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Emotional Response to Photographic Images in Advertising across Cultures

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043785/00001

Material Information

Title: Emotional Response to Photographic Images in Advertising across Cultures
Physical Description: 1 online resource (73 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Michaelson, Laurie Rebecca
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertising -- china -- collectivism -- images -- individualism -- usa
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: A cross-cultural study was conducted measuring the emotional response and attitudes toward advertisements using the AdSAM scale. The AdSAM scale measures three separate dimensions: pleasure, arousal and dominance. Participants in the United States and China viewed photographic images in the form of advertisements. These images portrayed the two most dominant cultural dimensions from both cultures, Individualism and Collectivism. Research participants from the United States and China viewed the same advertisements, and gave their immediate response to the images in the advertisements. The brands represented in the images were one of a low-involvement product and one of a high-involvement product. China represented the Collectivist sample and the United States represented the Individualist sample. It was predicted that both countries would respond positively to images that portrayed their respective cultural dimension. This study introduced two unpredicted findings. Cultural dimensions can be portrayed correctly in advertising images, but that does not necessarily mean that people from the United States or China will have positive response to these images. It is possible that due to the current global situation, cultures are changing and merging more rapidly. Another significant finding was that there is a relationship between attitudes toward the advertisement and pleasure and arousal scores. This study emphasized the importance of understanding cultures as they change over time. It also showed the importance of understanding consumers' emotional response to advertisements, and how that can improve attitudes toward an advertisement. Companies and researchers should use these finding to expand on the current findings to better understand communicating across cultures.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Laurie Rebecca Michaelson.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Morris, Jon D.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043785:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043785/00001

Material Information

Title: Emotional Response to Photographic Images in Advertising across Cultures
Physical Description: 1 online resource (73 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Michaelson, Laurie Rebecca
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertising -- china -- collectivism -- images -- individualism -- usa
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: A cross-cultural study was conducted measuring the emotional response and attitudes toward advertisements using the AdSAM scale. The AdSAM scale measures three separate dimensions: pleasure, arousal and dominance. Participants in the United States and China viewed photographic images in the form of advertisements. These images portrayed the two most dominant cultural dimensions from both cultures, Individualism and Collectivism. Research participants from the United States and China viewed the same advertisements, and gave their immediate response to the images in the advertisements. The brands represented in the images were one of a low-involvement product and one of a high-involvement product. China represented the Collectivist sample and the United States represented the Individualist sample. It was predicted that both countries would respond positively to images that portrayed their respective cultural dimension. This study introduced two unpredicted findings. Cultural dimensions can be portrayed correctly in advertising images, but that does not necessarily mean that people from the United States or China will have positive response to these images. It is possible that due to the current global situation, cultures are changing and merging more rapidly. Another significant finding was that there is a relationship between attitudes toward the advertisement and pleasure and arousal scores. This study emphasized the importance of understanding cultures as they change over time. It also showed the importance of understanding consumers' emotional response to advertisements, and how that can improve attitudes toward an advertisement. Companies and researchers should use these finding to expand on the current findings to better understand communicating across cultures.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Laurie Rebecca Michaelson.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Morris, Jon D.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043785:00001


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1 EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES IN ADVERTISING ACROSS CULTURES By LAURIE MICHAELSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Laurie Michaelson

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3 To my mother, who has always believed in me

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis is dedicated to my family and friends who have given me unconditional love during my completion of graduate school. I also would like to thank my parents Joe and Sandra Hice, and my husband Jacob Michaelson for their emotional and editorial s upport over the past three years of my graduate career. Without them I would have never made it to the end, and I am forever grateful. Academically this thesis would not have been achievable if it were not for the following people: I would like to thank m y thesis committee of Dr. Jon Morris, Dr. John Sutherland and Dr. Troy Elias. Without their assistance, this research would not have been possible. Thank you to my thesis chair, Dr. Jon Morris, for his dedication to Emotional Response research, and his con siderable knowledge in the field, which helped guide me as a student, researcher, and advertising professional. A very special thanks goes to Dr. John Sutherland for giving me extra support upon completion of this research. In addition, I owe a debt of g ratitude to Wanwei Tan and Bejie Bee for assisting in the translation of my cross cultural survey. Without them I would not have been able to effectively communicate with my Chinese participants. I also want to acknowledge and thank Jody Hedge and all the supportive administration staff for the College of Journalism and Communications Graduate Studies program.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 Need for Present Research ................................ ................................ .................... 14 Ro le of Current Study ................................ ................................ ............................. 16 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 17 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 17 Global Advertising ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 17 Emotional Response Theory ................................ ................................ ................... 19 Attitude toward the Ad and Emotional Response ................................ .................... 20 PAD Theory of Emotion ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 The Self Assessment Manikin (AdSAM ) ................................ ............................... 22 Individualism and Collectivism ................................ ................................ ................ 23 Visual Advertising ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 28 Hypothesis ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 29 Low Involvement within Individualistic Culture ................................ .................. 29 High Involvement within Individualistic Culture ................................ ................. 29 Low Involvement within Collectivistic Culture ................................ ................... 30 High Involvement within Collectivistic Culture ................................ .................. 30 Low Involvement between Cultures ................................ ................................ .. 30 High Involvement between Cultures ................................ ................................ 30 Attitude toward the Ad ................................ ................................ ...................... 30 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 31 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 32 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 32 Measurement Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 The Self A ssessment Manikin (ADSAM ) ................................ ........................ 32 Administration Procedures ................................ ................................ ............... 34 Attitudes toward the Ad ................................ ................................ .................... 34 Stimuli ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 34 Individualism and Co llectivism ................................ ................................ .......... 35

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6 Administration Procedures ................................ ................................ ............... 36 Brand Familiarity ................................ ................................ .............................. 36 Image Test Results ................................ ................................ .......................... 37 Final Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 38 Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 38 Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 39 Analysis Performed ................................ ................................ ................................ 39 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 40 Analysis Conducted ................................ ................................ ................................ 40 Sample Demographics ................................ ................................ ..................... 40 Emotional Response: T shirt, Individualistic a nd Collective Advertisement ...... 41 Pleasure Scores ................................ ................................ ............................... 41 Arousal Scores ................................ ................................ ................................ 41 Dominance Scores ................................ ................................ ........................... 43 AdSAM Perce ptual Map ................................ ................................ ................. 43 Attitude toward the T shirt Advertisements ................................ ............................. 45 Emotional Response: Soccer, Individualistic and Collective Advertisements ......... 47 Pleasure Scores ................................ ................................ ............................... 47 Arousal Scor es ................................ ................................ ................................ 47 Dominance Scores ................................ ................................ ........................... 48 AdSAM Perceptual Map ................................ ................................ ................. 49 Attitude Toward the Soccer Advertisements ................................ ........................... 49 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ........ 52 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 52 Individual and Collective Advertisements ................................ ................................ 52 Low Involvement Within Individualistic and Collective Cultures ........................ 52 High Involvement Within Individualistic and Collective Cultures ....................... 52 Low Involvement Between Cultures ................................ ................................ 53 High Involvement Between Cultures ................................ ................................ 53 Emotional Response ................................ ................................ ........................ 53 Attitude Toward the Ads ................................ ................................ ................... 55 Importance to Communication Professionals ................................ .......................... 55 Limitations of the Current Study ................................ ................................ .............. 56 Suggestions for Further Research ................................ ................................ .......... 57 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 58 APPENDIX A ADSAM SCALE PLEASURE AROUSAL DOMINANCE ................................ ........ 59 B ADSAM INSTRUCTIONS ................................ ................................ ..................... 60 C ADVE RTISEMENTS CREATED AND USED AS SURVEY STIMULI ..................... 61

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7 D ZHANG'S 2009 MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT ................................ .................. 62 E INFORMED CONSENT ................................ ................................ .......................... 65 F QUALIFYI NG QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ .................... 67 G DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ ............... 68 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 69 BIOGRAPHIC AL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 73

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Oysterman table of Individualism and Collectivism domains .............................. 27 3 1 All individual and collective photographs tested agreement percents. ................ 37 3 2 All individual and collective photographs tested approved for use. ..................... 38 4 1 Demographic profile. ................................ ................................ .......................... 41 4 2 T shirt: Pleasure scores for Individualistic and Collectivistic ads. ....................... 42 4 4 T shirt: Dominance scores for Individualistic and Collectivistic ads. ................... 43 4 5 T shirt: Attitude toward the ad for Individualistic and Collectivistic ads. .............. 45 4 6 Attitude toward the ad regression for the Individualistic T shirt Ad. .................... 46 4 7 Attitude toward the ad regression for the Collectivistic T shirt ad. ...................... 46 4 8 Soccer: Pleasure scores for Individualistic and Collectivistic ads. ...................... 47 4 9 Soccer : Arousal scores for Individualistic and Collectivistic ads. ........................ 47 4 10 Soccer: Dominance scores for Individualistic and Collectivistic ads. .................. 48 4 11 Soccer: Attitude toward the ad for Individualistic and Collectivistic ads. ............. 50 4 12 Attitude toward the ad regression for the Individualistic soccer ad. .................... 50 4 13 Attitude toward the ad regression for the Collectivistic soccer ad. ...................... 51

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 advertisements and brands. ................................ ................................ ............... 20 3 1 AdSAM Scales, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance. ................................ ........ 33 4 1 AdSAM perceptual map for T Shirt advertisements, both U.S. and China. ....... 44 4 2 AdSAM perceptual map for T Shirt advertisements, both U.S. and China. ....... 48 C 1 Lapparel advertisements created by author for survey. ................................ ...... 61 C 2 Futewear advertisements created by author for survey. ................................ ..... 61

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented t o the Graduate School o f t he University Of Florida i n Partial Fulfillment o f t he Requirement s for the Degree of Master of Advertising EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES IN ADVERTISING ACROSS CULTURES By Laurie Michaelson December 2011 Chair: Jon D. Morris Major: Advertising A cross cultural study was conducted measuring the emotional response and attitudes toward advertisements using the AdSAM scale. The AdSAM scale measures three separate dimensions: pleasure, arousal and dominance. Participants in the United States and China viewed photographic images in the form of advertisements. These images portrayed the two most dominant cultural dimensions from both cul tures, Individualism and Collectivism. Research participants from the United States and China viewed the same advertisements, and gave their immediate response to the images in the advertisements. The brands represented in the images were one of a low invo lvement product and one of a high involvement product. China represented the Collectivist sample and the United States represented the Individualist sample. It was predicted that both countries would respond positively to images that portrayed their respe ctive cultural dimension. This study introduced two unpredicted findings. Cultural dimensions can be portrayed correctly in advertising images, but that does not necessarily mean that people from the United States or China will have a positive response to these images. It is possible that due to the current global situation, cultures are changing and merging more rapidly. Another significant

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11 finding was that there is a relationship between attitudes toward the advertisement and pleasure and arousal scores. This study emphasized the importance of understanding cultures as they change response s to advertisements, and how th ose can improve attitudes toward an advertisement. Companies and researchers should use these finding s to expand on the current marketing research practices as a means to better understand communicating across cultures.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION International advertising is designed to promote the same product in di fferent countries and cultures (Mooji, 1994). Global marketing and the cross cultural use of corporation must have an understanding of the differences in cultures in order to be successful (Cheong, Kin, & Zheng 2010). There are cultural elements that influence marketing, such as attitudes toward goods, colors, brand names, brand images, music, g ender roles and much more (Mooji 1994). The appropriate design and creative aspects i n advertising can ensure the success of any global campaign. Cutler, Erdem understanding of cultures, global communication, and emotional response is very important to global advertising. Due to increasing skepticism about the effectiveness of advertising products globally, international marketers are beginning to vary their tactics (Morris, St rausbaugh & Nthangeni, 1996). Now more than ever it is important to understand the cultures your advertising will target in order to employ the right tactics and portray the intended message. Research is necessary to understand the effectiveness of cross c ultural marketing, and to assure companies are using the correct implementation of photographic images in advertisements within the global community. Not only is it important to use the right photographic image, it also is equally important to understand t he emotional responses to that image and the possible implications such as the responses to the brand attitude.

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13 programming of the people in an environment. Culture is not a chre matistic of individuals; it encompasses a number of people who were conditioned by the same aspects of culture that influence consumer behavior; For example people in more i When attempting to understand a culture and its influences a better understanding of frameworks such as Hosfted e 's cultural dimensions is a necessity (Cheong, Kin, & Z heng, 2010). begins at the individual level, through a study of attitudes and their components according to Morris, (1996). Cultural orientation has a significant effect on the process of persuasion and patterns of emotions, but very little research has been done to examine the different effects of emotional appeals across cultures (Aaker & Williams, 1998). During a study on the influence of culture, Neelankavil and Zhang (19 95) found that the influ ence of culture in the form of I ndividualism and C ollectivism appeals does affect the consumer's preference for the advertisement. When conducting their research, they tested Americans as representing the individual culture and Chin ese as representing the collective culture. To successfully employ any method of cross cultural advertising, a marketer should understand the difference between the cultures an advertisement might be trying to reach. Consumers grow up in a specific culture and become accustomed to that culture's morals, value systems, and beliefs. In turn, one's culture can affect one's

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14 perception process. This tells us that an individual response to an advertising message will be congruent with an individual's cultural bac kground (Gelb & Zhang, 1 996). Understanding the message, and the emotional response a consumer might have to the message, could be very important within cultures. American companies looking to operate in China need to understa nd the differences between the I ndividualistic cultures of America as compared to the C ollectivist ic culture of China. The impact of these cultural differences on the effectiveness of advertisement appeals has increased in importance of understanding. Since the political changes made at country has experienced increases in economic development. It is important that the global market keeps up with, and can understand, the chan ges happening in this specific global market. China is the fastest growing economy in the world, with more than a billion potential consumers, but it also is among the least understood cultures and consumer markets (Neelankavil & Zhang, 1995). Need f or Pre sent Research It is important to measure the emotional responses to photographic images in advertisement across cultures because of the unavoidable contribution to how consumers will respond to an advertisement. According to Stout and Lockenby (1988), advertising is created based on the ability of an individual to relate to basic emotions, and the feeling thought to be generated in t h e ad may or may not be how a consumer portrays the advertisement. Many companies are now venturing across border s, expanding their business globally. If business organizations cannot communicate with

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15 consumers in an effective way through their advertisements, the success of that brand or product is at stake. The cross cultural differences in I ndividualism and C olle ctivism, and the acceptance by marketers that Asian nations are very different from the U.S. in the degree of individualism, makes understanding the two cultures important to companies trying to use advertisements to cross cultures (Cutler, Erdem & Javalgi 1997). Based an the previously discussed research, it appears that due to their cultural background, individuals from these countries will have contrasting emotional responses to Individualistic and C ollectivist ic photographs in an advertisement. Researc hers have argued that cultural values are the core of advertising messages, and typical advertisements tend to endorse these values within a culture. Neither the United States nor China is culturally homogenous, but it can be said that both cultures portra y different aspects of Individualism and Collectivism (Gelb, 1996). Even with China's growing economy, the society's collective values are slow to change. That is why it is important to employ the correct appeals in advertising between these two very diffe rent cultures (Gelb, 1996). China is considered a C ollectivist society, and has historically focused on de emphasizing personal goals and accomplishments. Whereas the United States is known as an I ndividualist society with historical resentment of conformi ty, and the belief that each American citizen is separate from others and the group (Neelankavil, 1995). When implementing a visual message in the form of photographic advertisements, it is important to consider the culture you are advertising to. Does an image created to portray I ndividualism or C ollectivism affect the emotional response of the consumer?

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16 Will this emotional response affect their brand attitude and purchase intent? There are many reasons to better understand the use of photographs in advert isement across cultures and the emotional response they derive across cultures. Understanding the culture a company is advertising to can help a company better position their brand globally, and is essential to their cross cultural communications success. Role of Current Study This research was conducted to better understand the use of advertising images across cultures. The goal of this research was to determine the differences in emotional responses between I ndividualist and C ollectivist cultures when vie wing photographic images in advertisements, and to determine if brand attitude is influenced by these responses. In order to do so we used the AdSAM scales to measure emotional response. It is important to understand how I ndividualist and C ollectivist st yle images affect the emotional response of each of these two types of cultures differently. One of the reasons we used the AdSAM scales to measure the responses in our study is because they are widely recognized as a proven effective tool for determin ing brand attitude To better understand the difference in emotional response to images in advertising across America and China, It was necessary to research characteristics of I ndividualist and C ollectivist cultures to determine what defines an I ndividualist photograph and C ollectivist photograph in order to accurately test the emotional response to these types of photographic images.

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17 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Overview Cultural orientation has a significant affect on the process of persuasion and patte rns of emotions, but very little research has been done to examine the different effects of emotional appeals across cultures (Aaker, Williams, 1998). To successfully employ any method of cross cultural advertising, it is important to understand the differ ences of the various cultures targeted by an advertisement. Understanding how cultural dimensions affect the way consumers respond emotionally to advertisements is key to understanding how to approach a culture with visual advertising. There are many ways to approach advertising cross culturally, but the two most broadly used methods are adaption and standardization (Agrawl, 1995). Adaption requires advertisers to consider the differences among countries. Standardization is when the advertiser uses a unifor m tactic for all countries and cultures. Another approach to global advertising is a mix of adaption and standardization (Agrawl, 1995; Yakhlef, 2009; Cannon & Yaprak, 2010). Culture can be identified using Dr. Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions. This research tool, which measures the five dimensions of culture, including Individualism and Collectivism, and the affects they have on consumer behavior and emotions, can help advertisers better understand their consumer s in the United States and China. Glo bal Advertising process by which firms attempt to earn additional profits through entry into overseas ecome of

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18 great interest to companies all over the world. Countries like China are a growing opportunity for companies to start marketing and expanding their reach globally (Neelankavil & Zhang, 1995). Each culture has its own unique characteristics that ma y influence consumers' needs and wants, and how they satisfy them. Culture also can affect the way they respond to photographic images in advertisements (Mueller & Toland, 2003). incr easing skepticisms about effectiveness of advertising products globally, international cross culturally, the two methods traditionally used have been adaption and stan dardization. Adaption requires advertisers to consider the differences among countries, religion, customs and cultures. Standardization is a method that has one standard approach to reaching consumers all over the world, with no differentiation. In standar dized advertisements marketers tend to use fewer informational cues and largely utilize images to send their message (Mooij, 1994). Another widely used approach to global advertising is a mix of adaption and standardization. This approach comes from the id ea that the most effective advertising strategy will vary depending upon the situation, location and culture (Agrawl, 1995; Yakhlef, 2009; Cannon & Yaprak, 2010). According to Emery and Tain in 2010, the occurrences of advertising to China from the West and particularity from the United States has not only increased, but has gained importance over the past few years due to the trustworthiness of products advertised by Western countries. This gives Westerners an advantage when looking to

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19 expand and adverti se to China. Because of this it is increasingly important to understand cultural differences. China has a deeply rooted heritage and culture that is very different from the Western culture, and understanding these differences can determine the success of a n advertising campaign in China. Emotional Response Theory Many different contextual effects within an advertisement can influence a by Aaker and Williams (1998), emoti onal appeals tend to be created to evoke emotional reactions in consumers that, in turn, influence attitudes (Holbrook & Batra, 1987). Most individuals will respond in a positive manner to advertising messages that are consistent with their cultural backgr ounds (Neelankavil, 1995). Emotional response and its role in persuasion appeals are of great interest to consumer behavior researchers. Emotions can guide and even influence consumer behavior, while stimuli in advertisements can nal response (Boon & Morris, 1998). As cited by Aaker (1998), emotions have been viewed as a universal set of internal processes that are largely hardwired, arising when an event that is relevant to the concerns of the individual occurs (Darwin, 1896). The re are two main forms of emotional response measurement: verbal and non verbal. Verbal methods are cognitive based. Research experts feel that the effects of emotional advertisements are best represented by non verbal or physiological responses (Holbrook & responses.

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20 Attitude t oward the Ad and Emotional Response According to Holbrook and Batra (1987), response to stimuli such as advertising images can cause emot ions that have the ability to form attitudes toward an advertisement or the brand of a p roduct represented (Figure 2 1 ) Emotional responses to advertisements and the ability to shape attitudes and opinions make understanding emotion extremely valuable to marketers. In a study conducted by Gelb and Zhang (1996), respondents from the U.S. and China favored advertisements that portrayed their cultural values. This study supports the model of emotional a ffects on attitudes toward advertising. Figure 2 1. Holbrook and Ba odel of emotional affects on attitudes toward advertisements and brands. PAD Theory of Emotio n Researchers Osgood, Suchi, and Tannenbaum (1957), were conducting research on the basic dimensions of cognitive operations when they discovered the now widely used semantic differential. This discovery uncovered the lowest common denominators of cognitiv e response to any physical or social stimuli (Mehrabian, 1980). Mehrabian and Russell (1974) proposed the theory that physical or social stimuli have a direct affect on the emotional state of an individual. They then defined the three variables of pleasure arousal and dominance. Using the semantic differential, Mehrabian and Russell went on to prove that these dimensions represent the core of human response to all situations.

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21 As defined by Mehrabian and Russell (1974) pleasure is a feeling state that can b e indicated by smiles, laughter, and positive vers u s negative. Arousal is a feeling state that can be identified by a single dimension ranging from a sleepy state to excitement. The third dimension is dominance, a feeling state that can be measured in term s of postural relaxation, and is i ndependent of both pleasure and arousal. These three dimensions are bipolar measures of emotional response to stimuli. The PAD (pleasure, arousal, dominance) Theory of Emotion, originally a verbal response measurement tech nique, has best been used when a researcher was interested in measuring the dimensions underlying emotional state without needing to know the specific emotions being experienced (Richins, 1997). The PAD scale was designed to measure emotional response to e nvironmental stimuli (Mehrabian, 1980; Richins, 1997). According to researchers (Aaker, Morris), Pad theory has limitations due to the fact that the anchor points are not always clear and can cause confusion with respondents. Not all verbal communication a nd v ocabulary are understood across cultures. The Self Assessment Manikin (SAM) and later the Attitude Self Assessment Manikin ( AdSAM ) were created to measure emotional response using a visual affective. SAM was created to measure the PAD scale in a non scores, measuring responses to any stimuli, are matched to adjective scores to create a pleasure arousal space that shows the relationship of the stimuli (an advertisement) and D scale's three dimensions of feelings, with each dimension being measured on a nine point scale (Morris, 1996; Richins, 1997; Bradley & Lang, 1994).

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22 The three dimensions of emotion measured in the PAD theory and AdSAM s are the emotional appeal of pl easur e, arousal and dominance. Pleasure can be associated with direct experience of sensuous gratification, physical comfort, or social intimacy. Arousal is often associated with a desired state of vitality and liveliness and avoiding sluggishness or overstimu lation. It also represents the optimal enjoyment at an intermediate level of activation. Dominance can be a feeling of mastery, self fulfillment, Research studies around the world h ave validated the effectiveness of the SAM scales in measuring emotional response. The Self Assessment Manikin ( AdSAM ) The SAM/ ADSAM method, based on the PAD Theory of Emotion, suggests that emotions are a combination of three dimensions: pleasure, arousal, and dominance. The PAD theory was originally a verbal scale, but researchers determined the verbal nature of the scale had limitat ions. AdSAM was created to solve the limitations of a verbal scale using visuals. Therefore this study will be measuring emotional response using the visual nine point scale made to represent the PAD theory. Researchers have been using the PAD theory to m 1984; Morris, Nthangeni, & Strausbaugh, 1996; Richins, 1997; Morris & Pai, 1996) Lang (1980) conducted a study to measure the PAD dimension and AdSAM ability. Subjects were asked to rate verbal stimu li with both the PAD semantic differential scales and the non verbal SAM scales. The correlations between the scales were strong (Pleasure = +. 937, Arousal = .938, Dominance = +. 660). Studies conducted by Bradley and Lang showed ratings of Pleasure and A rousal for a set of

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23 pictures using the SAM scale effectively (Bradley and Lang, 1994). This method has been employed by many scholars to measure emotional response to stimuli (Richins, 1997; Morris, Nthangeni & Strausbaugh, 1996). AdSAM depicts each PAD d imension with a graphic character arranged on a linear nine point scale. A character that ranges from a smiling, happy SAM to a frowning unhappy SAM represents the Pleasure scale. The Arousal scale is represented by a figure ranging from a sleeping SAM wit h eyes closed to a frenzied, excited SAM with wide open eyes. The Dominance scale features a small submissive SAM figure to a large powerful SAM (Appendix A) The visual SAM scale helps eliminate the issues with verbal and language bias, making it a more r eliable method of measuring emotional response to a visual stimulus. Individualism and Collectivism The study of cultures can be best understood when classified using cultural dimensions such as Individualism and Collectivism. According to Robert and Wasti world by focusing attention on certain patterns or themes in the subjective elements of ism and Collectivism seem to be two of the most central dimensions of cross cultural research, and the most theorized approaches to cross cultural comparison (Aaker & Maheswaran, 1997; Fiske, 2002). The concept of cross cultural differences between Indivi dualism and Collectivism is widely accepted among marketers and scholars. It is also accepted that the United States of America is Individualistic, and the Republic of China is Collective (Cutler, Erdem, & Javalgi, 1997). According to Triandis (1995) Indiv idualism is a social pattern

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24 of people who are independent of collectives. Individualists give priority to personal goals over the goals of others, and emphasize rational analysis of the advantages or disadvantages to working with others. Triandis also sta tes that Collectivism is a social pattern of closely linked people who view themselves as part of a whole. Collectivists give priority to goals of the group over their personal goals, and are motivated by duties imposed by the collective. Many scholars hav e identified the United States as an Individualistic society while most Asian cultures such as the Chinese have been identified as Collectivist societies (Aaker & Maheswaran, 1997; Han & Shavitt, 1994, Triandis, 1989, Neelankavil & Zhang, 1995). It is impo rtant to understand Individualist and Collectivist cultures in order to properly implement advertising across the two cultures because their message preferences will vary. Many researchers have tried to understand how to advertise to Individualist s and Col lectivists simultaneously, and some have found that there are COL [Collectivist] cultures tend to find ads with COL appeals to be more persuasive, whereas people from IN D [Individualist] cultures tend to find ads with IND appeals to be that members of Individualist cultures and members of Collectivist cultures respond differently to ads em phasizing Individualist and Collectivist appeals. Individualists tend to be concerned with separating themselves from others, seeking uniqueness and independence. They prefer independent relationships in order to focus on their personal goals, and are ass ociated with independence, achievement, freedom, high levels of competition, and pleasure. Individualists are very good at

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25 meeting outsiders, forming new in groups, and getting along with new people (Triandis, 1988). Collectivists are associated with inter dependence, harmony, family security, social hierarchies, cooperation, and low levels of competition (Han & Shavitt, 1994). In Collectivist societies one's social standing is most likely determined at birth, and one does not have to struggle to acquire a p osition in society. In an Individualist society birth is not always an indicator of social standing, and one must struggle to gain one's desired social standing (Triandis, 1988). Collectivist cultures are integrated into strong cohesive groups, and are mor e concerned with issues of face management (Choi & Miracle, 2004). There tends to be a large focus on harmony within the group, tending to reduce the stress levels of everyday life for a Collectivist society. Being subordinate to personal goals, and to the goals a collective group are common among Collectivist cultures. Another commonality in Collectivism is conformity when the norms are clear, and there is punishment imposed for deviant behavior. Shame or other methods of social control are used widely in Collectivist cultures (Triandis, Bontempo, Villareal, Asai, & Lucca, 1988). Collectivists tend to be concerned with affiliating closely with others (Aaker, 1998). As stated by Triandis et al after a study conducted on Individualist and Collectivist socie ties: In Individualist cultures, it is individuals who achieve; in Collectivist cultures, groups achieve. People feel proud of their achievements and their success in personal competition in the Individualist cultures, and people feel proud of their cultures (p. 335). Emotional detachment, independence, individual rights, less social and financial support, and little obligation are common in Individualistic cultures. The opposite occ urs in Collectivist cultures where there is less independence, more guidance, and more social and financial support (Triandis, 1988). It is apparent that these two cultures hold

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26 opposite values and characteristics. It is my understanding that these values will influence their emotional response to photographic images that portray Individualism and Collectivism within advertisements. Previous research involving Individualist and Collectivist cultures has demonstrated that these cultures have different reacti ons to content within advertisements. In a study on cultural values in advertising, Shavitt and Zhang (20 03) found that, found during a study in 1994 that Individualism and Collectivism, two basic dimensions of cultural variability, are reflective in the content of advertising in different cultures. The study was conducted on Americans as representative of the Individualist culture, and Koreans representative of the Collectivist culture. Americans were more persuaded by ads emphasizing Individualistic benefits, while Koreans were more persuaded by ads that emphasized C ollectivist benefits. The study indicates that Individuali sts and Collectivists respond differently to ads emphasizing Individualistic vers u s Collectivistic appeals. According to Robert, Lee and Chan (2006) the Individualism Collectivism scale (INDCOL) is a popular and valid measurement tool of Individualism and Collectivism, and had undergone many studies and input from researchers. The INDCOL method of measurement has been used multiple times in cross cultural studies, and has been proven to be an appropriate effective method (Hui, 1988). Researchers have give n their approval of this measure and it has been applied to many cross cultural studies (Hui, 1988, Robert et al., 2006, Triandis, 1988 & 1995). Hui originally developed the INDCOL scale in 1988 out of 63 questionnaire items (words/characteristics) for mea suring

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27 I ndividualism and C ollectivism. Researchers such as Oyserman have tested the INCDOL scale and modified it slightly (Table 2 1 ) to avoid some language bias and to improve the reliability of the scale across cultures (Shulruf, H attie & Dixon, 2003). Table 2 1. Oysterman t able of Individualism and Collectivism d omains Domain Name Description Sample Item Individualism Independent Freedom, self sufficiency, and I tend to do my own thing, and others in my family do the same. Goals desires, and achievements I take great pride in accomplishing what no one else can. Complete Personal competition and winning It is important to me that I perform better than others on a task. Unique unique, idiosyncratic qualities I am unique different from others in my respects. Private Thoughts and actions private from others I like my privacy. Self Known Knowing oneself; having a strong identity I know my weaknesses and strengths. Direct Communicate and needs I always state my opinions very clearly. Collectivism Related Considering close others an integral part of the self To understand who I am, you must see me with members of my group. Belong Wanting to belong to and enjoy being part of groups To me, pleasure is spending time with others. Duty The duties and sacrifices being a group member entails I would help, within my means, if a relative were in financial difficulty. Harmony Concern for group harmony and that groups get along I make an effort to avoid disagreements with my group members. Advice Turing to close others for decision help Before making decision, I always consult with others. Context Self changes according to context or situ ation How I behave depends on whom I am with, where I am or both. Hierarchy Focus on Hierarchy and status issues I have respect for the authority figures with whom I interact. Group A preference for group work I would rather do a group paper or lab than do one alone.

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28 Visual Advertising many forms of rhetoric, but the two most commonly used for ms are verbal and visual. Photographic images are a common form of visual rhetoric used globally in advertisement so that the target audience is receiving the desired message. One can convey a message in advertisements across cultures: through verbal precisely becau se of their iconicity, may be assumed to travel across cultures more cross culturally, but little has been studied to prove that the reaction to the image message and the emotional response are the same across cultures. Verbal aspects of advertising across cultures have been argued to be ineffective, due to the inconsistency of interpretation. In verbal ads individuals are required to understand the language and context of the situation being presented. It is believed that anyone can interpret a visual execution (Messaris, 1997). While many companies use visual rhetoric methods successfully across cultures, there has been little research to determine if these visual messages are understood as intended. While many advertisers believe visual advertisements are the most adaptive cross culturally, that does not mean that each culture will have the same expected emotional response to the images presented within the advertisements. According to

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29 or even rep difference in emotional response to photographic images in advertisements across cultures. One cannot assume that understanding the content of visual images conducts the same emo tion al response cross culturally. Messaris also suggests that spatial or temporal connections can be presented through images. Visual communication does not have determined syntax for expressing analogies and propositions. According to McQuarrie and Mick (1999), visual elements are understood to be a significant, culturally embedded characteristic of communications. The viewer's response in an approach to testing visual rhetoric in advertising is where the consumer responds to the image, and this response is used to show connections between the image and reader response (McQuarrie & Mick, 1999). It is widely understood that images are one of the best cross cultural advertising tools. Understanding if visual messages in advertisements do travel across cultu res will help marketers better understand what visual messages to use when marketing to the global community. Hypothesis Low Involvement w ithin Individualistic Culture H1: For a low involvement product, an Individualistic culture (American) will be more pl eased, engaged, and empowered by an Individualist style photograph in advertising than to a Collectivist style photograph in advertising. High Involvement w ithin Individualistic Culture H2: For a high involvement product, an Individualistic culture (Ameri can) will be more pleased, engaged, and empowered by an Individualist style photograph in advertising than to a Collectivist style photograph in advertising.

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30 Low Involvement w ithin Collectivistic Culture H3: F or a low involvement product, a Collectivistic culture (China) will be more pleased, engaged, and empowered by a Collectivist style photograph in advertising than to an Individualist style photography in advertising. High Involvement w ithin Collectivistic Culture H4: For a high involvem ent product, a Collectivistic culture (China) will be more pleased, engaged, and empowered by a Collectivist style photograph in advertising than to an Individualist style photograph in advertising. Low Involvement b etween Cultures H5: For a low involvemen t product, an Individualistic culture (American) will b e more pleased, engaged, and emp owered by an Individualist style photograph in advertising than a Collectivist culture (China). High I nvolvement b etween C ultures H6: For a high involvement product, an Individualistic culture (American) will be more pleased, engaged, and empowered by an Individualist style photograph in advertising than a Collectivist culture (China). Attitude t oward the A d H7: Attitudes toward the advertisement will be positively affec ted when people from an Individualistic culture (American) view Individualist style photographs in advertising. The opposite re sponse will occur when viewing Collectivist style photographs in advertising. H8: Attitudes toward the advertisement will be pos itively affected when people from a Collectivist culture (China) view Collectivist style photographs in advertising. The

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31 opposite response will occur w hen viewing Individualistic style photographs in advertising. Summary The objective of this study is to understand cultural dimensions in the form of Individualism and Collectivism, and how the differences between these cultures influence emotional responses and attitudes when viewing photographic images in advertisements. This type of cross cultural researc h is extremely important today due to the increase of advertising between the United States and China. In the emerging global market, companies are investing millions of dollars advertising across cultures. Therefore, it is vital to understand the culture s they are working between and how those different cultures interpret and react to photographic images in advertising because these images will evoke emotional responses and brand loyalty. There is a high probability of these emotional responses having a p ositive or negative influence on a consumer's brand attitude based on cultural differences, impacting the success of the advertisement. Understanding cultural differences as well as similarities will allow marketers to be strategic in the selection of adve rtising images and messages that will evoke the desired response across cultures.

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32 CHAP TER 3 METHOD Research Design This study was designed to measure emotional response to advertising images using the AdSAM scales in the context of the cultural dimensions Individualism and Collectivism within the United States and China. The study also measured the b rand attitude toward the ads. The stimuli examined were photographic images, created to portray the characteri stics of the cultural dimensions Individualism and Collectivism. These images were systematically selected for this study after a pre test was administered. Participants in the main study used the AdSAM scale of emotional response, and a semantic differen tial brand attitude scale for reaction to the images in the advertisements. Undergraduate students at the University of Florida College of Journalism and Communications, and undergraduate students at u niversities in China served as participants for the stu dy. All results were collected and analyzed using the AdSAM diagnostic procedures and SPSS statistical software. Measurement Tools The Self Assessment Manikin ( ADSAM ) Researchers have been using the PAD Theory of Emotion as a way to measure emotions for years (Holbrook et al., 1984; Morris, Nthangeni, & Strausbaugh, 1996; Richins, 1997; Morris & Pai, 1997). A verbal response measurement, the PAD Theory is best used when a researcher is interested in measuring the dimensions underlying emotional states and does not need to know the specific emotions being experienced (Richins, 1997). According to researchers (Aaker & Morris, 1998), the Pad Theory has limitations due to the fact that the anchor points are not always clear and can cause

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33 confusion with respond ents. Not all verbal communication and vocabulary are understood across cultures. The Self Assessment Manikin (SAM) and later the Attitude Self Assess ment Manikin ( AdSAM ) were created as alternatives to measure the PA D scale in a non verbal manner (Figure 3 1). The AdSAM s represent the PAD Theory's three dimensions of feelings: pleasure, arousal, and dominance (appeal, engagement, and empowerment). Each dimension is measured using a nine point scale through non respo nses to any stimuli, are matched to adjective scores to create a pleasure arousal (Morris, 1996). Research studies around the world have validated the effectiveness of SAM and AdSAM in measuring emotional response. Figure 3 1. AdSAM Scales, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance.

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34 Administration P rocedures Participant s in the United States and the China were provided with an online survey link to participate in the study. Once consenting to participate they were given instructions on how to respo nd using the AdSAM s (Appendix B ) After reading the instructions (in English or S implified Chinese) respondents were asked to express how they feel on a normal day. This was in order to familiarize them with using the scale. Next participants were prompted to view advertisements (Appendix C) and respond using the AdSAM s. Every parti cipant in the U.S. and China viewed the same advertisements and brands in order assure consistency in responses. Attitudes t oward the Ad Attitudes toward each advertisement were measured on a three item semantic measure of attitude and is appropriate when one is interested in an effective response. It is also quick and easy for respon dents across cultures to understand (Heise, 1970). Stimuli Development of the sti muli was done in stages. First, i ndistinguishable nationality and normalcy of the models was tested using a panel of experts to assure that no bias was introduced with the mo dels. Once judged, six models with higher indistinguishable nationality and higher normalcy were chosen to be in the advertisements. The same models were used in each advertisement to help eliminate any model bias. It is important to note that no models we re 100 percent Chinese, but did represent some features common among Chinese, such as black hair and medium to light skin tone.

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35 Twenty photographic images were created and fo ur different brands for one low involvement and one high involvement product we re created to reflect the characteristics of Individualism and then to reflect the characteristics of Collectivism. (2009) Measurement Instrument of Manifest Individualism and Collectivism in Advertising (Appendix D). Individualism and Collectivism In order to determine if the images portrayed Individualism (IND) or Collectivism (COL), characteristics were compiled from the Hui, 1988 INDCOL scale that Oyserman narrowed down dur ing a study in 2002 to ten IND and ten COL characteristics. According to Robert, Lee and Chan (2006) the Individualism Collectivism scale (INDCOL) is a popular and valid measurement tool of IND and COL, and had undergone many studies and input from researc hers. Researchers have given their approval of this measure and it has been applied to many cross cultural studies (Hui, 1988; Robert et al 2006; Triandis, 1988 & 1995). Hui originally developed the INDCOL scale in 1988 out of 63 questionnaire items (wo rds/characteristics) for measuring Individualism and Collectivism. Researchers such as Oyserman have tested the INCDOL scale and modified it slightly to avoid some language bias and to improve the reliability of the scale across cultures (Shulruf, Hattie & Dixon 2003). After creating the images, all twenty were tested using the INDCOL scale to determine if the images properly portrayed IND and COL. When each image was shown, the respondents were prompted to respond to four individual characteristics and fou r collective characteristics from the Oyserman Domains. They responded to them

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36 using a "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" five point scale. The INDCOL scale consists of words that are considered IND and COL, and survey participants will agree or disag ree that the image portrays the characteristics. Administration P rocedures An online survey was created and distributed to a class at the University of Florida College of Journalism, some of whom received credit for their participation (a total of 90% wer e given class credit). Respondents were prompted to respond to four individual characteristics and four collective characteristics from the Oyserman Domains using a "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" five point scale. Out of a total response rate of 1 42 individuals, 74 were male and 68 female. The demographic profile of the respondents was 92% from the United States and 8% from other countries around the world. The age range of the respondents was 22% were 18 and under, 71% were ages 19 to 24, 5% were ages 25 to 36, and 2% were ages 49 to 60. Brand F amiliarity After viewing all the advertisement images, the sample was prompted with the respondent answered yes they were aske brands or even products that they claimed to have seen prior, so the percentage of familiarity is most likely much lower than 11%. Those brands were eliminated from the study.

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37 Image Test R esults Below are the results of the 17 images tested (Table 3 1 ). The strongly agreed results were combined to show the percent of overall agreement. As you can see in Table 3 1 and Table 3 2, the images that had the highest percent age of agreement to the IND or COL characteristics were approved for the final survey The results of this survey provided evidence that the images created for the advertisements to be used in the cross cultural study correctly portray Individualist an d Collectivist characteristics. The final advertisements were created using the T shirt brand images to represent a low involvement product and the Soccer brand images to represent a high involvement product. Table 3 1. All individual and collective photographs tested agreement percents Image # Type of Image IND or COL Brand/Product Individual% agreed Collective% agreed 1 Collectivist Soccer 12% 90% 2 Collectivist Coffee 11% 88% 3 Individualist T Shirt 53% 27% 4 Collectivist Snack 13% 78% 5 Individualist Snack 65% 13% 6 Individualist Soda 51% 27% 7 Individualist T Shirt 41% 71% 8 Individualist Coffee 70% 27% 9 Individualist Snack 73% 16% 10 Collectivist Soda 16% 72% 11 Individualist Soccer 82% 35% 12 Individualist Coffee 80% 10% 13 Individualist Soda 68% 21% 14 Collectivist Coffee 12% 81% 15 Collectivist T Shirt 8% 88% 16 Collectivist Soda 14% 70% 17 Collectivist Snack 13% 67% Total # of Responses 142

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38 Table 3 2. All individual and collective photographs tested approv ed for use Image # Type of Image IND or COL Brand/Product Individual% agreed Collective% agreed Can image be used? 1 Collectivist Soccer 12% 90% Yes 11 Individualist Soccer 82% 35% Yes 14 Collectivist Coffee 12% 81% No 2 Collectivist Coffee 11% 88% Yes 8 Individualist Coffee 70% 27% No 12 Individualist Coffee 80% 10% Yes 3 Individualist T Shirt 53% 27% No 7 Individualist T Shirt 71% 41% Yes 15 Collectivist T Shirt 8% 88% Yes 17 Collectivist Snack 13% 67% No 4 Collectivist Snack 13% 78% Yes 5 Individualist Snack 65% 13% No 9 Individualist Snack 73% 16% Yes 13 Individualist Soda 68% 21% Yes 6 Individualist Soda 51% 27% No 10 Collectivist Soda 16% 72% Yes 16 Collectivist Soda 14% 70% No Final Study Procedure Participants were given instruction at the beginning of the survey in their native language, and asked to consent (Appendix E). Qualtrics hosted the survey online so all participants were capable of taking the survey at their leisure. After reading and viewing the instruct ions, they began the survey. In order to assure respondents of the survey are Individualist Americans and Collectivist Chinese, pre qualifying questions were asked at the beginning of the survey (Appendix F). During the survey, each respondent was shown I ndividualist and Collectivist photographic images in the form of an advertisement. After viewing the image they were prompted to give their emotional response in a nine point AdSAM scale. To avoid introducing confounds, the same photographic images were u sed for both the U.S. and Chinese surveys. Participants were prompted to measure brand attitude toward the

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39 brand in the advertisement they just viewed. After viewing all the images, the respondents were asked demographic questions (Appendix G). Sample The study was conducted among 124 America men and women, age 18 and older. There were 102 Chinese men and women, age 18 and older. American participants came from classes at the University of Florida and the College of Journalism and Communications. Chines e participants came from university contacts throughout China. The s urvey link was distributed via e mail to all participants. The majority of the survey respondents were undergraduate and graduate students. Analysis P er formed After conducting the survey, the measure of emotional response was compiled in an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to gain insight on the difference in emotional response. Each measurement p leasure, a rousal and d ominance was separated by the response to the Individualist and Collectivist photographic images. The ANOVA was used to look for significant differences between the emotional response to a Collectivist and Individualist image. An ANOVA was also used to look for any significant difference in brand attitude. An AdSAM perceptual map of the dimensions provided was used to give further insight into the emotion response. The following chapter includes a complete overview of the data analyzed, and a discussion of the results.

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40 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Analysis Conducted This chapter contains an overview of the data analysis and a descriptive synopsis of the results. First we will review the survey demographic samples; then we will discuss the AdSAM pleasure arousal and dominance scores between the two countries and within each country. A dis cussion of the AdSAM P erceptual M ap will follow the an alysis of the pleasure, arousal and dominance scores. We will also discuss the brand attitude scores for each advertisement, between and within each country. The statistical analyses completed for thi s study were developed using SPSS software Sample D emographics As you can see in Table 4 1, there is no significant difference in the respondent gender between the United States and China. The gender of the sample in the U.S was 31.7% male (39 male resp ondents) and 68.3% female ( 84 female respondents), while Chinese participants were 4 3 % male (44 mal e respondents) and 57% female ( 58 female respondents). There were significant differences between the two samples in age with a Chi square=19.216, df=2, p = .000 with zero cells having expected cell values less than 5 (Table 4 1 ). The major difference was in the 25 30 year old group in which 26.5% of the China sample fell compared to 5.7% of the U S sample. The second major difference was among 18 24 year ol ds where the U S sample had more participants (79.7%) than the China sample (64.7%). Overall, the U S sample was significantly younger than the China sample. The Chinese sample was older because 25.5% w ere ages 25 30 compared to the U.S sample of 15.1% at that age range.

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41 Table 4 1. Demographic p rofile Total Sample U.S. Subjects China Subjects Gender 1 Count % Count % Count % Males 83 36.9 39 31.7 44 43.1 Females 142 63.1 84 68.3 58 56.9 Total 225 100.0 123 100.0 102 100.0 Age 2 Count % Count % Count % 18 24 164 72.9 98 79.7 66 64.7 25 30 34 15.1 7 5.7 27 26.5 31 & up 27 12.0 18 14.6 9 8.8 Total 225 100.0 123 100.0 102 100.0 1No significant differences between countries by Gender: Chi square=3.129, df=1, p=.08 2Significant differences between countries by Age: Chi square=19.126, df=1, p=.000 The two samples differed by age. The U.S. sample was younger (72.9% were 18 24 compare d to the China sample of 64.7%), and the sample from China was older (26.5% were 25 30 versus 15.1 % of U.S. sample). Emotional Response: T shirt, Individualistic and Collective Advertisement Pleasure S cores Using country of birth and age as variable s between subjects (with the covariate value of 2.39 from the categorized age data set), a repeated measure of analysis of variance found no significant differences between countries, ages or interactions (Table 4 2 ). Subjects did not have different pleasure responses to the I ndividualistic or C ollectivistic T shirt ads. Differences between means are indicated in the Rank column of all the following tables. Rank indicates mean scores significantly greater and different from the other scores. A Rank score of 1 in the case of Pleasure indicates that the mean was significantly greater than all other Pleasure means. A tie score indicates the two means are not significantly different. Arousal Scores Overall, the combined arousal score for both T shirt ads for the China sample (Mean=4.266) was significantly greater than the combined arousal score for the U S sample (Mean=3.925) (Table 4 3 ). A repeated measures ANOVA between countries with age as a covariate produced no other significant differences.

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42 Table 4 2. T shirt: Pleasure scores for Individualistic and Collectivistic ads. Place of Birth Pleasure Overall Mean* Mean* Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound U.S. Individualistic 6.123 5.945 1 .133 5.682 6.208 Collectivistic 6.219 1 .153 5.917 6.521 China Individualistic 6.281 6.302 1 .146 6.013 6.590 Collectivistic 6.344 1 .168 6.012 6.676 *Mean scores based on 9 point scale; 1=Low and 9=High, e.g. High Pleasure, High Arousal, etc. 1No significant differences: Within Subjects df F p Pleasure 1 .146 .703 Pleasure X Age 1 .628 .429 Pleasure X Country 1 .984 .322 Between Groups df F p Age 1 .744 .389 Country 1 1.815 .179 Table 4 3. T shirt: Arousal scores for Individualistic and Collectivistic ads. Place of Birth Arousal Overall Mean* Mean* Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound U.S. Individualistic 3.925 3.730 2 tie .193 3.350 4.110 Collectivistic 3.892 2 tie .188 3.522 4.262 China Individualistic 4.266 4.120 2 tie .212 3.703 4.537 Collectivistic 4.640 1 tie .206 4.233 5.046 *Mean scores based on 9 point scale; 1=Low and 9=High, e.g. High Pleasure, High Arousal, etc. 1Significant differences: Within Subjects df F p Arousal 1 .456 .500 Arousal X Age 1 .000 .987 Arousal X Country 1 1.536 .216 Between Groups df F p Age 1 .069 .793 Country 1 5.455 .020

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43 Dominance Scores A repeated measures ANOVA between countries with age as a covariate individuated that there are no significant differences between the U S and China samples regarding dominance reactions to the I ndividualistic and C ollectivistic T shirt ads (Table 4 4 ) except for differences among age groups in combin ing their dominance score s for both ads The 31 and older combined U S and China group had the highest dominance score among the three age groups (Mean= 5.379) compared to the 25 30 (Mean=4.926) and 18 24 group (Mean=4.8237) whose means were lower than the 31 and older group but not different from each other. There were no differences between I ndividualistic and C ollectivistic ads. Table 4 4 T shirt: Dominance s cores for Individualistic and Collectivistic a ds Place of Birth Dominance Overall Mean* Mean* Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound U S Individualistic 4.959 4.914 1 tie .142 4.634 5.194 Collectivistic 5.025 1 tie .135 4.758 5.291 China Individualistic 4.863 4.849 1 tie .156 4.541 5.157 Collectivistic 4.853 1 tie .149 4.560 5.146 *Mean scores based on 9 point scale; 1=Low and 9=High, e.g. High Pleasure, High Arousal, etc. 1Significant differences: Within Subjects df F p Dominance 1 4.221 .127 Dominance X Age 1 2.981 .086 Dominance X Country 1 .176 .675 Within Subjects df F p Between Groups df F p Age 1 4.124 .043 Country 1 .531 .467 AdSAM Perceptual Map For visual analysis and comparison, each image was plotted twice on the same map representing the U.S. and Chinese respondents. Each plot represents the SAM pleasure, arousal and dominance scores for that particular ad and designated country.

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44 The dots are image. They are color coordinated to indicate the country represented. As you can see the on the map (Figure 4 1 ) U.S. responses to the Individualistic T shirt a d are closer to the word "modest" than are the Chinese responses. The U.S Individualistic T shirt responses are also closer to the word "nonchalant" than China's. The Chinese responses to the In dividualistic T shirt ad are in between the word "m odest" and "wholesome." Th e U.S. responses to the Collectivistic T shirt are plotted in a slightly more positive direction above the word "modest" then the responses to the Individualistic T shirt Ad. The Chinese responses are plotted over the word "wholesome" and are in a more eng aged position. While significantly different, the I ndividualistic T shirt ads had the highest pleasure scores. Figure 4 1. AdSAM p erceptual m ap for T Shirt advertisements, both U.S. and China

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45 Attitude t oward the T shirt Advertisements Overall, the U S sample had a more favorable attitude toward the T shirt ads (U S Mean=3.865) than the China sample (Mean=3.636) (Table 4 5 ). Within the two ad types, the U S and China samples had a more favorable attitude toward the I ndividualistic T shirt ads (U S M ean= 3.869 and China Mean=3.861) than the Collectivistic T shirt ads (U .S. Mean=3.662 and China Mean=3.611). These differences are indicated in the Rank column for which Rank indicates mean scores significantly greater and different or equal. In this case, attitude toward I ndividualistic T shirt ad s for the U S sample was not significantly differen t from the attitude toward the I ndividualistic T shirt ad s for the China sample. Both were tied for the highest attitude toward the ad score (Table 4 5 ). These results are similar to the Pleasure score for the T shirt ads. Table 4 5 T shirt: Attitude toward the ad for Individualistic and Collectivistic a ds Place of Birth Attitude to Ad Overall Mean* Mean* Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound U S Individualistic 3.865 3.869 1 tie .067 3.736 4.001 Collectivistic 3.662 2 tie .064 3.535 3.788 China Individualistic 3.636 3.861 1 tie .074 3.716 4.007 Collectivistic 3.611 2 tie .071 3.472 3.750 *Mean scores based on 5 point scale; 1=Low and 5=High, e.g. 1Significant differences: Within Subjects df F p Attitude to AD 1 16.095 .000 Attitude X Age 1 .15281 .697 Attitude X Country 1 .367 .545 Between Groups df F p Age 1 2.857 .092 Country 1 .264 .608 A multiple regression analysis with attitude toward the ad for the individualistic T shirt ad as the dependent variable and pleasure, arousal, dominance, gender (dummy variable), age (dummy variable) place of birth (dummy variable) as independent

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46 variables produced a significant relationship (F=5.285, df=6, p=.000 (Table 2 9). These results suggested that attitude toward the ads was influenced by pleasure and arousal but not any of the other variable s. A multiple regression analysis with attitude toward the ad for the C ollectivistic T shirt ad as the dependent variable and pleasure, arousal, dominance, gender (dummy variable), age (dummy variable) and place of birth (dummy variable) as indep endent va riables produced an in significant relationship (F=2.089, df=6, ==.056). While not significant, these results suggested that p leasure was the single most important variable for attitude toward this ad. Table 4 6 Attitude toward the a d r egression for the I ndividualistic T shirt Ad Independent Variable Unstd. Coefficients Std. Coefficients t value Sig. B Std. Error Beta Intercept 4.922 .401 --12.274 .000 Pleasure .125 .035 .248 3.607 .000 Arousal .047 .023 .136 2.078 .039 Dominance .042 .032 .088 1.311 .191 ns Gender .089 .100 .058 .892 .373 ns Age .085 .068 .079 1.246 .214 ns Country .062 .096 .042 .648 .518 ns Table 4 7 Attitude toward the a d r egression for the Collectivistic T shirt a d Independent Variable Unstd. Coefficients Std. Coefficients t value Sig. B Std. Error Beta Intercept 4.686 .400 --11.714 .000 Pleasure .084 .035 .174 2.430 .016 Arousal .011 .023 .034 .494 .622 Dominance .012 .032 .027 .384 .701 Gender .051 .100 .035 .516 .606 Age .122 .068 .118 1.786 .075 Country .023 .096 .016 .238 .812

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47 Emotional Response: Soccer, Individualistic and Collective Advertisements Pleasure Scores Overall, there were no significant differences for between the U S and China samples or between Individual and C ollectivist ads (Table 4 8 ). Table 4 8 Soccer: Pleasure s cores for Individualistic and Collectivistic a ds Place of Birth Pleasure Overall Mean* Mean* Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound U S Individualistic 6.130 6.203 1 tie .137 5.933 6.474 Collectivistic 6.057 1 tie .144 5.773 6.340 China Individualistic 5.873 5.794 1 tie .151 5.497 6.091 Collectivistic 5.951 1 tie .158 5.640 6.262 *Mean scores based on 9 point scale; 1=Low and 9=High, e.g. High Pleasure, High Arousal, etc. 1No significant differences: Within Subjects df F P Pleasure 1 .029 .865 Pleasure X Age 1 .035 .852 Pleasure X Country 1 2.491 .308 Between Groups df F P Age 1 3.148 .077 Country 1 2.604 .108 Arousal Scores The China sample (Mean=4.528) was more aroused by the soccer ads than the U.S. sample (Mean=4.386) (Table 4 9 ) There were no other significant differences. Table 4 9 Soccer: Arousal s cores for Individualis tic and Collectivistic a ds Place of Birth Arousal Overall Mean* Mean* Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound U S Individualistic 4.386 4.104 2 tie .197 3.715 4.492 Collectivistic 4.108 2 tie .201 3.711 4.504 China Individualistic 4.528 4.669 1 tie .217 4.242 5.096 Collectivistic 4.948 1 tie .221 4.513 5.384 *Mean scores based on 9 point scale; 1=Low and 9=High, e.g. High Pleasure, High Arousal, etc. 1Significant differences: Within Subjects df F p Arousal 1 1.106 .493 Arousal X Age 1 .439 .666 Arousal X Country 1 2.094 .346 Between Groups df F p Age 1 2.472 .117 Country 1 7.414 .007

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48 Dominance Scores There were no significant differences in dominance reactions between the U S and China samples with the I ndividualistic and C ollectivistic soccer ads (Table 4 10 ). Table 4 10 Soccer: Dominance s cores for Individualistic and Collectivistic a ds Place of Birth Dominance Overall Mean* Mean* Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound U S Individualistic 5.083 5.154 1 tie .126 4.898 5.395 Collectivistic 5.173 1 tie .152 4.870 5.471 China Individualistic 4.968 5.010 1 tie .138 4.747 5.292 Collectivistic 4.762 1 tie .167 4.435 5.095 *Mean scores based on 9 point scale; 1=Low and 9=High, e.g. High Pleasure, High Arousal, etc. 1No significant differences: Within Subjects df F p Dominance 1 .176 .675 Dominance X Age 1 .456 .500 Dominance X Country 1 .908 .342 Between Groups df F p Age 1 1.112 .293 Country 1 3.230 .074 Figure 4 2. AdSAM p erceptual m ap for T Shirt advertisements, both U.S. and China

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49 AdSAM Perceptual Map For visual analysis and comparison each image was plotted twice on the same map representing the U.S respondents and the Chinese respondents Each plot represents the SAM pleasure, arousal and dominance scores for that particular ad and C for I ndividualistic image. The y are color coordinate d to indicate the country represented. When looking at the map (Figure 4 2 ) you can see that the U.S response to the s occer Individualistic and Collectivistic ad s are both plotted on the word "modest," with the Collectivistic ad slightly closer. The Chinese response to the Soccer Individualistic Ad is in a more engaged direction than the U.S ad, and is below the word "wholesome." While the Chinese response to the Collectivistic ad is above the Individualistic ad in a more positive engaged direction and closer to the word "wholesome." Attitude T oward the Soccer Advertisements There were significant differences between the attitudes toward the soccer ads (U S Mean =3.678 and China Mean=5.167) (Repeated Measures ANOVA between countries with age as a covariate) (Table 4 11) Between the two ad types, the U S and China samples had a more favorable attitude toward the C ollectivistic soccer ads (U S Mean= 5.110 and Chi na Mean=5.223) than the I ndividualist soccer ads (U .S. Mean=3.554 and China Mean=3.803). These differences are indicated in the Rank column for which Rank indicates mean scores significantly greater and different or equal. In this case, attitude toward soc cer C ollectivistic ads tied for 1 (Table 4 11 ). A multiple regression analysis with attitude toward the individualistic soccer ad as the dependent variable and pleasure, arousal, dominance, gender (dummy variable),

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50 age (dummy variable) and place of birth (dummy variable) as independent variables produced a significant relationship (F=11.880, df=6, p=.000 ) (Table 4 12 ). These results suggested that attitude toward the ad was influenced significantly by pleasure with arousal the second, but not significant contributor. Table 4 11 Soccer: Attitude toward the ad for Individualistic and Collectivistic a ds Place of Birth Attitude to Ad Overall Mean* Mean* Rank Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound U S Individualistic 3.678 3.554 3 .063 3.430 3.678 Collectivistic 5.110 1 tie .118 4.877 5.343 China Individualistic 5.167 3.803 2 .069 3.667 3.939 Collectivistic 5.223 1 tie .130 4.967 5.479 *Mean scores based on 5 point scale; 1=Low and 5=High, 1Significant differences: Within Subjects df F p Attitude to AD 1 24.531 .000 Attitude X Age 1 .603 .438 Attitude X Country 1 .475 .491 Between Groups df F P Age 1 1.821 .179 Country 1 3.231 .074 Table 4 12. Attitude t oward the a d r egression for the Individualistic s occer a d Independent Variable Unstd. Coefficients Std. Coefficients t value Sig. B Std. Error Beta Intercept 4.71 1 .390 --12.081 .000 Pleasure .190 .028 .412 6.765 .000 Arousal .031 .020 .097 1.580 .116 ns Dominance .043 .031 .085 1.405 .161 ns Gender .093 .087 .064 1.074 .284 ns Age .077 .061 .076 1.264 .208 ns Country .197 .086 .139 2.299 .022 ns A multiple regression analysis with attitude toward the ad for the C ollectivistic soccer ad as the dependent variable and pleasure, arousal, dominance, gender (dummy variable), age (dummy variable) and place of birth (dummy variable) as indep endent variables produced a non function al model. The regression was re run deleting d ominance from the independent variables. This analysis produ ced a

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51 significant relationship (F=231.526, df=5, ==.000). Consistent with previous findings, p leasure was a significant contributor along with a rousal. Interestingly, country of origin was also significant (Std. .056) suggesting that being born in the U S contributed to C ollectivistic soccer ad. This is consistent with the results for the repeated measures analysis of pleasure scores for the I ndividualistic and C ollectivistic soccer ads. Table 4 13. Attitude t oward the a d r egression for the Collectivistic s occer a d Independent Variable Unstd. Coefficients Std. Coefficients t value Sig. B Std. Error Beta Intercept 1.243 .296 4.196 .000 Pleasure .454 .023 .552 19.627 .000 Arousal .350 .017 .605 21.001 .000 Dominance XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Gender .069 .074 .026 .930 .353 ns Age .039 .052 .020 .747 .456 ns Country .147 .073 .056 2.023 .044

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52 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCL USION Discussion This chapter will discuss and explore the results of this current study, the theory of emotional response and attitude toward advertisements across cultures. Significant research findings involving pleasure, arousal and attitude will be discussed. The current state of China and the cultural dimension of Individua lism will be examined. Implications for advertising, limitations to this study and suggestions for further research will also be discussed in detail. Individual and Collective Advertisements Low Involvement Within Individualistic and Collective Cultures There were no differences in pleasure scores within both U.S. and China pleasure responses to the low involvement t shirt ad. There were no significant differences between the arousal and dominance scores within the U.S. or China. While there were no sign ificant differences in arousal scores within China, the Collective response was higher as predicted. High Involvement Within Individualistic and Collective Cultures China was more engaged in the high involvement soccer ads than they were to the low involv ement T shirt ads. There were no significant differences in arousal response with the U.S. and China samples. China did have a higher arousal score to the high involvement Collective ad than the Individualistic one, but the difference was not significant.

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53 Low Involvement Between Cultures The U.S. and Chinese samples did not show a difference in pleasure scores to the low involvement T Shirt ad. Our results showed that the U.S. did not respond more pleased, empowered, and engaged to the Individualist ads ove r the Collectivist ads. China had a higher overall arousal response to the low involvement product than the U.S. It was indicated that China responded in a positive manner to the Individualistic ads, and this also was the opposite of what was predicted. Hi gh Involvement Between Cultures Just as with the low involvement T shirt ad, there were no differences in pleasure responses between the U.S. and China to the high involvement soccer ads. China was more aroused by the soccer ads than the U.S. was, but the re was not a significant difference. In addition, China and the U.S. showed no significant difference to their responses to the Individualist or Collectivist ads. Emotional Response It was expected that the U.S. respondents would have a positive pleasure s core to the I ndividualistic ads, but it was not anticipated that China would also have a positive pleasure score to the I ndividualistic ads. Both countries favored the I ndividualistic T s hirt ad over the C ollective T shirt ad. We found no difference in pleasure scores between the countries. The combined arousal scores from the China sample for both T shirt ads were significantly different than the U.S. We found no difference between the countries dominance scores overall, but there was a significant dif ference between age groups. Both U.S and China had low pleasure response to the collective T shirt ads. This was expected of the U.S but not China. China also had a positive pleasure score to

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54 I ndividualistic T shirt and s occer images, as well as the low er pleasure score to the C ollective T shirt ads. Before completing this study we hypothesized that our respondents from China would have positive pleasure arousal scores when viewing images that portrayed Collectivism, but the opposite occurred. This findi ng was China is more aroused than the U.S. in these results indicating China was more engaged in the advertisements. This could be because of the content of the advertisement. According to the research finding s such differences in China s response to I ndividualistic images are a result of cultural changes of in China. According to Shavitt W esternization, cultural exposure, and media ex posure. Shavitt and Zhang believe that 35 fits with the demographics of this study making Genera tion X a possible factor in our stud y results. The AdSAM P erceptual M aps showed that when viewing both advertisements the U.S when viewing the I ndividualistic T but for the C ollective ad they were closer to connection to I ndividualistic cultural dimension. It is hard to tell considering the U.S response to the T shirt I ndividualistic a nd C ollective ads w ere both near the word

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55 C ollectivist cultural dimension as well. The China sample showed the most differences in distance between responses on the map than did the U.S. Attitude Toward the Ads Our findings show that the U.S and China sample had a more favorable attitude toward the T shirt a ds. As we anticipated, the U.S. favored the Individualistic image s but so did China. China having a positive attitude towar d the Individualistic ads was the opposite of what we predicted. A relationship to the positive pleasure and arousal scores, and positive attitudes toward the ad, was evident in the findings. It was discovered that pleasure and arousal scores influenced t he overall attitude toward the advertisements. Positive pleasure scores have a significant relationship to positive attitude. When they have high pleasure scores, this means they are more empowered and engaged in the advertisements. This is an important fi nding, bringing researchers closer to understanding the influence emotional response can have on shaping a consumer's attitude toward an advertisement. These findings have emphasized the importance of consumers having a positive pleasure response toward a n advertisement to in turn influence a positive attitude toward the advertisement. Importance to Communication Professionals Our study demonstrated that marketing and advertising professionals should not assume that countries like China will have a posit ive response to images portraying Collectivism, simply because they are considered Collective people. Defining a culture is not that simple anymore considering that globalization, and W estern influences on countries like China are evolving younger generati ons around the world. Businesses should research the current state of the country to which they are trying advertise to

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56 better understand who that country is becoming instead of relying on past perspectives on that country's cultural attitudes. To succes sfully employ any method of cross cultural advertising, it is important to understand the differences as well as the similarities of the various cultures targeted by an advertisement. Researching cultural dimensions in a correct manner is just a start to u nderstanding other cultures. It is necessary to understand how an advertisement might influence a cultural emotionally. As you can see from this study, understanding emotional response and it s correlation to attitude can help form a successful advertisemen t campaign. Companies need to create advertisements that will elicit high pleasure and arousal emotions from their consumers. If they are successful at this their consumers will have more positive attitudes toward the advertisement and possibly even the br and. Limitations of the Current Study Researchers have been studying emotional response to advertisements for decades, but studies have not yet explored the use of photographs portraying cultural dimensions in advertisements across cultures. Sample size wa s a limitation of this study; a larger study with less of an age range would give us better insight to these findings. It is obvious now that in order to test the success of cultural dimensions in images to countries like China it is necessary to re evalua te China's current classifications. When doing a cross cultural study model, bias is always something to consider. There were no 100 percent Asian models in the advertisements for this study as this could have caused a model bias among the Chinese particip ants. The content in the ad could have also caused bias. Soccer is widely popular among people in China; this

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57 could have cause a more positive and engaged response among the Chinese as compared to the U.S respondents. The types of images, and the differenc e in composure of the images, and the types of products could appeal differently to individuals, such as trendsetters, making them a limitation of the study. As important as it is to understand emotional response and attitude on a cross cultural level, thi s study might have provided more insight on emotional response and the connection to attitude if it has been conducted in the U.S first. This would help us better understand the relationship between pleasure, arousal, and emotional response. A larger samp le size would be necessary to see if the positive pleasure and arousal scores are consistent with positive attitudes toward advertising images. Suggestions for Further Research Cultural dimensions are good indicators of how people in specific countries mi ght respond, react, feel, and behave, but they are not definite. Countries like China and even the U.S are changing rapidly. Exposure to global media and W estern culture has undoubtedly had an affect on cultures and behaviors around the world. After condu cting this study, we concluded that researchers should revisit, and attempt to redefine, the cultural dimensions in China, and possibly other Asian countries. We know that China has become an important country to understand, due to its booming economy, and recent government changes in reference to communications and advertising. Further insight into China's current and evolving cultural situation. This study strengthened the position that pleasure response and arousal response can influence one's attitude toward an advertisement. I suggest we continue to examine the connection between pleasure arousal and attitude. As we know from past research,

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58 att itude and emotion are two very important influencers in consumer behavior. Research in this area should be evolving along with the consumer, as we become more and more a global society influence d through digital media by multiple cultural groups. The image s created for this study did in fact correctly depict Individualism and Collectivism. Further research should be done to determine if there are specific characteristics to represent the remaining cultural dimensions. This would give advertisers a better ad vantage in marketing to a more diverse globally influenced audience. Conclusion Our study demon strated that emotional responses, pleasure and arousal significantly affect consumer attitudes toward advertisements across cultures. The study also demonstrat ed that cultural dimensions can be correctly portrayed within photographic images in advertisements, but that this does not necessarily mean a country will respond positively to the advertisement just because it portrays the expected consumer cultural dime nsion of Individualism or Collectivism. Globalization has impacted the way we communicate, shop, work, and play over the past decade. Marketers need to understand that advertising cannot be viewed as a one size fits all. There are many factors that contr ibute to the success of advertising within your own country and across cultures. The more we understand relationships between factors of emotional response, attitude, and cultural dimensions, the more successful advertisers will be in communicating brand r ecognition and brand loyalty across cultures.

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59 APPENDIX A ADSAM SCALE PLEASURE AROUS AL DOMINANCE

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60 APPENDIX B ADSAM INSTRUCTIONS Instructions We would like to understand how you feel about several things throughout the survey. For the next several questions, we would like you to use AdSAM a simple but proven tool for you to use to indicate your feelings. AdSAM measure consists of three different rows of graphic characters (Manikins), which represent you and your feelings Choose one dot on each row to indicate how you feel: For each question, please : Indicate your immediate response using all three rows, either selecting a dot below a figure, or in between two figures, depending on how you feel. Be sure that you have marked one dot on each row for a total of three marks per question P A

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61 APPENDIX C ADVERTISEMENTS CREATED AND USED AS SURVEY STIMU LI Figure C 1. Lapparel advertisements created by author for survey Figure C 2. Futewear advertisements created by author for survey

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62 APPENDIX D ZHANG S 2009 MEASUREMENT I NSTRUMENT Advertising.

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63 Appendix D. Continued.

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64 Appendix D. Continued.

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65 APPENDIX E IN FORMED CONSENT Informed Consent Protocol Title: Response to Photographic Images in Advertisements Across Cultures Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of the study is to gain insight on how consumers respond to photographs in advertising across cultures. What you will be asked to do in the study: During the survey you will be asked to respond to how you feel after viewing advertisements using AdSAM AdSAM graphic characters, which represent you and your feelings. After viewing an advertisement you will be asked to select the graphic character that best fits your current feelings. You will also be prompted to give your attitude towards the brand in the advertisements. Example: We would like to understand how you feel about several things throughout the survey. For the next several questions, we would like you to use AdSAM a simple but proven tool for you to use to indicate your feelings. AdSAM measure has three different rows of graphic characters (Manikins), which represent you and your feelings Choose one dot on each row to indicate how you feel:

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66 For each question, pl ease : ~ Indicate your immediate response using all three rows, either selecting a dot below a figure, or in between two figures, depending on how you feel. Time required: This survey does not have a specific time requirement but could take 15min to no mo re than an hour to complete. Risks and Benefits: There are no risks or benefits to participants. Compensation: Participation in t his is voluntary T herefore there will be no compensation for your time, u nless your professor has otherwise indicated extra credit points for your participation. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code name. Your name will not be used in any reports. Qualtrics data security is SAS 70 Certified meaning it meets all the standards; all accounts are kept secure and protected to insure the safety and confidentiality of all survey results, and http://www.qualtrics.com/security statement Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Jon Morris, Ph.D Weimer 2078, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611 2250; phone 352 392 0443 Laurie Michaelson, 1803 NW 38 th Terr, Gainesville, Florida, 32 605; 352 262 2294 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433 I have read and understood the above consent form and by desire of my own free will to participate in this study. Agree to Participate Disagree to Participate

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67 APPENDIX F QUALIFYING QUESTIONS Q1: Were you born in the United States of America or China? United States China Neither Q2: Have you lived in your birth country the majority of your life? YES NO Q3: Are your parents from the same country you were born in? YES NO

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68 APPENDIX G DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTION S Q1: Are you male or female? Male Female Q2: What is your age range? 18 24 25 30 31 and ol der

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69 LIST OF REFERENCES Aaker, J. & Maheswaran, D. (1997). The Effect of Cultural Orientation on Persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, Inc. 24, (3), 315 328. Aaker, J. & Williams, P. (1998). Empathy versus Pride: The Influence of Emotional Appeals across Cultures. Journal of Consumer Research, Inc., 25 (3), 241 261. Agrawl, M. (1995). Review of a 40 year debate in international advertising: Practitioner and academician perspectives to the st andardization/adaptation issue. International Marketing Review 12, (1), 26 48. Asai, M., Bontempo, R., Lucca, N., Triandis, H. & Villareal, M. (1988). Individualism and Collectivism: Cross Cultural Perspectives on Self Ingroup Relationships. Journal of P ersonality and Social Psychology, 54, (2), 323 338. Batra, R., & Holbrook, M. (1987). Assessing the Role of Emotion as Mediators of Consumer Responses to Advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, Inc., 14, (3), 404 420. Batra, R., Holbrook, M. & Olney, T. J. (1991). Consumer Response to Advertising: The Effects of Ad Content, Emotions, and Attitude towards the Ad on Viewing Time. The Journal of Consumer Research, 17, (4), 440 453. Boon, A. M., & Morris, J. D. (1998). The Effects of Music on Emotional Re sponse, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intent in and Emotional Advertising Condition. Advances in Consumer Research, 25, 518 526. Bower, A., & Landreth, S. (2001). Is Beauty Best? High Versus Normally Attractive Models in Advertising. Journal of Advertisin g, 30,(30), 1 12. Bradley, M. M. & Lang, P. J. (1994). Measuring Emotion: The Self Assessment Manikin and The Semantic Differential. Journal of Behavior, Therapy and Experimental Psychology, 25, (1), 49 59. Cannon, M. H, & Yaprak, A. (2010). A Dynamic F ramework for Understanding Cross National Segmentation. International Marketing Review 28, (3), 229 243. Chan, K.Y., Lee, W. & Robert, C. (2006). An Empirical Analysis of Measurement Equivalence with the INDCOL Measure of Individualism and Collectivism: Implications For Valid Cross Cultural Inference. Personal Psychology, 59, 65 99. Cheong, Y., Kim, K, & Zheng, L. (2010). Advertising Appeals as a Reflection of Culture : A Cross Cultural Analysis of Food Advertising Appeals in China and the US. Asian Jour nal of Communications 20, (1), 1 16.

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70 Choi, Y. & Miracle, G. (2004). The Effectiveness of Comparative Advertising in Korea and the United States: A Cross Cultural and Individual Level Analysis. Journal of Advertising, 33, (4), 75 87. Cutler, B.D., Erdem, Collectivism Individualism Appeals: A Cross Cultural Study. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 9, (3), 43 55. Emery, C., Tian, R.K., (2010). China Compared with the US: Cultural Differences and the Impacts on Advertising Appeals. International Journal of China Marketing, 1, (1), 45 49. Fiske, P. (2002). Using Individualism and Collectivism to Compare Cultures A Critique of the Validity and M easurement of the Constructs: Comment on Oyserman et al. Psychological Bulletin, 128, (1), 78 88. Gelb, B & Zhang, Y. (1996). Matching Advertising Appeals to Cultures: The Influence of Journal of Advertising, 25, (3), 29 46. Han S. & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and Culture: Advertising Appeals in Individualistic and Collectivistic Societies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 30, 326 350. Heise, D. (1970). The Semantic Differential and Attitude Research. Attitude Mea surement. Summers, G. Chicago, IL, 14, (135 253) related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Psycholo gy & Marketing, 1, (2) 45 64. Hui, H. C, (1988). Measurement of Individualism Collectivism. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 17 36. Hui, H. C. & Triandis, H. C. (1986). Individualism collectivism: A study of cross cultural researchers. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 7, 225 248. Leckenby, J.D,. & Stout, P. A (1988). Nature of Emotional Response to Advertising: A Further Examination. Journal of Advertising 14, (4), 53 57. McQuarrie, E. & Mick, D. (1999). Visual Rhetoric in Advertising: T ext Interpretive, Experimental, and Reader Response Analyses. Journal of Consumer Research, Inc. 26, 37 54.

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71 Mehrabian, A. (1980). Basic dimensions for general psychological theory: implications for personality, social, environmental, and developmental st udies. Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlanger, Gunn & Hain. Meharabian, A. & Russell, J. A. (1974). Approach to Environmental Psychology. Cambridge, MA: Messaris, P. (1997). Visual Persuasion: The Role of Images in Advertising. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Morris, JD. & Pai, F.W. (1997). A Design for Measuring and Interpreting Emotional Response to Standardized Advertisements Across Cultures: Where East Meets West. Morris, J., Strausbaugh, L., & Nthangeni, M. (1996). Emotional Response t o Advertisements (or Commercials) Across Cultures. Conference of the American Academy of Advertising. Mooji, M. (1994). Advertising Worldwide: Concepts, Theories and Practice of International, Multinational and Global Advertising. Second Edition, New Y our, NY: Prentice Hall International ltd. Mueller, B. & Toland, K. (2003). Advertising and Societies: Global Issues. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. Neelankavil, J.P. & Zhang, Y. (1995). The Influence of Culture on Advertising Effectiveness in China and The USA: A Cross Cultural Study. European Journal of Marketing, 31, (2), 134 149. Osgood C. E., Suci, G.I., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (1957). The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kem melmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3 72. Pai, F. & Morris, J.D. (1997). Where east meets west: a des ign for measuring and interpreting emotional response to standardized advertisement across cultures ESOMAR, The Global Future, Lisbon. Punnett, T. & Pollay, R., (1990). Facing up to the Challenge of Measuring Emotional Response to Advertising. As in Age res, S.; Edell, J. & Dubitsky, T., Emotion in Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Explorations. (105 111). New Your, NY: Quorum Books.

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72 Richins, M. (1997). Measuring Emotions in the Consumption Experience. Journal of Consumer Research, Inc., 24, (2), 127 146. Robert, C. & Wasti, A. (2002). Organizational Individualism and collectivism: Theoretical Development and an Empirical Test of Measure. Journal of Management, 28, (4) 544 566. Scott, L. (1994). Images in Advertising: The Need for Theory of Visua l Rhetoric. The Journal of Consumer Research, 21, (2), 252 273. Shavitt, S. & Zhang, J. (2003). Cultural Values in Advertisements to the Chinese X Generation: Promotion Modernity and Individualism. Journal of Advertising, 32, (1) 21 31. Triandis H. C. (1995). Individualism and Collectivism. Boulder, CO: West View Press. Yakhlef, A. (2010). The Trinity of International Strategy: Adaption, Standardization and transformation Asian Business Management, 9, (1), 47 65 Zhang, J. (2010). The Persuasi veness of Individualistic and Collectivistic Advertising Appeals Among Chinese Generation X Consumers. Journal of Advertising, 39, (3), 69 80. Zhang, Y. (2009). Individualism or Collectivism? Cultural Orientations in Chinese TV Commercials and Analysis of Some Moderating Factors. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86, (3), 630 653.

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73 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Laurie R ebecca Hice Michaelson was born in Tampa, Fla. She spent the majority of her early childhood on the Florida Space Coast in the Atlantic coas tal town of Indialantic. The summer between sixth and seventh grade, Laurie moved with her family to Wisconsin where she graduated from high school a year early and attended the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, receiving a Bachelor of Arts in Religious Stu dies. Upon graduation, Laurie worked as an assistant state supervisor of promotions for Sidney Frank Imports, one of nation's leading liquor importing companies. She worked for Sidney Frank Imports for three years, during which time she married Jake Micha elson and cultivated a passion for photography. The couple relocated to Gainesville, Fla., where she worked as a membership sales representative for AAA Auto Club South. Laurie excelled in sales, but realized she wanted to furthe r her education in advertis ing and communications, as well as continue work ing as a photographer. as a photojournalist for the University News Bureau, in addition to holding several advertising and p romotions internships most notably with the University of Florida International Center, working on Advertising and PR for the I Cubed NSF program. Laurie also manages her own freelance photography business and is pursuing a career in international advertising, strategic planning and consumer research.