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Upward Journey

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043661/00001

Material Information

Title: Upward Journey Exploring the Experiences of Black Administrators at Two-Year Hispanic-Serving Institutions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (125 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bradley, Tenecia D
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: 0275 -- 0446 -- 0745
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Higher Education Administration thesis, Ed.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) represent the fastest growing institutions within the Minority-Serving Institution sector of the American higher education system. Additionally, they enroll the most diverse student population. The number of HSIs has and will likely continue to increase due to the increase of the Latino population as well as institutions' missions to serve their local areas. Regardless, there is disproportional representation of a diverse administration at these institutions. This study served a two-fold purpose, primarily to explore the issues relating to retaining Black administrators at two-year HSIs in the state of Florida, and secondarily to understand their work experiences in an attempt to provide insight regarding how they function at HSIs. Four Black administrators at HSIs in Florida participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The data collected was analyzed using the phenomenological data analysis procedure, specifically Moustakas' transcendental phenomenological model, and five themes (change agents, intentionally inclusive values , intrinsic motivation for professional excellence, positive work environment, and importance of advocacy) emerged from this study. The theoretical framework applied included Kingsley's representative bureaucracy (1944) and Vroom's expectancy theory (1964). Chapter 1 included an introduction and background of the study; Chapter 2 provided a detailed, comprehensive literature review; Chapter 3 detailed the methodology and design used to conduct this study; Chapter 4 described and analyzed each interview and identified the prevalent themes; Chapter 5 summarized and discussed findings of the overall study; the appendices included supplemental information, specifically samples of the Supervisory Committee approved interview protocol, University of Florida approved institutional review board (IRB) consent form, and study participant invitation. The findings of this study not only refer to HSIs, but higher education institutions in general. Higher education is prevalent in the United States of America, the land of opportunity. MSIs, in particular, are mirroring the country's population in terms of diversity. Therefore, it is essential to explore and share these experiences of Black administrators to improve the work environments of administrators in general within our country's institutions of higher education.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tenecia D Bradley.
Thesis: Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Ponjuan, Luis.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043661:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043661/00001

Material Information

Title: Upward Journey Exploring the Experiences of Black Administrators at Two-Year Hispanic-Serving Institutions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (125 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bradley, Tenecia D
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: 0275 -- 0446 -- 0745
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Higher Education Administration thesis, Ed.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) represent the fastest growing institutions within the Minority-Serving Institution sector of the American higher education system. Additionally, they enroll the most diverse student population. The number of HSIs has and will likely continue to increase due to the increase of the Latino population as well as institutions' missions to serve their local areas. Regardless, there is disproportional representation of a diverse administration at these institutions. This study served a two-fold purpose, primarily to explore the issues relating to retaining Black administrators at two-year HSIs in the state of Florida, and secondarily to understand their work experiences in an attempt to provide insight regarding how they function at HSIs. Four Black administrators at HSIs in Florida participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The data collected was analyzed using the phenomenological data analysis procedure, specifically Moustakas' transcendental phenomenological model, and five themes (change agents, intentionally inclusive values , intrinsic motivation for professional excellence, positive work environment, and importance of advocacy) emerged from this study. The theoretical framework applied included Kingsley's representative bureaucracy (1944) and Vroom's expectancy theory (1964). Chapter 1 included an introduction and background of the study; Chapter 2 provided a detailed, comprehensive literature review; Chapter 3 detailed the methodology and design used to conduct this study; Chapter 4 described and analyzed each interview and identified the prevalent themes; Chapter 5 summarized and discussed findings of the overall study; the appendices included supplemental information, specifically samples of the Supervisory Committee approved interview protocol, University of Florida approved institutional review board (IRB) consent form, and study participant invitation. The findings of this study not only refer to HSIs, but higher education institutions in general. Higher education is prevalent in the United States of America, the land of opportunity. MSIs, in particular, are mirroring the country's population in terms of diversity. Therefore, it is essential to explore and share these experiences of Black administrators to improve the work environments of administrators in general within our country's institutions of higher education.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Tenecia D Bradley.
Thesis: Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Ponjuan, Luis.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043661:00001


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1 U PWARD JOURNEY : EXPLORING THE EXPERIENCES OF BLACK ADMINISTRATORS AT TWO YEAR HISPANIC SERVING INSTITUTIONS By TENECIA D. BRADLEY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FUL FILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DE GREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Tenecia D. Bradley

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3 To all who were, are, and will be

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most thankful for the undeserving grace and favor provided by my Father. Without Him, this achievement would be impossible. Undoubtedly, I a m extremely appreciative of my supervisory c ommittee for guiding me with their knowledge and expertise. I must also thank my spiritual and biological family as well as my close fr iends and confidants for their encouragement and support. Philippians 4:13

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 Background of Study ................................ ................................ ............................... 10 Rationale for Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 14 Delimitations and Limitations ................................ ................................ .................. 16 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 17 Significance of Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 17 Research Question ................................ ................................ ................................ 18 Outline of Disser tation ................................ ................................ ............................. 18 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 General Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 20 Definition of Commonly Used Words and Phrases ................................ ................. 21 The American Higher Education System ................................ ................................ 22 Minority Serving Institutions ................................ ................................ ............. 23 Hispanic Serving Institutions ................................ ................................ ............ 25 Community Colleges ................................ ................................ ............................... 27 Community College Students ................................ ................................ ........... 28 Black Students at Community Colleges ................................ ............................ 29 Administrator Diversity within Community Colleges ................................ ......... 30 Leadership Challenges within Community Colleges ................................ ......... 35 Challenges of Black Administrators in Higher Education ................................ .. 37 The History of Blacks in Higher Education ................................ .............................. 38 The Relevance of Structural Diversity ................................ .............................. 39 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 40 Representative Bureaucracy Theory ................................ ................................ 40 Expectancy Theory ................................ ................................ ........................... 42 Conclusio n ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 44 3 DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ............ 45 Overall Approach and Rationale ................................ ................................ ............. 45 Role of Researcher ................................ ................................ .......................... 48 Data Collection Methods ................................ ................................ .................. 50 Site Selection ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 53

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6 Participant Selection and Access ................................ ................................ ..... 56 Confidentiality and Informed Consent ................................ .............................. 58 Validity and Reliability of Data ................................ ................................ .......... 60 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 61 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 62 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 62 Study Participant Profiles ................................ ................................ ........................ 65 Change Agents ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 67 Intentionally Inclusive Values ................................ ................................ .................. 70 Intrinsic Motivation for Professional Excellence ................................ ...................... 73 Positive Work Environment ................................ ................................ ..................... 77 Importance of Advocacy ................................ ................................ ......................... 79 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 82 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ .............. 83 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 83 Summary of Related Literature and Methodology ................................ ................... 83 Discussion of Data Analysis ................................ ................................ .................... 85 Change Agents ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 87 Intentionally Inclusive Values ................................ ................................ .................. 88 Intrinsic Motivation for Professional Ex cellence ................................ ...................... 89 Positive Work Environment ................................ ................................ ..................... 90 Importance of Advocacy ................................ ................................ ......................... 91 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 98 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ .......................... 106 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IRB CONSENT FORM ................................ ................... 107 PARTICIPANT STUDY INVITATION ................................ ................................ .......... 109 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 110 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 125

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Emerging Hispanic serving i nstitutions in Florida: 2006 2007 ......................... 100 3 2 Hispanic serving i nstitutions in Florida: 2006 2007 ................................ ......... 101 3 3 Degree granting institutions that enroll and serve large p ortions of Hispanic s tudents : fall 2009 .... 102 3 4 Two year Hispanic s erving i nstitutions in Florida: 2009 2010 ......................... 105 3 5 Black administrator r epresenta tion at participatin g institutions (full t ime): fall 2011 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 105 3 6 Black executive/administrator and clerical/secretarial representation at p a rticipating institutions (full t ime): 2009 2010 ................................ ................ 105

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8 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Do ctor of Education UPWARD JOURNEY: EXPLORING THE EXPERIENCES OF BLA CK ADMINISTRATORS AT TWO YEAR HISPANIC SERVING INSTITUTIONS By Tenecia D. Bradley December 2011 Chair: Luis Ponjuan Major: Higher Education Administration Hispanic serving i nstitutions (HSIs) represent the fastest g rowing institutions within the minorit y s ervi ng i nstitution (MSI) sector of the American higher education system. Additionally, they enroll the most diverse student population. The number of HSIs has and will likely continue to soar due to the increase of the Latino population as well as ins cal areas. Regardless, there continues to be a disproportional representation of a diverse administration at these institutions. This s tudy served a two fold purpose, primarily to explore the issues relating to retai ning Black administrators at two year HSIs in the state of Florida, and secondarily to understand their work experiences in an attempt to provide insight regarding how they function at HSIs. Four Black administrators at HSIs in Florida participated in sem i structured, in depth i nterviews. T he data collected was analyzed using the phenomenological data analysis procedure, specifically transcendental phenomenol ogical model, and five theme s (change agents, intentionally inclusive values intrinsic motivation for professional excellence positive work environment, and importance of advocacy ) emerged from this study. The theoretical framework applied

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9 (1964). Chapter 1 included an introduction and back ground of the study; Chapter 2 provided a detailed, comprehensive literature review; Chapter 3 detailed the methodology and design used to conduct this study ; Chapter 4 described and analyzed each interview and identifie d the prevalent themes; C hapter 5 summarized and discussed findings of the overall study ; t he appendices included supplemental information, specifically samples of the Supervisory Committee approved interview protocol, University of Florida approved instit utional review board ( IRB ) consent form, and study participant invitation. Higher education is prevalent in the United States of America, the land of diversity. HSIs cont inue to contribute to this reality. The findi ngs of this study not only relate to HSIs, but higher education institutions in general. Therefore, it is essential to explore and share these experiences of Black administrators to improve the work environments education.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of Study Ethnic diversity is unavoidably prevalent throughout the United States of America. According to the United States (U.S.) Cens us Bureau (2008), people of color currently comprise one Further Census projections suggest that while groups of color will continue to increase in size, representing 54% or 235.7 mill ion of the country by 2050, the non Hispanic, single White race will decrease in the 2030s and 2040s, representing only 46% of the U.S. population in 2050. Impressively, this research states that the Hispanic population will represent 30% or 132.8 million of the country, tripling in size from 2008, with one out of three U.S. residents identifying themselves accordingly. Additionally, it also assesses that a budding subgroup, which consists of those who identify with more than one race, will increase from 5. 2 million to 16.2 m illion by 2050. Betances (2004) recognizes the effect of this demographic shift, particularly within higher education, and acknowledges emerging majority prevalence of ra cial, ethnic, and cultural diversity within America is particularly evident among the student body of our two year institutions (Robinson Neal, 2009). The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) reports that community college students account f or 44% of the U.S. undergraduate population, with 36% of the system consisting of students of color (2010e). The ethnic breakdown of the overall community college student of color is as follows: Hispanics (15%), Blacks (14%), Asians/Pacific Islanders (7%), Native Americans (1%), and more than one race (2%) (AACC, 2010c, 2010d, & 2010e). Laden (2004b) and Benitez & DeAro (2004) attribute

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11 the current and future increase of the community college student of color population not simply to the emerging majority population, but also to critical factors such as proximity, affordability, flexibility, and study options. However, regardless of the soaring enrollment increase of this student population, they continue to demonstrate a dismal completion rate at these in stitutions, especially the Black and Hispanic student subgroups (Gardenhire Crooks, Collado, Martin, & Castro, 2010). Swail, Redd, & Perna (2003) and Bumphus & Roueche (2007) assert that this may be due in part to the disproportionate representation of div erse faculty and administrators within community colleges; this is a disconcerting reality within higher education in general. Smith & Moreno (2006) stress that broadened and diversified institutional leadership is essential to addressing these critical is sues. Williams (2005) asserts that there is only minimal representation among people of color hired as or transitioning into administrator/leadership roles within institutions of higher education. Vaughan (1996) emphasizes that the representation of commu nity college administrators of color has not increased at the same rate of community college students of color. Moreover, while 36% or 4.2 million of the 11.7 million community college student population is of color, only a mere 18% or only approximately 2 16 out of 1200 community colleges have CEOs/presidents of color (AACC, 2010e; AACC, 2011a). Whereas diversity is common or widespread among student enrollment at community colleges, there is a lack of diversity among faculty and administrators at these ins titutions. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports that as of Fall 2007, public two year colleges employed 358,925 faculty and 27,363 executive/administrative/manag erial staff (2008d). However, it reveals that only totals of

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12 17% (or 57 ,942) and 19.8% (or 5,375) respectively are people of color, representing less than a one quarter representation for each ethnic/racial category. Additional research is necessary to better understanding and addressing this alarming reality. A diverse adm inistration is essential to the effective functioning of community colleges. As our emerging majority student population continues to increase, two year institutions need to be equipped with sufficient representation of administrators of color. An increa se in the diversity of community college administrators would assist in benefiting the future growth and sustainability of the American community college system (Eke, 2009). Institutions as a whole suffer from its negative effects, and it is crucial to ack nowledge and not overlook this reality. Diversity in community college administration is vital in many ways; it not only contributes to the high attrition rates of community college students of color, but also employee satisfaction and recruitment (Jackson current and potential administrators of color portray a lack of institutional preparation and concern. Administrators have the responsibility of serving as mentors to facult y and students, contributing to the development of institutional policies, and defining and improving campus climate and culture (Jackson & Phelps, 2004). Administrator diversity also influences and contributes to the roles and responsibilities of students faculty, and Although empirical research exists regarding administrator diversity within higher education, there is an increased need for more studies geared specifically towards administrators of color at minority serving two year institutions. A considerable number of studies examine and compare diversity issues among Black and/or White

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13 administrators particularly at Predominantly White institutions (PWIs) or Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) (Closson & Henry, 2008; Davis, 1994; Konrad & Pfeffer, 1991; Moore & Wagstaff, 1974). Perhaps this is because Blacks, at one time, were the largest people of color within the U.S.A.; this has likely contributed to a significant portion of past an d current research. However, now that Hispanics represent the largest group of color, research is surfacing, though limited in number, regarding the overall Hispanic higher education administrator experience (Martinez, 1999; Gutierrez, Castaeda, & Katsin as, 2002). Still, current literature tends to overlook the importance of examining the diversity of leadership at institutions with high concentrations of underrepresented students, faculty, and staff, particularly at community colleges. Just as the Hispa nic ethnic group has and will likely continue to increase in size, the number of Hispanic serving institutions (HSIs), as a result, continues to increase, as well. It is important to note that HSIs are diverse, enrolling students of various races and ethn icities. Therefore, it should not be surprising that many Black community college students are attending HSIs. ¡Excelencia in Education! reports that Black students account for 32% of HSI enrollment in New York, and 20% of HSI enrollment in Florida (Santi ago, 2006 ). Blacks and Hispanics comprise the majority of students of color at community colleges, 45% and 53% respectively (AACC, 2010c & 2010b). Therefore, i t is crucial to uncover or expose issues faced or experienced by Blacks and Hispanics who hold leadership positions at HSIs. While there has been research conducted regarding administrators of color at PWIs, HBCUs, and other minority serving institutions (MSIs), there is an inconsequential amount of research that addresses the concerns and experien ces of administrators of color at HSIs. Thus, the

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14 purpose of this qualitative study is to address the career paths and professional experiences of specifically Black administrators at these progressively developing two year HSIs. Rationale for Study This q ualitative study will contribute to expanding existing research and understanding issues of diversity within postsecondary education, particularly two year institutions, for numerous reasons. First, while there is a wide array of research that addresses th higher education system, especially regarding their professional experiences and plights at PWIs, there is limited research regarding Black administrators at MSIs, particularly HSIs. Se condly, this study will provide detailed findings regarding the neglected or unaddressed work life and professional experiences of Black administrators. Although there is a significant amount of studies regarding the underrepresentation of this targeted g roup particularly at PWIs, very few focus on the underlying factors that possibly contribute to this fact. This, as a result, limits the relevancy and applicability of these findings. Next, the majority of Black postsecondary administrators serve at MSIs; this study will address their current and future concerns as educational professionals. According to the Higher Education Act (HEA), there are six categories of MSIs: Hispanic serving institutions (HSIs), Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU s), Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs), Alaska Native serving institutions (ANSIs), Native Hawaiian serving institutions (NHSIs), and other minority serving institutions (MSIs) (NCES, 2008f). Finally, HSIs, statutorily defined as enrolling at least 25% of full time equivalent (FTE) of Hispanic students, constitute one of the fastest growing institutional sectors

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15 within the U.S. higher education system (Laden, 2004a). Also, Laden finds that many institutions, unavoidably and unintentionally, are becom ing HSIs due to the increase in Education Sciences (IES) reports a total of 188 degree granting postsecondary institutions (public, for profit and not for profit four and t wo year) within the state of Florida (NCES, 2008e). The NCES reports that 57 Florida postsecondary institutions (public and private, for profit and not for profit four and two year) have at least a 25% Hispanic student enrollment, designating them as HSIs (2008d). students who attend institutions within the State University System begin their postsecondary education in the Florida College System (FCS) (n.d.). The FCS consists of 28 institutions each designated as a community college college or state college According to Florida State Statute 1001.60, colleges and state colleges are institutions eds and accredited accordingly by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (Florida Legislature, n.d.). These institutions also carry the designation of college or state college in their institutions names. The Florid a legislature effective manner that demonstrates substantial savings to the student and to the state over the Only t hree of the 28 institutions within the FCS meet the criteria for HSI designation (NCES, 2008d; FLDOE, n.d.). Although the count appears to be small, these particular institutions are located throughout the state, not in one specific location

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16 (NCES, 2008e) Additionally, they each have a Hispanic student representation that ranges between 30 and 71% (NCES, 2008e). These same institutions have diverse student populations, which raise challenging questions about the overall services provided. For example, at these three institutions, Black student representation alone ranges between 16 and 31% (NCES, 2008e). Like many other community college systems, the FCS practices an open door admissions policy, allowing the general population access to obtaining an ed ucation without rigorous admissions policies, which contributes to the student diversity of these institutions. However, administrator representation at these institutions is not necessarily as diverse as the student population. It is, therefore, inaccura te to assume that having adequate administrator racial/ethnic diversity is not a challenge at MSIs. As many institutions transition to HSIs, it is crucial to examine the experiences of their non Hispanic administrators. This study will focus specifically o n the experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs within the state of Florida. Delimitations and Limitations The focus of this study centers on exploring and exposing the work life and professional experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs in Florida. This work, however, has four obvious limitations. First, the experiences explored within the study are only inclusive of those classified as administrators, not those of faculty or non managerial/executive staff. Therefore, one must not a ssume that the experiences of faculty and non managerial/executive staff are similar to those of administrators. Next, this study includes only two year HSIs within the state of Florida. This geographic limitation does not allow comparison of Black admini strator experiences at HSIs in different states. Then, the exclusion of four year HSIs from this study limits the

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17 experiences explored to those of Black administrators at two year HSIs. It is inaccurate to assume that the experiences of Black administrat ors at two year HSIs in Florida are analogous to those of Black administrators at four year HSIs in Florida. Finally, due to the qualitative nature of this study, its findings are subject to other interpretations. Statement of the Problem HSIs serve the mo st diverse, non White student populations of all two year public MSIs. Yet, there is limited information regarding the professional work experiences of Black administrators at these institutions. Therefore, due to the current and future growth of HSIs, the re is a need to understand how these Black administrators manage themselves as education professionals. More specifically, in examining the existing higher education sys tem, there is a need for additional research to understand their professional experiences, how they function and work in HSIs, as well as their challenges in leading an increasingly diverse HSI. Significance of Study The primary purpose of this phenomenolo gical qualitative study is to explore issues relating to retaining Black administrators at two year HSIs in the state of Florida. The secondary purpose of this research is to understand their work experiences in an attempt to provide insight regarding how they function at HSIs, ultimately improving their work experiences. Finally, the findings of this study will assist administrators who wish to acquire or advance in administrator roles at MSIs, particularly HSIs.

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18 Research Question Burck (2005) emphasizes honed research question, framed so detailed, research literature. The following research question will guid e this study: What are the work li fe and professional experiences of Black administrators at HSIs? This question will also secondarily uncover and examine multiple relevant aspects that include, but are not limited to, work demands, work role conflicts, and level of empowerment. Outline of Dissertation This dissertation will consist of five chapters and a n appendix section. Chapter 1 will include an introduction involving diversity within higher education, rationale for the study, delimitations and limitations, statement of the problem, si gnificance of stu dy, and research question. Chapter 2 will consist of a co mprehensive literature review. Then, Chapter 3 will specify the research methodology used to conduct this study, including overall approach and rationale, role of the researcher, data collection methods, site selection, participant selection and access, confidentiality and informed consent, and validity and reliabil ity of data. Next, Chapter 4 will describe and analyze each interview, identify prevalent themes and provid e the resu lts of the cross analysis along with applicable, relevant quotes that represent relation to the extant resear ch literature. Finally, Chapter 5 will conclude this study by addressing the overall findings, disti nguishing strengths and challenges of the studied findings to current and future institutional practices an d policies. The appendices will include supplemental info rmation, specifically samples of the Supervisory Committee

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19 approved interview protocol, University of Florida approved institutional review board ( IRB ) consent form, and study participant invi tation

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20 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW General Overview There co ntinues to be a dearth of Black administrators in the United States of disturbing reality (Chun & Evans 2007; Jackson, 2003). Among that which does exist, there appears to be more readily available research inv olving Black administrators at predominantly White i nstitutions (PWIs) than at minority serving institutions (MSIs), particularly those designated as Hispanic serving. Interestingly, Hispanic serving institutions (HSIs) r epresent the fastest growing educational institutions within the U.S. higher education system and serve the most diverse, non White student populations of all two year public MSIs (Bentez & DeAro, 2004). Pascarella (2006) and Baez, Gasman, & Turner (2008) refer to existing research regarding these phenomena as even more emerge, it is essential to address the often times overlooked and underestimated concerns, representat ion, and experiences of Black administrators at these institutions. The primary purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study is to explore issues related to retaining Black administrators at two year HSIs in the state of Florida; the secondary purpos e is to understand the work experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs by providing insight regarding how they function at these institutions, ultimately improving their job satisfaction. The intent of this literature review is to lend credibilit y to the need for this study (Creswell, 2005). Section one provides definitions of commonly used words and phrases within the study. Section two involves a

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21 breakdown of the American higher education system, detailing the types of existing educational in stitutions, particularly MSIs, and the current state and prominence of HSIs. Section three explains community colleges and expands on the areas of community college students, Black students at community colleges, administrator diversity within community c olleges, and leadership challenges within community colleges. Section four details the history of Blacks in higher education and emphasizes the importance of structural diversity. Section five identifies and explains the specific theoretical framework app lied to this research. Definition of Commonly Used Words and Phrases This paper includes numerous words and phrases that require further explanation or definition to provide readers a common understanding of the information provided. These selected terms are as follows: A DMINISTRATORS /A DMINISTRATION I ndividuals or a designated group of individuals who ser ve in managerial, ex ecutive, and decision making capacities at colleges, state colleges, community colleges and universities A FRICAN A MERICAN /B LACK / OF A FRICAN D ESCENT U sed interchangeably, these terms or phrases refer to individuals of sub Saharan descent and representative of many sub cultures who have settled in various countries and continents worldwide C ULTURE Of or r heritage, often portrayed in thoughts, actions, and ideas ; of or relating to institution s mission s and foc us es often portrayed in policy, procedures, and other traditions E THNICIT Y O f or relating to commonalities among individuals such as, but not limi ted to, national, cultural, religious, and linguistic origins or backgrounds F ACULTY I ndividuals or a designated group of individuals who serve in instructional and academic capacities F ULL T IME E QUIVALENT (F TE ) A single value denoting a meaningful com bination of full and part time students (NCES, n.d.b.)

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22 F IRST T IME IN C OLLEGE (F TIC ) S tudents admitted enrolled in a postsecondary institution for th e first time in their academic career s or have completed less than the equivalent of one f ull year of unde rgraduate work (NCES, n.d.b.) H ISPANIC /L ATINO ( A ) U sed interchangeably, these terms denote individuals of sub cultures, normally from countries formerly ruled by Spaniards, who have settled in various countries and continents worldwide, but particularly w ithin the Americas (i.e., North America, Caribbean, Central America, and South America H ISPANIC S ERVING I NSTITUTIONS (HSI S ) A ccredited and degree granting colleges or universities (two year or four year, public or private) that have a minimum 25% Hispani c FTE and are not classified as Historically Black Colleges and Universities or Tribal Colleges and Universities (Del Rios & Leegwater, 2008; NCES, 2008f) M INORITIES /I NDIVIDUALS OF C OLOR /P EOPLE OF C OLOR U sed interchangeably, these terms refer to groups of individuals not classified as Anglo/White, an d/or groups of individuals who acknowledge being of non Anglo origin M INORITY S ERVING I NSTITUTIONS C olleges or universities (two year or four year, public or private) that serve a minimum 25% student popula tion of a particular minority group (NCES, 2008f). O VERREPRESENTATION A disproportionate representation of a parti cular group, usually being substantially significant in numbers or figures R ACE T he biological aspects or physical of individuals, often re lated to ancestral origin S TAFF I ndividuals or a designated group of individuals who ser ve in non managerial/executive and non instructional capacities T WO Y EAR I NSTITUTIONS /C OMMUNITY C OLLEGES / C OLLEGES /S TATE C OLLEGES U sed interchangeably, these terms refer to institutions that meet the needs of their surrounding community by their offering of a myriad of degrees, certificates, and credit, and non credit classes; well educational paths of individuals U ND ERREPRESENTATION A disproportionate representation of a p articular group, usually being recognizably inadequate in numbers or figures The American Higher Education System Higher education is vital to the continued successful development of a more globall y competitive and contributive society (Attis, 2008). According to the United

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23 (NCES) degree granting institutions (four year colleges, universities, and two year/community colleges ) served more than 18.2 million students in 2007, representing a 26% increase from 1997 (NCES, n.d.). While history credits the Morrill Act of 1862 with creating our grant institutions, our transition to the 21 st century requires the re current and future student generations are being recognized and fulfilled. This is an enormous task, considering that there are more than 4300 institutions of higher learning within our country (NCES, 2007b). These two and four year institutions are categorized as public or private (for profit or not for profit) (NCES, 2008b), and the degrees Profe ssional, and Doctoral degrees, with more than 3 million being awarded during the 2007 08 academic year (NCES, 2008a) Regardless of this impressive figure, still, U.S. is striving to reclaim its status of having the largest concentration of adults with postsecondary degrees within the world by the year 2020 (Nez & Hernndez, 2011). Minority Serving Institutions MSIs are responsible for educating more than 2.3 million s tudents within the U.S., more specifically, approximately one 2008). An institution is designated as being minority serving either legislatively or by the percentage of minority enrollment (NCES, 2007a). A dditionally, MSIs may be two year or four year degree granting public or private (profit or not for profit) institutions (NCES). There are six categories or subgroups of MSIs. While two have been designated as such legislatively, specifically Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and

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24 Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs), three have at least a 25% total undergraduate enrollment of a particular minority group, and one has a 50% overall undergraduate enrollment of minority students (NCES). L egislation defines HBCUs as institutions founded prior to 1964 that had the specific institutional mission of educating Blacks. Institutions cited in Section 532 of the Equity in Education Land Grant Status Act of 1994, those that qualify for funding under the Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of 1978, and Din College authorized in the Navajo Community College Assistance Act of 1978 classify as TCUs. Applying the definition criteria for degree granting Title IV MSIs categorizes them as f ollows: 1) HBCUs; 2) Black serving non HBCUs (where Black students constitute at least 25% of total undergraduate enrollment); 3) Hispanic serving (non HBCUs/TCUs where Hispanic students constitute at least 25% of total undergraduate enrollment); 4) As ian serving (non HBCUs /TCUs where Asian students constitute at least 25% of the total undergraduate enrollment); 5) American Indian serving ( TCUs or non HBCUs/TCUs where American Indian or Alaska native students constitute at least 25% of total undergradu ate enrollment; and 6) other minority serving (those that do not fit into any of the five categories, but where minority students as a whole constitute at least 50% of total undergraduate enrollment) (NCES, 2007a). With the exception of HBCUs, TCUs, and other minority serving institutions, all other minority groups (considering the respective MSI) must constitute less than 25% of the total undergraduate enrollment (NCES).

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25 Hispanic Serving Institutions During the 1980s, educators and policymakers first r ecognized the increased Latino representation within the U.S. higher education system. As a result, the federal government designated eligible institutions with at least a 25% full time equivalent Latino student population as HSIs (U.S. Department of Educ ation, 2011). These are the fastest growing institutions within the MSI sector of the American higher education system, and they enroll the most diverse student population (Bentez & DeAro, 2004). HSIs include public and private (profit and not for profit ) two and four year institutions; however, Mercer and Stedman (2008) note that 47% of HSIs are community colleges. between 1984 and 2004, its growth rate increased b y 237% (NCES, 2008c, 2007a). Impressively, HSIs enroll 46% of the Hispanic college student population (Perna, 2006; Mercer & Stedman, 2008), with approximately 500,000 of this population enrolled at Hispanic serving community colleges. The number of HSIs has and will likely continue to serve their local areas (Guzmn, 2001; Laden, 1999, 2004a). Various federal programs, efforts, and legislation fund HSIs. Moreo ver, through an agreement with the Department of Education, these institutions participate in federal student financial assistance programs and the National Early Intervention Scho larship and Partnership programs (U.S. Department of Education, 1992). Presi dent Barak Obama signed into law the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010 that addresses student loan availability and affordability (Lee, 2010). Also, the HSI program, authorized by the College Cost Reduction and Access Act of 2007 HSI Stem and Articulation Programs (HEA, Title III, Part F, Section 371; CFDA #84.031C),

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26 has invested funds in HSIs. The Developing Hispanic Serving Institutions program, also known as Title V (HEA, Title V, Part A; CFDA #84.0 31S), is possibly the most well known financial opportunity for this institutional subgroup (U.S. Department of Education, 2011). Federal investment in HSIs serve four specific purposes: 1) expanding educational opportunities for Hispanic students, 2) improving the academic attainment of Hispanic student, 3) expanding and enhancing the academic offerings, program quality, and institutional stability of colleges and universities that are educating the majority of Hispanic college students, and 4) helping large numbers of Hispa nic and other low income students complete postsecondary degrees (Santiago & Andrade, 2010). It is crucial to mention that there are some institutions known as emerging HSIs that do not meet the federal 25% Latino undergraduate full time equivalency (FTE ) enrollment, but have a Hispanic FTE ranging between 12 % and 24%, demonstrating that these institutions have the potential or likelihood of eventually becoming eligible HSIs (Santiago & Andrade, 2010). As mentioned earlier, this occurs due to the increase communities. Santiago & Andrade report 176 emerging HSIs according to U.S. Department of Education 2006 07. This includes community colleges (44%), private colleges and un iversities (36%), and public colleges and universities (20%). There are approximately 543 degree granting institutions that serve large proportions of Hispanic students as of Fall 2009 (NCES, 2009). With both existing and emerging HSIs on the rise, the i mportance and relevance of the critical mass theory should not be underestimated. This theory claims that once a

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27 definable group reaches a certain size within an organization, there will be rms (Santiago & Andrade, 2010). This is important considering that HSIs represent the most diverse study body of all MSIs; non Hispanic representation at Hispanic serving community colleges include Blacks (10%), Asian Americans (9%), Native Americans (1%), White (30%), and Oth er (8%) (Bentez & DeAro, 2004). Additionally, they employ a significant number of diverse instructional and non instructional personnel. Community Colleges The American community college emerged in the early twentieth century primari ly due to three central forces worker population, the desire for social equality, and an increased designated period of adolescence (Cohen & Brawer, 2008). Although enrollment at land granting ins titutions remained consistent, private and public community colleges formed throughout the country; by 1930, there were 440 nationwide (Cohen & Brawer). There was tremendous growth in the enrollment of students at community colleges during the 1960s due t o two major historical events the Civil Rights Movement and the exercising of the GI Bill making education available to groups that were once unable to receive this opportunity (Vaughn, 2000). Well known for their open door access and affordability, com munity colleges have changed the panorama of higher education. Since their initial establishment, they have transformed to meet a myriad of needs for an increasing population, serving as a gateway for many seeking education, professional development, or u pgrading of skills. Cohen & Brawer more specifically note the missions of these institutions as including 1) collegiate studies to prepare students to transfer to four year institutions, 2) vocational education to prepare students for jobs, 3)

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28 developmenta l education to help students develop basic academic skills, and 4) community and multicultural education to serve members of the local area. There are currently 1,173 community colleges throughout the country, and they served more than 11.8 million studen ts in 2007 (AACC, 2010c). Additionally, they constitute approximately 44% of the undergraduate population (AACC, 2010b). These figures demonstrate the importance of providing an effective and nurturing learning environment. Bumphus and Roueche (2007) asser t that this is the responsibility of is essential to spearheading this effort particularly in regards to community college students. There has been a 17% enrollme nt increase in the community college enrollment since 2007 (Mullin & Phillippe, 2009). Several factors including, but not marketing, enrollment limits at four yea r institutions, and the economic recession, are likely to contribute to this occurrence (Mullin & Philippe). They offer flexibility in course offerings, admissions, and attendance (Laden, 2001). Community College Students According to American Associat ion of Community Colleges (AACC) figures, community colleges serve a wide spectrum of students; 42% are first generation college students, 16% are single parents, 56% are female, and 40% are between the ages of 22 to 39 (2010b). Hispanics (16%), Blacks (13 %), Asians/Pacific Islanders (7%), and Native Americans (1%) account for roughly 36% of the American community college system (AACC, 2010e). Students who attend community colleges vary in academic preparedness; some are underprepared and struggle with pla cement testing and academic abilities/preparedness while others demonstrate impressive placement testing

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29 and excel in their studies (Hoachlander, Sikora, & Horn, 2003). Additionally, not all of these students are from low income families, although 46% rece ived some form of financial aid in 2007 2008 (AACC, 2011a, 2011b). An increasing amount of the student population at community colleges is now deciding to attend these institutions by choice, and not by default (AACC, 2010b). Although the community colle ge student population has transitioned, it is important to realize that many still appreciate the affordability, accessibility, and convenience offered by these institutions (AACC, 2010b). These students, however, are not exempt from facing challenges at community colleges, primarily those of retention and transition due to external and internal factors (Miller, Pope, & Steinmann, 2004). Black Students at Community Colleges Community colleges serve as educational and career entranceways for many minority students; According to the AACC, 45% of students enrolled in community colleges during fall 2008 classified themselves as minorities. Therefore, it is not surprising that 13% of Black students begin their postsecondary careers at community colleges (AACC 2008). Although the open door policy, convenience, and quality of education contribute to the enrollment of these students, many of these institutions continue to struggle with the retention and transition efforts of this group (Edman & Brazil, 2008). J ust as the number of HSIs continues to increase, so does their enrollment of Black students (Bentez & DeAro, 2004). Regardless, Black students encounter difficulties at HSIs just as they do at other institutions. Moore & Shulock (2010) identify issues in volving completion rates and racial gaps among students enrolled within the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD), known as the largest and one of the most diverse districts within the California

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30 Community College system. LACCD enrolls over 250,0 00 students annually with Blacks and Latinos accounting for 68% of its student population (Moore & Shulock). This study, which monitored a LACCD cohort for six years, found among other results that only 43% of Black students were retained one year followin g their first term, 15% of Black students were likely to transfer and were the least to complete a transfer curriculum, and Black students completed degrees at a lower rate than Latino students. These findings correlate with those from other studies conf irming that an increase in enrollment figures alone does not lead to institutions reaching their academic goals (Nagaoka, Roderick, & Coco, 2008). Moore & Shulock also find that degree completion file and should consider changes to institutional practices at the college level and changes to state and system policy. Therefore, the diversity of those individuals positioned at administrator and decision making levels is vital to the overall success of system. These recommendations are relevant not only to institutions within California, which contains a considerable amount of HSIs, but to higher education in general. Administrator Diversity within Community Colleges Th e NCES reports that as of Fall 2007, public two year colleges employed 27,363 managers/executives and 358,925 faculty (2008d). However, only totals of 19.8% (or 5,375) and 17% (or 57,942) respectively are people of color, representing less than a one quar ter representation for each ethnic/racial category. As stated earlier, the overrepresented emerging majority student population continues to exhibit a low degree completion rate disproportionate to their enrollment (Laden, 2004a), and Swail, Redd, & Perna (2003), and Bumphus & Roueche (2007) attribute this to the underrepresentation of diverse faculty and administrators within community colleges. Smith & Moreno

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31 (2006) assert that broadened and diversified institutional leadership is essential to addressing these issues. Two essential aspects of leadership diversity include policy development and campus climate and culture. Policy Development Diversity in administration expands the scope of policy making within community colleges. Eckel & King (2004) hig hlight that administrators are ultimately responsible for decision making within traditional institutional divisions such as academic affairs, student affairs, business/financial operations, auxiliary services, campus facilities, development, and alumni a ffairs. They make decisions that affect institutions as a whole, including the representation, learning, and working environment of students, faculty, and staff. Therefore, lack of diversity among administrators prevents different or expanded viewpoints, thoughts, and ideas from inclusion within making processes (Torres, Howard Hamilton & Cooper, 2003). As the diverse student population at community colleges continues to soar, those individuals in place to make decisions and implem ent policies should increase in numbers and resemblance to the emerging majority (Phelps & Taber, 1996; Vaughan, 2004). The majority of current senior level executive decision makers do not have the same socioeconomic, racial, or ethnic background as the emerging majority student group, and their needs, as a result, are often overlooked, unmet, or misinterpreted (Pascarella & Terrenzini, 1995). For example, Sullivan (2010) addresses the model that is affecting the student population receiving financial aid (i.e., Pell grants, effect on enrollment at every level of higher education, but perhaps nowhere more

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32 that many students of color receive their education at these institutions and depend upon financial assistance (NCES, 2007a); affordability will ultimately affect the enrollment at our two year institutions. Therefore, community colleges must have diverse administrators in place to make sound decisions that benefit the student population. Findings from the national initiative, Achieving th e Dream emphasize that the makers (2006). Diverse administrators often serve as advocates for campus activities, cultural activities, student organizations, and studen t, staff, and faculty concerns (Smith & Moreno, 2006). Effectively integrating these voices into the community college system is not a simple task, particularly when up against longstanding, traditional, and historical policies, procedures, and rituals; al l of their concerns are not easily identifiable, understood, or properly addressed (Kirwan, 2004). Increasing the amount of administrators of color will allow necessary and relevant change to occur in an environment that is still sometimes reluctant to ad dress fully the needs of this growing population. Additionally, they will sometimes need to voice their concerns regarding issues and policies simply based upon their cultural knowledge or personal experience (Hartley, Eckel, & King, 2009). Collaboration b etween faculty, staff, and administrators is beneficial to institutions as a whole (McGrath, 1998; Page, 2003). Campus Climate and Culture A diverse administration represents a positive campus climate and culture. Many researchers, faculty, and administr ators use or refer to these terms (e.g. climate and culture) interchangeably. While these concepts are similar in

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33 meaning, they represent different views. However, each is essential to creating a nurturing learning and working environment at community coll eges. Schein (1996) model of five overlapping layers of organizational culture includes beginning with the outmost layer, ( 1) geospatial; ( 2) traditions, myths, and symbols; ( 3) behavioral patterns and processes; ( 4) espoused values and beliefs; and ( 5) mental models and assumptions. Kuh & Whitt (1988) define institutional culture as: the collective, mutually shaping patterns of norms, value, practices, beliefs, and assumptions that guide the behavior of individuals and groups in an institute of higher education and provide a frame of reference within which to interpret the meaning of event s and actions on and off campus (p.12 313). Diverse administrators contribute to institutional culture accordingly. They not only make decisions that impact the specific areas in which they work, but also the academic lives of students and the working env ironments of employees. Since there is no one way of defining campus climate, it is beneficial to identify the context in which the term is used in research. Hurtado, Milem, Clayton Pederson, & attitudes, and ous and respective of other cultures and ethnicities. Hurtado (2007) posits that the focus of campus climate goes beyond numbers/numerical representation. Hurtado et al. (1999) identify four dimensions of the higher education campus climate:

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34 1. H istorica historical context detailing when diverse groups were included on campus and the relevant moments that define their experience in becoming full members of 2. S tr that will in many ways determine the context for ho w they experience the 3. P discrimination on campus, feel somehow singled out because of their background, or perceive institutional support/commitment related to dive 4. B and among different groups, participation or l ack thereof in campus programs, traditions, and activities, and full engagement in the various systems of these in Administrators of color play a role in developing and maintaining such a climate (Rankin & Reason, 2005). Their presence alone is recognized and acknowledged, and ethnic differences. This allows other s who are of the same or similar race, culture, or ethnicity a sense of comfort, belonging, and encouragement (Jackson & Phelps, 2004). A diverse administration helps to define campus climate not only by their structural diversity representation, but also by their professional roles and responsibilities. and performance (Hurtado, Milem, Clayton Pederson, & Walker, 1998). As Lum (2005) reiterates, administrators of color re main severely underrepresented in community colleges. Just as their representation as professionals contributes to defining diversity, their college/campus involvement defines campus climate. When administrators of color participate on college committees, attend college

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35 related events, and develop a rapport with fellow co workers, they assist in the defining and improving of campus climate. This allows administrators of color to not only encourage other individuals (students, staff, faculty, and administra tors of the same or different race) to enjoy and contribute to the campus climate, but also to assist others in learning about different races, cultures, and ethnicities (Hurtado et al., 1999). Community colleges are unable to function efficiently and e ffectively without diverse leadership in place. Just as our emerging majority student population continues to increase, so must our diverse administrator representation. Without this taking place, duates of color, and will further imbalance the administrator to student representation within these institutions. Diversity within community colleges influences the progress, roles, and responsibilities of students, faculty, staff, and administrators L eadership Challenges within Community Colleges American community colleges serve more than 11.8 million students, representing (AACC, 2010e). They have become institutions of choice for many students, particularly those of color, providing a plethora of educational, professional, and developmental opportunities (Laden, 2004b). According to Benerji (2004), projections indicate that by 2014, 11 states and the District of Columbi a will experience a 43% increase in community college enrollment. In turn, community college administrators are responsible for ensuring that provided learning environments are nurturing and productive. This, by no means, is an easy task. Kirwan (2004) as serts that administrators must confront issues of racial and gender historical discrimination, promote overall student development, and support issues of diversity and inclusiveness.

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36 There must be individuals in place that can identify areas that need imp rovement, relate to the challenges of these matters, and successfully implement change (Perrakis, Campbell, & Antonaros, 2009). Community colleges are experiencing a major retirement wave. Weisman & Vaughan (2001, 2007) reported that 24% of community colle ge presidents planned to retire between 2006 and 2009, and 50% planned to retire by 2010. The Career and Lifestyle Survey (CLS) of community college presidents, which had 545 respondents, yielded several notable findings: 84% planned to retire between 2006 and 2010; 57% were age 58 or older; and 88% classified themselves as White (Wiseman &Vaughan, 2007). This provides a snapshot of the community college leadership crisis. Boggs (2003) asserts that while categorized as a leadership crisis, the retirement w ave is a potential opportunity of career advancement for current or aspiring administrators, particularly those of color. The United States Census Bureau (2008) reports that people of color will become the majority in 2042, and comprise 54% or 235.7 mil lion of the nation by 2050. As mentioned earlier, community colleges enroll 11.8 million students with a significant representation of Hispanics (16%), Blacks (13%), Asian/Pacific Islanders (7%) and Native Americans (1%); this accounts for approximately 36 % of the community college system (AACC, 2010a). While the emerging majority representation clearly reflects within the community college student population, this is not the case among administrators (Fulton Calkins & Milling, 2005). The NCES (2008a) repo rts public two year colleges employ 81,364 managers/executives. However, approximately 18 % are people of color.

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37 Diversity is essential to a successful community college administration (Eke, 2009). Eckel & King (2004) assert that change to the existing co mmunity college system landscape must come from those who are in position to support such initiatives, and a diverse administration is essential to this process. It should be as prevalent among the community college administration as it is among its studen t population. This is crucial to the accurate representation of the emerging majority student population (Jackson & Phelps, 2004). These students have a myriad of needs that are often times underestimated, unrecognized, and misunderstood by an administrati on that lacks diversity. Therefore, increasing the amount of administrators of color will allow necessary and relevant change to rear its head and flourish in an environment that is still sometimes reluctant to address fully the needs of this growing po pulation. Factoring this in with the soaring number of anticipated retirements within community colleges and the shortage of developed leaders, two year institutions are preparing themselves for the inevitable (Viniar, 2006). Expanding on possible solution s to this leadership gap, especially r egarding administrators of color is essential to addressing this issue. Challenges of Black Administrators in Higher Education Black higher education administrators face a myriad of challenges in their professional careers. Although this group has made much progress within this field such as increased educational attainment and professional representation, they still encounter obstacles and barriers that hinder their career growth and level of comfort in the higher education system (Jackson, 2001). Many researchers have addressed the challenges of Black administrators particularly at PWIs, and many of them focus on similar issues. However, due to the increase in the overall emerging majority

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38 population, particular ly their representation within the higher education system, researchers must now examine their barriers using more focused lenses. Throughout the past three decades, literature has identified a multiplicity of continuous themes that impact Black administr ators in higher education. Three resounding premises that, once more closely addressed using more focused lenses, could possibly contribute to better understanding the challenges of Black administrators include engagement, retention, and advancement. The History of Blacks in Higher Education In 1833, Oberlin College (Ohio) became the first institution to provide open admission to African Americans (Rudolph, 1990; Roebuck & Murty, 1993; Brazzell, 1996). Created to educate freed slaves and their children, Ch eyney State Training School (Pennsylvania), now known as Cheyney University, Ashmun Institute (Pennsylvania) now known as Lincoln University, and Wilberforce University (Ohio), have been credited for launching Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) (Harper, Patton, & Wooden, 2009). Between 1865 and 1890, there were 200 such private institutions established to meet the educational needs of this population (Anderson, 1988; Drewry & Doermann, 2001; Gasman, 2007). The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 plays an important part in the history of U.S. higher education. This Act provided funds and 30,000 acres of land to all states specifically for the establishment of public institutions, and ultimately allowed for the founding of 54 institutions for African Americans (Rudolph, 1990). Although under the second Morrill Land Grant Act of 1890 equitable distribution of funds to African Americans was required, segregation among Black and White land grant institutions was legalized (Brazzell, 1996; Ander son, 1988; Davis, 1998). Many of the Black land

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39 grant institutions were subject to mediocre facilities and staff, unlike that of their counterparts (Brazzell, Anderson, Davis). In 1896, the Plessy v. Ferguson case brought this concern to the forefront, an d the courts ruled that public education could remain separate as long as all funded institutions had equal accommodations and facilities (Anderson, 1988). Yet, some PWIs had admitted and graduated a minimal amount of Black students. However, approximatel y 90% of all African American degree holders in the late 1940s had attended HBCUs. Brown v. Board of Education was a milestone case within the history of the United States of America. The resulting landmark decision made in 1954 by the U.S. Supreme Court declared segregation within schools unconstitutional, initiating change within the years following Brown was the driving force behind desegregation (Brown). Not only did t his Act prohibit segregation, it also gave the U.S. government grounds to sue and no longer fund any public school that maintained these discriminatory practices. This forced the majority of schools to abolish many traditional, prejudiced practices in orde r to receive federal funding (Brown). Ultimately, many Blacks were able to gain entrance to PWIs as students and educators The Relevance of Structural Diversity Ultimately, the contributions of Blacks in higher education have positively contributed to the structural diversity of colleges and universities within the United States of America. However, it is reasoned that while structural diversity is important, this level alone is insufficient in managing the educational benefits among students (Gurin, De y, Hurtado, & Gurin, 2002). Jackson & Phelps (2004) assess that structural diversity is necessary to promote diversity among faculty as well as positive learning

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40 outcomes for students of color. Jackson (2002) argues that the importance of increasing stru ctural diversity among administrators and decision makers is often times overlooked and underestimated. He stresses that while there are a significant number of White administrators at HBCUs, there are considerably fewer administrators of color at PWI s In addition, he notes that administrators of color had assumed roles developed PWIs. Unfortunately, there is limited research that addresses the importance of struc tural diversity in community colleges. Theoretical Framework propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the p theoretical framework, allowing more pragmatic and germane results (Brand, 2005). Theoretical frameworks, which must be spe cific and well thought out, are essential to Creswell, 2007). The conceptual frameworks utilized in this study include the representative bureaucracy and expectancy theories. Representative Bureauc racy Theory J. Donald Kingsley (1944) introduced the concept of representative bureaucracy. He contended that the shared middle class economic orientation between the British civil service and the dominant political party is what led to the effective imple mentation of policies within Great Brittan during World War II (Pitts, 2007). He further asserted that similarities in values and norms contributed to the likelihood of bureaucratic workers

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41 agreeing with and implementing the types of ideas and policies of those in elected offices (Pitts). Representative bureaucracy is a fundamental topic of public administration research. Meier & Nigro (1976) acknowledge that the principle of representative bureaucracy is that: the fundamental axiom/proposition underlying the concept of representative bureaucracy is: if the attitudes of administrators are similar to the attitudes held by the general public, the decisions administrators will make will in general be responsi ve to the desires of the public (p.458). Represe ntative bureaucracy has expanded over time into a fully developed theory maintaining that demographic composition of a bureaucracy should mirror the demographic composition of the public (Riccucci & Saidel, 1997). Mosher (1982) more precisely defines the t heory by including and differentiating two types of representation passive and active. While passive representation refers to the extent of demographic proportional representation among leaders and constituents (Meier & Bohte, 2001), active representation refers to the extent of leaders initiating programs or developing policies and procedures on behalf of a particular constituent group (Meier, 1993). bureaucracy has the s representation are passive focused, he acknowledges that passive representation links to active representation when ( 1) the demographic characteristic is highly salient, such as race; ( 2) individual bureaucrats have discretion to act; and ( 3) bureaucratic policy decisions are direct ly relevant to the passively represented characteristic.

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42 While the representative bureaucracy theory is widely referred to within the public administration field, it is relevant to additional areas and applicable in many different ways. Many education sc holars are using this theory in examining the representation of faculty and administrators within our institutions of higher education. Flowers (2003) uses this theory in conducting an exploratory study that examines the representation of African American student affairs administrators in postsecondary institutions. He examines their representation from both perspectives passive and active. First, its passive angle highlights the proportionality of African American student affairs administrators to Afric an American students enrolled in colleges and universities. Secondly, its active angle affirms that the diversity of student affairs leaders could influence the types of programs offered at institutions and ultimately affect the educational outcomes for A frican American students. This study applies the representat ive bureaucracy theory to explore how the specific experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs within the state of Florida relate to their influence on the selection or implementation of policies, programs, and procedures beneficial to their constituent groups (i.e. active) and to explore the decision making experiences of Black administrators at these institutions that are relevant to the passively represented characteristics Expectancy Theory It is widely utilized in studies regarding organizational behavior. It is mo re likely to apply to research that links effort with outcome as opposed to internal needs with effort. More specifically, the expectancy theory explores why an employee selects a particular path

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43 upon factors such as claim that effort will lead to The expectancy theory surmises that there are four concepts that contribute to the motivation needed to meet goals. First, there must be a positive correlation between efforts and performance. Secondly, favorable performance will result in a desirable reward. Next, the reward will satisfy an important need. Finally, the desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile. Credited with providing a basic paradigm for understanding and explai ning work motivation, Vroom bases the expectancy theory upon three constructs that guide behavior: 1. valence all possible affectiv e orientations toward outcomes ; 2. expectancy a subjective probability of an action or effort leading to an outcome or performa nce ; 3. instrumentality an outcome outcome association. ty that effort leads to the outcome of performance or second expectancy theory to explore how the specific experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs within the state of Florida effect their moti vation and decisions to retain and advance their careers at these institutions.

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44 Conclusion Administrator dive rsity plays an essential role in higher education. The changing and universities, particularly community colleges. While most emerging majority students begin their postsecondary careers at community colleges, the representation of administrators of color at these institutions is lacking in comparison. Higher education literature must expand to include research to address this reality from non traditional perspective s. This will assist in ensuring that administrators of all ethnicities as our higher education system.

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45 CHAPTER 3 DESIGN AND METHODOLO GY Overall Approach and Rational e This study applies qualitative methodology in exploring the experiences of Black administrators at two year Hispanic serving institutions (HSIs). Sofaer (1999) asserts that methodology of this type contributes to research and inquiries involving developm ental and historical processes within institutions, communities, and markets. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies represent opposing paradigms or world views all of which are intended to represent the ways in which humans understand or interpret th e world (Willis, 2007). Hara (1995) finds that qualitative researchers expand upon their personal viewpoints, while quantitative researchers pursue facts through recognizing trends and statistics. Qualitative research complements the most rigorous quantita tive research and represents a legitimate mode of social and human science exploration (Creswell, 2007). Bitsch (2005) affirms that the qualitative research approach may be utilized to address a multiplicity of issues and concerns. Qualitative research approaches, including grounded theory, are suited to tackle a wide range of problems. Qualitative methods can be used to better understand the details of phenomena which are difficult to address with quantitative methods. Their application is not limited to discovery, but includes qualification and correction of existing theories (p.89) Rossma n & Rallis (1998) provide s pecific character istics of qualitative research that include ( a) it is naturalistic ( b) it is emergent ( c) it is evolving ( d) it is in terpretive and ( e) it draws on multiple methods that respect the humanity of participants in the study. The purpose of this study is to explore issues relating to retaining Black administrators at two year HSIs in the state of Florida. The use of qual itative

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46 methodology also uncovers relevant secondary issues that provide additional insight into understanding their work experiences and how they function at HSIs, some of which include their work demands, work role conflicts, level of empowerment, career paths and goals, retention, and adaptation to institutional climate and culture. The findings, ultimately, are not only helpful to assisting and learning about the experiences of Black administrators at HSIs, but also to Black administrators within higher education in general. Moreover, qualitative inquiry provides exposure and clarity to these phenomena. A quantitative approach, on the other hand, could possibly overlook the uniqueness of the participants involved in this research (Creswell, 2007). Patto n (2002) specifies that thick, rich description is fundamental to qualitative analysis and reporting. Readers tend to become intimately involved with studies when the depth, open ended interviews, allowing administrators of African de s cent at HSIs to share their personal partic ipants are narrative in description, and readers, in turn, are able to become a part of their world. Patton (2002) maintains that shared life experiences are the foundation of at HSIs. Hence, the phenomenological approach is applied to examine the research question. Phenomenology asks for the very nature of a phe nomenon, for that which makes a some what it is and without which it would not be what it is (Van Manen, 1990, p.10).

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47 The intent of phenomenology is to understand the phenomena being studied (Klenke, 2008). There are various forms of phenomenology. However, Creswell (2007) distinguishes two specifically hermeneutic (Van Manen) and empirical, transcendental or psychological (Moustakas, 1994). While Van Manen describes hermeneutic phenomenology research as involving lived experiences and interpretation of life, Moustakas views transcendental or psychological phenomenology as involving less of nterpretations and more on the experiences of participants (Creswell). Moustakas also focuses on the concept of epoche researchers to have a fresh perspective or outlook on a phenomenon by setting aside their personal expe riences as much as possible. Creswell (2007) encourages novice researchers to analyze data utilizing the transcendental or psychological phenomenology approach to provide a more structured approach than that of the hermeneutic phenomenology. Additionally this includes systematic steps in the data analysis procedure as well as guidelines for assembling the textual and structural descriptions (Cr eswell). The re are eight major steps in this process: 1. The researcher determines if the phenomenological approac h best examines the applicable research problem. 2. There is a phenomenon of interest to study. 3. The researcher recognizes and specifies the broad philosophical assumptions of phenomenology. 4. Collected data are from the individuals who have experienced the phen omena. 5. The researcher asks participants two broadly general questions: What have you experienced in terms of the phenomena? What contacts or situations have typically influenced or affected your experiences of the phenomena?

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48 6. The researcher conducts a phe nomenological data analysis. This includes horizonalization (i.e., building on data from first and second questions, reviewing remaining data, and highlighting significant statements, sentences, or quotes that provide an understanding of how participants experienced the phenomenon) and developing clusters of meaning (i.e., fostering significant statements into themes). 7. The researcher uses clusters of meaning to write a textural description (i.e., a description of what the participants experienced) and imag inative variation or structural description (i.e., a description of the context or setting that influence how the participants experienced the phenomena). This also includes researchers writing about their own experiences and the context and situations tha t have influenced their experiences. 8. From the structural and textural descriptions, the researcher then writes the essential, invariant structure (or essence) (i.e., a composite description that The following su bsections Role of Researcher Data Collection Site Selection Participant Selection and Access Confidentiality and Informed Consent and Validity of Data Role of Researcher While there is a significant amount of research that focuses on the experiences of Black administrators at predominantly White institutions (PWIs), there is limited research that addresses their experiences at MSIs. As the researcher of this study, I attempted to explore and expose t he work experiences of Black administrators at HSIs, ultimately revealing what may be unknown, underestimated, or misunderstood regarding this group. I have a personal interest in this study because of not only my race, ethnicity, and Afrocentricity, but a lso because I serve in an administrative capacity year HSIs. These factors contribute to solidifying not only researcher participant commonality, but also participant participant commonality. Additi onally, they assist me in establishing rapport and developing trust with and among the participants. This possibly plays a part in the

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49 level of comfort and transparency displayed by the participants throughout the course of the study. Moreover, I chose t o research this topic due to my passion for recognizing and acting upon the need for change. When I initially began my doctoral journey, I firmly believed that my dissertation topic would involve the underrepresentation of Black male students in higher edu cation. However, in approximately my second year of doctoral studies, I began to identify and acknowledge challenges and other inequities th at were unique to fellow Black administrators at my institution of employment. This caused me to consider the sourc e of the inadequacies that existed in our higher education system instead of just the results. I determined that the shortage of Black administrators at this particular HSI contributed to not only the underrepresentation of Black male students, but it als o created additional barriers within the institution not just among student, but also among administrators, faculty, and staff. Additionally, I did not consider it coincidental that the majority of my fellow Black administrators shared similar concerns and stories. Whereas my passion for underrepresented Black male students has not dissipated, these discoveries have nurtured my interest in exploring the experiences of Black administrators at HSIs. There is still much to discover and analyze regarding this phenomenon, and this study is critical to the process. Although I can relate to many experiences of the participants, I am not familiar with all aspects. I play a dual role by maintaining my identity and relevancy as a Black administrator at a two year H SI as well as conducting myself as an objective researcher who is investigating the experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs; I am a researcher as well as a learner. Not only does

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50 this enhance the importance of my current administrative positi on, but also my future professional aspirations. Essentially, particularly since HSIs are the fastest growing higher educational institutions in the country, these findings should encourage similar work that will contribute to existing research involving h igher education administrators of African de s cent. Data Collection Methods Qualitative methodology involves three types of data collection: in depth interviews, direct observation, and written documents (Patton, 2002). Researchers primarily select their m ethods based upon what they aim to achieve through their studies. Patton (1987) finds that data collection options depend on answers to five questions: 1. Who is the information for and who will use the findings of the evaluation? 2. What kinds of informati on are needed? 3. How is the information to be used? For what purposes is evaluation being done? 4. When is the information needed? 5. What resources are available to conduct the evaluation? In depth interviews include open ended questions and probes that r esult in inions, feelings, and knowledge ; direct observation involves fieldwork that includes descriptions of eractions, organizational or community processes, or any other aspect of observable human experience ; clinical, or programs records, memoranda and correspondence, official publications and reports, personal diaries, letters, artistic works, photographs, and memorabilia, and written responses to open

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51 In depth interviews are the method of data collection applied in this study. The open ended questions not o nly allow me, as researcher, to pose questions to participants, but they also allow participants unlimited, unrestricted opportunity to share their experiences (Patton, 2002). The data collection methods of direct observation and written material would li mit the information regarding exploring the experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs because these methods are less likely to result in collection procedure s are not applied in this study due to the phenomena addressed. Patton (2002) identifies three approaches of interviews. First, the informal conversational interview inv olves researchers spontaneously generating questions during interviews with participa nts to ensure that necessary topics are covered. Lastly, the standardized open ended interview includes questions that are carefully worded and strategically arranged, and each participant is sequentially and intentionally asked the same types of question s. The standardized open ended interview approach is used in this study. This approach is selected primarily due to three of four reasons also identified by Patton: 1. The exact instrumentation (i.e., interview questions) used in the study may be inspecte d by those who wil l use the findings of the study. 2. ime to be used efficiently. 3. The ease of locating and comparing responses assist with the overall findings/analysis process.

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52 The general fra mework of the interview questions includes the foci of experience/behavior (explores what a person does or has done), opinions/values (explores the cognitive and interpretive process of individuals), feelings/emotions (explores the responses of people to t heir experiences and thoughts), knowledge (explores what an individual knows), and background (explores characteristics of persons interviewed) (Patton, 2002). The interview questions are formatted accordingly (Appendix A). Additionally, the interview que stions are sequenced in a manner that will promote richer, thicker descriptions and narratives from study participants because Prior to interviewing participants, they first received information detailing the st provi sions. I informed them that their participation was strictly voluntary and involved no y of Florida Institutional Review Board human research consent form (Appendix B), the interview process began. In an attempt to make the interviews as convenient and intimate as possible, I offered to travel Two of the participants selected face to face interviews while two preferred telephone interviews. I conducted the face to face interviews in locations and at times that they found convenient and comfortable. Each interview lasted between 45 and 90 minutes was d igitally and manually recorded, and professionally transcribed verbatim. I followed up with the participants during the course of the study. I spoke with them to receive clarification on comments made during the interview, and retrieve supplemental, rele vant information. Additionall y, I provided them with marked copies of

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53 their respective transcriptions They were able to see the removal and changing of identifiable and potentially identifiable information such as highly sensitive work experiences, na mes, and exclusive position titles. We communicated regarding the accuracy of the transcription, and they were given the opportunity to remove any information that they did not want included in the study. Site Selection Site selection is a critical part of qualitative research. Bodgan & Biklen (2007) note that when identifying a particular site for research, it is not only essential to consider the location in which the phenomenon or topic of study exists, but also pragmatic concerns such as ease of acce ss, distance, and timing (i.e., times and seasons). They discourage researchers from selecting their workplaces as site role in the work place and as a researcher. L ofland & Lofland (1995) identify three concerns in site selection appropriateness of site to topic of interest, access issues, and ethics (i.e., Should a particular site or group be studies by anyone ? If yes, then should this particular researcher conduc t the study? ). Study participants include Black administrators selected from a reputable multi campus two year HSI within the state of Florida. Points from Bodgan & Biklen and Lofland & Lofland assist in selecting a site for this phenomenological study. I select Florida p rimarily due to ( 1) population diversity, ( 2) transition of institutions, and ( 3) feasibility. Latino/a population (4.2 million residents), and also as having a diverse Hispanic population, including an increase of Central and South Americans in comparison to the 2000 Census. Additionally, coupled with the fact that 57% of African Americans now live

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54 in the Southern region of the country (Frey, 2010; Ye n, 2011) in comparison to 54% approximately one decade ago (U.S. Census, 2000), the U.S. Census (2010) identifies million residents), and a 7.9 million minority populatio n. Secondly, Santiago & Andrade (2010) confirm that there are many emerging HSIs; although some institutions have not yet reached a documented 25% full time equivalent undergraduate Hispanic student enrollment, many are within the range of 15 to 24%, soon to become official HSIs. According to a 2006 2007 list of emerging HSIs (Table 3 1), Florida was in the top five with 13 institutions on the verge of making this critical transition (Santiago, 2008), and 11 institutions within Florida were identified as H SIs (Table 3 2). Additionally, the NCES (2009) reports Florida as having 56 undergraduate and graduate degree granting institutions (Table 3 3 ) that enroll, graduate, and serve large portions of Hispanic students, with 11 identifying as HSIs in 2006 2007 (Santiago). As the Hispanic population continues to grow, many institutions not originally designed as HSIs are transition ing to HSIs. Finally, residing and working in the state of Florida provides more feasibility, convenience, and access in conducting t he fieldwork necessary for this study. There are 28 institutions within the Florida College System (FCS) (Florida Department of Education, 2011). Interestingly, federal guidelines qualify only three of them as being HSIs (Table 3 4). While approximately 58 % of Hispanics in 2000 began their postsecondary education at community colleges, 81% of all freshmen and sophomore minority students enrolled in public higher education in Florida will likely attend one of the institutions within the FCS (NCES, 2002; Fry, 2002; Kurlaender, 2006;

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55 Florida Department of Education, 2005). As a result, two year institutions are crucial to the FCS. Not only do HSIs already exist within the state, but there are also those that are emerging resulting from Hispanic enrollment grow th. This study, then, selects from the existing two year HSIs within the FCS to explore the experiences of Black administrators to understand and identify existing and potential issues within higher education. The three existing two year HSIs at the time of this study are Broward College (formerly Broward Community College), Miami Dade College (formerly Miami Dade Community College), and Valencia College (formerly Valencia Community College). Therefore, these are the only potential sites for this study. As per the recommendation of Bogdan & Biklen (2007), I have decided not to include Miami Dade College as one of my study sites. While Valencia College and Broward College have FTE 2009 2010 Hispanic student populations that exceed that of 25% (approximat ely 29% and 32%, respectively), they also have diverse student and administrator populations. Interestingly, the information included in the 2009 2010 Florida Education Equity Reports for both of these institutions is very revealing particularly regarding Blacks, Hispanics, and females across the three job categories of executive/administrator/managerial, faculty, and faculty/continuing contract (Florida Department of Education, 2010a, 2010b). The Broward College Florida Education Equity Report confirms th 2009

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56 employment goals to meet in 20 09 Report acknowledges that there were no 2008 2009 goals to increase executive/administrator/managerial representation for females and minorities, but notes being unsuccessful in meeting their goals of in creasing Hispanic and Other comparisons to Census benchmark data in all three categories. The selection of these state institutions allows for the examination of the experi ences of Black administrators at two year HSIs in central and southern Florida, two areas that have seen extensive growth in the Hispanic population, greatly contributing to the number of existing and emerging institutions of this type. Participant Select ion and Access Sagaria notes that student, academic, and administrative affairs are the three Each one is fundamental to the functioning of colleges and universities. As defined earlier in Chapter 2, administrators are individuals who serve in managerial capacities, having line or staff functions in these specific areas to ensure the smooth operation of our institutions. Administrator positions within these divisions respectively include, but are not limited to, Dean of Students, Director of Financial Aid, and Vice President for Student Affairs; Dean of Academic Affairs, Provost, and Department Chairs; and Administrative Dean, Director of Security, and Associate Vice President of Facilities (Cohen & Brawer, 2008; Jackson, 2001). This study includes administrators from student and academic affairs primarily because of their close, direct involvement with students and faculty.

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57 In communicating with the FLDOE as well as the Institutional Research and Equal Employ ment Offices at Broward and Valencia College s I first confirmed the percentage of Black administrators at these specific institutions. Secondly and more specifically, I contacted officials at each of these p articipating institutions to obtain a listing of Black administrators within the divisions of Student and Academic Affairs. I requested this information electronically from various College Officials, and they graciously respo nded accordingly This served the two fold purpose of directly ( 1) obtaining the names and e mail address es of the Black administrators and ( 2) identifying the number of Black administrators and their years of service within the specific divisions within the identified institutions. I then e mailed invitations to potential study participants who held administrator roles (with line or staff functions) for a minimum of three years within the division of Student or Academic Affairs (Appendix C ). I made follow up telephone calls to ensure receipt of invitations and allow potential study participants to ask me any questions. The first two respondents from each relevan t division from Broward and Valencia College s were selected, resulting in four participants overall. The specifics of study participants included male and female administrators of African de s cent that held line and staff positions and served in administrator capacities for a minimum of three years at HSIs. Overall, in examining the number of potential study participants obtain ed from Broward and Valencia Colleges as well as the Black managerial and non managerial there is a lack of Black administrator representation within the Student and Ac ademic Affairs divisions. Table 3 5 details the representation of Black Administrators within

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58 Student and Academic Affairs divisions at the participating institutions. Table 3 6 details the representation of Blacks in executive/administrative and clerica l/secretari al positions at Broward and Valencia College s The minimal representation of Black administrators within Student and Academic Affairs divisions and the imbalance of Blacks in executive/administrative and clerical/secretarial positions at these institutions acknowledge the underrepresentation of administrators of African descent at HSIs within Florida. The enthusiasm and eagerness shown by study participants provide a better understanding of the experiences of Black administrators at these insti tutions as well as how they relate to administrators of color within higher education in general. Confidentiality and Informed Consent Patton (2002) identifies confidentiality and informed consent as being two ethical challenges in qualitative interviewin g. Study participants received opening statements in advance of and during interviews. The following issues addressed, also derived from Patton, included ( 1) What is the purpo se of collecting the information? ( 2) Who is the information for? How will it be used ?, ( 3) What will be asked in the interview? ( 4) How will responses be handled, including confidentiality ? and ( 5) What risks and/or benefits are involved for person being interviewed? The Ethical Issues Checklist provides room for additional expl oration regarding these topics: explaining purpose promises and reciprocity risk assessment confidentiality informed consent data access and ownership interviewer mental health advice data collection boundaries and ethical versus legal (Patton). The combination of the questions and checklist assisted tremendously in ensuring that I, as the interviewer, exercised unquestionable professionalism throughout the entire study.

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59 Prior to the study, each participant received an informed consent form th at detailed every item on the Ethical Issues Checklist Additionally, at the beginning of each interview, participants signed their individual informed consent forms in my presence or scanned and e mailed them to me prior to their scheduled interview prov iding me with official researcher privileges. They also had the opportunity to ask me any questions regarding the information provided. All electronically generated data files were stored on a personal, password protected personal laptop kept regularly in my possession. The digital tape recordings, conventional cassette tape recordings, and manual interview transcripts were stored in a combination briefcase in an undisclosed location. Additionally, back up copies of all recordings and electronic data we re stored on a personal USB, an external hard drive, and in an electronic data storage account. The USB and external hard drive were stored in the combination briefcase referred to earlier, while the electronic storage account remained password protected a nd only accessible by interviewer. institutions remained confidential specifically when coding personally identifiable information. Gender appropriate pseudonyms derived from names of deceased Black educators in American history protected the identity of study participants, and selected generic names protected the identity of their respective institutions. The coding scheme allowed cross reference between actual participant names and pseudonyms assi gned, and as the researcher, only I had familiarity with its specifics. All data (electronic and non electronic) will remain in a secure, undisclosed location for one year following study completion.

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60 Validity and Reliability of Data Trustworthiness and a uthenticity are vital aspects of validity and reliability (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Erlandson, Harris, Skipper, & Allen, 1993). Stufflebeam & use in generating infere and when repeated information collection episodes yield, as expected, the same Creswell (2003) encourages researchers to consider perspectives of Merriam (1988) and Miles & Huberman (1984): 1. D escribe the internal validity (accuracy of the information and whether it matches reality) of the study. 2. D iscuss the external validity (lim ited, generalizability o f findings) from the study. 3. D iscuss the limitations of reliability (replication of results) of the study. This study includes points that verify these three aspects. First, to ensure internal validity I applied data triangulation (Denzin, 1978) and member checking. I examined the consistency of study participants (i.e., data sources) using the same methodology (i.e., interviews); I interviewed them at different points in time and in different settings, and I compared their viewpoi nts and made observations accordingly. I communicated regularly with study participants to confirm the accuracy of their interview transcriptions and ask them for clarification on inaudible words or phrases. Their participation allowed them the opportunit y to avoid any type of unintentional misrepresentation or discrepancies, and make necessary minor modifications. In addition, I voluntarily provided them copies of their final transcriptions.

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61 Next, to ensure external validity I used rich, thick, detail ed data descriptions (Merriam, 1988). Each interview provided detail and allowed the sharing of individual voices and experiences of the purposeful sample used in this study four Black administrators at two HSIs within the state of Florida. There is cat egorization, however, in the underlying themes of the study. Finally, to ensure reliability I relied on two specific techniques. While one involved providing detailed, relevant information in specific sections ide ntified earlier in Chapter 3 Role of Re searcher Data Collection Methods Site Selection and Participant Selection and Access the other involved exercising data triangulation, also known as triangulation of sources, as mentioned earlier regarding internal validity Conclusion Overall, the purpose of this study was to explore issues relating to retaining Black administrators at two year HSIs in the state of Florida. It also uncovered relevant secondary issues that provide additional insight into understanding their work experiences and how design employed in depth interviews as the method of data collection. The open ended questions not only allowed me, as researcher to pose questions to participants, but they also allowed pa rticipants unlimited, unrestricted opportunity to share their experiences, ultimately resulting in thick, rich narratives. These valid and reliable findings are not only helpful to assisting and learning about the experiences of Black administrators at HSI s, but also to Black administrators within other higher education sectors

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62 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS D ata Analysis This phenomenological qualitative study serves a two fold purpose. Primarily, it is to explore issues relating to retaining Black administrator s at two year HSIs in the state of Florida. Secondly, it is to understand their work experiences in an attempt to provide insight regarding how they function at HSIs. Four Black administrators at HSIs in Florida participated in interviews conducted speci fically for this study. All interviews were conducted in confidentiality, and the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement. In applying the phenomenological data analysis procedure, specifically ndental phenomenological mod el, five themes and 10 corresponding categories emerged from this study. phenomenological model: epoche, phenomenological reduction, imaginative variation, and synthesis of tex ture and structure. This model provides a more structured approach to the data collection findings (Cres well, 2007). One of the many ways in which Moustakas (1994) refers to the ongoing process of epoche is: the everyday understandings, judgments, and kno wings are set aside, and the phenomena are revisited, visually, naively, in a wide open sense, from the vantage point of a pure or transcendental ego (p. 33). Phenomenological reduction is wh the world and presuppositions to i dentify the data in pure form, uncontaminated by extraneous ultimately results in the identification of invariant themes (Patton, 2002). Each theme is then textural

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63 understanding how the co researchers as a group experience what 486). Synthe and composite structural descriptions, providing a synthesis of the meanings and The data analysis process remained cons tant during the course of this study, both during and after the data collection phase. Following each of the four interviews and prior to their professional transcribing, I made additional interviewer notes by listening to segments of each recorded sessio n and noting new and recollected thoughts and ideas. Immediately following each interview, I sent respective MP3 files to a carefully selected professional for expedited, verbatim transcription. As I received the resulting transcriptions, I reviewed them for further understanding and accuracy. Coding each transcript upon receipt assisted me in maintaining the ongoing data analysis process. Taxonomy was essential to the organization, documentation, and comparison of codes. I continuously reviewed all fou r transcripts and their respective codes for common, repetitive, and exclusive patterns, categories, and themes. model, exercising epoche allowed me to consider phenomena without b ias or prior ator a t an HSI I had to refrain from impart ial thinking (i.e., personal experiences, thoughts and feelings, and relevant knowledge) throughout the entire study. Yet, I felt psychologically

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64 empowered and more oriented to my role as a researc her as well as an administrator grounded on the four cognitions of meaning, competence, self determination, and impact (Spreitzer, 1995). Bracketing, a major part of phenomenological reduction, requires unbiased, meticulous interpretation of studied phenomena. The codi ng process assisted me in following the steps of bracketing (Denzin, 1989) : (1) i dentif ying key phrases and statements ; (2) i nterpreting their meanings ; (3) c onnecting the m n ; and (4) c reating provisional statements or defi nitions of these meanings allowed me to organize, document, and compare data and develop clusters of meaning. identification of invariant themes (Patton, 2002). Through imaginative variation, I considered these themes from different angles and then further enhanced each one. After reviewing them texturally (i.e., on the surface) and stru cturally (i.e., beneath the surface), I synthesized or combined these descriptions to establish the essential, essence of the phenomena studied. The five themes established from this study include (1) change agent s (2) intentionally inclusive values (3) intrinsic motivation for professional excellence (4) positive work environment, and (5) importance of advocacy Chapter 4 includes six sections Section s one and two allow readers to learn about and identify with s tudy participants and institution Sec tion t hree discusses thematic and saliency analyses. Sec t ions four through eight explore the experiences of these Black administrators by detailing and discussing the individual themes established within this study and providing thematic relevance.

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65 Study Participant Profiles Carter. A Black male upper level administrator at Motivational College, Carter not born in the United States of America, possesses an earned Ph.D., and has 26 years of experience in higher education. He is not actively seeking care er advancement at his current institution, but does not rule this out as a possibility in the future. Additionally, he has considered education related entrepreneurial ventures. Franklin. Franklin, an African American upper level administrator at Inspira tional College, possesses 31 years of experience in higher education. In addition to a n earned m aster s degree he has supplemental gra duate credits and has considered pursuing his doctorate. He is not seeking further advancement at his institution, but is considering entrepreneurial ventures in the near future to addres s the lack of knowledge within the community of color regarding navigating the higher education system Mary. An African American upper level administrator at Inspirational College, Mar y began her career in secondary education, but later transitioned to higher education. She has 41 years of experience in higher education, possesses an earned m aster s degree seeking fu rther advancement in higher education, but is considering secondary educational and non educational entrepreneurial ventures upon retirement Marva. Marva is an African American executive level administrator at Motivational College. Her experience incl udes upper and executive level administrative experience in higher education at minority and non minority serving institutions as well as secondary education and entrepreneurial ventures within and outside of Florida. She holds 31 years of experience i n h igher education, possesses a m aster s d egree, and is aspiring further advancement within higher education.

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66 Institutional Profiles Inspirational College. Inspirational College is a two year HSI within the state of Florida that has a long standing reputati on of providing impressive ins titutional support and maintaining a warm and welcoming institutional culture among its students, faculty, executive administration over t he course of the past few decades, Inspirational practices interactional justice and strongly advocates diversity and change. Motivational College. Motivational College is a reputable two year HSI within the state of Florida that has a track record of p romoting learning, development and diversity among not only its students, but also fa culty, staff, and administration Regardless of the change in executive administration that has occurred over the years, Motivational has a history of practicing interac tional justice, sustaining a progressive and acceptant institutional culture as well as providing notable institutional support Thematic and Saliency Analyse s According to Buetow (2010), thematic analysis, a primary method widely used by qualitative rese in a text by identifying and analyzing themes, which are large, abstract categor ies of meaningful data segments (p. 123). However, many researchers have questioned the importance of themes simply based upon the recurrence of codes (Braun & Clarke, 2006). As a result, many researchers have begun using saliency analysis in identifying and recognizing the meaning are sali ent at the data surface (primary salience) while also exposing the analysis by considering both the recurrence and importance of individual codes

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67 (Buetow). The them es in this study were identified using saliency analysis as opposed to thematic analysis, to provide an overall deeper meaning and essence of findings. The themes are, therefore, listed accordingly hereafter. Change Agent s Study participants viewed them sel ves as change agents. They had a histor y of identifying areas within their respective institutions in need of progress or advancement in their respective institutions and acting accordingly to address them Their personal experiences fe ll under the ca tegories of (a) maintaining institutional diversity, (b) taking advantage of professional growth opportunities, and (c) contributing to the growth and reputation of their re spective institutions. Still, their experiences varied based on category and appro ach. This study reveals that the change age nt theme is common among these Black administrators at HSIs. Additionally, they served as change agents within their individual spheres of influence not simply on an institutional level. Marva portrayed her sel f as one to identify and openly address diversity issues on behalf of students, faculty, and sta ff. She express ed her outlook on initiatin g and implementing vital change. Marva. We have an opportunity to address t he long graduation rates of all students as well as disaggregate those graduation rates of Hispanics and African American students. An institution that is not sensitive to those disaggregated cultures outside of the general culture or demographics outside of the entire student population may no t be at that attention if a minority administrator were have called attention to the low persistence rate of African American and Hispanic students had I not been sitting in this seat. As a result of me sitting in this seat, now the community knows that t his is not a population that you can dump in with everybody that it does require additional attention across all sector s of the college and make people aware of it. To tell you the truth, when I first brought it up those of our staff and faculty ask ed me, Why are you segregating ? Why are you doing that? All the other students are important, too! Why do they need spe ci al att I asked them have they read any national research, and obviously they had not. I

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68 brought that research to the institution, to this college, and made sure that they knew and made sure that we educated our students about that research so the y understood the factors that are perceived to be hindering in their persistence rates. Now we have students who understand the research and are working with Interview with study p articipant, September 2011. Marva confidently and eagerly brought issues to the forefront that remained unknown, hidden, or avoided. She displayed dedication and determination to causes that she deemed as being essential to the diversity, growth, and reput ation of Motivational College Ultimately, her cultural mindset, along with her professional role, faculty, and staff. Franklin indirectly referred to his upper level administrator attainment as contributing to change at Inspirational College. He also shared his biggest contribution to the institution. Franklin I think being able to be a good administrator in terms of the work able to provide support and making sure that we address and meet the needs of students and being able to be recognized with the college as someone at the college who you can c ontact to help get things done. M but the fact t hat you have the respect in the community as well as with your colleagues that you can help in working through differe nt situations and providing, being that person on the spot that can help take care of situations as they come up. Sometimes situati ons come up that deal with it, you can work with it, Interview with study participant, September 2011. Franklin clearly displayed pride in being an administrator at Inspirational College. He spoke hig hly of his professional growth and believed that giving back to others (both within and outside of the College ) was a quality that led to individuals having positive experiences and impressions about the institution.

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69 Carter credited himself with contributing to the institutional diversity at Motivational College. He explained one of his relevant experiences. Carter. I believe that the institution has made a concerted effort to maintain a balance an d has exhibited commitment to issues of diversity. In fact, over the years being here at the college, I have been an initiator of some of those, those efforts and a participant of some of those efforts to see the college respect diversity. Interview with study participant, September 2011. He also described a more specific experience in how he has contributed to diversity as an institutional change agent within his specific depart ment as a leading administrator. Carter. Certainly in my role I am committed to diversity. In fact I sa id to you that after 10 years as an Associate Dean I felt like I had come to the end of my own, my own goals. D iversity was a part of those objectives, the objectives I set myself as an Associate Dean. I described to you the f act that when I became the Associate Dean for a particular department there were 10 faculty members, two of which were women and so when I left, I le ft the department with I think three or four female members of the faculty. Commitment to diversity is ver y prominent in my own outlook for how I will do my work. Interview with study participant, September 2011. professional experiences that he viewed himself first as an Associate Dean, and then as a Black male. As a result, as a cha nge agent he tended to practice, exercise, or promote diversity not solely based on race or ethnicity, but also gender. to embark upon change correlates to the ). In order for any of the study participants to initiate or le ad efforts of change, they were first motivated to do so. They each demonstrated that they we re motivated to meeting goals through their display of determination, dedication, and commitment, r

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70 expectancy theory, their perceptions and values have shaped their behaviors or attitudes. Additionally, having the opportunity to serve as change agents, meaning effort leading to performance leading to outcome (E P O) has played a part in these administrators remaining and advancing as educational professionals at their respective institutions. Intentionally Inclusive Values All study participants served in administrator roles that required them to make critical decisions, with and without ample warning. Yet, decision making among study participants appeared intentionally inclusive in nature. The ir various professional experiences prompted them to develop this pattern. However, they still advocated viewing iss ues from a global perspective instead of from a solely exclusive angle hence the global thinking category Additionally, participants had different approaches and strategies when making decisions. Regardless of having different a dministrator roles, this theme, intention ally inclusive values remained prevalent in the experiences of Black administrators at these particular HSIs. This theme correlates to theoretical framework of the representative bureaucracy theory. Mary appeared inspired to make deci sions inclusive in nature based upon the mission of the institutio n. She explained her reasoning. Mary. Here at Inspirational College, we have this thing about a l earning centered institution, s always looking at how we reach all the students. E ac h time we hire somebody full time they have to give a definition of what that ac tually means to them. I think having that kind of a focus, we look at learning first, being assured, how learnin g connects with the community. And we try very hard as we make plans for even classes, courses that we o ffer. W the population, not just a segment of the population. Interview with study participant, September 2011.

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71 Working at a learning centered institution inspired Mary to exercise her intentionally inclusive values She wanted her decision making to mirr or the actions of Inspirational bureaucracy: I f the attitudes of administrators are similar to the attitudes held by the ge neral public, the decisions administrators will make will in general be responsive to the desires of the public (p.458) Franklin, on the other hand, seemed to make intentionally inclusive decisions due to the unrealistic expectations of others. He openly described his overall take on this matter. Franklin. I think overall there are different kinds of experiences. Sometimes there are plusses and minuses. Sometimes students tend to have unrealistic expectations because you are Black and because they belie ve that having difficulties or decision without thinking about any decisions that are made are decisions that must certai nly be for the who le rather than individualized. There are some situations that individual dec isions can be made, but again it becomes a situation that as consistent in te rms of those policies and procedures. Whether the students are Black, Hispanic or whatever their culture background is. Interview with study participant, September 2011. Contrary to what one may be inclined to think, his choice of decision making had noth ing to do with avoiding claims of exclusion. Instead, Franklin strongly believed in sometimes placed upon him at times by various individuals. He also believed serving in such a vital role as an upper level administrator required consistency in decision making, regardless of race/ethnicity or culture.

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72 Marva, admitted demonstrating this strategy in her decision making. She recognized the importance of thinking globa lly, but considered special provisions for populations in need. W hen probed about being overzealous or obsessed regarding certain causes or populations, she offered advice based on her experiences for those aspiring leadership roles. Marva t look at things globally and have a vision for the entire institution, th ey are not going to succeed. So when you sit in these got to be able to look at all those things that have potential impact and have the ability to move the bar on th ose things for a large scale change. When you have the kind of student population that Motivational College has, it has to be about large scale change. It can never be about boutique programs that only af fect 50 students ; you can have more students but o nly 50 students are engaged in that particular strategy or intervention. This is about moving the bar and identifying those strategies that can have large scale institutional change. So if you have t moving the bar by scale change that I can make to benefit all students. If I add another special intervention to that same program, I could also benefit African American and Hispanic African American and His panic student in a category, regardless of what the research and living proof. Interview with study participant, September 2011. Marva strongly promoted global thinking. She believed in making decisions for the institution as a whole, but also strategized these decisions to address specialized initiatives. She also provided an example of a specific program at Motivational College. Marva. We know that all of our student s need orientation to get acclimated to the college environment and those students who are first generation, first time in college need it even more. So what we have instituted here at Motivational is orientation for everybody, but in addition to orientat ion for everybody, we have a s pecial orientation for male students of color So orientation is for everybody, scale program. But underneath the large scale program is a special boutique orientation so that we can put indicators on those s tudents to see if that intervention of specialty really helped them or would they have succeeded just by the general orientation? So those are the things that you

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73 could do and still not be consumed but always keep it in the forefront of initiatives and st Interview with study participant, September 2011. As an upper level administrator, Marva is subject to college wide decision making on a regular basis. Intentionally inclusive values therefore, are vital to th e overall success of Motivational College. Mary, Franklin representative bureaucracy theory. Mary and representation, the extent of demographic propo rtional representation among leaders and constituents (Meier & Bohte, 2001), while Marva more so aligned with active representation, the extent of leaders initiating programs or developing policies and procedures on behalf of a particular constituent grou p (Meier, 1993). Intrinsic Motivation for Professional Excellence Study participants appeared dedicated to their individual work roles. In regards to their individual performance, they seemed to have intrin sic motivation for professional excellence Thei r experiences fell under the categories of (a) professional representation and (b) proving self to others. In some instances, participants blatantly admitted that they held themselves to higher work standards in order to receive or maintain respect, while others inferred that their higher work standards contributed to their success and professional reputation at their respective institutions. Due to the long span of their respective professional careers, it appears that these Black administra tors were int rinsically not extrinsically, motivated for professional excellence throughout their entire careers.

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74 Franklin appeared well grounded in his professional principles He was not only professionally self motivated but he also encouraged younger professiona l s to do the same. Franklin. O ften when I talk with young professionals, I talk about the fact You know, sfied with the norm. Y a way that you realize not only do you represent yourself ting Interview with study participant, September 2011. Inspirational College, inspired him to expect or demand more from himself. He apparently believed in this professional work ethic because he mentioned that he often shares this advice to future educational leaders. Carter shared his indirect motivation for professional excellence that stemmed from the beginning of his career at Motivational College. He shared a description of his employm ent history at this institution. Carter. T here was not a position here at the colleg e at the time I came. What happened was there was an individual who was going off on sabbatical and I ju st came at the right moment. I was pretty much put into the position without the quote u nquote normal procedures of interviewing by a committee or what hav e you. I was appointed f or the position. A t the end of that position, at the e nd of that one year tenure, I was kept on. The position was created and transformed into a permanent position. And so quote unquote resentful that I came in without having to go through a normal search. But then after I began to pro duce students reports were positive and my work was being appreciated by students, then folks sta rted to open up and jell towards me as a professional. Interview with study participant, September 2011. Carter understood that due to the non traditional m anner in which he obtained his first position at the institution, he had to prove himself as a

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75 professional to others. He did not doubt his abilities, but wanted to ensure those who may have resented or doubted his appointment that he was more than capabl e of performing as a higher education professional. Marva shared her motivational experience in a different light than Franklin and Carter. Marva Some are intimidated because I speak my mind S ome are g the truth or not sayin g it at all. T hen others ar e just indifferent and decide not to address it or ignore it or whatever the case may be a with all three as long as when you are in my presence you communicate honestly W but if I should find out about it I may call you on it. Interview with study participant, September 2011. sed solely on her decision making regarding policies and procedures at the institution but also on her commitment to high professional work standards as an ad ministrator of color. She prided herself on the reputation she managed to build and maintain at Motivational College. According to Mary, she once encountered a colleague questioning her professional abilities. Her intrinsic motivation for professional excellence regardless of how her personal life was affecting her professional life, greatly contr ibuted to her ability to continue being an effective administrator. She then explained herself further. Mary. I was asked one time if I wanted to go back into th e classroom and my threat at an now going back to the classroom. This person did not know me that well, and now out of the puzzle. It took her four days to understand going to I had just lost my natural mom and what I call my second and third mom, so she thought I was depressed and I she has since then apologized a number of times for having thought that I could not continue to do the work in the department.

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76 Interview with study participant, September 2011. Through self described det ermination, Mary refocused her pro f essional mindset in spite of her recent losses, and rose to the occasion. She received no type of threat to do so; it appears this was a decision she made solely on her own. motivation for professional excellence She understood that while she mentally pressured herself to be a successful administrato r in principle and practice, she still ha d to consider her physical and mental needs. Mary. You never Oh, my complete, my best ng pending. I can go out t You just have Interview with study participant, September 2011. Mary had to force herself to take a break from her daily responsibilities. She re alized that if not, she would never be satisfied enough to pull away from her work agenda due to her high professional expectations eory (1964). Each of the participants had individual perceptions and values that shaped their behavior s and attitude s and their work related actions demonstrate why they selected particular career paths or courses of action in particular professional wor k situations For example, imposed commitment to high quality work standards appeared prompted by experiences during his long standing career at his institution at Inspirational College, professional standards had to align wi th her shared experiences at in trinsic professional excellence motivation w as enhanced by others opinions within the workplace. Carter felt the need to prove

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77 himself to those who felt as if he possibly was not dese rving of his initial professional opportunity at Motivational College, and Mary increasingly pressured herself to work harder when her professional abilities were one questioned. Their experiences infer that they each imposed higher work standards upon the mselves as a result of their inner desires to be unequivocally successful administrators. Positive Work Environment Study participants explained the importance having a positive work environment. The categories of (a) institutional culture and (b) insti tutional support contributed greatly to their individual levels of progress at their respective institutions. In some instances, greater role than insti tutional suppo rt. Yet, there were times in which institutional support played a greater role in their advancement levels than institutional culture Ultimately, a positive work environment is essential to job satisfaction, employee retention, and career advancement (Hu rtado, 2007; Hurtado, Milem, Clayton Pederson, & Walker, 1998). effectiveness and image when they find their work to be meaningful and believe in the mission of the organization (Chalofsky, 2010 ). These administrat some support of the importance of these critical elements that construct such an environment Mary described working in a positive work environment. One of her experiences in particular highlighted her satisf action with the institutiona l culture. Mary. Our faculty staff is a very diverse group. It really is. L et me give you a little bit of background on how we do that. We do our hiring through interview committees, and the committees have to be made up of, p eople of all levels. We always have to have a diversity rep on that. That person helps us determine from our pool of applicants if we have been fair. If we turn in a list and it had all

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78 African Americans on it, for instance, it will probably go back to human we have done all of these things is in the making of how human resources handles the hiring. We have to be diverse in hiring, and if you walked across the campus any day you would be able to see from the grounds people all the way up to top administration that the diversity is truly there. You can see people from our nationalities to everything. You can just walk in an office and see that. Ah, you can just walk in a d e faculty members come in. set to go back out on committees I was a part of and they said no; we need a more diverse pool of people fro m which to choose. Now granted, you do have maybe only certain folks are interested in those areas of education, but all of faculty, staff, all of th very diverse. Very, very diverse. Some people are amazed just observing how diverse. Interview with study participant, September 2011. accepted, and promoted the insti standing dedication to diversity, which has made her a successful and dedicated administrator at this institution In addition, Franklin has experienced a positive work environment as a Black administrator at Inspirational College. He c haracterized his work environment as such primarily due to the l evel of institutional support he has experienced. Franklin. I tunate in working with Inspirational had as well as representing the college in d ifferent kinds of situations t ravel, as well as professional development and being able to actually come back and contribute my share. A able to do. And I certainly cannot say that all of those things happened because I am who I am, but I think that along the way someone saw something, some potential that they decided to give me that support and that help and I often say the same thing to students. You can always fin d someone that will be willing to help you, assist you, and you need to make sure that you understand that. You they can see the potential in you and help you develop that potential if you choose to go in that direction.

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79 Interview with study participant, September 2011. Franklin showed strong appreciation for the institutional su pport at Inspirational College. He contributed this to not only the growth of his professional career but also his retention at this institution. theme and its corresponding categories. Both Franklin and Mary exhibited motivation and commitment to their institutio n based on their experiences from the institutional culture and support of Inspirational College. T heir overall satisfaction, as well, was instrumental to their individual decisions of developing and advancing their higher education careers at Inspirationa l College. The positive perceptions and values of the individual work environments. Importance of Advocacy Finally, t his study found that these Black administrators at HSIs recognized the importance of advocacy at t heir respective institutions. I categorized their various professional experiences as (a) isolatio n and (b) cultural relevance T heir experiences provi ded a different outlook or perspective on what may be define advocacy For example, some administrators relate d the challenges of isolation to the importance of having appropriate racial/ethnic advocacy at institutions Additionally, some administrators also provided examples of how cultural relevance is ac utely related to the importance of racial/ethnic advocacy at institutions Overall, these administrators did not focus exclusively on advocacy based on representation in numbers, but also on advocacy based on racial/ethnic emotional connection These stu dy interviews provide rich and detailed descriptions of these experiences that support this final major theme.

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80 Mary provided a prime example of how a particular program at Institutional College promoted the importance of cultural relevance and advocacy a mong employees She found this a helpful component considering the minimal racial/ethnic representation of Black administrators in her capacity. She further explained appreciation of this college specific program and how it contributed to her profe ssiona l growth and development. Mary. T he intent of that is to train us to work with each other regardless of who we are. I have been a part of this for a number of years, and we exchange ideas, we find out what things we have in commo n, how we differ. List en, when having gone through training like that W e get to k now each other, we get to find out, you know, things about our, our So that way when I find myself all alone part of. So that, that gives me the gumption I need to move forward. Interview with st udy participant, September 2011. enas in which she was the only Black/African American. However, she acknowledged that these situations encouraged and supported her in the interactions that she had with others serving as an advocate not only herself, but other Black/African American adm inistrators, as well. Carter shared a similar experience tying his direct involvement with developing programs for academic preparedness and its connection to improving the academic success of racial/ethnic students who primarily lack these academic skills As an upper level administrator, he recognized the importance of meeting the needs of a ll students, but expressed challenging feelings when faced with issues that directly impacted minority students, more specifically those that were African American.

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81 Carter. Pronounced issues in this two year institut ion would be such ones like academic preparedness fo r the students coming to us How do we meet those needs, the needs of those students coming to us in a wa y that will facilitate academic success. Her e at this tw o year institution we have 78% of our students come in here. They need some kind of remediation. I find this to be a very pronounced issue in this environment. And then of course the fact that we have these 78% of the folks here needing remed iation, very often they are African Americans or minority students w ho exhibit those needs. As someone who is attuned to issues related to self, it becomes a stressor, if you will, as to how to see folks needing assistance so many of them and how to addre ss them. Yeah, so for me, that issue of seeing my own people needing the remediation before they can be quote unquote successful or while they are pursuing academic success is an issue You know, for me, my role and wanting to serve and wanting to be hel pful, you see, that I would consider to be an issue. Interview with s tudy participant, September 2011 Carter understood that the African American student group was not alone in their need for remediation, but his ability to relate to them as a Black admin istrator added additional pressure for him to make decisions that could positively affect their academic futures and directly improve the racial/ethnic advocacy for the student population of color at Motivational College The theoretical framework of rep resentative bure aucracy assisted in developing and understanding this theme. For example, Mary acknowledged that she often times attended meetings in which she was the only African Am erican administrator present. She recognized that t hese meetings contri buted to the implementation of policies, programs, and procedures that would ultimately affect the Black population students, faculty, and staff and she, at some point in time, actively represented their interests. Likewise, Carter actively represented the interests of the same Black population, but more specifically the student population. His primary concerns regarding the minority student population in need of remediation, specifically the Black student population,

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82 served as a factor in his decision making process regarding academic preparedness strategies and programs and their link to institutional diversity representation C onclusion In general, this phenomenological qualitative study explored the work experiences of four Black administrators at t wo year HSIs in Florida. Through semi structured interviews using open ended questions, the purpose of this research was to explore issues relating to retaining Black administr ators at two year HSIs within the state. Additionally, it attempted to provide insight regarding how they function at these institutions, ultimately improving their work experiences. Data collection was analyzed phenomenological model, which included eopche phenomenological reduction, imaginative variation, and synthesis of texture and structure. The findings of the study included five themes and th eir corresponding categories: change a gents (institutional diversity, growth, and contributions to instituti on); i ntentionally inclusive values (global thinking); intrinsic motivation for professional excellence (professional representation and proving self to others); p ositive work e nvironment (institutional culture and institution al support); and importance of advocacy (isolation and cultural relevance). C hapter 4 attempted to bring awareness to the issues of Black administrators at two year HSIs, and provide direction to those who aspire to advance within higher education administration or to those who wish to understand the exper iences of this particular group.

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83 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSI ON O verview This study examined the work experiences of four Black administrators at two year HSIs in Florida. Its primary purpose was to explore work related issues re lating to retaining Black administrators at these institutions. Secondarily, its purpose was to understand their work experiences in an attempt to provide insight regarding how they function at HSIs. In depth, semi structured interviews, along with open ended interview questions, provided detailed information regarding their individual experiences. In applying the phenomenological data analysis procedure and following the systematic he, phenomenological reduction, imaginative variation, and synthesis of texture and structure), five corresponding themes and 10 categories emerged from this study. Chapter 5 consists of six sections Section one provides a summary of related literature and methodology. Section two involves a discussion of data analysis as it relates to the research literature and identified theoretical frameworks Section three focuses on thematic relationships that relate to the retention of Black administrators. Sec tion four expands on the professional and institutional implications for educational leadership. Section f ive suggests recommendations for future studies. Section six provides concluding thoughts about this study. Summary of Related Literature and Method ology In examining existing research along with the overwhelming dearth of Black em, there was a need to further investigate the experiences of Black administrators at MSIs, particularly HSIs. This was

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84 crucial considering that HSIs serve the most diverse, non White student populations of all two year MSIs and are among the fastest growing institutions in the nation. The following research question guided this study: What are the work life and profes sional experiences of Black administrators at HSIs? This question also uncovered and examined multiple relevant aspects gleaned from the research literature that included, but were not limited to, work demands, work role conflict s, and levels of empowerme nt. In particular, this study focused on understanding the unique work life experiences of Black administrators at HSIs within the state of Florida. The research literature offered some support and limited insights that supported a more extensive explorat ion of this higher education phenomenon. It also offered a general overview of the American higher education system, which highlighted the burgeoning growth of MSIs and HSIs in American higher education In particular, the extant research community highl ighted the expansion of diversity of community college students (e.g. Black and Hispanic students) and the challenges of having a college administration that reflected this student diversity. The research clearly highlights that administrators of color, a nd particularly Black administrators, can play a valuable role in the construction of institutional structural diversity. Finally, I provided a brief discussion of two theoretical frameworks that guided the development of the interview protocol and the in terpretation of the major themes. For instance, Kingsley (1944) provided a discussion of representative bureaucracy that directly supports the importance of understanding how individuals in organizations play a pivotal role in increasing the representatio n of the organization and should reflect the public that in serves. In

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85 theoretical/conceptual framework that shapes individual behavior within an organization. Specifically, this framewo likely to shape their behavior or attitude. In this particular study, how Black administrators valued racial/ethnic institutional diversity clearly shaped their professional behavior s and attitu de s The next section provides additional insights about how the findings from the study inform the current literature and support the theoretical framework. Discussion of Data Analysis alysis used with in this study. This provided a systematic, structured approach to analyze the findings of the data collected. This involved the steps of epoche, phenomenological reduction, imaginative variation, and synthesis of texture and structure. T his resulted in the identification of five themes and 10 corresponding categories within this study. This, in turn, directed the foundation for the data analysis discussion. The interviews with Black administrators at HSIs offered a compelling descripti on of the challenges and rewards of working in these unique institutions. As mentioned earlier, after an analysis of the interview transcripts I developed five themes and 10 corresponding categories: 1. C hange agents (institutional diversity, growth, and c on tributions to institution) 2. I ntentiona lly inclusive values (global thinking) 3. I ntrinsic motivation for professional excellence (professional representation and proving s elf to others) 4. P ositive work environment (institutional cult ure and institutional supp ort) 5. I mportance of advocacy (is olation and cultural relevance)

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86 theoretical frameworks for the development of these themes and categories. In further exploring these themes within the data analysis process, aspects of certain themes connected in meaning, relevance, and interpretation. However, each theme maintained its uniqueness to the posed interview questions particularly those classified under the categories of background and workplace climate, were very positive in nature their individual senses of self advocacy their expressed strides to obtain personal, essential need s and/or accommodations in which they felt entitled. While they did acknowledge they had faced challenges throu ghout their individual careers such as, but not limited to, discrimination and conflict they lea rned to overcome them by developing and maintain ing a sense of self agency via self efficacy Self Moreover this concept is not rightfully understood without fu lly acknowledging how one arrives at this point. Bandura asserts : Efficacy beliefs are the foundation of human agency. Unless people believe they can produce desired results and forestall detrimental ones by t heir actions, they have li ttle incentive to act or to persevere in the face of difficulties. Whatever other facto r may operate as guides and motivation, they are rooted in the core belief that one has the power to pr (p.11) Optimism and confidence were extremely preva lent throughout the entire interview protocol.

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87 Change Agents Gaston Gayles, Wolf Wendel, Tuttle, Twombly, & Ward (2005) conducted a study that examined how the civil rights era (e.g. 1950s through 1970s) altered the roles of 18 student affairs professional s They identified six role changes, including that of change agent. They also s tressed that while these professionals made great strides in was important for their in stitutions to respond positively to the challenges raised during the civil rights era (p.276). Similarly, the participants in my study felt a sense of obligation to act as change agents within their institutions. Although Gaston Gayles et al. focused on student affairs professionals, their findings also apply to the student and academic affairs administrators at HSIs who participated in this study. Interestingly, not only were the attitudes of participants in both studies similar in nature, but the parti cipants were also products of the civil rights era through education, employment, or both. The participants in my study assessed their work environments by examining not only their respective departments or areas of interest, but also the general functioni ng of their institutions. When they identified segments that were in immediate or gradual need of change, they positioned themselves to act upon these concerns. In some instances, they were directly involved in implementing change, whether they served on c ommittees, had direct involvement with major policy makers, or made administrative decisions. In others, they chose the indirect approach and strategized by using other individuals, situations, or even professio nal growth opportunities to execute change These experiences all fell under the categories of institutional diversity, growth, and contributions to the institution. Hoppe (2003) emphasizes that regardless of respective

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88 des in the Their experiences were crucial to the identifying of this theme. Intentionally Inclusive Values Decision making was unavoidable for any of the study participants. However, when making dec isions, they were more likely to make those that were global or inclusive in nature, regardless of their special interests. This frame of mind assi sted in portraying them as all inclusive thinkers who were concerned with the overall interests of the gener al population instead of a particular group such as the Black community, students, or staff. Scales & Brown (2003) addressed the issues of race and responsibility among two African American executive administrators at a particular institution predicated o n a campus related incident. Elements of their research were very similar to this study consi dering that they interviewed administrators that were on the same campus, and these administrators represented b oth Student and Academic Affairs While the focal point of this campus incident involved the dissatisfaction of African American students with the response of college administration concerns were voiced by students, staff, and faculty of all races regarding this situation. The se tw o particular administr ators were challenged in their roles primar ily due to their race/ethnic ity versus institutional responsibility but also recognized the importance of racial/ethnic loyalty, considering that their professi onal and personal decisions and behavior had the propensity to positively or negatively impact the entire student, faculty, and staff population Moreover, t he study participants viewed inclusiveness as a strategy to benefit or support specialized i nitia tives that may not have come to fruition without inclusive

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89 decision making and their experiences were categorized under global thinking Bauman, Bustillos, Bensim on, Brown, and Bartee (2005), in one of a three part research series regarding the American A (AAC&U) Making Excellence Inclusive initiative focus on the deficits in equitability, responsibility, and performance at institutional levels regarding the academic achievements of the underrepresented student popu lation and highlight one particular institution that is making great strides in reversing this norm They emphasize that while many institutions take great pride in the diversity of their student populations, they lack in meeting the pertinent needs of und errepresented students Therefore, inclusive decision making, as demonstrated by the study participants, has resulted in providing the necessary attention and programs to student populations that would, otherwise, likely be ignored. Intrinsic Motiva tion for Professional Excellence Th ere is existing research that addresses work pressure challenges among Black administrators in higher education. Chun & Evans (2011) identified lack of support from supervisors, differential treatment, la ck of participat ion in decision making, and bullying/forms of emotional tyranny as common concerns among administrators of color. d ry into the academic work force: voluntary removal from the system; mandatory removal from the system ; disenchantment with career choic e and institution, resulting in low morale and job performance, and high job satisfaction, resulting in career sustainability and advancement. Mo re specific research has stressed that Black administrators have frequently felt as if they were measured by different standards than others, and were, as a result, obligated to higher performance

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90 standards (Hamilton, 2009 ; Rolle, Davies, & Banning, 2000 ) Even older studies provide similar type results ( Davis, 1994; Watson, 1972 ). The experiences of study participants within this partic ular theme fell under the categories of p rofessional representation and pro ving self t o others. These Black administrato rs were dedicated to their individual professional roles and confident in their professional skills and abilities They each made the individual decision to uphold higher than normal work standards, ackn owledging that this would help instead of hinder the ir reputations and growth at their respective institutions (Dawson, 1997; Miller & Vaughn, 1997) Every participant, as well, had excellent work ing relationships with their supervisors, colleagues, and central administration. The maintaining of their wor k standards, undoubtedly, had contributed to this fact, particularly considering the change in administration experienced during their tenure at their respective institutions. With the exception of one of the four participants, each had remained employe d at these institutions for the entirety of their higher education career s; i nterestingly, none of them shared that negative situations with supervisors or college administration enforced or prompted their high work standards. In fact it was found in thi self imposed work standards were a matter of choice, not force. Positive Work Environment Hurtado (2007) and Hurtado, Milem, Clayton Pederson, & Walker (1 998) stressed that a positive work environment is essential to job satis faction, employee retention, and career advancement for employees. Porter & Lawler (1965) and Sellgren, Ekvall & Tomson (2008) claimed that job satisfaction and retention depended on positive work climates. These credible findings, as well, are not limi ted to that of only higher education, but also applicable to other fields (McFarlin, Coster, Rice, & Cooper, 1995).

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91 The Black administrators in this study expressed that institutional culture, support and/or climate contributed to the level of comfort at their respective institutions. This was prevalent throughout the entire study and the majority of their experiences were categorized under institutional culture and institutional support Davis (1994) found respect and support essential to the retention of higher education administrators. This appeared to be the case with these study participants. Apparently, they were satisfied with both considering th at, as mentioned previously the major ity of them had worked at their respective institutions for their entire higher education careers. They all viewed themselves, directly and indirectly, as products and well as producers of institutional culture and support. This contributed to the level of comfort that they felt not only at these instituti ons but also in their individual roles. Importance of Advocacy Perna, Gerald, Baum, & Milem (2007) indicated that inequities in representation existed among faculty and administrators in higher education. White (2005) noted that higher education lacks representation of Black administrators in executive and/or decision making roles. However, t he Black administrators in this study defined representation as more than numbers; t hey made an emotional connection with representing the Black population regarding decision mak ing and policy implementation. In some cases, they sat in positions in which he or she was part of a decision making process and chose to stand up to programs, policies, and procedures that negatively affected the Black population. Additionally, observing the Black student population in need and agonizing over how to meet these needs greatly affected the psyche of these Their experiences identified the categories of isola tion and cultural relevance, which

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92 ultimately led to the identification of this theme. This study applied the representat ive bureaucracy theory to explore how the specific experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs within the state of Florida r elate d to their influence on the selection or implementation of policies, programs, and procedures beneficial to their constituent groups. Thematic Relationships align with the themes identified by Repetto, Cavanaugh, Wa yer, & Liu (2010). More specifically, Rep etto et al. explore how learning environments affect completion rates for students with disabiliti es. They found that connect, climate, control, curriculu m, and caring community essential to improving the completion and success of retention of Black administrators at two year HSIs. While these studies refer to two diff erent groups, they are predicated on the same factors. Implica tions for American Higher Education System While a significant number of studies have been conducted regarding the experiences and perceptions of Black administrators at PWIs many of t hem have been problem oriented, highlig hting or identifying the obstacle s, inequalities, and challenges at institutions. This study, however, contributed solution oriented approaches to assist in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of Black administrators within the American higher education system and conveyed three significant implications from exploring the experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs in Florida. Positive institutional climate and culture are vital to the retention and career ad vancement of Black administrators at HSIs Institutional climate and

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93 culture result in positive work environments (Hurtado, 2007; Hurtado, Milem, Clayton Pederson & Walker, 1998; Porter & Lawler, 1965; Ekvall & Tomson, 2008) This plays a crucial role in the employment decisions of Black administrators. All of the study participants demonstrated a high level of satisfaction with the climate and culture of their respective c ampuses/institutions, and from their shared experiences th ey chose to remain employed and advance within these institutions Their experiences not only provide direction to other Black administrators, but they also encourage institutions to be mindful of their specific climates and cultures. Inclusiveness and racial/ethnic relevance are major components in the decision making of Black administrators at HSIs All participant s wit hin this study served in decision making capacities They considered situatio ns from more than one perspective to ensure inclusiveness of their respective campuses while also acknowledging the needs of specific student populations. Pickron (1991) expressed that th e university experiences of Black administrato rs in higher education. Yet the study participants exhibited great balance in their decision making skills, ultimately r esulting in meeting the overall needs of the institution while still fulfilling their heartfelt obligations to their race/ethnicity. Their experiences exemplify how professional allegiance along with racial/ethnic relevance can result in effective, efficie nt decision making. The retirement wave within the higher education system is an opportunity to increase the representation of senior level Black administrators at HSIs There

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94 is an ongoing retirement wave within the American higher education system. Wei sman & Vaughan (2001, 2007) reported that 24% of community college presidents planned to retire between 2006 and 2009, and 50% planned to retire by 2010; t he Career and Lifestyle Survey (CLS) of community college presidents (which had 545 respondents) yiel ded several notable findings: 84% planned to retire between 2006 and 2010; 57% were age 58 or older; and 88% classified themselves as White (Wiseman &Vaughan, 2007). Not only does this provide a snapshot of the comm unity college leadership crisis in gener al, but also leads into the crisis among the Black administrator community. There is already an overall lack in representation among Black administrators, and as more continue to retire, the dearth in Black administrator representation will continue. Inte restingly, two out of the four study participant s spoke of their upcoming retirement and the youngest of the participants was 58 years old Boggs (2003) asserts that while categorized as a leadership crisis, the retirement wave is a potential opportunity of career advancement for current or aspiring administrators, particularly those of color. This is a point that should be considered in addressing the lack of Black upper level/executive adminis trators within higher education. Re c ommendations This pion eer study explored the experiences of Black administrators at two year HSIs in Flo rida. It s findings validate the nee d to expand upon solution oriented practices and research regarding similar topics. Due to growth of HSIs within the United States of Ame rica, further information on this general topic will be beneficial to educational leaders and administrators, faculty and st aff, and policy makers. Six

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95 recommendations for leaders, institutional policy makers, and future rese arch resulted from this study Leaders should serve as examples by promoting administrator diversity within their respective departments/divisions. Regardless of how diverse an institution may appear, there is always room for improvement. Leaders should, therefore, promote diversity w ithin their respective departments primarily through their efforts to widen the pathway to administrator positions. There are several ways in which this may be done. For example, they can require larger pools of diverse, qualified candidates in their hiri ng decisions, insist upon advertising positions through a variety of conventional and unconventional sources and act to dissolving any evidence/ trace of marginality or minimal growth potential among administrati ve positions. Leaders should know why Black administrators leave or remain at two year HSIs. Many Black administrators began their careers at their respective two year institutions prior to their designation as an HSI. While s ome Black administrators throughout this transition, have decided to rem ain at these institutions, others have decided to leave. By thoroughly examining their experience s at HSIs, leaders would identify those factors that are most essential to their retention and to their leaving and act accordingly to implement change I nst itutional policy makers should require executive leadership to submit annual reports justifying or explaining the ethnic/racial increase and decrease of admi nistrators of color in their respective areas O ften times, executive administration overlook s or disregard s the fluctuation among these group s representation. The reasoning often times goes unknown, avoided, and unaddressed.

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96 Instead of strategically tackling or balancing inequities ar ound times of audit, rating, evaluation, or moments of publicity, institutions should have policy in place to maintain equitable, diverse administrator representation throughout its various departments a nd divisions One way of achieving th is would in clude Human Resources assessing the racial/ethnic representation of a dministrators of color at the beginning of each academic year an d preparing specific reports for executive leadership accordingly These figures would, in turn, be monitored annually, and executive leadership will provide a culminating report explaining ad ministrator changes (e.g. new hires, resignations, dismissals) in their respective areas. I nstitutional policy makers should provide a safe, n on retaliatory option for employees of all levels to voice concerns or offer suggestions. Employees of all level s should be entitled to share their concerns and su ggestions regarding all aspects of their respective institutions. However, they are often times deterred from doing so due to fear of reprisal, unwarranted disciplinary actions, and uncalled attention. Thi s provides a disservice to higher education because it prevents the sharing of an incredible amount of information, suggestions, and tactics that could possibly contribute to significant, benef icial changes regarding faculty, staff, and administrators In stitutions should put in place an Inspector General, a neutral party that is separate and apart from Human Resources, who would act upon information received. There should be future research involving the challenges of career advancement among Black admi nistrators at two year HSIs. Since HSIs are the fastest growing MSI s in the county, educational leaders and policy makers should examine the career advancement challenges experienced among Black administrators

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97 at these institutions. While on the surface i t appears impressive or commendable that someone has remained in a particular role for a considerable amount of time, it is important to understand his or her reasoning for this decision. It is crucial to provide an understanding of the career paths of th is particular group at HSIs, especially any challenges they may face in their attempts for professional advan cement There should be future large scale qual itative and quantitative research involving the prevalent factors of Black administrators at two yea r HSIs. Not all Black administrators classify themselves as African Americans, considering that not all were born in the USA. Therefore, there is a difference in the ethnicity and cul ture of Black administrators. For example an African American may not react to a situation in the same manner as, say, a person of African de scent born and raised or heavily influenced by a non American culture. The difference in work experience interpretation would greatly assist administrators and policy makers in the rec ruiting and retaining of Black administrators at these institutions. Jackson (2004) developed an emerging engagement, retention, and advancement (ERA) model specifically for Black administrators at PWIs. This model may be utilized among other institutions including HSIs, to assist in positively contributing to the experiences and career paths of this specific group. Jackson assumes two underlying principles: (1) institutions that practice and promote this model are already committed to efforts of diversi ty and affirmative action and ( 2) institutions maintain ongoing relationships with their surrounding Black communities. With this in mind, the ERA engagement, engagement, advancement, and outcomes.

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98 Ultimately, the ERA mode l focuses on the likelihood of Black administrators 2009). It is essential to note that although this model weighs the relationships and considerations of Black administ rators at PWIs, it receives significant recognition in higher education research. This is important considering that there are Black administrators in non PWIs, as well including HSIs Engagement, retention, and advancement are major issues in our instit utions that transition with a multiplicity of relevant changes such as demographics, policy makers, and newly formed interests. maintaining Black administrators, and apply t o maintaining administrators of color in general. Conclusion This study provided a great insight into the experiences of Black administrators at HSIs in the state of Florida. In further examining the findings of this study, three significant conclusi ons emerged. First, the Black administrators who participated in this study exhibited levels of extreme satisfaction in their work roles and work environments. They admitted there had been challenges, but none too great for them to overcome or conquer. Secondly, tenure played a part in the experiences of the study participants. Considering that the four participants each had at least more than 20 years of experience as higher education administrators, they were refined and well grounded in their profess ional thoughts and actions. Lastly, the disparity of Black administrators in higher education will increase due to the retirement rate among this group. For example, two of the study participants expressed their plans for upcoming retirement. Only one h ad immediate plans for c areer advancement. E ducation leaders and

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99 administrators need to consider ways in which they will seek representation of Black administrators in higher education. The findings of this study not only refer to HSIs, but higher educati on institutions in general. Higher education is prevalent in the United States of America, the land of diversity. Therefore, it is esse ntial to explore and share the ex pe participants to improve the overall work environments of higher education professionals throughout education system

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100 Table 3 1. Emerging Hispanic serving i nstitutions in Flo rida: 2006 2007 Institution % of Hispanic Undergraduate FTE Enrollment City College 18.4% Florida Atlantic University 17.0% Hillsborough Community College 21.1% International College 21.2% Johnson & Wales University 20.2% Palm Beach Community Colleg e 16.5% St. John Vianney College Seminary 20.4% Seminole Community College 15.1% South Florida Community College 18.6% Southwest Florida College 23.6% Talmudic College of Florida 19.4% University of Miami 22.1% Valencia Community College 23.6% Sour ce: ¡Excelencia in Education! Emerging Hispanic Serving Institutions: Serving Latino Students, 2006 2007

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101 Table 3 2. Hispanic serving i nstitutions in Florida : 2006 2007 Institution % of Hispanic Undergraduate FTE Enrollment Barry University 31.1% Broward Community College 25.5% Carlos Albizu University Miami Campus 81.8% City College (Miami) 64.2% City College (Casselberry) 34.6% Florida International University 61.3% Jones College Miami Campus 41.4% Miami Dade College 64.6% Nova Southeast ern University 18.6% Saint Thomas University 45.6% Trinity International University 43.6% Source: ¡Excelencia in Education! Hispanic Serving Institutions List: 2006 2007

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102 Table 3 3. Degree granting i nst itutions that e nroll and serve large p ortions of Hispanic s tudents : f all 2009 Institution % of Hispanic Enrollment AI Miami International University of Art & Design 41.3% American InterContinental University 41.7% Art Institute of Ft. Lauderdale, Inc. 38% ATI College of Health 32.4% Barry University 32.2% Broward College 31.6% Calos Albizu University (Miami) 83.5% Central Florida College 37.1% City College (Casselberry) 34.2% City College (Miami) 67.3% Colle ge of Business & Technology (Cutler Bay) 28.2% College of Business & Technology Flagler Campus 99.2% College of Business & Technology Hialeah Campus 100% College of Business & Technology (Miami) 98% Dade Medical College (Hialeah) 93.7% Dade Medical College (Miami) 76.8% DeVry University (Florida) 31.5% Everest Institute (Hialeah) 66.6% Everest Institute (Kendall) 63.7%

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103 Table 3 3. Continued. Institution % of Hispanic Enrollment Everest Institute (South Orlando) 20.8% Everest Institute (Tampa) 37.7% Florida Career College (Miami) 43.6% Florida College of Natural Health (Maitland) 25.1% Florida College of Natural Health (Miami) 71.6% Florida International University 60.4% Florida National College 94.2% Florida Technical College 32.8% Herit age Institute (Fort Myers) 26.6% High Tech Institute (Orlando) 47.1% Hodge University 26.2% International Academy of Design and Technology 34.5% ITT Technical Institute (Fort Lauderdale) 31.1% ITT Technical Institute (Fort Myers) 26.2% ITT Technical Institute (Miami) 82.9% ITT Technical Institute (Tampa) 26.8% Jones College (Miami) 44.1% Keiser Career College (Greenacres) 31.7% Keiser University (Fort Lauderdale) 26.1% Key College 25% Le Cordon Bleu College of Culinary Arts (Miramar) 67.4%

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104 Tab le 3 3. Continued. Institution % of Hispanic Enrollment Le Cordon Bleu College of Culinary Arts (Orlando) 34.2% Medvance Institute (Miami) 73.8% Medvance Institute (West Palm Beach) 33.8% Miami Ad School 42% Miami Dade College 70.7% Nova Southeaster n University 21.1% Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (Miami) 91.4% Professional Training Centers 98.3% Saint John Vianney College Seminary 36.8% Saint Thomas University 44.4% Southern Technical College 27.6% Technical Career Institute 91.5% Trin ity International University 36.2% Universidad Politecnica de Puerto Rico (Orlando) 97.9% University of Miami 24.3% University of Phoenix, Central Florida Campus 27.9% Source: NCES, U.S. Department of Education, Table 248 2009

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105 Table 3 4 Two y ear Hispanic serving i nstitutions in Florida : 2009 2010 Institution % of Hispanic Undergraduate FTE Enrollment (Unduplicated) Broward College 31.9% Miami Dade College 68.9% Valencia College 28.71% Source: Institutional Research Broward College, Miami Da de College, & Valencia College Table 3 5. Black administrator representation at participating institutions (full time): f all 2011 Institution Student Affairs Academic Affairs Broward College 8 8 Valencia College 2 2 Source: Di strict Offices Broward and Valencia Colleges, Fall 2011 Table 3 6 Black executive/administrator and clerical/secretarial representation at participating institutions (full t ime): 2009 2010 Institution Exec/Admin Clerical/Sec Broward College 14 81 Valencia College 7 39 Source: Institutional Research Broward College, & Valencia College, 2009 2010

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106 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Interview Questions Intake questions 1. Do you identify as a Black/Hispanic? 2. Develop rapport by asking Background Questions 1) What led you to seek your current administrator role? 2) In your current role/position, what is the most challenging or rewarding work related aspect? 3) As a Black administrator, what unique issues do you face at the two year Hispanic serving institution where currently employed? Workplace Climate 1) As a Black higher education administrator at a Hispanic serving institution, how does your race/ethnicity help your professional growth? a. Wh at aspect(s) of your race/ethnicity hinder your professional growth? 2) How would you describe your working relationship with your immediate supervisor? a. Colleagues? b. Central administration? 3) Have you ever experienced any type of discrimination at your institu tion? a. Do you believe it was based on your race/ethnicity? Future Plans 1) needs impact your outlook on the future of non Hispanic students, faculty, and staff (including administrat ors)? 2) What do you deem as being your biggest contribution to your institution? 3) Where do you see yourself profe ssionally over the next five to ten years?

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107 APPENDIX B UNIVERSITY OF FLORID A IRB CONSENT FORM Dear Fellow Administrator: I am cur rently a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida entering the research phase of my dissertation, Upward Journey: Exploring the Experiences of Black Administrators at Two Year Hispanic Serving Institutions The purpose of this study is to examine the career paths and professional experiences of Black administrators at two year Hispanic serving institutions (HSI). You have been identified as a notable higher education professional who serves in an administrator/manager/executive capacity at a reput able HSI in Florida. I am, therefore, requesting your participation in the interview segment of my study. The interview will last between 45 minutes to one hour. The interview will be conducted and digitally recorded in a location that you find conveni ent. Transcription Express, a professional transcribing service based out of Tennessee, will professionally transcribe the recordings and I will personally remove any identifiers (i.e., study participant names and respective institution) from the transcri ption to maintain your confidentiality. Additionally, any potentially identifiable information will be deleted from any quotes or paraphrases. The original transcript will then be destroyed. You will be permitted to review the final transcription to ensu re that all identifying information has been removed. Only the modified transcription will be included in the final manuscript, and you will be assured of your confidentiality before, during and after the interview process. Please note that you may be c ontacted at a later date for a follow up questions or clarification purposes. Your participation in this study is strictly voluntary. Additionally, it involves no form of compensation or award and is not associated with any immediate risks. Please not e that you are free to withdraw your consent to participate in this study at any point before or during the interview process or to decline to answer any specific question. You may cont act me directly at XXX XXX XXXX or my Chair, D r. Luis Ponjuan, at XXX X X XXXX with any additional questions. Any questions or concerns regarding your rights as a research participant may be directed to the IRB02 Office at the University of Florida, P.O. Box 112250, Gainesville FL 32611 or 352 392 0433. If you agree to part icipate, please sign and return this letter using the enclosed, priority mail envelope, or you may return it to me at the time of the interview. There is an additional copy included for your records. Your signature permits me to anonymously use the infor mation shared in the interview in my final manuscript to be shared with my Supervisory Committee for partial fulfillment for my terminal degree. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, T enecia D. Bradley Doctoral Candidate University of Florida

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108 I, __________________________________, willingly agree to participate in this terms and conditions. Name: ________________________________________________ Signature: _____________________________________________ Date: _____________________

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109 APPENDIX C PARTICIPANT STUDY IN VITATION Tenecia D. Bradley, doctoral candidat e at the University of Florida, respectfully requests your participation in her dissertation study, Upward Journey: Exploring the Experiences of Black Administrators at Two Year Hispanic Serving Institutions Expanding upon your experiences as a higher edu cation professional via a personal interview would assist tremendously in contributing to this topic. Thank you for your consideration. Please RSVP to Ms. Bradley at xxxxxxxxx@ufl .edu by Saturday, October 1st, 2011.

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110 LIST OF REFERENCES Achieving the Dream ( 2006). Institutional change in A chieving the Dream: Community colleges count Retrieved September 12, 2010 from http://www.achievingthedream.org/_images/ _index03/Framing Paper July 2006 final.pdf American Association of Community Colleges (2008). Facts 2008. Retrieved May 15, 2010 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED503504.pdf American Association of Community Colleges (2010b). 201 0 community college facts at a glance Retrieved June 6, 2010 from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Documents/factsheet2010.pdf American Associ ation of Community Colleges (2010a). About community colleges Retrieved May 30, 2010 from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Pages/default.aspx American Association of Community Colleges (2010b). Commun ity college issues brief: 2010. White House summit on community colleges Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/whsummit/Do cuments/whsummit_briefs.pdf American Association of Community Colleges (2010c). Fast facts Retrieved May 30, 2010 from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Pages/fastfacts.aspx America n Association of Community Colleges (2010d). Resources Retrieved September 13, 2010 from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/RESOURCES/Pages/default.aspx American Association of Community Colleg es (2010e). Serving communities, strengthening the nation Retrieved May 5, 2010 from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Pages/serving.aspx American Association of Community Colleges (2011a ). CEO characteristics Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Trends/Pages/ceocharacteristics.aspx American Association of Community Colleges (2011b). Fast facts Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Documents/FactSheet2011.pdf Anderson, J.D. (1988). The education of Blacks in the south, 1860 1935 Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Attis, D. (2008). Higher education and the future of the U.S competitiveness. In R. Katz (Ed.), The tower and the cloud : Higher education in the age of cloud computing (pp. 81 87). Retrieve d July 1, 2010 from http://www.educause.edu/thetowerandthecloud

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111 Baez, B., Gasman, M.,& Turner, C.S.V. (2008). On minority ser ving institutions. In M.Gasman, B. Baez, & C.S.V. Turner (Eds.), Unde rstanding minority serving institutions (pp. 3 17). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1 26. Bauman, G.L., Bustillos, L.T., Bensimon, E. M., Brown, M.C. II, & Bartee, R.D. (2005). and responsibilities. Retrieved on July 15, 2011 from http://www.aacu.org/inclusive_excellence/documents/Bauman_et_al.pdf Benerji, S. (2004). Study projects more high school graduates, greater diversity. Community College Week, 16 (15), 14. Bentez, M. & DeAro, J. (2004). Realizing student succ ess at Hispanic serving institutions. New Directions for Community Colleges 127 pp. 35 48. Betances, S. (2004). How to become an outstanding educator of Hispanic and African American first generation college students. In F.W. Hale (Ed.), What makes ra cial diversity work in higher education, (pp.44 59). Sterling, VA: Stylus. Bitsch, V. (2005). Qualitative research: A grounded theory exa mple and evaluation criteria. Journal of Agribusiness, 23 (1), 75 91. Bogdan, R.C. & Biklen, S.C. (2007). Qualitati ve research for education : An introduction to theory and methods (5 th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Boggs, G. (2003). Leadership context for the twenty first century. New Directions for Community Colleges, 123 15 25. Brand, Samuel Todd (2005). Soc ioeconomic factors that affect the enrollment of postbaccalaureate reverse transfer students at Meridian Community College. Ph.D. dissertation, Mississippi State University, United States -Mississ ippi. Retrieved May 31, 2010 from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3171397). Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Research Psychology 3 77 101. Brazzell, J.C. (1996). Diversification of postsecondary ins titutions. In Komives, S.R. & Woodard, D.B. (Eds .), Student services: A handbook for the profession (3 rd ed., 43 63). San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Brown II, M.C. (2001). Collegiate desegregation and the public Black college: A new policy mandate. The Journal of Higher Education, 72 46 62.

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112 Buetow, Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 15 ( 2 ), 123 125. Bumphus, W. & Roueche, J. (2007). Community colleges often lead the way in diversity efforts. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 24 82 Burck, C. (2005). Comparing qualitative research methodologies for systematic research: The use of grounded theory, discourse analysis and narrative analysis. Journal of Family Therapy 27 (3), 237 262. Retrieved November 30, 2010 from Academic Search Premier database. Chalofsky, N.E. (2010). Meaningful workplace: Reframing how and where we work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. Chun, E.B. & Evans, A. (2007). The theoretical framework : Psychosocial oppression and diver sity. ASHE Higher Education Report, 33 (1), 1 139 Retrieved January 18, 2011 from EBSCOhost database. Chun, E.B. & Evans, A. (2011). Creating an inclusive leadership environment in higher education. Retrieved on October 1, 2011 from http://www.cupahr.org/knowledgecenter/files/heworkplace/HEWorkplace_Vol3No2 _Inclusive_Leadership.pdf Closson, R.B. & Henry, W.J. (2008). Racial and ethnic d i versity at HBCUs: What can be learned when Whites are the minority? Multicultural Education, 15 (4), 15 19. Cohen, A.M. & Brawer, F.B. (2008). The American community college (5 th ed .). San Francisco CA : Jossey Bass. Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research de sign: Qualitative qua ntitative, and mixed methods approaches Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (2 nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Davis, J.E. (1994). Queenie: A case study on racial, cultur al, and gender dimensions of leader ship in J.D. Davis (Ed.). the academy (pp. 113 122). Boston, MA: Anker Publishing Company. Davis, J.E. (1998). Cultural capital and the role of Historically Blac k colleges and universities in educati ona l reproduction. In K. Freeman (Ed.). African American culture and heritage i n higher education in research and practice (pp.143 153). Westport, CT: Praeger.

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113 Dawson, M.E. (1997). Climbing the admin istrative ladder in the academy: An experiential ca se history. In L. Benjamin (Ed.), Black women in the academy: Promises and Perils (pp.189 2000 Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida Del Rios, M. & Leegwater, L. (2008). Increasing student success at minority serving institutions: Findings f rom the Beams Pr oject. Retrieved July 14, 2010, from http://www.ihep.org/assets/files/publications/a f/BEAMS_Increasing_Student_Success_at_MSIs.p df Denzin, N.K. (1978). The research act: A theoretical introduction to s ociological methods ( 2 nd ed.) New York: McGraw Hill Denzin, N.K. (1989 ). The research act: A theoretical introduction to s ociological methods (3 rd ed.) Englewod Cliffs, NJ : Prentice Hall. Drewry, H.N. & Doermann, H. (2001). Stand and prosper: Private Black colleges and their students Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Eckel, P. & King, J. (2004). An overview of higher education in the United States : Diversi ty, access, and the role of the marketplace Washin gton, DC: American Council on Education. Edman, J.L. & Brazil, B. (2008). Perceptions of campus climate, academic efficacy and academic success among community college students: An ethnic comparison. S ocial Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 12 (3), 371 383. Eke, K. (2009). Our vision Our value. Infusing diversity into college leadership. Community College Journal 79 (5), 14 19. Erlandson, D.A., Harris, E.L., Skipper, B.L., & Allen, S.D. (1993). Doing naturalistic inquiry: A guide to methods Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Flowers, L.A. (2003). Investigating the representation of African American student a ffairs administrators: A preliminary study. NASAP Journal 6 ,(1) 35 43. Florida Department of Education (n.d.). Your working solution Retrieved January 19, 2010 from http://www.fldoe.org/cc/pdf/ywsfs.pdf Florida Department of Education (2005). About us Retrie ved on April 30, 2011, from http://www.fldoe.org/cc/ Florida Department of Education (2010a ). The Florida Colle ge System Annual Equity Update Report 2009 10 for Broward College Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education. Florida Department of Education (2010b). The Florida Colle ge System Annual Equity Update Report 2009 10 for Valencia Community College Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education.

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114 Florida Department of Education (2011). The Florida c ollege system: Annual rep ort Retrieved on April 29, 2011, from http://www.fldoe.org/cc/pdf/annualreport2011.pdf Florida Legislature (n.d.). The 2010 Florida statutes (including special ses sion A ). Retrieved on August 8, 201 1, from http://www.leg.state.fl.us/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute& Search _String=&URL=1000 1099/1001/Sections/1001.60.html Frey, W.H. (2010). Melting pot cities and suburbs: Racial and ethnic change in metro America in the 2000s. Retrieved on May 17, 2011 from http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2011/0504_census_ethnicity_fr ey/0504_census_ethnicity_frey.pdf Fry, R. (2002 ). Latinos in higher education: Many enroll, t oo few grad uate. Pew Hispanic report Retrieved on May 9, 2011 from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/11.pdf Gardenhire Crooks, A., Collado, H., Martin, K., Castro, A. (2010). Terms of engagement: Men of color discuss their experiences in community colleges Retrieved September 2, 2010 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED508982.pdf Gasman, M. (2007). Envisioning Black colleges: A history of the United Negro College Fund Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Gasman, M. (2008). Minority serving institutions: The path to s uccessfully educating students of color Retrieved May 15, 2011 from http://www.luminafoundation.org/grants/information_for_grant_seekers/Minority Serving_Institutions_Report.pdf Gaston Gayles, J.L., Wolf Wendel, L.E., Twombly, S., Ward, K., & Tu ttle, K.N. (2005). From disciplinarian to change agent: How the Civil Rights Era changed the profession of student affairs. National Association of Student Affairs Professionals Journal, 42(3) 263 282. Gurin, P., Dey, E., Hurtado, S., & Gurin, G. (2002 ). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72 (3), 330 364. Gutierrez, M., Castaeda, C., & Katsinas, S. (2002). Latino lead ership in community colleges: Issues and challenges. Community C ollege Journal of Research and Practice 26 (4), 297 314. Guzmn, B. (2001). The Hispanic Population 2000 Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. Hamilton, K. (2006). Toxic campus climate Retrieved on August 15, 2010 from http://diverseeducation.com/article/5929/

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123 United States Census Bureau (2010). American FactFinder. Race and Hispanic or Latino: 2010 United States states; and Puerto Rico 2010 C ensus national summary file of redistricting data. Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid= DEC_10_NSRD_GCTPL1.US01PR&prodType=table United States Department of Education (1992). National Early Interventi on Scholarship and Partn ership (NEISP) Program. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www2.ed.gov/PDFDocs/FinAidHB/ch9_s4.pdf United States Department of Education (2011). Developing Hispanic serving institutions pro gram: Title V Retrieved November 11, 2010 from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/idueshsi/index.html and work related criteria: A m eta analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology 81 5, 575 586. Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experiences: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy Albany. NY: State University of New York Press. Vaughan, G.B. (1996). Paradox and promis e: Leadership and the neglected minorities. New Directions for Community Colleges, 94 (12), 5 12. Vaughan, G. B. (2000). The community college story Washington, DC: The American Association of Community Colleges, Community College Press. Vaughan, G.B. (2004). Diversif y the presidency. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 51 (10). Viniar, B. (2006). Community college leader. Journal of t he New England Board of Higher Education, 21 (1), 24 25. Vroom, V.H. (1964). Work and Motivation New York: Wiley. Wa tson, B.C. (1972). The Black administrator in higher education: Current dilemmas, problems, and opportunities. Received May 15, 2011 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED063867.pdf Weisman, I. & Va ughan, G.B. (2001). The community college presidency, 2001 ( Leadership Series, No. 3. ) Washington, DC: The Ame rican Association of Community Colleges. Weisman, I. & Vaughan, G. (2007). The community college presidency: 2006 Washington, DC: Americ an Association of Community Colleges. White, J.S. (2005). Pipeline to pathways. Liberal Education, (91)1 22 27.

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124 Williams, J.C. (2005). The glass ceiling and the maternal wall in academia. New Directions for Higher Education 130 91 105. Willis, J.W. (2007). Foundations of qualitative research: Interpretive and critical approaches Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Yen, H. (2011). Census shows more Blacks moving South Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41606015/ns/us_news life/t/census shows more blacks moving south/

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125 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tenecia D. Bradley, a fifth generation African American female and the youngest of five children, was reared by her two college educated parents Timothy and Genevieve Bradley Education was an important element of her upbringing, considering that her parents transitioned as products of the segregation era to educators with in the integrated education system. She successfully completed her secondary education in Indian River County, Florida, and matriculated t o Bethune Cookman University (Daytona Beach, FL), earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in Mass Communications, specializ ing in Advertising and Public Relations, and University of Mia mi (Miami, FL), earning a Master of Business Administration specializing in Marketing and Management. Ms. Bradley has been employed full time in the trenches of higher education since 2002, where she began her career in a non managerial role as a Program Specialist for the non credit department at the North Campus of Miami Dade College (MDC), the largest and most diverse college within the United States of America. While working in this capa city, she developed a strong desire to work closely with students in both the credit and non credit departments of the institutio n. She tutored stud ents in college level as well as developmental English and Writing Labs. Additionally, she briefly served as adjunct business faculty. Finally, she recognized her desire to become an administrator, and in 2003 this capacity, she has participated in the Leadership Development In stitute hosted by the National Council on Black American Affairs been awarded two Presidential Excellence Awards, and received numerous additional commendations.