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The Urban Mansion in Nineteenth-Century Paris

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043636/00001

Material Information

Title: The Urban Mansion in Nineteenth-Century Paris Tradition, Invention and Spectacle
Physical Description: 1 online resource (249 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Stevenson, Linda D
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture -- french -- modernity -- spectacle
Design, Construction and Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Design, Construction, and Planning Doctorate thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The countervailing forces of tradition and invention strove for dominance in late nineteenth-century Paris. This dissertation argues that the urban mansion, l'hôtel particulier, is a tangible document of the merger of these two forces in the influential society of financiers and entrepreneurs, the haute bourgeoisie. While the architectural vocabulary and forms were indebted to a rich cultural tradition, these urban mansions of the upper classes reflected changing social and cultural values, as well as technological advances in construction materials. The Hôtel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild is singularly appropriate as a case study to evaluate the thesis that the Parisian urban mansion of the Second Empire is significant as an expression of both tradition and invention, alongside the culture's fascination with spectacle. The geographically prominent location of the site, the leading role in the contemporary society of the Rothschild family, and the visual features of the property suggest significant physical evidence of the era. The relative paucity of written documentation and the relative obscurity of the building's architect, Léon Ohnet (1813-1874) and the principal decorator, Léopold de Moulignon, test the thesis that physical and archival evidence, documentation and analysis may be integrated to expand this body of knowledge. This research suggests that while Ohnet practiced generally within the mainstream of the Second Empire cultural aesthetic, he skillfully balanced the use of historically derived architecture with an inventive spirit. The spatial organization and effects, enabled by the use of modern materials and scenographic design techniques, reflected the contemporary cultural values of spectacle and display. In Paris, these attributes, along with elegance, were what counted most. This study verifies the role of physical documentation and analysis to supplement understanding of the social and architectural history of an era. By building a case for the amalgamation of historical architectural models coupled with an inventive approach to architectural design; the study substantiates the hôtel particulier as a visual manifestation of the life of the haute bourgeoisie between 1850 and 1890 in Paris; and establishes the Hôtel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild as a significant expression of this society.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Linda D Stevenson.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Graham, Roy E.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043636:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043636/00001

Material Information

Title: The Urban Mansion in Nineteenth-Century Paris Tradition, Invention and Spectacle
Physical Description: 1 online resource (249 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Stevenson, Linda D
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture -- french -- modernity -- spectacle
Design, Construction and Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Design, Construction, and Planning Doctorate thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The countervailing forces of tradition and invention strove for dominance in late nineteenth-century Paris. This dissertation argues that the urban mansion, l'hôtel particulier, is a tangible document of the merger of these two forces in the influential society of financiers and entrepreneurs, the haute bourgeoisie. While the architectural vocabulary and forms were indebted to a rich cultural tradition, these urban mansions of the upper classes reflected changing social and cultural values, as well as technological advances in construction materials. The Hôtel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild is singularly appropriate as a case study to evaluate the thesis that the Parisian urban mansion of the Second Empire is significant as an expression of both tradition and invention, alongside the culture's fascination with spectacle. The geographically prominent location of the site, the leading role in the contemporary society of the Rothschild family, and the visual features of the property suggest significant physical evidence of the era. The relative paucity of written documentation and the relative obscurity of the building's architect, Léon Ohnet (1813-1874) and the principal decorator, Léopold de Moulignon, test the thesis that physical and archival evidence, documentation and analysis may be integrated to expand this body of knowledge. This research suggests that while Ohnet practiced generally within the mainstream of the Second Empire cultural aesthetic, he skillfully balanced the use of historically derived architecture with an inventive spirit. The spatial organization and effects, enabled by the use of modern materials and scenographic design techniques, reflected the contemporary cultural values of spectacle and display. In Paris, these attributes, along with elegance, were what counted most. This study verifies the role of physical documentation and analysis to supplement understanding of the social and architectural history of an era. By building a case for the amalgamation of historical architectural models coupled with an inventive approach to architectural design; the study substantiates the hôtel particulier as a visual manifestation of the life of the haute bourgeoisie between 1850 and 1890 in Paris; and establishes the Hôtel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild as a significant expression of this society.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Linda D Stevenson.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Graham, Roy E.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043636:00001


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1 THE URBAN MANSION IN NINETEENTH CENTURY PARIS : TRADITION, INVENTION AND SPECTACLE By LINDA D. STEVENSON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREME NTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Linda D. Stevenson

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3 To my family, friends and colleagues, with gratitude

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS One of the most rewarding parts of this research project was the opportuni ty to work with a talented group of mentors and advisors. I was very fortunate to have such a committee, composed of four individuals with a broad range of knowledge and insights T he committee was chaired by Roy Eugene Graham FAIA, BeineckeReeves Distin guished Professor and Director of the Center for World Heritage Research and Stewardship, University of Florida College of Design, Construction and Planning. Margaret Portillo, PhD. c hair s the Department of Interior Design at the University of Florida Coll ege of Design, Construction and Planning, and is the Editor in Chief for the Journal of Interior Design. Carol J. Murphy PhD., Professor of French, is the Director of the FranceFlorida Research Institute and was honored with a Chevalier dans lordre de l a Lgion dhonneur Susan Tate, AIA, LEED AP, is a Preservation Architect and Professor Emeritus, Department of Interior Design at the University of Florida College of Design, Construction and Planning I am most grateful for the guidance provided by e ach committee mem ber. Professor Grahams expert ise in French classical architecture guided my understanding of the depth and influence of this tradition throughout the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries both in Europe and in the Americas. I am gra teful for his consistent encouragement to develop clear interpretations and conclusions from the gathered data and to persevere during the course of this work at the University of Florida. The philosophical approach to this inquiry was developed from stud ying research methods with Dr Portillo. Her deeply insightful guidance inspired a rigorous approach to identifying and mining data sources, refining the research methodology and developing the appropriate analytical tools to evaluate and interpret the findings This in turn required an ongoing

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5 examination of my own construct of history and led to the development of the research methodology diagram included in Appendix A Dr. Murphy provided great insight into the overarching cultural themes of the period of study, ( 1850s to 1880s) including the emphasis on the great flow of wealth, resources and people facilitated by the physical, social and political realms of the Second Empire. In her s uggestion to review pivotal works of period French literature the n ovel L a Cur e by mile Zola provided a trove of contextual data in the depictions of the glittering architectural and urban world of the upper classes In addition to these detailed descriptions of social mores, grand mansions and opulent interior spaces, the moral dimension of the period was brought into a sharply critical focus. Professor Tate was instrumental in the selection of this dissertation topic, as it all began with her invitation to participate on her research project documenting the restorati on of the eighteenth century State Apartments in the H tel de Talleyrand for the United States Department of State. She completed the book, Concorde in 2007, which was presented at the grand opening of the restored State Apartments in commemoration of the sixtieth anniversary of the Marshall Plan. During our investigative work for this project t he opportunity for additional research into the nineteenth century design modifications on the buildings exterior and interior fabric and the obscurit y of the in triguing architect for this highly compatible and skillfully executed nineteenth century addition, piqued m y interest Colleagues from both sides of the Atlantic graciously shared their knowledge. F abrice Ouziel, architect for the restoration project of t he eighteenth century H tel de Talleyrand State Apartments was an excellent role model. His meticulous research methodology and his deep

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6 knowledge and love of French eighteenth and nineteenth century architecture were invaluable assets in developing my understanding of the period of study. I am indebted to Didier Repellin A rchitecte en chef des Monuments Historiques and historic architect for the recent restoration of the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, who was, as always, very generous in sharing his deep knowledge of French historic architecture and in opening doors for me in research instit ut ions Through his assistance, I was able to visit the site during the restoration work and meet art historian Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy, whose expertise reg arding the architectural works of the Rothschild family is unparalleled. Fran ois Braun, principal of F.S. Braun & Associs, architect s for renovations to the H tel de Talleyrand graciously invited us to visit the project site and shared his knowledge of the building. Michel Borjon, director of GRAHAL, was very generous in sharing his firms research work on the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, in his willingness to answer my numerous questions and in suggest ing ideas and sources for further research. In the United Kingdom, the Rothschild Archives was an invaluable source for research. I would like to thank Justin Cavernelis Frost, arch i vist for scouring the files for sources of information Claire Amandine Souli kindly assisted in establishing conta cts at the Archives Nationale s in Paris to as sist with my research in that institutions archives. At Waddesdon Manor director Pippa Shirley provided access to the archives and to the property Access to both institutions was facilitated by Dr. Ulrich Leb en, Professor at Bard College, who provided detailed insights into the role of the Rothschild collections within the interiors of their grand residences At the Chteau de Ferrires Mireille Munch, arranged for access which allowed me to roam through th e mansion and grounds of James de Rothschilds country estate The visit took

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7 place on a wonderful December day, lit with a lemony pale winter light on snow covered lawns with deer the only other occupants in the par k. I had the sense that this was an exp erience much like the family might have enjoyed when they lived on the property. In France, several archivists and historians facilitated access to their collections and provided suggestions of sources for further research. In particular I would like to t hank Patrick Lapalu, archivist for the Archives dpartementale du Val dOise and Franois Paget, a scholar knowledgeable on the history of the ville de Saint Gratien My friend and colleague Pascal Filtre, A rchitect e du P atrimoine deserves special mentio n for his hospitality during my extended stay in France. I am grateful for his generosity in sharing ideas, contacts and connections with the historic architecture community and his passion for historic French architecture.

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8 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................18 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................19 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................21 An Inventive Spirit .................................................................................................................21 Case Study: The Urban Mansion of the Baronne Salomon de Rothschild .............................22 Research Focus .......................................................................................................................25 Project Development .......................................................................................................25 Research Questions .........................................................................................................26 Organization of the Document ........................................................................................28 Note s .......................................................................................................................................31 2 IN PARIS ONLY ELEGANCE COUNTS. ROTHSCHILD MANSIONS: VANGUARD OF THE RISING HAUTE BOURGEOISIE ...................................................33 Rise of the Haute Bourgeoisie ................................................................................................33 In Paris, Only Elegance Counts 18111830 ..........................................................................34 Urban Mansions for the New Haute Bourgeoisie : 18301851 ...............................................36 Tradition and Invention in the Urban Mansion: 18521870 ...................................................40 A Tradition Continues: 18701890 .........................................................................................42 Building the Clients Self image ............................................................................................46 A New Century .......................................................................................................................47 Notes .......................................................................................................................................54 3 CURIO SHOPS AND VIRGIN FORESTS: TRADITION, INVE NTION AND SPECTACLE IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY HTEL PARTICULIER .....................57 Ohnet and the Dualism of Tradition and Invention ................................................................57 cole des Beaux Arts and the Supremacy of French Classicism ...........................................58 Eclectic Behavior ....................................................................................................................62 Daly and the Eclectic Clothing of the Htel Particulier .....................................................63 Eclecticism and Symbolism in the Interior Dcor ..................................................................68 Tasteful Elegance ............................................................................................................68 Salons, Grands et Petits ..................................................................................................69 Salle Manger ................................................................................................................70 Pr ivate Spaces and Exotic Tastes ....................................................................................71

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9 Invention: Industrial Architecture and New Technologies .....................................................72 Covered Passages ............................................................................................................72 Railroad Stations .............................................................................................................73 Structural Frame ..............................................................................................................73 Development of Iron and Glass Serres ...................................................................................74 Jardins dhivers and the Taming of Nature ............................................................................75 Stage set and Spectacle in the Htel Particulier ....................................................................80 Glass Roofs and Borrowed Lights ..........................................................................................82 Entertainment, Spectacle and Display in the Htel Particulier ..............................................83 The Nineteenth Century Htel Particulier as a Document of Social History ........................88 Notes .....................................................................................................................................105 4 THE HTEL BARONNE SALOMON DE ROTHSCHILD: DOCUME NTING TRADITION, INVENTION AND SPECTACLE ...............................................................110 Art and Memory ...................................................................................................................110 The Clients Program ............................................................................................................110 Selecting an Architect ....................................................................................................112 Designers and Artisans ..................................................................................................113 Architectural Vocabulary ..............................................................................................114 History of the Site .................................................................................................................115 Folie Beaujon .................................................................................................................115 Honor de Balzac ..........................................................................................................117 Early Buildings, Site Features and Ruins ......................................................................118 Architectural Features ...........................................................................................................120 Architectural Parti .........................................................................................................120 Exterior Composition ....................................................................................................121 Interior Design and Dcor ....................................................................................................122 The Vestibule as Theatre ...............................................................................................123 Hall ................................................................................................................................124 Salon Rouge ...................................................................................................................125 Grand Salon ...................................................................................................................126 Display ...........................................................................................................................126 Galerie ...........................................................................................................................127 Salle Manger ...............................................................................................................127 The Serre .......................................................................................................................127 Private Spaces ................................................................................................................128 Architectural Interventions fr om the Twentieth and Twenty first Centuries .......................129 Significance ..........................................................................................................................131 Notes .....................................................................................................................................173 5 LEGACY ..............................................................................................................................177 Notes .....................................................................................................................................181 APPENDIX

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10 A RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .........................................................................................182 Research Process and Methodology .....................................................................................182 Literature Review .................................................................................................................185 Archival Research .................................................................................................................191 Site Visits ..............................................................................................................................192 Topics for Future Research ...................................................................................................192 Notes .....................................................................................................................................193 B LIFE AND CAREER OF LON OHNET, ARCHITECT ...................................................197 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................197 Early Life ..............................................................................................................................197 Education ..............................................................................................................................198 Marriage and Family Life .....................................................................................................199 Early Architectural Works ....................................................................................................200 Diocesan Architect and Conservator 18481874 ..................................................................201 Railroads and Rothschilds ....................................................................................................207 Urban R esidences for the Rothschilds ..................................................................................209 Other Residential Works .......................................................................................................211 Juries and Awards .................................................................................................................213 Political and Civic Life .........................................................................................................214 Ohnets Architectural Vision ................................................................................................217 Notes .....................................................................................................................................230 C OHNETS COLLEAGUES ..................................................................................................235 Justin Ponsard .......................................................................................................................235 mile Petit ............................................................................................................................235 Henri Lopold de Moulignon ...............................................................................................236 Notes .....................................................................................................................................239 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................240 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................249

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 11 Portrait of Adle de Rothschild..........................................................................................30 12 Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild view from the garden. .........................................31 21 Chteau de Ferrires. .........................................................................................................49 22 Portrait of Alphonse de Rothschild, no date. .....................................................................50 23 Htel de Talleyrand, photograph of barricades, 1871........................................................50 24 Ad le de Rothschild as a young woman. .........................................................................51 25 Portrait of Lon Ohnet. .....................................................................................................51 26 Waddesdon entrance faade. .............................................................................................52 27 Tower Room at Waddesdon. .............................................................................................52 28 Htel Camondo court faade. ...........................................................................................53 29 H tel Camondo interiors. ...................................................................................................53 31 Htellerie pour voyagers, Dtail de la coupe longitudinale, Grand Prix de Rome project by Noguet, 1865. ....................................................................................................89 32 Palais des tudes, cole des Beaux Arts, Duban, 183640, glass roof 1863. ...................89 33 Htel Beaujon: garden kiosque. .........................................................................................90 34 Htel Fould, Street faade by Labrouste, 1858. .................................................................90 35 Htel priv, Site Plan, by Convents & Nolau, c. 1864. .....................................................91 36 Htel priv, Plans Sous sol et Rez de Chausse, Premier tage et Combles by Convents & Nolau, c. 1864. ...............................................................................................91 37 Htel priv, Court faade details, by Convents & Nolau, c. 1864. ....................................92 38 Htel priv, Street faade details by Convents & Nolau, c. 1864. ....................................92 39 Htel pour un riche banquier, Elevation, Grand Prix de R ome proje ct by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. .....................................................................................................................93 310 Htel pour un riche banquier, Plan densemble Grand Prix de Rome project by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. ....................................................................................................93

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12 311 Htel pour un riche banquier, Coupe longitudinale du cour Grand Prix de Rome project by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. ...................................................................................93 312 Htel pour un riche banquier, Coupe longitudinale Grand Prix de Rome project by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. ....................................................................................................94 313 Htel pour un riche banquier, Coupe transversale Grand Prix de Rome project by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. ....................................................................................................94 314 Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild garden faade. ....................................................95 315 Htel de Talleyrand faade on the rue de Rivoli. .............................................................95 316 Galerie Vivienne. ..............................................................................................................96 317 The Crystal Palace, by Joseph Paxton, Dickinson, Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851, 1854. ........................................................................................96 318 Bay window serres Blvd. Malesherbes, c. 1864. ..............................................................97 319 Bay window Htel de Talle yrand. ....................................................................................98 320 Htel Priv, Rue de la Victoire, RuprichRobert, c. 1864 Jardin dhiver et G alerie Plan. ..................................................................................................................................98 321 Htel Priv, Rue de la Victoire, RuprichRobert, c. 1864 Jardin dhiver et Galerie Faades. ..............................................................................................................................99 322 Htel Priv, Rue de la Victoire, RuprichRobert, c. 1864. ................................................99 323 Htel pour un riche banquier, Detail Grand Prix de Rome project by Pascal, 1866. ....100 324 In the Conservatory Manet, 1879. .................................................................................100 325 Dining Room of Pr incess Mathilde, Giraud, 1854. ........................................................101 326 La Vranda de la Princesse Mathilde Sbastain Charles Giraud, 1864. ........................101 327 Opra Grand Stair, engraving by Riquois and Sulpis, n.d. ..............................................102 328 Chteau de Ferrires, Hall. ..............................................................................................102 329 Ferrires skyligh ts and lightwell in corridors. ................................................................103 330 Htel de Talleyrand floor plan of grand tage with 19th century addition. ...................103 331 Htel de Talleyrand Louveciennes panels. .....................................................................104

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13 332 Htel de Talleyrand Music Room with reflection of interior bay window in mirror over fireplace. ..................................................................................................................104 41 Portrait of the Baronne de Rothschild. ............................................................................133 42 Prefa ce to photographic collection. .................................................................................133 43 Plan du rez de c hausse, Revue des Arts Decoratifs, V.Champier, 1892. ......................134 44 Portrait of J. Ponsard. .......................................................................................................134 45 Stables by Ponsard, main court. .......................................................................................135 46 Stables by Ponsard, stalls. ................................................................................................135 47 Portrait of Moulignon ......................................................................................................136 48 Lette r from Moulignon to serrurier Guyard, 8 juillet 1878 ...........................................136 49 Court of Honor facade. ....................................................................................................137 410 Great Hall f acing the gallery ...........................................................................................137 411 Folie Beaujo n site plan and elevation, Girardin, 1781. ....................................................138 412 Chapelle Saint Nico las site plan, Jacoubet, 1836. ..........................................................138 413 Windmill at Folie Beaujon ...............................................................................................139 414 Vue de la Folie Beaujon : les communs, le moulin joli. 1807. Dessin la mine de plomb et re hauts de craie sur papier brun ........................................................................139 415 Pavilion folie Beaujon, Girardin, constructed 1787. View around 1830. ........................140 416 Vue de la Chapelle Beaujon, historic engraving. ...........................................................140 417 La Chapelle Saint Nicolas de Beaujon, L. Leymonnier,1865. ........................................141 418 Ch apelle Saint Nicolas in ruins. .....................................................................................141 419 House of Balzac. .............................................................................................................142 420 House of Balzac, garden faade. ......................................................................................142 421 House of Balzac, Salon. ..................................................................................................143 422 House of Balzac, Chambre. ............................................................................................143 423 Ro tonde de Balzac. .........................................................................................................144

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14 424 Colonnade in garden. .....................................................................................................144 425 Ch teau de Ferrires, Hall. ..............................................................................................145 426 Ch teau de Fe rrires, Salon Louis XVI. .........................................................................145 427 Ch teau de Ferrires, Salon de famille. ..........................................................................146 428 Comparative plans, Ferrires and htel Salomon de Rothschild. ...................................146 429 Porte cochre. ..................................................................................................................147 430 Porte cochre, view from rue Berryer. ............................................................................147 431 Court faade in 1975. ......................................................................................................148 432 Service wing. ...................................................................................................................148 433 Court faade center pavilio n. ..........................................................................................149 434 Court Faade detail. ........................................................................................................149 435 Garden facade. ................................................................................................................150 436 Garden faade from public garden. .................................................................................150 437 Garden faade balcony. ...................................................................................................151 438 Garden faade detail. ......................................................................................................151 439 Garden faade Dining Room wing. ................................................................................152 440 Detail of serre faade. .....................................................................................................152 441 Plan with circulation axe s. ..............................................................................................153 442 Vestibul e .........................................................................................................................153 443 Flor al overdoor detail of carving. ...................................................................................154 444 Vestibule windows. .........................................................................................................154 445 Hall facing the fireplace. .................................................................................................155 446 Hall, ceiling detail. ..........................................................................................................155 447 Glass ceiling detail. ........................................................................................................156 448 Hall ceiling painting and cornice deta il ..........................................................................156

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15 449 Salon Rouge. ...................................................................................................................157 450 Salon rouge ceili ng painting. ...........................................................................................157 451 Salon rouge ceiling detail. ...............................................................................................158 452 G rand Salon, view of fireplace. ......................................................................................158 453 Grand Salon. ...................................................................................................................159 454 G rand Salon, view to Red Salon. ....................................................................................159 455 Grand Salon ceiling detail. ..............................................................................................160 456 Grand S alon ceiling painting detail. ................................................................................160 457 Study of Curios. ..............................................................................................................161 458 Study of Curios, view of fireplace. .................................................................................161 459 Galerie with toplig ht. .......................................................................................................162 460 Dining Room. ...................................................................................................................162 461 Dining Room and serre ..................................................................................................163 462 Salle manger door trumeau. .........................................................................................163 463 Salle manger ceiling medallion. ...................................................................................164 464 Chteau de Ferrires Dining Room. ................................................................................164 465 Butlers Pantry .................................................................................................................165 466 Serre, detail of plate 23. ...................................................................................................165 467 Serre doors. ......................................................................................................................166 468 Serre, ceiling. ..................................................................................................................166 469 Baronnes Boudoir. ..........................................................................................................167 470 Baronnes Bedroom. ........................................................................................................167 471 Baronnes Dressing Room. ..............................................................................................168 472 Baronnes Bath. ...............................................................................................................168 473 Library. ............................................................................................................................169

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16 474 Grand Stair Hall. ..............................................................................................................169 475 Billiards Room ................................................................................................................170 476 Oratoire. ...........................................................................................................................170 477 Nursery, no date. .............................................................................................................171 478 Plan du sousbassement Bois, 1922. ...............................................................................171 479 Plan du rez de chausse, Bois, 1922. ...............................................................................172 480 Plan du premier tage, Bois, 1922. .................................................................................172 A 1 Process Diagram for Interpretiv e Hist oric Res earch ......................................................195 A 2 Nineteenth Cent ury Ti meline .........................................................................................196 B 1 Ohnet around 1874. .........................................................................................................219 B 2 Filature d u lin building (Ohnet, 18467) .........................................................................219 B 3 Filature du lin drawings 18467 ......................................................................................219 B 4 Palais Episcopal Elvation de la partie neuve. C te nord, Caracssone, Ohnet, 1851. .....220 B 5 Palais piscopal tat actuel Rez de Chaus s e, Caracssone, Ohnet, 1851. .....................220 B 6 Palais piscopal tat actuel Premier tage, Caracssone, Ohnet, 1851. .........................221 B 7 Palais pisc opal Plan Restauration Rez de Chauss e, Carcassone, Ohnet, 1851. .........221 B 8 Palais piscopal Plan Restauration Premier tage, Carcassone, Ohnet, 1851. ..............222 B 9 Palais piscopal Plan g n ral, Ajaccio, Ohnet, 1850. ....................................................222 B 10 Palais piscopal Elvation faade sur le jardin, Ajaccio, Ohnet, 1850. .........................223 B 11 Palais piscopal Plan Rez de chauss e, Ajaccio, Ohnet, 1850. .....................................223 B 12 Palais piscopal Plan Premier tage Ajaccio, Ohnet, 1850. ..........................................224 B 13 Cathdral de Meaux Plan de la clture du collateral sud, Ohnet, 1864. ..........................224 B 14 Church of Saint Gratien, watercolor, anony mous, 1857. .................................................225 B 15 Historic photograph of church of Saint Gratien, c. 1910. ...............................................225 B 16 Town of Saint Gratien historic postc ard, 1968. ...............................................................226

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17 B 17 Church of Saint Gratien west faade. .............................................................................226 B 18 Church of Saint Gratien west porch detail. .....................................................................227 B19 Church of Saint Gratien, east faade. .............................................................................227 B 20 Church of Saint Gratien, interior view of west entrance. ...............................................228 B 21 Church of Saint Gratien view towards altar ...................................................................228 B 22 Church of Saint Gratien mosaic floor detail. ..................................................................229 B 23 Htel Ohnet. Detail of wall panels and painting. ............................................................229 B 24 Htel Ohnet view of salon and chemine wall. ..............................................................230 C 1 Rothschild Grand Dining Room Interior Dcor, Ohnet and. Petit, c. 1870 ....................236 C 2 Wall mural at Arpajon Htel de Ville, M oulignon, 1872 ...............................................238 C 3 Odalisque, Moulignon, 1862 ........................................................................................238

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18 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S ACHM Architect e en chef des monuments historiques ADVO Archives d partmentale du ValdOise AN Archives n ationales A N CP L e service des Cartes et Plans aux Archives nationales AP Archives de Paris BA V P Bibliothque a dministrative de la Ville de Paris BHVP Bibliothque historique de la Ville de Paris BF Bibliothque Forney BN B iblio th que nationale de France ENSBA cole Nation ale Sup rieure des Beaux Arts

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19 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE URBAN MANSION IN NINETEENTH CENTUR Y PARIS : TRADITION, INVENTION AND SPECTACLE By Linda D. Stevenson December 2011 Chair: Roy Eugene Graham Major: Design, Construction and Planning T he countervailing forc es of tradition and invention stro ve for dominance in late nineteenth century Paris. This dissertation argues that the urban mansion, l htel particulie r is a tangible document of the merger of these two forces in the influential society of financiers and entrepreneurs, the haute bourgeoi sie While the architectural vocabulary and forms were indebted to a rich cultural tradition, these urban mansions of the upper classes reflected changing social and cultural values, as well as technological advances in construction materials. The H tel B aronne Salomon de Rothschild is singularly appropriate as a case study to evaluate the thesis that the Parisian urban mansion of the Second Empire is significant as an expression of both tradition and invention, alongside the cultures fascination with spe ctacle. The geographically prominent location of the site, the leading role in the contemporary society of the Rothschild family and the visual features of the property suggest significant physical evidence of the era. The relative paucity of written doc umentation and the relat ive obscurity of the buildings architect, Lon Ohnet (18131874) and the principal decorator, Lopold de Moulignon, test the thesis that physical and archival evidence, documentation and analysis may be integrated to expand this body of knowledge. This research suggests that while Ohnet practiced generally

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20 within the mainstream of the Second Empire cultural aesthetic, he skillfully balanced the use of historica lly derived architecture with an inventive spirit. The spatial organizati on and effects, enabled by the use of modern materials and scenographic design techniques, reflected the contemporary cultural values of spectacle and display. In Paris, these attributes, along with elegance, were what counted most. This study verifies th e role of physical documentation and analysis to supplement understanding of the social and architectural history of an era. By building a case for the amalgamation of historical architectural models coupled with an inventive approach to architectural desi gn; the study substantiates the htel particulie r as a visual manifestation of the life of the haute bourgeoisie between 1850 and 1890 in Paris; and establishes the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild as a significant expression of this society.

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21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The nineteenth century was both incredibly inventive and indebted to a rich cultural tradition. (Franois Loyer)1 An Inven ti ve Spirit Invention and tradition are the dual characterizations of nineteenth century design described by French historian Franois Loyer, Chevalier de la Lgion dHonneur and recipient of the Grand Prix du Patrimoine in 1999.2 This dissertation argues that the urban mansion, lhtel particulier is a tangible document of the merger of these forces in the influenti al society of the haute bourgeoisie the wealthy class of financiers and entrepreneurs. While the architectural vocabulary and forms were indebted to a rich cultural tradition, these residences reflected changing social and cultural values, as well as tech nological advances in construction materials between 1850 and the late 1880s A series of political and social upheavals marked the period as the government of France transformed from the Second Empire to the Third R epublic. This culture gave rise to a ne w powerful class, the haute bourgeoisie This class of financiers and entrepreneurs was characterized by their abilities to create the capital that powered the development of new industries and technologies. The group began to achieve social ascendency dur ing the first half of the nineteenth century, gradually displacing the aristocracy of the ancien rgime in wealth and power. By the time of the Second Empire, the haute bourgeoisie wielded great influence within the political, social and cultural spheres. The societal polemics extended into the artistic and architectural fields, where the traditions of lAcad mie des Beaux Arts were being challenged by younger architects seeking an appropriate design language to express the new vision of society in each cyc le of political change. Within the conventions of residential architecture for the moneyed classes, the basic

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22 form of the htel particulie r was fully established during the ancien rgime and had reached a mature expression by the end of the eighteenth cent ury. Changes wrought by the new social values of the nineteenth century, technological advances in building systems, new architectural materials and the power shift from the aristocracy to the haute bourgeoisie reflected in the urban mansions built for the nouveau riche or new moneyed class. As this new class competed for dominance, the cultural phenomenon of the visual spectacle, vigorously celebrated with in the realm of public architecture, moved into the private world of the Second Empire htel particulie r. Previous works dedicated to the study of the nineteenthcentury htel particulie r have emphasized the cultural tradition that influenced the architecture. The urban mansion is presented as an expression of the clients social st anding, designed to r eflect a taste refined yet unobtrusive,3 and was not seen as a place for innovative design ideas. This dissertation seeks to challenge that viewpoint, through an analysis of the dialectic present in the use of historical architectural models coupled with a newly inventive spirit in their design The role of new technologies and the expression of the cultures fascination with spectacle are the hallmark features of the htel particulie r of the last half of the nineteenth century. Case Study: The Urban Mansion of the Baronne Salomon de Rothschild In order to evaluate the thesis that the Parisian urban mansion of the late Second Empire and early Third Republic was significant as an expression of both the forces of tradition and invention in design, alongside the physical expression of the cultures fascination with spectacle, the urban mansion of the Baronn e (Barone ss) Salomon de Rothschild, herein after called the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, was selected for this case study. To supplement the written documentation, often incomplete or inadequate, the physical evidence will be examined as a document of social history. The property is located within the post 1860 limits of the city of

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23 Paris, in the 8th arrondissement (district), with the entrance to the residence located at numbers 9 11, rue Berryer. Following an accepted practice of the nineteenthcentury generations of the Rothschild family, the third son of James de Rothschild, Salomon de Rothschild (18351864), married his second cousin, Adle, whose grandfather, Karl Mayer Rothschild, was the founder of the Naples branch of the dynasty.4 The Baronne AdleHannahCharlotte de Rothschild (18431922) was only twenty one years old at the time of her husbands death. She remained for another decade in the neighborhood near the church of La Madeleine,5 in the htel particulier at 25, rue du FaubourgSaint Honor ,6 which she had shared with her husband and their only child, Hlne, who was born in 1863. She chose not to execute the architectural plans for a new htel particulier on avenue Messine designed by the architects mile Petit and H. Croiseau.7 Instead, in 1872, she commissioned Lon Ohnet (18131874), architect of the Rothschild expansion of the H tel de Talleyrand to design a ht el particulie r for her newly acquired property in the neighborhood of Faubourg du Roule. Adle de Rothschild resided there with Hlne, until the latters marriage in 18878 and then lived alone in the mansion until her death in 1922, surrounded by the extensive art colle ction, the product of her own family inheritance and the prodigious acquisitions of her husband during his brief life. The building is now known as the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild. The site selected by the B aronne de Rothschild for her new residenc e had a rich history and included seve ral significant late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century buildings and site features. The property is bounded by the modern day avenue de Friedland, rue de Balzac, rue du Faubourg Saint Honor and the rue B erryer, and was part of a larger 12 hectare property assembled by Nicolas Beaujon (17181786), a financier and private banker to the nobility,

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24 including Louis XV and Madame Du Barry. The evolution of the property through the ownership of the family of the acclaimed writer, Honor de Balzac, extending into the 1880s, will be examined in the evaluation of the site. The architectural expression of this case study building reflects the influence of previous structures that were still extant on the property and the adjacent parcels at the time of the projects design and construction, a period spanning from 1872 to 1878. Additional property acquisitions and site alterations occurred throughout the 1880s. The current configuration of the property is a result of fi ve separate acquisitions, totaling 7,531 square m eters, which were made by the B aronne de Rothschild, between 1873 and 1882.9 The first parcel, acquired on the 28th of November, 1873, was the site of the Chartreuse Beaujon and was a parcel of about 5700 s quare meters, with two addresses, the principal entrance at 20, rue Balzac and another at 65, rue des curies dArtois, (the modern day rue Berryer) It was here on this elevated terrain that the new ht el particulie r was constructed. In 1874, Adle de Rothschild acquired the adjacent property containing 853 square meters, at 63 rue des curies dArtois, from the artist Pierre Franois Eugne Giraud ( 18061881) The next year, she purchased the house and garden at 67, rue des curies dArtois The sales document describes the property as containing 252 square meters, bounded in the front by the rue des curies dArtoi s at the rear by Madame de Balzacs p roperty, on the right by the Chapelle Saint Nicolas and on the left by the property of Madame la baron ne 10 In 1882, Adle de Rothschild acquired Balzacs property, at 22 rue Balzac, adjacent to her residence. The demolition of the writers house, the H tel de Balzac, in 1890, allowed for the expansion of her garden to the northwest. The main building wi th the lower courtyard to the east, as shown on this plan, is the grand htel particulie r conceived by the architect. Lon Ohnet which erased the building designed by Girardin. Soon after, the old chapel was razed and the

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25 property was finally acquired by the baroness Rothschild, as was the old house of Balzac which was removed to provide more space for the garden.11 In homage to the great writer, a domed pavilion known as the roto nde de Balzac was constructed in this garden space, at the angle of the inte rsection of rue Balzac and rue Berryer in 1891.12 The interior features some of the wall panels and a pair of decorative door panels salvaged from Balzacs residence, an example of the late nineteenth century practice of repurposing salvaged architectural f ragments in a new setting to create an ambience. The H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild is singularly appropriate as a case study to evaluate the thesis that the Parisian urban mansion of the late Second Empire and early Third Republic is significant as a n expression of both tradition and invention, alongside the cultures fascination with spectacle. The geographically prominent location of the site, the leading role in the contemporary society of the Rothschild family and the visual features of the proper ty suggest significant physical evidence of the era. The paucity of available written documentation from the period and the relative obscurity of the architects and designers test the thesis that physical documentation and analysis may supplement understanding of the social and architectural history of an era. Research Focus Project Development The subject of this research project grew out of participation in an earlier project for a commemorative publication on the restoration of the H tel de Talleyrand ,13 an eighteenthcentury htel particulier that is regarded as one of the earliest master works of the nascent style of French neoclassicism. While the principal faades of the htel were designed by the renowned architect AngeJacques Gabriel (1698 1782), a s part of his master composition for the Place Louis XV (the Place de la Concorde), the portail (entrance gateway), the interior faades

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26 overlooking the cour d honneur (Court of Honor), and the overall decorative program for the htel were the work of the young architect, Jean Franois Therse Chalgrin (17391811).14 Educated at the Acadmie des Beaux Arts and winner of the Grand Prix de Rome in 1758, Chalgrin conceived and implemented a harmonious and unified decorative scheme throughout the mansion, all t he while keeping to Gabriels preordained formula while revealing his own greater modernity.15 An intriguing element of this building was the nineteenth century addition on the east end, along the rue Mondavi, dating from about one hundred years after the buildings original construction in 1767.16 While ha rmoniously integrating the four story mass of the addition onto the original building, architect Lon Ohnet (1813 1874) incorporated signature features of nineteenth century design, including the clipped corner of the upper floor plans and the iron and glass bay window on the grand tage (principal floor elevated above street level). Other interventions within the interior were reflective of a marked change in the use and meaning of these spaces. Ohnet is not a well known architect of the period, and thus this little known body of work became a departure point for further research. His design for the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild fully expresses the social aspirations of the wealthy elite of the peri od, as they were translated into architectural forms and spatial experiences that contain both references to the grand classical tradition of French architecture and to the innovative possibilities of changing cultural values and advances in building mater ials. Research Questions The research topic thus evolved from an interest in the synergistic result of these two tendencies as expressed in later nineteenth century residential architectural design, and seeks to answer the following questions:

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27 1. Through th e case study of the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, how does the urban residential architecture of Paris, from the period of the Second Empire through the first two decades of the Third Republic (1852 to 1890) express tradition, invention and spectacle as characteristics of social and cultural aspirations, including evoking traditional architectural features, inventive use of new technology, display of valuable collections and the obsession with social advancement, with seeing and being seen ? a. How d oes the expression of cultural tradition (historicism, eclecticism) and inventive design (modernity) coexist in the architecture and dcor of these buildings? How do emerging building technologies, with the use of new materials, enable the creation of n ew types of spaces and the reinterpretation of traditional spatial forms? b. How does the interest in scenographic design and the cultural obsession with spectacle, influence the spatial organization and character of the upper class residential architecture, and the experience of the spectator? c. How did the desire to collect, preserve and display valuable art objects, furnishings, and artifacts influence the conception of interior space, dcor and circulation, and reflect the aspirations and values of the collectors? 2. How does the interplay of different classifications of evidence, such as the remaining physical evidence and other sources of documentary, contextual and inferential evidence, contribute to the understanding of a work of architecture ? a. How does the work reflect the period eye of nineteenth century architectural design? The p eriod eye is defined as the generally accepted rules, which may be

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28 conscious or unconscious which govern the perception and interpretations of objects within a given culture.17 b. What was the original design intent and how did the designers respond to the needs and desires of the client? Organization of the Document Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the overall themes of the dissertation. The criteria for the selection of t he case study building are listed along with a brief description of the subject property. The inspiration for the research project is explained. The focus of the research investigation is described in the research questions. Chapter 2 outlines the politic al and social framework to set the context for the period of study and identifies some of the principal clients who commissioned examples of grand residential architecture. Among the most influential of the haute bourgeoisie were members of the Rothschild family of bankers and entrepreneurs, and their spectacular rise in the nineteenth century is directly tied to societal changes in the decades from the 1820s through the 1870s. 18 H ow the a rchitectural expression of these residences was used as a means to pr oject this groups image of their position as the new upper class, rivaling the former aristocracy, is also examined. Chapter 3 sets the cultural stage and explains the prevailing design aesthetics of the period of study from the 1850s through the 1880s. The major theme of nineteenth century architecture is the counterpoint of technological advancement in building materials, and the spectacular urban expansion with its extensive opportunities for new building programs, set against the rich cultural tradition that was utilizing an ever greater diversity of historical models from which to draw inspiration for architectural expression. In the nineteenth century, French society was a significant trend setter for the industrializing world and had developed into a highly visual culture, as evidenced in developments in the arts, sciences and literature. This emphasis on the

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29 visual, on seeing and being seen culminated in a highly developed scenographic approach to architectural design, and the resultant impact o n the expression of residential architec ture during the Second Empire is examined here. A second related theme is the study of how the residential architecture served as a showcase for the significant collections of the art, furnishings, and objects, and how this aspect influenced both spatial design and experience. The clients lived amidst, rather than apart from their collections. Design prototypes for the case s tudy building, including the Chteau de Ferrires as a significant influence on the aesthetic preferences for the htels particuliers of the haute bourgeoisie are discuss ed. Chapter 4 analyzes the case study building, the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, to illustrate the importance of the accepted practice of architectural analysis of the bu ilt object, as a datagathering tool used to fill in the gaps of the archival record. The preparation of an architectural analysis for an extant structure requires an examination of the changes to a building over time, and the act of observing several cult ural viewpoints in succession. This analysis, used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, allows the work to be understood as a specific product of its age and illuminates the broader context within which it was created. This information gathering st rategy formed a fundamental part of this research process. The buildings history, as developed from published and archival data, including narrative sources, graphic s and historic photographs, is compared with the extant object, with the aim of understanding the period eye of the post Second Empire design aesthetic. By shearing away the layers of change to the building, the physical state of the architectural object is used to fill in gaps in the archival record. The role of spectacle and the experience of the spectator are explained as significant drivers of design. The impact of technological advances in building

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30 materials, coupled with changes in social mores and behavior, pushed the creation of new types of spaces and celebrated the cultural values of the period. Chapter 5 develops the research conclusions. The elements of the spatial organization and effects, enabled by the use of modern materials and scenographic design techniques, reflected the contemporary cultural values of the haute bourgeoisie The legacy of these works for residential design continued into the early twentieth century and became an international approach to design. Appendix A contains an indepth explanation of the research methodology and a literature review Additional informa tion on the designers of the case study building can be found in Appendix B, which focuses on the life and career of Lon Ohnet, and in Appendix C, which includes notes on additional works by Justin Ponsard and Lopold de Moulignon. Figure 1 1. P ortrai t of Adle de Rothschild. [ A. Cary, Mme. Salomon de Rothschild. No date ( before 1891) Bibliothque Historique de la Ville de P aris (BHVP) Cote : PM XXX, 5.] Note: Subsequent source citations from this collection will be listed as [ A. Cary, image name, pla te #] This collection of images was photographed by the author with permission of BHVP.

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31 Figure 1 2. Htel Baronne Salom on de Rothschild view from the garden. [ A uthors photo] Notes 1 Franois Loyer, Paris: Nineteenth Century Architecture and Urbanism trans. Charles Lynn Clark (New York: Abbeville Press, 1988), 161. 2 Remise de la Lgion dhonneur Franois Loyer, 11 juin 2001, Minist re de la Culture, accessed September 1, 2011, http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/actualites/conferen/duffour 2001/loyer.htm 3 Franois Loyer Architecture of the Industrial Age trans. R.F.M. Dexter (Geneva: Skira, 1983), 102. 4 Rothschild Family Tr ee 2000. Print copy obtained from Rothschild Archives, London, UK, October 4, 2010. 5 Fredric Bedoire, The Jewish Contribution t o Modern Architecture 18301930, trans. Robert Tanner ( Je rsey City: KTAV Publishing 2004), 182. 6 Alexandre Gady, Folie Beaujo n et chapelle Saint Nicolas, in Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor eds. Beatrice de Andia et Dominique Fernandes ( Paris: D l gation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994 ), 361. Ga dy refers to an important earlier history of the site by R. Dupuis, L a chartreuse et le quartier Beaujon Bulletin de la societ de lhistoire de Paris et de l le de France, 1935, 97133. 7 Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothschilds:Btisseurs et Mc nes (Paris: Flammarion, 1995), 103. 8 Anka Muhlstein, The Rise of the French Rothschilds ( Paris: Vendme, 1982) 8 9. Diagram of the family tree.

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32 9 Handwritten notes in folder labeled Baronne Salomon de Rothschild (Adle) Succession. Rothschild Archives, London UK. F ile number 000/1037/127/ 0/5. 10 Michel Borjon, Htel S alomon de Rothschild. tude hist orique et archologique. (Paris: GRAHAL Groupe de Recherche Art Histoire, Architecture et Littrature, Dcembre 2000), 4041. This document cites notes from the Archives Nationale, Minutier Centrale CXVIII, 1142. 11 Gady, 361 Le btiment principal avec sa basse cour lest, que montre ce plan, est dj le grand htel particulier, conu par larchitecte Lon Ohnet et qui effac le btiment de Girardin. Peu aprs, lancienne chapelle tait rase et son terrain tait finale ment acquis par la baronne de Rothschild, tout comme lancienne maison de Balzac, supprime pour faire place un jardin. Unless noted otherwise, or indicated as a translation in the List of References, translation s of French text into English are my own. 12 Borjan, Htel Salomon de Rothschild, 43. 13 The generally accepted modern name for the building is the H tel de Talleyrand Among some French art historians, there is a preference to refer to the building by the name of the original owner, the comte de S aint Florentin, Thus, in some French publications, the work is referred to as the H tel de Saint Florentin 14 Rob ert Carlhian and Fabrice Ouziel, Analyse historique & technique pour lHtel de Saint Florentin d t Htel de Talleyrand Pices Historiques: de Pralable la Restauration (Paris: United States Department of State Foreign Buildings Operation, Fvrier 2000), 1718. 15 Susan Douglas Tate, Concorde: Htel de Talleyrand (Gainesville, FL: Storter Childs, 2007), 29. This quote references a quote from Wend Von Kalnein, Architecture in France in the Eighteenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972, 1995), 206. 16 Carlhian and Ouziel, Pralable 17. 17 Peter Burke, Eyewitnessing: The Use of Images as Historical Evidence (Ithaca, New York: C ornell University Press, 2001), 180. 18 See literature review in Appendix A pertaining to works by PrvostMarcilhacy, Loyer and Bedoire.

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33 CHAPTER 2 IN PARIS ONLY ELEGANCE COUNTS ROTHSCHILD MANSIONS: VANGUARD OF THE RISING HAUTE BOURGEOISIE Rise of the H aute B ourgeoisie The radical societal changes in nineteenth century France sprang from the incessant ruptures in the political and economic life of the nation. Three quarters of the way into the century, by the founding of the Third Republic, originally declared in 1870, France had gone through three revolutions two republics, two empires and three monarchies, and had emerged as one of the worlds preeminent industrial powers. One product of the French Revolution was the rupture of the established political and social orders of the pre 1789 revolutionary system, the ancien rgime. After the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1815, a significant shift in the power base of French society took root, and cul minated in another revolution in 1830 when the political and economic force of the new moneyed class of financiers and entrepreneurs backed a new citizens government. A study of French business history creates a picture of the diversity of the entrepren eurs of the early to mid nineteenth century. The study, Les Entrepreneurs du Second Em pire, documented the provenance of prominent business families in France, and was published in a number of volumes organized by geographic region. From the volume dedicat ed to Paris, among the ninety three leading bankers and financiers in Paris, 54 percent had origins east of the Meuse and 38 percent came from outside France.1 In addition to the Jewish families, there was an influx of Protestant entrepreneurs from Switz erland and Germany.2 French Catholics were also represented in this group, as were French Huguenots, who fled to Switzerland, then later returned to France.3 The battle for supremacy was won by this new bourgeoisie who held their assets in stocks and bonds, in contrast to the former aristocratic families of the ancien r gime whose wealth was

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34 derived mostly from their land holdings, buildings, furnishings, antiques and art collections. In her biography of James Mayer de Rothschild, Anka Muhlstein describes this transfer of wealth to a new class during the period of the Restoration and the July Monarchy. Relative shrinkage of titled wealth between 1820 and 1847 can be explained by the reluctance of the nobles to invest in industry and commerce and by their withdrawal from public life after 1830.4 The resultant cultural climate can be glimpsed through the experiences of two generations of one of the most influential and entrepreneurial families of the century, the Rothschilds. In the rise of the haute bourge oisie the Rothschild family represents the most elite of this socially ascendant group. For this reason, a case study of a Rothschild property is analyzed in this dissertation to evaluate physical evidence as a supplement to written history in understandi ng a specific site, client, architect and the society of a period. In P aris, O nly Elegance C ounts 18111830 As part of the prominent banking familys business strategy, the five Rothschild brothers, sons of the successful Jewish financier Mayer Amschel Ro thschild (17431812) were deployed across the capitols of Europe. The eldest brother, Amschel, remained in Frankfurt at the family seat of the Rothschild bank. Nathan married into another wealthy and well established Jewish banking family in London. Salom on settled in Vienna in 1820 and Carl Mayer set up the Naples branch of the family bank in 1821. The youngest brother, James Mayer, arrived in Paris from Frankfurt in 1811 to represent the interests of the family bank. In a letter of that year to one of hi s brothers, the young James laments his lack of social presence and the pressure of the imperative to present a dashing figure, because in Paris, only elegance counts.5 James aggressively pursued a campaign of upward mobility, in both the financial and social worlds. By 1818, with the first of several property acquisitions, the purchase of the htel particulie r built for duc dOtrante, at 19, rue Laffitte, James was achieving his dreams of social

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35 ascension.6 As a young man struggling to fit in to a compl ex social system, James realized the importance of appearance in conveying the appropriate message to his adopted countrymen, who regarded his social naivet with some indulgence.7 The rapid increase of his fortune eclipsed that of most other members of the haute bourgeoisie of the period and was a key driver in his quest for the family, with their Germanic heritage and Jewish identity, to be accepted and integrated into French society. How muc h was his fortune worth? As Mulstein points out in her analysis, the French franc retained a constant value from 1815 through 1868, the year of James death. Her analysis estimated his worth as approximately 120,000 francs in 1815, at 20 million in the years before 1830, at 40 million under Louis Philippe (183048) and at 150 million in 1868.8 By comparison, the estates of other financiers were significantly smaller. In 1829, the fortune of banker Jacques Laffitte was estimated between 25 and 30 million francs, which was subsequently lost in the revolution of 1830. Upon his death is 1847, Delesserts fortune was valued at 11 million francs, JeanCharles Davilliers estate was valued at 6 million in 1846 and Jean Conrad Hottinguer left 4 million to his heirs in 1841.9 Thus, there was a hierarchy among this new group of t he industrial and mercantile bourgeoisie, based on levels of wealth.10 This wealth allowed James access to major political figures throughout his life. Early on in his new life in France, his financial support aided Louis XVIII in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1815.11 The five Rothschild brothers had, by this time, acquired large amounts of capital and were negotiating terms on supplying an advance payment to the Austrian government for Frances war indemnity to Austria. In 1817, the Rothschil d family was ennobled by the Austrian Emperor, and the five sons of Mayer Amschel were granted the title of Baron. In France, James added a de to his surname and continued his social rise.

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36 During this period, James de Rothschild, established a financi al relationship with Louis Philippe, the Duc dOrlans, who was a cousin of the Restoration monarch, King Louis XVIII (17551824). By shifting his allegiance to the Orlans branch of the Bourbon dynasty, he secured the favor of the future King Louis Philip pe (17731850). At this point, his dealings were oriented towards the old aristocracy who held most of the ministerial positions and power in the government. But storm clouds were brewing, and the rising entrepreneurial classes were growing tired of their exclusion from political power. After the revolution of 1830, James enjoyed a friendly relationship with the new monarch, penetrating deep into French political life,12 Having pursued wealth and access to power for eighteen years, it was apparent that the July Monarchy would grant him an abundance of both.13 Urban Mans ions for the N ew H aute B ourgeoisie : 18301851 The desire to acquire objects symbolic of ones arrival extended to property as well. James de Rothschild, not unaware of the cachet of owning one of the jewels of the nascent neoclassical movement from the previous century, purchased the H tel de Talleyrand at auction for over one million francs in 1838, from the estate of the famous statesman, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Prigord.14 Soon the reafter, he commissioned restoration work on the htel hiring the painter Louis Francois Bertrand to restore the original ceiling painting created by the renowned neoclassical artist Jean Simon Berthlemy (1743 1811) in the grand stair. Baron James and hi s wife, Betty (18051886), never lived at the htel preferring their grander mansion on rue Lafitte, and instead he rented the property to various tenants. Around 1841, the famous circular stables of Cellurier, which were located to the north of the H tel Talleyrand at 4, rue Saint Florentin, were demolished and Baron Jam es constructed a new building, to be known as the H tel de lInfantado in its place.15

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37 The basic form of the htel particulie r, had reached its mature architectural type during the ancien rgime of the eighteenth century. As seen in the example of the H tel de Talleyrand the floor plan reflected the strict social hierarchy, with the formal reception rooms arranged en enfilade that is, one space leading directly into the other, with align ed doorways. Spaces were experienced as discrete volumes in a sequence. Access to these spaces was strictly controlled by rigid social hierarchies and rituals. Social position determined the level of access into the formal reception rooms. A lower level of ficial might gain access to the antechambers and more socially elevated guests could penetrate into the state apartments, from large receptions in the Grand S alon, t o formal meetings in the Grand C abinet (State Office), and more intimate meetings in the S a lon Ovale (Oval Salon) and the Chambre ( S tate B edchamber used for official business .) In the two decades after the 1830 Revolution, the rise of the new haute bourgeoisie class, with their great wealth based not on land and provenance, but on capital and t rade, reflected a different set of values in the design of their residences. Changes wrought by the new social mores of the nineteenth century, including the incorporation of new building technologies in structural, lighting and plumbing systems, and circu lation patterns based on less formal rules of social interaction, caused the component elements of the htel particulie r to be designed with different considerations. Salons, dining rooms and reception rooms were now used in a different manner, with the em phasis on open circulation of family and guests to showcase the opulent interior decorative features, reflecting the new emphasis on bourgeois family life. New types of spaces, such as the top lit gallery hall, were enhanced by technological advances in m aterials, notably iron and glass. Inspired by the covered commercial arcades, such as the Passage Brady (1828), these two story spaces began appearing in the or gani zation of the floor plans by midcentury. These gallery halls were designed to accommodate th e broadening

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38 interest in collecting, as the acquisition of antiques, art, sculpture and exotic plants was no longer the exclusive privilege of the nobility There remained a sense of separation between the long established financiers of old French origins and the newcomers to this elite group during the reign of Louis Philippe. Where the differences in aesthetic tastes for design and dcor are best observed is within the sphere of domestic architecture. In Fredric Bedoires work, The Jewish Contribution to Modern Architecture 18301930, he cites as an example, James de Rothschilds renovations to his mansion on rue Laffitte, completed in 1836. A weakness for gilt and overloaded decoration was above all manifest among the successful bankers, with James de Rothschilds residence on rue Laffitte as the prime example. Contemporaries regarded the bankers desire to outdo the most luxurious interiors of the ancien r gime as a way of demonstrating their credibility to their customers and as a token of their economic sovereignty.16 In contrast to this observation, the aesthetic sensibilities of other members of the financial elite were described as more restrained, as the members of this group associated unchecked luxury with the ostentation of a decadent aristocrac y, and through innate prudence, refused to increase the opulence in their lives. This reserve can be explained by the fact that the rich bourgeois of the period Delesserts, P riers, Davilliers, Mallets, Hottinguers were rising steadily in a society fro m which they had never been excluded.17 Through the 1830s and 1840s, the seeds of the future urban form of Paris were germinating. Fashionable new neighborhoods for the upper middle classes were developed, around the toile, and along the rue du Faubourg Sa int Honor. Major urban interventions were planned, such as the reconstruction of the neighborhood around Les Halles, although many of these projects would only be executed after 1852, during the Second Empire. The full extension of the rue de Rivoli to th e east, first envisioned by Napolon I, was finally achieved between 1853 and 1857 by Napolon III.18

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39 Coupled with this new urban vision was the need for new means of transportation, and the importance of developing the potential of the railroads was envis ioned by James de Rothschild early on. The Rothschild Bank provided a major portion of the finances for the successful Paris to Saint Germain rail line, completed in 1837 by another important entrepreneurial family, the Preire brothers. In a prescient let ter, Emile Preire notes that this participation by the Rothschilds is not only of great importance for this particular venture, it will also necessarily have a determining influence on the later realization of all the great industrial undertakings.19 In 1845, the Rothschilds became the major shareholders in the contract for the financing and construction of the Chemin de Fer du Nord, the northern rail line between Paris and the Belgian border. The profound influence of this great industrial undertaking was aesthetic as well as financial; by 1860 this rail line was one of the principal routes in France. James was president of the company (Comit de Direction) and was closely involved with the major architectural and engineering works associated with the r ailroads. During the rebuilding of a new terminus station in Paris, the Gard du Nord, the Comit would oversee such details as the selection of the artists who would be creating the 23 statues on the principal faade, which cities these statues would symbo lize, and the cost of the work.20 While the July revolution of 1830 was primarily motivated by the desire for political power among the new entrepreneurial class, the 1848 revolution was a product of the economic factors that spawned social unrest. The haute bourgeoisie were in a position to take advantage of their new power base in 1830 and to grow quietly richer, steeped in self satisfaction while they t hought less about social issues than how to turn public affairs to their own profit.21 It is during this period that class segregation increases, as many industries and workshops left the urban center and moved to cheaper land to the east and north of the city limits, followed by the

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40 working classes. A series of riots by the urban poor, in 1830, 1832, 1834, and 1838, were harshly suppressed. In 1846, a financial crisis was followed by bad harvests, and an economic depression in 1847. In February 1848, after days of rioting in the city, King Louis Philippe, who had lost support of his political base as wel l as the Republicans, abdicated and fled to England. In the wake of the destruction of his brother Salomons (17441855) chteau at Suresnes by an angry mob, James de Rothschild prepared his staff for possible looting and damage to his own home and offices H e told them I wouldnt miss my chteau, but I would miss Paris if I had to leave it.22 This sentiment reinforces the level of successful social ascendency achieved for the family through his efforts of the three preceding decades. A provisional government, made up of Republicans and Orl anists, enacted universal suffrage for males and, in April of 1848, held the first parliamentary election since 1792. Attempts to address the high unemployment failed and the hungry populace, increasingly disenfranchise d, continued their protests for the right to work. Fierce street battles between the army and the workers in June ended in a brutal repression. The first presidential election in France was held on December 10, 1848, with Louis Napolon Bonaparte winning as a republican candidate promoting progressive economic policies. A suc cessful coup dtat in December 1851 ended with the dissolution of the National Assembly and constitutional modifications to the role of the president. In 1852, another referendum approved the formation of the Second Empire with president Bonaparte named as Napolon III, Emperor of the French. Tradition and Inven tion in the Urban Mansion: 18521870 The Rothschilds relationship with the new Emperor was business like, guardedly providi ng loans and financing projects. It was the Preire brothers, former business associates of James de Rothschild, who were more closely tied to the new regime. The Preires were the force behind urban projects such as the Grand Htel du Louvre, built for the 1855 Exposition

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41 Universelle, le Grand Htel designed by architect Alfred Armand in 1862 a nd the development of the upper class Plaine Monceau residential neighborhood, located to the north of the Place de ltoile. A period of social calm and prosperity returned in the 1850s, as James was enjoying the profits of his labors, including the success of his railroad ventures. This was the decade in which he undertook the major reconstruction of his ch teau in Ferrires en Brie. Bedoire notes the irony that th e taste for overloaded decoration, displayed in the Rothschild mansion of the 1830s, was later adopted by Napolon III and his inner circle. This trend is seen in the interiors of the apartment of the State Ministry within the Louvre palace in the 1850s. But by then, James de Rothschild had moved on to his masterpiece at Ferrires, where, along with his principal designers, the renowned British landscape designer Joseph Paxton (18031865) and the ornementiste (principal decorator and painter) Eugne Louis Lami (1800 1890), he had devised new means of expression, using genuine materials and modern conveniences.23 By selecting an English landscape designer instead of a leading French architect to execute the project, James succeeded in achieving several go als. Paxton was already known to James for over a decade, having designed a grand English country home at Mentmore for his nephew, Mayer, son of Nathan de Rothschild, during the early 1850s.24 Fresh from his critical success and fame as the designer of the Crystal Palace in 1851, Paxton was invited by Napolon III to provide advice on the plans for the 1855 Exposition Universelle ( World Exposition) in Paris25, which was to be a statement of French industrial innovation and strength. This new spirit of interna tional exchange, in commerce and in culture, was already deeply imbued in the familys psychology, and James made his choice of an architect based on his forwardlooking vision.26

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42 The new chteau was vast in scale, a quadrilateral plan of sixty five meters on each side, with two principal floors raised above a basement level of service spaces. Ferrires was innovative in the inclusion of the latest technologies in building systems, including central heating and running hot and cold water to bedroom suites.27 Each of the four building faades has a different character, knit together by the massing of the corner towers at each of the four corners of the quadrangle, and the repetition of similar window openings as the recurring themes. The interior is composed of suites of rooms, each with its own theme of dcor, inspired by a rich variety of historical references to seventeenth and eighteenth century French interiors and Venetian precedents.28 This approach can be seen as a collection of architectural themes pres ented in a manner similar to the eclectic collection of objets darts th at was displayed within. Napolon III made an inaugural visit to Ferrires i n 1862. The spect acular success of the visit served as a reminder to the Emperor of James po wer and indepen dence from the r gime .29 By the end of the Second Empire, the assimilation of the Jewish financiers into French upper society was fully achieved. The grand residential districts around Parc Monceau and along the rue du Faubourg Saint Honor were home to the new wealthy classes, regardless of culture or faith. Unlike several other continental cities, Paris did not have a monumental street especially constructed for the eminent Jewish entrepreneurs. After its transformation by Haussmann, Paris was to a very great extent uniform and anonymous, also in the sense of the assimilated wealthy Jew living in the midst of the nonJewish populace.30 A Tradition Continues: 18701890 After the death of James de Rothschild in 1868, his eldest son Mayer Alphonse (18271905) referred to as Alphonse, took over the operations of the Rothschild Frres bank. The bank was to play a major role after the 1870 1871 Franco Prussian war, by providing capital for the payment of five billion francs in war reparations to the newly unite d German Empire.

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43 The impact of the events of 1871 on the urban fabric of the capital city was profound, with significant damage and destruction to important edifices, and the disruption of major projects begu n by Napolon III and implemented by Haussmann. After the victorious Prussians withdrew from Paris in 1871, a civil war broke out between the partisans of the Paris Commune, a loose coalition that briefly ruled Paris from March until the end of May 1871, and the forces under control of the National Ass embly. A small group of Commune loyalists set fire to the Tuileries Palace, destroying the interiors and leaving a shell that was torn down in 1882. In a similar fashion, the Htel de Ville was burned by Commune loyalists as anti Commune forces surrounded the building. The massive reconstruction project for the building lasted from 1873 to 1892. Construction eventually resumed on the new Opra, which opened to great acclaim in 1875. The uprising and quick suppression of the Commune, from January to May of 1871 caused a deeper social shock, but order was restored through the establishment of a provisional government under Marie JosephLouis Adolphe Thiers (17971877), who was the first leader of the Third Republic. T he changes in government did not seem to c ause a rupture in the stylistic and aesthetic preferences of the Second Empire, however, and the prevailing architectural trends continued well into the early twentieth century. By then, Alphonse de Rothschild and his siblings were deeply integrated into the economic and cultural life of Paris. In addition to his position as head of the Paris branch of the family bank, he was named a regent of the Banque de France in 1855, and he was honored with the Grand Croix de la L gion dhonneur.31 He was renowned as the greatest collector of art and objects, in a family of great collectors. He outshone all his contemporaries as connoisseur, patron and sensitive art lover.32 Alphonse was named to the Acadmie des Beaux Arts in 1885.

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44 The love of collecting extended to Bordeaux vineyards. Alphonse and his brother Gustave inherited the vineyards of Chteau Lafitte Rothschild and were in friendly rivalry with their cousin Nathaniels Chteau Brane Mouton, (renamed Chteau MoutonRothschild) in Pauillac. Horse racing, the sport of kings, was another of the Rothschild brothers passions and their Haras de Meautry breed ing farm successfully produced champions for over a century. As a leader in the cultural sphere, Alphonse often attended the opera and theatre. With his wife Leonora, a cousin from the English branch of the family, the couple was described by one English noblewoman as the most lavish entertainers of their day.33 The young couple was offered the H tel de Talleyrand as a residence upon their marriage in 1857, but the precise date of their relocation to the property is unknown, as the city directories only listed this address as of 1865.34 While James de Rothschild had commissioned the architect, Lon Ohnet (18131874), with whom he had previously collaborated on other projects, to design an addition for the building, the work was likely implemented after James death in 1868. The addition was certainly completed by 1871, as evidenced in a photograph taken in that year by the photographer Desvarreaux. This image d epicts the barricades at the entrance to the rue de Rivoli, erected during the Commune.35 In the calm after the political storm, Alphonse again retained Ohnets services, along with the architect mile Petit, for a second campaign of remodeling of the inter ior to accommodate their later nineteenthcentury lifestyle. 36 Ohnet and Petit also appear to have collaborated on a project for Charlotte de Rothschild (18251899), Alphonses older sister, married to his English cousin Nathaniel, for their htel particul ier in the fashionable neighborhood along the rue du F aubourg Saint Honor.37

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45 Alphonses younger brother SalomonJames de Rothschild (18351864) married his Neapolitan cousin Adle de Rothschild (18431922), but died at the age of twenty nine. It was Adle who later commissioned Ohnet to design and construct a new htel particulier with its neoclassically inspired faades, on the grounds of the eighteenth century folie Beaujon bordering the avenue de Friedland, on rue Berryer. Despite Ohnets death in 1874, the work was constructed in accordance with his design drawings according to contemporaneous sources .38 Within the design of t his htel particulier Ohnet succeeded in capturing the dual aspects of the period, a skilled interpretation of traditional arch itectural models balanced with an innovative spatial design enabled by the use of new materials This last, and most mature example of Ohnets body of work will be the subject of the case study in Chapter 4. The second and third generations of the Rothschi ld family commissioned a remarkable portfolio of grand residences that carried the eclectic style favored by the Second Empire aesthetic into the early twentieth century. Whether these residences were renovated eighteenth century palaces or newly construct ed nineteenthcentury htel s particulier s, the architectural expression emphasized the values in vogue in the 1860s and 1870s; those of adherence to a grand tradition of French academic architecture combined with inventive approaches to the use of new mate rials and of a more dramatic spatial experience. The resulting mansions were spatially fluid visions of opulent spectacle, with the display of extensive collections of artwork and objects, bathed in light. As for the architectural preferences of other members of the haute bourgeoisie their self expression continued into the new century to be sought in historical al lusions and period architecture. 39 By the end of the nineteenth century, the financial and entrepreneurial classes preferred the veneer of trad ition and it would be left to the artistic circles to adopt the avant garde in architectural design.

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46 Build ing the Clients S elf i mage The broad history of French classicism during the ancien rgime was the design reference for these urban mansions, and the interior space typology of the public rooms drew on the models established by the 17th century htel particulier the foyer, grand stair and reception salons However, the societal changes of the nineteenth century altered the purpose of these spaces, t heir sequence in the plan and the approach to their decor. Attributed to the triumph of a mercantile society, 40 these changes included the primacy of family life at home, the desire for comfort and modern conveniences and the passion for the acquisition a nd display of valuable objects, art and artifacts. Translated, this meant that their public life, defined by a routine of leisure activity and the demands of sociability. are all highly ritualized occasions for looking at others and for being looked a t.41 While the antecedents for the entry sequence of the Second Empire htel particulier were firmly rooted in the grand historical tradition of French residential architecture, there are two key differences. One is in the greater sense of volumetric open ness, from the vestibule and entrance stair to the central hall and circulation galleries, as seen in the design for the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild. The quality of openness is due to the technological advances in materials, particularly in the use of glass in iron frames. This innovation in building materials allowed for larger expanses of glazed walls and roofs, further enhancing the perception of, and sense of connection to the adjacent spaces and the activities within. In an increasingly scenogr aphic approach to design, adopted from the public buildings of the period, notably the new Opra, designed by Charles Garnier (1826 1898), alternating light and dark spaces heighten the drama in the experience of the patrons progressing through the spatial sequence. The second difference from the earlier mansions and palaces is in the manner in which the collections are presented as integral parts of the fabric of the house. The Rothschilds, as did their

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47 contemporaries, lived with their collections in a co mfortable way, as everyday objects within the spaces; not as though they were inhabitin g a museum, but rather living in a princely treasure trove.42 A New Century The influence of the style Rothschild has carried through time and space, across sovereign boundaries and through the remaining decades of the nineteenth century into the early twentieth centu ry. The supremacy of nineteenthcentury French culture and aesthetics was unchallenged as these models were imported to other European countries, as seen in the residential commissions by members of the extended Rothschild family. Ferdinand de Rothschild (18391898) chose the renowned French architect, Gabriel Hippolyte Destailleur (18221893), the archite ct of the restoration of the ch teau of Vaux le Vicomte, to design his magnificent country estate at Waddesdon, England, begun in 1874 and completed in 1883, with an additional wing added in 1889. Destailleur drew his inspiration from several sixteenth and seventeenth century French Renaissance chteaux, incl uding those at Chambord and Maintenon. As Bruno Pons noted, the Rothschilds of Baron Ferdinands generation played an important role in the annals of reuse of decorative panels.43 The paneling of the Tower Room at Waddesdon was acquired for Ferdinand by 1 894. Originally designed in 1773 by tienne Louis Boulle (17281799) for the main salon of the private country estate in Issy, owned by the financier Nicolas Beaujon,44 the panels were stripped of the original white paint down to the oak, and received a wa xed finish and gilded accents on the raised sections of the panel moldings in keeping with late nineteenth century tastes. Nathaniel von Rothschild (18361905) from the Viennese branch of the family, commissioned th e French architect Jean Girette, a form er student of Charles Garnier, to create a neo Baroque mansion in the Belvedere section of Vienna, in the 1870s.45 The Beaux Arts trained

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48 ornamental sculptor Antoine Zoegger (18291885), decorator of the Imperial Apartments designed by Viollet Le Duc at Pierrefonds for Napolon III, was commissioned to design the dcor of the mansion.46 In the early twentieth century, this building tradition continued in the works of architects such as Ren Sergent (18651927), whose practice can be seen as truly international. Sergents body of work includes numerous residential commissions including a villa for the designer Jean Worth in Paris, a house for the Gould family in New York, a mansion for Pierpont Morgan in London and several grand mansions in Buenos Aires. H e w as renowned for restoration of eighteenth century palaces as well as for new designs based on a more rigorous application of historical architectural detailing. In the design for the Louis XVI style H tel Mose de Camondo, dating from 19111914, Sergents approach to design was, on the one hand, more academic, returning to a purer interpretation of historically inspired architectural details His skill in scenographic design animated the interior, and created a more fluid concep tion of space, awash with lig ht from the main stair hall and the spiral stair that leads to the family quarters on the upper floor. Sergent was later retained by the Rothschilds to renovate and modernize the H tel Adolphe de Rothschild on rue Monceau. He designed with an in depth knowledge of the techniques and secrets of renowned designers such as Mansart, Delafosse, Blondel, Gabriel, Brogniart, Ledoux or Chalgrin, which allowed him to play the high game of classicism as few of his contemporaries could.47 Thus, the foremost Parisia n residences of the early twentieth century contained the elements emphasized in the preceding fifty years; eclectic historical references, spatial fluidity emphasizing a scenographic experience, and the housing of significant collections of traditional ar t and objects, while integrating the most modern comforts and conveniences of the period.

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49 These characteristic elements will be analyzed in depth in the case study building, the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, in Chapter 4 of this document A B Figure 2 1. Chteau de Ferrires A) Faade view from lake B) Entrance faade. [Authors photos ]

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50 Figure 2 2. Po rtrait of Alphonse de Rothschild, no date. [Wikimedia Commons p.d.] Figure 2 3. Htel de Talleyrand photograph of barricades 1871. [ Scanned and reprinted with permission from author, Concorde 60]

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51 Figure 24. Adle de Rothschild as a young woman. [ A. Cary, Portrait de Mme. Salomon de Rothschild, plate 3 ] Figure 25. Portrait of L on Ohnet [ A. Cary, Lon Ohnet, plate 6 ]

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52 Figure 26. Waddesdon entrance faade. [Authors photo] Figure 2 7. Tower Room at Waddesdon. [Authors photo]

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53 Figure 28. Htel Camondo court faade. [ A uthors photo] A B Figure 29. Htel Camondo interiors A ) S tair hall. B) U pper hall [ A uthors photos ]

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54 Notes 1 Michael S. Smith, review of Les Entrepreneurs du Second Empire by Dominique Barjot, et al., Business History Review (Winter 2007): 2, accessed February 14, 2010, http://www.hbs.edu/bhr/archives/bookreviews/79/msmith.pdf 2 Michael S. Smith, The Emergence of Modern Business Enterprise in France, 1800 1930 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006), 34. 3 Fritz Redlich, Jacques Laffitte and the Beginnings of Investment Banking in France Bulletin of the Business Historical Society 22, No. 4/6 (Dec. 1948): 137161. 4 Anka Muhlstein, The Rise of t he French Rothschilds ( Paris: Vendome, 1982), 164. 5 Muhlstein, French Rothschilds 130, figure 4. 6 Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy, B tisseurs et Mc nes, (Paris: Flammarion, 1995) 306. 7 Muhlstein, French Rothschilds 60. The Faubourg Saint Germain looked upon James with a certain benevolent humor. 8 Ibid., 11. 9 Ibid. 1645 10 Ibid. 53 11 Muhlstein, French Rothschilds 51. Virginia Cowles, The Rothschilds: A Family of Fortune ( N ew York: Knopf, 1973 ) 72. 12 Muhlstein, French Rothschilds 97. 13 Ibid., 1 01. 14 Ibid., 12. 15 Robert Carlhian and Fabrice Ouziel. Analyse historique & technique pour lHtel de Saint Florentin (dt Htel de Talleyrand) Pices Historiques: tude Pralable la Restauration. (Paris : United States Department of State Foreign Buildin gs Operation, Fvrier 2000), 32. 16 Fredric Bedoire, The Jewish Contribution to Modern Architecture 18301930, trans. Robert Tanner ( Je rsey City: KTAV Publishing 2004), 175. 17 Muhlstein, French Rothschilds 789. 18 Robert L. Herbert, Impressionism: art, le isure and Parisian society ( New Haven: Yale University, 1988 ), 3. 19 Richard Schofield, Along Rothschild Lines. The Story of Rothschild and Railways across the World. Revised edition. (London: The Rothschild Archives, 2010), 8. 20 Karen Bowie, Les Grandes G ares Parisiennes au XIX Si cle ( Paris : La D l gation lAction Artistique de la Ville de Paris, 1987 ), 110 1. The total cost for the 23 statues was a sum of 82,000 francs. The company would pay half the cost upon completion of the mock up and the other ha lf after the execution of the work in place. 21 Muhlstein, French Rothschilds 170. 22 Muhlstein, French Rothschilds 177.

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55 23 Bedoire, The Jewish Contribution, 175. 24 Bernard Marrey and Jean Pierre Monnet, La grande histoire des serres & des jardins dhiver : France 17801900 ( Paris: Graphite, 1984 ) 59. 25 Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothschilds:Btisseurs et Mc nes 93. 26 This point is made by Loyer, PrvostMarcilhacy and Bedoire. 27 Information sheet from the historic site, Chteau de Ferrires, obtained duri ng a site visit on December 3, 2010. 28 Lami toured Venice in 1860. In a letter he stated that he had brought back several new and picturesque ideas. Quote from a display panel at the chteau de Ferrires, December 2010. 29 Muhlstein, p. 139. This gesture of rapprochement was seen as an acknowledgment of Napolon III of the independence and power of the Rothschilds. 30 Bedoire, The Jewish Contribution, 181. 31 Already a Chevalier de la Legion dhonneur, Alphonse de Rothschild received the award of Grand Cr oix in 1896. 32 Derek Wilson, Rothschild: The Wealth and Power of a Dynasty ( New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1988 ), 246. 33 Cowles, The Rothschilds 146. 34 Archives de Paris, Bottin de Paris 1865 (Paris: Firmin Didot, 1865) cote AP 2mi 3 se ries mi crofilms, 2mi3/50. 35 Carlhian and Ouziel, tude Pralable la Restauration, p. 33. P hotograph by Desvarreux, from a private collection. 36 Carlhian and Ouziel, tude Pralable la Restauration, 32. 37 Anonymous, "Travaux particuliers," Le Constructeur. Organe des industries du btiment. Travaux publics et magasins gnraux ( 03/01/18651865/03/14) 6. This article lists Ohnet as the architect for the residence of M. de Rothschild on rue du Faubourg Saint Honor, on the party wall with Pereire (hence the r esidence of Charlotte and Nathaniel) but other sources attribute work to Petit and Robillard. Extant drawings by Robillard were included in Prvost Marcilhacy, Btisseurs et Mcnes 108. 38 See Chapter 4 for discussion of how the successor architect, Just in Ponsard, who took over the project after Ohnets death, carefully followed Ohnets design intent and drawings. 39 Bedoire, The Jewish Contribution, 201. 40 Bertrand Lemoine, Architecture in France 180019 00 trans. Alexandra Bonfante Warren (New York: H arry N. Abrams, 1993), 154 41 Susan Harrow, Zola: La Cure ( University of Glasgow: French and German Publications, 1998), 17. 42 Quote from a presentation given by Dr. Ulrich Leben, entitled A High Victorian Legacy at Waddesdon Manor: the Smoking Room, B aron Ferdinands Treasure Room and its Contents since the Creation of Waddesdon, from the symposium entitled American Gothic February 27, 2010 at the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, Florida. 43 Bruno Pons. Waddesdon Manor Architecture and Paneling. Published for the Waddesdon Trust by Wilson Publishers, 1996, 15.

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56 44 Selma Schwarz, The Waddesdon Companion Guide (Waddesdon Manor: The National Trust, 2003), 53. 45 Andreas Nierhaus, France as an example: The Rothschild Palaces in Vienna. sterreichische Zeitschrift fr Kunst und Denkmal Pflege 2008 Heft. Bundesdenkmalamt. http://www.bda.at/text/136/1091/113115/#nierhaus 46 Antoine Zoegger drawing entitled Projet de dcor de la bibliothque du Palais Nathaniel de Rothschild, (c. 1875), from the exposition, Le dcorateur et l'amateur d'art. Dcors intrieurs, Paris, France, 2008 Mus e dOrsay website, a ccessed March 4, 2011, http://www.musee orsay.fr/en/collections/index of works/notice.html?no_cache=1&nnumid=66647&cHash=adf97fae9f 47 Fabio Grementieri, The Bosch Palace. Reappraisal, Re storation and R enovation Project, trans. Kathleen Dolan ( Buenos Aires: Pablo Corral, 2001 ), 37.

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57 CHAPTER 3 CURIO SHOPS AND VIRG IN FORESTS : TRADITION, INVENTION AND SPECTACLE IN THE NINETEENTH CENTU RY HTEL PARTICULIER Ohnet and the Dualism of Tradition and Invention Lon Ohnet was one of a small group of select architect s commissioned by the Rothschilds for the design of their residences. Even with this prestigious clientele, the name of Ohnet has been largely unrecognized by hist ory. This may be due to Ohnets modest nature, unlike his contemporaries he was not a prolifi c writer on architectural theory, nor did he design major public commissions.1 Through analysis of his work, he can be understood as an architect whose design aesthetic expressed the dual nature of the mainstream of French mid nineteenth century architectu re, an approach that was simultaneously inventive and indebted to a rich cultural tradition .2 Ohnets architectural education followed the traditional path of classical training in the context of an era when alternatives to academic neoclassicism were d eveloping in the broadening terrain of influences on French architectural design theory. Accepted into the cole des Beaux Arts in January 1832, Ohnet pursed his architectural studies for at least four years and won a medal for his drawings on iron construction in 1836.3 Radical new ideas were in the air at the cole during this period and while neoclassicism was the sanctioned architectural language, there was an increasingly expanded range of historical models considered as appropriate for reference. Thi s tendency, coupled with the inventive use and expressive possibilities afforded by new materials, was radically altering the approach to design. The developments in architectural theory of the 1830s and 1840s deeply influenced Ohnets generation. In order to better see with the period eye of the second half of the nineteenth century, this architectural journey must be understood, as it progressed from the use of strictly prescribed antique historical models in the neoclassicism of the Restoration perio d

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58 (18161830), to the free combinations of a more diverse set of historical references in the movement of Second Empire eclecticism (18511870). cole des Beaux Arts and the Supremacy of French C lassicism Invention came late to the designs executed for the Grand Prix de Rome in the nineteenth century cole des Beaux Arts. It was only in 1865, one of the years in which Ohnet served as a juror for the Prix de Rome competition in architecture and some thirty years after his student days there, that the prize w inning project for a Large Htel for Travelers celebrated the exposure of the large scale iron structural frame, rather than concealing the structure within the accepted material of monumentality: masonry.4 The successful student, Louis Noguet (1835 1883), may have taken his inspiration from the iron and glass roof designed in 1863, by Jacques Flix Duban (17971870), which covered the courtyard of the Grande Salle des Antiquits at the cole des Beaux Arts.5 Along with Pierre Franois Henri Labrouste (1 8011875), JosephLouis Duc (18021879) and Lon Vaudoyer (18031872), Duban was one of the group which Loyer calls the four P rix de Rome musketeers of the avant garde6 who studied together at the Villa Medici in Rome during a period from 1825 to 1832. B y the early 1830s, during the years of Ohnets formative education at the cole, these four young architects were designing with a new understanding of historical precedents, a wider range of architectural references and a nascent conception of Rationalist theory, and were developing the movement known as Romanticism in architecture. Thirty years later, these four architects had all produced major public buildings, had been published widely and by the end of the 1860s had all been elected to the Acadmie des Beaux Arts, proclaiming them part of the architectural establishment. Duban and his colleagues had gained a formal education that was steeped in the neoclassicism favored by the architecture section of the French Institute, the Acadmie des

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59 Beaux Arts, and by extension, the architectural curriculum of the cole des Beaux Arts. Although part of a separate institution, the Acadmie, had the right to nominate the professors of the school and to control the programs for, and the judging of the Grand Prix de Rome competitions thus exerting a profound influence on the design philosophy championed by the faculty. As part of their training, students were also affiliated with the ateliers studios established by some of the architect members of the Acadmie. The g eneration of architects who gained control of the Acadmie, after the reorganization by the French Institute7 following the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, included A.C. Quatremre de Quincy (17551849), A. Vaudoyer (17561846), the father of Lon Va udoyer, and the architects Charles Percier (1764 1838), Pierre Fontaine (17621853), JeanBaptiste Rondelet 17431729) and Franois Debret (17771850), who were characterized as old men when elected, and this only reinforced their tendency toward conserva tism.8 Quatremre de Quincy held the post of permanent director of the Acadmie until 1839. This conservatism looked to the pre Revolutionary rules of design promulgated by the royal academies of the ancien r gime ; symmetry, axiality and proportion as the basis for eternal and universal principles of beauty derived from nature and from the study of the known models of ancient Greek and Roman architecture, with a heavy reliance on the classical texts of antiquity. This vision of the architectural ideal was increasingly challenged by the findings of archeologists throughout the late eighteenth a nd nineteenth centuries when newly discovered physical evidence greatly expanded the understa nding of the architecture and d cor of past cultures and periods. Through these discoveries, the past became more tangible and less idealized. As Loyer notes, undiscriminating enthusiasm was superseded by critical analysis.9

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60 The young Romantics at the Villa Medici in Rome rebelled against the limitations placed on their choices for study. In a series of letters to his conservative architect father, the younger Vaudoyer voiced his opinion of the status quo, made up of teignoirs a term referring to candle snuffers, used metaphorically for those who refused the young archit ects the freedom to study antique architectural monuments beyond the approved models.10 Vaudoyer, along with his contemporaries, championed the idea of continual progress in the historical evolution of architectural design in response to the social and cultural forces of a particular time and place. Labrouste, the Grand Prix winner of 1827, was the principal instigator of the new vision of classicism at the Academy in Rome, with his controversial project that reordered the construction sequence of the temp le complex at Paestum. His mature works made use of the broader range of historical models in highly innovative ways, as seen in the Bibliothque Saint Genev i ve of 1845. By the early 1840s, an expanded inventory of French and Italian historical architect ural forms, along with references from other cultures and eras, was available to architects. Elements of the Romanesque, Gothic and early Renaissance were incorporated into major buildings of the Louis Philippe period, as seen in Dubans project for the ne w M use des tudes at the cole des Beaux Arts. Constructed between 1832 and 1840, the project was conceived as a historically eclectic museum of French Gothic and Renaissance fragments.11 Duban continued his work on the cole des Beaux Arts complex for four decades,12 and his designs epitomized the duality of the nineteenth century tradition, from which he drew on a wide range of historical forms and details, and invention, in the integration of the modern materials of an iron and glass roof and cast iron support columns which enclosed the open courtyard of the Grande Salle des Antiquits.

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61 One of Ohnets more famous contemporaries was Eugne Emmanuel Viollet Le Duc (18141879). While they were colleagues, both working as diocesan architects during the 1850s and 1860s, and while there was evidence of mutual respect from the records of the proceedings that document their service together on the Commission des Arts et Edifices Religieux ,13 these two architects had radically different approaches to design, refle cting the great diversity of architectural expression in the middle and later years of the century. Whereas Ohnet was steeped in the traditional path of French academic training, Viollet le Duc refused to attend the cole des Beaux Arts.14 Appointed as an auditeur supplant in 1838, to the Commission des Monuments Historique s15, ViolletLe Duc undertook several important restoration projects for the nascent movement of preserving Frances great historic monuments. Early on, he was captivated by the Gothic sty le, popularized by Victor Hugo in his 1831 Romantic novel, Notre Dame de Paris ( The Hunchback of Notre Dame ). In 1844, along with his colleague JeanBaptiste Lassus, ViolletLe Duc won the architectural competition for the restoration of the cathedral of N otre Dame.16 He began writing essays for the newly founded journal, Annals arch ologiques and formulating his Rationalist theory, which transcended the narrow confines of style to form a theory of design based on responding to modern needs and building wit h modern materials. The approach is one of synthesis, not revivalism, a process described in John Summersons essay on Viollet Le Duc. The architects education must therefore, proceed in two stages. First he must learn how to analyze the masterpieces o f the past, then he must learn to make his own synthesis, serving the conditions and using the materials dictated by his age.17 In contrast to ViolletLe Duc s t endencies to openly express modern materials within his later architectural works Ohnet adopte d the mainstream position of using the wide range of available historical models for the exterior composition, and in concealing the structure with traditional materials. While no theoretical writings by Ohnet have been found to date, by

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62 studying his body of work and life history, certain conclusions may be suggested. The expanded range of historical precedents established through the work of the Romantics during Ohnets student days was exploited in his works from the late 1840s through the 1860s.18 Coupled with his experiences in designing industrial buildings, factories and train stations, the dual forces of tradition and invention exerted a powerful influence on his later works. Later in his career, he seemed to gravitate to the late eighteenth century ne oclassicism as his preferred source of inspiration for architectural design This choice of architectural expression was juxtaposed with his innovative plan organizations which created dramatic spatial experiences through the manipulation of light and dar k spaces to create pivot points in the principal organizing axes along the circulation paths. This technique of enlivening the experience of progressing through the spaces culminated in the design of the Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild. Eclectic Beh avior In the seventeenth cent ury, Louis XIV had created the A cadmie royale darchitecture to promote his ambitions for an architecture that expressed a national character. This notion of a national character held great appeal for Louis Napolon Bonaparte, (later Napolon III). As part of a campaign to legitimize his own rule, through associating his Second Empire with the glory of the first empire of his uncle, Napolon III resurrected the project to complete the Louvre. Duban began the project in 1848 and work on the complex was continued in the 1850s by the architects Visconti and Lefuel. The work was executed in an eclectic style: Italian and French Renaissance elements, but predominately borrowings from the Louis styles of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in keeping with the character of a national monument built mainly in those centuries.19 Lefuels interior design for the suite of apartments for Napolon IIIs state minister, Achille Fould, adopted the heavy gilded treatment of the ornament and paneling popularized

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63 several decades earlier by the Rothschilds and other wealthy entrepreneurs. Bedoire describes these interiors as one of the most opulent in nineteenth century Europe, which served as inspiration for the interior palettes of the new Garnier Opra.20 In Architecture of the Industrial Age Loyer characteriz es eclecticism as a behavior rather than a theory, where the past, in the reading given it, is placed totally at the service of the modern vision of form:21 The elegant htels partic uliers constructed in the newly developed residential districts around the Parc Monceau, along the Champs lyses and in the Quartier du Roule, took their architectural cues from the notion of a national character inspired by the architecture from the reig ns of the Bourbon dynasty, the Louis styles of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The exterior design would reflect a fairly homogeneous composition with details of the selected period, and the interiors would contain a collection of spaces, each wi th their coherent composition of architectural features from these major periods of design. The interior furnishings could be drawn from many periods, creating the eclectic mix later described sometimes disparagingly, as tous les Louis But the key development in residential architecture would be the changing social values surrounding public a nd private life and the cultures fascination with visual spectacle. Daly and the Eclectic Clothing of the H tel P articulier In the case of private architecture, th e needs of the domestic life were to become the driving force in the organization of the plan, while encasing these more modern conceptions of space in the clothing of a rich variety of historical references. This metaphor was used by the influential arc hitectural critic and architect, Csar Daly to describe the role of the modern residence of the 1860s as clothing for the family, destined to serve as envelope, to provide shelter and to lend itself to all their activities, protect them from the elements, harmonize with the

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64 simplicity (rusticity) or the refinement of their habits, to bend to their taste and even a bit to their whims.22 One notable private commission, designed by Labrouste, was a htel particulier which was widely publicized by the architectural press of the Second Empire Daly published drawings of La broustes design for a French Renaissanceinspired htel created for the banker Louis Fould, the brother of Napolons minister Achille Fould, in the Revue de larchitecture et des travaux publ ics .23 In an interview for the article, Labroustes client noted his love for the architecture of the style Louis XIII but wanted no pastiche and directed his architect to incorporate faade sculptures from other periods,24 thereby dictating an eclectic aesthetic. The selection of construction materials, including the gray slate mansard roof and walls composed of red brick and light colored stone trim, was inspired by buildings from the reign of Henry IV in the early seventeenth century, such as those found around the Place des Vosges. A famous denizen of the Place des Vosges, Victor Hugo, described this type of architecture as a style tricolore .25 Daly returns again to the example of Labroustes H tel Fould in his discussion of the ideal characteristics of the modern urban mansion in his highly significant work entitled LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napolon III. The book was presented as a primer on the design of urban mansions, apartment buildings and suburban villas, using examples of each building type that were constructed between the declaration of the Second Empire in 1852, and the 1864 publication date, a date which preceded by just a few years, Ohnets work for the Rothschild residences. Daly begins his discussion with a compa rison between the forces that drive the design considerations of the modern htel priv (htel particulier) and those that created the htel particulier of the ancien r gime noting that while there are some analogies between the general plan layout, the grand, noble and formal distribution and function of spaces of the past do not

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65 lend themselves readily to the demands and needs of the new style of modern living.26 The term distribution had evolved, by the mideighteenth century, to describe not only the ar rangement of the spaces in the floor plan, but also the entire decorative program that contributes to the desired visual effect. By the mid nineteenth century, the meaning of the term, distribution was essentially unchanged; however, the radically different social and cultural mores dictated a different arrangement of spaces and functions in the htel s particuliers built during this period. While the new urban mansion does not exclude the desire for highly refined and artistic decorative schemes, the prim ary design concerns must address the needs of modern hygiene and health, comfort in daily life, and accommodate both the intimate needs of family life as well as the charms of social relations. To illustrate this point, Daly describes the modern role of the s alon, and notes that it is not enough that the space possesses an ornate dcor and is richly furnished; the space must also be both warm and well ventilated. In his commentary he provides some insight into the sociological and cultural as pects of the period, while the v estibule may be monumentally scaled, it must not create conditions that cause a chill in the elegant and delicate woman who must walk across this space, or who wishes to stop a moment upon leaving the warm and scented atmosphere of a pa rty.27 Rules for the layout of the floor plan of the modern htel and its distribution are precisely described in the text. Thus in summary, what we call the htel, is subdivided in three clearly defined sections: reception rooms, the family apartments an d domestic services, with the varied requirements for each space to function properly. Also, today, the plan layout (distribution) generally adopted for private residences should have the following layout; At the level of the cellar, One part is transforme d most often into a partial basement, where the kitchen is located with all its dependencies, (when there is not cellar level, the kitchen is placed on a part of the ground floor).

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66 At the ground floor (the level of the street floor, or the rez de chausse) but elevated or raised, are the reception rooms, the dining rooms, ceremonial rooms and galleries, salons, game rooms, etc. At the first floor (floor above the ground floor) are suites of rooms for family members. At the second floor, bedrooms for friends and guests or some of the family. The service spaces and dependencies such as stables, coach houses, tack rooms, cow sheds and servants lodgings are placed in separate structures, and separated as much as possible around the entrance court that isolates the mansion from the street, and the garden which often extends from the rear of the mansion.28 Some variations to this organizational plan may be necessary, particularly on tight urban sites. Daly notes that in this case, the r ez de chauss e may be given over to the service space requirements and that the principal reception spaces may need to be elevated to the first level above, the grand tage Although Daly does not specifically say so, this arrangement is common to the htels particulier s of the ancie n r gime built in the dense urban areas of pre Second Empire Paris, as seen in the discussion in the previous chapter regarding the H tel de Talleyrand The societal position of the client also plays a role in the architectural expression of the edifice. This notion had its antecedents in the eighteenth century movement known as architecture parlante defined as speaking architecture or narrative architecture,29 a theoretical concept where the architecture would incorporate a symbol for the function of the building and the identity of the owner One such example is the House for the supervisors of the water source of the river Lou, by Claude Ledoux (17361806), which features the river running through the center of the structure By the later nineteenth century this notion of symbolism of form was translated to symbolism of architectural style. Daly extends this concept through his recommendations for a nineteenth century htel wherein a more sober type of architecture might be chosen for a magistrate than for a htel with a caractre special (unique character), where the

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67 client may be an artist (architect, painter or sculptor). A client who is a collector will have other needs in addition to accommodating the needs of family life only. When the clien t loves the arts, if he owns statues, paintings, the architect should create special features in the gallery space, so that these works are shown in conditions that are especially favorable to display and to lighting.30 In the catalogue of examples that fol low the text, Daly created a taxonomy of characteristics for the new urban mansions, designating them as first, second or third class. Daly provides an extensive discussion of one notable example; the style Louis XIV inspired htel priv premire classe, ( first class), by the architect Edouard Emmanuel Convents (b. 1825), and the architect and decorative painter Franois Joseph Nolau (18041886).31 Eleven plates are dedicated to this elegant building constructed at 8, rue de Valois du Roule,32 which was renam ed rue Monceau after 1868.33 The large L shaped urban site organizes the traditional components of the htel with the entrance portail and the btiments de s gardie ns (guardians pavilions flanking the entrance gates) opening into the cour dhonneur The mai n residence is set well back onto the site, between the adjacent structures, with a large garden in the rear. The dependencies, stables, carriage houses and servants apartments, are set out of sight of the main house and are accessed though the main gate and through a side passage built against the adjacent property line.34 The plan distribution closely follows Dalys recommendations for spatial organization, with the sous sol (below grade level) housing the kitchens and service spaces for the maitre dht el food storage, pastry areas and waiting room for other domestic staff. The rez de chausse contains the oval shaped vestibule and the principal public spaces, the salons and dining rooms are elevated by a half flight of stairs. Service functions, including service stairs as well as the grand escalier are grouped on either side of the principal block. Circulation between the principal spaces is direct, without reliance on halls or galleries between them. Convents design focuses on the character of the r ooms, not on the experience of moving from one space to

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68 another. In contrast Ohnets design for the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, emphasized dramatic circulation spaces as an innovative feature of the distributio n. Refer to chapter 5 for this discu ssion In the Convent plan, t he first floor above the main level contains the apartments of both the client and his wife, her sitting room, his study, the baths and dressing areas, a family dining room, a smoking room, and bedrooms for their guests. The ce ntral hall is labeled as a jardin dhiver a winter garden space, with small fountains at either end of the wide hall. This space is toplit by three glazed lights that carry borrowed light down from the attic floor level. The fascination with domestic ar chitecture for the new aristocracy of the haute bourgeoisie was even reflected in the design program for the 1866 Prix de Rome competition, the last year in which Ohnet served as a juror on the selection panel.35 The project title was a Htel Paris pour riche banquier (Town house in Paris for a Rich Banker), JeanLouis Pascal (18371920) won the Grand Prix with a design inspired by the architecture of the Louis XIV period.36 Pascal later succeeded Labrouste as the architect for the Bibliothque Nationale. 37 Pascals design contains the principal architectural ideas found in the reigning Second Empire style of the period; an overall symmetry and axial ity to the plan composition, faade references drawn from French Classicism, in this case the French Renaiss ance, the glazed dome over the central court that washes the light over a monumental stair as a celebration of the spectacle of movement through the space, lush plantings in the public spaces and a winter garden. Eclecticism and Symbolism in the Interior Dcor Tasteful Elegance Just as Dalys work focused on the exterior architecture and the plan distribution of the Second Empire, numerous publications from the period discussed the features of a proper decorative program for the principal spaces. One examp le is the Dictionnaire du tapissier,

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69 critique et historique de lameublement by J. Deville published around 1878.38 In this work, Daville described the aspects of contemporary design that achieved the tasteful elegance sought after by the architects and clients of the htel particulier Architects and ornementistes could employ the available range of architectural styles to convey and reinforce the clients image through the culturally accepted symbolism that was imbued in each style but as Daville admoni shed in his text, the designer was to maintain a consistency of dcor within each discrete space, rather than resort to a mixing of motifs within a space. Salons, Grands et Petits There was a protocol for selecting the architectural character for each of the spaces forming a common language understood within the culture. For example, the reception spaces of the Second Empire htel particulier were comprised of several types of salons The grand salon was an elaborately decorated space that should reflect t he standing of the client and above all, a serious level of good taste and stability. The style Louis XIV conveyed the correct character, with the emphasis on the monumental scale, balanced proportions of height to length and width and regular placement of wall openings and sections of carved paneling in regular modules, which formed the important frame for the decorative scheme. The ceilings were generally coffered, the walls were paneled with robustly carved and gilded moldings, and mirrors were placed op posite the richly colored marble chimney piece. Smaller reception rooms, the petits salons flanked the grand salon. Daville noted that it was not unusual to select a style Louis XV or Louis XVI for the architectural features of the petit salon adjacent t o a grand salon in a style Louis XIV but to create a sense of visual continuity between the spaces by using the same fabrics in the draperies and in the upholstery Th e reputation of the designer would be determined by the ability to create an ensemble of visual effects that was harmoniously related.39 The petit salon de reception was used as a formal

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70 entertaining area. A style Louis XVI petit salon would be decorated with painted wood panels in a pale color, with gilded moldings and delicately scaled neocl assical furnishings. The wealthiest patrons would use eighteenthcentury furniture rather than reproductions. Here, Daville direct e d the architect to retain control over the selection of the chimney piece as their role was to preside over the entire decor ative program, and some clients lacked the knowledge, or taste level to select an appropriate piece.40 The second type of petit salon was a salon de famille meant for more intimate gatherings, where the grand parents would have card games, the ladies woul d work on their embroidery and the children would read newspapers or illustrated books, it is here that by necessity, intimacy can be created; make this room a fanciful place.41 Thus, while basing the design on a defined style, the introduction of eclectic elements to create a less rigid character within this type of space was permissible. Salle Manger Just as with the several types of salons the dining spaces were divided by role and sized accordingly. For large dinners and gatherings, there would be a grand s alle manger with a large table. This space would be located near the grand s alon, and have the service access spaces, the office s and staging areas adjacent. Several architectural themes were considered appropriate, such as an Italian Renaissance inspired hall, others would present a somber style Louis XIII or style Louis XIV In many cases, stained wood paneling in midrange tones with a waxed finish would cover the wainscot or the full height of the space. The ceilings were decorated with large p aintings in molded frames, or with beamed ceilings la franaise For the family, a small dining area, a petit Salle manger often decorated in a style Louis XVI, would be located near the petit salon de famille

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71 Private Spaces and Exotic Tastes Turning to other cultures and periods for inspiration, a fascination with the Orient became a recurring theme in all of the arts beginning in the eighteenth century and continuing through the nineteenth century. The Near East and the Holy Lands were increasingly popular tourist destinations during the midnineteenth century. Interest in things oriental, greater in Paris than in other European cities, was accompanied by a profounder knowledge of color in architecture.42 Moorish elements were especially popular fo r certain specialized interior spaces, often seen in f umoir s or smoking rooms. These spaces were seen as a sort of petit salon for men and could be designed in an imaginative style; hence the popularity of Moorish or Turkish styled interiors. These spaces were best suited to wall treatments with wood paneling, dressed leather wall coverings, or patterned glazed tiles and were not lavishly draped with fabric, to avoid retaining the smell of smoke. Stained and colored glass in the window openings was often em ployed in lieu of fabric draperies. Exotically themed interiors were employed in garden pavilions, such as the interior of the Kiosque in the garden of the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild. Some decorative motifs, including the Star of David and inscri bed text written with Hebrew letters, were associated with Jewish culture and could be found on funerary monuments and in synagogue design.43 In a residential setting, private areas for worship were often incorporated into the design, such as the oratoire i n the Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, where the niche for the Torah Ark was defined by a horseshoe shaped arch and embellished with plaster decoration of geometric patterning.44 Thus, the eclecticism of the architecture for Second Empire period htels particuliers can also be seen as an inventive response to the new social order that arose after the revolution of

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72 1848. While drawing on the rich historical sources in order to create architecture for a new age, a new freedom in the composition of architec tural elements triumphed over a strict imitative use of historical models. Invention: Industrial Architecture and New Technolog ies Covered Passages The other significant component in understanding the period eye of the later nineteenth century was the technological revolution in building materials and structures. Seen first in industrial architecture such as in factori es and in civil infrastructure, bridges and canals, the new materials migrated into use in public, commercial and eventually into residential building types. All in all, historicism in the nineteenth century is inseparable from the myriad of issues surrounding the creation of modern democratic nations suited to the new economic realities of the industrial world. Within this arena of competing social and economic forces, traditional architectural values and technology clash in a way that they never did before.45 The search for techniques to bring more light into interior spaces began in earnest in the eighteenth century, and by the early ninete enth century, cast iron supports and iron and glass roof structures were appearing in the new commercial spaces of the city. The covered arcades or passages of the 1820s sought to respond to the demand for luxury of the aristocratic clientele of a great capital.46 The passage s combined both spatial experimentation and visual spectacle in the richly decorative interior themes, with the iron and glass roofs illuminating the glittering display of goods for sale in the boutiques that lined the passage, making the passage more akin to the palace than to the boutique.47 As seen in the Galerie Vivienne of 1823, a series of light iron trusses carry the iron framed glass roofs, with operable sections, over a Restoration period interior dcor. The daylight washed over the storefronts and the display of goods onto the arcade floors, and created a rich, visual environment of glimmering, gilded architectural ornament, which married commerce and social interaction in new ways, ultimately leading to the grand

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73 glass roofed department stores of the later nineteenth century. Within the context of residential architecture, the display of art, objects, furnishings and dcor was enhanced by the introduction of large amounts of daylight into specially designed gallery spaces be came a necessary feature of the elegant Second Empire htel particulier Railroad S tations Technological advances in materials made larger expanses of glazing possible and even more spectacular spaces were developed in two public building types; train stations and greenhouses or serres. It is in the train stations that the duality of the nineteenth century, tradition and invention, is most evident. By the late 1850s and the early 1860s, development of the railroad industry had accelerated, with the wealthi est entrepreneurs of the day taking the lead, as seen in the previous chapters discussion of the Rothschild and Preire families. These expanded rail lines demanded new architectural infrastructure, and the largest project of this period was the new termi nus station for the Gare du Nord. The large glass roofs of the train sheds were supported by cast iron columns, in the new station of the early 1860s. This example is significant for this study, as the Compagnie de Chemin du Fer du Nord initially consulte d with Lon Ohnet to work with the railroads architect, Lejeune, to produce preliminary designs, or avant projets between 185760.48 It is probable that these early lessons in iron and glass construction and the luminous qualities of the resultant spaces i nfluenced Ohnets later design approach to his residential commissions, as seen in the spatial character of the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild to be discussed in Chapter 4.49 Structural F rame By the second half of the nineteenth century, iron was used increasingly as part of the structural framing system in the grand residences, but was always concealed within the acceptable external material of stone.50 Even in the retrofit of an eighteenthcentury htel

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74 particulier for a nineteenth century life, the strength of iron was exploited to advantage, but the material always remained concealed from view. The pitched street battles of the Commune in 1871 which resulted in major destruction to a number of the citys major buildings, including the Htel de Vill e, proved the wisdom of the structural framing fortifications made by Alphonse de Rothschild to the H tel de Talleyrand, essentially turning the building into a strongbox.51 The iron floor framing reinforcement was uncovered during the rehabilitation proj ect of 2009 when the building was retrofitted to receive air conditioning, but is once again concealed under the restored wood parquet flooring. Development of Iron and G lass S erres The evolution of the serre (greenhouse) and the jardin dhiver (winter ga rden), both for public and private projects, pushed the technical boundaries of iron and glass construction. Cross pollination between French and English models accelerated these developments. Greenhouses in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century were usually constructed from wood and glass, or a combination of iron columns and wall framing with wood framing rafters supporting a glass and iron roof structure. One of the earliest glass structures framed completely from iron was designed by Charles Rohault de Fleury (18011875) for the Paris Museum of Natural History. The greater strength inherent in curved roof forms allowed for the advantage of longer spans between supports and the larger panes of glass were made possible by improvements in French glass making.52 The architect was able to increase the size of the glass surface to 30 cm x 30 cm panes, in contrast to the English glass sections of 20 cm x 10 cm, thus allowing for more light to penetrate the interior. Rohault de Fleurys great contribution wa s his understanding that what horticulturalists wanted was a glass cage, and that architecture should appear only as geometric tracery.53

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75 Other notable French examples included the huge iron and glass structure housing vast public gardens in the 1846 Jar din dhiver (winter garden) on the Champs lyses. The most spectacular of the iron and glass structures at midcentury was the Crystal Palace designed by Joseph Paxton, at the London Great Exhibition of 1851. A monumentally scaled iron and glass structure was also proposed for this Exhibition by the French architect Hector Horeau (18011872), in 1849, predating Paxtons construction.54 Horeaus notable works include the Jardin dHiver in Lyon of 1846 7.55 Jardins d h iver s and the Taming of N ature The jardin dhiver (a type of serre or greenhouse structure used to extend living areas or provide a year round garden space protected from the elements), had attained great popularity as status symbols within the domestic architecture of the haute bourgeoisie in the mid nineteenth century. In addition to satisfying the passion for beautiful and rare plants among the class of famous entrepreneurs and financiers, the greenhouses also figure as one of the building types that created innovations in architecture from the standpoint of construction materials and techniques, much as did the train stations or the covered markets. They were also seen as a sign of modernity. Following the trend among the Rothschilds, the less known bourgeoisie threw themselves into the culture of rare plants, and these coelogine massengeana, ( a type of orchid) became an exterior sign of wealth.56 In the urban context, small serres were attached to apartment buildings, beginning in the early 1860s and achieving a pinnacle of popularity by 1890. An early example of an iron and glass bay was constructed at 32, rue Malesherbes and illustrated in Csar Dalys 1864 publication, LArchitecture Prive au dix neuvime sicle. Nouvelles maisons de Paris et des environs In describing the corner treatment for an apartment building at the intersection of the boulevard Malesherbes and the rue des Mathurins, comprised of four stories of stacked circular bay window gardens, Daly writes that it is the stacked winter garden spaces, open to the salons

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76 that creat e the effect of a crystal tower.57 This example predates the popular use of these glass bays by at least 20 years. A related architectural feature is the single bay window, used on the faade s of htels particuliers to achieve more open views down a stree t and to add additional natural light to an interior space. One notable example is the corner bay window of iron and glass that was constructed in the late Second Empire addition for the H tel de Talleyrand designed by Lon Ohnet prior to 1871. While skil lfully blending the exterior expression of the form with the existing neoclassical faades this window created a contemporary interpretation of space. With the emphasis on opening the corner of a room, the treatment of the placement of the wall opening is a decidedly radical break with the fenestration pattern seen in the rest of the eighteenthcentury htel particulier The attached jardin dhiver or winter garden, was incorporated in the residential arch itecture of the wealthy classes as early as the e ighteenth century for purposes of display of exotic plants rather than for their cultivation. It was during the reign of Louis Philippe that the role of this space became one of reception, an extension of the s alon, wherein one could easily converse, read or play a game of whistwhile admiring the plants.58 Cited by Marrey and Masset in their book, La grande histoire des serres & des jardins dhiver France 17801900, the evocative scene from Balzacs 1831 work, La peau de chagrin, captures the essential character and meaning of these spaces. In the scene, a young married couple is having lunch in the serre a type of salon filled with flowers, on the same level as the garden. The soft and pale winter sun, whose rays strike across the rare shrubs, warmed th e air. Their eyes were delighted by the strong contrasts among the varied foliage, by the colors of the sprigs of flowers and by the fantasies of light and shade. While all of Paris still warmed themselves before their sad foyers, the two young spouses laughed under a bower of camellias, lilacs and heather. Their happy faces were raised above the narcissus, the lilies of the valley, and the Bengal roses. In this voluptuous and rich serre their feet strolled through an African braid richly colored like a ca rpet.59

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77 While these types of serres were not common until the 1850s, the glazed spaces became an essential component of the mansions of the haute bourgeoisie during the Second Empire. Detailed drawings for an attached serre were included in Dalys compendi um of Second Empire htel s particulier s. This e xample, located at 47, rue des Victoires, was designed by the architect M. RuprichRobert. The iron and glass structures with iron floral motifs are suspended on the interior court faades O ne forms the court side wall of the jardindhiver space that is situated in the sequence of public rooms, nestled between a Salon and the Billiards Room. The second space forms a galerie vitre or glazed gallery, which runs along the demising wall of the property line and provides a circulation path around the perimeter of the htel court at the premier tage.60 These interior garden spaces performed several important architectural and social functions. On a practical level, these spaces were viewed as a way of bringing nature into the residential architecture of the period, particularly in an urban setting A charming account of the relationship of plants to architecture was written by W. Robinson, F.L.S. (18381935), a British correspondent from T he Times for the Horticul tural department of the Great Paris Exhibition of 1867. In The Parks, Promenades & Gardens of Paris published in 1869, Robinson contrasted the Continental approach to the use of plants to those of Great Britain, and in two chapters, he highlighted the des ign character and spatial effects achieved with plants in the interior of the French residences. The following scene that he describes is reminiscent of the rendering of the interior of Pascals winning design for a htel particulier for the 1866 Grand Pri x de Rome. The wide staircase ascending from the entrance hall had also a charming array of plants so placed that the visitors seemed to pass through a sort of floral grove fine leaved plants arching over, but not rising very high and have a profusion of flowering things among and beneath them...the groups of tall plants were placed opposite this staircase, and reflected in the great mirror behind, the effect when descending the staircase was fascinating indeed. A still finer effect was produced in a room near the great dancing saloon, and through which the guests passed to the magnificent ballroom. Against each pillar in this saloon was placed a tall palm

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78 with high and arching leaves like those of Seaforthia elegans and others with longer leaves and pendulous leaflets. These meeting, or almost meeting across, produced a very graceful and imposing effect, while round them were arranged other plants distinguished either by beauty of leaf or flower, and the groups at each pillar connected by single rows of dwarf plants, closely placed, however and well mossed in as in the case of the most important groups. The very close planting of the plants is a peculiar part of the arrangement, you cannot notice any dividing marks or gaps, yet there is not awkward crowding. The fact is that with an abundance of plants distinguished by beauty of form, it is almost impossible to make a mistake in arranging them.61 Robinson continues his admiration in an ode to the French jardin dhiver There are few things more worthy of the attention of the numbers interested in indoor gardening in this country than the superior mode of embellishing conservatories and winter gardens which is the rule in France and on the continent generally. Conservatories and similar structures. wher ever they are erected they are gracefully verdant at all times, being filled with handsome exotic evergreens, planted and arranged so as to present the appearance of a mass of luxuriant vegetation, and not that of a glass shed filled with pots and prettine ss with which we are all so familiar . continental plan of divesting the interior of the conservatory of all formality the presentation of the conservatory as a somewhat permanent and architectural character, noting that plants show better in a subdued light than in that of the glass shed.62 The jardin dhiver was also heavily imbued with cultural symbolism and was celebrated in the arts and literature of the period. Edouard Manets painting In the Conservatory is analyzed in detail by art historian Robert Herbert in his work Impression: Art, Leisure & Parisian Societ y In setting the stage for the social context of the painting, Herbert notes: Natural growth became a social commodity, a garden poured into containers, and enframed in a cage of glass and iron, the same modern materials used for fair buildings and for department stores. Indoor gardens became de rig ue r in Haussmanian Paris.63 These spaces can also be seen as an extension of the passion for the collection of art, objects and artif act s, which was a defining attribute of the cultural elite of this period. The collecting of rare or exotic species of plants was a natural extension of this activity, inspired in part by the rise of an interest in exoticism and the Orient, as previously disc ussed in this Chapter.

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79 In literature, the jardin dhiver became a celebrated symbolic device to signify the opulence and decadence of the period. Susan Harrow describes one notable example in her commentary on Emile Zolas La Cur e originally published i n 1872, and contemporaneous to the design of the htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild. The rampant, palpitating plant life courses with primitive energy, in contrast with the rigidly structured, rarefied world of the Saccards dinner party which continues in the adjacent rooms. The metaphorical insistence on the conservatorys exotic atmosphere seems to call up the obscure desire which lurks in the tentacular dep ths of the flora and foliage. Zolas evocative description transforms the banal winter gar den into an archaic world of sensuality, cruelty and corruption.64 The setting in the Saccard mansion was likely inspired by the jardin dhiver at the htel particulier of the chocolate magnate, mile Menier, (18261881). Designed by the architect Henri Par ent (18191895) and built from 1869 to 1870, the residence featured a dramatic jardin dhiver as did many of the residences constructed around the Parc Monceau area from 1861 to 1880. One of the most notable and published examples is the jardin dhiver of the htel particulier at 24 28 rue des Courcelles, offered by Napolon III to his cousin, Princess Mathilde de Bonaparte. The Princess occupied the former Palais Bragance from 1857 to 1871. Renowned for her intellectual and cultural interests, her weekly salons were some of the most influential during the period; on Wednesdays she would receive men of letters, on Fridays the focus would be on artists and on Sundays she would receive those prominent in the political sphere.65 The Princess preferred the comp any of men and it was a rare woman who received an invitation to these gatherings. The dining room was lit from above by a large iron and glass skylight and was decorated with shrubs and climbing vines that grew up the Corinthian columns and opened into th e jardin dhiver .66 The taste for eclecticism was on full display, as evidenced in this description penned by the Goncourt Brothers.

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80 With her taste for bric a brac, the princess Mathilde has, in her winter garden which wraps around the residence, surrounded herself with furnishings from all counties, from all periods, in all colors and all forms: a mess ( capharnam ) which has the strange and amusing quality of a curio shop in a virgin forest.67 Thus, the winter garden became another treasured object of the cu ltural elite of this period. As a means to satisfy the desire for a connection to nature in the increasingly urbanized and sprawling city, albeit a highly manicured nature, the serre was the perfect paradise for indulging this desire. And true to Zolas characterization, the jardin dhiver was a subliminal expression of unrestrained libertine pursuits, especially for upper class women, in a society of corseted social mores. Stage set and Spectacle in the H tel P articulier Industrial innovation in iron and glass technology, as applied to residential architecture, produced another feature that could be exploited for heightened dramatic effects. By the second half of the 19 century, circulation between the principal rooms occurred most often through spaces dedicated for that purpose: vestibules, halls, galleries and transitional spaces. Vestiges of the direct passage between the more public spaces, through aligned doorways, known as en enfilade were retained in the plan distribution. The large areas of top glazing, in the form of laylights (glazed flat ceiling areas under skylights), created pools of light which punctuated the circulation paths through the interior space. The sense of scenographic drama was heightened by the skillful manipulation of light, as both daylight and gas lighting were used to modulate the tonal character of rooms. By juxtaposing bright and dim spaces, the sense of movement was accentuated. Creating this sense of dynamism and delight in the visual experience of space through shifti ng centers of interest is a key characteristic of the Second Empire htel particulier

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81 Most significant was the celebration of a kind of spectacle that was different from the sense of display seen in the ancien r gime which was not one of reciprocity. The re, the spectacle was intended to inspire awe and to remind the viewer of the power of the monarchy. During the ancien r gime royal favor was the source of power and wealth and those who had access to it wanted to live in circumstances that recalled royal living style in decoration and furniture.68 For the aristocratic class, most life was public life and the sequence of reception took precedence over comfort, and display was more important than intimacy.69 The art of set design for the theater was ap plied to the experience of architecture and had a significant influence on the evolution of the stair, beginning in the Baroque period. A notable example can be seen in Le Bruns design for the Escalier des Ambassadeurs at the palace of Versailles.70 Above all, these grand internal stairs Staircases of Honor, as Guadet (n.d.) calls them were designed to make the transition from the ground to the piano nobile and the upper floors as imperceptible a spatial barrier as possible. The stair and the stair halls were used to distract the stair user from the act of climbing and to integrate the vertically adjacent spaces.71 From the upper stair landing, the visitor would enter an antechamber or series of antechambers which lead to the principal reception rooms ar ranged en enfilade ; that is one space leading directly into the other, with aligned doorways. Spaces were experienced as distinct volumes in a sequence. Access to these spaces was strictly controlled by rigid social hierarchies and rituals. Principal amon g the cultural changes of the nineteenth century was the idea of a symbiotic relationship between architecture as a stageset, and the role of the individual experiencing the architecture as that of both a participant and a spectator. This metaphor was ref ined by Charles Garn i er to explain his design vision for the Paris Op ra, in his Le The tre published in 1871, wherein, The Grand Escalierbecomes a vast spontaneous theater where the public performs to

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82 itself.72 Loyer defined this best in his analysis of Garniers techniques of spatial transition that coupled the Rationalist analysis of form and function with a consummate skill in creating fresh compositions of architectural details drawn from Italian and French sources. The overall unity [referring to t he dense collection of urban furnishings, statues, columns, candelabras], did not matter in this case because the composition, departing from a privileged viewpoint, instead proposed a continuous displacement, a spatial narrative pausing at a certain number of points; hence composition by centers of interest, expressing successive stages in the narrative.73 Glass Roofs and Borrowed L ights The finely developed narrative of space within the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild reinterprets the highly innovati ve architectural parti (design concept or organizational theme) of Ferrires, which preceded Ohnets work by some 15 years. The design for Ferrires centered on the two story interior space, the Hall with its large, continuous laylight, under an iron and g lass skylight. The massive area of glazed ceiling panels provided a flood of diffuse d sunlight by day and was illuminated with thousands of gas lights at night, creating the perfect mise en scne (visual theme or stage set) for parties and social gathering s designed to impress visitors. Paxton was responsible for the architectural concept and the innovative techniques of using the natural light for spatial drama, further developing the features he conceived for the 1852 design for Mayer de Rothschilds resi dence of Mentmore. The toplit rectangular gallery space, served as the central point from which the plan layout is organized. Glass roofed exhibit spaces became a staple feature in the mansions of the Second Empire. Another notable example was incorporat ed into the expansion of a htel particulier at 4549, rue Monceau, The original structure was designed in 1863 by the architect Willem Bouwens Van der Boijen (18341907) for Eugne P reire. Acquired by Adolphe de Rothschild in 1868, two additions were co nstructed in 18701, by the architect Flix Langlais. To the west, the reception areas on the rez de chausse were exp anded with the addition of the toplit Salle de Bal (used for

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83 an exhibition space) and an L shaped gallery with glazed ceilings. To the ea st along the rue Monceau, an attached serre constructed from stone, iron and glass was inserted into the narrow space between the original mansion and the adjacent party wall.74 Skylights first appeared in aristocratic residences in Paris around 17701790 and were used to illuminate staircases, drawing rooms, boudoirs and bedrooms. During the nineteenth century, however, their use narrowed, and glazed roof openings came to be employed exclusively to light those areas where the numerous classifications of the bourgeois home originated, such as the main staircase which directed internal traffic vertically and horizontally towards rooms with increasingly specific functions, such as the nursery, the billiard room, the smoking room, the small dra wing room and the water closet or the service staircase, used by the staff.75 In Ferrires, the Hall is ringed by a corridor, with skylights punctuating the roof of the upper floor, and light wells penetrating through the ceiling of the elevated main floor. These bor rowed lights became a common feature in the scenographic composition of the circulation spaces in the Second Empire htel particulier Ohnet used glazed ceiling openings in the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild to light the internal space of the Gallery hallway as the spectator progressed to the Dining Room. Aligned under the skylight on the roof level above, and carrying through a void space in the upper level floor plan, the light is allowed to filter down through two levels. Entertainment Spectacle a nd D isplay in the Htel Particulier Housing the two major pastimes of the wealthy, the spaces for entertaining and for presentation of the collections of art objects were interwoven in a new way, reflecting the cultural values of the period and the persona l tastes of the client. The contrast in behavioral changes based in Second Empire values is most evident when the project involved the adapt ation of an existing eighteenth century residence, as seen in the alterations made to the H tel de Talleyrand The t reatment of the eighteenth century principal public reception spaces along with

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84 the addition of two nineteenthcentury reception rooms on the east side of the building were driven by the desire to showcase these two activities, the role of spectacle and th e desire for display. A great collector of paintings, sculpture and furniture, Alphonse de Rothschild was especially interested in preserving and safeguarding French cultural heritage.76 In contrast to the prevailing trend during the Second Empir e of demol ishing the eighteenthcentury urban htel that had survived the Revolution, and rebuilding larger residences, Alphonse chose instead to live in and to preserve the more modestly scaled spaces of the eighteenth century htel, and is thus more in tune with the previous generation of Rothschilds. As Bruno Pons described him, of this generation he was the only one in the family to settle within old and historic walls .77 As previously noted, the addition to the htel was extant by 1871. Ohnets design for the addition to the building is a masterful example of compatible design within a historic context. On the rue de Rivoli faade, the two bay wide addition features a slight projection of the wall plane aligned with the original central pavilion of Gabriels design, which demarcates the ne w construction. The new openings repeat the sizes and proportions of the eighteenth century windows at each level. The single new window of the grand tage on this faade is capped by a triangular pediment, echoing the two outer windows of the adjacent projecting bay of the building but with a slightly different proportion. All of the principal horizontal linear elements of the faade are respected within the new construction. Yet this is not an exercise in copying the past; Ohnet handled the important element of the southeast corner with an angled wall on the two upper levels above the line of the balcony. The innovative feature of this design is the iron and glass bay window in the corner room which serves as a graceful acknowledgement of the periods interest in the act of seeing into and out of a space. By placing an opening at the

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85 corner, more light can enter the room, illuminating the activity within, and, conversely, allowing the inhabitants a wider view of the Tuileri es gardens beyond. In 1872, Ohnet was retained for a second campaign of alterations, to accommodate the Rothschilds nineteenthcentury pattern of living.78 In contrast to the formal sequence of eighteenth century compartmentalized spaces, consisting of antichambre (antechamber), salle daudience (reception room), cabinet (state office) and chambre (formal bedchamber), t he typical sequence of public rooms in the later nineteenth century would have included a vestibule a salon, a petit salon for more inform al and small gatherings, and a separate s alle manger (formal dining room).There was often a smaller dining room for use by the family. The need to accommodate large groups freely circulating through the public rooms while admiring the objects within le d to the insertion of additional openings between the eighteenthcentury spaces. Perhaps the most flagrant reinterpretation of space resulted from the relocation of the fireplace in the salle daudience Instead of the eighteenth century position, centered on the long axis of the room on an internal wall opposite the windows that overlook the rue Saint Florentin, the fireplace was moved between two of the windows on the exterior wall. This relocation of a solid fireplace mass in turn accommodated a new arch ed opening into the Grand cabinet between the existing pair of doors, hence reducing this wall to an arcade and facilitating freer movement betw een these two rooms. Ruptures in the traditional pattern of the eighteenth century spatial sequence included the insertion of a new pair of doors from the first antichambre into the arrire cabinet .79 The dcor of the antichambres was completely altered in the mid nineteenth century. The eighteenth century room was created with a relatively simple dcor of painted b ut ungilded wood panels, and a checkerboard floor of dark stone and white marble. The Rothschild dcor enriched

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86 the appearance of the room with a mixture of marble wall panels and a painted faux marble finish applied onto wood panels. The two remaining ant ichambres had rich textiles added to the walls and copious amounts of gilded wood moldings to define the panels. The second antichambre and the arrire cabinet contain an eighteenth century jewel from Alphonses art collections, the Louveciennes panels. T he placement of these panels illustrates another key feature of the period, the integration of the art and object collections within the interior architecture of the display spaces. With the intent of recreating an eighteenth century interior room dcor, Baron Alphonse de Rothschild added several s ignificant works of art to this space. By 1889, he had acquired the sculpted and gilded panels of the Salon Carr from the pavilion built for Madame DuBar ry at Louveciennes, designed by the architect Claude Nicol as Ledoux (17361806). C reated by the artists Jean Baptiste Feuillet and Joseph Metivier around 1771, these pa nels are a fine example of the neo classical style in interior design.80 However, the treatment of these panels was decidedly the product of the ni neteenth century aesthetic of reusing architectural pieces in unconventional ways. Four of these panels are placed in this second ant echamber; two panels flank the chimney, and two are placed around a window opening. This disposition refle cts the taste of the nineteenthcentury collector rather than a strict adherence to the aesthetics of the eighteenth century... the fortuitous discovery of archival photographs of the panels, depicting the panels after their removal from the pavilion. From these images, on e can see that the original panels had been extended with a compatible design at the top to fill the available wall space.81 Striking for its inventi ve feeling, the Rothschild Dining Room (also called the Music Room because of the motif of musical instrume nts featured in the paneling) blends exceptional elements from Alphonses prized collection of eighteenthcentury French architectural artifacts within a room conceived with nineteenthcentury sensibilities. One traditionally styled window is placed at the west end of the wall. The rectangular volume of the room is broken at the southeast corner by a section of wall placed at a 45 degree angle between the south and east facades, which

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87 contains an iron framed window bay. This opening dissolves the effect of a defined corner in the room and provides an expanded view to the exterior and a flood of natural light into the space. In the absence of precise documentary records, physical evidence can be used to analyze the development of a property. In this case, th e space was the subject of two campaigns of decoration. During the restoration work of 20002007, an earlier decorative treatment of painted low relief plaster arabesques was found underneath the applied wood panels, dating from the time of original constr uction.82 In the post 1871 decorative phase, the room dcor was converted to serve as a screen for the collection of exquisitely sculpted wood panels from the later eighteenth century,83 including nine wall panels, four overdoor panels and two mirror surrounds. The eighteenth century features are integrated into sections of nineteenth century paneling, and combined with overdoor medallions, large mirrors and a Carrera marble chimneypiece to create a neo Louis XVI character.84 The decorative motifs include alle gorical female figures, represented by nudes atop antique style altars, with symbols of the four seasons, theatre, masks and cascading musical instruments. The provenance of the eighteenth century panels has not been definitively determined.85 The repurposi ng and alteration of architectural components from an earlier period to suit new locations illustrates an attitude towards the art objects shared by most collectors of the period, including other Rothschild family members. Alphonse did not consider his house as a museum, but rather he lived his life surrounded by his collections. The art objects were integrated into the existing spaces, rather than the spaces conforming to the dictates of the artwork. When the dcor called for the reuse of architectural com ponents, there were fewer inhibitions about modifications to the artifacts in order to fit the architectural frame, and a less stringent definition of authenticity and integrity of the individual piece in the sensibility of the

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88 later nineteenth century t han would be found today. Thus, the objects could be freely altered and subordinated to the overall composition and effect of the spatial containers within which the nineteenth century social rituals are enacted. The Nineteenth Century Htel Particulier as a D ocument of Social History The overarching themes of nineteenth century architectural design can be seen in both public and private buildings of the period. The htel particulier was a modestly scaled structure set within the larger urban context and references to the grand tradition of French classicism were most often used for the ex terior expression. The innovative spirit freed by the broadening of available historical and cultural models, a dvances in building technology and a cultural passion for s pectacle and rich visual display were exploited to obtain more open and innovative plan distributions Dramatic, scenographically conceived circulation paths connected the richly embellished interiors in innovative ways, creating the dazzling visual charac ter of the nineteenth century htel particulier It is fully within this context of the new urban mansion of the Second Empire that Ohnets master work, the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild can be understood. Ohnet drew his neoclassical inspiration fro m the period of Louis XVI, influenced to some degree by his prior experience in designing a successful addition to Gabriels innovative composition for the H tel de Talleyrand from the previous century. Yet his work is very much a product of its time, with the use of modern materials to enhance the scenographic sense of spatial progression and emphasize the objects of display.

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89 Figure 31. Htellerie pour voyagers, Dtail de la coupe longitudinale Grand Prix de Rome project by Noguet, 1865. [Ca tzA rts at ENSBA database, file PRA 235 6] Figure 32. Palais des tudes, cole des Beaux Arts Duban, 183640, glass roof 1863. [ Cat zA rts at ENSBA database, file PH14 10942]

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90 Figure 33. Htel Beaujon: garden kiosque [A. Cary, Intrieur du kiosque dans le jardin, plate 34] Figure 34. Htel Fould, Street faade by Labrouste, 1858. [ C. Daly, Revue Gnrale de lArchitecture et des Travaux Publics Vol. XVI, 1858, Pl. 6]

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91 Figure 35. Htel priv Site Plan by Convents & Nolau, c. 1864. [ C. Daly LArchitecture prive au dix neuvime sicle sous Napolon III. Nouvelles maisons de Paris et des environs Ex. A 1, pl. 2.] This series of figures is from the document reprinted from the Gallica database, Biblioth que National e, in accordance with policy rules for noncommercial use. Figure 36. Htel priv Pl an s Sous sol et Rez de Chausse, Premier tage et Combles by Convents & Nolau, c. 1864. [ C. Daly LArchitecture prive au dix neuvime sicle sous Napolon III. Nouvelles maisons de Paris e t des environs Ex. A 1, pl. 3 & pl. 4]

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92 Figure 37. Htel priv, Court faade details by Convents & Nolau, c. 1864. [ C. Daly LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napolon III. Nouvelles maisons de Paris et des environs Ex. A 1, 1864, pl 1] Figure 38. Htel priv Street faade details by Convents & Nolau, c. 1864. [ C. Daly LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napolon III. Nouvelles maisons de Paris et des environs Ex. A 1, pl. 10]

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93 Figure 39. Htel pour un riche banquier Elevation Grand Prix de Rome project by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. [Ca tzA rts at ENSBA database, file PRA 2404] Figure 310. Htel pour un riche banquier, Plan densemble Grand Prix de Rome project by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. [CatzArts at ENSBA database, file PRA 240 1] Figure 311. Htel pour un riche banquier, Coupe longitudinale du cour Grand Prix de Rome project by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. [Ca tzA rts at ENSBA database, file PRA 2406]

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94 Figure 312. Htel pour un riche banquier Coupe longitudinale Grand Prix de Rome project by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. [Ca tzA rts at ENSBA database, file PRA 240 5] Figure 313. Htel pour un riche banquier, Coupe transversale Grand Prix de Rome project by Jean Louis Pascal, 1866. [Ca tzA rts at ENSBA database, file PRA 240 7]

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95 Figure 314. Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild garden faade. [ Authors photo] Figure 315. Htel de Talleyrand faade on the rue de Rivoli. [Authors photo]

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96 Figure 316. Galerie Vivienne [A uthors photo] Figure 317. The Crysta l Palace, by Joseph Paxton, Dickinson, Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851, 1854. [Wikimedia Commons p.d.]

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97 Figure 318. Bay window serres, Blvd. Malesherbes c. 1864. [C. Daly, LArchitect ure prive au dix neuvime sicle sous Napolon III, 14]

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98 A B Figure 319. Bay window Htel de Talleyrand A ) Corne r view B ) Detail [ Authors photos ] Figure 320. H tel Priv Rue de la Victoire, Ruprich Robert, c. 1864 Jardin dhiver et Galerie Pl an [ C. Daly LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napolon III, Ex. A 2, pl. 1] This series of figures is from the document reprinted from the Gallica database, Biblioth que National e, in accordance with policy rules for non commercial use.

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99 Figure 321. Htel Priv, Rue de la Victoire, Ruprich Robert, c. 1864 Jardin dhiver et Galerie Faades [ C. Daly LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napolon III, Ex. A 2, pl. 3 & pl. 4] Figure 322. Htel Priv, Rue de la Victoire Ruprich Robert, c. 1864. [ C. Daly Jardin dhiver & Galerie, Section and Detail, LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napolon III, Ex. A 2, pl. 11 & pl 12]

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100 Figure 323. Htel pour un riche banquier, Detail Grand Prix de Rome project by Pascal, 1866. [Ca tzA rts at ENSBA database, file PRA 240 7] Figure 324. I n the Conservatory Manet, 1879. [Wikimedia Commons p.d.]

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101 Figure 325. D ining Room of Princess Mathilde, Giraud, 1854. [Wikimedia Commons p.d.] Figure 326. La Vranda de la Princesse Mathilde Sbastain Charles Giraud, 1864. [ Image courtesy of Muse des Arts Decoratifs photothque.]

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102 Figure 327. Opra Grand Stair, engraving by Riquois and Sulpis, n.d. [Garnier, Le Nouvel Opra, 1871], Gallica Figur e 328. Chteau de Ferrires Hall [Authors photo]

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103 Figure 329. Ferrires skylights and lightwell in corridor s [Authors photos] Figure 330. Htel de Talleyrand floor plan of grand tage with 19th century addition. [Authors diagram]

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104 Figure 331. Htel de Talleyrand Louveciennes panels [ Authors photo] Figure 332. Htel de Talleyrand Music Room with reflection of interior bay window in mirror over fireplace. [ Photo courtesy of S. Tate and J. Hahn]

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105 Notes 1 See Appendix B for a detailed discussion of Ohnets career and body of work. 2 Franois Loyer, Paris: Nineteenth Ce ntury Architecture and Urbanism, trans. Charles Lynn C lark (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1988), 161. 3 AN, dossier AJ/52/377 OHNET, L on. O hnets student folder from the cole des Beaux Arts covers the period ofrom 1829 to 1833. David d e Penanrum, Les architects l ves de l cole des BeauxArts pa r David Penanrun, Roux et Delaire ( Paris: Imprimerie de Chaix, 1895) 217. Biographical summary of Ohnets career at the cole indicates that he won a medal in the first cl ass of 1836. Also see Appendix B for additional information on the life and architectural career of Ohnet. 4 David d e Penanrum, Les architects l ves, 84. L ist of project topics and prize winners by year. 5 Donald Drew Egbert, The Beaux Arts Tradition in French Architecture. Illustrated by the Grand Prix de Rome ed. David Van Zanten (P rinceton: Princeton Unive rsity Press, 1980), 44, 6162. Also see Ecole des Beaux Arts website for Noguets drawings of his successful 1865 Grand Prix project. http://www.ensba.fr 6 Loyer, De la Revolution 69. 7 The Roy al Academies were abolished in 1793 and the French Institute was created in 1795 to promote the sciences, social sciences and the arts.. The 1816 decree by Louis XVIII reinstituted the term Acadmie to the divisions of the Institute. The study of architecture was assigned within the Acadmie des Beaux Arts. 8 Egbert, The Beaux Arts Tradition, 37. 9 Franois Loyer, Architecture of the Industrial Age t rans. R.F.M. Dexter ( Genve: Skira, 1983), 6. 10 Barry Bergdoll, Lon Vaudoyer, Historicism in the Age of Industry ( Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1994 ) 90. 11Christopher Curtis Mead, Charles Garniers Paris Opera: Architectural Empathy and the Renaissance of French Classicism Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1991, 12. 12 De Penanrum, Les architects l ves, 69. 13 Meet ing Notes from the Commission des Arts et Edifices Religieux 17 juin 1852, 164eme scance. Violletle Duc reviewed and recommended the approval of Ohnets plans for an Episcopal palace in Ajaccio. 14 Sir John Summerson, Violletle Duc and the Rational Po int of View Heavenly Mansions and Other Essays on Architecture London Cresset Press, 1949, 7. 15 Ibid., 8. 16 Jean Baptiste Antoine Lassus and Eug ne Emmanuel ViolletLeduc Projet de restauration de Notre Dame de Paris rapport adress M. le Ministre de la Justice et des Cultes. Paris : Imprimerie de Mme. de LaCombe, 1843. ViolletLe Duc was responsible for numerous restoration projects throughout France. 17 Excerpt from essay by Sir John Summerson, Viollet le Duc and the Rational Point of View, 8. 18 Ohnet used the Gothic Revival Style in the Episcopal Palace at Ajaccio, and an Italianate style in the Episcopal palace atCarcassone. See Appendix B for works by Ohnet from this period. 19 Egbert, The Beaux Arts Tradition 60. 20 Bedoire, The Jewish Contri bution, 179.

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106 21 Loyer, Architecture of the Industrial Age 126. 22 Csar Daly, LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napoleon III. Nouvelles maisons de Paris et des environs Paris:A. Morel, 1864, 10. Translation of text. Ce ne serait pas exagr que de dfiner la Maison: le vtement de la famille. Elle est en effet destine lui servir denveloppe, a labriter et se prter tous ses mouvements. Elle la garantit du froid et du chaud, sharmonise avec la rusticit ou le raffinement de ses habi tudes, se plie son gout, meme un peu ses fantaisies 23 Daly, LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napoleon III, 14. In this reference, Daly footnotes his previous article in the Revue de larchitecture et travaux publics, volume 16, 1858, in which he published the drawings of Labroustes design. 24 Csar Daly, editor H tel de M. L. Fould, Revue de larchitecture et travaux public, 16, no. 1 (1858): Col. 39 and plates 5,6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 25 Francis R. Kowsky, The William Dorsheimer H ouse: A reflection of French Suburban Architecture in the Early work of H. H. Richardson The Art Bulletin College Art Assoc iation of America, March, 1980. 26 Daly LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napoleon III Tome 1, 14 27 Ibid., 14. 28 Ibid. 15 29 Egbert, The Beaux Arts Tradition 123. 30 Daly LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napoleon III 1416. 31. David de Penanrun, Roux, et Delaire. Les architects l ves de l cole des Beaux Arts, 17931894. Paris: Impr. De Chaix, 18 95, 129. 32 Daly. LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napoleon III, Tables des planches du tome premier. 31. Example A 1, planches 1 11. See Figure x for map of 1867. 33 Aristide Michel Perrot, Nouveau plan de Paris divis en arrondissements quartiers et paroisses. Paris: Goyer, 1867. Biblioth que Historique de la Ville de Paris, cote A790. 34 See note 27 above. Daly, Example A1, planches 1 11. 35 Ohnets service as a juror for the Grand Prix de Rome competitions is documented at the Archi ves Nationales, AN Cote F/21/620, and in several period publications. 36 Egbert, The Beaux Arts Tradition plates 16,17,18. Project renderings are available from the Ecole des Beaux Arts digital archives., Htel pour un riche banquier Pascal, Jean Louis. 1866, dessin scholaire darchitecture. PRA 2401, PRAe 167, PRA 2402, PRA 2403, PRA 240 4, PRA 240 5, PRA 2406, PRA 2407. 37 De Penanrum, David, Les architects l ves 84, Egbert, The Beaux Arts Tradition 147. 38 J. Deville, Dictionnaire du Tapissi er Critique et Historique de lAmeublement franais (Paris: C. Claesen, 1878 1880). 39 Daville, 237. cest cet ensemble des nuances de la dcoration qui fait le mrite ou la r putation de tel architecte 40 Daville, 239.

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107 41 Ibid. 42 Bedoire, The Jewish Con tribution 157. 43 Ibid., 160. 44 Historic photographs from the collection housed in the Biblioth que Historique de la Ville de Paris, A. Cary, photographe, H tel Beaujon, BHVP, plates 34 (Kiosque), Biblioth que Historique de la Ville de Paris, Phototh qu e, Cote P.M. XXX, 2 44. 45 Harry Francis Mallgrave, editor. Architectural Theory. Volume 1:An Anthology from Vitruvius to 1870. Malden,MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006, 334. 46 Loyer, Architecture of the Industrial Age 36. 47 Loyer, Architecture of the Indus trial Age 36. 48 Karen Bowie editor. Les Grandes Gares Parisiennes au XIX Si cle ( Paris La D l gation lAction Artistique de la Ville de Paris, 1987 ) 104. 49 See Appendix B for additional information on Ohnets work on the Gare du Nord. 50 It was only l ate in the Second Empire that one of the earliest examples of an externally exposed iron structural frame where the wall material is expressed as an infill panel is seen. The Moulin de Noiseul, at the site of the Menier chocolate factory was a revolutionar y structure, designed by Jules Saulnier and built between 1865 and 1872. The strong expression of the diagonal iron braces and the vertical columns provide a decorative structural cage. 51 Bedoire The Jewish Contribution, 124. 52 Bernard Marrey and Jean Pi erre Monnet La grande histoire des serres & des jardins dhiver France 17801900 ( Paris: Graphite, 1984 ) 38. Ayant choisi le fer, il opta pour des combles arrondis, les fers courb s offrant une meilleure r sistance section gale que des fers droits 53 Marrey and Monnet, La grande histoire des serres 38. 54 Loyer, Architecture of the Industrial Age 74. 55 Marrey and Monnet, La grande histoire des serres 47 48. 56 Marrey, and Monnet La grande histoire des serres 61. Il nest donc pas tout a fait i ncongru de noter que les serres, tout en satisfaisant la passion de quelques grands noms de la finance et du n goce, figurant parmi les types de b timent qui ont fair progresser larchitecture sur le plan constructif, tout comme les gares ou les halles et marches couverts. Elles portaient, de la meme fa on, le signe de la modernit A la suite des Rothschild, FurtadooHeine, Perrier Jouetla bourgeoisie de moindre renom se lancer dans la culture des plantes rares, et telle coelogine massengeana sera promue au rang de signe ext rieure de richesse 57 Daly, Csar, LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napoleon III Tome 1, 18. enfin ce sont des serres souvrant sur les salons et qui stagent en tours de cristal 58 Bertrand Marrey and Jean Pie rre Monnet. Marrey, Bernard and Jean Pierre Monnet. La grande histoire des serres & des jardins dhiver France 1780 1900. Paris: Graphite, 1984 Marrey, Bernard and Jean Pierre Monnet. La grande histoire des serres & des jardins dhiver France 17801900. Paris: Graphite, 1984, 119. 59 Ibid. 60 Daly, LArchitecture prive au dixneuvime sicle sous Napoleon III Tome 1, Example A2, planches 1 5.

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108 61 W. Robinson, The Parks, Promenades& Gardens of Paris (London: John Murray, 1869), 269. 62 Robinson, The Par ks, Promenades& Gardens of Paris 280281. 63 Robert L. Herbert, Impressionis : A rt, leisure and Parisian society ( New Haven : Yale University, 1988), p. 181. 64 Susan Harrow, Zola: La Cure University of Glasgow: Frenc h and German publications, 1998, p. 81. 65 Marry and Monnet, La grande histoire des serres 128. 66 Painting of The Dining Room of the Princesse Mathilde by Sbastain Charles Girard, 1864. 67 Marry and Monnet La grande histoire des serres 129, 191, citing a quote from the brothers Goncourt. E dmond et Jules de Goncourt. Journal. Mmoires de la vie littraire Tome 3. Paris. G. Charpentier et E. Fasquelee, 1887 1896. 68 Michael Dennis, Court and Garden: from the French htel to the city of modern architecture ( Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986 ) p. 115 69 Dennis, Court and Garden, 69. 70 John Templar, The Staircase: History and Theories (Cambridge: The MIT Press,), 128 71 Templar, The Staircase 128. 72 Christopher Curtis Mead. Charles Garniers Paris Office: Architectural Empathy and the Renaissance of Fr ench Classicism Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1991, 127. Meads translation of Garniers text. 73 Loyer, Architecture of the Industrial Age 138. 74 Prvost Marcilhacy. Btisseurs et Mcnes 3223. Unfortunately, the building was demolished during the 1970s. 75 Dexigner, online portal for designers.. http://www.dexigner.com/news/16252 76 Robert Carlhian and Fabrice Ouziel. Analyse historique & technique pour lHtel de Saint Florentin (dt Htel de Talleyrand) Pices Historiques: tude Pralable la Restauration (Paris: United States Department of State Foreign Buildin gs Operation, Fvrier 2000), 33, referencing Bruno Pons Grand dcors franais .80 1. qui passait pour la plus Gallomane de la famille. 77 Ibi d. m ais de sa gnration il fut le seul de la famille sinstaller dans le s murs anciens et historiques. 78 Prvost Marcilhacy, Btisseurs et Mcnes 371. 79 These nineteenth century alterations were documented and analyzed extensively in the Carlhian and Ouziel studies previously referenced. These alterations have been reversed in the recent restoration of the State Apartments that was completed in 2007, with the aim of restoring the eighteenth century character to these significant spaces. 80 Fabrice Ou ziel & Associs, Vestibule, grand escalier & antichambres du premier tage pour l`Htel de Saint Florentin dit Htel de Talleyrand Pices Historiques. ( Paris : United States Department of State Overseas Buildings Operations, Fvrier 2004. 81 Tate, Concord e 105. This discovery was made by Fabrice Ouziel, consulting historical architect for the U.S. Department of States restoration project of 1998 2007, w hile condu cting historical research work. 82 Carlhian and Ouziel, tude Pralable la Restauration, 88. 83 Tate, Concorde 121.

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109 84 Carlhian and Ouziel, tude Pralable la Restauration, 86. 85 Ibid., 87.

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110 CHAPTER 4 THE HT EL BARONNE SALOMON DE ROTHSCHILD: DOCUMENTING TRADITION, INVENTION AND SPECTACLE Art and Memory Bequeathing her mansion, its contents and gardens to the French government as a house of art was the great legacy of the Baronne Adle Hannah Charlotte de Rothschild. Not wanting to leave a static monument in perpetuity, she specified in her will the desire to create a dynamic place for the arts to flourish. She did this in memory of her late husband, Salomon de Rothschild, the third son of James Mayer de Rothschild, founder of the French branch of the family of bankers and financiers. Presenting the architecture, interior decor and art as a living place was very much a part of the Rothschilds savoir vivre, of conducting family and social life comfortably wi thin the sumptuous dcor and amidst the works of art. Two years after her death in 1922, Carle Dreyfuss wrote The Baronne Salomon de Rothschild did not want there to be yet another museum in Paris The visitors who will penetrate into the vast rooms of the rez de chausse with the tall windows opening on the beautiful garden bordering the avenue de Friedland, will by no means have the impression of visiting a museum. Precious works of art, bequeathed to the State which furnish the display cases within the htel form a magnificent ornament for th is beautiful house, that is dedicated, through the will of an intelligent and generous woman, to artists and to friends of the Art s.1 The Clients P rogram One of the challenges for this case study is the lack of do cumentation pertaining specifically to the development of the design parti2 and other designrelated issues for the residence, or any communications on design issues between the client and her architects. The available correspondence and records are limited to some of the financial arrangements only.3 Therefore, other sources of evidence were used for research. For documentary evidence, there is the extant physical evidence of the building, which could be compared with the documentary

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111 photographs from the 1880s and 1890s, to understand the alterations that were made over time. A preface page to the photographic collection of 1891 explained the design intent for the structure. In addition, there were several contextual and inferential sources of information; and a few contemporaneous references to the building in the writings of others. The B aronne de Rothschilds interest in building this new ht el particulie r was attributed to her desire to create an homage to her late husband; to celebrate his passion for t he arts, to display his extensive collections (in keeping with this Rothschild family tradition) and to affirm his way of living according to Victor Champier in an article describing the completed building in an 18912 edition of Revue des Arts Decorati fs4 The collections contained fine furnishings of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, metalwork, ceramics, historical arms, carved ivories, glassworks, and precious books. It was to give all of these marvels a context which suited them, that B aronne Salomon wanted to build the mansion.5 In addition to displaying their extensive art collections, the Rothschild family typically used their residences to support their public life; for entertaining to reinforce their position among the foremost members of the cultural elite, and for receiving family members of the extended family in more intimate settings.6 In keeping with other family residences, the mansion contained the more private spaces on the upper level; including the suite of rooms for the Baronn es daughter H l n e and her governess, a family salon, and the Oratoire, a space for private religious observances. One significant exception is the placement of the Baronnes private suite on the garden level, instead of on the more private premier tage The B aronne never remarried and devoted herself to preserving the memory of her late husband. Later historians have differed in their interpretations of Ad les life; Wilson described the Baronnes later life as that of a semi recluse.

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112 She had many friends whom she entertained with charm and style but she refused to return their visits.7 She did not frequent art galleries, but would invite promising artists and writers to her residence with their work and supported a number of them as their patroness.8 Publications of the time have not afforded an insight into the activities of entertaining or family life in the mansion.9 In this case, the extant building was studied, in conjunction with other sources of contextual and inferential evidence,10 to achieve an understanding of the resulting design, and to reconstruct the patterns of use and the spatial experience of living in the mansion. Selecting an Architect The Rothschilds favored certain architects for their projects, and the second generation (sons of Ja mes Meyer) often used the same architects for their residences that they would commission for their commercial, social and religious projects. These architects included Lon Ohnet, Flix Langlais and mile Lavezzari (1832 1887). This absence of distinctio n between the social, private and religious realms, naturally led this generation of Rothschilds to entrust the construction of their dwellings to architects involved in their commercial projects, notably with the railroads. Lon Ohnet, architect for the N orthern railway company, enlarged Alphonses urban mansion and built the townhouse for the Baronne Salomon, on rue Berryer.11 The choice of Ohnet for the Baronnes residence might seem an unusual one, given his early career experience as a diocesan archite ct12, and the fact that he was moving towards the end of his architectural career and devoting more time to his roles in politics and public life.13 But considering Ohnets pre existing relationship with Baron James de Rothschild, as an architect collaborati ng with Lejeune for the Chemin de Fer du Nord, where he drew the early plans for the new Gard du Nord, the link may be easily explained. He had previously worked on residential projects for both the B aronnes father in law, James, and her brother in law, A lphonse, in

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113 renovating the H tel de Talleyrand to suit a Second Empire lifestyle. Additionally, Ohnet shared the same notaire (type of lawyer in the French legal system specializing in matters of property and other legal documents) with the Rothschild fami ly.14 It is also notable that, earlier in his career, his diocesan work included the design and renovation plans for several Episcopal palaces, including the work at Carcassone and Ajaccio.15 Thus, large scale and sumptuous buildings with a residential progr am were already part of his early professional experience. According to several accounts, despite Ohnets untimely death in 1874, at the beginning of the construction phase, the completed edifice is remarkably faithful to his design intent. The front panel of the Baronnes collection of photographs that was donated to the Muse Carnavalet around 1891, affirms her intent to follow Ohnets plans.16 The project was assumed by Ohnets student, Justin Ponsard, who went to work with fervor.17 Champier provides an assessment of Ponsard in his article on the building, dating from 1892. As modest as he is full of talent, M. Ponsard knew, while taking inspiration from the ideas and customs of the owner, how to make a remarkable work having a distinctive and sober cha racter in its elegance.18 Ponsard also designed the Baronnes stables at 1, avenue de Wagram between 18791881, notable for the large iron and glass sky light over the central court space and smaller skylights in the stalls space.19 Designers and Artisans During the four year design and construction phase, Ponsard worked in close collaboration with the artistdecorator, Henri Antoine Lopold de Moulignon, (1821 1897)20 who was charged with creating the entire ornamental program for the interior, including th e decorative painting, and selection of the fabrics. Moulignon understood well the B aronnes desire to present the art collection to best advantage. His skill in creating a harmonious interior experience is acknowledged in a contemporaneous review.

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114 He was both the painter and the interior decorator for the htel. From this comes a general harmony between the furnishings and the choice of colors that is rarely found to such a degree.21 Moulignon also administered the interior architectural works, soliciting the bids from the artisans,22 and overseeing their work. Many of the contractors and artisans employed on the project had previously worked on other Rothschild commissions. These companies included; Pruchon Martel et Lan (masonry), Hussent (mirrors), Bala stet (carpentry), Haussen (fabrics and upholstery), Dasson (bronze), Gagey, (finish carpentry and paneling), Feist (painting), and Lefebvre et V. Fontaine (sculpture).23 Known for his academic paintings, Moulignons works were exhibited at numerous officia l Salons, the formal exhibitions run by the Acadmie des Beaux Arts, from 1847 to 1868. His subjects took on an increasingly exotic flavor, and themes of the near east, including generic character studies, were interwoven with his portraits and allegorical classical works.24 Architectural V ocabulary The architectural vocabulary chosen for the design of the htel has been described as pur style Louis XVI (pure Louis XVI style) by Champier, reflecting the late nineteenth century understanding of a revival of French neoclassicism. Contemporary historians take a more nuanced view of the stylistic expression of the design. Rather than seeing the work as a direct historic interpretation of eighteenth century neoclassicism, these historians view the style as one which borrows freely from the traditions of French classicism, from the renaissance to the style Empire creating a style associated with the Second Empire and with the Rothschilds. In his Avant Propos for the book, R othschilds: Btisse ur s et Mcnes Fra nois Loyer describes Ohnets work as a htel with Louis XVI (flavor) style, which may not be the most perfect, but is the only summary of the traits of a Rothschild style architecture, (including the

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115 astonishing Italianate Salon plunged in the cryptic l ight of the skylight at its zenith).25 Ohnet has produced a work that interprets rather than copies a traditional theme and exhibits modernity in its unique central space that plays a pivotal role in the plan organization. T he composition of the spatial se quence is a particularly inventive response to the constraints of the site and the clients program. History of the Site Folie Beaujon In studying the physical history of previously developed properties, the preexisting architectural and landscape features can have profound implications for current conditions as evidenced in this case study S everal architectural elements from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were salvaged and reused as part of Ohnet s vision for the Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild and the adjacent gardens The property that is today bounded by the avenue de Friedland, avenue de Beaujon, rue de Balzac, avenue du Faubourg Saint Honor and the rue Berryer was, in the eighteenth century, part of a large 12 hectare property assembled by Nicolas Beaujon (17181786). A financier, private banker to the nobility, including King L ouis XVI and Madame Du Barry, Beaujon was a libertine and philanthropist, as well as one of the wealthiest men of his day.26 He had own ed a country estate near Iss y,27 which later became the mairie ( city hall ) of Issy les Moulineaux southwest of Paris, but had sold it as his health declined and travel became difficult. Desirous of a pastoral estate not too far from his urban residence in the H tel d vreux (now the lyse Palace), Beaujon assembled several parcels between the Champs Elyses and the rue du F aubourg du Roule and built a small palace and a group of service buildings around a court; a pavillon des bains or bathing pavilion and a chapel intended for his mausoleum, called the chapelle Saint Nicolas .28 The buildings were surrounded by a jardin

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116 langlais e (English style garden) with several greenhouses, and a windmill used to power the pumps that fed the water features of the garden, as well as supplying wa ter for the bathing pavilion.29 The property was named, with some irony, the C hartreuse de Beaujon as the layout of the orchards and gardens recalled the pastoral character of a chartreuse or a monastery of the Carthusian order. The main pavilion of the residence was designed by the architect Nicolas Claude Girardin (17491786), a student of, and collaborator with, the architect tienne Louis Boulle (1728 1799). Girardins design was a unique example of the trend of the rustic theme of architecture mad e popular during the reign of Louis XVI, as seen in the picturesque architecture of Marie Antoinettes hameau at Versailles. The central room was an octagonal salon, and was decorated with a ceiling painting by Louis Ren Bouquet (17171814) artist and de corative painter of the royal Menus Plaisirs.30 This painted feature was salvaged from the demolition of the pavilion and integrated into the ceiling design for the Grand Salon of the nineteenth century htel particulier The chapelle Saint Nicolas was con structed in 1783, in the northwest corner of the property, with the long axis of the rectangular plan placed perpendicular to the existing road. The chapel had a single entrance door that was flanked by two Doric columns, leading into a rectangular nave wi th flanking side aisles defined by five Doric columns on each side. The only light in the space came from the ceiling oculus. Opening from this space, the choir contained a circular arrangement of eight fluted Ionic columns supporting a coffered dome pierc ed by an oculus.31 The building survived for over 100 years and parts of the structure, five of the Ionic columns and the entablature, were preserved and reinterpreted in the late nineteenth century as a garden ruin. The treatment of the architectural fra gments in this manner, re interpreted as a garden feature, reflect the prevailing attitude towards the integration and reuse of these features,

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117 as elements to be freely used in the creation of a mood or scene, similar in flavor to design features found i n an eighteenth century jardin a langlais e The property then passed through several families. The gardens were converted to a sort of outdoor attraction called the Montagnes franaises, in 1817.32 After 1825, the property passed through several owners and was subdivided. T his process resulted in the creation of new streets; one ran behind the houses fronting on the rue du Faubourg Saint Honor and was called the rue des curies dArtois This street was renamed rue Berryer in 1877. A street was extended south from the rue du Faubourg Saint Honor, and was named the rue du Moulinde la Chartreuse for the windmill built in this area by Beaujon then renamed rue Fortune. This street name changed again in 1850, after the famed novelist, Honor de Balzac ( 17991850), acquired the parcels containing the pavilion des bains In 1854, Haussman directed the expropriation of part of the land for a new avenue radiating out from the place dtoile, naming this new street the avenue Beaujon .33 An 1857 plan shows the access to the property from the rue des Ecuries through a portail with an all e of trees leading to the pavillon de Beaujon.34 Honor de Balzac Balzac, the novelist and playwright noted for his realistic depiction of society was in 1846, searching for a n ew residence. He was drawn to the lot containing the old bathing pavilion of Beaujons estate, of about 500 square meters, because of its reasonable cost and its location in a neighborhood that was ascending in prestige and value. Around 1846, shortly bef ore his marriage with the countess veline de Hanska, he (Balzac) acquired one of the houses built on the site of the montagnes fran ais es : in the middle of overgrown gardens that conceal small pavilions, fragments of eighteenth century architecture. This house, poorly built without a grand exterior appearance, has only a ground floor and an upper floor. It almost touches the old dwelling of Beaujon and is joined to the chapelle Saint Nicolas where later on, Madame de Balzac could go to hear the mas s witho ut leaving her residence 35

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118 But it was not love at first sight, between the writer and the site. Of his newly acquired property, Balzac wrote this description of his newly acquired property. The house is as lovely inside as it is ugly on the outside. Thes e eight French windows on the long side of the building are dreadful. As for the garden, it is like a prison yard.36 The neighborhood character of the quartier Beaujon of this period is characterized by Hirsch in her essay on the Quartier du Roule in the w ork Paris aux cents village s as working class and middle class, lovely houses from the Restoration period and their gardens border the tree lined private avenues, closed by iron gates.37 Balzac renovated the pavilion into a residence, the bath space was r esurfaced in blue marble and decorated with bas reliefs with erotic themes, and the reception salons were decorated with sumptuous materials and furnishings. 38 After Balzacs death in 1850, his widow resided in the house for over thirty years. Her son in l aw acquired two adjacent parcels including the site of the chapelle In order to settle the debts of her daughter, she sold the house while retaining the rights of residence, to the B aronne de Rothschild in 1882. Shortly a fter this acquisition, the Baronne ordered the demolition of the residence and chapel and expanded the garden space onto the newly acquired property. In homage to the great writer, a domed pavilion known as the rotonde de Balzac was constructed in this garden space, at the angle of the intersection of rue Balzac and rue Berryer in 1891.39 The interior features some wall panels and a pair of decorative door panels salvaged from Balzacs residence, another example of repurposing salvaged architectural fragments for a new setting to create an ambience. Early Buildings, Site Features and Ruins The discussion of these features is important to this study as some of these elements were incorporated into the new construction and used in a manner that mirrored the later nineteenth-

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119 century attitude to wards the alteration of art objects and artifacts. As seen in the previous chapters example of the alterations to the Louveciennes panels, it was an accepted practice to alter the architectural fragments or objects to suit the space or the mood of the des ired design effect, rather than a concern with a stricter definition of authenticity or conservation of the object, which our modern sensibilities would dictate today. Reading the material evidence correctly requires an understanding of the layers of alter ations and additions to a building, structure or site over time. Buildings change with the passage of time, reflecting the different needs, uses and aesthetic preferences of their occupants over the lifespan of the physical object. Even after a structures service life is over, the existence of its ruins can provide valuable data for analysis and interpretation of the attitudes of the original creators and users. In this particular study, ruins from an earlier period, in the form of architectural fragments, have been incorporated into the new construction, and prove equally enlightening in the discernment of cultural and aesthetic values for the period under study. Writing on the history of the site during the time of Beaujon and assessing the changes m ade to the property during the later nineteenth century, including the creation of the ruins from pieces of earlier structures on the site, another historian presents a different view: Thus placed, these ruins have a late eighteenth century quality th at probably would not have been displeasing to monsieur Beaujon. It is likely that, on the other hand, he would consider with a skeptical eye, the Third Republic (style) stone heap that has the pretentions of a private townhouse for whose construction, his charming Louis XVI pavilion was shamelessly torn down.40 The inspiration for Ohnets selection of architectural style was likely due to several factors. In addition to the social and family association with styles of the ancien rgime, Ohnet may have wish ed to pay homage to the eighteenthcentury pavillon that was to be demolished to make room for his new construction. The second factor was that Ohnet had completed the work on the H tel de Talleyrand just prior to this commission, and had developed a sensi tively designed

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120 addition to Gabriel and Chalgrins neoclassical masterpiece. Thus, his fluency in the particular stylistic vocabulary was well established in his recent work. Architectural Features Architectural P arti Having a father in law such as James de Rothschild, for Adle meant spending time at the family seat of Ferrires where Salomon was raised This architectural parti conceived by Paxton and the decorative aesthetic established in the work of Lami would have been familiar to the young couple The distribution of the plan is organized around a grand entrance axis leading into a two story central Hal l with its spectacular toplight, which is ringed by the peripheral gallery that provides access to the principal spaces. The public rooms were conc eived each with its own character; the Hall with its eclectic Baroque and Venetian elements, the Salon des Tapisseries in a style Louis XV the Salon Louis XVI as a more literal stylistic borrowing of neoclassical elements and the Grand Salle M anger in a neo Renaissance style. Taking the architectural parti of Ferrires and applying it to an urban site required a careful manipulation of scale in order to maintain the sense of elegance and drama so clearly desired by the client. It is a testament to Ohnet s design skill that, at the time of construction, and despite the existence of the buildings to the west on the property not yet owned by the Baronne that the htel particulier read s as a freestanding structure. Ohnet achieved this effect through manipul ation of the buildings massing by stepping down the scale of the side wing where it touched the propertys western party wall. Ohnet organized the site plan in the traditional htel sequence; with the property edge defined by a street wall, articulated w ith alternating sections of stacked quoins and solid panels, and capped with a stone balustrade. The portail on the north faade, consisting of a higher section of wall with entablature and cornice, frames a round arched opening. Within the opening,

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121 a pair of paneled wooden doors piercing the solid wall leads to the cour dhonneur. This space was originally planted with poplars and hornbeam trees and surrounded by tall hedges.41 A central building block, the corps de btiment is set between the court and the rear garden. The raised grade level of the garden terrace from the street entrance level is one of the significant site features, and demanded a different design response for each side of the htel. As seen from the cour dhonneur, the massing of the nor th faade of the htel contains a three and one half story central block, composed of a lower rez de chausse an upper rez de chausse containing the reception rooms, an upper floor for the more private family spaces and a third floor with the servants s paces in the attic area under the mansard eaves behind the roof balustrade. This balustrade helps shield the view of the attic level mansard roof that is set back from the exterior wall edge. On each side of the projecting three story main block, an asymme trical two story pavilion s is set back Along the east property boundary, a twostory service wing is set perpendicular to the main building block and originally contained the kitchens and service spaces. The garde n side of the building is one story shorte r than the entrance court faade, so that the rooms of the upper rez de chausse open directly to the level of the garden. The faades are clad in dressed ashlar masonry, with projecting stone quoins at the corners of the projecting main pavilions. Exteri or Composition The principal entrance court faade is composed of a three bay wide central avant corps or projecting pavilion, placed on the centerline through the portail and flanked by two symmetrical pavilions set back from the main frontispiece. Cente red within the middle bay is a projecting block surmounted by a triangular pediment. The head heights of the two ground floor windows on either side of the entrance door opening are set lower than the windows of the main block, reflecting the lower level o f the entrance floor. The pair of entrance doors were originally natural

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122 oak with a waxed finish and were capped with a half round fixed glass transom with a decorative iron grill., A pair of Ionic columns adjacent to the pilasters support the archivolt over the entrance opening, recalling a triumphal arch.42 The arch keystone is ornamented by the decorative motives of a womans head and acanthus leaves. The entrance vestibule is elevated above the level of the cour dhonneur by several steps flanked by sta tues of winged figures with female heads. The entrance is illuminated at night by a pair of post mounted lights on free standing pedestals to the sides of these statues. The garden faade is the inverse of the court faade in massing. Here, the central th ree bay wide pavilion is recessed from the flanking pavilions. A porch colonnade is placed across the recessed center pavilion and is defined by paired Ionic columns at the upper rez de chausse level (the rez du jardin, or garden level). The roof of the c olonnade forms a balcony opening from the salon on the upper level. Similar to the court face, a central bay is projected from the wall plane and is capped by a triangular pediment. The decorative sculptures include a vase in the form of two swans surrounded by musical instruments. The entablature of the two flanking pavilions is supported on ornamental brackets and frieze bands containing decorative sculptures of branches of oak or laurel leaves and vases. The small side wings are recessed well back from the forward pavilions and present as one story high under a roof balustrade with an attic space under the mansard roof. The eastern wing terminates in an iron and glass wall and roof, forming a small jardin dhiver Interior Design and Dcor The interior reflects the architectural them es of the era that were discussed in the previous chapter the program of spaces decorated with historically inspired architectural ornamentation and a heightened sense of dramatic spatial composition. The concept for the dis tribution

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123 inspired by an earlier Rothschild residence, follows in the spirit of Dalys guide to incorpor ating modern patterns of living, while reflecting the individual attributes and desires of the client. Moulignons interior program incorporated decor ative motives with an Italian flavor, as seen in his decorative painted panels, often with gilded backgrounds, that were integrated throughout the mansion.43 The recurring motifs, birds, flowers, laurel branches set against a blue sky background, reflect a pastoral theme, as though nature was brought into the interior, an important theme of the period, as discussed in the previous chapter. The Vestibule as Theatre In plan, the entrance vestibule is the first of two almost equally sized rectangular rooms ded icated to circulation and display. Contained within the one and one half story volume, of approximately eight meters in height, is the first set of paired monumental stairs, the escalier dhonneur The curving, flared steps, much like the fer en cheval horseshoe shape d stairs at Ferrires sweep the visitors up on both sides of the vestibule. The walls are constructed from dressed stone, giving the dcor of this space a restrained and monochromatic character. The ornamental vocabulary of the sculpted eleme nts consists of Ionic pilasters supporting the coffered ceilings beams, and garlands of flower, which festoon the overdoor panels. Bringing more daylight into the interior was a major design consideration in the architects conception of the spatial exper ience. 44 The vestibule is lit from the sides by elongated windows, from the front by the round arched transom across the doorway, and from the borrowed light of the elevated top lit Hall, which spills through the large opening onto the balcony and down the walls into the lower level of the vestibule. The floor is patterned with alternating red and grey marble squares, set into white marble frames, with deep red square insets at the frame corners. This stair served two important design functions. One was to provide a practical means of accommodating the change in topography of the site, from the raised garden on the avenue de

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124 Freidland, to the lower elevation of the rue Berryer. The second role was to inaugurate a dramatic spatial sequence. This scenographi c tradition that triumphed in 1862, with the inauguration of the Hall at Ferrires, lasted from the nineteenth into the twentieth centuries. By integrating all aspects of a (theatrical) production, the exterior architecture and the interior (dcor) of the residences became entertainment.45 This feature is expressive of the love of stage set integral to the aesthetics of the designers who developed the got Rothschild and on a broader level, this scenographic technique was embedded in the design aesthetic of the Second Empire. Prvost Marcilhacy describes the se htels as splendid, eclectic, decorative, polychromatic in the line of the Garnier Opera.46 This sense of drama and display is continued throughout the public spaces of the htel After proceeding through the formal entrance sequence of portail cour dhonneur vestibule and climbing the escalier dhonneu r, the visitor crosses the balcony and passes under the large opening that leads to the Hall. The two niches flanking the opening contained la rge magnificent exotic shrubs, whose green foliage forms with red color of the tapis and the white of the stone an agreeable harmony.47 Hall Described as a half scaled version of the grand central Hall at Ferrires,48 this top lit space serves as the piv ot point for the cross axes of the floor plan layout. Prvost Marcilhacy noted that architect Ohnets major preoccupation seemed to be to obtain as much natural light as possible throughout the htel by using glass covered spaces, in the Hall and in the wi nter garden that is connected to the dining room at the end of the gallery space.49 The architect was also expressing his skill in manipulating varying levels of light and dark spaces to emphasize the drama and movement inherent in the circulation axes of t he plan.

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125 Rising to a height of eleven meters, the two story Hall is ringed at the second level on three sides by a corbelled gallery with a central projecting balcony that serves as a tribune or oratory balcony. Adopting another motif from Ferrires, tw o corner balconies curve outward, reinforcing the theatrical aspect of the space. Functionally, this gallery also provides multiple viewpoints to celebrate the sense of seeing and being seen .50 The ceiling is ornamented by a large coved cornice and the g lass roof wit h wrought iron decorative motif s abstracted floral jewels at the edges of each pane of glass and a patterned band of Greek key scrollwork at the outer edge of the flat section .51 The decorative painted panels set within the co rnice are the w ork of Moulignon. The small inset paintings between the robust brackets of the supporting cornice features doves on laurel branches set on a gold background, to imitate a sort of Byzantine mosaic.52 The space is furnished in a manner that encourages the vis itor to flow around the round sofa set at the center of the space and to continue their journey on one of the two principal axes that meet at this juncture Under this twostory space at the center of the building, the visitor has a choice, either to conti nue straight ahead through the Salon r ouge and out to the garden terrace under the incised portico, or to turn onto the perpendicular axis of the Galerie, at the center of the htel Opposite the Galerie is the opening into the Grand Escalier thay leads to the upper level, Salon Rouge The Salon rouge (Red Salon) dcor is inspired by the style Louis XVI with the paneling painted in a pale grey. On either side of the entrance door, the paneling was originally covered with fabric above the wainscot. Floral motif s fill the painted medallions of the overdoor panels and the medallions in the carved moldings of the ceiling at each end of the room In keeping with the spirit of integrating artifacts from the earlier structures on site, the ceiling painting is by the eighteenth century artist Lagrene.53 The painting is set into a

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126 rectangular frame with a decorative plaster border with half oval ends. An inset painted border is set between the pain t ing frame and the cornice. The room opens directly to the garden on the opposite long wall of the space the fireplace is set on one end of the room and a pair of doors opens into the Grand Salon on the opposite side of the space. Grand Salon The Grand S alon dcor recalls spaces in other Rothschild residences, notably the spirit of the Salon Louis XVI of Ferrires Both spaces are dominated by a large allegorical painting in the ceiling with a painted border. The geometric ceiling border is bounded by the shallow entablature supported by the full height Corinthian columns and pilasters. The walls are covered with wood panels with inset paintings depicting floral garlands and medallions, whose character recalls the treatment of the walls within the Grand Salle manger by Ohnet and Petit at the Htel de Talleyrand. The reu se of architectural fragments continues with the integration of the ceiling painting salvaged from the octagonal salon of the Chartreuse de Beaujon and signed by Louis Ren Bocquet (17171814), the Inspector General and chief designer of the Menus Plaisir s, the royal department in charge of creating special events for the court of the ancien rgime.54 Bocquet is known for the designs he created for Marie Antoinettess private theater at Versailles in 1778.55 Display The htel had a Cabinet des Curiosits or a study for curios a type of space found in many Rothschild residences, which housed the extensive collections of objets dart The room is also labeled on the 1892 plan, from the Champier article, as a fumoir or smoking room, where the gentlemen would repair after dinner, to smoke and to discuss business. This room paneling was likely salvaged from another building and was set into a larger space with a hidden corridor around the back and sides of the internal walls. As depicted on the floor plan in the Champier

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127 article of 18911892, t he walls on the north side are splayed and contain medieval stained glass panels that borrow light from the windows on the exterior wall These walls are covered with dark wood paneling and inset panels of Cordoba leathe r. The room was furnished with display cases containing objects from the collection of Salomon de Rothschild. This entire room assembly was to be preserved in situ as part of the stipulations in the Baronnes bequest. Galerie Leading between the Grand Sal on and the Cabinet des Curiosits the Galerie (passage with glass in ceiling or wall), acts as a corridor and liberates the principal rooms from an en enfilade circulation. This ornately decorated space terminates on the central axis of the Salle Manger or dining room. A laylight centered in the ceiling of the gale rie borrows light from the light shaft, a void space above, which is in turn covered with a skylight. Salle Manger The room dcor is noteworthy for the grey Auvergne walnut paneling and insets of eighteenth century Goblins tapestries. The ceiling cornice is plaster painted in a faux wood finish to match the walls. The large decorative ceiling painting is surrounded by four medallions, one in each corner, featuring a floral design, with a gilded lattice frame over the picture, and set against a sky blue background. In the Cary photograph, t he room is furnished with a small table, unlike the grand dining rooms of other residences of the period. The Serre A s discussed in Chapter 3, the glaz ed serre or jardin dhiver served as a way of bringing nature into the dwelling and creating an expression of the exotic interests of the period.56 A focal point of the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild is a small serre wedged between the adjacent propert y wall and the main block of the htel The serre opens directly from the Dining Room

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128 and terminates the principal east west axis of the plan. Linked to the dining room by three arched openings, and enclosed at the end by the end wall of the property, the small space is capped with an iron and glass roof .57 The south wall, composed of iron and glass panels and doors, opens directly onto the garden terrace. The floor is clad with clay tiles. According to Champiers description, published in 1893 in the Engli sh publication, The Decorator and Furnisher the dcor of the Salle Manger was intended to create an illusion of verdure. Two of the three bays were separated from the serre by untinned mirrors, so one could see into the winter garden from the dining r oom. The party wall which terminated the line of sight from the Salle Manger was covered with mirrors to reflect the sight of greenery and attempt to deepen the perception of space in the small serre.58 Compared with other Rothschild residences, this exa mple of a serre is quite modest in size, but its scale is harmonious with the overall size of this htel particulier .59 The construction of this space utilizes materials found in the commercial and indust rial architecture of the period. Ohnet had worked for the railroads and had prior experience with these materials.60 But beyond this interest in modern materials of the age is Ohnets desire for openness translated in the plan as a better integration of t he building within the garden. in that the hall ex tends laterally by a gallery leading to the dining room that opens into the winter garden.61 These serres or jardin dhivers by their transparency embody the design counterpoints of visual connectivity and privacy. The placement of this space at the end of a major east west axis of the architectural plan punctuates the aspect of a visual connection yet at the same time provides a sense of visual and acoustic privac y from all spaces but the Dining Room. Private S paces By locating the B aronnes o wn priva te apartments on the upper rez de chausse at the garden level, in the west block of the building, Ohnet broke with the usual pattern of placing the

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129 private spaces on the upper level grand floor. The historic photographs taken after completion of the proje ct illustrate these spaces in detail. Unfortunately few traces of this dcor remain, as the suite of rooms was modified during the 1920s to accommodate an apartment for the resident property manager, after the transfer of ownership to the government upon t he death of the baronne. Returning to the Hall, the toplit Grand Escalier leads to the upper level, which contained a Salle des Billards (billiards room), the Oratoire and the Baronnes daughters apartments. While no extant plan of Ohnets design for the premier tage has been found, the actual layout of spaces was noted on the 1922 drawings which depicted the renovation plan for the building Notable for its exotic motifs, the Oratoire was located above the Baronnes bedroom and boudoir in the west block of the upper level. The details of the dcor were conceived in the Arab style, created for Jewish religious ceremonies.62 The dcor of this space was removed to accommodate the Secretariat of the Bibliothque Doucet.63 Fortunately, the historic photogra phs, taken by A. Cary before 1891 documented the appearance and design features of the Oratoire. The S alle des Billards is intact, and featured wood wall paneling, decorative ceiling moldings and an inset ceiling design. The balance of the upper level was extensively modified with the addition of partitions and dropped ceilings during the several campaigns of renovations in the twentieth century. Architectural Interventions from the T wentieth and T wenty first C enturies The B aronne de Rothschilds will, wh ich bequeathed the property, residence, artworks, furnishings, gardens and dependencies to the French government, creating the Fondation Salomon de Rothschild, contained three directives for the use of the property. These were; to hold expositions of the artwork at least twice a year, to provide a place for special events, concerts and charity sales events to benefit artists, and to provide artists with a venue to receive

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130 their foreign colleagues for meetings and conferences, in order to strengthen the bonds between artists.64 The site program, developed by the ministry of Public Instruction and the Beaux Arts, preserved t he salons on the rez de chausse with the collections in situ as reception rooms, to receive artists and scholars, thereby fulfilling the directives of the bequest.65 The upper floor and the attic were taken over by the Universit de Paris for the art and archaeology library, known as the Doucet collection, which occupied these areas from 1925 to 1935.66 The plans of the lower and upper ground floor level were left essentially intact. Some partitions were added on the premier tage to accommodate the needs of the library, and to provide an apartme nt for the site administrator. From 1925 until 1945, the Cabinet des Estampes of the Bibliothque N ationale was also housed on the upper level. The drawings for the renovation work were made by the government architect, Eugne Bois in 1922, and his drawings record the extant layout of the interior, including the sousbas s ement (raised basement plan) t he rez de chause haut (upper ground floor plan), the ( premier tage) (first floor plan) and the deuxime etage (second floor plan) under the eaves. Fortuitously, the original room names were noted in script on the plans while the intended room use designations were indicated in architectural block lettering. These documents provide a valuable record of the design architects original design of the plan distribution for all of the floors of the residence.67 Significant alterations were made to accommodate th e occupation of the building by the Centre nationale dart contemporain from 1967 to 1974. The installation of dropped ceilings and wall coverings obscured some of the original dcor. In 1976, the Fondation Nationale des Arts Graphiques et Plastiques was created, and this institution occupied the property. The Centre

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131 nationale de la Photographie occupied the building from 1993 until 2004, when the institution moved to the renovated Jeu de Paume museum at the Tuileries gardens.68 The site was designated as a monument class in 2005 for the totality of the site, including the buildings and dependencies, entrance court, gardens, property walls, the colonnade of chapelle Saint Nicolas and the rotonde de Balzac .69 As of 2010, a major rehabilitation has been compl eted for a private client. A massive hall has been constructed under the building to house a conference center, while the historic building received major restoration work.70 Significance The H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild exemplifies the aesthetic s ensibilities of the period spanning the Second Empire and early decades of the Third Republic. The juxtaposition of the two prevailing design tendencies of the era, the eclectic selection of traditional forms and details of three centuries of French classi cal design combined with an innovative plan organization and spatial sequence created a dramatic visual experience. The role of spectacle as a design consideration was given form through the plan distribution and through the skillful use of natural light to evoke a theatrical sense as the spectator moved along the circulation paths of the interior. The public spaces opened onto the gardens and the illusion of greenery was furthered extended by the visual tricks employed in the design of the jardin dhiver which sought to bring nature indoors. The iconography inherent in the selected architectural style, recalling the neoclassical style Louis XVI reflected a sober and restrained decorative statement desired by the client. Exotic architectural themes were employed in the more private spaces, to create a more fanciful (or in the case of the Oratoire, perhaps more a spiritual) experience in these areas. The building fits within a tradition of residences for the social group of Second Empire entrepreneurial families, but contains some unique features due to specific programmatic

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132 requirements. These included the nature and duration of assembling the property from multiple parcel acquisitions, the physical characteristics of the site and the particular circumstan ces of the client, a female member of one of the most prominent families of the later nineteenth century haute bourgeoisie The H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild is singularly appropriate as a case study to evaluate the thesis that the Parisian urban mansion of the Second Empire is significant as an expression of both tradition and invention, alongside the cultures fascination with spectacle. The geographically prominent location of the site, the leading role in the contemporary society of the Rothschil d family and the visual features of the property suggest significant physical evidence of the era.

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133 Figure 4 1. P ortrait of the Baronne de Rothschild. [A. Cary, Portrait de Brnne. Salomon de Rothschild, plate 4] Figure 42. Pre face to photographic collection [A. Cary, plate 2]

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134 Figure 43. Plan du rez de chausse, Revue des Arts Decoratifs, V. Champier, 1892. [ Authors photo] Figure 44. P ortrait of J. Ponsard. [A. Cary, P ortrait de J. Ponsard, plate 7]

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135 Figure 45. Stables by Ponsa rd main court [A. Cary, curies de Mme la Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, plate 35] Figure 46. Stables by Ponsard, stalls [A. Cary, curies de Mme la Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, plate 36]

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136 Figure 47. Portrait of Moulignon. [A. Cary, Portrai t de Lopold Moulignon, plate 7] Figure 48. Letter from Moulignon to serrurier Guyard 8 juillet 1878 [ Reprinted with permission of The Rothschild Archives London, UK]

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137 Figure 49. Court of Honor facade. [A. Cary, Faade sur la cour dhonneur pl ate. 10] Figure 410. Great Hall facing the gallery [A. Cary, Le Hall. (ct de la galerie) pl. 25]

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138 Figure 411. Folie Beaujon site plan and elevation Girardin, 1781. [ Archives Nationales, AN MCN LIII561, 16 juillet 1781] Authors photo. Figure 412. Chapelle Saint Nicolas site plan Jacoubet, 1836. [Dossiers des monuments historiques, copy of drawing at BN Estampes ]

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139 Figure 413. Windmi ll at Folie Beaujon [ Krafft et Ransonnette Plans, coupes et e levations des plus belles maisons de Paris, 1802, pl. 47] Figure 414. Vue de la Folie Beaujon : les communs, le moulinjoli. 1807. Dessin la mine de plomb et rehauts de craie sur papier brun ; 12,7 x 17,7 cm. Paris, Bibliothque nationale de France, ancienne coll. Destailleur. [ Wikime dia c ommons, p.d.].

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140 Figure 415. Pavilion folie Beaujon, Girardin, constructed 1787. View around 1830. [Wikimedia commons p.d.] Figure 416. Vue de la Chapelle Beaujon, historic engraving. [Copy from the Dossier de Classement H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, date 2005. Reference No. PA00088834, Ministre de la Culture herein after referred to as Dossier de classement M.H.]

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141 Figure 417. La Chapelle Sai nt Nicolas de Beaujon, L. Leymonnier ,1865. [ Dossier de classement M.H.] Figure 418. Ch apelle Saint Nicolas in ruins [A. Cary, Chapelle St. Nicolas plate 43]

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142 Figure 419. House of Balzac. [A. Cary, Vue de lhtel de Honor de Balzac et la coupole de la chapelle St. Nicolas plate 37] Figure 420. House of Balzac, garden faade. [A. Cary, Htel de Honor de Balzac, plate 38]

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143 Figure 421. House of Balzac, Salon. [A. Cary, Htel de Honor de Balzac, s alon plate 40] Figure 422. House of Balzac Chambre [A. Cary, Htel de Honor de Balzac, plate 39]

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144 Figure 423. Rotonde de Bal zac. [A. Cary, La rotonde dans le jardin, plate 44] Figure 424. Colonnade in garden. [A. Cary, La colonnade de lancienne chapelle Saint Nicolas dans le jardin de lhtel Rothschild, plate 42]

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145 Figure 425. Ch teau de Ferri re s, Hall. [Authors photo] Figure 426. Ch teau de Ferrires, Salon Louis XVI [Authors photo]

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146 Figure 427. Ch teau de Ferrires, Salon de famille [Authors photo] Figure 428. Comparative plans, Ferrires and htel Salomon de Rothschild. [ Authors diagram ]

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147 Figure 429. Porte co chre. [A. Cary, Porte cochre sur la rue B erryer, plate 24] Figure 430. Porte cochre, view from rue Berryer [Authors photo]

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148 Figure 431. Court faade in 1975. [ Dossier de classement M.H.] Fig ure 432. Service win g. [ Dossier de classement M.H., 2004]

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149 Figure 433. Court faade center pavilion. [ Dossier de classement M.H., 2004] Figure 434. Court Faade detail [Authors photo]

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150 Figure 435. Garden facade. [A. Cary, Faade sur le Jardin plate 27] Figure 436. Garden faade from public garden. [Authors photo]

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151 Figure 437. Garden faade balcony [Authors photo] Figure 438. Garden faade detail [Authors photo]

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152 Figure 439. Garden faade Dining Room wing. [ Authors photo] Figure 440. Detail of serre faade. [Authors photo]

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153 Figure 441. Plan with circulation axes [A uthors diagram ] Figure 442. Vestibule [A. Cary, Vestibule pl ate 9]

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154 Figure 443. Floral overdoor detail of carving [ Courtesy of S. Tate and J. Hahn ] Figure 444. Vestibule windows [Authors photo]

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155 Figure 445. Hall facing the fireplace. [A. Cary, Hall, (ct d e la chemine), plate 22] Figure 446. Hall, ceiling detail. [Dossier de classement, M.H. 2004]

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156 Figure 447. Glass ceiling detail [ Dossier de classement M.H., 2004] Figure 448. Hall ceiling painting and cornice detail [Dossier de classement, M.H. 2004]

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157 Figure 449. Salon Rouge. [A. Cary, Salon rouge, plate 19] Figure 450. Salon r ouge ceiling painting. [Courtesy of S. Tate and J. Hahn ]

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158 Figure 451. Salon rouge ceiling detai l. [Courtesy of S. Tate and J. Hahn ] Figure 452. Grand Salon view of fireplace [A. Cary, Grand Salon, plate 20]

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159 Figure 453. Grand Salon. [A. Cary, Gr and Salon plate 21] Figure 454. Grand Salon view to Red Salon. [ Dossier de classement M.H.]

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160 Figure 455. Grand Salon ceiling detail [Courtesy of S. Tate and J. Hahn ] Figure 456. Grand Salon ceiling painting de tail. [Courtesy of S. Tate and J. Hahn ]

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161 Figure 457. Study of Curios. [A. Cary, Salle des curiosits, ct de la large vitrine, plate 11] Figure 458. Study of Curios view of fireplace. [A. Cary, Salle des curiosits ct de la chemine, plate 12]

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162 Figure 459. Galerie with toplight. [A. Cary, Galerie, plate 8] Figure 460. Dining Room. [A. Cary, Salle manger (ct de la Galerie) plate 33]

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163 Figure 461. Dining Room and serre [A. Cary, Salle manger (ct de la Serre) plate 23] Figure 462. Salle manger door trumeau. [Authors photo]

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164 Figure 463. Salle manger ceiling medallion [Authors photo] Figure 464. Chteau de Ferri res Dining Room [Authors photo]

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165 Figure 465. Butlers Pantry [A. Cary, Office dHonneur, plate 32] Figure 466. Serre detail of plate 23.

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166 Figure 467. Serre doors [ Courtesy of S. Tate and J. Hahn ] Figure 468. Serre, ceiling [Courtesy of S. Tate and J. Hahn ]

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167 Figure 469. Baronnes Boudoir. [A. Cary, B oudoir, ct de l a chamber coucher, plate 16] Figure 470. Baronnes Bedroom. [A. Cary, Chambre coucher plate 14]

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168 Figure 471. Baronnes Dressing Room. [A. Cary, Cabinet de toilette plate 15] Figure 472. Baronnes Bath. [A. Cary, Le tub plate 13]

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169 Figure 473. Library. [A. Cary, Biblioth que plate 31] Figure 474. Grand Stair Hall. [A. Cary, Grand Escalier plate 30]

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170 Figure 475. Billiards Room [A. Cary, Salle de billard s 1er tage, plate 26 ] Figure 476. Oratoire. [A. Cary, Orato ire, 1er tage plate 29]

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171 Figure 477. Nursery, no date. [Rothschild Archives dossier 11 rue Berryer #009] Figure 478. Plan du sousbassement, Bois, 1922. [Archives Nationale, authors photo]

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172 Figure 479. Plan du rez de chausse, Bois, 1922 [Archives Nationale, authors photo] Figure 480. Plan du premie r tage, Bois, 1922. [Archives Nationale, authors photo]

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173 Notes 1 Andr Joubin & Carle Dreyfus, La foundation Salomon de Rothschild. I. La biblioth que dart et darch ologie. II. Les oeuvres dart conserves dans lh tel, Gazette des Beaux Arts n. 752 (D cembre 1924): 325. La baronne Salomon de Rothschild na pas voulu quil y et Paris un muse de plus. Les visiteurs qui pntreront dans les vastes salons du rez de chausse, dont les hautes fentres souvrent sur le beau jardin bordant lavenue de Friedland, nauront nullement limpression de visiter un muse. Les objets dart precieux, lgus ltat, qui garnissent les vitrines de lhtel, forment une magnifique parure cette belle demeure, consacre par la volont dune femme intelligente et gnreuse aux artistes et aux amis de lArt." 2 Parti is an architectural term for the organizing themes of a design concept, including the structural organization. 3 Rothschild Archives. File number 000/1037/73/66, Constru ction de lhtel de la rue des curies dArtois. N otes accompanying payment and note to Mme. Ohnet regarding payment. 4 Victor Champier, Lhabitation moderne. Lhtel Salomon de Rothschild Lancienne folie de Beaujon et la maison de Balzac, Revue des Arts dcoratifs 1 (18912): 70. 5 Champier 72. Cest pour donner toutes ces merveilles le cadre qui leur convenait, que la baronne Salomon voulut se faire b tir un htel 6 Anka Muhlstein, The Rise of the French Rothschilds ( Paris: Vendme, 1982), 2 07. 7 Derek Wilson, Rothschild. The Wealth and Power of a Dynasty (New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1988), 187. 8 Ibid. 9 Discussion with historian Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy at the building during a site visit, October 21, 2009. 10 Appendix A Research Met hodology, and figure A 1. 11 Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothschilds:Batisseurs et Mecenes 152. Cette absence de distinction entre les domains social, priv et religieux conduit naturellement les Rothschild de cette gnration confier ldification de leur s demeures des architects lis leurs affaires et notamment aux chemins de fer. Lon Ohnet, architecte de la Compagnie du Nord, double lhtel dAlphonse puis difi lhtel de la baronne Salomon, rue Berryer 12 See Appendix B for more information of this aspect of Ohnets career and examples of work executed within this role as diocesan architect. 13 Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy, H tel Salomon de Rothschild, Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor e d ited by Beatrice De Andia et Dominiq ue Fernandes ( Paris: D l gation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994 ), 367. This observation regarding the choice of architect was discussed by Mme. Prvost Marcilhacy 14 Prvost Marcilhacy, H tel Salomon de Rothschild, Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor 370. 15 Drawing s for Palais Episcopal Carcassone in the Archives Nationale (sous sries CP/F/19/*/1876) and the Palais Episcopal Ajaccio (sous sries CP/F/19/*/1863) Ajaccio. 16 A. Cary, photographe, Htel Beaujon. Bibliothque Historique de la Ville de Paris, Photothque, P.M. XXX 2 44, plate 2. Brief introduction to the photographs. 17 Champier. 72. qui se mit loeuvre avec ardeur. 18 Champier. 72. Aussi modeste que rempli de talent, M. Ponsard sut, tout en sinspirant des ides et des convenances de la propritaire, faire une oeuvre remarquable ayant un grand caractre de distinction et de sobriet dans llgance

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174 19 Prvost Marcilhacy, H tel Salomon de Rothschild, Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor 368. Photographs of the stables are in the collection of pho tographs given by the baronne Salomon de Rothschild to Biblioth que Carnavalet in 1892, as noted in Champiers artcle. See also Photographs under file number P.M. XXX, 35 and P.M. XXX,36, Biblioth que Historique de la Ville de Paris. 20 See Appendix C for additional information on the life and career of Moulignon. 21 Champier, 72. Il fut la fois le peintre et le tapissier de lhtel. De l une harmonie gnrale dans larrangement des meubles et le choix des couleurs qui est rarement obtenue un gal degr 22 Letters from files of Rothschild Archives. 23 Borjon, 14, referencing Prvost Marcilhacy, H tel Salomon de Rothschild, Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor 367. 24 See Appendix C for additional examples of interior decorative commissions and for an exa mple of academic paintings by Moulignon. 25 Francois Loyer Avant Propos, in Les Rothschilds :Btisseurs et Mcnes by Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy, un h tel go t Louis XVI qui nest peut tre pas le plus parfait, mais qui est lui seul le r sum de tous les traits de larchitecture Rothschild (y compris letonnant salon litalienne plong dans la lumiere cryptique dune verri re z nithale ). 26 Thierry Claeys, Nicolas Beaujon. Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor e ds. Beatrice De Andia et Dominique Fernande s, ( Paris: D l gation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994 ), 363. 27 The Issy residence was the provenance for the Beaujon panels that are now installed in the Tower Room of Waddesdon Manor. See Chapter 3, note 42. 28 Alexandre Gady, Folie Beau jon et chapelle Saint Nicolas Rue du faubourg Saint Honor eds. Beatrice D e Andia and Dominique Fernandes ( Paris: D l gation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994 ) 354 355. 29 Pierre Wittmer, Les jardins. Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor eds. Beatrice d e Andia et Dominique Fernandes ( Paris: D l gation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994 ) 47. 30 Bocquet on the website of Ministre de la Culture. http://www.culture.fr/recherche/advanced/?search=Menus%20Plaisirs%20du%20roi&sel_date_mode=libre&sel_sea rc h_mode=tous_les_termes&sel_filter_exact=off&sel_filter_ortho=on&sel_filter_syn=on&filter_image=1&advance d_search=1 31 Gady, Folie Beaujon, 356. 32 Ibid., 359. 33 Ibid., 360. 34 Ibid. 35 Champier 68. Vers 1846, peu de temps avant son marriage avec la comt esse veline de Hanska, il fit lacquisition dune des maisons construites sur lemplacement des montagnes franaises;, au milieu de jardins un peu en broussailles o se perdaient des pavillons, fragments darchitecture du XVIII sicle. Cette maison, asse z mal btie, sans grande apparence extrieure, navait quun rez de chausse et un tage. Elle touchait presque lancienne demeure de Beaujon et faisait corps avec la chapelle Saint Nicolas, o, plus tard, Madame de Balzac pouvait aller entendre la messe sans sortir de son habitation ." 36 Anne Pa nchout, Maison de Balzac, Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor ed s Beatrice De Andia, et Dominique Fernandes (Paris: Dlgation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994), 365. La maison est aussi jolie au

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175 dedans quelle est laide au dehors. Ces huits croises de face dans un btiment long cest affreux. Quant au jardinet, cest comme un prau de prison. 37 MarieChristine Hirsch, Les Champs Elyses Nord jusquen 1870: le faubourg du Roule, Paris aux cent villages no. 53 ( septembre 1980), 23. La physionomie du quartier Beaujon est populaire et bourgeoise, de belles maisons Restauration et leurs jardins bordaient les alles fermes par des grilles 38 Champier. 68. Description of the house interiors as descri bed by Thophile Gautier in la nouvelle demeure quhabitait Balzac, rue Fortune, dans le quartier Beaujon, moins peupl alors quil ne lest aujourdhui 39 Michel Borjan, directeur. Htel Salomon de Rothschild. Etude historique et archologique. Rapport. (Paris : GRAHAL, Groupe de recherche Art Histoi re, Architecture et Littrature, Dcembre 2000), 43. See photogrpah of this space in Chapter 4. 40 Gady. 361. Ainsi disposes, ces ruinesont un air de fabrique fin XVIII qui naurait peut tre pas dplu monsieur Beaujon. Gageons, en revanche, quil considrerait dun oeil sceptique le tas de pierres III Rpublique qui a des prtentions dhtel particulier et pour la construction duquel on a ras sans vergogne son charmant pavilion Louis VVI. 41 Champie r. 42 Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothschilds:Batisseurs et Mecenes 319. 43. Prvost Marcilhacy, H tel Salomon de Rothschild, Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor 367. 44 Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothschilds:Batisseurs et Mecenes 222. 45 Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothsc hilds:Batisseurs et Mecenes 14. Cette tradition scnographique qui voit son triomphe en 1862 avec linauguration du Hall de Ferrires se prolongera au long des XIXe et XXe sicles. Intgrent toutes les formes de la mise en scne, larchitecture extrieur e et intrieure les demeures devient spectacle. 46 Ibid., ils se rvlent fastueux, clectique, dcorative, polychrome, sinscrivant ainsi dans la ligne de lOpra Garnier. 47 Victor Champier. The Htel of Madame Solomon de Rothschild, Paris. Furniture and Furnishings. The Decorator and Furnisher 1892, 205207. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid. 50 Borjan, 16. Deux petits avances circulaires et un balcon en face de la chemine transformaient cette galerie en tribune de thtre ." 51 Borjan, 16. Le plafond, orn dune large corniche en voussure, est perc dune verrire orne des motifs en fer forge Images from the dossier Monuments Historiques compiled for designation as a monument class in 2005. 52 Rapport Justicatif. DRAC, le de France, avril 2004, Description, 3 Dossiers des Monuments Historiques. 53 Ibid. 54 Gady, 355. 55 Folie Beaujon http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folie_Beaujon

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176 56 Emile Zola sets the pivotal seduction scene between two of the principal characters in La Cure in the conservatory of the familys Htel particulier The conservatory space is both seen by others (as when Rene spies Maxime with his lover; and a private retreat, where Maxime seduces Rene and sets the tragic plot in motio n. 57 Borjan, 16. cette salle communiquait avec la serre, sorte de jardin dhiver, grce trois baies cintres garnies de glaces sans tain de toute hauteur 58 Victor Champier. The Htel of Madame Solomon de Rothschild, Paris. Furniture and Furnishings. The Decorator and Furnisher 1892, 205206. 59 Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothschilds:Batisseurs et Mecene, 253 255, discusses a few examples of more monumental serres at Halton, Gruneberg and Waddesdon. 60 See Appendix B for further information on Ohn ets work with the railroads. 61 Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothschilds:Batisseurs et Mecenes 222. Ce dsir douverture se traduit galement dans le plan par une meilleure intgration de ldifice dans le jardin:tandis que le hall se prolonge latralement p ar une galerie, puis une salle manger qui ouvre sur une serre. 62 "S tyle arabe, conu pour les ceremonies du cult e juif" 63 Borjon., 17. Oratoire noted on the plans of E. Bois, 1922. A.N. Cote F/21/6032 H tel Rothschild. Photographs under file number P.M XXX, 29. Biblioth que Historique de la Ville de Paris. 64 Translation by author of extract from the will of the Baronne de Rothschild, prepared by Matre Burthe, notaire dated 11 March 1922. Rothschild Archives, file reference 000/1037/73/6A. 65 Andr Joubin & Carle Dreyfus, La foundation Salomon de Rothschild. I. La biblioth que dart et darch ologie. II. Les oeuvres dart conserves dans lh tel, Gazette des Beaux Arts n. 752, ( D cembre 1924), 317 318. 66 G rard Alaux, A rebours: La restauration de lh tel Salomon de Rothschild Patrimoine et cadre de vie. Les cahiers de la ligue urbaine de rurale 167 (2e trimester 2005): 389. 67 AN Cote F /21/ 6032, records of work after government acquisition of the property and full size architectural plans by E. Bois, 1922. 68 Rapport justicatif, by Valrie Gaudard, CRMH, DRAC Ile de France, april 2004. From the file Dossier pour le classement de lh tel Salomon de Rothschild. 9 et 11 rue Berryer, 12 avenue de Friedland, 193 rue du fbg. Saint Honor Cote 75108027 Monuments Historiques. 69 Dossier pour le classement de lh tel Salomon de Rothschild. 9 et 11 rue Berryer, 12 avenue de Friedland, 193 rue du fbg. Saint Honor Cote 75108027 Monuments Historiques. Minist re de la Culture. In 1984, the htel was inscribed on the supplemental inventory of historic monuments Inscrits sur lInv entaire supplmentaire des Monuments historiques The protected areas included the faades and roofs, the entrance vestibule and stair, the grand stair, salle des Curiosits rooms with dcor, and the columns from the chapelle Saint Nicolas. The term, rooms with dcor, was sufficiently vague to cause interpretive disputes in how the spaces should be treated and was a subject of concern to the cultural bureaus charged with pro tecting the integrity of the building. This situation was addressed twenty years later when the site achieved the status of a monument class by an arrt dated 4 March, 2005, for the totality of the site, buildings and dependencies, entrance court, garde ns, property walls, the colonnade of chapelle Saint Nicolas and the rotonde de Balzac. 70 Site visit on October 21, 2009 with Didier Repellin, ACMH and historian Pauline PrvostMarcilhacy. Completion of the work for the company GL events. http://www.htelsalomonderothschild.com/?langue=en

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177 CHAPTER 6 LEGACY Interpreting architectural forms and de tails and derived from eighteenth and nineteenth century exam ples of French classical design, with an innovative plan organization and spatial sequence, architect Lon Ohnets design for the H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild exemplifies the cultural and aesthetic sensibilities of the Second Empire period. The inve ntive quality of the design was further enhanced by the use of modern materials the iron and glass framing, which allowed Ohnet, to achieve the dramatic scenographic effects in his architectural composition, with the emphasis on the visual connectivity of the spaces seen through the contrast of shadow and pools of light along the spatial progression. As noted in the Introduction, Ohnet is not a well known figure. This may b e attributed to several reasons. By nature he was modest his career focused on rel igious architecture with no high profile public edifices, his residential w orks consisted primarily of renovations to existing structures with the notable exception of the case study building, and his early death at age 6 1, cut short his career. The anal ysis of his body of work points to the conclusions that Ohnet can be evaluated as an architect who practiced generally within the mainstream of the Second Empire cultural aesthetic, balancing skillfully the socially desirable references to architecture of the past with an inventive spirit. Ohnet, as a result of his training at the cole des Beaux Arts, was well versed in the techniques of the hierarchical ordering of programmatic forms and volumes, and in the axial composition of the sequential organization of spaces, abstracted from any specific architectural style. His mature architectural works emphasized shifting axes of circulation sequences, more porous circulation between discrete spaces, the use of varied levels of illumination to dramatize spatial s equence, and emphasis on the visual connection through spaces, all the while clothing the composition in a rigorous but not archaeological application

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178 of the features of a selected architectural style. The ability to bring more light into spaces through the use of iron and glass, which borrowed from the traditions of retail and public architecture (arcades, and other public spaces), and the emphasis on toplighting increased the expressive range of spatial design and the dramatic sequencing of spaces Th e second generation of the French branch of the Rothschild family had arrived within the cultural hierarchy and the family members were in fact, at the top of the social ladder, by the time of the second decade of the Second Empire. H ence, their reside nces were an expression of this social position With four centuries of French classical architecture upon which to draw, the design elements associated with the Bourbon dynasty proved to be particularly appealing to this social groups self image. But thi s tendency should not be understood as an exercise in the strict copy of the original model as two additional design trends were at work. The expansion in the accepted range of historically referenced architectural styles, especially during the period of t he 1830s and 1840s, afforded a new sense of freedom in the composition of faade elements with which to clothe1 new architectural solutions to the design program of the urban mansion, the Second Empire htel particulier The design program now included a new perspective on the family in residence. Within the influential writings of Csar Dalys work of the late 1850s and early 1860s, the emphasis on modernity and comfort, and the nurturing of familial bonds within the larger social context of the family led to a reinterpretation of the role of various spaces and the resultant plan distribution, as well as the invention of new types of spaces. The importance of visual experience was deeply embedded in the Second Empire psyche, and the role of spectacle became more reciprocal. Rather than emphasizing passive observation and inspiring awe in the viewer, the cultural milieu emphasized the simultaneity of viewer and

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179 viewed. This cultural characteristic is well illustrated by the public spaces of the period; the great train stations, the public winter gardens, the shops and the ultimate expression of Second Empire culture, the Garnier Opra. These spaces in turn influenced residential design. The aesthetic adopted by the haute bourgeoisie was deeply influenced b y the passion for collecting valuable objects and this group desired to live amidst the objects and the art collections housed in the urban mansions as part of the dcor and their daily experience. The vestibules galeries, salons fumoirs, escaliers dhonneurs and jardins dhivers were open and luminous, filled with objets darts that were an integral part of the dcor. It was an accepted practice to relocate and alter to fit earlier works of art and architectural featu res within the later nineteenth centu ry spatial containment, as a way of displaying and experiencing the objects of value. One of the great legacies of the Rothschild family, and others of this social group, was their sense of noblesse oblige the obligation to honorable and generous behavior associated with hi gh rank. As members of the new elite who had replaced the nobility at the top of the social hierarchy, their generous philanthropy supported educational, social and cultural causes, including major donations of artworks to governmenta l and to cultural institutions. The strong interest in collecting contributed to the preservation of cultural structures, objects and artworks into the twentieth century. The physical and documentary record attests to the architectural intentions of these clients. The personal writings and records of Ohnet have not been discovered to date, beyond his architectural reports on various buildings and the few examples of drawings conserved at the Archives Nationales. By studying the available forms of evidence, his design intent may be understood. Determinative evidence, in the form of the physical record of the Htel Baronne

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180 Salomon de Rothschild, and the available documentary evidence of his drawings and records of the clients, have been assessed with the conte xtual evidence from the period of study, and the inferential evidence provided by a study of other family urban mansions of the period, as well as the architects body of work. This research confirms the value of physical analysis to supplement documentary evidence to offer a broader understanding of a context. Did Ohnet understand the needs of his client, the Baronne Salomon de Rothschild? One can answer a resounding yes to this question that was raised in the Introduction. The clients appreciation for the elegance of the architectural solution, the selection of stylistic references, the dramatic illumination of the principal spaces, along with the close integration of the building to the adjacent gardens was celebrated in Victor Champiers article of 18 92. The Preface to the collection of photographs of the mansion, donated to the Muse Carnavalet in the same period, attests to her satisfaction with Ohnets master work. This research work has identified the need for a comprehensive study of the life and career of architect Lon Ohnet. During the course of this research project, the discovery of some lesser known works by this architect makes such a study an important future contribution to the body of knowledge for understanding the interplay of ideas w ithin nineteenth century French architecture, as well as bringing to light the importance of his work within the mainstream of architectural practice during the last half of the nineteenth century. In the htel particulier of late nineteenth century Paris the spatial organization and effects, enabled by the use of modern materials and scenographic design techniques, reflected the contemporary cultural values of the haute bourgeoisie These characteristics became the hallmark of this highly influential per iod of French architecture, and produced an international

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181 legacy that has survived into the modern world. In Paris, these attributes, along with elegance, were what counted most. Notes 1 Recalling Dalys use of the term in his works cited in Chapter 4, note 23.

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182 APPENDIX A RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research P rocess and Methodology Usin g a variety of evidence types and sources is essential to creating a full picture of the research subject. Groat and Wangs organizational model for various types of evidence, determinative, contextual, inferential and recollective sources, was used as a starting point.1 Missing from this models process diagram was a representation of the iterative nature of research, as the interrelationships of data analysis, evaluation, synthesis and narrative production were graphically shown as operating along a lin ear process. The research process is most effective when these tasks operate in continuous loops applied to the tasks of data gathering, data organization, evaluation, interpretation and narrative production and products See Figure A 1 Process diagram f or interpretive historic research, for a graphic representation of the interrelationship of all research activities, illustrating the iterative nature of this research process. This continuous process of refinement for source definition, investigation and evaluation, acknowledges the holistic nature of this type of research project; drawing on data and evidence from many disciplines to inform the understanding of specific research subject within a much broader context. Determinative evidence places the obj ect in time and provides direct information about the physical characteristics of the object and its setting. Categories of this type of data include material (physical) evidence and documentary evidence. Material evidence includes the onsite assessment of the three dimensional physical conditions of the building, object or setting and the composition and condition of the building materials. Forensic architectural research, performed by the French architects in charge of the restoration work for the referen ced buildings, involves the peeling back of layers of decoration and covering materials to reveal the evolution of a space

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183 or structure over time. Documentary forms of evidence can include textual sources, written narratives, graphic images, drawings, sket ches, photographs, official property records that pertain directly to the object of study. One type of determinative evidence serves to inform the other, as documentary records tell only part of the story. The absence or suppression of some information may have resulted from the cultures social values regarding suitability of the information, or from the destruction of source materials. Observing and analyzing the physical characteristics of the extant building can fill the gaps in the documentary records. Synthesizing these findings can allow for inferences to be drawn which can then be further refined by consideration of contextual information. Contextual evidence is used to develop an understanding of the broader environment in which the particular subject is situated, including the major artistic and cultural movements that may influence the design of an architectural work and may involve comparisons with other works from the same period. Other useful sources include the products of contemporaneous tr ends in the visual and performing arts, literature, music, urban design, architecture, fashion, industrial design and production of objects, newspapers, political and religious documents. Inferential evidence allows for deducing linkages of ideas in the a bsence of documentary evidence; through proximity of dates, or connectivity of ideas, persons or trends when no explicit evidence of a connection has been found. Recollective evidence, the records of an interview regarding the object of study, or a memoir, can reinforce the preceding evidence types; confirming dates (determinative), establishing the spirit of the times (contextual) and informing connections (inferential).2 Sources for research data that were examined for this study include a literature revi ew to better understand the architectural and cultural contexts of the period from the Second Republic

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184 to the Third Republic. From this broader review, a number of key archival sources were identified and consulted for a deeper understanding of the researc h subject. Identification of, and investigation within the collections of archives, libraries, museums and other institutional sources of information, provided a wealth of published and original unpublished materials These institutions included the Archives Nationales de France (AN), Bibliothque Nationale de France (BN), Muse Carnavalet (MC), Archives de Paris (AP), Bibliothque Historique de la Ville de Paris (BHVP), Bibliothque Administratif de la Ville de Paris (BAVP ), Bibliothque Forney (BF), Mediathque de lArchitecture et du Patrimoine (MAP) Archives dpartementales du Val dOise (ADVO) and the Rothschild Archives in London (RA). The types of research materials included letters, official documents, drawings and photographs. Field investigations of architectural works, both as subject and as contextual evidence, yielded important data to complement and substantiate the archival evidence. In assessing and evaluating the credibility of evidence, the model defined by Gallaghan in A Guide to Historica l Method, proved useful. The data, obtained from sources other than direct observation and investigation of the architectural subject, was analyzed using external and internal synthesis of information and its presentation. External synthesis involves the organization of facts by date, topic and place, and assessment of the authenticity and provenance of data. Internal synthesis involves assessing the reliability of observation, intention, motive of the author, and internal consistency or contradictions of f acts.3 In developing interpretations of the data, the challenge of understanding the meaning of the architectural objects within the culture goes beyond the analysis of written and narrative sources. In Peter Burkes book, Eyewitnessing: The Uses of Image s as Historical Evidence he discusses recent trends in developing a cultural history of images that is concerned with reconstructing

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185 the rules of conventions, conscious or unconscious, governing the perception and interpretations of images within a give n culture. The essential point is to reconstruct what the British art historian Michael Baxandall calls the period eye.4 Architecture can be substituted for images, and thus a principal task of this research is to reconstruct the period eye of Seco nd Empire culture as applied to residential design. Foremost among these cultural factors is the importance of opulent and glittering visual display; of objects and persons, contained in a rich architectural framework, and present at many scales, from the corner of a room to a cityscape. The research project includes a review of the trends in the contemporaneous visual arts, music and literature, and the study of other cultural artifacts, including fashion, furnishings and objects, to flesh out the understa nding of the culture within which the architectural expression, as applied to residential buildings for the wealthy, was conceived and experienced. Literature R eview The literature search of background sources included works discussing the history of the entire nineteenth century, to situate the major social and political events along a timeline, and to understand the effects of these societal changes on the composition and attitudes of the shifting social class structure. See figure A 2 Nineteenth centu ry t imeline The major artistic movements are graphed along a timeline with the social and political upheavals. This overview of the arts, literature and music further deepened the understanding of the effects of aesthetics and culture on the architectural design and decorative arts of the study period. In Robert L. Herberts book, Impression ism: Art, Leisure and Parisian Society the rise of the Impressionists art movement is connected to the developments of suburban leisure and the rise of the new bourgeoisie .5 For an understanding of the social mores of the new social class of the haute bourgeoisie during the Second Empire, the novels of mile Zola provided a rich contextual background. With the use of highly detailed descriptions of the external, observa ble world, Zola

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186 created an intimate view of the precise details of manners, dress, settings and interior dcor, for the backdrop against which he placed his characters. His 1872 work, La Cure describes the architecture, spatial sequences and dcor of th e Saccard familys Second Empire htel particulie r and provides a credible window into how these spaces were used by the family and experienced by visitors. Works by three contemporary cultural and architectural historians were selected for a more detaile d review. The principal themes of nineteenth century French architecture are holistically discussed in several writings and texts by the historian Franois Loyer. The quote at the beginning of this introduction is taken from Loyers detailed overview of t he urban architecture and design in his book Paris: Nineteenth Century Architecture and Urbanism In Histoire de larchitecture franaise d e la Revolution nos j ours Loyer notes that by the nineteenth century, trends in architectural design could no long er be seen as simply an academic debate between the traditionalists and innovators within the French classical tradition, the dominant style for French architecture since the Renaissance. The label of modernity has been applied to trends in architecture si nce the eighteenth century, van Kalnein used the word to describe the neoclassisicm of the architect Chalgrin, seen as being at the forefront of the new trends in design of the 1760s and 1770s, his work was called modern in style.6 By the nineteenth cent ury, this recurring theme of modernity, ( modernit ) became firmly grounded in the revolution of industry and new materials. The rhetoric of the messianic utopia, used in the revolution of 1848, conjoined the social revolution with the industrial revoluti on, and Loyer identifies a direct echo in architectural trends, infused, in his words, with a founding modernity, at its base, a modernit fondatrice .7 Loyer provides a detailed analysis of the evolution of glass enclosed spaces, from the commercial pass ages inserted into the early nineteenth century cityscape to the development

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187 of the glazed jardins dhiver (winter garden) or serre (greenhouse), which served to integrate the world of exotic nature into the grand residences of the Second Empire.8 Loyer makes the point that while Classicism continued as a dominant architectural expression throughout the nineteenth century, a fundamental change occurred in its meaning and expression. The effects of the archaeological discoveries of the eighteenth and nine teenth centuries overturned the definition of the canonic system of the orders, thus, tout est permis (all is permitted.)9 Classicism was no longer seen as a system, but instead becomes a catalog of ornament. The art of mixed citations, combinations of the contrasting vocabularies of different periods and cultures, is the basis of this eclecticism.10 Dubans renovation work to the dcor of the Galerie dApollon, Salon Carre and Salle des Sept Chemines at the Louvre for Louis Napolon, completed by 1851, is cited as a significant example in the development of a neo baroque approach towards an integrated decorative program of architecture, sculpture and painting. The confrontation of the nineteenth century work with the seventeenth century dcor of LeBrun opened the door to this astonishing decorative inventiveness.11 The Chteau de Ferrires, built by James de Rothschild (17921868), is described as the marriage of the finesse of French taste with the historic culture of monumentalism, and this fusion influenced the design aesthetic of the ensuing decades.12 The notion of architecture and dcor conceived as a stage set characterizes the interiors of private residences as well as those of the public architecture of the Second Empire.13 In the preface of Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy s book: Les Rothschilds:Btisseurs et Mcnes Loyer suggests that what James de Rothschild sought from his architect, Joseph Paxton (18031865), in the design of Ferrires was moderni t (modern, forward thinking de sign), with transparency of faade and translucency of roof. The

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188 interiors, with suites of rooms in the flavor of the interior design from the reign of Louis XIV, consecrated this grandeur and solemnity far from the normal scale of private residences.14 Tw o works by Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy the book, Les Rothschilds:Btisseurs et Mcnes and the dissertation entitled Architecture et dcoration des maisons construites par la famille Rothschild en Europe illuminate the role of the immensely wealthy and in fluential Rothschild family as major patrons and producers of nineteenth century architecture, especially in their vast array of residential projects. The sheer volume of studied works, over fifty structures on five continents, and covering a period of ove r one century, required an expansive and meticulously executed research methodology, which resulted in the use of a taxonomic model for the presentation of the research. Two principal goals of her dissertation research are clearly identified. One was to cr eate a general synthesis of the works, where none had existed previously. Another goal was to develop a detailed study of the family iconography, in order to confirm the existence of, and to clearly define, a style Rothschild in the architectural works a nd a got Rothschild characterized by the eclectic mix of styles, for the decor .15 Prvost Marcilhacy emphasizes the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to selecting the research sources including the integration of published works covering the social history, religious history, economic history, the psychology of the relationships between the Rothschild family members as patrons and their chosen designers, the family as a socio cultural group and art and architectural historical analyses.16 Note worthy in this work is the compilation and the synthesis of numerous documents from private archives. Since the extended family generally operated as a cohesive multi generational social unit, the study of their correspondence served to illuminate the aest hetic sensibilities, shared ideals and rivalries among the individual family members. A variety of documents titles,

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189 legal records of sales, plans and drawings, urban plans of the streets with notations on the dates and types of improvements made to the properties, also existed in public archives scattered in five countries, but prior to this study, these documents had never been examined together to establish the broad overview of the architectural works.17 Another significant source for information was found in the Minutier c entral des notaries (central repository for the legal documents of the notaires or specialized attorneys), which contained detailed inventories of family acquisitions, including art and artifacts. The inventories, typically made after a family members death, provide a window into the aesthetic choices, the collections of antiques and artifacts and often shed some light on the personality of the deceased.18 The approach of creating a catalog of the buildings within the document provide d a systematic framework for presenting the information in a precise and consistent format, including the geographic setting and historical context, sources used, selection of architects and available drawings, descriptions and drawings of interior dcor, outbuildings and ancillary structures and related gardens and landscape designs. In essence, the work creates a monograph for each of the buildings, organized by country, by family members and in chronological order.19 Prvost Marcilhacy concludes that a got Rothschild exists within a specific set of works found in France, and originally was created by the artist and decorator Eugne Lami (18001890).20 In her view, these works epitomized the nineteenth century proclivity for eclecticism.21 In The Jewish Contribution to Modern Architecture 18301930, Fredric Bedoires central premise is that without the presence of Jewishness in European and American architecture in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries ...the Western world would have looked compl etely different. 22 While his book covers a broad array of building types, from residential to

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190 commercial and monumental architecture, he notes that the family and the home have always occupied the focal point of Jewish attention, and it is no coincidence that Jewish influence also concentrated on the private home, its layout and furnishings.23 Hence the book offers an indepth discussion of the many examples of residential design throughout 130 years of social and stylistic developments. Bedoire suggests th at the Jewish entrepreneurial class, readily viewed their houses as literary messages rather than pictures thus: One has to read James de Rothschilds Ferrires and interpret the symbolic language, just seeing and experiencing the place is not enough. I t is like the Torah and the Talmud, text and interpretation. This is part of the reason why Jews were attracted to Modernism: the images reduced to signs.24 Bedoire formulates an argument that the legal emancipation of the Jews in the nineteenth century mad e possible their ascension among the capitalist societies, as representatives of a cultural elite but one with a distinct and separate sense of values, as outsiders from the societies in which they lived. He cites the work of writer, philosopher and Baude laire scholar, Walter Benjamin (18921940). In Benjamins 1938 work, Das Paris des Second Empire bei Baudelaire (The Paris of the Second Empire in Baudelaire) he calls Paris, the capital of the nineteenth century Bedoire contends that, Benjamin portray ed, without actually saying it, a drama in which a prominent role is played by the Jews.25 Benjamins Marxist leanings were reflected in his manner of using socia l history to explain how art (and architecture) interacts within and between the class systems of a society. Bedoires methodol ogy involved a detailed investigation of the social political, economic and intellectual context of the era, and an explanation of how these forces were manifested in the architectural expression of his particular focus g roup. The dialectic of desire for integration within the culture contrasted with the acute sense of separation from larger social and cultural

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191 forces, is skillfully interwoven throughout the narrative. Bedoires multi disciplinary research inspired a model for establishing context for the works studied within this research project. Archival R esearch For this dissertation, numerous repositories of archival data were consulted for information. In France, historical documents are located in the repositories of national, departmental and local archives. On the national level, the Archives Nationales (AN) contains official documents pertaining to government owned properties, correspondence within government and public agencies, records of the recipients of the L egion dhonneur, and files on publically owned major historic buildings. The department of Cartes et plans conserves original drawings prepared for governmental buildings, and a wealth of maps and other graphic documents. The Bibliothque Nationale (BN) ma nages the Gallica database, an online source of documents, photographs and other resources, and an invaluable tool for locating a rich variety of historical data. The Archives dpartementales du Val dOise (ADVO) contains historical research data pertaini ng to historic buildings and events within the department of the Val dOise, and some useful resources were found while researching the career of architect Lon Ohnet. Sources for buildings within the city of Paris were found at the Muse Carnavalet (MC), Archives de Paris (AP), Bibliothque Historique de la Ville de Paris (BHVP), Bibliothque Administratif de la Ville de Paris (BAVP), Bibliothque Forney (BF), and the Mediathque de lArchitecture et du Patrimoine (MAP). In London, the Rothschild Archives, (RA), possessed drawings, photographs, official documents for property (deeds, plats, site plans and surveys) and persons (directories, letters, and media sources for life events), personal and profe ssional correspondence for the B aronne Salomon de Rot hschild and documents pertaining to her Parisian residence. The archives at

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192 Waddesdon Manor (WM), contained a set of photographs that illustrated the property as it was in the late nineteenth century, which served as useful contextual and inferential sourc es for understanding the original presentation of the decor and furnishings for the Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild. Site Visits The subject buildings and related structures were studied in situ during site visits. Information from available drawings and historic photographs for these works was obtained whenever possible and the buildings, sites and spaces were directly experienced, recorded and analyzed by this writer, who is also an architect. In addition to the Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild a nd Htel Saint Florentin, visits to other Rothschild residences, the chteau de Ferrires and the mansion at Waddesdon, UK, provided rich sources of contextual evidence and were used as a basis for inferential propositions regarding patterns of use and experience of the subject properties during the period of study. Topics for Future R esearch This research work has identified topics for future projects, including the need for a comprehensive catalog and study of the life and career of architect Lon Ohnet During the course of this research project, the discovery of some lesser known works by this architect makes such a study an important future contribution to the body of knowledge for understanding the interplay of ideas within nineteenth century French architecture, as well as bringing to light the importance of his work. Another topic for future research in the field of historic preservation involves the study of the trends of ownership and management of these properties. In the twentieth century, many of these grand mansions were donated or bequeathed to the central government to manage and maintain as a heritage site, often with a new administrative or public use, as was the case of the

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193 Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild. In the twenty first century, the radical shifts in the economic and political climates have produced a trend for public entities to divest their portfolios of these valuable properties back to the private sector. These new commercial uses often create a demand for significant interve ntion in the historic fabric of the properties, as in the placement of a large conference center below the aforementioned building. Whether these activities represent a viable and sustainable solution for the preservation and perpetuation of these signific ant cultural artifacts and sites is a subject for further exploration. Notes 1 Linda Groat and David Wang, Architectural Research Methods (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002), 154. 2 Ibid., 154160. The referenced source was used for the basic classification system for types of evidence. The elaboration of types of evidence and uses is based on extensive personal experience in this work. 3 Gilbert J. G allaghan, A Guide to the Historical Method (New York: Fordham University Press, 1946), 338367. 4 Peter Burke, Eyewitnessing: The Use of Images as Historical Evidence (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2001), 179180. 5 Robert L. Herbert, Impressionism : Art, leisure and Parisian society (New Haven: Yale University,1988), 180, 195. 6 Franois Loyer, Histoire de l'architecture franaise de la Rvolution nos jours (Paris : ditions Mengs ditions du Patrimoine, 1999), 101. La culture classique avait t longtemps le vhicule de la modernit 7 Ibid. 102. 8 Loyer, Histoire de l'architecture franaise de la Rvolution nos jours 102, 107. Also see Franois Loyer, Architecture of the Industrial Age. trans. R.F.M. Dexter, (Genve: Skira, 1983), 34 37 and 6265. 9 Loyer, Histoire de l'architecture franaise, 134. 10 Ibid. 11 Ibid., 137. 12 Ibid., 138. 13 Ibid., 140. 14 Franois Loyer, Avant Propos (Preface) in Les Rothschilds:Btisseurs et Mcnes, by Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy, (Paris: Flammari on, 1995). 15 Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy, Architecture et dcoration des maisons construites par la famille Rothschild en Europe (PhD dissertation [Thse], Paris IV Sorbonne, 1992), 10. 16 Ibid.

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194 17 Ibid., 1011. 18 Ibid. 15. 19 Ibid., 18. 20 Ibid., 3233. 21 Ibid., 33. 22 Fredric Bedoire, The Jewish Contribution to Modern Architecture 18301930, trans. Robert Tanner (Je rsey City: KTAV Publishing 2004), 507. 23 Ibid., 503. 24 Ibid., 504. 25 Ibid., 153.

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195 Figure A 1. Process Diagram for I nterpretive Historic Research [ Authors diagram ]

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196 Figure A 2. Nineteenth Century Timeline [ Authors diagram ]

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197 APPENDIX B LIFE AND CAREER OF LON OHNET, ARCHI TECT Introduction A cursory study of the architectural works produced by Lon Ohnet (1813 1874) might lead to the conclusion that Ohnet was a competent, yet not especially inventive, architect within the mainstream of mid nineteenth c entury architectural trends. On closer examination t hese projects reveal his unique architectural vision and interest in modern materials. While Ohnet is best known for his refined residences for wealthy Second Empire clients, his particular design aesthetic was formed by his early experiences as an architect specializing in religious buildin gs as well as his experiments with industrial architecture. Early Life Born in Paris on May 25, 1813, Ohnet was the second son of Jean and Martine Ohnet. His father, Jean Ohnet (17731853),1 was an Alsatian from Sermersheim who had settled in Paris prior to his marriage in 1805 to Martine Alexandre, a native Parisian. By profession, the senior Ohnet was a tabletier a woodworker who specialized in small scale pieces, m ade from fine woods, bone and ivory and who produced small refined objects such as tobacco and snuff boxes, chess tables and chess pieces, and combs.2 The demand for these types of luxury goods, as well as other forms of the decorative arts, exploded during the period of the Consulate (17991804) and First Empire (1804 1815) among the newly enriched administrative class and the returning migrs of the post Revolutionary period. Paris was the center for this craft and a great source of clientele for the el der Ohnet. Lons older brother, Antoine (18081882), became an engineer and an inspector for the railroads.3 Antoine might have been a possible source for his younger brothers connections with the

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198 Compagnie de Chemin du Fer du Nord, although no documenta ry evidence has been found to support this idea. Education Admission to the cole des Beaux Arts during the 1820s was through a process of acceptance into an atelier (workroom or studio) of an established artist or architect and demonstration of a basic pr oficiency in drawing The student had to be between fifteen and thirty years of age There were two classes for architecture students in the seconde classe (second class), the students were called aspirants and this title gave them the right to attend classes and participate in the competition for formal admission. Medals were awarded for exceptional work in the categories of mathematics, construction materials (wood, iron, masonry and general construction,) architecture and perspective drawing. After ach ieving a specified number of points for the medals, a student could progress into the premire classe or the first class where the students obtained the official title of elve. Only the elves were allowed to compete for the major prizes, such as the Gr and Prix de Rome .4 Admitted to the seconde classe in January 1832,5 Ohnet studied for at least four years where he earned several medals and awards for his work, including a premir e mention (first mention) for wood design, masonry design, and general construction, and a third place medal for mathematics.6 Ohnets 1833 project for iron and metal construction, entitled Classification mthodique de tous les diffrents genres dassemblages des fers et mtaux soit tirant soit portant appliqus a la construct ion du btiment won a third place mention.7 P ro moted to the premire classe in 1836,8 Ohnet participated in at least one competition for the Grand Prix de Rome in 1837, and he was listed in Journal des B eaux Arts et de la literature among the group of st udents admitted to the competition .9 The program for that year was Un Panthon, the competition winner was Jean Baptiste Gunepin.10

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199 In the repertoire biographique (biographical summaries) of the 1895 publication, Les architects lves de lcole des Bea ux Arts by D avid de Penanrun, Ohnet is listed as a student in the atelier of Callet.11 It is not clear if this reference is to the architect Charles Franois Callet, author of Notice historique sur la vie artistique et les ouvrages de quelques architectes franais du XVIe sicle of 1842,12 or to his son, Flix Emmanuel Callet (17911854) the winner of the Grand Prix de Rome in 1819, who had an atelier with students. The younger Callet was known for his pioneering works in iron design.13 Along with Victor Bal tard F. E. Callet, co llaborated on the revolutionary design of the iron and glass pavilions for the covered markets of Les Halles built between 18541857 and 18601866.14 The association with F.E. Callet no doubt influenced Ohnets interest in industrial architecture and the use of iron and glass in structures. A portrait of the young Ohnet, painted by Thomas Couture, was exhibited at the Salon of 1843.15 Couture entered the cole des Beaux Arts painting division in 1831, and was also a competitor for the 1837 Grand Prix de Rome in painting, taking a medal for second place. It is very likely, given the congruity of their tenure at the cole, that Ohnet and Couture were friends during their early years of study. Couture is best known for his historical paintings, including his works in the chapel of the Virgin at the church of Saint Eustache; The Return of the Troops from Crimea and the Baptism of the Imperial Prince .16 Marriage and Family Life On June 10, 1847, Ohnet married Claire Lydie Blanche.17 His new in laws were politically prominent; his brother in law, Alfred Blanche, was a conseiller d tat and the director of Btiments Civils the government division that oversaw civic (public) construction. This was a fortuitous opportunity for Ohnets career, as A lfred Blanche provided valuable connections and recommendations for Ohnet to enter the government establishment for architectural work.

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200 Politically, Ohnet was a Bonapartist and his active career, in both the fields of architecture and politics, coincided with the period of the Second Republic and Second Empire. The marriage produced one son, Georges Ohnet, ( 18481918). Educated at the Lyce Bonaparte, Georges was interested in law studies, but eventually chose the profession of journalist. He was a colum nist and commentator for the publications Le Pays and later Le Constitutionnel Writing in several genres, Georges became one of the most popular novelist s and dramatist s of his day. His principal works included the 1880 novel Serge Panine which was adapt ed for the stage in 1882. He produced his best known work, Le Ma tre des Forges in 1881, which was translated into English as The Ironmaster and dramatized in 1883.18 The Ohnets residential moves in the capital were catalogued in the bottins (annual cit y directories) produced by the publishing firm of Firmin Didot Frres. In the 1850 c ity directory, Ohnets professional and personal address was listed at 12, rue Boursault, in the 17th arrondissement. By 1856, Ohnet was listed at 7, rue Notre Dame de Lore tte, in the 9th arrondissement. By 1860, Ohnet had moved to 4, avenue Trudaine, 9th, where he remained until his death.19 Ohnet died in June 1874,20 and is interred at the cemetery of Montmartre, in the second section, division 4, along the Avenue de Montebello. The 1878 guide to the cemetery by Edward Falip, designated Ohnets tomb, located close to the Blanche familys tomb, as having special artistic merit.21 Early Architectural W orks Ohnets interest in, and his understanding of, the use of modern construction materials continued to develop with the design of a project from early in his career. The historic resource inventory of culture heritage of the Mininstry of Culture, the Inventaire gnrale du patrimoine culturel lists Ohnet as the architect for a textile mill building in the commune of Le Petit -

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201 Quevilly, in the department of Seine Maritime, of the HauteNormandie region. Originally built as a flax spinning mill, the building was the first in France to incorporate the fireproof design for mills, c onceived earlier in the century by the Scottish engineer William Fairbairn. The structure is notable for its cast iron structural frame, columns and beams, with brick vaults supporting the floors and a brick masonry exterior.22 The masonry structure is appr oximately 130 meters long and 35 meters tall, the faades are built from brick and stone from Caumont (a regional, white chalk stone with a high lime carbonate content), and is articulated with 40 window bays and a central pediment with a medallion containing the coat of arms of the city of Rouen and the date of construction, two side pavilions and a roof of long span framing and slate covering. The site was designated as a monument historique (historic monument) in 2003.23 The source of this early commission and the reasons for selecting Ohnet to execute this work have not been determined from the documentary evidence uncovered to date. Diocesan Architect and C onservator 1848 1874 The advent of the Second Republic produced significant changes in the manageme nt of the historical buildings associated with the dioceses and Ohnet was one of the first gr oup of architects named to the new governmental service. His brother in law, Alfred Blanche, along with Violletle Duc and Vaudoyer organized the first round of pr ojects.24 The diocesan architects were an elite group of architects; almost all were trained at the cole des Beaux Arts and were based in Paris. The diocesan architects would visit their assigned regions on a regular basis, and have the opportunity to acquire additional commissions from the region in which they worked. The projects were reviewed by the newly formed Commission des arts et difices religieux (Commission for the Arts and Religious Buildings) whose membership consisted of many of the same arch itects associated with the C ommission des monuments historiques including Duban,

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202 Labrouste, Mrime and Viollet Le Duc, who was named to the post of Inspector General for the diocesan buildings in 1853.25 In November, 1849 Ohnet was appointed as an auditeu r for the Commission des Arts et edifices religieux The auditeurs reviewed the work status for their assigned dioceses and made report s to the full commission at their biweekly meetings. In the same year, Ohnet was named as the diocesan architect for Ajaccio, in Corsica and for Frjus. The diocese of Perpignan was added to his architectural duties in 1850. During the period between 1851 and 1854 Ohnet served as the Conservateur for Carcassone and Ajaccio. Projects designed by Ohnet included renovations to the cathedral of Frjus. At Perpignan, in 1851, Ohnet oversaw the reconstruction for three of the stained glass windows in the cathedral and designed a renovation project for the Grand Seminary of Perpignan. Other major renovation projects included the Dom inican monastery and the htel of the comtes de Provence at Saint Maximin la Sainte Baum.26 During this period, all of his diocesan responsibilities were located in the south of France. The need to visit his projects became increasingly demanding and eventu ally led to his decision to demission from Ajaccio by 1855, citing the difficulties of travel to the island of Corsica.27 He served as the diocesan architect of Carcassone until 1856. His projects there included a design for the choir stalls of the cathedral, which was in turn implemented by ViolletLe Duc who took over the role of diocesan architect for Carcassone in 1857.28 Drawings for several of Ohnets diocesan projects are conserved in the Archives Nationale s departement des cartes et plans including the design for renovations to the Episcopal palace in Carcassone, dated 1850.29 The principal faade, facing onto a side garden, is organized with a slightly projected central pavilion, whose corners are defined by colossal fluted pilasters with Corinthia n capitals. The architectural style has an Italianate character, enhanced by the

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203 building materials ; pale stucco walls and a red terra cotta clay tile roof. The wall at the rez de chausse (ground floor level ) is textured to represent ashlar masonry block s with round arched top window and door openings. The wall openings at the level of the premier tage or grand tage are treated with shallow arched window openings capped wi th a molded window hood supported on brackets and the keystone is enhanced wit h a sculpture of a face and floral motifs under the hood molding Fluted Corinthian pilasters defined the corners of the pavilions.30 The site plan indicates the acquisition and the removal of some of the existing structures between the public street entrance and the carriage drive, which allowed Ohnet to reorganize the site distribution of the residential functions, by creating a u shaped interior c our dhonneur which organizes the functions around a central space. The existing building entrance was throug h a portail on the rue de la Mairie. The carriage access remains in the same location further along the street wall, but the area inside the wall is now designed as a vegetated landscape, and the carriage entrance portail opens into the side yard garden space. The stables and service functions were moved to a new building along the street faade The residential section of the palace complex faces a side garden and a large rear garden, and comprises three stories, the rez de chausse level, with service sp aces that support the public reception rooms, the premier tage which contains the less formal and more intimate reception areas and the private apartment of the bishop, and the second tage under the eaves, for housing the servants. The palace building has two entrances. One entrance is aligned with the principal street gate and is on axis across the cour dhonneur leading into the existing open vestibule and the escalier dhonneur off to one side and spatially defined by two columns supporting a beam l ine and defining the zone of the vertical circulation space. On axis with the entrance vestibule is a

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204 central vestibule that organizes the circulation to the principal ground floor areas. The S alon dantichambre (antechamber), is aligned with the entrance axis and continues this visual line out into the garden. The S alle des Billards (B illiards r oom ) and a Salle manger ( Dining Room ) flank the antechamber space. The second entrance, accessed from the side garden, leads to the residential services spaces, t he kitchen and preparation areas and the servants dining space. The grand tage contains the chapel over the street entrance, linked to the palace by a new g allery space. The public spaces within the residence face the large garden in the rear of the pro perty and consist of a B ibliothque ( library ) petit S alon, grand S alon and the Oratoire A gallery connects this space to the bishops Chambre coucher ( formal bedroom ) and ancillary spaces, baths, storage rooms, face the side garden and cour dhonneur The third level has a lower ceiling height and houses the servants rooms. Ohnet designed an Episcopal palace, in the early French Renaissance style for the diocese of Ajaccio in 1851.31 The architectural vocabulary included steeply pitched roofs, rendered to appear as constructed from slate shingles, stone tracery balconies across the second level glazed openings, ogival arched windows and remplage s (ogival shaped overdoor moldings). The central pavilion of the garden faade contains a pair of lancet win dows topped by a six lobed oculus. The two story structure is organized around a central court, the Cour dhonneur The palace distributio n has much in common with that of an elegant htel particulie r, the rez de chauss e is accessed through a Grand Vestib ule that leads to the interior court. The entrance is located between two tower m asses. Other spaces include an a rchive and administrative offices and servants lodgings. The Grand Escalier is placed at the center of the wing that is perpendicular to the V estibule, across the court fro m the large vaulted Salle manger with a rounded bay at the end of the space. The principal spaces on the premier tage are located on the

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205 external walls and a circulation gallery runs around three sides of the interior court A formal dining room with a coffered ceiling, is located above the Vestibule and is accessed by the gallery at either end The Chapel sits above the ground floor Dining Room, with a groinvaulted ceiling and curved end bay. One tower bay contains the Bi lliard Room flanked by two Petit Salons The Grand Salon, with an ornate coffered ceiling and central ceiling medallions is placed above the Archives below. The corner tower contains a formal office for the monsignor and support spaces. Two Chambres coucher another S alon and the Bibliothque ( library ) are located on the other side of the grand stair. These two palaces from early in Ohnets career provide an insight into design issues that he would explore along the course of his career. The dynamic pot ential of alternating light and dark spaces, along with varying spatial proportions, while moving through a building is considered with careful attention, and in his later works is more fully developed. Ohnets political and social connections proved usef ul in obtaining other architectural commissions. The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte (18201904), famed for being the brilliant hostess of a literary, artistic and political salon, the owner of the celebrated jardin dhiver at her Paris htel particulier and a cousin of Napolon III, decided to rebuild the parish church of Saint Gratien, a small town north of Paris, which was the place of her country chateau. In 1857 she retained the services of Ohnet, who matched the generosity of the Princess by apparently w aiving his architectural fees, larchitecte fait don au Ciel de ses honorai r es .32 The Princess was quite a skilled negotiator, successfully convincing the Rothschilds to significantly reduce the freight charges for shipping the building materials along t heir northern rail line. The church was built with Saint Leu stone, from the Saint Leu dEsserent quarries, located some 40 kilometers to the north of Saint Gratien, in the department of Oise. According to

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206 one source, the new building was consecrated on 29 May 1859,33 and a year later, a new sepulcher was dedicated to Marchal Nicolas de Catinat (1637 1722), the lord of Saint Gratien and an important figure from the reign of Louis XIV. The Marchals original tomb had been despoiled during the Revolution of 1789 and the tomb stones and his remains were found in the excavations for the foundations of the new church. Princess Mathilde commissioned the sculptor milien de Nieurwerkerke (18111892), who served as the Intendant des Beaux Arts for the Emperors household, and as a companion to the Princess, to create the reclining stone figure of the Marchal.34 Differing stylistic attributions for the new church reflect both the eclectic approach to architectural style during the Second Empire, and also the view of this eclecticism in the later twentieth century. A contemporaneous article (circa 1860) described the building as this charming church, in a Romanesque style, [that] was constructed following the plans and under the direction of M. Lon Ohnet, architect of the government.35 In Des Cars 1988 biography of the princess Mathilde, the church was called a Gothic masterpiece, a chef doeuvre gothique. The west faade combines the massive masonry walls of the Romanesque building with narrow ogival arched openings at the lower windows and in the over door sculpture, capped with a stone pinnacle. The top of the entrance door and the belfry tower openings are defined by a stepped cove section under the lintel. The belfry tower mass is capped by inset dentils and a steeply pitched pyramidal roof.36 The interior of the church is organized in three bays, the central doorway opens under the choir loft above. The ribbed ogival vaults form a simple, four part vault over each bay. The abside end of the church, formed by a half octagon in plan, contains three ogival arched windows, each with paired lancets surmounted with a trefoil

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207 As part of his work for the commune of Saint Gratien during this period of the late 1850s, Ohnet executed a study on the existing 16th century church building, and recommended the demolition of the structure and the salvage of the stones for reuse in the additions planned for the towns school building.37 In 1862, Ohnet was named architect for the d iocese of Meaux located in the Ile de France, with the benefit of being closer to home, a position he retained until his death in 1874.38 His work in the cathedral is most well known for the restoration of the bishops pulpit, dating to the era of the bishop Jacques Bnigne Bossuet, (1627 1704), a renowned theologian who served as the court clergyman to Louis XIV. Other work included the design of decorative grill enclosures for the altar area, which were executed by the serrurier (ironworker, particularly of gates, grills and locks), M. Gaillardon, and installed in 1868.39 Railroads and Rothschilds After Ohnet was demissioned from his longdistance diocesan responsibilities, he focused his architectural career in the region of Paris and the le de France. During the period of 1858 to 1860, Ohnet worked for the railroad company of the Rothschild family, the Chemin de Fer du Nord. In Karen Bowies study of the Gare du Nord, evidence is presented to support the notion that Ohnet worked in parallel with the companys architect Lejeune, on developing several schemes for the proposed Gare du Nord project, and he is credited with developing the architectural parti and the avant projet (preliminary design) for the new station project for James de Rothschild.40 The principal design issue in the Gare du Nord appear s to have been the break between the traditional parti, the Beaux Arts plan, that shatters against the new demands of these ensembles where the disposition should be conceived as a function of the various and essential activities that do not lend themsel ves to a symmetrical and balanced plan organization.41

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208 Several of the renderings produced by Ohnet and Lejeune from this period contained elements that were later adopted in the final design for the principal faade, including the large central pavilion cr owned by a raking cornice, lit by three arched glazed window bays, separated by monumentally scaled pairs of engaged columns surmounted with a large Florentine style entablature. The selected parti was designed around the separation of the administrative offices from the public services offered in the station, and this concept was adopted by the Conseil dAdministration on 11 May, 1860, following the recommendations from a report by M. Couche. Several proposals were developed by Ohnet and by Lejeune. The faade studies produced in March and April of 1859, and in two undated studies, illustrate the evolution of the faade design. The project entitled Projet de faade sur la place Roubaix. Project No. 2 dated 20 March 1858, depicts a massive masonry faad e with a raised four story central pavilion and two end pavilions in a symmetrical composition with uniform round arched window openings and paired Ionic columns at the end pavilions. The April 1859 rendering entitled Projet de faade s r la place Roubaix Project No.1 treated the central band of the faade as a frontispiece and expressed the three glazed bays of the train shed behind the front screen. The two undated studies are much closer to the final design of the faade. Style Corinthian No 2 is organized around a large central gable end form, with one large and two smaller semi circular glazed bays, the central bay is flanked by paired monumentally scaled, colossal Corinthian columns and the ends of the central pavilion marked by flat projecting pilasters. The end pavilions are lower than the central bays and have large arched and glazed openings. The rendering entitled Style Corinthian No 5 is essentially the same design with minor alterations; the square pilasters flanking the central pavilion have been exchanged for paired engaged Corinthian columns.42

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209 James de Rothschild finally conferred the commission to the renowned architect Jacques Ignace Hittorff (1792 1867), who served as the projects principal architect from 1861 through the construc tion of the project. According to Karen Bowies analysis of the documents it appears that Hittorffs intervention came later in the design process and was primarily focused on the refinement of a design for the classical faade treatment.43 In Hittorffs fi nal design for the stations principal faade the columns became pilasters and the entablature is in a style described as Empire Romain .44 Coverage in the architectural journals of the period addressed the duality of the architectural issues in the proje ct. In an 1863 issue of Gazett e des Architectes et du Btiment, written two years after construction commenced, a commentary by the architect Anatole de Baudot questioned the seemingly disparate characters of the monumental stone classical exterior and a u tilitarian industrial train shed built from iron and glass. Baudot found the train shed structure easy to read as a response to functional considerations and the structural nature of the material limits of iron, However, the form of the principal faade is driven neither by functional concerns or by the nature of the material, in this case, large stone blocks, but rather the result of a whim, a fantaisie with the material choice and the ornamentation chosen to produce a visual effect. He concluded that t he two parts were not conceived in the same spirit.45 In contrast, a twentieth century assessment of the building, proposed by Karen Bowie, sees the final design as expressing those characteristics that ar e associated with Hittorff; a richness in the histo rical references, that rendered his elevations cultivated, even erudite, as well as a concern for lightness and elegance in the overall effect.46 Urban R esidences for the Rothschilds After Ohnet had worked with James de Rothschild on the railroad project s, he became one of the extended familys favored residential architects, designing projects for two generations of the family. It appears that James initially consulted with Ohnet on modifications to the htel de

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210 Talleyrand as well as on renovations to the adjacent building at 4, rue Saint Florentin, during the 1860s.47 The addition to the building was constructed at some point after James acquisition of the adjacent properties at numbers parcels 1 through 5 along the rue Mondavi, in 1863,48 and was complet ed before 1871.49 Alphonse and Leonora de Rothschild had moved to the residence by 1865, as this was the first year that the city directory listed their address at 2, rue Saint Florentin,50 and Alphonse became the sole owner by 1871.51 Ohnet was retained by Alphonse in 1872 to perform additional design work on the interior of the mansion.52 The small Dining Room, also called the Music Room, contains two signature traits of Ohnet, the integration of the eighteenthcentury paneling from the owners collections, a popular practice of this generation of collectors, and the introduction of more light into the space via the corner bay window, an early application of this type of feature on the principal street faade.53 Ohnet may have collaborated with the architect mile Petit on the interiors of the other principal space of the addition, the Rothschild Grand Dining Room, although documentation of the nature of their collaboration has not been found to date. Petit is not listed among the students of the cole des Beau x Arts, nor does he appear in the list of diocesan architects. He is listed in the 1860 city directory, under the heading of architects, at 4, ct Pigalle.54 There is some discrepancy in the archival records as to the identity of the architects who worked on the hte l particulier at 33, rue Fbg. Saint Honor. A notice in the March 1 14 1865 edition of the journal Le Constructeur credits Ohnet with the design for the new mansion for M. Rotschild (sic), which shared a party wall with the property of the P reire brothers, hence the property of Nathaniel and Charlotte de Rothschild. In the referenced article, the structure was reported to have been completed up through the second floor level.55 However, in the book Rue du Faubourg Saint Honor the architect i dentified with some work is mile Petit, under the

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211 direction of the architect Robillard.56 There are extant interior elevation drawings of the galrie Louis XVI within the mansion, attributed to Robillard, in the archives of the Muse des Arts Decoratifs.57 Petit worked on several Rothschild commissions, including an unexecuted design in 18678 for a new htel for Salomon and Adele de Rothschild, at 35, rue Messine, which echoed the neoclassical faades by Gabriel for the palace wings flanking the place dar mes of the chateau of Compigne, but in the heavier manner of the Second Empire aesthetic.58 It appears that Ohnet and Petit collaborated on at least two residential projects for the Rothschilds, although the precise nature of their collaboration is not cle ar from the archival record. Ohnets master residential work is the Htel B aronne Salomon de Rothsc hild the subject of the analysis in Chapter 5. Design work began in 1872, and despite Ohnets death in 1874, the building was constructed according to his drawings and overseen by his student, Julien Ponsard. Other Residential W orks Ohnets own residence embodied the essence of the eclectic spirit of the Second Empire. After the acquisition of the property in 1858, the address at 4, avenue Trudaine was list ed as both the residence and commercial address for Ohnet in the 1860 bottin Acquiring the adjacent parcel in 1860, Ohnet built an apartment building along with a htel particul ier for his family since The possession of a htel particul ier was always a si gn of a greater success than owning an apartment, even an exceptional one. At the beginning of the Second Empire, the new managerial class had recently become quite wealthy, and taking the model of the aristocracy of the ancien r gime, built in all of Paris, residences, some quite sumptuous, such as the htel that Ohnet created for the B aronne Salomon de Rothschild, or more simply, such as the many small htels that are found in the 16th and 17th arrondissements.59 In one article, the address for Ohnets ht el is listed as number 14.60 The numbering system for the side of the street with even numbers was changed by an arrt of 21 mars, 187261, which occurred after the construction of the Collge municipal Rollin ( constructed between 1867 -

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212 1870), now the Lyce Ja cques Decour, on the site of the demolished slaughterhouse ( abatoir ) of Montmartre The site is bounded by three streets; avenue Trudaine, rue Bochart de Saron, and the rue Say. The three story building has four window bays on the avenue and nine bays along the rue Bochart de Saron. The window openings of the upper two floors have shallow segmented arch tops and are capped with a sculpted hoods with Louis XV inspired decorative motifs. The contemporary appearance of the faade is austere and may be the res ult of a later (and poorly executed) faade refurbishment. Ohnets htel has a unique architectural parti The entrance door on the avenue Trudaine is quite modestly scaled and opens into a small foyer; a set of eight steps leads up to a vestibule that opens onto the main stone staircase, covered with a glass and iron roof. This space opens onto the main rooms of the elevated first floor. The back of the ground floor along the rue Say is dedicated to the kitchens and service spaces. The first floor is trea ted as the grand tage with taller ceilings and decorative moldings, and contains the rooms arranged around the central space and a corridor that leads to the grand Salon at the north end of the building, overlooking the rue Say and the rue Bochart de Sar on. Along the long faade on the rue Bochart de Saron, from north to south, are a smaller salon, a dining room and the master suite that faces the avenue Trudaine. The second floor contained the rooms for their son and the servants quarters.62 The dcor o f the Grand Salon is an excellent example of Second Empire aesthetics. The room is a long rectangular shape, and the decor is conceived around twelve paintings on canvas, set into wood paneling enframed with wood moldings. The ceiling is ornamented with pl aster moldings in the style Rocaille with some neoclassical elements. Of the seven large wall panels, four date from the eighteenth century. These panels, dating from 1758 and attributed to the

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213 painter Johann Heinreich Keller (16921765), were likely acqui red by Ohnet from an antiques dealer. Four small painted panels are placed over the doors. One end of the room terminates in an oval shaped bay, in the manner of the dcor of the 17th century. Centered within this bay is the white marble chimneypiece of th e fireplace, surmounted by two cherubs and a vase in plaster. Above this element, a small oval painted panel, illustrating a floral composition in a porcelain vase is placed within a gilded frame flanked by neoclassical fluted pilasters. The painting is si gned to Madame Ohnet, Ch. Hugot, 1867.63 The flavor of this dcor, albeit on a grander scale, is found in other interior spaces attributed to Ohnet, such as the Grand Salon of the htel for the baronne Salomon de Rothschild. Other residential works attrib uted to Ohnet include a small htel particulier at 10, rue Christophe Colomb designed for an owner named M. Alrad. An article in the weekly publication La Construction: revue hebdomadaire des travaux publics et particulier identified some of the construct ion personnel, including the mason, M. Rmond, entrepreneur de mao nnerie (masonry contractor) and M. Decourtoux, chef datelier (head of the workshop) with M. Jusset, apprenti .64 The three story faade has an Italianate flavor, with a symmetrically organi zed three part faade, with a 2 32 rhythm of fenestration on the upper two levels. The central bay is formed by a gable end and bracketed cornice, over a triple arched window subdivided by column with vegetative capitals. The central windows and door openings are capped by convex and concave wall openings. Juries and A wards On November 12, 1863 an Imperial decree removed control of the cole des Beaux Arts competition from the Acad mie and created a new commission charged with management of the competitio ns program.65 From 1864 to 1866, Ohnet served on the jury for the architectural

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214 division, along with many of his colleagues. In 1864, 37 architects participated. The list included Abadie, Ballu, Duban, Duc, Garnier, Girard, Hittorff, Labrouste, and Vaudoyer among this elite group of the Second Empire architectural community.66 In his acceptance letter for the 1864 jury, Ohnet expresses his pleasure at the invitation to participate.67 The following list identifies the subject of the competition and the first prize winner for each year. 1864 Hospice dans les Alpes (Hostel in the Alps) Grand Prix won by JulienAzais Guadet, 1865 Vaste Htellerie pour les voyageurs (Large Htel for Travelers) Grand Prix won by Louis Noguet. This project is notable for the exposure of the large scale iron structural frame, rather than concealing the structure within masonry. 1866 Htel Paris pour riche banquier (Town house in Paris for a Rich Banker), Grand Prix won by Jean Louis Pascal (18371920).68 The 1866 jury consisted of a rchitects Lebas, Lesueur, Hittorff, Gilbert de Gisors, Duban, Lefuel, Baltard representing member of the Institute, along with the architects Abadie, Bailly, Boeswilwald, Clerget, Cendrier, Diet, Domey, Duc, Durand (Alph.), Garnier, Girard (Alph.),Godeboeuf, Guillaume, Isabelle, Labrouste (Henry), Lance, Laval, Lisch, de Mrindel, Millet, Mimey, Nicolle Normand, Ohnet, Pellechet, RuprickRobert, Thomas, Trlat, Uchard, Vaudoyer, and ViolletLe D uc .69 On August 11, 1866, Ohnet was honored with the award of C hevalier of the L gi on dH onneur fo r his work in the arts and his career as a diocesan architect. His nomination was supported by his brother in law, Alfred Blanche.70 Political and Civic Life Ohnet became active in civic life during the 1850s, in part through his family connections. In 1855, he became a m ember of the Conseil dhygiene et de la salubrit for the 2nd and 9th arrondissements. In 1856, Ohnet was appointed to the Commission des Monuments Historiques for the department of Aude,71 working again with his colleagu es Violletle Duc and other

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215 renowned architects on this important governmental commission. His interest in politics eventually extended to elected office, when he becoming the adjoint au Maire or deputy mayor, of the 9th arrondissement in 1865. What is known of Ohnets character comes from a description in the short biographical sketches for the new members of the Conseil Gnral du dpartment de la Seine, (municipal council of the department of the Seine), the public body to which Ohnet w as elected in 1871, as a representative of the ninth arrondissement Quartier Rochechouart With an open face, an affable and smiling air, this is how, among his plans and drawings, this new elector from the Ninth arrondissement who lives in a small htel on avenue Trudaine appears. M. Ohnet was born in Paris on May 25, 1813, an architect of diocesan monuments; he is responsible for the restoration of Meaux cathedral, and the bishops pulpit ( chaire ) of Bossuet, (bishop of Meaux, from 1681 1704). Decorat ed in 1866 for his work in the arts, M. Ohnet before this time was named deputy mayor ( adjoint au maire ) of the ninth arrondissement, from which he was demissioned on 4 September, it was then that, despite his 57 years of age, he entered in the ranks of th e National Guard and did his duty to protect the city. Patriot, friend of Order and deeply attached to the city of Paris, no circumstance could make him leave, and after the second siege, he thought only of returning to his work, when the choice of his fel low countrymen called him to his new duties. The special knowledge of M. Ohnet is of incontestable usefulness to the council who counts on his architectural expertise. M. Ohnet married the sister of M. Blanche, one of the two gentleman had to withdraw as the two brothers in law could not sit on the same municipal council. After a vote by the advisors to the Prefecture, M. Blanche withdrew. M. Ohnet was elected questeur (responsible for budget) of the council.72 Ohnets dual role as architectural expert and financial advisor to the Conseil municipal were contributing factors in his appointment to the jury for the architectural competition for the reconstruction of the Htel de Ville. The proposals were displayed in the Palace of Industry on

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216 the Champs lysees ,73 and the winning project was designed by Thodore Ballu (18171885) and douard Deperthes (18331898). The Prefect of the Seine charged the municipal council with developing a plan for the reconstruction of the Htel de Ville, after the damage caused dur ing the siege of the Commune on May 24, 1871. A special commission within the Conseil municipal was named in the meeting, consisting of Ohnet as secretary and official reporter, M. Binder as president, and council members Nadaud, Wattel, Fraud, Cantargrel Dupuy, Callon and Delzant.74 In M. Binders report of January 1872, to the council, he summarized the debate within the administration regarding the new building program. The issue was debated by both the Commission des Beaux Arts and Travaux historiques and the Conseil dArchitecture which recommended three programmatic considerations: 1. Adoption of the comprehensive space program, including the installation of all the administrative services, offices for the Prefect, and the Conseil municipal. 2. Resti tute the entire first mansion of Francois 1, research how to present the architectural value and exquisite proportions; 3. Conserve the work of MM. Godde et Lesueur in the faade on the place Lobau as a handsome example of architecture from the reign of Lo uis Philippe.75 The two commissions also proposed solutions to the circulation issues and the lack of adequate natural light in the existing structure, by enlarging the two buildings fronting on the rue de Rivoli and the quai, along with the corner pavilions to allow for two galleries, one for the administrative offices and the other for the offices of the Prefect. The administrative offices should be modeled after those of the large financial institutions, with all of the employees in one large space. On th e question of architectural style, the commissions recommended five items: 1. The setback of the faade between the old towers and the corner pavilions

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217 2. A sharp distinction between the style of the original building and the new sections 3. Setting the building by Boccador (Francois 1er pavilion) apart from the other wings 4. The new construction should have a modern style, sober yet vigorous 5. Enlarge the side buildings (rue de Rivoli and the quai) about 3 meters on each side to allow for the enlargem ent of the offices if necessary The commission further recommended that a competition be held for the best architectural solution, and that the chosen architect should possess the skills of an artist, builder and effective administrator.76 The total budget for the project was set at around $17 million francs.77 Ohnet, in his role as secretary of the special commission, delivered a report to the Conseil municipal on June 20, 1872. Part of the subcommissions review on project finances, of which Ohnet was a m ember, involved the issue of reusing parts of the remaining structure of the Htel de Ville within the proposed new design. The salvageable sections of the structure were valued at 6,715,285 francs, 8 centimes.78 Ohnets Architectural V ision The body of work produced during Ohnets career can be seen as a mirror for the trajectory of the French academic tradition. Educated in the Beaux arts methods of composition, his academic training was enriched with early forays into industrial architecture, at the text ile mill in Normandy and in the studies executed for the rail terminal buildings. The railroad projects contain the dual characteristics of nineteenth century architecture, the expanding source of historical references for use in the exteriors of the build ings, and the inventive possibilities of exploiting the great advances in building materials. The rise of Eclecticism in the 1850s is seen in the design of the Episcopal palaces, the late Gothic elements of Ajaccio of 1850 form a wonderful contrast with the light Italianate motifs of the palace faades at Carcassone. These faades are overlaid onto the spatial compositions of axial planning and local symmetries of the

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218 Beaux Arts design methods The later works for several htel s particulier s adopted the n ational style of the Second Empire, the preference for faades featuring elements drawn from tous les Louis with his particular skill in the invocation of a neo Louis XVI architectural vocabulary As Ohnets work matured, his plan organizations illustrate a skill at manipulating the experience of the spatial sequence, through the innovative use of varying levels of natural light, to accentuate changes in the volumetric proportions of spaces along the circulation path. His works illustrate the various effec ts achieved by toplighting, corner lighting and introducing light high up on the wall to create dramatic effects. The technique of accentuating the space in which the circulation path shifts onto a perpendicular axis is not new in itself, this compositiona l device is seen in the htel particulier since the late seventeen th century. It is the coupling of this movement with the wash of illumination from the top light over the pivot point of the plan that is an innovative blending of architectonic techniques.

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219 Figure B 1. Ohnet around 1874. [A. Cary, Lon Ohnet, plate 6] Figure B 2. Filature du lin building (Ohnet, 18467) [Base Merime, Ministre de la Culture ] Figure B 3. Filature du lin drawings 18467 [Base Merime, Ministre de la Culture ]

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220 Figure B 4. Palais Episcopal Elvation de la partie neuve. C te nord, Caracssone, Ohnet, 1851. [ Authors photos with permission of Archives Nationales department des Cartes et Plans, herein after called AN/CP See References for file number citations .] Figure B 5. Palais piscopal tat actuel Rez de Chaus s e, Caracssone, Ohnet, 1851. [AN/CP]

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221 Figure B 6. Palais piscopal tat actuel Premier tage, Caracssone, Ohnet, 1851. [AN/CP] Figure B 7. Palais piscopal Plan Restauration Rez de Chau ss e Car c a ssone Ohnet, 1851. [AN/CP]

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222 Figure B 8. Palais piscopal Plan Restauration Premier tage Carcassone, Ohnet, 1851. [AN/CP] Figure B 9. Palais piscopal Plan g n ral Ajaccio Ohnet, 1850. [AN/CP]

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223 Figure B 10. Palais piscopal El vation faade sur le jardin Ajaccio Ohnet, 1850. [AN/CP] Figure B 11. Palais piscopal Plan Rez de chausse Ajaccio Ohnet, 1850. [AN/CP]

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224 Figure B 12. Palais piscopal Plan Premier tage Ajaccio Ohnet, 1850. [AN/CP] Figure B 13. Cathdral de Meaux Plan de la clture du collateral sud Ohnet 1864. [AN/CP]

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225 Figure B 14. Church of Saint Gratien, watercolor, anonymous, 1857. [ Authors photo with permission of the Archives dpartementale ValdOise, herein after called ADVO] Figure B 15. Historic photograph of church of Saint Gratien c. 1910. [ADVO]

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226 Figure B 16. Town of Sa int Gratien historic postcard, 1968. [ADVO] Figure B 17. Church of Saint Gratien west faade. [Authors photo]

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227 Figure B 18. Church of Saint Gratien w est porch detail [Authors photo] Figure B19 Church of Saint Gratien, east faade. [Authors photo]

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228 Figure B 20. Church of Saint Gratien interior view of west entrance. [Authors photo] Figure B 21. Church of Saint Gratien view towards al tar [Authors photo]

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229 Figure B 22. Church of Saint Gratien mosaic floor detail. [Authors photo] Figure B 23. Htel Ohnet Detail of wall panels and pain t ing [ Authors photo]

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230 Figure B 24. Htel Ohnet view of salon and chemine wall [ Authors photo] Notes 1 Ohnet, G eneanet arbre en ligne website, accessed February 24, 2011, http://gw1.geneanet.org/index.php3?b=garric&lang=fr&m=NG&t=N&n=Ohnet&x=6&y=7 2 Information on the art of the Tabletier is taken from Encyclopdie mthodique ou par ordre de matires. Arts et mtiers mcaniques 3535Tome huitme (Paris: Panckoucke, 1791), 2643. http://books.google.com/books/download/E ncyclop%C3%A9die_m%C3%A9thodique.pdf?id=R5YzKRR TQC&hl=fr&capid=AFLRE728brMa2esTsVysl38OQr gaMROO5 HzbJAQWapaF2Iw8KYUYbeLVGAY60MkTaUGu_0CD50CWIHjEpPbIPQv5L3vSGL Q&continue=http://books.google.com/books/download/Encyclop%25C3%25A9die_m%25C3%25A9thodique.pdf% 3Fid%3DR5YzKRR TQC%26hl%3Dfr%26output%3Dpdf 3 Ibid. Because Antoine Ohnet was already connected with the railroads as an engineer and inspector of construction works, it is a logical connection, although no direct evidence supporting this idea has b een found to date. 4 David de Penanrun, Les architects lves de lcole des BeauxArts par David Penanrun, Roux et Delaire ( Paris: Imprimerie de Chaix, 1895), 5558. 5 From Ohnets cole des Beaux Arts file at the Archives Nationale (AN) file number AJ52 377, file covers only the years 19321933. Dates confirmed in de Penanrun 5. 6 AN, AJ52 377, Ohnets cole des Beaux Arts file.

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231 7 AN AJ52 377. Drawing is available in the archives of the cole des BeauxArts and listed on the Cat zArts data base call num ber CF 38. http://www.ensba.fr/ow2/catzarts/ 8 De Penanrun, Les architects lves 33. 9 Anon., "Nouvelles," Journal des beaux arts et de la littrature No. 19, 7 mai 1837, 304. 10 De Penanrun, Les architects lves, 83. Donald Drew Egbert, The Beaux Arts Tradition in French Architecture. Illustrated by the Grand Prix de Rome ed. David Van Zanten. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980), 182. 11 De Penanrun, Les architects lves 217. 12 Charles Bauchal, Nouveau dictionnaire bibliographique et critique des architectes franais (Paris: Librairie Gnrale de lArchitecture et des Travaux Publics, Andre, Daly Fils, 1887), .See also Sybille Bellamy Brown, "La Renaissance au service du XIX sicle propos de louvrage de Charles Francois Callet, Livraiso ns dhistoire de larchitecture, No. 9, (1er semestre 2005), 2144, accessed June 6, 2011, doi: 10.3406/lha.2005.994. 13 Charles Gabet, Dictionnnaire des artistes de lcole franaises au XIXe sicle (Paris: Bibliothque S.J., 1854) 111112. 14 Bernard Marr ey, Le Fer Paris Architectures (Paris: Picard Editeur et Pavillon de lArsenal, 1989), 40. 15 Couture at Salon of 1843.One of Coutures most famous students was Manet who studied with Couture 18491856. 16 mile Bellier de La Chavignerie, Dictionnaire gn ral des artistes de l'cole franaise depuis l'origine des arts du dessin jusqu' nos jours : architectes, peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs et lithographes T1 / ouvrage commenc par mile Bellier de La Chavignerie ; continu par Louis Auvray. (Paris: Libr ai rie Renouard, 18821885), 311, accessed June 6, 2011, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1133832/f22.image.r=couture.langEN. 17 Geneanet site, see note 1. 18 "Georges O hnet dead at 70 ," New York Times, May 30, 1918. 19 Archives de Paris, cote AP 2mi 3 series microfilms. 1850, :2mi3/22 ; 1856, 2mi3/34 ; 1860, 2mi3/42 ; 1870, 2mi3/59. 20 There is some discrepancy in the precise dates of death for Ohnet, in June 1874, amo ng the various biographic sources 9 June is cited in Bauchal. Both Leniaud, Alaux and the Revue gnrale dArchitecture 31, no. 4, (1874):176, give the date as June 30. 21 Edward Falip. Guide aux sepultures des personages clbres (Paris: Lagrange et Cie. Premire dition, 1878), accessed October 9, 2010, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k56848724.r=ohnet%2Cleon.langEN 22 Historic structure listing on the Inventaire gnrale du patrimoine culturel Base Mrime, Architecture & Patrimoine, Ministre de la culture. Filature la Foudre, reference IA000021523. http://www.culture.gouv.fr/public/mistral/merimee_fr?ACTION=RETROUVER&FIELD_2=DENO&VALUE_2=F ILATURE&NUMBER=8&GRP=9&RE Q=%28%28FILATURE%29%20%3aDENO%20%29&USRNAME=nobod y&USRPWD=4%24%2534P&SPEC=9&SYN=1&IMLY=&MAX1=1&MAX2=100&MAX3=100&DOM=Tous Images at Base Mmoire, photographer Christophe Kollman, 2003, for ADAGP. 23 Ibid. 24 Jean Michel Leniaud, Les cathdrales au XIXe s icle (Paris:ECONOMICA. 1993), 51. 25 Ibid. 804.

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232 26 Some of these drawin gs are conserved at the Mediathque de lArchitecture et Patrimoine. See List of References for list of documents. 27 Leniaud, 759, citing Ohnets letter o f 9 September 1855, AN cote f/723. 28 Cathdrale Saint Michel. Carcassone France Gallery organ and chancel organ, University of Quebec, Canada, accessed May 26, 2011, http://www. uquebec.ca/musique/orgues/france/carcassonnesm.html 29 Lon Ohnet. Drawings for the Episcopal Palace, Carcassone. 4 juillet 1850, Archives Nationales, Cote AN CP/f/19/*/1876. Plates 1 5 30 Lon Ohnet. Drawings for the Episcopal Palace, Carcassone 4 ju illet 1850, Archives Nationales, Cote AN CP/f/19/*/1876. Plates 1 5. 31 Lon Ohnet. Drawings for the Episcopal Palace, Ajaccio, 28 fvrier 1851, Archives Nationale, Cote AN CP/f/19/*/1863. Plates 7 13. 32 Jean Des Cars, La princesse Mathilde. Lamour, l a gloire et les art. (Paris: Librairie Acad mique, 1988), 286287. 33 There is some discrepancy as to this date in the archival record. The letter from Ohnet to regarding the demolition of the old church is dated 9 juillet (July) 1859. 34 Newspaper article in files of regional archives, Archives dpartemental,du Val dOise, Cote 2O 5095 1, Affaires communales de Saint Gratien glise, mairie (XIX debut XX)" Date of the article is implied, refers to the consecration of the tomb in May of the previous year (hence article dates from 1861). 35 See note 27 above. 36 See photographs by this author. 37 Des Cars, 287. 38 Leniaud, 759. Monseigneur August Allou. La Cathdrale et le Palais piscopal de Meaux (Meaux: A. Le Blondel, Imprimeur Librairie de lvch, 1 884), 29, 37, accessed December 2, 2010, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5473395b.r=.langEN Correspondence regarding his appointment is conserved in the Archives Nationale s, Cot e AN f/19/7232. 39 Monseigneur August Allou. La Cathdrale et le Palais piscopal de Meaux (Meaux: A. Le Blondel, Imprimeur Librairie de lvch, 1884), 29, 37, a ccessed Dec 2, 2010 http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5473395b.r=.langEN Drawings for the grill are located in the Archives Nationales, Cartes et Plans, dossier CP/F/19/*/1896 Meaux. Plan 1 Plan de la clture du collateral sud. Etat actuel et projet de restauration", 14 fevrier 1874. Signe: Lon Ohnet. 40 Karen Bowie, Les Grandes Gares Parisiennes ( Paris: La dlgation laction artistique de la Ville de Paris, 1987) 105112. 41 Ibid. 109. 42 Ibid., 1078. 43 Bowie, 107108. 44 Ibid 45 De Baudot, architecte. La Nouv e lle Gard du Nord, Gazette des Architectes et du Btiment No 14 ( 1863), 190. For a more complete study of the history of the Gare du Nord projects of the 1840s through the 1860s, see Karen Bowie Les Grandes Gares Parisiennes, 95 116.

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233 46 Bowie, 109. 47 Ro bert Carlhian and Fabrice Ouziel, Analyse historique & technique pour lHtel de Saint Florentin dit Htel de Talleyrand Pices Historiques: la Restauration. ( Paris: United States Department of State Foreign Buildings Operation, Fvrier 2000) 32. 48 Carlhi an and Ouziel, 32. 49 Photograph of h tel Saint Florentin with barricades Cow ley, 154, Ouziel, 33. 50 Firmin Didot Bottin de Paris et Bottin du Commerce (Paris: Firmin Didot Frres,1865). 51 Carlhian and Ouziel, 33. 52 Carlhian and Ouziel 32. 53 See Chapter 4 for a discussion of iron an d glass bay windows on urban faades in the sec ond half of the nineteenth century. 54 Archives de Paris, Didot Bottin de Paris et Bottin du Commerce (Paris: Firmin Didot Frres,1860), 2mi3/42 55 Anonymous, "Travaux Particuliers" Le Constructeur 1865/03/011865/03/14., 6. 56 Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy Htel Salomon de Rothschild, in Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor eds. Beatrice De Andia et Dominique Fernandes (Paris: Dlgation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994). 367 371. 57 Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothschilds:Btisseurs et Mcn es 108. 58 Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy, Les Rothschilds:Btisseurs et Mcnes 103. 59 Thierry Cazaux, Un lieu de 9me arrondissement: lHtel de Lon Ohnet, architecte et maire du 9me, 14 avenue Trudaine, Bulletin Revue 9eme histoire 1 (2002) 17 18. 60 Cazaux, 14 22. 61 Change in numbering on avenue Trudaine. 62 Cazaux, 18 19. 63 Ibid. 64 Anon. Constructions rcemment commences Paris.. La Construction: revue hebdomadaire des travaux publics et particuliers no. 17, 231. 65 Donald Drew Egbert, The Beau x Arts Tradition in French Architecture. Illustrated by the Grand Prix de Rome Editor David Van Zanten. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980), 185. 66 AN Cote f/21/620. Report on the decision of the Surentendance des BeauxArts, Mininstre de la maison de lempereur et des Beaux Arts, 1 avril, 1864. 67 AN Cote f/21/620. Letters from Oh net to the Superintendent of Beaux Arts, 18 avril, 1864. Ohnets acceptance letter, 1865. 68 Egbert, 185. 69 Anon., Ministre de la Maison de lEmpereur et des beaux art s, Journal des Arts. Peinture, sculpture, archi t e cture, gravu re, arts appliqus lindustrie No. 11, 1866/07/19, 12.

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234 70 AN Cote LH/2012/45, original file. File available on Lonore database at the Ministere de la Culture website, accessed June 6, 2011 http://www.culture.gouv.fr/public/mistral/leonore_fr 71 Soc it franaise d'archologie. Centenaire du serv ices des monuments historiques, Tome 1, Congr s Archologique XCVII Session, (Paris: Derache, 1934) : 279, accessed 23 February 2011 http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5613880f/f299.image.r=ohnet.langEN 72 Adolphe Paria, Le conseil municipal de Paris: portraits et biographies des quatre vingts conseilleurs et du Prfet de la Seine, precedes du plan de la sale des sances Paris: Rodier, 1871. (Electronic, BnF department Philosophie, histoire, science et lhomme. 8 2, LE SENNE 6782. 73 d ilit Parisienne : difices municipaux, Revue de larchitecture et des travaux publics XXIX, 1872, 259. 74 Lon Ohnet, Rapport sur ltat des foundations de lHtel de Ville, Sance 20 June 1872, Conseil Municipal de Paris. 18711872 ( Paris: Charles de Mourgesfr res, 1872), 2. (BAVP : Cote 1783). 75 Louis Binder, Rapport sur la reconstruction de l htel de ville, Sance 5 janvier 1872, Conseil Municipal de Paris. 18711872, (Paris: Charles de Mourgesfrres, 1872), 1 14. 76 Ibid. 10 11. 77 Ibid. 5. 78 O hnet, 5 6.

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235 APPENDIX C OHNETS COLLEAGUES Justin Ponsard A student of Lon Ohnet Justin Ponsard (18131874) assumed Ohnets commissions after the latters death in 1874 and worked from Ohnets former office at 14, avenue Trudaine, for at least s ix years. From 18801894, he was based at 6, rue Grando and from 1896 to 1900, at 5, avenue Trudaine.1 His works included: New construction : Htels particuliers 911 rue Berryer (18741878) mansion for B aronne Salomon de Rothschild, and, Stables at 116 avenue Wagram (1878) 2729 rue Bassano, (1877) semi circular faades The Commission du Vieux Paris (Historic review board of Paris) report of 1996 recommended against the demolition of these faades designed by Ponsard ) .2 36, rue Bassano E xpansion (addition of upper floor(s) 12, r. Christophe Colomb (1889) r ue des Messageries (1886) Immeubles de rapport 73, avenue Klber (1880) 9, villa de Longchamp, 18 rue de Lngchamp(1880) 114116 blvd. des Courcelles, avenue de Wagram (1889) Chteau des Abymes for Georges Ohnet (s.d.)3 mile Petit mile Petit (dates unknown) appears to have collaborated with Ohnet on several projects. His residence in 1860 is l i sted as : 4, cit Pigalle.4 Works attributed to Petit include:

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236 33, rue du Faubourg Saint Honore (Nathanie l and Charlotte de Rothschild), with Robillard, and possibly Ohnet. 35 rue Messine, faade drawings for new htel for Salomon and Adle de Rothschild, with Croiseau. 2, rue Saint Florentin, interior dcor of the Grand Dining Room of the Htel SaintFlore ntin in collaboration with Ohnet. Figure C 1. Rothschild Grand Dining Room Interior Dcor Ohnet and. Petit, c. 1870 [Authors photo] Henri Lopold de Moulignon Lopold de Moulignon (18211897) was a Beaux Arts trained academic painter and was a student of Paul Delaroche and Edouard Picot Moulignon exhibited at the Salon from 1847 to 1868, and is best known for his portraits and genre paintings. Moulignon traveled to Italy and sojourned in Algeria in 1851, and from these trips he developed an intere st in exotic themes of the Near East.5 His works of architectural dcor include6 1864 chteau de Jean dHeurs

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237 1865 chteau de Brestels (see list of paintings) Htel Fould 1876 Interior decorative program for the htel baronne Salomon de Rothschild. 18751882 Mairie at Arpajon, the seat of the canton in the department of Seine et Oise .7 In the council meeting chambers, the G rand salle de c onseil Moulignon took inspiration from the theme of activities conducted within the place. At each end of the hall is a large fresco painting, at one end the Law is pictured with the motto Omnibus une (One for all). At the other end of the hall, is the figure of Justice, with balanced scales, and the motto Suum cuique. The four other paintings represent the four principal acts of life that are subject to civic law; the birth of a child, the inscription of a young man for military service, marriage and death. A winged figure depicted in each painting represents the presence of divine purpose that guides the social i nstitution created by human reason.8 Paintings exhibited at the Salons 18471868 1848 Chevrier italien; Jockey Club 1849 Deux portraits de M. L.M." 1853 "Portrait de lauteur" 1857 "Cain et Able", "Les orphelins de 1793"; "Alger" 1859 "La charit" 1861 "Mendiante arable" 9 (Ministre de ltat) 1862 "Odalisque" 1864 "La rve de Sybille" 1865 "Frise excute dans un vestiuble au chteau de Brestels" dessin a la sanguine. (Study for frieze in the vestibule of the chteau de Brestels) 1866 "Les marionnettes de lamour" 1867 "La sieste, souvenier dAlger" 1868 "La toilette dune Mauresque, souvenir dAlger"

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238 Figure C 2. Wall mural at Arpajon Htel de Ville Moulignon, 1872 [Authors Photo] Figure C 3. Odalisque, Moulignon, 1862 [ Image courtesy of Muse des Art Decoratifs]

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239 Notes 1 Anne Dugast & Isabelle Parizet, Dictionnaire par noms darchitectes des constructions leves Paris aux XIXe et XXe sicles. Priode 1876 1899, t. IV (Paris: Publications de la Sous commission de recherches d'histoire municipale contempora ine. Ville de Paris, Comm ission des travaux historiques, 1996), 40. 2 Bulletin municipa l official de la ville de Paris, La C ommission du vieux Paris 125, No. 64 ( Vendredi 18 aout 2006), 2091. Report of minutes from meeting 13 juillet 2006. 3 Preceding li st of works is from Dugast and Parizet, Dictionnaire par noms darchitectes des constructions leves 40. 4 Archives de Paris, cote AP 2mi 3 series microfilms. 1860, 2mi3/42 ; 1870, 2mi3/59. 5 http://orientaliste.free.fr/biographies/artistes1i.html#M 6Pauline Prvost Marcilhacy. Les Rothschilds:Btisseurs et Mcnes (Paris: Flammarion, 1995), 370. 7 Anonymous. Le mag asi n pittores que 1863, 389390 and index, 411. Arpajon est une petite ville, chef lieu de canton du dpartement de Seineet Oise. Sa mairie a t construite il y a trois ans, sur les plans de M. Jules Laroche, architecte. M. de Moulignon sest gnreusement charg de la dcoration intrieure. 8 Ibid. 389390. 9 T hophile Gautier, Abcdaire du Salon de 1861. (Paris:Librairie de la Socit des Gens de lettres, 1861), 288 9. Commentary on the Mendiante Arabe by Thophile Gautier, points out the variety of iconographic symbols (almost clichs) of exotic eastern cul ture within this work.

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240 LIST OF REFERENCES Alaux, Grard. rebours: La restauration de lhtel Salomon de Rothschild. Patrimoine et cadre de vie. Les cahiers de la ligue urbaine de rurale 167 (2e trimestre 2005): 3841. Allou, Monseigneur August La Cathdrale et le Palais piscopal de Meaux Meaux : A. Le Blondel, Imprimeur Librairie de lvch, 1884. Accessed December 4, 2010 http://gallica. bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5473395b.r=.langEN Bauchal, Charles. Nouveau dictionnaire bibliographique et c ritique des architectes f ran ais Paris: Librairie Gnrale de lArchitecture et des Travaux Publics, Andr, Daly Fils, 1887. Bedoire, Fredric. The Je wish Contribution to Modern Architecture 18301930. Translated by Robert Tanner. Jersey City: KTAV Publishing, 2004. Bellamy Brown Sybille. La Renaissance au service du XIXe sicle. propos de l'ouvrage de Charles Franois Callet, Notice historique sur la vie artistique et les ouvrages de quelques architectes franais du XVIe sicle (1842). Livraisons d'histoire de l'architecture 9 ( 1er semestre 2005 ): 2141. Accessed June 6, 2011. Doi : 10.3406/lha.2005.994. Bellier de La Chavignerie, mile. Dictionna ire gnral des artistes de l'cole franaise depuis l'origine des arts du dessin jusqu' nos jour : architectes, peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs et lithographes. T ome 1 / ouvrage commenc par mile Bellier de La Chavigneri e ; continu par Louis Auvray. Par is: Librairie Renouard, 1882 1885. Accessed June 6, 2011. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1133832/f22.image.r=couture.langEN Bergdoll, Barry. Leon Vaudoyer: His toricism in the Age of Industry Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1994. Binder, Louis. Rapport sur la reconstruction de lhtel d e ville. Sance 5 janvier 1872. Conseil Municipal de Paris. 18711872. Paris: Charles de Mourgesfrres, 1872. Borjan, Michel H t el Salomon de Rothschild. tude historique et archologique. Rapport. Paris: GRAHAL, Groupe de Recherche Art Histoire, Architecture et Littrature, Dcembre 2000. Bowie, Karen. Les Grandes Gares Parisiennes au XIX eme Si cle. Paris: La dlgation lactio n artistique de la Ville de Paris, 1987. Bulletin municipa l official de la ville de Paris, La C ommission du vieux Paris 125, No. 64 ( Vendredi 18 aout 2006), 2091. Burke, Peter. Eyewitnessing: The Use of Images as Histori cal Evidence. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2001. Carlhi an, Robert and Fabrice Ouziel. Analyse historique & technique pour lHtel de Saint Florentin dit Htel de Talleyrand Pices Historiques: la Restauration Paris : United States Department of State Fo reign Buildings Operation, Fvrier 2000.

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241 Cazaux, Thierry. Un lieu du 9me arrondissement: lhtel de Lon Ohnet, architecte et maire du 9me, 14 avenue Trudaine. Bulletin Revue 9 me histoire 1 (2002): 1422. Champier, Victor. Lhabitation moderne. L htel Salomon de Rothschild. Lancienne folie de Beaujon et la maison de Balzac. Revue des Arts dcoratifs 12 (18912): 65 75. Cliff, Stafford. The French Archive of Design and Decoration. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Cowles, Virginia. The Rothschil ds: A Family of Fortune New York: Knopf, 1973. Daly, Csar. LArchitecture prive au dix neuvime sicle sous Napolon III. Nouvelles maisons de Paris et des environs 3 vols. Paris: A. Morel, 1864. Daly, Csar, editor. Htel de M. L. Fould. Revue de la rchitecture et travaux publics. 16, no. 1 ( 1858). Cols. 3742 and plates 5,6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Delaire, E., editor. Les architectes lves de lcole des BeauxArts par David Penanrun, Roux et Delaire, 17931907. 2e edition. Paris: Librairie de la Constr uction Moderne, 1907. Dennis, Michael. Court and Garden: from the French htel to the city of modern architecture Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986. De Penanrum, David. Les architects lves de lcole des Beaux Arts par David Penanrun, Roux et Delaire. Paris: Imprimerie de Chaix, 1895. Des Cars, Jean La princesse Mathilde. Lamour, la gloire et les arts Paris: Librairie Acadmique, 1988. Deville, J. Dictionnaire du Tapissier Critique et Historique de lAmeublement franais Paris: C. Claesen, 18781880. Du gast, Anne & Isabelle Parizet. Dictionnaire par noms darchitectes des constructions lev es Paris aux XIXe et XXe si cles. P riode 18761899. Tome IV. Paris: Publications de la Sous commission de recherches d'histoire municipale contemporaine. Ville de Paris, Comm ission des travaux historiques, 1996. Egbert, Donald Drew. The Beaux Arts Tradition in French Architectur e : Illustrated by the Grand Prix de Rome Edited by David Van Zanten. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980. Encyclopdie mth odique ou par ordre de matires. Arts et mtiers mcaniques 3535 Tome huitme. Paris: Panckoucke, 1791. Accesse d February 24, 2011. http://books.google.com /books/download/Encyclop%C3%A9die_m%C3%A9thodique.pdf ?id=R5 YzKRR TQC&hl=fr&capid=AFLRE728brMa2esTsVysl38OQr gaMROO5 -

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242 HzbJAQWapaF2Iw8KYUYbeLVGAY60MkTaUGu_0CD50CWIHjEpPbIPQv5L3vSGL Q&continue=http://books.google.com/books/download/Encyclop%25C3%25A9die_m%25 C 3%25A9thodique.pdf%3Fid%3DR5YzKRR TQC%26hl%3Dfr%26output%3Dpdf Fabrice Ouziel & Associs. Vestibule, grand escalier & antichambres du premier tage pour l`Htel de SaintFlorentin dit Htel de Talleyrand Pices Historiques Paris : United States Department of State Overseas Buildings Operations, Fvrier 2004. Gabet Charles. Dictionnnaire des artistes de l cole franaises au XIXe sicle. Paris: Bibliothque S.J., 1854. Gady, Alexandre. Folie Beaujon et chapelle Saint Nicolas. In Rue du faubourg Saint H onor edited by Beatrice de Andia and Dominique Fernandes 354362. Paris : Dlgation laction artistique de la ville de Paris 1994. Gallaghan, Gilbert J A Guide to the Historical Method. New York: Fordham University Press, 1946. Gauthier, Thophile. Abcdaire du Salon de 1861. Paris:Librairie de la Soci t des Gens de lettres, 1861. Geneanet arbre en ligne website. Ohnet Accessed February 24, 2011. htt p://gw1.geneanet.org/index.php3?b=garric&lang=fr&m=NG&t=N&n=Ohnet&x=6&y= 7. Grementieri, Fabio. The Bosch Palace : Reappraisal, Restoration and Renovation Project Translated by Kathleen Dolan. Buenos Aires: Pablo Corral, 2001. Groat, Linda and David Wang Architectural Research Methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Harrow, Susan. Zola: La Cure University of Glasgow: French and German Publications, 1998. Herbert, Robert L. Impressionism: art, leisure and Parisian society New Haven: Yale Universi ty Press, 1988. Hirsch, Marie Christine. Les Champs Elyses Nord jusquen 1870: le faubourg du Roule. Paris aux cent villages 53 (septembre 1980): 1128. Krafft, Jean Charles et Nicolas Ransonnette. Plans, coupes et lvations des plus belles maisons c onstruits Paris et dans les environs Paris : Ch. Pougens 1802. Kowsky, Francis R. The William Dorsheimer House: A reflection of French Suburban Architecture in the early work of H. H. Richardson. Art Bulletin (March 1980). Accessed May 3, 2011. http://www.buffaloah.com/a/del/434/kow/index.html

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243 Lassus, Jean Baptiste Antoine and Eugne Emmanuel Viollet Le Duc Projet d e restauration de Notre Dame de Paris rapport adress M. le Minis tre de la Justice et des Cultes. Paris: Imprimerie de Mme. de LaCombe, 1843. Leben Ulrich A High Victorian Legacy at Waddesdon Manor: the Smoking Room, Baron Ferdinands Treasure Room and its Contents since the Creation of Waddesdon. Paper presentatio n at the symposium Gothic Art in the Gilded Age for the Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, Florida, February 27, 2010. Lemoine, Ber trand Architecture in France 18001900. Translated by Alexandra Bonfante Warren New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1993. Leniaud, Jean Michel. Les cathdrales au XIX m e sicle. tude du service des difices dioc sai ns Paris:ECONOMICA, 1993. Loyer, Franois. Architecture of the Industrial Age Translated by R.F.M. Dexter Genve: Skira, 1983. Loyer, Franois. Histoire de l'architecture franaise de la Rvolution nos jours Paris : ditions Mengs ditions du Patrimoine, 1999. Loyer, Franois. Paris: Nineteenth Century Architecture and Urbanism. Translated by Charles Lynn Clark New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1988. Mallgrave, Harry Francis, editor. Architectural Theory. Volume 1. An Anthology from Vitruvius to 1870. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Marrey, Bernard, Le f er Paris a rchitectures Paris: Picard Editeur et Pavillon de lArsenal, 1989. Marrey, Bernard and JeanPierre Monnet. La grande histoire des serres & des jardins dhiver France 1780 1900. Paris: Graphite, 1984. Mead, Christophe r Curtis. Charles Garniers Paris Opera: Architectural Empathy and the Renaissance of French Classicism. Cambrid ge MA: MIT Press, 1991. Middleton, Robert, editor. The Beaux Arts and Nineteenthcentury French Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson, 1982. Minist re de la Culture. Remise de la Lgion dhonneur Franois Loyer 11 juin 2001. Accessed September 1, 2011. http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/actualites/conferen/duffour 2001/loyer.htm Minist re de la Maison de lEmpereur et des beaux arts ." Journal des Arts Peinture, sculpture, architecture, gravure, arts appliqus lindustrie 11 (19 juillet 1866): 1 2. Muhlstein, Anka. The Rise of the French Rothschilds. Paris: Vendme, 1982.

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244 Nierhaus, Andreas, France as an example: The Rothschild Palaces in Vienna. sterreichische Zeitschrift fr Kunstund Denkmal Pflege 2008. Accessed February 20, 2011. http://www.bda.at/publikationen/824/17067/Oesterre ichischeZeitschriftfuer Kunst und Denkmalpflege Nouvelles. Journal des beaux arts et de la littrature 19 (7 mai 1837): n.p. Ohnet, Lon Rapport sur ltat des foundations de lHtel de Ville Conseil Municipal de Paris. 18711872. Paris: Charle s de Mourgesfrres, 1872. Panchout, Anne. Maison de Balzac. In Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor Edited by Beatrice de Andia et Dominique Fernandes. 364366. Paris: Dlgation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994. Paria, Adolphe. Le conseil municipal de Paris: portraits et biographies des quatre vingts conseilleurs et du Prfet de la Seine, precedes du plan de la sale des sances Paris: Rodier, 1871. Electronic, BnF department Philosophie, histoire, science et lhomme. 82, LE SENNE 6782. Pons, Bruno. Waddesdon Manor Architecture and Panelling. London: Phillip Wilson Publishers, 1996. Prvost Marcilhacy, Pauline Htel Salomon de Rothschild. In Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor Edited by Beatrice de Andia et Dominique Fernandes. 367 371. Paris: Dlgation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994 Prvost Marcilhacy, Pauline. Les Rothschilds:Btisseurs et Mcnes Paris: Flammarion, 1995. Prvost Marcilhacy, Pauline Architecture et dcoration des maisons construites par la famille Rothschild en Europe. 18201914. Dissertation. [Thse], Paris IV Sorbonne 1992. Redlich, Fritz Jacques Laffitte and the Beginnings of Investment Banking in France Bulletin of the Business Historical Society 22, no. 4/6 (Dec 1948): 137161. Robinson, W. The Parks, Promenades& Gardens of Paris London: John Murray, 1869. Schofield, Richard. Along Rothschild Lines. The Story of Rothschild and Railways across the World Revised edition. London: The Rothschild Archives 2010. Smith Michael S. The E mergence of Modern Business Enterprise in France, 18001930. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005. Smith, Michael S. Review of Les Entrepreneurs du Second Empire. ( The entrepreneurs of the Second Empire) by Dominique Barjot, et al., Business Hist ory Review Winter 2007. Accessed February 14, 2010. http://www.hbs.edu/bhr/archives/bookreviews/79/msmith.pdf

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245 Socit franaise d'archologie. Centenaire du services des monuments historiques. Tome 1. Congres Archologique XCVII Session. Paris: Derache, 1934. Accessed June 2, 2011. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5613880f/f299.image.r=ohnet.langEN Schwarz, Selma. The Waddesdon Companion Guide Waddesdon Manor: The National Trust, 2003. Summerson, Sir John. Violletle Duc and the Rational Point of View In Heavenly Mansions and Other Essays on Architectur e 713. London: Cresset Press, 1949. Tate, Susan Douglas Concorde: Htel de Talleyrand Gainesville, FL: Storter Childs, 2007. Templar, John. The Staircase: History and Theories Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 1992. Travaux particuliers, Le Constructeur. Organe des industries du btim ent. Travaux publics et magasins gnraux (March 1 March 15, 1865): 6. Wilson, Derek. Rothschild. The Wealth and Power of a Dynasty New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1988. Wittmer, Pierre. Les jardins. In Rue du FaubourgSaint Honor Edited by Beatri ce de Andia et Dominique Fernandes. 4350. Paris: Dlgation laction artistique de la ville de Paris, 1994. Zola, mile. La Cure Annotated by Henri Mitterand. Paris: ditions Gallimard, 1999. Photographs : Cary, A., photographe, Htel Beaujon, Bi bliothque Historique de la Ville de Paris, Photothque, Cte P.M. XXX 2 44 (Date: avant 1891). pl 2. Htel Beaujon: Histoire pl 3. Portrait de Mme. Salomon de Rothschild. pl 4. Portrait de Brnne. Salomon de Rothschild. pl 5. Mme. Salomon de Rothschild pl 6. Portrait de Lon Ohnet pl 7. Portrait de Lopold Moulignon, portrait de J. Ponsard. pl 8. Htel Beaujon. Galerie pl 9. Htel Beaujon. Vestibule pl 10. Htel Beaujon: Faade sur la cour dhonneur pl 11. Htel Beauj on. Salle des curiosits, ct de la large vitrine. pl 12. Htel Beaujon. Salle des curiosits, ct de la chemine pl 13.. Htel Beaujon: Le tub. pl 14. Htel Beaujon: Chambre coucher pl 15. Htel Beaujon: Cabinet de toilette pl 16. H tel Beaujon: Boudoir (ct de la chamber coucher) pl 18. Htel Beaujon: Boudoir (ct de la chemine) pl 19. Htel Beaujon: Salon Rouge

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246 pl 20. Htel Beaujon: Grand Salon. pl 21. Htel Beaujon: Grand Salon. pl 22. Htel Beaujon: Le Hall (ct de la chemine) pl 23. Htel Beaujon: Salle manger (ct de la Serre) pl 24. Htel Beaujon: Porte Cochre sur la rue Berryer pl 25. Htel Beaujon: Le Hall. (ct de la galerie) pl 26. Htel Beaujon: Salle de billiard (1er tage) pl 27. Htel Beaujon: Faade sur le Jardin pl 28. Htel Beaujon: Jardin (ct droit pl 29. Htel Beaujon: Oratoire (1er tage) pl 30.. Htel Beaujon:Grand Escalier pl 31. Htel Beaujon: Bibliothque pl 32. Htel Beaujon: Office d Honneur pl 33. Htel Beaujon: Salle manger (ct de la Galerie) pl 34. Htel Beaujon: Intrieur du kiosque dans le jardin. pl 35. Ecuries de Mme la Baronne Salomon de Rothschild. pl 36. Ecuries de Mme la Baronne Salomon de Rothschil d. pl 37. Vue de lhtel de Honor de Balzac et la coupole de la chapelle St. Nicolas pl 38. Htel de Honor de Balzac pl 39. Maison de Honor de Balzac pl 40. Htel de Honor de Balzac. Salon. pl 41. Htel de Honor de Balzac. Salle de bain pl 42. La colonnade de lancienne chapelle Saint Nicolas dans le jardin de lhtel Rothschild. pl 43. Chapelle St. Nicolas pl 44. La rotonde dans le jardin. Maps Perrot, Aristide Michel. Nouveau plan de Paris divis en arrondissements, quartiers et paroisses. Paris: Goyer, 1867. ( Bibliothque Historique de la Ville de Paris, cote A790.) Drawings : Archives Nationales Cartes et Plans CP/F/19/*/1863 Ajaccio, (Palais piscopal ) Lon Ohnet plan 7 Elvation faade sur le jardin. Wa tercolor rendering by Ohnet, signed 28 fevrier, 1851. Plan 8 Plan Second Plan 9 Plan Premier tage Plan 10 Plan Rez de chausse Plan 11 Plan gnral Plan 12 Plan Rez de chausse Plan 13 Plan 1er tage CP/F/19/*/1876 Carcassone, (Palais piscopal ) Lon Ohnet Plan 1 Etat actuel Premier tage

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247 Plan 2 Etat actuel Rez de Chausse Plan 3 Plan Restauration Premier tage Plan 4 Plan Restauration Rez de Chausse Plan 5 Elvation de la partie neuve. Cte nord. CP/F/19/*/ Meaux Plan 1 Pla n de la clture du collateral sud. tat actuel et projet de restauration. 14 fevrier 1874. Signe: Lon Ohnet. F/21/6032 Htel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild Fondation Salomon de Rothschild Drawings by architecte en chef de gouvernment, E. Bois 9 octobre 1922 Plan du soubassement Plan du Rez de chausse haut Plan Premier tage Plan Second tage Musee dOrsay website, Antoine Zoegger drawing, Projet de dcor de la bibliothque du Palais Nathaniel de Rothschild, (c. 1875).F rom the exposition, Le dcorateur et l'amateur d'art. Dcors intrieurs, Paris, France, 2008. Accessed March 4, 2011. http://www.musee orsay.fr/en/collections/inde x of works/notice.html?no_cache=1&nnumid=66647&cHash=adf97fae9f Private Archives Rothschild Archives : File 000/1037/73/6A, Extract of the will of the Baronne Salomon de Rothschild File 000/1037/127 0/5, Succession File 000/1037/73/66, Construction de lhtel de l a rue des curies dArtois ; sketches and notes, honoraires darchitecte. Public archives, records and reports Archives Nationales AJ / 52377 Ohnet, Lon. ( Student file ) cole des BeauxArts 183233. F/19/1819 Ohnet, Lon, Etat de servic es d'anciens architectes 1853 dossier. Ministre de Travaux Public F / 19/4544 Commission des Arts et Edifices Religieux 164eme scance, 17 juin 1852. F/19/7232 Ohnet, Lon. ( Personnel file ) architectes eccleseastes F/21/620 Grand Prix de Rome

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248 F/21/6032 Htel Salomon de Rothschild, notes, budgets, drawings Archives de Paris C ote AP 2mi 3 series microfilms. 1850, :2mi3/22 ; 1856, 2mi3/34 ; 1860, 2mi3/42 ; 1865, 2mi3/50 ; 1870, 2mi3/59 Ministre de la culture Invent ai re g n r a le du patrimoine culture l, Base Merime, Architecture & Patrimoine, Ministre de la culture. Filature la Foudre, reference IA000021523. http://www.culture.gouv.fr/public/mistral/merimee_fr?ACTION=RETROUVER&FIELD_2=DE NO&VALUE_2=FILATURE&NUMBER=8&GRP=9&REQ=%28%28FILATURE%29%20%3 aDENO%20%29&USRNAME=nobody&USRPWD=4%24%2534P&SPEC=9&SYN=1&IMLY =&MAX1=1&MAX2=100&MAX3=100&DOM=Tous M inistre de la Culture Dossiers de Classement H tel Baronne Salomon de Rothschild, date 2005. Reference No. PA00088834 Online Archival Sources Cat zArts, database of drawings and history, cole Nationale S up rieure des Beaux Arts Gallica, d atabase of historical documents, Biblioth que Nationale de France

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249 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Linda Stevenson is a Florida registered architect with extensive experience in t he field of historic preservation She received a Master of Architecture from the University of South Florida in 2004. She holds a Bachelor of Architecture and a Bachelor of Arts with a major in art history, from the University of Maryland. Her work experi ence includes a wide range of historic project types, in both the United States and the European Union. Linda was the 1995 Recipient of the Richard Morris Hunt Fellowship, a cultural exchange program for historic preservation issues in Europe and the Unite d States, co sponsored by the American Architectural Foundation a nd the French Heritage Society. In addition to her academi c work in the University of Floridas doctoral program she i s the principal of an architectural firm, specializing in historic prese rvation and sustainable design.