Cheng, H. & Shaw, P. (2004). Race and beauty: A comparison of Asian and Western models in women's magazine Advertisements. Sex Roles 50(1 2), 53 61. doi: 10.1023/B:SERS.0000011072.84489.e2 Gold, T. B. (1993). Go with your feelings: Hong Kong and Taiwan popular culture in Greater China." The China Quarterly, 136, 907 925. doi: 10.1017/S0305741000032380

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142 Goodman, J. R., Morris, J. D. & Sutherland, J. C. (2008). Is beauty a joy forever? Young women's emotional responses to varying types of beautiful advertising models J & MC Quarterly, 85(1), 147 168 Griffin, A. M. & Langlois, J. H. (2006). Stereotype directionality and attractiveness stereotyping: Is beauty good or is ugly bad? Social Cognition, 24(2), 187 206. doi: 10.1521/soco.2006.2 4.2.187 Gu, M. H. (2011, June 18). Tiffany Hsu has tough eyelashes. The Liberty Times Retrieved from http://www.libertytimes.com.tw Hatfield, E. & S. Sprecher (1986). Mirror, mirror: The importance of looks in everyday life New York, SUNY Press Hohone t. (2011). List of television channels Retrieved June 1 2011 from http://www.hohonet.com.tw/hoho 4/catv/channel/showchannel.asp Hsieh, C. L. (2009). Privacy disclosure: Personal information and images on social networking sites in Taiwan. 2009 Ninth Annu al International Symposium on Applications and the Internet. Bellevue, WA Hsieh, Y. C. (2011, June 13). Sweet mix sexy: embuche debut. IDN news Retrieved from http://www.idn.com.tw Huang, C. M., Chan, E. & Hyder, A. A. (2010). Web 2.0 and internet social networking: a new tool for disaster management? Lessons from Taiwan. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2010 10(57). doi: 10.1186/1472 6947 10 57 Huang, W. a socialite. The Liberty Times Retrieved from http://www.libertytimes.com.tw Johnson, E., III, & Myers, T. I. (1967). The development and use of the primary affect scale (Technical Report). Bethesda, Maryland: Naval Medical Research Institute. Jones, D., Brace, C. L., Jankowiak, W., Laland, K. N., Musselman, L. E., Langlois, J. H., Roggman, L. A., Prusse, D., Schweder, B. & Symons, D. (1995). Sexual selection, physical attractiveness, and facial neoteny: Cross cultural evidence and implications. Current A nthropology, 36(5), 723 748. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/2744016 Joseph, W. B. (1982). The credibility of physically attractive communicators: A review. Journal of Advertising, 11(3), 15 24 Kahle, L. R. & Homer, P. M.. (1985 ). Physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser: a social adaptation perspective. The Journal of Consumer Research 11(4), 954 961

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143 Kamins, M. A. (1990). An investigation into the "Match up" hypothesis in celebrity advertising: When beauty may be only skin deep. Journal of Advertising 19(1), 4 13. Retrieve from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/4188750 Ko, Y. C. & Hsueh, S. K. (2011, May 23). Being assassin in the election? Mei Jen Yu: not interested in. CTS News Retrieved from http://new s.cts.com.tw Lang, P. J. (1985). The cognitive psychophysiology of emotion: Fear and anxiety. Anxiety and anxiety disorders Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Lasch, C. (1978). The culture of Narcissism New York: Norton. Levy, B., Ariely, D., Mazar, N., Ch i, W., Lukas, S. & Elman, I. (2008). Gender differences in the motivational processing of facial beauty. Learning and Motivation 39(2), 136 145. doi:10.1016/j.lmot.2007.09.002 Li, H. (2008, October 10). Top Taiwanese socialites. Huaxia. Retrieved from htt p://www.huaxia.com Lin, H. C. (2011, May 25). Tips for young people in job interview. Card U Retrieved from http://www.cardu.com.tw Lin, H. Y. (2010, February). Jewelry makes you love at first sight. Girl 108. Retrieved from http://mag.nownews.com/arti cle.php?mag=2 5 489 Martin, C. M. & Kennedy, P. F. (1993). Advertising and social comparison: Consequences for female preadolescents and adolescents. Psychology and Marketing 10, 513 530. doi: 10.1002/mar.4220100605 Maynard, M. & Taylor, C. R. (1999). Gir lish images across cultures: Analyzing Japanese versus Seventeen magazine Ads. Journal of Advertising, 28(1), 39 48. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/4189099 Mills, J. & Aronson, E. (1965). Opinion change as a function of the communicator's attracti veness and Desire to influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1(2), 173 177. doi: 10.1037/h0021646 Morris, J. D. (1995). Observations: SAM: The self assessment manikin an efficient cross cultural measurement of emotional response. Journal of Advertising Research 35(December), 63 68. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:SAM:+The+Self Assessment+Manikin+An+Efficient+Cross Cultural+Measurement+Of+Emotional+Response#0 Morris, J. D. & Boone, M. A. (1998). The effects of music on emotional response, brand attitude, and purchase intent in an emotional advertising condition. Advances in Consumer Research 25, 518 526. Retrieved from http://adsam.com/file_download/23

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144 Morris, J. D., Strausbaugh, K. L. & Nthange ni, M. (1996). Emotional response to advertisements (or commercials) across culture. The 1996 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising Morrow, P. C. (1990). Physical attractiveness and selection decision making. Journal of Management 16(1), 45 60 doi: 10.1177/014920639001600104 Nakano, Y. (2002). Who initiates a global flow? Japanese popular culture in Asia. Visual Communication, 1(2), 229 253. doi: 10.1177/147035720200100207 Rainmaker XKM. (2011). 2010 The volume of magazine circulation in Taiw an Retrieved from http://www.xkm.com.tw Republic of China (Taiwan). Government Information Office. (n.d.). History Retrieved May 25 2011 from http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan website/5 gp/yearbook/03History.pdf Republic of China (Taiwan). Government Informa tion Office. (n.d.). Culture Retrieved May 25 2011 from http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan website/5 gp/yearbook/17Culture.pdf Republic of China (Taiwan). Ministry of Education. (n.d.). Mandarin Dictionary Retrieved June 15 2011 from http://dict.revised.moe.ed u.tw Republic of China (Taiwan). National Communications Commission. (2007). Cable radio and television regulation Retrieved June 1 2011 from http://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/law_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=185&law_sn=921 &sn_f=927&is_history=0 Richins, M. L. (1991). Social comparison and the idealized images of advertising. Journal of Consumer Research 18(1), 71 83. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/2489486 Rosenberg, S. (1976). New approaches to the analysis of personal constructs in person perception. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 24, 179 242 Russell, J. A. & Mehrabian, A. (1977). Evidence for a three factor theory of emotions. Journal of Research in Personality 11(3), 273 294. doi: 10.1016/0092 6566(77)90037 X Singh, D. (19 93). Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: Role of waist to hip ratio. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 293 307. doi: 10.1037/0022 3514.65.2.293 Solomon, M. R., Ashmore, R. D. & Longo, L. C. (1992). The beauty match u p hypothesis: Congruence between types of beauty and product images in advertising. Journal of Advertising, 21(4), 23 34. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/4188855

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147 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Chen Ting Chen was born in Taipei, Taiwan, in 1983. She got her Bachelor of Art de gree of Political Science in National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, in 2006. She then entered Dentsu Kuohua advertising agency in Taipei, Taiwan as an Account Planner. After two years working, she decided to study oversea in the field of advertising. Ther efore, she came to the University of Florida in August 2009 to pursue a master degree in advertising. She receive d her Master of Advertising degree in 2011. After graduation, she work ed at advertising agency in Taipei, Taiwan.