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1 TIMBER HARVESTING AN D POST LOGGING SILVICULTURA L TREATMENTS IN A B AMBOO DOMINATED TROPICAL F OREST OF SOUTHWESTERN AMAZ ONIA: ENHANCING SMALLHOLDE R LIVELIHOOD OPTIONS By CARA A. ROCKWELL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRAD UATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011
2 2011 Cara A. Rockwell
3 This dissertation is dedicated to my friends and colleagues in Brazil who welcomed me into their lives and to my husband, Chris Baraloto, our daughter, Serafina and our son (still in utero), for being so patient with me during this process.
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to my advisor and committee chair, Karen Kainer, for all of her guidance and support Having her as a mentor and a colleague has been a truly rewarding experience. My committee members, Christina Staudhammer (University of Alabama) Marcus Vinicio (EMBRAPA Ac re) Jack Putz (UF) and Marianne Schmink (UF) have been excellent sources of encouragement and knowledge. I extend my full appreciation to their involvem ent in the development of this dissertation Thanks goes to the School of Forest Resources and Conser vation, the University of Florida Working Forests in the Tropics and the NSF funded Integrative and Infrastructure Change, Human Agency, and Resilience in Social Ecological Systems grant for funding and supporting this research. The execution and completio n of this project could not have been accomplished without the participation of many key partners in Brazil. First, I must thank the many families of the Agroextractive Settlement Project of Porto Dias, the Associao Agroextrativista So Jos the Associa o Seringueira Porto Dias and the Projeto Manejo Florestal Comunitario de Mltiplo Uso for their patience as well as their kindness during my stay in their community. I must particularly thank the family of Aclesio Daniel and Albaniza Alencar for their k indness and hospitality during my stays in the community. Also, a special thanks to the following community members and EMBRAPA and UFAC technicians for their participation in the study: Daniel Alencar, Juscelino da Silva Correia, Josian de Castro Santos, Jos Augusto da Silva, Las Vegas, Dal Nascimento, Seu Edir, Daniela Alencar, Luana da Silva Valdomiro Rodrigues Marques as well as to Anelena Lima de Carvalho from the Instituto Nacional
5 de Pesquisas da Amaznia who was on break with her family, but stil l found time to assist with my project. I especially would like to thank my friends and colleagues in Rio Branco: Marcos Silveira (UFAC), Lcia Wadt (EMBRAPA Acre), Nivea Marcondes (Centro dos Trabalhadores da Amaznia) Evandro Arajo (COOPERFLORESTA) Cl eber Salimo n (UFAC), F abio Thaines (Tecman), Andreia Aparecida Ribeiro Thaines (Tecman), the Secretaria da Floresta Acre and the Instituto de Meio Ambiente do Acre. Friends, faculty and staff at the University of Florida and in South America have often pr ovided much needed counsel and direction. Their efforts are duly appreciated My warmest regards to Amy Duchelle, Valerio Gomes, Mary Menton, Maria Di G iano, Shoana Humphries, Christie Klimas, Joanna Tucker, Evandro Lima, and Robert Buschbacher. I never cou ld have gotten to this stage without the support and love of my parents and my family. And there are no words sufficient to thank my husband, Chris Baraloto and our daughter, Serafina
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGM ENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 Chapter 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ .................. 12 2 TIMBER MANAGEMENT IN BAMBOO DOMINATED FORESTS IN SOUTHWESTERN AMAZONI A: CAVEATS AND OPPOR TUNITIES FOR COMMUNITY FOREST MAN AGEMENT ................................ ................................ 17 Introductory Remarks ................................ ................................ .............................. 17 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 21 Study Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 21 Sampling Design ................................ ................................ .............................. 23 Timber Volume ................................ ................................ ................................ 25 Estimating A boveground Biomass (AGB) ................................ ......................... 26 Forest Stand Structure ................................ ................................ ..................... 26 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 26 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 27 Changes in Timber Volume ................................ ................................ .............. 27 Changes in Taxonomic Composition ................................ ................................ 27 Changes in NTFP and Timber Seedling Abundance ................................ ........ 28 Changes in Aboveground Biomass and Stand Structure ................................ 28 Discuss ion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 29 Changes in Taxonomic Composition and Stand Structure after Logging Interventions ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 29 Impacts of Logging on Regeneration ................................ ................................ 31 Timber Volume in Guadua Dominated Forests ................................ ................ 33 Implications for Management at the Community Level ................................ ..... 34 3 ENRICHMENT PLANTING AND RELEASE TREATMEN TS AFTER LOGGING IN BAMBOO DOMINATED FORESTS OF SOUTHWESTERN AMAZONI A .......... 47 Introductory Remarks ................................ ................................ .............................. 47 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 50 Study Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 50 Planting Stock ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 52 Site Selection and Experimental Design ................................ ........................... 52
7 Light Conditions ................................ ................................ ................................ 53 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 54 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 54 Light Conditions ................................ ................................ ................................ 54 Seedling Performance ................................ ................................ ...................... 55 Labor Input ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 56 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 56 Seedling Performance and Resource Availability in Guadua Dominated Forest ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 56 Socio Economic Considerations of Enrichment Planting ................................ .. 58 Management Implications in Bamboo Dominated Forests ............................... 59 4 TRADITIONAL PERSPECT IVES ON ECOLOGY AND TIMBER MANAGEMENT IN A BAM BOO DOMINATED FOREST OF ACRE, BRAZIL: A COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLE DGE BASE FOR SUSTAIN ABLE MANAGEMENT ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 72 Introductory Remarks ................................ ................................ .............................. 72 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 76 Site Description ................................ ................................ ................................ 76 Status of Timber Management in Bamboo Dominated Forests in Acre ............ 78 Regional Perceptions of Bamboo Dominated Forests ................................ ...... 81 Local Knowledge of Bamboo Forest Ecology ................................ ................... 83 Local Perceptions of Silvicultural Activities in Bamboo Dominated Forests ..... 85 Role of Bamboo Dominated Forests in Subsistence Activities ......................... 87 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 89 5 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 96 Current Understanding of Bamboo Forests ................................ ............................ 97 Future Directions ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 98 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 100 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 121
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Mean values and test results of a paired t test ................................ ................... 38 2 2 Taxonomic identification, stem density ha 1 (reported as integers), and volume (m 3 ha 1 ................................ .............. 39 2 3 Taxonomic identification and stem density ha 1 (reported as integers) of the ................................ ........................... 41 2 4 Taxonomic identification and stem density ha 1 (reported as integers) of the ................................ .......................... 41 2 5 Taxonomic identification and stem density ha 1 (reported as integers) of non timber forest product taxa ................................ ................................ ................... 42 2 6 Ecological guild, taxonomic identification and density (stems ha 1 ) of timber and NTFP species seedlings ................................ ................................ .............. 43 3 1 Linear mixed effects model analysis with binomial response ............................. 62 3 2 Linear mixed effects model analysis with relative growth rate fo r (a) basal diameter and (b) height ................................ ................................ ...................... 63 3 3 Estimated time and financial investment for enrichment planting and subsequent release treatments ................................ ................................ .......... 64 4 1 Environmental knowledge categories, identified from both scientific/technical and local sources ................................ ................................ ................................ 93
9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Typical open canopy of Guadua spp. dominated forest in southwestern Amazonia ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 16 2 1 Guadua sp. culm using tree trunk for support via modified bra nches ................. 44 2 2 Modified Gentry plot (5000 m 2 ) ................................ ................................ ........... 45 2 3 Results of paired t test for 10 modified Gentry plots ................................ ........... 46 3 1 Logging gap in Guadua dominated forest prior to planting of Dipteryx odorata seedlings ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 65 3 2 Planted Dipteryx odorata seedling during first census (October 2007) ............... 66 3 3 Hemispherical photographs demonstrating extent of canopy openness before and after release treatment ................................ ................................ ................. 67 3 4 Percent of canopy openness above 1 m as an effect of bamboo removal treatment over a 20 m onth period for both control and treated plots .................. 68 3 5 Difference in height of planted Dipteryx odorata in treated and control plots in June 20 09 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 69 3 6 Height relative growth rates ( ) of Dipteryx odorata seedlings in control and treated plots ................................ ................................ ................. 70 3 7 Basal diameter relative growth rate ( ) of Dipteryx odorata seedlings in control and treated pl ots ................................ ................................ 71 4 1 Preparation of an agricultural field with fire in a patch of Guadua dominated forest, PAE Porto Dias, Acre, Brazil ................................ ................................ ... 94 4 2 Guadua spp. culms providing roof support ................................ ......................... 95
10 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor o f Philosophy TIMBER HARVESTING AND POST LOGGING SILVICULTURAL TREATMENTS IN A BAMBOO DOMINATED TROPICAL FOREST OF SOUTHWESTERN AMAZONIA: ENHANCING SMALLHOLDER LIVELIHOOD OPTIONS By Cara A. Rockwell December 2011 Chair: Karen A. Kainer Major: Forest Reso urces and Conservation The bamboo dominated forest landscape provides important ecosystem services and products for forest residents of southwestern Amazonia including numerous non timber forest products (NTFPs) and shelter for important game species R ecently, many community forests have shifted from local economies based on NTFPs to the integration of commercial timber extraction into their livelihood system Nonetheless, a lack of advanced regeneration and removal of an already sparse canopy in this f orest type present a considerable challenge for developing sustainable timber management plans. Therefore, an investigation of existing harvesting practices, silvicultural treatments and knowledge of local people in this forest type is currently needed. I conducted field studies in Acre, Brazil to assess influences of timber harvesting and resulting management implications in bamboo dominated forest sites I compared w oody species composition, stand structure, and commercial tree seedling abundance between ten paired (logged vs. unlogged) plots approximately one year after logging I also tested a seedling release treatment experiment in logging gaps where I planted seedlings of a valuable commercial timber species To complement the ecological field
11 data, I reviewed the literature and assessed local perceptions of bamboo ecology and its relevance to hunting, agriculture, and timber/NTFP harvesting and existing/potential local uses through a series of interviews. Logg ed sites were characterized by a markedl y reduced commercial timber volume suggesting that high grading is probably the norm in bamboo forest I did not find an influence of logging on any other measured variables Enrichment plantings of D. odorata seedlings were successful, with a survival ra te of more than 90% and increased growth in both basal diameter ( 44% ) and height (22% ) in response to bamboo removal. Results from th ese stud ies underscore the need for future monitoring of harvesting activities and residual stand dynamics as well as extr eme caution in the removal harvestable stems Enrichment planting in concert with tending could provide an important contribution to the successful regeneration of valuable timber species in expl oited bamboo dominated forests. Additionally, given the subst antial local knowledge that complements the scientific literature, it is important to include local peoples in the development of future management plans, as opposed to complete reliance on technical guidelines.
12 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION The bamboo [ Guadua sarcocarpa and G weberbaueri (Poaceae: Bambuseae)] dominated forest type in southwestern Amazonia constitutes one of the largest bamboo forests in the world (Londoo 2011), covering an area of approximately 180,000 km 2 (Nelson 1994). Much of this forest is now under the control of local communit ies (see Duchelle et al. 2011), providing important ecosystem services and products such as watershed protection and habitat for valuable non timber forest products (NTFPs) and game species (Silveira 1999). Now, many of these community managed forests are investing in timber as a potentially profitable activity (see Kainer et al. 2003, Stone 2003, Franco and Esteves 2008, Lima et al. 2008, Soriano et al. 2011), but forest managers are discovering that this f orest type responds quite differently to logging in comparison to closed canopy forests ( Oliveira et al. 2004, Rockwell et al. 2007 b ). Yet, surprisingly, little research directly address es the question of silvicultural management of bamboo forests in thi s region. This dissertation seeks to address that gap in knowledge Evidence in the literature suggest s that woody bamboo populations will expand in areas influenced by anthropogenic disturbances (Soderstrom and Calderon 1979, Whitmore 1984, Veldman et al. 2011, Smith and Nelson 2011). Bamboo forests in southwestern Amazonia usually develop on poorly drained vertisols and are colonized by both G. weberbaueri and G. sarcocarpa each of which displays vigorous clonal growth via rhizome s (Griscom 2003). Regene ration of native tree species is inhibited in both understory and in gaps due to the aggressive nature of bamboo to capture light and other resources (Oliveira 2000, Griscom and Ashton 2003 ). As well the tree canopy
13 is naturally sparse (Fig ure 1 1) due to damage inflicted by mass loading on juvenile tree stems, hindering recruitment and leading to low basal area (Silveira 2001, Griscom 2003, Griscom and Ashton 2003, 2006). Consequently, logging of the biggest trees during harvest operations can exacerbate the already open forest canopy (Rockwell et al. 2007 b ) and possibly increase forest susceptibility to fire (Veldman et al. 2009) In concert, response to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in this fores type represents a considerable challenge to 2004) and illustrates the importance of a comprehensive assessment of current and potentially modified management techniques. Possible solutions for the management of this unique forest type are likely to co me from the long term observation and experimentation that smallholder observation provides (Sears et al. 2007). Conventional Western society tends to view ecological knowledge as a technical specialty that requires long years of study and is highly specia lized. That is, the task of monitoring the natural resource base is relegated to a few educated specialists (Taylor 1990). In contrast, traditional farmers and community forest managers, who se families have often lived in the same geographic region and liv ed off the forest for many generations, have accumulated considerable knowledge about the natural resource base through daily observations in their subsistence activities (Gomez Pompa and Kaus 1990, Gray 1991, Folke et al.1998; Berkes 1999, Calheiros et al 2000, Berkes and Folke 2002). Traditional practices can overlap with conventional science and usually demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of ecosystem linkages (Swezey and Heizer 1977; Gadgil et al. 1993; Huber and Pedersen 1997; Duffield et al. 19 98; Sillitoe 1998; Calheiros et al. 2000; Folke and Berkes 2003).
14 Duffield et al. (1998), in their study of traditional knowledge of a mountain ecosystem in the Indian Himalayas, found that many of the sustainability indices identified by local villagers a ctually overlap p ed with those of government experts, but local people also contributed new indices. Accordingly, promising local management techniques could be integrated into current management plans and transferred to other locales through farmer network s, extension agencies, and local non governmental organizations ( Padoch and Pindo Vasquez, 1996, Calheiros et al. 2000, Shanley et al. 2010). The research is presented as three separate articles prepared for publication in scientific journals. In Chapter 2 I present the results of a field investigation of timber harvesting and management impacts in bamboo dominated forest sites in the Porto Dias Agroextractive Settlement Project in Acre, Brazil. I compare aboveground biomass (AGB) ; woody species compositi on ( heliophile dominance, NTFP/timber species abundance, species indicator values ) ; stand structu re ; timber and NTFP tree seedling abundance; and bamboo culm density between five paired (logged vs. unlogged) 0.5 ha plots. Using the results from the study, I evaluate the suitability of timber management in this forest type and suggest alternatives to current practices, particularly for those forests managed by communities and smallholders. In Chapter 3 I test the feasibility of enrichment planting and relea se treatments to promote timber production in the bamboo dominated forest, addressing the following questions: (i) I s enrichment planting of high value tree seedlings in logging gaps ecologically feasible in bamboo dominated forests?; and (ii) T o what exte nt can a series of release treatments reduce competition from bamboo and promote seedling survival and gro wth? To conclude the chapter, I discuss the potential of this post harvest
15 silvicultural treatment to contribute to successful regeneration of valuabl e timber species in exploited bamboo dominated forests In Chapter 4, I evaluate key managerial constraints of timber harvesting in the bamboo dominated forests of Acre, Brazil, as well as potential implications for smallholder management systems, providin g a basis for adaptive co management in this forest type. To accomplish this task, I evaluated available scientific data, traditional local knowledge of bamboo ecology and relevant community experiences in forest management. I then provided suggestions abo ut how this cumulative and often complementary body of knowledge can be put into practice for the purpose of sustaining the natural resource base within a logging context In Chapter 5, I conclude my analyses with a discussion of the future of sustainable forest management in this unique forest type, particularly in regards to considerations for smallholder and community operations.
16 Figure 1 1. Typical open canopy of Guadua spp. dominated forest in southwestern Amazonia (Photo courtesy of author)
17 CHAPT ER 2 TIMBER MANAGEMENT IN BAMBOO DOMINATED FORESTS IN SOUTHWESTERN AMAZONIA: CAVEATS AN D OPPORTUNITIES FOR COMMUNITY FOREST MANAGEMENT Introduct ory Remarks Sustainable tropical timber management has been at the forefront of conservation discussions for mo re than two decades (Pinard et al. 1995, Sayer et al. 1995, Dykstra and Heinrich 1996, Sist et al. 2003, Dauber et al. 2005, Sist and Ferreira 2007, Putz et entails gi ven the dramatic removal of large trees ( Rice et al. 1997, Bowles et al. 1998, Fredericksen and Putz 2003, Pearce et al. 2003, Sist and Brown 2004, Zarin et al. 2007). Particularly challenging are forests that defy the idealistic concept of a tall, c losed canopy stand of trees (e.g., Mostacedo et al. 1998, Toledo et al. 2001), the type of tropical forest for which many current logging guidelines were developed (see Dykstra and Heinrich 1996, Pinard et al. 1995). Forests prone to disturbances ( wind damage, f ire, logging) or characterized by a discontinuous canopy create ideal settings for aggressive pioneers liana s (Putz 1991, Gerwing 2001, Schnitzer et al. 2000, Schnitzer and Carson 2001) and bamboo (Griscom and Ashton 2006, Campanello et al. 2007, Veldman et al. 2010, Larpkern et al. 2011), potentially limiting regeneration and recruitment of commercially valuable species More often than not, pre logging basal area and timber volume are already low in these types of forests (e.g., D et al. 2004, Dauber et al. 2005, Baraloto unpublished data ), increasing the likelihood of high grading, or removal of the majority of desirable commercial stems. And esp ecially for locally rare species [e.g., Tabebuia spp., Bignonaceae ; Hymenea courbaril Fabaceae (Sch ulze et al. 2008a)] and/or those exhibiting slow growth rates [e.g.,
18 Tabebuia spp., (Schulze et al. 2005 Schulze et al. 2008b )], residual stand recovery is very much in the distant future (Zarin et al. 2007). Dauber et al. (2005) determined that even with only 11.8 m 3 ha 1 of timber removed using reduced impact logging techniques in a liana infested moist lowland forest in Bolivia, just 21% of the original harvest volume could be recuperated at the end of the 25 year cutting cycle. The arborescent bamboo [ Guadua sarcocarpa and G. weberbaueri (Poaceae: Bambuseae)] dominated forests of southwestern Amazonia represent a good example of a n ecosystem that requires special management considerations. These forests are characterized by varying Guadua culm densitie s, from scattered culms in some terra firme forests to stands with an average of 2000 culms ha 1 (Londoo and Peterson 1991, Vidalenc 2000), and typically have a low basal area ( Nelson 1994 Silveira 2001, Griscom 2003). Tree s pecies diversity is also up t o 40% lower than in forest patches without bamboo with a tendency towards dominance by pioneer taxa of little commercial value (Silveira 2001). Given Guadua up to 10 cm day 1 in the rainy season), its interconnected rhizome network, a nd its ability to use neighboring trees (Fig ure 2 1) for support (Silveira 2001, Griscom and Ashton 2003, 2006), anthropogenic disturbances tend to enhance its already competitive edge In other bamboo dominated forests, these taxonomic traits in concert with human disturbances have led to decreases in woody species abundance, richness, diversity, regeneration, and basal area (Whitmore 1984, Campanello et al. 2007, Larpkern et al. 2009, 2011), all determinants of sustainable timber management (Guariguata and Pinard 1998, Putz et al. 2001, Dauber et al. 2005, Schulze et al. 2008). liveira et al. (2004) concluded that of the three major forest types in the Antimary State Forest in
19 Acre, Brazil, bamboo forest had the lowest timber management potential and suggested that it should only be logged under special circumstances Despite the management complications, bamboo dominated forest s ha ve long played an important role in providing ecosystem services and products for forest residents in southwestern Amazon ia. For example, communities in the Brazilian state of Acre favor burning areas of bamboo prior to planting of subsistence crops such as manioc, corn and beans (Silveira 2001), and often use bamboo culms for support beams in their houses ( pers. obs. ). Addi tionally, many animal species prefer bamboo stands [especially during mast fruiting episodes (Silveira 1999)], or are outright obligate bamboo specialists (see Conover 1994, Kratter 1997). As such, some forest residents have cited their propensity to hunt game animals in this forest type (L. Salgueiro, pers. comm .). And even though some researchers report low densities of cash generating non timber forest product (NTFP) species such as rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis Euphorbaceae ) and Brazil nut ( Bertholletia e xcelsa Lecythidaceae) in Guadua dominated forests ( Baraloto unpublished data ), others have noted that rubber tappers prefer the quality of latex from rubber groves in this forest type (Silveira 2001). Recently, many Amazonian forest based communit ies hav e shifted from local economies based predominantly on NTFPs to those that integrate timber extraction ( Schmink 1999, Kainer et al. 2003), challenging the long term sustainable management of this system. The need to improve forest management practices in th is region will become even more pronounced in the near future, given effort s to curtail carbon emissions that tend to increase with timber harvesting (Putz et al. 2008 b Blanc et al. 2009). Guadua dominated forest has been demonstrated to have considerably lower
20 aboveground biomass (AGB) values (224 50 Mg ha 1 ) than other forest types in the region (322 20 Mg ha 1 for dense forest) although the former figure was generated using few estimates from the field (see Salimon et al 2011). Nonetheless, the amo unt of carbon retention in these forests is not unsubstantial (see Phillips et al. 2009), and its conservation could eventually benefit forest communities through financial compensation from reduced emissions due to deforestation and degradation (REDD) pro gram s (Hall 2008 ). Certainly, retaining forest carbon is one of many incentives for improving management practices in tropical forests (Putz et al. 2008a, but see Litton et al. 2007), and information on short term harvesting impacts on AGB in this forest t ype would be valuable in seeking some measure of sustainability. Yet, to date, there have been very few studies that have assessed the suitability of timber management in this forest type. Here we present the results of a field investigation of timber harv esting and management impacts in bamboo dominated forest sites in southwestern Amazonia Our objective s were to assess the effects of current conventional timber harvesting practices on taxonomic composition; forest stand structu re ; timber and NTFP tree se edling densities ; and bamboo culm density. We predicted that AGB timber species abundance, basal area (BA) and juvenile and sub adult ( dbh < 40 cm) stem d ensity; and commercial timber volume would all be reduced in logged for est, while there would be an increase in heliophile genera abundance, seedling abundance and bamboo culm density in these same disturbed sites due to post logging canopy openness.
21 Methods Study Site The study was conducted in the Porto Dias Agroextractive Settlement Project (S 10 moist tropical forest, subsistence agricultural fields and pasture in the Brazilian state of Acre. The landscape is defined by red yellow latisols of low fertility and gently rolling to flat topog raphy, with mean annual rainfall and temperature of 1890 mm yr 1 and 25.5 C, respectively. The Settlement retains a high proportion of forest cover [80% (Pereira 2007, Franco and Esteves 2008)], most of which is dominated by G. sarcocarpa and G. weberbauer i (CTA 2001). In late 2004, G. sarcocarpa underwent a monocarpic dieoff that affected landholdings closest to the Abun River, at the Settlement Bolivia (Rockwell et al. 2007). Although widespread deforestation has largely been avoided within settlement borders, thanks in large part to the historical dominance of NTFPs timber extraction has always played an important socioeconomic role. Long term residents recall that mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla Meliaceae) was selectively r emoved and transported down the Abun River during the first half of the last century, when the Settlement was a privately owned rubber estate (Stone 2003). Since its designation as an agroextractive settlement project (PAE) in 1989 [under federal authorit y of INCRA (National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform)], timber removal can be qualified by three distinct categories: (1) predatory exploitation, in which neighboring ranchers have cut large trees indiscriminately without permission from Set tlement residents or federal officials, an activity which has subsided in recent years (D. Alencar, pers. comm. ); (2) certified operations executed and managed by local residents in
22 concert with a timber cooperative in the capital city of Rio Branco, COOPE RFLORESTA [see Hump h ries and Kainer (2006), Rockwell et al. (2007), Lima et al. (2008)]; and (3) legal removal by external non certified operators (contracted by at least two local landowner associations). The latter has been favored by many residents due to the immediacy and security of timber payments and management simplicity (D. Alencar, pers. comm ., Stone 2003), as opposed to the difficulties of entering the niche market of certified wood (E. Araujo, pers. comm ., Drigo 2005) Our study was conducted in one such community known as Mossor Mossor is located in the western extremity of Porto Dias, where some of the highest rates of settlement deforestation have been documented (Pereira 2007, Franco and Esteves 2008). During the 2005 drought, this area wa s especially vulnerable to fires that spread from neighboring ranches into the bamboo dominated forest, which is typically more fire prone than other types of terra firme forest (Keeley and Bond 1999, Smith and Nelson 2011). Since 2005, 12 to 20 Mossor re sidents have annually contracted a timber company to harvest trees through the local landowner association, Associao Agroextrativista So Jos In preparation, a forest inventory of all was usually conducted by an external consultant in concert with several community members trained in tree identification. Using these inventory results, the consultant submit ed an operating plan to the state environmental agency (IMAC), which then ha d the right to approve, modify or reject the plan based on compliance with federal regulations (e.g., acceptable basal area removed, desired residual stand species distribution, crop tree proximity to creek or riverbeds ). Association regulations require d that at least one
23 person from the A ssociation (preferably the landowner) accompany the logging crew during operations. However, this rule was not always been observed, which led to disputes regarding removal of trees not scheduled for harvest or proximate to wate r sources, and damage to NTFP stems, such as Brazil nut All timber was removed using skidders and transported to a sawmill owned by the timber company, located in the nearest town approximately 30 km away. The contracted timber company paid by area harves ted rather than by individual trees, usually harvesting between 10 and 15 m 3 ha 1 standing timber volume permitting. Approximately 20 30 species had been identified as species of commercial interest by the timber company, but eight species groups were the most heavily exploited onsite : cumaru ferro ( Dipteryx spp. Fabaceae), cumaru cetim ( Apuleia leiocarpa Fabaceae ), ip ( Tabebuia spp. Bignoniaceae), cedro ( Cedrela spp. Meliaceae), jatob ( Hymenea courbaril Fabaceae), juta ( Hymenea spp. Fabaceae), ma aranduba ( Manilkara spp. Sapotaceae), and cerejeira ( Amburana cearensis Fabaceae). Additionally, in contrast to the neighboring certified operation that avoid ed species with potential NTFP value, this particular timber enterprise harvest ed andiroba ( Car apa guianensis Meliaceae) and copaiba ( Copaifera spp. Fabaceae ) even though they are highly valued for their medicinal and cosmetic properties ( Plowden 2004, Pieri et al. 2009, Klimas et al. 2011). Sampling Design From June August 2009, we sampled both logged and unlogged bamboo dominated forest in Mossor in four different landholdings (150 300 ha each) Five 0.5 ha plots were placed in five 10 ha logging blocks in September 2008 and five plots were placed in unlogged areas in the same landholdings, pa iring each un logged plot with a proximate logged plot with at least 300 m between any two plots. Plot sites were
24 selected following substantial prospection to avoid bamboo free dense forest and to ensure that plots located in unlogged sites were establis hed at least 50 m from the edge of logging blocks to avoid influence of recent disturbance. Based on discussions with local association members, logging intensity was estimated to be between 10 15 m 3 ha 1 Log extraction was facilitated by an agricultural tractor. Guadua dominance was defined a priori as having ten or more bamboo stems per 100 m 2 of forest (adapted from Griscom and Ashton 2003). All plot locations ha d indications of fire damage within the last ten years as well as signs of very old indiscri minate selective logging. According to local residents, a neighboring rancher crossed settlement borders approximately 20 years ago to illegally harvest high value logs. All 0.5 ha plots were established according to a modified version (Phillips et al. 200 1, Baraloto et al. 2011 ) of the Gentry plot (Gentry 1982), based on an aggregate of ten 10 x 50 m were mapped identified and measured for height and dbh ( Fig ure 2 2 ). We further modified this protocol in two ways to obtain more information on the regenerating forest community. Firs each transect. Second, we used the central belt of 2 x 50 m within each 10 x 50 m transect to measure all mature Guadua culms and all tree seedlings (individuals 25 cm and ht) of commercial ly valuable (timber and NTFP) species. As the protocol was modified from the original Gentry plot design [ which normally takes only (Gentry 1982) ] as well as the modified Gentry plot [ transect (Phillips et al. 2001, Baraloto et al. 2011) ] some stems may have been
25 excluded if they were 1m in height but still smaller than 2.5 cm in diameter For stems with irregular tru nks or buttresses, dbh was determined by measuring above irregularities, or in rare cases where this was not possible, by visual estimat ion Tree height was always estimated visually by the same two field crew members throughout the census period. To deter mine timber volume, commercial height was assumed to be 2/3 of the original estimated height, in accordance with methods used by local logging inventory crews. Parataxonomists from the regional university (Universidade Federal do Acre) and the local commun ity were responsible for identifying the stems using vegetative characteristics, but no samples were taken from site due to permit restrictions. Therefore, identification to species for most individuals was impossible, except in the cases of the most commo n taxa (e.g., Rinorea pubiflora Violaceae, Allophylus floribundus Sapindaceae) and those unambiguous trees of commercial importance (e.g., Bertholletia excelsa Hevea brasiliensis ). Thus, for those species identified with a common name but of unknown sci entific classification, or for those species that parataxonomists did not recognize, general morphospecies classification was assigned, or left as indeterminate. Based on parataxonomist knowledge, sampled stems were also assessed as heliophiles (see Poorte r et al. 2006) and as having timber and/or NTFP value. Timber Volume We calculated timber volume (m 3 ) [computed initially by individual tree as 0.7854*commercial height (m)*basal area (m 2 )] using both a 35 and 45 cm dbh cutoff. This facilitated assessment of future crop tree potential albeit assuming that all stems were of desirable commercial form
26 Estimating Aboveground Biomass (AGB) We estimated AGB of smaller trees [2.5 dbh < 10 cm], including palms, using an equation modified by Baraloto et al. ( 2011 ) from a model originally developed for a moist tropical forest in southern Mexico (Hughes et al. 1999, Chave et al. 2004): AGB = WSG x e ( 1.973 + 2.1166 x log (dbh) //WSG Where: WSG= wood specific gravity (in g cm 3 ). We used the mean WSG value from southwe stern Amazonia calculated by Baker et al. (2004). We estimated t he AGB WSG values from southwestern Amazonia (Baker et al. 2004)], and total tree height (H, in m) and dbh (cm) from a pantropical study (Chave et al. 2005): AGB = 0.0509 x WSG x dbh 2 x H Standing bamboo culms were not included in any AGB calculations. Forest Stand S tructure We defined four stand variables to describe forest structure of each plot : total basal area (BA) (calculated initially by individual tree as [ (dbh/2) 2 ] (m 2 ha 1 ) ; mean dbh; mean total height ; and total timber volume (m 3 ha 1 ) (Table 2 1 ) We also calculated stem density for three size classes: (1) ; (2 dbh <40 cm; Data Analysis Paired t test s w ere used to examine whether the following dependent variables differed between harvested bamboo dominated forest and unlogged bamboo dominated forest: AGB; heliophile species abundance; BA ; mean height; mean dbh; stem density by size class; timber volume; NTFP and timber seedling abundance; and bamboo culm density. A Dufrene Legendre (Dufrene and Legendre 1997) indicator species analysis
27 was conducted to calculate the indicator value (fidelity and relative abundance) of species between logged and unlogged plots. A nalyses were conducted using the R 2.11.1 software platform. Results Changes in Timber Volume Timber as the volume for all individuals 35 cm dbh (i.e., large future crop trees), were altered by logging activities (Table 2 1, Fig ure 2 3 ). Changes in Taxonomic Composition No difference was found in the a bundance of the ten most common genera in the unlogged plots (Table 2 3 ) compared to the abundance of the same genera in the logge d plots. Recent logging activities also did not influence the abundance of the most common families (Table 2 4 ). Abundance of h eliophilic species did not increase as a result of logging activities up to one year after timber removal The indicator species analysis tested the potential exclusivity of all identified species (or morphospecies) t o logged vs. unlogged plots. In this way, one or a cluster of several species could be determined to characterize each site. Nonetheless, no species surveyed in this st udy was found to be exc lusive to a particular habitat (i.e., unlogged, logged sites) Between 45 60 timber species/commercial classes were identified in the plots, with breu vermelho ( Tetragastris altissima Burseraceae) and ip ( Tabebuia spp. Bignoniacea e) (Table 2 2 ) ranking as the dominant commercial species. Larger valued species were not found at all onsite : c arapanaba ( Aspidosperma spp. Apocynaceae) b lsamo ( Myroxylon spp.
28 Fabaceae), copaiba ( Copaifera spp ) m atamat ( Eschweilera spp., Lecythidaceae) and i taubarana ( Heisteria spp. Olacaceae). NTFP species were present in all plots, with aa ( Euterpe precatoria Arecaceae), cacau ( Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae) and abacaba ( Oenocarpus bacaba Arecaceae ) being the most prevalent (Table 2 5 ). Changes in NTFP and Timber Seedling A bundance Both timber and NTFP seedlings were quite abundant, particularly in logged plots (p= 0.08) (Table 2 1). This was especially true for H. brasiliensis T. altissima and T abebuia spp., all three species that exhibited very high densities in the sub plots, with H. brasiliensis and Tabebuia spp. showing a slight trend towards logged plots and T. altissima seeming to favor unlogged sites (Table 2 6). Nonetheless, no significan t difference (p < 0.05) was found between unlogged and logged sites for any of the species or even when combined as an entire size class (Fig ure 2 3 ). Changes in Aboveground B iomass and Stand S tructure Across the 10 plots, AGB values did not vary between l ogged and unlogged bamboo dominated forest for all ( Table 2 1, Fig ure 2 3 ) for all three size c ategories one year after logging There were also no significant differences in BA, stem densities in the three size classes, mean dbh or height between unlogged and logged sites (Table 2 1, Fig ure 2 3 ) Contrary to our expectations, bamboo culm density did not differ between unlogged and logged sites (Table 2 2 ).
29 Discussion Chang es in Taxonomic C omposition and Stand Structure after Logging I nterventions Our findi ngs contrast sharply with reports from other tropical bamboo forests. Previous studies provided evidence that anthropogenic disturbances (such as logging) will inevitably lead to changes in forest structure, species composition, and regeneration rates in b amboo dominated forests (Soderstrom and Calderon 1979, Whitmore 1984, Campanello et al. 2007, Larpkern et al. 2009, 2011, Smith and Nelson 2011, Veldman and Putz 2011). In contrast, our hypothesis that logging would affect taxonomic composition, forest st and structure, regeneration, and bamboo culm density was not supported by our results. Nonetheless, we did find that pre logging commercial timber volume in this bamboo dominated forest is low in comparison to some forest types in the Amazon B asin (e.g., V alle et al. 2007), and decreases considerably following logging interventions. Additionally, we determined that our species and genera composition differed from other southwestern Amazonian Guadua forests (see Silveira 2001, Griscom 2003). Griscom (2003) c onsidered Pseudolmedia a bamboo disassociate in his site in Madre de Dios, Peru, whereas it was the second most common genus in our study (Table 2 3 ). In fact, most of the abundant genera in our study were not found in Guadua dominated forest in the Tambop ata River B asin (approximately 400 km to the southwest of our site) Despite dominance by the same two bamboo species, these compositional differences might be explained by the large geographic distance between study sites; forest composition will necessar ily vary by topography, soil, climate, and disturbance regimes (Phillips et al. 2003, Bachman et al. 2004). Nonetheless, we also
30 approximately 120 km away in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Acre state. None of our top five tree genera corresponded, although Silveira (2001) listed Hevea as one of his ten most common genera, a similar result to our study Inga was mon genera, a distinction from our study and that of Griscom (2003). What these comparisons suggest is that perhaps bamboo dominated forests in southwestern Amazonia are highly heterogenous across the landscape, and a large scale botanical survey could be helpful for establishing a more refined habitat distribution, as well as provide insights to achieve management goals. Our AGB results in unlogged bamboo forest (2 29 Mg ha 1 ) were similar to those generated by Salimon et al. (2011) in the same region ( 224 50 Mg ha 1 ) Calculations from both studies are considerably lower than estimates from central and eastern Amazonia (Vieira et al. 2005, Anderson et al. 2009). Nogueira et al. (2008) suggest that AGB in southwestern Amazonia is reduced because of low woo d density (Nelson et al. 2006) and because trees in southwestern Amazonia are shorter at any given diameter than their central Amazonian counterparts. These characteristics could be explained by the longer dry season in Acre (Brazil, ANA 2006) and because trees are continuously damaged by mass loading, particularly in bamboo forest (Griscom and Ashton 2006). Nogueira et al. (2008) also claim that when allometric relationships from dense forest are applied to data from this region, AGB estimates are generall y inflated. As such, we have confidence that our AGB values come close to the true value of standing biomass in this forest stand because both height and a regional wood density values were used for calculations. Nonetheless, our AGB values did not differ between logged and
31 unlogged sites suggesting one of two possibilities: either the sample size was too small ( 5 paired 0.5 ha plots) to capture the contrast between logged and unlogged sites, or that the logging crew and initial survey team chose the riche r s tand in terms of harvestable trees. Guadua dominated forests are highly heterogeneous (Vidalenc 2000), with some areas supporting dense patches of bamboo (and thus fewer large trees); it is possible that some areas of our forest site claimed more big s tems than others prior to logging. We also may have experienced unexpected outcomes in terms of stand structure and species composition for other reasons. First, our census one year after logging may have been too early to detect the changes observed in ot her studies, especially in the case of juvenile tree stem densities and taxonomic composition, which are perhaps better assessed within longer time frames (e.g., Uhl and Vieira 1989, Baraloto et al. in review ). Additionally, our site was illegally logged i n the last quarter of the 20 th C entury. Porto Dias has also been occupied and/or frequented by rubber tappers and indigenous communities during the last two centuries, all of whom engage in slash and burn agriculture (Bale 1989, Stone 2003, L. Salgueiro, pers. comm .). Such disturbances might have opened up the already sparse canopy prior to the 2008 timber harvest, making detection of change in our dependent variables difficult. Similar observations have been made in logging concessions in the dry tropical forest of eastern Bolivia (see Mostacedo et al. 1998, Toledo et al. 2001). Impacts of Logging on R egeneration Changes in woody seedling abundance in disturbed bamboo dominated sites seem to take place very quickly after canopy opening (see Larpkern et al 2011, Montti et al. 2011). In our study, as expected, timber tree seedlings tended to be in higher
32 densities (by 36%) in logged than unlogged sites (p = 0.08, Table 2 1, Fig ure 2 3 ). While other studies also suggest that logging enhances regeneration due to canopy openings and soil scarification (Gullison et al. 1996, Snook 1996, Fredericksen and Mostacedo 2000, Fredericksen and Putz 2003), woody species seedlings in our studied bamboo dominated forests may be comparatively well represented because they a re already adapted to the dense shade of bamboo culms ( Larpkern et al. 2011). Additionally, although we did not mechanically remove bamboo culms, localized disturbances created by logging activities could have been sufficient to cause temporary dieback via the mechanical crushing of bamboo culms. The allelopathic properties of bamboo litter has been suggested to intercept seedling recruits (e.g., Chou and Yang 1982) At the very least the slow decomposition rates of bamboo litter may impede seedling regene ration and growth over the long term ( Larpkern et al. 2011), potentially clouding differences between logged and unlogged sites. There was, though, a slight tendency for many of the timber species (e.g., Tabebuia spp., Astronium lecointei ) to favor logged sites (Table 2 6, Fig ure 2 3 ). Regeneration of Tetragastris altissima and Tabebuia spp. was also substantial (Table 2 6) in both logged and unlogged plots, a result consistent with the density of adults and juveniles of these same taxonomic groups (Table 2 2 ). What is striking is that three of our most abundant genera of seedlings ( Couratauri, Astronium, Dipteryx ) had very low densities in the juvenile and adult size classes (Table 2 2 ). Tabebuia has been listed as a genus of special concern in other studie s (Schulze et al. 2005, Schulze et al. 2008b) given its low regeneration and recruitment rates low adult densities, and slow growth rates. In our study, however Tabebuia presented one of the healthiest populations of all of the timber genera for all
33 size classes. Accordingly, future comparisons between Amazon B asin sites for select species would be useful for creating regionally and ecologically based management prescriptions. Timber V olume in Guadua Dominated F orests Measured timber volume was low (Tab le 2 1, Fig ure 2 3 ) in comparison to some other Amazonian sites, even in our unlogged sites Valle et al. (2007) determined in their study of long term effects of logging in a site in Paragominas, Brazil, that volume of commercial species 134 19 m 3 ha 1 prior to the first harvest. In contrast, our volume estimates for the same size class were 70.6 m 3 ha 1 in unlogged sites about half the volume in Paragominas. In the Tapajs National Forest (also in the state of Par), Alder and Silva (2 000) found that two years after logging, commercial volume of trees 45 cm dbh was 32 m 3 ha 1 Given that the Tapajs forest was initially logged at an intensity of 70 m 3 ha 1 this figure implies that the forest at one time had a considerable standing commercial volume. Our volume estimate in unlogged sites was much lower (49.5 m 3 ha 1 ) for stems But similarly, ) recorded timber volume as 40 m 3 ha 1 in their study of forest management for smallholders in terra firme forest in the Projeto de Colonizao Pedro P eixoto (located in the same municipality as Porto Dias). Even so, we included in our analysis all species with potential timber value (between 45 70 focused on the nine princip al timber species harvested in Pedro Peixoto. Valle et al. (2007) suggest that even while implementing low impact methods in their timber rich site in Par, a second cutting cycle at the federally recommended 25 35 year period is untenable unless post harv est silvicultural methods are initiated. Thus, when comparing
34 the situation in southwestern Amazonia, where bamboo dominated forests are extensive (approximately 40%) (Nelson and Bianchini 2005, Salimon et al. 2011), incorporating bamboo presence in local management strategies and developing long term growth and mortality data sets is critical. Implications for Management at the Community L evel Our study demonstrate d that standing timber vol ume in these forests is low compared with other forest types in the region. In effect, high grading of bamboo dominated forest in this region is likely and since canopy openings can be quickly colonized by heliophilic bamboo s drastic silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates might be ill advised (Sist and Brown 2004). Yet, we hesitate to propose complete avoidance of timber harvesting since bamboo forests remain an important economic resource for smallholder s in th e region. For example, in the case of Porto Dias, the vast majority of forest cover is bamboo domina ted, suggesting that residents do not have the option of moving their timber operations to other bamboo free areas. Additionally, timber harvesting will not stop anytime in the near future given the widespread demand for Brazilian tropical wood (Pereira et al. 2010). Instead, a more pragmatic and fruitful approach would be to embrace the regional emphasis on community forest management (see Amaral and Neto 2005, Stone Jovicich et al. 2007, Lima et al. 2008), recognizing that communities are not solely drive n by the profit maximization targets of industrial firms (Schmink 2004) and conversely, are open to diverse management options (Menton 2003) that could be implemented in bamboo forests. Some suggest that despite the sociocultural values and consistent and dependable revenue streams produced by NTFPs, they are often eclipsed by timber in the Amazon region (Padoch and Pinedo Vasquez 1996, Guariguata et al. 2010,
35 Duchelle et al 2011, Shanley et al. 2011, Soriano et al. 2011). We discovered that certain NTFP s pecies are plentiful in bamboo forest and could be integrated into management plans. For example, stem density of Euterpe precatoria (27 individual ha 1 ) was comparable with other regional terra firme forests (Zuidema 1997), although Griscom (2003) reporte d a negative association between this species and bamboo in Peru Indeed, some community members have already marketed fruit from this species in the capital city of Rio Branco (D. Alencar, pers. comm. ). Hevea brasiliensis is also common at the adult and j uvenile stages (18 stems ha 1 ) and extremely abundant as seedling s (650 stems ha 1 ), suggesting great potential for sustainable rubber management especially if regeneration is protected from bamboo encroachment. M ost community members in Porto Dias long a bandoned this traditional activity once federal subsidies were withdrawn although there has been recent renewed interest in the municipality of Xapuri, where a natural condom factory (Natex) has established (Hall 1997, Kainer et al. 2003) Indeed, despit e the optimism for concurrent management of NTFP and timber species (Guariguata et al. 2010, 2011), some forest residents in this region do not view NTFP diversification as an economically significant option (Lima et al. 2008), citing policy barriers and high management costs associated with multiple use forestry (Duchelle et al. 2011). Nonetheless, our findings of low wood volumes indicate that reliance on timber alone is likely unfeasible. As timber volume s dwindle in the community, diversification of li velihood strategies that are forest based (NTFPs, environmental service payments, adding value to forest products, timber) and non forest based (wage labor, perhaps small scale cattle and agriculture) will be critical.
36 Timber management itself will likely need to be more sophisticated in these bamboo forests, including early assessment of individual species populations for all size classes. For example, some species (e.g., Tetragastris altissima Tabebuia spp.) were abundant at both the seedling and adult s tages, while others, such as Dipteryx spp., were plentiful at the seedling stage but not as juveniles or adults (Tables 2 2, 2 6). As such, tending [i.e., cutting back bamboo culms (see Chapter 3 )] natural regeneration in these stands could become an impor tant step to maintain yields. Even when combined with the more expensive option of enrichment planting, maintaining advanced regeneration adds value to logged, low volume forests, a necessary component for natural forest management as the number of secondar y and overexploited forests increases ( Montagnini et al. 1997). According to Schulze (2008), consistent tending ( a feasible activity for smallholders) can allow seedlings of many timber species to attain commercial size by the third harvest. Furthermore, diversification of harvested species is an important management objective for this forest type. Locally rare species such as Hymenea courbaril and Cedrela spp. continue to be harvested, despite a paucity of individuals in all size classes (Tables 2 2 2 6) Certainly, it is unlikely that there will be sufficient volume for future cycles, not to mention the ramifications that loss of these species could have on the ecological community. More often than not, overexploitation of a few select species is strongl y market driven, which in turn is frequently motivated by mandatory government regulations (Pirard 2010). For this reason, third party forest certification has encouraged diversification of marketable species (Humphries and Kainer 2006). Indeed, the introd uction of new species into the market should decrease pressure on the so
37 Swietenia macrophylla and Cedrela spp., especially if Unless com munities are self sufficient in their forest based enterprises, most management options listed here depend on open communication between forest communities and contracted timber companies (see Menton et al. 2009). Conducting complete forest inventories, im plementing low harvest intensity and low impact techniques (the latter required by federal law in Brazil), and avoiding both NTFPs and locally rare timber species could all be jointly implemented by community members in concert with logging crews. Bamboo d ominated forests are at high risk of degradation due to mismanagement particularly given their susceptibility to fire (Veldman et al. 2009, Smith and Nelson 2011) As such, combined efforts on the part of all stakeholders might avoid further deterioration of the timber resource base as well as allow for a broader suite of outputs (e.g., NTFP production) in an effort to define sustainable forest management goals for this forest type.
38 Table 2 1. Mean values and test results of a paired t test for BA a stem densities for three size classes, dbh b height, AGB c timber volume, timber/NTFP d seedling abundance, and bamboo culm density in 10 modified Gentry paired plots Mean (standard dev.) Variable Unlogged Logged Test results BA 21.3 m 2 ha 1 (2.6) 19.1 m 2 ha 1 (3.8) t = 0.99, p= 0.38 Stem densities 1216 st ha 1 (255.2) 1194 st ha 1 (281.3) t = 0.12, p= 0.92 269.6 st ha 1 (56.3) 272.8 st ha 1 (88.2) t = 0.06, p= 0.95 74.4 st ha 1 (12.6) 71.2 st ha 1 (13.2) t = 0.42, p = 0.70 Dbh ( 8.8 cm (0.7) 8.7 cm (0.6) t = 0.39 p = 0.72 Height 6.5 dbh (0.5) 6.5 dbh (0.6) t = 0.23, p = 0.83 AGB 0 cm dbh 5.9 Mg ha 1 (0.8) 5.9 Mg ha 1 (1.7) t= 0.06, p= 0.95 228.7 Mg ha 1 (59.1) 197.7 Mg ha 1 (50.0) t=1.22, p=0.29 234.7 Mg ha 1 (58.5) 203.6 Mg ha 1 (51.3) t= 1.20, p= 0.30 Timber volume 61.1 m 3 ha 1 (17. 7) 26.0 m 3 ha 1 (5.9) t= 3.49, p=0.03 49.5 m 3 ha 1 (16.0) 16.9 m 3 ha 1 (28.2) t = 3.52, p=0.02 NTFP/timber seedlings 650 st ha 1 (411.2) 1014 st ha 1 (717.0) t = 2.30, p= 0.08 Bamboo culms 1252 culm ha 1 (307.9) 1242 culm ha 1 (189.7) t = 0.12, p= 0.92 a basal area b diameter breast height c aboveground biomass d non timber forest product
39 Table 2 2. Taxonomic identification, stem density ha 1 (reported as integers), and volume (m 3 ha 1 ) of 35 cm dbh) in 10 modified Gent ry (5000 m 2 each) paired plots in unlogged and logged bamboo dominated forest Species Brazilian commercial name Family Stem density ha 1 Volume (m 3 ha 1 ) Unlogged Logged Unlogged Logged Anacardium spp. caju Anacardiace ae <1 0.59 Astronium lecoint ei maracatiara Anacardiace ae <1 0.50 Aspidosperma vargasii amarelo Apocynacea e <1 1.76 Rauwolfia spp. marfim Apocynacea e <1 <1 0.33 0.69 Ceiba spp. samauma Bombaceae <1 <1 0.32 0.37 Chorisia spp. samama barriguda Bombaceae <1 0.83 Jacarand a spp. marup Bignoniacea e <1 1.32 Tabebuia spp. ip Bignoniacea e 5 3 9.74 5.90 Tetragastris altissima breu vermelho Burseraceae 5 2 5.74 2.67 Terminalia spp. imbirindiba Combretacea e <1 0.90 Drypetes spp. cernambi de indio Euphorbiace ae <1 <1 2.46 0.33 Apuleia leiocarpa cumaru cetim Fabaceae <1 3.65
40 Table 2 2. continued Species Brazilian commercial name Family Stem density ha 1 Volume (m 3 ha 1 ) Unlogged Logged Unlogged Logged Dipteryx spp. cumaru ferro Fabaceae <1 <1 1.14 2.57 Ent erolobium spp. fava orelinha Fabaceae <1 1.98 Hymenea spp. juta Fabaceae <1 1 3.89 2.87 Hymenea courbaril jatob Fabaceae <1 2.32 Parkia spp. angico, fava angico Fabaceae 1 <1 5.49 0.5 Torresea spp. cerejeira Fabaceae <1 1.21 Vatairea sp p. sucupira, faveira Fabaceae 2 <1 2.56 0.62 Cedrela spp. cedro Meliaceae <1 0.36 Guarea spp. jito Meliaceae <1 <1 0.39 0.34 Swietenia macrophylla mogno Meliaceae <1 0.72 Brosimum spp. manit Moraceae <1 3.78 Castilla spp. caucho Moraceae 1 1.96 Clarisia spp. guariuba Moraceae <1 <1 0.69 1.22 Manilkara spp. maaranduba Sapotaceae <1 <1 2.65 0.34 Pouteria spp. abiu, abiurana Sapotaceae <1 <1 0.56 1.04 Sterculia spp. xix Sterculiaceae <1 0.42 Theobroma obovatum cupuau bravo Sterculi aceae <1 1.96 Qualea tesmannii catuaba Vochysiaceae <1 0.31 Ampelocera spp. cinzeiro Ulmaceae <1 1.31
41 Table 2 3. Taxonomic identification and stem density ha 1 (reported as integers) of ied Gentry (5000 m 2 each) plots in unlogged and logged bamboo dominated forest (in descending order) Genus Family Stem density ha 1 (Unlogged) Stem density ha 1 (Logged) Rinorea Violaceae 233 143 Pseudolmedia Moraceae 78 77 Inga Fabaceae 67 50 Pouteria Sapotaceae 43 38 Metrodorea Rutaceae 41 28 Casearia Flacourtaceae 20 44 Cecropia Cecropiaceae 27 36 Acalypha Euphorbiaceae 29 34 Oenocarpus Arecaceae 22 35 Euterpe Arecaceae 30 25 Pausandra Euphorbiaceae 39 16 Table 2 4. Taxonomic identificatio n and stem density ha 1 (reported as integers) of the ten most common families 2 each) plots in unlogged and logged bamboo dominated forest (in descending order) Stem density ha 1 Family Unlogged Logged Viola ceae 234 143 Fabaceae 170 152 Moraceae 105 101 Arecaceae 89 117 Euphorbiaceae 94 91 Sapotaceae 61 58 Annonaceae 40 64 Rutaceae 52 41 Urticaceae 34 51 Sapindaceae 42 41
42 Table 2 5. Taxonomic identification and stem density ha 1 (reported as inte gers) of non timber forest product taxa in 10 modified Gentry (5000 m 2 each) plots in unlogged and logged bamboo dominated forest (in descending order) Species Brazilian commercial name Family Stem density ha 1 Unlogged Logged Timber value Astrocar yum aculeatum t ucum Arecaceae <1 2 Astrocaryum murumuru m urmuru Arecaceae 13 8.4 Bactris sp. p upunha Arecaceae <1 Euterpe precatoria a a Arecaceae 30 25 Maximiliana maripa i naja Arecaceae <1 2 Oenocarpus bacaba a bacaba, b acaba Arecaceae 21 34 Oenocarpus bataua p atau Arecaceae <1 1 Hevea brasiliensis s eringueira Euphorbiaceae 12 23 Acacia sp. c ip unha de gato Fabaceae <1 <1 Copaifera spp. c opaiba Fabaceae <1 X Dipteryx spp. c umaru ferro Fabaceae 4 3 X Hymenea courbaril j atob Fabac eae <1 X Bertholletia excelsa c astanheira Lecythidaceae `7 6 Theobroma sp. c upu Sterculiaceae <1 <1 Theobroma obovatum c upuau bravo Sterculiaceae 1 1 X Theobroma cacao c acau Sterculiaceae 20 18 Qualea tesmannii c atuaba Vochysiaceae 4 3 X
43 Tab le 2 6. Ecological guild, t axonomi c identification and density (stems ha 1 ) of timber and NTFP a species seedlings in 10 modified Gentry (5000 m 2 each) paired plots in unlogged and logged bamboo dominated forest (in descending order) Species Family Ecolog ical guild Seedling density ha 1 Unlogged Logged Tetragastris altissima Burseraceae PST b 1630 1110 Tabebuia spp. Bignonaceae LLP c 730 1180 Hevea brasiliensis Euphorbiaceae PST 100 550 Couratari spp. Lecythidaceae LLP 180 330 Astronium lecointei A nacardaceae PST 130 350 Dipteryx spp. Fabaceae PST 40 380 Aspidosperma spp. Apocynaceae PST 60 280 Ceiba spp. Bombacaceae LLP 60 30 Myroxylon spp. Fabaceae PST 70 10 Bertholletia excelsa Lecythidaceae PST 40 20 Castilla spp. Moraceae LLP 20 20 Guare a spp. Meliaceae PST 30 Jacaranda spp. Bignonaceae LLP 20 Pouteria spp. Sapotaceae PST 20 Cedrela spp. Meliaceae LLP 10 Hymenea courbaril Fabaceae PST 10 Manilkara spp. Sapotaceae PST 10 Vatairea spp. Fabaceae PST 10 a non timber forest produc t b p artially shade tolerant c l ong lived pioneer
44 Figure 2 1 Guadua sp. culm using tree trunk for support via modified branches (Photo courtesy of author)
45 Figure 2 2 Modified Gentry plot (5000 m 2 ) (adapted from Phillips, O., Lawrence, A., Reate gui, A.I., Lopez, M., Wood, D., Rose, S., Farfan, A.J., 2001. Una Metodologia de Evaluacion de La Biodiversidad y de los Recursos del Bosque. IIAP/Proyeto Biodiversidad y Comunidad, Leeds, UK ; and Baraloto, C., Rabaud, S., Molto, Q., Blanc, L., Fortunel, C ., Herault, B., Davila, N., Mesone, I., Rios, M., Valderrama, E., Fine, P.V.A., 2011. Disentangling stand and environmental correlates of aboveground biomass in Amazonian forests. Global Change Biology 17: 2677 2688 )
46 Figure 2 3 Results of paired t t est for 10 m odified Gentry plot s (5000 m 2 ) for total aboveground biomass (Mg ha 1 ) timber and non timber forest product seedling density (stems ha 1 ) total 3 ha 1 ), and total 2 ha 1 )
47 CHAPTER 3 ENR ICHMENT PLANTING AND RELEASE TREATMENTS AFTER LOGGING IN BAMBOO DOMINATED FORESTS OF SOUTHWESTERN AMAZONI A Introduct ory Remarks Securing regeneration of commercial species is one of the greatest challenges to ensure future timber yields of humid tropical f orests ( 2000, Putz 2004). Indeed, several studies have pointed to poor regeneration of high value species even in areas logged using reduced impact techniques (Mostacedo and Fredericksen 1999, Schulze 2003, Schulze et al. 2005, Valle et al. 2007 Van Andel 2005). As such, when regeneration of commercial tree species is lacking, current sustainable forest management guidelines may fall short (Fredericksen and Putz 2003). A key example is found in the bamboo [ Guadua sarcocarpa and G. weberbaueri (P oaceae: Bambuseae)] dominated forests of southwestern Amazonia, where competition and mass loading by bamboo culms causes mechanical damage to trees of a wide range of tree size classes, resulting in reduced tree density and basal area (Griscom and Ashton 2006). The concepts of sustainable forest management and reduced impact logging, which rely upon successful tree regeneration and recruitment (Putz 2004), are threatened in such a system where disturbance s typically favor bamboo (e.g., Larpkern et al. 2011 ). Guadua dominated forests of the southwestern Amazon cover 180,000 km 2 including much of the departments of Madre de Dios, Peru and Acre, Brazil, with a more restricted range in Pando, Bolivia (Nelson et al. 1994, Nelson and Bianchini 2005). Developing sustainable timber management plans for Guadua dominated forests has proven challenging since even in the absence of logging these forests characteristically support low basal areas. For example, in Acre, Brazil, basal areas of trees >60 cm dbh was nearly twice as high in bamboo free terra firme forests (19.9 +/ 0.5 s.e. m 2 ha 1 )
48 than in bamboo dominated forests (11.4 +/ 0.8 s.e. m 2 ha 1 ) (Oliveira 2000). Elsewhere in the tropics, bamboos often inhibit tree establishment in disturbed sites such as logging gaps (e.g., Whitmore 1984, Widmer 1998, Tabarelli and Mantovani 2000, Larpkern et al. 2011) Conflicting explanations for adaptation to disturbance and local dominance have been proposed: Sombroek (1966) and Bale (1989) suggested that bamboo for ests spread as a result of slash and burn agriculture. For example, Guadua paniculata dominance often increases after fires in transitional forests in Chiquitania, Bolivia (Veldman and Putz 2011). In contrast, Griscom and Ashton (2003, 2006) posit that int ensive land use is not necessary for the establishment or persistence of Guadua dominated forests since Guadua is characterized by a self perpetuating disturbance cycle. Nonetheless, bamboo s generally benefit from disturbance due to their aggressive rhizom es and rapid growth rates (Gagnon et al. 2007). Culm growth rate is especially high during rainy seasons, sometimes exceeding 3 m in height per month (Silveira 2001). Since Guadua colonization is at the very least facilitated by the increasing number of hu man disturbances in Amazonia [ e.g. via fire, agricultural expansion, and logging (Asner et al. 2010)], it is likely that bamboo dominance will become more common in poorly managed forests where timber is harvested at high intensities (Veldman et al. 2009) Given the response of bamboos to disturbance, it is therefore reasonable to question whether bamboo dominated forest can be sustainably and profitably managed for timber (e.g., et al. 2004). Given the frequent regeneration failures of commerci al timber species in the Amazon Basin (Martini et al. 1994, Guariguata and Pinard 1998, Schulze 2003),
49 enrichment planting in selectively logged forests has been proposed to help ensure future harvests especially in forests where trees compete with lianas and bamboo ( D treatments (i.e., cutting back bamboo, lianas, and other pioneer species) tend to increase the probability of establishment and survival for both natural regenerati on (Pariona et al. 2003, Paul et al 2004, Campanello et al. 2007) and planted seedlings (Pea Claros et al. 2002, Schulze 2008, Doucet et al. 2009, Keefe et al. 2009). Despite the costs of such treatments, aggressive tending can allow seedlings of some tim ber species to attain commercial size by the third harvest (Schulze 2008). Forest managers have not consistently employed enrichment planting in logging gaps (Sist et al. 2003a, Walters et al. 2005) in large part due to financial and labor constraints (se e Lamb 1969, Schulze 2008, Keefe et al. 2009). Some authors also point to various ecological limitations: both Kainer et al. (1998) and (2000) found that planted Bertholletia excelsa had low survival rates in both natural and logged gaps. They s uggest that the mortality experienced by this species was most likely the result of rodent predation, a common impediment to enrichment planting in logged gaps. Leafcutter ants have also been noted to decimate seedlings in enrichment plantings (N. Marconde s, pers. comm. ), as has the shoot borer genus Hypsipyla in plantations of Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla (Newton et al. 1993, D fact, Walters et al. (2005) demonstrate in their study of Brazilian smallholder enrichment planti ngs that two of the greatest setbacks w ere predation and disease. Here we present the results of a field experiment on enrichment planting and subsequent tending of a commercial timber species in felling gaps in bamboo
50 dominated forests in southwestern Ama zon ia We address the following questions: (i) Is enrichment planting of high value tree seedlings in logging gaps ecologically feasible in bamboo dominated forests? and (ii) To what extent can a series of release treatments reduce competition from bamboo culms, allowing for increased survival and growth rates? We hypothesized that all seedlings would establish well in the open gaps, given the temporary increase in light intensity and reduced root competition. We further predicted that seedlings located in plots where Guadua culms were cut would grow faster than seedlings in untreated control plots. Methods S tudy S ite The study was conducted between October 2007 and October 2009 in the Porto Dias Agroextractive Settlement Project (S 10 a 22,145 ha tract of forest, subsistence agricultural fields and pasture in the northeastern corner of the Brazilian state of Acre. The landscape is defined by red yellow latisols of low fertility and gently rolling to flat topography, with mean annual ra infall and temperature of 1890 mm yr 1 and 25.5 C, respectively. Between May and September (with some annual fluctuation), monthly rainfall drops from a wet season mean of 300 mm to <40 mm month 1 (UFAC 2009). The settlement was approximately 80% forested in 2007 (Pereira 2007, Franco and Esteves 2008) and is composed of several different seasonally moist tropical forest types, including lowland open forest dominated by bamboo; lowland open forest dominated by bamboo with dense forest with emergent trees; and dense forest with emergent trees. The bamboo dominated forest, referred to locally as tabocal G.
51 sarcocarpa underwent a monocarpic dieoff that affected landholdings closest t o the Some landholdings were logged over the last two centuries at a relatively low 3 ha 1 ). These forests were occupied at low human population dens ities [on average, one family per 300 ha (Stone 2003, Lima et al. 2008)] by the historic collected Brazil nuts ( Bertho lletia excelsa Lecythidaceae ), tapped rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis Euphorbiaceae ), and practiced subsistenc e agriculture (see Allegretti 1990, Keck 1995, Kainer et al. 2003). In recent years, the rate of forest conversion to other land uses has increased ( E. Araujo, pers. comm.) This loss of forest cover mirrors developments in the rest of the municipality (I PAM 2009), and seems to be fueled by diverse factors including encroaching fires from neighboring ranches, displaced farmers claiming land for subsistence agriculture, and landowners investing in more intensive agriculture. Experiments were centered in th e Mossor community, located in the western extremity of the settlement. While several Mossor residents are generationally linked to forest and rubber tapping traditions, many are recent colonists interested in broader commercial opportunities. For exampl e, from 2005 until our field study in 2007 0 9 some Mossoro residents contracted a timber company to harvest timber from their landholdings which pa id landowners by area harvested rather than individual trees Logging intensity was usually between 10 15 m 3 ha 1 In 2007, several Mossor community members took advantage of a reforestation program developed by the State Secretary of the Forests (SEF) and planted native fruit species and H. brasiliensis in logging gaps (SEF 2009). Subsequently, some community members expressed interest
52 in enriching selectively logged sites with timber trees, particularly in the bamboo dominated forest where they observed limited regeneration. P lanting S tock Dipteryx odorata [Fabaceae, tonka bean (international commercial name) cumaru ferro (Brazil)], a canopy species, was selected with local managers based on six characteristics: (1) high commercial value for construction and flooring [US$800 850 per cubic meter for sawn wood (ITTO 2011)]; (2) the presence of mature individual s in the bamboo dominated forest (suggesting an adaptation to the local environment); (3) low regeneration rates (see DeSteven and Putz 1984, DeSteven 1988); (4) high survival rate in previous enrichment planting experiments (e.g., Souza et al. 2008); (5) importance as a food source for local wildlife (DeSteven and Putz 1984); and (6) availability of seedlings from a local, reliable source. Two hundred and ten seedlings (ranging 18 33 cm tall and 3.0 6.5 mm basal diameter at the time of planting) were raise d in 100 ml plastic tubes from seed collected in forest sites within a 150 km radius of a nursery in Rio Branco. Seedlings were watered prior to and after shaded truck transport to the settlement, located approximately 100 km from the nursery. All planting occurred 1 8 days after transport, and care was taken when removing seedlings from the plastic containers to maintain as much soil around the roots as possible. Site Selection and Experimental Design Seedlings were planted in October 2007, at the end of t he dry season (approximately one month after logging activities) in seven logging gaps created by the 2007 timber harvest in Guadua dominated forest (Figure 3 1) Guadua dominance was defined a priori as having ten or more bamboo culms [ connected by short rhizome necks (Londo o and Peterson 1991, Griscom 2003) ] per 100 m 2 of
53 forest (adapted from Griscom and Ashton 2003). Gap size was estimated using the c enter of each treefall gap, the distance to the edge of intact canopy from eight different angles was measured. Gap sizes ranged between 400 and 600 m 2 with 500 3000 m between gaps. Six 4 x 4 m plots were established within each of the seven logging gaps with >2 m between plots, and with some variation in layout, depending on gap characteristics (e.g., residual crop tree litter) In three randomly selected plots in each gap, all competing vegetation, including Guadua culms, was manually cut by machete (her eafter referred to as treated plots) and moved to a location outside of the gap Five seedlings were planted at 1 x 1 m spacing in all plots and measured for height and basal diameter (Figure 3 2) To protect recent transplants from sun and heat damage, pa rtial shade was created by inserting cut Bactris sp. palm fronds upright next to each D. odorata seedling. Seedlings were watered once after planting, and the first seasonal rainfall began one day after the planting was completed. B amboo culms were re cut i n treated plots during seedling censuses for survival, height, basal diameter, and incidence of shoot borer damage in May 2008 (end of heavy rainy season), October 2008, and June 2009. The number of person hours required to plant and water seedlings and to cut and remove bamboo culms was recorded. Light Conditions At the time of planting and prior to every release treatment, 180 hemispherical photographs were taken at 1 m height in the middle of each plot using a Nikon LC ER1 wide angle lens with a Nikon C OOLPIX 995 camera attached to a tripod. Photographs were analyzed using Gap Light Analyzer (GLA) software (Frazer et al. 1999) to estimate
54 canopy openness. While some degree of auto correlation among the plots may be expected due to their spatial proximity plots were treated as replicates. Data Analysis test with log transformed canopy openness values was performed to confirm the effect of bamboo cutting on light availability. A linear mixed effects model was then used to test effect s of two independent fixed factors (bamboo cutting and canopy openness) on relative growth rate (RGR) in terms of height and basal diameter. Relative growth rate was calculated using the following formula: RGR= (lnG20 lnG0)/(t20 t0) where G is the seedling height or diameter at time t. Growth rates were calculated using growth measurements from initial (0 months) and final (20 months) censuses. Individual 4 x 4 m plots were treated as replicates, with one light measurement and five seedling measurements per plot per census. A random factor (plot) was included in the model to account for correlations between observations taken in the same plot. A generalized linear mixed effects model with binomial response was used to evaluate effects of the fixed independe nt factors of bamboo removal and canopy openness on the probability of survival and shoot borer damage. Analyses were conducted using the lme4 package of the R 2.10 software platform (Bates 2010). Data conformed to assumptions of normality and homoscedast icity. Results were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. Results Light Conditions As of October 2007 ( one month after logging ) m ean canopy openness of all plots was 23%. At the first post planting census (May 2008) and prior to cutting bamboo for
55 that period, the average declined to 11%, indicating that bamboo resprout growth [ in addition to establishment of pioneer genera including Solanum sp. (Solanaceae) and Uncaria sp. (Rubiaceae) ] had reduced canopy opening by almost 50% at 1 m in height. In fact, light availability continued to decrease in all plots over the 20 month experimental period: canopy openness declined from 23.6% to 18.8% in treated plots and from 22.5% to 14.2% in control plots. Nonetheless, bamboo culm cutting served to increa se available light to treated plots (Fig ures 3 3, 3 4 ). Seedling P erformance There was no effect of treatment or canopy openness on seedling survival ( Table 3 1 ). Twenty months after outplanting, 91% of the seedlings in the control plots and 96% of the see dlings in treated plots had survived. Among surviving seedlings, the probability of shoot borer attack did not differ between seedlings in treated vs. control plots ( Table 3 1 ), with an average incidence of attack of 15%. Bamboo cutting stimulated growth ( Table 3 2 Fig ures 3 5, 3 6 ), with an average difference of 22% between th e heights of those seedlings in the control (mean 69.61 +/ 2.74 s.e. cm) and treated (mean 84.92 +/ 2.70 s.e. cm) plots. Bamboo removal had an even stronger positive effect on rela tive basal diameter growth rate ( Table 3 2, Fig ure 3 7 ) Additionally, there was a mean difference of 44% between final height measurements in the control (mean 10.24 +/ 0.33 s.e. mm) and treated (mean 14.78 +/ 0.32 s.e. mm) plots Although the treatment influenced both canopy opening and growth rates, there was no effect of canopy openness on either height or diameter growth even when analyzed as the sole independent variable (i.e., without treatment) (Table 3 2)
56 L abor I nput To plant and tend 210 seed lings in 42 plots in seven logging gaps (equivalent to an area of 672 m 2 ), a total of 163 person hours (for site preparation, planting, watering, and tending) was invested over the course of 20 months, approximately 0.24 person hours per m 2 or 0.78 person hours per seedling (Table 3 3 ) Total labor cost (assuming general local daily wage at time of publication 1.80 Reais: 1 USD ) was estimated to be 283.62 USD or 1.35 USD per seedling (Table 3 3 ). Discussion Seedling P erformance and Resource Availability in Guadua Dominated Forest Seedling s urvival during the 20 month period of this experiment ( even in plots where bamboo was not cut) was very high in contrast to other enrichment planting experiments (see Kainer et al. 1998, Griscom 2003, but see 2000, Pea Claros et al. 2002) S uccessful seedling establishment may be attributed to several factors. First, seedlings were watered at least once after outplanting, an essential activity for ensuring seedling survival in dry season conditions (see Paine et al. 2009). Seedlings were also planted just before the beginning of the rainy season, reducing any continued moisture stress. In contrast, community members in Mossoro reported high s reforestation program) planted at least one month prior to initiation of the rainy season ( D. Alencar, pers. comm. [ Hymenaea oblongifolia and Schizolobium amazonicum (Fabaceae) ] in undisturbed Guadua dominate d forest in Peru also experienced high mortality rates for H. oblongifolia (like D. odorata a relatively shade tolerant species) in bamboo free plots during the dry season
57 Despite successful establishment, many (30 out of 197 or 15%) of seedlings were a ttacked by an unidentified shoot boring insect. This phenomenon has been noted in enrichment plantings of Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla two species in the Meliaceae that are favored by the shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Newton et al. 1993, D did not affect height or diameter growth, nor was it influenced by treatment, precaution should be taken when planting D. odorata in this forest type until further investigations of this phenomenon are init iated. D. odorata seedlings grew more rapidly with bamboo removal (Fig ure 3 6 Fig ure 3 7 ), but this effect was not explained by light availability (Table 3 2 ), even though light is one of the most limiting abiotic factors for seedling establishment and gr owth (Bloor and Gr ubb 2003, Baraloto et al. 2005). Several possible explanations exist : f irst, our measures of light availability ( canopy openness ) may have been measured in error, especially given that the hemispherical photographs were taken at 1 m in he ight Nonetheless, we believe this option is unlikely given the marked and consistent treatment effects the treatment had on canopy openness (Fig ure 3 4 ). A second possibility is that mass loading (i.e., bamboo culms loading tree stems) was an issue Indee d, by the end of the 20 month experiment, some bamboo culms in control plots were buckled over, suggesting that without support of a larger adult tree to assist their ascent to canopy, these culms exerted enough physical pressure to limit growth of underst ory seedlings. Nonetheless, mass loading is characteristically a concern after stand initiation when juvenile trees provide culm support until they collapse under the weight of the culms (Griscom 2003). The most likely explanation is that the release trea tment reduced competition for water (and possibly nutrient) resources from the
58 especially during the dry season (e.g., Lewis et al. 2011). The highly developed root system of clonal bamboos has been shown to ind uce a moderate soil drought in other bamboo dominated forests (Kume et al. 2007). However, b elow ground competition was not measured in our study as light is generally regarded as a more important influence on tree growth in the presence of bamboo (Grisco m 2003). Nor was a trenching treatment considered for the experiment, given the in feasibility of recommending its practice to local managers due to the already high labor cos ts. Nonetheless, manipulating belowground competition from the bamboo rhizome netw ork could prove useful to understand competition dynamics in this forest type. Socio Economic Considerations of Enrichment Planting Many forest dwelling communities have invested in forest improvement activities that are less influenced by current market p rices than environmental services and cultural values (Wollenberg 1998, Sheil and Wunder 2002). For example, many smallholders view enrichment planting as an investment in the future (e.g., for t heir children and grandchildren or for solidifying tenure clai ms ) rather than an activity to spur short or long term economic gain (Summers et al. 2004, Keefe et al. 2009). Many long term residents of Amazonian forest communities are typically familiar with tree care, but recent migrants are less so, making technica l assistance critical (Summers et al. 2004). Walters et al. (2005) cite difficulty in obtaining appropriate planting material and lack of technical knowledge as additional barriers for implementing enrichment plantings on smallholder properties. Seedlings were free of cost for this experiment as they were for other concurrent onsite community enrichment plantings in Porto Dias eliminating what can be a limiting factor for most landowners seeking reliable planting stock. Materials
59 used for planting and rele ase treatments were fairly basic and readily available onsite: posthole diggers and shovels were used for planting and machetes (a common tool in all households) were used for release treatments. Labor investment in terms of time w as substantial ( Table 3 3 ) This experiment followed seedlings for only 20 months (at which time the tallest seedlings were 80 85 cm in height) ; given published evidence of the heavy toll mass loading takes on sapling and juvenile classes (Griscom and Ashton 2006), bamboo relea se would likely be needed over a much more extended period of time. A monocot specific herbicide would perhaps be cheaper and quicker than chopping, but for forest operation s certified by the Forest Stewardship Council herbicide application might be probl ematic (FSC 2007). Management Implications in Bamboo Dominated F orests In theory, logging gaps provide ideal setting s for juvenile establishment of tree species adapted to disturbances (Snook and Negreros Castillo 2004, Lopes et al. 2008, Schulze 2008 ). B amboo dominated stands are already characterized by a discontinuous canopy, amplifying the effects of openings created by selective logging and challenging the ability to accurately map logging gaps (Rockwell et al. 2007 b ). Planted seedlings tend to respon d favorably to increased light levels found in large gaps (Schulze 2008), but large gaps can amplify competition from bamboo and other pioneer species (Tabanez et al. 2000, Tabarelli and Mantovani 2000, Campanello et al. 2007, Larpkern et al. 2011). Longer term growth and mortality data from our experimental plots will reveal whether this particular enrichment planting method is viable in terms of timber volume s for future harvests. Our results nonetheless, demonstrate strong potential for D. odorata lusion in future post harvest silviculture programs in bamboo dominated forests especially given its high value as a both a commercial
60 timber species as well as a species with NTFP potential (Shanley et al. 2011). Additionally, our results suggest that ou tplanting in concert with tending could provide an important contribution to the successful regeneration of valuable timber species in exploited bamboo dominated forests especially during the early stages of the gap regeneration phase. Sist et al. (2003b) identify release treatments as potentially having negative impact s on biodiversity and ecosystem services, but if bamboo culm removal w ere limited to just logging gaps (where much of the vegetation has already been disturbed) this risk would be reduced And although our study did not include natural regeneration it has been suggested that enrichment plantings should be managed in concert with natural regeneration of other desired species, perhaps making enrichment planting a more economically feasible ac tivity (Montagnini et al. 1997). Very few timber management plans in the Brazilian Amazon region have harvested a second cutting cycle As such, there has been much concern that that sustainable timber yields in Amazonia may not be possible without post ha rv est silvicultural interventions, according to current population models ( Schulze et al. 2005, van Gardingen et al. 2006, Valle et al. 2007 Zarin et al. 2007). This issue is even more critical for bamboo dominated forests of southwestern Amazonia where advanced regeneration is especially scarce (see Silveira 2001, Griscom 2003, et al. 2004). In Indonesia, e nrichment planting is obligatory after logging if the required minimum density of future crop trees (25 ha 1 ) is not met (Sist et al. 2003 a ) a guideline that may merit consideration in Amazonia (Schulze 2008). And in Brazil, if the forest management plan includes S. macrophylla enrichment planting is required by federal law ( M.V. pers. comm. ).
61 The subject of sustainability is p articularly relevant when considering the exploitation of the Guadua dominated forest in the context of a region that is likely to see rainfall reduced by as much as 20% over the next forty years (Nepstad et al. 2008). For example, bamboo forests are quite flammable during the dry season and during monocarpic events. The scale of anthropogenic influences influencing this landscape (i.e., Brazil Peru T ransoceanic H ighway, cattle ranching, and logging), in concert with an increasingly dry climate, is predicte d to decrease forest resilience (Phillips et al. 2009). Additionally, new Brazilian federal forestry standards have recently lowered the cutting cycle to 10 years for those smallholders harvesting m 3 ha 1 using animal traction ( Oliveira and Braz 2006, Ministerio de Meio Ambiente do Brasil 2008). These developments highlight the urgency of adopting post harvest silvicultural treatments, such as enrichment planting and release treatments, espec ially for a forest type that may not be able to support even a low intensity 30 year cutting cycle.
62 Table 3 1 Linear mixed effects model analysis with binomial response with (a) survival and (b) shoot borer damage as dependent variables; treatment (ba mboo removal) and canopy openness as independent fixed factors Estimate Standard error Z value Pr(>|z|) (a)Survival (Intercept) 3.23 1.36 2.37 0.02 Fixed Effects Treatment 0.29 0.01 0.004 0.69 Canopy Openness 0.001 0.002 <0.001 1.00 (b) Damage (Intercept) 1.21 0.91 1.33 0.18 Fixed Effects Treatment 0.54 0.49 1.11 0.27 Canopy Openness 0.08 0.07 1.22 0.22
63 Table 3 2 Linear mixed effects model analysis with relative growth rate (as calculated over a 20 m onth period) for (a) basal diameter and (b) height as the dependent variables; treatment (bamboo removal) and canopy openness as the independent fixed factors Estimate Standard error t value p value (two tailed) ( a )RGR D iameter (Intercept) 0.0 2 0.00 5 3.35 <0.001 Fixed Effects Treatment 0.0 2 0.00 3 8.05 0.00 Canopy Openness <0.001 <0.001 0.5 6 0.2 9 (b)RGR Height (Intercept) 0.04 0.008 5.14 <0.001 Fixed Effects Treatment 0.01 0.004 3.26 0.001 Canopy Openness 0.002 <0.001 0.59 0.28
64 Table 3 3 Estimate d time and financial investment for enrichment planting and subseq uent release treatments for 210 seedlings in 672 m 2 of exploited bamboo dominated forest in Mossoro, PAE Porto Dias, Acre, Brazil Activity Number of person hours Labor cost of activity Site preparation and planting 112 $ 194.88 Watering (including transpo rt) 9 $ 15.66 Release treatment (May 2008) 14 $ 2 4.36 Release treatment (September 2008) 14 $ 2 4.36 Release treatment (June 2009) 14 $ 2 4.36 Total for 672 m 2 163 $ 283.62 Personnel cost based on estimated working time of general local laborer using an aver age local daily wage (25 reais), with Brazilian reais converted to U.S. dollars at a rate of 1. 80 :1 (exchange rate at time of publication).
65 Figure 3 1 Logging gap in Guadua dominated forest prior to planting of Dipteryx odorata seedlings (Photo court esy of author)
66 Figure 3 2 Planted Dipteryx odorata seedling during first census (October 2007) (Photo courtesy of author)
67 a. b. Figure 3 3 Hemispherical photographs demonstrating extent of canopy openness before (a.) and after (b.) release tr eatment (Photos courtesy of author)
68 Figure 3 4 Percent of canopy openness above 1 m as an effect of bamboo removal treatment over a 20 month period for both control (1) and treated (2) plots (P < 0.001) Canopy Openness (%)
69 Figure 3 5 Difference in height of pl anted Dipteryx odorata in (a.) treated and (b.) control plots in June 2009 (Photos courtesy of author) a. b.
70 Figure 3 6 Height r elative growth rate s ( ) of Dipteryx odorata seedlings in control and treated plots (P < 0.001) Relative Growth Rate Height (cm cm 1 month 1 )
71 Figure 3 7 B asal diameter relative growth rate ( ) of Dipteryx odorata seedlings in control and treat ed plots (P < 0.001) Relative Growth Rate Basal Diameter (mm mm 1 month 1 )
72 CHAPTER 4 TRADITIONAL PERSPECT IVES ON ECOLOGY AND TIMBER MANAGEMENT IN A BAMBOO DOMINATED FOREST OF ACRE, BRAZIL: A COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR S USTAINABLE MANAGEMEN T Introduct ory Remarks Bamboo forests cover at least 37 million ha worldwide (Lobovikov et al. 2007), a likely underestimate since certain species can remain undetectable by satellites for roughly 30 50% of their l ife cycle (Nelson 1994). Of this number, Latin America claims ( Judziewicz et al. 1999 Londoo 2001, Stern 2004). Yet, the extent of knowledge of bamboo forests has historica lly been concentrated in Asia, where there is a much longer tradition of bamboo forest management and a much greater share of scientific literature on the subject (Porterfield 1933, Soderstrom and Calderon 1979, Choudhury 1986, Christanty et al. 1997, Ohrn berger 1999 ). In contrast, knowledge of the geographic extent and potential resource availability associated with neotropical bamboo is much more limited (Lobovikov et al. 2007). Bamboo plays an important role in the ecosystem dynamics of many of these for ests (Nelson 1994, Keeley and Bond 1999, Griscom and Ashton 2003, 2006), where some species dominate forest succession (Sears 2003, Grisom and Ashton 2006, Smith and Nelson 2011, Veldman and Putz 2011). Hence, bamboo forests and their associated ecosystem services to both humans and wildlife in this region has become increasingly important, especially as the responsibility of forest management shifts from the state to local communities (Scherr et al. 2003). In the southwestern region of the Amazon basin, G uadua sarcocarpa Londoo & P.M. Peterson and G. weberbaueri Pilg. dominate the landscape, stretching from the
73 southern portion of the Peruvian Amazon to Acre, Brazil, as well in isolated parts of eastern Bolivia (Londoo and Peterson 1991, Nelson and Bianc hini 2005). These bamboo forests cover a contiguous area of 180,000 km 2 (Nelson et al. 1997), making it quite possibly the largest bamboo forest in the world (Londoo 2011). Timber management [already a substantial source of forest degradation in the Amazo nian landscape (Nepstad et al. 1999, Asner et al. 2005)], is becoming an increasingly important topic when discussing future scenarios for this forest type In Acre, where bamboo ( Veloso et al. 1991, IBGE 1997, Silveira 2001 Salimon et al. 2011 ), bamboo forests have traditionally generated little interest for timber, due to low estimates of available d for tropical wood (Pereira et al. 2010), harvesting in areas dominated by Guadua has become more prevalent (see Rockwell et al. 2007b). Bamboo dominated forests present several important challenges for silvicultural management and timber extraction: (i) a lack of advanced regeneration one of the prerequisites for sustainable timber management Oliveira 2000, Putz 2004 ); (ii) future crop trees that have been damaged under the constant weight of climbing bamboo culms (Griscom and Ashton 2003, 2006)] ; and (iii) the probability of high grading, aggravating a n already sparse canopy (Rockwell et a l. 2007b ) In concert, these factors may increase the probability of degradation and result in diminished value for future cutting cycles ( Whitmore 1984, Veldman et al. 2009 Larpkern et al. 2011 ). While timber harvesting in these sites appears to be challenging given managerial and ecological constraints (see Chapter 2 ), it is also unlikely that exploitation will be avoided
74 particularly in smallholder and community forests. These local actors often have substantial experience with bamboo dominated forests within their holdings, and could be essential partners in developing management schemes tailored to this challenging forest type. Indeed, integrating different kno wledge frameworks (Walker et al. 2004, Bennett and Zurek 2006, Berkes et al. 2006) to assess bamboo forest availability, constraints and timber potential is likely the most efficient approach to developing sound management systems for the long term. Variou s researchers and practitioners have suggested that integrating Western scientific knowledge with that of indigenous and rural peoples will result in more resilient social ecological systems ( Holling et al. 2002, Folke et al. 2003, Folke 2004, Prober et al 2011). Traditional farmers and community forest managers often have lived in the same geographic region for many years accumulat ing considerable knowledge about the natural resource base through daily observations in their subsistence activities (Berkes and Folke 2002). Carter (1996) posits that local knowledge will often provide important information on resource quality and general distribution of valuable species This information can then be applied to a systematic forest resource plan that builds on locally defined indices, giving managers a more complete under standing of the management and conservation of a natural system (Calheiros et al. 2000). Moller et al. (2004) adopted this integrated approach with indigenous peoples in New Zealand and Canada, documenting clear benefits in combining science and traditional ecological and/or local knowledge to monitor wildlife and implement sustainable game harvest systems.
75 While avoiding the philosophical trap that all resident stakeholders are optimal forest stewards (Agrawal and Gibson 1999), we also recognize that it is highly unlikely that large tracts of tropical forests will be sustainably managed without engaging the local people who depend upon them for their livelihoods (Scherr et al. 2002). They have long term legitimate claims and increasingly have legal authority on lands where they reside (Sunderland et al. 2008); they invest an estimated over 1 to 2 billion USD of their time, labor and financial resources in forest conservation activities (Molnar e t al. 2004); with an estimated 60 million indigenous residents and 400 to 500 million nonindigenous depending directly on forests for their livelihoods (White and Martin 2002), their numbers and permanence on the tropical forest landscape are unquestioned. In addition to these ethical and efficiency arguments, local forest residents are the largest direct users and ultimate decision makers regarding forest fate s (Kainer et al. 2009). Partnering with local people to pursue long term solutions to tropical for est management only makes sense. In this paper, we evaluate key managerial constraints on timber harvesting in the bamboo dominated forests of Acre, Brazil, as well as potential implications for smallholder management systems, providing a basis for adapti ve co management in this forest type. To accomplish this task, we evaluate available scientific data, traditional local knowledge of bamboo ecology and relevant community experiences in forest management. We then provide suggestions about how this cumulati ve and often complementary body of knowledge can be put into practice for the purpose of sustaining the natural resource base.
76 Methods We reviewed publically available scientific articles and reports to inform our examination of bamboo forest ecology, its implications for regional management, and existing traditional knowledge and uses of bamboo forests. To understand locally specific knowledge and uses of bamboo dominated forests in the Porto Dias Agroextractive Settlement Project (PAE) Acrelandia, Acre, Brazil, from July to August 2009 we applied a series of questionnaires using open ended questions and semi structured interviews with five community leaders and parataxonomists who have resided in Porto Dias for 5 45 years. Additionally, information was g athered from informal interviews with various members of two communities in Porto Dias (Mossor and Palhal) over a two year time period (2007 2009). Individual formal interviews were conducted over the course of 1 3 days, and were facilitated by the primar long term relationship (~6 years) with community members. Local ecological knowledge was divided into three basic categories: (1) basic forest ecology of bamboo dominated forests; (2) impact of timber extraction in bamboo forest; and (3) importa nce of bamboo dominated forests to subsistence and other cash activities. Site Description Acre produces a relatively small percentage of the total commercial volume of tropical wood in the Amazon Basin (3%), compared to other Brazilian states such as Par (47%) and Mato Grosso (28%) (Pereira et al. 2010). Nonetheless, the state government has promoted the concepts of forest conservation and sustainable development in concert with timber industry development for the last decade (Salimon et al. 2011), in th e hopes of avoiding the forest cover loss experienced in other parts of the country (Nepstad 1999). Indeed, Acre has retained 13 14% of its original forest
77 cover, a relatively low loss when compared to its neighboring state Rondnia (34%) (INPE 2009, Pereir a et al. 2010). Most legal timber harvests are managed at the industrial scale on government and private lands, but there are also a growing number of community timber management initiatives that have entered the national market with varying degrees of suc cess (Duchelle et al. 2011). Many of these operations came to (1998 2006), who made community forest management a cornerstone of his political platform (Kainer et al. 2003) Porto Dias [(where more than half of the forest is dominated by bamboo (CTA 2001)] (S 10 based development that is strongly associated with Acre. The settlement, which was created in 1989 by Brazilian F ederal R esolution No. 40, encompasses approximately 22,145 ha, and is divided among colocaes or landholdings, that range from 100 400 ha each. PAE Porto Dias includes the last large contiguous tract of forest in the municipality of Acrelndia, which is located in the eastern region of the state where total deforestation rate ranges fr om 20 75% (Brown et al. 2007) Although some residents are relatively recent arrivals from other rural communities in Acre other families trace their lineages to immigrants who arrived in this locale from northeastern Brazil in the first half of the 20 th century to tap rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis Euphorbiaceae ; Allegretti 1990, Keck 1995) Current family livelihoods typically include subsistence agriculture, small scale animal husbandry, hunting Brazil nut collection ( Bertholletia excelsa Lecythidaceae ) and timber production. Non timber forest product (NTFP) species such as Brazil nut have always been a prominent feature of regional community forest management
78 (Kainer and Duryea 1992, Duchelle et al. 2011, Soriano et al. 2011), yet timber has become too enticing an economic option for cash poor landowners to ignore (Stone 2003, Stone Jovicich et al. 2007 ). Although timber based development in Porto Dias originated with a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified timber project in 2000, interest in harves ting valuable species such as Tabebuia spp. (Brazilian walnut/ ip Bignoniaceae ), Hymenea courbaril (Brazilian cherry / jatob Fabaceae ) and Dipteryx spp. (tonka bean Brazilian teak/ cumaru ferro Fabaceae) has now spread to two other communities within th e settlement management group that conducts most of its timber harvesting internally in cooperation with a regional cooperative, COOPERFLORESTA, the most recent initiatives rely on non certified external timber companies Status of Timber Management in Bamboo Dominated Forests in Acre Although all forest tracts dominated by the two principal Guadua species in this tabocal heterogeneous nature of bamboo forests poses a challenge for simple habitat categorization. Guadua culm density varies across this region, from scattered culms in some terra firme forests to stands with an average of 2000 culms ha 1 (Londoo and Peterson 1991, Vidalenc 2000 ), the latter category often leading to classification of ). Arborescent bamboos benefit from clonal growth, which is facilitated by aggressive underground rhizome networks and rapid growt h rates, and accelerated through natural and anthropogenic disturbances (Silveira 2001, Gagnon et al. 2007, Gagnon and Platt 2008, Smith and Nelson 2011). Additionally, Guadua uses neighboring trees for support by means of the curved barbs (modified branc hes) along the length of the culm, eventually
79 toppling or damaging support trees (Griscom and Ashton 2003 2006 ) Such competitive (Smith and Nelson 2011). Smith and Nelson ( 2011) also posit that forest fires [increasingly frequent in the region (Sombroek 2001, Pantoja and Brown 2009)] are catalyzing the spread and dominance of Guadua in southwestern Amazonia. Indeed, bamboo dominance is only relinquished every ~25 30 years, w hen adult bamboos synchronously flower, set fruit and die over large areas (Nelson 1994, Nelson and Bianchini 2005). Most researchers working in Guadua dominated forests have cautioned against removal of large commercial stems. They cite low basal area an d timber volume, reduced regeneration rates and increased risk of wildfire as deterrents to sustainable Chapter 2 ). Studies conducted in other bamboo forests have resulted in similar conclusio ns (Whitmore 1984, Campanello et al. 2007, Larpkern et al. 2011). Certainly, the management caveats associated with bamboo dominated forests could be likened to the complications of liana dominated forests, where infestations of woody vines suppress tree r egeneration in logging gaps and cause damage to juvenile and adult tree stems via mass loading (Fox 1976, Appanah and Putz 1984, Vidal et al. 1997, Fredericksen and Mostacedo 2000, Schnitzer and Bongers 2002). Because human disturbance seems to facilitate bamboo expansion ( Larpkern et al. 2011, Smith and Nelson 2011), few recommendations exist for achieving sustainable timber extraction in bamboo dominated forests. Some researchers have suggested avoiding areas colonized by Guadua altogether, unless valuabl e species such as
80 mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla Meliaceae) are located on 2004). Griscom (2003) posits that logging just after monocarpic events might eliminate local bamboo genets completely, since the seedling stage is the most vulnerable period for bamboo. Although the length of G. weberbaueri and G. sarcocarpa life cycles is roughly equivalent to typical Amazonian harvest cycles(~30 years), timing logging interventions to coincide with mass dieoff is not viable, since monocarp ic events are unpredictably synchronized across many square kilometers (Nelson and Bianchini 2005). Griscom (2003) also proposes complete removal of bamboo culms either by manual extraction or herbicide application for the promotion of timber management go als. Indeed, cutting Guadua culms in logging gaps has been shown to improve growth rates of planted Dipteryx odorata seedlings (Chapter 3) In the same forest stand, abundant regeneration of valuable timber species that are typically scarce at the adult st age was also observed after cutting In fact, tending natural regeneration would be useful to improve recruitment rates in managed areas, potentially complementing enrichment planting, which is often cost prohibitive (Montagnini et al. 1997) Additionally, Campanello et al. (2007) demonstrated that even though bamboo ( Chusquea ramosissima ) and liana cutting did not improve natural regeneration levels in gaps in northern Argentina, both sapling survival and growth rates were promoted by tending. Despite the potential of the aforementioned silvicultural treatments, concentration of management prescriptions on seedling and sapling size classes will in itself not satisfy sustainable forest management objectives. Veldman et al. (2009) hypothesize
81 that if timber is harvested at high intensities in G uadua paniculata dominated forests in southeastern Bolivia, bamboo dominance likely will become more widespread in poorly managed forests. The same assumption likely holds true for the G sarcocarpa and G. weberbaueri f orests in Brazil Although Rockwell et al. (2007b) did not find increased levels of damage in management units with bamboo they suggest that crop trees should be selected based on presence of other large neighboring trees thereby reducing canopy openings Because logging gaps in their study were extremely large [ almost twice that of other reported neotropical studies (see Johns et al. 1996; Feldpausch et al. 2005)] for the low harvest intensity (~10 m 3 ha 1 ) implemented, they stress that minimizing canopy openings as much as possible should be a management goal. And due to the low volume of commercial timber in Guadua dominated forests diversifying species selected for harvest when markets are amenable and complementing income from timber profits with thos e from NTFPs could prove beneficial (Chapter 2) Regional P erceptions of Bamboo Dominated Forests The bamboo genus Guadua has long been appreciated by indigenous and rural peoples of South America, particularly G. angustifolia a large, st urdy culmed speci es found in coastal Ecuador and Colombia (Londoo 2002). The mechanical properties of G. angustifolia make it an ideal candidate for construction, so much so that is has been commercial value, many small producers have found G angustifolia to be a complementary addition to their livelihood system (Londoo 1998, Camargo 2006 Camargo et al. 2010 ). In contrast, G. sarcocarpa and G. weberbaueri have generally been viewed as invasive (albeit native) s pecies by farmers and forest managers in southwestern
82 Amazonia (Sears 2003). The mechanical properties of both species, in comparison to G. angustifolia render them much less suitable for economic exploitation. Nonetheless, these species are important to inhabitants of the Amazonian region. Londoo and Peterson (1991) report that members of the Machiguengas tribe in southeastern Peru eat the boiled fruit and new shoots of G. sarcocarpa the first recorded case of human consumption of New World bamboo fruit s. As well, the fruit provides an important source of carbohydrates for many game animals harvested by rural peoples of the region, such as Mazama americana (red brocket deer), M. gouazoubira (brown or grey brocket deer), Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary), Agouti paca (paca), and Dasyprocta spp. (agouti) (Silveira 1999). Additionally, Veldman (2008) suggests that young shoots of G. paniculata of southeastern Bolivia would be ideal for cattle forage due to their high (10.5%) protein content, but admits that ranchers tend to view the bamboo as a weed and not as a viable replacement for exotic pasture grasses. Finally, local communities also have experienced negative repercussions from the monocarpic events that occur every 25 30 years: Janzen (1976) reports th at native rat populations explode with mast devastating crops adjacent to bamboo forest. It has been suggested that the bamboo biomass left after monocarpic events boost s forest productivity, due to the inputs of decaying organic matter into the soil (Euler 2005). Certainly, given the widespread extent of monocarpic events (Nelson and Bianchini 2005, Smith and Nelson 2011), as well as the quantity of dead bamboo culms res ulting from such occurrences (Nelson 1994, Smith and Nelson 2011), primary productivity, nutrient cycling, and microorganism activity in the forest soil would all
83 necessarily fluctuate (Silveira 2001). Indeed, Silveira (2001) and Stern (2004) indicate that farmers often prefer to plant manioc, corn and beans on soils where bamboo forest has been cut and burned, claiming that the land is much more fertile than those areas that supported dense canopy forest without bamboo. Local Knowledge of Bamboo Forest Ec ology Local informants from the communities of Palhal and Mossor in Porto Dias identified 7 forest types in their Settlement, including (1) closed canopy (dense) forest ( restinga ), (2) flooded riverine forest ( varzea ), (3) liana dominated forest ( cipoal ), (4) bamboo dominated forest ( tabocal ), (5) wild banana ( Phenakospermum sp. Strelitziaceae) dominated forest ( bananal ), (6) palm (specifically, Orbignya speciosa or babau Arecaceae) dominated forest patches ( palhal ), and (7) dry forest, or those withou t creeks ( mata chapada ). These results stand in contrast to earlier classifications made by external consultants, who identified only 4 forest types onsite [(1) lowland open forest dominated by bamboo, mixed with dense forest with emergent trees, (2) lowla nd open forest dominated by bamboo, (3) dense forest with emergent trees, and (4) dense forest with emergent trees mixed with open forest dominated by bamboo (CTA 2001)]. At least one informant hesitated in labeling so that the forest was too heterogeneous to reduce to simple classifications. As an example, he taboc al de seite queimadas and has few large tree stems, with closed canopy forest that has a higher density of adult trees but few patches of bamboo culms. Researchers who have invested in classification of these regional bamboo forests have also had difficulty delineating bamboo forests (Londoo and Peterson 1991, Vidalenc 2000). All informants recognized the bamboo forest as being much shorter than the closed canopy forest
84 type, an observation also made by Nogueira et al. (2008) in their study of Amazon Basin forest biomass. Because most G. sarcocarpa fruited and died between 2004 and 2006 in landholdings alo ng the eastern Settlement border, all study informants reported having witnessed a monocarpic dieoff event. At least two informants also witnessed the dieoff event in 1973 1976. Accordingly, the general consensus was that the maximum age of any given indiv idual genet was 25 30 years, a n estimate similar to that from interviews conducted with rural inhabitants in Sena Madureira, Acre (Sil veira 1999) and published data (Nelson 1994, Nelson and Bianchini 2005). Likewise, they concurred that mortality was synch informant responded that he first witnessed a mortality event when he moved to Acre from Cear, when he was approximately 13 years old (~1976) and his family was living along the Trans acreana Highway (AC 090). His memories of the experience are vivid, species such as Uncaria sp. (Rubiaceae) and Sc leria pratensis (Cyperaceae). Another informant reported having seen the bamboo dieoff around the same time while he was harvesting rubber ( H. brasiliensis ) in Bolivia. This timing corresponds with the period when residents of Porto Dias witnessed the flow ering, fruiting, and eventual death of local G. sarcocarpa genets. All informants independently remembered an increase in game animals during the monocarpic events, stating that species such as parrots, macaws, pigs ( Pecari tajacu Tayassu pecari ), and mon keys gorged on bamboo fruits. Another mentioned the ease with which he could hunt in the bamboo forest after the dieoff, since all of the spine
85 laden culms had fallen to the ground, allowing for easy passage through the forest. All informants stated that i t takes approximately 10 years for the bamboo to return to its pre monocarpic state. Likewise, Nelson and Bianchini (2005) found from their analysis of a 28 year series of Landsat MSS, Landsat TM and MODIS opti cal bands that new bamboo populations remain h idden from satellite detection for 8 15 years after a mortality event. Although some informants reported finding regeneration of commercially valuable species, such as Dipteryx spp., Tetragastris altissima ( breu vermelho Burseraceae), Amburana cearensis ( cerejeira Fabaceae), and Apuleia leiocarpa ( cumaru cetim Fabaceae) in bamboo forest, all participants noted that seedlings of timber and NTFP species are generally rarer in this forest type than in closed canopy forest. The majority expressed the opinion that the understory in bamboo forest is a much harsher environment for seedlings (owing to intense competition for light and physical pressure of bamboo biomass) than a closed canopy free of bamboo. Griscom and Ashton (2006) also report that trees in the 5 30 cm diameter class are the most vulnerable to damage (and eventual mortality) from mass loading in bamboo dominated forest. One informant, however, stated that while seedlings may suffer in the bamboo forest, it was a favorable environment for adult tr ees of most species This opinion stands in contrast, though, with bamboo forest results from the Oliveira (2000) study in north central Acre, which demonstrated that adult trees are the most rarified size class. Local Perceptions of Silvicultural Activit ies in Bamboo Dominated Forests All informants interviewed for this study had been involved with timber management activities for 4 10 years, and all felt that logging favored bamboo expansion and increased fire risk. These views correspond with the scient ific literature
86 on anthropogenic disturbances in bamboo forests (Soderstrom and Calderon 1979, Bale 1989, Veldman et al. 2009, Larpkern et al. 2011, Smith and Nelson 2011). There was, however, a split opinion on whether or not more future crop tree damage was incurred in the bamboo dominated forest as a result of logging activities. Some informants suggested that logging damage was more prevalent in this forest type since sawyers cannot always see through the thick patches of bamboo; others posited that si nce there are fewer future crop trees, there are fewerto damage. In fact, opinion is split in the research community, as well. Rockwell et al. (2007b) determined that logging n FSC certified harvest were equal to thos e in future crop tree damage levels as one of the many reasons to avoid harvesting in this forest type. Informant opinions also were divided over successful tree regeneration i n logging gaps and skid trails, which are (at least in other Amazonian forests) ideal for seedling germination and establishment ( Snook 1998, Di ckinson and Whigham 1999, Dickinson et al. 2000, Fredericksen and Mostacedo 2000, but see Nussb aum et al. 1995, Pinard et al. 1996, Guariguata and Dupuy 1997). Some informants believed that regeneration was more prevalent in bamboo dominated forest post logging as compared to closed canopy forest, due to exaggerated canopy openings in logged bamboo forest. Others, h owever, stated that logging gaps tend to close much more quickly in bamboo forest, due to the fast growth rates of bamboo culms. Since timber in Porto Dias is usually harvested towards the end of the dry season (August October), it stands to reason that ca nopy closings due to bamboo growth would occur very quickly post logging as rains resume. Other researchers have found that large gaps amplify competition from
87 bamboo and other pioneer species (Tabanez et al. 2000, Tabarelli and Mantovani 2000, Campanello et al. 2007, Larpkern et al. 2011). Despite all of the caveats, informants articulated that it was possible to maintain the forest without further degradation, due to the low harvest intensity (10 12 m 3 ha 1 ) a harvest intensity disputed in Chapter 2. Gi ven the remaining timber volume in logged sites in comparison with unlogged forest tracts in Mossor, Porto Dias, it is more likely that the external logging crew harvested upwards of 20 m 3 ha 1 This particular harvest intensity is generally higher than m ost regional community timber management standards, but still within the Brazilian legal limit. Role of Bamboo Dominated Forests in Subsistence A ctivities There was general consensus amongst informants that bamboo dominated forest provide ideal habitat for many important game animals. Most informants cited preferences of certain species ( e.g., agouti, paca, etc.) for taking shelter from predators in bamboo clumps. They also reported abundant food sources available in this particular forest type, such as th e palm Socratea exorrhiza ( paxiubinha Arecaceae). The literature supports these general observations of bamboo importance for tropical fauna. For example, researchers working in Suriname reported brown capuchin monkeys ( Cebus apella apella ) foraging for b eetle larvae in the piths of G uadua latifolia culms (Boinski et al. 2000, Gunst et al. 2008, 2010). Many Amazonian bird species are closely associated with bamboo, as well, favoring this forest type for feeding, breeding, shelter, and protection ( Conover 1 994, Kratter 1997 Haemig 2005). Yet even with recognition of Guadua forests as an important refuge for many preferred game species, several informants noted their reluctance to hunt in bamboo groves. They cited the difficulty in spotting animals in dense bamboo patches, as well as the impenetrability of such
88 thickets (owing to sharp thorns located on the bamboo culms) as reasons for choosing to hunt in bamboo free closed canopy forests. There was an overwhelming agreement [echoing the responses of informan ts in dominated forest sites were ideal for agricultural activities. Study informants referred to the rich soil in these forests as well as the nutrient boost from burning bamboo biomass as critical components for produ cing manioc, beans, rice, and corn. Additionally, a few participants discussed the fact that bamboo dominated forest is often selected for agricultural conversion because it harbors fewer Brazil nut and rubber trees. All informants mentioned that bamboo bu rns quickly and efficiently prior to planting crops (Fig ure 4 1), but that it starts resprouting from underground rhizomes (Smith and Nelson 2011) 15 20 days after burning. The nasce bonito orn beautiful. Another respondent pointed out that if left untended, bamboo thicket s are impassable in 6 months, although Smith and Nelson (2011) suggest that recovery to pre disturbance density is much slower (~26 months). As such, informants discussed th e need to cut resprouts frequently causing the clonal genet to draw on reserves from the rhizome network and eventually killing the individual (Smith and Nelson 2011 but see Chapter 3 ). One informant said that it was important to cut high on the bamboo cu lm, just above a nodal ridge. He suggested that this method was quicker for killing the bamboo, as opposed to cutting low to the ground, since bamboo water loss would supposedly be much greater as a result. Local uses of bamboo vary with family economic s tatus. Some of the more recent arrivals to the settlement were more likely to use bamboo culms (versus wood) as
89 support beams for house walls and ceilings (Fig ure 4 2), slats for pig and chicken coops, and for baskets. This trend could indicate that bamboo given its abundance onsite, is an easily accessible resource for activities that might otherwise demand more expensive (or at least time consuming) materials. Forrecently arrived inhabitants who need to establish infrastructure quickly, substantial inves tment s in high quality construction wood may be challenging All informants mentioned that some economically important NTFP species such as Brazil nut are rare in local bamboo dominated forests, but that others (like many palm species) are common. As an ex ample, we found that densities of aai ( Euterpe precatoria Arecaceae), a palm species whose fruit is currently harvested onsite by some community members for sale in the capital city, were high (Chapter 2) Additionally, despite some informant suggestions that rubber trees were lower in density in bamboo forests compared to closed canopy forests, we discovered that adults and seedlings of this species were plentiful in their sampled bamboo forest plots (Chapter 2) Discussion Porto Dias depends on many as pects of the bamboo forest for their livelihoods, underscoring the importance of considering more than timber production among forest management objective s (Rockwell et al. 2007a, Guariguata et al. 2010, Shanley et al. 2011) One solution for averting mism anagement of such a system would be to include perceptions and knowledge of local peoples into management plans, as opposed to singular reliance on technical guidelines. During the course of this study, we discovered that several understudied knowledge cat egories were expande d upon by local informants ( Table 4 1). Incorporating these perceptions and experiences into current
90 silvicultural objectives could promote sustainability by emphasizing local knowledge transfer and application (Prober et al. 2011). Fo r example, the formal recognition of locally defined forest types has the potential to improve current harvesting methods, given that ideally, management plans should be site specific In the past, external consultants have only previously identified four forest types (CTA 2001). As such, it is possible that these previously overlooked forest categories might require special considerations when harvesting timber, much as we have found with bamboo forests. Additionally, current pre harvest inventories do not include most of the NTFP species identified in Mossor (Chapter 2). Given that all informants interviewed for this study c onfirmed the importance of NTFPs in their livelihood strategies, monitoring this particular component of the natural resource base in areas zoned for timber would be extremely beneficial for community members. And all informants agreed that risk of fire invasion is very high in logged bamboo forest. In see Phillips et al. 200 9), protection of the forest from fire sources should be a priority for this community. Yet, currently, no actions (e.g., avoiding extraction activities in landholdings neighboring cattle ranches, restoration efforts) have taken place on part of the loggin g company in question. Implementing such changes may be easier in a community led operation (see Stone 2003), which is likely to integrate a complex series of forest and sociocultural values into their decision making process (Schmink 2004, Klimas et al. 2 011) Indeed modifying current timber guidelines for site specific constraints may prove challenging for those communities contracting to external operators Many rural communities in the Amazon
91 basin turn to private timber companies to expedite an often co mplicated and expensive process (see Merry et al. 2006). But these efforts often prove to be unsustainable in terms of local objectives and values given the singular focus by some contractors on one forest product (Vosti et al. 2003, Medina and Shanley 20 04, Benneker et al. 2010, but see Menton et al. 2009). As a poignant example, one informant in this study mentioned how he once removed an inventory plaque ( indicating its selection by the logging crew for harvest) from a Copaifera spp. ( copaiba Fabaceae) stem. While Copaifera brings a high price for its quality wood, it is also a valuable NTFP taxon. The informant in question emphasized that its value as a continuing source for the medicinal oil was important to his family. As well, he felt that since it was such a rare species in this forest type, he could not afford to sacrifice it for a quick economic return, a sentiment that may not be recognized by external logging crews. Indeed, one of the most important outcomes of including local people in these ty pes of management decisions natural s Wunder (2000) observes, local preferences may not be a sufficient barrier when the economic benefits of exploitation or conversion outweigh forest conservation values even when it is the community who has hired the timber companies in the first place An adaptive management approach, entailing collaboration between biologists, local forest managers, and (id eally) logging crews, could allow for management to be based on the technical skills, ecological knowledge base, equipment and funds of multiple actors (Ghazoul 2001, Moller et al. 2004, Kainer et al. 2009). Such a participatory approach to forestry requir es considerable emphasis on both current and
92 potential communication between local managers and external actors as well as an assessment of existing local ecological knowledge and traditional management systems (Carter 1996). Ecological knowledge between s cientific and local sources is often complementary, suggesting that forest resource management should depend on the input of local people as well as associated stakeholders. This integrated approach may necessitate all parties to negotiate on issues concer ning long and short term forest management goal s; market limitations for diverse specie s; ease of implementation (e.g., reduced impact logging methods, multi use forestry objectives) ; appropriateness for both forest managers and the forest itself ; an d avai lable financial resources. B ut in the end, such an approach should provide important innovations in the conservation of ecosystems that are at risk for degradation and/or conversion (see Putz and Redford 2010). As the breadth of available information in th is study demonstrates, bamboo dominated forests of this region have thus far have eluded sustainable forest management objectives, especially when relying on a limited set of techniques and monitoring methods. And in a region where all forest types are und er the constant threat of conversion even in protected areas (see Gomes 2009), the conservation of this forest type should be a high priority.
93 Table 4 1. E nvironmental knowledge categories, identified from both scientific/technical and local sources Env ironmental knowledge categories Number of scientific/technical literature sources Locally identified knowledge categories (understudied) Identification of different forest types in site 1 X Life cycle length/distribution of Guadua spp. Susceptibility of exploited forests to fire and bamboo expansion Suitability of bamboo forest for game animals 1 X Sparse advanced regeneration of some timber species in bamboo forest 4 Techniques for killing bamboo by mechanical removal 2 Importance of bamboo forest to valuable NTFP* species 1 X Suitability of bamboo forest for preparation of agricultural crops 1 X *non timber forest product
94 Figure 4 1. Preparation of an agricultural field with fire in a patch of Guadua dominated for est, PAE Porto Dias, Acre, Brazil (Photo courtesy of author)
95 Figure 4 2 Guadua sp p culms providing roof support (Photo courtesy of author)
96 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION S Proponents of sustainable forest management (SFM) claim that it is possible to manage tr opical hardwood forests for timber without causing irreversible damage ( Whitmore 1999, Pearce et al. 2003), and that such goals might be best attained by those in daily contact with the forest ( Scherr et al. 2002, Shanley and Gaia 2002 Colfer 2005, Gibson et al. 2005). Even so many claim that if a forest is exploited for certain products (like timber), damage will inevitably occ ur (Redford and Stearman 1993, Simberloff 1999). The results presented in this dissertation certainly suggest that at the very le ast, SFM in the Guadua dominated forest of southwestern Amazonia might be compromised by constraints associated with bamboo ecology. SFM is usually defined based on the following assumptions: (1) management can be exercised in a manner compatible with the maintenance of biodiversity ; (2) management of tropical forests is economically viable ; and (3) management can result in sustained timber yield over the long term (Bawa and Seidler 1998). As such, I determined that an investigation of existing harvesting p ractices, silvicultural treatments and knowledge bases of local peoples in the Guadua dominated forest of southwestern Amazonia was needed. Subsequently, I discovered that l ogg ed sites were characterized by a markedly reduced commercial timber volume, sugg esting that future cutting cycles may be challenging for local managers. Additionally, I found that e nrichment plantings of Dipteryx odorata seedlings were successful, possibly prov iding an important contribution to the successful regeneration of valuable timber species in expl oited bamboo dominated forests. I also found that there is an existing broad base of local knowledge in this
97 particular community that could complement existing technical guidelines such as inclusion of local definitions of forest ty pe in timber management plans Current Understanding of Bamboo Forests Given the complications involved with timber extraction in this forest type, it might be easy to view these bamboo species as little more than weeds that should be eliminated, especial ly if the primary goal is to produce timber over successive cycles. Nonetheless, the bamboo species discussed here are integral to ecosystem services, and although there is very little chance that they will be listed as endangered in the near future, conse rvation and the sustainable management of these bamboo forests should be a high priority. The decline of bamboo habitats in Latin America due to indiscriminate logging and land clearing has accelerated in the last few decades (BOTA 2005). Even though Guadu a has the potential to proliferate and arrest forest succession due to conventional logging (e.g.,Veldman et al. 2009), the complete loss of this forest type in some parts of the region may be more likely, given the increasing risk of agricultural conversi on (Brown et al. 2007, Gomes 2009). As such, the best possible outcome for management of this forest type is to continue to provide technical and organizational support to those rural inhabitants who are directly responsible for application of conservation and management initiatives. Additionally, it will become increasingly important to integrate local ecological knowledge when developing natural resource management plans. Doing so could identify important environmental variables and contribute to a more c ollaborative approach for management of bamboo forests in this region.
98 Future Directions One potential barrier to a more collaborative effort could be timber company community forest management partnerships, which have been advocated as a sustainable stra tegy in other parts of the Amazon basin (Lima et al. 2006, Merry et al. concern about the potential dominance of timber companies, in terms of substandard prices offered to co mmunities, logging damage due to unsustainable harvesting practices, and disregard for locally important NTFPs (Menton 2003, de Jong et al. 2006, Guariguata et al. 2010, Cronkleton et al. 2011, Duchelle et al. 2011, Soriano et al. 2011). As such, when timb er management plans are developed for the Guadua dominated forest in this region, it will become necessary to consider the following variables, especially when relying upon external actors to exploit the forest: use of low impact methods ; diversification o f harvested species (so that overexploitation of others can be avoided) ; implementation of post harvest silvicultural treatments such as tending/planting of valuable species; protection from fire sources ; and expansion of NTFP commercialization Without in clusion of these variables, it is probable that timber volume s in this forest (which are low even prior to harvesting) will be insufficient to support rural households in the future. Such a trend could be detrimental for traditional livelihoods, especially in a region where young people are leaving rural communities for the capital city of Rio Branco in unprecedented numbers (M. Schmink, pers. comm .). Indeed, the implications of removing valuable trees in this dynamic forest system are too often ignored. As such, understanding the changes that take place due to anthropogenic disturbances and making appropriate modifications to management plans at both the local and landscape levels (Veldman et al. 2009) are important steps
99 in moving from forest degradation t o responsible forest management (Sasaki and Putz 2009).
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121 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Cara A. Rockwell was born in Belleville, Illinois, and grew up in Tallahassee, Florida. She received a Bachelor of Science degree in biological s ciences from Florida State University in 1994. Following graduation, she traveled for a year in Asia, Australia and the South Pacific, which fueled her interest in conservation and sustainable development issues. After three years of working with a land st ewardship initiative in Ann Arbor, Michigan, she joined Peace Corps Paraguay in 1998. She remained in organization and later as the coordinator for the Peace Corps Paragua y environment program. Upon returning to the US in 2002, she interned for Conservation egan work for her MSc at the University of Florida in the School of Forest Resources and Con servation and the Tropical Conservation Development program. She conducted her community based timber operation on future crop trees. She was awarded her MSc in 2005. In 200 6, she began her PhD program, researching logging impacts and potential silvicultural treatments for the bamboo dominated forests of the southwestern Amazon. She was awarded her PhD in the fall of 2011.