<%BANNER%>

New Early Miocene (Arikareean) Artiodactyls from Panama, Central America

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043778/00001

Material Information

Title: New Early Miocene (Arikareean) Artiodactyls from Panama, Central America
Physical Description: 1 online resource (104 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Rincon, Aldo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: anthracotheriidae -- camelidae -- early -- miocene -- panama
Geological Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Geology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Herein, I describe the first ungulate artiodactyls from the early Miocene (Arikareean NALMA) Las Cascadas Formation, Panama Canal area, Central America. The fossils include two new species of floridatraguline camels and a new species of bothriodontine anthracothere. The Panamanian floridatraguline camels are similar to the Hemingfordian Aguascalientia wilsoni from the Zoyotal Local Fauna (L.F) in having: 1) a primitive lower dental formula, 2) brachydont teeth, 3) an unusually elongate jaw with caniniform c1 and p1 that are well separated by a diastema, 4) a long and narrow mandibular symphysis, 5) lower molars with small intercolumnar pillars, 6) an m3 hypoconulid divided by lingual and labial selenes, and 7) no diastema between p2 and p3. Interpreted primitive characters are similar to a small, unnamed camel from the earliest Miocene Buda L. F. of Florida (middle Late Arikareean NALMA) suggesting a tropical origin for Floridatragulinae. The new species of bothriodontine anthracothere represents the first record of Anthracotheriidae from the New World Tropics. It is most similar to Arretotherium acridens from the middle Arikareean Toledo Bend L. F. from Texas in having a relatively deep and robust jaw, high and sharp cusps on the lower molars, short c-p1 diastema, and absence of a mesiolingual metacristid. While cladistic analysis of 28 anthracotheriids coded for 51 characters supports a relationship between A. meridionale sp. nov. and A. acridens, some presumably convergent dental characteristics are also similar to certain Oligocene-Miocene Eurasian bothriodontines. Presence of Arretotherium in the Las Cascadas Formation in Panama, and absence in the younger Centenario Fauna, shows that primitive bothriodontines entered into Central America by the early Miocene before disappearing from the New World in the late early-middle Miocene. These new fossil ungulates suggest that the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage probably constitutes a distinctive late Arikareean (Ar3-Ar4) faunal province characterized by the arrival of northern immigrants into a small continental basin connected with temperate regions of North America.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Aldo Rincon.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Bloch, Jonathan I.
Local: Co-adviser: Macfadden, Bruce J.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043778:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043778/00001

Material Information

Title: New Early Miocene (Arikareean) Artiodactyls from Panama, Central America
Physical Description: 1 online resource (104 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Rincon, Aldo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: anthracotheriidae -- camelidae -- early -- miocene -- panama
Geological Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Geology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Herein, I describe the first ungulate artiodactyls from the early Miocene (Arikareean NALMA) Las Cascadas Formation, Panama Canal area, Central America. The fossils include two new species of floridatraguline camels and a new species of bothriodontine anthracothere. The Panamanian floridatraguline camels are similar to the Hemingfordian Aguascalientia wilsoni from the Zoyotal Local Fauna (L.F) in having: 1) a primitive lower dental formula, 2) brachydont teeth, 3) an unusually elongate jaw with caniniform c1 and p1 that are well separated by a diastema, 4) a long and narrow mandibular symphysis, 5) lower molars with small intercolumnar pillars, 6) an m3 hypoconulid divided by lingual and labial selenes, and 7) no diastema between p2 and p3. Interpreted primitive characters are similar to a small, unnamed camel from the earliest Miocene Buda L. F. of Florida (middle Late Arikareean NALMA) suggesting a tropical origin for Floridatragulinae. The new species of bothriodontine anthracothere represents the first record of Anthracotheriidae from the New World Tropics. It is most similar to Arretotherium acridens from the middle Arikareean Toledo Bend L. F. from Texas in having a relatively deep and robust jaw, high and sharp cusps on the lower molars, short c-p1 diastema, and absence of a mesiolingual metacristid. While cladistic analysis of 28 anthracotheriids coded for 51 characters supports a relationship between A. meridionale sp. nov. and A. acridens, some presumably convergent dental characteristics are also similar to certain Oligocene-Miocene Eurasian bothriodontines. Presence of Arretotherium in the Las Cascadas Formation in Panama, and absence in the younger Centenario Fauna, shows that primitive bothriodontines entered into Central America by the early Miocene before disappearing from the New World in the late early-middle Miocene. These new fossil ungulates suggest that the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage probably constitutes a distinctive late Arikareean (Ar3-Ar4) faunal province characterized by the arrival of northern immigrants into a small continental basin connected with temperate regions of North America.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Aldo Rincon.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Bloch, Jonathan I.
Local: Co-adviser: Macfadden, Bruce J.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043778:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 en-US NEW EARLY MIOCENE (ARIKAREEAN) ARTIODACTYLS FROM PANAMA, CENTRAL AMERICA en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US By en-US en-US ALDO FERNANDO RINCON en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US en-US A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE en-US UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

PAGE 2

2 2011 Aldo Fernando Rincon

PAGE 3

3 en-US To my family and friends en-US en-US en-US en-US

PAGE 4

4 en-US ACKNOWLEDGMENTS en-US I thank C. Jaramillo, C. Montes at STRI for all these years of support and advice; to my advisor (J. Bloch) for everything he has done for my professional development; to the additional members of my Research Committee (B. MacFadden, D. Foster and R. Hulbert) for help with anatomical terminology, taxonomic nomenclature and academic suport. J, Bourque at FLMNH, who prepared the specimens in the laboratory, J. Schiebout and S. Ting at the LSU Geology Department and T. Rowe at University of Texas at Austin, for access to relevant research collections; M. Warren at C.A. Pound Human Identification Laboratory (University of Florida) for access to the X rayequipment; S. Suarez, M. Vallejo, and F. Moreno (STRI) who helped in the collection of the specimens, F. Lihoreau for help with the phylogenetic character-matrix, and C. Manz, L. Oviedo, E. Woodruff, F. Herrera, A. Hastings, and J. Pardo, for reading an earlier version of the manuscripts and making helpful comments for their improvement. I thank the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) for access to relevant fossil sites. I specially thank to P. Haines and J. Jaeger in the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida for all their help during the Graduate Program. en-US This research was supported by UF Research Opportunity Grant; the U.S. National Science Foundation Partnerships in International Research and Education grant 0966884 (OISE, EAR, DRL), EAR 0824299, and EAR 0418042; STRI-Tupper Paleontological Fund; STRI-Panama Canal Authority Fund; and Ricardo Perez Toyota, Panama.

PAGE 5

5 en-US TABLE OF CONTENTS en-US page en-US ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4en-US en-US LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... 8en-US en-US ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 10en-US en-US CHAPTER en-US 1 en-US INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 12en-US en-US Conventions ............................................................................................................ 14en-US en-US Institutional Abbreviations ....................................................................................... 15en-US en-US Geological Setting ................................................................................................... 15en-US en-US 2 en-US FOSSIL CAMELS (CAMELIDAE) FROM THE LAS CASCADAS FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGE ....................................................................................................... 19en-US en-US Floridatragulinae ..................................................................................................... 19en-US en-US Systematic Paleontology ......................................................................................... 22en-US Aguascalientia panamaensis sp. nov. ................................ .............................. 24en-US en-US Description ................................................................................................. 26en-US en-US Discussion and comparisons. .................................................................... 29en-US Aguascalientia minuta sp. nov. ................................ ................................ ......... 32en-US en-US Description ................................................................................................. 33en-US en-US Discussion and comparisons. .................................................................... 35en-US en-US Phylogenetic Analysis ............................................................................................. 36en-US en-US Discussion .............................................................................................................. 39en-US en-US 3 en-US FOSSIL ANTHRACOTHERES (ANTHRACOTHERIIDAE) FROM THE LAS CASCADAS FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGE ..................................................................... 58en-US en-US Anthracotheriidae .................................................................................................... 58en-US en-US Systematic Paleontology ......................................................................................... 61en-US en-US Arretotherium meridionale sp. nov .................................................................... 62en-US en-US Description ................................................................................................. 63en-US en-US Discussion and comparisons. .................................................................... 69en-US en-US Phylogenetic Analysis ............................................................................................. 70en-US en-US Discussion .............................................................................................................. 73en-US en-US 4 en-US CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................... 83en-US en-US en-US

PAGE 6

6 en-US APPENDIX en-US A en-US DENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF FLORIDATRAGULINAE FROM THE LAS CASCADAS FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGE ..................................................................... 85en-US en-US B en-US DENTAL CHARACTERS USED IN THE PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF FLORIDATRAGULINAE (CHAPTER 2) .................................................................. 88en-US en-US C en-US CHARACTER-TAXON MATRIX USED IN PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF FLORIDATRAGULINAE (CHAPTER 2) .................................................................. 89en-US en-US D en-US DESCRIPTION OF DENTAL CHARACTERS USED IN THE PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF ANTHRACOTHERIIDAE (CHAPTER 3) ......................................... 90en-US en-US E en-US CHARACTER-TAXON MATRIX USED IN THE PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF ANTHRACOTHERIIDAE. .................................................................................. 94en-US en-US LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 95en-US en-US BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................... 104en-US

PAGE 7

7 en-US LIST OF TABLES Table page en-US en-US 2-1 Summary table of dental measurement (in mm) of A. panamaensis sp. nov from the Las Cascadas Formation. ..................................................................... 54en-US en-US 2-2 Summary table of dental measurement (in mm) on A. minuta sp. nov. .............. 55en-US en-US 2-3 Comparative values of premolar reduction and predicted body mass along Floridatragulinae and the un-named camels from the Buda Local Fauna .......... 56en-US en-US 2-4 Predicted body mass for A. panamaensis sp. nov. ............................................. 57en-US en-US 3-1 Summary table of dental measurements (in mm) of A. meridionale sp. nov from the Las Cascadas Formation. ..................................................................... 82en-US en-US A-1 Dental measurements (in mm) of A. panamaensis sp. nov. and A. minuta sp. nov. from Las Cascadas Formation, Panama. ................................................... 85en-US

PAGE 8

8 en-US LIST OF FIGURES Figure page en-US en-US 1-1 Location and stratigraphic position of camelid fossils from the Gaillard Cut, Panama Canal area. ........................................................................................... 17 en-US 1-2 Stratigraphic relationship between the fossil localities associated to the upper part of the Las Cascadas Formation, Lirio Norte, Panama Canal area. ............. 18 en-US 2-1 Location and biochronology of the camel-bearing fossil faunas discussed in this study.. .......................................................................................................... 45 en-US 2-2 Diagram showing most of the dental cusp nomenclature applied to ermanent and milk dentitions of camels in this study. ......................................................... 46 en-US 2-3 Upper dentition of Aguascalientia panamaensis .. ............................................... 47 en-US 2-4 Lower dentition of Aguascalientia panamaensis (Holotype) .............................. 48 en-US 2-5 Lower dentition of Aguascalientia panamaensis (Paratypes). ............................ 48 en-US 2-6 Detailed photographs of lower anterior teeth of Aguascalientia panamaensis .. 49 en-US 2-7 Detailed view of the lower dentition of Aguascalientia panamaensis .. ................ 49 en-US 2-8 Comparison of upper molar morphology of Aguascalientia minuta from the Las Cascadas Formation, Panama, and an unidentified camelid from the Buda Local Fauna, Florida.. ................................................................................ 50 en-US 2-9 Lower dentition of Aguascalientia minuta (Holotype). ......................................... 51 en-US 210 Detailed photographs of lower anterior teeth of Aguascalientia minuta .............. 52 en-US 211 Bivariate plots of the natural logarithm of the anterior-posterior length versus maximum transverse width for relevant specimens of Floridatragulinae. ........... 52 en-US 212 Hypothetical phylogenetic relationships of Aguascalientia panamaensis sp. nov. and A. minuta sp. nov. within Floridatragulinae based on 12 character matrix. ................................................................................................................. 53 en-US 213 Comparison of lower dental morphology of Aguascalientia panamaensis from the Las Cascadas Formation, Panama, and an unidentified camelid from the Buda Local Fauna, Florida. ................................................................................ 53 en-US 3-1 Location and biochronology of early Miocene bothriodontines discussed in this study.. .......................................................................................................... 76

PAGE 9

9 en-US 3-2 Diagram showing most of the dental cusp nomenclature applied to lower permanent dentitions of anthracotheres in this study .. ....................................... 77 en-US 3-3 Lower dentition of Arretotherium meridionale .. ................................................... 78 en-US 3-4 Detailed view of the lower permanent dentition of Arretotherium meridionale ... 79 en-US 3-5 Upper dentition of Arretotherium meridionale .................................................... 79 en-US 3-6 Bivariate plots of the natural logarithm of the anterior-posterior length of m1 and M3 versus maximum transverse width for relevant specimens of Arretotherium. .................................................................................................... 80 en-US 3-7 Biogeographic distribution and hypothetical phylogenetic relationships (Calculated in PAUP 4.0b10) of Anthracotheriidae including Arretotherium meridionale sp. nov and A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L. F.. ...................... 81en-US

PAGE 10

10 en-US en-US Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science en-US en-US NEW EARLY MIOCENE (ARIKAREEAN) ARTIODACTYLS FROM PANAMA, CENTRAL AMERICA en-US en-US By en-US Aldo Fernando Rincon en-US en-US December 2011 en-US en-US Chair: Jonathan I. Bloch en-US Cochair: Bruce J. MacFadden en-US Major: Geology en-US en-US Herein, I describe the first ungulate artiodactyls from the early Miocene (Arikareean NALMA) Las Cascadas Formation, Panama Canal area, Central America. The fossils include two new species of floridatraguline camels and a new species of bot hriodontine anthracothere. The Panamanian floridatraguline camels are similar to the Hemingfordian Aguascalientia wilsoni from the Zoyotal Local Fauna (L.F) in having: 1) a primitive lower dental formula, 2) brachydont teeth, 3) an unusually elongate jaw with caniniform c1 and p1 that are well separated by a diastema, 4) a long and narrow mandibular symphysis, 5) lower molars with small intercolumnar pillars, 6) an m3 hypoconulid divided by lingual and labial selenes, and 7) no diastema between p2 and p3. Interpreted primitive characters are similar to a small, unnamed camel from the earliest Miocene Buda L. F. of Florida (middle Late Arikareean NALMA) suggesting a tropical origin for Floridatragulinae. en-US The new species of bothriodontine anthracothere represents the first record of Anthracotheriidae from the New World Tropics. It is most similar to Arretotherium acridens from the middle Arikareean Toledo Bend L. F. from Texas in having a relatively

PAGE 11

11 en-US deep and robust jaw, high and sharp cusps on the lower molars, short c-p1 diastema, and absence of a mesiolingual metacristid. While cladistic analysis of 28 anthracotheriids coded for 51 characters supports a relationship between A. meridionale sp. nov. and A. acridens some presumably convergent dental characteristics are also similar to certain Oligocene-Miocene Eurasian bothriodontines. Presence of Arretotherium in the Las Cascadas Formation in Panama, and absence in the younger Centenario Fauna, shows that primitive bothriodontines entered into Central America b y the early Miocene before disappearing from the New World in the late early-middle Miocene. en-US These new fossil ungulates suggest that the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage probably constitutes a distinctive late Arikareean (Ar3-Ar4) faunal province characterized by the arrival of northern immigrants into a small continental basin connected with temperate regions of North America. en-US

PAGE 12

12 en-US CHAPTER 1 en-US INTRODUCTION en-US Since the construction of the Panama Canal at the beginning of the twentieth century, and with its recent ongoing expansion, mammal fossils have been collected that document a diversity of taxa with North American affinities that inhabited tropical areas during the early-middle Miocene at the southern-most extremes of their geographic ranges (Woodring, 1957, 1982; Whitmore and Stewart, 1965; MacFadden and Higgins. 2004; MacFadden, 2006, 2009; MacFadden et al., 2010; Uhen et al., 2010). The unique geographic position (Figure 1-1) of these faunas represents an opportunity to understand early Miocene terrestrial mammalian paleobiogeography prior to complete uplift of the Isthmus of Panama in the late Neogene (Coates and Obando, 1996). Outcrops of fossiliferous sediments representing a variety of geological settings, from shallow marine to continental (MacFadden, 2006; Kirby et al., 2008; MacFadden et al., 2010), are exposed along the southern part of the Panama Canal. Since 2004, crews from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) and the Florida Museum of Natural history (FLMNH), in collaboration with the Panama Canal Authority (ACP), have been collecting new geological and paleontological data to better understand the origin and evolution of the Panamanian Isthmus. Large changes in vegetation have been well-documented at the Oligocene Miocene transition in the Central Great Plains, but their influence on tropical communities, mainly terrestrial mammalian herbivores, are still largely unknown (Pagani, 1999; Janis, 2000; Strmberg, 2002; Tipple and Pagani, 2010; Urban et al., 2010). en-US The Gaillard Cut stratigraphic sequence (Figure 1-1B) encompasses a mosaic of environments including mangrove forest, forests, shallow marine, and transitional

PAGE 13

13 en-US environments (Woodring, 1982; Retallack and Kirby, 2007). Recent collecting efforts have yielded new vertebrates from the transitional Culebra and continental Cucaracha Formations (MacFadden 2006; 2009; Kirby et al., 2008; MacFadden et al., 2010; Uhen et al., 2010), as well as the marine Gatun Formation (Pimiento et al., 2010; Uhen et al., 2010). Based on previously collected (Whitmore and Stewart, 1965) and new fossil collections, MacFadden (2006, 2009) reported the presence of carnivores, artiodactyls, and perissodactyls from the Cucaracha Formation. Following Tedford et al. (1970), these fossil assemblages (also see Kirby et al., 2008), including those from the upper part of the Culebra Formation, were formally described as the Centenario Fauna (MacFadden et al., 2010). While all of the mammals are known from the Miocene of North America, the Centenario Fauna (Figure 1-1B) does not obviously fit within the biochronological context of a specific North American Land Mammal Age (MacFadden, 2006). This problem has been exacerbated by the poorly constrained chronostratigraphic framework of the sequence, leading to a diversity of paradoxical interpretations (MacFadden and Higgins 2004; MacFadden 2006; MacFadden et al., 2010). Recent fieldwork in the underlying early Miocene Las Cascadas Formation (Woodring et al., 1984; Kirby et al., 2008; MacFadden et al., 2010) has yielded many new mammals that fill an important gap in a discontinuous tropical fossil record. The Las Cascadas fossil assemblage underlies the early Miocene Culebra Formation (Figure 1-1B) and represents the oldest fossil vertebrate fauna found in southern Central America. The Las Cascadas Formation is composed of the oldest terrestrial deposits of central Panama, and probably registers the initial uplift of the Panamanian volcanic arc that was previously submerged (Montes et al., in press). Mammals from the

PAGE 14

14 en-US Las Cascadas Formation include the first immigrants from higher latitude North American continental terrains that reached marginal tropical areas in the early Miocene. Because fossil camels are extremely rare in the overlying Centenario Fauna (MacFadden et al., 2010), with known specimens still undescribed, it is somewhat surprising that the most common fossil remains collected to date in the fossiliferous intervals of the Las Cascadas Formation belong to new species of the bizarre and poorly understood floridatraguline camels along with the notable presence of anthracotheres (Rincon et al., 2010). en-US In a regional paleoecological context, well-known pronounced changes in vegetation have been documented at the Oligocene Miocene transition in the Central Great Plains of North America, suggesting that this floral turnover may be related to coeval morphological adaptations and changes in selection pressure in a large number of terrestrial mammalian herbivores (Stromberg, 2006; Kurschner, 2008). Therefore, Las Cascadas local fauna will be critical for understanding the dispersal pattern of browsing taxa along North and Central America during the Paleogene-Neogene transition. en-US Conventions en-US The biochronology follows the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene biozonation developed in the Great Plains (Tedford et al., 1987, 2004; MacFadden and Hunt, 1998) and the subsequent recalibration proposed by Albright et al. (2008) for the Arikareean North America Land Mammal Age (NALMA).

PAGE 15

15 en-US Institutional Abbreviations en-US AMNH. American Museum of Natural History, New York, U.S.A; en-US CM Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; F:AM, Frick: American Mammals collection at the AMNH; en-US LSUMG V Louisiana State University Museum of Geoscience; Baton Rouge, Louisiana, U.S.A; en-US MZC Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A; en-US SDSM South Dakota School of Mines, Rapid City, South Dakota, U.S.A; en-US TMM Texas Memorial Museum, Austin, Texas, U.S.A; en-US UCMP University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, U.S.A; en-US UF V ertebrate P aleontology Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A; en-US UNSM University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, U.S.A. en-US en-US Geological Setting en-US The stratigraphic sequence cropping out along the Gaillard Cut encompasses Eocene to middle-late Miocene volcanic, volcanosedimentary and clastic units (Woodring and Thompson, 1949; Woodring et al., 1982; Kirby et al., 2008; MacFadden et al., 2010). This stratigraphic interval (Figure 1-1B) represents one of the most complete and best-exposed Oligocene and Miocene volcanic sequences within the Central American arc. The northern part of the Gaillard Cut is composed mainly of Eocene-early Miocene volcanic and volcaniclastic formations (Bas Obispo and Las Cascadas Formations), whereas the southern part is mainly characterized by shallow marine and volcaniclastic continental sequences of the Culebra and Cucaracha Formations (Kirby et al., 2008). The Las Cascadas Formation is composed of andesitic flows and agglomeratic tuffs with cobbles of andesite and basalt set in a fine-grained tuffaceous matrix, which constitutes the main lithology associated with the vertebrate fossils (Figure 1-2). The structural complexity of the area, as well as the limited and ephemeral outcrops along the canal, restrict the exposures of the Las Cascadas

PAGE 16

16 en-US fossiliferous interval to the northern part of the Gaillard Cut, where volcaniclastic sequences are more common and paleosols are well developed (Figure 1-2). The lower part of the Las Cascadas Formation is characterized by massive accumulations of volcanic rocks (mainly agglomerated breccias) and fluvial sediments (Figure 1-1B). Conversely, the upper part of the Las Cascadas Formation (Figure 1-2) is characterized by massive accumulations of volcanic blocks ranging from welded tuffaceus agglomerates to pyroclastic fall deposits and discrete intervals of fluvial sediments (Woodring, 1982; Kirby et al., 2008). The Las Cascadas Formation is overlain by the Culebra Formation and separated from it by a slightly angular unconformity (Montes et al., in press). The overlaying volcaniclastic sequence is composed of the marine transgressive system of the Culebra Formation and the prograding sequence of the Cucaracha Formation (Kirby et al., 2008). Despite the abundance of volcanic material, efforts to date these rocks have been unsuccessful and the geochronology available for the section is restricted to Strontium (Sr 87 /Sr 86 ) chemostratigraphy (Kirby et al., 2008) on calcareous biogenic shells and corals (Figure 1-1B). Therefore, the upper Las Cascadas fossiliferous sequence represents an interval older than the lower part of the Culebra Formation, for which several dates have been published between 20.62 0.58 and 23.07 0.53 Ma (Kirby et al., 2008). The age of the lower boundary of the Las Cascadas Formation is constrained by andesitic water-saturated arc lavas of the underlying Bas Obispo Formation dated using Ar 40 /Ar 39 age as 25.37 0.13 Ma (Rooney et al., 2010). Therefore, the duration of the Las Cascadas Formation likely spans the late Oligocene to early Miocene (<25 Ma to >~21 Ma), likely representing the

PAGE 17

17 en-US middleto -late Arikareean NALMA sensu MacFadden and Hunt (1998) and Albright et al. (2008). en-US en-US Figure 1-1. Location and stratigraphic position of camelid fossils from the Gaillard Cut, Panama Canal area. A) Map of North and Central America showing the location of the Panama Canal area and the Gaillard Cut. B) Stratigraphic section of the Gaillard Cut area showing the stratigraphic position of the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage and the Centenario Fauna. Modified from Kirby et al. (2008) and MacFadden et al. (2010).

PAGE 18

18 en-US en-US en-US Figure 1-2. Stratigraphic relationship between the fossil localities associated to the upper part of the Las Cascadas Formation, Lirio Norte, Panama Canal area. A) YPA024 locality, Lirio Norte. B) YPA034 locality, Lirio Norte

PAGE 19

19 en-US CHAPTER 2 en-US FOSSIL CAMELS (CAMELIDAE) FROM THE LAS CASCADAS FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGE en-US Floridatragulinae en-US Among the Camelidae (extant camels, llamas and fossil relatives), the llama-like floridatragulines represent an aberrant group with unusually elongated snouts and unreduced dentitions. They have been reported exclusively from subtropical areas in northern Mexico, the Texas Gulf Coast, and Florida (Figure 2-1) during the early Miocene (Patton, 1969; Stevens et al., 1969; Stevens, 1977; Stevens and Stevens, 1989; Albright, 1998; 1999; Hulbert and Webb, 2001). The unique combination of floridatraguline morphological characters (White, 1940, 1942; Maglio, 1966; Stevens, 1977; Honey et al., 1998) made it difficult to assess their phylogenetic relationships. The taxon was related to several families within Artiodactyla, including Hypertragulidae (White, 1940; 1947), Protoceratidae (White, 1942), and Camelidae (Maglio, 1966). Al though floridatragulines are now considered to be closely related to higher camels (Prothero and Emry, 1996), the limited fossil record for the group has led to ambiguity regarding their relationships to other North American camels (Prothero and Emry, 1996 ; Honey et al., 1998) co-occur at two localities (Albright, 1998; 1999). While similar, nothokematines are distinctly different from floridatragulines in having more lingually inflected paraconids on p3-p4 and a less developed overlap between the entoconulid and the hypoconulid of the m3 talonid, and in lacking a caniniform p1 (Maglio, 1966; Patton, 1969; Frailey, 1978; Honey et al., 1998). en-US The first known species of the Floridatragulinae is Floridatragulus dolichanthereus White, 1942, from the Hemingfordian Thomas Farm fossil site in Florida (Figure 2-1).

PAGE 20

20 en-US Because the morphology of F. dolichanthereus includes a strange mixture of primitive and derived characteristics, it was tentatively placed in the extinct artiodactyl family Hypertragulidae. Subsequent specimens recovered from Thomas Farm were referred to a second new taxon Hypermekops olseni White, 1942 and also placed within the Hypertragulidae. Maglio (1966) synonymized H. olseni and F. dolichanthereus based on unpublished studies done by Bryan Patterson and further proposed a new camelid subfamily, Floridatragulinae Maglio, 1966, to include these taxa. Additional floridatraguline camels were described from the Hemingfordian Garvin Gully Local Fauna (L.F.) from Texas (Figure 2-3), where three new specific designations were included in Floridatragulus ( Floridatragulus nanus Patton, 1969; Floridatragulus texanus Patton, 1969 and Floridatragulus hesperus Patton, 1969), suggesting that floridatraguline camels might represent an allocthonous element from the Great Plains Fauna (Patton, 1969). Further descriptions of Floridatragulinae taxa (Figure 2-1) include Aguascalientia Stevens, 1977, from Early Middle Miocene Zoyotal L. F. in Mexico ( Miotylopus wilsoni Dalquest and Mooser, 1974 = Aguascalientia wilsoni Stevens, 1977), the early Miocene Arikareean Castolon L.F. in Texas ( Aguascalientia sp., Wilson, 1974, a primitive, small Chadronian camel with a slightly elongated rostrum from the Big Bend Area, Texas; the Arikareean and Hemingfordian Aguascalientia Stevens, 1977, from Texas and Mexico respectively (Stevens and Dawson, 1969; Stevens, 1977; Stevens and Stevens, 1989); and Floridatragulus White, 1940 (White, 1940; Patton, 1969; Honey et al., 1998).

PAGE 21

21 en-US The distribution of Floridatragulinae during the early Miocene is restricted to subtropical areas (Figure 2-1) in North America without any reliable northern counterparts (Wilson, 1942; Patton, 1969; Stevens et al., 1977; Wilson, 1984; Prothero and Emry, 1996, Albright, 1998; 1999) suggesting that they could have originated in the New World Tropics, probably descended from an oromerycid as was suggested by Stevens (1977). en-US The present study focuses on two new camels from the Panama Canal area.They offer a unique view of floridatraguline history in the tropics and allows us to evaluate their relationships with other early Miocene camelids from the Gulf Coast, Florida, Texas and Mexico (Simpson, 1930; White, 1940, 1942, 1947; Maglio, 1966; Patton, 1969; Dalquest and Mooser, 1974; Wilson, 1974, 1981; Stevens, 1977; Frailey, 1979). The new camels provide an opportunity to test previous biogeographic hypotheses (Stevens, 1977; Albright, 1998) by comparing Floridatragulinae fossils with other subtropical camelids such as the undefined small camelids from the Buda L. F. (Frailey, 1979); the small Gentilicamelus from the Brooksville 2 L. F. (Hayes, 2000) and additional poebrotherines from the Brule Formation in Nebraska (Figure 2-1). en-US For the most part, dental terminology follows Gazin (1955). In accordance with this -2). The character is preferentially called metaconule for the Camelidae, because in ancestral artiodactyls (e.g., oreodonts) the hypocone disappears and its position is occupied by a large metaconule (Gazin, 1955; Miller and Wood, 1963; Patton, 1967). Additionally, I follow the terminology proposed by Smith and Dodson (2003) for the incisors. I follow Loring and Wood (1969) for the cusp and crest terminology of the deciduous dentition,

PAGE 22

22 en-US which fundamentally differs from that of the permanent dentition in the retention of a homologous cusp equivalent to the hypoconule in the upper deciduous premolars. en-US Systematic Paleontology en-US Class MAMMALIA Linnaeus, 1758 en-US Order ARTIODACTYLA Owen, 1848 en-US Suborder TYLOPODA Illiger, 1811 en-US Family CAMELIDAE Gray, 1821 en-US Subfamily FLORIDATRAGULINAE Maglio, 1966 en-US Genus AGUASCALIENTIA Stevens, 1977 en-US en-US = Miotylopus (in part), Dalquest and Mooser, 1974. en-US en-US Type Species Aguascalientia wilsoni (Dalquest and Mooser, 1974) ( = Miotylopus wilsoni Dalquest and Mooser, 1974). en-US Included Species Aguascalientia panamaensis sp. nov.; a nd Aguascalientia minuta sp. nov. en-US Distribution Early Miocene (Arikareean) Castolon L. F. from Texas (Stevens, 1977); early Miocene (Hemingfordian) Zoyotal L. F. from Aguascalientes, Mexico (Dalquest and Mooser, 1974); and early Miocene (middleto -late Arikareean) Las Cascadas Formation, Panama Canal area, Panama (Figure 2-1). en-US Emended Diagnosis Smallest known floridatraguline. Further differs from other known floridatragulines in lacking a diastema between p2-p3, having a shorter diastema between p1-p2 that is similar or shorter than the combined length of m1-m2, slightly to strongly inflected bulbous paraconids on lower premolars, and having basal conical intercolumnar pillars on m1, m2, and variably developed on m3. Differs from Floridatragulus nanus Patton, 1969, in having m3 hypoconulid divided in two unequal selenes with additional cuspules variably present, and lacking a basal posterior cingulid. Differs from Floridatragulus dolichanthereus ( = Floridatragulus barbouri White, 1947) in

PAGE 23

23 en-US having less lingually inflected paraconids on lower premolars. Differs from Floridatragulus texanus ( = Floridatragulus hesperus Patton, 1969) in having less reduced lower premolars, more prominent, bulbous and lingually inflected paraconids on lower premolars, lacking labial cingular segments between protoconid and hypoconid on molars, and having a less developed posterolingual ridge on p3. en-US Discussion When originally diagnosed, Miotylopus wilsoni was described as distinct in having very short premolars, lacking a first premolar, and having strongly developed styles and ribs on the upper molars, but otherwise similar to Miotylopus brachygnathus Schlaikjer, 1935, in being small and having brachydont teeth (Dalquest and Mooser, 1974). Stevens (1977) questioned the generic attribution of M. wilsoni based on the presence of a small and short crowned p1 (currently reduced to a badly preserved alveolus), bulbous and foreshortened premolars, and by transferring the deciduous dentition to a different larger camel. Unfortunately, neither Stevens (1977) nor I could locate the upper molars described by Dalquest and Mooser (1974) or the material referred to Aguascalientia sp. from the Delaho Formation (Stevens, 1977) in the Aguascalientia collection. After reviewing the fossil specimens and confirming the interpretations made by Stevens (1977) of A. wilsoni the diagnosis of both the genus Aguascalientia (above) and the species A. wilsoni (below) is updated in order to take into account the morphology of the new Panamanian species described in this paper. en-US Aguascalientia wilsoni (Dalquest and Mooser, 1974) en-US Holotype TMM-41536-26, right and left dentary with left c1, left p3-m3, and right p4-m3 from the Zoyotal L. F. (Arikareean), Aguascalientes, Mexico (Dalquest and Mooser, 1974; Stevens, 1977).

PAGE 24

24 en-US Referred Specimens TMM-41536-14, right dentary fragment with p2-m1; TMM41536-30, right m2. Aguascalientia sp. from the Castolon L. F., Texas: TMM-40693-25, left mandible fragment with partial m2 and complete m3. en-US Age and Distribution Early Miocene (Hemingfordian) Zoyotal L. F., collected in a commercial rock quarry near the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico (Dalquest and Mooser, 1974; Stevens, 1977; Tedford et al., 2004). Early Miocene (Arikareean) Castolon L. F. (Figure 2-1), Big Bend Texas, USA (Stevens, 1977; Tedford et al., 2004). en-US Emended Diagnosis Differs from all other species of Aguascalientia in having a smaller p1 than c1, prominent, bulbous and strongly lingually inflected paraconids on lower premolars, shorter lower premolars relative to the molars, p2 distinctly smaller than p3, and less developed to absent styles and ribs on the lower molars. Differs from A. panamaensis sp. nov. in having a shallower invagination on the talonid of m3, shallower fossettids on lower molars, and lacking a small fossettid between the metaconid and hypoconid on p3. Differs from A. minuta sp. nov. in being greater in size (similar to A. panamaensis sp. nov.), having a shallower invagination on the talonid of m3, and lacking an enamel fold on the anterior fossettid of m2. Aguascalientia panamaensis sp. nov. Holotype UF 236939, with left c1; right dentary with c1 p3, m1 m3, and mandibular symphysis. en-US Paratypes UF 254129, right and left dentaries with right i1-i2; left i1-p4; and mandibular symphysis; UF 254124, right and left dentaries with right p3, m1, left p2, p4, m2 -m3; right p3, m1 (broken); and mandibular symphysis. en-US Etymology Panama-: Named for the Republic of Panama, the country in which the fossils were recovered and

PAGE 25

25 en-US Referred Material UF 254125, right maxilla with P3-M3; UF 244156, right dP3; UF 259878, right dP3; UF 254117, right M1; UF 244313, right M2 (broken); UF 246825, right M2 (broken); UF 246808, right M2 (broken); UF 257197, right M3; UF 244204, right M3; UF 254116, left M3; UF 254115, partial left M3; UF 245602, left M3; UF 259884, left c1; UF 244316, left p3; UF 254118, left p4; UF 254122, left m1; UF 254121, left m2; UF 246857, right M3; UF 246802, right and left dentary with left i3, p1; right c1-m2; and mandibular symphysis; UF 244288, left p3; UF 254127, left p3; UF 246803, left p3; UF 254120, left p4; UF 246836, left m2, m3; UF 254123, left m3; UF 254114, left m3 (broken); UF 257198, left m3; UF 254128, right distal humerus; UF 244202, left distal humerus; UF 244208, left astragalus; and UF 244163, right astragalus. en-US Locality and Horizon Lirio Norte (site key YPA024 in UF Vertebrate Paleontology Collection), Panama Canal area, Panama, Central America. Fossils were collected in the upper part of the Las Cascadas Formation (Figure 1-1B, Figure 1-3A), latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene, likely equivalent to the middle-to-late Arikareean NALMA (Figure 2-1). en-US Diagnosis Small floridatraguline that differs from all species of Aguascalientia in having a small fossettid between metaconid and hypoconid on p3; p1-c1 diastema longer than m2 length; and well-developed styles on lower and upper molars. Differs from A. wilsoni in having deeper fossettids on molars, less reduced premolars, and less lingually inflected paraconids on lower premolars; having a relatively large caniniform p1; differs from A. minuta sp. nov in having a greater size, absence of enamel fold on the anterior wall of the posterior fossettid of m2, and absence of posterolingual crest on p3.

PAGE 26

26 en-US Description en-US Upper Dentition In UF 254125, the crowns P3 and P4 are preserved. P3 is elongate, trenchant, lacks external ribs, and has a strong metacone with an interrupted internal cingulum with small cuspules (Figure 2-3 A through C). The anterior crescent is weak, developed lingually over the anterior root, and bears small cuspules. The posterolingual crescent is also weakly developed and extends lingually from the base of the metacone toward the posterior margin, reaching the lingual part of the base of the metastyle. en-US P4 is sub-molariform with a well-developed parastyle and metastyle. The metastyle is more prominent and recurved than the parastyle. All upper molars have strong stylar cusps on the anterior and posterior crests. The anterior half of each molar overlaps its posterior half buccally, resulting in a very prominent mesostyle and a deep recess anterior to it at the juncture of the paracone and metacone crests. A strong rib extends up each crest from the base of the crown to the tip of both the paracone and metacone (Fig 2-3E). The shape of the crescents varies from an open V or U in the posterior molars (Fig 2-3D), to a more closed V on M1. The apex of the accessory intercolumnar pillars (often double-limbed) usually coincides with the junction of the anterior and posterior crescents (Fig 2-3D). Along the anterior and posterior margins of each molar is a faint and narrow cingulum that projects from just above the base of the crown and extends along the anterior or posterior basal part of each crescent. M1 and M2 are square while M3 has a posterior margin that is transversely reduced. en-US Deciduous Upper Dentition Two isolated deciduous P3s (UF 244156 and UF 259878) are well preserved with a barely worn paracone, mesostyle and well developed hypocone (Fig 23F -H). The crown of dP3 is brachydont and has similar proportions to

PAGE 27

27 en-US that referred to Gentilicamelus (ACM 1846 in Loring and Wood, 1969, Figure 2D). The anterolingual margin has a discontinuous cingular segment dissected by a lingually expanded paracone, resulting in two anteriorly directed isolated valleys (Fig 23F and G). A distinct mesostyle is well developed, increasing the molariform appearance of the posterior part of the tooth. The dP3 has well-developed labial ribs along the principal cusps and a strongly developed metastyle (Fig 2-3H). A narrow, shallow cingular segment connects the posterior part of the hypocone with the distal part of the posterior crescent (Fig 2-3G). en-US Mandible Four well-preserved horizontal rami have been recovered (UF 236939, UF 254124, UF 254129, UF 246802). The lingual and labial surfaces are uniform below the tooth row and slightly concave below the diastemata (Figures 2-4 A and 2-5A). en-US The lower dental formula is 3.1.4.3. The crown of p1 is separated by anterior and posterior diastemata from c1 and p2, respectively (Figures 2-4 and 2-5). The anteriormost diastema extends from the spatulate and procumbent i3 to the rather prominent 5A through B). The i3-c1 diastema has an acute and sharp superior edge that is similar in length to that of the p3 crown (Figure 2-5 A through B, Table 1-1). The length of the c1-p1 diastema varies between 75-100% that of the p2p3 crowns, with the p1-p2 diastema usually longer. The superior edges of these diastemata are sharp and pinched below the edge forming a well-defined crest between the anterior teeth. The mandibular symphysis is completely fused and is long and shallow with no evidence of a suture (Figures 2-4A, 2-5A through C). en-US Posterior to the symphysis, the lingual and labial surfaces of the mandible become slightly concave, narrower, and deeper. A remarkable deepening of the mandible is

PAGE 28

28 en-US evident beneath p2 and extends distally along the tooth row. The posterior edge of the symphysis projects below the inferior contour of the mandible at the level of the posterior edge of the mental foramen. en-US Lower Dentition The complete dentition is not preserved in any of the specimens available for study; however, a complete dental formula is evident based on the referred associated material. UF 254129 provides the first evidence of the condition of the anterior lower dentition of Aguascalientia as well as the Floridatragulinae in general (Figure 2-5A, B). The incisors are procumbent, spatulate, and progressively enlarged posteriorly. The lingual surface is concave, the labial surface is convex, with no crenulations or additional cusps. Although some wear is present on the occlusal surfaces of the incisors, the crowns are distally elongate with visible facets located along the anterior and posterior ends. Dentine is exposed on the occlusal wear surface as a fine band on the lingual and labial enamel (Figure 26A -C). en-US Lower canines are caniniform, similar in size to the first premolar, recurved, and transversely compressed (Figures 2-4 A through B, 2-5A through B, and 2-6D). A small ridge on the basal antero-lingual part of the crown extends toward the apical anterolabial tip. A separate straight posterior ridge extends uniformly along the posterior edge of the crown. The p1 is transversely compressed, completely caniniform, single-rooted, and similar in size to c1 (Table 2-1). Similar to the canine, the anterior and posterior ridges are present but the anterior one is distinctly straight (Figure 2-6E). en-US The p2-p4 series (Figures 2-5 A through C, and 2-7 A through B) is characterized by elongate crowns. While the p2 and p3 are similar in being double-rooted with an acute apex (metaconid) and trenchant edges, p2 is slightly longer, more transversely

PAGE 29

29 en-US compressed, and has a less pronounced posterolingual crest than p3. The p3 also has a small fossettid between the metaconid and entoconid (Figures 2-5A through C, 27A through B), absent on p2. The crown of p4 is wedge-shaped with a swollen posterior region. Apparently, most of the reduction in this tooth has occurred in the region of the protoconid, resulting in a shorter, high-crowned and slightly bulbous tooth. en-US The metaconid on p4 is high, the entoconid narrow, and the distal edge of the hypoconid slightly overlaps the metaconid. Two different crests connect the p4 metaconid with the entoconid and the hypoconid. Between these crests, a posteriorly opened lake is visible even in advanced wear stages (Figure 2-5A, C). The posterior cusp of p4 is slightly narrower than the middle cusps. The lower molars are brachydont, with relatively deep anterior and posterior fossettids visible even in more advanced wear stages (Figure 2-7C, D). The molars have discontinuous and overlapping crests with a distinctive metastylid and a metaconid crest well separated from the rest of the tooth, unless the tooth is highly worn. Intercolumnar tubercles are restricted to the basal part of the protoconid and hypoconid crests of m1 and m2 and are variably present on m3 (Figures 2-5B and 2-7C through D). Parastylids are slightly developed along the m1 and m2 and barely discernible on the anterior crest of m3. Two ridges divide the hypoconulid of m3 (Figures 2-4A and 2-7D). The lingual ridge is broader than the labial and in some specimens, with progressive wear, encloses a distinct invagination that can reach the distal basal segment of the crown. en-US Discussion and comparisons. en-US Fossils referred to A. panamaensis can be definitively attributed to the Floridatragulinae based on the following characteristics: (1) a complete lower dental formula, (2) brachydont teeth, (3) an unusually elongated jaw with 2 caniniform teeth

PAGE 30

30 en-US (c1-p1) well-separated by a diastema, (4) a long and narrow mandibular symphysis, (5) reduced lower premolars, (6) small intercolumnar pillars present in the molars, and (7) a m3 hypoconulid divided by lingual and labial selenes. The horizontal ramus of the A. panamaensis mandible is slender and deep as in A. wilsoni Stevens, 1977, F. dolichanthereus White, 1942, and F. texanus Patton, 1969. The absence of a diastema between p2-p3 in the lower series places the floridatragulines from Las Cascadas Formation in the genus Aguascalientia Moreover, the less-inflected paraconids on the second and third premolar, presence of a fossettid posterior to the protoconid of the p3, and the presence of a first premolar that is completely caniniform and similar in size to the lower canine support the definition of a new species. These morphological characters are notably distinctive in the material referred to A. wilsoni especially that of TMM-41536-14 and the holotype of A. wilsoni where the paraconids of the second and third premolars are more bulbous and strongly inflected lingually (Stevens, 1977:Figure 16). Conversely, additional camelid fossils from the Buda Local Fauna have more elongated, simple enamel patterns, and lack lingual stylids on p2-p3 (Frailey, 1979:153). en-US The morphology of the p4 of A. panamaensis is similar to that of A. wilsoni (TMM41536-26, Stevens, 1977:Figure 16), but differs from the latter in a less bulbous and less inflected paraconids. Additional comparisons were made with other Arikareean taxa such as the undefined genus from the Buda L. F. in Florida (Frailey, 1979:Figure 5, 8) where the paraconids are sharp and the premolar is more anteroposteriorly elongated. In addition, the morphology of the m3 hypoconulid of A. panamaensis varies from a deep invagination reaching the basal part of the tooth to shallower invaginations only evident in earlier wear stages. This latter feature is also characteristic of protoceratids

PAGE 31

31 en-US and other ruminants. In that case, the m3 of A. panamaensis could resemble that of Prosynthetoceras Frick, 1937, but is distinguished by lacking the strong anterior cingulid and having an isolated paraconid during wear (Patton and Taylor, 1971). In addition, the small camels from the Buda L. F. possess an m3 that converges in some degree with that condition. The formation of a double enamel loop in the hypoconulid is accomplished by a slight posterior extension of the entoconid forming a deep cleft in the posterior part of the molar (Frailey, 1979:Figure 8). en-US The typical presence of additional cuspules forming the occlusal and lingual surfaces of the hypoconulid is quite variable and includes morphologies that are als o integrated into the description of Floridatragulus nanus Patton, 1969 (TMM-40067-194, holotype), F. dolichanthereus White, 1940 (MCZ 3635, holotype), and partially F. texanus Patton, 1969 (TMM-31190-28, holotype). The intercolumnar pillars on the lower molars of A. panamaensis are characterized by basal and conical shapes clearly differing from the more robust and apically situated pillars on the molars of F. nanus F dolichanthereus and F. texanus The pillars of A. panamaensis closely resemble the conical and basally restricted morphology present in the material from the Buda L. F. (Frailey, 1979:Figure 8). en-US The morphology of the upper deciduous dentition of the fossils referred to A. panamaensis suggests a more primitive shearing function for the anterior portion of the dP3 and a molar-like pattern characterizing the posterior portion (Loring and Wood, 1969). The species of Aguascalientia described here from the Las Cascadas Formation shows no evidence of the anterior portion of the deciduous upper third premolar

PAGE 32

32 en-US becoming molariform. It is consistently composed of an anterior isolated crest with restricted occlusion inferred from little to no wear (Figure 2-3F). en-US The morphology of the anterior portion of the dP3 associated with A. panamaensis (narrow and elongated primary cusp with a faintly visible development of the protocone) is comparable with that of Camelidae incertae sedis from the Thomas Farm L. F. (UF 216633) and Camelidae incertae sedis from Zoyotal L. F. (TMM 41536-21). The dP3 from the Zoyotal L. F. (TMM 41536-21) is characterized by a more pronounced cusp resembling the protocone, whereas the corresponding area for that of A. panamaensis is restricted to a barely worn basal ridge for which the morphology is not sufficient to confirm the presence of the paracone. In contrast, older camelids such as Poebrotherium sp. from Nebraska (UF 191834), Gentilicamelus sp. from the Arikareean Brooksville 2 L. F. of Florida (UF 175468), and also fossils from the Arikareean Buda L. F. (UF 22779) lack this cusp on the lingual side of the paracone. Aguascalientia minuta sp. nov. Holotype UF 254113, paired mandibles with partial left p1 partial left p2, left p3 m3; right p1, right p4 m3 and partial mandibular symphysis. en-US Etymology referring to the smallest representative of Floridatragulinae. en-US Referred Material UF 259877, right M3; UF 246828 right c1, left c1-p2, p4-m1; UF 246833, partial canine; UF 254128, right humerus. en-US Locality and Horizon Lirio Norte (site key YPA034 in UF Vertebrate Paleontology Collection), Panama Canal area (Figures 1-1 and 1-3), Panama, Central America; fossils were collected in the upper part of the Las Cascadas Formation (Figure

PAGE 33

33 en-US 2-3), latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene, likely to be equivalent to the middleto -late Arikareean NALMA (Figure 2-1 ). en-US Diagnosis Smallest known floridatraguline. Differs from all other species of Aguascalientia in having a shorter c1-p1 diastema than length of m2, and an enamel fold on the anterior part of the posterior fossettid of m2. Differs from A. panamaensis in lacking basal intercolumnar pillars on m3, and fossettid on p3. Differs from A. wilsoni in having deeper invagination on talonid of m3, c1 and p1 similar in size, relatively larger caniniform p1, and less developed medial crest on p3. en-US Description en-US Upper Dentition Only one isolated M3 (UF 259877) can be referred to A. minuta (Figure 2-8A, B). It is characterized by a prominent mesostyle with an anterior deep recess at the juncture of the paracone and metacone. Both the parastyle and metastyle are well expressed, although the metastyle is slightly less developed. A strong rib extends from the base of the crown to the tip of both the paracone and metacone (Figure 2-8B). en-US The anterior and posterior surfaces have weak cingular segments that project from just above the base of the crown and extend along the anterior or posterior basal portion of each crescent. Strong intercolumnar tubercles are present lingually between the protocone and metaconule (Figure 2-8A). en-US Mandible The ramus is slender and deep. Unfortunately, the holotype is badly broken in the symphysial and diastematal areas and the lingual and labial surfaces are highly compressed due to deformation (Figure 2-10). The p1 and c1 are separated by a diastema of similar length to that of m1 (Figure 2-10A). Anterior to p1, a partially preserved diastema of unknown length is present. The mandibular symphysis is

PAGE 34

34 en-US completely fused. While a complete premolar series was not found in association, the left ramus and alveoli clearly shows that the p2-p4 series is nearly continuous with a short and barely discernible p2-p3 diastema (Figure 2-10B through C). en-US Lower Dentition The lower dental formula is interpreted to be ?.1.4.3 with the dentary anterior to c1 as yet unrecovered (Figures 2-9 and 2-10). en-US In UF 246828, the c1 is caniniform, oval, recurved, and transversely compressed. The lower c1 and p1 are similar in size and the p1 is more rounded and slightly lowercrowned (Figure 2-10). A small ridge is present on the basal antero-lingual part of c 1 that reaches the apex (Figure 2-10B). The posterior ridge of the c1 is straight. In the holotype (UF 254113), the p1 is transversely compressed, caniniform, single-rooted, with faintly developed anterior and posterior straight ridges connecting the basal and the apical segments (Figure 2-10A, B). en-US The p2-p4 series is characterized by elongate crowns (Figure 29E through F). The p2 is broken posteriorly, but it resembles p3 in having a well-defined metaconid and trenchant edges. It is also elongate and double-rooted. Whereas the p3 generally resembles p2, it differs in having a slightly developed lingually projected crest posterior to the metaconid. The p4 is slightly wedge-shaped with a swollen posterior region and a bulbous paraconid. Most of the reduction in this tooth has occurred in the region of the protoconid, resulting in a shorter and bulbous crown. en-US The lower molars are brachydont with relatively shallow anterior and posterior fossettids that are only visible during the initial wear stages (Figure 2-9A,E). They have discontinuous and overlapping crests that intersect after sufficient wear. The posterior crest merges first with the anterior crescent and secondly with the anterior crest when

PAGE 35

35 en-US the occlusal surface is worn down. Intercolumnar tubercles are restricted to the basal parts of m1 and m2, but are absent on m3. No cingular segments are present on the lower molars. The molars are slightly bulbous and lack well-defined stylids. A prominent enamel fold is present along the antero-lingual occlusal segment of the posterior fossettid (Figure 2-9D). Two ridges divide the hypoconulid of m3 and are separated by a prominent invagination that reaches the basal posterior portion of the talonid (Figure 29A, E). A broad lingual ridge represents a distal continuation of the hypoconid; the labial ridge is a projection of the entoconid. en-US Discussion and comparisons. en-US As for A. panamaensis A. minuta can be referred to the Floridatragulinae based on the following characteristics: (1) a complete lower dental formula, (2) brachydont teeth, (3) an unusually elongated jaw with two caniniform teeth (c1-p1) well separated by a diastema, (4) a long and narrow mandibular symphysis, (5) reduced lower premolars, (6) small intercolumnar pillars on the molars, and (7) an m3 hypoconulid divided by lingual and labial selenes. The lack of a significant p2-p3 diastema appears to be particularly diagnostic of Aguascalientia The general morphology of the upper molar (UF 259877) is consistent with that of Floridatragulinae (Figure 2-8A, B) and resembles that of the Hemingfordian Floridatragulus A. panamaensis and to some extent, the camelids from the middle Arikareean Buda L. F. (Figure 2-8C), although it differs from the later in lacking a bifurcated protocone. Additionally the lower molars are smaller than the smallest of A. panamaensis (Figure 211A -B) and also fall outside the range of A. wilsoni from the Zoyotal L. F. en-US Comparative body mass predictions based on dental and postcranial dimensions (Tables 2-3 and 2-4 respectively) demonstrate that A. minuta is the smallest

PAGE 36

36 en-US floridatraguline known. Moreover, the lack of a well-developed fossettid located posterolingually to the protoconid on the p3 and the presence of the enamel fold on the m2 can be considered autapomorphies for the species. Similar to A. panamaensis the talonid on the lower m3 of A. minuta has a continuous deep invagination reaching the basal part of the tooth with two well-developed grinding surfaces. The similar morphology and dimensions of A. minuta and material referred to Aguascalientia sp. from the Delaho Formation (TMM-49693-25, Stevens, 1977:table 12) could suggest a close relationship between these taxa, although, the fragmentary nature of Aguascalientia sp. from Texas does not allow a more detailed comparison of the premolars. Honey et al., 1998). The holotype (UF 254113) of A. minuta represents an adult individual in which the m3 is completely erupted. The morphology of the hypoconulid of A. minuta is similar to that of A. panamaensis with a divided hypoconulid where both the lingual and labial selenes are projections of the hypoconid and entoconid, respectively. It differs from that of Floridatragulus dolichanthereus F. texanus and A. wilsoni in having a more basal invagination on the talonid of m3. en-US Phylogenetic Analysis en-US To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Aguascalientia panamaensis and A. minuta within Floridatragulinae, I performed a cladistic analysis of nine camelid taxa and one oromerycid to represent the outgroup. Twelve dental characters were scored and used in the analysis, most of which were restricted to the lower dentition (Appendix B). The ingroup includes the five floridatragulines recognized by Honey et al. (1998) ( Floridatragulus dolichanthereus F. nanus F. texanus Aguascalientia wilsoni and Poebrotherium franki ) and the two new species of Aguascalientia from Panama ( A. panamaensis A. minuta ). To assess the relationship of Floridatragulinae to more

PAGE 37

37 en-US primitive camels, I also included the undefined small camelid from the Arikareean Buda L. F. in Florida and the late Eocene-early Oligocene Poebrotherium sp. from the Brule Formation, Nebraska (UF 191535). Finally, based upon the close relationship of Floridatragulinae and oromerycids proposed by Stevens (1977), the Chadronian Eotylopus reedi Matthew, 1910, from Wyoming was added as an outgroup. I believe that the inclusion of these taxa in my preliminary analysis not only provides a test for the position of the new species from Panama, but also offers an opportunity to evaluate alternative hypotheses that have been proposed regarding the origins of Floridatragulinae. en-US Morphologic data were compiled from the literature (Matthew, 1910; White, 1942; Maglio, 1966; Patton, 1969; Stevens, 1977; Honey et al., 1998) and firsthan d study of specimens. Cranial and postcranial characters were excluded from the analysis because A. wilsoni F. texanus F. nanus the undefined camelids from the Buda L. F., and the new species from Panama are mostly known from partial lower dentaries. There are associated cranial fragments from Panama, but they do not contain any informative characters for a parsimony analysis. The data matrix (Appendix C) includes dental characters that are unordered and weighted equally. Characters not known for a taxon were coded as missing. Data were compiled in Mesquite version 2.72 (Maddison and Maddison, 2009) and the dataset was analyzed under the criterion of parsimony using the exhaustive algorithm of PAUP version 4.0b10 (Swofford, 2003). The analysis resulted in four equally-most parsimonius trees (MPTs) with tree lengths of 22 steps, a consistency index (CI) of 0.818, a retention index (RI) of 0.833, and a homoplasy index (HI) of 0.182 (Figure 2-12).

PAGE 38

38 en-US Despite considerable missing data for the lower dentition, my results support a monophyletic Poebrotherium with Chadronian P. franki from Texas consistently the sister taxon of Chadronian Poebrotherium sp. from Nebraska in all of the MPTs (Node 2, Figure 2-12) based on the shared absence of a lingual notch between the metaconid and the entoconid on lower molars. en-US The poorly known small camelid from the Buda L. F. (Frailey, 1979) falls out as the sister group to Floridatragulinae (Node 3). While it lacks two of the unambiguous synapomorphies of the clade (7[1] and 9[1]; see below), it shares several unambiguous characteristics otherwise unique to Floridatragulinae including: (1) basally positioned and conical intercollumnar pillars on the lower molars (2[1]), (2) presence of a bilobed hypoconulid, with a basal invagination, on the lower m3 (4[1]), and (3) a posteriorly entoconid and metaconid, a primitive character that is absent in P. franki and Poebrotherium sp. (Node 2), but also shared with the Floridatragulinae (Figure 2-13). While this result is interesting, relationships of this undiagnosed camel need to be further tested with a phylogenetic analysis that also includes a greater diversity of primitive camels (outside of the scope of the present study). en-US A monophyletic Floridatragulinae (Node 4; Figure 2-12A), excluding the undiagnosed taxon from the Buda L. F., is supported by the following synapomorphies: (1) a mandibular symphysis ending beneath p1 (11[1], DELTRAN), (2) presence of a caniniform c1 (8[1], DELTRAN), (3) the presence of a p1-p2 diastema that is similar or longer than the crown of m2 (3[1/2], DELTRAN), (4) absence of a bifurcated protocone on the upper molars (7[1], unambiguous), and (5) and moderately reduced lower

PAGE 39

39 en-US premolar length relative to that of the molars (9[1], unambiguous). Within Floridatragulinae, my results support a monophyletic Floridatragulus (Node 6) supported by two unambiguous synapomorphies: (1) the p2-p3 diastema is longer than the p3 length (1[2]), and (2) an apically position and strong intercolumnar pillar between the hypoconid and hypoconulid on the lower molars (2[2]). My results also suggest the possibility of a paraphyletic Aguascalientia with respect to Floridatragulus with A. panamaensis as the sister taxon to all other floridatragulines. en-US In summary, the analysis suggests that Floridatragulinae is a monophyletic group, including two genera: Aguascalientia Stevens,1977, and Floridatragulus White, 1942. However, without more complete fossils (including skulls) relationships between A. wilsoni species of Floridatragulus and the new forms of Aguascalientia from Panama, are far from resolved and the results based on fragmentary dentitions should be regarded as preliminary. I note that, while relationships within Floridatragulus are ambiguous, two of the MPTs (Figure 212C -D) suggest that the Hemingfordian F. texanus and the poorly known F. nanus from Texas are sister taxa descended from a common ancestor, with F. dolichanthereus based on the development of a more apical invagination on the m3 talonid. Finally, and perhaps most interestingly, my results suggest that A. panamaensis could represent the most primitive floridatraguline, sharing plesiomorphic characters with the poorly known camel from the Buda L. F. en-US Discussion en-US While the geochronology of the Panama Canal section is not yet well resolved, Aguascalientia panamaensis sp. nov. and Aguascalientia minuta sp. nov. may be the oldest known floridatragulines. The primitive position of A. panamaensis seems to support this idea. Three of the MPTs (Figure 2-12B, C, E) suggest that there is an

PAGE 40

40 en-US increase in length of the p1-p2 diastema within the Floridatragulinae. The analysis further suggests that the lower premolar length relative to that of the molars (Table 23 and Character 9) decreases through the evolutionary history of Floridatragulinae. The p2 demonstrates the greatest reduction and in its most derived state ( A. wilsoni ), is exceedingly small. The primitive condition is expressed in A. panamaensis and A. minuta from Panama with ratios around 0.72, while the values are closer to 0.5 in A. wilsoni (Table 2-3). This character is also evident in the presumably more primitive camelids from the Buda L. F. (Frailey, 1979), where ratios around 0.8 were obtained. This pattern in premolar reduction also suggests that F. dolichanthereus and F. texanus are more derived than Aguascalientia from Panama, exhibiting progressively more reduced posterior premolars with p4 as the shortest premolar of the series and p2 the longest and isolated from other teeth by anterior and posterior diastemata. The lingual inflection of the paraconid on the lower premolars seems to be a homoplasic character for Floridatragulinae with reduced paraconids in F. texanus and strongly inflected and bulbous morphologies in A. wilsoni en-US Variation in body mass (Table 2-3) estimated on the basis of dental variables (Janis, 1990) supports A. minuta as the smallest species of Aguascalientia with an estimated body mass of ~ 32 kg, whereas body mass predictions for A. panamaensis and A. wilsoni range between 47 and 55 kg respectively. However, predictions based on postcranial dimensions (Gingerich, 1990; Scott, 1990;) indicate A. panamaensis had a body mass ranging between 10 and 14 Kg (Table 24) likely comparable with the 10 kg reported for Musk Deer in Eisenberg (1981).

PAGE 41

41 en-US The morphology of the lower molars of Aguascalientia seems to be characterized by a basal invagination on the m3 talonid in the primitive forms ( A. panamaensis and A. minuta ) and a more apical morphology in A. wilsoni The presence of strongly inflected and bulbous paraconids in A. wilsoni from Mexico seems to be a homoplasic character that could have evolved along with the premolar reduction in the genus. This pattern contrasts with that observed in F. texanus which has moderately inflected paraconids on p3 and a complete reduction of the paraconid on p2. en-US Floridatragulinae may have originated from a basal camel probably closely related to those from the middle Arikareean Buda L. F. (Frailey, 1979). Camels from the Buda L. F. exhibit important floridatraguline plesiomorphies such as straight paraconids on the lower premolars, unreduced premolars, and upper molars with strong similarities to those of A. panamaensis and A. minuta Unfortunately, many questions about the camelids from tropical and subtropical North America cannot be answered due to the fragmentary nature of the fossils. Consequently, in order to better understand the phylogenetic relationships of basal floridatragulines, the apparent paraphyletic nature of Aguascalientia and also to clarify their connection to Camelidae, more complete material is required. Cranial and postcranial material would provide critical data to test some of the hypotheses presented here. en-US The relationship between the small Aguascalientia and the similarly sized F. nanus is unclear due to the fragmentary nature of the holotype (TMM 40067-194, isolated lower left m3). However, the morphology observed in the talonid of the m3 supports the relationship of this small floridatraguline with F. texanus (Figure 2-12 C-D) based on the shared morphology of the hypoconulid and intercolumnar pillars.

PAGE 42

42 en-US It is probable that the new material here described from the Las Cascadas Formation represents a middle-late Arikareean faunal assemblage (Ar3-Ar4 sensu Albright et al., 2008) based on the morphological states (e.g. premolar reduction, p1-p2 diastema length, development of the intercolumnar pillars on lower molars) observed in the floridatragulines from Las Cascadas Formation and their previously discussed phylogenetic relationship within Floridatragulinae. Based on the cladistic analysis, I suggest that Aguascalientia panamaensis is intermediate between those camelids from the Arikareean Buda L. F. (Frailey, 1979) and the more derived floridatragulines from the Early Hemingfordian Thomas Farm L. F. (White, 1942, 1947; Maglio, 1966; Hulbert and Webb, 2001), the Hemingfordian Garvin Gully L. F. (Patton, 1969), and the Hemingfordian Zoyotal L. F. (Stevens, 1977). en-US A possible middle to late Arikareean (Ar3-Ar4) age for Las Cascadas fossil assemblage can also be postulated by taking into account the morphology of the deciduous dentition present in A. panamaensis Based on the progressive molarization pattern in deciduous teeth proposed by Loring and Wood (1969) for Oligocene-Miocene camels and by Miller and Wood (1963) for oreodonts, the morphology of the upper dP3 present in A. panamaensis seems to be more primitive than the morphology of other early Hemingfordian camels from Thomas Farm, where the anterior crescent encompasses a more apical continuous structure connecting the posterior crescent with the parastyle. In A. panamaensis the anterior crescent is restricted to a basal isolated structure that is only connected with the parastyle during advanced wear. The upper deciduous dentition shows a less developed anterior crescent on the dP3 in Oligocene and earliest Miocene camelids (e.g UF 191834, Poebrotherium sp. from the Oligocene

PAGE 43

43 en-US of Nebraska; UF 22779, camelid from the Buda L. F.; UF 175468, camelid from the Brooksville 2 L. F.), whereas in more derived camelids (e.g UF 216633 from Thomas Farm L. F.), the upper third deciduous premolar is characterized by a more developed anterior crescent homologous to the protocone and a more reduced parastyle. en-US Although my phylogenetic analysis is preliminary, the presence of a lingual notch between the metaconid and the entoconid seems to be a plesiomorphic character for Floridatragulinae, probably grouping the small camelids from the Buda L.F., and perhaps other subtropical small early Arikareean camelids (e.g. those from Brooksville 2 L. F., Buda L. F., etc), and even more derived forms such as the undescribed camels from the Centenario Fauna. My interpretations reinforce the hypothesis proposed by Stevens (1977), in which Aguascalientia represents the most primitive floridatraguline that inhabited Central America and Texas during the early Miocene and larger floridatraguline camels ( Floridatragulus dolichanthereus and F. texanus ) represent derived clades also restricted to subtropical terrains during the Hemingfordian (Maglio, 1966; Patton, 1969; Stevens, 1977). en-US Assuming a tropical origin for Floridatragulinae, descendants of a basal stock of tylopods would have dispersed and inhabited southern tropical and subtropical terrains during the late Oligocene (Albright, 1999) and migrated into southern volcanic terrains formed during periods of intense volcanic activity (also see Kirby and MacFadden, 2005; Manz et al., 2011). These terrains may have been temporarily accessible near the time of the Oligocene-Miocene transition when extreme climate changes were recorded et al., 2008) and vegetation changes in the Northern and Central Plains of North

PAGE 44

44 en-US America occurring in the Oligocene (Strmberg 2002; 2006) could have forced herbivore populations to migrate to marginal southern environments. en-US Finally, the wear pattern observed among the specimens belonging to both A. panamaensis and A. minuta is characterized by intense wear during early and late ontogenic states. This could be explained by a harsh diet, which probably included abrasive material associated with a dry or dusty environment with abundant volcanic material. This pattern is also present within the other Las Cascadas herbivorous mammals, including undescribed ungulates, such as horses, anthracotheres, and peccaries.

PAGE 45

45 en-US en-US Figure 2-1. Location and biochronology of the camel-bearing fossil faunas discussed in this study. A ) Las Cas cadas fossil assemblage, Panama. B ) Centenario Fauna, Pana ma (MacFadden et a l., 2010). C) Thomas Farm Local Fauna L. F., Gilchrist County, Florida. D ) Brooksville 2 Local Fauna, Hernand o County, Florida (Hayes, 2000). E) Buda Local Fauna, Alachua County, Florida (Frailey, 1979) F) Castolon Local Fauna, Texas (Stevens, 1977). G) G arvin Gully Local Fauna, Texas (Patton, 1969). H) Zoyotal Local Fauna, Aguascalientes, Mexico (Stevens, 1977). Camelids from late Oligocene Brooksville 2 Local Fauna are of uncertain affinities, and no definitive floridatraguline camels have been recovered from localities below the Oligocene Miocene boundary (~23 Ma). Chronostratigraphy and biochronology modified from Albright et al. (2008). Abbreviations: Ar, Arikareean Faunal Zone; E, early; L, late; L. F., Local Fauna.

PAGE 46

46 en-US en-US en-US Figure 2-2. Diagram showing most of the dental cusp nomenclature applied to permanent and milk dentitions of camels in this study. A) right dP3. B) right M3. C) left m2. D) left p4. Abbreviations: Upper dentition: Hy: Hypocone (Pct: Posterior Crescent); Me: Metacone; Ms: Mesostyle; Mtc: Metaconule; Mts: metastyle; Pa: Paracone (Pcp= Principal cusp); Pr: Protocone (Act: Anterior crescent); Ps: Parastyle (Ac=Anterior crest); Lower dentition: etd, Entoconid; etsd, Entostylid; hd, Hypoconid; mtd, Metaconid; prd: Paraconid; prtd, Protoconid; ptd, parastylid; ANT, anterior; LING, lingual. Terminology adapted from Loring and Wood (1969) and Gazin (1955).

PAGE 47

47 en-US Figure 2-3. Upper dentition of Aguascalientia panamaensis A) UF 254125, right maxilla with P3-M3, labial view. B) UF 254125, right ma xilla with P3-M3, occlusal view. C) UF 254125, right maxilla with P3-M3, lingual view. D) UF 254115, left M3, occlusal view. E) UF 254115, left M3, labial view. F) UF 244156, right dP3, occlusal view. G) Lingual view. H) Labial view. Abbreviations: Io: Infraorbital foramen; Me, Metacone; Mts, metastyle; Pa, Paracone; Pr, Protocone (Act: Anterior crescent). en-US

PAGE 48

48 en-US en-US Figure 2-4. Lower dentition of Aguascalientia panamaensis UF 236939 (Holotype), partial dentary with right c1-p3, m1-m3, left c1, and mandibular symphysis. A) occlusal view. B) labial view. Abbreviations: fos, Fossettid; hyd, hypoconulid; ip, intercolumnar pillar; Mf, Mental foramen. en-US en-US Figure 2-5. Lower dentition of Aguascalientia panamaensis A) UF 254129 (paratype), partial dentary with right c1, left i1-p4, and mandibular symphysis, occlusal view. B) Labial view. C) UF 254124 (paratype), right and left dentaries with right p3, right m1 (broken), left p2, p4, m2-m3, and mandibular symphysis, occlusal view. D) Labial view. Abbreviations: etsd, entostylid; fos, fossettid; Mf, mental foramen; mtd, metaconid; prd, paraconid.

PAGE 49

49 en-US en-US Figure 2-6. Detailed photographs of lower anterior teeth of Aguascalientia panamaensis A) UF 254129, right i1, lingual view. B) Occlusal view. C) Labial view. D) UF 246802, right c1, anterior view E) Left p1, anterior view. en-US en-US en-US Figure 2-7. Detailed view of the lower dentition of Aguascalientia panamaensis A) UF 254129, left p2-p4, labial view. B) Occlusal view. C) Composite of the lower molars of A. panamaensis (UF 254122, left m1 and UF 246836, left m2, m3), labial view. D) Occlusal view. Abbreviations: fos, fossettid; mtd, metaconid; prd, paraconid.

PAGE 50

50 en-US en-US Figure 2-8. Comparison of upper molar morphology of Aguascalientia minuta from the Las Cascadas Formation, Panama, and an unidentified camelid from the Buda Local Fauna, Florida. A) A. minuta UF 259877, right M3, occlusal view. B) Labial view. C) Camelidae gen. at sp. indet, UF 18384, left M3, occlusal view (Reversed; modified from Frailey, 1979:Figure 8, pp.153). D) Labial view (Reversed ; modified from Frailey, 1979:Figure 8, pp.153).). Specimens are scaled to the same size for comparative purposes. Abbreviations: Pr, protocone. en-US

PAGE 51

51 en-US en-US Figure 2-9. Lower dentition of Aguascalientia minuta UF 254113 (Holotype). A) Right dentary with p1, p4-m3, and partial mandibular symphysis, occlusal view. B) Labial view. C) Lingual view. D) Detail of the enamel fold on the anterior part of the posterior fossettid of m2, occlusal view (note different scale). E) Lef t dentary with left p2-m3, occlusal view. F) Labial view. Abbreviations: hyd, hypoconulid; Mf, mental foramen; ip, intercolumnar pillar.

PAGE 52

52 en-US en-US Figure 2-10. Detailed photographs of lower anterior teeth of Aguascalientia minuta A) UF 246828, right c1, lingual view. B) Anterior view. C) UF 246828, left p1, labial view. D) Anterior view. Note the distinct anterior ridge on the canine of A. minuta. en-US en-US Figure 2-11. Bivariate plots of the natural logarithm of the anterior-posterior length versus maximum transverse width for relevant specimens of Floridatragulinae from Mexico ( A. wilsoni Stevens, 1977), Texas ( F. texanus Patton, 1969), Florida ( F. dolichanthereus Wilson, 1942) and Panama ( A. panamaensis sp. nov. and A. minuta sp. nov.) including the Camelidae gen. at sp. indet from the Buda Local Fauna (Frailey, 1979). A) Lower first molar (m1). B) Lower second molar (m2). Note that the m1 of F. dolichanthereus is somewhat wider relative to its length than that of other floridatragulines included in this plot.

PAGE 53

53 en-US en-US Figure 2-12. Hypothetical phylogenetic relationships of Aguascalientia panamaensis sp. nov. and A. minuta sp. nov. within Floridatragulinae based on 12 character matrix. A) Strict consensus tree of the four most parsimonious trees resulted from the equal weighted exhaustive search (Tree length = 22; CI = 0.818, RI = 0.833, HI = 0.182). BE) equally single Most Parsimonious Trees (MPTs) resulted from the parsimony analysis. At each node (bold numbers), each pair of numbers below represents, from left to right, character number, and the corresponding state (in brackets). Floridatragulinae sensu Honey et al. (1998) are shown in gray. en-US en-US Figure 2-13. Comparison of lower dental morphology of Aguascalientia panamaensis from the Las Cascadas Formation, Panama, and an unidentified camelid from the Buda Local Fauna, Florida. A) Camelidae gen. at sp. indet, composite including p2 (UF 19313), p3 (UF 18365), p4 (UF 18387), m1, m2 (reversed), m3 (UF 18385), occlusal view. B) A. panamaensis composite including p2p4 (UF 254129), left m1 (UF 254122), and left m2, m3 (UF 246836). Modified from Frailey, 1979: Figure 8, pp.153. Specimens are scaled to the same size for comparative purposes. Abbreviations: prd, paraconid; ANT, anterior; LING, lingual.

PAGE 54

54 en-US Table 2-1. Summary table of dental measurement (in mm) of A. panamaensis sp. nov from the Las Cascadas Formation. Abbreviations: MDL, mesiodistal length; APL, anterior-posterior length; TW, transverse width; S, Standard deviation; V, index of Variance. Tooth Position N Range Mean S V Ix(MDL) 6 4.6 5.53 5.16 0.339 6.57 Ix (ABL) 6 2.84 3.14 2.97 0.122 4.10 c1 (APL) 5 5.16 5.68 5.32 0.205 3.86 c1 (TW) 7 3.68 3.90 3.81 0.083 2.18 p1 (APL) 3 5.86 7.04 6.56 0.621 9.47 p1 (TW) 4 3.52 4.06 3.85 0.289 7.51 p2 (APL) 4 9.88 11.57 10.49 0.741 7.06 p2 (TW) 6 4.42 4.61 4.50 0.097 2.16 p3 (APL) 5 10.16 11.55 10.58 0.552 5.21 p3 (TW) 9 4.31 4.53 4.41 0.103 2.34 p4 (APL) 6 9.06 10.11 9.60 0.351 3.66 p4 (TW) 7 5.05 5.62 5.34 0.252 4.72 m1 (APL) 4 9.8 10.9 10.15 0.501 4.93 m1 (TW) 6 6.14 7.28 6.59 0.559 8.47 m2 (APL) 4 13.22 15.16 13.85 0.887 6.4 0 m2 (TW) 7 8.47 9.82 9.01 0.584 6.49 m3 (APL) 5 17.96 19.83 18.58 0.850 4.57 m3 (TW) 8 9.32 9.98 9.55 0.315 3.3 0 P3 (APL) 1 10.43 10.43 P3 (TW) 5.65 5.65 P4 (APL) 1 7.7 8 7.78 P4 (TW) 8.37 8.37 M1 (APL) 2 10.08 12.58 11.3 0 1.810 16.01 M1 (TW) 11.18 11.96 11.57 0.551 4.76 M2 (APL) 2 13.28 14.26 13.77 0.692 5.03 M2 (TW) 13.75 15.11 14.43 0.961 6.66 M3 (APL) 5 13.5 14.71 14.13 0.461 3.26 M3 (TW) 14.67 15.7 4 14.86 0.597 4.02 RdP3 (APL) 2 11.28 11.43 11.35 0.106 0.93 RdP3 (TW) 7.16 7.44 7.3 0 0.197 2.71 en-US en-US en-US en-US

PAGE 55

55 en-US Table 2-2. Summary table of dental measurement (in mm) on A. minuta sp. nov. Abbreviations: APL, anterior-posterior length; TW, transverse width; S, Standard deviation; V, Index of Variance. Tooth Position N Range Mean S V c1 (APL) 2 a 4.85 4.85 c1 (TW) 3.61 3.61 p1 (APL) 1 5.42 5.42 p1 (TW) 3.36 3.36 p2 (APL) 2 10.2 0 10.2 0 p2 (TW) 3.81 4.19 4 .00 0.269 6.710 p3 (APL) 1 8.4 3 8.43 p3 (TW) 3.93 3.93 p4 (APL) 3 8.6 0 9.06 8.77 0.252 2.877 p4 (TW) 4.6 0 5.62 4.80 0.227 4.720 m1 (APL) 3 9.8 0 10.1 10.01 0.127 1.270 m1 (TW) 6.0 0 7.28 6.99 0.067 0.951 m2 (APL) 3 11.7 0 11.98 11.84 0.140 1.186 m2 (TW) 7.66 8.4 0 7.92 0 .416 5.250 m3 (APL) 3 16.18 16.45 16.28 0.148 7.652 m3 (TW) 8.19 9.09 8.51 0.498 7.236 M2 (APL) 1 12.2 0 12.2 0 M2 (TW) 1 12.24 12.24 en-US broken in A. minuta holotype en-US

PAGE 56

56 en-US Table 2-3. Comparative values of premolar reduction and predicted body mass along Floridatragulinae and the un-named camels from the Buda Local Fauna. Ratio calculated based on the APL of the premolar series (p2-p4 APL in mm) and the APL of the molar series (m1-m3 APL in mm). Based on predictive equations from Janis, 1990. Abbreviations: APL, anterior-posterior length. Sp. Distribution Catalog Number Fauna NALMA p2 p3 APL (mm) m1 m3 APL (mm) Log (m1 m3APL) Body Mass (kg) Reduction Ratio (APLpremolar/ APLmolar) A. panamaensis Panama UF 254124 Las Cascadas Ar3 Ar4? 29.03 39.62 1 .597 47.99 0.73 A. minuta Panama UF 254113 Las Cascadas Ar3 Ar4? 25.41 35.05 1.544 32.16 0.72 A. wilsoni Mexico TMM 41536 26, 41536 14 Zoyotal He1 21.88 41.45 1.617 55.61 0.53 F. dolichanthereus Florida MZC 3636 Thomas Farm He1 30.48 48.32 1.684 91.7 6 0.63 F. texanus Texas TMM 41536 26, 41536 14 Garvin Gully He1 34.9 0 54.49 1.736 135.85 0.64 Camelidae inc.sed Florida UF 19313, UF 18365, UF 18387, UF 18385 Buda Ar3? 20.87 25.79 1.411 11.81 0.81 en-US Calculations based on linear regression for extant ungulates excluding Suines (From Janis, 1990). r 2 = 0.941, Intercept= -0.536, slope=3.265, percent standard error=45.9, percent prediction error= 31.9

PAGE 57

57 en-US Table 2-4. Predicted body mass for A. panamaensis sp. nov. Abbreviations: H4: Tranverse diameter measured from the Lateral epicondyle to the Medial condyle of the humerus; H5: Tranverse diameter measured from the lateral condyle to the medial condyle of the humerus; parasagittal diameter at humerus midshaft. Based on predictive equations from Scott (1990) an d Gingerich (1990). Catalog Number Description H4 Transverse Diameter (cm) (Scott, 1990) Body Mass (kg) H5 Transverse Diameter (cm) (Scott, 1990) Body Mass (kg) Parasagittal Midshaft (cm) (Gingerich, 1990) Body Mass (kg) UF 254128 R humerus 1.723 10 .70 2.188 14.23 1.324 13.21 UF 244202 L humerus 1.618 9.14

PAGE 58

58 en-US CHAPTER 3 en-US FOSSIL ANTHRACOTHERES (ANTHRACOTHERIIDAE) FROM THE LAS CASCADAS FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGE en-US Anthracotheriidae en-US Anthracotheriid artiodactlys have been recovered from the late Eocene to Pl eistocene of Africa, North America, Europe, and Asia (Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007). Their North American fossil record is restricted from the late-middle Eocene to the middle Miocene of the Great Plains, with a few Oligocene and Miocene records from further south in Texas (Kron and Manning, 1998; Albright, 1999; Tedford et al., 2004). Anthracotheriidae likely split from helohyid artiodactyls (Ducrocq et al., 1997) in Eurasia (Suteethorn et al., 1988; Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007) before representatives of this family dispersed into North America in the Eocene (Douglass, 1901; Troxell, 1921; Scott, 1940; Macdonald, 1956; Macdonald and Shultz, 1956). en-US North American anthracotheres are classified into two subfamilies (Scott, 1940; Kron and Manning, 1998): Anthracotheriinae Leidy, 1869, represented by the genus Heptacodon Marsh, 1894, from the Whitneyan of North America; and Bothriodontinae Scott, 1940, that includes Aepinacodon Troxell, 1921, from the late Eocene of South Dakota and Nebraska (Middle to Late Chadronian), Arretotherium Douglass, 1901, (Figure 3-1) ranging from the late Oligocene-early Miocene of North America (early Arikareean-early Hemingfordian), Kukusepasutanka Macdonald, 1956, from the late Arikareean deposits of Montana (Macdonald, 1956), and Bothriodon Aymard, 1846, from the Brule Formation in South Dakota (Orellan to early Arikareean) and from the early Chadronian of Saskatchewan (Kron and Manning, 1998). Bothriodontines, characterized by the presence of more selenodont molars, a relatively shorter rostrum, upper molars with four or five cusps, and the upper molar mesostyle being variably

PAGE 59

59 en-US invaded by the transverse valley (Scott, 1940; Macdonald, 1956; Kron and Manning, 1998; Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007), have been recognized as possibly sharing a relationship with Hippopotamidae (Simpson, 1945; Boisserie et al., 2005; Boisserie and Lihoreau, 2006; Boisserie, 2011). While North American bothriodontines were probably derived from a primitive Eurasian form, like Elomeryx or Bothriodon (Scott, 1940; Ma cdonald, 1956; Macdonald and Shultz, 1956;; Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007), distinguishing between Old and New World bothriodontines has been one of the primary difficulties to clarify the relationships between American forms and their Eurasian counterparts (Kron and Manning, 1998; Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007). en-US The early Miocene bothriodontines Arretotherium Douglass, 1901, and Kukusepasutanka Macdonald, 1956, are the last known North American anthracotheres (Figure 3-1). While these taxa are similar in lacking a paraconule on the upper molars, Kukusepasutanka Macdonald, 1956, is larger, has a more invaded mesostyle, and more strongly developed stylar cusps (Macdonald, 1956). The only known species, K. shultzi Macdonald, 1956, was recovered from early Miocene sediments in the Drummond Granite County in Montana. K. shultzi is characterized by an elongated and massive tubular snout and the presence of well developed anterior diastema (Macdonald, 1956; Kron and Manning, 1998). While no lower dentition of K. shultzi has been recovered making its relationship with Arretotherium Douglass, 1901 unclear, it is similar to Heptacodon Marsh, 1894 in its development of stylar cusps on the upper molars (Macdonald, 1956). In contrast to K. schultzi Arretotherium Douglass, 1901, has a relatively short snout and a more robust mandible. This genus is composed of three species: (1) Arretotherium acridens Douglass, 1901, (type species) from the early

PAGE 60

60 en-US Miocene Blacktail Deer Creek from Montana (Douglass, 1901; Hibbard and Keenmon, 1950), which is probably equivalent to the Harrison Formation (Tedford et al., 1987; Tedford et al., 2004), and the middle to late Arikareean Toledo Bend Local Fauna (L. F.) in Texas (Albright, 1998; 1999); (2) A. leptodus ( = Ancodon leptodus ) Matthew, 1909 from the early Arikareean Lower Rosebud beds that overly the White River Group in South Dakota, which is presumably the oldest record of this genus (Scott, 1940; Macdonald, 1956; Tedford et al., 2004); and, (3) A. fricki Macdonald and Shultz, 1956, described on cranial material from the early Hemingfordian Upper Marsland Formation in Nebraska, and is also present in the Hemingfordian Flint Hill L. F. from South Dakota (Macdonald and Shultz, 1956; Macdonald and Martin, 1984) and the early Hemingfordian Cypress Hill Formation in Saskatchewan (Storer and Bryant, 1993). So far as is known A. acridens and A. leptodus from the early to middle Arikareean are characterized by a heavier, robust skull and a deeper mandible. In contrast, while Hemigfordian A. fricki might be derived from A. acridens (Macdonald and Martin, 1987), it is characterized by a more slender and gracile cranium. en-US To date, there is no agreement about the relationships between the North American early Miocene forms, which has caused several taxonomic problems. For example, there is an overlap between the defining molar characteristics of A. acridens and A. leptodus Macdonald (1956) discussed in detail this matter and suggested that A. leptodus could represent a nomen vanum because of the poorly preserved holotype. However, Macdonald abandoned his argument later, ratifying the validity of this taxonomic entity, but transferring this taxon to the genus Arretotherium ( A. leptodus Macdonald, 1963) based solely on its stratigraphic position and the probable age of the

PAGE 61

61 en-US fossil assemblage (Hibbard and Keenmon, 1950; Macdonald, 1963). Disregarding the poorly understood relationship between A. leptodus and A. acridens A. fricki seems to represent the last appearance of Anthracotheriidae (Figure 3-1) in the fossil record of North America (Macdonald and Martin, 1958). Although it is beyond the scope of the present study, a more detailed analysis of the American Anthracotheriidae is clearly needed to further clarify the present taxonomic uncertainties associated with this family. en-US In this chapter, I describe a new American bothridontine, Arretotherium meridionale sp. nov. from the upper part of the volcanoclastic early Miocene Las Cascadas Formation from the Panama Canal area (Gaillard Cut) in Central America (Figures 1-1 and 1-3). The new fossils represent the southernmost occurrence of Bothriodontinae, suggesting it reached tropical habitats before its extinction in North America during the middle Miocene (Kron and Manning, 1998; Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007). en-US Sy stematic Paleontology en-US Class MAMMALIA Linnaeus, 1758 en-US Order ARTIODACTYLA Owen, 1848 en-US Family ANTHRACOTHERIIDAE Leidy, 1869 en-US Subfamily BOTHRIODONTINAE Scott, 1940 en-US Genus ARRETOTHERIUM Douglass, 1901 en-US en-US Type species Arretotherium acridens Douglass, 1901. en-US Included Species Arretotherium acridens Douglass, 1901, from the early Miocene Blacktail Deer Creek from Montana (Douglass, 1901) and the middle to late Arikareean Toledo Bend L. F. in Texas (Albright, 1999); A. leptodus ( = Ancodon leptodus ) Matthew, 1909, from the early Arikareean Lower Rosebud beds in South Dakota; and A. fricki Macdonald and Shultz, 1956, from the early Hemingfordian Upper Marsland Formation in Nebraska, the Hemingfordian Flint Hill L. F. from South Dakota

PAGE 62

62 en-US (Macdonald and Shultz, 1956; Macdonald and Martin, 1984) and the early Hemingfordian Cypress Hill Formation in Saskatchewan (Storer and Bryant, 1993); A. meridionale sp. nov. from the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage in Panama (Figure 2-1). en-US Arretotherium meridionale sp. nov en-US Holotype. UF 244187, left dentary with i3, dc1, p1, dp2-dp4, m1-m2 and associated right i1-i2. en-US Locality and Horizon Lirio Norte (site key YPA024 in UF Vertebrate Paleontology Collection), Panama Canal area, Panama, Central America (Figure 1-1). Fossils were collected in the upper part of the Las Cascadas Formation (Figure 1-3), likely equivalent to the late Arikareean NALMA. en-US Etymology From the Latin meridionale (southern). Corresponding to the southernmost record of Anthracotheriidae in the New World. en-US Holotype. UF 244187, juvenile left dentary with dc1, partially erupted c1, p1, dp2dp4, m1-m2; associated right i1-i2 and mandibular symphysis. en-US Referred Material The following were found in association with the holotype: UF 244181, right astragalus; UF 244290, distal right metacarpal; UF 244295, left upper C1 (broken); UF 245609, right upper incisor. Additionally, the following specimens were found in association in a different horizon of the same locality: UF 244174, partial left M3; UF 246821, partial skull fragment; and UF 244177, right distal femur. While it is possible that associated specimens are from the same individuals (Minimum number of individuals = 2), lack of any sort of articulation makes this ambiguous and they are thus cataloged separately here. en-US Diagnosis. Differs from all other species of Arretotherium in having overall larger size, shorter c-p1 diastema, two lower incisors, lower molars with prehypocristid never

PAGE 63

63 en-US reaching postprotocristid, more apical junction between postprotocristid and postmetacristid, mesiolingual entocristid transversely notching preentocrisitid, and transverse valley tapered exclusively by prehypocristid. Further differs from A. acridens in having incisors with stronger and more cylindrical roots and a serrated anterior edge of upper canine pinched into a carina. Further differs from A. fricki in having a deeper and more robust jaw, and more sloping mandibular symphysis. Further differs from A. leptodus in having a more laterally compressed upper canine. en-US Description en-US Mandible A single juvenile partial dentary is referred to Arretotherium meridionale sp. nov. from the Las Cascadas Formation fossil assemblage (UF 244187, holotype). The mandible is deep, with short diastemata in front of, and behind, the p1 (Figure 33A -C). The anterior part is partially broken but exhibits two preserved incisor alveoli. The jaw is relatively narrow and deep, with no evidence of constriction at the level of the canine. The mandible posterior to the m2 is not preserved in this specimen. The labial surface of the horizontal ramus is uniformly convex along the jaw, whereas the lingual segment is convex below the molars and concave anterior to the dp3 (Figure 3-3). An attenuated transverse constriction is present between the p1 and the dp2 and coincides with the position of the anterior mental foramen (Figure 3-3C). A second smaller posterior foramen is located just below the anterior root of the dp3. The anterolingual surface of the mandible is characterized by a relatively straight and oblique symphysis that ends ventrally with a distinct genial spine which extends posteriorly from the posteroventral end of the symphysis (Figure 3-3 A through B). Both the ventral and dorsal borders of the symphysis are sub-parallel and slightly convex dorsally. The symphysis has a broader anterior segment that ends in a flattened ventral surface just

PAGE 64

64 en-US below the genial spine. The symphysis is broad, long and is V-shaped in cross section with no evidence of fusion. A short diastema is present between the single-rooted p1 and the dp2. A relatively well-developed vascular groove is partially preserved at the posterior ventral end of the ramus corresponding to a change in curvature of the ventral mandibular notch (Figure 3-3 B through C). en-US Lower Deciduous Dentition The preserved deciduous dentition includes the left dc1 and dp2-4 (Figure 3-3). The crown of dc1 is very worn. It is elongated and posteriorly recurved. The posterior part of crown has an elongated constriction that is evident even in intense wear stages. The dp2 is double-rooted (Figure 3-3 A through C). The crown of dp2 consists of an anterior crest, a large primary cusp, and a relatively elongated posterior crest with a small but distinct cingular segment enclosing a small, conical cuspule. These structures form the talonid of the tooth and the cingulid extends from the posterior end of the principal cusp along the labial and the lingual segment. en-US Two small furrows are present lingual to the principal cusp; the anterior is deeper and elongated, while the posterior is shorter (Figure 3-3B). Despite intense wear, an additional anterior cusp is evident occupying the position of the paraconulid and an anterior crest connects this cusp with the primary cusp (paraconid). The paraconid is more separated from the posterior crest, resulting in a trenchant overall shape with a higher paraconid. The crown of dp3 is longer and larger than that of dp2 but preserves a similar trenchant morphology. The anterior crest is well developed and proportionally longer than that of the dp2. A lingually opened invagination of the enamel is present along the anterolingual segment of the paraconid (Figure 3-3A). A deep enamel valley

PAGE 65

65 en-US separates the principal cusp from the posterior crescent, which is completely worn and exposes the posterior root below the cervix (enamel-dentine junction). The anterior crest en-US is high and, like that of dp2, has an anterolingual ridge located in the position of the paraconulid. The crown of dp4 is molariform and trilobed. The anterior lobe is similar in size to the intermediate lobe and both are slightly narrower than the posterior lobe (Figure 3-3A). The tooth is worn almost to the base of the crown, especially its anteriormost lobe. The anterior-posterior length of the dp4 exceeds that of m1 or m2. Even though intensive wear is present, a fully selenodont posterior lobe is perceptible. A distinctive cingular segment forms the posterolingual part of the dp4. The metaconid is separated from the entoconid by a lingual notch that is visible even in advanced wear stages. A strong, shelf-like cingulid is evident anterior to the hypoconid in the labial side (Figure 3-3 A through C). The presence of a metastylid could not be evaluated due to strong wear on the lingual segment of the dp4. en-US Lower Permanent Dentition The permanent dentition includes Ri1-2, Lp1, Lm1m2 (UF 244187). Additionally, two incisor alveoli are preserved in the anterior part of left dentary. Both incisors have long and deep cylindrical roots and broad and acutely pointed crowns (Figure 3-3 D through G). The second incisor is considerably larger than the first (Table 3-1). The incisors are procumbent and spatulate. The basal part of the crown of i2 is extremely elongated, suggesting that it was located more distally than the smaller i1 (Figure 3-3 D through F). The lingual surface of each incisor is concave, while the labial surface is convex. Both surfaces are heavily crenulated (Figure 3-3 E through G). A distinctive cingular segment forms the lingual surface at the cervix (enameldentine junction). This lingual segment is more developed on i2, extending continuously

PAGE 66

66 en-US along the cervix (Figure 3-3 D through F), unlike that of i1, where it is partially interrupted close to the. en-US A partially erupted c1 is replacing an extremely worn dc1 in the holotype (Figure 33H). Although c1 is only partially erupted, an X-ray image (Figure 3-4) shows it to be large and robust, which is characteristic of male anthracotheres. The crown of p1 is small and single-rooted and is isolated by short anterior and posterior diastemata. The p1 is oval, recurved, and has a well-defined main cusp that projects posteriorly. Two separate ridges extend from the crown apex. The anterior ridge is lingually inflected and extends lingually from the apex toward the cervix forming a small furrow (Figure 3-3 A through C). In contrast, the posterior ridge extends uniformly along the posterior edge of the crown until it reaches the cervix. This ridge defines two small posterior concavities located along the lingual and labial sides of the tooth that extend upwards from the cervix (Figure 3-3 A through B). en-US The lower molars of A. meridionale are bunoselenodont, with four somewhat sectorial, well-defined, high, sharply pointed and strongly crenulated cusps. The two external cusps are crescentic and the two internal ones relatively conical (Figures 3-3 A through C, and Figure 3-4 A through B). The apex of each transverse pair of cusps is widely separated, similar to those of the longitudinal pairs. The lingual and labial cusps have almost the same transverse width in occlusal view (Figure 3-4B). The anterior and posterior lingual basal segments of each molar have strongly crenulated anterolabial cingulids that are more developed on the labial side, but incomplete lingually (Figure 34B). The lower molars increase in size posteriorly, with m1 smaller than m2 (Table 3-1). The lower molars have a metaconid that is high and conical and is surrounded by a

PAGE 67

67 en-US labial anterior continuous crest (preprotocristid) that reaches the lingual margin of the tooth (Figure 3-4 A throughB). A premetacristid extends from the summit of the metaconid and reaches the preprotocristid at its midpoint, while a small postmetacristid extends to the postprotocristid, blocking the anterior longitudinal valley (Figure 3-4B). The mesiolingual metacristid is very reduced and restricted to the basal part of the crest making the anterior portion of the metaconid conical in shape (Figure 3-4A). The protoconid is selenodont with two cristids. The preprotocristid reaches the lingual part of the lower molar crowns, whereas the postprotocristid reaches the postmetacristid, forming a distinctive shallow longitudinal valley apically isolated from the main transversely oriented valley. The labial opening of the transverse valley is blocked by a well-defined cingular segment formed by the junction of small cuspids issuing from the hypoconid and protoconid. Small cuspids are partially blocking the lingual part of transverse valley (Figure 3-4B). en-US The lower molars of A. meridionale are composed of a well-defined selenodont hypoconid located posterior to the transverse valley, a relatively elongated entoconid, and a relatively high and conical hypoconulid located distally between the postentocristid and the posthypocristid. Two main cristids are attached to the entoconid. The preentocristid is continuous and well defined close to the summit of the entoconid, but diverges into two anterior cristids, the mesiolingual entocristid and the preentocristid, at the same level of the junction between the postprotocristid and the postmetacristid in the anterior part of the molar. This divergence is responsible for a distinctive notch anterior to the entoconid that is clearly visible in the lingual view (Figure 3-4 A through B). The hypoconid is selenodont. The prehypocristid runs anteriorly but it

PAGE 68

68 en-US does not reach the postprotocristid, partially closing the transverse valley at its base. The postentocristid stretches posteriorly and does not reach the posthypocristid leaving the posterior longitudinal valley opened. Both cristids are separated by a conical and small hypoconulid. A small posthypocristulid runs labially from the hypoconulid, redirecting the posterior longitudinal valley labially (Figure 3-4B). en-US Upper Dentition A partial C1 (UF 244295) and a right upper incisor (UF 245609) were found in association with the dentary (UF 244187) and might be the same individual (Figure 3-5 A through D). The C1 is robust and transversely compressed into the shape of a flattened cone. Despite lacking the apical part of the tooth, the lingual side is relatively flat, while the labial side is more convex. The posterior part of C1 is more constricted (Figure 3-5B) with an edge that is pinched lingually into a carina (Figure 3-5A) that leads to the concave antero-lingual side of the tooth. The lingual side anterior to the carina is convex (Figure 3-5B). The posterior basal part of the carina has small cuspules, giving it a serrated appearance (Figure 3-5A). The right upper incisor (UF 245609) is caniniform and has strongly crenulated enamel (Figure 3-5 C throughD). It has a distinctive serrated pattern along the mesial and distal edges. The crown and the deep, cylindrical roots are mesially recurved. There is no noticeable lingual cingulum on the tooth (Figure 3-5D). en-US An isolated LM3 (UF 244174) has a square shaped crown in occlusal view (Figure 3-5E) and is posteriorly transversely reduced. The crown is heavily worn and its anterior crest is badly broken. The protocone and metaconule are crescentic and almost completely worn. A strong cingulum surrounds the protocone, while a weaker but strongly crenulated postero-lingual cingulum encircles the posterior part of the

PAGE 69

69 en-US metaconule. The lingual opening of the transverse valley is characterized by a stronger cingulum, resulting from the connection of the anterior and posterior cingula (Figure 35E). en-US Discussion and comparisons. en-US While there are some dissimilarities, the well-preserved lower molars of A. meridionale clearly resemble those of A. acridens (LSUMG V-2270) from the Toledo Bend L. F., suggesting a close relationship with this late middle Arikareean form. They share several characteristics, such as a relatively deep and strong jaw morphology, four high and sharp cusps in the lower molars, the absence of a mesiolingual metacristid, the presence of a relatively short c-p1 diastema, the presence of a small hypoconulid on m1 and m2, and the presence of spurs blocking the labial segment of the transverse valley. The general morphology of the cingula on the M3 resembles the robust morphology present in the holotype o f A. acridens from Montana (Douglass, 1901:plate IX), whereas, this cingulum is more reduced in A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L. F. (LSUMG V-2269; Albright, 1999:52). The overall shape of the partial upper canine of A. meridionale (Figure 3-5 A through B) is also similar to that of the holotype of A. acridens (Douglass, 1901:270) and A. acridens (LSUMG V-2351) from the Toledo Bend L. F., only differing in the presence of a lingually inflected carina and the absence of convexities on the labial surface of the canine. The upper incisor (Figure 3-5 C through D) closely resembles incisors referred to Elomeryx crispus crispus (Hellmund, 1991:Plate 2) in having a serrated distal ridge and generally mesially recurved shape. en-US The partially preserved dentition of A. meridionale has a number of diagnostic bothriondontine characters including: (1) a transversely compressed C1 with a posterior serrated margin; (2) a shelf-like lingual cingula on upper molars; (3) distinctly crescentic

PAGE 70

70 en-US cusps on upper and lower molars (Scott, 1940; Macdonald, 1956; Macdonald and Shultz, 1956; Macdonald, 1963); and (4) reduced hypoconulids on m1-m2 (Kron and Manning, 1998). Additionally, it shares characteristic features with Arretotherium that include: (1) lower cheek teeth with high and sharp cusps; (2) robust jaw; (3) reduced anterior diastemata; (4) selenodont cristids associated with the protoconid; (5) absence of a premetacristid; (6) transverse valley relatively deep and partially blocked by spurs from the hypoconid and protoconid; (7) anterior and posterior cingulids restricted to the labial part of the metaconid and entoconid; (8) lingual outlet of the transverse valley tapered by the junction of cingulids issued to the metaconid and entoconid; (9) p1 single-rooted; (10) overall morphology of the mandibular symphysis; and (11) strongly crenulated enamel in the permanent dentition. Even though there is overlap in the dimensions of the molars of A. acridens and A. leptodus (Douglass, 1901; Macdonald, 1963; Albright, 1999), there are enough differences between these two forms and the molar dimensions of A. meridionale (Figure 3-6) to warrant a specific differentiation. en-US The general morphology of the lower deciduous dentition of A. meridionale does not differ substantially from the juvenile dentition referred to Elomeryx armatus Marsh, 1894 (SDSM 4084; Macdonald, 1956). However, compared to E. armatus (SDSM 4084), A. meridionale has a distinctly more reduced p1 and more selenodont lower molars with no mesiolingual metacristid on the m1 (Macdonald, 1956:626). en-US Phylogenetic Analysis en-US To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Arretotherium meridionale sp. nov within a sample of Anthracotheriidae I performed a cladistic analysis of 28 anthracotheriid taxa with the most primitive anthracothere, Siamotherium krabiense Suteerthorn et al., 1988, as the outgroup (Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007). Fifty-one dental

PAGE 71

71 en-US and mandibular characters (Appendix D) were scored and used in the analysis using revised version of a previously published matrix (Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007:table 7.1). In our analysis (Appendix E), Bothriogenys fraasi Bothriodon velaunus Elomeryx crispus and Elomeryx armatus are scored as 1 (instead of 0) for character 20 (number of cristules issued from the metaconule) and L. petrocchii is scored as 1 (instead of 2) for character 15 which only presents two states: (0), three roots for P4 and (1) fused roots of P4 (Lihoreau pers. comm., August, 2011). en-US The ingroup (Figure 3-7) includes taxa classified in three anthracotheriidae subfamilies: (1) Anthracotheriinae Leidy, 1869 is represented by five species; (2) Microbunodontinae Lihoreau and Ducroqc, 2007 is represented by four species; and (3) Bothriodontinae Scott, 1940 is represented by 19 species. To assess the relationship between A. meridionale and A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L. F. (Albright, 1999), A. acridens from Texas was scored as a distinct taxon from A. acridens Douglass, 1901 reported by Lihoreau et al. (2007). I believe that the inclusion of this Gulf Coast species in our preliminary analysis not only provides a test for the position of the new species from Panama, but also offers an opportunity to evaluate its specific designation and its relationship to the A. acridens holotype from Montana. en-US Morphologic data were compiled from the study of specimens and a literature review. Despite the fact that A. meridionale is only known from a juvenile partial lower dentition, we retained the 51 characters suggested in Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007 for both taxa, A. acridens from the Toledo L. F. (Albright, 1999) and A. meridionale sp. nov. from Panama (Appendix E). The data matrix includes cranial and dental characters that are unordered and weighted equally. Characters not known for a taxon were coded as

PAGE 72

72 en-US missing. Data were compiled in Mesquite version 2.72 (Maddison and Maddison, 2009) and the dataset was analyzed under the parsimony criterion using the branch and bound algorithm of PAUP version 4.0b10 (Swofford, 2003) with zero-length branches not collapsed. The analysis resulted in six equally-most parsimonius trees (MPTs) with tree lengths of 120 steps, a consistency index (CI) of 0.583, a retention index (RI) of 0.829, and a homoplasy index (HI) of 0.414 (Figure 3-7). en-US Despite the large amount of missing data for the upper dentition of A. meridionale our results support the allocation of A. meridionale sp. nov. with Arretotherium (Node 17) in the Strict Consensus Tree (Figure 3-7). This association is based on the dimensions of the lower incisors (4[1]), the presence of only one postprotocrista (18[0]) and partially by the presence of a mesial cusp in the lower premolars in A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L.F (9[0]). Following our resulting topology, A. acridens from the Great Plains, equivalent to A. acridens in Lihoreau and Ducrocq (2007), is consistently the sister taxon of A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L. F. and A. meridionale. The Toledo Bend form of A. acridens falls out from the holotype of A. acridens (Node 18) based on the relative dimension of the labial and lingual cusp on the lower molars (24[0]) and presence of a strong laterally compressed upper canine (6[1]). Furthermore, A. meridionale differs from both forms of A. acridens with the presence of a postentocristid not reaching the posthypocristid and leaving the longitudinal valley open (23[0]) and the reduction of one incisor (1[2]). en-US Results from our analysis support A. meridionale as a bothriodontine attributable to the genus Arretotherium A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L. F. and A. meridionale are sister taxa with a common ancestor shared with A. acridens from the Great Plains.

PAGE 73

73 en-US Our results also suggest that Elomeryx Marsh, 1894 (probably E. armatus the American species) is the sister taxon of Arretotherium and therefore sister taxon of the other more derived American bothriodontines ( Arretotherium Douglass, 1901, and probably Kukusepasutanka Macdonald, 1956). However, the resolution of the analysis was not great enough to clarify the relationship between the more primitive American anthracotheres ( Aepinacodon Troxell, 1921; Bothriodon Aymard, 1846). Consequently, a future systematic revision of the American bothriodonts will be necessary to clarify the relationship between the North American Elomeryx armatus the European species of Elomeryx ( E. crispus and E. borbonicus ) and the more derived American bothriodontines ( Arretotherium Douglass, 1901 and Kukusepasutanka Macdonald, 1956). en-US At each node (bold numbers) the supporting unambiguous synapomorphies are: 1, Antracotheriidae (20[1]); 2, Anthracotheriinae (7[1], 19[1]); 3, (18[1], 25[1], 35[1]); 4, (36[1]); 5, (16[1], 34[1], 38[1]); 6, Microbunodontinae (5[1], 6[1], 33[1]); 7, (26[1], 27[1], 32[1], 39[1], 40[1]; 8, (20[0], 37[1]); 9, Bothriodontinae (6[2], 17[1], 23[1], 39[2]); 10, (26[1], 27[1]); 11, (1[2], 2[2], 3[1], 4[2], 14[1], 20[0], 28[1], 44[2]); 12, (17[2], 18[1], 29[1], 35[1]); 13, (4[1], 33[1]); 14, (6[0], 7[1], 8[3], 24[1], 38[2], 39[1]); 15, (12[1]); 16, (20[0], 45[1]); 17, (4[1], 18[0]); 18, (6[1], 24[0]); 19, (11[1], 14[1], 23[0], 35[0], 44[1]); 20, (13[1 ], 21[1]); 21, (41[1]); 22, (18[0], 28[1]); 23, (39[0]); 24, (17[3], 40[2]); 25, (1[1], 9[2], 10[1], 11[2], 30[1], 31[1], 42[1], 49[1]. en-US Discussion en-US A. meridionale sp. nov. represents the southernmost occurrence of Anthracotheriidae in the New World. The inferred early Miocene (~21 Ma) age for the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage places A. meridionale as one of the last

PAGE 74

74 en-US anthracotheres reported in North America and the only occurrence of the family in Central America (Figure 3-1). Although its exact relationship with other American bothriodontines is still unresolved, results from our cladistic analysis suggest a close relationship with A. acridens from The Toledo Bend L. F. These tropical to subtropical forms share several plesiomorphic characters with coeval anthracotheres from different continents such as Merycopotamus Falconer and Cautley, 1847, from the middle to late Miocene of Asia (Douglass, 1901; Troxell, 1921; Scott, 1940), Brachyudus Deperet, 1895, from the early Miocene of Eurasia, and Libycosaurus Bonarelli, 1947 from the late Miocene of Libya. In addition, some plesiomorphic characters in the lower dentition are also present in A. meridionale and Elomeryx These characters include: (1) caniniform upper incisors; (2) the presence of a partially reduced mesiolingual entocristid that diverges from the preentocristid; (3) a relatively enlarged prehypocristid, which does not reach the lingual margin of the lower molars; (4) shallow junction between the postmetacristid and the postprotocristid, and (5) similar transverse widths of the labial and lingual cusps. The differences in morphology and geographic distribution during the late Arikareean-Early Hemingfordian (Figure 3-1) between A. meridionale and similarly aged A. fricki suggest that the two species occupied two separate ecological niches during the earliest Miocene. A. acridens fron the Toledo Bend L.F and A. meridionale occupied a distinctive biogeographic area connecting the Gulf Coast with southern Central America (Albright, 1998; 1999); whereas, A, fricki was restricted to more temperate and open habitats in the Northern and Central Great Plains (Strmberg, 2002; 2006). The relatively short-snouted A. meridionale and A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L.F may have been specialized for tropical to subtropical, forested areas

PAGE 75

75 en-US (Albright, 1998; MacFadden and Higgins, 2004; Manz et al., 2011), while the gracile and long-snouted A. fricki may have occupied more open ecosystems in the Great Plains (Strmberg 2002; 2006; Kurshner et al., 2008). We also note that there is a remarkable difference in the dimensions of the molars in the later forms of Arretotherium The Hemingfordian A. fricki from the Great Plains is relatively smaller than A. acridens from Montana (Douglass, 1901) and A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L. F. (Albright, 1999), while A. meridionale seems to indicate an increase in overall body size (Figure 3-6). This interpretation should be reevaluated in the light of more complete material to avoid possible bias due to sexually dimorphic morphologies. It is also possible that the morphological differences in A. meridionale could be explained by insular isolation (Eisenberg, 1981; Gould and MacFadden, 2004) in Panama due to a rapid emergence of new tropical volcanic terrains (Las Cascadas Formation) and rapid changes in the relative sea level during the late Oligocene-earliest Miocene (Zachos et al., 2001). It is our hope that ongoing excavation associated with the expansion of the Panama Canal and continued field activities in the Gaillard Cut will reveal new fossil material and add to our knowledge of A. meridionale, allowing us to better address some of these remaining questions.

PAGE 76

76 en-US en-US Figure 3-1. Location and biochronology of early Miocene bothriodontines discussed in this study. A, cf. Arretotherium fricki from the Early Hemingfordian Cypress Hill Formation in Saskatchewan (Storer and Bryant, 1993); B, A. fricki Macdonald and Shultz, 1956, from the early Hemingfordian Upper Marsland Formation in Nebraska and also present in the Hemingfordian Flint Hill L. F. from South Dakota (Macdonald and Shultz, 1956; Macdonald and Martin, 1984); C, A. leptodus ( = Ancodon leptodus ) Matthew, 1909, from the early Arikareean Lower Rosebud beds, South Dakota (Scott, 1940; Macdonald, 1956; Macdonald, 1963; Tedford et al., 2004); D, Arretotherium acridens Douglass, 1901, from the lower Miocene Blacktail Deer Creek, Montana (Hibbard and Keenmon, 1950); E, Kukusepasutanka Macdonald, 1956, from the Late-Arikareean deposits of Montana (Macdonald, 1956); F, Arretotherium acride ns Douglass, 1901 from the lower Miocene Toledo Bend L. F., Texas (Albright, 1999); G, A. meridionale sp. nov from the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage, Panama. Chronostratigraphy and biochronology modified from Albright et al. (2008). Abbreviations: Ar, Arikareean Faunal Zone; E, early; L, late; L. F., Local Fauna.

PAGE 77

77 en-US en-US Figure 3-2. Diagram showing most of the dental cusp nomenclature applied to lower permanent dentitions of anthracotheres in this study. Abbreviations: dlmtc id distolingal metacristid; Ent d entoconid; Hyp d hypoconid; Hyp ulid hypoconulid; mletc id mesiolingual entocristid; mlmtc id mesiolingual metacristid; Met d metaconid; posetc id postentoconulid; poshyc id posthypoconid; posmtc id postmetacristid; posptc id postprotocristid; pretc id preentocristid; prhyc id prehypocristid; prmtc id premetacristid; prpt id preprotocristid; Pt d protoconid. Terminology modified from Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007.

PAGE 78

78 en-US en-US Figure 3-3. Lower dentition of Arretotherium meridionale sp. nov. A) UF 244187, juvenile left dentary with left i3, dc1, partially erupted left canine, p1, dp2-dp4, m1 -m2; associated right i1-i2 and mandibular symphysis, occlusal view. B) Lingual view. C) Labial view. D) Associated right i1, lingual view. E) Labial view. F) Associated right i2, lingual view. G) Labial view. H) Detailed view of the anterior part of UF 244187 showing the erupting Lc1. Abbreviations: prehypocid, prehypocristid; postlgF, posterolingual furrow; antlgF, anterolingual furrow.

PAGE 79

79 en-US en-US Figure 3-4. Detailed view of the lower permanent dentition of Arretotherium meridionale sp. nov A) UF 244187, left m1-m2, labial view. B) Occlusal view. C) X-ray detailed image of the anterior part of UF 244187 showing the erupting permanent Lc1. Abbreviations: prehypoc id prehypocristid; meslgmetac id mesiolingual metacristid; preentoc id preentocristid; meslgentoc id mesiolingual metacristid; postmetac id postmetacristid; hypo ulid hypoconulid. en-US en-US Figure 3-5. Upper dentition of Arretotherium meridionale sp. nov. A) UF 244295, lef t upper canine, lingual view. B) Occlusal view. C) UF 245609, right upper incisor (Ix), labial view. D) Lingual view. E) UF 244174, partial left M3, occlusal view. Abbreviations: car, carina; Ant, anterior; Lg, lingual. en-US

PAGE 80

80 en-US en-US Figure 3-6. Bivariate plots of the natural logarithm of the anterior-posterior length of m1 and M3 versus maximum transverse width for relevant specimens of Arretotherium A) Bivariate plot of the natural logarithm of the anteriorposterior length of m1 versus maximum transverse width for relevant specimens of Arretotherium A. acridens from the middle to late Arikareean Toledo Bend L. F. of Texas (Albright, 1999); SDSM 6826, UCMP 32373, A. fricki from the early Hemingfordian Flint Hill L. F. from South Dakota (Macdonald and Shultz, 1956; Macdonald and Martin, 1984); SDSM 53440, Arretotherium sp. and the Hemingfordian Flint Hill L. F.; and A. meridionale from the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage. B) Bivariate plot of the natural logarithm of the anterior-posterior length of M3 versus maximum transverse width for relevant specimens of Arretotherium A. acridens from the middle to late Arikareean Toledo Bend L. F. of Texas (Albright, 1999); CM 704, A. acridens holotype, from the lower Miocene Blacktail Deer Creek, Renova Formation, Montana (Douglass, 1901); AMNH 13005 A. leptodus holotype, from the early Arikareean Lower Rosebud beds overlying the White River Group in South Dakota; F:AM 132055, A. leptodus from the Arikareean Monreo Creek Formation in South Dakota; UNSM 5764, A. fricki, holotype from the Hemingfordian Upper Marsland Formation in Nebraska; F:AM 132053, A. fricki from the early Hemingfordian Running Water Formation, Nebraska; and UF 244187, A. meridionale from the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage in Panama. Data compiled from Macdonald and Shultz, 1955; Macdonald, 1956; Macdonald and Martin, 1984; and Albright, 1999.

PAGE 81

81 en-US en-US Figure 3-7. Biogeographic distribution and hypothetical phylogenetic relationships (Calculated in PAUP 4.0b10) of Anthracotheriidae including Arretotherium me ridionale sp. nov and A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L. F. (Albright, 1999). Data matrix includes 51 characters and 28 ingroup taxa Siamotherium krabinese as the outgroup (modified from Lihoreau and Ducrocq, 2007). Pictured here is the strict consensus tree of the six most parsimonious trees resulted from the equal weighted branch and bound search (Tree length = 120; CI = 0.583, RI = 0.829, HI = 0.41).

PAGE 82

82 en-US Table 3-1. Summary table of dental measurements (in mm) of A. meridionale sp. nov from the Las Cascadas Formation. Abbreviations: MDL, mesiodistal length; APL, anterior-posterior length; LLL, labio-lingual width; TW, transversal width. en-US Tooth Position (MDL) (LLL) (APL) (TW) Ri1 13.06 9.01 Ri2 15.70 8.99 Lp1 10.08 5.93 Ldp2 17.04 7.91 Ld p3 22.05 8.90 Ldp4 31.25 14.13 Lm1 26.90 18.25 Lm2 31.76 19.74 LIx 15.07 9.41 LC1 Partial 25.33 14.84 LM3 28.55 30.25

PAGE 83

83 en-US CHAPTER 4 en-US CONCLUSIONS en-US Floridatragulines are by far the most widely distributed early Miocene camels in tropical and subtropical North America terrains. The oldest specimens of Aguascalientia in Central America come from the Panama Canal basin that was clearly connected with Mexico, the Gulf Coastal Plain, and Florida. Aguascalientia representatives from Panama include two new species ( A. panamaesis sp. nov. and A. minuta sp. nov.) from the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage. A middle to late Arikareean (Ar3-Ar4) age for the assemblage is tentatively proposed based on morphological changes inferred from a phylogenetic analysis that includes floridatragulines from the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage and other early to middle Miocene subtropical faunas from Florida, Texas, and Mexico. These morphological changes include: (1) progressive development of the hypoconulid and intercolumnar pillar on lower molars, (2) overall reduction of the length of the premolar series, and (3) the gradual elongation of the anterior part of the skull inferred from the development of more elongated diastemata. en-US Despite the absence of we ll-preserved camelid material from the Buda L. F., some distinguishable Floridatragulinae characters suggest a close relationship between this small camelid and the more derived Aguascalientia and therefore, Floridatragulus Stemming from this interpretation and the continuous presence of a notch between the metaconid and entoconid of the lower molars of Floridatragulinae and the small camelids from Buda L. F., a possible primitive tylopod ancestry could be postulated (Stevens, 1977) with floridatragulines split off from a southern oromerycid ancestor. However, in order to test this hypothesis, distinct oromerycid synapomorphies based on more complete cranial and postcranial material from the Panama Canal areas would be

PAGE 84

84 en-US needed to clarify the relationship of these basal floridatragulines with Camelidae, Oromerycidae, or even other basal tylopods that were not considered here. However, this interpretation could explain the rarity of floridatragulines in other Neogene North American faunas when other camels, such as the high-crowned stenomylines and protolabines, were successfully exploiting more open habitats in the North American Miocene Great Plains. en-US The anthracothere from the Las Cascadas fossil assemblage, A. meridionale sp. nov. seems to be less derived than other early Miocene forms, which are characterized by more conical inner posterior cusps on the lower molars, as well as the disappearance of the mesiolingual entocristid by the middle to late Arikareean (e. g., A. acridens from the Toledo Bend L. F.). Like the new Panamanian floridatraguline camels, the close relationship between A. meridionale and A. acridens from the Arikareean Toledo Bend L. F suggests a pleobiogeographic connection between the Gulf Coast, Mexico and the Southern part of North America during the earliest Miocene. en-US

PAGE 85

85 en-US APPENDIX A en-US DENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF FLORIDATRAGULINAE FROM THE LAS CASCADA S FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGE en-US Table A-1. Dental measurements (in mm) of A. panamaensis sp. nov. and A. minuta sp. nov. from Las Cascadas Formation, Panama. Abbreviations: APL, anterior-posterior length. TWmx: maximum transverse width. TWHyd: transverse hypoconulid width. Taxon UF Catalog number Tooth position APL TWmx TWHyd A. minuta UF 259877 RM3 12.2 0 12.11 A. minuta UF 254113 Lc1? 4.6 0 2.9 0 A. minuta UF 246828 Lc1 4.85 3.61 A. minuta UF 246828 Lp1 5.42 3.36 A. minuta UF 254113 Lp2? 8.45 3.81 A. minuta UF 246828 Lp2 10.2 0 4.19 A. minuta UF 254113 Lp3? 8.36 3.5 0 A. minuta UF 254113 Rp4 8.65 4.77 A. minuta UF 254113 Lp4 8.6 0 4.6 0 A. m inuta UF 246828 Lp4 9.06 5.05 A. minuta UF 254113 Lm1 9.92 6.98 A. minuta UF 254113 Rm1 10.1 0 6.94 A. minuta UF 246828 Lm1 9.8 0 7.07 A. minuta UF 254113 Lm2 11.86 8.88 A. minuta UF 246836 Lm2 11.7 0 8.91 A. minuta UF 254113 Rm2 11.98 8.25 A. minuta UF 254113 Lm3 16.21 8.19 5.51 A. minuta UF 246836 Lm3 16.18 9.09 5.27 A. minuta UF 254113 Rm3 16.45 8.27 5.12 A. panamaensis UF 259878 RdP3 11.28 7.44 A. panamaensis UF 244156 RdP3 11.43 7.16 A. panamaensis UF 254125 RP3 10.43 5.65 A. panamaensis UF 254125 RP4 7.78 8.37 A. panamaensis UF 254117 RM1 12.58 11.18 A. panamaensis UF 254125 RM1 10.02 11.96 A. panamaensis UF 254116 LM2 13.28 13.75 A. panamaensis UF 254125 RM2 14.26 15.11 A. panamaensis UF 254115 LM3 13.5 0 14 .04 A. panamaensis UF 245602 LM3 14.71 15.64 A. panamaensis UF 244204 RM3 14.24 14.8 0 A. panamaensis UF 257197 RM3 14.33 14.67 A. panamaensis UF 254125 RM3 13.87 15.19 A. panamaensis UF 246857 RM3 15.95 17.81 A. panamaensis UF 246802 Li3 5.16 3.14

PAGE 86

86 en-US Table A-1. Continued. Taxon UF Catalog number Tooth position APL TWmx TWHyd A. panamaensis UF 254129 Li1 4.95 2.83 A. panamaensis UF 254129 Li2 5.35 3.06 A. panamaensis UF 254129 Li3 5.53 3 .00 A. panamaensis UF 254129 Ri1 4.6 0 2.8 4 A. panamaensis UF 254129 Ri2 5.37 2.96 A. panamaensis UF 236939 Lc1 5.26 3.8 0 A. panamaensis UF 236939 Rc1 5.16 3.9 0 A. panamaensis UF 246802 Rc1 5.68 3.81 A. panamaensis UF 254129 Rc1 5.3 0 3.68 A. panamaensis UF 254129 Rc1 5.22 3.86 A. panamaensis UF 259884 Lc1 8.87 6.2 0 A. panamaensis UF 236939 Rp1 5.86 3.52 A. panamaensis UF 246802 Rp1 6.79 4.06 A. panamaensis UF 246802 Lp1 7.04 3.97 A. panamaensis UF 254124 Lp2 10.33 4.42 A. panamaensis UF 254129 Lp2 10.2 0 4.42 A. panamaensis UF 246802 Rp2 11.57 4.56 A. panamaensis UF 236939 Rp2 9.88 4.61 A. panamaensis UF 236939 Rp3 10.34 4.5 0 A. panamaensis UF 246802 Rp3 11.55 4.43 A. panamaensis UF 254124 Rp3 10.43 4.31 A. panamaensis UF 254129 Lp3 10.16 4.53 A. panamaensis UF 254127 Lp3 12.2 0 5.09 A. panamaensis UF 246803 Lp3 9.48 4.02 A. panamaensis UF 254124 Lp3 10.43 4.31 A. panamaensis UF 244316 Lp3 9.69 4.43 A. panamaensis UF 244288 Lp3 10.13 4.66 A. panamaensis UF 254124 Lp4 9.41 5.62 A. panamaensis UF 254129 Lp4 9.69 5.62 A. panamaensis UF 254120 Lp4 9.75 5.08 A. panamaensis UF 254118 Lp4 9.63 5.42 A. panamaensis UF 246802 Rp4 10.11 5.28 A. panamaensis UF 236939 Rm1 9.96 7.73 A. panamaensis UF 246802 Rm1 9.97 8.06 A. panamaensis UF 254124 Lm2 13.22 9.58 A. panamaensis UF 236939 Rm2 13.42 9.81 A. panamaensis UF 246802 Rm2 15.16 10.21 A. panamaensis UF 254121 Lm2? 13.6 0 9.42 A. panamaensis UF 254124 Lm3 17.96 9.74 5.61 A. panamaensis UF 254123 Lm3 18.04 9.3 2 5.46

PAGE 87

87 en-US Table A-1. Continued. Taxon UF Catalog number Tooth position APL TWmx TWHyd A. panamaensis UF 257198 Lm3 17.97 9.66 6.36 A. panamaensis UF 254122 Lm1 10.9 7.04 A. panamaensis UF 236939 Rm3 19.83 9.51 6.03 A. panamaensis UF 254114 Lm3 Parti al A. panamaensis UF 257196 Rm3 19.11 9.98 6.97

PAGE 88

88 en-US APPENDIX B en-US DENTAL CHARACTERS USED IN THE PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF FLORIDATRAGULINAE (CHAPTER 2) en-US en-US (1) p2-p3 diastema: absent (0); shorter than p3 length (1); longer than p3 length (2). en-US (2) Intercolumnar pillar between protoconid-hypoconid on lower molars: absent (0); conical and basal (1); more apical and strong (2). en-US (3) p1-p2 diastema: shorter than m2 APL (0); subequal to m2 APL (1); longer than m2 APL (2). en-US (4) Hypoconulid on m3: single (0); bilophed with basal invagination (1); bilobed with apical invagination (2). en-US (5) p4 posterior lobe: Subequal or narrower than anterior(0); wider (1). en-US (6) Lingual notch between entoconid and metaconid on lower molars: present (0); absent (1). en-US (7) Protocone bifurcated posteriorly on upper molars: present (0); absent (1). en-US (8) c1 morphology: incisiform (0); caniniform (1). en-US (9) Ratio between lower premolars APL and molars APL: >0.7 (0); >0.6<0.7 (1); <0.6 (2). en-US (10) Lake opening on p4: lingualy opened (0); posteriorly opened (1). en-US (11) Symphysis: ending beneath p2 (0); ending beneath p1 (1). en-US (12) p4 length: subequal to p3 (0); longer than p3 (1); shorter than p3 (2). en-US Abbreviations: APL Anterior-Posterior Length en-US

PAGE 89

89 en-US APPENDIX C en-US CHARACTER-TAXON MATRIX USED IN PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF FLORIDATRAGULINAE (CHAPTER 2) en-US 1 1234567890 11 12 F. nanus ?2?2?0?0?? ?? F. dolichanthereus 2221101111 12 F. texanus 22?2101?11 ?2 A. wilsoni 0122101121 ?1 A. panamaensis 0111001111 12 A. minuta 0111101111 11 Poebrotherium franki 1????100?? 00 Poebrotherium sp 0000011000 01 Eotylopus reedi 00000000?0 01 Camelidae indet. (Buda L.F.) ?1?1000?01 ?2 en-US en-US

PAGE 90

90 en-US APPENDIX D en-US DESCRIPTION OF DENTAL CHARACTERS USED IN THE PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF ANTHRACOTHERIIDAE (CHAPTER 3) en-US en-US 1) Lower incisors: 3 (0); from 2 to 3 (1); 2 (2) en-US 2) Upper incisors: 3 of equal size (0); 3 with i3 reduced (60% or less) (1); two (2) en-US 3) Lower incisor morphology: not caniniform (0); at least 1 caniniform (1) en-US 4) Relative dimension of lower incisors: all equal size (0); i2 larger (1); i3 larger (2) en-US 5) Wear on lower canine: dista; wear facet caused by the contact with upper C (0); mesial wear facet cause by contact with I3 en-US 6) Upper canine morphology: strong with subcircular cross section (0); strong and laterally compressed (1); premolariform (2) en-US 7) Lower canine in males: premolariform (0); large (1); ever-growing (2) en-US 8) Lower canine cross section at cervix: subcircular (0); elliptical with rounded mesial margin and distal keel (1); elliptical with a mesial and distal crest (2); elliptical with a concave buccal margin and a distal keel en-US 9) Accessory cusps on the mesial crest of lower premolars: none (0); only one (1); several (2) en-US 10) Presence of 5 upper premolars: no (0); yes (1) en-US 11) Distolabial crest on upper premolars: simple (0); with a max. of two accessory cusps (1); with more than two (2) en-US 12) Accessory cusp on p4: no (0); yes (1) en-US 13) p1 roots: one (0); two (1) en-US 14) Mesial crests on P1-P3: one (0); two (1) en-US 15) Number of P4 roots: three (0); two (1); one (2)

PAGE 91

91 en-US 16) Accessory cusp on distolingual margin of P3: one (0); none (1) en-US 17) Upper molar mesostyle; simple (0); V shaped and invaded by a transversal valley (1); looplike (2); divided in two (3) en-US 18) Number postprotocristae: one (0), two (1) en-US 19) Accessory cusp on upper molar mesial cingulum: no (0); yes (1) en-US 20) Number of cristules issued from the metaconule: (two (0); three (1) en-US 21) Preprotocristids and prehypocristids on lower molars: do not reach the lingual margin of the tooth (0); reach the lingual margin (1) en-US 22) Hypoconulid on m3: looplike (0); single cusp (1) en-US 23) Postentocristid on lower molars: does not reach the posthypocristid and leaves the ling. valley open (0); reaches the posthypocristid and closes the long. valley (1) en-US 24) Dimension of the lingual and labial cusps: equal (0); different (1). 1 means: labial cusps twice as large at their basis as the lingual cusp en-US 25) Entoconulid on m3: absent (0); present (1) en-US 26) Number of cristids issued to from the hypoconulid: tree (0); two (1) en-US 27) Position of the preentocristid on lower molars: reaches the hypoconid summit (0); reached the prehypocristid (1) en-US 28) Premetacristid on lower molars: present (0); absent (1) en-US 29) Mesial part of looplike hypoconulid: open (0); pinched (1) en-US 30) Entoconid fold on lower molars: Absent (0); present (1) en-US 31) Ventral vascular groove on mandible: slightly marked (0); absent (1); strongly marked (2) en-US 32) Morphology of mandibular symphysis cross section: U-shaped (0); V-shaped (1)

PAGE 92

92 en-US 33) Transverse constriction of mandible at Cp1 diastema: no (0), yes (1) en-US 34) Cp1 diastema: absent (0); present (1) en-US 35) p1-p2 diastema: absent (0); present (1) en-US 36) Lateral mandibular tuberosity: absent (0); present (1) en-US 37) Dentary bone fussion at the symphysis: no (0); yes (1) en-US 38) Morphology of the symphysis is sagittal section: elliptic (0); dorsally concave (1); ventrally concave (2) en-US 39) Maximal thickness of the symphysis in sagittal section: in the middle part (0); in the anterior part (1); in the posterior part en-US 40) Number and position of main external mandibular foramina: onlu one foramen, below the anterior part of the premolar row (0); two foramina. One below the anterior part of the premolar row, the other below its posterior part (1); one foramen, below the posterior part of the premolar row (2) en-US 41) Tuberosity on the dorsal border of the mandible at c-p1 diastema: no (0), yes (1) en-US 42) Palatine depression between the canines: no (0), yes (1) en-US 43) Canine fossa: short (0); long (1) en-US 44) Aperture of the main palatine foramen: between M3 and P3; between P2-P1 (1); between P1-C en-US 45) Morphology of the frontonasal suture: V-shaped (0); rounded or straight (1) en-US 46) Lachrymal extension: separated from the nasal by the frontal (0); in contact with the nasal (1) en-US 47) Supraorbital foramina on the frontal: one (0); several (1) en-US 48) Facial crest: horizontal (0); oblique (1)

PAGE 93

93 en-US 49) Anterior border of premaxillary in lateral view: concave (0); convex (1) en-US 50) Postglenoid foramen position: posterior to the styloid process of the tympanic bulla (0); anterior to the styloid process of the tympanic bulla (1) en-US 51) Opening of internal choanes: at M3 (0); behind M3 (1). en-US

PAGE 94

94 en-US APPENDIX E en-US CHARACTER-TAXON MATRIX USED IN THE PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF ANTHRACOTHERIIDAE. en-US See Appendix D for character descriptions en-US en-US 10 20 30 40 50 S. krabiense 000??00?00000000000000000000000000000000000?00?00?0 M. minimun 000011010000000100000000011000011100111100001000000 M. silistrensis 0?001?0100000?0100000 00001100001110011110?????????? A. magnum 00000010000000?00111000010000000001110010000????0?0 A. mosvialense 00000010000000?001110000100000000011100?0000???00?0 A. chaimanei 0?00?0?00000?0?001110000100000000?10?00?00000?00??0 A. pangan ???0?01?0?00000001110000100000???0?00???0?????????? A. thailandicus 0?001?01000000?10001000001100001110001110?000?0???0 A. ulnifer 000011010000000101010000000000001110010000000000000 H. occidentalis 0?0000140000000000110010000000?0000010 0?000000000?0 B. fraasi 00??0202000000?110010010000000000100012000?00?000?1 B. aequatorialis 22120202000001?110000010011100000100112000020000001 B. onoideus 22120202000001?110000010011100000100112000020??0001 A. americanus 000102 0200000001210000100110100011101120000000000?0 B. velaunus 0001020200000001210100100110100011101120000?0000000 E. crispus 000000130001000121010011011010000110021000000000001 E. armatus 0000001300000001210100110110100001100210000000 00001 E. borbonicus 00000013100100012100001101101000011002100000??000?? A. acridens 00010013000000?120000011011010000110021000001?1?001 A. zelteni 10000013101101?121000001011010000100021100?11?1?0?1 S. palaeindicus 0?000?13101111 012100100101101000010002111?????????? H. blandfordi ??0???132??11???2200100101101000010002101?????????? M. pusillus 000000131011110120001001011110000100020000110111011 M. dissimilis 000000231011110130001101011111200100020200111111011 M medioximus 000000131011110130001001011110000100020200111111011 L. anisae 1?00001321211111200010010111111001000211011????11?1 L. petrocchii 110000132121112120001101011111100100021101121111111 A. acridens (TBend) 0?0101100?010011300000 1011101?0?011?0200??????????? A. meridionale 2?0??11?????0?????0?0?00???0??0??11?0210??????????? en-US en-US

PAGE 95

95 en-US LIST OF REFERENCES en-US Albright, L.B., III. 1998. The Arikareean Land Mammal Age in Texas and Florida: Southern extension of the Great Plains and Gulf Coastal Plain endemism, in Terry, D. O., Jr., LaGarry, H. E., and Hunt, R. M., Jr., eds., Depositional Environments, Lithostratigraphy, and Biostratigraphy of the White River and Arikaree Groups (Late Eocene to Early Miocene, North America): Boulder Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper 325:167 183. en-US Albright, L. B., III. 1999. Ungulates of the Toledo Bend Local Fauna (late Arikareean, early Miocene), Texas Coastal Plain. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 42:1 80. en-US Albright, L.B., III, M. Woodburne, T. Fremd, C. Swisher, B. J. MacFadden, and G. R. Scott. 2008. Revised chronostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the John Day Formation (Turtle Cove and Kimberly Members), Oregon, with implications for updated calibration of the Arikareean North American Land Mammal Age. Journal of Geology 116:211 327. en-US Aymard, A. 1846. Essai monographique sur un nouveau genre de mammifre fossile trouv dans la HauteAgriculture, Sciences, Arts et Commerce du Puy 12:227 267. en-US Boisserie, J. R., R. E. Fisher, F. Lihoreau, and E. M. Weston. 2011. Evolving between land and water: key questions on the emergence and history of the Hippopotamidae (Hippopotamoidea, Cetancodonta, Cetartiodactyla). Biological Reviews (86): 601 625. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00162.x en-US Boisserie, J. R., F. Lihoreau, M. Orliac, R. E, Fisher, E. M. Weston, and S. Ducrocq. 2010. Morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the earliest known hippopotamids (Cetartiodactyla, Hippopotamidae, Kenyapotaminae) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 158, 325 366. en-US Coates, A. G., and J. A. Obando. 1996. The geologic evolution of the Central American isthmus; pp. 21 56 in J. B. C. Jackson, A. F. Budd, and A. G. Coates (eds.), Evolution and Environment in Tropical America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. en-US Dalquest, W. W., and O. B. Mooser. 1974. Miocene vertebrates from Aguascalientes, Central Mexico. Texas Memorial Museum, Pearce Sellards Series 21:1 10. en-US Ducrocq, S., Y. Chaimanee, V. Suteethorn, and J. J. Jaeger. (1997). First discovery of Helohyidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) in the Late Eocene of Thailand: a possible transitional form for Anthracotheriidae. Sciences, Paris (Sciences de la Terra) 325:3 67 372. en-US Douglass, E. 1901. Fossil Mammalia of the White River Beds of Montana. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 20(3):237 279.

PAGE 96

96 en-US Eisenberg, J. F. 1981. The Mammalian Radiations. An Analysis of Trends in Evolution, Adaptation, and Behavior. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 509 pp. en-US Falconer, H., and P. T. Cautley. 1847. Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, being the fossil zoology of the Siwalik Hills, in the North India, Atlas. Smith, Lender and Co., London, plates 25 80. en-US Frailey, D. 1978. An early Miocene (Arikareean) fauna from northcentral Florida (the SB-1A local fauna). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 75:1 20. en-US Frailey, D. 1979. The large mammals of the Buda Local Fauna (Arikareean: Alachua County, Florida). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 24 (2):1 173. en-US Frick, C. 1937. Horned ruminants of North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 69:1 669. en-US Gazin, C. L. 1955. A review of the upper Eocene Artiodactyla of North America. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 128:1 96. en-US Gingerich, P.D. 1990. Prediction of body mass in mammalian species from long bone lengths and diameters. The University of Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology 28 (2):79 92. en-US Gould, G. C., and B. J. nothing in evolution makes sense without a phylogeny. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 285: 219 237. en-US Gray, J. E. 1821. On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals. London Medical Repository 15:296 310. en-US Hayes, F. G. 2000. The Broksville 2 Local Fauna (Arikareean, Latest Oligocene): Hernando County, Florida. Florida Museum of Natural History 43(1):1 47. en-US Hellmund, M. 1991. Revision der europischen Species der gattung Elomeryx Marsh, 1894 (Anthracotheriidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) odontologische Untersuchungen. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 22:1 101. en-US Hibbard, C. W., and K. A Keenmon. 1950. New evidence of the Lower Miocene age of the Blacktail Deer Creek Formation in Montana. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology University of Michigan VIII (7):193 204. en-US Honey, J. G., J. A. Harrison, D. R. Prothero, and M. S. Stevens. 1998. Camelidae; pp. 439 462 in C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott, and L. L. Jacobs (eds.), Tertiary Mammals of North America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

PAGE 97

97 en-US Hulbert, R. C., Jr, and S. D. Webb. 2001. Mammalia 5: Artiodactyls; pp 242-279 in R. C., Hulbert, Jr. (ed.), The Fossil Vertebrates of Florida. University Press of Florida. en-US Illiger, C. 1811. Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium additis terminis zoographicis utriusque classis. C. Salfeld, Berolini, 301 pp. en-US Janis, C. M. 1990. Correlation of cranial and dental variables with body size in ungulates and macropodoids; pp 255 299 in J. Damuth and B. J. MacFadden (eds.), Body Size in Mammalian Paleobiology: Estimation and Biological Implications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. en-US Janis, C. M., J. Damuth, and J. M. Theodor. 2000. Miocene ungulates and terrestrial primary productivity: where have all the browsers gone? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97:237 261. en-US Kirby M. X., D. S. Jones, and B. J. MacFadden, 2008. Lower Miocene stratigraph y along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American peninsula. PLoS ONE 3(7): e2791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002791. en-US Kirby, M. X., and B. J. MacFadden. 2005. Was southern Central America an archipelago or a peninsula in the middle Miocene? A test using land-mammal body size. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 228:193 202. en-US Kron, D. G and E. Manning. 1998. Anthracotheriidae; pp. 381-388 in C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott, and L. L. Jacobs (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. en-US Kurschner, W. M., Z. Kvacek., and D. L. Dilcher. 2008. The impact of Miocene atmospheric carbon dioxide fluctuations on climate and the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences 105:449 453. en-US Leidy, J. 1869. The extinct mammalian fauna of Dakota and Nebraska, including an account of some allied forms from other localities, together with a synopsis of the mammalian remains of North America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 7:1 472. en-US Lihoreau, F and S. Ducrocq. 2007. Family Anthracotheriidae. In: Prothero D. R., Foss S. E., eds. The evolution of artiodactyls. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 89 105. en-US Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentis, Synonymis, Locis, 10th edition. Laurentii, Slavi, Stockholm, Sweden, 824 pp. en-US Loomis, F. B. 1925. Dentition of Artiodactyls. Proceedings of the Paleontological Society 36:583-604

PAGE 98

98 en-US Loring, S. H., and A. E. Wood. 1969. Deciduous premolars of some North American Tertiary camels (Family Camelidae). Journal of Paleontology 43:1199 1209. en-US Macdonald, J. R. 1956. The North American Anthracotheres. Journal of Paleontology 30:615 645. en-US Macdonald, J. R. 1963. The Miocene faunas from the Wounded Knee area of western South Dakota. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 125:139 238. en-US Macdonald, J. R. and J. E. Martin. 1987. Arretotherium fricki (Artiodactyla, Anthracotheridae) from the Hemingfordian (Miocene) Flint Hill Local Fauna in South Dakota. In J.E Martin and G. E Ostrander (eds), Papers in Vertebrate Paleontology in Honor of Morton Greene. Dakoterra 3:57 62 en-US Macdonald, J. R., and C. B Shultz. 1956. Arretotherium fricki a new Hemingfordian anthracothere from Nebraska. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 4:53 58. en-US MacFadden, B. J. 2006. North American land mammals from Panama. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26:720 734. en-US MacFadden, B. J. 2009. Three-toed browsing horse Anchitherium (Equidae) from the Miocene of Panama. Journal of Paleontology 83:489 492. en-US MacFadden, B. J., and P. Higgins. 2004. Ancient ecology of 15 million-year-old browsing mammals within C3 plant communities from Panama. Oecologia 140:169 182. en-US MacFadden, B. J., and R. M. Hunt, Jr. 1998. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and correlation of the Arikaree Group, Arikareean (late Oligocene-early Miocene) of northwestern Nebraska; pp. 143 165 in D. Terry, H. LaGarry, and R. M. Hunt, Jr. (ed.), Depositional Environments, Lithostratigraphy, and Biostratigraphy of the White River and Arikaree Groups (Late Eocene to Early Miocene, North America). Geological Society of America Special Paper 325. en-US MacFadden, B. J., M. Kirby, A. Rincon, C. Montes, S. Moron, N. Strong, and C. Miocene of Panama and correlations to North America. Journal of Paleontology 84:288 298. en-US Maddison, W. P. and D. R. Maddison. 2010. Mesquite: A modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.73. Available at http://mesquiteproject.org en-US Maglio, V. J. 1966. A revision of the fossil selenodont artiodactyls from the middle Miocene Thomas Farm, Gilchrist County, Florida. Breviora 255:1 27.

PAGE 99

99 en-US Manz, C., E. Woodruff, and A. Rincon. 2011. Comparing the paleoecology of three subtropical to tropical Early Miocene faunas in the North American continent. Fourth Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Association of Vertebrate Paleontology. Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA. Available at http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/vertpaleo/SEAVPabstracts.pdf en-US Marsh, O. C. 1894. A new Miocene mammal. American Journal of Science (series 3):47 409. en-US Martin, J. E., 1985. Introduction to the geology ad paleontology of Western South Dakota and Northwestern Nebraska. In Fossiliferous Cenozoic Deposits of Western South Dakota and North Western Nebraska. (ed) Martin, J. E. Dakoterra 2(2):1 11. en-US Matthew, W. D. 1909. Observations upon the genus Ancodon Bulletin if the American Museum of Natural History 26:1 7 en-US Matthew, W. D. 1910. On the skull of Apternodus and the skeleton of a new artiodactyl. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 28(5):33 42. en-US Miller, J. R., and A. E. Wood. 1963. The upper deciduous molars in mid-tertiary oreodonts (Mammalia, Merycoidodontidae). Journal of Paleontology 37:705 713. en-US Montes C., A. Cardona, R. McFadden, S. E. Morn, C. A. Silva, S. Restrepo-Moreno, D A. Ramrez, N. Hoyos, J. Wilson, D. Farris, G. A. Bayona, C. A. Jaramillo, V. Valencia, J. Bryan, and J. A. Flores. (in press). Evidence for middle Eocene and younger emergence in Central Panama: implications for Isthmus closure. Geological Society of America Bulletin. en-US Owen, R. 1848. Description of teeth and portions of two of two extinct anthracotheroid quadrapeds ( Hyopotamus vectianus and H. bovinus ) discovered by the Marchioness of Hastings in the Eocene deposits on the N. W. coast of the Isle of Wight by the number of their toes. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 4:104-141. en-US Pagani, M., K. H. Freeman, and M. A. Arthur. 1999. Late Miocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the expansion of C4 grasses. Science 285:876 879. en-US Patton, T. H. 1967. Oligocene and Miocene vertebrates from central Florida; pp. 3 10 in H. K. Brooks and J. R. Underwood (eds.), Miocene-Pliocene Problems of Peninsular Florida; 13th Field Trip: Southeastern Geological Society, Tallahassee. en-US Patton, T. H. 1969. Miocene and Pliocene artiodactyls, Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Science 14:115 226.

PAGE 100

100 en-US Patton, T. H., and B. E. Taylor. 1971. The Synthetoceratinae (Mammalia, Tylopoda, Protoceratidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 145(2):119 218. en-US Pimiento, C., D. J. Ehret, B. J. MacFadden, and G. Hubbell. 2010. Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama. PLoS ONE 5(5): e10552. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010552. en-US Pratt, A. E. 1990. Taphonomy of the large vertebrate fauna from the Thomas Farm locality (Miocene, Hemingfordian), Gilchrist County, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Biological Sciences 35(2):35 130. en-US Prothero, D. R., and R. J. Emry. 1996. The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America. Cambridge University Press, New York, 688 pp. en-US Retallack, G. J., and M. Kirby. 2007. Middle Miocene global change and paleogeography of Panama. Palaios 22:667 669. en-US Rincon, A. F., J. Bloch, B. MacFadden, S. Suarez, and C. Jaramillo. 2010. New early Miocene camelids from the Las Cascadas Formation, Panama Canal, Central America. 70th Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Meeting. Pittsburg, PA. USA. Program and Abstracts:151A. Available at http://www.vertpaleo.org/meetings/documents/SVP10Abstracts_WEB.pdf en-US Rooney, T., P. Franceschi., and C. Hall. 2010. Water saturated magmas in the Panama Canal region: A precursor to Adakite-like magma generation. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 161:373 388. en-US Schlaikjer, E. M. 1935. Contributions to the stratigraphy and paleontology of the Goshen Hole Area, Wyoming: New vertebrates and the stratigraphy of the Oligocene and early Miocene. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 76:97 189. en-US Scott, K. M. 1990. Postrcranial dimensions of ungulates as predictors of body mass; pp. 301 335 in J. Damuth and B. J. MacFadden (eds.), Body Size in Mammalian Paleobiology: Estimation and Biological Implications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. en-US Scott, W. B., 1940. Artiodactyla, pp 363-746 in W. B. Scott and G. L. Jepsen (eds.), The Mammalian Fauna of the White River Oligocene. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. en-US Simpson, G. G. 1930. Tertiary land mammals of Florida. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 59(3):149 211. en-US Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 85:1 350.

PAGE 101

101 en-US Smith, J. B., and P. Dodson. 2003. A proposal for a standard terminology of anatomical notation and orientation in fossil vertebrate dentitions. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23:1 2. en-US Stevens, M. 1977. Further studies of Castolon local fauna (early Miocene) Big Bend National Park, Texas. The Pearce-Sellards Series. Texas Memorial Museum 27:1 69. en-US Stevens, M. S., and J. B. Stevens. 1989. Neogene-Quaternary deposits and vertebrate faunas, Trans-Pecos Texas; pp. 67 90 in A. B. Busby and T. M. Lehman (eds.), Vertebrate Paleontology, Biostratigraphy and Depositional Environments, Latest Cretaceous and Tertiary, Big Bend Area, Texas. 49th Annual Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Meeting Guidebook. en-US Stevens, M. S., J. B. Stevens, and M. R. Dawson. 1969. New early Miocene formation and vertebrate local fauna, Big Bend National Park, Brewster County, Texas. The Pearce-Sellards Series, Texas Memorial Museum 15:1 53. en-US Storer, J. E., and H. N. Bryant. 1993. Biostratigraphy of the Cypress Hills Formation (Eocene to Miocene), Saskatchewan: Equid Types (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) and Associated Faunal Assemblages. Journal of Paleontology 67 (4):660-669. en-US Strmberg, C. A. E. 2002. The origin and spread of grass-dominated ecosystems in the Late Tertiary of North America: Preliminary results concerning the evolution of hypsodonty. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 177:59 75. en-US Strmberg, C.A.E. 2006. Evolution of hypsodonty in equids: testing a hypothesis of adaptation. Paleobiology 32:236 258. en-US Suteethorn, V., E. Buffetaut, R. Helmcke-Ingavat, J. J. Jaeger, and Y. Jongkanjanasoontorn. 1988. Oldest known Tertiary mammals from South-East Asia: Middle Eocene primate and anthracotheres. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie Monatshefte 9:563 570. en-US Swofford, D. A. 2003. PAUP* 4.0. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. en-US Tedford, R. H. 1970. Principles and practices of mammalian geochronology in North America. Proceedings of the North American Paleontological Convention, F:666 703. en-US Tedford, R. H., L. B. Albright III, A. D. Barnosky, I. Ferrusquia-Villafranca, R. M. Hunt, Jr, J. E. Storer, C. C. Swisher III, M. R. Voorhies, S. D. Webb, and D. P. Whistler. 2004. Mammalian biochronology of the Arikareean through Hemphillian interval (late Oligocene through early Pliocene epochs); pp. 169 231 in M. O. Woodburne (ed.), Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Mammals of North America: Biostratigraphy and Geochronology. Columbia University Press, New York.

PAGE 102

102 en-US Tedford, R. H., M. F. Skinner, R. W. Fields, J. M. Rensberger, D. P. Whistler, T. Galusha, B. E. Taylor, J. R. Macdonald, and S. D. Webb. 1987. Faunal succession and biochronology of the Arikareean through Hemphillian interval (Late Oligocene through Earliest Pliocene Epochs) in North America; pp 153 210 in M. O. Wo odburne (ed.), Cenozoic Mammals of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley California. en-US Tipple, B., and M, Pagani. 2010. A 35 Myr North American leaf-wax compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope record: Implications for C4 grasslands an d hydrologic cycle dynamics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 299:250 262. en-US Troxell, E. L., 1921. The American bothriodonts: American Journal of Science 3:325339. en-US Uhen, M. D., A. G. Coates, C. A. Jaramillo, C. Montes, C. Pimiento, A. Rincon, N. Strong, and J. Velez-Juarbe. 2010. Marine mammals from the Miocene of Panama. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 30:167 175. en-US Urban, M., D. Nelson, G. Jimnez-Moreno, J. Chteauneuf, A. Pearson, and F. Sheng. 2010. Isotopic evidence of C4 grasses in southwestern Europe during the Early Oligocene Middle Miocene. Geology 38:1091 1094. en-US White, T. H. 1940. New Miocene vertebrates from Florida. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 18:31 38. en-US White, T. H. 1942. The Lower Miocene mammal fauna of Florida. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 92(1):1 49. en-US White, T. H. 1947. Additions to the Miocene fauna of North Florida. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 99(4):497 515. en-US Whitmore, F. C., and R. H. Stewart. 1965. Miocene mammals and Central American seaways. Science 148:180 185. en-US Wilson, J. A. 1974. Early Tertiary vertebrate faunas, Vieja Group and Buck Hill Group, trans-Pecos Texas: Protoceratidae, camelidae, Hypertragulidae. Texas Memorial Museum, Bulletin 23:1 34. en-US Wilson, J.A. 1984. Vertebrate fossil faunas 49 to 36 million years ago and additions to the species of Leptoreodon found in Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 4:199 207. en-US Woodring, W. P. 1957. Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama; description of Tertiary mollusks; gastropods; Trochidae to Turritellidae. U S Geological Survey Professional Paper 306-A:1 239.

PAGE 103

103 en-US Woodring, W. P. 1982. Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama; description of Tertiary mollusks; pelecypods, Propeamussiidae to Cuspidariidae; additions to families covered in P306-E; additions to gastropods; cephalopods. U S Geological Survey Professional Paper 306-7:541 759. en-US Woodring, W.P., and T. F., Thompson. 1949. Tertiary formations of Panama Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama: AAPG Bulletin 33: 223 247. en-US Zachos, J. C., G. R. Dickens, and R. E. Zeebe. 2008. An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature 451:279 283. en-US Zachos, J. C., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups. 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292:686 693. en-US en-US en-US

PAGE 104

104 en-US BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH en-US Aldo Rincon is a Colombian geologist. He has worked with fossil mammals since 2007; first in Colombia, where he did intense fieldwork among a variety of localities and fossil groups, until he decided to focus his research on fossil mammals. His Bachelor degree was obtained from the National University of Colombia (Bogota) in 2005. After two years as field geologist and researcher at his institution he moved to Panama to do an internship at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI). Once he finished his internship, he moved to Florida where currently is attending to graduate school a t the Department of Geological Sciences. His research focuses on understanding the paleobiogeographical and evolutionary history of tropical mammals during the Cenozoic. He is also doing related fieldwork in the terrestrial Paleocene and Eocene fossiliferous localities in northern central Colombia