Soundscape of Three Worship Spaces

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Title:
Soundscape of Three Worship Spaces
Physical Description:
1 online resource (182 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Park, Sang Bum
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Design, Construction, and Planning Doctorate, Design, Construction and Planning
Committee Chair:
Siebein, Gary W
Committee Co-Chair:
Gold, Martin A
Committee Members:
Gerhardt, Kenneth J
Sain, James P
Carvalho, Antonio

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
acoustics -- amplification -- church -- reinforcement -- soundscape -- worship
Design, Construction and Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Design, Construction, and Planning Doctorate thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
A soundscape concept was used to investigate acoustical qualities of three worship spaces representing three different room acoustical characteristics and three different levels in the use of sound systems: a reverberant space having a compact system only for reinforcement of the service of the word; a relatively lively space having a sound system for reinforcement of the service of the word and music occasionally; and a relatively dry space having a sound system for amplification of the services of word and music. Direct observation of worship services was used to identify an acoustic itinerary of the worship activities, a taxonomy of the sounds heard in each space, acoustic paths between the sources and receivers for each of the worship activities, the locations of each participant and the activities the sound systems were used to reinforce or amplify. Quantitative evaluations of the physical response of the room were conducted through a series of acoustical measurements and qualitative evaluations of the response of five user groups were conducted with written questionnaires. The selection of source and receiver locations for the acoustical measurements were based on observation of the locations, orientations and the use of the sound systems for each user group in each space during the worship services. It was observed that there were five subject groups: the minister (priest or service leader), the choir, the music director, the congregation and the sound engineer and that the service of word was reinforced by the electronic sound systems to enhance speech intelligibility in each church. The service of music was propagated naturally in two of the worship spaces, while the choir singing was assisted by electronic effects in one of the worship spaces. The soundscape method provided information that varied according to the actual locations of the sources and receivers and their orientations defined by observation. Quantification reflected the meaningful information to the objective acoustical measurements, and qualification provided the participants’ perception of the acoustical qualities of the worship activities. The use of the sound system changed the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the soundscape of worship spaces. It was found that there were significant differences in the quantitative and qualitative evaluations among the rooms and among user groups with and without the use of the sound system.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sang Bum Park.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2012.
Local:
Adviser: Siebein, Gary W.
Local:
Co-adviser: Gold, Martin A.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2014-05-31

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Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2012
System ID:
UFE0043678:00001


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1 SOUN D SCAPE OF THREE WORSHIP SPACE S By SANG BUM PARK A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSI TY OF FLORIDA 201 2

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2 2012 Sang Bum Park

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3 To Jesus Christ my savior and my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful for the fantastic level of support I have enjoyed in my time at the U niversity of F lorida First and foremost, I believe that it was the best privilege for me to have Professor Gary W. Siebein as my advisor I am extremely thankful to him for giving me his immense support and unlimited advice. I also would like to convey many thanks to Dr. Antonio Carvalho for his fine guidance and constructive advice. My deep appreciation would certainly be shown fo r all other committee members: Professor Martin A. Gold, Professor Kenneth J. Ge r hardt and Professor James P. Sain I cannot thank enough my lovely wife, Seokkyong for her unconditional love and unlimited support, and for helping me to successfully accomplish advancement in my academic career. I finally like to convey thanks to my lovely two children Yejun and Minjun and my parents as well as parents in law for their kind support.

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5 TABL E OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 CHAPTER ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 14 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 16 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 19 A Soundscape of Nature to a Worship Space ................................ ......................... 19 Historical Context of Church Architecture ................................ ............................... 21 Emerging Roles of a Sound System in a Worship Space ................................ ....... 30 A Balance Between Natural Acoustics And Electronic Sound Systems .................. 34 A Re verberant Church with a Reinforcement System ................................ ...... 35 A Live Space with Sound Reinforcement System ................................ ............ 36 A Dry Space with Sound Amplifica tion System ................................ ................ 37 Objective Acoustical Parameters in a Worship Space ................................ ............. 38 Reverberation T ime ................................ ................................ .......................... 40 Early Decay Time (EDT) ................................ ................................ ................... 41 Strength Factor (G) ................................ ................................ .......................... 41 Early Sound Energy Ratios (C80 and D50) ................................ ...................... 43 Speech Transmission Index (STI) ................................ ................................ .... 44 Inter Aural Cross Correlation (IACC) ................................ ................................ 45 Subjective Acoustical Evaluation of a Worship Space ................................ ............. 46 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 54 Observation of Soundscapes of Worship Spaces ................................ ................... 54 Objective Acoustical Measurements ................................ ................................ ....... 55 Subjective Acoustical Evaluation ................................ ................................ ............ 61 4 BACKGROUND NOISE AND ANALYSIS OF TRANSFER FUNCTION ................. 64 General Investigation of Background Noises ................................ .......................... 64 Soundscape Perspective on Ba ckground Noises ................................ ................... 67 Transfer Functions of t he Spaces a nd Sound Systems ................................ .......... 72 5 OBSERVATION OF WORSHIP SERVICES ................................ ........................... 86 Acoustical Documentation of Worship Activities ................................ ..................... 86

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6 S t. Thomas M ore C hurch (STMC) ................................ ................................ .... 87 First United Methodist Church ( FUMC ) ................................ ............................ 89 Korean Baptist Church of Gainesville (KBCG) ................................ ................. 91 Sound Pressure Levels of Worship Activit ies ................................ .......................... 93 Acoustic Itineraries and Sound Paths in the Three Worship Spaces ...................... 99 6 OBJECTIVE ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENT ................................ ..................... 106 Reverberation Time ................................ ................................ .............................. 106 Early Decay Time ................................ ................................ ................................ 110 Relative Strength ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 115 Early Sound Energy Ratios ................................ ................................ ................... 121 Speech Intelligibility ................................ ................................ .............................. 128 Binaural Quality ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 134 7 SUBJECTIVE ACOUSTICAL EVALUATION ................................ ........................ 137 Overall Results of Subjective Evaluation ................................ .............................. 139 Among Worship Spaces ................................ ................................ ....................... 143 One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Test of Bonfferroni ................................ ............. 147 Within Worship Spaces ................................ ................................ ......................... 148 Paired t test ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 148 One way ANOVA ................................ ................................ ........................... 151 8 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 153 Importance of Observation ................................ ................................ .................... 153 Quantification and Qualification ................................ ................................ ............ 155 Electronic Sound System ................................ ................................ ...................... 158 Future Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 162 APPENDIX A APPROVAL AND QUESTIONNAIRE OF SURVEY ................................ .............. 165 B STATISTICAL RESULTS SUPPLEMENTS ................................ .......................... 170 C SUPPLEMENT GRAPHICAL RESULTS ................................ .............................. 174 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 178 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 182

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Summary of sound sources by room and type of sound projection used ........... 56 5 1 Measurement setup for sound pressure levels of the worship ............................ 93 5 2 Sound pressure levels of worship activities of STMC measured in the rear congregational seating area ................................ ................................ ............... 96 5 3 Sound pressure levels of the worship activities of FUMC ................................ ... 97 5 4 Sound pressure levels of worship activities of KBCG ................................ ......... 99 6 1 Reverberation time (T30) of the three worship spaces averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz with standard deviation (Std.) ................................ ............................. 107 6 2 Reverberation time (T30, sec) based on the aiming of the sound source and the type of the acoustic propagation in the three worship spaces .................... 108 6 3 Early decay time (EDT) of the three worship spaces averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz with standard deviation (Std.) ................................ ................................ 110 6 4 Early decay time (EDT, sec) based on the aimin g of the sound source and the type of the acoustic propagation in the three worship spaces .................... 111 6 5 Relative Strength (G) of the three worship spaces averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz octave band c enter with standard deviation (Std.) ................................ ..... 116 6 6 Relative Strength (G, dB) based on the aiming of the sound source and the type of the acoustic propagation in the three worship spaces .......................... 117 6 7 Speech Transmission Index (STI ) based on the type of the acoustic propagation in the three worship spaces ................................ .......................... 129 6 8 The values of G st rength on the main floor area in FUMC ............................... 134 7 1 The number of participants in the five subject groups of the four churches ...... 138 7 2 Descriptive statistics of the number of the participants in the survey ................ 138 7 3 The results of a One Way ANOVA by the four worship styles .......................... 144 B 1 One way ANOVA by the four worship spaces ................................ .................. 170 B 1 One way ANOVA by the four worship spaces (continued) ............................... 171

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8 B 2 Subjective acoustical parameters showing significant differences among the four spaces by a One Way ANOVA with Bonferroni at the p value of 0.05 ...... 172 B 3 Results of a Paired sample t test showi ng significant differences at the p value of 0.05 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 173 B 4 Results of a One way ANOVA by subject groups showing significant differences at the p value of 0.05 in the four spaces ................................ ........ 173

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Antheminus of Tralles, Isidore of Milet, Hagia Sophia, Constantinopole, 537 .... 22 2 2 St.Sernin Cathedral, c.1080 to 1120, Toulouse, France ................................ ..... 23 2 3 Gothic Cathedral, Notre Dame de Paris, 1345, restoration in 1854, France ....... 23 2 4 Nickel Gromann, Chapel at Hartenfels Castle, Torgau, 1544, interior view of altar and pulpit ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 24 2 5 George Bhr, Church of Our Lady, Dresden (left and center) / Friedrich Wilhelm Dite richs, Bethlehem Church, Berlin (right) ................................ ........... 25 2 6 Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, Giacomo della Porta, Santissimo Nome di Gesu, Rome, 1584 ................................ ................................ ............................. 26 2 7 ............................. 27 3 1 A schematic diagram for objective acoustical measurements and apparatus used ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 57 3 2 The locations of receiver and source locations for the objective acoustical measurement in STMC ................................ ................................ ....................... 5 7 3 3 The locations of receiver and source locations for the objective acoustical measurement in FUMC ................................ ................................ ...................... 58 3 4 The locations of receiver and source locations for the objective acoustical measurement in KBCG ................................ ................................ ....................... 59 4 1 Noise criteria of three worship spaces measured in the center of the rooms ..... 65 4 2 Room criteria of KBCG measured in the center of the main floo r ....................... 66 4 3 Background noises in the center of the main floor and in the choir with and without HVAC system plotted on NC curves in FUMC ................................ ....... 68 4 4 Room criteria of the choir with and without HVAC system in FUMC ................... 69 4 5 Background noise level measured on the platform and inside the sound booth of KBCG plotted on RC plots ................................ ................................ .... 70 4 6 Background noise level measured in KBCG overlaid on NC curves ................... 70 4 7 Background noise levels measured in the center of the con gregation seating area of KBCG when rain or no rain ................................ ........................ 71

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10 4 8 Schematic diagram of the transfer function measurements used: definition of transfer functions of a sound system and a room and fr equency responses ...... 73 4 9 Schematic diagram of the transfer function measurements used ....................... 75 4 10 Transfer function of the loudspeak distance ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 76 4 11 Transfer function calculated in the music director's location (L9) ....................... 77 4 12 Transfer function of the main loudspeaker 'S1' and frequency responses measured at L11, pulpit, L2, L4 and L6 of STMC ................................ ............... 78 4 13 Room transfer function at L11, pulpit, L2, L4 and L6 in STMC calculated .......... 78 4 14 Transfer function of the sound system of FUMC; three transfer functions for each loudspeaker S1, S2 and S3 ................................ ................................ ....... 79 4 15 Transfer function of the main loudspeaker 'S1' and frequency responses of the three receiver locations on the main floor area L2, L and L6 ........................ 80 4 16 Transfer function of the delayed loudsp eaker 'S2' and frequency responses measured at the receiver location 8 (L8) with and without 'S2' ........................... 80 4 17 Transfer function of the monitor speaker 'S3' and the room transfer function of the ch oir with its frequency response in FUMC ................................ .............. 82 4 18 Transfer function of the main loudspeaker 'S' and frequency responses measured at the receiver location 3 (L3), L6 and L9 in KBCG ........................... 83 4 19 Transfer function of the main loudspeaker 'S' and frequency responses measured at L5, L1, L11 and L12 ................................ ................................ ....... 84 4 20 Room transfer functions of the three receiver locations L5, L10 and L11 ........... 85 5 1 Worship activities observed during the worship service of STMC and the sequence of the sonic events in a time history graph ................................ ......... 87 5 2 Worship activities observed during the worship service of FUMC and the sequence of the sonic events in a time history graph ................................ ......... 89 5 3 Wor ship activities observed during the worship service of KBCG and the sequence of the sonic events in a time history graph ................................ ......... 91 5 4 Measurement locations for sound pressure levels of the worship a ctivities of the three worship spaces ................................ ................................ .................... 94 5 5 Sound pressure levels of worship activities of STMC presented in Table 5 2 .... 95

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11 5 6 S ound pressure levels of worship activities of FUMC presented in Table 5 3 .... 98 5 7 Sound pressure levels of worship activities of KBCG presented in Table 5 4 .... 99 5 8 Acoustic itineraries and the sound paths during the worship service of STMC 101 5 9 Acoustic itineraries and sound paths while the choir is singing and the p astor is speaking during the worship service of FUMC ................................ .............. 103 5 10 Acoustic itineraries and sound paths during the worship service of KBCG ...... 105 6 1 Reverberation time (T30) of the three worship spaces averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz with standard deviation in situations where NAT or SYS was in use. 107 6 2 Reverberation time ( T30) of the choir singing measured at the five receiver groups in KBCG and the changes by the use of electronic effects 'EFT' .......... 109 6 3 Early decay time (EDT) of the service of music and word in STMC averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz ................................ ................................ ........................ 111 6 4 Early decay time (EDT) with 95 % of confidence interval in FUMC .................. 113 6 5 Early decay time of the congregation when the natural acoustics (NAT) or the sound system (SYS) was in use in FUMC ................................ ........................ 113 6 6 Early decay time (EDT) with 95 % of confidence interval in KBCG .................. 115 6 7 115 6 8 Relative Strength (G) of the service of music and word in STMC averaged from the 500 Hz to 2 kHz octave bands ................................ ............................ 117 6 9 ng either facing the congregation STMC ................................ .. 118 6 10 Relative Strength (G) with 95 % of confidence interval in FUMC ...................... 118 6 11 Relative Strength (G) o f the natural acoustic propagation (NAT) and the sound system (SYS) measured in FUMC ................................ ......................... 119 6 12 Relative Strength (G) with 95 % of confidence interval in KBCG ...................... 120 6 13 .................. 122 6 14 ................ 123

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12 6 15 Clarity (C80) in the middle frequencies of the natural sound propagation measured in the five receiver groups of FUMC ................................ ................ 124 6 16 Clarity (C80) of the natural acoustic propagation (NAT) and the sound system (SYS) in FUMC ................................ ................................ .................... 124 6 17 Definition (D50) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) and the sound system (SYS) measured in the five receiver groups of FUMC .......................... 125 6 18 Definition (D50) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) and the sound system (SYS) measured at the location of the congregation in FUMC ............. 126 6 19 Clarity (C80) of the choir singing by the natural propagation (NAT) and by the electronic effects (EFT) in KBCG ................................ ................................ ...... 127 6 20 Definition (D50) of the natural sound propagati speech by the sound system (SYS) ................................ ................................ .. 128 6 21 Speech Transmission Index (STI) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) and the service of words reinforced by the sound syst em (SYS) in STMC ....... 130 6 2 2 The section and the interior view of STMC with aiming of the main loudspeakers ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 130 6 23 Speech Transmi ssion Index (STI) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) and the service of word reinforced by the sound system (SYS) in FUMC ........ 131 6 24 Spee ch Transmission Index (STI) of measured at the congre gational seating area (the main floor and the second floor) in FUMC ................................ ......... 131 6 25 The coverage angles of loudspeakers at 6 dB and their aims in FUMC .......... 132 6 26 Speech Transmission Index (STI) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) and the service of word reinforced by the sound system (SYS) in KBCG ........ 133 6 27 The values of G s trength on the main floor area in FUMC ............................... 135 7 1 Subjective evaluation of Reverberance and Overall impressions of STMC with 95% C.I. by the subject groups ................................ ................................ 140 7 2 Subjective evaluation of Loudness and Naturalness of FUMC with 95% C.I. by the subject groups ................................ ................................ ....................... 140 7 3 Subjective evaluation of Intelligibility and Naturalness of KBCG with 95% C.I. by the subject groups ................................ ................................ ....................... 142 7 4 Subjective evaluation of Clarity and Intelligibility of KBCG_AMP with 95% C.I. by the subject groups ................................ ................................ ....................... 142

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13 7 5 Subjective judgment score of Loudness and Reverberance of the four worship styles with 95% of confidence interval ................................ ................. 145 7 6 Subjective judgment score of Clarity and Intelligibility of the four worship styles with 95 % of confidence interval ................................ ............................. 145 7 7 A multiple comparison chart of the subjective acoustical parameters at the p value of 0.05 by Post Hoc T est of Bonfferroni ................................ .................. 148 7 8 The subjective acoustical parameters having significant differences by a Paired t test at the p value of 0.05 in the four spaces ................................ ...... 150 7 9 The subjective acoustical parameters having significant differences at the p value of 0.05 by a One way ANOVA by subject groups in the four spaces ...... 152 8 1 G Strength values measured using the directional test loudspeaker as the sound source placed in the middle of the platform ................................ ........... 154 8 2 Clarity values in KBCG using the directional test loudspeaker in the middle of the platform and the house sound system as the sound source ....................... 155 8 3 EDT values measured using the directional test loudspeaker and using the house sound system as the sound so urce in the four worship styles ............... 159 8 4 Reverberance rated by subjects in the four worship styles during worship service ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 159 A 1 Approval of UFIRB ................................ ................................ ............................ 165 A 2 Informed consent ................................ ................................ .............................. 166 A 3 The first page of the survey questionnaire for FUMC ................................ ....... 167 A 4 The second page of the survey questionnaire for the three worship spaces .... 168 A 5 The third page of the survey questionnaire for the three worshi p spaces ......... 169 C 1 Subjective evaluation of acoustical qualities in STMC ................................ ...... 174 C 2 Subjective evaluation of acoustical qualities in FUMC ................................ ...... 175 C 3 Subjective evaluation of acoustical qualities in KBCG ................................ ...... 176 C 4 Subjective evaluation of acoustical qualities in KBCG _AMP ............................ 177

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14 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy SOUNDSCAPE OF THREE WORSHI P SPACE S By Sang Bum Park M ay 2012 Chair: Gary W. Siebein Cochair: Martin A. Gold Major: Design, Cons truction, and Plannin g A soundscape concept was used to investigate acoustical qualities of three worship spaces representing three differen t room acoustical characteristics and three different levels in the use of sound systems: a rev erberant space having a compact system only for reinforcement of the service of the word; a relatively live ly space having a sound system for reinforcement of th e service of the word and music occasionally ; and a relatively dry space having a sound system for amplification of the services of word and music. Direct o bservation of worship services was used to identify an acoustic itinerary of the worship activities, a taxonomy of the sounds heard in each space acoustic paths between the sources and receivers for each of the worship activities, the locations of each participant a nd the activities the sound systems were used to reinforce or amplify Q uanti tative evalu ations of the physical response of the room were conducted through a series of acoustical measurements and quali tative evaluations of the response of five user groups were conducted with written questionnaires T he selection of source and receiver location s for the acoustical measurement s were based

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15 on observation of the locations, orientations and the use of the sound system s for each user group in each space during the worship services. It was observed that there were five subject groups: the minister (pr iest or service leader) the choir, the music director, the congregation and the sound engineer and that the service of word was reinforced by the electronic sound systems to enhance speech intelligibility in each church The service of music was propagate d naturally in two of the worship spaces while the choir sing ing was assisted by electronic effects in one of the worship space s T he soundscape method provided information that varied according to the actual locations of the sources and receivers and the ir orientations defined by observation Quantification reflected the meaningful information to the objective acoustical measurements, and qualification provided the participants perception of the acoustical qualities of the worship activities. The use of the sound system changed the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the soundscape of worship spaces. It was found that there were significant differences in the quantitative and qualitative evaluation s among the rooms and among user groups with and w ithout the use of the sound system.

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16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Sounds are the outcomes of natural phenomen a or people s activities I n a worship space, sounds are made by participants in the worship activities such as praying, s inging, speaking, playing mu sic etc ., which can be called sonic activities in order for God to be able to hear the participants prayer and praise. Room acoust ical studies adopted from concert hall research provide useful information about the effects of architectural features on so unds in a room but relatively no information about the effects of sounds (or sonic activities ) on people. A worship space has dynamic sonic activities occurring in multiple locations Multiple groups of participants in the service play different roles in t he liturgy and worship. In this sense, five subject groups were identified in worship services: the minister priest or worship leader the choir, the music director, the congregation and the sound engineer because they can have different role s in the per formance and possibly may benefit from different acoustic qualities A soundscape is an auditory equivalent of a landscape (Blesser and Salter 200 6 p 1 5 ) Thus, the soundscape of a worship space is the acoustical study of the nature and meaning of sounds i n a worship space, especially the relationship between man and the sounds of his environment (a worship space in this case) and what happens when those sounds change (Schafer 1977, p3) S oundscape methods include observation quantification and qualifica tion of sounds categorizing them into two separat e groups ; desirable sounds to be preserve d, encouraged and enhanced; and unwanted sounds t o be reduced, buffered and mitigated. T wo of t he most desirable sounds in a worship space, for an example, would be t he ability of the congregation to hear spoken words from the minister and liturgical music sung by the choir.

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17 Soundscape methods have been used to explore the acoustic quality of natural and urban environments and the effects of sounds on people (Schafer 1 977) The relationship between people and the sounds of the ir surrounding environment and the phenomen a that result from change s in the environment are the major areas of soundscape research (Schafer 1977) In this dissertation, the soundscape method was chosen for observation, quantification and qualification of the ac oustics of three worship spaces b ecause s oundscape methods can provide researchers with a different way of identify ing issues when investigating the acoustic s of worship space s than those u sed in the concert hall acoustics. D ata obtained from acoustical measurement s in a worship space can show different results based on the method selected for the analysis Observations of worship services led to identification of a taxonomy of sounds that occur red in the rooms as well as the multiple participants involved in producing the sounds and listening to the m, i.e., the acoustic community (Truax 2001 Blesser and Salter 2007 ) A taxonomy of sounds is the classification of sonic events that people ca n hear (Schafer 1977). Five subject groups including the minister, the choir, the music director, the congregation and the sound engineer each with their own liturgical location s i n the room, communication paths (which can be called an acoustic itinerary ) a nd values were identified. Quantification was conducted by acoustical measurements using the impulse response technique and a dummy head with two microphones located in the ears of the dummy head but analyses were undertaken based on soundscape method s by categorizing the results into the five subject groups. In addition, acoustical measurements with and without the use of sound systems were

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18 performed, because sound systems were used in each worship space for various reasons. As for qualification, survey s were administered i n the three churches using written questionnaires during the worship service and analyzed according to the specific seating locations and liturgical roles of the participants in the worship service The results from the observation, qu antification and qualification of the worship spaces were analyzed by the soundscape method and compar ed with the general room acoustical analyses of sounds. In sum, not only room acoustics of worship spaces but also the effects of worship activities on pa rticipants were investigated based on soundscape concept s throughout this dissertation.

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19 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW A Soundscape of Nature to a Worship Space A soundscape is described as an auditory or aural landscape ( Thompson 2002 p1 ) The concept of a soundscape was developed by Schafer (1977) referring to any portion of the sonic environment regarded as a field of study (Schafer 1997, p274). People experience a diverse sonic environment as they walk along acoustic itineraries in natural areas caused by sound reflections from trees bushes, rocks and topographical features The acoustical itinerary which can connect acoustic rooms or zones where communication and listening of various types can occur (Schafer 1977, Siebein 2010, p3) can be divided into mu ltiple acoustical rooms where t he same sound will be heard d ifferently because of the difference of spatial volumes and acoustical characteristics of its surroundings in terms of absorption, refl ection and diffusion of sounds. Similarly, people will hear t he same sounds with different acoustical qualities depending on the locations of the individual source and receiver location within a room. Schafer (1977) identified and classified the natural soundscape by the sonic events which people can hear such as vo ices of the sea, the water, the wind, the land, etc (Schafer 1977, p15 28). Blesser (2007) developed the notion of aural architecture which refers to the properties of a space that can be experienced by listening (Blesser and Salter 2007, p5), so people ca n hear the same sonic events differently in different environments due to the contribution of the aural architecture which can be equivalent to the contribution of an acoustic room in a natural setting Ando (1998) conducted acoustical measurements to inve stigate the physical properties of a forest as an acoustic space using impulse response measurement (Ando

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20 1998). Siebein (2010) pointed out that it provides the opportunity to identify, engage and design acoustic communities within natural areas, cities an d buildings (Siebein 2010, p2) and proposed surveys with acoustical simulations or auralizations as a soundscape assessment method to evaluate prospective design solutions (Siebein 2010, p4). A worship space can be regarded as a n environment that contain s sonic activities such as praying, singing, chanting, playing musical instrument s discuss ing, etc. engaged in by various members of the acoustical community using the space. Reverberation produced by sound reflections from the aural architecture can have t he theological meaning according to the type of religious music and liturgical style ( Blesser and Salter 2007 ). Participants are voluntarily involved in specific roles in the worship activities such as a minister, the choir, a music director, the congregat ion and a sound engineer They sit or st and in their acoustic rooms which exist in the space during worship. The sonic activities are very dynamic in terms of the locations of the participants the loudness of natural sound propagation and electronically r einforced sounds which can be defined with acoustic itineraries of the participants. In sum, the soundscape concept can be used to define the acoustic community for worship. In addition to room acoustical measurements that measure the acoustical qualities of the aural architecture, the observation of the sonic activities and the determination of the acoustic itineraries give one opportunity to classify and quantify them according to worship service as well as to qualify the sound perception of the particip ants using survey with written questionnaires. Therefore, the soundscape concept gives the objective acoustical qualities meaningfulness related to the worship service.

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21 Historical Context of Church Architecture To begin with the discussion about a soundsca pe of worship space one may go back to its origin and look at the transitions in the styles of architectural forms and worship activities based on the history of churches, because church building has been shaped by a combination of architecture, theology and historical context ( Stegers 2008). As far as the worship activities are concerned, there are two branches dealing with worship services in churches: the spoken word of a sermon or homily deliver ed by priests or pastor s and the service of music. Questio ns arise as to when and how the services of particular denominations have been changed and what the historical context of the architectural forms during each time period is. After the year 312 when the Roman Emperor Constantine put an end to the persecuti on of Christians the Christian community grew rapidly. Large churches were formed in cities throughout the Roman Empire and took the form of a longitudinal market hall or basilica that has a high central nave with aisle s to the left and right, separated by columns, and an apse, a semic ircular protrusion in the center of the end of the nave (Long 2006, Stegers 2008 p13 ) T he church expanded to become an important institution in the Empire and t he Christian religion was declared the official sta t e religion in 380 under Emperor Theodosius (Stegers 2008) While basilicas had a longitudinal plan, the Hagia Sophia (Figure 2 1) and the Hagia Irene in Istanbu l, Turkey had domed spaces with a cruciform plan with one large and four smaller cupolas. During this time Plainsong or Gregorian Chant was developed. This is the single melodic line developed with the liturgy and in conjunction with the use of the verna cular Latin that had supplanted the Greek language in the liturgy of the West (Sowerby 1956 p6 7 ) The

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22 long nave might inhibit the people s participation because of inadequate sight lines, remoteness of location, lon g reverberation, poor lighting, etc (White and White 1988) Figure 2 1 Antheminus of Tralles, Isidore of Milet, Hagia Sophia, Constantinopole, 537 While the basilica flourished throughou t Western Europe, there was a transition when a transept was added at right angles to the nave, the choir was placed behind the altar and the ceiling received a vaulted treatment which can be called the Romanesque. T he St. Sernin Cathedral built in 1080 wa s shown in Figure 2 2 as an example. The Gothic period refined the Romanesque replacing the many towers with one or two principal towers and giving the heavy flat surfaces a light and sinewy character (Stegers 2008 p15 ) The Gothic period also led to the creation of another form of music which was the unaccompanied vocal music. It was brought to high level in the work of the great masters of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries which was an age described in

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23 the h istories of music as the Golden Age (Sowerby 1956 p7 ) The Notre Dame de Paris shown in Figure 2 3 was the example of the Gothic Cathedral. Figure 2 2 St.Sernin Cathedral, c.1080 to 1120 Toulouse, France Figure 2 3 Gothic Cathedral, Notre Dame de Paris, 1345, restoration in 1854, France

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24 M omentous changes i n worship style were attributed to the Reformation caused by Martin Luther s 95 theses written in 1517 (Stegers 2008 Routley 1950 ) Although architecture played no important role in the Reformation because there were plenty of churches already Martin Luther gave people the notion that the function of every church is listening to the word of God, praying and singing The first church built according to the Lutheran notion of liturgy was Nickel Gromann s chapel at Hartenfels Castle in Torgau shown in Figure 2 4 wh ich Luther dedicated in 1544 (Stegers 2008) It was divided into three sections, the nave, the transept and the choir During liturgical reforms, he brought music into the service of the church. He was not the first one who insisted on the Mass being sung in the vernacul ar, but he taught people to sing as one of the purposes of the Mass for their salvation (Routley 1950 p119). Figure 2 4 Nickel Gromann, Chapel at Hartenfels Castle, Torgau, 1544, interior view of altar and pulpit In the mean ti me, the congregation was allowed access to the nave and transept. The Protestants could use whichever church building was available whether it was a Basilica plan with low side aisles or churches with side aisles of equal height since the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 that was the first legal basis for the existence of Lutheranism as well as Catholicism in Germany (Stegers 2008) However, altar s did not effectively meet the requirements of the Protestant worship style w hich placed an

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25 emphasis on the sermon. Balconies and galleries were installed and cross ed windows and pillars F or the focus of the sermon the altar was placed below and the pulpit was raised above resulting in offer ing a single point of focus from which the galleries could extend on both sides, enclosing the room in a square, circle or oval (Stegers 2008, p18). Bethlehem Church in Berlin 1 737 and George Bahr's Church of Our Lady in Dresden 1743 shown in Figure 2 5 were examp le churches belonged to that type of church. Figure 2 5 George B hr, Church of Our Lady, Dresden, 1722 to 1726 restoration completed in 2005 (left and center) / Friedrich Wilhelm Diterichs, Bethlehem Church Berlin 1 737 interi or view with Protestant high al tar (right) T he Lutheran church attempted to achieve a balance be tween the altar and the pulpit, whereas the pulpit was an absolute priority for the Calvinists. The Calvinist Reformation in France, Switzerland, Scotland and H olland led to a wave of iconoclastic destruction of statues and images in churches during the third and sixth decades of the 16 th century (Stegers 2008) In addition the Reformation had a great effect on the field of music, particularly in Germany. The use of the Lutheran Chorale was growing and the forms were culminated with the work of the great J. S Bach (Sowerby 1956) In sum, the configuration of architectural shapes ten ded to be centralized rather than longitudinal, which resulted in the congregation being located as close as possible to

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26 the liturgical centers of the pulpit and altar for preservation of the communication between the ministers and the congregation. M easur ed and ordered music with its bar lines and regular stresses emerged from the Reformation in addition to Plainsong, Gregorian Chant and the chorales of the early Lutheran Ch urch that are rhythmically free (Satere n 1958) Churches were continuously constructed in the Renaissance period between 1400 and 1600. St. Peter s Basilica in Rome shown in Figure 2 7 was the large st building in the period. The conflict between the longitudinal and the circular configuration s led to the advent of the Renaissance and the new building shapes such as a circular, oval or quadratic plan, often superimposed or in combination (Stegers 2008 p15 ) Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and Giacomo dell a s Sant issimo Nome di G esu in Rome, 1584 the mother church of the Jesuits shown in Figure 2 6 was regarded as the example between the two plan forms. Figure 2 6 Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, Giacomo della Porta, Santissimo Nome di G esu, Rome, 1584 The liturgical session of the Council of Trent from 1545 to 1563 was con ven ed to purify church music from the association of secularism like musical embellishments such as singer s irrelevant behavior, composers musical exubera nce, and the

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27 extravagant use of instruments (Stegers 2008, Sohm 1958 p.185, Long 2008) and came to a preliminary decision: Let them keep away from the churches those forms of music with which, either by the organ or by singing, anything lewd or impure is mixed, in order (Routley 1950 p129). One piece of music in particular the Preces Speciales of Jacous de Kerle, performed during the Council was regarded as the example which was entirely undistinguished with polyphony and homophony in strict moderation with avoidance of all those (Routley 1950 p129). Figure 2 7 After the Thirty Years War between 161 8 and 1648, the Baroque style of church design became dominant because Italy became a center for art and music in the latter

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28 half of the sixteenth century and the whole of the seventeenth century. The music and the arc hitecture were more ornamented (Long 2 008). Music was a normal social accompaniment and those Christians who believed rather in the integration of the faith and common life than in their separation wanted to see it in church. Thus, free and facile were the flow of sacred polyphony all over E urope at the beginning of the seventeenth century (Routley 1950 p149). On the other hand, the Church became a perfunctory institution at the Restoration as Sowerby pointed out that because of the Puritanism which placed an emphasis on the primacy of f reedom and the effect of the Renaissance all beauty in the worship of God was despised, churches were desecrated, and the use of music in the service was forbidden (Sowerby 1956, p9). The C hurch music of the eight eenth century was perfunctory and not religious in the sense that it reflected not traditional church music but the newer symphonic music which emerged during the Classical period. In the nineteenth century, the masses and much of the other church music composed by some of the later composers such as Rossini and Gounod reflected the operatic tendencies in vogue (Sowerby 1956 p9). The important turning point in the history of church architecture in the modern age was the Second World War (Stegers 2008 p 23 ) On the one hand, there was an important paradigm shift from the viewpoint of the clergy to the viewpoint of the people (from the cleric s church to the people s church), after the Second Vatican Council which was convened from 1962 to 1965 initiated the most significant reforms to the Catholic Church service, which resulted in Mass in a vernacular language other than Latin was permitted enabling the congregation to understand the sermon given by ministers (Long 2006, Stegers 2008, Carvalho 1994)

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29 When it comes to contemporary church architecture, Stegers s statement there are indeed very few good examp les of contemporary church building seems to make sense When the exhibition held in the title, the rediscovery, or indeed the re conquest of 20 th century liturgical architecture in autumn 1999 in Rome it was just a collection of neo Romanesque, neo Gothic and vernacular architecture (Stegers 2008 p11 ) This may be because church architecture is still stereotyped in the style of the Gothic Cathedral. On the other hand, it seems to be plausible that the coex istence of ancient churches with those of contemporary design is inevitable as long as the former were not destroyed yet For example, Carvalho conducted acoustical measurements in 41 Catholic churches in Portugal, for his dissertation built in between t he 6 th century and 1993 and categorized them into eight architectural styles; Visigothic, Romanesque, Gothic, Manueline, Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassic and Contemporary. They were all existed in the same country at the same time and only four churches ou t of forty one were built in the Contemporary period (Carvalho 1994 p 19 ) Therefore, the primary attention should be paid as how to preserve the service of word and the service of music, no mat ter how appropriate the architectural style is for the worship style There would be two approaches for the preservation. One approach would be the room acoustical consideration dealing with natural acoustic propagation of sounds in the space by changing a rchitectural features such as the structural shapes and the finish materials in terms of absorption, reflection and diffusion. The other would be the electronic acoustics which can provide people with an adequate loudness using loudspeakers or the room wit h electronic reverberation as needed. In the following

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30 chapters, the emerging role of sound systems in worship spaces and the way to gain balance between natural sounds and electronically reinforced sounds will be discussed. Emerging Roles of a Sound Syste m i n a Worship Space A rchitectural features have play ed an important role in natural acoustic sound propagation in worship spaces enhancing desirable sounds and mitigating unwanted sounds, which are called noises Sound reflective surfaces were used in man y religious buildings to project useful early sound energy to the audience, aesthetic irregularities such as decorating columns, niches and statues made the music ensemble blended and balanced, and masonry walls inhibited exterior noises from entering or p enetrating the interior except where noises can be propagated into the space through the large windows Sometimes, especially in theater s or opera houses, draperies and fabric seats were used to absorb excessively reverberant sounds decreasing the overall reverberation time, so that the audience could hear the dialogue more clearly (Long 2006, McCarty 2007, Kleiner et al 2010 ) S peech intelligibility became the most important factor in the acoustical design of worship spaces since the Reformation and par ticularly after the Second Vatican Council as discussed in the previous section (Stegers 2008) In order to deliver the word of God more effectively worship space s are usually willing to use electronic sound reinforcement system s in addition to the natura l acoustic propagation of sounds. The sound pressure level of a priest s or pastor s speaking usually var ies according to their way s that they speak O ne might barely be able to perceive the sermon at more than 20m distance without adequate reinforcement e ither architectura lly or electr on ically (Beranek 1954, McCarthy 2007) The sound level of the speech will decrease 16 dB or more to the level less than the background noise at the rear seats Central cluster

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31 sound systems or distributed sound systems with time delays are typically used to enhance speech intelligibility for the whole congregation reinforcing the homily or sermon by priests rabbis and pastors and reading s by lay people Sometime s, sound systems such as columns, line arrays, pew back or pew bottom can be used in some churches where loudspeakers should be invisible or the reverberation time is very long like Gothic Catholic Cathedrals ( Davis and Patronis 2006 Eargle and Foreman 20 02, Kleiner et al. 2010 ) On the other hand the service of music with a choir, an acoustic pipe organ and a music ensemble are enhanced by the natural acoustics of the room in general. A s tage shell and canopy that some worship spaces have can increase t he useful early sound energy of the music for the congregation; and reflective and diffusive surfaces on the walls and ceiling enhance the early sound energy From time to time the electronic reinforcement can cause additional reverberant sounds decre asin g speech intelligibility (Carvalho 1994 Long 2006 ) Therefore, careful choice s have to be made based on the acoustical qualities of the spaces and on the locations, directivities, aim ing angles and frequency responses of the loudspeakers. For example, in reverberant worship spaces, high ly directional loudspeakers both in horizontal and in vertical axes may be recommended in general (Eargle and Foreman 2002, Kleiner et al. 2010 ) Contemporary worship spaces tend to be getting larger and larger (Beranek 1954 Stegers 2008, Eargle and Foreman 2002) T he longer distance between the worship leader and the rear of the congregational seating area would result in a lack of loudness at those seats In order for the space s to preserve the dialogue between the congreg ation and the clergy and musical quality, it is inevitable that new strategies to

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32 keep the distance as close as possible and t o present the useful early sounds have to be taken into account (Beranek 1954, Blesser and Salter 2007) Amplified acoustics can b e one of the se considerations. The amplified sounds would compensate for the long distance with enough loudness for clarity in terms of speech and music. T he spoken words of a sermon or homily by priests and pastors are amplified by center cluster or distr ibuted sound system s with time delays. The playback of CD and audio media are widely used (K leiner et al. 2010 Davis and Patronis 2006 Eargle and Foreman 2002 ). T he priests and pastors begin to request a monitor system and freedom of movement during wors hip services. M ixing consoles having multiple input channels, s tereo returns for CD players and playback s, auxiliary outputs for various uses including monitor systems are used to accompl ish their goals Wireless microphones give the priests and pastors fr eedom of movement, whereas they can hear themselves by using monitor loud speakers or in ear monitor system s ( Davis and Jones 1989, Eargle and Foreman 2002, McCarthy 2007, Kleiner et al. 2010) Th e e mergence of modern praise bands has brought a need for heavily amplified acoustics in worship spaces During the nineteenth century, although authorized hymnals remain ed largely traditional in style, the popular ity of revival movements and camp meeting s as well as the rise of Sunday schools, brought so called gospel music into enough prominence that it has been well represented in twentieth century hymnals (Poultney 1991 p76 ) T he younger congregational members in the later 1960 s and 1970 s found more emphatic expression in the heavier beat, more complex rhythms, and heavy metal sound of Christian rock music (Poultney 1991 p77 ) This contemporary church music cannot be played without an amplified sound system to

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33 some extent. Acoustic guitars, keyboard s electric guitar s bass guitar s and drums are general ly part of the se ensembles Al though electronic keyboards cannot produce any sounds without an amplified system, acoustic guitar s and drums present natural sounds sending its electrical signals to a mixing console at the same time to be reinforced by the sound system. Electric guitars and bass guitars sometimes have their own amplification systems, but house amplification is usually used for these instruments in a large space. Sometimes, string and brass instruments may be added, and s ongs can be either guitar driven or piano driven ( Da vis and Patronis 2006 Davis and Jones 1989, Eargle and Foreman 2002) In general, a multi channel mixing console allows several sound sources to be input S ingers are free to move with wireless microphones, and individual monitor speakers enable the music ians and singers to hear each other. The stereo audio signals balanced and manipulated by sound engineers are amplified by a stereo cluster sound system. Even the choir and music ensemble can be amplified and presented to the congregation in rooms with hea vily amplified acoustics (Davis and Jones 1989, Eargle and Foreman 2002) The music director plays an important role i n achieving a balance among the choir, music ensemble, and acoustic pipe organ. However, in the sense that those sounds are amplified by sound systems, sound engineers also play a vital role in the ultimate quality of sound heard by the congregation The services of music are picked up by multiple channel microphones A stereo microphone is usually used for the recording. The selection of t he microphones among omni directional patterns, cardioid s, super cardioids, hyper cardioids, etc. is important to gain acoustical feedback margins as well

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34 as to record the service of music. Mor eover, many churches are using an electronic organ The electro nic organ needs additional loudspeakers to present organ music, and in this case, the organist is the only person who manipulates the intensity of sounds (Davis and Jones 1989, Eargle and Foreman 2002 Kleiner et al. 2010 ) In sum, the ultimate requirement s for natural acoustics limited reinforcement and heavily amplified acoustics are t o convey and enhance the service of the spoken word and the service of music. T he reinforcement of speech is usually achieved by an electronic sound system, w hereas the cho ir, acoustic pipe organ and natural acoustic music ensemble are enhanced by the architectural features of the worship space (Long 2006, McCarty 2007) In some spaces, the choir and music ensembles are picked up by microphones and amplified through sound sy stems Apart from the choir and music ensemble, even organ music is also recorded for the broadcast system by ambient microphones. A s far as an electric praise band is concerned, most of the sounds are amplified by sound systems and should avoid reflection s off walls and ceilings and acoustical feedback ( Davis and Patronis 2006 Davis and Jones 1989, Eargle and Foreman 2002) A Balance Between Natural Acoustics And Electronic Sound Systems T wo strategies can be considered to gain an aesthetic balance in spa ces of worship, which are natura l acoustics and electronic sound system s Natural acoustics uses architectural features of the room such as room volume, size, shape of the space, arrangement and the location of pulpit, choir, and congre g ation and finish m aterials On the other hand, electronic sound systems are electronic intervention s to reinforce na tural sounds or amplify electronic instruments. I n this case, c areful attention should

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35 be paid to the choices of loudspeakers in terms of directional patterns location s and aiming (Beranek 1954, Long 2006, McCarty 2007, Kleiner and Foreman 2010) Except for natural sound only spaces, there can be three major cases that represent three different levels of the use of sound systems among worship spaces; a reverb erant space having a compact reinforcement system only for reinforcement of the service of word; a live space having a sound system for reinforcement of the service of word and music sometimes; a dry space having a heavy sound system for amplification of t he service s of word and music (Davis and Jones 1989, Eargle and Foreman 2002, McCarty 2007, Kleiner et al 2010). A Reverberant Church with a Reinforcement System T raditional Roman Catholic churches generally had a high vaulted ceiling and a long reverber ation time. T here is little sound absorption in these room s These architectural features give this room appropriateness for the service of music like Gregorian Chant. Organ music could be another consideration in the sense that acoustic pipe organ is well associated with long reverberation time s T he congregation may sing during worship and the singing excites the whole space accompan ied by long reverberation. T he chanting, choral music and musical ensemble will usually s i ng in the choir area. The sounds a re propagated from the choir area to the c ongregation with a direct sound accompanying early reflections from the side walls and ceiling and late re verberation In general, the service of music need s not to be electric ally reinforced because it provides r easonable levels of loudness and long enough reverberation time for the congregation However, in order to achieve an adequate acoustical quality for the service of word electronically mediated sound s can be used especially in th ese type s of churches allo w ing the congregation to perceive intelligible sounds in the spaces.

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36 Th e sermon or homily has to be heard intelligibl y by the congregation therefore, it is necessary that the early sound energy will be enhanced either by architectural ly or electr on ically. This is a different situation from Gregorian chanting and congregational singing There can be some architectural intervention s to improve the intelligibility of the spoken word For example, s ound absorption can decrease reverberation time resulting in a n enhance ment of speech intelligibility ; the congregation seating area can be placed as close as possible to sound sources such as speakers or loudspeakers; the pulpit can be raised and have canopy. On the other hand electr on ically mediated sound system s can be another path that one can take to improve the intelligibility of spoken words (Kleiner et al. 2010, Long 2006) High ly directional loudspeakers installed on columns are generally used for reinforc ement of natural sounds with careful choice of the mi crophone and its location (Kleiner et al. 2010, Eargle and Foreman 2002) In order to avoid increasing reverberant sounds by reflection from the walls and ceiling, high ly directional loudspeakers both in horizontal and vertical ax e s should be used. If one considers just the horizontal directivity of the loudspeaker and use s the traditional line array speakers, then additional reflections off walls would occur simultaneously. Automatic feedback suppression which has notch filters is typically used to remove acoustical feedback in a reverberant space. In addition, multiple high ly directional loudspeakers with time delays would be distributed to achieve the balance between natural and reinforced sound s (Davis and Jones 1989, Eargle and Foreman 2002, Kle i ner et al. 2010) A Live Space w ith Sound Reinforcement System The fact that a church has an adequate acoustical gain for the service of music does not always mean that it does not need to have a sound system. Althoug h a church

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37 may be well designed acoustically with the avoidance of acoustical defects and provide s more useful early sound energy to the congregation, as the size of the room gets larger and larger and finally reaching the point where t he congregation ca nnot clearly hear the service s of music and wor d at locations in the rear of the seating area the natural sound s can be assist ed by reinforced sound system s In this case, loudspeakers with time delays may be used to cover the distant seating areas in order to achieve high levels of speech intelligibi lity (McCarty 2007) It is also possible to regard that music heard by people seated at the far locations may lose high frequency energies differently to the near locations, because (middle and) high frequency energies tend to be absorbed more than low fre quencies in the air (Beranek 1996, Harris 199 8 Kle i ner et al. 2010) Thus, limited reinforcement of the service of music may deliver adequate quality of music to the whole congregation preserving the tonal balance of music. A Dry Space w ith Sound Amplific ation System It is possible that sometimes t he worsh ip style becomes theatrical in contemporary worship spaces The c ongregation cannot recognize the pastors face and the happening s on the platform anymore because the distance between the pulpit and the r ear seat is so far that a large video screen has to be installed for people seated at the rear seating area T heatrical sound systems with a stereo cluster and a center cluster are manipulated by sound engineer s Although some churches have separate spaces where natural acoustic sound propagation is dominant, most churches have only one main space used for multiple purpose s (Long 2006, Kleiner et al. 2010, McCarty 2007) As far as architectural features are concerned, all seats should have proper sightlines for the congregation to see the pastor or priest on the platform without any

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38 obstacles. And these should be designed to propagate t he natural sounds to each seat as the congregation can hear sounds intelligible and loud enough Upholster ed seats are typic ally used for contemporary worship spac es. Also, the surface of the walls and ceilings should be carefully chosen in terms of reflection, absorption or diffusion in order for the main style of worship service to be successfully achieved (Kleiner et al. 201 0) Absorption on the rear walls and diffusive surface on side walls and ceiling are the basic principles to be taken. Minister s, musicians and the choir are placed on the platform and electric praise bands and dance teams occupy the whole platform in gene ral. Consequently, t he spaces tend to be dry because of the acoustical treatments which are appropriate for rooms with large sound systems (McCarty 2007 Thompson 2002 ) A rtificial reverberation processed by digital effects units and processors can be used to compensate for the lack of reverberation in these spaces. The choir would be reinforced and electronic reverberation can be added to the original sounds which will allow the congregation to perceive the choir sounds as reverberant (McCarty 2007, Long 2006, Thompson 2002) Furthermore, all devices in the s ound systems can be digitally inter linked and easily controlled by just one control ler Once multiple presets are designed to meet the acoustical requirements for specific styles of worship services, e ach combination c ould be changed by individual presets that have been programmed for each service condition. This includes the control of loudness, frequency responses, delay times, digital effect, etc (Eargle and Foreman 2002, McCarty 2007). Objective Aco ustical Parameters i n a Worship Space The fine structure of reverberation described by Lothar Cremer and M ller (1982) describes a sophisticated process of the acoustical analysis of an impulse response which is the echogram rather than reflectograms for h im Impulse response theory has

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39 somewhat of a discrepancy with the statistical room acoustics theory whose reverberation time is location independent. Different locations in a room can have a different series of sou nd reflections shown in an echograms and a different numerical value for a number of acoustical parameters derived from the impulse response. This is not only because each location cannot have exactly same architectural features such as finish materials, r oom volumes, diffusivity, but also because it has a different distance from the source, so that each location in a room will not have the same echogram. Hence, they can be scrutinized and decoded to derive a lot of significant information that describe s th e acoustical qualities at each location based on the fine structure of reverberation. It is true that the Symphony Hall Boston where Sabine contributed his scientific knowledge of architectural acoustics to the design has been regarded as one of the best m usic halls in the world. Although he designed the hall just based on statistical room acoustic theory, one should not ignore that it contains a myriad of diffusive surfaces such as niches, statues, gilded organ pipes, and coffered ceiling, so that the hall could have high diffusivity and good texture itself. And the diffusivity is well known as a desirable factor (Beranek 2004) Thus, the architectural features have effects on the room acoustics and the acoustica l qualities heard by people. Acoustical parameters are required to describe the objective acoustical quality of worship spaces. Beranek discussed 25 acoustical terms and additional physical measures of acoustical quality in his book Concert Halls and Oper a Houses: Music, Acoustics and Architecture Scrutinizing the way that those criteria had been devised by several researchers allows one to apply them to the natural acoustics in worship spaces without modification. I n the sense that Beranek used them for studies of concert halls

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40 and opera houses, these criteria also could be used for the evaluation of the worship spaces with the analogy of the acoustical activities among musi cal concert halls, opera houses and worship spaces. Reverberation T ime R everberat ion is the persistence of sound in a space after the sound source has stopped. The reverberation time (RT) is defined as the time required for a sound to decay 60 dB from its original intensity and can be measured by the time required to decay 30 dB multip lying two, which is expressed as T30 (from 5dB to 35dB) It represents the statistical sound decay ratio calculated by the Sabine formula shown in Equation 2.1 (Sabine 1964 ) so that one could directly compare the overall acoustical appropriateness to the recommendation for the purpose of the room. For example, one may call 1.2 sec of RT mid for the speech purpose. (2.1) V: volume of a room (ft 3 ) S: surface area of the material (ft 2 ) : sound absorption coefficien of the mate rial Although different churches may use different directivities of loudspeakers, reverberation times tend to be not much changed by the directivities of sound sources within the same room, so that reverberation time would be the criterion that could be ob tained as the similar value in both natural and amplified acoustic conditions of the worship spaces. In the sense that a longer reverberation time is optim al for musical quality and a shorter reverberation time improves speech intelligibility, both the ear ly

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41 and late sound decay have to be taken into account for the evaluation of worship spaces. Early Decay Time (EDT) Early decay time (EDT) is a measure similar to RT except that it only considers the first 10, 15 or 20 dB of sound decay measured. I n the se nse that one rarely hears 60 dB of reverberation decay in running speech or music, EDT is a more practical term than RT. The time required for this 10, 15, 20 dB of decay is then identified (since the energy is integrated over time) and multiplied by six, four or three, producing a numerical value 60 dB of decay (Jordan 1970, Cremer and Mller 1982 ) EDT can be applied to the soundscape of worship spaces, because it has a better correlation to the subjective judgment of reverberation than reverberation time (Beranek 1996 Beranek 2004, Barron 1993) EDT is sensitive to detail of the room geometry because it is determined by a few strong and isolated reflections (Kuttruff 1991, p209). In t his aspect, it is possible that EDT can be sensitive to the coverage angles and the directivities of loudspeakers, because the relatively stronger or weaker arrivals from the loudspeakers can change the value of EDT shorter or longer than without the use o f them. Strength Factor (G) Loudness is the subjective response of the audience to sound pressure or sound intensity and it is the primary acoustical quality in most room design The quantitative measure of loudness is the strength factor (G) G strength i s defined as the logarithmic ratio of the sound pressure of the measured impulse response at a listener position in a room to that of the impulse response obtained at a distance of 10 m from the same

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42 sound source generating the same power in a free field o r in an anechoic chamber as shown in Equation 2 2 (Gade and Rindel 198 4 ). (2 2) (2 3) p(t): impulse response p 10 (t): impulse response measured with the same sound source in an anechoic chamber a t 10m distance from the source r: the estimated source to receiver distance w(t): a half Hamming window starting on the arrival of the direct sound in the impulse response (the window length usually falls inside the 5 ms window) In the sense that it is di fficult to find such a large anechoic chamber having 10m of dimension, p 10 (t) can be interchanged with the one shown in Equation 2 3 so that the measurement can be scaled to compensate for the geometric strength difference due to the difference in distan ce (Kleiner et al. 2010, p66) The strength of sound or loudness is one of the most important criteria both for the natural and amplified acoustic conditions of worship spaces. Loudness will be obtained first of all by architectural components. Stronger dir ect sounds reinforced by loudspeakers yield shorter ITDG and higher G. As far as amplified acoustic condition of worship spaces is concerned, loudness is easily adjusted by the mixing console that is controlled by a sound engineer manipulating faders or ga in knobs when the loudness is needed to increase

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43 Early Sound Energy Ratios (C80 and D50) Clarity (C80) is simply defined as the logarithmic ratio of the strength of the early sound to that of the reverberant sound and expressed in decibels as shown in Equ ation 2 4 C areful observation of music and musical instruments by Reichardt et al. in 1974 led to a widely accepted value of 80ms as the limit of perceptibility between musical notes, which resulted in the use C80 ( Reichardt et al 1974, Cremer and Mller 1982) If the room is very dry, it will have greater early energy than late energy, which results in C80 with a large positive value. Conversely, if the room is so reverberant that it has greater late energy thank early energy (C80<0), C80 will have a negative value in decibels. For the consideration of musical clarity of worship spaces, C80 may be a good measure to describe the spaces, because it is dependent on the architectural materiality and the shape that the room has in the natural acoustic condition where musical instruments are placed on the platform (Beranek 1996) (2 4 ) However, when music is reinforced or the electric praise band is amplified by its sound system, every seat is more dependent on the horizontal and vertical coverage of the loudspeakers and their loudness than the architectural characteristics of the space. On the other hand, in general, strong early energy optimizes speech intelligibility, whereas strong late e nergy optimizes reverberation for music. When sound systems are used, reinforced sounds increase the early energy rather than the late energy so that

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44 the congregation can perceive higher levels of speech intelligibility. Besides, digital effect processors can enhance the late energy when worship spaces are dry. D efinition ( D 50) ( originally Deutlichkeit ) the distinctness of sound extracted from the impulse response was defined by Thiele (1953) as the logarithmic r elationship between the early sound energy w ithin 50 ms to the total sound energy received as shown in Equation 2 5 (2 5) D50 shows a good correlation with the syllable intelligibility in the middle and high frequencies: the D50 was averaged from 340 Hz to 3500Hz (Bor 1956 ). Speech Transmission Index (STI) Speech transmission index (STI) is a measure of speech intelligibility based on the modulation transfer function (MTF) which can represent the acoustical properties of human speech (Long 2006) was attempted to rate t he speech intelligibility by Houtgast and Steeneken in 1973 (Houtgast and Steeneken 1973) They developed the idea to transform a set of modulation reduction factor into a STI index in 1980 (Houtgast et al. 1980), so that the signal to noise ratio can be e xpressed in dB levels. STI values show a very good correlation with t he speech intelligibility (Brad l e y 1986). STI can be measured by impulse responses these days using a computer and the STI value greater than 0.65 is the general recommendation in order f or a room to have good speech intelligibility (Long 2006, Kleiner et al. 2010).

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45 Inter Aural Cross Correlation ( IACC ) People listen to sounds with both ears allowing spatial impression through auditory path ways and the dissimilarity of the sounds at the tw o ears are indicating more preferable spatial impression and acoustical quality for listeners (Ando 1998, Madaras 1996) After Danilenko (1968) defined a binaural distinctness coefficient as part of his graduate research in Aachen ( Cremer and M ller 1982 ) and while Cremer and M ller developed it further, there were attempts to relate subjective preference for music to objective acoustical parameters. Ando pointed out that Inter aural cross correlation (IACC) showed a correlation of between the spatial facto r and the subjective preference of people for natural acoustic propagation (Ando 19 77, Ando 1998 ). In addition, Binaural quality index (BQI) can be calculated by IACCE3 which is the average of IACC among 500Hz, 1,000Hz and 2,000Hz (Beranek 2004). There cou ld be differences between left and right ears in the sense of time, level and phase as shown in Equation 2 6 indicates the inter aural time difference (ITD) between the two and it ranges within 1 ms. The maximum value from the absolute values of Equati on 2 7 m 1 to +1 ms is called the inter aural cross correlation (IACC) (Damaske and Ando, 1972) (2 6) for 1 < <+1 (2 7)

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46 p l (t) : impulse response arrived at the l eft ear p r (t) : impulse response arrived at the right ear : amount of time shift of the right signal relative to the left signal (ms) t 1 : lower time limit (ms), 0 ms for IACCA (A: all) or IACCE (E: early); 80ms for IACCL (L: late) t 2 : upper time limit (ms ) 80 ms for IACCE; 1,000 ms for IACCA or IACCL Subjective Acoustical Evaluation of a Worship Space T h e ultimate evaluation of the acoustical attributes of worship spaces is made by people who have two ears living in dichotic environment where the sound is different at the two ears (Moore 2003, Hamill and Price 2008) T h e individual listener s personal history such as education and exper ience related to the sound or music are regarded as other factor s that transform raw sensation of the sound into an awareness that has meaning and influence the evaluation of the acoustical qualities of the spaces (B lesser and Salter 2006 p13 ) In order to have people meaning of the sound, they may interpret the sound in a different way based on their cultural exposure Furthermore, the auditory awareness involves the active participation of listener (Blesser and Salter 2006 p14 ) In the sense that people voluntarily participate in the worship service, the participants are ready to endow the service of word and the service of music with meaning fulness Therefore, the acoustical qualities heard by people would be evaluated inevitably in an subjective perspective as well Single number metrics such as Sabine s reverberation time cannot fully describe the reason why people feel diff erently in spaces having same reverberation times (Cremer and M ller 1982, Beranek 1996) Subjective a coustical evaluation s of worship spaces can be obtained from rs, choir

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47 members, music directors, the congregation and sound engineers represent f ive groups of listeners who apply potentially different criteria to the assessment of sounds in wor ship spaces because they have different needs of sound qualities based o n their seating locations and liturgical roles during the worship service. Sounds can be defined not only by their directivity, acoustical power, angle of incidence and location but also by their tonal quality (McCarthy 2007) Once the sounds are propagate d into the aural architecture which is determined by the room shape, volume, dimensions, finish materials, etc. and heard by the subjects, a n evaluation of the acoustical quali ty of the sounds heard in the room will be made by listeners who are experiencin g a variety of social, physical, emotional and spiritual conditions at that time ( Blesser and Salter 2006 ). While dealing with the subjective evaluation of music halls, previous surveys of acoustic al quality in the halls indicated that professional musicia ns (Beranek 1962) music critics (Somerville and Head 1956) and educated students (Tavares et al 2008 ) wer e the subjects Although musicians and conductors are located at the platform in general, in the sense that they might be seated in the audience area to appreciate music concerts from time to time, it wa s plausible that they c ould make judgments about the acoustics of t he music halls. In this case, the well known subjective acoustical parameters such as Loudness, Reverberance, Clarity, Intelligibility, Tonal Balance, Intimacy, Echoes and Background noises can be used for the written questionnaires ( Hawkes and Douglas 197 1, Cervone 1990, Bradle y 1994 Barron1993, Carvalho 1996 B eranek 1996 Kwon 2006 ) Loudness is the subjective percept ion of the magnitude of a sound which is a complex sound comprised of many frequencies in general (Beranek 1996, Kleiner et al.

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48 2010) Bi naural loudness perception increases about 3 dB for threshold level to 6dB at higher sounds, because human brainstem integrates the information provided by the two ears (Hamill and Price 2008). The perception of loudness increase s as the magnitude of the s ound increase based on Weber s law for a pure tone and Steven s law for a complex tone (Stevens and Davis 1938). In addition, the perception of ear is not equally sensitive to all frequencies but follows equal loudness curve s which can also be regarded as phon curves (Hamill and Price 2008, p339) Therefore, the perception of loudness is dependent on the magnitude and the tonal qualities of sounds. Once the source propagate s sounds into an enclosed space such as a worship s pace, the magnitude changes at a s pecific receiver location because of a series of reflections from surfaces of the room after the direct signal arrived. Especially, early sound reflections shortly arriving after the direct sound within 50ms increase the perception of loudness (Thiele 1953 Haas 1972). Thus, in the sense that the loudness perception can increase because of the use of a sound system which loudspeakers generate another direct sounds and accompanied room reflections, it is necessary to consider the sound system for acoustical r esearch of the worship space where an electronic sound reinforcement system is used to increase speech intellig ibility of the service of word. Reverberance is the perception of the persistence of sound in a space after the sound source has stopped T he per ception of reverberance provides a sense of liveness : a reverberant space as live and a space with a short reverberation time as dead or dry (Beranek 1996, p23). Reverberance is not in itself desirable or undesirable (Beranek 1996, p30). Instead, it depend s on the purpose of the space for music or

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49 speech. This is because relatively long reverberance is required for music but relatively short reverberance is essential for speech. However, in the sense that worship spaces provide the participants with the ser vice of word and /or the service of music, the perception of reverberance of them can be varied and worthy to investigate. Clarity is the degree to which the discrete sounds in an ensemble or words are distinctly separated in time and clearly heard (Cervone 1990, Beranek 1996). Clarity is also defined as the ability to hear musical detail (Barron 1993, p41). Clarity is usually quantified by C80 which is the ratio of early to late sound energy. In a worship space, therefore, a great level of clarity is requir ed both for the service of music and the service of word to see if participants can appreciate the quality of the worship services and the room acoustic. Intelligibility is the ability how one clearly hear a spoken word. Speech intelligibility is regarded as one of the principal psycho acoustic considerations under the environment where a sound reinforcement system is in use (Beranek 1954, p663). Thus, the use of a sound system is very important factor that change the perception of speech in a worship space and it is needed to investigate the level of speech intelligibility with and without the use of the sound system in order to see the appropriateness of the sound system. Tonal balance is the fullness of tone and its balance among low, middle and high pit ched sounds. It is dependent on the tonal quality of the sound source and the architectural features of the room. In the case of the environment of a sound reinforcement system, the sound system is another factor that changes the tonal balance.

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50 Localizati on of sound is the auditory impression that one can localize a sound source to its actual location ( Hamill and Price 2008 ) It is dependent on the magnitude and temporal difference of sound arrivals between two ears. In the sense that the use of a sound sy stem can shift the location of the sound source such as a speaker or musician on the platform to the direction of the loudspeaker when it reinforces the sound source too, localization can be the factor that can evaluate the sound system in regards of the l evel balance between the source and the sound image of the source. Intimacy is the degree of identification with the worship service whether one feels acoustically involved or detached from it. A coustical intimacy is closely related to the perception of t he size of the space (Beranek 1996). The time delay gap between the direct sound and the first arrival of the reflections is called initial time delay gap (ITDG) and less than 35 ms of ITDG is the general recommendation to avoid acoustical defects (Egan 2 007) Naturalness is the degree of tonal representation of a source that a room or a sound system can convey (Beranek 1953) It is related to the ability of the sound system to reinforce the level of the sound source as the same but avoid to change in its tonal balance. For example, a pastor s voice should be heard as the same person s (McCarty 2007). A h igh resolution of tonal similarity of the source may be important, in the sense that the aural architecture or the sound system should enhance the loudness of the source not in a specific frequency but in all frequencies resulting in sounds being heard in the room that have a similar frequency response as the sound source. Feedback or Howling is the persistent acoustic al repetition between a microphone and a loudspea ker that can be heard as a Howl ( Davis and Patronis 2006 McCarty

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51 2007) which can be different from Echoes in the sense that feedback only can occur in the situation where a sound system is in use. On the other hand, Echoes are the delayed sounds that are distinctly heard after the source which can occur in the situation of natural acoustics and electro acoustics ( Haas 1972, Long 2006, Eargle and Foreman 2002, Davis and Jones 1989) Uniformity is the degree to how distribution of sounds is unifor m across the listening area of a space Uniformity of sounds can be obtained by the architectural features such as shape, angle and the acoustical quality of the reflective surface as well as by the sound system which can project reinforced sounds to the a udience of the room evenly. Noises are unwanted sounds that are usually avoidable rather than essential for worship service. During the worship service, not only noises from outside and mechanical equipment but also man made noises such as coughing, baby c rying, talking, etc. Those subjective acoustical parameters can be used to evaluate the acoustical quality of the spaces along with the objective acoustical parameters measured by equipment within statistical confidence levels Besides, in the sense that a high degree of musical quality is the fundamental purpose of the halls, it makes sense that those subjective acoustical parameters are related to musical impression to some extent. If so, can those subjective acoustical parameters be adopted to worship s paces as well? Most w orship spaces have to accommodate two types of sonic activities although there is no service of music in Mosques. One is the service of word and the other is the service of music. The service of the word is required to propagate pr ies ts pastors lay readers and others speech to the congregation. M ost worship spaces use a sound

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5 2 reinforcement or amplification system to enhance speech intelligibility. The service of music can be propagated either naturally or electronically in worshi p spaces. The general service of music in worship spaces consists of vocal pieces sung by a choir, pieces of music such as an organ, popular music ensemble, congregational singing electric praise bands, plainsong chan t ed by priests etc Many of the music al types are propagated naturally into the space but an amplified sound system is necessary for electronic organ and electric praise bands in particular. Sometimes a reinforced sound system is used to increase the volume of the sound source s in situation s when a soloist sings in a large space or in a space which is not reverberant enough for music. In addition, the electronic sound system can be used to add artificial reverberation to the original music picked up by microphones so that some acoustical par ameters such as reverberation and envelopment can be improved, because consequently, preferred musical attributes should be accomplished in addition to improving the intelligibility of speech Therefore a sound system can be another factor that has a lar ge effect on evaluating acoustical qualit ies of w orship spaces Furthermore, t h e acoustical parameters can be significantly changed when a sound system is used in a given room acoustic environment because the sound system can be regarded as another sound source that has different directivity, acoustic power, angle of incidence location, frequency response, etc., from natural acoustic sources (Davis and Jones 1989, Eargle and Foreman 2002, McCarty 2007) In this sense, t he sound system can be regard ed som etime s as improving but sometimes as inter fer ing with t he listening experience according to the its appropriateness in terms of directivit y aiming angles location, acoustic power and frequency response (McCarty 2007) The

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53 general requirement for the soun d system is t o provide a u niform sound pressure level ( 3dB) in the middle frequencies across the congregational seating area. Apart from the well known subjective acoustical parameters, the perception of Localization, Feedback, Uniformity and Naturalness can be asked as questions related to sound systems (McCarty 2007 Beranek 1954, Eargle and Foreman 2002, Davis and Jones 1989 ), because those are important factors that people use to assess the quality of sound systems.

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54 CHAPTER 3 METHOD As discussed in Chapter 2 three worship spaces were chosen for this research as representations of three different levels of the use of sound systems; St. Thomas M ore Catholic Church in Sanford (STMC), F lorida i s a relatively reverberant space having a compact sound reinforcement system used only for reinforcement of the service of word with natural acoustic propagation of choir singing and music into the room ; Firs t United Methodist Church in Gainesville (FUMC), F lorida i s a relatively live space having a sound system for reinforcement of the service of word and music sometimes with natural acoustic propagation of organ and choir music into the room ; and the Korean Baptist Church of Gainesville (KBCG), F lorida i s a relatively dry space having a sound system that is used for amplification of the service of word and music with no natural acoustic sound propagation in the room Observation of Soundscapes of Worship Spac es Observation was conducted during the week and weekends in order to investigate acoustical fluctuation s around and i nside the three churches after obtaining permission to conduct the acoustical research from the ministers. Documentation of the three soni c environments was undertaken defining sound sources, sonic activities, architectur al features of the rooms and the use of the sound systems in the rooms Documentation of worship activities was also conducted on Sunday s during worship services defining th e worship activities, acoustical itinerar ies and acoustic communit ies of the churches in regards to natural acoustic propagation and electronically propagat ed sound s Ivie 45 and Rion NA 27 s ound level meters were used to measure sound pressure levels of t he different worship activities in each church.

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55 Objective Acoustical Measurements Objectiv e acoustical measurements were taken after the observation of soundscapes in the three worship spaces. Two sets of acoustical measurements based on impulse response t echniques were performed in each church. One set of measurements was used to assess natural acoustic propagation of sounds in the room. The second set of measurements was used to assess sounds propagated into the room through the sound system installed in the room. A JBL Eon 15G2 powered loudspeaker placed on a tripod was used as the sound source representing natural acoustic propagation and was placed at the location where the natural acoustic sources were located during worship. Natural acoustic propagati on of sounds in FUMC includes the cho ir, organ and chamber orchestra ; the choir in KBCG ; and priest s chanting and the choir in STMC. The installed loudspeakers in each room were used to represent the sound propagation through electronic sound systems that were using during worship; to reinforce the service of word in STMC; to reinforce mainly the service of word and music sometimes in FUMC; and to amplify the service of word and music including electronic reverberation adde d by a digital processor in KBCG. A MLS signal 1 was produced by WinMLS software and present ed into the room by the JBL Eon15G2 or through the house sound systems and recorded at multiple receiver locations using a d ummy head, Br el & Kj r Type 4100 A summary of the sound sources in the t hree worship spaces and the type of sound propagation for each are presented in Table 3 1. The schematic diagram of the objective acoustical measurement setup is shown in Figure 3 1. The impulse responses 1 A Ma ximum Length Sequence (MLS) signal is a pseudo random periodic sequence consisting of the binary states of 0 and 1 which are mapped into 1 and 1 and has a flat frequency response ( Long 2006)

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56 picked up by the dummy head were amplified through G.R.A.S Power Module type 12AA and recorded by a Digigram VX Packet sound card and analyzed by WinMLS software which provides quantitative acoustical information such as objective acoustical parameters. Table 3 1 Summary of sound s ources by room and type of sound projection used FUMC KBCG STMC Natural Acoustic Sound System Natural Acoustic Sound System Natural Acoustic Sound System Minister X X X (Plainsong) X (Speech) Lay Readers X X Choir X X X X Accompany Musician s X X X Organ X X X Congregational Response X X X T he locations of sources and receivers in the three worship spaces are shown in Figure s 3 2 to 3 4 The letter N indicates the location of the sound source s that propagates natural acoustic so unds into the rooms. The letter S indicates where loudspeakers for the sound system sources are located In STMC, two locations were taken for the natural sound propagation. N1 refers to the location where the priest chant s in the center of the platfor m facing the tabernacle behind the altar, and N2 refers to the location where the choir sing s on the second floor facing the congregation from the rear. The house sound system used t hree loudspeakers to reinforce the priest s homily S1 consisted of tw o loudspeakers sealed type TOA H 1, mounted approximately 12ft above the finished floor on the lower edge s of the ceiling and the side wall facing the center of the space. There were no front loudspeakers. S ceiling type Atlas HD25, was installed on t he rear wall of the second floor right behind the

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57 organist s chair as a monitor speaker for the choir. Impulse responses were taken at eleven receiver locations; seven locations (from 1 to 7) in the congregation al seating area, two (8 and 10) locations for the choir, one location (9) for the music director and one location (11) for the priest. Figure 3 1. A s chematic diagram for objective acoustical measurement s and apparatus used Figure 3 2. The locations of receiver and source locations for the object ive acoustical measurement in STMC

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58 In FUMC, N refers to the location of the test loudspeaker used to simulate natural acoustic sound propagation from the choir in the center of the platform facing the congregation. There were s ix loudspeakers in the hous e sound system u sed to reinforce the pastor s speech. Two S1 loudspeakers linearray type SLS LS8695, were mounted on the walls facing the center of the congregation al seating area o n the main floor. Two S loudspeakers full range SLS 2403, were insta lled approximately 8.5 ft above the finished floor on the sidewalls of the second floor for the congregation seated on the second floor. Two S3 loudspeakers full range SLS 2403, were mounted approximately 7 ft above the finished floor on the sidewalls o f the platform for the choir. Figure 3 3. The locations of receiver and source locations for the objective acoustical measurement in FUMC T ests were conducted at fifteen receiver locations in the room ; seven locations (from 1 to 7) in the congregation al seating area on the main floor ; two (8 and 9)

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59 locations for the congregation al seating on the second floor ; three locations (from 10 to 12) for the choir ; one location (14) for the music director, one location (13) for the pastor and one location (15) for the sound engineer. T he pastor spoke from the pulpit on the right side of the platform, but his voice was propagated into the room from the loudspeakers at locations S1, S2 and S3. T he music director and the choir were located in the center and left side of the platform with their sounds propagating into the room from N1 using natural acoustic means. The differen ces in acoustical responses of the room at these 2 locations will be discussed in detail in the following chapter. Figure 3 4. The locations of receiver and source locations for the objective acoustical measurement in KBCG In KBCG, N refers to the location of the sound source used to simulate natural acoustic sound propagation from the choir in the center of the platform facing the congregation. Two compact line array system s comprised of three loudspeakers each

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60 two of McCauley N90 and one of N120, were h ung approximately 10.5 ft above the finish floor from the ceiling to amplify both the pastor s speech and the choir singing. There were no fron t speakers and monitor speakers for the choir and the ministers used during the worship service. There were thirteen receiver locations; nine locations (from 1 to 9) in the congregational seating area one location (10) for the sound engineer, receiver loc ation 11 i s for the music director, number 12 for the choir and number 13 for the minister T he choir and the music director move to the congregational seats from receiver location 1 to 3 during the worship service after they finished their singing, and the pastor is seated at receiver location 13 while the choir is singing. The objective acoustical parameters that WinMLS software calculate s are Early decay time (EDT), Reverberation time (T30), Clarity (C80), Definition (D50), Strength (G), Sp eech transmission index (STI), etc G Strength values were calculated from the direct sound as reference. Inter Aural Cross C orrelation (IACC) can be calculated from the comparison of the two impulse responses that were obtained by a dummy head that has two microphones IACC A refers to the overall IACC, IACC E refers to the early part of the IACC before 80ms and IACC L is the late part of the IACC from 80ms to 1000ms (Beranek 2004 Ando 1998 ) A ll objective acoustical parameters were combined and averaged in three frequency groups; low (125Hz and 250Hz), mid (500Hz, 1,000Hz and 2,000Hz) and high (4,000Hz and 8,000Hz). In the sense that sounds of 2,000 Hz can be regarded as middle frequency sounds for IACC E3 and C80(3) (Beranek 1996), it could be possible to use the arithmetic average of 500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hz sounds as the representation of sounds in the middle frequencies.

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61 Furthermore, 4,000 and 8,000 Hz can be regarded as high frequency sounds or treble sounds in this manner as shown in equation (3.1) to (3.3) (Egan 2007 ). The average of low frequency sounds = (125Hz + 250Hz) 2 (3.1) The average of middle frequency sounds = ( 500 Hz+ 1k Hz +2kHz ) 3 (3.2) The average of high frequency sounds = ( 4k Hz + 8k Hz) 2 (3.3) Subjective Acoustical Evaluation Subjec tive acoustical evaluation s w ere performed by the ministers or priests, choir members, music directors, congregation members and sound engineers with written questionnaires containing questions about the ir acoustical impression s of the a coustical qualities of the rooms background noise natural acoustics of the room and the sound qualities of the installed sound system. The subjects were asked to rate a total of twelve subjective acoustical parameters on a seven point semantic scale: Loudness, Reverberance Clarity, Intelligibility, Tonal balance (or Timbre), Localization, Intimacy, Echoes, Feedback or Howling, Uniformity, Naturalness and Noises. Overall impressions of Room Acoustics, Service of Music, Service of Word and Sound system were asked them to rat e as well. The informed consent and questionnaire were reviewed and approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board 02 (the protocol number 2011 U 0201) as presented in Appendix A Questionnaires were handed out before the service, filled out during worship and collected after the service or during the week after the service when subjects needed extra time to complete the form Subjects were asked to indicate their s eating location and their role in the worship community : identifying themse lves as the minister, choir member music director, congregation member or sound engineer as well as their age, gender, musical experience and native language.

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62 Subjects were asked to rate natural sound propagation inside the space and reinforced sounds pr opagated through sound systems in order to see whether subjects could hear different acoustical impression s between the two forms of sound propagation Each subjective acoustical pa rameter was defined in Chapter 2 and subjects were informed of a brief defi nition of each in the second p age of the questionnaire shown in Figure A 2 to A 5 in Appendix A Subjects were asked to rate the natural sound propagation of the choir and the electronically reinforced sound of the speech at their seating location in term s of Loudness, Reverberance and Clarity. In the case of Intelligibility, sub jects were asked to rate their ability to understand the words spoken by the priest or pastor both with and without the use of the sound system in order to evaluate the direct effe ct of the loudspeakers at listening locations in the rooms. Tonal balance (or Timbre) is the fullness of tone (Beranek 2004) and its balance among low, middle and high pitched sounds. Subjects could make multiple choices for Tonal Balance of the choir and the speech, because 1 referred to too much bass and 7 to too much treble while 4 indicated well balanced Localization is the auditory impression that one can identify the actual location of a sound source by acoustical means ( Hamill and Price 2008 ) Subjects were asked to rate how well they could identify the locations of each sound source such as the choir, speak ing piano, organ, minister, lay reader, loudspeakers, etc. Intimacy is the degree of identification with the worship service whethe r one feels acoustically involved or detached from it. Feedback or Howling is the persistent acoustic feedback between a microphone and a loudspea ker that can be heard as a Howl, which is different from Echoes in the sense that feedback can only occur in t he situation where

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63 a sound system is in use. On the other hand, Echoes are the delayed sounds that are distinctly heard after the source which can occur in both natural acoustic and electro acoustic situations ( Long 2006, Eargle and Foreman 2002, Davis an d Jones 1989) Uniformity is the degree of uniformity of loudness distribution across the congregational seating area (McCarthy 2007) In this case, Uniformity was asked under an assumption that subjects could rate the uniformity of loudness because they mi ght sit in different seating area s at different times if they attended the same church on a regular basis so they could know about the general distribution of loudness in the room Naturalness is the degree of tonal representation of a source that a room o r a sound system can convey (Beranek 1954) A h igh resolution of tonal similarity of the source may be important, in the sense that the aural architecture or the sound system should enhance the loudness of the source not in a specific frequency but in all frequencies resulting in sounds being heard in the room that have a similar frequency response as the sound source. Noises are unwanted sounds that are usually avoidable rather than those that are essential for the worship service (Beranek 1971, Harris 199 8) Subjects were asked to rate the degree of loudness of noises and to identify all of the sources of noise that they could hear during worship. Furthermore participants were asked to rate Overall impression which is their general acoustical judgment of the room acoustics (Cervone 1990, Beranek 2004) the service of music, the service of word and the sound systems of the three worship spaces.

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64 CHAPTER 4 BACKGROUND NOISE AND ANALYSIS OF TRANSFER FUNCTION General Investigation of B ackground Noise s In orde r to do acoustical research, one of the important factors that a researcher can take into account may be background noise of a space B ackground noise is the noise without a particular source in operation whereas ambient noise is the total noise associate d with a given environment ( Beranek 1971, p 91) Sounds made by the particular sound source are the ones that the researcher is interested in. In the case of worship spaces buzz ing of light hiss from loudspeaker, traffic noise from outside, air conditioni ng system noise etc. can be the background noise ; whereas the service of word and music heard above or in addition to the background noise level can be the ambient noise In the field of architectural acoustics, in order to evaluate the acoustical quality of a room background noise can be measured by turning all equipment on and compar ing the measured spectrum with Noise Criteria (NC) curves. T he background noise of the room can be rat ed based on the NC values like NC 20, NC 30 or NC 40. However, recent r esearch has identified some limitations on the us e of NC curves to rate the quality of the background noise produced by Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning ( HVAC ) system s because the NC rating system assumes that the pote ntial for complaints to occ ur is primarily related to interfering with speech communication in a space. However the original 1957 NC curves were determined for the old octave frequency bands that 31.5 Hz and 63 Hz bands are regarded as sounds below 75 Hz (Barenek 1971, p565 567 ) and it does not address the effects that the spectral characteristics of the noise can have on human perception ( Blazier 1981 Harris 1998 ) In or der to compensate for th ese limitation s Room Criteria (RC) curves

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65 can be used to assess the noise level in a roo m produced by the HAVC system. RC curve takes into account low frequency sounds in the 16, 31.5 and 63Hz as well as the effects of the spectral characteristics of the sound and the speech interference level s (Beranek 1971, Harris 1998, Long 200 6 ) In addit ion to this, a sound that contains low frequency acoustic energy is added to the plot, because it may induce perceptible vibration. Furthermore, RC curves identify the quality of the noise in five ways: Neutral spectrum (N), rumbly spectrum (R), hissy sp ectrum (H), tonal spectrum (T) and acoustically induced perceptible vibration (RV). For example, RC 30(R) indicates a noise having speech interference level of 30dB, but rumbly in spectrum (Beranek 1971, Harris 1998, Long 200 6 ). In sum, background noise is measured in the center of the room turning all equipment on and rated either in NC or RC. Figure 4 1. Noise criteria of three worship spaces measured in the center of the rooms T he background noise levels in the three worship spaces were measured in t he center of the main congregation area as shown in Figure 4 1 NC ratings were NC 25

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66 and RC 26(N) in STMC while NC 30 and RC 26(R) in FUMC In the case of KBCG, background noises were measured as NC 40 and RC 28 (R) as shown in Figure 4 2 which showed th e value of twelve in difference between the two rating systems. The value of 28 in RC rating refers to speech interference level, which is different from the value of NC rating. Although NC rating seemed a little bit high, it is possible to say that the ba ckground noise level in the center of the main floor of KBCG was not very high to interrupt the dialogue as long as the frequency range of people speech was taken consideration. On the other hand, the frequency range of the service of music is different fr om that of the people speech. It ranges from 63 Hz (or even lower) to 8 kHz (or even higher). In this case, based on the higher rating of NC 40 and the spectral characteristics R of the RC rating, one could think that the rumble noises measured in the ce nter of the main floor could interfere with listening to low frequency sounds of the service of music. Figure 4 2. Room criteria of KBCG measured in the center of the main floor

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67 Soundscape Perspective on B ackground Noise s It seems also plausible to inve stigate the background noises based on the soundscape method, by considering locations of the subject groups and their liturgical roles during the worship service Auditory spatial awareness which includes all parts of aural experience: sensation (detectio n), perception (recognition) and affect (meaningfulness) have effects on determining the listening of sounds as a background noise or foreground noise (Blesser and Salter 2007, p14, Siebein 2009). In this sense, the participants of the worship service can experience different level and quality of sounds based on their liturgical roles, because they are located in different seating locations which are attributed by different aural architectures As shown in Figures 5 5, 5 6 and 5 7 in Chapter 5, the subject groups were seated or stood at different locations. Thus, a part from measuring background noises in the center of the main floor where the congregation was seated in general, it is needed to measure them at the locations where the minister, the choir, the music d irector and the sound engineer are seated or stood during the worship service. In STMC, background noise levels on the second floor where the music director and the choir were located were measured as NC 25 which was the same as that measured at the center of the main floor. This might be because the limited air handling system and the electronic sound system were used, which resulted in low levels of rumble and hissy sounds in the room. Thus, the music director and the choir on the second floor migh t hear the same level of background n oise as the congregation and the minister on the main floor in STMC. In FUMC, HVAC outlets were located on the side wall of the choir area so the background noise level was 17 dB higher in the 63 Hz octave band and 10 d B higher in

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68 the 4 kHz octave band when compared to the levels at the center of the main floor resulting in ratings of NC 40 and RC 27(R, H) in the choir area as shown in Figure 4 3 and Figure 4 4 As far as RC ratings were concerned, the speech interferenc e level (SIL) of the main floor (RC 26 ( R ) ) was almost the same as that of the choir (RC 27 (R) ), when the HVAC system was in use, which were 26 a nd 27 dB SIL respectively, but lower frequency sounds classified as rumble by the RC method in the choir area w ere 7 dB higher in the 63 Hz and 125 Hz octave bands and higher frequency sound s classified as hissy by the RC method were 6.7 dB higher in the 4 kHz octave band than those in the center of the main floor as shown in Figure 4 3. Therefore the minister, th e choir and the music director might be exposed to higher level s of background noise than the congregation on the main floor during worship when the HVAC system is in use. Figure 4 3. Background noises in the center of the main floor and in the choir wit h and without HVAC system plotted on NC curves in FUMC

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69 Figure 4 4. Room criteria of the choir with and without HVAC system in FUMC In KBCG, background noise levels were measured at NC 40 and RC 28 (R) in the center of the congregation al seating area as sh own in Figure s 4 1 and 4 2. The minister the choir and the music director are usually seated on the platform before the minister begins to give a sermon, and the choir and the music director move to the first and the second rows of the congregation al seat ing a rea while the minister stands at the pulpit. As shown in Figure 4 5 and Figure 4 6, the background noise levels on the platform w ere measured at NC 60 and RC 32 (T), which was tonal at 125Hz because the sounds in the 1 25 Hz octave band were 7.6dB high er than the permissible limits of the low frequenc y sounds (+5 dB line) on the RC plot. On the other hand, the background noise inside the sound booth where the sound engineer is seated during worship was measured at NC 45 and RC 45 which was 12 dB louder in SIL than that measured in the center of the congregation area because of the sounds produced by

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70 the electronic equipment of the sound system. T he background noise level in the sound booth was 18 dB higher in the 1 kHz octave band than that measured in t he center of the congregation area Figure 4 5. Background noise level measured on the platform and inside the sound booth of KBCG plotted on RC plots Figure 4 6. Background noise level measured in KBCG overlaid on NC curves

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71 Thus, the sound engineer a t KBCG might experience difficulty to adjust the sound system controls because of relatively loud background noise level of NC 45. If t he sound engineer adjusts the sound system based on the his sound perception in the booth, so he boosts the sounds in the middle frequencies to compensate for the lack of the middle frequency sounds that he experiences, then he could fail to keep the balance of the tone and loudness of the service of music and word because the sounds may be too accentuated in the middle fre quencies in the congregation area. Figure 4 7. Background noise levels measured in the center of the congregation seating area of KBCG when rain or no rain In addition, the background noise level s in the center of the congregation al seating area chang ed significantly when it rained, because the roof deck of KBCG is made of metal. The background noise level in the center of the congregation al seating area increased from NC 40 to NC 50 with an increase of 18.8 dB in the 1 kHz octave band caused by rain i mpacts on the metal roof as shown in Figure 4 7. Consequently the speech intelligibility measured by the STI decreased from 0.75 to 0.65 in the

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72 congregational seating area indicating that it might be relatively hard for congregation members to hear the se rvice of music and word clear ly and intelligibl y under the rainy weather. In this case, the sound engineer could increase the loudness of the choir s singing and the minister s sermon using the sound system to compensate for the increase in background nois e level. Transfer Functions of t he Spaces a nd Sound Systems When sound engineers try to tune a soun d system in a given room, they often take transfer function measurement s The t ransfer function is basically a comparison between a reference signal that is played into the system and the output signal which is changed by an acoustic system such as a sound system coupled with the reflection, reverberation and background noise in the room Thus, a theoretical ly perfect acoustic system would have a transfer func tion of zero in all frequencies of interest which means that there will be no change in level, zero delay time and no additional noise in all frequencies as the sound moves from the loudspeaker to a s location interacting with the room surfaces ( D avis and Jones 1989, McCarty 2007 Eargle and Foreman 2002 Long 2006 ) M ost loudspeakers are heard differently in different room setting s and sound system s Architectural features or the aural architecture of rooms such as the room volume the shape s of t he walls and ceiling and the acoustical characteristics of the finish materials ( absorption, diffusion and reflection ) can change the sound quality of the spaces in terms of loudness reverberation tonal quality etc. The original quality of a sound sourc e can be changed in terms of level, time and frequency response while coming through the components of the sound system comprised of microphones, cables, a mixing console, electronic amplifiers and loudspeakers ( Cremer and M ller 1982 Blesser and Salter 2007) The aural architecture and the sound system play a key

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73 role in the acoustical quality of the sounds heard in worship spaces (Thompson 2002, Eargle and Foreman 2002) In this respect the frequency response of a loudspeaker can be different from the one that the manufacture r provides because of the many different possible combination s of electronic components and processing functions available in the sound system Even though the same sound system is in use sounds can be heard differently in a differ ent aural architecture (Davis and Jones 1989, McCarty 2007) Thus, it is possible to hypothesize that the transfer functions of the aural architecture (which can be called the room transfer function) and the sound system (which can be called the transfer f unction of the sound system) can provide one with the frequency response of the aural architecture and the sound system in worship spaces where a tonal balance should be achieve d Figure 4 8. Schematic diagram of the transfer function measurements used : definition of transfer functions of a sound system and a room and frequency responses at measurement locations (4 1) (4 2)

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74 Where, S= Frequency response of a pink noise A= Frequency response of a sound sys tem measured at 1 m distance from the loudspeaker R= Frequency response of a room measured at receiver locations In order to obtain a correct room transfer function using a sound system which is us ed in a space, first of all the transfer function of the so und system (Eq 4 1) has to be kno wn. Secondly, the transfer function s of the effects of the acoustical properties of the room (Eq 4 2) can be calculated by the subtraction of the frequency responses measured at receiver locations from the transfer function of the sound system as shown in Figure 4 8 A c omparison of the transfer function of the sound system with the frequency responses combined produce at a listener location that the aural architecture and the sound source contributed to can demonstrate the room transfer function of the receiver locations The effect of background noise may be another consideration to be taken Background noise is not a part of reference input s ignal so i t can change the original transfer function by adding other noises at t he output channel after it is picked up by a microphone. In sum the advantages of transfer function analysis are to show the appropriateness of the sound system, frequency responses associated with the aural architecture and the effects of the background noise in frequencies in worship spaces Especially, the judgment of the appropriateness of the sound system can result from the consideration that if the receiver location is located out of the coverage angle of the loudspeakers, the tonal balance may not be obtained because of the relatively less sound energy in high frequencies.

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75 P ink noise was used as a source signal because of the flat frequency response in each octave band The pink noise was recorded by an omni directional microphone at 1m distance fr om the loudspeaker which in turn the transfer function of the sound system As shown in Figure 4 9 t his measurement was considered to be the reference signal input to determine the room transfer function by the comparison of the input reference to the ou tput which is the frequency response measured at a receiver location This is basically a dual channel Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis performed by Sia Smaart Live with a dual channel sound card, Digigram VX Packet. The omni directional microphone, E arthwork M30BX, was used to record the direct, reflected and background sound s arriv ing from all directions at each seating location. Figure 4 9 Schematic diagram of the transfer function measurements used (A: a general schematic diagram for a dual FFT measurement, B: a pparatus for the transfer function measurement) In STMC, the main loudspeakers covered the main floor area where the congregation is seated, while a fill loudspeaker mounted on the re ar wall of the second floor covered the second floor whe re the choir and the music director are located as shown in Figure 3 2. The transfer function s of the main loudspeaker S1 and the

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76 loudspeaker S2 ( fill loudspeaker) for the second floor area were measured at 1 m distance and plotted in Figure 4 10 F igure 4 10 m distance In the sense that zero dB of magnitude refers to the theoretical perfection in frequency response, the main loudspeakers seemed to have insufficient frequency r esponse to reinforce the service of word showing tonal unbalance. The l ow frequency sounds of the priest s speech were boosted up by approximately +2.5 dB in the 250 Hz octave band and then rolled off in the middle frequency band s of 500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hz by 2.5 to 5.0 dB which result s in the minister s voice be ing heard unnatur ally. On the other hand, the fill loudspeaker mounted on the rear wall of the second floor showed more even frequency response with a +4.0 dB increase in the 500 Hz octave band However, it was located right behind the electronic organ as shown in Figure 3 2 so the choir members and the music directors who were seated in front of the organ could lose direct sound energy from the loudspeaker especially in the high frequencies. Th e transfer function of the combination of the sound system and the aural architecture of the room for the location of the music director, receiver location 9 (L9 ) in Figure 3 2, was shown in Figure 4 1 1 T he transfer function of the room (aural architectur e) was calculated from the difference in magnitude in each octave band between the transfer

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77 f unction of the fill loud speaker S2 and the frequency response measured in the music director s location L9. This graph demonstrated that the music director could hear balanced speech sounds within the frequency range of people s speaking in the 125 Hz to 4 kHz octave band during the service of word which was reinforce d and propagated through the fill loudspeaker S2 There is a 7 dB reduction in 4 kHz octave band and a 6 dB reduction in 8kHz octave band shown at the music director s location and the choir members locations as well because the organ is located right in front of fill loudspeaker S2 and blocks the higher frequency sounds from reaching these locatio ns The l ow frequency sounds in the 16 and 32 Hz octave bands showed only about 3 dB decrease compared to the 4kHz and 8kHz octave bands Figure 4 1 1 Transfer function calculated in the music director's location (L9) The f requency responses taken at lo cations in the congregational seating area on the main floor as shown in Figure 4 1 2 showed higher levels in the 250 Hz octave band similar to the reference input signal measured 1 m from the main loudspeaker (transfer function of the main loudspeaker). S o und energy below 125 and over 1 kHz showed significantly lower magnitude relative to that of 250 and 500 Hz. Moreover, the room transfer function graphs in Figure 4 1 3 showed significant decrease of high frequency

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78 sound energy. This tendency might result f rom the coverage of the main loudspeaker that was not properly aimed at the seating area as shown in Figure 4 12 Receiver locations L4 and L6 were located within the 6 dB coverage pattern of the loudspeaker, while the others were not. Consequently, L11 w hose location was farthest among them showed the most significant decrease, 3.7 dB at 2 kHz; whereas L2 showed 2.4 dB of decrease at 2 kHz. The decreases were found more severe in higher frequencies over 2 kHz. Figure 4 1 2 Transfer function of the ma in loudspeaker 'S1' and frequen cy responses measured at L11, pulpit, L2, L4 and L6 of STMC Figure 4 1 3 Room t ransfer function at L11, pulpit, L2, L4 and L6 in STMC calculated by the subtraction of the frequency responses at each measurement location fro m the transf er function of the sound system

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79 In FUMC, thr ee sets of loudspeakers were us ed in the sound system. The main loudspeaker S1 whose horizontal coverage angle is 120 degrees to the 6 dB down point in the 1kHz octave band is a full range line arr ay column speaker covering the main floor where the congregation is seated during worship. The delayed loudspeaker S2 whose coverage angle is 90 degrees on horizontal axis and 50 degrees on vertical axis to the 6 dB down points in the 1kHz octave band i s a full range point source speaker covering the second floor where the congregation and the sound engineer are seated. The monitor speaker S3 is the same type of loudspeaker as S2 This loudspeaker is used to assist the choir member s to hear the servi ce of word while the pastor gives a sermon. The transfer function curves of the three loudspeakers in the sound system of FUMC measured 1 m from the three loudspeakers are shown in Figure 4 1 4 These showed even frequency response at 1 m from 125 Hz to 8 kHz within 3dB. Figure 4 1 4 Transfer function of the sound system of FUMC; three transfer functions for each loudspeaker S1, S2 and S3 The main loudspeaker S1 had a ve ry even frequency response from 125 Hz to 8 kHz to the congregation seated on the main floor area as shown in Figure 4 1 5 On the

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80 other hand, the congregation seated on the second floor seemed to need the delayed loudspeaker S2 which is the blue dotted line in Figure 4 1 6 because the frequency responses by the main loudspeaker S2 s howed significant decrease of magnitude at the receiver location 8 (L8) on the second floor. Especially high frequency sound energy decreased by 6.5 dB in 1 kHz, 6.2 dB in 2 kHz, 5.4 dB in 4 kHz and 10.5 dB in 8 kHz octave band centers. Thus, the delay ed loudspeaker could compensate the insufficient magnitude of sounds as the blue line in Figure 4 1 6 whose frequency response became even and higher. Figure 4 1 5 Transfer function of the main loudspeaker 'S1' and frequency responses of the three receive r location s on the main floor area L2, L and L6 shown in Figure 3 3 Figure 4 1 6 Transfer function of the delayed loudspeaker 'S2' and frequency responses measured at the receiver location 8 (L8) with and without 'S2'

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81 The choir seating area was located o utside the coverage angle of the main loudspeaker and even behind the rear wall of the loudspeakers as seen in Figure 3 3, which resulted in no direct sound from the loudspeakers reach ing the choir and th e music director. The monitor speakers S3 were use d to provide direct sounds so the choir and the music director could hear more intelligible sounds during the service of word given by the pastor. As shown in Figure 4 1 7 the monitor loudspeaker whose transfer function was a grey dotted line provided the receiver location 11 (L11) with even frequency response (a blue dotted line) within 3dB magnitude range. Consequently, the transfer function (a red line) could be obtained by the comparison of the frequency response and the transfer function of the S3 speaker. In addition, the aural architecture surrounding the receiver location might have effects on the transfer function calculated at L11. Differently to other transfer functions of aural architecture which showed negative values in magnitude, it showed an increase in magnitude in the low frequencies between the 63 Hz and 125 Hz octave bands This might be because the background noise level in the low frequencies was very high in the choir area about 60dB because of the HVAC system as shown in Figure 4 4 Therefore it is possible that the frequency response at L11 was changed by the bac kground noise This interference can occur while the choir and the music director are listening to the service of word. F urthermore, in the sense that continuous pink nois e was used to measure the transfer functions and the HVAC system generates relatively steady noise, it can definitely interfere with the choir and the music director s listening between the pauses between syllables and sentences as the pastor presents his s ermon.

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82 Figure 4 1 7 Transfer function of the monitor speaker 'S3' and the room transfer function of the choir with its frequency response in FUMC In KBCG, two compact line array cluster s (the main loudspeakers S shown in Figure 3 4) consisted of three loudspeakers E ach w as hung approximately 10.5 ft above from the finish floor. T he two clusters whose horizontal coverage angle is 90 degrees for the upper two loudspeakers and 120 degrees for the lower loudspeaker covered the main floor area where the co ngregation and the sound engineer are seated during worship. In addition, the choir members usually sit in the first and the second rows of the congregation al seating area after they finish singing in the choir area on the platform, so they can listen to t he sermon delivered by the pastor. Apart from the main loudspeakers, there are two portable monitor speakers used for vocals of the praise band during the evening service on Sunday. However, the transfer function measurements of the monitor speakers were d isregarded in this paper, because those were not us ed for the main worship service in the morning on Sundays. The transfer function of the main loudspeaker S (a grey dotted line) showed a relatively even frequency response within 3dB magnitude from the 63 Hz to the 8 kHz octave bands This changed at receiver location s L3, L6 and L9 as shown in Figure 4 1 8 The

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83 magnitudes of the frequency response decreased in the high frequency octave bands This seemed to be not only because the tra nsfer function of t he main loudspeaker was measured at 1 m distance so the sound pressure levels measured at the three receiver locations were lower owing to geometric spreading due to the distance, but also because of the relatively absorbent aural architecture of KBCG, the sound absorption of air and the acoustic interference among the loudspeakers within the compact line array cluster might have effects on the change (Harris 1998, Long 2006) Especially, high frequency sounds between the 1 kHz and 4 kHz octave bands at L3 where the choir was seated during the service of word were 2.3 dB to 5.0 dB less than those of frequency responses measured at L6 and L9 where the congregation was seated. Figure 4 1 8 Transfer function of the main loudspeaker 'S' and frequency responses measured at the receiver location 3 (L3), L6 and L9 in KBCG On the other hand, in contrast to the receiver location L5 (the center of the main floor) whose frequency response showed relative uniform ity within 3dB over all frequencies the receiver locat ions L10, L11 and L12 which were located outside the coverage angle of the main loudspeaker showed a significant decrease in high frequency sounds in octave bands over 500 Hz as shown in Figure 4 1 9 The difference in the magnitude of the frequency respons es between L5 and L11 where the minister

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84 stood while giving a sermon were 5.0 dB in the 500 Hz octave band 6.2 dB in the 1 kHz octave band 5.9 dB in the 2 kHz octave band 6.0 dB in the 4 kHz octave band and 10.4 dB in the 8 kHz octave band Fig ure 4 1 9 Transfer function of the main loudspeaker 'S' and frequency responses measured in the center of the congregation area (L5), the sound booth (L1), the pulpit (L11) and the choir singing area (L12) The transfer function of the aural architecture of KBCG shown in Figure 4 20 demonstrated that high frequency sounds over 1 kHz were relatively low across the room, which became even severe at the receiver locations outside the coverage angle of the main loudspeakers. Although the main floor seating area from receiver location L1 to L9 showed 3 dB of uniform response, the tendency still could be observed in over 1 kHz octave band This does not seem to be adjustable by the graphic or parametric equalizer of the sound system, because the transfer function of the main loudspeaker showed that the high frequencies between 1k and 8 kHz were already boosted by 2 to 4 dB relative to 250 Hz to gain the tonal balance at the receiver locations as shown in Figure 4 1 8 Instead, the aural architecture would perhaps b e modified to have less absorption of high frequency sounds in the room. Adding loudspeakers such as monitor speakers for the pastor who was located at the pulpit L11

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85 would be another consideration, because the monitor speakers can compensate for the insuf ficient high frequency sounds at this location so the transfer function can be uniform at the receiver location. On the other hand, the receiver location L10 showed low frequency mode in 125 Hz octave band This might be because the sound booth is located at the edge of the room. Figure 4 20 Room t ransfer functions of the three receiver locations L5, L10 and L11

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86 CHAPTER 5 OBSERVATION OF WORSH IP SERVICES Acoustical Documentation of Worship Activities Observation of worship services in the three worship spaces began with documentation of the acoustical activities observed during the worship service. Documentation began at least 10 minutes before the worship service and continued until 10 minutes after the worship service. T he locations orientations and t he roles of the participants in the liturgy, the acoustic paths between the sources and the receivers and the use of the sound system were documented with the description of the worship activities. The services were also recorded with a Samsung SC MX20 cam corder and measured with Ivie 45 and Rion NA 27 sound level meters. It was observed that the particip ants during the worship services could be divided in to five groups: the minister, the choir, the music director, the congregation and the sound engineer an d that electronic sound system s were used to enhance speech intelligibility of the service of word in the three worship spaces while the service of music propagated natural sounds into the rooms. The w orship activities and the sequence of the sonic events during the service in the three worship spaces the Saint Thomas More Church in Sanford (STMC ), Florida the First United Methodist Church in Gainesville ( FUMC ), Florida and the Korean Baptist Church of Gainesville (KBCG), Florida, are recorded and shown in a time history graph as shown in Figure 5 1 to 5 3. The descriptions of the specific worship activities that were observed during worship in the three worship spaces are presented in the tables under each of the time history graphs

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87 S t. Thomas M ore C hur ch (STMC) Figure 5 1. Worship activities observed during the worship service of STMC and the sequence of the sonic events in a time history graph T he inside of STMC is so quiet that one can hear a car passing outside above the background noise of 34 dBA b efore worship begins When the worship is about to begin, the priest starts praying in the prayer room. At the same time, acolytes are preparing for the ceremony on the first floor and the choir practices hymns on the second floor. Right before the servi ce, a lay person talks to the congregation from the platform with an overall sound pressure level of 54 dBA measured at the rear of the congregational seating area. acolyte s ente r the room and walk to the altar. The priest leads the liturgical ceremony from the platform and chants facing the tabernacle. The music director directs the choir on the second floor facing the choir, and the choir assists the ceremony by singing hymns fr om their location in the choir loft on the second floor The organ ist who plays

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88 the electronic organ is a member of the choir The organ console is located at the rear center of the second floor. At various times during the celebration of the liturgy, the congregation members stand up or sit in the pews. While the priest is conduct ing the ceremony on the platfo rm with the servers, the choir sing s hymns on the second floor. The sound pressure level of the choir singing ranges from 59 dBA to 69 dBA on the fir st floor where the congregation is seate d and it increases to 70 dBA to 7 4 dBA when the organ accompanies the choir. Meanwhile, in order to deliver the homily, the priest moves to the pulpit which is approximately 2 feet above the level of the platform fl oor level which is located on the whose two loudspeakers are mounted near the corner of the rear side wall and the ceiling The loudspeakers are aimed to assist the congregation seated in the rear to hear more intelligible speech. The sound pressure level of the amplified homily ranges from 6 7 dBA to 7 3 dBA in the rear seat of the congregational seating area. After the service of word, the priest moves back to the ce nter of the platform facing the tabernacle and leads the ceremony chanting and swinging the incense burner censer. During moments of silent prayer, the choir stops singing but the priest continues the ceremony on the platform with a sound pressure level o f the qu iet moment s is 41 dBA. When chime rings, the congregation stands up and respond s to the priest s song as the priest leads the dialogues facing the tabernacle, and the choir starts singing hymns on the second floor right after they finish the chanti ng. When the worship is about to finish, the priest prays facing the congregation and prepares the communion service. The choir members and the music director come

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89 down to the middle aisle on the first floor for the communion service. All of the congregati on members follow the choir for the communion service. The worship finishes when the church bell rings and the priest and the acolytes leave the altar and walk to the entry hall. First United Methodist Church ( FUMC ) Figure 5 2 Worship activities observe d during the worship service of FUMC and the sequence of the sonic events in a time history graph In FUMC, t he room is quiet with a background noise level of 3 6 dBA b efore worship begins Choir members start gathering and practic ing hymns in the choir seat ing area. The ambient sound level increases to 74 dBA in the middle of the congregational seating area while the congregation members enter or talk in the narthex and the choir practices singing hymns In the mean time, the pastor enters and prepares for the worship service on the platform. The worship starts when the choir and

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90 the acolytes enter the room from the narthex and walk to the altar, while an organist plays the acoustic pipe organ as a prelude. After everyone in attendance sings a hymn, the choi r located on the chancel sings the introit and anthem accompanied by a piano at a sound pressure level of 72 dBA or a small group of chamber orchestra. While the choir is singing, the music director directs the choir from the middle of the platform facing the choir, the pastor sits on the left side of the platform, the congregation listens to the choir from their seats in the main floor and the sound engineer who is located in the rear middle of the second floor records the service of music. The sound press ure levels of the service of music increase up to 82 dBA when everyone in attendance sings accompanied by the acoustic pipe organ and piano. The pastor talks or prays using the sound system. He moves from his seat to the lectern or to the middle of the pla tform according to the liturgical schedule. The service of word delivered by the pastor or the lay readers who are the bible readers is reinforced by the sound system and ranges from 55 dBA to 7 8 dBA sound pressure level During the service of word, the ch oir remains seated in the chancel and the music director sits on the right side of the choir seating area listening to the service of word from two monitor speakers mounted on the side walls of the chancel area. The sound engineer controls the sound system for the congregation who are seated on the first floor where two line array loudspeakers cover or the second floor where two loudspeakers cover the seating to be able to hear more intelligible sounds.

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91 After the s accompanied by an acoustic pipe organ. The worship service finishes wh en the organist and the pianist play a postlude, after which the pastor pronounces benediction. Korean Baptist Church of Gainesville ( KBCG ) Figure 5 3 Worship activities observed du ring the worship service of KBCG and the sequence of the sonic events in a time history graph In KBCG, the organ ist plays the electronic organ at low volume to help the congregation members inside to pray prior to the worship service while some people gat her, enter the room or talk to each other (60 dBA of sound pressure level) b efore worship The worship begins with the loud electronic organ (74 dBA) when a pastor, a bible reader, the choir and a music director enter the room and walk to the platform, wh ile a sound engineer sits in the audio booth. The choir and the music director are located on the choir area of the platform and the pastor stands on the lectern.

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92 The pastor opens the worship and uses the sound system to lead the congregation in prayer. Ev eryone in attendance sings hymns accompanied by an electronic organ and a piano, except during the time when the choir sings alone The pastor leads the congregation to sing hymns using the sound syst em with sound levels varying from 80 dBA to 8 4 dBA. Duri ng the silent prayer the organ player plays at low volume (64 dBA) and a layman stands on the lectern and prays using the sound system. While the choir is singing with a piano on the platform, the music director faces the choir and the pastor sits on the picked up by two condenser microphones hung on the platform and sent to a digital processor to add electronic effects to the original sound, with sound levels varying from 74 dBA to 8 3 dBA. The choir and t he music director move from the platform after singing to the first and the second row of the congregational seating area and listen to the service of word delivered by the pastor who moves from the right side of the platform to the lectern located in the amplified by the sound system with sound levels varying from 63 dBA to 73 dBA in the rear of the congregational seating area. During the service s of music and word, the sound engineer controls the sound system adjusting the gain and the parametric equalizers of the mixing console and records them on a digital audio recorder from his position in the audio booth that is located at the rear side of the church After the offertory and announcement, the worship fini shes after the pastor pronounces benediction and moves to the hall, and the choir sings a postlude from their location in the first and the second row of the congregational seating area. The pastor greets the congregation and people greet and talk to each other while leaving the room.

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93 Sound Pressure Levels o f Worship Activities Worship activities in Western Christian churches often have 2 primary components of their services: the service of word and the service of music The worship services of these denomi nations are largely comprised of sonic activities in order for God to be able to hear the prayer and praise of the celebrants and the congregation The participants in worship services include a minister or priest the choir, a music director, the co ngrega tion and a sound engineer During the service, the minister usually stays in the general vicinity of the platform He may stand at the lectern, sit in the preside r s chair while lay readers speak or the choir sing s or may walk across the platform or into the aisles while delivering his sermon or homily. The choir stands i n the chancel singing, but sits when the minister gives a sermon. In some churches, the choir move s from the chancel to the congregational seating area after singing so they can listen to the sermon and the lay readers When the choir is singing, the music director stands in the front center of the chancel facing the choir, otherwise she or he is usually seated on the side of the choir. On the other hand, the congregation and the sound engi neer tend to stay in their respective seating areas standing or sitting according to the liturgy except that the sound engineer may check the quality of the sound reinforcement system by walking across the seating area occasionally Table 5 1. Measurement setup for sound pressure levels of the worship Equivalent continuous sound pressure level (Leq) Instantaneous sound pressure level (Lp) Leq time 10s Time Instantaneous Frequency weigh t Flat Frequency weigh t Flat Time constant Fast Time constant Fast Octave analysis 1/3 Octave analysis 1/3

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94 The general room acoustical measurements provide one with physical indications that are related to the acoustical qualities of the room such as loudness or relative strength (G value) of the room in dB which is not the actual sound pressure level of the sonic activities. Thus, in order to know the sound levels of the worship activities that occurred during the worship service, one should participate in the worship service with a sound level meter. The locations where the sound levels of specific worship activities were measured in the three worship spaces were shown in Figure 5 4 The sound pressure levels of the worship activities were measured by a Rion NA 27 with 1/2 inch pre polarized condenser microphone US 53A sound level meter, and the measurement setup was presented in Table 5 1. The sound levels were measured in dB without frequency weighting in 1/3 octave bands, and then were manually converted to dBA and 1/1 octave bands using MS Excel software. Figure 5 4 Measurement locations for sound pressure levels of the worship activities of the three worship spaces (1: the main floor, 2: the second floor in FUMC and 5 ft from a piano in KBCG)

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95 Sound pressure levels of the worship activities in STMC were measured i n the congregational seating area and are shown in Table 5 2 and Figure 5 5 The measured sound levels varied from 40.9 dBA during silent prayer to 73.6 dBA during the choir s singing with the accompaniment of the electronic organ. A person talking on the platform was measured at 54.4 dBA at a distance of approximately 20 feet. The priest s homily with electronic reinforcement ranged from 66.9 dBA to 72.6 dBA at a distance of approximately 22 feet from the pulpit while his chanting facing the tabernacle wa s measured at 63.9 dBA at a distance of approximately 24 feet from the tabernacle The choir was measured a t 59.4 dBA to 69 dBA while singing but the sound pressure levels increased to 70.4 dBA to 73.6 dBA when the organ accompanied the choir The low fre quency sounds in the 125 Hz and 250 Hz octave bands increased by 13 to 18 dB when the electronic organ was in use with the choir singing as seen in spectra number s 9, 11 and 13 in Table 5 2 and th e high frequency sounds between 2 kHz and 8kHz octave bands increased by 8 to 16.5 dB when the priest s speech was reinforced by the loudspeakers as seen in spectra number s 10 and 12 in Table 5 2 Figure 5 5 Sound pressure levels of worship activities of STMC presented in Table 5 2

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96 Table 5 2. Sound pressure leve ls of worship activities of STMC measured in the rear congregational seating area Worship activities Frequency (Hz) O verall (dBA) 125 250 500 1 k 2 k 4 k 8 k 1. Silent prayer 28.7 34.8 33.8 33.1 34.1 31.0 22.2 40.9 2. Natural talking on the platform 37.2 47.3 52.3 44.2 41.6 31.4 24.9 54.4 3. Pr chanting 33.4 47.7 55.1 46.4 48.9 41.8 35.4 57.2 4. Male choir only 36.2 48.2 58.1 48.3 47.8 40.9 40.0 59.4 5. Pri e st chanting 30.0 55.1 59.4 59.7 54.8 45.7 31.3 63.9 6. Pri e st speech via loudspeakers 35.0 59.6 65.0 47.6 58.2 49.7 41.2 66.9 7. Male choir only 31.9 48.1 65.8 62.8 55.3 43.3 32.8 67.9 8. Male choir only 29.9 51.9 64.3 67.4 44.7 39.7 28.6 69.0 9. Choir with elec. organ 51.5 66.8 65.9 62.5 54.4 45.0 34.6 70.4 10. Pri e st speec h via loudspeakers 36.2 55.4 69.8 63.8 59.8 56.1 31.4 71.4 11. Male choir with elec. o rgan 52.0 63.7 68.9 68.3 51.6 40.7 28.8 72.4 12. Pr ie st speech via loudspeakers 37.7 53.5 68.0 70.3 55.7 54.0 49.7 72.6 13. Choir with elec. organ 49.8 65.0 71.7 67. 1 48.5 42.5 31.5 73.6 In F UMC, the dynamic range of the worship activities measured by subtracting the quietest average sound level of a specific acoustic event from the loudest was 9.3 dB higher than that of STMC as presented in Table 5 3 ; the silent p r ayer was 40.2 dBA, while the congregational singing with an acoustic pipe organ and a piano was the loudest measured as 82.2 dBA on the second floor. Before beginning the worship, a few people talking in the narthex and in the choir seats was measured a t 4 3.1 dBA in the center of the main floor. It increased to 74 dBA when people gathered and more and more loud talking and laughing occurred until about 1 minute before the worship service started. The pastor s speech reinforced by a sound system and propagat ed thro ugh loudspeakers was measured a t 55 dBA to 60.5 dBA at a distance of approximately 40 feet from the main loudspeaker cluster on the main floor. On the other hand, the sound pressure level of the pastor s speech was measured as 77.6 dBA on the second floor. The difference between the sound levels measured at these two locations might have resulted from the use of different loudspeakers and different distances from the

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97 loudspeakers which were 40 feet on the main floor but only 9 feet on the second floo r. The service of music ranged from 72 dBA when the choir was singing with the piano to 82.2 dBA when the whole community sang and they were accompan ied by the organ and piano. Apart from the worship activities, sometimes noises such as people coughing, a baby crying, etc. can result in aural distraction. D istant coughing was measured a t 62 dBA, whil e close coughing was measured a t 75.1 dBA. The cough that was located closely to the sound level meter shown in spectra 14 showed a relatively loud and flat f requency response in the 125 Hz to 4 kHz octave bands as shown in Figure 5 6 Table 5 3 Sound pressure levels of the worship activities of FUMC Worship activities Frequency (Hz) Overall (dBA) 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k 1 Silent prayer 38.8 29.3 32.3 3 7.8 32.8 26.4 19.9 40.2 2 Natural talking in narthex and choir seats 42.9 39.0 38.4 37.4 34.4 27.3 19.6 43.1 3 People stepping the stage 56.6 45.9 43.1 41.5 37.0 32.1 25.2 47.4 4 Pastor's speech via loudspeakers 50.5 44.1 52.1 43.9 43.4 41.9 27.9 55.0 5 Pastor's speech via loudspeakers 52.6 48.0 53.7 48.3 44.4 36.9 30.2 56.9 6 Pastor's talking via loudspeakers 55.9 51.7 56.3 52.4 49.5 43.9 36.7 60.5 7 Lay reader's bible reading 48.6 50.6 57.7 51.5 50.6 43.4 33.7 60.9 8 Distant coughing 45.7 55.7 68.9 52.4 51.5 42.5 32.6 62.0 9 People talking 55.1 56.4 60.5 56.6 55.7 47.6 34.3 63.1 10 Congregational response 61.4 63.4 68.8 57.6 56.1 50.8 46.9 67.7 11 Choir singing with a piano 52.6 64.0 71.2 66.8 59.0 53.8 40.3 72.0 12 The whole community greeting each other 62.6 66.3 71.6 68.3 61.8 52.1 41.3 73.6 13 People talking in narthex, choir seats and congregation seats 63.1 68.5 72.6 67.4 65.1 56.3 45.3 74.0 14 Close coughing 67.8 64.8 63.9 66.6 70.9 67.2 60.1 75.1 15 Only an acoustic pipe organ on the 2 nd floor 69.8 70.1 73.2 71.6 69.3 57.5 38.8 77.4 16 Pastor's speech measured on the 2 nd floor 68.2 70.6 74.2 71.6 69.2 61.0 43.4 77.6 17 The congregation and the choir singing with an acoustic pipe organ and a piano 68.1 73.1 78.2 72.5 69.2 61.5 47.4 80. 0 18 The congregation and the choir singing with an acoustic pipe organ 67.1 74.2 78.0 78.6 67.5 60.5 39.9 80.4 19 The congregation and the choir singing with an acoustic pipe organ 67.6 76.5 81.7 71.6 63.8 55.6 47.4 80.6 20 Congregational singing with an organ and a piano on the 2 nd floor 69.8 70.1 78.0 78.9 70.7 60.3 43.1 82.2

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98 Figure 5 6 Sound pressure levels of worship activities of FUMC presented in Table 5 3 In KBCG, an electronic organ playing low level music before the worship service began, a nd people talk ing and greet ing each other were measured with a sound pressure level of 59.7 dBA at the rear of the room as shown in Table 5 4 and Figure 5 7 The worship started with the entry of a pastor, a prayer led by a lay person a bible read ing and a song by the choir with electronic organ was measured at 74.3 dBA in the center of the rear of KBCG. T he pastor s speech amplified through the house sound system ranged from 62.7 dBA to 73.3 dBA depending on the volume of his speech sounds. The service of music, on the other hand, vari ed from 73.7 dBA when the male parts of the choir were singing to 83.9 dBA when the whole community was singing accompan ied by the piano and the electronic organ measured in the right rear of the room. There was no single mom ent of silence observed during worship, instead the silent prayer was accompanied a relatively low level of organ music which was measured at 64.0 dBA at the rear of the room. The piano was measured at 69.8 dBA at 5 feet.

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99 Table 5 4 Sound pressure levels of worship activities of KBCG Worship activities Frequency (Hz) O verall (dBA) 125 250 500 1 k 2 k 4 k 8 k 1. People talking and a faint elec. organ 48.2 53.8 57.2 46.9 43.5 39.9 43.7 59.7 2. Pastor's speech via loudspeakers 39.0 54.3 59.5 54.3 48.4 48.8 5 4.2 62.7 3. Silent prayer with a faint elec. organ 37.0 59.0 62.1 47.7 39.9 34.0 35.8 64.0 4. Pastor's speech via loudspeakers 38.2 54.8 63.8 57.5 54.8 57.1 55.8 66.5 5. Pastor's speech in a sound booth 37.2 54.3 65.3 57.4 54.5 54.1 56.6 67.1 6. Lay p 51.2 58.3 67.1 59.4 55.4 48.8 48.8 68.6 7. Close to a piano in 5 feet distance 36.6 56.8 66.7 65.6 57.6 44.6 40.5 69.8 8. Pastor's prayer via loudspeakers 47.4 59.1 70.4 63.8 58.8 51.4 53.3 71.9 9. Pastor's prayer via loudspeakers 57.6 63 .9 70.6 67.9 56.9 51.9 52.5 73.3 10. Choir's singing (only male) 41.6 61.1 69.4 70.2 64.6 53.9 46.8 73.7 11. Choir's entry with loud organ 45.7 59.1 72.9 67.3 60.3 53.6 48.9 74.3 12. The whole community singing with a piano and elec. organ near the pian o 63.2 71.9 77.7 73.4 69.5 59.4 54.2 80.4 13. The whole community singing with a piano and elec. organ in rear left 62.1 72.9 78.7 76.0 70.7 59.9 52.5 81.7 14. Choir's singing with a piano 48.1 66.7 77.8 79.4 73.6 62.2 53.8 82.5 15. The whole community singing with a piano and elec. organ in rear right 66.4 72.0 80.5 79.7 71.8 62.1 55.7 83.9 Figure 5 7 Sound pressure l evels of worship activities of KBCG presented in Table 5 4 Acoustic Itineraries a nd Sound Paths i n t he Three Worship Spaces A worship space has dynamic sonic activities occurring in multiple locations and participants in the worship service play different liturgical roles in the worship. The subject groups are the minister, the choir, the music director, the congregation and the

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100 sound en gineer Each group has different needs of hearing various sounds and their qualities. In order to define the acoustic community for worship, apart from room acoustical measurements that measure the acoustical qualities of the aural architecture, the observ ation of the sonic activities and the determination of the acoustic itineraries give one the opportunity to classify them and then quantify them according to the sound paths from each sound source to each group that listens to it using room acoustical meas urements. In STMC, there were four subject groups: the priest, the choir, the music director and the congregation. A lay person was standing in the center of the platform making an announcement to the congregation members just before the worship service be gan. He was facing the congregation as shown in Figure 5 8 A and his talking propagated naturally into the room, which can be regarded as a natural sound propagation. In addition, there was one more event where sounds propagated naturally when the priest c hant ed facing the congregation from the center of the platform The priest was usually chanting facing the tabernacle (Figure 5 8 B) but he was occasionally chanting facing the congregation. The choir was located on the second floor facing the congregation from the rear of the room (Figure 5 8 C), while the music director was directing choir members facing them. The choir singing propagated natural ly into the room. When the priest delivered the homily to the congregation, he moved to the pulpit location fro m the center of the platform facing the congregation. His speaking was reinforced by the house sound system which was comprised of three loudspeakers as shown in Figure 5 8 D. In this case, congregation members who were seated far from

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101 the priest i n the co ngregational seating area could hear the natural sound propagation of his voice about 12.5 dB less than the reinforced sounds played through the sound system The loudspeakers which were mounted on the edge of the rear side walls of the room could be ident ified as a phantom source of sound rather than the person speaking due to the level difference The choir and the music directors who were seated on the second floor could hear the reinforced sounds coming from the S2 loudspeaker which was mounted on the r ear wall of the choir area. Figure 5 8 Acoustic itineraries and the sound paths during the worship service of STMC

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102 In FUMC, there were five subject groups: the pastor, the choir, the music director, the congregation and the sound engineer. As shown in F igure 5 9 A, when the choir was singing located in the choir seating area on the platform, the music director was facing the choir and directing the music. The service of music as a natural sound propagation reached up to the second floor so that the congr egation members seated on the second floor and the sound engineer could hear the service of music loud ly enough. For example, the acoustic pipe organ was measured at 77.4 dBA on the second floor. On the other hand, as shown in Figure 5 9 B, when the pastor was delivering the sermon at the pulpit, the choir seated in the choir seating area and the music director seated at the right side of the choir seating area could hear the reinforced sounds from the monitor speakers S3 mounted on the side walls of the platform. T he main loudspeaker clusters S1 propagated the electronically reinforced sounds to the main congregational seating area on the main floor, while the delayed loudspeakers S2 propagated the reinforced sounds to the congregation members on the second floor and to the sound engineer. In KBCG, there were five subject groups: the pastor, the choir, the music director, the congregation and the sound engineer. Before the pastor delivered the sermon, as shown in Figure 5 10 A, he was seated at the rig ht side of the platform when a lay person was praying and reading bible passage. Then he stood at the pulpit leading the worship service. The choir and the music director were located on the platform (Figure 5 10 B) before the pastor s sermon and they move d to the first and second rows of the congregational seating area right after they finished singing (Figure 5 10 C). The sound

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103 engineer was located in a sound booth which was placed at the right rear side of the room. Figure 5 9 Acoustic itineraries and sound paths while the choir is singing and the pastor is speaking during the worship service of FUMC

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104 The service of word was reinforced and almost amplified by the sound system. T he choir singing was assisted by the electronic effects employed by the soun d system which added electronic reverberation to the original choir music after it was picked up by two omni directional microphone s hung above the platform from the ceiling When it comes to the Centerpoint Christian Fellowship ( CCF ) worship service, voca l members of an electric praise band and a m usic director leading the band stood on the platform, as shown in Figure 5 10 D, and the sound engineer was seated out of the sound booth using a different mixing console than was used on Sunday morning T he past or was usually seated in the first row of the right side of the congregational seating area. The service of music was heavily amplified with active use of electronic effects. In sum, in order to take acoustical measurements that are indicating acoustical q ualities that each of the subject groups hear during worship activities, four considerations were taken in this dissertation: the orientation of the sound source (in STMC), the actual locations of sound sources and receivers (in all spaces), the installed sound system and loudspeakers used as sound sources in addition to natural acoustic sources (in all spaces) and the electronic effects (in KBCG) that were added to the source sounds and heard by the listeners The objective acoustical measurements, the sub jective evaluation s and the analyses were conducted with these considerations.

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105 Figure 5 10 Acoustic itineraries and sound paths during the worship service of KBCG

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106 CHAPTER 6 OBJECTIVE ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENT Objective acoustical measurements were perform ed at multiple receiver locations that included t he actual seating locations of the minister, the choir, the music director, the congregation and the sound engineer during the worship service in the three worship spaces Two sets of acoustical measurements based on impulse response techniques were performed in each worship space One set of measurements, the natural acoustics (NAT) was used to assess natural acoustic propagation of sounds in the room, which can be called the room acoustical measurement s in general. The second set of measurements, the sound system measurements (SYS) was used to assess sounds propagated into the room through the sound system installed in the room. Juxtaposing the two measurements at the same receiver location could show the effects of the sound system on the sounds heard at each Seven objective acoustical parameters were extracted from impulse responses obtained from the three worship spaces: T30, EDT, G, C80, D50, STI and IACC. Reverberation Time Reverberation time ( T30 ) was measured to determine the reverberation time at the receiver location in each worship space When the natural acoustics was taken into account, the T30 was measured longest in STMC at 2.41 sec in the middle frequencies with a standard deviation of 0. 03 sec while it was measured 1.61 sec with a standard deviation of 0.04 sec in FUMC and 0.83 sec with a standard deviation of 0.04 sec in KBCG as presented in Table 6 1 which were the averages across the whole seating area. On the other hand, the use of sound systems showed little change in the

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107 reverberation time in any of the churches It increased by 0.09 sec in STMC and 0.04 sec in FUMC, while it decreased by 0.11 sec in KBCG as shown in Figure 6 1 Table 6 1 Reverberation time (T30) of the three wors hip spaces averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz with standard deviation (Std.) STMC FUMC KBCG T30 (sec.) 2.41 1.61 0.83 S td. (sec.) 0.03 0.04 0.04 Figure 6 1. Reverberation time (T30) of the three worship spaces averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz with standard deviation in situations where NAT or SYS was in use. The soundscape analysis could provide more meaningful description of the reverberation time in the room. Table 6 2 presents the r everberation time (T30) values averaged from the 500 Hz to 2 kHz octave ba nds which were measured and categorized by the receiver locations of each of the five subject groups based on the aiming of the sound source and the type of the acoustic propagation in the three worshp spaces In STMC, the T30 value of the priest chanting NAT facing the tabernacle FTT was measured at 2.40 sec i n the congregation al seating area and 2.42 sec on the second floor where the choir and the music director were loca ted during the worship

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108 service The T30 value of the priest s chanting NAT faci ng the congregation FTC was measured a t 2.39 sec i n the congregation al seating area, while it was measured at 2.42 sec and 2.39 sec at the locations of the choir and the music director respectively. On the other hand, the T30 value of the choir singing NAT which came from the rear of the room to the congregation RTC was measured at 2.43 sec i n the congregation al seating area and 2.46 sec at the location when the priest stood on the platform. In addition, the T30 value of the priest s sermon SYS rein forced by the sound system which main loudspeakers were mounted on the edge of the rear side walls and ceiling and the fill loudspeaker was mounted on the rear wall of the second floor was measured a t 2.44 sec at the pulpit 2.44 sec at the location of the music director and 2.52 sec i n the congregation al seating area The T30 value of the natural sound propagation spoken by a lay person or a priest in the center of the platform seemed to change from 2.39 sec to 2.52 sec i n the congregational area of STMC w hen the sound system was in use Table 6 2 Reverberation time (T30, sec) in the middle frequencies of the five receiver groups based on the aiming of the sound source and the type of the acoustic propagation in the three worsh i congregation and FTT = facing the tabernacle ) Sound Source Receiver groups STMC FUMC KBCG FTC RTC FTT Ave. NAT Minister 2.46 2.46 1.59 0.73 Choir 2.42 2.42 2.42 1.60 0.8 6 Music director 2.39 2.42 2.40 1. 58 0.88 Congregation 2.39 2.43 2.40 2.40 1.62 0.83 Sound engineer 1.62 0.85 Average 2.40 2.44 2.41 2.41 1.61 0.83 SYS Minister 2.44 2.44 1.61 0.79 Choir 1.65 0.75 Music director 2.44 2.44 1.69 Congregation 2.52 2. 52 1.66 0.70 Sound engineer 1.65 0.77 Average 2.50 2.50 1.66 0.72

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109 In FUMC, the T30 value with the sound source located in the choir area NAT was measured at 1.59 sec at the location of the minister who was seated on the left side of the platform, 1.58 sec at the location of the music director facing the choir, 1.62 sec on the congregation al seating area and 1.62 sec at the location of the sound engineer. During the pastor s sermon SYS which was reinforced by the sound system, the T30 va lue seemed to increase at the locations of the five subject groups. Especially, it increased by 0.11 sec ( from 1.58 sec to 1.69 sec ) at the location of the music director who stood facing the choir while directing the choir but was seated on the right side of the choir seating area which was located out of the coverage angle of the monitor loudspeakers for the choir and the music director Figure 6 2 Reverberation time (T30) of the choir singing measured at the five receiver groups in KBCG and the change s resulted from the use of electronic effects 'EFT' In KBCG, the T30 value with the sound source located in the choir area NAT was measured at 0.73 sec at the location of the pastor who was seated on the right side of the platform, 0.88 sec at the locati on of the music director, 0.83 sec on the congregation al seating area and 0.85 sec at the location of the sound engineer. T he choir was assisted by electronic effects EFT after it was picked up by two microphones

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110 suspended from the ceiling over the platf orm and sent to the digital processor that produces electronically simulated reverberation In this sense, the congregation could hear the music with a longer r everber ation time than that provided by the natural acoustical properties of the room because t he electronic effects increased the T30 value by 0.58 sec i n the congregational seating area which was a 70% increase from 0.83 sec as shown in Figure 6 2 Early Decay Time The early decay time (EDT) in the three worship spaces showed lager variation s acro ss the room than T30 as presented in Table 6 3 As discussed in the section on EDT of Chapter 2 EDT is more sensitive to the coverage angles and the directivities of loudspeakers than T30, because the relatively stronger or weaker arrivals from the loudsp eakers can change the value of EDT to be shorter or longer than when the sound system is not used Table 6 3 Early decay time (EDT) of the three worship spaces averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz with standard deviation (Std.) STMC FUMC KBCG EDT (sec.) 2.37 1 .45 0.58 S td. (sec.) 0.15 0.33 0.13 In STMC, as shown in Figure 6 3 and presented in Table 6 4 the EDT values in the middle frequencies taken with the sound source placed on the platform at the location where the priest chant ed facing the tabernacle F TT w ere measured at 2.43 sec on the congregation al seating area 2.18 sec at the location of the choir and 2.36 sec at the location of the music director. The EDT value taken with the sound source

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111 located in the choir area RTC was measured a t 2.35 sec i n the congregation al seating area and 2.23 sec at the location of the priest. Table 6 4 Early decay time (EDT, sec) in the middle frequencies of the five receiver groups based on the aiming of the sound source and the type of the acoustic propagation in the three worsh i p spaces ( FTC= facing the congregation RTC= rear to the congregation and FTT = facing the tabernacle ) Sound Source Receiver groups STMC FUMC KBCG FTC RTC FTT Ave. NAT Minister 2.23 2.23 1.36 0.49 Choir 2.22 2.18 2.20 1. 16 0.82 Music director 2.26 2.36 2.31 1.05 0.31 Congregation 2.44 2.35 2.46 2.43 1.61 0.59 Sound engineer 1.47 0.59 Average 2.38 2.33 2.38 2.37 1.45 0.58 SYS Minister 2.48 2.48 1.72 0.78 Choir 1.91 0.67 Music director -1.07 1.07 1.96 Congregation 2.42 2.42 1.63 0.41 Sound engineer 1.42 0.40 Average 2.31 2.31 1.70 0.48 Figure 6 3 Early decay time (EDT) of the service of music and word in STMC averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz The EDT value taken using the house sound system to simulate the delivery of the priest s sermon reinforced by the sound system was measured a t 2.48 sec at the pulpit where the priest was speaking and 2.42 sec on the main floor where the congregation was seated during the se rvice of word, whereas it was measured a t 1.07 sec in the

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112 center of the second floor where the music director and the choir were seated during th at time. This reduced EDT was attributed to the less room volume than the main floor and the loudspeaker that i s mounted closely to the receivers. In FUMC, as shown in Figure 6 4 the EDT value taken with a sound source placed in the choir area was measured a t 1.36 sec on the right side of the platform where the pastor was seat ed, 1.05 sec at the location of the mus ic director, 1.61 sec on the congregational seating are a and 1.47 sec at the location of the sound engineer. A big difference of the EDT values about 0.56 sec was observed between the locations of the congregation and the music director. In the case of the minister (pastor) s location, a variation was observed between the EDT values taken at the left and right ears. T he EDT value of the left ear which was open to th e choir location was measured a t 1.17 sec and that of the right ear which was exposed to the main floor was measured a t 1.56 sec. The overall EDT value became higher when the house sound system was used as the sound source in FUMC, as shown in Figure 6 4 Especially, the EDT value of the priest s sermon was measured a t 1.96 sec at the location of the music director which was 0.91 sec longer than that of the source loudspeaker placed at the choir area while the EDT s measured in the congregation al seating area remained essentially the same with 0.02 sec of increase. As mentioned before, the music d irector was s tanding facing the choir while the choir was singing, and he moved to the other location to listen to the sermon delivered by the pastor and sat on the right side of the choir seating area which was located out of the coverage angle of the mon itor speakers. The EDT value became shorter at the locations of the sound engineer and the congregation. I n the case of the congregation, however, the EDT value i n the congregational seating area located on the

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113 main floor increased by 0.11 sec, while the E DT measured in the second floor decreased by 0.25 sec as shown in Figure 6 5 Simply put, the decrease of the EDT value occurred only in the congregation al seating area and the sound engineer who were seated on the second floor during the worship service while the overall EDT value increased on the main floor and the platform. Figure 6 4 Early decay time (EDT) with 95 % of confidence interval in FUMC Figure 6 5 Early decay time in the middle frequencies of the congregation categorized into two groups : the main floor and the second floor when the natural acoustics (NAT) or the sound system (SYS) was in use in FUMC Figure 6 6 shows the EDT value with 95 % of confidence interval measured in KBCG. Contrast to the congregation and the sound engineer the E DT value with the

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114 sound source located in the choir area was varied at the locations of the minister, the choir and the music director. The EDT value was measured a t 0.49 sec at the location of the minister, 0.31 sec at the location of the music director a nd 0.59 sec on the congregation al seating area and at the location of the sound engineer. The EDT value with the sound source located in the choir area was measured a t 0.82 sec at the location of the choir which was relative ly higher than the EDT s measure d at the other locations in KBCG because it was located behind the source of the natural acoustics as shown in Figure 3 4. The overall EDT value in the choir seating area was shorter when the house sound system was used as the sound source a s shown in Fig ure 6 6. However, the EDT value measured at the location of the pastor was measured 0.15 sec longer when the house sound system was used as the sound source as opposed to the directional source loudspeaker at the location of the choir area This might be b ecause the pastor seated on the right side of the platform while the choir was singing moved to the pulpit which was located behind the main loudspeaker to deliver the service of word. On the other hand, the choir and the music director moved to the first and the second row of the main floor seats after the choir sang a song. In addition, the EDT value of the choir singing was changed by the use of electronic effects in KBCG. The EDT value of the choir singing showed 1.99 sec of increase ( from 0.59 sec to 2 .58 sec ) at the location of the congregation which indicated about 3 37 % of increase as shown in Figure 6 7 Interestingly, the EDT value was closer to the T30 value than to the setting of the digital processor which was set to a decay time of 2.40 sec b ecause t he T30 value was measured a t 1.41 sec in the

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115 congregation al seating area This was understandable in the sense that the EDT value shows a closer correlation to people s perception of reverberance in a room than that of reverberation time ( Barron199 3, Beranek 1996 Beranek 2004 ). Figure 6 6 Early decay time (EDT) with 95 % of confidence interval in KBCG Figure 6 7 singing and the artificial reverberation added to it by electr KBCG Relative Strength The Relative Strength ( G ) is a different measurement than the sound pressure levels of the worship activities reported in the first section of Chapter 5. The Relative Strength can be used to determine how the ro om is loud relative to a reference level which is measured at a distance of 10 m from the sound source in an anechoic chamber

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116 so it can be expressed in dB. In this dissertation, G in the middle frequencies between 500 Hz and 2 kHz was measured in order t o be consistent to other objective acoustical parameters discussed here. As seen in Table 6 5, the relative loudness of the three worship spaces showed a large variation when everyone in attendance was singing and was involved in the analysis of the loudn ess. This could bring ambiguity in determination of the loudness, because the average of the G values seemed not to represent effectively the loudness of the room. Table 6 5 Relative Strength (G) of the three worship spaces averaged from 500 Hz to 2 kHz o ctave band center with standard deviation (Std.) STMC FUMC KBCG G (dB) 16.06 6.60 5.83 S td. (dB) 8.80 6.03 4.08 In addition, the general setup of the source loudspeaker for acoustical measurements facing the congregation (or audience) seemed inappropr iate for STMC, because the priest usually chants facing the tabernacle and the choir singing comes from the rear to the congregation. The loudness based on the soundscape perspective was presented in Table 6 6 and shown in Figure 6 8 As shown in Table 6 6 and Figure 6 8 the large variation seemed to result from the aiming of the directional loudspeaker used as the source of the acoustical measurement. The G value of the priest s chanting facing the tabernacle FTT was measured a t 28. 5 dB in the congregat ion al seating area whereas his chanting facing the congregation FTC was measured at 9.9 dB which might be the way that test loudspeakers may be oriented for conventional acoustical measurement in worship

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117 spaces as shown in Figure 6 9 In addition, the p riest s sermon reinforced by the sound system increased the G value measured as 18.6 dB at the location of the priest, which was 11.8 dB louder than that measured at the location of the choir Table 6 6 Relative Strength (G, dB) in the middle frequencies of the five receiver groups based on the aiming of the sound source and the type of the acoustic propagation in the three worsh i p spaces Sound Source Recei ver groups STMC FUMC KBCG FTC RTC FTT Ave. NAT Minister 6.81 6.81 7.61 4.21 Choir 6.88 23.55 15.21 16.96 18.73 Music director 6.78 23.58 15.18 6.88 8.41 Congregation 9.91 11.82 28.47 16.91 2.84 4.21 Sound engineer 4.24 6 .46 Average 8.99 10.82 26.83 16.06 6.59 5.82 SYS Minister 18.63 18.63 15.28 20.89 Choir 12.26 22.70 Music director 23.90 23.90 17.58 Congregation 20.01 20.01 8.39 4.16 Sound engineer 10.73 8.23 Average 2 0.12 20.12 10.39 8.61 Figure 6 8 Relative Strength (G) of the service of music and word in STMC averaged from the 500 Hz to 2 kHz octave bands

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118 Figure 6 9 Relative Strength facing the c three receiver groups of STMC In FUMC, the variation seemed to result from the choir seating area which was located near the source loudspeaker for the measurements representing natural sound propagation in the room. This tendency can be observed in Figure 6 10 Figure 6 10. Relative Strength (G) with 95 % of confidence interval in FUMC Instead of G, stage support (ST1) can be used to evaluate the relative strength of the sound reflection t hat the choir members perceive in the choir area, but ST1 was not discussed in this dissertation. The G value with the test loudspeaker placed at the

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119 location of the choir was measured a t 7.61 dB at the location of the pastor, 6.88 dB at the location of th e music director, 2.84 dB at the location of the congregation and 4.24 dB at the location of the sound engineer. Figure 6 11 Relative Strength (G) in the middle frequencies of the natural acoustic propagation (NAT) and the sound system (SYS) measured a t the location of the congregation seated on the main floor and on the second floor in FUMC The overall G value increased from 6.59 dB to 10.39 dB when the house sound system was used as the sound source except at the location of the choir, as shown in Fig ure 6 10. In the case of the congregation, the G value of the natural acoustic propagation on the main floor was measured as 4.02 dB which was 4.72 dB higher than that measured on the second floor. However, when the sound system was in use, the G value on the second floor was measured a t 10.24 dB which was 2.83 dB higher than that on the main floor as shown in Figure 6 11 In other words, the G value in the middle frequencies of the pastor s sermon was heard louder than the choir s singing by the congregati on seated on the second floor. This tendency was also observed i n the analysis of the sound pressure levels measured during worship services of these specific acoustic events as the pastor s speech was measured a t 77.6 dBA on the

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120 second floor, while the ch oir singing with a piano was measured a t 72 dBA on the second floor as shown in Table 5 2 In KBCG the G value in the middle frequencies measured using a directional test loudspeaker at the location of the choir was measured a t 4.21 dB at the location of the pastor, 8.41 dB at the location of the music director, 4.21 dB at the location of the congregation and 6.46 dB at the location of the sound engineer. The overall loudness was increased from 5.82 dB to 8.61 dB when the house sound system was use d as the sound source as shown in Figure 6 12 T he increase of the loudness was highest at the location of the pastor with 16.68 dB of increase, while the G value in the congregation al seating area stayed almost the same with 0.05 dB of decrease. Figure 6 12 Re lative Strength (G) with 95 % of confidence interval in KBCG The choir location was empty during the pastor s sermon. The pastor moved from the right side of the choir area to the pulpit which was located in the center of the platform behind the main louds peaker of KBCG Thus, increase of the G value at the location where the pastor stood for the service of word could not mean that he could clearly monitor himself, because the frequency response and the transfer function

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121 measured at the pastor s location sh owed insufficient high frequency sounds as discussed in Chapter 4 Early Sound Energy Ratios The early sound energy of the impulse responses was examined by looking at the indices of clarity and definition which can be calculated by C80 and D50 respectivel y. In this paper, C80 was not calculated when the house sound system was used as the sound source because it was used to determine clarity of the service of music which was propagated by natural acoustic means into the rooms It seems possible that clarit y and definition can be more oriented to the listeners. The judgment of those acoustical qualities can be made by people who are listening to the sounds in a given room. Thus, one should be careful to deal w ith these acoustical parameters The C80 and D 5 0 values are not just numeric values that indicate clarity and definition at the receiver locations. Instead, it can refer to the acoustical relationship s between the sources and the receivers. This is because the early part of the sound energy is dependent on the distance between the sources and the r eceivers, the relative orientation s of the receivers to the sources, the directional characteristics of the sources and the receivers etc. inside a room that has specific acoustical properties at the locations of the sources and receivers In this sense, it seems that it is not possible to find the acoustical rela tionships w ithout information about the acoustic itineraries of the sources and the receivers that can vary during worship service s which can be achie ved by careful observation (or interview if the space is not built yet). In STMC, the C80 value in the middle frequencies measured with a directional test loudspeaker facing the tabernacle to represent the priest s chanting while he was facing the tabernac le FTT was measured a t 0.88 dB at the location of the choir, 2.06 dB at

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122 the location of the music director and 2.73 dB at the location of the congregation These C80 values were different from tha t measured when the same loudspeaker was rotated 180 to face the congregation to represent t he priest s chanting while he was facing the congregation FTC as shown in Figure 6 1 3 which is indicat ing 1.73 dB of difference in C80 between the two orientations T he C80 value of the choir s singing RTC was measured as 0.49 dB at the location of the priest and 0.93 dB at the location of the congregation. Figure 6 1 3 The D50 value s measured with the directional test loudspeaker placed at the location where the priest was chanting or talking facing the congregation FTC (the priest sometimes talked in the center of the on the platform facing the congregation) w ere measured a t 43 % at the location of the choir, 37 % at the location of the music director and 35 % on the main floor where the congregation was seated (Figure 6 14) T he D50 value s increased to 65 % at the location of the music director when the house sound system was used as the sound source whereas D50 w as measured lower at the

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123 location of the congregation. It seemed that the sound system worked properly only on the second floor. This will be discussed in the following section Intelligibility. Figure 6 1 4 r receiver groups of STMC In FUMC, the C80 value measured with a directional test loudspeaker as the sound source placed at the location of the choir area was measured a t 8 97 dB at the location of the music director facing the choir, 5.1 dB at the locatio n of the pastor sitting on the left side of the platform, 1.69 dB at the location of the congregation (1.63 dB on the main floor and 1.84 dB on the second floor) and 2.28 dB at the location of the sound engineer as shown in Figure 6 15 However, the portio n of the early sound energy can be enhanced by the sound system as long as the loudspeakers were installed appropriately. As shown in Figure 6 16, the delayed loudspeakers that cover the second floor seemed to enhance the early sound energy, while t he main loudspeakers that cover the main floor area decr eased it This might be a result of the broad horizontal coverage angle of the loudspeakers that cover the congregational seating area on the main floor that produc e relatively strong reflections off the sid e walls The side walls are made of hard and sound reflective surfaces and large windows so that relatively strong

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124 sound reflections arrived at the congregation al s eating area relatively later than the direct sound but loudly after they reflecte d off the s urfaces of the room. Figure 6 15. Clarity (C80 ) in the middle frequencies o f the natural sound propagation measured in the f ive receiver groups of FUMC Figure 6 16. Clarity (C80) i n the middle frequencies of the natural acoustic propagation (NAT) and t he sound system (SYS) measured at the location of the congregation seated on the main floor and on the second floor in FUMC The values of definition (D 50) in the middle frequencies measured with the directional test loudspeaker as the sound source at the location of the choir to represent the choir s singing (the natural sound propagation) were measured at 69 % at the location of the pastor, 84 % at the location of the music director, 48 % at the location of the congregation and 49 % at the location of the sound engineer. The D50 values

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125 measured with the house sound system as the sound source to represent the pastor s speech which is reinforced by the house sound system (SYS) were measured a t 55 % at the location of the choir and the music director, 51 % at the location of the congregation and 59 % at the location of the sound engineer (Figure 6 17). Figure 6 17. Definition (D50 ) in the middle frequencies o f the natural sound propagation (NAT) and the sound system (SYS) measured in the f ive receiver group s of FUMC There was a transition of the five groups locations between the service of words and the service of music; the pastor moved to the pulpit to give a sermon from the left side of the platform where he sat while the choir was singing; the choir sat on their chairs to listen to the service of words which was reinforced by the monitor speakers for them; and the music director moved to the right corner of the choir seating area ; while the congregation and the sound engineer stayed the same locations se ated. In the case of the congregational seating area, the D50 values on the second floor seemed to be enhanced when the delayed loudspeakers were used as the sound source, similarly to the C80 values, whereas the main loudspeakers could not improve the def inition (D50) of the service of words in the main floor area. The D50 values in the middle frequencies increased at the location of the congregation on the second floor from 50.2 % to 69.8 %

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126 by the delayed loudspeakers, but decreased at the location of the congregation on the main floor from 47.6 % to 45.6 % by the main loudspeakers as shown in Figure 6 18. Figure 6 18. Definition (D50 ) in the middle frequencies o f the natural sound propagation (NAT) and the sound system (SYS) measured at the location of the congregation in FUMC In KBCG, the values of C80 measured with a directional test loudspeaker as the sound source placed at the location of the choir to represent the choir s singing (the natural sound propagation) in the middle frequencies were measur ed at 10.84 dB at the location of the pastor, 12.96 dB at the location of the music director, 10.95 dB at the location of the congregation and 8.53 dB at the location of the sound engineer. Apart from the natural sound propagation, the electronic effects w ere added to the original sounds of the choir and propagated into the room by the house sound system while the choir was singing on the platform so that participants of the worship could have better perception s of the service of music. As a result the C80 values with the electronic effects were measured a t 4 dB at the location of the pastor, 4.43 dB at the location of the music director, 2.12 dB at the location of the congregation and 2.38 dB at the location of the sound engineer as shown in Figure 6 1 9 They lay within the range of 4 dB (Beranek 1996, p478) in which 35 of good concert halls fall.

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127 Figure 6 19. Clarity (C80) of the choir singing by the natural propagation (NAT) and by the electronic effects (EFT) in KBCG The definition (D50) values w ith the directional test loudspeaker as the sound source to represent the choir s singing which was the natural propagation (NAT) were measured at 86 % at the location of the pastor who was seated on the right side of the platform, 89 % at the location of the music director facing the choir, 80 % at the location of the congregation and 82 % at the location of the sound engineer. In general, the distinctness of the choir sound derived from the impulse response was measured as it was clear. The definition (D5 0) values with the house sound system (SYS) as the sound source to represent the pastor s speech in KBCG were measured at 37 % at the location of the pulpit where he was standing, 89 % at the location of the congregation and 85% at the location of the soun d engineer (Figure 6 20) The locations on the platform for the music director and the choir were disregarded because they moved to the first and the second rows in the congregational seating area while the pastor delivered sermon. As shown in Figure 6 20, the values of the definition, D50, were measured very poor at the locations of the minister and the choir. This might be

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128 because the two locations were located out of the coverage angle of the main loudspeakers, so that the late sound arrivals after 50ms were relatively greater than those before 50ms while the other two were placed within the coverage angle The value of D50 which ha s a good correlation to intelligibility (Bor 1956) seemed to be dependent on the coverage angle of the loudspeakers. Figu re 6 20. Definition (D50) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) and the pastor s speech by the sound system (SYS) Speech Intelligibility Speech intelligibility is a very important factor to be acquired in worship spaces during the service of words. In thi s dissertation, Speech Transmission Index (STI) extracted from impulse responses was used to determine the degree of speech intelligibility in the three worship spaces. In STMC, the congregation usually cannot get on the platform which is the sanctuary of the worship space. However, in the sense that sometimes announcement can be given right before the worship service by a lay person who st ands in the center of the platform facing the congregation (FTC), STI of the natural sound propagation can be taken int o account as well The values of STI of natural sound propagation of speech

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129 on the platform were measured at 0.52 at the location of the choir, 0.50 at the location of the music director and 0.49 at the location of the congregation as shown in Figure 6 21 and Table 6 7 Table 6 7. Speech Transmission Index (STI ) in the middle frequencies of the five receiver groups based on the type of the acoustic propagation in the three worsh i NAT = the natural sound propagation SYS = the sound system Sound Source Receiver groups STMC FUMC KBCG NAT (FTC) Minister 0.66 0.77 Choir 0.52 0.67 0.72 Music director 0.50 0.77 0.87 Congregation 0.49 0.57 0.75 Sound engineer 0.56 0.77 Average 0.49 0.61 0.76 SYS Minist er 0.42 0.56 0.65 Choir 0.56 0.60 Music director 0.64 0.57 Congregation 0.45 0.58 0.80 Sound engineer 0.61 0.80 Average 0.46 0.58 0.76 In general, the service of word was delivered by the priest in STMC who was standing at the raised pulpi t over 2 feet which is located on the left side of the platform. T he priest s sermon was reinforced by the house sound system (SYS) after it was picked up by a wireless microphone. The STI values with the house sound system as the sound source to represent the priest s speech were measured at 0.42 at the location of the pulpit 0.64 on the second floor where the music director and the choir were seated during the service of word and 0.45 at the location of the congregation. As seen in F igure 6 21, the servi ce of word delivered by the priest reinforced by the house sound system seemed not to be much improved. The STI value at the location of the music director increased from 0.50 to 0.64 which was improved from fair to good when the house sound system was used However, i t still seemed to need more improvement,

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130 because 0.65 of STI is the general requirement for auditoria ( Davis and Patronis 2006 Kleiner 2010). The overall value of STI o n the main floor where the congregation was seated decreased from 0.49 to 0.45 when the house sound system was used This might be because the aiming angles and the coverage angle s of the main loudspeakers which were mounted on the edge of the side rear walls could not provide the congregation near the loudspeakers with adeq uate direct sound energy ( Figure 6 22 ) In this sense, the appropriateness of the installation of the loudspeakers such as the aiming, directivity and the coverage angle of the loudspeakers might play key roles in acquiring adequate speech intelligibility. Figure 6 21. Speech Transmission Index (STI) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) from the platform and the service of words reinforced by the sound system (SYS) in STMC ; with STI rating from Bad to Excellent ( Kleiner et al. 2010) Figure 6 2 2 T he section and the interior view of STMC with aiming of the main loudspeakers

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131 In FUMC, as shown in Figure 6 23 and Figure 6 24, when the house sound system was used as the sound source, the overall value of STI decreased on the platform area where the past or, the choir and the music director were located and decreased on the main floor whe re the congregation was located. Figure 6 23. Speech Transmission Index (STI) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) from the p latform and the service of word reinforce d by the sound system (SYS) in the middle frequencies in FUMC Figure 6 24. Speech Transmission Index (STI) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) from the p latform and the service of word reinforced by the sound system (SYS) measured at the congregationa l seating area (the main floor and the second floor) in FUMC On the other hand, it increased from 0.55 to 0.67 on the second floor where the congregation seated on the second floor and the sound engineer was located. In the

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132 sense that the two congregationa l seating areas were covered by different loudspeakers, it seemed that the installation of the loudspeakers had effects on speech intelligibility. The horizontal coverage angle of the main loudspeaker which covered the congregation on the main floor was 12 0 degree, which was so broad that the half of the coverage aimed the side walls which were made of hard and sound reflective surfaces and the windows instead of the congregational seating area. This might result in increase of loudness but decrease of a si gnal to noise ratio (which also can be regarded as a direct to reverb ratio), because when the main loudspeakers were used as the sound source, the reflections off the side walls and the back wall could be relatively louder than when the directional test l oudspeaker was used as the sound source placed at the choir area as seen Figure 6 25. On the other hand, delayed loudspeakers on the second floor were well aimed at the congregation seating area so the direct sound from the loudspeakers could reach the con gregation which could result in increase of the signal to noise ratio and STI. Figure 6 25. The coverage angles of loudspeakers at 6 dB and their aims in FUMC

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133 In KBCG, the value of STI measured with the house sound system as the sound source was measure d at 0.80 at the location of the congregation and the sound engineer (Flgiure 6 26). The value of STI at the location of the choir was measured a t 0.6 in the center of the choir area on the platform showing decrease of 0.12. This might be because the choir location on the platform measured with the house sound system as the sound source was located out of the coverage angle of the main loudspeakers which could result in decrease of the signal to noise ratio and STI Figure 6 26. Speech Transmission Index (STI) of the natural sound propagation (NAT) from the p latform and the service of word reinforced by the sound system (SYS) measured in KBCG Thus, relatively less direct sound energy could be measured at the location of the choir on the platform than that measured with the directional test loudspeaker as the sound source placed at the choir location. The value of STI measured with the house sound system as the sound source measured at 0.65 at the pulpit where the pastor stood while he was giving the sermon which could be rated as good. However, the magnitudes in the middle and high frequencies at the pulpit were relatively lower than that in the low frequency, because the pulpit was located out of the coverage angle of the main loudspeakers. Thus, it seems that it is possible to consider using monitor

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134 speakers for the pastor to increase the STI value with compensation of the relatively low sound energies in the middle and high frequencies. Binaural Quality I nter aural cross correlation (IACC) can be measure d to investigate binaural qualities of sounds in worship spaces, because it showed a good correlation of between the spatial factor and the subjective preference of people for natural acoustic propagation (Ando 19 77, Ando 1998 ). However, the value of IACC provides no information of which ear perceives louder sound, although the time and intensity of the sound arrivals at the two ears are important factor for localization of the sound source. In this dissertation, a s an idea to see the level change between t wo ears by the use of a sound system the G strength values of the main floor area in FUMC where the main loudspeaker covered were analyzed in detail. The G values in the middle frequencies in FUMC were measured differently at two ears of the dummy head, a s presented in Table 6.8 The left (or right) location was taken from the average of the G values in the left (or right) side of the congregation, while the center location was measured only one position which was the center of the main floor. Table 6 8. T he values of G strength in the middle frequencies on the main floor area in FUMC (Channel: the left or right ear of the dummy head, NAT: the natural sound propagation and SYS: the sound system) Location Channel G_mid (dB) NAT SYS Center Left 3.2 3.9 Right 3.1 5.3 Average 3.1 4.6 Left Left 5.6 6.7 Right 3.3 8.9 Average 4.4 7.8 Right Left 3.4 10.3 Right 4.7 7.7 Average 4.0 9.0

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135 The G values measured in FUMC were plotted in Figure 6 27. The blue color indicated the relative magnitudes of the G values at one ear measured with a directional test loudspeaker as the sound source placed at the choir area to those measured at the other ear; and the red color referred to the relative magnitudes of the G values at one ear measured with the house sound system as the sound source to those measured at the other ear. Therefore, each colored bar indicates that the G value at the ear was measured dB greater than the other ear. Figure 6 27. The values of G strength on the main floor area in FUMC (left sec tion: the average of the left locations, right section: the average of the right locations, center section: one position in the center, NAT: the natural sound propagation, SYS: the sound system)

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136 In the center of FUMC, when a directional test loudspeaker wa s used as the sound source to represent natural sound propagation of the s singing, the G value was measured almost the same in both ears (left and right channels) with 0.1 dB difference between the two ears. On the other hand, when it comes to the l eft section of the congregational seating area, there was a tendency that the left channel was measured 2.3 dB louder; while the right channel was measured 1.4 dB louder in the right section of the congregational seating area. This tendency, however, was c hanged when the sound system was in use. Although the right channel was measured 1.4 dB louder than the left channel in the center of the room, the right channel was measured 2.2 dB louder in the left location, while the left channel was measured 2.6 dB lo uder in the right location. This is interesting because when the natural sound propagation was concerned, the ear close to the walls (the architectural surface) might perceive louder sounds than the other ear due to the reflections off the walls. When the house sound system was used, however, the phenomenon could be changed. In other words, the sound system could change the soundscape of the space from the natural sound propagation. This might be because the main loudspeakers consisted of two column loudspe akers which were located in the both sides of the platform and had a 120 degree of horizontal coverage angle, so that the left section could take relatively strong sound arrivals from the right loudspeaker than sounds that the natural sound propagation ref lected off the side wall. In addition, there might be other reasons for the phenomena such as the relationship of the temporal distances, the location of the loudspeakers, the number of the loudspeakers, etc. However, those considerations were not taken in to account for this dissertation.

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137 CHAPTER 7 SUBJECTIVE ACOUSTICA L EVALUATION Subjective acoustical evaluations were performed by the ministers, the choir members, the music directors, the congregation members and the sound engineers in the three worship s paces. In the case of KBCG, two worship services were taken into account, because apart from Sunday worship, the same worship space was used by the Centerpoint Christian Fellowship (CCF) every Friday The worship style of CCF was very different from that o f Sunday worship which paid attention to the service of word and used Korean language, whereas t he CCF s worship servic e was in English, heavily amplified by the electronic sound system and placed emphasis on the service of music by an electric praise band In this sense, the Friday worship service of CCF was named KBCG_AMP (because CCF used the same space with KBCG but actively used the electronic amplification system) was added to the subjective acoustical evaluation in order to see whether the par ticipants evaluate the same space differently from the Sunday worship by the degree in the use of the sound system A total of 17 7 subjects participated in this survey: 3 5 people in STMC, 42 in FU MC, 52 in KBCG, 48 in KBCG_AMP. They volunteered to particip ate in the survey while the worship service was ongoing The general results of the descriptive statistics of the subjects were presented in Table 7 1 and Table 7 2 Each worship space had only one minister, one music director and one sound engineer but re latively many choir and congregation members for the worship. Unfortunately, the priest of STMC did not participate in this research and there was no sound engineer in STMC. The ages of the participants varied from 10 to 74 in STMC, from 16 to 87 in FUMC, from 20 to 49 in KBCG and from 18 to 25 in KBCG_AMP. In the case of KBCG_AMP,

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138 the age range was very narrow, because most of the participants of KBCG_AMP were college students who tended to like modern praise bands playing Christian rock music. This was re flected in the worship style with the electric praise band with a sound amplification system. The gender distribution was very even except for FUMC. Most of the participants had their native language the same as the service of word except for KBCG_AMP CCF consisted of international college students who were bilingual speaking both English and their parents native language. Although most of the participants were not familiar with acoustical research, they could be the subjects for the soundscape research a bout their worship spaces, because they were the actual users of the space and many of them had musical experience. Table 7 1. The number of participants in the five subject groups of the four churches Churches Minister Choir Music director C ongregation S o und engineer Total STMC 0 13 1 21 0 35 FUMC 1 11 1 28 1 42 KBCG 1 7 1 42 1 52 KBCG_AMP 1 1 1 44 1 48 Total 3 32 4 135 3 177 Table 7 2 D escriptive statistics of the number of the participants i n the survey Churches Age Gender Musical Experience Nati ve Language Mean Std. Female Male Yes No Same Different STMC 37 17 17 18 20 12 31 0 FUMC 49 18 24 16 32 7 39 1 KBCG 35 9 25 25 26 23 51 0 KBCG_AMP 20 2 24 24 39 9 39 9 Differently to a conventional acoustical survey, subjects were asked to rate not the acoustical quality of the space but the acoustical quality of the sonic events which were worship activities in the space while the worship service was ongoing For example, instead of Loudness, they were asked to rate both the Loudness of the choir a nd the

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139 Loudness of the speech whose source locations, sound p ressure levels and tonal qualities might be very different from each other. O ne of t he main inquiries of the survey with written questionnaires was to determine ; if the participants in different worship spaces have different sonic perception s of the worship activities the ir acoustic itineraries and whether or not the sound system was used ; and if the subject groups in each wo rship space have different sonic perception s of the worship activities by their liturgical positions (subject groups) and by the use of sound system Overall Results o f Subjective Evaluation The sample size of the minister, the music director and the sou nd engineer for eac h worship service is usually one while the choir and the congregation consist of multiple members. In this sense, the responses of the former tend to be relatively disregarded when one conduct s statistical analysis because of the sample size and the results tend to skew to the average of the latter. Thus, be fore doing statistical analysis, it will be worthy to see the subjects responses individually, in or der to investigate whether the subject groups have different perception s of sounds during worship In STMC, as shown in Figure 7 1 and C 1, the music direc tor rated the Reverberance of the choir 1.0 scale point higher on average and the Reverberance of the speech 1.8 points higher on average than the choir and the congregation. The music director rated the Naturalness of the loudspeakers 1.5 scale points low er on average and the Overall impression of the sound system 1.6 scale points lower on average than the choir and the congregation. On the other hand, he rated the Overall impression of the room acoustics of the space 7.0 scale points which w ere 1.4 scale points higher on average than the choir and the congregation.

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140 Figure 7 1. Subjective evaluation of Reverberance and Overall impressions of STMC with 95% C.I. by the subject groups In FUMC, the pastor rated the Loudness of the choir and the speech 1.0 poi nt lower than the music director, which was 0.4 to 0.6 points lower on average than the choir and the congregation as shown in Figure 7 2 and Figure C 2 The pastor gave the lowest rating by 1.0 to 2.0 scale points for seven out of 12 qualities excluding the Overall impressions. The music director rated the Naturalness 2.2 to 2.5 scale points lower on average than the choir and the congregation, while the Naturalness of the choir was rated 1 point lower than the pastor The Naturalness of the speech was 3. 0 points lower than the sound engineer. Figure 7 2. Subjective evaluation of Loudness and Naturalness of FUMC with 95% C.I. by the subject groups

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141 In KBCG, the pastor rated all qualities with the sound system 2.0 to 4.0 points higher than without it, as s hown in Figure C 3. The pastor seemed to hear very different ly from the congregation especially for the natural sound propagation. The pastor s perception of Loudness, Reverberance, Clarity, Intelligibility (without loudspeakers), Intimacy and Naturalness of the choir were 2.3, 1.7, 3.3, 3.1, 3.3 and 2.3 scale points lower than the congregation respectively. On the other hand, the music director heard Loudness and Intimacy differently from the choir and the congregation. T he music director rated the Loudnes s and Intimacy of the choir 1.3 points lower on average than the choir and the congregation. The sound engineer gave the lowest scores for the Reverberance of the speech, Intimacy of the speech and Naturalness of the loudspeakers which were 1.1, 1.7 and 1 .5 scale points lower on average than the choir and the congregation. Furthermore, the pastor and the sound engineer heard worship activities very differently from each other The pastor gave the lowest ratings for the Loudness of the choir and Intelligibi lity without the loudspeakers and the highest ratings for the Reverberance of the speech and the Naturalness of the loudspeakers; while the sound engineer gave the highest ratings for the Loudness of the choir and Intelligibility without the loudspeakers a nd the lowest ratings for the Reverberance of the speech and the Naturalness of the loudspeakers, which was the opposite of the way (Figure 7 3) In KBCG_AMP, only one member of the choir participated in the survey. The pastor, the choir, the music directo r and the sound engineer rated eight out of twelve qualities differently from the congregation as shown in Figure C 4. The pastor rated the Loudness of the speech, the Clarity of the speech and the Intelligibility with the

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142 loudspeakers 0.6 to 1.6 scale poi nts higher on average than the congregation. T he choir rated the Reverberance 0.6 to 1.4 scale points, the Clarity of the speech 0.6 scale points and the Intelligibility without the loudspeakers 1.3 scale points higher on average than the congregation. How ever, the choir rated the Intelligibility with the loudspeakers 0.6 scale points lower than without it, which might be because the choir members were seated at the first or second rows of the congregational seating area, during the service of word, which w ere located out of the coverage angle of the loudspeaker. The sound engineer gave the lowest ratings by 1.0 to 2.1 scale points for the Intimacy and the Naturalness of the choir. Figure 7 3. Subjective evaluation of Intelligibility and Naturalness of KBC G with 95% C.I. by the subject groups Figure 7 4. Subjective evaluation of Clarity and Intelligibility of KBCG_AMP with 95% C.I. by the subject groups

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143 There was a general tendency observed in the subjective evaluation s in all worship spaces. The subjects rated the sound qualities with sound system higher than those without it, except for the rating of the Naturalness in FUMC. Among Worship Spaces There is no way to generalize the subjective evaluation of worship spaces with only four samples of worship sp aces. This dissertation was not trying to standardize the general characteristics of sound quality of worship spaces. Instead, this was attempting to identify and classify the worship activities along the acoustic itineraries and to describe the soundscape of the worship spaces with the subjective perception of the worship activities while the service is actually ongoing. The three worship spaces and the four different level s of the use of sound systems could represent the general style of worship service i n terms of the service of word and music which varied from the relatively reverberant space (STMC) to the relatively dead space with sound amplification with electronic reverberation effects (KBCG_AMP) which can be regarded as the four worship styles Ana lyses of the responses from the subjects can provide the way they distinguish the natural sound propagation and the sound propagated by the electronic system and how the soundscape concept can convey more meaningful data than the general room acoustical me asurement s It is natural that the ratings of Loudness, Reverberance and Clarity of the choir and Intelligibility of speech with loudspeakers were different among the four worship styles because the aural architecture, the size of the choir and the loudsp eakers of the worship spaces were different from each other. As presented in Table 7 3 and Table B 1, t here were significant differences at p value s of 0.05 in Loudness, Reverberance and Clarity when natural sound propagation

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144 was considered when a One way ANOVA test was conducted among the four worship styles On the contrary, Loudness, Reverberance and Clarity of speech sounds which were propagated through the sound system showed that there were no significant differences among the m This might be because STMC, FUMC and KBCG had different architectural features so that the subjects had different perception s of Loudness, Reverberance and Clarity. Especially, the rating of the Reverberance of the choir in KBCG was 3. 7 points which was significantly different from 4. 6 points for that of KBCG_AMP at the p value of 0.05 (Figure 7 5) This might be because reverberation effects which w ere electronically added by a digital processor to the choir sounds after they were picked up by two microphones was actively used during worship by the electric praise band in KBCG_AMP, whereas the effect was less used in KBCG The rating of the Clarity in the choir area (Figure 7 6) was the lowest in KBCG and significantly different from that of the other churches at a p value of 0 .05 which could result from lowest Loudness and Reverberance of the choir. Table 7 3. The results of a One Way ANOVA by the four worship styles Significant difference between acoustical qualities of natural sounds and the sound system at p value of 0.05 Not significant difference between acoustical qualities of natural sounds and the sound system at p value of 0.05 Natural sound Loudness of the choir Reverberance of the choir Clarity of the choir Localization of the choir Intimacy of the choir Naturalne ss of the choir Overall service of music Overall room acoustics Intelligibility of the speech without loudspeakers Tonal Balance of the choir Echo of the choir Uniformity of the choir Sound system Intelligibility of the speech with loudspeakers Localiz ation of the speaker Uniformity of the speech Naturalness of the loudspeakers Feedback Overall service of word Overall sound system Loudness of the speech Reverberance of the speech Clarity of the speech Tonal Balance of the speech Intimacy of the speech Echo of the speech

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145 Figure 7 5 Subjective judgment score of Loudness and Reverberance of the four worship styles with 95% of confidence interval (1=STMC, 2=FUMC, 3=KBCG, 4=KBCG_AMP) Figure 7 6 Subjective judgment score of Clarity and Intelligibility of the four worship styles with 95 % of confidence interval (1=STMC, 2=FUMC, 3=KBCG, 4=KBCG_AMP)

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146 In the case of Intelligibility, there w ere no significant difference s when natural sound was used ( without loudspeakers ) among the four worship styles Howeve r there w ere significant difference s among them when the sound system was used in The mean value of the Intelligibility of the speech with loudspeakers among the four worship styles was 1.5 scale points higher than that of the choir without loudspeakers on average The rating of the Intimacy of the choir showed significant difference s the four worship styles whereas that of the speech had no difference. This might result from the fact that the value of the Intimacy of the choir of KBCG was relatively lo w er than the other three spaces, while the value of the Intimacy of the speech was not significantly different from the other three spaces, because it was enhanced by the sound system. On the other hand, although KBCG and KBCG_AMP shared the same room, the Intimacy of the choir of KBCG was different from that of KBCG_AMP, but the Intimacy of the speech of KBCG was not significantly different from that of KBCG_AMP. The rating of the Naturalness of the choir showed that STMC and FUMC had higher ratings than K BCG at a p value of 0.05. The rating of the Naturalness of the choir showed a significant correlation with Reverberance, Clarity, Intimacy, Localization and Uniformity of the choir. The rating of the Naturalness of the loudspeakers also had significant cor relations not only to Reverberance, Clarity, Intimacy, Localization and Uniformity but also to Intelligibility of the speech. Especially, the Pearson coefficient for the correlation between Uniformity and Naturalness was the highest among those parameters at 0.70 for the choir and 0.69 for the speech. Thus, under the assumption that the subjects had already experienced and known about the level of the Uniformity

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147 in their church, the perception of the Naturalness of the sounds can be achieved by the even dis tribution of sound across the seating area. Furthermore, Naturalness had the highest value of Pearson coefficient among subjective parameters that had significance at p value of 0.05 in correlation to Overall impression of room acoustics and Overall impres sion of the service of music as 0.52 for the choir and 0.53 for the speech. The Pearson coefficient of the correlation between Overall impression of room acoustics and Overall impression of the service of music was 0.83. One w ay ANOVA with Post Hoc Test of Bonfferroni A O ne w ay A NOVA with Bonfferroni produces descriptive statistics and multiple comparisons among the four worship styles about each subjective question as presented in Table B 2 A multiple matrix chart (Figure 7 7 ) showed the subjective parame ters that had signific ant differences among the four worship styles The mean differenc e between KBCG and other three worship space s were significant in Clarity of the choir, Overall impression of room acoustics, Overall impression of the service of music and Overall impression of the service of word. A lthough KBCG and KBCG_AMP were sharing the same worship space, the Loudness of the choir, the Reverberance of the choir, the Intimacy of the choir and the Noise were also rated different ly between the two wor ship style s. The main difference between the two was the level of the use of the sound system. Both active ly used the sound system, but the electric praise band of KBCG_AMP could be regarded as electronic amplification rather than electronic reinforcement and actively used the electronic sound effects to add artificial reverberation for improving the quality of music Consequently, more hissy noise might be generated and propagated through the sound system and s ubjects of KBCG_AMP rated Noise 0.85 scale po ints higher than those in KBCG.

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148 Figure 7 7 A multiple comparison chart of the subjective acoustical parameters showing significant differences at the p value of 0.05 among the four worship styles by Post Hoc Test of Bonfferroni Within Worship S pac es Pai red t test A question arose as to if there were significant differences in perception of subjective aco ustical parameters within each worship space with and without sound systems. A Paired t test was performed to determine the mean difference of paired que stions between sound system and natural sound in each church. As a result,

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149 Intelligibility with sound systems was 1.1 to 1.9 scale points higher than without in all worship spaces while other qualities were rated all less than 1.0 scale point differently with and without the sound system. T he ratings of Intelligibility were different in the four worship styles which meant that subjects experienced a different level of Intelligibility from the use of sound system as presented in Table B 3 The mean differe nces were calculated by subtraction of the mean rating of the natural sound from that of the sound system. The mean differences of Intelligibility scores were 1. 4 for STMC, 1. 6 for FUMC, 1. 1 for KBCG and 1. 9 for KBCG_AMP. T he positive value referred that t he rating s of Intelligibility with the loudspeakers were higher than that without the loudspeakers. T he mean differences and each mean rating of the subjective acoustical parameters were presented in Table B 3 in Appendix B As shown in Figure 7 8 which de monstrated the subjective acoustical parameters that have significantly changed when the sound system was in use Intelligibility was the only parameter that showed a significant difference with the use of the sound system in STMC. This seemed appropriate for the sound system, because the fundamental purpose of the sound system was to enhance speech intelligibility for the service of the word given by a priest without change of the other acoustical parameters if those were within the satisfied range already In the case of FUMC, Intelligibility showed an increase of the mean rating from the use of the sound system, whereas Naturalness decreased and Echo increased. The s ubjects in FUMC might experience the increase of echoes from the use of the sound system w hich resulted from the inappropriate setup of the loudspeakers in terms of

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150 aiming angle, the selection of the coverage pattern and the level of loudness, etc. In addition, because of the decrease of Naturalness, one might assume that subjects might think t hat pastor s voice was different when his original voice was reinforced through the sound system. Figure 7 8 The subjective acoustical parameters having significant differences by a Paired t test at the p value of 0.05 in the four spaces T he mean rating of Loudness, Reverberance, Clarity, Intelligibility, Int imacy Overall impression of room acoustics and Overall impression of the service of music were higher when the sound system was used in KBCG. In the sense that both the service of music and word wer e reinforced by the sound system in KBCG and that the aural architecture was not designed to enhance the service of music, the higher rating of the subjective acoustical parameters could lead to the improvement of the worship service by the use of the soun d system in KBCG. On the other hand, the service of music and word were amplified by the sound system in KBCG_AMP, although the space was the same with KBCG. T he ratings of Clarity, Intelligibility and Uniformity were higher than those by the use of the so und system in KBCG _AMP

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151 One way ANOVA Another question might be if there are significant differences of perception of subjective acoustical parameters among subject groups with or without sound systems. One way ANOVA test was performed to see the differenc es among subject groups within the same space As seen Figure 7 9 t here was a significant difference of perception in the Reverberance of the speech among the choir, a music director and the congregation when a sermon given by a priest was reinforced by the sound system in STMC at a p value of 0.05. Especially, the music director rated Reverberance of the speech 1.5 to 2 points higher o n average than the congregation and the choir. The choir, minister and sound engineer rated the R everberance of speech in STMC, the Localization of the choir in FUMC and the Overall impression of the service of music in KBCG differently than the music director and the congregation did in each room. In the case of Localization of choir, the main difference was observed betwee n the choir seating area and the congregation in FUMC. Although choir members do not have to localize themselves during worship service leads, it can be possible to say that the congregation members who were facing the choir could localize the choir better than the pastor who was seated close to the choir on the left side of the platform. T he pastor might not perceive the choir as a point source that can be effectively localized at a certain distance. The rating of the O verall impression of the service of m usic in KBCG was the lowest among the four churches and showed significant differe nce among subject groups The congregation rated the Overall impression of service 2 .0 scale points higher than the pastor, the choir and the sound engineer.

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152 Figure 7 9 T he subjective acoustical parameters having significant differences a t the p value of 0.05 by a One way ANOVA by subject groups in the four spaces

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15 3 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS Importance of Observation S oundscape methods were used to investigate the acoustical qu alities of three worship spaces: STMC, FUMC and KBCG. Processes to observe quantify and qualify the sounds in th e worship spaces were conducted. The most important process among the three was the p rocess of observation. This is b ecause, by observation of the acoustic communities in the spaces of worship, one can identify a n itinerary of the worship engaged in each of the rooms a taxonomy of the sounds made by each of the constituents of the a coustic community in each space, the acoustic paths between the sources and receivers for each of the worship activities identified and the locations of each participant along with their liturgical roles during the worship service. M ore over the locations and orientations of the source s and receiver s that are identifi ed by observation are used for objective and subjective acoustical evaluation of each worship space which are quantification and qualification processes respectively For example, it was observed that the priest in STMC chants facing the tabernacl e instea d of facing the congregation. T he G value taken in the congregation al seating area from the directional test loudspeaker which represented the priest s chanting facing the tabernacle was 18.6 dB greater than that facing the co ngregation as shown in Figure 8 1 and presented in Table 6 6 In the sense that test loudspeakers are generally facing the congregation on the platform when acoustical measurements are collected using conventional method s the objective acoustical parameters obtaine d by the soundscape method can more realistically represent the assessment of the

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154 communication channels that actually occur in the building than the conventional method. Figure 8 1. G Strength values measured at the location of the choir, the music director and the congre gation using the directional test loudspeaker as the sound source placed in the middle of the platform facing the congregation FTC or facing the tabernacle FTT Furthermore, the amount the sound system is used in each worship space can be identified by observation S ound systems were used to reinforce the service of word in the three worship spaces. E lectronic effects were used in KBCG to enhance the service of music such as choir singing in addition to reinforcing the service of the word T hus, the elec tronic effects had to be taken into account during the objective and subjective evaluation s This careful observation made the result s significantly different than those that would be obtained using conventional methods that usually ignore the effects of s ound systems and digital effects on room acoustic qualities For example, in KBCG, the C80 value measured by the conventional method was +10.95 dB in the middle frequencies, whereas it was 2.12 dB by the soundscape method which included the electronic rev erberation effects added to the acoustical measurements so the

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155 measurements contained the same sound reflections and reverberation that the music heard by people in the room contained Figure 8 2 Clarity values measured in KBCG using the directional test loudspeaker as the sound source placed in the middle of the platform facing the congregation to represent natural sound propagation of the choir singing NAT and using the house sound system as the sound source to represent the choir singing with electronic effect EFT Therefore, o bservation of the acoustic al communities is very important for the acoustical study of worship spaces to identify the taxonomy of worship activities and acoustic itineraries because the objective acou stical parameters measured by the soundscape method can be different from those measured by the conventional method. In addition, the acoustical paths between the sources and receivers and the use of the sound systems were observed and used for quantitativ e and qualitative evaluation of worship spaces. Quantification and Qualification Quantitative and qualitative evaluation s wer e performed in three worship spaces. I t was observed that there were five groups that constituted the acoustical community in each space. The groups were related t o the roles they play in the celebration of the liturgy in general : the minister (priest or worship leader), the choir, the music director,

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156 the congregation and the sound engineer T he service of word is reinforced by electr onic sound systems to enhance speech intelligibility in each of the spaces The service of music was propagated naturally in STMC and FUMC, while the choir sing ing was assisted by an electronic system in KBCG. In addition, KBCG was also used by the CCF eve ry Friday night (which was named KBCG_AMP) with an electric praise band t hat uses the same sound system as KBCG but operates it with a greater use of digital effects so that it can be regarded as sound amplification rather than sound reinforcement. The pro cess of q ua ntif ication was undertaken by taking objective room acoustical measurements based on i mpulse response technique s T he measurement setup was based on observation s in each worship space so that the source and receiver locations selected for the me asurements represent the locations o rientations and the use of the sound system for each user group in each church during the worship service s F urthermore, the impulse responses obtained from the acoustical measurement s were analyzed by the soundscape co ncept which categorized the receiver locations into the five subject groups and determined the acoustical qualities at the receiver locations associated with natural acoustic and electronic s ound sources Qua lification was conducted by administering writte n questionnaires to the five subject groups in each worship space The subjects were asked to rate a total of twelve acoustical qualities and overall impressions of room acoustics, sound system and service of word and music on a seven point semantic scale It was observed that objective acoustical parameter s except for reverberation time (T30) varied among the locations of the five subject groups within the same worship

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157 space For example, in FUMC, as shown in Figure 6 4, the EDT value taken with a sound so urce placed in the choir area (which represents the choir singing) was measured at 1.36 sec on the right side of the platform where the pastor was seated, 1.05 sec at the location of the music director, 1.61 sec in the congregational seating area and 1.47 sec at the location of the sound engineer. The EDT value at the location of the music director was measured shortest because the music director was standing in front of the choir, so the decay time of the early part of the sound energy was relatively short compared to that measured in the congregational seating area. In KBCG, as shown in Figure 6 12, when a directional test loudspeaker was placed at the location of the choir to represent the choir singing the G value was measured at 4.21 dB at the location of the pastor, 8.41 dB at the location of the music director, 4.21 dB at the location of the congregation and 6.46 dB at the location of the sound engineer. It was also observed that t he five subject groups showed different ratings of acoustical qualitie s of worship activities within the same worship space In other words, each group of participants showed different rating s of sounds according to their roles in the liturgy and their locations in the room during the worship service. In STMC, the music dire ctor rated the Reverberance of the choir 1.0 point higher, the Reverberance of the speech 1.8 points higher, the Naturalness of the loudspeakers 1.5 points lower and the Overall impression of the sound system 1.6 points lower on average than the choir and the congregation (Figure C 1). In FUMC, the pastor gave the lowest rating by 1.0 to 2.0 scale points for seven out of 12 qualiti es excluding Overall impression (Figure C 2). The music director rated Naturalness 2.2 to 2.5 scale points lower on average than the choir and the congregation, while Naturalness of the choir was rated 1 point

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158 lower than the pastor and Naturalness of the speech was rated 3.0 points lower than the sound engineer. In KBCG, the pastor gave the lowest ratings for the Loudness of the ch oir and the Intelligibility without the loudspeakers and the highest ratings for the Reverberance of the speech and the Naturalness of the loudspeakers; while the sound engineer gave the highest ratings for the Loudness of the choir and the Intelligibility without the loudspeakers and lowest ratings for the Reverberance of the speech and the Naturalness of the loudspeakers, which was the opposite of the rating given by the pastor in the same church (Figure 7 3). As shown in Figure C 3, the pastor rated all acoustical qualities with the sound system 2.0 to 4.0 points higher than without it and the music director rated Loudness and Intimacy of the choir 1.3 points lower on average than the choir and the congregation. In KBCG_AMP, the pastor, the choir, the mus ic director and the sound engineer rated eight out of twelve qualities differently from the congregation as shown in Figure C 4. Electronic Sound System T he objective acoustical parameters measured by the soundscape method effectively represented the subje ctive perception of acoustical qualities. This is because the soundscape method could reflect the subjects locations, the relationships between the sources and receivers and the level of the use of the house sound system during worship service. F or exampl e, the early decay time was measured lowest in KBCG (and KBCG_AMP) as shown in Figure 8 3 whereas t he participants in KBCG_AMP rated the Reverberance of the choir highest as shown in Figure 8 4. T h is may be because the electric praise band of KBCG_AMP act ively used the electronic effects while singing Thus, the EDT values measured by the soundscape method that involved the use of electronic effects in the acoustical measurements showed that the value of EDT was

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159 measured highest in KBCG EFT which is to rep resent the actively use of electronic effects while the choir is singing in KBCG and KBCG_AMP Figure 8 3. EDT values measured using the directional test loudspeaker as the sound source placed in the middle of the platform facing the congregation in the four worship styles and using the house sound system with electronic effect in KBCG KBCG_EFT Figure 8 4. Reverberance rated by subjects in the four worship styles during worship service Furthermore, although KBCG and KBCG_AMP shared the same space, th e participants in KBCG and KBCG_AMP rated subjective acoustical qualities of the services differently. This difference was attributed to the different ways the sound system and electronic effects were used in their different worship styles of the two

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160 servi ces: KBCG paid attention to the service of word, while KBCG_AMP placed emphasis on the service of music. Another finding was that t he use of sound systems changed not only the objective acoustical parameters but also the subjective rating s of acoustical qu alities in each worship space The fundamental purpose of the use of the sound system in three worship space s was to enhance speech intelligibility. However, except for KBCG, the value s of STI in STMC and FUMC w ere measured below 0.75 (excellent). In STMC, the STI value at the location of the music director who was seated in the center of the second floor during the service of words increased from 0.50 to 0.64 which improved from fair to good when the sound system was in use while the overall value of STI on the main floor where the congregation was seated decreased from 0.49 to 0.45. In FUMC, the STI values increased from 0.55 to 0.67 at the location of the congregation on the s econd floor and by 0.05 at the location of the sound engineer when the soun d system was in use while they decreased by 0.03 at the locations of the congregation on the main floor. This might be because the loudspeakers were installed inappropriately in terms of the aims, directivities, locations, etc. As mentioned previous ly, in KBCG, the sound system was used to improve the service of music as well. E lectronic effects were added to the original sounds of the choir while the choir was singing which included additional reverberation to enhance the perception of the service of musi c. Therefore, the values of T30, EDT, C80, D50 etc. changed when the sound system was in use Especially, the value of C80 decreased from + 10.95 dB at the location of the congregation to 2.12 dB so that it lay within the range of 4dB in which 35 of goo d concert halls fall (Beranek 1996).

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161 On the other hand, a Paired t test showed that subjects experienced a different level of Intelligibility from the use of sound system as shown in Figure 7 8 and presented in Table B 3. T he ratings of Intelligibility wit h sound systems w ere 1.1 to 1.9 scale points higher than without in all worship spaces and showed a statistically significant difference from without them Especially, in KBCG, the mean rating of Loudness, Reverberance, Clarity, Intelligibility, Intimacy, Overall impression of room acoustics and Overall impression of the service of music were rated higher when the sound system was in use. In conclusion, the soundscape method provided one with more meaningful data than conventional room acoustical measuremen t method The conventional method provide d room acoustical information but relatively no information of the acoustic qualities of sonic activities in worship spaces. On the other hand, t he soundscape method provided information that varied according to the actual locations of the sources and receivers and their orientation s defined by observation : a n acoustic itinerar y of the worship activities, a taxonomy of the sounds, acoustic paths between the sources and receivers for each of the worship activities, th e locations of each participant and the use of the sound systems while the worship service was ongoing Quantification re lated the meaningful information to the objective acoustical measurements, and qualification provided the participants perception of t he acoustical qualities of the worship activities. T he use of sound system changed the quantitative and qualitative evaluation s of the soundscape of worship spaces. As long as it is installed appropriate ly the sound system can improve the perception of th e service of word increasing speech intelligibility or sometimes the perception of the service of music with the proper level of electronic

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162 effects in a relatively dry space. In the sense that most worship spaces use an electronic sound reinforcement syste m or a sound amplification system these days, it seems necessary to include the sound system in the acoustical research of worship spaces. Future Studies In general, except for the location of the congregation, the locations of the minister, the choir, the music director and the sound engineer can vary with worship style s, denominations, size of the room, culture, country, etc The ministers (priests or pastors) often use a wired or wireless system and a separate monitor system to hear themselves. The cho ir in some spaces, is located in the chancel, on one side of the platform, at rear of the room or on one side of the room accompan ied by various numbers of instrument alists. The choir and musicians often need a monitor system to hear the service of word del ivered by the ministers Especially, in large worship spaces where sound systems are actively used there is a tendency to place the front of house (FOH) operator s console in the middle of the congregational seating area where the sound engineer is seated during worship. Some spaces have their operating booths outside of the room but adjacent to a large window or opening to the worship space The operators such as a sound engineer often use a studio monitor system to listen to sound played through their so und systems. Sound systems are designed to be apt for both the worship and the room acoustics of the room s and to enhance the service of word and/or the service of music with a center cluster and/or left and right clusters or a distributed system, etc. The refore, in the future, it may be desirable to survey a greater number of worship spaces with different denomi nations, worship styles and liturgy.

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163 It does not seem possible to generalize the conclusions from the soundscapes of these three worship spaces to the population of worship spaces Instead, it seems necessary to specify the worship activities and the sound paths between the sources and receivers in more worship spaces Furthermore, it can be possible to generalize the acoustical qualities of worship activities such as sound pressure levels, frequency responses and temporal characteristics and to classify them by worship styl e, denomination size of the room, culture and country. Thus, it may be desirable to survey a greater number of worship spaces wi th different seating capacities : 200 400, 500 750, 800 1,000, 1,200 1,500 and > 1500 seats and in different cultures and countries. In this study, only one directional loudspeaker was used for the room acoustical measurements. It generated sounds l oud enough to excite the rooms, but it could not represent the actual width of the sources such as the size of the choir and the congregation Therefore, multiple test loudspeakers can be used to measure binaural measurements in the room. Besides, there wa s no way to see if there was a correlation between the objective evaluation and the subjective evaluation of the acoustical qualities of the choir singing by the choir members. This was because stage support (ST1) was not included in the acoustical measure ments and the choir members said that they could not rate the subjective acoustical qualities of their singing. Thus, ST1 should be measured to improve the questions for the subjective evaluation of the acoustical qualities of the worship activities for fu ture studies. The participants in the subjective evaluation were the actual participants in worship services in the three spaces This was reasonable because they were the

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164 actual users of the rooms and they rated the acoustical qualities of the worship act ivities in their seating area during the worship. However, in the sense that most of them were not critical listeners, it may be desirable to have critical listener s perform evaluation at each listener location as a reference. The questionnaire could be de velop ed further in order to discuss the subjective evaluations of sounds of four other groups of participants with each group. S tatistical re lations among complex variables could be used to analyze the subjective evaluation s There could be limitations in acoustical measurements in worship spaces. It is not possible to measure sounds at every listener seat with many test loudspeakers placed at various locations in a room In this aspect, acoustical modeling software can give one the opportunities to measur e and visualize sounds in various ways in the room. It is also possible to compare theoretical metrics with the actual metrics by using the acoustical modeling software. The three dimensional models of the three worship spaces were built using AutoCAD and EASE software T he results were not discussed in this dissertation because it is still in progress.

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165 APPENDIX A APPROVAL AND QUESTIO NNAIRE OF SURVEY Figure A 1. Approval of UFIRB

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166 Figure A 2. Informed consent

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167 Figure A 3. The first page of the survey questionnaire for FUMC

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168 Figure A 4. The second page of the survey questionnaire for the three worship spaces

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169 Figure A 5. The third page of the survey questionnaire for the three worship spaces

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170 APPENDIX B STATISTICAL RESULTS SUPPLEMENTS Table B 1. One way ANOVA by the four worship spaces ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Loud_NAT Between Groups 9.758 3 3.253 3.240 0.0237 Within Groups 159.644 159 1.004 Total 169.402 162 Loud_SYS Between Groups 4.613 3 1.538 2.016 0.1138 Within G roups 123.580 162 0.763 Total 128.193 165 Reverb_NAT Between Groups 20.543 3 6.848 6.838 0.0002 Within Groups 154.217 154 1.001 Total 174.759 157 Reverb_SYS Between Groups 2.524 3 0.841 0.752 0.5225 Within Groups 175.538 157 1.118 T otal 178.062 160 Clarity_NAT Between Groups 22.584 3 7.528 4.007 0.0088 Within Groups 302.483 161 1.879 Total 325.067 164 Clarity_SYS Between Groups 4.372 3 1.457 0.958 0.4142 Within Groups 246.502 162 1.522 Total 250.873 165 Intel_ NAT Between Groups 8.042 3 2.68 1 1.054 0.3708 Within Groups 384.200 151 2.544 Total 392.242 154 Intel_SYS Between Groups 12.199 3 4.066 3.204 0.0248 Within Groups 205.600 162 1.269 Total 217.798 165 TonBal_NAT Between Groups 3.073 3 1. 024 1.068 0.3645 Within Groups 145.767 152 0.959 Total 148.840 155 TonBal_SYS Between Groups 3.733 3 1.244 1.549 0.2040 Within Groups 125.267 156 0.803 Total 129.000 159 Local_NAT Between Groups 18.375 3 6.125 4.100 0.0080 Within Grou ps 210.629 141 1.494 Total 229.004 144 Local_SYS Between Groups 17.621 3 5.874 4.145 0.0075 Within Groups 198.377 140 1.417 Total 215.998 143

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171 Table B 1. One way ANOVA by the four worship spaces (continued) Intim_NAT Between Groups 23.945 3 7.982 3.600 0.0149 Within Groups 350.291 158 2.217 Total 374.236 161 Intim_SYS Between Groups 9.903 3 3.301 2.153 0.0956 Within Groups 246.800 161 1.533 Total 256.703 164 Echo_NAT Between Groups 7.796 3 2.599 0.702 0.5523 Within Gro ups 573.877 155 3.702 Total 581.673 158 Echo_SYS Between Groups 3.420 3 1.140 0.310 0.8180 Within Groups 580.630 158 3.675 Total 584.049 161 Feedback Between Groups 121.066 3 40.355 12.980 0.0000 Within Groups 500.546 161 3.109 Tota l 621.612 164 Unifrm_NAT Between Groups 9.979 3 3.326 1.271 0.2864 Within Groups 392.542 150 2.617 Total 402.521 153 Unifrm_SYS Between Groups 16.865 3 5.622 3.383 0.0199 Within Groups 249.254 150 1.662 Total 266.119 153 Natrl_NAT B etween Groups 38.738 3 12.913 6.084 0.0006 Within Groups 326.857 154 2.122 Total 365.595 157 Natrl_SYS Between Groups 18.249 3 6.083 3.538 0.0161 Within Groups 271.653 158 1.719 Total 289.901 161 Overall_Room Between Groups 44.034 3 14. 678 9.213 0.0000 Within Groups 266.071 167 1.593 Total 310.105 170 Overall_Music Between Groups 57.704 3 19.235 12.378 0.0000 Within Groups 257.949 166 1.554 Total 315.653 169 Overall_Speech Between Groups 27.190 3 9.063 6.296 0.0004 Within Groups 244.713 170 1.439 Total 271.904 173 Overall_SYS Between Groups 16.683 3 5.561 3.237 0.0236 Within Groups 292.048 170 1.718 Total 308.731 173

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172 Table B 2. Subjective acoustical parameters showing significant differences among the four spaces by a One Way ANOVA with Bonferroni at the p value of 0.05 Bonferroni Dependent Variable (I) Spac es (J) Spac es Mean Difference (I J) Std. Error Sig. Loud_NAT KBCG KBCG_AMP 0.615 0.206 0.020 Reverb_NAT KBCG KBCG_AMP 0.933 0.208 0.000 C larity_NAT KBCG STMC 0.794 0.296 0.048 FUMC 0.793 0.277 0.029 KBCG_AMP 0.907 0.277 0.008 Local_NAT KBCG FUMC 0.892 0.291 0.016 Local_SYS KBCG STMC 0.735 0.268 0.041 FUMC 0.891 0.309 0.027 Intim_NAT KBCG KBCG_AMP 1.439 0.371 0.001 Feedbac k KBCG FUMC 1.685 0.420 0.001 KBCG_AMP STMC 2.205 0.378 0.000 FUMC 0.615 0.206 0.020 Unifrm_SYS KBCG KBCG_AMP 0.764 0.266 0.028 Natrl_NAT KBCG STMC 0.957 0.343 0.035 FUMC 1.291 0.319 0.000 Natrl_SYS KBCG STMC 0.903 0.311 0.025 Noise KBCG K BCG_AMP 0.847 0.286 0.021 Overall_Room KBCG STMC 0.901 0.289 0.013 FUMC 1.296 0.264 0.000 KBCG_AMP 0.987 0.255 0.001 Overall_Music KBCG STMC 1.164 0.282 0.000 FUMC 1.420 0.264 0.000 KBCG_AMP 1.195 0.252 0.000 Overall_Speech KBCG STMC 0.806 0.267 0.018 FUMC 0.942 0.251 0.001 KBCG_AMP 0.817 0.240 0.005 Overall_SYS KBCG FUMC 0.782 0.273 0.028

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173 Table B 3. Results of a Paired sample t test showing significant differences at the p value of 0.05 (mean differences = response of so und system response of natural sound) Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% C.I. Spaces Pair s (SYS NAT) Mean S.D. S.E. Lower Bound Upper Bound t df Sig. (2 tailed) STMC Intelligibility 1.373 1.447 0.269 0.823 1.924 5.111 28 0.0000 2 FUMC Intelligibility 1.636 1.655 0.288 1.050 2.223 5.680 32 0.00000 FUMC Echo 0.514 1.070 0.176 0.157 0.870 2.918 36 0.00603 FUMC Naturalness 0.400 0.946 0.160 0.725 0.075 2.503 34 0.01730 KBCG Loudness 0.531 0.960 0.137 0.255 0.806 3.870 48 0.00 033 KBCG Reverberance 0.444 0.990 0.148 0.147 0.742 3.012 44 0.00429 KBCG Clarity 0.660 1.089 0.159 0.340 0.979 4.152 46 0.00014 KBCG Intelligibility 1.093 1.461 0.223 0.643 1.543 4.906 42 0.00001 KBCG Intimacy 0.438 1.009 0.146 0.145 0.730 3.005 47 0. 00425 KBCG Overall SYS R oom 0.265 0.785 0.112 0.040 0.491 2.367 48 0.02202 KBCG Overall S peech Music 0.360 1.045 0.148 0.063 0.657 2.436 49 0.01855 KBCG_AMP Clarity 0.326 0.845 0.125 0.075 0.577 2.618 45 0.01200 KBCG_AMP Intelligibility 1.935 1.855 0.273 1.384 2.486 7.075 45 0.00000 KBCG_AMP Uniformity 0.636 1.203 0.181 0.271 1.002 3.510 43 0.00106 Table B 4. Results of a One way ANOVA by subject groups showing significant differences at the p value of 0.05 in the four spaces Spaces Subjective Pa rameters Subject groups N Mean S D. S.E. 95% C I Min Max lower upper STMC Reverb erance of speech Choir 13 3.8 1.235 0.343 3.023 4.516 1 5 Music director 1 6.0 6 6 Congregation 16 4.5 0.816 0.204 4.065 4.935 3 6 FUMC Local ization o f choir Minister 1 4.0 4 4 Choir 6 4.3 2.422 0.989 1.791 6.875 0 7 Music director 1 5.0 5 5 Congregation 27 6.0 0.940 0.181 5.665 6.409 4 7 KBCG Overall impression of the service of music Minister 1 3.0 3 3 Choir 5 3.0 1.000 0.447 1.758 4.242 2 4 Music director 1 5.0 5 5 Congregation 42 5.0 1.431 0.221 4.507 5.398 1 7 Sound engineer 1 3.0 3 3

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174 APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENT GRAPHICAL RESULTS Figure C 1 Subjective evaluation of acoustical qualities in STMC

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175 Figure C 2. Subjective evaluation of acoustical qualities in FUMC

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176 Figure C 3 Subjective evaluation of acoustical qualities in KBCG

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177 Figure C 4. Subjective evaluation of acoustical qualities in KBCG _AMP

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178 LIST OF REFERENCES Ando, Y. ( 1977 ) Subjective preference in relation to objective parameters of music sound fields with a single echo Journal of Acoustical Society of America 62 (6), 1436 1441 Ando, Y ( 1998 ) Architectural acoustics: Blending sound sources, sound fields, and listeners ( Springer Verlag, New York, NY) Barron, M ( 19 88 ) Subjective study of British symphony concert halls Acustica 66 (1) 1 14. Barron, M. ( 1993 ) Auditorium acoustics and architectural design 1st ed. ( E & FN Spon New York, NY) Beranek, L. L. ( 1962 ) Music, acoustics and arc hitecture ( John Wiley & Sons New York, NY) Beranek, L. L ( 1954 ) Sound systems for large auditoriums Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 26 (5), 661 675 Beranek, L L. ( 1971 ) Noise and vibration control ( McGraw Hill New York, NY) Beranek L L ( 1996 ) Concert and opera halls: H ow they sound (Acoustical Society of America, Woodbury, NY ) Beranek, L. L ( 2004 ) Concert halls and opera houses: Music, acoustics, and architecture 2 nd e d. ( Springer Verlag N ew York, NY ) Blazier, W. E. ( 1981 ) Revised noise criteria for application in the acoustical design and rating of HVAC system Noise Control Engineering 16 (2), 64 73. Blesser, B and Salter L R. ( 2006 ) Spa ces speak, are you listening?: e xperiencing aural architecture ( MIT Press Cambr idge, MA). Bor G. ( 1956 ) Kurzton Me verfahern zur punktweisen Ermittlung der Sprachverst ndlichkeit in lautsprecherbeschallten R umen Doctoral dissertation. Bradley J. S. ( 1986 ) Predictors of speech intelligibility in rooms Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 80 (3), 837 845. Bradley, J. S. ( 1994 ) J ournal of the Acoustical Society of America 96 (6) 3525 3535 Carvalho, A P O ( 1994 ) Influence of architectural features and styles on various acoustical measures in churches ( Doctoral dissertation Univ. of Florida, Gaiesville, FL)

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179 Ca r valho, A P O ( 1996 ). Analysis of subjective acoustic measures and speech intelligibility in Portuguese churches Presented in 131 st meeting of the A coustical S ociety of A merica Indianapolis, IN, USA Cervone, R P. ( 1990 ). Subjective and objective methods for evaluating the acoustical quality of buildings for music ( Master t hesis Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL ) Cremer, L and Mller H A. ( 1982 ) Principles and applicati ons of room acoustics vol 1 E nglish transl. Schultz, T.J ( Applied Science New York, NY). Damaske, P. and Ando, Y. ( 1972 ) Interaural cross correlation for multichannel loudspeaker reproduction Acustica 27 232 238 Danilenko L. ( 1968 ) Binaurales H ren im nichtstationren diffusen Schallfeld (Doctoral Dissertation ). Davis, D ., and Patronis E ( 2006 ) Sound system engineering 3rd ed ( Elsevier Focal Press Burlington, MA ) Davis, G and Jones R ( 1989 ) The sound reinforcement handbook 2nd ed. ,w r itten for Yamaha ( Hal Leonard Corporation Milwaukee, WI) Eargle, J and Foreman C. ( 2002 ) Audio engineering for sound reinforcement ( Hal Leonard Corporation Milwaukee, WI) Egan, M. D. ( 2007 ) Architectural acoustics ( Unabridged r epublication of the original work published by McGraw Hill, 1988 ) (J. Ross Rublishing, Fort Lauderdale, FL). Gade, A. C., and Rindel, J. H. ( 1984 ) Akustik i Danske Koncertsale (The Acoustics of Danish Concert Halls) ( Publikation no. 22 Acoustics Laboratory Techn. U of Den, Lyngby, Den ). Hamill, T., and Price L. L. ( 2008 ) The hearing sciences ( Plural Pub lishing, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom). Harris, C. M., and Tocci G. C. ( 1993 ) Handbook of acoustical measurements and noise control Journal of Acoustical Soc iety of America 93 (6) 3532. Harris, C M. ( 1998 ) Handbook of acoustical measurements and noise control 3rd ed. ( Acoustical Society of America Woodbury, NY ) Haas, H. ( 1972 ) The influence of a single echo on the audibility of speech J ournal of Audio Eng ineering Soc iety 20 ( 2) 146 159. Hawkes, R. and Douglas, H. ( 1971 ) Subjective acoustic experience in concert auditoria Acustica 24 (5) 2 43 2 47

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180 Houtgast, T., and Steeneken H.J.M. ( 1973 ) The modulation transfer function in room acoustics as a pred ictor of speech intelligibility Acustica 28 (1) 66 73 Houtgast, T., Steeneken H.J.M. and Plomp, R. ( 1980 ) Predicting speech intelligibility in rooms from the modulation transfer function. I. General room acoustics A custica 46 (1) 60 72 Jordan, V L. ( 1 970 ) Acoustical criteria for auditoriums and their relation to model techniques Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 47 (2), 408 412. Kleiner, M., Klepper D. L. and Torres R. R. ( 2010 ) Worship space acoustics ( J. Ross Publishing Fort Lauderdale, FL). Kown, Y ( 2006 ) Quantitative and qualitative analyses of under balcony acoustics with real and simulated arrays of multiple sources (Doctoral dissertation Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL ) Kuhn, T. S. ( 1977 ) The essential tension: Tr adition and innovation in scientific research ( University of Chicago Press Chicago IL). Kuttruff, H. ( 1991 ) Room Acoustics 3 rd ed. ( Elsevier Applied Science New York, NY) Long, M. ( 2006 ) Architectural acoustics ( Elsevier Academic Press Burlington, M A ) Madaras, G. ( 1996 ) Interaural cross correlation: sources of variability in concert halls (Doctoral dissertation Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL ). McCarthy, B. ( 2007 ) Sound systems: Design and optimization 2nd ed. ( Elsevier Burlington, MA ) Moore B. C. J. ( 2003 ) An introduction to the psychology of hearing 5th ed. ( Emerald Group Pub Ltd. Bingley, UK) Plomp, R., Steeneken H.J.M. and Houtgast, T. ( 1980 ) Predicting speech intelligibility in rooms from the modulation transfer function. II. Mir ror image computer model applied to rectangular rooms Acustica 46 (1), 73 81 Poultney, D. ( 1991 ) Dictionary of western church music ( American Library Association Chicago, IL). Reichardt, W., Alim, O. and Schmidt, W. ( 1974 ) A bh ngigkeit der grenzen zw ischen brauchbarer und unbrauchbarer durchsichtigkeit von der art des musikmotives, der nachhallze it und der nachhalleinsatzzeit Appl. Acoust ics 7 243 264 Routley, Erik. ( 1950 ) The church and music ( Gerald Duckworth London, UK). Siebein, G W., Skelt on, R ( 2009 ) On the nature of the ambient sound Inter noise 2009, Ottawa, Canada.

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181 Sabine, W C ( 1964 ) Collected papers on acoustics Reprint of the Harvard University Press in 1922 ( Dover Publications New York, NY) Sateren, L B. ( 1958 ) The new song; a guide to modern music for use in the church choir ( Augsburg Pub. House Minneapolis MN). Schafer, R. M ( 1977 ) The s oundscape: o ur s onic e nvironment and the t uning of the w orld ( Destiny Books Rochester, VT). Sohm, R ( 1958 ) Outlines of church history ( Beacon Press, Boston, MA ) Somerville, T., and Head JW ( 1956 ) Empirical acoustic criterion Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 28 (4) 774. Sowerby, L and Episcopal Church Joint Commission on Church Music. ( 1956 ) Ideals in church music; an official statement prepared for the joint commission on church music, the protestant episcopal church ( Seabur y Press Greenwich, C T). Stegers, R ( 2008 ) Sacred buildings: A design manual ( Birkhuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland). Stevens, S. S. and Davis, H. ( 1938 ) Hearing: i ts psychology and physiology ( Wiley Oxford, England). Tavares, M., Rajagopalan S. Sharma, S. J. and Carvalho A. P. O. ( 2009 ) Prediction of acoustic comfort and acoustic silence in goan catholic churches Inter Noise 2009 Tavares, M. A. P., Rajagopalan S. Jagannath, S., and Carvalho A. P. O. ( 2008 ) Acoustic characterization of worship ambience in catholic churches old goa's capela do monte A comprehensive example Inter Noise 2008 Thiele, R. ( 1953 ) Richtung sverteilung und Zeitfolge der Schallrueckwuerfe in Raumen Acustica 3 291 302. Thompson, E. ( 2002 ) The s oundscape of m odernity: a rchitectural a coustics and the c ulture of l istening in America, 1900 1933 (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA ). Truax, B ( 2001 ) Acou stic c ommu n i cation ( Ablex Publishing, Westport CT). White, J F., and White S J ( 1988 ) Church architecture: Building and renovating for C hristian worship ( Abingdon Press Nashville TN).

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182 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sang Bum Park was born in Suwon in South K ore a, in April, 1975. He majored in i ndustrial e nvironment and h ealth and received B achelor of Science degree in 1999 at Yonsei University in South Korea where he had ignited his interest in the field of n oise and v ibration. He continued his studies in e nvironmental e ngineering at Yonsei University in South Korea majored in noise and vibration and earned his master s degree in the fall of 2001 Sang Bum expanded his interest to design of electr onic sound systems while he was working for SOVICO in South Korea from 2002 to 2006 He accumulated h is work experience in 4 Dimensions E ngineering in South Korea from 2007 to 200 8 While he was working as a project manage r h e was responsib l e for managing and designing architectural projects such as anechoic chambers, semi anechoic chambers and reverberation chamber s for automobile companies a s well as environmental projects related to environmental and structural noise and vibration While he was pursuing his d octorate in d esign, c onstruction and p lanning Sang Bum w orke d as a teaching assistant in e nvironmental t echnology I and II from Aug ust 2008 t o May 20 1 2 and was awarded the Robert B. Newman M edal for m erit in a rchitectural a coustics from the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) in 2011 Sang Bum dedicated himself to a rchitectural a coustics and especially to church acoustics. His primary focus lies in a balance between natural sound s and electronically enhanced sounds in a worship space.