Effect of Pre-Construction Planning on Project Costs and Sustainability

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Title:
Effect of Pre-Construction Planning on Project Costs and Sustainability
Physical Description:
1 online resource (60 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Kreitler,Christiane
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.B.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Building Construction
Committee Chair:
Issa, R. Raymond
Committee Co-Chair:
Olbina, Svetlana
Committee Members:
Lucas, Elmer

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
bim -- construction -- cost -- design -- leed -- planning -- preconstruction -- project -- savings -- sustainability
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
The construction industry involves many distinct processes and professionals that without planning, projects are bound to fail. For many years construction companies have used traditional scheduling approaches, but this process has proven to be insufficient. Several pre-construction planning methods have emerged in the last century and have made their way to be used on projects. These methods include, among others, design phase construction planning, building information modeling, project control systems and using past projects? data to improve performance among others. The main goal of this study was to show how these relatively new approaches were effectively affecting cost savings, and how they are promoting sustainability. Additional objectives are to find which method is most widely used in the industry today and how these methods can help in the LEED Certification process. The data for this study was collected using an online survey (zoomerang.com), and the anonymity of the respondents was preserved. The survey?s answers revealed that using data from past projects to improve performance still is the most used method. In addition, two other pre-construction planning methods were mentioned in the survey by the respondents ? risk management and assembling a team. Companies that spent more on pre-construction planning are the ones that had more cost savings. Therefore, the study showed that profitable companies use pre-construction methods frequently and in combination. Data shows that more than 97% of the respondents believe that pre-construction planning is an essential tool to achieve LEED Certification. In addition, the use of high performance materials is frequent even though the project does not have the intention to be LEED Certified. Moreover, companies which had more LEED Certified projects in their portfolio use pre-construction methods more frequently. Therefore, the data confirms that pre-construction planning methods promote sustainability. Understanding how pre-construction planning affects the project cost and sustainability can encourage construction firms to use pre-construction planning more often and bring the industry to achieve better results.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Christiane Kreitler.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local:
Adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
Local:
Co-adviser: Olbina, Svetlana.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-08-31

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Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID:
UFE0043419:00001


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1 EFFECT OF PRE CONSTRUCTION PLANNING ON COSTS AND SUSTAINABILITY By CRISTIANE KREITLER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Cristiane Kreitler

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3 To my loved husband, my daughter, and my parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research project would not have been possible without the support of many people. I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Raymond Issa who was abundantly helpful and offered invaluable as sistance, support and guidance. Special than ks also to all my friends who made this journey a pleasant road I also would also like to thank my husband for all the love, support and help He was always there for me. In addition, I wish to express my love and gratitude to my beloved family in Brazil for their understanding and endless lo ve, throughout the duration of my studies.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 Pre Construction Planning ................................ ................................ ...................... 15 Sustai nable Design ................................ ................................ ................................ 17 LEED Certification ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 19 Sustainable Sites ................................ ................................ .............................. 19 Water Efficiency ................................ ................................ ............................... 20 Energy and Atmosphere ................................ ................................ ................... 20 Materials and Resources ................................ ................................ .................. 20 Indoor E nvironmental Quality ................................ ................................ ........... 21 Locations and Linkages ................................ ................................ .................... 21 Awareness and Education ................................ ................................ ................ 21 Innovati on in Design ................................ ................................ ......................... 22 Regional Priority ................................ ................................ ............................... 22 Building Information Modeling (BIM) ................................ ................................ ....... 22 Design Phase Construction Planning ................................ ................................ ..... 25 Schematic Design ................................ ................................ ............................ 25 Conceptual D esign Stage ................................ ................................ ................. 26 Design Development Stage ................................ ................................ .............. 26 Construction Document Stage ................................ ................................ .......... 26 Desi gn Modifications Stage ................................ ................................ .............. 26 Project Control System ................................ ................................ ........................... 27 Case Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 29 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 33 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 33 Scope ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 33 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 35 Types of Pre Construction Methods and Their Relationship ................................ ... 40 Relationship between Pre Construction Planning and Annual Revenue ................ 43

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6 Relationship between Pre Construction Planning and Cost Savings ...................... 45 Effect of Pre Construction Planning on Sustainability ................................ ............. 46 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ......................... 51 APPENDIX: SURVEY QUESTIONNARE ................................ ................................ ...... 54 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 57 BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 60

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Number of responses for each construction industry discipline .......................... 35 4 2 Number of responses for each method of pre construction planning by company role ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 42 4 3 construction planning ................................ ................................ .......................... 44 4 4 Frequency of use of pre construction planning per method. ............................... 49

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Marquand library of art and archaeology view of the plaza .............................. 31 2 2 Marquand library of art and archaeology 1 st floor reading room. ..................... 32 2 3 Marquand library of art and archaeology 3 rd floor Carrels ................................ 32 4 1 Company role ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 35 4 2 Professional experience ................................ ................................ ..................... 36 4 3 ................................ ................................ .... 37 4 4 Company project types ................................ ................................ ....................... 37 4 5 Annual revenue ................................ ................................ ................................ 38 4 6 Annual revenue Contractors ................................ ................................ ........... 39 4 7 Annual revenue Architects ................................ ................................ .............. 39 4 8 Number of employees ................................ ................................ ........................ 40 4 9 Methods of pre construction planning often used ................................ .............. 41 4 10 Methods of pre construction planning per company role ................................ ... 42 4 11 Percentage of time spent on pre construction planning phase. .......................... 43 4 12 Frequency of pre construction planning on projects ................................ ........... 44 4 13 Frequency of using pre constructi on planning based on company annual revenue. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 45 4 14 Relationship between cost savings and pre construction planning ..................... 46 4 15 Percentage of LEED certified projects ................................ ................................ 47 4 16 Use of high performance materials and/or eco products ................................ .... 47 4 17 Pre construction planning helps in the LEED certification process ..................... 48 4 18 Frequency of pre construction methods BIM vs. LEED projects. ..................... 49 4 19 Frequency of pre construction methods (design phase) vs. LEED projects ....... 50

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9 4 20 Frequency of pre LEED certified projects ................................ ................................ ................................ 50

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10 L IST OF ABBREVIATIONS AC actual cost of work performed BIM building information m odeling CAD computer aided d esign EV earned v alue of work performed IAQ i n door air q ualit y IPD integrated project d elivery LCC life cycle c ost LCCA life c ycle cost a nalysis LEED leadership in energy and environmental d esign PV project v alue ROI return on i nvestment USGBC United States green building c ouncil VE value e ngineering

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirem ents for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction EFFECT OF PRE CONSTRUCTION PLANNING ON COST S AND SUSTAINABILITY By Cristiane Kreitler August 2011 Chair: R. Raymond Issa Cochair: Svetlana Olbina Major: Building Construction The construction industry involves many distinct processes and professionals that without planning, projects are bound to fail. For many years c onstruction companies have used traditional scheduling approaches but this process has proven to be insufficient. Several pre construction planning methods have emerged in the last century and have made their way to be used on projects. These methods incl ude among others, design phase construction planning, building information modeling, among others The main goal of this study was to show how these relatively new appr oaches wer e effectively affecting cost savings, and how they are promoting sustainability. Additional objectives are to find which method is most widely us ed in the industry today and how these methods can help in the LEED Certification process. The data for this study was collected using an online survey, and the anonymity of the respondents was preserved. The survey responses revealed that u sing data from past projects to improve performance still is the most used method. In addition two other pre construction planning methods were mentioned in the survey by the respondents risk management

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12 and assembling a team C ompanies that spent more on pre construc tion planning are the ones that had more cost savings. Therefore, the study showed that p rofitable companies use pre construction methods frequently and in combination. The d ata showed that more than 97% of the respondents believe d that p re construction pl anning is an essential tool to a chieve LEED Certification. In addition, t he use of high performance materials is frequent even though the project does not have the intention to be LEED Certified. Moreover, companies which had more LEED Certified projects i n their portfolio use pre construction methods more frequently. Therefore, the data confirms that pre construction planning methods promote sustainability. Understanding how pre construction planning affects the project cost and sustainability can encourag e construction firms to use pre construction planning more often and help the industry achieve better results.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION S ustainability in the construction bus green the building is in terms of energy and high performance materials used during its construction, operation maintenance, and deconstruction Software can be used to help optimize material selection, utilize the resources of the construction process more efficiently, and improve the maintenance o f buildings by a diversity of applications Most of the technology products for construction tasks such as financial management, project management, document management, bidding, project scheduling, and cost estimate were all built around the paper based processes of design, communication, collaboration, and construction. It is difficult to change habits, but is not impossible. Business is not a static process; it needs to adapt and to be open to new approaches and te chnologies. Pre construction planning is a valuable strategy to achieve sustainability and it can help reduce construction costs. Therefore, construction companies are using some pre construction approaches to increase savings and obtain better performance of their buildings. Building I nformation Modeling (BIM) is one of these new approaches. So far BIM has been very much a tool for professionals life cycle. In the current changing scenario, the BIM models can be used to maximize energy efficien cy and optimize material selection. Construction companies have been using numerous 3D tools for a long time but in isolation. True BIM as a process that supports integrated project delivery (IPD) is still in its infancy. It is not about availability

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14 considerable. T op construction companies in United States are using this process successfully. BIM is responsible for saving money on estimat ing, re ducing waste materials, and minimizin g unnecessary change orders. It i s a process that makes the Design phase a little longer, but it can save money and time at the time of executions of the project. Differen t approaches also can be used like design phase construction planning, establishing a project control system or unit, and using past projects data to improve productivity. A survey of the top US green construction companies was conducted and in order to evaluate how costs can be reduced with the implementation of preconstruction planning methods and how these methods can promote a more sustainable environment The survey analyzed the commercial, retail, and industrial construction sectors in order to test the following hypotheses: H 01 : The imple mentation of pre construction planning in the commercial, retail, and industrial sectors of construction increases savings on costs considerably H 02 : The implementation of pre construction planning in the commercial, retail, and industrial sectors of con struction promotes a sustainable environment. T he results of this research will help lead to a more comprehensive view of the impact that pre construction planning can have in the construction industry.

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Pre Construction Planning The complexity of the construction industry requires the identification of work tasks and the coordination of interactions among them. As a result, construction planning is considered to be one of the most criti cal steps toward success. Construct ion projects need planning professionals to ensure that the project meets its program, stays on schedule and within budget, and causes minimal change orders along the way. Preconstruction planners perform a number of specialized services that can yield sig nificant cost savings: estimating, budget development, constructability reviews, value engineering, construction strategy and schedule development, risk analysis and contingency management, and procurement strategy development. They can help ensure that pr ojects succeed by providing administrators and the design team with the tools needed to carry out a project. The sooner preconstruction planners begin work on a project, the greater their ability to identify cost reductions, enhance quality, improve constr uctability and increase schedule efficiency. Cost savings realized through high quality preconstruction planning often can be reinvested in project enhancements. Professional preconstruction planners also can help minimize the need for redesign by identify ing construction issues early and collaborating with architects and engineers in developing solutions. Therefore, preconstruction planners should be involved in the project from the start of the programming phase (http://asumag.com/mag/university _planning _ahead 2003). Detailed estimates can be useful at every stage of design documentation by explicitly defining the components, scope and cost of all building systems. Among the

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16 estimating tools is benchmarking, which is used both for cost breakdowns and to v erify that the estimated costs of each component of the project and system fall within the proper range for projects of that type and complexity. The benchmarking process isolates each major building component and system, and compares projected costs with those of projects that are of similar type, scope and geographic location. Typically, estimators look first at the building systems, then at the concepts behind the building design and, finally, at specific equipment and materials. This information is used to develop, verify and manage the project's budget. In addition, d evelopment of a well structured project cost estimate and schedule in the early planning phase sets the stage for wise decisions by the entire project team. The planning process requires th at the decisions made by the institution and its design team are compared continually with project goals and cost estimates. The pre construction planning team should perform constructability reviews and conduct value engineering workshops on every projec t to identify opportunities to build better facilities for less cost This can free resources that can be reinvested in enhancements. For example, the team may identify opportunities to save money through simplified installation details, prefabrication or construction standardization. Recommendations may be made for achieving the best value for materials or for minimizing trade interdependencies and weather conditions. Value engineering workshops examine whether more cost effective ways are available to mee t the same performance goals without sacrificing scope, quality or architectural appeal. Taking this approach, the preconstruction planning team first look s at how individual components and systems meet a building's performance goals, then at

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17 the design st andards and sizes of those systems and components, and finally at the materials and finishes. An experienced construction manager maintains a database for projects of similar program scope and building type from which to draw, analyze and compare costs, an d to develop value engineering solutions. Savings also may be realized through effective risk analysis and contingency planning. During the preconstruction planning process, the team also identifies any needs for early procurement of equipment and material s with long lead times, not only to ensure that the schedule is met, but also to reduce costs. The procurement of equipment and materials typically is spelled out in the project execution strategy developed by the planning team, in order to coordinat e t he procurement of equipment and the arrival of materials at the optimal time in the construction process. An initial investment in preconstruction planning can result in considerable cost savings. The key is to involve a construction manager as an integral member of the project team at the programming stage. Preconstruction planning is important to the success of any building project and is absolutely essential when undertaking the challenges of a renovation or expansion (Arsht 2003). Sustainable Design Sustainable design seeks to reduce negative impacts on the environment, and the health and comfort of buildi ng occupants, thereby improving building performance. The basic objectives of sustainability are to reduce consumption of non renewable resources, minimize waste, and create healthy, productive environments. (GSA 2010) Moreover, g reen design is design that goes beyond being just efficient, on time and on budget. G reen design cares about how such goals are achieved, about their effect on people and on the environment. An environmentally responsible professional

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18 makes a commitment to constantly try to find w ays to diminish design's impact on t he world around us. It is also a smart way of doing business: sustainable design is the fastest growing segment of our industry. (ASID 2009) S ustainable buildings provide financial rewards for building owners, operators and occupants. Sustainable buildings typically have lower annual costs for energy, water, maintenance/repair, churn (reconfiguring space because of changing needs), and other operating expenses. These reduced costs do not have to come at the expense of h igher initial costs. Through integrated design and innovative use of sustainable materials and equipment, the cost of a sustainable building can be the same as, or lower than, that of a traditional building. Some sustainable design features have higher ini tial costs, but the payback period for the incremental investment often is short and the lifecycle cost typically lower than the cost of traditional buildings. In addition to direct cost savings, sustainable buildings can provide indirect economic benefits to both the building owner and society. For instance, sustainable building features can promote bett er health, comfort, and well being of building occupants, which can reduce levels of absenteeism and increase productivity. Sustainable building features c an offer owners economic benefits in terms of lower risks, longer building lifetimes, improved ability to attract new employees, reduced expenses for dealing with complaints, less time and lower costs for project permitting resulting from community accepta nce and support on sustainable projects, and increased asset value. Sustainable buildings also offer society as a whole economic benefits such as reduced costs f o air pollution damage and lower infrastructure costs, e.g., for avoided landfills, wastewater treatment plants, power plants, and transmission/d istribution lines ( DOE EERE 2008)

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19 LEED Certification Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) was launched in March 2000. LEED is an internationally recognized green building certification sys tem providing third party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at improving performance across all the metrics that matter most: energy savings, water efficiency, CO 2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality, and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts. LEED applies to all building types commercial as well as residential. It works throughout the building lifecycle design and construction, operations and maintenance, tenant fit out and significant retrofit. ( http://www.usgbc.org 2011 ) LEED was designed to encourage and accelerate global adoption of sustainable green building and development practices through the creation and implementation of universally understood and accepted standards, tools, and performance criteria. LEED promotes a whole building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in key areas: Sustainable Sites Site selection and development are important components sustainability. The Sustainable Sites category discourages development on previously undeveloped land; seeks to minimize a building's impact on ecosystems and waterways; encourages regional ly appropriate landscaping; rewards smart transportation choices; controls storm water runoff; and promotes reduction of erosion, light pollution, heat island effect and construction related pollution. Healthy landscapes have the capacity to enhance and re generate natural resources and ecosystem health

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20 Water Efficiency Buildings are major users of potable water supply. The goal of the Water Efficiency category is to encourage smarter use of water. Water reduction is typically achieved through more efficien t appliances, fixtures and fittings inside the buildings and wate r conscious landscaping outdoors Moreover, use of high efficiency fixtures and dry fixtures such as composting toilet system s and waterless urinals to reduce wastewater volumes are some of t he actions to achieve these criteria In addition, the reusing storm water or grey water for sewage conveyance or on site wastewater treatment systems (mechanical and/or natural) reduces water use Therefore, o ptions for on site wastewater treatment include packaged biological nutrient removal systems, constructed wetlands, and high efficiency filtration systems should be considered Energy and Atmosphere According to the U.S. Department of Energy, buildings use 39% of the energy and 74% of the elect ricity produced each year in the United States. The Energy & Atmosphere category encourages a wide variety of energy wise strategies: commissioning; energy use monitoring; efficient design and construction; efficient appliances, systems and lighting; the u se of renewable and clean sources of energy, generated on site or off site; and other innovative measures. Materials and Resources During both the construction and operations phases, buildings generate a lot of waste and use large quantities of materials a nd resources. The Materials & Resources category encourages the selection of sustainably grown, harvested, produced and transported products and materials. This criteria promotes waste reduction

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21 In addition, it promotes reuse and recycling, and it particu larly rewards the Indoor Environmental Quality The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that Americans spend about 90% of their day indoors, where the air quality can be significantly worse than outside. The Indoor Environmental Quality category promotes strategies that improve indoor air as well as those that provide access to natural daylight and views and improve acoustics. Poor IAQ is a major concern as it can impact the health, comfort, and productivi ty of the building occupants. This category focuses on a building's strategies to improve indoor air qua Locations and Linkages The LEED for Homes rating system recognizes that much of a home's impact on the environment comes fr om where it is located and how it fits into its community. The Locations & Linkages category encourages building on previously developed or infill sites and away from environmentally sensitive areas. Credits reward homes that are built near already existin g infrastructure, community resources and transit in locations that promote a ccess to open space for walking and phy sical activity Awareness and Education The LEED for Homes rating system acknowledges that a home is only truly green if the people who li ve in it use its green features to maximum effect. The Awareness & Education category encourages home builders and real estate professionals to provide homeowners, tenants and building managers with the education and tools needed to understand what makes t heir home green and how to make the most of those features. Occupants play a substantial role in the resource use of a home over its lifetime.

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22 Innovation in Design The Innovation in Design category provides bonus points for projects that use innovative te what is required by other LEED credits, or to account for green building considerations that are not specifically addressed elsewhere in LEED. This category also rewards projects for including a LEED Accredited Professional on the team to ensure a holistic, integrated approach to the design and construction process. Regional Priority important local environmental concerns, and six LEED credits addressing these local priorities have been selected for each region of the country. A project that earns a regional pr iority credit will earn one bonus point in addition to any points awarded for that credit. Up to four extra points can be earned in this way. Building Information Modeling (BIM) A Building information model is a digital representation of physical and func tional characteristics of a facility. As such, it serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life cycle from inception onward. A basic premise of Building Information Modeling (B IM) is collaboration by different stakeholders at different phases of the life cycle of a facility to insert, extract, update or modify information in the Model to support and reflect the roles of that stakeholder. The Model is a shared digital representat ion founded on open standards for interoperability (NBIMS 2007). BIM involves integration of CAD drawings, geospatial data and other graphical and non graphical data, and may represent the view of a building from any practitioner

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23 perspective: architect, sp ecification drafter, and engineer, fabricator, leasing agent, lender and general contractor. As such, it serves as a shared source of information on a building, forming a reliable basis for decision making during its lifecycle. Pushing users in the directi making throughout this lifecycle is the technology enabler of network based distributed computing. It shifts the focus from isolated drawings and project specific data files and soft ware systems to drawing, seemingly spontaneously, on information and software services residing on countless servers. Key to this development is interoperability and standards (G lobal I nitiatives in M anagement 2010) Buildings consume close to 40% of total energy used in the United States and account for 30% of greenhouse gas emissions. With the rising cost of energy and growing environmental concerns, the demand for sustainable buildings with minimal environmental impact is increasing. The most effective d ecisions related to the sustainable design of a building can be made in the early design and preconstruction stages. In this context, BIM can aid in performing complex building performance analyses to ensure an optimized sustainable building design. (Azhar and Brown 2009) Building information m odeling (BIM) offers yet another powerful capability to design teams: they can assess alternative energy strategies and systems in the earliest phases of design. New and emerging tools allow a user to submit data from project BIMs to test energy saving ideas and see results quickly. This helps teams make energy conscious decisions early in design when those decisions have greatest effective retrofit decisions (Stumpf and Brucker 2006).

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24 Integrated practice represents both an opportunity and a challenge for architecture and engineering professions. From a sustainable design perspective, the greatest potential is for increased collabo ration and integration across design disciplines. (Vallero 2008) At any stage of the design, BIM technology can extract an accurate bill of quantities and spaces that can be used for cost estimation. In the early stages of a design, cost estimates are base d primarily on the unit cost per square foot. As the design progresses, more detailed quantities are available and can be used for more accurate and detailed cost estimates. It is possible to keep all parties aware of the cost implications associated with a given design before it progresses to the level of detailing required of construction bids. Because the virtual 3D building model is the source for all 2D and 3D drawings, design errors caused by inconsistent 2D drawings are eliminated. In addition, becau se systems from all disciplines can be brought together and compared, multi system interfaces are easily checked both systematically (for hard and soft clashes) and visually (for other kinds of errors). Conflicts are identi fied before they are detected in the field. While BIM offers new methods for collaboration, it introduces other issues with respect to the development of effective teams. Determining the methods that will be used to permit adequate sharing of model information by members of the project te am is a significant issue. If the architect uses traditional paper based drawings, then it will be necessary for the contractor (or a third party) to build the model so that it can be used for construction planning, estimating, and coordination etc. Creati ng a model after the design is complete adds cost and time to the project, but it may be justified by the

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25 advantages of using it for construction planning and detailed design by mechanical, plumbing, other subs and fabricators, design change resolution, pr ocurement, etc. ( Eastman et al 2008) Design Phase Construction Planning During the planning and design phase, two major issues are addressed: design concepts and a budget. Wan (2011) explained how the design phase works among design build companies. Sever al steps are involved in the design phase planning method : schematic design, conceptual design stage, design development stage, construction document stage, and design modifications stage. Schematic D esign During the Schematic Design stage for buildings, a list of spatial requirements (number of offices, conference rooms, and special spaces) baseline the design. The goal during this phase is to acquire a complete and accurate understanding of project requirements. For example, a code analysis will establish specific zoning and environmen tal restrictions. Based on the program and code analysis a preliminary design sketch of a site plan (the proposed building located on the site), floor plans (layout) and elevations (exterior views of t he building) will be pro duced. Then an outline s pecification; a list describing the proposed products and materials to be used on the project will be pre pared. Depending on the size and complexity of the project, multiple schemes will be prepared and discussed to focus on the b enefits and/or drawbacks of each scheme. Use of several different presentation methods such as 3D perspective drawings and/or models is encouraged. Upon completion of the Schematic Design phase, a preliminary cost estimate for each potential scheme is prep ared.

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26 Conceptual Design S tage This stage should demonstrate compliance with the relevant codes and zoning, the space program identified in the programming phase, functional requirements, and the massing should respect the context for the project. Engineeri ng systems must be defined in a narrative form in this phase. Building envelope should be defined and should respect and relate to the context of the project. A design narrative should be included describing the design approach and the rationale for it. Th e cost estimate should be consistent with the programming phase and should be included in the report. Design Development S tage Engineering systems must be defined in this phase and incorporated into the architecture. Engineering systems include civil, structural, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), plumbing, electrical, fire protection, and security. All building elements and components must be selected, defined, and incorporated in this phase of the work. This includes building en velope, interior structure service spaces, and elevators. Outline specifications should be produced and included in this package. Const ruction Document S tage This stage includes the production of working drawings that identify all the necessary details. E ngineering disciplines should be well coordinated and incorporated into the design The drawings should also be consistent with the specifications. The notes on these drawings should result in a single interpretation of a specific set of data and become th e basis of a competitive price proposal. Design Modifications S tage Modifications can be incorporated at any stage in the project. However, the more advanced the design, the higher the modification cost. Hence, it is best to conduct

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27 modifications thorough programming and schematic design phases to avoid any modifications during the design development phase and the construction document phase. Modifications during construction phase will have to be negotiated with the a rchitect ure firm through construction a nd the a rchitect ure firm will prepare a cost estimate for the modification. The contractor will be required to submit a modification (variation order) cost. Modifications are common in every project, so the project manager should anticipate them and budget at least 10 % of the construction budget as post award allowance. The project manager should expect a higher level of modifications in renovation projects due to unforeseen condition s Project Control System During the execution of a project, procedures fo r project control and record keeping become indispensable tools to managers and other participants in the construction process. These tools serve the dual purpose of recording the financial transactions that occur as well as giving managers an indication o f the progress and problems associated with a project. The problems of project control are aptly summed up in an old definition of a project as "any collection of vaguely related activities that are ninety percent complete, over budget and late." The task of project control systems is to give a fair indication of the existence and the extent of such problems. For cost control on a project, the construction plan and the associated cash flow estimates can provide the baseline reference for subsequent project monitoring and control. For schedules, progress on individual activities and the achievement of milestone completions can be compared with the project schedule to monitor the progress of activities. Contract and job specifications provide the criteria by which to assess and assure the required quality of construction. The final or detailed cost

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28 estimate provides a baseline for the assessment of financial performance during the project. To the extent that costs are within the detailed cost estimate, then th e project is thought to be under financial control Overruns in particular cost categories signal the possibility of problems and give an indication of exactly what problems are being encountered. Expense oriented construction planning and control focuses upon the categories included in the final cost estimation. This focus is particular relevant for projects with few activities and considerable repetition such as grading and paving roadways. For control and monitoring purposes, the original detailed cost estimate is typically converted to a project budget and the project budget is used subsequently as a guide for management. Specific items in the detailed cost estimate become job cost elements. Expenses incurred during the course of a project are recorded in specific job cost accounts to be compared with the original cost estimates in each category. Thus, individual job cost accounts generally represent the basic unit for cost control. Alternatively, job cost accounts may be disaggregated or divided into w ork elements which are related both to particular scheduled activities a nd to particular cost accounts. In addition to cost amounts, information on material quantities and labor inputs within each job account is also typically retained in the project budge t. With this information, actual materials usage and labor employed can be compared to the expected requirements. As a result, cost overruns or savings on particular items can be identified as due to changes in unit prices, labor productivity or in the amo unt of material consumed (Hendrickson 1998). Businesses sometimes use formal systems development processes. A formal process is more effective in creating strong controls,

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29 and auditors should review this process to confirm that it is well designed and is f ollowed in practice. A good formal systems development plan outlines: A strategy Standards for new systems Project management policies for timing and budgeting Procedures describing the process Evaluation of quality of change Project management control systems are the modern tools for managing project scope, cost and schedule. They are based on carefully defined process and document controls, metrics, performance indicators and forecasti ng with capability to reveal trends toward cost overrun and/or schedule slippage. Identifying those trends early makes them more amenable to successful management. Traditionally, management systems have utilized data about planned and actual costs. Modern systems further incorporate, in their analysis of projects and tasks, the monetary value earned for actual work accomplished They analyze the Planned Value of work scheduled (PV), Actual Cost of work performed (AC), and Earn ed Value of work performed (EV) ( L avine 2008). Case Study When Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., decided to renovate and expand the Marquand Library of Art and Archaeology, it immediately involved preconstruction planners. The 63,000 square foot project calls for underground and th ird floor additions, as well as the complete renovation of four stories, including all new mechanical systems, lighting and finishes with extensive millwork. The project also included installation of two new elevators, a new 12,000 square foot plaza at the north entry of McCormick Hall, renovation of swing space on campus, and the temporary relocation of

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30 the library staff and collections. Preconstruction planning began in 2000, and it was determined that before full scale construction, McCormick Hall would need an elevator to allow access for those with disabilities. The elevator was completed in November 2001, and full scale construction began in March 2002. A tight site at the center of the campus requires ongoing construction sequencing and coordination t o maintain a safe environment for the college community and construction workers. Close coordination of deliveries, work vehicles and debris removal is necessary daily. Emergency egress routes are maintained at all times. At Princeton's Robertson Hall, a r ecent 75,000 square foot, two phase renovation of a combined office, classroom and lecture facility involved the removal and replacement of all building systems, as well as an architectural reconstruction of the interior spaces, including extensive millwor k and finishes. The renovation included infilling of the second and third floor mezzanines to turn an existing three story library into office space. It also included two new additions that house classrooms. All mechanical, electrical and life safety syst ems were replaced with new systems. The exterior received new windows skylights and repairs to the plinth and some existing window systems. Preconstruction planning began in November 1999, fie ld construction began in May 2000, and the project was completed in August 2002. The original design of the all concrete structure presented many challenges, including access to existing utilities. This required preconstruction planners to work closel y wit h architects on the design and construction methods necessary to replace systems. For example, fourth floor pits housing piping and ductwork were fed from the third floor ceiling but were not accessible from the third floor.

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31 The design team was planning to replace all of the ductwork and piping. However, constructability reviews and testing revealed usable ductwork and piping that would have been expensive to remove and replace. Replacement of the piping would have required a design with many turns, creat ing potential maintenance problems. As a result, reusable elements were incorporated into the design. Working in an occupied building on a tight site required careful construction sequencing and coordination, maintenance of access and emergency egress, and the installation and maintenance of temporary structures and utilities. Effective preconstruction planning, including constructability reviews and value engineering, helped to red uce costs significantly (Arsht 2003). F igure 2 1. Marquand library of art and archaeology v iew of the p laza ( http:// marquand.princeton.edu/renovations.php )

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32 Figure 2 2. Marquand library of art and a rchaeology 1 st floor reading room ( http:// marquand. princeton.edu / renovations .php ) Figure 2 3. Marquand library of a rt and a rchaeology 3 rd floor Carrels ( http:// marquand. princeton. edu /renovations.php )

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33 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Overview A survey was conducted among architects, engineers, contractors, and builders all members of USGBC in commercial, institutional, and industrial sectors. Invitations to participate were sent to 1,462 e mail addresses of architects, engineers, contractors, and builders, all members of the USGBC The emails were randomly selected and collected from the USG BC website. An additional 84 emails were sent to the ENR 2010 Top Green Contra ctors, r esulting in a total of 1546 emails being sent out. A total of 26 e mails bounced back as either a wrong address or no longer existing. T he net total of 1520 valid emails invitations resulted in 80 c ompleted responses The response rate was 5.3 %. The survey was divided in two major categories: d emographics and p ast p d ata. The first set of responses was demographics questions. The d emographic section of the survey was intend ed to categorize the target population in a way to better understand the construction industry. The second half of the survey referred to past project data which reflects better on how the construction industry is facing this economic crisis period. Scope The results of this research help lead to more comprehensive view of the possibilities and implications that these pre construction planning approaches can cause in the construction industry. The collection technique involve d web bas ed surveys because it is the most practical and flexible way to conduct a survey among the population chosen.

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34 Web based surveys are faster and could be done without revealing the re spondent identity. A sig nificant number of responses were crucial for the success of this study. The comparison of similar projects in relation to size, initial investment, nature, and location are the key to have very accurate results A study was conducted in each construction se ctor commercial, institutional, and indu strial and the parameters looked at were size, cost, and location

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35 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The survey was sent to an equally number of professionals per discipline spread among U.S. states. However, as shown in Figure 4 1 and Table 4 1, general contractors and arc hitects were the main professionals that responded to this study with 4 1.3 % ( 33 ) and 3 7 % ( 30 ) responses respectively. The rest of the responses came from subcontractors (7), engineers (5 ), developers (3 ) construction manager (1), and consultant (1) Figure 4 1 Company r ole (n=80) Table 4 1. Number of responses for each construction industry discipline (n=80) Construction Industry Disciplines Number of Responses General Contractors 33 Subcontractors 7 Engineers 5 Architects 30 Developer/Contractor 3 Consultant 1 Construction Management 1

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36 The respondents were also asked about their industry experience and 56.3% of the professionals have from 20 to 40 years of experience in the construction industry. The majority of respondents have a large number of years of experience in the industry, which indicates a better view of the industry over the years. In addition, respondents with 1 to 10 years of construction experience sum 5.1%. In contrast, 7.5% of the respondents have more than 40 years of construction experience. Figure 4 2 shows the professional experience data collected from the survey. Figure 4 2. Professional e xperience (n =80) location. T he survey was sent out to more than 20 states spread equally among regions in the USA, and 62% of the respondents are from the South. Northeast (New England) comes right after with 16% of the answers. Midwest region and West (Pacific) region were tied with 4% of the answers, and Northeast (Mid Atlantic) had 2% of the total answers. The percentage of responses divided per area is shown on Figure 4 3.

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37 Figure 4 3. Location of ead quarter (n = 76) Nex t, responses on what types of projects were executed by th companies. Commercial jobs lead th e study with 40.6% followed by r esidential projects with 22.4%, and next i ndustrial projects with 19.4% of the answers. In additi on, other types of projects were mentioned on the study. Transportation and heavy civil projects had respectively 6.7% and 3.6% of the answers. In addition, it was observed that many companies executed more than one type of project. Many of the respondents performed a combination of two or more types of projects. Figure 4 4 shows the number of answers on each type of project. Figure 4 4. Company project t ypes (n = 165)

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38 The responses to the showed that 56% of the respondents indicated that their business has an average annual income that range from $1 million to $49 million (Figure 4 5). Companies with annual revenue ranging from $100,000 to $499,000 comprised 13.3% of the total responses T hese answers were cross tabulated with the respective total number of architects and contractors listed in Table 4 2. As shown in Figure 4 6 the contractors in the annual revenue range from $25 million to $99 million were the largest group in the study wi th 34% of the total answers by contractors In addition, as shown in Figure 4 7, architects with an annual revenue range from $1 million to $25 million formed the largest group in the study with 40% of the total answers by architect Figure 4 8 shows that employees, followed by 14% of the companies with 10 to 20 employees, and finally 9% of the respondents came from companies with 20 to 30 employees. Figure 4 5. Annual r evenue (n =76)

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39 Figure 4 6 Annual revenue Contractors (n =33) Figure 4 7 Annual revenue Architects (n =30)

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40 Figure 4 8 Number of e mployees (n = 78) The data reveal that construction companies with annual revenues that range from 1 to 49 million dollars had an average of 15 employees (Figures 4 5 and 4 8 ). Therefore, based on this data the majority of the work by these companies was performed by third parties such as subcontractors and not their own personnel. Types o f Pre Construction Methods and T heir Relationship The s urvey respondents had to choose out of four major groups of pre const ruction planning methods : design phase construction planning, BIM establishing a In addition, they had an opt ion to add any other method they used and that they did not think belonged to any of the mentioned ones. Therefore, two other categories were added: risk management tools and assembling a team. The objective of this survey section was to find out which of these methods, or others if any, were more widely used in addition to which were more effective in terms of saving cost is the most used method with 29.6% of responses followed by design phase planning 27 (34.7%) 11 (14.1%) 7 (9%) 5 (6.4%) 4 (5.1%) 10 (12.8%) 9 (11.5%) 5 (6.4%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 to 10 11 to 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 50 100 100 500 more than 500 Number of responses (n = 78) Number of Employees Number of Employees

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41 (27.5%), BIM (22.2%), and p roject control (18.5%). Figure 4 9 shows the frequency of these methods used in construction industry. It was observed that all the four major methods had a very similar number of answers. This occurred because companies, in general, do not use only one me thod, but a combination of them. Figure 4 9 Method s of pre construction p lanning often u sed (n = 189). T he survey data were analyzed to reveal which construction sector uses which pre construction method more often. Contractors, architects, and subcontr actors are the main disciplines that frequently use pre construction planning methods. Contractors had a total of 95 selections followed by architects (61), and subcontractors (20). The data was selected 52 times followed b y design phase ( 47) and BIM (38) among contractors, subcontractors, and architects. Figure 4 10 shows the number of respondents that use each method and what sector they belonged to. In addition, Table 4 2 show s the number of responses for each method of pre construction planning by company role. A total of 204 responses were received. Engineers, construction managers, developers, and consultants had respectively 10, 9, 6, and 3 answers each. 42 (22.2%) 52 (27.5%) 35 (18.5%) 56 (29.6%) 4 (2.2%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 BIM Design Phase Project Control Using Past Data Others Number of Responses (n = 189) Pre construction planning methods Pre Construction Planning Methods

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42 Using past projects is the most used method based on all the responses. Table 4 2. Number of responses for each method of pre construction planning by company role (n=204) (refer to Survey Questions 1 & 8) Company Role BIM Design Phase Project C ontrol Past Projects Data Risk Manag ement Tools Assembling a T eam Contractor 15 28 21 29 1 1 Subcontractor 4 4 5 7 0 0 Engineers 3 3 1 3 0 0 Architect 19 15 9 16 0 2 Developer 1 2 0 3 0 0 Consultant 1 1 0 1 0 0 Construction Management 2 3 2 2 0 0 Figure 4 10 Methods of pre construction p lanning per company role In addition, the survey asked the respondents about the amount of time spent on pre construction planning. Thirty four percent of the respondents said that they spent

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43 from 1% to 5% of the total project time on pre construction planning, followed by 21.5% of respondents who spent from 10% to 20% of the total project time on pre construction planning (Figure 4 11). Figure 4 11 Percentage of time spent on pre construct ion planning phase. Relationship between Pre Construction Planning and Annual Revenue The size of a company has an impact on how much the company is willing to spend on pre construction planning. However, just because a company is spending more on planning does not necessarily mean that it will make a higher profit. Figure 4 11 shows how Construction Planning in their projects. The data shows that more than 50% of the companies surveyed use pre construction planning in their projects all the time followed by companies that use some method of pre con struction planning regularly (29.9%), and finally companies that rarely use pre construction planning methods sum 16.9%. When c omparing the size of businesses with the ir corresponding frequency of using p re c onstruction p lanning in

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44 their projects the data indicates that the relationship of how profitable the company is and how often the company uses pre construction planning in its projects is directly proportional. Table 4 3 and Figure 4 13 show how the implementation of pre construction planning is benef icial for business. Figure 4 1 2 Frequency of pre c onstruction p lanning on p rojects Table 4 3 construction planning (refer to survey Appendix Questions 4 & 7). Annual Revenue Rarely % Regularly % All the time % Total Answers Under 100K 1 20.0% 1 20.0% 3 60.0% 5 100K 499K 6 54.5% 1 9.1% 4 36.4% 11 500K 999K 2 25.0% 2 25.0% 4 50.0% 8 1M 25M 4 15.4% 12 46.2% 10 38.5% 26 25M 99M 0 0.0% 4 23.5% 13 76.5% 17 100M 499M 0 0.0% 1 20.0% 4 80.0% 5 500M 1 Billion 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 1 100.0% 1 1 5 Billion 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 2 100.0% 2

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45 Figure 4 1 3 Frequency of using pre construction planning based on company annual revenue. Relationship between Pre Construction Planning and Cost Savings One of the main aims of this research can now be accomplished after answering all the other objectives leading to it. It is very important to have a clear understanding of how pre construction planning affects the cost savings of a project. The sur vey asked on question 10 and 11 how much was invested in pre construction planning and how much were the cost savings. The survey data showed a very scattered relationship since respondents spent different percentages on the planning. Figure 4 1 4 shows a s The companies that invested more in the implementation of some type of pre construction planning method had more cost savings in their projects. A linear relationship was found based on the average of responses to express the increase in profits when compared with the use of pre construction planning.

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46 Figure 4 1 4 Relationship between cost savings and pre construction p lanning (refer to questions 10 and 11) Effect of Pre Construction Planning on Sustainability The second main aim of this research was to demonstrate how the use of pre construction planning helps promote sustainability. Respondents were asked what percentage of the total projects were LEED c ertified projects. Figure 4 1 5 shows that 28.2% of the re c ertified project last year. In contrast, 17.9% of the companies had more than 40% of their projects LEED c ertified. In addition, 24.4% of the respondents had from 1 % to 10 % LEED certified projects. Next, 10.3% of the respondents had from 10 % to 20 % LEED certified projects, followed by 11.5% of the respondents that had from 30 % to 40 % LEED certified projects from the total amount of projects.

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47 Figure 4 1 5 Percentage of LEED c ertified projects (refer to survey question 16) The survey also asked about the use of high performance products and/or eco products on their projects (Figure 4 1 6 ). The results show that more than 80% of the respondents used high performance products on their projects. By taking the result s shown in Figure 4 1 5 and comparing them with the data shown on Figure 4 1 6 it can be concluded that even though in many instances the projects do not have the intention to be LEED certified, the frequency of use of high performance products in the respo Figure 4 1 6. Use of high performance materials and/or eco products (refer to survey q uestion 15).

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48 The survey asked the respondents whether they believed that the implementation of pre construction planning methods could hel p in the LEED certification process and the answers were almost unanimous. The study revealed that 97.4% of the respondents believe d that pre construction planning can help with the LEED c ertification process (Figure 4 17) Figure 4 1 7 Pre construct ion planning helps in the LEED certification p rocess (Appendix s urvey question 17). The scatter plots shown in Figures 4 1 8 4 1 9 and 4 20 are based on the data previously shown in Figure 4 1 2 about how often companies use pre construction planning methods in their projects. This information was crossed referenced with the data collected from the responses to the question about what percentage of the methods chosen BIM, Desig n a scattered graph was created to visualize the relationships. In addition, the data reveal that 59 % of the respondents used BIM all the time followed by 38% that used it regularly, and 3% that rarel y used this method. This data was compared with the percent of LEED certified projects, and a linear relationship shows that companies that had more LEED certified projects in their portfolio were the ones that used BIM more

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49 frequently in projects (Figure 4 1 8 ). The same occurred with design phase planning method where 64% of the respondents used this method all the time followed by 33% that used regularly, and 3% rarely used this method. This data was compared with the percent of LEED certified projects, and the linear relationship shown in Figure 4 1 9 indicates that companies that had more LEED certified projects in their portfolio were the ones that used design phase more frequently in projects. method had similar results, with 61 % of the respondents indicating that they have used projects, and a linear relatio nship show similar results from the two previously mentioned pre construction methods (Figure 4 20 ). Table 4 4 shows this relationship. Table 4 4 Frequency of use of pre con struction planning per method (s urvey q uestions 7 and 8 in a ppendix). Rarely (%) Regularly (%) All the time (%) BIM 3% 38% 59% Design phase 3% 33% 64% Past project's data 3% 36% 61% Figure 4 1 8 Frequency of pre construction methods BIM vs. LEED projects. y = 0.0379x + 0.164 R = 0.0072 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 % LEED Certified Projects Axis Title BIM Rarely Reguraly All the time BIM frequency of use

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50 Figure 4 1 9 Frequency of pre construction methods (design phase) vs. LEED projects Figure 4 20 Frequency of pre LEED certified projects y = 0.0276x + 0.1811 R = 0.0039 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 % LEED Certified Projects Design Phase Rarely All the time Regularly Frequency of use y = 0.0327x + 0.1647 R = 0.0054 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 % LEED Certified Projects Axis Title Past Project's Data Rarely Regularly Rarely Regularly All the time Frequency of use

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51 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOM MENDATIONS Knowing how pre construction planning affects cost savings and how these methods promote sustainability is valuable information to investors and owners. Studies like this one, lead to look forward to more effective methods that can improve projects quality and profits. In addition, well implemented pre construction planning methods can make th e difference between success and failures in a fragile economy. The survey data collected in this study revealed how pre construction planning is being used and how it is making a difference. The data collected in this study reflects the current understanding of pre construction planning in the United States. Hence, the findings were analyzed and the information was crossed referenced with the intention to get essential conclusions about pre construction planning methods. To sum up the findings of this research, there are many different pre construction planning methods that comprise the four major methods described in this study BIM, design phase, project control, and past projects data BIM, design phase planning, p ro jec t control, and past projects d ata are the main pre construction planning methods used today in the construction industry. The data revealed that successful companies not only use pre construction methods frequent ly in their daily projects, but in many ins tances, these planning methods are used in combination The study also revealed that past projects d ata still is the most used method. The study confirmed hypothesis H 01 and H 02 presented previously in the introductio n, stating that t he implementation of pre construction planning in the studied sectors of construction increases savings on costs and it promotes a sustainable

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52 environment. Companies that spent more on pre construction planning are the ones that had more cost savings. In addition, this econom y reduced considerably profits, but still, pre construction planning methods were proven to be helpful in difficult times like this one. The second main objective of this research revealed that the use of pre construction planning can help prom ote sustainability. Sustainability is not being values. The data shows that even though the project does not have the intention to be LEED certified, the use of high perfor mance materials is frequent. Moreover, pre construction planning is seen as an essential tool to achieve LEED certification. Hence, 97.4% of the responders believe d that these methods contribute d to the LEED certification process. In addition, it was found that companies which have more LEED certified projects in their portfolio were the ones that used pre construction methods more often. The analysis the data of the second section of the survey, an industry weakness was revealed in this study. When the res pondents were asked about waste management and control, they were unanimous in saying that there was no record kept of how much construction waste were saved with the use of these methods. There were many additional comments in the survey about how profits were considerably decreased because of the economic crisis. Therefore, one recommendation for future study is to conduct a survey among construction companies in the actual economic crisis which is affecting so much our industry.

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53 Another recommendation is to conduct a whole survey dedicated to the control and management of construction waste that has been revealed to be a great weakness of the construction industry. Waste is one of the major concerns when talking about sustainability. In addition, millions of dollars could be saved with a more rational use of resources. However, this second recommendation requires a larger number of respondents and a couple of cases studies a nalysis. Future studies should also include more specific questions about each of the main pre construction methods. For example, questions referring to how much were expended in the implementation of these methods and what was the return on investment. I n closing, i doing the right thing is not only an ethical issue, but it is a matter a choice. The use of pre construction planning methods that helps companies reduce costs and prom ote a better environment for our future generations is a way to achieve this goal.

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54 APPENDIX SURVEY QUESTIONNARE Impact of Preconstruction Planning on Sustainability Study Question 1 Choice Multiple Answers Demographics: The next questions are for classification purposes only and will be used to group your answers with others like yourself. Company/Organization Role: General Contractor Subcontractor Engineer Architect Other, please specify Question 2 Open Ended Number of years workin g as a professional: (Please fill the total combined numbers of years working in the current industry) Question 3 Choice Multiple Answers Company/ Organization Projects Types: (Please select all that apply) Commercial Residential Industrial Transpo rtation Heavy Civil Other, please specify Question 4 Open Ended Annual Company/ Organization Revenue: Question 5 Open Ended Number of Company/ Organization Employees:

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55 Question 6 Choi ce Multiple Answers [Exactly 1 Answer] What is the location of your Company/ Organization Headquarters: Northeast (New England) Northeast (Mid Atlantic) Midwest South West (Mountains) West (Pacific) Question 7 Choice Multiple Answers How often do you use pre construction planning in you r projects? Rarely Regularly All the time Question 8 Choice Multiple Answers Which method(s) of pre construction planning, other than the traditional scheduling, have you used: (Select all that apply) Building Information Modeling/ Virtual Design and Construction Design Phase Construction Planning Establishing a Project Control System Using Past Projects' Data to Improve Performance Other, please specify Question 9 Open Ended Past Project Overview: The questions below refer to your 2010 projects. What percentage of the total project completion time is approximately taken by the pre construction planning phase of your projects? Question 10 Open Ended What percentage of the total project cost was spent on pre construction planning? Qu estion 11 Open Ended Approximately what was the savings or additional profit as a percent of the total project cost?

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56 Question 12 Open Ended What percentage of that cost saving or additional profit do you believe was attributed to pre construction planning? Question 13 Open Ended What was the percentage reduction in waste materials in comparison with previous projects? Question 14 Open Ended What percentage of the reduction of waste materials do you believe was attributed to pre constructi on planning? Question 15 Yes or No Were High Performance Materials and/or eco products used in your projects? Yes No Additional Comment Question 16 Open Ended Approximately what percentage of your projects was LEED Certified? Question 17 Yes or No Do you believe that pre construction planning can help in the LEED certification Process? Yes No Additional Comment

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57 LIST OF REFERENCES AEC Magazine (2010 American School and University Full text: < http://asumag.com/mag/university_planning_ahead/index.html > (Jun e 30 th 2010) Azhar, S., and Br International Journal of Construction Education and Research 5(4), 276 292 Barnes, J. (2005). Perceptions of Sustainable Construction in Large U.S. Construction Companies, University of Florida Gainesvil le, Fl. Full text: < http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/UFE0011647 > (May 23 rd 2010) Collar Workers Strengthen Building Environmental Design + Constr uction Magazine (ED+C) Dec. 21st. Value Engineering: Practical Applications for Design, Construction, Maintenance & Operations R.S. Means, Kingston, MA. Eastman, C Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., Liston K. (2008). BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey. Griffin, L. (2005). Articulating the Business and Ethical Arguments for Sustainable Construction, University of Florid a Gainesville, Fl. Full text: < http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/UFE0010620 > (May 3 rd 2010) Guinees, J. (2002). Handbook on life cycle assessment: operational guide to the ISO standards Dordrecht: Kluw er Academic, London, UK. Hani, M., and Issa, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 22 (4), 335 337. Hardin, B. (2009). BIM and construction management: proven tools, methods, and workflows Wiley, Indianapolis, Ind. Harris, J. (2000). Rethinking sustainability: power, knowledge, and institutions, Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press, MI. Hendrickson, C. (1998). Project Management for Construction: Fundamental Concepts for Owners, Engineers, Architects and Builders 1st Ed., Prentice Hall, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. Hostetler, C. (2009). Building Information Modeling (BIM) and its potential impacts on sustainable building project delivery, University of Flor ida Gainesville, Fl. Full text: < http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/UFE0025030 > (April 28 th 2010)

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58 Jones, V. (2008). The Green Collar Economy How one solution can fix our two biggest problems 1st Ed., Harper One New York, NY. Kibert, C. (1999). Reshaping the built environment: ecology, ethics, and economics Island Press, Washington, D.C. Kibert, C. (2005). Sustainable construction: green building design and delivery Wiley, Hoboken, N.J. Kibert, C ,Fu rr, J., Mayer, J., Sentman, S. (2009). Green building and sustainable development: the practical legal guide Chicago: Section of Real Property, Trust, & Estate Law, ABA, Chicago, MI. Krygiel, E., and Nies, B. (2008). Green BIM: successful sustainable desi gn with building information modeling, Wiley, Indianapolis, Ind. Journal of Information Technology in Construction 13(special issue), 286 302. Manfred, B. Vogel M., Haub F., Marki, F. Soldati, M. Walther A. of Virtual Design and Construction Methods: Improving the management of ITC, CIB W78 2008 Full text: < http://itc.scix.net/cgi bin/works/Show?w78 2008 4 05 > (March 12 th 2010) Means, R. S. (2006). Green building: project planning & cost estimating: a practical guide to materials, systems & standards; green products -specifying & Assessing cost vs. value; resource efficiencies, health, comfort & productivity; commissioning Kingston, Mass. Reddy, K. P. (2008). Environmental Design + Construction Magazine (ED+C) July 02nd. Rezgui Y, Zarli A., Hopfe C., Journal of Information and Technology in Construction 14(special issue). Department of Education & Early D evelopment 1st Ed. (May12nd, 2010)

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59 Yudelson, J. (2009). Green building through integrated design McGraw Hill, New York.

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60 BIOGRAPH IC AL SKETCH Cristiane Kreitler gra duated in Architecture and Urban Design in Brazil at Universidade Tuiuti do Parana in July 2002 Im mediately following graduation C ristiane started to work for Phillips Lighting from Brazil as an Architect Consultant. This position gave her the opportunity to work with professionals from different disciplines and promote speeches at universities and construction offices. In addition, o ne year after her graduation, she finished her Certificate program in Construction Management at UTFPR University Brazil, and she got ma rried in July 2004. After that, her husband was transferred from his work, and they move d to the USA, where she worked for CMC Joist and Deck as a structural detailer for over 3 years. It was a great experience because she had the opportunity to learn more abou t the American construction processes, and she established many good friendships. Although, the desire to learn more about sustainable construction and effective management processes led her to apply to the Ma ster of Science in Building Construction program at the University of Florida. Dr. Raymond Issa (Director of the Graduate Programs) at th at time encouraged her and said did n o t. She was eventually accepted into the MSBC program and she is now graduating. She will forever be a proud Gator!