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Two Case Studies of Unsolicited Behaviors Demonstrated by Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Elementary Music...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043723/00001

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Title: Two Case Studies of Unsolicited Behaviors Demonstrated by Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Elementary Music Classroom
Physical Description: 1 online resource (117 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Burcham, Rebekah W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: autism -- education -- music
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is now at 1 in 110 for 8-year-olds. With this number of diagnosed cases on the rise, music educators need to be prepared to teach these students effectively. For music teachers to instruct these students in the most effective way, it is important to understand the needs of this ASD population. An essential part of understanding the needs of these students with ASD is knowing what elements of music activities trigger unsolicited behaviors. In a case study using the grounded theory design, two young females, 9 and 11 years old with ASD, were studied in the music classroom. The students were video recorded during three regular music lessons to determine if and when they had any unsolicited behaviors and what activities might have caused the behaviors. The music lessons included activities such as moving to music, listening to music, composing, and performing. The researcher and an outside observer viewed the video recordings and completed observation protocols for each lesson. The protocols were then hand-coded to determine when unsolicited behaviors occurred. After coding the data, comparison of all information took place. The data gathered from the videos were compared to information collected from the two participants' parents and regular classroom teachers through Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and Connors Checklist. The most significant theme that arose was that both participants had difficulty during listening activities. There were 48 occurrences of the unsolicited behavior of fidgeting during listening activities and 42 occurrences of fixation during listening activities. Of all the unsolicited behaviors noted, 69% were during listening activities.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Rebekah W Burcham.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Brophy, Timothy S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-12-31

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Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043723:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043723/00001

Material Information

Title: Two Case Studies of Unsolicited Behaviors Demonstrated by Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Elementary Music Classroom
Physical Description: 1 online resource (117 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Burcham, Rebekah W
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: autism -- education -- music
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is now at 1 in 110 for 8-year-olds. With this number of diagnosed cases on the rise, music educators need to be prepared to teach these students effectively. For music teachers to instruct these students in the most effective way, it is important to understand the needs of this ASD population. An essential part of understanding the needs of these students with ASD is knowing what elements of music activities trigger unsolicited behaviors. In a case study using the grounded theory design, two young females, 9 and 11 years old with ASD, were studied in the music classroom. The students were video recorded during three regular music lessons to determine if and when they had any unsolicited behaviors and what activities might have caused the behaviors. The music lessons included activities such as moving to music, listening to music, composing, and performing. The researcher and an outside observer viewed the video recordings and completed observation protocols for each lesson. The protocols were then hand-coded to determine when unsolicited behaviors occurred. After coding the data, comparison of all information took place. The data gathered from the videos were compared to information collected from the two participants' parents and regular classroom teachers through Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and Connors Checklist. The most significant theme that arose was that both participants had difficulty during listening activities. There were 48 occurrences of the unsolicited behavior of fidgeting during listening activities and 42 occurrences of fixation during listening activities. Of all the unsolicited behaviors noted, 69% were during listening activities.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Rebekah W Burcham.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Brophy, Timothy S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043723:00001


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1 TWO CASE STUDIES OF UNSOLICITED BEHAVIORS DEMONSTRATED BY STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN THE ELEMENTARY MUSIC CLASSROOM By REBEKAH W. BURCHAM A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSIT Y OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Rebekah W. Burcham

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3 To my husband, Eric

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Timothy Brophy for his enco uragement and expertise. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Russell Robinson, Dr. Will Kesling, and Dr. Charles Cichra for their advice and encouragement. I would also like to thank my co workers, friends, and family who all had a tremend ous role in helping me attain this monumental goal. My words can never express how grateful I am to have all of them in my life. I would also like to thank my parents for their love and support on so many levels. My wonderful husband, Eric, left everything he knew to follow me so that I could pursue my dream. To him, I am forever grateful. Lastly, I would like to thank my Creator for providing everything I needed every step of the way.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGM ENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 Autism Spectrum Disorder ................................ ................................ ...................... 13 Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ................................ ............... 14 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) ................................ ................................ ...................... 15 Autism Spectrum Disorder and Music Educator Education ................................ ..... 16 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 17 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 17 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 18 Delimitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 18 Definitions of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ 18 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 19 Philosophical Rationale ................................ ................................ ........................... 19 Empiricism ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 19 Progressivism ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 20 Theoretical Rationale ................................ ................................ .............................. 21 Music and Autism Spectrum Diso rder ................................ ................................ ..... 22 Implications for the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 25 Music Therapy and Autistic Spectrum Disorder ................................ ...................... 26 Implications for the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 28 Music Education and Inclusion ................................ ................................ ............... 29 Implications for the Studies ................................ ................................ ..................... 30 Music Education and Undergraduate Music Education Majors ............................... 31 Implications for the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 33 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 35 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 36 Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 36 Dat a Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 38

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6 Analytical Procedures ................................ ................................ ............................. 39 Comparison Procedures ................................ ................................ ......................... 40 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 43 Participant A ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 43 Lesson 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 43 Lesson 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 45 Lesson 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 46 Participant B ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 47 Lesson 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 47 Lesson 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 49 Lesson 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 50 Unsolicited Behaviors ................................ ................................ ............................. 52 5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ...... 65 Participant A ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 65 Unsolicited Behaviors Subcategories ................................ ............................... 65 Other: Fixation ................................ ................................ ........................... 65 Movement: Fidgeting ................................ ................................ ................. 65 Communication: Miscommunication ................................ .......................... 66 Unsolicited Behavior Categories ................................ ................................ ...... 66 Solicited Behavior Categories ................................ ................................ .......... 66 List ening ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 67 Composing ................................ ................................ ................................ 67 Participant B ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 68 Unsolicited Behavior Subc ategories ................................ ................................ 68 Other: Fixation ................................ ................................ ........................... 68 Movement: Fidgeting ................................ ................................ ................. 68 Unsolicit ed Behavior Category ................................ ................................ ......... 68 Solicited Behavior Category ................................ ................................ ............. 69 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 69 Study Problems ................................ ................................ ................................ 69 Implications for Music Education ................................ ................................ ...... 70 Future Research ................................ ................................ ............................... 72 APPENDIX A LESSON PLANS ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 73 B OBSERVATION PROTOCOL ................................ ................................ ................. 79 C CODED TIME UNITS ................................ ................................ .............................. 80 D GARS, CARS, AND CONNoRS OBSERVATIONAL CHECKLISTS ....................... 97 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 111

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7 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 116

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Participant A: Lesson 1: Ti me units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divided by observer ................................ ...... 54 4 2 Participant A: Lesson 1: Total time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior a nd the solicited behavior present ................................ ....................... 54 4 3 Participant A: Lesson 2: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divided by observer ................................ ...... 55 4 4 Participant A: Lesson 2: Total time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior present ................................ ....................... 55 4 5 Participant A: Less on 3: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divided by observer ................................ ...... 56 4 6 Participant A: Lesson 3: Total time units consisting of the unsolicited be havior and the solicited behavior present ................................ ....................... 56 4 7 Participant A: All Lessons: Totals consisting of all occurrences categorized by unsolicited and solicited behavior themes divided by observer ...................... 57 4 8 Participant A: All Lessons: Totals consisting of all occurrences categorized by unsolicited and solicited behavior themes ................................ ..................... 58 4 9 Participant B: Lesson 1: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divided by observer ................................ ...... 59 4 10 Participant B: Lesson 1: Total time units consi sting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior present ................................ ....................... 59 4 11 Participant B: Lesson 2: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divid ed by observer ................................ ...... 59 4 12 Participant B: Lesson 2: Total time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior present ................................ ....................... 60 4 13 Participant B: Lesson 3: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divided by observer ................................ ...... 60 4 14 Participant B: Lesson 3: Total time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior present ................................ ....................... 60 4 15 Participant B: All Lessons: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divided by observer ................................ ...... 61

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9 4 16 Participant B: All Lessons: Total time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior present ................................ ....................... 62 4 17 Participants A & B: All Lessons: Totals consisting of all occurrences categorized by unsolicited and solicited behavior themes ................................ .. 63 A 1 Participant A: Lesson 1 ................................ ................................ ........................ 73 A 2 Participant A: Lesson 2 ................................ ................................ ....................... 74 A 3 Participant A: Lesson 3 ................................ ................................ ....................... 75 A 4 Participant B: Lesson 1 ................................ ................................ ....................... 76 A 5 Participant B: Lesson 2 ................................ ................................ ....................... 77 A 6 Participant A: Lesson 3 ................................ ................................ ....................... 78 D 1 Participant A: GARS Checklist ................................ ................................ ............ 97 D 2 Participant A: CARS Checklist ................................ ................................ ............ 99 D 3 Participant A: Con nors Checklist ................................ ................................ ...... 103 D 4 Participant B: GARS Checklist ................................ ................................ .......... 104 D 5 Participant B: CARS Checklist ................................ ................................ .......... 106 D 6 Participant B: Connors Checklist ................................ ................................ ...... 110

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 Classroom schematic ................................ ................................ ......................... 42

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11 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Flor ida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy UNSOLICITED BEHAVIORS AND CAUSES OF UNSOLICITED BEHAVIORS OF STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN THE ELEMENTARY MUSIC CLASSROOM By Rebekah W. Burcham December 2011 Chair: Timothy S. Brophy Major: Music Education According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is now at 1 in 110 for 8 year olds. With this number of diagnosed cases on the rise, music educators need to be prepared to teach these students effectively. For music teachers to instruct these students in the most effective way, it is important to understand the needs of this ASD population. An essential part of understanding the needs of these student s with ASD is knowing what elements of music activities trigger unsolicited behaviors. In a case study using the grounded theory design two young females, 9 and 11 years old with ASD, were studied in the music classroom. The students were video recorded d uring three regular music lessons to determine if and when they had any unsolicited behaviors and what activities might have caused the behaviors. The music lessons included activities such as moving to music, listening to music, composing, and performing. The researcher and an outside observer viewed the video recordings and completed observation protocols for each lesson. The protocols were then hand coded

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12 to determine when unsolicited behaviors occurred. After coding the data, comparison of all informati on took place. The data gathered from the videos were compared to through G illiam A utism R ating S cale (GARS) Childhood Autism Rating Scale ( CARS ) and Connors Checklis t. The most significant theme that arose was that both participants had difficulty during listening activities. There were 48 occurrences of the unsolicited behavior of fidgeting during listening activities and 42 occurrences of fixation during listening a ctivities. Of all the unsolicited behaviors noted, 69% were during listening activities.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Unlike drugs and developmental theories, music is a far more ancient tonic, one that has endured since the dawn of time as a primary mea ns of human communication and social bonding precisely the two deficits suffered by our autistic progeny. -William Benda, M.D. Autism Spectrum Disorder In 1943, Leo Kanner was the first to diagnose autism after studying 11 children of varying ages, ab ilities, and family structures (Scott, Clark, & Brady, 2000). Kanner found that these children had the following 11 characteristics in common (Scheuermann & Webber, 2002): 1. An inability to relate to others in an ordinary manner 2. An extreme autistic alonene ss that seemingly isolated the child from the outside world 3. An apparent resistance to being picked up or held by the parents 4. Deficits in language, including mutism and echolalia 5. In some cases, an excellent rote memory 6. Early specific food preferences 7. Extrem e fear reactions to loud noises 8. Obsessive desire for repetition and maintenance of sameness 9. Few spontaneous activities, such as typical play behavior 10. Bizarre and repetitive physical movement, such as spinning or perpetual rocking 11. Normal physical appear ance

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14 The most common characteristic among the 11 children was an inability to relate to anyone (Scott et al., 2000). Kanner had this characteristic in mind when naming the -Characteri stics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Au tism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has a wide variety of characteristics, which are divided into behavior deficits and excesses. Behavior deficits include an inability to relate, lack of functional language, sensory proc essing deficits, and cognitive deficits. Receptive language, social skills, self care skills, compliance, communicative intent, and auditory and visual discrimination are a few examples of behavior deficits. Within the behavior excess category, characteris tics include self stimulation, resistance to change, bizarre and challenging behaviors, and self injurious behaviors. Behavioral excesses include tantrums, screaming, self stimulation, aggression, the refusal to follow directions, and echolalia. Combining the inability to communicate with sensory processing deficits can lead to unsolicited behaviors in the classroom (Scheuermann & Webber, 2002). Other common characteristics for those with ASD are sensory processing issues, such as hyposensitivity a less tha n typical level of response, or hypersensitivity a more than typical level of response. Such characteristics can pose problems in the music classroom due to the numerous auditory stimuli occurring throughout the lesson. (Hourigan & Hourigan, 2009) For thos e who work with the ASD population, any behavior deficit or excess can be an obstacle in any setting. When students exhibit these characteristics, combined with a small repertoire of appropriate behaviors, problem behaviors arise (Scott et al., 2000).

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15 Auti sm Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) Since 1975, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94 142) has enabled students with physical or mental disabilities to have access to a free a nd appropriate education. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (P.L. 94 119), passed in 1975, now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (P.L. 108 446) and known as IDEA, expanded upon the Education for All Ha ndicapped Children Act (EAHCA) by adding that students with handicaps are entitled not only to receive a free and appropriate education, but that this education be provided in the least restrictive educational environment possible. According to the Nationa l Center for Educational Statistics (2007a), when IDEA became law in 1976, the total public school population, which was served by the act, 8.3% or 3,692,000. D uring the 33 years since this act has been in place, the number of students served has risen to 13.5% or 6,686,000. I n the 1995 1996 school year, 45.3% of these students spent 80% or more of the school day in general education classes (National Council for Educational Statistics, 2007). The population served by IDEA increased to 52.1% during the 20 04 2005 school year, showing a 6.8% increase (National Council for Educational Statistics, 2007). In 2006, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that 1 out of 110 8 year olds in the United States were diagnosed with ASD This number al one signifies the likelihood of music educators teaching one or more students with autism during their career and probably many other special learners as well. The odds of having students with ASD in the music classroom have increased over the years since IDEA was first

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16 established. Because of the prevalence of students with special needs, music educators must enhance their ability to teach these students (Abeles & Custodero, 2010). Autism Spectrum Disorder and Music Educator Education Frisque, Niebur, and Humphreys (1994) found that 61% of the music teachers they surveyed had no training in college on how to teach students with special needs in the music classroom. These educators therefore need a working knowledge of how to accommodate the special needs po pulation and be in compliance with IDEA and c educators say they received little or no To comply with EAHCA and IDEA, pre service music education teachers should be trained with at least a basic knowledge of how to accommodate and provide an appropriate music education for students with ASD. Undergraduate training curricula has been limited (Colwell & Thompson, 2000), and hands on experience with students with ASD is also lacking in the undergraduate program (McDowell, 2007; Pontiff 2004). Music education courses with coverage of special education needs in the music classroom can eliminate this knowledge gap and ensure appropriate instruction for students with ASD, and also allow for meaningful and beneficial music experiences in th e music classroom (Hammel, 2001a). A possible reason for the lack of training might be the lack of research in this area of music education. This study was designed to be a starting point that would allow for more research into how students with autism rea ct in the music classroom. When students with autism are in the inclusion setting in the music classroom, the effects can

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17 be positive or negative for the children with ASD as well as their classmates. Students with ASD may produce random vocalizations, mo vements, echoing, and self stimulating behaviors during class which in turn might be distracting not only to the others in the class but the teacher as well. When the teacher must take time out of the class to attend to the student with ASD, the other stud ents then have less music instruction time. Teachers would be more successful in teaching students with ASD if there was more information about what might cause unsolicited behaviors and thus allowing them the ability to plan lessons accordingly. Purpose o f the Study With the number of children being diagnosed with ASD on the rise the probability of music teachers teaching students with the disorder also rises. Therefore, more research in how these students behave in the music classroom needs to o c cur. The purpose of the study was to determine what unsolicited behaviors were most prevalent during activities in the elementary music classroom in students with autism spectrum disorder. Significance of the Study With the number of students with ASD rising, the probability of teaching one of these children in the music classroom rises as well. The results of this study will contribute vital information that could lead to better trained music educators so they can appropriately serve students with ASD in the music classroom. The information gleaned from the study will provide insight into the activities in the music classroom that might be most difficult for students with autism. Having access to information such as this, might allow music teachers to be able to pr epare lessons that are not only meaningful and enjoyable to students with ASD but to all those participating in the class. If teachers

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18 possess a general knowledge of what might trigger unsolicited behaviors, they will be better equipped to design more appr opriate lessons for students with ASD Research Questions The main research question is: What unsolicited behaviors are most prevalent during activities in the elementary music classroom in students with autism spectrum disorder? Delimitations This study is not concerned with: 1. the advantages of music activities in the lives of students with ASD 2. the method of teaching music activities to students with ASD 3. the musical growth of students with ASD Definitions of Terms U NSOLICITED B EHAVIOR : A behavior exhibited by the subject that is unexpected, unwanted, or inappropriate. T RIGGER : An incident that initiates an unsolicited behavior. AIT (Auditory Integrati on Training): A rehabilitation system that involve disorders of the auditory and involves changing the frequencies of music. H YPOSENSITIVE : A less t han normal reaction to a stimuli. H YPERSENSITIVE : A more than normal reaction to a stimuli. I SOLATION SHELL : The tendency for those with autism to isolate themselves from others and their surroundings. C HILDREN WIT H HANDICAPS S PECIAL NEEDS STUDENT S S PECIAL LEARNERS : Students with varying disabilities or needs. I NCLUSION : Having students with any disability participate in regular education classes during part or all of the school day but who are not expected to do the same work as the other students. M AINSTREAMING : Having students with any disability participate in regular education classes and who are expected to do the same work as the other students.

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19 CHAP TER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of the study was to determine what unsolicited behaviors were most prevalent during activities in the elementary music classroom in students with autism spectrum disorder. In this chapter, research supporting the study w ill be presented in the following order: 1) philosophical rationale, 2) theoretical rationale, 3) music and ASD, 4) music therapy and ASD, 5) music education and inclusion, and 6) music education and undergraduate music education majors. Philosophical Rat ionale Empiricism According to the New Oxford American Dictionary (2011 ), empiricism is the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense experience in which ideas are based upon ty in innate or self experience as the only source of knowledge, with the knowledge coming from response to : Genuine empiricism is above all a reflection on the validity of sense knowledge, a speculation on the ways our concepts and beliefs are built up out of the fleeting and disconnec ted reports our eyes and ears actually make to the mind. (p. 14) Thomas Hobbes (1588 1679), a proponent of this empiricism philosophy, believed (Bowman, 1998, p. 73). Other ad vocates of empiricism were John Locke (1632 1704), George Berkeley (1685 1753), and David Hume (1711

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20 discovers knowledge as a passive reactor to information given by autonomous, external p. 103). When these thoughts are applied to music and musical experiences regarding students with ASD in the music classroom, music teachers may understand more easily why these students might produce unsolicited behaviors when certain stimuli are prese nt. Many ASD students have heightened sensitivity of the senses. Progressivism Regelski and Elliott (2005) stated: The progressive teacher is authoritative in facilitating and guiding learning, not authoritarian in force feeding it, as is the want of neo scholastics (and idealists and realists). Progressivism also stresses the practical value of learning for life use and social renewal and transformation; thus, problem solving, and cooperative forms of learning are stressed over rote memorization of inert facts and information. ( p. 225) Progressivis ts are dedicated to a child centered environment, which in turn should offer children an atmosphere in which they are free to experience and explore the space and objects around them. Exploration and experiment ation of sound materials should be feeling, interests, relevance, discovery, and self 144). John Dewey (1910), in How We Think stated: There is no single and uniform power of thought, but a multitude of different ways in which specific things things observed, remembered, heard of, read about evoke suggestions or ideas that are pertinent to the occasion and fruitful in the sequel. Training is such development of curiosity, suggestion, and habits of exploring and testing, as increases their scope and efficiency. (pp. 45 46) Progressivis t principles hold true in the techniques used to accommodate all students including those with ASD. The st

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21 with ASD has a meaningful experience in the music classroom. Theoretical Rationale Learning style theories help to explain the many different ways children gain information. By knowing how a student learns, a teacher is then able to make wise choices when developing a lesson or assisting that child in class. However, when teaching children with ASD, knowing how the student le arns plays a large role in how material is presented. T he Dunn and Dunn (1992) learning style model gives consideration to a variety of factors that influence learning. Students could be affected by such factors as the environment, emotional issues, soci al issues, physical challenges, or psychological problems. Environmental factors can include, but are not limited to, sound, light, temperature, and classroom design. Other aspects to be considered are noise levels, visual appearance of the classroom, and if the lesson or other contributors are over stimulating or distracting. Learning modalities and the learning style model are both ways of helping to design lessons for students with ASD. Barbe Swassing and Milone (1979) learning modality theory invol ves finding out which modality is best for students Using this theory for educating students with ASD could prove to be quite beneficial so as not to trigger any unsolicited behaviors. The Dunn and Dunn (1992) model for learning styles focuses on a number of factors that could also be triggers for certain students with ASD. If the triggers for such behaviors can be identified, then it might be possible to avoid or lessen the over stimulation a student with ASD might undergo.

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22 Music and Autism Spectrum Disor der Bettison (1996) in an experimental study used two groups of 40 children ages 3.9 17.1 years of age to determine if improvements could be made in behavior, memory and communication in children with autism. One group received auditory training where th e participants listened to music that was modified according to the results of his or her audiogram pretest scores a nd the other group listened to the same music under identical circumstances, only unmodified. Each of the 80 children listened to the same 1 6 tracks in the same sequence for all 20 sessions T tests were used to compare pretest scores from the Autism Behavior Checklist, Developmental Behavior Checklist from the teacher and parent, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Leiter International P erformance Scale, Sensory Problems Checklist, Sound Sensitivity Questionnaire, Sound Distress, Sensory Problems, Audiogram Mean Decibels and Audiogram Standard Deviations to 1 month, 3 month, 6 month, and 12 month intervals. Greater improvement wa s observed in behavior, auditory memory, and ability to communicate within the group that had auditory training. The most significant finding was that auditory training and a program of structured listening could lead to a decrease in hypersensitivity and abnormal responses to sound. Buday (1995) investigated how well children with autism ( N =10) learned signs and cues to Goldilocks Returns written and performed by Dennis Hysom (1992) in a within subject study design The subjects were tested in a series of four consecutive days for two weeks with five trials per day. The words, which had corresponding signs, were as the music condition training. All words were two

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23 e average number of signs correctly imitated was 5.1 of 7 in the music condition training, and the average number of signs correctly imitated in the rhythm condition training was 4 of 7. A significant positive effect on sign imitations (F=6.54, p< .0 5) a nd speech imitations (F=8.33, p<.02) was determined through a 2 factorial ANOVA Music also played a significant role on short term memory recall and made a more enjoyable learning situation. Chadwick, Nash, and Wimpory (1995) assessed development of a 3 year old subject prior to, during, and for almost two years after completion of Musical Interaction Therapy (MIT) The subject musician. The goal was to increase social participation through social ini tiations and eye contact. With the synchronization of live music to adult child interactions also known as MIT, contact, and initiations of interactive involvement. A two year f ollow up indicated that these positive changes were sustained, and the children did not show frequent social withdrawal. The MIT appeared to show sustaining changes in positive behavioral patterns. Rimland and Edelson (1995) explored the sensitivity of he aring in students with ASD by conducting an experiment using Auditory Integration Training ( AIT ). In this study, Rimland and Edelson had two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The subjects were paired as closely as possible trying to match the control and experimental groups. All subjects were assessed using the Hearing Sensitivity

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24 Problems Checklist (FAPC). When responding to the questionnaires, parents were to Edleson, 1995, p. 65). Rimland and Edelson found that the subjects receiving AIT had a s ignificant decrease in behavioral and auditory problems. Edgerton (1994) investigated how improvisational music affected the communication abilities of children with autism. Each subject ( N = 1 1 ) participated in one 30 minute session per week for 10 weeks Each session consisted of improvisational music therapy in which the researcher would play the piano or sing and allow the subject to respond using different instruments. During each session, each subject was scored on four areas of music: tempo, rhyt hm, structure/form, and pitch. Of these areas, the highest scores were in tempo, then pitch, rhythm, and structure/form, consecutively. Each subject showed improvement of communicative skills. The only exception throughout the study was a decrease in score s when pre composed music was used. When improvised music was used once again, communicative behaviors began to increase. Edgerton (1994) suggested that tempo demanded less cognitive involvement than rhythm and structure/form. A survey was sent to the subj music teachers, and speech therapists. All the parents, teachers, and therapists detected signs of improvement, but the highest scores, were from the music teachers. Subjects in the Anderson, Campbell, and Kolko (1980) study were normal chil dren (n = 5) and children with autism (n = 5) with an average age of 6.1 years All subjects had ten twelve 20 minute sessions during which the child could activate a slide projector to look at pictures of 10 seconds of 40 slides of street and city scenes activate

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25 a tape recorder to listen to 10 seconds of a musical selection from the movie The Sting or do nothing. Every five minutes the levers that activated the devices were altered so that a position preference did not interfere with the study. Finding s suggested that 4 of the 5 children with autism preferred the auditory stimuli to the other kinds of stimuli. Saperston (1973) conducted a case study with one subject for several months utilizing music therapy to help the subject break through the isolati primary goal was to establish some type of communication with the subject. At the beginning of the study, the subject never took notice of Saperston, even when Saperston played the piano and the subject only occasionally moved about t he room. During the 20th session, the subject stomped with his right foot, thus Saperston accompanied the stomps with a tone cluster, which was the beginning of communication. The subject knew how to make Saperston play certain accompaniments, which made t he subject come to the point of laughter at times. The subject was communicating and breaking out of his isolation shell. During the 18 months that Saperston worked with the subject, the subject became more aware of his immediate environment, began reactin g to people and objects, increased eye contact, and began to vocalize more frequently. Implications for the S tud y In the studies discussed in this section, the researchers have found positive effects of music on children with ASD. The researchers found t hat these children have minimal responsiveness to verbal instruction (Koegel et al., 1977) and that auditory stimuli are preferred (Anderson et al.,1980). Barison et al. (1984) discovered that children with ASD could often sing tunes, and Edgerton (1994) found that communication was positively created through the use of improvisational music making.

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26 The researchers found that music may have positive effects and can be beneficial for children with ASD. Music Therapy and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Kern (20 04) conducted three experiments in which music therapy treatments were embedded within the morning greeting routine, the schedules throughout the day, and repeated playground activities to determine if an increase in i ndependence would occur in the participants. Designed as a case study, the research consisted of different participants ranging in age from 3 to 5 years old ( N =6) During each class, t he teachers taught songs prescribed by the music therapist that were to increase the desired behaviors of the participants. All three experiments had positive results although the song prescribed for the playground did not have the positive effects as the other experiments. Pasiali (2004) used prescriptive songs in case studies of 3 subjects ( N =3) to elim inate target behaviors identified by the family. The songs were normally familiar tunes with altered words that focus on an unwanted or targeted behavior and were administered by family members at the home. The song composed for the first participant was t o the tune You Are My Sunshine by Jimmie Davis and Charles Mitchell and focused on eradicating inappropriate vocaliza tions produced by the subject. Demonstrating appropriate behaviors of operating the VCR was the focus of the altered lyrics of Yellow Submarine by The Beatles inappropriate behavior of rummaging in the kitchen without having reason was the focus of the altered lyrics to the tune of Down by the Bay Using these songs during in home therapy sessions proved to lower and even eliminate target behaviors as treatment progressed

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27 Clarkso when the subject enter ed the room withdrawn and not mak ing eye contact. As the session progressed, the subject accepted an offered drumstick and hesitantly began keeping the steady beat of the music played by Clarkson. Througho ut the four years of the became comfortable enough to even begin vocalizing to music with which he was familiar. Clarkson used a variety of methods with the subject during the years of music therapy sessions. The methods included lea rning dance movements and accompanying music such as waltzes, marches, and syncopated rhythms on a drum and standing cymbal. The subject was also able to accompany Clarkson by reading color coded notation. During the latter sessions, the subject made more eye contact and was less resistant to physical contact. The purpose of (1990) stud y was to analyze the responses between autistic children and non autistic children ( N =8) with the average age of 8 years 10 months. music therapy was used to prom o te social and emotional growth. Both behavioral and developmental measures were used to score the responses so that a wide range of patterns was available for comparison. The measures were taken after the first 5 weeks of developmental therapy, which was without music and art, the next 5 weeks which contained music and art, and the 5 weeks after that to determine if any gains were sustained after treatment. The use of music therapy was employed to increase socialization by decreasing the threat of failur e, thus increasing confidence to participate fully and allowing social interaction to occur. T tests were used to determine if there were any significant gains in behaviors. The subjects with autism had slower but steadier gains in appropriate behaviors wh en music and art therapy were introduced but

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28 not significant enough to be determined by the T tests. The strongest developmental gain was in nonverbal and verbal social communication. Blasco (1978) conducted a case study of an 8 year old female child. At t he beginning of this study, the subject could not focus longer than a few minutes during a music session. The sound of the piano agitated the subject and she was clearly uncomfortable by the music being played. As the study progressed, the subject became m ore accustomed to the music sessions. Blasco was able to gather more information drawings. At first, her drawings were repetitive and basic, but as the sessions continued, her drawings became more distinguishable. She drew her thoughts when the music played. Also, during the sessions, she was encouraged to improvise on the piano or guitar and engage with the therapist in improvised musical dialogue. Music therapy seemed to world. Implications for the S tud y For those with Autism Spectrum Disorder, music therapy has proven to have many positive responses and results (Blasco, 1978; Kern, 2004; Marwick, 1 996; Straum, 2007; Travarthen, 1996). The use of music therapy for ASD children has positive outcomes, such as helping with language skills (Straum, 2007), increasing independence (Kern, 2004), enhancing communication (Travarthen et al.,1996), and focusing ability (Blasco, 1978). According to Wigram and Gold (2005) and Wilson and Smith (2000), music therapy and music therapists could also be used in the assessment of children with ASD. All these studies point to the effectiveness of music in working with AS D children.

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29 Music Education and Inclusion Scott et al. (2007) conducted a study in which 43 music teachers were interviewed about their perceptions, opinions, and experiences with inclusion students. These interviews were recorded and later trans cribed by trained graduate students. The data 41). The responses for answers to the in terview were coded using six frames of teachers received information about t he placement of the child and were supported in accommodating these students. Positive feelings were also voiced in responses to the effects of inclusion on the teacher, as well as on the special learner and typical students. Hammel (2001a) discussed the importance of knowing how to teach special learners. Elementary music teachers in Virginia completed and returned 202 surveys in which they identified lack of observations, undergraduate coursework, and field experiences as weaknesses in their pre service teaching experiences. The teachers with the least amount of experience in the field discussed special learners more than 8). In the surveys, the teachers mentioned such areas as frustration, classroom management, support staff, and not being included in IEP discussions as other problematic areas. All these issues, but especially the lack of observations, undergraduate cours ework, and field experiences, contributed to the problem of not being able to teach special learners confidently and effectively.

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30 Frisque, Niebur, and Humphreys (1994) completed a study on mainstreaming practices in Arizona using a questionnaire with a fi ve point scale and a four point scale for non demographic data. The study was distributed to 227 music teachers in Arizona with 202 being returned and considered valid for the study. The focus of the nstreaming in music, including participants taught students with handicaps, while 40% of the participants did not have ack sufficient preparation time (89%) 102). Gfeller, Darrow, and Hedden (1990) surveyed 350 elementary and secondary music educators to determine their perceived effec tiveness of mainstreaming. The research was built on six questions, with each question having multiple questionnaire preparation for mainstreaming exists among music educators in I services pertaining to such were rare. Based on the results, Gfeller et al. (1990) suggest that music educators need both instructional support and educational preparation. Implications for the S tud ies For many music teachers, teaching special learners in self contained classes or in an inclusion setting can be daunting (Pontiff, 2004). Many teache rs stated that their lack of training and support hinders their ability to provide meaningful music education for special learners, as well as complying with IDEA (Hammel, 2001a; Scott et al., 2007).

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31 Many researchers have compiled recommendations from vete ran music educators on how to teach special learners (Armstrong & Darrow, 1999; Au, 2003; Mazur 2004; Miceli, 2006). Music Education and Undergraduate Music Education Majors McDowell (2007) interviewed 10 Southeast Missouri State University music education majors about their readiness for teaching after the completion of three blocks of field experience, which included the courses of Introduction to Music Education, Elementary and Secondary General Music Methods, and Secondary Methods. After completing each block, students were asked questions about 1) their readiness for teaching, 2) their feelings toward the field experience, 3) preparedness for teaching, 4) specific types of activities used during field experience, and 5) concerns about the next field exp erience. Participants reported that they felt unprepared for classroom management and working with children with special needs. McDowell suggested that college curricula be revised to ensure that pre service teachers have the skills to work with students w ith special needs. VanWeelden (2007) conducted a study involving music education students ( N =59) week of field experience, the participants completed a 17 question survey answering point Likert into 39). After the course, the undergraduates completed the same survey with m ean scores

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32 showing a significant increase overall (n = 29) [F (1,60) = 20.60, p 0 < .001]. Similar results were found for second year participants (n = 29) [F (1,54) = 9.58, p 0 = .003] Hammel (2001b) created two surveys to research competencies that pre s ervice music teachers need to be able to provide adequate music education to students with handicaps. Hammel (2001b) designed the first survey, Survey A, for elementary teachers and received 202 or 30% completed responses Hammel asked respondents to compl competencies listed in the survey were used when teaching students with handicaps. Hammel (2001b) created the second survey, Survey B, which was geared to college and university music education faculty and received 30 or 39% completed responses H ammel special learner s that were perceived to be important for inclusion in undergraduate for teaching special learners should be established in the undergraduate music education courses bef ore professional teaching begins. The 14 competencies listed as essential by Hammel (2001b, p. 11) were: 1. acquaintance with various handicapping conditions (general knowledge) 2. knowledge of IDEA (legal aspects) 3. n team (assessment and evaluation) 4. ability to develop and use informal assessment procedures (assessment and evaluation) 5. ability to monitor the learning process of all students (assessment and evaluation)

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33 6. ability to evaluate program effectiveness for speci fic learners (assessment and evaluation) 7. ability to identify areas of particular difficulty for a student (assessment and evaluation) 8. ability to modify, if necessary, the instructional program to accommodate special learners (curriculum planning) 9. knowledge of how to modify the physical environment of a classroom for special learners (classroom structure) 10. ability to encourage appropriate social interactions among all students (classroom management) 11. knowledge of effective classroom management techniques (cl assroom management) 12. knowledge of appropriate materials for diverse learning abilities and styles (methods and materials) 13. ability to adapt material to provide for individual differences (methods and materials) 14. ability to communicate effectively with suppo rt personnel (communication skills) Colwell and Thompson (2000) surveyed 196 undergraduate music education programs out of which 171 were used to determine how many included courses in which mainstreaming was taught or discussed. The researchers also compa red these areas between the types of schools surveyed. Results were divided by available requirements. Out of the 171 schools used for analysis, only 13 (7%) required music educ ation majors to take music content which was specific to special education courses. Implications for the S tud y Even in 1972, Nocera recognized the deficiency in the education of music As pre service

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34 teachers are trained, more children are being diagnosed with autism. If more cases of autism are diagnosed the greater the chance these pre service teachers will have students with ASD in the music class room If future music teachers are ill equipped to work with this population, creating meaningful music education for those with ASD will continue to be lacking. According to Colwell and Thompson (2000), only 7 % of colleges surveyed required music education majors to take courses in musi c education that also covered special education issues McDowell (2007) state d that undergraduates also do not feel prepared to work with children with special needs.

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35 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY In 1943, Leo Kanner, a psych iatrist at Johns Hopkins University, was the first to identify autism (Au, 2003). He determined that children with autism appear to be of normal functioning level but they havior patterns in four areas : 1) developmental rates, 2) resp onses to sensory stimuli, 3) communication using speech and language, and cognitive capacities and 4) capacities to relate to people, events M any studies have validated the use of music to help assist children with autism. Harrist on (1990), Chadwick et al. (1995), and Freundlich et al. ( 1989) noted music decrease d patterns of isolation and helped the subjec ts discover the outside world. Anderson et al. (1984) and Baker (1982) suggested it was necessary to transfer the the rapy to his everyday living. Communication for children with autism can be difficult. Edgerton (1994), Barison et al. (1984) and Koegel et al. (1977) offer ed ways for communication to begin or to be established. Buday (1995) and Hollander and Juhrs (197 4) found that music has definite positive properties for helping ASD children to communicate. Even though music is helpful to those with ASD, music teachers have little training in teaching these students (Frisque et al., 1994; Gfeller et al.1990; Hammel 2001a). With little training and experience, music teachers might meet hardships in complying with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). If more research is conducted focusing on accommodating students with ASD in the music classroom, t his discrepancy in music teacher education and training might be resolved, allowing for

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36 music educators to comply not only with IDEA, but for those students with ASD to have more positive, meaningful experiences in the music classroom. Participants The pu rposive sample of participants consisted of two females, 9 and 11 years of age, who received services for Autism Spectrum Disorder and were in the inclusive at a rural Title One elementary school. These participants were chosen to eliminate other variables that could arise when working with students with ASD such as changes in environment, schedule, teachers, teaching methods, and expectations. Only participants wh o we re easy to work with and had a for m of ASD w ere asked to participate in the study. Participation also depended upon parental consent and student assent. Procedure The case study was based on the grounded theory design so as to allow for understanding th theory design is a systematic, qualitative procedure used to generate a theory that explains, at a broad conceptual level, a process, an action, or an interaction about a substantive topic coding in which the researcher looked at the data the first time to determine several categories. Step 2 was to use axial coding in which one category is divided into subcategories. Step 3 was to use sele ctive coding, which allowed the researcher to connect the information in a way that was meaningful to the study (Creswell, 2008). The research was designed as a case study and completed in six phases.

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37 Phase 1: Obtaining Permission. Permission was obta ined from the University of Florida Institutional Review Board, the school board for the site being used, and the assent was obtained from the participants. Phase 2 : Paren tal consent and participant assent. Parental consent and student assent forms were sent home with three students. Two out of the three students were given permission to participate in the study. Phase 3: Lessons completed The three 22 to 46 minute video r ecorded lessons occurred in the music classroom at the site with some schedule changes occurring in day, time of day, and length of lesson because of school activities. The only differentiating factor in the music classroom was a video camera placed on one side of the classroom. A schematic of the classroom can be seen in Figure 3 1. The researcher of study and curriculum for each class. The lessons included the followi ng activities: playing instruments, moving to music, actively listening to music, and composing (see Appendix A) Phase 4: Post study viewing of the video recordings. The researcher and outside obse rver viewed the video recordings to identify the unsolicited behaviors. The researcher and outside observer completed the observation protocol upon viewing the video recordings. Phase 5: Parent, Teacher Questionnaire and checklists Parents and teachers w ere asked to complete the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and Connors Test regarding behavior of the participant at home

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38 and at school. The parents and teachers were asked to complete the checklists four months aft er the study took place. The results were gathered to compare with the findings of the research. The checklists were distributed after the lessons were music classroom. P hase 6: Coding and Comparison of observation notes from the researcher and outside observer, reflection notes from the researcher, and completed checklists and questionnaires from parents and teachers. The researcher gathered the information and coded it to determine themes. Data Collection Each session was video recorded and later viewed to determine when unsolicited behaviors occurred and what caused these behaviors. The researcher assumed dual roles in the study: 1) a participant observer as the teach er and 2) a non participant observer as the viewer of the video recordings. After each lesson, the researcher made journal entries about what took place during the lessons. Later, when the videos were watched, the researcher took descriptive notes using th e designed observation protocol (see Appendix B). For reliability purposes, an outside observer, with a doctorate in music education and prior experience in qualitative research with children, was secured to view the video recordings. The researcher provi ded a three hour training session for the outside observer relevant to completion of the observation protocol The outside observer completed the observation protocol, taking notes when the participant was demonstrating unsolicited behaviors. The outside

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39 activities at those specific times. As previously delineated in Phase 4, parents and teachers were asked to complete the GARS, CARS, and Connors Test. The information gleaned from the applicable checklists was used to compare behaviors noted in the music classroom to those the participant manifested in other classroom situations. The researcher was then able to determine if any of the beha viors were exclusive to the music classroom. Analytical Procedures After the six sessions were completed, the first viewing of the video recordings was completed to determine the unsolicited behaviors and when they occurred (see Appendix A) The researcher defined unsolicited behaviors as the physical demonstration of the subject being off task. For example, if the participant was to be still and listen to the researcher but instead was rocking back and forth continuously, this would be an unsolicited behavior. The behavior is not considered negative, only unsolicited. The researcher developed an observation protocol that contained columns for time segments in 30 second increments, solicited behaviors, unsolicited behaviors, identification of the unsolicited behavior, and observation s of specific classroom activities at the time of the unsolicited behavior (see A ppendix B). The researcher viewed the videos a second time to identify the probable cause of the unsolicited behavior. The outside observer also viewed the recordings and completed the observation protocol electronically. The researcher then coded the observations from the protocols using the unsolicited and solicited behaviors recorded by the researcher and the outside

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40 observer. The codes were broken down into 1) lesson, 2) occurrence in the lesson, and 3) who observed the behavior. After each coding sequence, a series of letters followed in parentheses. The letters indicated what unsolicited behavior took place and what solicited be havior should be occurring. For example, 1.4.B (M/FD, L) would denote that the occurrence was during the first lesson (1), was the fourth occurrence of unsolicited behavior (4), that both the researcher and outside observer (B) recorded that the participan t was moving (M) through fidgeting (F D ) when she should be listening (L). After each lesson was coded, the researcher tallied how many times each unsolicited behavior occurred during each lesson. The data from each lesson were then assembled to determine the total percentage of occurrences during the three lessons. The researcher compared the unsolicited behavior with what the solicited behavior should have been to determine the probable cause for the unsolicited behavior. Comparison Procedures After all observation protocols were hand coded, the researcher compared the completed protocol for each lesson. When an unsolicited behavior was noted by either the researcher or outside observer or by both, the researcher reviewed the observation column of the protocol to determine the solicited behavior at that juncture and to determine what was taki ng place in the lesson and in the music room. The researcher then made note of these incidents. The information provided by parents and teachers through the GARS, CARS, and Connors Test was then compared to the information gathered from the protocols. Co mparison of information about such things as fidgeting and fixation documented by

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41 parents and teachers were aligned and compared with information gathered by the researcher and outside observer through use of the observation protocol. The researcher was th en able to determine if the unsolicited behaviors that occurred during the lessons were exclusive to the music classroom. In doing so, the researcher was able to determine the activities in which students with ASD demonstrated the most occurrences of unso licited behaviors.

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42 Figure 3 1. Classroom schematic

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43 CHAPTER 4 RESULT S The purpose of the study was to determine what unsolicited behaviors were most prevalent during activities in the elementary music classroom in students with autism spectrum diso rder. amalgamated to determine what activities might be key triggers to unsolicited behaviors manifested in the music classroom In order to determine the poss ible causes identification of the unsolicited behaviors was necessary Subsequent to identification and labeling of observed unsolicited behaviors, the researcher rev iewed the observation notes and videos to determine the possible causes for these behavio rs. The lesson plans for each lesson were designed to fit the sequence of each class (see Appendix A). Participant A Lesson 1 lesson contained moveme nt to music with use of streamers and discussion, as well as melody composition using soprano glockenspiels. For the melody composition, the students worked with their respective partners to whom they were assigned in the previous lesson. Participant A entered the music room with her classmates and sat down quietly. The first unsolicited behavior for this participant occurred one minute after instruction began, occurring when the researcher gave instructions to the class for moving the streamers to Sleeping Beauty Suite, Op. 66a Introduction. After being in the music class for 3 minutes, Participant A was called to the office and returned

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44 approximately 10 minutes later. Upon her return to the classroom, she went directly to her seat an d sat down. The researcher then provided instructions for the students to continue working on their melody composition with their partners. The next instance of unsolicited behavior occurred at that time. The participant fidgeted on 4 occasions in her cha ir while the researcher was giving instructions. The next phase of the lesson was for students to move to a seat next to their assigned partners and begin working on the composition of melodies. The participant experienced communication difficulties with her partner during this activity. This problem was noted on 7 occasions while the participant was working with her partner. Additionally Participant A assumed total control of the project in two instances, and would not allow her partner to have input in creating the composition of their melody. The researcher then intervened to assist the pair with communication and helped the students to continue working together. At the end of the lesson, the researcher instructed the students to put everything away and return to their seats. At this time, P articipant A stood up to get into line then reali zing that it was not time she sat down. The total number of unsolicited behavior occurrences by this participant in this lesson was 23. Those behaviors were divided into Movement/Fidgeting during listening activities, Communication/Talking off subject during composing activities, Communication/Miscommunication during composing activities, and Communication/Dominating during composing activities. The unsolicited behavi or most often observed was Communication/Miscommunication during listening activities: 13 occurrences or 57% of the total of unsolicited behaviors The second most documented unsolicited behavior was Movement/Fidgeting during composing: 5 occurrences or 22 %

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45 of the total Communication/Dominating during composing: 4 occurrences or 17%. The least observed behavior was Communication/Talking off subject during composing activities: 1 occurrence or 4% was the least observed unsolicited behavior by this student during this specific class (see Table 4 1 and Table 4 2). Lesson 2 The second lesson was conducted eight days subsequent to the first lesson The time was the regularly scheduled class time and for the same duration. During this lesson, Participant A wa s in attendance for the entirety of the class. The lesson began with movement to music using streamers. The students were instructed to use the streamers to display the musical elements heard in The Flight of the Bumblebee by Nikolai Rimsky Korsakov. The p articipant manifested s even instances of unsolicited behavior during this activity. All of the with the participant being more focused on the streamer than in moving the streamer appropriately to the elements of mu sic being heard. The use of the streamers was not a new concept to the participant, as streamers had been used many times in the same manner in previous lessons. The only additional noted unsolicited behavior occurred when the researcher dropped an object while explaining how to compose for non pitched percussion instruments. The participant then ran from her seat to pick the object up and hand it to the researcher. In Lesson 2, the total number of unsolicited behavior occurrences was 9. Unsolicited behav iors categorized as Other/Fixation during listening and Other/Fixation during mov ement were 4 for each category or 44%. Movement/Out of Seat during listening activities was 1 occurrence or 11% (see Table 4 3 and Table 4 4)

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46 Lesson 3 The third lesson was co regularly scheduled music time. This lesson was 23 minutes long due to administratively scheduled school activities. The participant arrived to class approximately 3 minutes late. She began to manifest un solicited behaviors immediately subsequent to her arrival. While the researcher was reviewing dotted quarter notes and eighth note rhythms, the participant exhibited four occurrences of fidgety behavior. The participant seemed distracted during the explana tion and began to focus her attention on others and not on the researcher. The researcher instructed the students to snap the syncopated rhythms. During this activity Participant A became fidgety in five instances. The researcher continued to have the stu dents practice clapping syncopated rhythms correctly, during which time the participant again exhibited fidgety behavior A fter the researcher had introduced The Ring Cycle by Richard Wagner t he participant commented about the length of the opera withou t permission while the others in the class were listening intently. The next activity in the lesson was to move the streamers appropriately to the elements of music heard in Ride of the Valkyrie s by Richard Wagner. The students were instructed to retrieve a streamer from the piano. The students then spread out in the room and the researcher started the music. Participant A was fixated on her streamer rather than in moving it appropriately to the music. The researcher encouraged the students to move about th e room, demonstrating with their streamers the musical elements being heard. Participant A remained fixated on her streamer and did not move about the room remaining motionless while the researcher gave instructions to the students

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47 A total of twenty se ven unsolicited behaviors were observed during Lesson 3. The unsolicited behavior s by Participant A during this lesson are listed in order of frequency with a corresponding percentage of the total for each: Other/Fixation during l istening: 7 occurrences or 26%, Movement/Fidgeting during l istening: 6 occurrences or 22%, Movement/Fidgeting during p racticing: 4 occurrences or 15%, Movement/Stagnation duri ng moving 3 occurrences or 11% and Communication/Speaking out of turn during listening 3 occurrences or 1 1%. The next four categories had 1 occurrence or 4%: Movement/Out of Seat during listening activities, Communication/Talking off subject during listening activities, Other/Fixation during moving activities, 1occurrence or 4%; Other/Distracted during listen ing activities (Table 4 5 and Table 4 6). A complete listing and total occurrence of all unsolicited and solicited behaviors can be seen on Table 4 7 and Table 4 8. Participant B Lesson 1 This lesson was conducted on ic instruction due to school activities and was of the normal 45 minutes duration The participant was present for the entire the lesson. The class entered the music room in an orderly fashion and sat on the risers awaiting further instructions. Subsequent to the arrival of all members of the class and being seated, the researcher instructed the students to retrieve the streamers from the piano and to spread out across the room During this time, Participant B who was exhibiting fidgety behavior, retrieved her streamer and proceeded to a location in the room. The researcher started a recording of Sleeping Beauty Suite, Op. 66a Introduction Participant B began moving her streamer appropriately to the music elements being heard which the class had

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48 been instructed to do When the style of the music changed P articipant B did not alter the manner in which she moved her streamer. She exhibited fixation on the streamer rather than on moving it appropriately. The music ended at which time the resear cher instructed the students to sit on the floor. The researcher then began a discussion of the music and asked the students to decide what would be appropriate movements with the streamer when the music was soft, loud, fast, and slow. During this discus sion activity, Participant B was fixated on straightening her streamer. While t he researcher demonstrated the movements the students should perform with the streamers to demonstrate musical form Participant B fidgeted in her seat. The researcher ask ed th e students to think about where they might have heard this piece of music previously The participant was fixated on her streamer and became fidgety, playing with her shoe and rocking back and forth. This behavior occurred several times throughout the less on. The objective of the next lesson was to review the music alphabet. Participant B rocked back and forth in her seat, alternately touching her feet then leaning back. This occurred intermittently for 4 minutes while the participant should have been foc used on listening to the researcher. The researcher discussed the music alphabet as she played the corresponding notes on the piano. Participant B was engaged when the music was being played but became fidgety immediately upon cessation of the music As th e researcher continued the lesson on the music alphabet the participant exhibited fidgety behavior on four occasions within four minutes. The researcher continued the lesson on the music alphabet by playing the traditional melody of Twinkle, Twink le Little Star on the glockenspiel. Afterwards, the

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49 researcher led the class in a discussion of the relationship between the notes played and the notes seen on the staff. For 1 minutes, Participant B rocked back and forth in her chair, stretching her l egs out and then touching them The researcher continued leading the discussion relative to the relationship of the notes on the staff to the notes on the glockenspiel. Participant B continuously rock ed back and forth in her seat touching her legs. At the end of the lesson, the students were allowed to play on the glockenspiels for 30 seconds When the signal to cease was given, the participant kept playing. During this lesson, unsolicited behaviors occurred 47 times. Categories of unsolicited behaviors w ith attendant frequency and percentage of the total for each are delineated below: Movement/Fidgeting during listening activities: 25 occurrences or 53%. Other/Fixation during listening activities: 19 occurrences or 40%. Movement/Fidgeting during practicin g: 3 occurrences or 6% (see Table 4 9 and Table 4 10). Lesson 2 The second lesson occurred in the morning three days subsequent to the first lesson. The lesson was truncated to 31 minutes due to unscheduled school activities. The class was well behaved up on entering the classroom and the students came in and took their seats quietly. The researcher instructed the students to move to the music utilizing the streamers to demonstrate musical elements being heard in The Flight of the Bumblebee by Nikolai Rimsk y Korsakov. Participant B exhibited no unsolicited behaviors during this activity. After the aural presentation was completed the researcher asked the students to sit on the floor to discuss the elements of the music heard in the composition Participant B was fixated on her streamer and was not

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50 involved in the discussion. The researcher repeated the activity with the students upon completing the discussion, demonstrating what was discussed. During this activity, Participant B face d in the direction oppos ite to the class The next unsolicited behavior by this participant was manifested while the researcher was reviewing the lines and spaces of the staff. Participant B rocked back and forth in her chair, touching her legs. Following this activity, the stude nts were to use the glockenspiels to review the relationship between notes on the staff and the notes on an instrument. As the students reviewed with the researcher, Participant B focused on the glockenspiel and not on the fidgety during that time as well as when further instructions were given. The researcher guided students to look for patterns in music by displaying the musical score for Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Participant B fidgeted multiple times and did not pa rticipate when allowed to explore the sounds on the glockenspiel. She was fidgeting as the researcher asked the class questions about notes on the same line or space. As the researcher closed the lesson the participant played the glockenspiel without permi ssion. In lesson 2, the top ranked unsolicited behavior was Movement/Fidgeting during listening: 11 occurrences or 52%. The next category was Other/Fixation during listening: 8 occurrences or 38%. The last category was Communication/Miscommunication during listening: 2 occurrences or 10% (see Table 4 11 and Table 4 12). Lesson 3 The final lesson in this study lasted 42 minutes and was conducted the day after Lesson 2 and later in the afternoon The class entered the music room, sat on the risers, and a w aited further instruction from the researcher. The students were instructed

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51 to retrieve the glockenspiels and mallets. Participant B became fidgety as she waited for her neighbor to return with the glockenspiel. The researcher then led the students into th e movement activity with streamers. The students moved their streamers to the musical elements of Ride of the Valkyries by Richard Wagner. Participant B became fixated on her streamer rather than on moving it appropriately to the music. After completion of the movement activity, the students discussed on the relationship of music to the visual aspects of TV commercials and TV shows as well as in the movies. The researcher asked the students where they might have heard T he Ride of the Valkyrie s by Richard Wagner. During the discussion, Participant B continuously fixated on her streamer for 3 minutes. For the next activity, the researcher instructed the students to determine what notes to play on the glockenspiel by reading the notes on the treble staff. P articipant B fixated on the glockenspiel instead of on determining the correct notes to play. As the researcher had the students decipher what notes to play, Participant B became fidgety. She fixated on the glockenspiel instead of listening to the lesson a nd participating appropriately. The students were given time to practice Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star Participant B practiced but with some fidgeting and fixation on her neighbor The researcher led the class in a group performance of Twinkl e, Twinkle Little Star Participant B moved up a step on the risers, then a couple of minutes later got out of her seat to hang up her coat without obtaining permission to do so. The students were then allowed to practice more on their own. Participant B instead of practic ing, laid on the floor and put her head down. The next activity for this lesson was for the students to individually perform Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star. Once again Participant B

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52 was observed lying on the floor with her head down. She r emained in that position until it was her turn to perform. Upon completion of the individual performance activity the participant again lay on the floor and put her head down The researcher then reminded her to practice good audience behavior. Participan t B then sat up and remained so until the end of class. Lesson 3 had 32 instances of unsolicited behaviors. The manifestation categories with frequency and percentage of the total are listed below in descending frequency order: Other/Fixation during pract icing: 9 occurrences or 28%. Movement/Lying down during listening and: 7 occurrences or 22%. Other/Fixation during listening, 7 occurrences for 22% Other/Fixation during practicing: 6 occurrences or 19%. Movement/Fidgeting during listening : 1 occurrence, 3 %; Movement/Fidgeting during performing, 1 occurrence or 3%; Movement/Out of Seat during performing 1 occurrence for 3% A complete listing and total occurrences of all unsolicited and solicited behaviors can be seen on Table 4 13 and Table 4 14. Unso licited Behaviors The total number of unsolicited behavior occurrences was 156 for both participants in all 6 lessons. The two unsolicited behaviors with the most occurrences of all the behaviors were fidgeting during listening activities with a total numb er of 48 instances and fixation during listening had a total of 42 instances. The other unsolicited behaviors had 13 or less total occurrences ( Table 4 15 ) The parents and teachers made little or no mention on GARS, CARS, and Connors Checklist of fidgeting or listening being area s of concern For Participant A, the parent and homeroom teacher mar k ed standing and the for GARS ite m 9 (see Table D 1).

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53 On CARS, the teacher rated the participant in the istening Response, as 2). The p arent and ho meroom teacher item one on the Connors Checklist and the 3). The parents and teachers of Participant B had similar responses to that of Participant A. For item homeroom teacher 4). homeroom and support teache rs scored the participant as a 1 out of 4 as having scored the participant as a 2 out of 4 as having Table D 5). On Connors Checklist, item one, the homeroom teacher and support teacher both mark 6).

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54 Table 4 1. Participant A: Lesson 1: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divided by observer Soli cited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Composing Movement: Fidgeting B 2, O 2, R 1 Communication: Talking off subject R 1 Communication: Miscommunication B 7, O 4, R 2 Communication: Dominating O 2, R 2 B=Researcher and o utside o bserver both observed O=Outside o bserver observed R=Researcher observed Table 4 2. Participant A: Lesson 1: Total t ime u nits c onsisting of the unsolicited b ehavior and the s olicited b ehavior p resent Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Composing Movement: Fidgeting 5 Communication: Talking off subject 1 Communication: Miscommunication 13 Communication: Dominating 4

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55 Table 4 3. Participant A: Lesson 2: Time u nits c onsisting of the u nsolicited b ehavior p resent and the s olicited b ehavior divided by observer Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Moving Movement: Out of Seat B 1 Other: Fixation B 2, O 2 B 3, O 1 B=Researcher and o utside o bserver both observed O=Outside o bserver observed R=Researcher observed Table 4 4. Participant A: Lesson 2: Total time units c onsisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior p resent Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Moving Movement: Out of Seat 1 Other: Fixation 4 4

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56 Table 4 5. Participant A: Lesson 3: T im e units consisting of the u nsolicited behavior present and the solicited b ehavior divided by observer Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Moving Practicing Movement: Fidgeting B 5, O 1 B 2, R 2 Movement: Out of seat B 1 Movement: St agnation B 1, R 2 Communication: Talking off subject B 1 Communication: Speaking out of Turn B 1, O 2 Other: Fixation B 2, O 5 R 1 Other: Distracted B 1 B=Researcher and o utside o bserver both observed O=Outside o bserver observed R=Research er observed Table 4 6. Participant A: Lesson 3: Total time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior p resent Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Moving Practicing Movement: Fidgeting 6 4 Movement: Out of seat 1 Movement: Stagnation 3 Communication: Talking off subject 1 Communication: Speaking out of Turn 3 Other: Fixation 7 1 Other: Distracted 1

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57 Table 4 7 Participant A: All Lessons: Totals consisting of all occurrences categorized by unsolicited and solicited behavior t hemes divided by observer B=Researcher and o utside o bserver both observed O=Outside o bserver observed R=Researcher observed Lesson Behavior Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Total by observer Total Unsolicited Beh avior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Listening B 2 O 2 R 1 B 5 O 1 B 7 O 3 R 1 11 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Practicing B 2 R 2 B 2 R 2 4 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Out of Seat Solicited Behavior: List ening B 1 B 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Stagnation Solicited Behavior: Listening B 1 B 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Stagnation Solicited Behavior: Moving B 1 R 2 B 1 R 2 3 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Talking off subject So licited Behavior: Listening B 1 B 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Talking off Subject Solicited Behavior: Composing R 1 R 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Miscommunication Solicited Behavior: Composing B 7 O 4 R 2 B 7 O 4 R 2 13 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Speaking out of turn Solicited Behavior: Listening B 1 O 2 B 1 O 2 3 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Dominating Solicited Behavior: Composing O 2 R 2 O 2 R 2 4 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicit ed Behavior: Listening B 2 O 2 B 2 O 5 B 4 O 7 11 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicited Behavior: Moving B 3 O 1 R 1 B 3 O 1 R 1 5 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Distracted Solicited Behavior: Listening B 1 B 1 1

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58 Table 4 8 Participant A: All Lessons: Totals consisting of all occurrences categorized by unsolicited and solicited behavior themes Lesson Behavior Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Total Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Listening 5 6 11 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Practicing 4 4 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Out of Seat Soli cited Behavior: Listening 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Stagnation Solicited Behavior: Listening 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Stagnation Solicited Behavior: Moving 3 3 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Talking off subject Solicite d Behavior: Listening 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Talking off Subject Solicited Behavior: Composing 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Miscommunication Solicited Behavior: Composing 13 13 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: S peaking out of turn Solicited Behavior: Listening 3 3 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Dominating Solicited Behavior: Composing 4 4 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicited Behavior: Listening 4 7 11 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixat ion Solicited Behavior: Moving 4 1 5 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Distracted Solicited Behavior: Listening 1 1

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59 Table 4 9 Participant B: Lesson 1: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divided by obs erver Listening Practicing Movement: Fidgeting B 22, R 3 B 1, O 2 Other: Fixation B 18, R 1 B=Researcher and o utside o bserver both observed O=Outside observer observed R=Researcher observed Table 4 10 Participant B: Lesson 1: Total time units co nsisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior present Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Practicing Movement: Fidgeting 25 3 Other: Fixation 19 Table 4 11 Participant B: Lesson 2: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited behavior divided by observer Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Movement: Fidgeting B 6, O 5 Communication: Miscommunication R 2 Other: Fixation B 8 B=Researcher and o utside o bserver both observed O= Outside o bserver observed R=Researcher observed

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60 Table 4 1 2 Partici pant B: Lesson 2: Total time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior p resent Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Movement: Fidgeting 11 Communication: Miscommunication 2 Other: Fixation 8 Table 4 1 3 Participant B: Lesson 3: Time units consisting of the unsolicited behavior present and the solicited b ehavior divided by observer Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Performing Practicing Movement: Fidgeting O 1 R 1 Mov ement: Out of Seat B 1 Movement: Lying Down B 7 B 1, R 5 Other: Fixation B 6, R 1 B 2, O 6, R 1 B=Researcher and o utside o bserver both observed O=Outside o bserver observed R=Researcher observed Table 4 1 4 P articipant B: Lesson 3: Total time u nits c onsisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior p resent Solicited Behavior Unsolicited Behavior Listening Performing Practicing Movement: Fidgeting 1 1 Movement: Out of Seat 1 Movement: Lying Down 7 6 Other: Fixation 7 9

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61 Table 4 1 5 Pa rticipant B: All Lessons: Time units consisting of the unsolicited b ehavior present and the solicited b ehavior divided by observer Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Listening B 22 R 3 B 6 O 5 O 1 B 28 O 6 R 3 37 Unsolicited Be havior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Performing B 1 B 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Practicing B 1 O 2 B 1 O 2 3 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Out of Seat Solicited Behavior: Performing B 1 B 1 1 Un solicited Behavior: Movement: Lying Down Solicited Behavior: Listening B 7 B 7 7 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Lying Down Solicited Behavior: Practicing B 1 R 5 B 1 R 5 6 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Miscommunication Solicited Behavior: Lis tening R 2 R 2 2 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicited Behavior: Listening B 18 R 1 B 8 B 6 R 1 B 32 R 2 34 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicited Behavior: Practicing B 2 O 6 R 1 B 2 O 6 R 1 9 B=Researcher and o utside o bserver both observed O=Outside o bserver observed R=Researcher observed Lesson Behavior Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Total Grand Total

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62 Table 4 1 6 Par ticipant B: All Lessons: Total time units c onsisting of the unsolicited behavior and the solicited behavior pr esent Lesson Behavior Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Grand Total Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Listening 25 11 1 37 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Performing 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidget ing Solicited Behavior: Practicing 3 3 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Out of Seat Solicited Behavior: Performing 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Lying Down Solicited Behavior: Listening 7 7 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Lying Down Solicited Behavior: Practicing 6 6 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Miscommunication Solicited Behavior: Listening 2 2 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicited Behavior: Listening 19 8 7 34 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicited Behavio r: Practicing 9 9

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63 Table 4 1 7 Participant s A & B : All Lessons: Totals consisting of all occurrences categorized by unsolicited and solicited behavior themes Lesson Behavior Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Total Unsolicited Behavi or: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Listening 30 11 7 48 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Performing 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Fidgeting Solicited Behavior: Practicing 3 4 7 Unsolicited Behavior: Movemen t: Out of Seat Solicited Behavior: Listening 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Out of Seat Solicited Behavior: Performing 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Stagnation Solicited Behavior: Listening 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Stagnation Solicited Behavior: Moving 3 3 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Lying Down Solicited Behavior: Listening 7 7 Unsolicited Behavior: Movement: Lying Down Solicited Behavior: Practicing 6 6 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Talking off subject So licited Behavior: Listening 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Talking off Subject Solicited Behavior: Composing 1 1 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Miscommunication Solicited Behavior: Listening 2 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication : Miscommunication Solicited Behavior: Composing 13 13 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Speaking out of turn Solicited Behavior: Listening 3 3 Unsolicited Behavior: Communication: Dominating Solicited Behavior: Composing 4 4

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64 Table 4 1 7 Conti nued Lesson Behavior Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Total Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicited Behavior: Listening 19 12 11 42 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicited Behavior: Moving 4 1 5 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Fixation Solicited Beha vior: Practicing 9 9 Unsolicited Behavior: Other: Distracted Solicited Behavior: Listening 1 1

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65 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION The purpose of the study was to determine what unsolicited behaviors were most prevalent during activities in the elementary music classroom in students with autism spectrum disorder. The following discussion and conclusions were derived from the data collected. These data included observations by the researcher and outside observer as well as the G ARS, CARS, and Connors checklists completed by the parents, homeroom teachers, and support teachers. Participant A Unsolicited Behaviors Subcategories Other: Fixation Participant A had 16 occurrences of fixation during the lessons. She focused on objects and used them in ways other than instructed or intended. An example was her spinning her streamer instead of using it to demonstrate the musical elements of a piece of music being heard. According to the checklists completed by the parents and teachers, th e student did not exhibit this type of behavior at home or in the classroom. Movement: Fidgeting Eleven incidences of figeting during listening were noted for Participant A with 4 observed during practice activities .. On the Connors Checklist, the parents and might have been associated with the music classroom.

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66 Communication: Miscommunication During the three lessons, it became apparent that Participant A struggled with communication issues, especially when working with her peers. The student was documented as exhibiting 13 occurrences of this behavior all d uring the composition activity. This miscommunication was evident when composing a melody with a partner. Participant A attempted to work with her partner but she became confused and frustrated when her partner tried to explain the information. It was nece ssary for t he researcher to assist the pair on several occasions. Unsolicited Behavior Categories Within the category of unsolicited behavior, Participant A had the most difficulty with communication, that is, talking off subject miscommunication, speaking out of turn, and dominating activities or conversations. The student was recorded as exhibiting this behavior 21 times or 36% of all the unsolicited behaviors observed According to the ents and teachers on the GARS checklist, the parents scored the child at 13 out of 42 (31%), the support teacher scored the student at 7 out of 42 (17%), and the homeroom teacher scored her at 3 out of 42 (7%). The homeroom teacher also scored the student at 2 out of 5 (40%) for verbal communication and 1.5 out of 5 (30%) for nonverbal communication on the CARS Checklist. With the information provided, this unsolicited behavior might have been exclusive to the music classroom. Solicited Behavior Categories Of four categories, the two in which Participant A exhibited the most difficulty were Listening with 50% and Composing with 29%. The previous categories will be disc ussed in this section. The other areas were Movement at 14% and Practicing at 4%.

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67 Listening Participant A manifested difficulty with the task of listening in the music room. There were 29 instances or 50% of unsolicited behaviors recorded for this student when listening should have occurred. The categories of unsolicited behaviors that occurred during listening activities were: Movement/Fidgeting (11), Other/Fixation (11), Communication/Speaking out (3), Movement/Out of Seat (1), Movement/Stagnation (1), Communi cation/Talking off subject (1), and Other/Distracted (1). According to her level of that response was between age appropriate listening and mildly abnormal listening. No other indication was apparent that the student had difficulty when listening according to the responses provided by parents and teachers on GARS, CARS, and With the information provided, difficulties in listening might have been resulta nt from factors within the m usic classroom for this student Composing Participant A exhibited difficulty in the composing category The student was recorded as having 17 (29%) instances in which her behavior was unsolicited during the a ctivity. The subcategories were as follows: Communic ation/Miscommunication (13) the area of communication for the child on the GARS Checklist were used to contribute on abilities at 13 out of 42 (31%), the support teacher scored the student at 7 out of 42 (17%), and the homeroom teacher scored her at 3 out of 42 (7%). The homeroom teacher also scored the student at 2 out of 5 (40%) for verbal communication and 1.5 out of 5 (30%) or nonverbal communication on the CARS Checklist. In combing all knowledge about the

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68 ommunication in the music classroom for the student was possibly more of an issue than in other situations Participant B Unsolicited Behavior Subcategories Other: Fixation Parti cipant B was recorded as exhibiting 43 instances of this behavior or 43% of all unsolicited behaviors recorded. Fixation occurred during listening activities at 34 instances and during performance activities at 9 instances. Most of the behaviors were exhib ited when the student was expected to move her streamer to indicate the musical elements present in the piece being heard. According to the parents and teachers, the student did not exhibit fixation properties (see appendix D). Movement: Fidgeting ing occurred during listening activities. The student was recorded as having 41 instances of fidgeting during listening activities, 3 during fidgeting as an area of diff iculty for Participant B (see Appendix D, Table D 10, Participant B Connors Checklist). Therefore, if the fidgeting behavior was non existent in the regular classroom but evident in the music classroom, this behavior might have been exclusive to the music classroom. Unsolicited Behavior Category The unsolicited behavior category with the most recorded instances for this participant was Movement with 55 out of 100. The movement category consisted of fidgeting at 41 instances, lying down at 13 instances, and out of seat with 1 instance. Again, the parents and teachers made no note of this issue on the GARS, CARS or

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69 Connors checklists. Movement when the student was expected to be still might have been an issue that oc curred only in the music classroom and might have acted as self stimulation behavior Solicited Behavior Category Participant B had 80 recorded instances of unsolicited behaviors during listening activities. The occurrences were in the following categ ories: Listening (37), Fixation (34), Lying Down (7), and Miscommunication (2). When examining the checklists completed by the parents and teachers, no indication was apparent that indicated that the student had difficulties in this area. With the informat ion gathered from the istening might have been an activity in which Participant B need ed assistance in the music classroom. Conclusions Study Problems In any study, problems always arise. In this study, problems included such issues as: 1. Video recording: Location of the video camera was dictated by space and other limitations. Additionally, equipment of the highest quality was not consistently available. 2. Securing parental consent: In securing parental consent, many phone calls and home visits were made. 3. Completion of documents: Teachers and parents were reminded on several occasions as to the necessity of completing requested documents in a timely manner. 4. Cooperation of students in the class: Students in the class were distracted by the presence of the video camera and would respond with inappropriate behavior. This might be solved by having the video camera in the ro om and it be on and off at random times.

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70 5. Implications for Music Education Many of the unsolicited behaviors demonstrated in the study were not identified to be areas of concern by the parents or teachers on the GARS, CARS, and Connors checklists. The results of the study provided in formation as to what activities in the music classroom might have led to unsolicited behaviors in students with ASD The activity of listening had 109 out of 159 (69%) recorded instances between the two participants. The next category at 14%, or 22 out of 159 was unsolicited behaviors occurring during practice times. Staying focused and not becoming fixated on the instrument or manipulative device might have been the problem in this area. The final three activities were as follows: Composing with 17 documented instances or 11%, Movement with 8 or 5%, and Performance with 2 or 1%. The comparison of the observations of the participants with the results of GARS, CARS, and Connors completed by the parents and teachers was perplexing. For instance, the activity of listening with 69% of unsolicited behaviors was not noted by the parents nor the teachers to be an issue in the regular classroom or at home. Also, most of the occurrences happened during instructional time when the researcher was leading the students in discussion. Therefore, instruments and other music would not be the trigger of the unsolicited behavior. On the CARS checklist, the teacher for Participant A scored the participant as a 1.5 out of 4 or in between age appropriate listening response and mildly abnormal listening response in the listening response section (see Table D 2). The teachers of Participan t B marked 1 out of 4 for age appropriate listening

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71 Table D 5). With the information provided by the parents and teachers, it would seem that the participants would not have had trouble with listening. The fact that most unsolicited behaviors occurred during listening activities was surprising given that the teachers nor parents reported observing any problems in that area. Also, the listening activities were not always geared toward listening to music. Most of the time the researcher was explaining information such as note values or note ular classroom. The information gleaned from this study can be a starting point for music teachers and the education of music teachers by providing insight into how to prepare for lessons in the music classroom. Since little or no mention was made of the problems or unsolicited behaviors detected in the music lessons, the issues that arise in the music classroom might not be areas of concern in other classroom settings or at home. The music teacher must take time to determine which area or areas might be a n issue, and determine what elements in the activity present difficulties for the student. This could be accomplished through the use of a video recorder to record and observe what is actually taking place in the classroom. In regards to music teacher ed ucation, this study will provide a foundation for information on teaching students with ASD to be published in textbooks. In completing this study, not much research was found that focused on teaching students with ASD in the music classroom. This could be the reason the topic of students with ASD is not covered in depth in music method textbooks or in music methods courses. Also, more hands on experiences are needed for music education majors. Many music education

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72 majors are not afforded the opportunity to work with students with ASD. If future music educators are allowed to work and observe this population, a better understanding of the disorder will occur. Future Research In looking ahead to future studies, many considerations should be kept in mind. The first should be that this study only provides a glimpse into the unsolicited behaviors of 2 females, ages 9 and 11. More research will need to be d one in regards to studying both genders, varied ages, self contained classes and inclusion classes, There might also be a difference in data if the study was performed at the beginning of the school year instead of at the end of the school year. Subsequen t research should be to determine what the antecedent of the behaviors was in accordance with the Antecedent Behavior Consequence (ABC) method. Determining the antecedent etiology for unsolicited behaviors would prove beneficial for the world of music educ ation by allowing current and future music teachers more information for planning and executing appropriate lessons to educate the growing number of students with autism in the music classroom. Awareness of the etiology of unsolicited behaviors would help teachers to better understand how to accommodate this population; thereby, ensuring that the experience in music classrooms more enjoyable not only for the students but for the educators as well.

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73 APPENDIX A LESSON PLANS Participant A Table A 1. Participant A: Lesson1 Benchmark Materials/Equipment Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) MU.5.C.1.1 Discuss and apply listening strategies to support appreciation of musical works. MU 5.S.3.5 Notate rhythmic phrases and simple diatonic melodies using traditional notation. MU.5.O.3.1 Examine and explain how expressive elements, when used in a selected musical work, affect personal response. Computer, dry erase boards, markers, erasers, E lmo, glockenspiels, streamers Explicit Teaching Lesson Objective TLW perform using movement to demonstrate the sounds of the music being heard. TLW compose and perform using correct pitches and rhythms. Lesson/Activity TLW listen to Tchaikovsky Sleeping Beauty Suite, Op. 66 a Introduction TLW think about how they should move with the streamers while listening TLW move streamers to the characteristics of the music. TLW engage in a discussion led by the teacher. Why did you move that way? What in the music made you think you should do that? Etc. TTW explain/review basic rhythmic notation and note names TLW Determine how many beats, what the note names are in a specific rhythm. TLW compose using correct note values and note names. +TLW use glockespiels, dry erase boards, dry erase markers, and erasers to do this TLW perform their composition for the class

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74 Table A 2. Participant A: Lesson 2 Benchmark Materials/Equipment Next Generation Sunshine State S tandards (NGSSS) MU.5.C.1.1 Discuss and apply listening strategies to support appreciation of musical works. MU5.S.3.5 Notate rhythmic phrases and simple diatonic melodies using traditional notation. MU.5.O.3.1 Examine and explain how expressive elements when used in a selected musical work, affect personal response. Computer, dry erase boards, markers, erasers, Elmo, glockenspiels, streamers Explicit Teaching Lesson Objective TLW perform using movement to demonstrate the sounds of the music bein g heard. TLW compose and perform using correct pitches and rhythms. Lesson/Activity TLW listen to Nikolai Rimsky The Flight of the Bumblebee TLW move streamers to the characteristics of the music. TLW engage in a discussion le d by the teac her. Why did you move that way? What in the music made you think you should do that? Etc. TTW explain/review basic rhythmic notation and note names TLW Determine how many beats, what the note names are in a specific rhythm. TLW compose us ing correct note values and note names. +TLW use glockespiels, dry erase boards, dry erase markers, and erasers to do this TLW perform their composition for the class

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75 Table A 3. Participant A: Lesson 3 Benchmark Materials/Equip ment Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) MU.5.C.1.1 Discuss and apply listening strategies to support appreciation of musical works. MU5.S.3.5 Notate rhythmic phrases and simple diatonic melodies using traditional notation. MU.5.O.3.1 Exa mine and explain how expressive elements, when used in a selected musical work, affect personal response. Computer, dry erase boards, markers, erasers, Elmo, glockenspiels, streamers Explicit Teaching Lesson Objective TLW perform using movement to demonstrate the sounds of the music being heard. TLW compose and perform using correct pitches and rhythms. Lesson/Activity The Rise of the Valkyries TLW move streamers to the characteristics of the music. TLW engage in a discussion le d by the teacher. Why did you move that way? What in the music made you think you should do that? Etc. TTW explain/review basic rhythmic notation and note names TLW Determine how many beats, what the note names are in a spe cific rhythm. TLW compose using correct note values and note names. +TLW use glockespiels, dry erase boards, dry erase markers, and erasers to do this TLW perform their composition for the class

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76 Participant B Table A 4 Partici pant B: Lesson 1 Benchmark Materials/Equipment Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) MU.3.C.1.2 Respond to a musical work in a variety of ways and compare individual interpretations. MU.3.C.3.1 Identify musical characteristics and elements within a piece of music when discussing the value of the work. MU.3.S.3.5 Notate simple rhythmic and melodic patterns using traditional notation. MU.3.O.1.1 Identify, using correct music vocabulary, the elements in a musical work. MU.3.F.3.1 Collaborate w ith others to create a musical presentation and acknowledge individual contributions as an integral part of the whole. Computer, dry erase boards, markers, erasers, Elmo, glockenspiels, streamers Explicit Teaching Lesson Objective TLW perform using movement to demonstrate the sounds of the music being heard. TLW compose and perform using correct pitches and rhythms. Lesson/Activity Sleeping Beauty Suite, Op. 66 a Introduction TLW think about how they should move with t he streamers while listening TLW move streamers to the characteristics of the music. TLW engage in a discussion le d by the teacher. Why did you move that way? What in the music made you think you should do that? Etc. TTW explain/r eview basic rhythmic notation and note names TLW Determine how many beats, what the note names are in a specific rhythm. TLW compose using correct note values and note names. +TLW use glockespiels, dry erase boards, dry erase markers and erasers to do this TLW perform their composition for the class

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77 Table A 5 Participant B: Lesson 2 Benchmark Materials/Equipment Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) MU.3.C.1.2 Respond to a musical work in a variety of ways and compare individual interpretations. MU.3.C.3.1 Identify musical characteristics and elements within a piece of music when discussing the value of the work. MU.3.S.3.5 Notate simple rhythmic and melodic patterns using traditional notation. MU.3.O.1.1 Identi fy, using correct music vocabulary, the elements in a musical work. MU.3.F.3.1 Collaborate with others to create a musical presentation and acknowledge individual contributions as an integral part of the whole. Computer, dry erase boards, markers, erasers, Elmo, glockenspiels, streamers Explicit Teaching Lesson Objective TLW perform using movement to demonstrate the sounds of the music being heard. TLW compose and perform using correct pitches and rhythms. Lesson/Activity TLW listen to Nikolai R imsky The Flight of the Bumblebee TLW move streamers to the characteristics of the music. TLW engage in a discussion le d by the teacher. Why did you move that way? What in the music made you think you should do that? Etc. TTW explain/review basic rhythmic notation and note names TLW Determine how many beats, what the note names are in a specific rhythm. TLW compose using correct note values and note names. +TLW use glockespiels, dry erase boards, dry erase markers, and erasers to do this TLW perform their composition for the class

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78 Table A 6 Participant A: Lesson 3 Benchmark Materials/Equipment Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) MU.3.C.1.2 Respond to a musical wor k in a variety of ways and compare individual interpretations. MU.3.C.3.1 Identify musical characteristics and elements within a piece of music when discussing the value of the work. MU.3.S.3.5 Notate simple rhythmic and melodic patterns using traditional notation. MU.3.O.1.1 Identify, using correct music vocabulary, the elements in a musical work. MU.3.F.3.1 Collaborate with others to create a musical presentation and acknowledge individual contributions as an integral part of the whole. Computer, dry eras e boards, markers, erasers, Elmo, glockenspiels, streamers Explicit Teaching Lesson Objective TLW perform using movement to demonstrate the sounds of the music being heard. TLW compose and perform using correct pitches and rhythms. Lesson/Activi ty The Rise of the Valkyries TLW move streamers to the characteristics of the music. TLW engage in a discussion le d by the teacher. Why did you move that way? What in the music made you think you should do t hat? Etc. TTW explain/review basic rhythmic notation and note names TLW Determine how many beats, what the note names are in a specific rhythm. TLW compose using correct note values and note names. +TLW use glockespiels, dry erase boards dry erase markers, and erasers to do this TLW perform their composition for the class

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79 APPENDIX B OBSERVATION PROTOCOL

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80 APPENDIX C CODED TIME UNITS Participant A Lesson 1 1.1.O (M/FD, L): The researcher begins review ing the prior lesson with the class. Participant A is fidgeting in her seat. 1.2.R (M/FD, L): The researcher reminds the class of the rules for moving to the music with streamers. Participant A is fidgeting in her seat. 1.3.B (M/FD, L): The researcher in structs the students on completing their melody composition. Participant A is fidgeting in her seat. 1.4.O (M/FD, L): The researcher reviews note values with the class. Participant A is fidgeting in her seat. 1.5.B (M/FD, L): The researcher reviews how t o compose and perform melody. Participant A is fidgeting in her seat. 1.6.R (C/T, C): Participant A is talking to the researcher about something off topic. 1.7.R (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.8.B (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.9.B (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.10.B (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition.

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81 1.11.B (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.12.O (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.13.O (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communica ting with partner about composition. 1.14.R (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.15.B (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.16.B (C/M, C): Participant A h as difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.17.O (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.18.O (C/M, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.19.R (C /D, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.20.R (C/D, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.21.O (C/D, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition

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82 1.22.O (C/D, C): Participant A has difficulty communicating with partner about composition. 1.23.B (M/O, L): Participant A gets out of her seat to line up before the researcher instructs students to line up at the door. Lesson 2 2.1.B (O/ FX, L): The researcher gives instruction for movement activity with streamers. Participant A focuses on the streamer. 2.2.B (O/FX, M): The class is instructed to demonstrate the musical elements being heard by moving his/her streamer appropriately. Parti cipant A fixates on her streamer and does not move it appropriately to the music. 2.3.B (O/FX, M): The class is instructed to demonstrate the musical elements being heard by moving his/her streamer appropriately. Participant A fixates on her streamer an d does not move it appropriately to the music. 2.4.O (O/FX, L): The researcher has students sit on the floor to discuss the music elements heard in the piece. Participant A becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. 2.5.B (O/FX, L): The res earcher has students sit on the floor to discuss the music elements heard in the piece. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. 2.6.O (O/FX, M): The class is instructed to demonstrate the musical elements being heard by mo ving his/her streamer appropriately. Participant A fixates on her streamer and does not move it appropriately to the music.

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83 2.7.B (O/FX, M): The class is instructed to demonstrate the musical elements being heard by moving his/her streamer appropriately. Participant A fixates on her streamer and does not move it appropriately to the music. 2.8.O (O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the piece heard. Participant A fixates on her streamer. 2.9.B (M/O, L): The researcher is teachi ng about non pitched percussion instruments and drops one. Participant A runs to pick it up. Lesson 3 3.1.B (M/O, L): Participant A moves away from classmate. 3.2.B (M/FD, L): The researcher reviews note values with the class. Participant A fidgets in he r seat. 3.3.B (M/FD, L): The researcher reviews note values with the class. Participant A fidgets in her seat. 3.4.B (M/FD, L): The researcher reviews note values with the class. Participant A fidgets in her seat. 3.5.B (M/FD, O/D, L): The researcher revie ws note values with the class. Participant A fidgets in her seat and watches classmates. 3.6.R (M/FD, PR): The researcher has students snap the dotted quarter note/eighth note rhythm. Participant A has difficulty and becomes fidgety. 3.7.R (M/FD, PR): Th e researcher has students tap the dotted quarter note/eighth note rhythm. Participant A has difficulty and becomes fidgety.

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84 3.8.B (M/FD, PR): The researcher has students tap the dotted quarter note/eighth note rhythm. Participant A has difficulty and bec omes fidgety. 3.9.B (M/FD, PR): The researcher has students tap the dotted quarter note/eighth note rhythm. Participant A has difficulty and becomes fidgety. 3.10.O (M/FD, L): The researcher is demonstrating the next rhythm. Participant A is fidgety in h er seat. 3.11.B (M/FD, L): The researcher is leading class in discussion and practice of dotted quarter note rhythms. Participant A is fidgety in her seat. 3.12.B (C/SP, L): The researcher is telling the students about The Ring Cycle by Richard Wagner. P articipant A speaks out without being called upon. 3.13.O (O/FX, L): The researcher has students get streamers and find a spot in the room. Participant A fixates on her streamer. 3.14.R (O/FX, M): The class is instructed to demonstrate the musical element s being heard by moving his/her streamer appropriately. Participant A becomes fixated on her streamer. 3.15.O (C/SP, L): The researcher reminds students to remember to show form when moving their streamers. Participant A talks to neighbor. 3.16.O (C/SP, L): The researcher reminds students to remember to show form when moving their streamers and to move about the room. Participant A talks to neighbor. 3.17.B (O/FX, L): The researcher is giving further instructions. Participant A is fixated on her stream er. 3.18.B (M/ST, M): Participant A stays in one place moving her streamer, after the researcher instructed students to move about the room.

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85 3.19.R (M/ST, M): Participant A stays in one place moving her streamer, after the researcher instructed students to move about the room. 3.20.R (M/ST, M): Participant A stays in one place moving her streamer, after the researcher instructed students to move about the room. 3.21.O (O/FX, L): The researcher is leading the class in discussion about the music listened to. Participant A is fixated on her streamer. 3.22.O (O/FX, L): The researcher is leading the class in discussion about the music listened to. Participant A is fixated on her streamer. 3.23.O (O/FX, L): The researcher is leading the class in discussion ab out the music listened to. Participant A is fixated on her streamer. 3.24.O (O/FX, L): The researcher is leading the class in discussion about the music listened to. Participant A is fixated on her streamer. 3.25.B (C/TO, O/FX, L): The researcher is lea ding the class in discussion about the music listened to. Participant A speaks out of turn about the length of The Ring Cycle Participant B Lesson 1 1.1.R (M/FD, L) : The researcher gives instructions for students to get streamers off of the piano, to si t on the floor facing the projector, and listen for further instructions. Participant B does so but is fidgety. 1.2.B (O/FX, M): The class is instructed to demonstrate the musical elements being heard by moving his/her streamer appropriately. Participant B follows instructions until the music changes, at that time she continues moving in the same manner but does not

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86 match the music. She appears to be focused on the streamer itself and not moving it to the music. 1.3.B (O/FX, L): The researcher has students sit on the floor to discuss the music elements heard in the piece. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 1.4.B (O/FX, L): The researcher has students sit on the flo or to discuss the music elements heard in the piece. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 1.5.B (O/FX, L): The researcher has students sit on the floor to discuss t he music elements heard in the piece. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 1.6.B (O/FX, L): The researcher has students sit on the floor to discuss the music elemen ts heard in the piece. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 1.7.B (O/FX, L): The researcher has students sit on the floor to discuss the music elements heard in the piece. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 1.8.B (M/FD, L): The researcher leads the students in a discussion about form and how to demonstrate knowledge of form through the use of streamers. Participant B listens to the researcher some but is also fixated on her streamer, which was on the floor. 1.9.B (M/FD, L): The researcher leads the students in a discussion about form and how to demonstrate knowledge of form t hrough the use of streamers. Participant B listens to the researcher some but is also fixated on her streamer, which was on the floor.

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87 1.10.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the musical elements of the piece. Participa nt B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.11.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the musical elements of the piece. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.12.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the musical elements of the piece. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.13.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The re searcher leads the class in a discussion about the musical elements of the piece. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.14.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the musi cal elements of the piece. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.15.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the musical elements of the piece. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.16.R (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the music alphabet. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back.

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88 1.17.B (M /FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the music alphabet. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.18.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about th e music alphabet. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.19.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the music alphabet. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.20.R (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about the music alphabet. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.21.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The resea rcher demonstrates on the piano the order and repetition of the music alphabet. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.22.B (M/FD, L): The researcher plays each note on the piano and says the correspondin g letter name. The students count how many times the researcher says the complete music alphabet. When the music stops to allow students time to answer, Participant B begins to fidget in her seat. 1.23.B (M/FD, L): The researcher guides students into a dis cussion about how notes on the staff correspond with notes played on an instrument. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back.

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89 1.24.B (M/FD, L): The researcher guides students into a discussion about how notes on the staff correspond with notes played on an instrument. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.25.B (M/FD, L): The researcher teaches about the staff and treble clef. Participant B fidgets in her seat 1.26.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher beings showing where the letters for each notes belong on the staff. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.27.B (M/FD, L): The researcher is playing Twinkle, Twin kle Little Star on the soprano glockenspiel. The researcher asks the class what other song that Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star sounds like. Participant B is moving from the bottom step of the risers to the floor and back. 1.28.B (M/FD, L): The researcher le ading class in a discussion about the relationship between the notes on the staff and the notes on the glockenspiel. Participant B is moving from the bottom step of the risers to the floor and back. 1.29.B (M/FD, L): The researcher leading class in a discu ssion about the relationship between the notes on the staff and the notes on the glockenspiel. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.30.R (M/FD, L): The researcher leading class in a discussion about the relationship between the notes on the staff and the notes on the glockenspiel. Participant B is moving from the bottom step of the risers to the floor and back. 1.31.O (M/FD, PR): The researcher has students determine notes on the staff. Participant B is fidgeting in her seat.

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90 1.32.B (M/FD, PR): The researcher has students determine notes on the staff. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 1.33.O (M/FD, PR): The researcher has students determine notes on t he staff. Participant B is fidgeting in her seat. 1.34.B (M/FD, L): The researcher explains the difference between treble clef line E and space E. Participant B is fidgeting in her seat. Lesson 2 2.1.B (O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discus sion about what they think the name of the piece they moved their streamers to was. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 2.2.B (O/FX, L): The researcher leads the c lass in a discussion about what they think the name of the piece they moved their streamers to was. The researcher has students on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 2.3.B (O/FX, L): The researcher is reminding the students to move the same way when the same patterns occur in what they are hearing. Participant B becomes f ixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 2.4.R (C/M, L): The students face the researcher when moving with the streamers. Participant B is facing the opposite direction.

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91 2.5.R (C/M, L): The students face the researcher when moving with the streamers. Participant B is facing the opposite direction. 2.6.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The students name the lines and spaces on the treble clef staff. Participant B rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touc h her feet then leaning back. 2.7.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glockenspiel and not participating in the lesson. 2.8.O (M/FD, L): The students a re matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is fidgeting in her seat. 2.9.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glocke nspiel and not participating in the lesson. 2.10.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher has students put everything down and put hands in laps. Participant B plays with shoes. 2.11.B (M/FD, O/FX, L): The researcher has students explore sounds on the glockenspi els. Participant B never attempts to explore on the glockenspiel and rocks back and forth, leaning forward to touch her feet then leaning back. 2.12.O (M/FD, L): The researcher shows students patterns in music using Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Participan t B is fidgeting in her seat. 2.13.O (M/FD, L): The researcher shows students patterns in music using Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Participant B is fidgeting in her seat. 2.14.O (M/FD, L): The researcher leads discussion about the lines and spaces in the treble clef staff. Participant B is fidgeting in her seat.

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92 2.15.O (M/FD, L): The researcher leads discussion about the lines and spaces in the treble clef staff. Participant B is fidgeting in her seat. 2.16.B (M/FD, L): The researcher brings the lesson to a close. Participant B plays glockenspiel. Lesson 3 3.1.O (M/FD, L): The researcher has students retrieve mallets. Participant B is fidgeting in her seat. 3.2.R (O/FX, M): The class is instructed to demonstrate the musical elements being heard by moving his/her streamer appropriately. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer. 3.3.B (O/FX, M): The class is instructed to demonstrate the musical elements being heard by moving his/her streamer appropriately. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer. 3.4.B (O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about how music we hear on TV commercials, TV shows and movies matches what is being seen. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens i t throughout the discussion. 3.5.B (O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about how music we hear on TV commercials, TV shows and movies matches what is being seen. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. Sh e continuously straightens it throughout the discussion.

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93 3.6.B (O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about how music we hear on TV commercials, TV shows and movies matches what is being seen. Participant B becomes fixated on her streame r, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 3.7.B (O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about how music we hear on TV commercials, TV shows and movies matches what is being seen. Participant B be comes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 3.8.B (O/FX, L): The researcher leads the class in a discussion about how music we hear on TV commercials, TV shows and movies matches what is being seen. Participant B becomes fixated on her streamer, which is on the floor. She continuously straightens it throughout the discussion. 3.9.B (O/FX, PR): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glockenspiel and not participating in the lesson. 3.10.B (O/FX, PR): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glockenspiel and not participating in the lesson. 3.11.O (O/FX, PR): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glockenspiel and not participating in the lesson.

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94 3.12.O (O/FX, PR): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glockenspiel and not participating in the lesson. 3.13.O (O/FX, PR): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glockenspiel and not participating in the lesson. 3.14.O (O/FX, PR): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glockenspiel and not participating in the lesson. 3.15.O (O/FX, PR): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glockenspiel and not participating in the lesson. 3.16.O (O/FX, PR): The students are matching the notes on the staf f to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on touching the glockenspiel and not participating in the lesson. 3.17.R (O/FX, PR): The students are matching the notes on the staff to notes on the glockenspiels. Participant B is focused on her n eighbor playing the glockenspiel. 3.18.R (M/FD, PF): The students are performing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Participant B decides to move up a step on the riser and back to her seat. 3.19.B (M/O, PF): The students are performing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Participant B decides to hang her sweater on the coat rack without asking permission and comes back to her seat.

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95 3.20.R (M/LD, PR): The students are practicing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3.21.R (M/LD, PR): The students are practicing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3.22.R (M/LD, PR): The students are practicing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the gl ockenspiel. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3.23.B (M/LD, PR): The students are practicing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3.24.R (M/LD, PR): The students a re practicing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3.25.R (M/LD, PR): The students are practicing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel. Participant B lays down on the floor a nd puts head down. 3.26.B (M/LD, L): The students are performing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel one by one. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3.27.B (M/LD, L): The students are performing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Sta r on the glockenspiel one by one. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3.28.B (M/LD, L): The students are performing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel one by one. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3 .29.B (M/LD, L): The students are performing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel one by one. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3.30.B (M/LD, L): The students are performing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspie l one by one. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down.

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96 3.31.B (M/LD, L): The students are performing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel one by one. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down. 3.32.B (M/LD, L): The students are performing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on the glockenspiel one by one. Participant B lies down on the floor and puts head down.

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97 APPENDIX D GARS, CARS, AND CONN O RS OBSERVATIONAL CHE CKLISTS Participant A Table D 1. Part icipant A: GARS Checklist Stereotyped Behavior Never Seldom Sometimes Frequently 1) Avoids establishing eye Contact T, E P 2) Stares at hands, objects, or items in the environment for a t least 5 seconds P T, E 3) Rapidly flicks fingers or hands in front of eyes for periods of 5 seconds or more. P, T, E 4) Eats specific foods and refuses to eat what most people will usually eat T, E P 5) Licks inedible objects P, T, E 6) Smells or sniffs objects P, T E 7) Whirls, turns in circles E P, T 8) Spins objects not designed for spinning P, T, E 9) Rocks back and forth while seated or standing P, T E 10) Makes rapid lunging, darting movement when moving from place to place E P, T 11) Prances (walks on tiptoes) when moving or while standing in place. P, T, E 12) Flaps hands or fingers in front of face or at sides. P, T, E 13) Makes high pitched sounds or other vocalizations for self stimulatio n. P, T, E 14) Slaps, hits, or bites self or in other ways attempts to injure self. P, T, E Communication 15) Repeats words verbally or with signs T P, E 16) Repeats words out of context P, T, E 17) Repeats words or phrases over and over P, T, E 18) Speaks with flat effect or with dysrhythmic patterns P, T, E 19) Responds inappropriately to simple commands T E P 20) Looks away or avoids looking at speaker when name is called T, E P 21) Avoids aski ng for things he or she wants P, E T 22) Fails to initiate conversations with peers or adults P, T, E T, E P 24) Uses pronouns inappropriately P, T, E y P, T, E

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98 Table D 1 Continued Stereotyped Behavior Never Seldom Sometimes Frequently 26) Repeats unintelligible sounds over and over T, E P 27) Uses gestures instead of speech or signs to obtain objects T E P 28) Inappropriately an swers questions about a statement or brief story T P, E Social Interaction 29) Avoids eye contact T P, E 30) Stares or looks unhappy or unexcited when praised, humored, or entertained E T P 31) Resists physical contact from others P, T, E 32) Non imitative of other people when playing T, E P 33) In group situations the person withdraws or remains aloof or standoffish E P T 34) Behaves in an unreasonably fearful, frightened manner T, E P affectionate responses P, T, E 36) Looks through people P, T, E 37) Laughs, giggles, cries inappropriately T P, E 38) Uses toys or objects inappropriately *(P skipped) T, E 39) Does certain things repetitively, ritualistically T E P 40) Becomes upset when routines are changed T E P 41) Responds negatively o r with temper tantrums when given commands, requests, or directions P, T, E 42) Lines up objects in precise, orderly fashion and becomes upset when the order is disturbed T, E P P=Parent T=Teacher E=ESE Teacher Never: The behavior has never been observed. Seldom: The behavior occurs 1 to 2 times in a 6 hour period. Sometimes: The be havior occurs 3 to 4 times in a 6 hour period. Frequently: The behavior occurs 5 to 6 times in a 6 hour period.

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99 Table D 2 Participant A: CARS Checklist I. Relating to People 1 No evidence of difficulty or abnormality in relating to peopl e 1.5 T 2 Mildly abnormal relationships 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal relationships 3.5 4 Severely abnormal relationships Observations: T Student often moody II. Imitation T 1 Appropriate imitation 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal imitation 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal imitation 3.5 4 Severely abnormal imitation Observations: T Attentive, quiet student during instruction. Immaturit y shown during transition. III. Emotional Response 1 Age appropriate and situation appropriate emotional response 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal emotional response 2.5 T 3 Moderately ab normal emotional responses 3.5 4 Severely abnormal emotional responses Observations: T Immature, reporting when others will not play or include her. IV. Body Use 1 Age appropriat e body use 1.5 T 2 Mildly abnormal body use 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal body use 3.5 4 Severely abnormal body use Observations: T underlines clumsiness, repetitive movements and poor coordination.

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100 Table D 2. Continued V. Object Use T 1 Appropriate use of, and interest in, toys and other objects 1.5 2 Mildly inappropriate interest in, or use of, toys and other objects 2.5 3 Moderately inappropriate interest in, or use of, toys and other objects 3.5 4 Severely inappropriate interest in, or use of, toys and other objects VI. Adaptation to Change 1 Age appropriate response to change T 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal response to change 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal adaptation to change 3.5 4 Severely abnormal adaptation to change VII. Visual Respon se 1 Age appropriate visual response T 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal visual response 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal visual response 3.5 4 Severely abnormal visual response VIII. Listening Response 1 Age appropriate listening response T 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal listening response 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal listening response 3.5 4 Severely abnormal listening response IX. Taste, Smell, and Touc h Response and Use 1 Normal use of, and response to, taste, smell, and touch T 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal use of, and response to, taste, smell, and touch 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal use of, and response to, taste, smell, and touch 3.5 4 Severely abnormal use of, and response to, taste, smell, and touch

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101 Table D 2. Continued X. Fear or Nervousness 1 Normal fear or nervousness 1.5 T 2 Mildly abnormal fear or ner vousness 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal fear or nervousness 3.5 4 Severely abnormal fear or nervousness XI. Verbal Communication 1 Normal verbal communication 1.5 T 2 Mildly abnormal verbal communication 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal verbal communication 3.5 4 Severely abnormal verbal communication XII. Nonverbal Communication 1 Normal use of no nverbal communication, age and situation appropriate T 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal uses of nonverbal communication 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal use of nonverbal communication 3.5 4 Severely abnormal us e of nonverbal communication XIII. Activity Level 1 Normal activity level for age and circumstances 1.5 T 2 Mildly abnormal activity level 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal activity level 3.5 4 Severely abnormal activity level XIV. Level and consistency of intellectual response 1 Intelligence is normal and reasonably consistent across various areas 1.5 T 2 Mildly abnormal intellectual functioning 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal intellectual functioning 3.5 4 Severely abnormal intellectual functioning

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102 Table D 2. Continued XV. General Impressions 1 No autism 1.5 T 2 Mild autism 2.5 3 Moderate autism 3.5 4 Severe autism P=Parent T=Teacher E=ESE Teacher

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103 Table D 3 Participant A: Connors Checklist Not a t all A little Pretty much Very much CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR 01. Constantly fidgeting P, T E 02. Hums or other noises P,T E 03. Demanding, easily frustrated T P, E 04. Poor coordination P T E 05. Restless, overactive P, T E 06. Excitable, i mpulsive T P, E 07. Inattentive, distracted E T P 08. Short attention span P T, E 09. Overly sensitive T, E P 10. Overly serious or sad E P, T 11. Daydreams T, E P 12. Sullen or sulky P, E T 13. Cries often and easily P T, E 14. Di sturbs other children P, T E 15. Quarrelsome P, E T 16. Quick and drastic mood changes E T T P, E 18. Destructive P, T E 19. Steals P, T, E 20. Lies P, T, E 21. Unpredictable temper E P, T GROUP PARTICIPATION 22. Isolates from children P, E T 23. Unaccepted by groups P, E T 24. Appears to be easily led P T E 25. No sense of fair play T, E P 26. Appears to lack leadership P T E 27. Gets along with girls T P, E 28. Gets along with boys T E P 29. Teases other children P, T E AUTHORITY ATTITUDE 30. Submissive P T E 31. Defiant T, E P 32. Impudent P, T E 33. Shy P E T 34. Fearful P, E T 35. Stubborn P, E T 36. Overly anxious to please P T, E 37. Uncooperative P, T, E P=Parent T=Teacher E=ESE Teacher Note: Parent skipped item 16.

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104 PARTICIPANT B Table D 4 Participant B: GARS Checklist Never Seldom Sometimes Frequently 1) Avoids establishing eye Contact T E P 2) Stares at hands, objects, or items in the environment for at least 5 seconds E P, T 3) Rapidly flicks fingers or hands in front of eyes for periods of 5 seconds or more. P, T, E 4) Eats specific foods and refuses to eat what most people will usually eat T P, E 5) Licks inedible objects P, T, E 6) Smells or sniffs objects P, T, E 7) Whirls, turns in circles T, E P 8) Spins objects not designed for spinning P, T, E 9) Rocks back and forth while seated or standing T, E P 10) Makes rapid lunging, darting movement when moving from place to place T, E P 11) Prances (walks on tiptoes) when moving or while standing in place. P, T, E 12) Flaps hands or fingers in front of face or a t sides. T, E P 13) Makes high pitched sounds or other vocalizations for self stimulation. P, T, E 14) Slaps, hits, or bites self or in other ways attempts to injure self. T, E P Communication 15) Repeats words verbally or with signs T, E P 16) Repeats words out of context T, E 17) Repeats words or phrases over and over T, E P 18) Speaks with flat effect or with dysrhythmic patterns P, T, E 19) Responds inappropriately to simple commands T, E P 20) Looks away or avoids looking at speaker when name is called T, E P 21) Avoids asking for things he or she wants E T P 22) Fails to initiate conversations with peers or adults E T P P, T, E 24) Uses pronouns inappropriately P, T, E P, T, E 26) Repeats unintelligible sounds over and over P, T, E 27) Uses gestures instead of speech or signs to obtain objects T, E P 28) Inappropr iately answers questions about a statement or brief story T, E P

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105 Table D 4. Continued Never Seldom Sometimes Frequently Social Interaction 29) Avoids eye contact E T P 30) Stares or looks unhappy or unexcited when praised, humored, or entertained T, E P 31) Resists physical contact from others T P E 32) Non imitative of other people when playing T, E P 33) In group situations the person withdraws or remains aloof or standoffish E T P 34) Behaves in an unreasonably fearful, frightened manner T, E P affectionate responses P, T, E 36) Looks through people P, T, E 37) Laughs, giggles, cries inappropriately E P, T 38) Uses toys or objects inappropriately P, T, E 39) Does certain things repetitively, ritualistically T, E P 40) Becomes upset when routines are changed T P, E 41) Responds negatively or with temper tantrums when given commands, requests, or directions T P, E 42) Lines up objects in precise, orderly fashion and becomes upset when the order is disturbed T, E P P=Parent T=Teacher E=ESE Teacher Never: The behavior has never been observed. Seldom: The behavior occurs 1 to 2 times in a 6 hour period. So metimes: The behavior occurs 3 to 4 times in a 6 hour period. Frequently: The behavior occurs 5 to 6 times in a 6 hour period.

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106 Table D 5 Participant B: CARS Checklist I. Relating to People E, T 1 No evidence of difficulty o r abnormality in relating to people 1.5 P 2 Mildly abnormal relationships 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal relationships 3.5 4 Severely abnormal relationships Observations: P B has trouble in l arge groups such as a theme park where there is no organized control. II. Imitation E, T, P 1 Appropriate imitation 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal imitation 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal im itation 3.5 4 Severely abnormal imitation III. Emotional Response T 1 Age appropriate and situation appropriate emotional response 1.5 E 2 Mildly abnormal emotional response 2.5 P 3 Moderately abnormal emotional responses 3.5 4 Severely abnormal emotional responses Observations: P We are never sure how she will react to events. Recently our dog died, her sisters were crying and upset. B said ok and went back to watching her TV show. IV. Body Use E, T, P 1 Age appropriate body use 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal body use 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal bod y use 3.5 4 Severely abnormal body use Observations: P She has some coordination issues, but completely normal.

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107 Table D 5. Continued V. Object Use E, T, P 1 Appropriate use of, and interest in, toys and other objects 1.5 2 Mildly inappropriate interest in, or use of, toys and other objects 2.5 3 Moderately inappropriate interest in, or use of, toys and other objects 3.5 4 Severely inappropriate in terest in, or use of, toys and other objects VI. Adaptation to Change E, T 1 Age appropriate response to change 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal response to change 2.5 P 3 Moderately abnormal adap tation to change 3.5 4 Severely abnormal adaptation to change Observations: P This varies as some routines seem more important to her than others. VII. Visual Response E, T 1 Age appropriate vi sual response 1.5 P 2 Mildly abnormal visual response 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal visual response 3.5 4 Severely abnormal visual response VIII. Listening Response E, T 1 Age appropriate listening response 1.5 P 2 Mildly abnormal listening response 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal listening response 3.5 4 Severely abnormal listening response

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108 Table D 5. Continued IX. Taste, Smel l, and Touch Response and Use E, T, P 1 Normal use of, and response to, taste, smell, and touch 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal use of, and response to, taste, smell, and touch 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal use of, and r esponse to, taste, smell, and touch 3.5 4 Severely abnormal use of, and response to, taste, smell, and touch X. Fear or Nervousness T 1 Normal fear or nervousness 1.5 E 2 Mildly abno rmal fear or nervousness 2.5 P 3 Moderately abnormal fear or nervousness 3.5 4 Severely abnormal fear or nervousness Observations: P B will do something like walk upstairs and then get scared at the top and not want to walk them again. XI. Verbal Communication E, T 1 Normal verbal communication 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal verbal communication 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal verbal communicat ion 3.5 4 Severely abnormal verbal communication XII. Nonverbal Communication E, T 1 Normal use of nonverbal communication, age and situation appropriate 1 .5 2 Mildly abnormal uses of nonverbal communication 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal use of nonverbal communication 3.5 4 Severely abnormal use of nonverbal communication XIII. Activity Level E, T 1 Normal activity level for age and circumstances 1.5 2 Mildly abnormal activity level 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal activity level 3.5 4 Severely abnormal activity level

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109 Table D 5. Con tinued XIV. Level and consistency of intellectual response E 1 Intelligence is normal and reasonably consistent across various areas 1.5 T 2 Mildly abnormal intellectual function ing 2.5 3 Moderately abnormal intellectual functioning 3.5 4 Severely abnormal intellectual functioning XV. General Impressions T 1 No autism 1.5 E 2 Mild autism 2.5 3 Moderate autism 3.5 4 Severe autism P=Parent T=Teacher E=ESE Teacher Note: Parent did not complete XI XV.

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110 Table D 6 Participant B: Connors Checklist Not at all A little Pretty much Very much CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR 01. Constantly f idgeting T, E 02. Hums or other noises T, E 03. Demanding, easily frustrated T, E 04. Poor c oordination T, E 05. Restless, o veractive T, E 06. Excitable, i mpulsive T,E 07. Inattentive, distracted T E 08. Short attention span T, E 09. Overly s ensitive E T 10. Overly s erious or sad T, E 11. Daydreams T, E 12. Sullen or sulky E T 13. Cries often and easily T, E 14. Disturbs other children T, E 15. Quarrelsome T, E 16. Quick and drastic mood changes E T T, E 18. Destructive T, E 19. Steals T, E 20. Lies T, E 21. Unpredictable temper T, E GROUP PARTICIPATION 22. Isolates from children T, E 23. Unaccepted by groups T, E 24. Appears to be easily led T, E 25. No sense of fair play T, E 26. Appears to lack leadership E T 27. Gets along with girls T, E 28. Gets along with boys T, E 29. Teases other children T, E AUTHORITY ATTITUDE 30. Submissive E T 31. Defiant E T 32. Impudent T, E 33. Shy E T 34. Fearful E T 35. Stubborn E T 36. Overly anxious to please T, E 37. Uncooperative E T T=Teacher E=ESE Teac her Note: Parent did not complete Connors Checklist.

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111 LIST OF REFERENCES Abeles, H., & Custodero, L. (2010). Critical issues in music e ducation: Contemporary t heory and practice New York: Oxford University Press. Anderson, L., Campbell, M., & Kolko, D. (1980). Sensory preference and overselective responding in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 10 259 271. Anderson, V., Gonzales, A., & Nelson, D. (1984). Music activities as therapy for children with autism and other perva sive developmental disorders. Journal of Music Therapy, 21 (3), 100 116. Armstrong, T. & Darrow, A. (1999). Research on m usic and a utism: I mplications for m usic e ducators. Update Applications of Research in Music Education, 18, 15 20. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from the International Index to Music Periodicals database. Au, S. (2003). Principal themes: Musical interaction with autistic and multiple handicapped children. Canadian Music Educator, 45, 1, 19 21. Barbe, W., Swassing, R., & Milone, M. (197 9). Teaching through modality strengths: concepts and practices Columbus, Ohio: Zaner Bloser. Baker, B. (1982). The use of music with autistic children. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Serivces, 20 (4), 31 34 Barison, F. & Pradetto, A. ( 1984). The musical productions of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 453 454. Bettison, S. (1996). The long term effects of auditory training on children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 26, 3 61 374 Blackstock, E. (1978). Cerebral asymmetry and the development of early infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 339 353. Blasco, S. (1978) Case study: Art expression as a guide to music therapy. American Journal of Art T herapy, 17, 51 56. Bowman, W. (1998). Philosophical perspectives on music New York: Oxford University Press. Buday, E. (1995). The effects of signed words taught with music on sign and speech imitation by children with autism. Journal of Music Therapy, 32, 189 202. Campbell, P., & Scott Kassner, C. (2006). Music in childhood: From preschool through the elementary grades Belmont, CA: Thomas Schirmer.

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112 Chadwick, P., Nash, S., & Wimpory, D. (1995). Brief report: Musical interaction therapy for children wit h autism: An evaluative case study with two year follow up. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 541 552. Clarkson, G. (1994). Creative music therapy and facilitated communication: New ways of reaching students with autism. Preventing School Failure, 38, 3, 313 34. Colwell, C. i nformation on m ainstreaming in u ndergraduate m usic c urricula. Journal of Music Therapy 37 3, 205 221. Creswell, J. (2008). Educational Research Upper Saddle River: Pearson Educa tion. Darrow, A. (2009). Adapting for students with autism. General Music Today 22 24, 24 26. Dewey, J. (1910). What is thought? How we think Lexington, MA: DC Health. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/index.cfm?fa=browsePB.chapters& pbid=10903 Dunn, K. & Dunn, R. (1992). Teaching elementary sudents through their individual learning styles: practical approaches for grades 3 6 Boston: A llyn and Bacon. Edgerton, C. (1994). The effect of improvisational music therapy on the communicative b ehaviors of autistic children. Journal of Music Therapy, 31, 31 58. Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94 142). S. 6 (1975). Retrieved Au gust 8, 2008 from http://asclepius.com/angel/special.html Ferrari, M. & Harris, S. (1981). The limits and motivating potential of sensory stimuli as reinforcers for autistic children. Journal of A pplied Behavior Analysis, 14, 339 343. Freundlich, B., Pike, L., & Schwartz, V. (1989). Dance and music for children with autism. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 60, 50 53. Frisque, J., Niebur, L., & Humphreys, J. (1994). Music m ainstreaming: P ractices in Arizona. Journal of Research in Music Education 42 2, 94 104. Fruchter, D., Konstantareas, M., Oxman, J., & Webster, C. (1980). Autism: A review of the literature with particular emphasis on current approaches to treatment. Chi ld and youth Services, 3 (1/2), 1, 3 14. Gagne, R. M. (1985). The c onditions of l earning and t heory of i nstruction (4th ed.). New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Gfeller, K., Darrow, A., & Hedden, S. (1990). Perceived effectiveness of m ainstreaming in I owa and Kansas s chools. Journal of Research in Music Education 38, 2, 90 101.

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113 Hagedorn, V. (2003). Special l earners: M usic b asal s eries t exts and i nclusion s tudents. General Music Today 17 1, 38 44. Hairston, M. (1990). Analyses of responses of mental ly retarded autistic and mentally retarded nonautistic children to art therapy and music therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 27, 137 150. Hammel, A. M. (2001 a ). Preparation for t eaching s pecial l earners: Twenty years of p ractice. Journal of Music Teacher E ducation, 11, 5 11. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from the International Index to Music Periodicals database. Hammel, A. M. (2001 b ). Special l earners in e lementary m usic c lassrooms : A study of e ssential t eacher c ompetencies. Update Applications of Research in Music Education, 20, 9 13. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from the International Index to Music Periodicals database. Hollander, F. & Juhrs, P. (1974). Orff Schulwerk : A n effective treatment tool with autistic children. Journal of Music Therapy, 11, 1 12. Hourigan, R., & Hourigan, A. (2009). Teaching music to children with autism: Understandings and perspectives. Music Educators Journal, 96, 1, 40 45. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 108 U.S.C §446 (2004). Retrieved August 4, 2008 from http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/%2Croot% 2Cstatute%2C Jasaitis, E. (1992) Training and de velopment: The Neely D. Gardner approach. Ph.D. dissertation, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida. Retrieved February 18, 2008, from ProQu est Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 9222390). Kern, P. (2004). Making friends in music: Including children with autism in an interactive play setting. Keynote 3 at the 6 th European Congress of Music Therapy held in Jyvskyl, Finland. Retrieved October 24, 2007 from http://www.musictherapy world.de/modules/mmmagazine/showarticle.php? Koegel, R., Lovaas, I., Newsom, C., & Rincover, A. (1977). Some moti vational properties of sensory stimulation in psychotic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 24, 312 323. Langer, S. (1976). Philosophy in a new key: A study in the symbolism of reason, rite, and art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Journal of the American Medical Association, 275, 267 268. Mazur, K. (2004). An Introduction to i nclusion in the m usic c lassroom. General Music Today 18 ( 1 ) 6 11.

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114 McCord, K. & Watts, E.H. (2006). Collaboration and a ccess for o ur c hildren: Music e ducators and s pecial e ducators t ogether. Music Educators Journal 92 ( 4 ) 26 33. McDowell, C. (2007). Are t hey r eady to s tudent t each? Reflections from 10 m usic e ducation m ajors c oncerning t heir t hree s emesters of f ield e xperience. Journal of Music Teacher Education 16 ( 2 ) 45 60. Miceli, J. (2006). A four w ay p erspective on the d evelopment and i mportance of m usic l earning t heory based p reK 16 m usic e ducation p artnerships i n volving m usic for s pecial l earners. Journal of Music Teacher Education 16 ( 1 ) 65 78. National Center for Educational Statistics. (2007 a ). Percentage distribution ofstudents with disabilities ages 6 21 served by Individuals with Disabilities Act, by place ment in educational environment: Selected years, 1995 96 to 2004 05. Retrieved August 4, 2008, from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=59 National Center for Educational Statistics. (20 10 ). Participation in education Table 8 1. Retrieved August 27 20 11 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table cwd 1.asp Nocera, S. (1972). Special e ducation t eachers n eed a s pecial e ducation. Music Educators Journal 58 ( 8 ) 73 55. Ocke lford, A. (2000). Music in the education of children with severe or profound learning difficulties: Issues in current U.K. provision, a new conceptual framework, and proposals for research. Psychology of Music, 28 (2), 197 217. Pasiali, V. (2004). The use o f prescriptive therapeutic songs in a home based environment to promote social skills acquisition by children with autism: Three case studies: Music Therapy Perspectives, 22 (1), 11 20. Phelps, R., Ferrara, L., & Goolsby, T. (1993). A guide to research in m usic education Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Plummeridge, C. (1991). Music Education in Theory and Practice London: The Falmer Press. Pontiff, E. (2004). Teaching s pecial l earners: Ideas from v eteran te achers in the music c lassroom. Teaching Mu sic 12 (3), 52 58. Rimland, B., & Edelson, S. (1995). Brief report: A pilot study of auditory integration training in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25 (1), 61 70. Saperston, B. (1973). The use of music in establishing communication with an autistic mentally retarded child. Journal of Music Therapy, 10, 184 188.

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115 Scheuermann, B., & Webber, J. (2002). Autism: Teaching does make a difference Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomas Learning. Schopler, E. & Mesibov, G. (Eds). (1994). Behavioral iss ues in a utism New York: Plenum Press. Scott, J., Clark, C., & Brady, M. (2000). Students with a utism Belmont, CA: Thomas Higher Education. Scott, L., Jellison, J., Chappell, E., & Standridge, A. (2007). Talking with m usic t eachers about i nclusion: Percep tions, o pinions and e xperiences. Journal of Music Therapy 44 ( 1 ) 38 56. Straum, M. (2007). Music therapy and language for the autistic child. Retrieved November 12, 2007 from http:///www.autism.org/music.htm l Stevenson, A., & Lindberg, C. (Eds). (2010). New Oxford American dictionary New York: Oxford University Press. Trevarthen, C. (1996). Children with autism: Diagnosis and interventions to meet their needs. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. VanWeelden K. (2007). An e xploratory s tudy of the i mpact of f ield e xperiences on m usic e ducation m a ttitudes and p erceptions of m usic for s econdary s tudents with s pecial n eeds. Journal of Music Teacher Education 16 ( 2 ) 34 44. Wigram, T., & Gold, C., (2005). Music therapy in the assessment and treatment of autistic spectrum disorder: Clinical application and research evidence. Child: care, health and development, 32 (5), 535 542. Wilson, B., & Smith, D. (2000). Music therapy assessment in school settings: A pr eliminary investigation. The Journal of Music Therapy, 37 (2), 95 117. Wimpory, D. (1995). Brief report: Musical interaction therapy for children with autism: An Evaluation case study with two year follow up. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2 5 (5), 541 551.

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116 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Rebekah W. Burcham is a third generation music educator and a Ph.D. cand idate in music education at the University of Florida. Mrs. Burcham has many years of experience teaching music in the private studio setting, at the collegiate level, and in the pre kindergarten to sixth s move to Florida, she taught in Title 1 inner city schools in North Louisiana as adjunct faculty at Bossier Parish Community College and maintained a private voice and piano studio. Mrs. Burcham holds a Bachelor of Music Education with a voca l concentra tion and a Master of Music with a music education emphasis both from the University of Louisiana at Monroe. While at the University of Florida, Mrs Burcham was a Graduate Teaching Assistant Music for the Elementary Child and assi sted with Music in Elementary Schools uring this time period, Mrs. Burcham made presentations at the local chapter of the Collegiate National Association for Music Education which included Special Education in Music Education, Part I and II and Inner City Schoo ls She was also a panel member of the Graduate Panel Discussion on Contemporary Issues in Music Education for the local chapter of the Collegiate National Association for Music Education. She has also been a Presentation Proposal Reviewer for t he Second I nternational Symposium on Assessment in Music Education. Because of diligence in her studies at the University of Florida Mrs. Burcham was awarded the David Wilmot Prize for Excellence in Music Education in the spring of year 2007. In 2004, Mrs. Burcham w as chosen to represent her school district at the National Association for Music Education Conference in Minneapolis. She has published in Identifying Key Issues for Music Education and Integrating Curriculum, Theory, and

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117 Practice: Proceedings of the 2007 Florida S ymposium on Assessment in Music Education. She is a member of the Florida Elementary Music Educators Association, Florida Music Educators Association, National Association for Music Education, National Federation of Music Clubs, and the Foundatio n for the Promotion of Music.