Improving Construction Efficiency and Profits Through Strengthening of Company Culture

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Title:
Improving Construction Efficiency and Profits Through Strengthening of Company Culture
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1 online resource (83 p.)
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english
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Compton,Sean
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.B.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Building Construction
Committee Chair:
Issa, R. Raymond
Committee Members:
Minchin, Robert E
Lucas, Elmer

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Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
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Abstract:
Companies that possess a strong corporate culture and core values tend to have the vision to walk the proverbial tight rope of imagination and wisdom mentioned by Henry Ford. The community culture of a firm can be seen as the life and work style choices of not one single employee but as a summation of the whole company. A happy equilibrium can be established when the employees that are hired live the company?s ideals while the company simultaneously reflects the employee?s ideals. Company culture is neither good nor bad; to borrow a current catch phrase, ?it is what it is.? Real value is attained when employees ?buy in? to the company culture and have a comfort level with company standards, ideals, and core values. The survey questions were based on the basic behaviors that determine an individual?s happiness or unhappiness in a job and life in general. Frequently, a firm?s administration and prevailing culture causes unhappiness rather than the actual work they do. The basic themes addressed by the survey questions were: substance abuse; companion happiness with correlation to work; salary and other compensation; responsibilities within the company and advancement opportunities; respect for employee and value of input; longevity with the company; and personal suitability to work mentalities. The construction Industry is different than most other businesses. While staying precise and focused, it is a conglomerate of risk takers and modern day cowboys that work hard and play hard. While all construction firms must keep their edge the results of this study indicate that upper management must become better listeners and more in tune to today?s employees, in order to successfully lead a company.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Statement of Responsibility:
by Sean Compton.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local:
Adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
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1 IMPROVING CONSTRUCTION EFFICIENCY AND PROFITS THROUGH STRENGTHENING OF COMPANY CULTURE By SEAN WILLIAM COMPTON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIR EMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 S ean W illiam C ompton

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3 To my m other and s tepfather

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my gratitude toward s all people who have contributed to my thesis. This paper was not considered a requirement toward a labor of love o n my topic. My t hanks also go out to everyo ne at the University of Florida and everyone who works at the M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction especially the office staff and the entire faculty who provided input to me throughout all phases of this thesis. My gratitude also goes to my Chair, Dr. R. Raymond Issa who has helped me develop my thesis top ic Also I would like to thank my committee members Dr. Lucas and Dr. Minchin for all their help and guidance during my time at UF.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURE S ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .............................. 15 Principles of Company Culture ................................ ................................ ............... 15 Increasing Efficiency throug h Culture ................................ ............................... 16 Recognizing Fatigue ................................ ................................ ......................... 17 Pushing Past our Comfort Zone ................................ ................................ ....... 18 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 19 Culture in the Construction Industry ................................ ................................ 19 Positives in Construction Culture ................................ ................................ ...... 20 Negatives in Construction Culture ................................ ................................ .... 20 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 23 Survey Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 23 Population ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 23 Survey Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 24 Survey Questions ................................ ................................ ............................. 24 4 SURVEY RES ULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 26 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ .......................... 45

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6 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ..................... 52 B SURVEY RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 64

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Company Socializing ................................ ................................ .................... 35 4 2 Questions 41 43 ................................ ................................ ........................... 35

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Job Title ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 26 4 2 Highest level of education ................................ ................................ ........... 27 4 3 Respondents with family in construction ................................ ...................... 27 4 4 Days a week alcohol is consumed ................................ .............................. 28 4 5 Quanti tiy of drinks consumed in one setting ................................ ............... 28 4 6 Frequency of drug testing ................................ ................................ ............ 29 4 7 Illegal substance abuse ................................ ................................ ............... 29 4 8 Happiness with current employer ................................ ................................ 29 4 9 Factors affecting happiness with current employer ................................ ..... 30 4 10 Factors causing unhappiness with current employer ................................ 30 4 11 Factors affecting choice of employer ................................ ........................ 31 4 12 Factors that would make respondents leave curre nt employer ................. 31 4 13 Discussing unhappiness with superiors ................................ ..................... 31 4 14 Positive results from discussion of unhappines with employment ............. 32 4 15 Input welcomed ................................ ................................ ......................... 32 4 16 Respect for employer ................................ ................................ ................ 32 4 17 Respondents would work harder if listened to ................................ ........... 33 4 18 ................................ .... 33 4 19 Weekly hours worked by respondents ................................ ....................... 33 4 20 Unproductive hours a week at work ................................ .......................... 34 4 2 1 Employees that report to a family member ................................ ................ 36 4 22 Unfair perks from family supervision ................................ ......................... 36 4 23 ................................ .............. 36

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9 4 24 Are your peers out to get you ................................ ................................ .... 37 4 2 5 Can you accomplish anything ................................ ................................ .... 38 4 26 Do you c omplain if something goes wrong ................................ ................ 38 4 27 Do you think of ways to solve t he problem when things go wrong ............ 39 4 28 Feeling of accomplishment after having solved a problem ........................ 39 4 29 Do you feel mad about having to solve the problem ................................ .. 40 4 3 0 Are you c reative in your problem solving ................................ ................... 40 4 31 Do you consult other people when you have a problem ............................ 41 4 32 Enjoyment of learning about construction ................................ ................. 41 4 33 Enjoyment of watching TV about creating things ................................ ....... 41 4 34 Opinion of higher education ................................ ................................ ...... 42 4 35 Use of work materials for personal benefit ................................ ................ 43 4 36 Perception of direct supervision and rules ................................ ................. 44 4 37 Management type preference ................................ ................................ .... 44

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction IMPROVING CONSTRUCTION EFFICIENCY AND PROFITS THROUGH STRENGTHENING OF COMPANY CULTURE By Sean W illiam Compton August 2011 Chair: R. Raymond Issa Co chair: R. Edward Minchin, Jr. Major: Building Construction Companies that possess a strong corporate culture and core values tend to have the vision to walk th e proverbial tight rope of imagination and wisdom mentioned by Henry Ford. The community culture of a firm can be seen as the life and work style choices of not one single employee but as a summation of the whole company. A happy equilibrium can be established when the employees that are hired live the company ideals while the company simultaneously ref have a comfort level with company standards, ideals, an d core values. The survey questions were based on the basic behaviors that determine an administration and prevailing culture causes unhappiness rather than the actual work they do The basic themes addressed by the survey questions were: s ubstance abuse ; c ompanion happiness with correlation to work ; s alary and other compensation ; r esponsibilities within the company and advancement opportunities ; r espect for

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11 employee and value of input ; l ongevity with the company ; and p ersonal suitability to work mentalities The construction Industry is different than most other businesses. While staying precise and focused it is a conglomerate of risk takers and modern day cowboys th at work hard and play hard. While all construction firms must keep their edge the results of this study indicate that upper management must become better listeners and more in in order to successfully lead a company.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION everything upside down if they can It also needs old figures to keep them from Henry Ford Speech 19 66 Companies that possess a strong corporate culture and core values tend to have the vision to walk this proverbial tight rope of imagination and wisdom mentioned by Henry Ford. The community culture of a firm can be seen as the life and work style choice s of not one single employee but as a summation of all employees of the whole company. A happy equilibrium can be established when the employees hired live the company ideals while the company simultaneously Construction fi rms are a perfect example of the model of ever changing and strengthening of culture. Not many types of business build completely different projects day to day and year to year. With an industry that has constant changing technology, laws, guidelines and r estrictions a reasonable expectation is that the corporate culture would change along with these variables. Hiring employees who already possess these core values provides the opportunity to maintain and continuously improve desired behaviors and, thus, th e work environment. The creator of the Pro Bull Riders Association and the Michael Jordan of everything about it since the on great i s more than that. It i about going down in history as a great bull rider or bronco rider. I hope people will 20 09) It should never be about the

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13 money or the power but hir e employ and surround with people who just love what they do and success will fall in place. Construction has similar mindset individuals as cowboys, so once the passion is found the championship will follow This constant creative ideal in a construction company could be the ultimate business model: a family type atmosphere conducive to morale, goal setting, and productivity in a business filled with long hours, high stress, and significant turnover in perso nnel. Social time at work can be used to brainstorm ideas to improve the processes and to eliminat e the constant bureaucracies seen time and time again. Creative juices can flow when strong bonds are formed among employees through stability of staff and a n environment in which individual ideas and opinions are valued. Aim s and Objectives The goal of this study is to determine the b asic behavior that determine s an is explored A administration and prevailing culture causes unhappiness rather than the actual work they do The basic areas addressed include: s ubstance abuse ; c ompanion happiness with correlation to work ; s alary and other compensation ; r esponsibilities within t he company and advancement opportunities ; r espect for employee and value of input ; l ongevity with the company ; and p ersonal suitability to work mentalities Overview Following this introduction, Chapter 2 covers the literature review. Chapter 3 outlines the methodology used for this research. A survey was conducted to gather input from construction industry participants..

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14 Chapter 4 discusses the results from the survey and the analysis conducted to determine what energy use habits were improved by a pol icy of financial incentives and disincentives. Finally, Chapter 5 draws conclusions based on the findings of the study and provides recommendations for future research.

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Principles of Company Culture Company c ulture the most i mportant tangible aspect of a given business entity and is a huge factor in determining corporate success or failure. A practical definition of companies develop ove Entrepreneur.com 2011 ). Company culture is neither Real value is attained company standards, ideals, and core values. The q of its existing leadership. McCuen ( 19 knowledge and skills that the individual possesses and uses to per suade others to enthusiastically work toward the completion of the plan of action that the leader has Only great leadership can bring about a great culture. While company culture can be suggested, recommended, and encouraged, an individual e mployee must come to embrace the company ideals voluntarily. Faith in a leader can almost be compared to religion in the terms that one either is a believer or non believer. where the employees are so loyal that they spread word of the company and its product with fierce passion, a culture where employees go way beyond being minions to being missionaries (Moore 20 06). This is a great description of the employees at Starbucks Many types of leadership are needed to make this

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16 happen. Bass and Avolio (1990) identified different components of the two contrasting types of leadership, transformational and transactional. Some company cultures can turn into undesirable si tuations filled with seemingly mindless and non creative employees who unquestioningly follow the status quo in This phrase was coined from the horrific 1978 mass suicide of Jonestown, Guyana residents in which the cult members followed their leader Jim Jones and carried out his every order without thought. They even followed him through the mass suicide, using cyanide laced Kool Aid. The comparison, while crude, is a great metaphor for employees to constantly think for t hemselves and the company. mimic the corporate environment without ever considering the end result. They follow blindly to keep their benefits, not because they truly and sincerely car e about the business and its impact on others (Moore 20 06). Increasing Efficiency through Culture Efficiency has had a pivotal role in the production of virtually every creation since Henry Ford invented the production line. tivity created an often imitated model that emphasized profits through the completion of tasks that balanced little employee input, cost effectiveness, and product quality. Scott used an experiment where he put each man at work on machines which allowed h im to exert himself to his utmost and measured his accomplishment. While he was thus engaged, the coach began urging him to increase his exertion. Ordinarily the increase exertion was marked sometimes as much as fifty per cent (Scott 2004)

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17 Recognizing Fatigue long haul. Many employees suffered injury, fatigue, and even mental illness from the long hours of doing the same tedious task repeatedly. Walter Scott explains, when the man had exhausted himself without coaching, the extra demand would be made on him; usually he was able to continue, even though without the coaching he had been unable to do any more. There was, of course, a point of exhaustion at which t he coaching ceased to be effective (Scott 20 walk this tight rope knowing that once a line is crossed his employees or team members will start making mistakes and slow down. Making mistakes in construction however can n ot only cause bad results on the field or on paper but actually lead to injury and death. can help to sustain longer, harder and smarter working employees who do n o t suffer e xcessive stress and burnout. The planning of this culture must come from individuals educated and trained in leadership; this process must start early on in academia. Peterson (2011) explain ed that in for more well rounded engineers who possess leadership skills that can guide the industry through the changing times ahead. Mergers have been formed between industry and academia to produce future engineers who will possess these needed characteristics to Sometimes taking a step back from work in the short term can pay huge dividends in the long term. Scott (2004) state d that are not available without great exertion. We have to warm up and get our second wind before we are capable of our best physical or mental accomplishments. All our muscular

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18 and physical processes are dependent upon the activity of the nervous system. This activity seems to be at its best only after repeated and vigor ous stimulation and after it Pushing Past our Comfort Zone Frequently the break or recovery period in this training process is the most Goleman (2004) claimed that emotional intelligence may be the key attribute that distinguishes outstanding performers from those who are merely adequate. Pushing p eople beyond their usual thresholds in small amounts and then backing them down allows for increases in an Salovey and Mayer (1990) defined empathy as the ability to comprehend another's feelings and re experie challenge meets you head on it not only has to be handled by you for your safety but for Maryann (20 09) used the story of t win sisters Izzy and Coco Tihanyi In their business culture if there could be injuries or death. Izzy state d might think to bail your board meaning you jump off it and let it fly. Wrong. You want to protect yours elf at all times, and if you let your boards go, you jeopardize yourself, but you could also hit somebody else. An 8 foot board with an 8 foot leash puts anyone unpredic that could drown other people. Hold on to your board and take the hit from the wave and it will take every bit of strength you have to hold on or that board could hit someone in The same could be said for the construction industry. If a

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19 superintendent is intimidated by a large concrete pour and does n o t attack it the whole pour could get away from him, losing lots of money and countless days from a schedule. Summary identities, especially in these rough economic times. Bass (1985) environment requires that subordinates perform beyond ordinary expectations and that great responsible coaching and finding players that can respo nd to and execute the coaching t at the career they deeply love. Or most importantly no losing the efficiency created through trying and expanding wave riding skills. Whe n these characteristics are absent the entire team will suffer, and like a case of the flu circulating around the locker room of a football team, undesirable company culture can cause everyone to become infected with a case of inefficiency. Culture in the Construction Industry Tomlin Construction is an industry that prides itself o n constant implementation of new technology and safety technology yet sorely lacks improvement in the culture department. The prevailing culture in construction, as in so many failing American adopt modern and more scientific based ideologies in accompl ishing various tasks and in personnel management.

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20 Positives in Construction Culture Construction compan y cultures differ greatly from most other types of industry. The physical nature of work performed in construction and the associated stress tends to dra w Alpha type personalities. These alpha dogs in turn can be very loyal and highly social ten ding to work in packs. Alpha type personalities are complex people that tend to be good leaders and highly confrontational when challenged. Lund ( 20 e American construction sector has always been personified by risk takers and strong personalities, which These types of personalities attract strong willed, hard working individuals who are often among the most loyal to their employers. Many are former athletes, club leaders, and entrepreneurial spirits who are eager to work and advance in their careers. Negatives in Construction Culture Unfortunately, the negatives in construction culture greatly outwe igh the aforementioned positives, as is evidenced in the constant creation and dissolution of companies, high turnover rates, high divorce rates, and substance abuse. To some degree, this culture can be comparable to the type of personality often found in stock brokers; both cultures place a premium on the need to succeed quickly and turn profits even quicker, sometimes by any means necessary. Creation and failure of construction firms has been a constant of the industry since day one. Much like the gold m iners of the 1840s, risk taking individuals are always looking to strike it rich. Lund (2011) is the fact that rapidly increasing gross revenues create the need for a larger bureaucracy, which in turn mu st be fed regardless of current market conditions and

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21 costs (2011) later state d nation's largest construction firms by 1989. By the end of 1990, however, the company's debt had driven it out of busine ss. Not long after, Encompass Service Corp, which became one of largest subcontractors in the nation, went bankrupt as well. Countless tide of the economy. High tu constantly employed, trained very little, and expected to succeed very quickly. When they stu mble they are terminated. This high turnover of employees costs the firm greatly in terms of profits. The construction industry institute ( CII ) (2010) study of the six projects showed a high correlation between productivity and turnover. The CII Model Plant labor cost analysis indicated that a 10% increase in turnover results in a 2.5% increase in total project labor costs assuming productivity remains the High levels of work related stress can produce secondary problems that can be reflected on the spouse, as the industry as a whole has a high divorce rate. Long, strenuous hours away from home and out of town travel for work can seriously strain a marriage and lead to dissolution. Lingard ale employees in site based roles reported significantly higher levels of family conflict and emotional exhaustion than male employees who worked in the regional or head office. For this long ti me causing employees outside stress.

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22 to keep the employees motivated and focused. Buying into the company ideals and believing the corporate values is a cornerstone of kee ping a strong company.

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23 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Survey Overview The study questions were based on the basic behaviors that determine an administration and prevailin g culture causes unhappiness rather than the actual work. The basic themes of the survey questions were as follows: Substance abuse Companion happiness with correlation to work Salary and other compensation Responsibilities within the company and advanceme nt opportunities Respect for employee and value of input Longevity with the company Personal suitability to work mentalities The answers to these survey questions will help in determining the relationship between how happy someone is with a certain construction company and the behaviors and thoughts that they have. This in turn will help produce a blueprint of the corporate culture needed to create a happy employee in which the happy employee should be mor e productive, equating to higher profits and efficiency. Population The sample population was chosen from the email database of an online construction industry newsletter, ensuring input from subcontractors, general contractors and design build firms. T he study was limited to people that are construction minded. The construction job titles among the respondents were limited to the follow ing : Administration Project Manager

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24 Assistant Project Manager Field Engineer Project Engineer General and Assistant Sup erintendents T he survey was administered through www.zoomerang.com Invitations to participate were sent to 1200 email addresses of subscribers to the ???????? electronic newsletter. A total of 568 were returned as not deliverable and 54 responses were received for a response rate of 8.5%. Survey Design The survey was formulated to evaluate corporate cultural factors for various construction companies and the ir effects on employees. The resulting factors were then cross referenced to find key emotional and psychological patterns that we re above average and out of the ordinary. However some questions were designed to determine individuals for whom happiness is not dependent on the company or the ir work. These questions would help show who w ould have substance abuse problems or other psychological issues The survey collected input for many topic areas People were asked about things that made them happy or mad about the companies that they worked for in the past or present. Negative happine ss factors show where improvements can be made, positive factors can show strengths in the corporate culture. Survey Q uestions The survey questionnaire is shown in Appendix A. Several questions were related to the employee background and gave basic insight employment parameters with the current company. Next questions about the company

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25 yearly revenue and size were asked to get an idea of the bureaucracy involved. The questions address a variety of issues including employee family and educa tional background, existence of substance abuse problems, happiness at work, evaluation of changes at work, open door policies and respect for employees, overall employee feelings, personal outlook, time spent at work and efficiency, c ompany social factor s n epotism in the workplace, problem solving ability, inspiration to learn, stealing from work and effectiveness of management styles.

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26 CHAPTER 4 SURVEY RESULTS The results of the survey were analyzed using MS Excel. Most of the respondents answered all the questions in their survey questionnaire. Data Analysis After the survey results came in the final Data Analysis was compiled. The final results were put together on the Sunday morning of May 29 th 2011. Overall 54 people responded to the survey. Overa ll 54 people responded to the survey almost all completing every question. The respondents ended up having very diverse job titles. Almost every type of higher level construction position was covered. As shown in Figure 4 1, the most common job titles wer e Project Managers and Project Engineers. Figure 4 (2) listed a high school, 56% (29) of those surveyed said they had no f amily in construction, but a staggering 44% (23) said they did. Figure 4 1. Job Title 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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27 Of the individuals who had family in the construction industry, 12% (6) said they worked at the same company as a family member or spouse (see Figure 4 3). Alcohol Consumption Figures 4 4 and 4 5 show the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption by the respondents. Responses to the questions about how many days a week the respondents drank alcohol and how many drinks they drank illustrate the high rate of alcoho usually drink, while 20% (10) indicated that they tended to drink multiple drinks regularly. Psychology professionals would consider those who responded as consuming multiple drinks regularly as heavy drinkers and would attribute this condition to high stress and the macho attitude that comes with construction. Rutherford (2011) noted Figu re 4 2. Highest level of education Figure 4 3. Respondents with family in construction 0 5 10 15 20 25 30          On the job training          High School          Bachelors          Masters or Doctorate 0 10 20 30 40 yes no

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28 Figure 4 4. Days a week alcohol is consumed Figure 4 5. Quantitiy of drinks consumed in one setting day for men, you should have at least two drink free days over 90% of all respondents are in the danger zone of overdrinking. Illegal Substance Use Figure 4 6shows that 60% of employees have not been tested in the last year, this could give an open door to people that want to minipulate d rug testing systems. However even though many are hard partying, hard drinking people they never put their company at risk by using illegal drugs. Figure 4 7 shows that only 2 out of 54 respondents claimed to have used illegal substances in the past year. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7          0          1-2          3-4          5-7 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6          1          2-3          4-5          5+          N/A

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29 Figure 4 6. Frequency of drug testing Figure 4 7. Illegal substance abuse Current employer happiness Ninety percent of the respondents indicated that they were happy with their current employer (see Figure 4 8). Nearly 60% of the respondents indicated that company culture is what made them the most pleased with their company. Followed by work responsibilities at a distant 20%. Figure 4 8. Happiness with current employe r 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35          0          1          2          3          4+ 0 10 20 30 40 50          Yes          No          NA 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%          Yes          No          NA

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30 Figure 4 9 Factors affecting happiness with current employer Forty Three percent (23) of the survey respondents indicated that the number one reason they were unhappy with their current employer was the time they spent at work. Money and responsibili ties rounded out the top three reasons as shown in Figure 4 10. Figure 4 10. Factors causing unhappiness with current employer The reasons that someone would work for a certain company and the reasons someone would leave the company are contrasting. As shown in Figure 4 11, 48% of respondnets stated that company culture was the reason they went with the company they were working for. However nearly the same amount said that if they were to leave their current company it would be for money followed by tim e spent at work, this is shown in Figure 4 12. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80%          Money          Time spent at work          Responsibilities          Company Culture 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%          Money          Time spent at work          Responsibilities          Company Culture

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31 Figure 4 11. Factors affecting choice of employer Figure 4 12. Factors that would make respondents l eave current employer When employees were unhappy with their superiors 46% (21) indicated that they discussed it with them (see Figure 4 13). Figure 4 14shows that of those with problems only 31% said that anything ever came from it. As shown in Figure 4 15, based on their discussion with their superior only 13% of those surveyed said that their superio r seemed to be annoyed having to deal with their situation. Figure 4 13. Discussing unhappiness with superiors 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%          Money          Time spent at work          Responsibilities          Company Culture 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%          Money          Time spent at work          Responsibilities       Company Culture 0 5 10 15 20 25 30          Yes          No          N/A

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32 Figure 4 14. Positive results from discussion of unhappines with employment Figure 4 15. Input welcomed Employer Respect Of the people t hat responded that they had any kind of work related problems, 67% said they still respected their current employer (see Figure 4 16); 75% indicated that they would work harder and do extra work if all of their work concerns were at least listened to (see Figure 4 17). Figure 4 18 shows that the respondents felt that their peers had the same feeling when their concerns were being considered. Figure 4 16. Respect for employer 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35          Yes          No          N/A 0 10 20 30 40          Yes          No          N/A 0 10 20 30 40          Yes          No          N/A

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33 Figure 4 17. Respondents would work harder if listened to Figure 4 18. Res eers fe lt the same Work Hours and Productivity Figure 4 19 shows that 14% (7) of the respondents worked 40 hours a week or less, 42%(21) worked close to 50 hours a week, 34%(17) work around 60 hours a week and 5%(5) worked 70 hours a week or more. Figure 4 20 shows how many hours a week people are unproductive and unneeded with 15%(7) wasting at least 5 hours a week; 17%(8) wasting 10 hours a week, and 9%(4) spending an unneeded or unprodcutive 20 hours or more a week Figure 4 19. Weekly hours worked by respondents 0 10 20 30 40          Yes          No          N/A 0 10 20 30 40          Yes          No          N/A 0 5 10 15 20 25          40 or less          50          60          70 or more

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34 Figure 4 20. Unproductive hours a week at work Company Socializing As shown in Table 4 1, 90% of the respondents claimed that they had a good culture at their current company as seen, while 75% indicated that t heir current company made an effort to get employees together to socialize outside of work hours. In addition, 63% indicated that whether the company is helping to organize gatherings or not employees still gathered outside of work to have fun, while 65% i ndicated that they enjoyed the company organized outings while 35% said they did not care for that type of activity. Eighty one percent indicated that they liked to socialize with other employees when the company has nothing to do with organizing the gathe ring, while 12% indicated that they did not like socializing with other employees at all. I ndividual Motivation Table 4 2 shows the questions addressing employee individual motivation and mindset. The respondents claimed that 94% of all their peers were working towards the same goal while 6% were not. The respondents perceived that 7% of their peers were only coming to work to pick up a pay check and could care less about the team, while 84% of the respondents perceived that the employees around them seem to be motivated because they enjoy the work and culture around them. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 10 20 0

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35 Table 4 1. Company Socializing Do you belie ve that your company has a good Culture? Yes 46 90% No 5 10% Total 51 100% Does your company go out of its way to get employees together for other occasions than work? Yes 38 75% No 13 25% Total 51 100% Do most employees gather outside of work to have fun and socialize without the company organizing the gathering? Yes 32 63% No 19 37% Total 51 100% Do you like social gatherings with employees when it is organized by upper management? Yes 34 65% No 12 23% N/A 6 12% Total 52 100% Do you like gathering with employees when it is organized by other employees and the company has no involvement? Yes 42 81% No 6 12% N/A 4 8% Total 52 100% Table 4 2. Questions 41 43 Do most of the employees have the same mindset of being positive and working towards the same goal? Yes 48 94% No 3 6% Total 51 100% Do you feel most of the employees are only working at your firm to pick up a pay check and leave? Yes 7 14% No 44 86% Total 51 100% Do most employees seem ambitious and motivated to work because they enjoy the work and the culture? Yes 43 84% No 8 16% Total 51 100%

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36 Nepotism As shown in Figure 4 21 39% of people surveyed said that someone in their company reports directly to a spouse or family member. Four percent of the respondents claimed that these people receive undeserved treatment from that family member in terms of benefits( see Figure 4 22). Eighteen percent (7) of the respondents indicated that even though it does not hurt their work i t makes them mad and hurts their morale; 30%(12) responded that it actually makes them and their peers slow down and hurtstheir productivity, while 52%(21) responded that this situation does not bother either way. Figure 4 21. Employees that report to a family member Figure 4 22. Unfair perks from family supervision Figure 4 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total 0 20 40          Yes          No          N/A 0 10 20 30 It doesn't bother me It makes me mad and hurts my moral only It makes me and my peers mad and slows all of us down

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37 Florida Statutes prevent a state employee reporting to a family member; however, this is an accepted practice in in the private sector. 39% of respondents said they worked in a company in which a relative or spouse directly reports to one another. Only four per cent said they noticed any work related benefits in the relationship. However 48% of all people surveyed said if they saw peers gaining work related benefits from a personal relationship it would negatively affect morale and performance. An easy remedy for this is to not let it ever happen. If it could adjust the hierarchy so that one relative does not have control over the others benefits the problem would be removed. However this does not have to be applied if a company is solely privately owned by the family. If one family owns a company it is there right to do with i t what they deem fit. Personality Traits When assessing is to evaluate how they perceive the treatement they receive in comparison to others. In the survey most people felt they were not being impeded by the company or peers on a personal l evel. Figure 4 24. Are your peers out to get you? As shown in Figure 4 25, o nly 12% of respondents indicated that they could not accomplish there goals in relation to work while 88% had a very positive outlook 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total

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38 conveying that the only thing holding them back was themselves. Figure 4 25. Can you accomplish anything ? As shown in Figure 4 26, 34% of respondents said they complain when problems exists in the workplace. Complaining is a negative action when an employee is involved with a team atmospher good for you and for the workplace. Show me a workplace where no one ever uncomfortable conversation that ver y little change is possible (Kjerulf 20 08) Inidividuals who feel the need to complain in the workplaced must do so in a creative and productive manner. Employees who just constantly moan will ultimately cause problems with peers and supervisors. Figu re 4 26. Do you complain if something goes wrong? As shown in Figure 4 2 7 98% of the respondents mmediately start thinking of ways to solve the problem rather than dwelling on it or pushing it to the side. The New Zealand lems can often happen in workplaces, and 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total

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39 Figure 4 27. Do you think of ways to solve the problem when things go wrong? common sense is usually the best tool. The sooner an issue is dealt with, and the better a process is followed, the less likely it is t hat outside assistance will be required (NZDL 20 11) Ongoing problems only create more problems so people that solve quickly will ultimately be more efficient. Figure 4 28 shows that n ot only when the problem is solved is the initial issue removed but people will feel accomplishment since they took care of the problem. This ultimately results in happier employees. As shown in Figure 4 29, 73% of the respondents felt an accomplishment when problems present themselves. Problems are a large p art of the construction industry, so solving them quickly and keeping positive will ultimately return the best results and positively affect company morale. Kjerulf (2008) teaches how people should create positive mindsets at work and how to function with problems. This in turn will teach people the correct way to approach problems while being positive and in return making a happier office. Figure 4 28. Feeling of accomplishment after having solv ed a problem 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total

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40 Figure 4 29. D o you feel mad about having to solve the problem Figure 4 30. Are you creative in your problem solving? Creative problem solving inspires innovation. If everyone solved problems in the same manner repeatedly, the world would still be reading by candle light. Ervan posed five quest ions provide a systematic step by step approach to problem solving: 1. What is the problem? 2. What are the causes of the problem? 3. What are the possible solutions to the problem? 4. Which is the best solution to the problem? 5. What action(s) do we take? As shown in Figure 4 31, m ost respondents reported consulting co workers when building camaraderie. 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Yes No Total

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41 Figure 4 31. Do you consult other people when you have a problem? Improving All the respondents in Figure 4 32 show that they enjoy learning new things about construction. 94% ( 49) of people surveyed claim they enjoy TV shows about creating things, like TV shows about construction as seen in Fig ure 4 33, while 56 % ( 29) claimed that they wanted to go back to school to better their employability value in the construction industry. Figure 4 32. E njoy ment of learning about construction Figure 4 33. Enjoyment of watching TV about creating th ings 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Yes No Total

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42 Most of the respondents reported that they enjoy ed learning new areas of construction, even if they did not necessarily enjoy the job they currently hold. Recreational activities that repondents participate in during their time away from work can provide a strong indication as to whether the individual actually enjoys the type of work involved in the construction industry. Most reported that they enjoyed learning about creating objects and goods in their free time. Such interest carries over from the construction industry, since members are constantly creating some of the most complicated, large, and expensive products known to man. Fifty six percent of th e respond e n ts showed interest in returning to school to better themselves in the construction industry. Such interest is beneficial to the industry for two reasons: the individual is willing to expend personal time and money to better them sel ves in the industry and suc h interest is reflective of the emphasis that the industry is placing on education. For years the thinking in the industry was that a college education was not necessary to advance in the construction field. However, today education seems to be more and mo re important with each passing year. In the end, this emphasis on education will translate into more stable companies and a better quality product. Figure 4 3 4. Opinion of higher education 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Yes No Total

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43 Respect for management Styles In Figure 4 35 it can be noted th at 7% percent claim to use company materials and status for personal benefit, in disregard to supervisions rules. Fifty eight percent of people enjoy direct supervison while 42% do not as seen in Figure 4 36. All of respondents indicated that they enjoy su pervisors giving them room to make their own decisions, this is seen in Figure 4 37. Seventy three percent of respondents indicated that they liked supervision from afar, while only 6% said they liked constraint supervision and assistance. Twenty two perce nt had no preference while 6% enjoyed constant help and supervision from Figure 4 38 Figure 4 3 5. Use of work materials for personal benefit While only seven per cent of respondents admitted having ever stolen anything from work, employees who steal and minipulate the system are on a slippery moral On the other hand, some people steal goods for the sport of it. Whether stealing is a childhood miscue or a college prank, once a person has mastered the art of stealing goods it becomes an urging need, not necessarily stealing to survive (Sherwood 20 07) A s shown in Figure 4 36, 58% of the respondents enjoy ed direct supervison while 42% d id not. It is important as a supervisor to know how each person performs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Yes No Total

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44 better individua lly. If all employees are treated the same as far as supervision and rules effeciency will be lost. Figure 4 3 6. P erception of direct supervision and rules As shown in Figure 4 3 7 w hen employees are given a basic guideline of the task at hand they te nded to prefer the freedom to accomplish the task at hand with minimal supervision. A balance must be struck, of course, in managerial oversight to ensure that quality work is performed. Figure 4 3 7 M anagement type preference Not surprisingly, 73% of r espondents indicated that they liked supervision from afar, while only six per cent said they liked constraint supervision and assistance. A significant number, 22%, had no preference while 6% preferred constant help and supervision T hese results correlate with findings from previous questions revealing that management must know its employees and tailor styles of management to suit individual employee needs in order to maximize results. 0 20 40 60 Yes No Total 0 10 20 30 40 micro macro doesn't matter

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45 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The construction Industry is different than most other businesses. While all construction firms must keep their competitive edge to survive, this study found that employees. Whether it is by keeping a coun selor on staff or just a more robust open door policy most companies could devote more time and resources to make sure the The people in this industry work hard and play hard and they play part must be monitored as closely as the work part When people enjoy the ir work environment and how they are treated other things seem to melt away. The number one happiness factor in the survey was company C c ulture at 59% followed up by responsibilities at 20%. Whi le so much time is spent on selling prospective employees on salary and advancement, employees really just want to be around other like minded people. addition of clerical assis tance would help remove some of the monotonous time spent at work with minimal cost to the employer. As expected, mon ey was the prohibitive factor ir current employer. Family and growing financial needs weigh gr eatly on individuals as they age and take on more financial obligations. A staggering 54% of th e respondents had some kind of problem with their supervisor; of those only 74% felt confident enough to proceed with trying to work it out with the boss. Furth er, 28% of those who actually decided to communicate their concerns saw no results for their efforts and were left feeling ignored. Perhaps most

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46 alarming is that 15% of those that actually got a response from their superior claim that the boss was annoyed with even having to deal with their concerns. Creating a more open and friendly company could help cure such problems Having professionals come in and train supervisors on how to handle personnel problems could discourage a large portion of this unhealth y behavior. In the end, such efforts could help strengthen relationships between lower and upper tiers of management. Miscommunication between tiers of management have led some employees to lo o se respect for their employers, no doubt negatively affecting the Sevety five percent of the respondents claimed that they had more to give at work if they k new that all their concerns would at least be considered and the same percentage felt that their individual feelings reflect ed those of their co workers. If true, this fact helps to broaden the sentiments of the 5 4 people surveyed to a much larger scale. Four percent of the respondents indicated that they would not work for their present company knowing what they know now and six per cent said they would not recommend a friend to work there. Coincidentally, 10% of the respondents stated that they hate waking up in the morning to go to work. More than half of the respondents clai med to be working 12 hour days or longer Such hou rs will cause a great loss in productivity and efficiency, because of fatigue Holohan (20 11 ) found that employees who regularly worked 11 hour days or longer were 67 percent more likely to develop heart disease than those who worked seven or

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47 eight hour d ays. Perhaps the hiring of a group assistant would help alleviate these high hours. Forty one percent of the respondents revealed that they are completely unproductive at work, while 9% went as far as to say they are unproductive up to 20 hours a week. As suming that these people fully complete d the scope of work required by their job description, that is a significant loss in productivity. Task oriented goals that emphasize quality of work over time spent are desirable. Construction industry members seem to like to socialize outside the workplace. The minority who choose not to socialize with co workers probably either fall into the 12% of the respondents who revealed that they do not consume alcohol at all or they simply have a low level of respect for the employer and/or peers. A more neutral setting of a park, beach, or sporting event would better suit overall needs of all individuals within a given firm. Ninety four percent of people are seen working toward the same goal, 14% are seen to be motivated solely for monetary reasons rather than joy. These people should come forward so as to be relocated or there title and responsibility adjusted so they can find joy in their work. Florida Statutes prevent a state employee from repo rting to a family member; however, this is an accepted practice in in the private sector. Thirty nine percent of respondents said they worked in a company in which a relative or spouse directly reports to one another. Only four per cent said they noticed any work related benefits in the relationship. However 48% of all people surveyed said if they saw peers gaining work related benefits from a personal relationship it would negatively affect morale and

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48 performance. An easy remedy for this is to not let it ever happen. If the hierarchy could the problem would be removed. However this does not have to be applied if a company is privately owned by the family. If one family own s a company it is seen as their right to do with it what they deem fit. Thirty four percent of respondents indicated that they complain when problems exists in the workplace. Complaining is a negative action when an employee is involved with a team atmosph ere like construction. Kjerulf (2008) noted that in a workplace where no one ever complains, people are so afraid of conflict and uncomfortable conversation that very little change is possible.Inidividuals who feel the need to complain in the workplaced mu st do so in a creative and productive manner. Employees who just constantly complain will ultimately cause problems with peers and supervisors In problem solving 98% of people immediately start thinking of ways to solve the problem rather than dwelling on it or pushing it to the side. Ongoing problems only create more problems, so people that solve quickly will ultimately be more efficient. When problems are first presented 73% of people are not upset. Problems are a large part of the construction industr y, so solving them quickly and keeping a positive attitude will ultimately return the best results and positively affect company morale. Creative problem solving inspires innovation. If everyone solved problems in the same manner repeatedly, the world wou ld still be reading by candle light. All the respondents reported that they enjoy learning new areas of construction, even if they did not necessarily enjoy the job they currently hold.

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49 Recreational activities that repondents participate in during their ti me away from work can provide a strong indication as to whether the individual actually enjoys the type of work involved in the construction industry. Most reported that they enjoyed learning about creating objects and goods in their free time. Such inter est carries over from the construction industry, since members are constantly creating some of the most complicated, large, and expensive products known to man. Fifty six percent of those surveyed showed interest in returning to school to better themselves in the construction industry. Such interest is beneficial to the industry for two reasons: the individual is willing to expend personal time and money to better them in the industry. Also such interest is reflective of the emphasis that the industry is pl acing on education. For years the thinking in the industry was that a college education was not necessary to advance in the construction field. However, today education seems to be more and more important with each passing year. In the end, this emphasis o n education will translate into more stable companies and a better quality product. While only 7% of respondents admitted having ever stolen anything from work, employees who steal and minipulate the system are on a slippery moral slope. Fifty eight percen t of the respondents e njoy direct supervison while 42% do not. It is important as a supervisor to know how each person performs better individually. If all employees are treated the same in supervision and rules effeciency will be lost. When employees are given a basic guideline of the task at hand they always prefer the freedom to accomplish the task at hand with minimal supervision. A balance must be struck, in managerial oversight to ensure that quality work is performed. Not surprisingly, 73% of respon dents indicated that they liked supervision from afar,

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50 while only six per cent said they liked constraint supervision and assistance. A significant number, 22%, had no preference. 6% of people enjoy constant help and supervision these results correlate wi th findings revealing that management must know its employees and tailor styles of management to suit individual employee needs in order to maximize efficiency and morale. in pr oduction will happen. People yearn to be listened to and understand that someone cares about their feelings and ideas. If these ideals are not considered in the board rooms of construction companies the same negative processes will be repeated. Over time t urnover will increase and productivity will continue to be average if upper management does not consider the entirety of the company. Recommendations Future studies should break down the survey questions more and be more specific. All questions gave a basic Idea on happiness factors but should be dissected more intricately per subject. Additional survey questions to be asked a bout relationships: Are you happy with your spouse or domestic partner? Do you argue with your domestic p artner about work hours? Do you argue with your partner concerning working out of town? If you have been divorced do you feel that work issues contributed to the relationship failing? Additional survey questions to be asked a bout substance abuse: If yo u argue with your spouse about work do you feel drinking alcohol makes you feel better?

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51 Do you feel stressful hours at work make you want to drink more alcohol after you get home? Do you ever get so stressed at work that you drink alcohol at work during work hours? Do you use nicotine products Do you feel work makes you consume more or less nicotine? Additional survey questions to be asked a bout company policy: During recessions do you feel nervous about your job safety? Does your current employer let you know where the company stands on downsizing? If your superior does not listen to your problems do you feel he should be penalized? When your company does down size do you feel the valuation system they use to lay off employees is fair and is it know n prior to the layoffs? Additional survey questions to be asked a bout pay: Would you rather have a company outing or have that money spent added to your bonus? Do you feel raises and bonus should be completely based on performance?

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52 APPENDIX A SURVEY Q UESTIONNAIRE Created: April 12 2011, 7:33 AM Last Modified: May 04 2011, 8:50 PM Design Theme: Basic Blue Language: English Button Options: Labels Efficiency and Profits through the Strengthening of Company Culture and Values Question 1 Open Ended One Line How long have you been with your current company? Question 2 Choice One Answer (Bullets) What is your current job title (or closest to it)? Upper Management Project Manager Super Intendent Assistant Project Manager Assistant Super Intendent Project Engineer Field Engineer BIM Specialist Estimator Other, please specify Question 3 Open Ended Comments Box What is your company's annual revenue? Question 4 Choice One Answer (Bullets) What was your highest level of education? On the job training High School

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53 Bachelors Masters or Doctorate Question 5 Open Ended Comments Box How old are you? Question 6 Open Ended Comments Box How many years have you been working full time in Construction? Question 7 Yes or No Are you married? Yes No Question 8 Yes or No Are you happily married? Yes No Question 9 Yes or No Do you have family that works in construction? Yes No Question 10 Choice One Answer (Bullets) If you have family that works in construction do they work for the same company as you? Yes No NA

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54 Question 11 Choice One Answer (Bullets) Does having family working at your company define your decision to stay with your company? Yes No NA Question 12 Choice One Answer (Bullets) How many days a week do you drink alcohol if at all? 0 1 2 3 4 5 7 Question 13 Choice One Answer (Bullets) How many drinks do you consume when you drink alcohol? 1 2 3 4 5 5+ N/A Question 14 Choice One Answer (Bullets) Have you used any illegal substances since starting work with your company? Yes No NA Question 15 Choice One Answer (Bullets) How often does your company drug test you per year? 0 1 2 3 4+

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55 Question 16 Choice One Answer (Bullets) Are you happy with your current employer? Yes No NA Question 17 Choice One Answer What makes you the most happy about your current employer? Money Time spent at work Responsibilities Company Culture Question 18 Choice One Answer What makes you unhappy about your current employer? Money Time spent at work Responsibilities Company Culture Question 19 Choice One Answer What made you decide to work for your current company? Money Time spent at work Responsibilities Company Culture Question 20 Yes or No Have things changed since you began working at your current company? Yes No

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56 Question 21 Yes or No Was your current employer dishonest in convincing you to work for them? Yes No Question 22 Choice One Answer If you feel that your current employer was dishonest in convincing you to work for them what were they dishonest about? Money Time spent at work Responsibilities Company Culture N/A Question 23 Choice One Answer If you were going to change jobs what would be the biggest reason for leaving your current employer? Money Time spent at work Responsibilities Company Culture Question 24 Choice One Answer If you are unhappy in any area of your employment have you discussed it with your superiors? Yes No N/A Question 25 Choice One Answer Did anything come from the discussion with your superior? Yes No N/A

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57 Question 26 Choice One Answer If something positive came from the discussion was your superior welcoming to the input or were they bothered? Yes No N/A Question 27 Choice One Answer Overall do you respect your employer if you are unh appy in an aspect of the job? Yes No N/A Question 28 Choice One Answer Would you work harder and do extra work if they made sure that all your concerns were at least considered if not taken care of? Yes No N/A Question 29 Choice One Answer Do people at work generally feel the same as you do about how employees are treated? Yes No N/A Question 30 Yes or No Would you work for the same company if you knew what you know now about your employer? Yes No

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58 Question 31 Yes or No Would you recommend your company to a friend that was looking for employment if your firm was hiring? Yes No Question 32 Yes or No Do you wake up in the morning most days and hate going to work? Yes No Question 33 Choice One A nswer How many hours a week do you work? 40 or less 50 60 70 or more Question 34 Open Ended Comments Box How many hours a week do you feel that you are unneeded at work (your unproductive)? Question 35 Open Ended Comments Box How many hours a week do you feel you should be at work to be happy and get all your work done? Question 36 Yes or No Do you believe your company has a good Culture? Yes No

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59 Question 37 Yes or No Does your company go out of its way to get employees together for other things than work? Yes No Question 38 Yes or No Do most employees gather outside of work to have fun and socialize without the company organizing the gathering? Yes No Question 39 Choice One Answer Do you lik e social gatherings with employees when it is organized by upper management? Yes No N/A Question 40 Choice One Answer Do you like gathering with employees when it is organized by other employees and the company has no involvement? Yes No N/A Question 41 Yes or No Do most of the employees have the same mindset of being positive and working towards the same goal? Yes No

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60 Question 42 Yes or No Do you feel most of the employees are only working at your firm to pick up a pay check and leave? Yes No Question 43 Yes or No Do most employees seem ambitious and motivated to work because they enjoy the work and the culture? Yes No Question 44 Yes or No Are there any employees who report to a family member or spouse in your company? Yes No Question 45 Choice One Answer If there is anyone reporting to a spouse or relative, does the supervisor give them treatment that is not deserved?(ex: better hours, raise, benefits, promotion, having the job at all) Yes No N/A Question 46 Choice One Answer If someone is receiving benefits consistently that is undeserved because of family or spouse relationships how does it affect your productivity? It doesn't bother me It makes me mad and hurts my moral only It makes me and my peers mad and slows all of us down

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61 Question 47 Yes or No Often do you feel that your company and other employees are out to get you? Yes No Question 48 Yes or No Do you feel like you can accomplish anything in relation to work? Yes No Question 49 Yes or No If something goes wrong do you complain? Yes No Question 50 Yes or No If something goes wrong do you immediately start thinking of ways to solve the problem? Yes No Question 51 Yes or No When the problem is solved do you feel accomplishment? Yes No Question 52 Yes or No When the problem is solved do you feel mad you had to deal with the problem at all? Yes No

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62 Question 53 Yes or No When a problem occurs do you think of a new creative way of solving it? Yes No Question 54 Yes or No When a problem occurs do you consult other people or do you do independent research on the problem? Yes No Question 55 Yes or No When a problem occurs do you resolve it the same way over and over again? Yes No Question 56 Yes or No Do you enjoy learning about construction? Yes No Question 57 Yes or No Do you watch TV shows about creating things? (Ex: buildings, cars, guns, art, etc.) Yes No Question 58 Yes or No Do you consider going back to school so you can better do your job and advance in your company? Yes No

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63 Question 59 Yes or No Have you ever stolen anything from work or used company resources for your personal benefit? Yes No Question 60 Yes or No Do you feel that stealing from the company is seen as OK with your peers? Yes No Question 61 Open Ended Comments Box How much money did you make last year including bonus? Question 62 Yes or No Do you like direct supervision and rules? Yes No Question 63 Yes or No Do you like it when your supervisor gives you room to make your own decisions after basic instruction and deadline is given? Yes No Question 64 Choice One Answer Which style of management do you feel makes you most productive? Micro Macro doesn't matter

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64 APPENDIX B SURVEY RESULTS 1. How long have you been with your current company? 52 Responses 2. What is your current job title (or closest to it)? Upper Management 5 10% Project Manager 9 17% Super Intendent 2 4% Assistant Project Manager 7 13% Assistant Super Intendent 0 0% Project Engineer 8 15% Field Engineer 2 4% BIM Specialist 0 0% Estimator 2 4% Other, please specify 17 33% Total 52 100% 3. What is your company's annual revenue? 47 Responses 4. What was your highest level of education On the job training 0 0% High School 2 4% Bachelors 28 54% Masters or Doctorate 22 42% Total 52 100% 5. How old are you? 52 Responses 6. How many years have you been working full time in Construction? 50 Responses 7. Are you married? Yes 21 40% No 31 60% Total 52 100% 8. Are you happily married? Yes 22 46% No 26 54% Total 48 100% 9. Do you have family that works in construction? Yes 23 44% No 29 56% Total 52 100% 10. If you have family that works in construction do they work for the same company as you?

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65 Yes 6 12% No 20 39% NA 25 49% Total 51 100% 11. Does having family working at your company define your decision to stay with your company? Yes 2 4% No 6 12% NA 44 85% Total 52 100% 12. How many days a week do you drink alcohol if at all? 0 8 16% 1 2 31 63% 3 4 10 20% 5 7 0 0% Total 49 100% 13. How many drinks do you consume when you drink alcohol? 1 4 8% 2 3 28 55% 4 5 6 12% 5+ 8 16% N/A 5 10% Total 51 100% 14. Have you used any illegal substances since starting work with your company? Yes 3 6% No 47 92% NA 1 2% Total 51 100% 15. How often does your company drug test you per year? 0 30 60% 1 16 32% 2 2 4% 3 2 4% 4+ 0 0% Total 50 100% 16. Are you happy with your current employer? Yes 46 90% No 2 4% NA 3 6% Total 51 100% 17. What makes you the most happy about your current employer? Money 9 18% Time spent at work 1 2%

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66 Responsibilities 10 20% Company Culture 29 59% Total 49 100% 18. What makes you unhappy about your current employer? Money 13 28% Time spent at work 23 49% Responsibilities 8 17% Company Culture 3 6% Total 47 100% 19. What made you decide to work for your current company? Money 14 27% Time spent at work 3 6% Responsibilities 10 20% Company Culture 24 47% Total 51 100% 20. Have things changed since you began working at your current company? Yes 32 63% No 19 37% Total 51 100% 21. Was your current employer dishonest in convincing you to work for them? Yes 7 13% No 45 87% Total 52 100% 22. If you feel that your current employer was dishonest in convincing you to work for them what were they dishonest about? Money 2 4% Time spent at work 2 4% Responsibilities 2 4% Company Culture 2 4% N/A 42 84% Total 50 100% 23. If you were going to change jobs what would be the biggest reason for leaving your current employer? Money 23 46% Time spent at work 16 32% Responsibilities 10 20% Company Culture 1 2% Total 50 100% 24. If you are unhappy in any area of your employment have you discussed it with your superiors? Yes 21 40% No 7 13% N/A 24 46%

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67 Total 52 100% 25. Did anything come from the discussion with your superior? Yes 16 31% No 6 12% N/A 29 57% Total 51 100% 26. If something positive came from the discussion was your superior welcoming to the input or were they bothered? Yes 13 26% No 2 4% N/A 35 70% Total 50 100% 27. Overall do you respect your employer if you are unhappy in an aspect of the job? Yes 34 67% No 3 6% N/A 14 27% Total 51 100% 28. Would you work harder and do extra work if they made sure that all your concerns were at least considered if not taken care of? Yes 38 75% No 4 8% N/A 9 18% Total 51 100% 29. Do people at work generally feel the same as you do about how employees are treated? Yes 38 75% No 4 8% N/A 9 18% Total 51 100% 30. Would you work for the same company if you knew what you know now about your employer? Yes 49 96% No 2 4% Total 51 100% 31. Would you recommend your company to a friend that was looking for employment if your firm was hiring? Yes 47 94% No 3 6% Total 50 100% 32. Do you wake up in the morning most days and hate going to work? Yes 5 10% No 43 90%

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68 Total 48 100% 33. How many hours a week do you work? 40 or less 7 14% 50 21 42% 60 17 34% 70 or more 5 10% Total 50 100% 34. How many hours a week do you feel that you are unneeded at work (your unproductive)? 46 Responses 35. How many hours a week do you feel you should be at work to be happy and get all your work done? 46 Responses 36. Do you believe your company has a good Culture? Yes 46 90% No 5 10% Total 51 100% 37. Does your company go out of its way to get employees together for other things than work? Yes 38 75% No 13 25% Total 51 100% 38. Do most employees gather outside of work to have fun and socialize without the company organizing the gathering? Yes 32 63% No 19 37% Total 51 100% 39. Do you like social gatherings with employees when it is organized by upper management? Yes 34 65% No 12 23% N/A 6 12% Total 52 100% 40. Do you like gathering with employees when it is organized by other employees and the company has no involvement? Yes 42 81% No 6 12% N/A 4 8% Total 52 100% 41. Do most of the employees have the same mindset of being positive and working towards the same goal? Yes 48 94% No 3 6%

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69 Total 51 100% 42. Do you feel most of the employees are only working at your firm to pick up a pay check and leave? Yes 7 14% No 44 86% Total 51 100% 43. Do most employees seem ambitious and motivated to work because they enjoy the work and the culture? Yes 43 84% No 8 16% Total 51 100% 44. Are there any employees who report to a family member or spouse in your company? Yes 20 39% No 31 61% Total 51 100% 45. If there is anyone reporting to a spouse or relative, does the supervisor give them treatment that is not deserved?(ex: better hours, raise, benefits, promotion, having the job at all) Yes 2 4% No 21 40% N/A 29 56% Total 52 100% 46. If someone is receiving benefits consistantly that are undeserved because of family or spouse relationships how does it affect your productivity? It doesn't bother me 21 52% It makes me mad and hurts my moral only 7 18% It makes me and my peers mad and slows all of us down 12 30% Total 40 100% 47. Often do you feel that your company and other employees are out to get you? Yes 1 2% No 50 98% Total 51 100% 48. Do you feel like you can accomplish anything in relation to work? Yes 45 88% No 6 12% Total 51 100% 49. If something goes wrong do you complain? Yes 17 34% No 33 66% Total 50 100% 50. If something goes wrong do you immediately start thinking of ways to solve the

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70 problem? Yes 50 98% No 1 2% Total 51 100% 51. When the problem is solved do you feel accomplishment? Yes 50 98% No 1 2% Total 51 100% 52. When the problem is solved do you feel mad you had to deal with the problem at all? Yes 14 27% No 37 73% Total 51 100% 53. When a problem occurs do you think of a new creative way of solving it? Yes 47 92% No 4 8% Total 51 100% 54. When a problem occurs do you consult other people or do you do independent research on the problem? Yes 44 90% No 5 10% Total 49 100% 55. When a problem occurs do you resolve it the same way over and over again? Yes 12 24% No 38 76% Total 50 100% 56. Do you enjoy learning about construction? Yes 52 100% No 0 0% Total 52 100% 57. Do you watch TV shows about creating things? (Ex: buildings, cars, guns, art, etc.) Yes 49 94% No 3 6% Total 52 100% 58. Do you consider going back to school so you can better do your job and advance in your company? Yes 29 56% No 23 44% Total 52 100% 59. Have you ever stolen anything from work or used company resources for your personal benefit? Yes 7 14%

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71 No 44 86% Total 51 100% 60. Do you feel that stealing from the company is seen as OK with your peers? Yes 3 6% No 49 94% Total 52 100% 61. How much money did you make last year including bonus? 43 Responses 62. Do you like direct supervision and rules? Yes 30 58% No 22 42% Total 52 100% 63. Do you like it when your supervisor gives you room to make your own decisions after basic instruction and deadline is given? Yes 51 100% No 0 0% Total 51 100% 64. Which style of management do you feel makes you most productive? micro 3 6% macro 37 73% doesn't matter 11 22% Total 51 100% 1. How long have you been with your current company? Respondent # Response 1 3 Months 2 1 year 3 3 months 4 2 MONTHS 5 3 months 6 30 plus years 7 8 1 year 9 2 weeks 10 <1 year 11 3 Years 12 3 Years 13 17 14 3 years 15 3.5 years 16 5 years 17 5 years 18 4 years

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72 19 6 years 20 3 yrs 21 5 years 22 3 years 23 17 YEARS 24 14 years 25 5 months 26 6 27 8 years 28 10 Years 29 5 Years 30 5 YEARS 31 1.5 years 32 11 Years 33 4 Years 34 15 yrs 35 5 months 36 5 yers 37 9 months 38 10 years 39 6 years 40 1 year 41 3 months 42 3 Years 43 4+ years 44 6 months 45 1year 2 months 46 3.5 years 47 1 year 48 4 years 49 4 years 50 7.5 Years 51 2 years 52 10 years 2. What is your current job title (or closest to it)? Respondent # Response 1 intern 2 Intern 3 intern 4 Intern Architect 5 Project Manager/Superintendent 6 Architect 7 consultant

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73 8 Regional Quality Manager & Regional Manager of Engineering 9 Career Development 10 Contract Administrator 11 Co Owner 12 architect 13 Project Engineer 14 Executive assistant 15 Associate Project Planner / Scheduler 16 Architect 17 Office Engineer 3. What is your company's annual revenue? Respondent # Response 1 200 million 2 300 million 3 1.8 billion 4 $900,000 5 10 15 million 6 $12,000,000 7 $75 Million 8 $700 Million 9 30,000,000 10 $500 MM 11 $600,000 12 500 600 million 13 450 million 14 50 million 15 450M 16 approximately $3.5 Billion/year 17 4 Billion 18 1,000,000,000 19 $450MM 20 $600,000,000 21 16,000 M 22 $275 $350 million. 23 500 Million 24 $500 Million 25 100 M 26 145m 27 $150 300 million 28 $170 Million 29 150m 30 <$250k

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74 31 80 million 32 $50M 33 180m 34 $7.5mm 35 4 Billion 36 500 million 37 $20,000,000 38 10 15 Million 39 20 million 40 Private. 41 500 million 42 $3 Billion 43 3,000,000,000 44 3 billion 45 3 Billion 46 unknown 47 $3 Billion 5. How old are you? Respondent # Response 1 25 2 26 3 25 4 21 5 23 6 22 7 60 8 23 9 28 10 21 11 21 12 26 13 27 14 25 15 21 27 16 29 17 28 years 18 28 19 43 20 26 21 29 years of age 22 28 23 58 24 35

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75 25 24 26 32 27 30 28 46 29 27 30 57 31 24 32 55 years old 33 31 34 51 35 29 36 33 37 35 38 49 39 43 40 25 41 27 42 26 43 27 44 24 45 25 46 28 47 24 48 33 49 24 50 31 51 24 52 32 6. How many years have you been working full time in Construction? Respondent # Response 1 2.5 years 2 3 3 2 4 4 5 4 6 30 plus 7 0 8 1 9 1 10 n/a 11 3 years 12 3 13 3

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76 14 6 15 5 16 5 years 17 4 18 20 19 6 20 6 years 21 3 years at Walsh (3 in human resources for another industry) 22 14 23 1 24 6 25 8 26 22 years 27 5 Years 28 35 29 1.5 years 30 30 years 31 8 Years 32 33 33 5.5 years 34 5 35 13 36 34 37 20 38 1 year 39 3 40 3 Years 41 6 42 less than a year 43 2 44 3.5 45 1 46 4 47 8 48 10 Years 49 2 50 12 34. How many hours a week do you feel that you are unneeded at work (your unproductive)? Respondent # Response 1 0 2 5

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77 3 0 4 5 5 n/a 6 10 7 5 8 0 9 10 10 0 11 0 12 10 hours 13 Not very often. Maybe 2 or 3 hours 14 10 15 5 16 As of now with our company being bought out by a larger firm, I am needed at work for all hours. 17 20 hours 18 20 19 0 20 20 21 3 hrs 22 12 Aug 23 0 24 0 25 0 26 0 27 0 28 0 29 8 30 0 31 0 32 0 33 0 34 5 hrs 35 0 36 20+ 37 20 Oct 38 15 Oct 39 10 40 none 41 6 42 10 43 10 44 5 Hours

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78 45 0 46 0 35. How many hours a week do you feel you should be at work to be happy and get all your work done? Respondent # Response 1 50 2 45 3 55 4 50 5 40 6 30 7 40 8 55 60 9 30 10 45 60 11 40 12 40 hours 13 15 hours 14 40 15 45 16 40 45 hours 17 20 18 60 19 60 20 60 21 45 hrs 22 55 23 50 to be happy; not enough hours in a week to get "all" work done. 24 168 25 50 26 50 27 50 28 50 29 40 30 40 31 25 32 40 60 33 20 30 34 35 35 40 36 40 37 40 50

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79 38 45 50 39 50 40 40 41 50 42 50 43 45 44 50 Hours 45 50 46 50 61. How much money did you make last year including bonus? Respondent # Response 1 57,000 2 57000 3 n/a 4 65000 5 n/a 6 N/A 7 $70K 8 60,000 9 $50k $60k 10 $57,000 11 60,500 12 53,000 13 130,000 14 55K 15 $93,000.00 16 65K 17 207000 18 106000 19 53000 20 98,000 21 $95,000 Base Salary; $65,000 Bonus = $160,000 Total Compensation + Benefits 22 110,000 23 55,000 24 45k 25 $72,000.00 26 Private 27 100000 28 55000 29 120k 30 110m 31 Over 150k

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80 32 62000 33 $65,000 34 +60K 35 n/a 36 Private 37 60,000 38 ~$63,000 39 65,000 40 62000 41 ---42 60,000 43 $145,000.00

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81 LIST OF REFERENCES Bass, B.M. Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations, Free Press, New York (1985). Goleman, D. "What Makes a Leader." Harvard Business Review 82.1 (2004): 82 91. Hard, Rob. "Top Outdoor Corporate Events for the Summer." Event Planning Meeting Planning Special Events Web. 01 June 2011. . Holohan, E. (2011). "Too Many Hours at Work Might Har m the Heart US News and World Report." Health News Articles US News Health 4 Apr. 2011. Web. 01 June 2011. . Kjerulf, A (2008) Happy Hour Is 9 to 5: How to Love Your Job, Love Your Life, and Kick Butt at Work 2008. Leighton, E A., and Peterson. A. K. (2011). "A Way Forward: Assessing the Demonstrated Leadership of Graduate Civil Engineering and Construction Management Students ." Leadership and Management in Engineering 11.2: 88 96. Lingard, H (2004) "The Work life Experiences of Office and Site based Employees in the Australian Construction Industry." Construction Management and Economics 22.9 : 991 1002. Lund, M. (2011). Focusing on Gross Revenues Instead of Net Income Can Be Hazardous to a Contractor's Health." h ttp://www.constructionbusinessowner.com 23 May 2011. McCormick, J and Karinch M. (2009) Business Lessons from the Edge: Learn How Extreme Athletes Use Inte lligent Risk taking to Succeed in Business New York: McGraw Hill, 2009. J. Prof. Issues Eng. Educ. Pract., 125 (3), 79 82 Moore, J (2006) Tribal Knowledge: Business Wisdom Brewed from the Grounds of Starbucks Corporate Culture Chicago, IL: Kaplan Pub., 2006. Nelson, B (2011) 1001 Ways to Reward Employees New York: Workman Pub., 1994. Page, S. (2010). The Power of Business Process Improvement: 10 Simple Steps to Increase Effectivene ss, Efficiency, and Adaptability Amacom.

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82 Rutherford, D. (2011). "Do I Drink Too Much Alcohol?" NetDoctor.co.uk The UK's Leading Independent Health Website Web. 29 May 2011. . Sal ovey P. and Mayer J.D. ( 1990). Emotional intelligence, Imagination, Cognition, and Personality 9 (3) (1990), pp. 185 211. Sherwood, A (2011). "Reasons Why Some People Steal Helium." Helium Where Knowledge Rules Web. 06 June 2011. < http://www.helium.com/items/318196 reasons why some people steal>. Scott, W .D. (2004). Increasing Human Efficiency in Business Whitefish, MT: Kessinger's, 2004. Construction Industry Institute (CII) (2011). http://construction institute.org/ scriptcontent/more/rr135_11_more.cfm CII. Web. 24 May 2011. . New Zealand Department of Labour (2011). "Solving Problems." Department of Labour Web. 06 June 2011. .

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83 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH (MSBC) degree from the M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction at the University of Florida. During his studies he interned with PCL Builders based out of Orlando Florida and as a Teaching Assistant for the Universit y of Florida in the subject of construction f inance. Prior to earning his niversity of Florida he received his real estate f inance deg ree while playing football at Florida State University in Tallahassee Florida. s are related to the finance and management aspects of commercial construction. He h as a total of 4 years combined experience in construction and mana gement with an emphasis in finance and client service s He has currently begun full time employment with Hawkins Construction based out of Tarpon Springs, Florida.