Photophysical Characterization and Energy Transfer Studies of Perylene Diimide Based Dendrimer Derivatives

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Photophysical Characterization and Energy Transfer Studies of Perylene Diimide Based Dendrimer Derivatives
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Laframboise,Allison Jean
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Master's ( M.S.)
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Chemistry
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Kleiman, Valeria D
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Bowers, Clifford R
Omenetto, Nicolo

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This thesis presents the photophysical characterization of perylene diimide based dendrimers in solution and studies the energy transfer processes occurring in these molecules. Perylene diimide derivatives have received much attention in recent years for use in donor-acceptor dendrimer systems. In this thesis, the perylene diimide derivative serves as the acceptor, and triphenylene based chromophores are the donors. Two families of dendrimers, both substituted in the bay position, are investigated. The arms and core of the first dendrimer family are connected by an ether linkage, while the second has acetylene bridges. The dendrimers in this thesis have been characterized using steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods.
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by Allison Jean Laframboise.
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Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2011.
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Adviser: Kleiman, Valeria D.
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1 PHOTOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ENERGY TRANSFER STUDIES OF PERYLENE DIIMIDE BASED DENDRIMER DERIVATIVES By ALLISON JEAN LAFRAMBOISE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Allison Jean LaFramboise

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3 To my family, for your example, encouragement and sacrifice have been invaluable constants to me throughout my life

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would be nave to believe that this achievement could have been possible without the support and instruction received from all of the teachers encountered throughout my education. My high school chemistry first taught me that science could be an interesting field of study. The faculty and staff of Lee University provided me with ceaseless encouragement and multiple employment opportunities, truly allowing me to make my academic endeavors my first priority. One of my many undergraduate advisors, Dr. Johnny Evans, made me aware of the challenge and the appeal of Physical Chemistry, ultimately introducing me to the University of Florida. The sheer number of individuals who have provided me assistance while at the Uni versity of Florida makes it impossible to personally acknowledge each one. Nevertheless, there a few that require recognition. To my graduate committee, thank you for your advice and your willingness to serve on yet another committee. I would like to thank all of my fellow lab mates. Specifically, I would like to thank Sevnur K m rl Keceli for all of her patient instruction in the art of Steady State and Upconversion experiments. To Shiori, Jaired, Beth, Jorge and Tim, thank you for your friendship and assistance throughout this entire process. I hope to return the favor. This brings me to my advisor, Dr. Valeria Kleiman. Thank you for welcoming me in to the Kleiman Lab, sharing your knowledge and guidance, and teaching me that there is more to a LASER than just an acronym. Finally, I would like to thank my family. I will be forever grateful to my sisters for revealing the attraction of academic excelle nce and providing me with an example to meet and attempt to exceed. Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to my parents. Thank for coming to visit me when obligatio ns kept me rooted in Gainesville, never losing faith in me, even when I b egan to lose sight of it myself, and teaching me to pl ace God first in all situations

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5 T ABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATI ONS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 11 Outline of Thesis ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 11 Dendrimers ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 11 Historical Perspective ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 12 Synthesis and Generation ................................ ................................ ................................ 12 Structural Features and Properties ................................ ................................ ................... 13 Energy Transfer ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 14 Time Resolved and Steady State Spectroscopy ................................ ................................ ..... 16 2 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS ................................ ................................ ............................. 18 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 18 FluoroLog 3 Spectrofluorometer ................................ ................................ ................... 18 PicoQuant Fluorescence Lifetime System ................................ ................................ ....... 18 Steady State Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 19 Absorbance ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 19 Emission and Excitation ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 20 Fluorescence Anisotropy ................................ ................................ ................................ 21 Material s and Sample Preparation ................................ ................................ .......................... 23 3 ENERGY TRANSFER IN PERYLENE DIIMIDE DENDRIMER DERIVATIVES ........... 24 Experimental Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 25 Solvent Effects ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 25 Steady State Spe ctra ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 27 Fluorescence Anisotropy ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 Fluorescence Lifetimes ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 36 4 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK ................................ ................................ ............. 41

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6 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 41 Future Work ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 42 Time Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy ................................ ................................ ....... 42 Excimers ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 43 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 46 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 52

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Peng Dendrimers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 26 3 2 Fluorescence lifetime data of dendrimer samples in chloroform ................................ ........ 36

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Depiction of methods for dendrimer synthesis ................................ ................................ .... 13 1 2 Resonant transitions of donor and acceptor molecules ................................ ....................... 15 2 1 Schematic diagram for measurements of fluorescence anisotropy ................................ ..... 21 3 1 Solvent effect on PBI TB in Chloroform, DCM and THF ................................ ................. 27 3 2 Absorbance and Emission spectra of G0 OH and G0 T. ................................ .................... 28 3 3 Emission spectra of G0 OH and G0 T in chloroform ................................ ......................... 28 3 4 Absorba nce and Emission Spectra of PBI OB and PBI TB ................................ ............... 29 3 5 Donor Acceptor overlap ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 29 3 6 Normalized Absorbance and Emission Spectra of G0 OH PBI OB and POG0 ................ 30 3 7 Normalized Absorbance and Emission Spectra of G0 T, PBI TB and PTG0 .................... 31 3 8 Absorption transition moments of perylene ................................ ................................ ........ 32 3 9 G0 OH Emission Anisotropy ................................ ................................ .............................. 33 3 10 POG0 Emission Anisotropy ................................ ................................ ................................ 35 3 11 Fluorescence lifetime decay of G0 OH in chloroform ................................ ........................ 37 3 12 Fluorescence lifetime decay of G0 T in chloroform ................................ ........................... 38 3 13 Fluorescence lifetime decay of PBI OB in chloroform ................................ ....................... 38 3 14 Fluorescence lifetime decay of PBI TB in chloroform ................................ ....................... 39 3 15 Fluorescence lifetime decay of POG0 in chloroform ................................ .......................... 39 3 16 Fluorescence lifetime decay of PTG0 in chloroform ................................ .......................... 40 4 1 Excimer formation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 44 4 2 Comparison of fluorescence spectral data for G0 OH in Chloroform Hexane and Film with the fluorescence curve of POG0 ................................ ................................ ....... 45

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9 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S MCCL Materials Chemistry Characterization Laboratory PDI Perylene diimide TCSPC Time Correlated Single Photon Counting UV Ultraviolet UV Vis Ultraviolet Visibl e

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science PHOTOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ENERGY TRANSFER STUDIES OF PERYLENE DIIMIDE BASED DENDRIMER DERIVATIVES By Allison Jean LaFramboise A ugust 2011 Chair: Valeria Kleiman Major: Chemistry This thesis presents the photophysical characterization of perylene diimide based dendrimers in solution and studies the energy transfer processes occurring in these molecules. Perylene diimide derivatives have received much attention in recent years for use in donor acceptor dendrimer systems. In this thesis, the perylene diimide derivative serv es as the acceptor, and triphenylene based chromophores are the donors. Two families of dendrimers, both family are connected by an ether linkage, while the secon d has acetylene bridges. The dendrimers in this thesis have been characterized using steady state and time resolved spectroscopic methods.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Outline of Thesis The purpose of this thesis is to present the photophysical chara cterization of perylene diimide based dendrimers in solution and study the energy transfer processes occurring in these molecules. Chapter 1 presents a brief s ynopsis of dendrimers including their properties and impact on chemical research It also identifies the type of molecule s studied in this thesis, perylene diimide dendrimer derivative s introduces energy transfer and presents a brief description of Time Resolved and Steady State spectroscopic experimentation. Chapter 2 describes the instrumentation used to perform the Steady State and Time Resolved experiments providing explanations of the involved techniques and principles governing each method. The res ults of the experiments are discussed in Chapter 3 The closing remarks are found in Chapter 4, summarizing the conclusions drawn from the experimental data collected during the course of this research project. The chapter concludes with a description of t he experiments proposed to provide additional information, beneficial to the understanding of the characterization of the energy transfer capabilities of this perylene diimide dendrimer derivative family. Dendrimers Dendrimers are highly structured reaction center, a periphery composed of branching repeat units, and terminal groups. 1 Originally 2 Chosen for these Greek roots, the term dendrimer reflects the similarities found within the branching, counterparts.

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12 Historical Perspective In the be ginning of dendrimer research, one of the main attractions revolved around the ease with which such large macromolecules could be constructed and synthesized 3 The focus of dendrimer research has since shifted from a race to form larger molecules 4 5 to the tremendous potential for applications exhibited by these molecules. Over the years, dendrimers have been the subject of several reviews 2 6 8 and implemented or proposed for use i n many applications, including medicine 9 11 and optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells 12 12 13 Due to the need for alternative, renewable energy sources, light harvesting and the development of photosynthetic mimics 14 has been a popular area of research. Dendrimers have been at the center of attention in this field 15 18 as the very structure of dendrimers presents them as ideal candidates for light harvesters 19 20 The multitude of chromophores available for use in dendritic structure make the different types of possible dendrimers appear infinite. Nevertheless, certain families of dendrimers have remained the focus of multiple studies throughout the years and deserve note. These include PAMAM (poly(amidoamines)) polyamine, perylene diimide and poly(ether) dendrimers. 9 21 Specifica lly, this thesis will focus on perylene diimide dendrimer derivatives. This family of dendrimers will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 3. S ynthesis and Generation Presently, there are two methods commonly employed in dendrimer synthesis: convergent s ynthesis and divergent synthesis. 22 In the convergent method ( Figure 1 1A ), one begins by synthesizing the end groups to form multiple dendrons then joining them to the selected core. Conversely, in the divergent method ( Figure 1 1B ), synthesis begins with the central core and branches outward with the terminal end groups to form a dendrimer of the desired generation.

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13 Figure 1 1 Depiction of met hods f or dendrimer synthesis. (a) Convergent synthesis (b) Divergent synthesis 22 The branching patterns of the periphery which lead to subsequent l evels of dendritic growth, are termed generations For symmetric dendrimers, these generations extend in concentric circles around the dendrimer core and provide a practical naming convention to distinguish between dendrimers of different size within the same dendrimer family. For example, in the divergent synthesis route shown in Figure 1 1B the first structure might be considered zeroth generation, and the structure on the right would be cal led a third generation dendrimer. Structural Features and Properties The specific properties exhibited by an individual dendrimer can be attributed to the different components composing the macromolecule. Therefore, through careful selection of the dendri tic core and terminal end groups, for example, one is able to tailor the molecule for specific application enhancement. The framework of the dendritic structure make s the se macromolecules ideal candidates for energy transfer studies 23 25 particularly intramolecular energy transfer 26 27 studies For example, consider a situation in which the periphery of the dendrimer is composed of multiple absorbing

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14 chromophores and the core contains an energy trap. T he dendrimer may simply serve as a scaffold 28 providing physical connections between the peripheral absorbing chromophores and the energy trap at the core. The branching arms in the dendrimer periphery can be used to maintain defined distances between donor and acceptor. With changes in the extent of dendritic generation, the number of absorbi ng chromophores can also be regulated optimiz ing energy transfer efficiency. 15 By contrast, it is also possible that the backbone of the dendrimer can be constructed of absorbing chromophores to serve as the energy donor 28 and be actively involved in the energy transfer process. The branching architecture of dendritic molecules results in exponential growth of the terminal end groups. It has been shown that the absorbance of the dendritic molecules increases with each new generation when these termini are functionalized with absorbing chromophores. 27 However, there is a limit at which the size of the molecule begins to compete with the efficacy of the absorbing chromophores. The increasing size of the molecule is an indicator of the increasing distance b etween the donor on the periphery and the acceptor at the dendrimer core, which in some cases may have adverse effects upon the efficiency of energy transfer. 27 E nergy Transfer Energy transfer can be accomplished through many pathways and mechanisms, but all return to the same f undamental principle. An acceptor chromophore A which does not absorb the incident light of wavelength can be excited to an excited state, A* through the transfer of excitation energy from a neighboring excited donor chromophore D*. D* A* Energy transfer can be classified into two categories, radiative and non radiative energy transfer Adequate spectral overlap of donor and acceptor molecules is a prerequisite for both processes. Radiative energy transfer occurs according to the following mechanism.

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15 A donor molecule, D, is excited by incident light of acceptor molecule, A, resulting in the promotion of the acceptor molecule to an excited state, A*. C onversely, non radiative energy transfer does not require the emission of a photon. Instead, through interaction of the excited don or molecule, D*, with the acceptor molecule, A, the excita tion energy can be effectively transferred. T his process can occur when the overl ap of the donor emission spectrum and the acceptor absorption spectrum is such that the involved vibronic transitions are said to be in resonance. Figure 1 2 Resonant transitions of donor and acceptor molecules 29 The efficiency of energy transfer between donor and acceptor molecules can be expressed by the equation,

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16 T D and are the quantum yields of the donor in the presence and absence of the acceptor molecule, respectively. However, to characterize the energy transfer efficiency of the molecular system under investigation, it is not necessary to obtain the absolute quantum yie lds. Instead, the efficiency can be related to the change in intensity observed in the fluorescence spectra of the donor and acceptor molecules. Under efficient energy transfer conditions, the fluorescence spectrum intensity of the donor (in the presence o f acceptor molecules) should be expected to decrease as the intensity of the fluorescence spectrum of the acceptor (in the presence of donor molecules) increases. 29 30 Time Resolved and Steady State Spectroscopy Both time resolved and steady state 31 methods are employed in this thesis to characterize the dendrimers of interest. This section will introduce the underlying principles governing steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. De tails concerning the specific experimental methods will be addressed in Chapter 2. I n time resolved measurements the sample is exposed to a short pulse of light, and the response is recorded as a function of time. On the other hand, steady state measuremen ts are collected under constant illumination and observation conditions. Essentially, steady state experiments are an average of the time resolved phenomena over the intensity decay of the 32 While steady state experiments are typically more affordable and much easier to perform, the intensity decays of time resolved experiments provide information unable to be determined from steady state methods Both time resolved and steady state spectrosco py each have merit, but the limitations of each method must be considered when designing an experiment. Consider the following example provided by Lakowicz. process. Frequently, m acromolecules can exist in more than a single conformation,

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17 and the decay time of a bound probe may depend on conformation. The intensity state intensity will reveal an average intensity dependent on a weighted average of the two decay times. 32

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18 CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS This c hapter describes the instrumentation utilized to complete the experiments for this thesis and the basis for the operating p rinciples behind those instruments This is followed by a description of the experimental methods required to perform the experiments. Each sample has been characterized using steady state and time resolved spectroscopic methods. The chapter concludes with a section describing the methods used in sample preparation. I nstrumentation The Steady State and Anisotropy experiments were conducted in the Materials Chemistry Characterization Laboratory (MCCL). Absorption data was collected using a PerkinElmer Lambda 25 UV/Vis Spectrometer. All emission, excitation and anisotropy data were collected on a Jobin Yvon Horiba FluoroLog 3 Spectrofluorometer. The fluorescence lifetime data was collected using a PicoQuant Fluorescence Lifetime system. FluoroLog 3 Spectrofluorometer The FluoroLog 3 is a n L shaped, mod ular spectrofluorometer, presenting the researcher with the opportunity to tailor the spectro fluorometer to fit the experiment. Spectrofluorometers can exist in either T shaped or L shaped configuratio ns. The T shaped format uses two separate detection channels wh il e the L shaped configuration has a single detection channel. The FluoroLog 3 is capable of both right angle and front face detection 33 34 In r ight angle detection, only the fluorescence emitted from the center of the excited sample is collected. Front face detection is commonly used for samples of high concentration. PicoQuant Fluorescence Lifetime System The PicoQuant Fluorescence Lifetime System is a modular system, operating on the principles of time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). 35 36 The underlying principles

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19 behind the theory of TCSPC are quite simple. Time correlated single photon counting is based on the premise that the probability of det ecting a photon at a time, t is proportional to the intensity of the sample fluorescence at that time. Photon detection is recorded during each period in conjunc absorbs one 35 For that reason, detection of multiple photons during a single period is not an anticipated difficulty. For the experiments described in this thesis, the PicoQuant Fluorescence Lifetime System consists of the following components: FluoTime 100, PicoHarp 300, and PDL 800 B. FluoTime 100 is a compact time resolved spectromete r used to measure the decay of fluorescence. PicoHarp 300 is the TCSPC module used for data acquisition. PDL 800 B is the pulsed laser diode driver used to control such parameters as the repetition frequency and laser pulse energy. The intrinsic frequency for the system is 40 MHz, and the average pulse energy at this frequency is 0.3 mW. The experiments described here were conducted at 10 MHz. FluoFit is the fluorescence decay data analysis 37 software used to analyze, fit and save the data collected using the PicoQuant Fluorescence Lifetime system. Steady State Methods Absorbance Absorbance, as determined by the Beer Lambert Law, is defined as is the intensity of the beam entering the absorbing species and I is the intensity of the beam exiting the absorbing species. ( ) is the decadic molar absorption (or extinction) coefficient, c is the concentration of the solution, and l is the thickness of the cell determined by the path length

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20 the light traverses through the absorbing medium. 32 The absorbance characterizes the ability of a species to absorb light of wavelength, The absorbance is directly proportional to sample concentration. Some deviations from the Beer Lambert Law may occur and can be attributed to a number of issu es, including instrumental effects, a competing absorbing species, aggregation or other complications amplified by unfavorable concentration levels. 32 All reported absorbance data was collected on a PerkinElmer Lambda 25 UV/Vis Spectrometer, using both detection channels. In an effort to decrease the background noise of the spectrum, a reference cell filled with pure solvent, was also inserted into the sample compartment of the spectrometer. The true absorbance of the sample, was then recorded. A S and A R are the absorbances determined from the sample and reference paths, respectively, and I R and I S are the intensities measured after passing through the reference and sample containing cuvettes, respectively. This served to account further for the effects due from the solvent and the cuvette walls. Emission and Excitation Spectra The emission spectrum shows the wavelength distribution of the fluorescence intensity, measured at a defined excitation wavelength. In contrast to emission spectra, a n excitation spectrum displays the changes of the fluorescence intensity detected at a single wavelength, while scanning through the ra nge of excitation wavelengths. 32 Typically, the excitation spectrum should be identical to the absorbance. However, certain factors may affect the ability to superimpose the absorbance and excitation spectra. For example, the presence of multiple fluorophores or aggregate formation can alter the shape of excitation

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21 spectra. These deviations from the s ymmetr y of the absorbance a nd excitation spectra can later be exploited to gain information about a given sample under study. Fluorescence Anisotropy Anisotropy is a property of molecules used to gauge the degree of polarization of a sample due to photoselection The steady state an isotropy 38 r is defined as where I and I are the intensities of the fluorescence with the emission polarizer oriented parallel ( ) or perpendicular ( ) to the polarized excitation The anisotropy is the difference in the polarized signal, normalized to the total intensity, I T = I + 2 I In order to perform the fluorescence anisotropy 39 experiments, two polarizers are mounted within the sample chamber, before and after the sample. A total of four intensity measurements I VV I VH I HV and I HH are required to c alculate to ob served anisotropy ( Figure 2 1 ) This is because t he transmission efficiency of the monochromator is polarization dependent. 29 Figure 2 1 Schema tic diagram for measurements of fluorescence anisotropy. MC, Monochromator 32

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22 The subscript denotes the orientation (vertical or horizontal) of the excitation and emission polarizers, respectively. S V and S H are the sensitivities of the detector channel for vertically and horizontally polarized emission, respectively, and k is proportionality factor used to comp ensate for instrumental factors An eq uivalent expression for the steady state fluorescence anisotropy can be written as where G is the so called G factor, defined as the ratio of the emission channel sensitivities for vertically and horizontally polarized em ission The G factor can be determined from the ratio of I HV and I HH The fundamental anisotropy is the anisotropy observed after excitation but prior to the depolarization of fluorescence, and is defined as where is defined as the angle between the absorption and emission transition dipoles. Therefore, the fundamental anisotropy observes a maximum value of 0.4 when the transition dipole moments are parallel and a minimum value of 0.2 when the transition dipole mo ments are in a perpendicular orientation. 32

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23 The transition dipole moments are expected to be parallel when observing corresponding transitions fro m the same states. For example, consider the excitation of the S 0 S 1 transition and emission of the S 1 S 0 transition. Such a situation, however ideal, is unlikely to achieve the maximum value of 0.4 for the fundamental anisotropy. Potentially, this discrep ancy could be attributed to effects due to rotational diffusion. Materials and Sample Preparation This thesis will focu s on two families of dendrimers. The fundamental structure consists of a perylene diimide and triphenylene arms, with two triphenylene ri ngs and six triphenylene rings for generation 0 and 1, respectively. The two families differ only in the bridge bond between the peripheral arms and dendrimer core. In b oth cases, the core is 40 position; while the first family has an ether connecting arms and core, the second one has acet ylene bridges. The dendrimer samples studied in this thesis were provided by Dr. Zhonghua Peng from the University of Missouri Kansas City. The names and s tructure s of the molecules are listed in Chapter 3 Table 3 1 All experiments were performed in solution us in g one centimeter quartz cuvettes. Sample solutions were prepared by dissolution in dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran or chloroform, each solvent obtained from Fisher Scientific Further purification of prepared solutions was not deemed necessary Optical densities were kept between 0.1 and 0.3 to avoid aggregation and self absorption. The optical density for PBI OB, PBI TB POG0 and PTG0 was determined from the absorbance of the perylene diimide core between 500 600 nm.

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24 CHAPTER 3 ENERGY TRANSFER IN PERYLENE DIIMIDE DENDRIMER DERIVATIVE S As mentioned previously, dendrimer research has shifted from an initial interest in the synthesis of large molecules to a focus on the potential for applications, which these molecules possess. One such molecule, perylene diimide (PDI), has been widely stu died and incorporated into differe nt areas of dendritic structure and will be the dendritic core under investigation for this thesis. Perylene diimide dendrimer derivatives have been a popular area of study for some time Dendrimers based on perylene diimi de characteristically exhibit strong absorption and fluorescence spectra. Research has shown that although some of these molecules tend to exhibit poor solubility, this can often be minimized by building a network of peripheral molecules around the core. F urthermore, the emissive band for the molecule can be tuned 41 by careful selection of those peripheral molecules, as interactions with different molecules will impose a shift in the characteristic spectra. In contra st to tuning the emission bands by selective functionalization of the periphery, M llen et al have displayed tuning of the emissive band due to increasing the size of the aromatic core 42 (terrylene and quaterrylene diimides 43 ). The synthesis and characterization of perylene diimide film samples 44 45 has also been investigat ed, for further acceptor properties of perylene diimide dendrimer derivatives make them attractive candidates for use in optoelectronic devices 46 and photosynthetic mimic system s. Consequently, many research groups have focused on these molecules, 47 particularly on their light harvesting 48 and energy transfer 40 49 51 abilities. The advantages expected to be provided by using perylene diimide for the core of the dendrimer have been discussed above and were a prime motivational fac tor in the choice of the

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25 dendrimers for this study. Furthermore, it has been said that a given dendrimer can be tailored to exhibit different photophysical properties based on the components which comprise said dendrimer. Previous studies of triphenylene b ased dendrons 52 have indicated that the additional conjugation provided by triphenylene systems may prolong the excited state lifetime, as compared to less conjugated systems. Also, the triphenylene units have sev eral sites suitable for further functionalization. It is believed that these properties will enhance the efficiency of energy transfer in the perylene diimide dendrimer derivatives, and for these reasons, the triphenylene chrom o phore was specifically chose n for the peripheral molecules in this study. In order to improve the effic a cy of the perylene diimide dendrimer derivatives for the applications identified previously a study of energy transfer properties of these compounds will be most helpful. This cha pter will discuss the results obtained from the steady state and time resolved experiments performed upon the perylene diimide dendrimers and their fundamental components ( Table 3 1 ) and draw conclusions about the energy transfer capabilities for this group of dendrimers. Experimental Results The results expected from the steady state and time resolved experiments can be understood by considering the contribution made by the model co mpounds forming the complete dendrimer. For example, in the POG0 dendrimer, G0 OH forms the periphery or dendritic arms, and PBI OB is a close approximation to the POG0 dendrimer core. Solvent Effects The solvent used in an experiment can have an affect o n the shape, position and intensity of spectral bands of a molecule. 53 These dendrimers are no exception, and the effects of solvent environment are seen in the absorption and emission spectra. Figure 3 1 shows how the emission spectrum can change as a result of changing the solvent. The samples were studied in

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26 Table 3 1. Peng Dendrimers Name Structure G0 OH G0 T PBI OB PBI TB POG0 PTG0

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27 tetrahydrofuran dichloromethane, and chloroform. The absorption spectrum of PBI TB in the mo re polar solvent ( THF ) is blue shifted with respect to that of the other spectra, while the absorption spectrum of PBI TB in the least polar solvent (chloroform) is seen slightly to the red. These solvatochromic shifts in the spectral data can be attributed to the stabilization of the Figure 3 1 Solvent effect o n PBI TB in Chloroform (black squares ), DCM (red circles ) and THF (blue triangles ). ground state or excited state caused by interactions of the molecule with the solvent environment. 54 Similar results were observed for all the samples in this study except PTG0, which was only p artially soluble in DCM and THF. Due to the low solubility of PTG0 in DCM and THF, further experiments were only performed in chloroform solutions. Steady Stat e Spectra The absorption and emission spectra of the peripheral chromophores, G0 OH and G0 T ( Figure 3 2 ) show very little spectral overlap ; the Stokes shift for G0 OH and G0 T is approximately 110 nm and 135 nm, respectively. The fluorescence of G0 T is seen slightly to the red of the fluorescence from G0 OH. The loss of the mirror image symmetry in the emission spectra and the subsequent loss of fine structure in the emission of G0 T, could b e attributed to aggregation and vibronic coupling. 55 Furthermore, for solutions of comparable concentrations,

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28 the relative intensity of the fluorescence of G0 T is much greater than that of G0 OH (Figure 3 3 ). This has been attributed to the extension of the conjugated system in G0 T. 52 Figure 3 2 Absorbance and Emission spectra of (a) G0 OH and (b) G0 T. Figure 3 3 Emission spectra of G0 OH and G0 T in chloroform. Figure 3 4 displays the absorbance and emission spectra of the core molecule s, PBI OB and PBI TB. The absorbance and emission maxima of PBI TB are red shifted with respect to PBI OB. Additionally, PBI OB and PBI TB partially absorb in the same region where the perip heral chromophores emit (Figure 3 5 )

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29 Figure 3 4 Absorbance and Emission Spectra of (a) PBI OB and (b) PBI TB. Figure 3 5 Donor Acceptor overlap. (a) Model compo und s, G0 OH and PBI OB, of the POG0 dendrimer (b) Model compo und s, G0 T and PBI TB, of the PTG0 dendrimer. Now that these model compounds have been discussed, consider the properties observed in the associated dendrimers. Figure 3 6 displays the normalized absorbance and emission spectra of G0 OH, PBI OB and POG0. When using PBI OB to estima te the expected absorbance from the POG0 core, it is important to recognize that the full absorption spectrum also exhibits absorption below 300 nm (not shown) in the UV region and is attributed to the dendritic arms, and the absorption detected at longer wavelengths in the visible region is due to the perylene diimide core.

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30 Figure 3 6 Normalized (a) Absorbance and (b) Emission Spectra of G0 OH (dotted red line), PBI OB (dashed blue line) and POG0 (solid black line) A shift to longer wavelengths, a observed in the absorbance of the perylene diimide core of POG0. This lowering of transition conjugation of the dendrimer. The absorbance band f rom the perylene diimide core of POG0 seen between 5 0 0 600 nm is associated with the S 0 S 1 transition. 56 The greatest absorption is seen in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and this corresponds to the periphery of the POG0 dendrimer. As the absorbing chromophores should be capable of efficient light harvesting, a high absorbance for this part of the dendrimer is ideal. The absorptions of the periphery and core components are well separated, indicating t hat the periphery could be selectively excited for the study of intramolecular energy transfer. 57 At all excitation wavelengths, the maximum emission of POG0 occurs around 575 nm. Emission at this wave length corresponds to emission f rom the perylene diimide core. The normalized absorption and emission spe ctra of G0 T, PBI TB and PTG0 are shown in Figure 3 7 The absorption spectrum of PTG0 (Figure 3 7 A ) shows significant inhomogeneous broadening 58 which is attributed to changes in the structure of the solvation shell 29 Similar to

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31 POG0, the greatest absorpt ion occurs below 300 nm, and is assigned as the absorption from the periphery The emiss ion of PTG0 (Figure 3 7 B ) at excitation wavelengths less than 300 nm, results in a spectrum dominated by emission from the peripheral molecules, which exhibits a slight red shift with respect to the emission of G0 T. Excitation of PTG0 at wavelengths great er than 400 nm (the perylene diimide core) exhibits an emission band of low intensity, centered around 650 nm. Figure 3 7 Normalized (a) Absorbance and (b) Emission Spectra of G0 T (dotted red line), PBI TB (dashed blue line) and PTG0 (solid black line) I rrespective of excitation wavelength, the fluorescence of POG0 (Figure 3 6 B ) is dominated by the fluorescence from the perylene diimide core, which i s a strong indication that intramolecular energy transfer occurs in this dendrimer family. Conversely, significant energy transfer does not occur in PTG0 as excitation of PTG0 at wavelengths less than 425 nm results in an intense emission band which can be attributed to the emission of the periphery, the emission of G0 T. Excitation of PTG0 at 576 nm, the a bsorbance maximum of the perylene diimide core, results in a relatively weak emission band, centered a round 650 nm.

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32 Fluorescence Anisotropy Perylene has been used and studied since the early twentieth century. The orientation of the absorption transition moment for perylene 29 (Figure 3 8) is known to be along the long axis for the S 0 S 1 transition and along the short axis for the S 0 S 2 transition. A nalogous results are expected for the perylene diimide dendrimer derivatives, and steady state fluorescence anisotropy 59 methods have been employed to ascertain more information about the transition dipole moments of POG0. Figure 3 8 Absorption transition moments of perylene. 29 To gain information about the angle between the abso rption and emission transition dipoles of a molecule using steady state spectroscop ic methods the ideal solution would be dilute and prepared in a highly viscous solvent. The high viscosity of the solvent hinders the rotational diffusion of the molecule u nder investigation making it possible to deduce information regarding the transition dipole moments. Unfortunately, d ue to problems with the solubility of the samples, the use of a highly viscous solvent was not possible. Instead, t he solutions were prep ared in chloroform a solvent in which perylene diimides ha ve already been studied 50 and which posed no solubility problems The results from the st eady state emission anisotropy experiments performed on G0 OH and the full POG0 dendrimer are dis cussed below The steady state fluorescence anisotropy of G0 OH has been conducted at varying excitation wavelengths. From the absorption spectrum of G0 OH in chloroform (Figure 3 2 A )

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33 two peaks are observed at the maximum of the most intense absorbance band. These peaks are believ ed to be vibrational structure and are not expected to affect the results of the steady state anisotropy experiments. When excite d at 275 nm (Fig. 3 9 A ), and longer wavelengths, G0 OH displays no anisotropy. A zero value for the anisotropy is an indication that the transition dipole moments of the fluorophores have assumed a random orientation. This is most likely due to the rotatio n al diffusi on of the molecules in the solution phase Without further information about the rotational correlation time, this would be a reasonable assumption to explain the results of the anisotropy experiments for G0 OH. However, when G0 OH is excited at 265 nm (Fig ure 3 9 B ), an anisotropy value of nearly 0.2 is observed. This presents several problems. Figure 3 9 G0 OH Emission Anisotropy (a) Exc. Exc. = 265 nm First, an anisotropy value of approximately 0.2 occurs when the absorption and emission transition dipole moments are nearly perpendicular If the peaks observed at the absorbance maximum of G0 OH are true vibronic structure of the same electronic transition, it is not feasible to believe that excitation of G0 OH at 265 nm and 2 75 nm should result in diffe rent values for the anisotropy Furthermore, if this data is correct, then the assumption that rotational diffusion

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34 contributed to the random orientation of the fluorophores (and a zero value anisotropy) is no longer accurate. There are several possible reasons to explain the contradictory results displayed by the G0 OH data A likely explanation is instrumental or human error. A mistake committed by the researcher during the experiment is not beyond the realm of possibility. Fl uctuations in lamp intensity and scattered light are among the possible contributing factors to instrumental errors. Finally, the less likely explanation is that the peaks observed in the absorption spectrum of G0 OH ar e contributions from two separate electronic transitions. Due to the anomalous anisotropy value for G0 OH when excited at 265 nm, further experimentation will be necessary to ensure the reproducibility of the data. Time resolved anisotropy experiments, which are discussed in Chapter 4, pro mise information about the rate of rotational diffusion of the chromophore in solution. If the rate of rotational diffusion is faster than the rate of fluorescence emission, the anisotropy is expected to be zero. 61 Therefore, one could conclude the anisotropy value of G0 OH when excited at 265 nm to be erroneous and most likely the result of experimental or instrumental error. However, if the rate of rotational diffusion is much slower than the rate of fluorescence e mission, then the effect of rotation is negligible 32 In that case, more information will be necessary to determine to cause for the change in anisotropy With investigation of POG0, one wishes to observe the chang es in the behavior of the anisotropy caused by excitation of the donor and acceptor chromophore s of the dendrimer. This data is shown below in Figure 3 10 When POG0 is excited in the peripheral region of the dendrimer, a loss of anisotropy is observed in the region corresponding to emission of the donor (Figure 3 10 A ). The loss of anisotropy could be attributed to several factors In this case, as the

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35 size of the full dendrimer minimizes the effect rotational diffusion could have on the depolarization proc ess, and the data is supported by the steady state characterization studies, t he loss of anisotropy is believed to be an indicator of energy transfer from the excited donor to the acceptor component of the dendrimer. Figure 3 10 B displays the anisotropy re sulting from excitation of the perylene diimide core. Figure 3 10 POG0 Emission Anisotropy (a) Excitation of donor (b) Excitation of acceptor An anisotropy value of 0.37 has been reported 60 for perylene in glycerol The anisotropy of POG0, when excited at the perylene diimide core, displays a value close to 0.30 (Figure 3 10 B ). Rotational diffusion is believed to be the cause of this lower anisotropy value. POG0, a much larger molecule, would be expected to rotate slower than perylene, and therefore have a higher anisotropy value. However, one must consider that the anisotropy for perylene reported in the literature was measured at temperatures ranging from 170 300 K. The lowered temperature ranges reported in the literature were used to minimize the affects of rotational diffusion in the molecules under investigation. Therefore, at room temperature, for POG0 samples capable of mo ving freely in solution, rotational diffusion would be a reasonable explanation for a lower anisotropy.

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36 Fluorescence Lifetimes The fluorescence decay lifetimes of the samples were collected using a PicoQuant Fluorescence Lifetime System, which was describ ed in generality in Chapter 2. Specifically, the samples were excited at 37 0 nm; the repetition rate for the experiments was 10 MHz, and the average power was approximately 0.075 mW The fluorescence lifetimes, amplitude weighting (fractional intensities) 2 value for each molecule are summarized in Table 3 2 Table 3 2 Fluorescence lifetime data of dendrimer samples in chloroform Molecule 1 (ns) FI 1 2 (ns) FI 2 2 G0 OH 1.84 53.30 % 8.82 46.70 % 1.699 G0 T 2.06 20.90 % 5.62 79.10 % 1.315 PBI OB ----4.65 100.00 % 1.179 PBI TB ----6.85 100.00 % 1.163 POG0 1.63 53.66 % 5.01 46.34 % 1.381 PTG0 2.84 59.59 % 5.43 40.41 % 1.246 FI 1 and FI 2 1 2 respectively. The Fractional Intensity is calculated using the equation, where A n is the amplitude of the n th component. As can be inferred from Table 3 2 the triphenylene molecules, G0 OH (Figure 3 11 ) and G0 T (Figure 3 12 ) which form the periphery of the two dendrimer families, exhibit a two exponential decay. The two core molecules, PBI OB (Figure 3 13 ) and PBI TB (Figure 3 14 ) show single exponential decays. And the full dendrimers, POG0 (Figure 3 15 ) a nd PTG0 (Figure 3 16 ) also display a two exponential decay. For excitation at 370 nm, it is expected that t he fluorescence decays of the full dendrimers, POG0 and PTG0, should reflect contributions from both the periphery and core components. For example, in POG0 the resulting lifetimes are expected to reflect the lifetimes observed for G0

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37 OH and PBI OB. The component observed at early times ( 1 ) in the fluorescence decay of POG0 and PTGO is attributed to the fluorescence decay of peripheral molecules. The second lifetime 2 ) of POG0 results from a combination of the lifetimes of G0 2 ) and PBI 1 ). 2 for PTG0 reflects contributions from the lifetimes of G0 T and PBI TB. Figure 3 11 Fluorescence lifetime decay of G0 OH in chloroform.

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38 Figure 3 12 Fluorescence lifetime decay of G0 T in chloroform. Figure 3 13 Fluorescence lifetime decay of PBI OB in chloroform.

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39 Figure 3 14 Fluorescence lifetime decay of PBI TB in chloroform. Figure 3 15 Fluorescence lifetime decay of POG0 in chloroform.

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40 Figure 3 16 Fluorescence lifetime decay of PTG0 in chloroform. From the emission spectrum of POG0 (Figure 3 6 B ), one can see that the emission from PBI OB dominates the POG0 emission spectrum. On the other hand, most of the emission of PTG0 (Figure 3 7 B ) comes from G0 2 for POG0 more closely resembles the lifetime of PBI 2 ) of G0 T. Further experiments should be conducted using band pass filters t o detect only the fluorescence decay coming from a selected wavelength range. In this way, it will be possible to determine how changes in the fluorescence decay of the complete dendrimer with respect to the decay of fluorescence of the core and periphery are affect ed by energy transfer

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41 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTU RE WORK Conclusions Absorption and emission spectra have been collected for these dendrimers using steady state methods. The emission of POG0 has been determined to be independent of excitation wavelength. Excitation of POG0 at wavelengths corresponding to absorbance of the periphery results in emission due to the perylene diimide core, indicating the presence of intramolec ular energy transfer. Similar experiments for PTG0 have revealed that excitation at wavelengths less than 425 nm produces an emission spectrum dominated by emission of the dendrimer periphery, while excitation at longer wavelengths reveals a low intensity emission attributed to emission of the perylene diimide core. Anisotropy experiments have been conducted for samples POG0 and G0 OH. Excitation of POG0 at the core results in an anisotropy value of approximately 0.30, while excitation of POG0 at the periph ery results in a loss of anisotropy in the core region. This loss of anisotropy is believed to be induced by the transfer of energy from the periphery to the core. Independent of excitation wavelength, no anisotropy is observed for G0 OH. This is attribute d to the rate of rotational diffusion of the molecules in solution. The reproducibility of the data set must be confirmed by further experimentation using time resolved anisotropy. Time resolved anisotropy experiments can provide information about the rate of rotation al diffusion, which will help determine if the signal observed from G0 OH is accurate. The lifetime of the decay of fluorescence has been measured for each sample in chloroform solutions. The fluorescence decay lifetimes of the fu ll dendrimers POG0 and PTG0 have been considered with respect to the lifetimes of their individual model compounds. Further experiments should be performed to confirm the existence of energy transfer.

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42 Steady state and time resolved spectroscopic methods have been used to study energy transfer properties of perylene diimide dendrimer derivatives in solution. These molecules show much promise in the energy research field. While data for POG0 indicates that intramolecular energy transfer is most likely occurring in this d endrimer, more experimentation will be necessary to confirm this conclusion. Future Work As the experiments were conducted for these molecules, and the data was analyzed, it became apparent that further experimentation might be advantageous. The following sections address additional experimental methods which could offer more information about the questions presented in this thesis. Although not included in the original design of the experiment, these experimental methods should further the understanding of the energy transfer in these dendrimers. Time Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy With the understanding that the steady state fluorescence anisotropy is the time averaged response over the lifetime of the fluorescence decay, the time resolved fluorescence anisotropy 62 can thus be written as The obvious advantage between steady state and time resolved fluo rescence anisotropy is the retention of the time resolution using the time resolved experimental method. The time resolution of the acquired data provides a direct way to approximate the fundamental, or limiting, anisotropy, r 0 T ypically, t he anisotropy observed at time zero, r(0), is a good estimation of the fundamental anisotropy Time resolved anisotropy measurements also provide the decay, and therefore the lifetime of the anisotropy. This additional information may

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43 make it possible to d raw further conclusions about the steady state anisotropy experiments discussed previously. Excimers Preliminary data from my collaborator, the research group of Dr. Zhonghua Peng, has indicated the presence of additional emissive bands in the fluorescenc e spectra of G0 OH film samples. It is believed that these bands may contribute to a band appearing at similar wavelengths in the fluorescence of POG0, supporting the existence of possible of excimer formation. The term excimer was coined by Stevens and H utton in 1960, 63 and comes from a blending of the words interaction of two identical molecules, one in and unexcited state and the second in an electronically excite d state. M* + M (MM)* Properties of excimers As excimers exist and are formed in the excited state, 64 they can only be observed in emission experiments, and no change should be observed in the absorption spectra 64 65 of the sample under investigation. Typically, excimers exhibit several distinctive properties, enabling the identification of excimer formation from study of the sample fluorescence. For example, excimer 65 bands exist at wavelengths longer than the characteristic monomer emission (red shifted) and appear as broad bands without the presence of vibronic structure The intensity of the emission band of the excimer is inversely proportional to the intensity of the monomer emission band. That is to say, with an increase in concentration, the intensity of the excimer emission should increase while the emission band due the monomer decr eases. E xcimer f ormation Intermolecular excimers are formed from the collision the excited and unexcited states of two separate but identical mo lecules. The formation of an excimer by this

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44 method is dependent upon the translational diffusion of the molecu les during the excited state lifetime of the monomer. By contrast, intramoleculer excimers are formed by interactions between the excited and unexcited states of two fluorophores, connected by a flexible chain, within the same molecule. In this case the fo rmation of the excimer is dependent upon the ability of the fluorophores to come into close proximity to one another through rotational motion. Therefore, intramolecular excimers are not dependent upon sample concentration. 66 Figure 4 1 Excimer formation. (a) Intermoleculer excimer formation (b) Intramolecular excimer formation 29 Preliminary d ata Figure 4 2, displays the comparison of fluorescence spectral data for G0 OH and POG0. The region of interest lies in the film sample of G0 OH with the appearance of additional emissive bands at wavelengths longer than those known to be attributed to the monomer emiss ion of G0 OH. These bands appear to have excellent overlap with a low intensity component of the POG0 emission. This component of POG0 appears as a relatively broad structureless band, and presents the possibility of excimer formation. For the purposes of future solid state applications, the ability to determine whether or not this is true excimer formation would be invaluable to the energy transfer studies of these molecules.

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45 Figure 4 2 Comparison of fluorescence spectral data for G 0 OH in (1) Chloroform C bold black line (2) Hexane H bold blue line and (3) Film F bold red squares, with the fluorescence curve of POG0 (dashed black line). Courtesy of Z. Peng, 2010.

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47 13. type conjugated dendrimers: convergent synthesis, photophysics, electroluminescence, and use as electron transport materials for light Chemistry of Materials vol. 16, no. 23, pp. 4657 4666, 2004. 14. hotosynthesis Topics in Catalyisis vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 130 140 2010 15. A. Adronov and J. M. J. Fr Chemical Communications no. 18, 1701 1710, 2000. 16. V. Balzani, P. Ceroni, M. Maestri, and V. Vicinelli Current Op inion in Chemical Biology vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 657 665 2003 17. Z. Peng, J. Melinger, u nsymmetrical c onjugated d endrimers as p hotosynthetic m imics Photosynthesis Research vol. 87, no. 1 115 131 2006 18. Y. Zeng, Y. Y. Li, m imic n atural l ight harvesting s ystem Chemistry An Asian Journal vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 992 1005, 2010. 19. A. Ba r Haim, J. Klafter, and R. Kopelman, Dendrimers as controlled a rtificial energy Journal of the American Chemical Society vol. 119, no. 26, pp. 6197 6198 1997 20. M. R. Shortreed, S. F. Swallen, Z. Y. Shi, W. Tan, Z. Xu, C. Devadoss, J. S. Moore, and Directed e nergy t ransfer f unnels in d endrimeric a ntenna s upermolecules The Journal of Physical Chemistry B vol. 101, no. 33, pp. 6318 6322 1997 21. Chemical Society Reviews vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 233 240, 1998. 22. Dendrimers and d yes a review Dyes and Pigmen ts vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 187 195 2001 23. I. Akai, K. Miyanari, T. Shimamoto, A. Fujii, H. Nakao, A. Okada, K. KAnemoto, T. Karasawa, H. Hasimoto, A. Ishida, A. Yamada, I. Katayama, J. Takeda, and M. Kimura, conj ugated light New Journal of Physics vol. 10, no. 12 pp. 125024(1 22) 2008. 24. light Journal of Chemical Physics vol. 127 no. 13, pp. 134902 1 134902 7, 2007. 25. C. Supritz, Journal of Luminescence no. 119 120, pp. 337 340 2006.

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48 26. Materia ls. In Photoresponsive Polymers II Springer Verlag Berlin: Berlin, 2008; Vol. 214, pp 87 147 2008 27. C. Devadoss, P. Bharathi, and J. S. Moore m ac romolecules. 1. Intermolecular electron t ransfer Macromolecules vol. 31, no. 23, pp. 8091 8099 1998 28. Photosynthesis Research vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 133 150 2006 29. B. Valeur, Molecular Fluorescence: Principle s and Applications Wiley VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2002. 30. N. J. Turro, V. Ramamurthy, and J. C. Sciano, Principles of Molecular Photochemistry: An Introduction University Science Books, Sausalito, California, 2009. 31. M. Gaft and R. Reisfeld, Modern Luminescen ce Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2005. 32. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, NEW YORK, 1999. 33. D. M. Hercules, Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Analysis: Pri n ciples and Applications Interscience Publishers, New York, NEW YORK 1966. 34. J. D. Ingle, Jr. and S. R. Crouch, Spectrochemical Analysis Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1988. 35. domain fluores cence spectroscopy using time Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Volume 1: Techniques J. R. Lakowicz, Ed., Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, pp. 1 95, 2002. 36. Time Correlated Single Photon Counting Academic Press, New York, New York, 1984. 37. On the analysis of fluorescence decay kinetics by the method of least Analytical Biochemistry vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 583 598 1974 38. P. Sc huck, K. Steady s tate and t ime r esolved e mission a nisotropy In Protein Interactions Springer US: 2007; pp 397 416. 39. R. Steiner, Fluorescence a nisotropy: Theory and a pplications In Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscop y, Volume 2: Pr inciples J. R. Lakowicz, Ed., Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy pp. 1 52 Springer, 2002. 40. C. Flors, I. Oesterling, T. Schnitzler, E. Fron, G. Schweitzer, M. Sliwa, A. Herrmann, M. v an d er Auweraer, F. C. de Schryver, K. M llen, and J. Hofkens, Energy and electron

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49 transf The Journal of Physical Chemistry C vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 4861 4870, 2007. 41. H. Wonneberger, C. Q. Ma, M. A. Gatys, C. Li, P. B uerle, and K. M llen, pery The Journal of Physical Chemistry B vol. 114, no. 45, pp. 14343 14347, 2010. 42. S. K. Lee, Y. Zu, A. Herrmann, Y. Geerts, K. M spectroscopy and electrogenerated ch emiluminescence of perylene, terrylene, and Journal of the American Chemical Society vol. 121, no. 14, pp. 3513, 3520, 1999. 43. Y. Geerts, H. Quante, H. Platz, R. Mahrt, M. Hopmeier, A. B hm, and K. M llen, Journals of Materials Chemistry vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 2357 2369, 1998. 44. T. Tang, J. Qu, K. Molecular l ayer by l ayer s elf a ssembly of w ater s oluble p erylene d e lectrostatic i nteractions Langmuir vol. 22, no. 1 pp. 26 28 2006. 45. Water s oluble p erylene d iimides: Photophysics and l ayer by l ayer i ncorporation into p olyelectrolyte f ilms Langmu ir vol. 22, no. 18, pp. 7610 7616 2006 46. acceptor heterojunction solar cells based on perylene dimide and perylene The European Physical Journal Applied Physics vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 225 229, 2006. 47. Physical Review B vol. 63, no. 19, pp. 195418 (1 10) 2001. 48. T. Ishi I, K. i Murakami, Y. Imai, and S. M Light h arvesting and e nergy t ransfer s ystem b ased on s elf a ssembling p erylene d iimide a ppended h exaazatriphenylene Organic Letters vol. 7 no. 15, pp. 3175 3178 2005 49. X. Li, L. E. Sinks, B. Rybtchinski, and M. R. Wa Ultrafast a ggregate to a ggregate e nergy t ransfer within s elf assembled l ight h arvesting c olumns of z inc p hthalocyanine t atrakis( p erylenediimide) Journal of the American Chemical Society vol. 126, no. 35 pp. 10810 10811 2004 50. J. Qu, J. Zhan g A. C. Grimsdale, K. M llen, F. Jaiser, X. Yang and D. Neher, Dendronized p erylene d iimide e mitters: Synthesis, luminescence, and electron and Macromolecules vol. 37, no. 22, pp. 8297 8306, 2004. 51. G. Schweitzer, R. Gronheid, S. Jordens, M. Lor, G. De Belder, T. Weil, E. Reuther, K. M llen, and F. C. De Sc Intr a molecular d irectional e nergy t ransfer p rocessed in

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50 d endrimers c ontaining p erylene and t errylene c hromophores The Journal of Physica l Chemistry A vol. 107, no. 18, pp. 3199 3207, 2002. 52. Synthesis and optical properties of triphen ylene Tetrahedron vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 1247 1256, 2009. 53. C. Reichardt S. Asharinfard, A. Blum, M. Eschner, A. M. Mehranpour, P. Milart, T. determinations by means of solvatochromic dyes, Pure and Applied Chemistry vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 2593 2601, 1993. 54. C. Reichardt, as solvent polarity indicators, Chemical Reviews vol. 94, no. 8, pp. 2319 2358, 1994. 55. riphenylene as f luorescence p robe s for Langm uir vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 90 95, 1993. 56. R. Gvishi R. Reisfeld and Z. Burshtein Spec troscopy and laser action of the red perylimide dye Chemical Physics Letters vol. 213, no. 3 4, pp. 338 344, 1993. 57. D. Liu, S. De Feyter, M. Cotlet, A. Stefan, U. M. Wiesler, A. Herrmann, D. Grebel Macromolecules vol. 36, no.16, pp. 5918 5925, 2003. 58. N. A. Nemkovich, A. N. Ru Topics in Fluorescence Spectros c opy, Volume 2: Principles J. R. Lakowicz, Ed., Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy pp. 367 428, Springer, 2002. 59. B. S. Fujimoto and J. M. Schurr An analysis of steady state fluorescence polarization anisotropy measurements on dyes intercalated in DNA The Journal of Physical Chemistry vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 1947 1951, 1987 60. Limiting fluorescence anis otropies of per ylene and xanthenes Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions vol. 86, no. 12 pp. 2103 2107 1990 61. Fluorescence lifetime resolved imaging: Measuring lifetimes in an image. In Methods in Enzymology : Biophotonics, Part A Volume 360 G. Marriott and I. Parker, Eds., Methods in Enzymology, pp. 509 542, Academic Press : Elsevier 2003 62. resolved fluorescence anisotropy Biophys ical Journal vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 45 56, 1984.

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52 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Allison Jean LaFramboise was born in Ypsilanti, Michigan in 1986 to Donald and Deborah LaFramboise. At the age of six, her family relocated to Lynnville, Tennes see, a rural town located near the Tennessee Alabama state line. The youngest of three daughters, Allison is the self proclaimed nerd of the family. After graduating from Richland High School, Allison left home to attend Lee University, a private, Liberal Arts Institution situated in Cleveland, Tennessee. While a student at Lee, Allison had the opportunity to participate in two cross cultural trips: the first, touring with Lee ory stretching through the heart of Italy. In M ay of 2008, Allison earned her b achelor s d egree in c hemistry with minors in Bible and m athematics. Upon her graduation from Lee University, Allison began her g raduate s tudies at the University of Florida in t he Fall of 2008, joining the research group of Dr. Valeria Kleiman.