Hazardous Substances Contained in Common Construction Materials

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Title:
Hazardous Substances Contained in Common Construction Materials
Physical Description:
1 online resource (159 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Vanegas,Alvaro J,Jr
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.B.C.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Building Construction
Committee Chair:
Hinze, Jimmie W
Committee Co-Chair:
Ries, Robert J.
Committee Members:
Sullivan, James

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
adhesives -- caulk -- construction -- department -- dol -- epa -- establishments -- florida -- gainesville -- gianesville -- hazardous -- iarc -- msds -- niosh -- ntp -- osha -- paint -- products -- rtecs -- substances
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
The construction industry has maintained a slow pace in the reduction of worker injuries. Workers in this field have a significantly higher chance of obtaining work-related injuries, when compared to all workers. In addition, injuries in the field of construction have been more than double the rate of most other industries. While most efforts to reduce worker injuries have been focused on unsafe work conditions and unsafe actions, a significant number of injuries are associated with worker exposures to hazardous substances. Some of these injuries have occurred due to a lack of information regarding hazardous substances. Conventional construction products such as adhesives, caulks, and paints contain potential illness-causing substances. Some of the substances that may be found in these products are acetone, formaldehyde, silica, mineral spirits and ethylene glycol. Many other hazardous substances may also be contained by the products. Exposure to these hazardous substances can result in health problems or damage to major organs such as the liver, skin, and eyes. In addition, the central nervous system, respiratory system and blood system are also commonly affected. The objective of the research was to collect information about the hazardous substances contained in common construction projects, particularly adhesive, caulk, and paint products. The primary research method used to collect data was personal visitations to selected regional establishments. Photographs, notes, and information gathered from establishment authorities were obtained by the researcher. The material safety data sheets of the construction products documented were the main source for collecting the names of hazardous substances. The information collected was applied to a master table, in addition to a series of smaller tables, in order to catalog the products by branch, brand, subdivision, and substance. A large quantity of adhesive, caulk, and paint products were examined through visits to retail branches. A large majority of these products contain hazardous substances, and exposure to them can cause different reactions to people. These reactions range from minor skin irritations to cancer. Safety measures, such as using gloves and face masks, can prevent exposure to many of these potentially harmful substances. If the hazards of these products are properly recognized and addressed, these products can be utilized safely.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Alvaro J Vanegas.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local:
Adviser: Hinze, Jimmie W.
Local:
Co-adviser: Ries, Robert J.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID:
UFE0043408:00001


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1 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES CONTAINED IN COMMON CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS By ALVARO JOSE VANEGAS A T HESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MA STER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Alvaro Jos Vanegas

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis would not have happened without my parents and siblings who have been strong supporters for me and all of the professors on my thesis board who gave me the knowledge I now possess

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 The Construction Industry and Progress ................................ ................................ 11 Substance Regulations ................................ ................................ ........................... 12 Substance Assessment ................................ ................................ .................... 12 Health Hazards ................................ ................................ ................................ 13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 14 Work Force Organization s ................................ ................................ ...................... 15 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ................................ ................... 16 EPA advantages ................................ ................................ ........................ 16 EPA functions ................................ ................................ ............................ 16 The Occupational Safety and Health and Administration (OSHA) .................... 17 OSHA standards ................................ ................................ ........................ 17 OSHA inspections ................................ ................................ ...................... 19 The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ................ 19 Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) ............................ 20 The National Toxicology Program (NTP) ................................ .......................... 20 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ................................ ...... 21 Construction Products ................................ ................................ ............................. 21 Adhesives ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 22 Caulks ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 22 Paints ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 23 Hazardous Substances ................................ ................................ ........................... 23 Hazard Communication Standard ................................ ................................ ........... 24 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) ................................ ................................ ....... 24 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ............... 27 4 RESU LTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 30 Adhesives ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 30 Caulk ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 32

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6 Paint Products ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 33 Carcinogenic ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 35 5 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 53 6 RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 55 Establishment Information ................................ ................................ ...................... 55 Non Hazardous Substitutes ................................ ................................ .................... 55 Warning Labels ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 56 Safety Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 56 Safety Data Search ................................ ................................ ................................ 57 Education System ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 58 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 58 APPENDIX: TABLE OF PRODUCTS ................................ ................................ ............ 59 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 156 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 159

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Adhesive usage ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 36 4 2 S elected hazardous substances and percentages in adhesive products ........... 36 4 3 Adhesives product brands and quantities ................................ ........................... 37 4 4 NIOSH classification of hazardous substances in adhesive products ................ 38 4 5 Exterior caulk product brands and usages ................................ ......................... 40 4 6 Interior caulk product brands and usages ................................ ........................... 40 4 7 Selected hazardous substances and percentages in caulk product s ................. 41 4 8 Caulk product brands and quantities ................................ ................................ .. 42 4 9 NIOSH classification of hazardous substances in caulk products ...................... 43 4 10 Selected hazardous substances and percentages in paint products .................. 47 4 11 Paint product bra nds and quantities ................................ ................................ ... 48 4 12 NIOSH classification of hazardous substances for paint products ...................... 49 4 13 Selected hazardous substances in paint products ................................ .............. 52 A 1 Product Data Sheet ................................ ................................ ............................ 59

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8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACGIH American Conference of Industrial Hygienists AFM A merican F ormulating and M anufacturing CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention CFR Code of Federal Regulations CII Construction Industry Institute CNS Central Nervous System CVS Cardiovascular System GI Gastrointestinal HCS Hazard Communication Standard IARC International Agency f or Research on Cancer MEK Methyl Ethyl Ketone NTP National Tox icology Program NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NPS National Park Service NSC National Safe ty Council OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration PNS Peripheral Nervous System Resp Respiratory System Repr Reproduct ive System RTECS Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances UF University of Florida UPC Universal Product C ode

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida i n Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Building Construction HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES CONTAINED IN COMMON CONSTRUC TION MATERIALS By Alvaro Jos Vanegas August, 2011 Chair: J immie Hinze Cochair: Robert Ries Major: Building Construction The construction industry has maintained a slow pace in the reduction of worker injuries. Workers in this field have a significant ly higher chance of obtaining work related injuries, when compared to all workers. In addition, injuries in the field of construction have been more than double the rate of most other industries. While most efforts to reduce worker injuries have been focus ed on unsafe work conditions and unsafe actions, a significant number of injuries are associated with worker exposures to hazardous substances. Some of these injuries have occurred due to a lack of information regarding hazardous substances. Convention al construction products such as adhesives, caulk s and paints contain potential illness causing substances. Some of the substances that may be found in these products are acetone, formaldehyde silica, mineral spirits and ethylene glycol. Many other hazar dous substances may also be contained by the products. Exposure to these hazardous substances can result in health problems or damage to major organs suc h as the liver, skin, and eyes. In addition, the central nervous system, respiratory system and blood system are also commonly affected The objective of the research

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10 was to collect information about the hazardous substances contained in common construction projects, particularly adhesive, caulk, and paint products The primary research method used to coll ect data was personal visitation s to selected regional establishments Photographs, notes, and information gathered from establishment authorities were obtained by the researcher. The material safety data sheets of the construction products documented w ere the main source for collecting the names of hazardous substances. The information collected was applied to a master table, in addition to a series of smaller tables, in order to catalog the products by branch brand, subdivision, and substance A large quantity of adhesive, caulk, and paint products were examined through visits to retail branches A large majority of these products contain hazardous substances, and exposure to them can cause different reactions to people. These reactions range from mino r skin irritations to cancer. Safety measures, such as using gloves and face masks, can prevent exposure to many of these p otentially harmful substances. If the hazards of these products are properly recognized and addressed, these products can be utilized safely.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Construction Industry and Progress The construction industry has not kept pace with a majority of the industrial sectors in the area of safety. Despite some improvements, the construction industry has not performed as well in the area of safety as most other industries The Bureau of Labor Statistics ( BLS) has released information on the work related injuries and illnesses of all workers between the years 2002 and 2008 This information was used to calculate the incid full time (BLS 2008) The injury rate for the 2002 was 7.1 per 100 construction workers. On the other hand, during the same year the injury rate for all industrial workers was app roximately 1.6 per 100 workers. Between 2002 and 2008 the construction industry was slow but progressive on decreasing injury rates. The injury rate improvement has averaged a bout a 0.4 decrease in the rate of injuries each year Construction ha s amon g the worst injury rates of all the industrial sectors. For example, the construction industry employs about seven percent of the industrial workforce, but accounts for twenty percent of all industrial fatalities. Different types of injuries and illnesses ( death, loss of consciousness, days away from work, medical treatment, and physician diagnosed illnesses ) are required to be recorded by employers Illnesses caused in the work place represent 2.5 percent of the overall non fatal occupational injuries and illnesses. Some of these illnesses are a direct result of the lack of information on hazardous substances

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12 Substance Regulations The United States has faced and is currently facing an increasing level of health problems resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. Worker protection legislation be came str onger with the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH act) The act focuses on ensuring healthful and safe workplace conditions for all workers (BLS 2011) As a result of thi s legislation, it is the responsibility of companies to disclose hazardous information The government ha s organization s set in place to act as oversight for the health and welfare of people and the environment. Three examples of these organizations are : The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Created by the Occupational Safety and Health A ct of 1970, NIOSH has the primary re sponsibility to conduct research, educate, and provide recommendations for the field of occupational safety and health (CDC 2011) Created by the same act, OSHA ensures safe working conditions for men and women by setting and enforcing standards and providing training and education. NIOSH frequently advise s OSHA on permissible exposure levels of workers to harmful substances The EPA, on the other hand, has duties such as federal research and enforc ing activities to e nsure environmental protection (EPA 2011) In addition, the EPA enforces federal laws protecting human health and the environment. Substance Assessment Designated by OSHA, the Registry of Toxic Effects on C hemical Substances (RTECS) is a valuable source of data regarding hazardous substances. These data are the primary component s of material and safety data sheets (MSDS). Recently, the

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13 RTECS database cataloged over 160,000 substances (CDC 2010) The database includes such substances as acetone ethylene glycol toluene and xylene which are contained in many products and can cause problems in the peripheral nerve bloo d, liver, and lung / respiratory systems. Health Hazards The need for the construction industry to be on par with other industr ies needs to be addressed. This includes having workers who are familiar with the health hazards posed by many materials to which they may become exposed W orkers may come in contact with many products. Some of these products contain substances that can cause short and long term damage to a worker s health. This research will examine various hazardous substances co ntained in common products used in the construction industry

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14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Research on illnesses caused by exposure to hazardous substances in the construction workplace is limited. One of the reasons for this is under reporting of worker illnesses (Dong, Men and Fujimoto 2007) This is because of the latency period that is common between worker exposure to harmful substances and the onset of the resultant illness A fter the initial exposures to work hazards, initial symptoms may materialize, sometimes many years later Construction workers that become ill have difficulty identifying the source of the initial exposure. According to the fourth edition of the C onstruction C hart B ook, a constructi on worker may have a series of employers, varying tasks, and changing workplaces, each of which could involve different exposure s to hazards. Also, some workers can become ill by second hand interaction with workers who have been exposed t o hazards. In terms of compliance the construction industry has been getting better in its practices concerning hazardous communication s Communication Standard (HCS) was expanded to include al l employers with employees (US DOL 2011) Between the years of 1989 and 1991, four of the top 5 of the 100 most cited construction standards wer e directly related to the hazard communication standard These standards were the (1) written hazard communication program, (2) employee training of hazardous communications, (3) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for hazardous material, and ( 4 ) accessible copies of MSDS s (Hardesty and Marshall 1993) In 2006 OSHA most cited construction categories had over 3 000 citations in health hazards versus 13 000 in scaffolding. The health citations resulted in average

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15 fines of $1,000 per citation between 1996 and 2006 while fines for scaffolding violations exceeded $12,000 per cit ation (Dong, Men and Fujimoto 2008) There is a need to address health more strongly among construction workers as these workers are more prone to make personal decisions that can harm their own health Construction workers tend to be risk takers and are l ess likely to pay attention to health This is demonstrated in the information provided in the Chart B ook which details information about workers. For instance, in 2005 nearly, 38% of workers in construction trades were current smokers, about 1.7 times t (Dong, Men and Fujimoto 2008) This means that 7.3% of all industrial workers are construction workers who smoke In addition to smoking, construction workers tend to be o verweight and obese. After the age of 35 49% of the construction workers are overweight, while over 25% are obese. Therefore, about two out of every three or 66% of all construction workers were either overweight or obese, compared with 59% for all in dustries (Dong, Men and Fujimoto 2008) Few organizations have done research on the hazardous substances found in common construction products. The Nation al Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has written books on the substances that can be hazardous to workers Along with the OSHA standards all construction workers should have easy access to information on the pr oducts, production companies, and risks in their work environments Work Force Organizations Research on hazardous substances has been conducted by many government based agencies. Some agencies have been doing research on the subject for over 3 0 years. The E nvironmental P rotection A gency (EPA) Occupational S afety and H ea l th

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16 A dministration (OSHA) N ational I nstitute for O ccupational S afety and H ealth (OSHA) N ational T oxicology P rogram (NTP) and the I nternational A gency for Research on C ancer ( IARC) are some examples of the government based agencies responsible for hazardous research and documentation mentioned in this thesis The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The EPA was formed in 1970, after President Nixon which is a plan to develop a coordinated attack on pollution control (EPA 2011) It was believed an effective approach to control pollutants could be achieved through the following means (1) i dentifying h azardous substances (2) documenting changes of form of pollutants as they occ ur throughout ecological chains (3) researching exposure of m an in a surrounding environment (4) examining i nteractions of pollution formation and (5) i dentifying appropriate interdictions in ecological chains EPA advantages Today, the EPA contributes to solving environmental problems with research on the hazardous substances listed by The research conducted by the EPA ensures th e protection of the environment and human health I ndividual and collective harm from substances is also evaluated. Therefore the EPA is able to set standards for air and water programs and for hazardous substances (EPA 2011) EPA functions The primary rol es and functions of the EPA are (1) e stablishing and enforcing environmental protection standards (2) c onducting the research of the harm caused by hazardous substances, procedures to control hazards, and gathering data on hazards

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17 and (3) a ssisting the C ouncil on Environmental Quality in the development by recommending policies for environmental protection The Occupational Safety and Health and Administration (OSHA) OSHA was created after the passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education, and (OSHA 2011). OSHA standards The OSHA standards describe legal methods to be followed by employers to maintain their workers in a non hazardous environment. and preventative measures must be identified by the employer and the appropriate health informat ion must be shared with the employees who may become exposed Many extensive processes need to be followed in order to issue a standard OSHA determines that a specific standard is needed any of several advisory committees may be called upon to develo p specific recommendations. There are two standing committees, and ad hoc committees may be appointed to examine special (OSHA 1995) The committees have a management representative, representation form labor and the state as well as representatives from principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans. (HHS 2 011) The two standing committees are (1) The National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH), which advises, consults with, and makes recommendations to the Secretary of the HHS and to the Secretary of Labor on matters regarding a dministration on the Act; (2) Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health,

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18 which advices the Secretary of Labor on formulation of construction safety and health standards and other regulations (OSHA 1995) The const ruction standards, and other industry standards, protect workers from (OSHA 2011). For e xample, injuries can be caused by falls, trenching cave ins, infectious diseases, enclosed spaces, exposure to substances (asbestos, lead, asphalt, etc.), improperly placed machine guards, not using protective gear (respirators, eye ware, face masks, etc.) and untrained workers Many standards and regulations are classified with numerical values. Some of the standards are associated with their respective industries. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910 standards provide all regulations appli cable to the general work force while the CFR 1926 standards are specific to the c onstruction industry There are 26 subparts to OSHA standards each of which contains numerous provisions and many contain additional appendixes The OSHA standards may address safety issues or health issues, but most of OSHA construction regulations tend to be focused on the safety aspects of construction. An example of OSHA regulations that pertain to health include CFR 1926.20(b) which consists of General Safety and Health Provisions. Regulation 1926.28 of subpart C discusses the General Safety and Health Provisions of personal protective equipment. In Addition, regulation 1926.57 and 1926.59 of subpart D of the Occupational Health and Environment al Controls regulates ventilation and hazard communication (OSHA 2011)

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19 OSHA i nspections Inspections are generally done without notice, on site The OSHA p ersonnel performing these inspections (OS HA 2011) There are many factors that can initiate an OSHA inspection For instance, the h ospitalization of three or more workers being involved in the same incident fatalities, catastrophes r eferrals and complaints filed by workers i nspections with specific subjects (particular work space hazards, high injury rates) non scheduled i nspections and scheduled f ollow up A complaint from a worker could initiate an OSHA inspection The worker needs to believe there is a possib le hazard in the work place or that the employer is not following the OSHA regulations A preferable situation would be for the worker to first inform the employer about a possible hazard. satisfacti on, a call to OSHA would be appropriate. (OSHA 2011) The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) NIOSH was created with OSH A from the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The difference between the two agencies is their responsibilities. NIOSH is part of shed to help assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by providing research, information, According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) N IOSH is a federal agency responsible for conducting research and recommendations for the prevention of

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20 illnesses and injuries in the work force. To accomplish this, NIOSH makes scientific research, recommendations on authority and guidance, disperses infor mation, and and world leadership to prevent work related illness, injury, disability and death by gathering information, conducting scientific research, and translating t he knowledge gained into products and services including scientific information products, training 2011) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) According to the CDC the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances ( RTECS ) a compendium of data extracted from the open scientific literature. The data are recorded in the format developed by the RTECS staff and arranged in alphabetical order by prime chemical name (CDC 2011) This toxicological data base, is a resource for the chemical industry as well as the occupational safety and health community (CDC 2010) The National Toxicol ogy Program (NTP) The National Toxicology Program ( NTP ) is a program with multiple governmental agencies (NTP 2005) established in 1978 as part of the Department of Health and Human Services. According to the NTP, the program is a cooperative effort to (1) t programs (2) strengthen t oxicological science (3) i mprove all methods implied for testing and (4) g ather information on toxic substances for all health, regulatory, and other research agencies medical and scientific communities, and the public.

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21 The NTP develops and applies modern toxicology and molecular biology tools, to maintains an objective, science based appro ach in dealing with critical issues in toxicology and is committed to using the next science available to prioritize, design (NTP 2005) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) The International Agency for Res earch on Cancer ( IARC) was established in 1965 as the Wor l specialized cancer research center (Wagner 1991). During that time period extensive new cancer research information was surfacing. This information was not being provided world wide and in 1967 IARC opened in Japan to further the boundaries of research The main objective of the IARC is promoting worldwide collaboration in cancer disciplinary (IARC 2011) by working on the epidemiology, la boratory sciences, and biostatistics to i dentify the causes of cancer. This facilitates the adoption of new preventative measures on cancer causing substances. In addition, t here is a high emphasis on explaining the health risks posed b y the environment directly or indirectly, linked to environmental factors and th (IARC 2011) Construction Products Construction products are manufactured to assist with various types of construction project s. Some products such as timber, cement, and steel are often used in large quantities on projec ts These products generally require skilled knowledge on the handling and proper usage of the material. Other products such as adhesives,

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22 caulks, and paints ar e utilized in smaller quantities These products are primarily intended for finishing jobs and do not require extensive knowledge for the application of the product Adhesives The definition of an adhesive is a substance with the capability of bon d ing two different surfaces whether they are of the same or of different materials Many types of materials can be bonded, but adhesives work with more efficien cy on small surface area s However, joints between materials are not made instantly, because the adhesive needs time to cu re and harden There are several types of adhesives including the following : CONTACT CEMENT A type of adhesive applied to two different surfaces that will be jointed after a specific amount of time. However, it does not need constant pressure for adherence. EPOXY A resin created from bisphenols and epichlorohydrins. A hardener agent is required for the resin to harden. P OLYURETHANE The polyurethanes are called reaction polymers, such as epoxies. Commercially this product is produced through the reaction of a n isocyanate, also known as the iso, in liquid form and a catalyst known as the poly. Some of the subdivisions include flame retardants and fillers. SUPER GLUE Super glue is a wat er resistant, fast acting adhesive with a generic name such as cyano crylate. Other common terms for it may include Krazy Glue and Bondloc. Caulks Caulk is commonly used to create tight joints in seams and to fill gaps between materials The term caulk or caulking is often refer s to the product or the application pro ces ses. The compound used for caulking, protects and creates insulation against dust, insects, water, and fire. Some of the products commonly used for caulking are:

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23 CAULK SEALANTS This is a product that is used when there will be a movement between the two surfaces. CAULK SILICONE The silicone based caulk has a high resistance to water. Thus, these products are preferred for projects where the surfaces are exposed to wate r such as kitchen s and bathrooms Paints Paint is a s ubstance in liquid form, applied to surfaces to achieve a cured opaque or transparent film. This product is u sed in both exterior and interior type of applications Exterior paint is ideally suited for large surfaces located in areas with constant ventilation. Interior paints, have less emitting fumes and are used inside closed spaces such as in room s or office s Some of the products commonly used with paints are: PAINT PRIMER Primers are coating s applied to surfaces prior to paints especially when applied to coarse or porous surfaces. The rough, unsmooth, or textured surface is protected for proper adhesion with paint. PAINT THINNER A paint thinner is a liquid compatible with paint which is used to reduce the viscosity of the paint Thinners make the paint easier to apply. Hazardous Substances toxic, an irritant, a corrosive, a strong oxidizer, a strong sensitizer, combustible flammable, extremely flammable, dangerous reactive, pressure generating, or that otherwise may cause substantial personal injury or substantial illness during or as a dir (NPS 1993) These substances commonly exist in paints, cleaning materials, varnishes, and adhesives. Common solvents may contain such substances as a cetone k erosene m ethyl alc ohol m ineral spirits (e.g., V.M. & P Naphtha) t oluene and x ylene

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24 Hazard Communication Standard The National Safety Council states that OSHA promulgated the hazard communication standard to establish equal requirements for the evaluation of chemical h azards by the chemical manufacturer s and the means to communicate information about those hazards to employers and employees chemicals and communication information concerning hazards and appropriate protective measure s to employees, may include, lists of hazardous chemicals present; labeling of containers of chemicals in the workplace, as well as of containers of chemicals being shipped; preparation and distribution of material safety data sheets to employees and downs Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) hazard communication standard ( regulations ) (EHS 2011) The MSDSs are documents with detailed information prepared by the manufacturer of hazardous substances. The information provided in the MSDSs describes the physical and chemical properties of the product. MSDSs contain the informatio n, toxicity, guidelines for storage and procedures for spills and leaks. An MSDS is also physical hazards of a chemical and describes how to respond effectively to expos ure situations (EHS 2011) All MSDSs are required to follow sixteen different sections of information about the substance being addressed. The standards for the format do not require the MSDS to be all equal across the different companies ( NSC 1985). According to the National Safe ty Council (NSC) the sections in an MSDS are:

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25 SECTION ONE CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATI ON This section is where the substance and the MSDS are linked with the supplier and the manufacturer. SECTION TWO COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS There will be a list provided including all of the OSHA hazardous components as well as the non hazardous components SECTION THREE HAZARD IDENTIFICATIO N INCLUDING EMERGENCY OVERVIEW Includes the information (with the aid of symbols) of al l of the potential human health effects that may be caused by the usage of the substances SECTION FOUR FIRST AID MEASURES This section provides the information on steps to be addressed if any expo sure to a substance requires immediate treatment. SECTION FIVE FIGHTING MEASURES This includes basic information on steps and procedures required for firefighting SECTION SIX ACCIDENTAL RELEASE M EASURES Describes actions required to minim ize all side effects of any possible leak, spill or release of any substance SECTION SEVEN HANDLING AND STORAGE All of the steps and procedures for handling and storage are mentioned in this section. SECTION EIGHT EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTEC TION This section addresses the personal protection gear (e.g., gloves, eye ware, face masks, etc) and methods that help minimize the exposure and possible harm. SECTION NINE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICA L PROPERTIES Provides additional information that charact erizes the substance SECTION TEN STABILITY AND REACTI VITY This section provides information on conditions and substances that can cause any instability of the product being used. SECTION ELEVEN TOXICOLOGICAL INFORM ATION Includes the information of all of the potential human health effects and symbols that may be caused by the usage of the substances SECTION TWELVE ECOLOGICAL INFORMATI ON The information provided in this section discusses the effects the substance can have on the surrounding environme nt SECTION THIRTEEN DISPOSAL CONSIDERATI ON Depending on the company providing the MSDS, this section mentions the appropriate steps for substance disposal.

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26 SECTION FOURTEEN TRANSPORT INFORMATIO N The information in this section addresse s the classification the substance requires if it is being shipped. SECTION FIFTEEN REGULATORY INFORMATI ON May be used to provide any supplementary information on regulations that have a direct effect on the substance SECTION SIXTEEN OTHER INFORMATION Any additional information the company wants to add to the MSDS goes in the last section.

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27 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The intent of this thesis is to gather and present information on the hazardous substances found in selected c onstruction product A variety of products used in construction were considered for the research Consideration was given to such products as cement, muriatic acid to clean bricks, treated lumber, welding fumes, foam insulation lubricants, and asphalt. It was recognized that the scope of this effort needed to be reduced in order to define a manageable research effort. Consideration was then given to those products that are in common usage, but which may contain ha zardous substances. In this scope reduction effort, three widely used products were identified. Pro ducts to be evaluated include such household construction products as adhesives, caulking, and paint products. Of the numerous products used in construction, these products are suspected of containing a large number of hazardous substances. To obtain the information on these construction products various means were considered. While considerable information could be found solely on the Internet, it was decided that this would limit the study. The objective was to identify adhesive, c aulk and paint products that were readily available to a large number of individuals. It was decided that such information could be best obtained from establishments that sold a wide selection of these products. It was decided to identify local establishments that provide d a national distribution of common construction products For convenience, the establishments were to be located in the Gainesville, Florida area Four national establishments were identified that had local outlets. These include d Ace Hardware Home Depot and Wal Mart whose global combined gross sales where in excess of 500 million dollars

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28 Because of their national presence and their national distribution of common construction products they were felt to repres ent a reasonably good cross section of the types of materials that would be used on construction projects. To collect information on t information the researcher visited a local establishment of Ace Hardware Home Depot and Wal Mart During the visit of the establishments the researcher took note of the assortment of brands, the usage, and the type of product s that were available The establishments provided different forms of literature that were used for different product s of the same brand Pictures were taken of all three product lines (adhesive, caul k and paint products) for more documentation of precise names and warning labels. In some of the establishments visited the researcher located and documented a series of tables with information that would help customer s make the appropriate choice of product s depending on the particular type of application visit s to the four establishments allowed one on one interaction with representative workers. In two of the establishments, the researcher talked at length with the manager s regarding the various products with the intent of ob taining additional insights about the products One manager was a regional representative of one of the paint product line s He provided information based on his experience with selling and using several of the paint product s from one particular brand Additional informatio n the managers provided included (1) h eal th precautions to be used with specific products (face masks, gloves, eyewear, hard toe shoes, hard hats, etc.) (2) w here the products are commonly used and (3 ) c ommon potential ailments associated with exposure

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29 N ot all of the data were collected through visitations and discussions More research was done by using chemistry books that discuss ed more of the properties of the toxic and harmful substances found in the materials. For instance, the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards was heavily used to find information on the synonyms, the physical characteristics and the organs targeted by the substances found in the products This provided a better understanding of possible short and long term illnesses that could result from exposure to certain substances In a ddition to obtaining information from the product literature information was obt ained on the I nternet The MSDSs located in establishment and product websites were used to obtain the names of the substances f ound in the respective products After locating the MSDSs, the information was then arranged in tabular format. The name of the stores, the brand, and subdivision of product gathered from store visitations the name of the substance provided by the MSDSs and the substance information from the literature were used to place all of the information on one t able. While most products contained some hazardous substances, particular attention was paid to those products that were listed as being non hazard ous products. These products needed to be of the same usage as the regular products Thus, the non hazardous products could be used as substitute s for the regular products that conta ined hazardous substances

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30 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Information will be provided on the hazardous substances found in common construction products, particularly in adhesives, caulk and paint products. Some of the information was made available by the establis hments that were visited. In addition, the archival literature, the Internet and material safety data sheets of each product were researched to obtain information on the hazardous substances. A dhesives T he four establishments visited for this research had a wide range of different types of adhesives such as c ontact cement, epoxy liquid and spray multi purpose, liquid and gel super glue, and wood The smaller sized products were located at eye level. For instance, on the upper half of the shelves the super glues and the epoxies were located side by side On the other hand, t he adhesiv e products in larger containers were located at waist level. These were contact cements, s pray adhesives, and wood glues. During a visit to one of the establishment s the researcher photographed a large variety of adhesives. In addition to documenting products, one of the pro du cts at the establishment provided a table with information on the use of adhesive products. The information was made available to any interested customer s Three types of adhesive s na mely multipurpose adhesive super glue, and epoxy (Table 4 1) were categorized i n the table used The materials to which the adhesives would bond incl uded leather, foam, paper, fabric, glass, rubber, plastics, ceramic, metal, wood, and masonry Of the 43 matches (materials bonded by the adhes ive) shown in the table, multi purpose adhesives were the most versatile For instance, l eather, foam, and paper

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31 could be attached to all 11 materials ( leather, foam, paper, fabric, glass, rubber, plastics, ceramic, metal, wood, and masonry ) with a multi purpose adhesive. On the other hand, multi purpose adhesives would adhere c eramic to only 3 materials, namely leather, foam and pa per. Super glue with 13 matches, was the second most versatile adhesive while epoxy, with 10 matches was the least versatile Through the examination of adhesive products in the retail establishments a total of 84 adhesives we re identified Among them, 21 hazardous substances we re identified in the table ( T able 4 2 ). Many of these substances were listed in section three of the 84 MSDS s for the adhesive produc ts There we re some hazardous substances that were mentioned in the MSDSs between one and three times. For example, m ethyl a cetate wa s noted in one adhesive product Substances contained in three different products included n h exane, and m ethyl e thyl k etone (MEK) Furthermore, s ilica in all three forms e poxy resin, and a cetone were listed in the large majority of the products Upon further analysis of the adhesive products various brands were examined A selection of 20 brands was available throughout the four establishments ( T able 4 3). Some of the brands such as c ould b e purchased in multiple establishments On the other hand, a small number of brands we re sold in sel ective establishments For example, the p roducts under the brands of ACE and DUCO , were only available in the Ace Hardware store Some products were sold in multiple establishments. However, the varie ty of brands did not change appreciably The most readily available adhesive was Loctite as it was available in all four establishments Among the 84 adhesive products, the Loctite brand has 19 items in super gl ues and epoxies A CE with 10 products has

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32 the second highest number Other brands such as Devcon, Instant Krazy G lue, and Gorilla each have 10 different products. The MSDSs of the 84 adhesive products listed 126 hazardous subst ances ( A ppendix ). Additional information was sought on these hazardous substances. Information was successfully l ocated on 15 of the substances This information provided a brief explanation of the targeted organs of exposure to the substances The skin and eyes, among other organs, can be harmed by these substances ( T able 4 4) For instance, f ormaldehyde which can harm the respiratory system, appeared in over eight percent of the adhesive products. Caulk Caulk wa s the second product examined Intended for finishes, caulk has qualities that can be used in a variety of applications Inside one of th e establishments two caulk usage table s were posted next to the caulk products. Through a checklist, a number of brands were compared by the nature of their applications Some of the applic ations mentioned in the tables included indoor projects, outdoor projects or both. For c oncrete overall the best caulk would be DAP 3.0 ( T able 4 5). The weather resistan ce made it most suitable While DAP 3.0 is the best overall choice, regular DAP can also be used for concrete. This is because of its flexib ility its applicability in both indoor and outdoor environment s, its paintable feature and its ability to be cleaned up with water and soap For an interior project, such as a kitchen or bath, DAP 3.0 was also the best choice ( T able 4 6). T he most suitable for windows and doors was DAP 3.0 primari ly because of the mildew protection it provide d and its waterproof capabilities. The

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33 second brand suggested for window and door applications was GE Silicone II. This product is not paintable; however it provides the mildew and water prote ction needed for indoor area s A total of 96 caulk product s were identified The MSDSs of the caulk products listed (Table 4 7) 164 substances that were found to be hazardous ( A ppendix ). For example, isobutene was present in 4 caulk products while t itanium d ioxide was found in 53 products In addition, silica with 40 appearances was the second most prevalent substance On the other hand, acetone noted in one product was the least prevalent Twenty one brands of caulk products were identified ( T able 4 8) Nearly half of the bra nds, such as Big Stretch Dupont Gardner Flame Stopper Lexel Sika and White Lightning have one product. However, other caulk product brands had a wide variety of products. The highest number of products was 19 different c aulk products, which made part of the family of the DAP brand. T he second d highest number of products was owned by one of the establishments. These were the ACE caulk products with 18 products, available at ACE Hardware Among the 96 caulking products 326 substances were labeled as hazardous b y the MSDSs. Two examples were acetone, contained in one product, and hexane contained in ten products. These substances can affect various organs in humans ( T able 4.9). For example, acetone can affect th e eyes, the skin the respiratory system and the central nervous system On the other hand, can cause problems to the central nervous system (CNS), and the peripheral nervous system (PNS ) Paint Products P aint products were org anized according to type of product in the establishments. In one of the branches the paint was organized under labels such as contractor pain t

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34 exterior paint, interior paint, and flooring paint. A total of 119 paint products cont aining 97 hazardous substances were identified Twenty one of the 97 hazardous substances were reviewed (Table 4 10). T he majority of the paint products were from the Zinsser products with 23 paint products ( T able 4 11) which could be purchased at a ny of the four establishments. Valspar with 18 paint products, had the second highest number of products. However Valspar paint products can only be purchased at Lowe's establishments Behr paint with 16 products, ha d the third largest number of products This brand can only be purchased at Home Depot On the other hand, brands such as Ace Simply Magic, available at Ace Hardware and Olym p ic Fast Hide, available at Lowe's, had one paint product The remaining brands were found in more than one of the four establishments same company yet they are distributed to two of the four establishments In additi on t wo of the paint brands were available in all four establishments These brands were Zinsser and KILZ The hazardous aspects of these brands were also recognized. The 119 paint products contained 607 hazardous materials. Accordin g to NIOSH paint substances can affect multiple organs on a long term basis ( T able 4 12). For example e thanol affects the blood and liver through ingestion or physical contact with the skin. Titanium dioxide was contained in 64 paint products. One of the other substances that appear ed in 22 different paint products is e thylene g lycol This substance affects the eyes, skin, respiratory system and the central nervous system (CNS).

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35 Carcinogenic According to several material safety data sheets various substances were reported as carcinogenic T he American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), OSHA, the NTP, and the IARC were mentioned in the MSDS s as sources for categorizing substances as carcinogenic ( T able 4 1 3 ). For instance, f ormaldehyde was a substance considered by all four organizations to have the highest chance of being detrimental to human health. This substance was mentioned in 10 products for adhesives and 15 ca ulk products. Listed by the NTP as a possible carcinogenic substance titanium dioxide was contained in 4 a dhesive products 53 caulk products and 64 paint products

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36 Table 4 1 Adhesive usage Leather Foam Paper Fabric Glass Rubber Plastics Ceramic Metal Wood Masonry Leather MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP Foam MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP Paper MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP Fabric MP MP MP MP MP MP SG SG SG MP MP Glass MP MP MP MP SG SG SG SG MP MP MP Rubber MP MP MP MP SG MP SG SG E MP MP Plastic MP MP MP SG SG SG SG SG E E MP Ceramic MP MP MP SG SG SG SG SG SG E E Metal MP MP MP SG MP E E SG E E E Wood MP MP MP MP MP MP E E E MP E Masonry MP M P MP MP MP MP MP E E E E MP = Multi purpose, SG = Super Glue, E = Epoxy Table 4 2. Selected hazardous substances and percentages in adhesive products Adhesives (Total count = 84) Hazardous s ubstances Number of p roducts % Acetone 8 9.5 % Aluminium Chlor ide 2 2.4% Aluminum Silicate 3 3.6% Epichlorohydrin 4,4' isopropylidene d iphenol r esin 5 6.0% Epoxy Resin 14 16.7% Ethyl 2 Cyanoacrylate 7 8.3% Formaldehyde 7 8.3% Heptane 3 3.6% Isopropanol 2 2.4% Isopropyl Alcohol 2 2.4% Magnesium Silicate 2 2.4% Methyl Acetate 1 1.2 % Methyl Ethyl Ketone 3 3.6% N Hexane 3 3.6% No hazardous Components 11 13.1% Propane 7 8.3% Silica (Crystalline; Fumed; Quartz) 28 33.3% Titanium Dioxide 4 4.8% Toluene 8 9.5% Vinyl Acetate 3 3.6% Zinc Sulfide 3 3.6%

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37 Table 4 3 Adhesives product brands and quantities Brands Number of adhesive p roducts 4 ACE 10 Amazing GOOP 4 BARGE Original 1 1 DAP Weldwood 2 Devcon 6 DUCO Cement 1 DUCO PLASTIC 1 DURO 1 Elmer's 5 Gorilla 6 Henry 3 Instant Krazy Glue 6 Liquid Nails 3 Loctite 19 4 Titebond 4 Weldbond 1 W.J Ruscoe 2 Total 84

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38 Table 4 4 NIOSH classification of hazardous substances in adhesive products Adhesives Hazardous Components Synonyms Phys ical Description Target Organs Acetone Dimethyl Ketone ; Ketone Propane ; 2 Propane Colorless liquid with a fragrant mint like color Eyes ; Skin Aluminium Chloride None A Deliquescent compound used as an astringent as well as an antiseptic on skin Skin F ormaldehyde Methanal; Methyl Aldehyde; Methylene Oxide Nearly colorless gas with a pungent suffocating odor Eyes ; Resp. Causes Nasal Cancer Heptane n H eptane ; Normal Heptane Colorless liquid with a gasoline like odor Skin ; Resp ; CNS Isopropanol Dimethyl Carbinol ; IPA ; Isopropyl Alcohol ; 2 Propanol ; sec Propyl Alcohol ; Rubbing Alcohol Colorless Liquid with an ammonia like odor Eyes ; Skin ; Resp ; CNS Isopropyl Alcohol Dimethyl Carbinol ; IPA ; Isopropanol ; 2 Propanol ; sec Propyl Alcohol ; Rubbing Alcohol Colo rless Liquid with an ammonia like odor Eyes ; Skin ; Resp ; CNS Methyl Acetate Methyl ester of acetic acid; Methyl ethanoate Colorless liquid with fragrant fruity odor Eyes; Skin; Resp ; CNS Methyl Ethyl Ketone 2 Butanone ; MEK ; Methyl Acetone ; Methyl Ethyl Ketone Colorless liquid with a moderately sharp fragant mint ot acetone like odor Eyes ; Skin Resp

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39 Table 4 4 Continued Adhesives Hazardous Components Synonyms Physical Description Target Organs N Hexane Hexane ; Hexyl Hydride ; Normal Hexane Colorless l iquid with a gasoline like odor Eyes ; Skin ; Resp ; CNS ; CNS Propane Bottled gas ; Dimethyl Methane ; n Propane ; Propyl Hydride Colorless odorless gas CNS Titanium Dioxide Rutile ; Titanium Oxide ; Titanium Peroxide White odorless powder Resp. Animal Lung tumo rs Toluene Methyl Benzene ; Methyl Benzol ; Phenyl Methane ; Toulon Colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent, benzene like odor Eyes ; Skin ; Resp ; Liver ; Kidneys Silica Diamatoceaus Ea r th ; Diamatoceaus Silica ; Diatomite ; Presipitated amorphous Silica ; Silica Gel; Silicon Dioxide (amorphous) Transparent to gray, odorless powder Eyes Vinyl Acetate 1 Acetoxyethylene; Ethenyl Acetate ; Ethenyl Ethanoate ; VAC ; Vinyl Acetate monomer, Vinyl Ethanoate Colorless Liquid with pleasant fruity odor Eyes; Skin ; Resp Zinc S ulfide Zinc Peroxide White odorless solid Resp

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40 Table 4 5 Exterior caulk product brands and usages Project Window/siding Concrete Roof Gutter Product OSI QUAD DAP 3.0 GE Silicone II Polyurethane DAP DAP 3.0 Polyurethane DAP DAP 3.0 GE Silicone II Best flexibility x x x x x x x x Indoor/outdoor x x x x Paintable x x x x x x x x Soap & water clean up x Mineral Spirits Clean up x x x x x x x x x All weather application x x x x Tab le 4 6 Interior caulk product brands and usages Project Windows, doors, trim, molding & paneling Kitchen & bath Product DAP 3.0 GE Silicone II GE Silicone I DAP Dyna Flex 230 GE SUPREME 1 hour DAP 3.0 GE Silicone II DAP Kwik Seal Plus GE Silicon e I Paintable x x x x Soap & water clean Up x x Mineral spirits clean Up x x x x x X x Mold & mildew protection x x x X x Best flexibility x x x x x x X x Permanently waterproof x x x x x X x

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41 Table 4 7 Se lected hazardous substances and percentages in caulk products Caulk (Total count = 96) Hazardous substances Number of p roducts % Acet one 1 1.0 % Ammonia 3 3.1% Asphalt 4 4.2% Ethylene Glycol 28 29.2% Formaldehyde 15 15.6% Hexane 10 10.4% Isobutene 4 4.2% Kaolin 10 10.4% Limestone 22 22.9 % Methanol 2 2.1% Methyl Acetate 3 3.1% Mineral Spirits 8 8.3% n Butane 2 2.1% n H exane 5 5.2% Petroleum 11 11.5% Petroleum Distillates 7 7.3% Polymer 20 20.8% Propane 7 7.3% Resin 8 8.3% Silica 40 41.7% Talc 4 4.2% Titanium Dioxide 53 55.2% T oluene 14 14.6% Vinyl Acetate 6 6.3% Xylene 3 3.1% No Hazardous Components 3 3.1%

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42 Table 4 8 Caulk product brands and quantities Brands Number of caulk p roducts 7 ACE 18 Big Stretch 1 DAP 8 DAP 3.0 6 DAP Alex Plus 2 2 DAP Tex 1 1 GE 8 Gardner 1 4 1 Lexel 1 Liquid Nails 9 Loctite 14 OSI 1 Polyseamseal 8 Sika 1 SikaBond 1 White Lightning 1 Total 96

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43 Table 4 9 NIOSH classification of hazardous substances in caulk products Caulk Hazardous Components Synonyms Physical Description Target Organs Acet on e Dimethyl ketone; ketone propane C olorless liquid with fragrant mint like odor Eyes; Skin; Resp ; CNS Ammonia Anhydrous Ammonia; Aqua Ammonia ; Aqueous Ammonia Colorless gas with pungent, suffocating odor Eyes ; Skin ; Resps Asphalt Asphalt ; Bitumen; Petroleum Asphal t ; Petroleum Bitumen; Road Asphalt; Roofing Asphalt A substance usually dark and bituminous normally located in natural beds and in residues of petroleum consisting mainly of hydrocarbons Eyes; Resp. In animals causes skin tumors Ethylene Glycol 1,2 D ihydroxyethane; 1,2 Ethanediol; glycol ; Glycol Alcohol ; Mono ethylene glycol Clear, odorless, s yrupy, colorless, liquid Eyes; S kin ; Resps ; CNS Formaldehyde Methanol ; Methyl Aldehyde; Methylene Oxide Nearly colorless gas with a pungent suffocating odor Eyes; Resps. Causes Nasal Cancer

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44 Table 4 9 Continued Caulk Hazardous Components Synonyms Physi cal Description Target Organs Hexane n Hexane ; Hexyl Hydride ; Normal Hexane Colorless liquid with a gasoline like odor Eyes; Skin ; Resps; CNS; PNS Isobutene 2 Methylpropane Colorless gas with a gasoline like or natural gas like odor CNS Kaolin China Cla y ; Clay ; Hydrated Aluminum Silicate ; Hydrated aluminum Silicate ; Hydrite ; Porcelain Clay White to yellowish or grayish powder Resps; Stomach Limestone Calcium Carbonate ; Natural Calcium Carbonate Odorless, white to tan powder Eyes; Skin; Resps Methanol Carbinol ; Columbian Spirits ; Methyl Alcohol ; Piroglineus Spirit ; Wood Alcohol, Wood Naphtha ; Wood Spirit Colorless liquid with a characteristic pungent odor Eyes; Skin; Resp; CNS; GI Methyl Acetate Methyl Ester of acetic acid ; Methyl Ethanoate Colorless liquid with a fragrant fruity odor Eyes; Skin; Resps; CNS Mineral Spirits Stoddart Solvent ; Dry Cleaning Safety Solvent ; Petroleum Solvent ; Spotting Naphtha Colorless liquid with a kerosene like odor Eyes; Skin; Resp; CNS; Kidneys

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45 Table 4 9 Continued C aulk Hazardous Components Synonyms Physical Description Target Organs N Butane Normal Butane; butyl Hydride ; Diethyl Methyllethylmethane Colorless gas with a gasoline like or natural gas like odor CNS N Hexane Hexane ; Hexyl Hydride ; Normal Hexane Colorle ss liquid with a gasoline like odor Eyes; Skin; Resps; CNS; PNS Petroleum Crude Oil Almost colorless to black Oily Flammable bituminous liquid. Used for gasoline and Naphtha Eyes; Skin Petroleum Distillates Aliphatic Petroleum Naphtha ; Petroleum Naphth a ; Rubber Solvent Colorless liquid with a gasoline or kerosene like odor Eyes; Skin; Resp; CNS Polymer Macromolecule Large molecule composed of repeating structural units Skin Propane Bottled gas ; Dymethyl Methane ; n Propane ; Propyl Hydride Colorless odo rless gas CNS

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46 Table 4 9 Continued Caulk Hazardous Components Synonyms Physical Description Target Organs Resin Myrrh Colorless to yellow brown flammable substance Eyes; Skin; Resp Silica Diamatoceaus Earth ; Diamatoceaus Silica ; Diatomite ; Presipitate d amorphous Silica ; Silica Gel; Silicon Dioxide (amorphous) Transparent to gray, odorless powder Eyes Talc Hydrous magnesium silicate ; Steatite Talc Colorless to tan, odorless crystalline solid Eyes ; Resp; CVS Titanium Dioxide Rutile ; Titanium Oxide ; Ti tanium Peroxide White odorless powder Resps. Animal Lung tumors Toluene Methyl Benzene ; Methyl Benzoyl ; Phenyl Methane ; Toulon Colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent, benzene like odor Eyes; Skin; Resps; Liver; Kidneys Vinyl Acetate 1 Acetoxyethylene; E thanol Acetate ; Ethenyl Ethanoate ; VAC ; Vinyl Acetate monomer, Vinyl Ethanoate Colorless Liquid with pleasant fruity odor Eyes; Skin; Resps Xylene 1,2 Dimethylbenzene ; ortho Xylene ; 0 Xylol Colorless liquid with an aromatic odor Eyes; Skin; Resps; CNS; GI ; Blood; Liver; Kidneys

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47 Table 4 10 Selected hazardous substances and percentages in paint products Paints Hazardous substances Number of p roducts % Acetone 8 6.7% Acrylic Polymer 10 8.4% Ethanol 5 4.2% Ethylene Glycol 22 18.5% Isobutene 5 4.2% K aolin 20 16.8% Limestone 20 16.8% Mineral Spirits 9 7.6% Nepheline Syenite 30 25.2% N Butane 5 4.2% Nonanes 6 5.0% Octanes 8 6.7% Palygorskite 6 5.0% Petroleum 16 13.4% Polymers 28 23.5% Quartz 10 8.4% Resin 9 7.6% Silica 37 31.1% Talc 13 10.9 % Titanium Dioxide 64 53.8% Zinc (Zinc Oxide, Pyrithione Zinc) 8 6.7% No Hazardous Substances 4 3.4%

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48 Table 4 11 Paint product brands and quantities Brands Number of Paint Products ACE Simply Magic 1 Behr 16 10 lection 3 KILZ 2 Latex 2 KILZ Clean Start 1 KILZ General Purpose 2 KILZ Odorless 3 KILZ Original 5 KILZ PRO 2 Klean Strip 5 Olympic 9 Olympic Fast Hide 1 Royal Premium 11 Speed Wall 4 Valspar 18 Zinsser 17 Zinsser B.I.N 2 Zinsser Bulls Eye 4 Zinsser Perma White 3 Total 119

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49 Table 4 12 NIOSH classification of hazardous substances for paint products Paints Hazardous Components Synonyms Physical Description Target Organs Acetone Dimethyl Ketone ; Ketone Propane ; 2 Propane Colorless liquid with a fragrant mint like color Eyes; Skin Acrylic Polymer Acrylic ; Polyacrylates Elastic colorless to tan liquid Skin Ethanol Ethyl Alcohol ; Cologne Spirit ; EtOH Grain Alcohol Clear, odorless liquid with a weak ethereal vinous odor Eyes; Skin Resp ; Liver ; Blood ; Reprs Ethylene Glycol 1,2 Dihydroxyethane ; 1,2 Ethanediol ; glycol ; Glycol Alcohol ; Monoethylene glycol Clear, odorless, syrupy, colorless, liquid Eyes; skin ; Resp; CNS Isobutene 2 Methylpropane Colorless gas with a ga soline like or natural gas like odor CNS Kaolin (Clay) China Clay ; Clay ; Hydrated Aluminum Silicate ; Hydrated aluminum Silicate ; Hydrite ; Porcelain Clay White to yellowish or grayish powder Resp; Stomach Limestone Calcium Carbonate ; Natural Calcium Carb onate Odorless, white to tan powder Eyes; Skin; Resp Methyl Ethyl Ketone 2 Butanone ; MEK ; Methyl Acetone ; Methyl Ethyl Ketone Colorless liquid with a moderately sharp fragrant mint of acetone like odor Eyes ; Skin Resp

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50 Table 4 12 Continued Paints Haza rdous Components Synonyms Physical Description Target Organs Mineral Spirits Stoddart Solvent ; Dry Cleaning Safety Solvent ; Petroleum Solvent ; Spotting Naphtha Colorless liquid with a kerosene like odor Eyes; Skin; Resp; CNS; Kidneys Nepheline Syenite P honolite Pale, gray or pink, solid solution mineral Skin N Butane Normal Butane; butyl Hydride ; Diethyl Methyllethylmethane Colorless gas with a gasoline like or natural gas like odor CNS Nonanes n Nonane ; Nonyl Hydride Colorless Liquid with a gasoline l ine odor Eyes; Skin; Resp; CNS Octanes n Octane ; Normal Octane Colorless Liquid with a gasoline line odor Eyes; Skin; Resp; CNS Palygorskite Attapulgite Dark clay like body Skin Petroleum Crude Oil Almost colorless to black Oily Flammable bituminous l iquid. Used for gasoline and Naphtha Eyes ; Skin Polymers Macromolecule Large molecule composed of repeating structural units Skin Quartz Silica Crystalline ; Cristobalite ; Fused Silica ; Tridymite ; Tripoli Colorless odorless solid Eyes; Resp. In animals c auses lung cancer

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51 Table 4 12 Continued Paints Hazardous Components Synonyms Physical Description Target Organs Resin Myrrh Colorless to yellow brown flammable substance Eyes; Skin; Resp Silica Diamatoceaus Eath ; Diamatoceaus Silica ; Diatomite ; Presipi tated amorphous Silica ; Silica Gel; Silicon Dioxide (amorphous) Transparent to gray, odorless powder Eyes Talc Hydrous magnesium silicate ; Steatite Talc Colorless to tan, odorless crystalline solid Eyes; Resp ; CVS Titanium Dioxide Rutile ; Titanium Oxide ; Titanium Peroxide White odorless powder Resp. Animal Lung tumors Zinc (Zinc Oxide, Pyrithione Zinc) Zinc Peroxide White odorless solid Resp

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52 Table 4 13 Selected h azardous substances in paint products Hazardous Substance ACGIH OSHA IARC NTP Carbon bl ack 5 Known Carcinogenic Known Carcinogenic Chronium (III) Oxide 6 Known Carcinogenic Known Carcinogenic Diiron Trioxide 5 Known Carcinogenic Known Carcinogenic Dioxosilane 8 Known Carcinogen Dioxotitanium 7 Known Carcinogen Know n Carcinogen Ethene, Chloro Cancer Hazard Carcinogen To humans Known Human Carcinogen Formaldehyde Suspected Human Carcinogen Potential Carcinogen Human Carcinogen Anticipated Carcinogen Isopropyl Alcohol Carcinogenic to humans Kaolin 7 Kno wn Carcinogen Palygorskite 5 Known Carcinogenic Phenyl Glycidyl Ether Human Carcinogenic Known Carcinogenic Quartz (SiO2) Known Carcinogen known Carcinogen Silica, Crystalline Suspected Human Carcinogen Human Carcinogen Known Car cinogen Titanium Dioxide Possible Carcinogen Toluene 2,4 Diisocyanate Anticipated Carcinogen Anticipated Carcinogen Vinyl Acetate Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans Possible Human Care

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53 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS There are numerous adhesives, caulk and paint products. Most of these products contain hazardous substances. These substances can cause many different ailments Some range from skin irritation to organ problems that can cause cancer. Exposure to the substances can be prevented if users take appropriate safety measures. For instance, when working with aerosols users need to wear protective face masks or respirators to avoid inhaling a ny hazardous substance s Of course, another option would be to utilize safer products as adhesives, caulk, and paint products can be obtained with no hazardous substances, even with similar ly performing products Every establishment offers products o f specific brands. A dhesives and caulk products have the largest lines of products offered under the same brand. Loctite and DAP were the two brands that have the highest number of products Adhesive s and caulk products may contain various substances, so me of which may be carcinogenic such as titanium dioxide Paint products of the same brand are not a widely available among different establishments Two exceptions were noted, namely that KILZ and Zinsser were available in all establishments investigated. B rands as ACE were only available at Ace Hardware and Valspar was available exclusively at The product information may b e quite varied in that the information might be very limited or it might be quite extensive, depending on the manufacturer. The use may find adequate literature about the safe use of a product supplied with the product when it is purchased. For some produ cts, the information is somewhat brief and additional research on the hazardous substances may be req u ired to safely apply them.

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54 Over 90% of the products examined in this research contain ed substances that are harmful to users. On the other han d, these users can use the products safely if the hazards are recognized and properly addressed. Safety gear is often offered in the same location where the products are on display For instance, gloves are commonly found in the protective gear section, as well as in the paint section. This type of product placement is found throughout the adhesive, caulk, and paint areas. Customers can be safe while using product s that have hazardous substance s .

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55 CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATIONS Establishment Information The est ablishments chosen for the research offer a wide range of products to choose from but most of these contain hazardous or toxic substances. The stores should advertise or publicize within the product sections that they offer less hazardous products. This wo uld be especially helpful to those customers who do not read instructions or product literature. T he advertisements should contain clear visuals and easy to understand verbiage F or instance, one of the establishments provided several large checklist table s with information on the brand of caulk that would be most suitable for specific applications Unfortunately, the checklist items did not have information on the toxicity of the products. Providing information on toxicity would improve the ability of cust omers to make wise purchasing decisions The brochures of paint products are heavily focused on information about colors. Information on toxicity should also be readily available. This same type of information should be available with adhesives and caulk. This information should contain a list of those products that are available inside the establishment and which ones must be purchased online or which must be special ordered by the establishment Non Hazardous Substitutes Some web p ages such as G reen H o me offer an alternative eco friendly non toxic adhesive. The brand S afecoat offers an adhesive, caulk and paint that are eco friendly and safe. The se products are considered by OSHA and NTP to not contain carcinogenic substances The s e are bot h example s of brand s that offer safe products. Furthermore, there are several products that can be obtained via the Internet that are

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56 less harmful to users, including (1) Safecoat 3 in 1 Adhesive is non toxic and does not have an odor (2) JACO Fir e & Draft Sealer caulking is non combustible and is water resistant, environmentally safe, and non toxic (3) AFM Caulking is a no n toxic, water based, elastic emulsion type caulking compound for windows, and crac ks in walls (4) Titebond Solvent Free Co nstruction Adhesive contains no ozone depleting substances is nonflammable, and emits no harmful fumes and (5) Valspar Plus is a non allergenic and non asthmatic paint which is mold and mildew resista nt. Warning Labels As demonstrated historically, construction workers have a high er probability of making poor lifestyle choices that may compromise their health Therefore, it is very important to stress the need for communicating clearly to them about hazards Manufacturers should improve their la bel display regarding the safety of their products. The products that contain harmful substances generally have warning labels that are printed in small font. For instance, many products contain titanium dioxide and several products contain ethylene glycol Both of these are potentially harmful to users. This in the lower back section of the product container Companies should locate war ning labels at the front of the product, possibly in the form of a readily understood graphic. The colors in the graphic could inform about product flammability, hazardous substances, and appropriate precautions to be exercised Also, information on possib le health risks and proper protective gear should be part of the label. Safety Data All of the material safety data sheets (MSDS) of the product s included in this research were examined. The layouts of these sheets differed according to brand. The

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57 MSDSs ranged from as little as two pages to as many as five pages. While the 16 sections were always addressed, the fonts were often too small to be leg ible and other formatting differences made it difficult to quickly extract desire d information. This made it difficult to find the type of information needed for the research. OSHA requires all states to follow a set of safety rules but does not specif y the layouts. Safety data would be easier to understand if OSHA would establish a standard template on which to summarize the material safety data sheets. The summarized information would ideally be presented on a single page, with the detailed informati on being available in the current form. Safety Data Search All products, such as adhesives, caulk, and paint, are required by federal law to have an MSDS. Finding these sheets can be easy or difficult. Some of the brands provide information that is visible but often in a small font, on the label of the product. Users who want to know additional safety information on a product need to take note on the name of the brand, the product type, usage, and a twelve digit universal product code (UPC) to be able to g et the information online. The web pages of most retail branches have the information needed to safely utilize their products, but they do not always provide the UPC code which may be required to obtain the information on line The first step should be to search on the website to examine the MSDS that is provided. For instance, some of the information for GE is difficult to locate. One of the establishments, which provided GE products has all of the MSDSs of all of the products they sell. When the webpage does not provide a

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58 Education System Education al institutions with construction related curricula should address the subject of hazardous materials in their cours es College or university level safety classes, laboratories, and workshops should provide information on hazardous products associated with selected tasks The inclusion of this type of information in the curricula could be assured if the accreditation bo dies mandated that this information be included in the various types of programs, including those in construction management, architecture, and civil engineering. Ideally, this information would be included in a mandatory class that is taken in the early p ortion of a degree program. Subsequent classes should also address hazardous substances to ensure that the information is retained Future Research The construction workforce should receive a broad range of information on the toxicity of materials being h andled. This research focused on the hazardous materials found in common construction products. Research should be conducted on other construction materials that contain hazardous substances, including such products as treated lumber, cement, asphalt, coat ings of various types, carpeting, etc. Ideally, this effort could lead to the development of a relatively comprehensive list of construction materials and the hazardous substances they contain. This information could then be kept up to date by an associati on or non profit organization that could serve as a clearinghouse of this type of information. As this information is developed, assessments could be made about the relative toxicity of different products, and this could be made easily accessible to the co nstruction co mmunity

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59 APPENDIX TABLE OF PRODUCTS Table A 1 : Product Data Sheet Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Metal D evcon Metal Patch & Fill Compound Amorphous Silica Aluminum Powder Crystalline Silica Methyl Ethl ketone Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Multi Purpose DAP Weldwood Plastic Resin Glue Barium Chloride Formaldehyde Urea Formaldehyde Polymer Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Multi Purpose D evcon Blue Threadblocker Amorphous silicon dioxide Cumene hydroperoxide Polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate Polyethylene Glycol Monooleate Saccharin Titanium dioxide Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Multi Purpose Elmer's Glue All Max Chlorobenzene Methylene Bisphenyl Isocyanate

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60 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Cate gory Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Multi Purpose Elmer's Glue All Max Polymethylene Polyphenyl Isocyanate Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Multi Purpose Elmer's Craft Bond Rubber Cement Isopropanol Heptane Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Multi Purpose Weldbond Bonds Most Anything No Hazardous Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Plastics Loctite Plastics Bonding System Activator Ethyl cyanoacrylat n Heptane Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhe sive Multi Purpose Super Strength Isopropyl Alcohol Methyl Ethyl Ketone Thermoplastic Polyurethane Toluene Vinyl Acetate Vinyl Copolymer Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Interior/Exterior 43 0 Henry Henry Clear, Thin Spread, Floor Tile Adhesive No Hazardous Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Cove Base 440 Henry Cove Base No Hazardous Substances

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61 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/pai nt) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Carpet 663 Henry Outdoor Carpet Deodorized kerosene Solvent naphtha (petroleum), light aliphatic Ace Hardware Adhesive Adhesive Vinyl ACE Flexible Vinyl Mender Me thyl ethyl ketone Polyester Based Polyurethane Ace Hardware Adhesive Cement Multi Purpose BARGE Original All Purpose Cement Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Ethyl Acetate N heptane Toluene Silica Amor phous hydrated Ace Hardware Adhesive Cement Multi Purpose Elmer's Stix All Gel 3 ( trimethoxysilyl) 1 propanamine Ace Hardware Adhesive Cement Multi Purpose DUCO Cement Duco Cement Acetone Camphor Cellulose Nitrate D icyclohexyl Phthalate Isopropyl Alcohol 1 Methoxy 2 Propanol

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62 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ Caulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Cement Multi Purpose DUCO Plastic Model Cement Ethyl Acetate Ace Hardware Adhesive Contact Adhesive House Amazing GOOP Household Toluene Solvent Naptha Ace Hardware Adhesive Contact Adhesive Plumbing Amazing GOOP Plumbing Toluene Solvent Naptha Ace Hard ware Adhesive Contact Adhesive Multi Purpose SealAll Acetone Methyl Ethyl Ketone Ace Hardware Adhesive Contact Cement Wood DAP Weldwood Contact Cement Acetone Aliphatic Petroleum Distillate N Hexane Toluene Ace Hardware Adhesive Contact Cement General Purpose Adhesive W.J Ruscoe Pliobond 25 LV Permanent Flexible Bond No information available Ace Hardware Adhesive Contact Cement General Purpose Adhesive W.J Ruscoe Pliobond Permanet Flexible B onds No information available Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose ACE Epoxy Hardener & Resin Epichlorohydrin 4,4' isopropylidene diphenol resin Phenyl glycidyl ether

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63 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (ad hesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose ACE Gel Epoxy Syringe Super Strength Hardener Aliphatic amines N (2 Aminoethyl)piperazine Phenol, 2,4,6 tris[(dimethylamino)me thyl] Pentaerythritol PO mercaptoglycerol Silica, amorphous, fumed, Crystalline free Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose ACE Gel Epoxy Syringe Super Strength Resin Epoxy resin Silica, amorphous, fumed, Crystalline free Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Marine ACE Marine Epoxy Benzyl Alcohol Formaldehyde, Polymer woth Toluene N Isotricdecyloxypropyl Trimethylene Diamine Phenol, 2,4,6 Tris [(dimethylamino)Methy l]

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64 Tabl e A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Marine ACE Marine Epoxy Propylene Glycol Isophoronediamine Silica, amorphous, fumed Silica, Quartz Ace Har dware Adhesive Epoxy Plastics ACE Plastic Repair Epoxy Aliphatic amines N (2 Aminoethyl)piperazine Pentaerythritol PO mercaptoglycerol Phenol, 2,4,6 tris[(dimethylamino)me thyl] Silica, amorphous, fumed crystalline free Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose ACE Epoxy Hardener Aliphatic amines N (2 Aminoethyl)piperazine Pentaerythritol PO mercaptoglycerol Phenol, 2,4,6 tris[(dimethylamino)me thyl] Silica, amorphous, fumed, crystalline fre

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65 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose ACE Epoxy Resin Epichlorohydri n 4,4' isopropylidene diphenol resin Phenyl glycidyl ether Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose Devcon 2 Ton Clear Epoxy Hardener Aminoethylpiperazine Nonylphenol Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose Devcon 2 Ton Cle ar Epoxy Resin Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether resin Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose Devcon 5 Minute Epoxy Hardener Not provided Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose Devcon 5 Minute Epoxy Resin Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether resin Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose Gorilla Epoxy. 5 minute Hardener/ Resin Alkyl Glycidyl Ether Epoxy Resin Modified Epoxy Resin Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose PC Fix Your PC Aliphatic Polyaminoamid B isphenol A Epoxy Resi Formaldehyde, polymer with 1,3,dimethylbenzene Hydrocarbon Resin Magnesium Silicate

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66 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Sub stances Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose PC Fix Your PC Aluminum Silicate Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin Formaldehyde, polymer with 1,3,dimethylbenzene liquid copolymer Magnesium Silicate N Aminoethylpiperazine Nonylphenol Polyoxypropylenediam ine Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpose Loctite Extra Time Epoxy Epichlorohydrin 4 4' Isopropylidene Diphenol Resin Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Multi Purpos e Loctite Repair Putty Multi Purpose Diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A resins Glycidyl ethers of bisphenol A resins Polymeric phenolic amine Tri (dimethylaminomethyl) phenol Zinc sulfide

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67 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Putty Marine PC Fix Your PC Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin Epoxy Resins Polymer Phenolic Amin e Zinc Sulfide Ace Hardware Adhesive Epoxy Putty Metal PC Fix Your PC Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin Tri(dimethylaminomet hyl)phenol Ace Hardware Adhesive Glue Multi Purpose Elmer's All Purpose Glue Stick No hazardous Su bstances Ace Hardware Adhesive Spray Adhesive Interior/Exterior High Strength 90 Aerosol Spray Low 25% VOC Chlorobenzotrifluoride Cyclohexane 1,1 Difluoroethane Dimethyl ether Hexmethyldisiloxane Methyl acetate N Butyl acetate Propane Talc

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68 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ Caulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Spray Adhesive Aerosol Sup er 77 Multi Purpose Adhesive Acetone Cyclohexane Hexane Hydrotreated light naphtha (petroleum) Propane Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose ACE All Purpose Super Glue Ethyl cyanocrylate Po ly(methyl methacrylate) Silica, amorphous, fumed, crystalline free Hydroquinone Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose ACE No Run Super Glue Gel Ethyl cyanocrylate Poly(methyl methacrylate) Silica, a morphous, fumed, crystalline free Hydroquinone

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69 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose DURO Super glue Ethyl Cyanoc rylate Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose Gorilla Dries White 2x Faster Diphenylmethane diisocyanate Toluene Urethane prepolymer Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose Instant Krazy Glue Super Glue Brush ethy l 2 cyanocrylate Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose Instant Krazy Glue All Purpose Gel Ethyl 2 Cyanoacrylate Fumed, Silica Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose Instant Krazy Glue Super Glue Pen Ethyl 2 Cyanoacrylate Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose Instant Krazy Glue All Purpose Tube Ethyl 2 Cyanoacrylate Fumed, Silica Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose Loctite Super Glue Brush On Ethyl Cyanoacrylate Ace Hardware Adhesive Sup er Glue Multi Purpose Loctite Super Glue Gel Ethyl 2 Cyanoacrylate Fumed, Silica Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose Loctite Super Glue Pen Ethyl Cyanoacrylate Ace Hardware Adhesive Super Glue Multi Purpose Loctite Super Glue. Longneck Bottle Ethyl 2 Cyanoacrylate Ace Hardware Adhesive Wood Glue Multi Purpose Elmer's Glue All No Hazardous Substances

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70 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substanc es Ace Hardware Adhesive Wood Glue Wood Titebond Molding & Trim Wood Glue Oxydipropyl Dibenzoate Ace Hardware Adhesive Wood Glue Wood Titebond Liquid Hide Wood Glue Ammonium Thiocyanate Cyanoguanidine Ace Hardware Adhesive Wood Glue Wood Titebond II Premium Wood Glue Aluminum Chloride, Anhydrous Ace Hardware Adhesive Wood Glue Wood Titebond III Ultimate Wood Glue Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Ace Hardware Caulk Exterior Flame 5000 Flexible Intumescent Sealant Mineral Spirits Ace Hardware Caulk Exterior Roof & Gutter ACE Plastic Roof Cement. Wet of Dry Surfaces Asbestos Fibers Calcined Clay Kaolin Petroleum Asphalt Petroleum Solvents Ace Hardware Caulk Interior Multi Purpo se ACE Heavy Duty N Hexane Methanol Methyl acetate Vinyl Acetate Ace Hardware Caulk Interior Tub ACE Tub Surrounds Hexane

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71 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand S ubdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior Kitchen & Bath & Plumbing ACE Tub & Tile. Siliconize Acrylic Caulk Aqua Ammonia Benzoate Ester Calcium Carbonate Mineral Spirits Octylphenol Ethoxylate Titanium Dioxide Ace Hardware Caulk Interior Kitchen & Bath ACE Silicone Tube & Tile Ethyltriacetoxysilane Methyltriacetoxysilane Silica Titanium Dioxide Ace Hardware Caulk Interior Kitchen & Bath DAP Kitchen & B ath. 100% Silicone Sealant. White Aluminum Dimethyl Siloxane, Trimethoxysilyl Terminated Ethyltriacetoxysilane Hydrotreated Middle Petroleum Distillates Methyltriacetoxysilane Silica, Amorphous, Titanium Dioxide

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72 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior Kitchen & Bath & Plumbing DAP Kwik Kwik Seal Tub & Tile Adhesive Caulk Ac etaldehyde Acrylonitrile Calcium Carbonate Ester Branched and Linear Ethylene Glycol Ethyl Acrylate Formaldehyde N Butyl acetate Silica, Crystaline Titaniu m Dioxide Ace Hardware Caulk Interior Kitchen & Bath & Plumbing GE SiliconeII Premium Waterproof Kicthen/Bath/Plu mbing Distillates Petroleum, Hydrotreated Hexamethyldisilazane Methyl Trimethoxysilane Ace Hardware Caulk Interio r/ Exterior Window/Door ACE 100% Silicone Architectural Grade. Clear Dimethylsiloxane Ethyltriacetoxysilane Methyltriacetoxysilane Silica Titanium Dioxide

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73 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (ad hesive/ Caulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose ACE Clear Sealant. High Tech Sealant Lt. Aliphatic Solvent Naphtha Polyalicyclic Resin Toluene Xylene Ac e Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Concrete & Blacktop Caul ACE Concrete & Mortar Aqua Amonia Acrylic Ter polymer Benzoate Ester Calcium Carbonate Ceramic Microsphere Mineral Spirits Ace Hardware Caulk Interior /Exterior ACE Cove Base No Hazardous Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Specialty Caulk ACE Glazing Compound With Silicone. Window Repair Benzoate Ester Bis(Tributyltin) Oxide Calcium Carbonate Ethylene Glycol Mineral Spirits Octylphenol Ethoxylate

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74 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Roof & Gutter A CE Gutter & Foundation. White Alkane Sulfate Phenyl Esters Calcium Carbonate Ethyl Benzene Methanol PVC Polymer Silica Quartz Solvent Based Copolymer Blend Titanium Dioxide Xylene DIDP MDI Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose ACE Heavy Duty N Hexane Methyl acetate Vinyl Acetate Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Mirror ACE Mirror Acetone Hexa ne Methyl Acetate Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose ACE Polyurethane. Premium Construction Adhesive 4, 4 Diphenylmethane Diisocyanate Aliphatic Petroleum Distillates

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75 Table A 1. Continued Sto re Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Floor ACE Subfloor & Deck Hexane Toluene Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Floor ACE Tile Adhesive Acrylic Polimer Calcium Carbonate Ethylene Glycol Mineral Spirits Urea Ace Hardware Caulk Interior /Exterior Floor ACE Tile Grout Aqua Amonia Calcium Carbonate Ethylene Glycol Mineral Spirits Octylphenol Ethoxylate Titanium Dioxide Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window/Door ACE Window & Door. White acrylic TerPolymer Emulsion Ammonium Hydroxide Benzoate ester Petroleum Distillates Titanium Dioxide Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window/Door Big Stretch Clear Ethylene Glycol

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76 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/Ext er ior Window/Door DAP Alex Plus. Clear Acetaldehyde Ammonia Formaldehyde Ethylene glycol Triethoxysilane Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/Exter ior Window/Door DAP Alex Plus. White Ammonia B ranched and Linear Phthalates Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde L imestone Titanium Dioxide Silica, Crystalline Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/Exter ior Multi Purpose DAP Alex Painter's Acrylic Latex Caulk Ammonia Branched and Linear Phthalates Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde L imestone Titanium Dioxide Silica, Crystalline Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/Exter ior Concrete DAP Concrete Formalde hyde

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77 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window/Door DAP Dynaflex 230 Clear Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde Ace Hard ware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window/Door DAP Dynaflex 230 White Branched and Linear Phthalates Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde L imestone Silica, Crystalline Titanium Dioxide Ace Hardware Caulk Int erior/ Exterior Window/Door DAP Silicone Rubber Sealant Window / Door Hydrotreated Middle Petroleum Distillates Methyllethylketoxime Methyl tri(ethylmethylketoxime ) silane Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose DAP Tex Multi Purpose Foam Sealant Ethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether Isopropyl Alcohol Propane N Butane Vinyl Acetate

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78 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose G ardner Leak Stopper Clear Patch 2, 2, 4 Trimethyl 1, 3 Pentanediol Monoisobutyrate 2 Amino 2 Methyl 1 Propanol Ace Hardware Caulk In terior/ Exterior Window/Door GE Silicone II Window & Door. 100% Silicone Sealant Distillates, Petroleum, Hydrotreated Hexamethyldisilazane Methyl Trimethoxysilane Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Great Big Gap Filler Dimethyl Ether Isobute ne Liquified Petroleum Mixture Polymethylene Polyphenyl Isocyanate Prepolymer of MDI and Polyether Polyol Propane

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79 Tabl e A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Great Gaps & Crack Isocyanic Acid, Polymethylenepolyphe nylene ester Polymer Propanetriyltris Polymethylenepolyphe nyl polyisocyanate polypropyleneglycol copolymer Diphenylmethane Diisocyanate, isomers and Homologues Isobute ne Propane Methyl Ether Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Great Fireblock Diphenylmethane Diisocyanate, isomers and homologues 4,4' Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate Polymethylenepolyphe nyl polyisocyanate, polypropyleneglycol copo lymer Tris(1 chloro 2 propyl) phosphate

PAGE 80

80 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Great Fireblock Paraffi n waxes and Hydrocarbon waxes, chlorinated Isobute ne Propane Methyl ether Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window/Door Great Window & Door Diphenylmethane Diisocyanate, isomers and homologues P olymethylenepolyphe nyl polyisocyanate, polypropyleneglycol copolymer Tris(1 chloro 2 propyl) phosphate Paraffin waxes and Hydrocarbon waxes, chlorinated Isobute ne Propane Methyl ethe r Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Specialty Caulk Lexel Clear Silicone Caulk Toluene VM & P

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81 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Construction adhesives Liquid Nails Heavy Duty Construction Crystalline silica, cristobalite Cyclohexan Heptane Kaolin Limestone Titanium dioxide Quartz Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Construction adhesives Liquid Nails Projects Clay Crystalline silica, cristobalite Heptane Limestone Petroleum hydrocarbo Light aliphatic solvent naphtha (petroleum) Quartz Titanium dioxide Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Floor Liquid Nails Subfloor & Deck Construction adhesive Crystalline silica, cristobalite Cyclohexane Heptane, branched, cyclic an d linear

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82 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Floor Liquid Nails Subfloor & Deck Construction adh Heptane Hydrotreated light distillate Kaolin Light aliphatic solvent naphtha (petroleum) Limestone Quartz Resin Styrene butadiene polymer Titanium dioxide Toluene Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Tub Liquid Nails Tub Surrounds Acrylic resin Ethylene glycol Diethylene glycol dibenzoate Limestone Quartz Titanium dioxide Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Mul ti Purpose Loctite PL Premium. Polyureathane Construction Adhesive Hydrocarbon C11 25 dearomatized Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate

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83 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Subst ances Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Loctite PL Premium. Polyureathane Construction Adhesive Diphenylmethane diisocyanate, isomers and homologues Talc Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Loctite Power grab Quartz (SiO2) Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Specialty Caulk Polyseamse al All Purpose. Adhesive & Caulk in One. White N Butyl Acetate Titanium Dioxide Ace Hardware Caulk Interior/ Exterior Specialty Caulk Polyseamse al All Purpose Adhesive & Caulk in One. Clear No hazardous Substances Ace Hardware Paint Interior Ceiling ACE Simply Magic Color Transforming Flat Ceiling Paint. Interior Acrylic Latex No hazardous Substances Ace Hardware Paint Exterior Multi Purpose Royal Premium House Paint Nepheline Syenite Titanium Dioxide Iron Hydroxide Oxide Sica, Amorphous Diiron Trioxide Carbon Black Palygorskite

PAGE 84

84 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adh esive/ Caulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Paint Exterior Wall/ Paint Royal Premium House + Trim Paint Semi Gloss Titanium Dioxide Chronium (III) Oxide Diiron Trioxide Iron Hydroxide O xide Nepheline Syenite Isobutyric Acid Carbon Black Palygorskite Ace Hardware Paint Interior Walls Royal Premium Wall Paint Isobutyric acid, monoester with 2,2,4 trimethylpentane 1,3 diol Neph eline syenite Limestone Titanium dioxide Ceramic materials and wares, substances Silica, amorphous diatomaceous earth Quartz (SiO2) Carbon black Palygorskite Ace Hardwar e Paint Interior Wall/ Trim Royal Premium Wall + Trim Paint Titanium dioxide Ceramic materials and wares, substances

PAGE 85

85 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Ha rdware Paint Interior Wall/ Trim Royal Premium Wall + Trim Paint Nepheline syenite Carbon black Palygorskite Ace Hardware Paint Interior Mold proof Multi Purpose Zinsser Perma White Mold & Mildew Proof. Titanium Dioxide Aluminum Silicate Ethylene Glycol Diethanolamine Ace Hardware Primer Interior Paint primer Kilz Original Primer Sealer Stainblocker. Oil Base Nepheline Syenite Nonanes Distillates (petroleum), hydro treated ligh Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Rutile Silicate, mica Titanium dioxide Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Octanes Propane n butane Isobute ne Acetone

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86 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Primer Interioe/ Exterior Multi Purpose spray a dhesive Zinsser 1.2.3 Primer for All Surfaces Titanium Diox ide Ethylene Glycol Magnesium Silicate Ace Hardware Primer Exterior Paint primer Royal Premium Oil Base Primer House & Trim Ethylene Glycol Ace Hardware Primer Exterior Paint Primer Royal Premium Latex Primer House & Trim Cal cium carbonate Dioxotitanium Kaolin 1,2 Ethanediol Ace Hardware Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint Primer Zinsser Cover Stain Primer Stain Blocker Bond Coat Ethylene Glycol Calcium carbonate Ti tanium Dioxide Ace Hardware Primer Interior Paint primer Kilz Original Primer Sealer Stain blocker Interior Titanium dioxide Rutile Distillates (petroleum) Silicate, mica Limestone Amorphous si lica Hydrated aluminum magnesium silicate

PAGE 87

87 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Primer Interior Paint primer Kilz Original Primer Sealer Stain block er Interior Nepheline Syenite Talc Ace Hardware Primer Interior Paint primer Royal Premium Alkyd Primer Multi Purpose Petroleum Distilates, Aliphatic Ace Hardware Primer Interior Paint primer Royal Premium Latex Primer Dry Wall Calcium carbonate Dioxotitanium Ceramic materials and wares, substances 1,2 Ethanediol Dioxosilane Palygorskite Ace Hardware Primer Interior Multi Purpose primer Royal Premium Latex Primer Multi Purp ose Calcium carbonate Dioxotitanium Kaolin 1,2 Ehanediol Ace Hardware Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer Kilz 2 Latex Primer Sealer Stain Blocker. All Purpose Stainblocker. Water Base Styrene resin Lim estone Titanium dioxide Nepheline Syenite Ethylene glycol

PAGE 88

88 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Primer Interior/ Exterior Pai nt Primer Kilz Premium Primer Sealer Stain Blocker Petroleum Hydrocarbon/Vegetabl e Oil Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Mineral spirits Nepheline Syenite Nonanes Titanium dioxide Resin Octanes, all isomers Limestone Rutile Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light; Kerosine U nspecified Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Silicate, mica Ace Hardware Primer Inter ior/ Exterior Paint Primer Royal Premium Sealing Primer. Stain Blocking Ethylene glycol 2,2,4 trimethyl 1 1,3 pentanediol mono(2 methylpropanoate) Ace Hardware Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint Primer Royal Premium Tintable Primer 2,2,4 trimethyl 1,3 p

PAGE 89

89 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ Caulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ace Hardware Primer Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose primer Zinsser 1.2.3 Primer for All Surfaces Titani um Dioxide Magnesium Silicate Ethylene Oxide Ace Hardware Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer Zinsser BIN Primer Ult i m at e Stain Blocker Hydrotreated Light Distillate Magnesium Silicate Solvent Naptha, Light Aromatic Aluminum silicate Crystalline Silica Ace Hardware Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer Zinsser BIN Shellac Base Primer Ult i m at e Stain Blocker Acetone n Butyl Alcohol Ethanol I sopropanol Kaolin Mica Propane Sodium Aluminosilicate Titanium dioxide

PAGE 90

90 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Ho me D epot Caulk Interior/ E xterior Fire barrier 3 M Fire barrier cp 25wb+ Zinc borate 2335 Polymer Sodium Silicate Ethylhexyldiphenyl Phosphate Iron Oxide Polyethylene Glycol Oxide gla ss substances Home D epot Caulk Interior/ E xterior Fire barrier 3 M sealant ic 15 wb+ Calcium carbonate Fiberglass Polymer Polyoxyethylene monooctylphenyl ether Quartz silica Sodium nonylphenyl polyethoxy ether sulfate Sodium silicate Zinc borate 2335 Home D epot Caulk Interior/ E xterior Fire block 3 M Fire block sealant fb 136 Kaolin Quartz silica Sodium hydroxide

PAGE 91

91 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home D epot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Fire Block 3M Fire block sealant fb 136 Sodium silicate Wollastonite Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose DAP Alex Plus. White Ammonia Branched and Linear Phthalates Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde Limestone Titanium Dioxide Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Roof DAP Blacktop & R oof Sealant Asphal Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose DAP Dynaflex 230 Clear Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose DAP Dynaflex 230 White Branched and Linear Phthalates Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde Limestone Silica, Crystalline Titanium Dioxide Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose DAP Tex Multi Purpose Foam Sealant Ethylene Glycol Dimet hyl Ether Isopropyl Alcohol Propane

PAGE 92

92 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose DAP Tex Multi Purpose Foam Sealant Vinyl Acetate Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Fire block DAP Fire Block Foam Polyurethane Sealant Chlorodifluoromethane Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate Polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate Home Depot Cau lk Exterior Gutter & Flashing DAP 3.0 Advanced Gutter & Flashing Proprietary Phthalate Esters Titanium dioxide Trimethoxyvinylsilane Home Depot Caulk Exterior Asphalt DAP Roof Watertight Asphalt Filler & Sealant Asphalt Magnesite Hydrous Aluminum Silicate Home Depot Caulk Exterior Concrete DAP 3.0 Advanced Self Leveling Concrete Sealant Limestone Proprietary Phthalate Esters Silica, crystalline

PAGE 93

93 Tale A 1 Continued Store Type (adhe sive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Caulk Exterior Multi Purpose DAP 3.0 Advanced All Purpose Sealant All Weather Window/Door Titanium dioxide trimethoxyvinylsilane Home Depot Caulk Interior Kitchen/ Bath DAP 3.0 Kitchen & Bath. 100% Silicone Sealant. White Aluminum Dimethyl Siloxane, Trimethoxysilyl Terminated Ethyltriacetoxysilane Hydrotreated Middle Petroleum Distillates Methyltriacetoxysilane Silica, Amorphous, Titanium Dioxide Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Leak Stopper Gardner Leak Stopper Clear Patch 2, 2, 4 Trimethyl 1, 3 Pentanediol Monoisobutyrate 2 Amino 2 Methyl 1 Propanol

PAGE 94

94 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Caulk Interior / Exterior Multi Purpose GE Silicone I Distillates, petroleum, hydrotreated Hexam ethyldisilazane Methyltrimethoxysilane Home Depot Caulk Interior / Exterior Window/ Door GE 1hour Silicone II Supreme Methoxypolydimethylsi loxane Polydimethylsiloxane Treated fumed silica Siloxanes & Silicones, Dimethylpolymers w /Methylsilsesquioxan es Home Depot Caulk Exterior Gutter & Flashing GE Silicone II Gutter and Flashing Distillates, petroleum,hydrotreate d Hexamethyldisilazane Methyl trimethoxysilane Home Depot Caulk Interior / Exterior Multi Purpose GE Silicone II Premium Water Proof Methyltriacetoxysilane Octamethylcyclotetrasi loxane

PAGE 95

95 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Caulk Int erior/ Exterior Window, Door, Attic, Basement, Trim Int/Ext GE Silicone II Premium Waterproof Window Door Attic Basement Trim Distillates, petroleum,hydrotreate d, Hexamethyldislazane Methyl trimethoxysilane Polydime thylsiloxane Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window/ Door GE Window & Door Butyl benzyl phthalate Diisoheptyl phthalate Ethanediol Stoddard solvent Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Loctite PL 300 Low VOC Foamboard Adhesive Quartz ( sio2 ) Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Loctite Heavy Duty Construction Adhesive Distillates, petroleum, steam cracked, polymd Naphtha (petroleum), solvent refined light

PAGE 96

96 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Loctite Heavy Duty Construction Adhesive a (petroleum), solvent refin ed light 64741 84 0 10 30 n Hexane Ethanol Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated heavy naphthenic Titanium dioxide Quartz (SiO2) Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Floor Loctite PL 400 S ubFloor & Deck Adhesive Naphtha (petroleum) solvent refined light Toluene Distillates, petroleum, steam cracked, polymd n Hexane Ethanol Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated heavy n aphthenic Titanium dioxide Quartz (SiO2)

PAGE 97

97 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Caulk Exterior Landscape Loctite PL Landscape Block Ad hesive Naphtha (petroleum) solvent refined light Toluene Distillates, petroleum, steam cracked, polymd n Hexane Ethanol Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated heavy naphthenic Titanium dioxide Quartz (SiO2) Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Loctite PL Premium ADVANCED Polyurethane Construction Adhesive Calcium oxide Diphenylmethane diisocyanate, isomers and homologues Quartz (SiO2) Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate Methylenebis(phenylis ocyanate) Titanium dioxide

PAGE 98

9 8 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Loctite Power Grab All Purpose Construction Adhesive Quartz (SiO2) Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Loctite Power Grab Heavy Duty Interior / Exterior Construction Adhesive Quartz (SiO2 ) Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Lo ctite Power Grab Molding & Paneling Construction Adhesive Quartz (SiO2) Home Depot Ca ulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Polyseamse al SEALANT Poliseamseal All Purpose Clear No hazardous Subst ances Home Depot Caulk Interior Tub & Tile Polyseamse al SEALANT Polyseamseal Tub & Tile Adhesives Caulk N Butyl Acetate Titanium Dioxide Home Depot Caulk Interior Tub & Tile Polyseamse al SEALANT Polyseamseal Tub & Tile ULTRA Titanium Dio xide Ethylene Glycol

PAGE 99

99 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Caulk Exterior Multi Purpose Polyseamse al SEALANT Poliseamseal Ultra Exterior Mineral Oil Ethylene Glycol Home Depot Caulk Exterior Concrete Loctite PL Polyurethane Concrete/Crack/ Masonry Limestone Titanium dioxide Stoddard solvent Talc Propylidynetrimethyl trimethacrylate Calcium oxide Toluene 2,4 diisocyanate Quartz (SiO2) Home Depot Caulk Exterior Roof/ Flashing Loctite PL Polyurethane Roof/Flashing Limestone Methyl oleate Titanium dioxide Stoddard sol vent Talc Propylidynetrimethyl trimethacrylate Calcium oxide Quartz (SiO2)

PAGE 100

100 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Cau lk Exterior Roof/ Flashing Loctite PL Polyurethane Roof/Flashing Toluene 2,4 diisocyanate Carbon black Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window/ Door Loctite PL Polyurethane Window/Door/Sli ding Titanium Dioxide Stoddard Solvent Silica, Quartz Home Depot Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose White Lightning 3006 All Purpose Adhesive Caulk Mineral Spirits Calcium Carbonate Titanium Dioxide Home Depot Solvents Interior/ Exterior Min eral Spirits Klean Strip Acetone Acetone Home Depot Solvents Interior Exterior Thinner Klean Strip Lacquer Thinner Methanol Toluene Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone Ethanol, 2 Butox Acetic acid, Eth yl ester Hexane, Light aliphatic naptha

PAGE 101

101 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Solvents Interior/ Exterior Solvent Klean Strip Methil Ethyl Ketone Methil Ethyl Ketone Home Depot Solvents Interior/ Exterior Paint thinner/ solvent Klean Strip Mineral Spirits Mineral Spirits Home Depot Solvents Interior/ Exterior Paint thinner/ solvent Klean Strip Odorless Mineral Spirits Mineral spirits Aliphatic Petroleum Distillates White spirits Home Depot Solvents Interior/ Exterior Paint thinner Klean Strip Paint Thinner Paint Thinner Home Depot Solvents Interior/ xterior Paint thinner Klean Strip SLX Denatured Alcohol SLX Denat ured Alcohol Home Depot Solvents Interior/ Exterior Paint thinner Klean Strip VM & Nap h tha VM & Naptha Home Depot Paint Exterior Exterior Behr Premium Plus Flat Titanium Dioxide Nepheline Syenite Amorphous Silica A liminum Hydroxide Silica, Crystalline Home Depot Paint Exterior Exterior Behr Premium Plus Satin Ename l Styrene/acrylic copolymer Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel Aluminum hydroxide Ethylene glyc ol

PAGE 102

102 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ Caulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Paint Exterior Exterior Behr Premium Plus Satin Enamle Nepheline Syenite Titanium dioxide Home Depot Paint Interior/ Exterior Floor Behr Premium Plus Interior/Exterior Hi Gloss Enamel Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel Aluminum hydroxide Ethylene glycol Titanium dioxide 2 ethylhexyl benzoate Ac rylic polymer Home Depot Primer Exterior Paint sealer Behr Premium Plus Exterior Water Base & Sealer Titanium dioxide Styrene resin Ethylene glycol Nepheline Syenite Silica, crystalline cristobalite Zinc oxide 2 ethylhexyl benzoate

PAGE 103

103 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer Behr Premium Plus Interi or/Exterior Oil Based Primer Mineral spirits Silicate, mica Ethylbenzene Long oil Alkyd Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light; Kerosine unspecified Rutile Titanium dioxide Ho me Depot Paint E xterior Multi Purpose Behr Premium Plus Ultra Exterior Flat Acrylic polymer Titanium dioxide Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel Flux Calcined Diatomaceous Earth (DE) Silica, crystalline cristobalite Aluminum hydroxide Nepheline Syenite Silica, crystalline quartz

PAGE 104

104 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Paint Exterior Multi Purpose Behr Premium Plus Ultra Exterior Flat Styrene/acrylic copolymer 2 ethylhexyl benzoate Home Depot Paint Interior Walls Behr Premium Plus Interior Flat Styrene/acrylic copolymer Titanium dioxide Nepheline Syenite Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel Aluminum hydroxide Clay (kaolin) Home Depot Paint Interior Walls r Behr Premium Plus Interior Flat Enamel Coalescing aid Titanium dioxide A luminum hydroxide Acrylic polymer Silica, crystalline cristobalite Nepheline Syenite Styrene/acrylic copolymer Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel Ethylene glycol

PAGE 105

105 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Paint Interior Ceiling Behr Premium Plus Interior Ceiling Paint Silica, crystalline cristobalite Vinyl acrylic polymer Titanium dioxide Clay (kaolin) Styrene/acrylic copolymer Home Depot Primer Interior Paint primer Behr Premium Plus Drywall Primer & Sealer Ethylene glycol Polymer(s) Titanium dioxide Home Depot Primer Interior Paint primer Behr Premium Plus Interior/Exterior Oil Based Primer & Sealer Mineral spirits Silicate, mica Ethylbenzene Long oil Alkyd Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light; Kerosine unspecif ied Rutile Titanium dioxide

PAGE 106

106 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Paint Interior/ Exterior Masonry Behr Interior/Exterior Masonry Stucc o & Brick Paint White Base No. 270 Titanium dioxide Vinyl acrylic based polymer Styrene/acrylic copolymer Silicate, mica Anhydrous aluminum silicate Home Depot Primer Exterior Concrete Behr Concrete & Masonr y Bonding Primer No. 880 Amine salt of modified acrylic copolymer Home Depot Paint Exterior Mason r y Behr Elastomeric Masonry, S t ucco & Brick Paint Titanium dioxide Silica, crystalline cristobalite Acrylic polymer Eth ylene glycol Home Depot Paint Exterior Roof Behr Roof Paint Amorphous silica Styrene/acrylic copolymer Aluminum hydroxide Titanium dioxide

PAGE 107

107 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) U se Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Paint Interior Walls Premium Collection Interior Latex Paint Flat Limestone Silicon oxide Sodium aluminosilicate Titanium dioxide Quart Feldspar type minerals Diatomaceous earth, uncalcined Calcined kaolin clay Vinyl acetate/acrylic copolymer Home Depot Paint Exterior Multi Purpose Premium Collection Exterior Latex Paint Flat Zinc oxide Carbon black Crystalline silica, cristobalite Feldspar type minerals Diatomaceous earth, uncalcined Calcined kaolin clay Silica, diatomaceous earth

PAGE 108

108 Table A 1. Continue d Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Paint Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose The Premium Collection Interior/ Exterior High Gloss Paint Titanium dioxide Texanol Polymeric dispersant solution Home Depot P rimer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer The Primers White Primer Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether Limestone Titanium dioxide Quartz Surfactant Home Depot P rimer Interi or/ Exterior Paint primer The Primers PVA Drywall Primer Titanium dioxide Feldspar type minerals Calcined kaolin clay Home Depot Paint Interior/ Exterior Ceiling EZ Track Ceiling Paint Sodium aluminosilicate Titanium dioxide Talc Vinyl acrylic latex Diatomaceous earth, uncalcined Calcined kaolin clay

PAGE 109

109 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivi sion Substances Home Depot Paint Interior/Exter ior Floor Porch & Floor Alkyd Gloss Paint Ethylbenzene Limestone Xylene Clay Carbon black Titanium dioxide Talc Quartz Aluminum hydroxide Feldspar type minerals Heavy solvent naphtha Medium aliphatic solvent naphtha Amorphous silica Mineral spirits Home Depot Paint Interior/Exter ior Floor Porch & Floor Latex Satin Paint Limestone Carbon black Titanium dioxide Quartz Texanol Feld spar type minerals

PAGE 110

110 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Primer Interior/ Exterior Primer KILZ Original Stainblocking Primer. Oil Base Titanium dioxide Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Nonanes Rutile Silicate, mica Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Octanes, all isomers Acetone Propane Isobute ne n butane Home Depot Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer KILZ Original Paint. Oil based Nepheline Syenite Silicate, mica Rutile Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light; Kerosine unspecified Aliphatic Hydrocar bon Titanium dioxide Nonanes Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Octanes, all isomers

PAGE 111

111 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Hom e Depot Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer KILZ Original Low VOC Paint. Oil Base Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Nepheline Syenite Rutile Titanium dioxide Silicate, mica Distillates (petrol eum), hydrotreated light; Kerosine unspecified Home Depot Primer Interior/ Exterior Spray Adhesive KILZ Odorless Odorless Paint. Oil Base Nonanes Isopar C Vinyl acrylate terpolymer Trimethyl 1, 3 pentanediol, diisobu tyrate Titanium dioxide Naphtha (petroleum), light alkylate Isobute ne Octanes, all isomers n butane Propane

PAGE 112

112 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/pa int) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Primer Interior/Exter ior Multi Purpose KILZ Odorless Odorless Paint. Oil Base Limestone Nepheline Syenite Resin Hydrotreated heavy petroleum naphtha Coalescing aid Acrylic polymer Titanium dioxide Home Depot Primer Interior/Exter ior Multi Purpose KILZ2 Latex Latex Primer. Water Base Ethylene glycol Titanium dioxide Limestone Nepheline Syen ite Styrene resin Home Depot Primer Interior/Exter ior Multi Purpose KILZ Clean Start Primer Sealer. Water Base Styrene resin Rutile Titanium dioxide Nepheline Syenite Silicate, mica Home Depo t Primer Interior/Exter ior Multi Purpose KILZ Premium Primer Sealer. Water Base Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel Nepheline Syenite Titanium dioxide Ethylene glycol

PAGE 113

113 Table A 1. Continued Stor e Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Primer Interior Multi Purpose KILZ General Purpose Primer Sealer. Water Base Amorphous silica Titanium dioxide Rutile Ethylene glycol Silicate, mica Limestone Vinyl acrylic polymer Home Depot Primer Exterior Multi Purpose KILZ General Purpose Primer Sealer. Water Base Styrene resin Vinyl acrylic polymer Titanium dioxide Nepheline Syenite Ethylene glycol Home Depot Primer Interior Ceiling KILZ Ceiling Paint With Stain Blocking Titanium dioxide Styrene/acrylic copolymer Nepheline Syenite Silica, crystalline quartz Silica, crystalline cristobalite

PAGE 114

114 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ Caulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Primer Interior Ceiling KILZ Ceiling Paint With Stain Blocking Flux Calcin ed Diatomaceous Earth (DE) Home Depot Primer Interior Multi Purpose KILZ PRO PX Interior PVA Primer PX010 Styrene/acrylic copolymer Polymer Clay (kaolin) Silicate, mica Rutile Vinyl acrylic polymer Titanium dioxide Fuller's earth Home Depot Paint Interior Multi Purpose KILZ PRO 310 Flat Light Base Interior Paint Nepheline Syenite Titanium dioxide Clay (kaolin) Silica, amorphou s, precipitated and gel Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer Amorphous silica Clay (kaolin) Styrene/acrylic copolymer Silica, amorphous diatomaceous earth

PAGE 115

115 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Paint Interior Multi Purpose Speed Wall Semigloss Interior 1456 Paint Clay Titanium dioxide Vinyl acrylic latex Texanol Home Dep ot Paint Interior Multi Purpose Speed Wall White Eggshell Interior 1452 Latex Paint Clay Sodium aluminosilicate Titanium dioxide Vinyl acrylic latex Texanol Home Depot Paint Interior Multi Purpose Speed Wa ll White Matte Interior 1251 Matte Latex Paint Sodium magnesium aluminosilicate Limestone Titanium dioxide Quartz Vinyl acrylic latex Feldspar type minerals Calcined kaolin clay Amorphous silica

PAGE 116

116 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances Home Depot Paint Interior Multi Purpose Speed Wall Tintable White Matte Interior 1251 Matte Latex Paint Sodi um aluminosilicate Titanium dioxide Talc Quartz Vinyl acrylic latex Diatomaceous earth, uncalcined Calcined kaolin clay Home Depot Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer Zinsser BI N Sealer Ethanol Isopropyl alcohol Home Depot Paint Interior Mold/ mildew Multi Purpose Zinsser Perma White M o ld & Mildew Proof Interior Paint Limestone Titanium dioxide Zinc oxide Home Depot Primer Exterior Mold/ mildew Multi Purpose Zinsser Perma White Mold & Mildew Proof Exterior Paint Ethylene glycol Titanium dioxide Zinc oxide

PAGE 117

117 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivisi on Substances Home Depot Primer Exterior Multi Purpose Zinsser Cover Stain Primer Sealer Stain Killer. Oil Base Aromatic 100 Limestone Mineral spirits Quatrz Talc Home Depot Titanium dioxide Ho me Depot Primer Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Zinsser Bulls Eye 123 Primer For all Surfaces Titanium dioxide Butyl Acetate Ethylene Glycol Magnesium Silicate Zinc Oxide Ethyl Acrylate LOWE'S Adhesive Interior Contact Cement DAP 3 oz. Weldwood Gel Formula Aliphatic Petroleum Distillate Methyl ethyl ketone Toluene LOWE'S Adhesive Interior Contact Cement DAP 3 oz. Weldwood Non Flammable Carbamide Tol uene

PAGE 118

118 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Interior Contact Cement DAP 3 oz. Weldwood The Original Aliphatic Petroleum Distillate Methyl et hyl ketone Toluene LOWE'S Adhesive Interior/ Exterior Contact Adhesive Loctite Clear Silicone Water Proof Sealant Acetic acid Ethyltriacetoxysilane Methyltriacetoxysilane Poly(dimethylsiloxane) dime thy Silica, amorphous, fumed, crystalline free LOWE'S Adhesive Interior/ Exterior Contact Adhesive Loctite xtreme Conditions Aminopropy Trimethoxysilane Methanol N 3(Trimethoxysilyl) propylethylenedi amine VinylTrimethoxysilane LOWE'S Adhesive Interior/ Exterior Contact Adhesive Loctite Indoor Adhesiv No available data

PAGE 119

119 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Sub division Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Contact Adhesive Interior/Exterior Loctite Vinyl, Fabric & Plastic Flexible Adhesive Methyl ethyl ketone Toluene LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exterior Amazing GOOP All Purpose Contact Adhesive Sealan t No available data LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exterior Amazing GOOP Plumbing No available data LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exterior DAP BLUESTIK Reusable Adhesive Putty No hazardous substances LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exter ior Devcon 5 Minute Epoxy No available data LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exterior Devcon 5 Minute Gel Epoxy No available data LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Automotive/Garde n/Farm/Marine J B Weld SteelStick No available data LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Hobbi es/Househo ld/Plumbing J B Weld Hardener No available data LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exterior Liquid Nails Clear Small Projects Silicone Adhesive Amorphous silica Dimethyl(polysiloxane) Methyltri(2 butanoneoximyl)silane

PAGE 120

120 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exterior Liquid Nails Home Projects Repair Adhesive VOC Silica Silicon dioxide Silyl terminated polyether Vinyltrimethoxysilane LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exterior Liquid Nails Small Projects Repair Adhesive Clay Formaldehyde Limestone Polyvinyl acetate emulsion Propylene glycol Quart Titanium dioxide Vinyl acetate monome LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exterior Loctite Heavy Duty Epoxy Epichlorohydrin 4,4' isopropylidene diphenol resin

PAGE 121

121 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/ Exterior Loctite Minute 1,5 Diazabicyclo [5.4.0] undec 5 ene Epoxy resin Oxybis(N,N Dimeth yl ethanamine) Poly alkoxylated hydroxyalkyl thiol Triethylenetetramine, methyloxirane polymer LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/ Exterior Loctite Metal & Concrete Gray Epoxy Aluminum Calcium carbonate Epi chlorohydrin 4,4' isopropylidene diphenol resin Quartz (SiO2) LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/ Exterior Loctite Plastic Bonder Ethyl cyanoacrylate LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/ Exterior Loctite Threadlocker Blue 242 Removable Clear Nut and Bolt Fastener Cumene hydroperoxid e Oleic acid 5.5EO Polyglycol dimethacrylate

PAGE 122

122 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Epox y Interior/ Exterior Loctite Threadlocker Blue 242 Removable Clear Nut and Bolt Fastener Propanediol 1,2 Saccharin Silica, amorphous, fumed, crystal free Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/ Exterior Loctite Threadlocker Permanent Clear Nut and Bolt Fastener Bisphenol A fumarate resin Cumene hydroperoxid Polyglycol dimethacrylate Saccharin LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/ Exterior Loctite Repair Put ty Multi Purpose Diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A resins Glycidyl ethers of bisphenol A resins Polymeric phenolic amine Tri (dimethylaminomethyl) phenol Zinc sulfide

PAGE 123

123 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ Caulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Epoxy Interior/Exterior Loctite Bonding Compound Aluminum silicate Barium sulfate Bisphenol A, formaldehyde Epicholorhydrin pol ymer Calcium carbonate Clay Diethylenetriamine Epoxy resin Iron oxide Polymercaptan Silica, amorphous, fumed, crystalline free Silica, quart Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Adhesive Polyurethane Interior/Exterior Glue Dries White 2x Faster Diphenylmethane diisocyanate Toluene Urethane prepolymer LOWE'S Adhesive Polyurethane Interior/Exterior Glue Dries White Pen Diphenylmethane diisocyanate Toluene Urethane prepolymer

PAGE 124

124 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Polyurethane Interior/Ex terior Glue Poly Glue No available data LOWE'S Adhesive Polyurethane Interior/Exterior Glue Stronger Faster No available data LOWE'S Adhesive Spray Adhesive Interior/Exterior Loctite Spray Adhesive General Performance Acetone n Hexane Propane n Butane, containing >= 0,1 % butadiene LOWE'S Adhesive Spray Adhesive Interior/Exterior Loctite Spray Adhesive High Performance Acetone n Hexane Pentane Petroleum g ases LOWE'S Adhesive Spray Adhesive Interior/Exterior High Strength 90 Aerosol Spray Low 25% VOC Chlorobenzotrifluoride Cyclohexane 1,1 Difluoroethane Dimethyl ether Hexmethyldisiloxane Met hyl acetate

PAGE 125

125 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Spray Adhesive Interior/Exterior High Strength 90 Aerosol Spray Low 25% VOC N Butyl acetate Propane Talc LOWE'S Adhesive Spray Adhesive Interior/Exterior Super 77 Multi Purpose Spray Adhesive Acetone Cyclohexane Hexane Hydrotreated light naphtha (petroleum) Propane LOWE'S Adhesive Wood Glue Interior/ Exterior Titebond Mold & Trim Oxydipropyl dibenzoate LOWE'S Adhesive Wood Glue Interior/ Exterior Titebond Original Glue I No hazardous substances LOWE'S Adhesive Wood Glue Exterior Titebond Premium Wood Glue II Alu minum chloride, anhydrous LOWE'S Adhesive Wood Glue Interior/ Exterior Titebond Ultimate Glue III Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether LOWE'S Adhesive Wood Glue Interior/ Exterior Elmer's Carpenter's Wood Glue No hazardous substances LOWE'S Adhesive Wood Glue Interior/ Exterior Elmer's Glue All No hazardous substances

PAGE 126

126 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Wood Glue Interior/Exterior Elmer's Wood Glue Ma x No Hazardous Substances LOWE'S Adhesive Wood Glue Interior/Exterior Glue Wood Glue Alcohol Ester Polymer Aluminum Chloride LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Kitchen & Bathroom 100% Silicone Kitchen & Bath Silica LOWE'S C aulk Interior/ Exterior Window & Door 100% Silicone Window & Door Solvent Refined Hydrotreated Middle Distillate Titanium dioxide Methyltriacetoxysilane Ethyltriacetoxysilane Siloxane and Silicones, Di Me, Hydroxy Terminated LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Interior/Exterior Fire Block FB 136 Versatile Kaolin Sodium Silicate Sodium Hydroxide Wollastonite Quartz Silica LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterio r Interior/Exterior Fire Barrier Sealant CP 25 WB+ Zinc Borate 2335 Polymer Water

PAGE 127

127 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ E xterior Fire Barrier Fire Barrier Sealant CP 25 WB+ Sodium Silicate Ethylhexyldiphenyl Phosphate Iron oxide Polyethylene Glycol Oxide Glass Substances LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Door & Window 3 Ultra Durable Silicone Door & Window Siloxane and Silicones, Di Me, Hydroxy Terminated Silica Methyltris(2 Butylideneaminooxy)Si lane LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Kitchen & Bathroom Ultra Durable Silicone Kitchen & Bat h Siloxane and Silicones, Di Me, Hydroxy Terminated Silica Methyltris(2 Butylideneaminooxy)Si lane LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Windows & Doors DAP Alex Plus Windows / Doors Silica, Crystaline Formaldehyde Ethyl Acrylate Acetaldehyde Acrylonitrilie

PAGE 128

128 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Windows/ Doors DAP Alex Plus Wind ows / Doors Acrylamide LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Windows & Doors DAP Alex Ultra 230 Window & Door Formaldehyde Silica, Crystalline Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Concrete DAP Concrete Watertight Filler and Sealant Silica, Crystalline Titanium dioxide Ethylene Glycol LOWE'S Caulk Interior /Exterior Roof DAP Roof Watertight Asphalt Filler & Sealant Asphalt Magnetite Hydrous Aluminum Silicate LOWE'S C aulk Interior/ Exterior Window / Door DAP 3.0 Advanced All Purpose Sealant All Weather Window/Door Titanium dioxide T rimethoxyvinylsilane LOWE'S Caulk Exterior Roof DAP 3.0 Advanced Blacktop & Roof Sealant Asphalt LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ E xterior Kitchen / Bathroom DAP 3.0 Advanced Sealant Kitchen & Bath Calcium Carbonate

PAGE 129

129 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Kitchen / Bathroom DAP 3.0 Advanced Sealant Kitchen & Bath Limestone Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior G utter & Flash DAP 3.0 Advanced Gutter & Flash Sealant Proprietary Phthalate Ester Titanium dioxide Trimethoxyviny lsilane LOWE'S Caulk Exterior Concrete DAP 3.0 Advanced Self Leveling Concrete Sealant Limestone Proprietary Phthalate Esters Silica, crystalline LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Painting & Trim AIRTITE Siliconized Ac rylic Caulk with Weather Tight Seal technology Acrylic Polymer Ethylene Glycol Limestone Mineral Spirits Titanium Dioxide Water White Mineral Oil

PAGE 130

130 Table A 1. Conti nued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Interior/ Exterior GE groov Exterior/Interior Distillates (Petroleum), Hydrotreated Middle Limestone Stearic Acid Titanium Dioxide Vinyltrimethoxysilane LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Kitchen & Bathroom GE groov Kitchen & Bathroom Distillates (Petroleum), Hydrotreated Middle Limestone Stearic Acid Tit anium Dioxide Vinyltrimethoxysilane LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window & Door GE Silicone I Window & Door Dimethylpolysiloxane Distillates, Petroleum,Hydrotreate d, Methyltriacetoxysilane Titanium Dioxide LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Kitchen & Bathroom GE Silicone II 1 hour Shower Ready Dimethylpolymers w/Methylsilsesquioxan e dimethylpolysiloxane Methyltriacetoxysilane Octamethylcyclotetrasi loxane

PAGE 131

131 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Kitchen & Bathroom GE Silicone II Kitchen and Bath Distillates, Petroleum,Hydrotreate d, Hexame thyldisilazane Methyl Trimethoxysilane LOWE'S Caulk Interior Window, Door, Attic, Basement, Trim Int/Ext GE Silicone II Premium Waterproof Window Door Attic Basement Trim Distillates, Petroleum,Hydrotreate d, Hexamethyldislaza ne Methyl Trimethoxysilane polydimethylsiloxane LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window & Door GE Silicone II Window & Door Distilates, petroleum, hydrotreated Hexamethyldisilazane Methyl Trimethoxysilane polydimethylsiloxane Methoxypolydimethylsi loxane

PAGE 132

132 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Caulk Exterior Concrete Loctite PL Polyuretha ne Self Leveling Concrete Crack Sealant Titanium dioxide Toluene 2,4 Diisocyanate Toluene 2,6 Diisocyanate LOWE'S Caulk Exterior Concrete and Masonry Loctite PL Polyurethane Self Leveling Concrete Crack & Masonry Sealant Calc ium Dioxide Titanium dioxide Toluene 2,4 Diisocyanate Quartz (SiO2) LOWE'S Caulk Interior/Exter ior Painting & Trim Loctite Polyseamseal All Purpose Painting and Trip Calcium Dioxide L imestone Methyl Oleate Propylidynetrimethyl Trimethacrylate Stoddard Solvent Talc

PAGE 133

133 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ E xterior Painting & Trim Loctite Polyseamseal All Purpose Painting and Trip Toluene 2,4 Diisocyanate LOWE'S Caulk Exterior Blacktop & Roof Loctite PL Polyurethane Blacktop & Roof Calcium Dioxide Carbon Black Limestone Propylidynetrimethyl Trimethacrylate Quartz (SiO2) Stoddard Solvent Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Caulk Interior Tube & Tile Loctite Polyseamseal Tub & Tile Ultra Titanium dioxide ethylene glycol LOW E'S Caulk Interio r / Exterior Window, Door & Siding Loctite PL PolyurethaneWin dow, Door & Siding Titanium dioxide Stoddard Solvent Silica, Quartz LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window, Door & Siding OSI QUAD Advanced For mula Sealant Window, Door & Siding Chloro, Fluoro Solven

PAGE 134

134 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window, Door & Siding OSI QUAD Advanced Lig ht Petroleum Distillates Titanium dioxide Toluene LOWE'S Caulk Exterior Anchors Sika Fast Set Anchoring Adhesives Benxoyl Peroxide Methacylate Ester LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Anchors SikaBond Universal No available data LOWE'S Caulk Interior/ Exterior Painting & Trim White Lightning 3006 Quick Dry All Purpose Painting & Trim Amorphous Silica Di(Ethylmethyketoxime ) Methoxymethylsilane Methyl Ethyl Ketoxime Methyl Tris (Methylethylketoxime) Silane Octamethylcyclotetrasi loxane LOWE'S Paint Interior Spray Adhesive Primer KILZ Original Primer Blocks Heavy Interior Stains Acetone Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Isobut ne n butane

PAGE 135

135 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Paint Spray Adhesive Spray Adhesive KILZ Original Primer Blocks Heavy Stains Octanes, all isomers Propane Silicate, mica Rutile Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Paint Interior Spray Adhesive KILZ Original Primer Sealer Stainblocker Acetone Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Isobute n e n butane Octanes, all isomers Propane Silicate, mica Rutile Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Paint Interior Ceiling Paint Olympic Premium Ceiling Paint Latex. Zero VOC Diatomaceous Earth Kaolin Quatrz (SiO2) Silicon Dioxide Titanium Dioxide

PAGE 136

136 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Catego ry Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Paint Interior Ceiling Valspar Ultra Premium Interior Ceiling Paint. No available data LOWE'S Paint Interior Ceiling Valspar Ultra Premium Interior Ceiling Paint. Paints on purple dries white No available d ata LOWE'S Paint Interior Ceiling Valspar Ultra Premium Interior Finish No available data LOWE'S Paint Interior Ceiling Zinsser Ceiling Paint & Primer in One Ethylene Glycol LOWE'S Paint Interior/ Exterior Concrete Paint Seal Krete Epoxy Concrete & Garage Floor Paint Dipropylene Glycol Mono n propyl Ether LOWE'S Paint Exterior Contractor Paint Olympic Premium Exterior Latex Paint 100% acrylic Diatomaceous Earth LOWE'S Paint Interior Contractor Paint Valspar Asthma & Allergy Frie ndly No available data LOWE'S Paint Interior Contractor P a int Valspar Contractor Finishes 2000 Series Latex Paint No available data LOWE'S Paint Exterior Contractor Paint Valspar Duramax No available data

PAGE 137

137 Table A 1. Continue d Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Paint Exterior Contractor Paint Valspar Duramax Elastrometric Exterior Masonry, Stucco, and Brick No available data LOWE'S Paint Exterior Contractor Paint Valspar Masonry, Stucco & Brick 100% Acrylic Latex No available data LOWE'S Paint Exterior Contractor Paint Valspar Severe Weather Latec Paint No available data LOWE'S Paint Exterior Contractor Paint Valspar Ultra Premium 100% Acrylic Latex No available da ta LOWE'S Paint Interior/ Exterior Gloss Sealer Seal Krete Gloss Sealer Premium Hi Gloss Finish No Hazardous Substances LOWE'S Paint Interior/ Exterior Floor Primer Seal Krete Lock Epoxy Bonding Floor Primer No Hazardous Substances LOWE'S Pain t Interior/ Exterior Floor Sealer Seal Krete Showroom Premium Hi Gloss Sealer No Hazardous Substances LOWE'S Paint Interior Paint Olympic Fast Hide Interior Latex Diatomaceous Earth Kaolin Limestone

PAGE 138

138 Tabl e A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Paint Interior Walls Olympic Fast Hide Interior Latex Quartz (SiO2) Titanium Dioxide LOWE'S Paint Interior/ Exterior Walls Olympic Fast Hide Ultra Interior/Exterior Alkyd 1,2,4 Trimethylbenene 2 butanone oxime Limestone Naphtha ( Petroleum) Heavy Alkylate Naphtha ( Petroleum) Hydrotreated Heavy Nepheline Syenite Quatrz (SiO2) Titanium Dioxide Stoddarty Solvent LOWE'S Paint Interior Walls Olympic Premium Interior Latex Cristobalite Kieselguhr, Soda Ash Flux Calcinaded Nepheline Syenite Titanium Di oxide LOWE'S Paint Interior Kitchen & Bathroom Olympic Premium kicthen & Bath Titanium Dioxide Pyrithione Zinc

PAGE 139

139 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Paint Exterior Mold/ Mildew Multi Purpose Zinsser Perma White Mold & Mildew Proof Exterior Paint Octhilinone LOWE'S Paint Interior Walls Valspar Signature Colors Interior No available data LOWE'S Paint Interior/Exter ior Waterproofing Paint Zins ser Watertite Mold & Mildew Proof Waterproofing Pint for Concrete and Masonry Limestone Pyrithione Zinc Quatrz (SiO2) Silicon Dioxide LOWE'S Primer Interior Paint primer KILZ Odorless Heavy Stainblocking Without Lin guering Odor Oil Base Acrylic polymer Coalescing aid Hydrotreated heavy petroleum naphtha Limestone Nepheline Syenite Resin Titanium dioxide

PAGE 140

140 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Primer Interior Paint primer KILZ Original Primer Blocks Heavy Interior Stains Oil Base Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light; Ke rosine unspecified Nepheline Syenite Nonanes Octanes, all isomers Silicate, mica Rutile Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Primer Interior/Exter ior Mul ti Purpose paint primer KILZ 2 Latex Multi Purpose Stain Blocker Water Base Primer Ethylene glycol Limestone Nepheline Syenite Styrene resin Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Primer Interior/Exter ior Paint primer KILZ Premium Blocks Heavy Stains for Fewer Top Coats Primer Ethylene glycol Nepheline Syenite

PAGE 141

141 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer KILZ Premium Blocks Heavy Stains for Fewer Top Coats Primer Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel Titanium dioxide LOWE'S Primer Interior Paint primer Olympic Interior Latex Primer Low Odor Kaolin Titanium Dio xide LOWE'S Primer Interior Paint primer Olympic Interior Latex Solving Primer Aluminum Hydroxide Kaolin Limestone Nepheline Syenite Palygorskite Quartz (SiO2) Silicon Dioxide Titanium Dioxide LOWE'S Primer Interior Paint primer Olympic Fast Hide Interior Latex PVA Primer kaolin Titanium Dioxide LOWE'S Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer Valspar Bonding Primer. Enamel Undercoater No available data LOWE'S Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer Valspar High Hiding Primer. Latex No available data LOWE'S Primer Interior/ Exterior House/ trim Valspar House & Trim Primer. Oil No available data LOWE'S Primer Interior/ Exterior House/ trim r Valsp ar House & Trim Primer. Latex No available data

PAGE 142

142 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances LOWE'S Primer Interior Multi Purpose Paint primer Valspar Multi Purpose Primer. Late x No available data LOWE'S Primer Interior Interior Valspar PVA Primer No available data LOWE'S Primer Interior/Exter ior Paint primer Valspar Tintable Color Primer. Latex No available data LOWE'S Primer Interior Paint primer Valspar Sprywall Pr imer. Latex No available data LOWE'S Primer Interior/Spor Exterior Paint primer Zinsser B.I.N Primer Shellac Base Quatrz (SiO2) LOWE'S Primer Interior/Exter ior Paint primer Zinsser Bulls Eye 1.2.3 Plus Primer for all Surfaces Water Base Primer Titanium Dioxide LOWE'S Primer Interior/Exter ior Paint primer Zinsser Bulls Eye Bulls Eye 1.2.3 Primer for all Surfaces Zinc Oxide LOWE'S Primer Interior Paint primer Zinsser Bulls Eye Bulls Eye Water Base Primer & Sealer No available data LOWE'S Primer Interior/Exter ior Paint primer Zinsser Cover Stain Cover Stain Primer Oil Base Kaolin WAL MART Adhesives Interior Contact Adhesive Loctite Indoor Adhesive No hazardous Substances

PAGE 143

143 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Adhesives Contact Cement Wood DAP Weldwood Contact Cement Acetone Aliphatic Petroleum Distillate N Hexane Toluene WAL MART Adhesiv es Epoxy Multi Purpose Loctite Instant Mix 1 minute Hardener 1,5 Diazabicyclo [5.4.0] undec 5 ene Oxybis(N,N Dimethyl ethanamine) Poly alkoxylated hydroxyalkyl thiol Triethylenetetramine, methyloxirane polymer WAL MART Adhesives Epoxy Multi Purpose Loctite Instant Mix 1 minute Resin Epoxy Resin WAL MART Adhesives Epoxy Multi Purpose Loctite Plastics Methyl methacrylate Polyethylene based rubber Hydroxyalkyl methacrylate Methacrylic acid Benzenecarboperoxoi c acid, 1,1 dimethylethyl ester Talc

PAGE 144

144 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Adhesives Epoxy Multi Purpose Loctite Weld Hardener Calcium carbonate Polymercaptan Barium sulfate Aluminum silicate Diethylenetriamine Titanium dioxide WAL MART Adhesive s Epoxy Multi Purpose Loctite Weld Resin Epoxy resin Barium sulfate Calcium carbonate Iron oxide Silica, amorphous, fumed, crystalline free Bisphenol A, formaldehye, Epicholorhydrin pol ymer Clay Silica, quartz WAL MART Adhesive Spray Adhesive Aerosol Purpose 45 Propane 2 methylpentane Acetone Cyclohexane

PAGE 145

145 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Adhesive Spray Adhesive Aerosol Purpose 45 2,3 dimethylbutane 3 methylpentane 2,2 dimethylbutane Hexane WAL MART Adhesive Spray Adhesive A erosol Super 77 M ulti Purpose Adhesive Acetone Cyclohexane Hexane Hydrotreated light naphtha (petroleum) Propane WAL MART Adhesives Super Glue Multi Purpose Instant Krazy Color Change Formula Ethyl cyanoacr ylate Amorphous silica fume WAL MART Adhesives Super Glue Multi Purpose Loctite Ethyl 2 cyanoacrylate Treated fumed silica WAL MART Adhesives Super Glue Multi Purpose Instant Krazy Gel Pen No hazardous Substanc es WAL MART Adhesives Super Glue M ulti Purpose Loctite Liquid Ethyl 2 cyanoacrylate WAL MART Adhesives Super Glue Multi Purpose Loctite Longneck Ethyl 2 cyanoacrylate WAL MART Adhesives Super Glue Multi Purpose Loctite Ultra Gel Ethyl 2 cyanoacrylate

PAGE 146

146 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Adhesives Wood Glue Multi Purpose Gorilla Dries White 2x Faster Diphenylmethane diisocyanate WAL MART Adh esives Wood Glue Interior/Exterior Elmer s Glue All Max Chlorobenzene Methylene Bisphenyl Isocyanate Polymethylene Polyphenyl Isocyanate WAL MART Adhesives Wood Glue Interior/Exterior Elmer s Multi Purpose Spray Adhesive Aceto ne Propane Isobute ne 2 Methylpentane Pentane Dimethyl Ether WAL MART Adhesives Wood Glue Interior/Exterior Elmer s Wood Glue Max No hazardous Substances WAL MART Caulk Interior Kitchen/Bath DAP Kwik n Seal Kitchen and Bath Water Proof Clear Limestone Branched and Linear Phthalates Petroleum Distillates titanium Dioxide Texacol Ethylene Glycol Silica, Crystalline Styrene

PAGE 147

147 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Caulk Interior Kitchen/ Bath DAP Kwik n Seal Kitchen and Bath Water Proof Clear Formaldehyde WAL MART Caul k Interior/ Exterior W indow/ D oor DAP Alex Plus Alex Plus Window/Door Calicium Carbonate Ester Branched Linear Titanium Dioxide Carbon Black Silica, Crystalline Ethylene Glycol Ammo nia FORMALDEHYDE Ethyl Acrylate Acetaldehyde Acrylonitrile WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exterior Kitchen/ Bath GE Kitchen & Bath Hexamethyldisilazane Methyl Trimethoxysilane Distilla tes, Petroleum Hydrotreated, WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exterior Window/ Door GE Silicone II Premium Waterproof Wind w Door Attic Basement Trim Distillates, Petroleum,Hydrotreate d,

PAGE 148

148 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/ paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exterior Masonry Great Stuff Gap Filler No available data WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exterior Masonry Great Stuff Gaps and Crack No available data WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exteri or Masonry Great Stuff Fire Block No available data WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Color Place Great All Purpose Silicone Sealant No available data WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Color Place White Latex Caulk No availa ble data WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Liquid Nails Clear Seal Ethylbenzene Toluene Xylene Light aliphatic solvent naphtha (petroleum) Thermoplastic rubber Thermoplastic rubb er Polyalicyclic resin Mineral oil Polybutene Thermoplastic resin

PAGE 149

149 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Caulk Concrete Concrete Liquid nails Concrete repair Acrylic resin Ethylene glycol Limestone Titanium dioxide Quartz Dipropylene glycol dibenzoate Mineral oil WAL MART Caulk Interior Mu lti purpose Liquid nails Heavy duty Cyclohexane Limestone Clay Titanium dioxide Heptane Crystalline silica, cristobalite Quartz Styrene butadiene polymer Heptane, branched, cyclic and linear Light aliphatic solvent naphtha (petroleum) Resin Hydrotreated light distillate

PAGE 150

150 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivi sion Substances WAL MART Caulk Interior Multi purpose Liquid nails Heavy duty Styrene butadiene polymer WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Liquid Nails Home Projects Silicon dioxide Silyl terminated polyether Vi nyltrimethoxysilane Silica Silyl terminated polyether WAL MART Caulk Interior Multi Purpose Liquid N ails Internal Projects Acrylic resin Ethylene glycol Limestone Clay Titanium dioxide Crystalline silica, cristobalite Quartz Dipropylene glycol dibenzoate WAL MART Caulk Interior Multi Purpose Liquid Nails Ultra Quick Grip Acrylic copolymer Limestone Quartz Acrylic latex Formaldehyde Propylene glycol

PAGE 151

151 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Caulk Exterior Roof Liquid Nails Roof Repair Amid oamine Limestone Medium aliphatic solvent naphtha Asphalt Cellulose WAL MART Caulk Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Liquid Nails Small Projects Polyvinyl acetate emulsion Vinyl acetate mo nomer Limestone Kaolin Titanium dioxide Quartz Formaldehyde WAL MART Caulk Exterior Multi Purpose Loctite Construction Adhesive Quartz ( sio2 ) WAL MART Paint Interior Ceiling Glidden Regul ar Ceiling Paint Titanium dioxide Talc Quartz Vinyl acrylic latex Diatomaceous earth, uncalcined Calcined kaolin clay WAL MART Paint Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Better Homes Interior/Exter ior Premium Paint No available data

PAGE 152

152 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Paint Interior Multi Purpose Better Homes Interior Paint No available data WAL MART Paint Exterior Multi Purpose ColorPlace Exterior Quartz Cristobalite Titanium dioxide Zinc oxide WAL MART Paint Interior Multi Purpose ColorPlace Interior Crystalline silica Ethylene glycol Clay W AL MART Primer Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose Glidden Exterior Brilliance Collection 2 n 1 Paint + Primer Zinc oxide Titanium dioxide Crystalline silica, cristobalite Feldspar type minerals Diatomaceous e arth, u ncalcined Calcined kaolin clay Silica, diatomaceous earth WAL MART Primer Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose KILZ Clean Start Primer Sealer. Water Base Styrene resin Rutile Titanium dioxide

PAGE 153

153 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Primer Interior/ Exterior Paint primer KILZ Clean Start Primer Sealer. Water Base Nepheline syenite Silicate, mica WAL MA RT Primer Interior Aerosol KILZ Original Stainblocking Primer. Oil Base Titanium dioxide Aliphatic hydrocarbon Nonanes Rutile Silicate, mica Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Octanes, all isomers Acetone Propane Isobute ne N butane WAL MART Primer Interior/ Exterior Multi Purpose KILZ2 Latex Latex Primer. Water Base Ethylene glycol Titanium dioxide Limestone Nepheline syenite Styrene resin WAL MART Primer Interior Multi Purpose KILZ General Purpose Primer Sealer. Water Base Amorphous silica Titanium dioxide Rutile Ethylene glycol Silicate mica

PAGE 154

154 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Primer Interior Paint primer KILZ General Purpose Primer Sealer. Water Base Limestone Vinyl acrylic polyme r WAL MART Primer Exterior Paint primer KILZ General Purpose Primer Sealer. Water Base Styrene resin Vinyl acrylic polymer Titanium dioxide Nepheline syenite Ethylene glycol WAL MART Primer Interior/ Ex terior Paint primer KILZ Original Paint. Oil based Nepheline syenite Silicate, mica Rutile Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light; Kerosine unspecified Aliphatic hydrocarbon Titanium dioxi de Nonanes Talc, Magnesium silicate hydrate Octanes, all isomers WAL MART Primer Interior Ceiling KILZ Ceiling Paint Stain Blocking Titanium dioxide Styrene/acrylic copolymer Nepheline syenit e

PAGE 155

155 Table A 1. Continued Store Type (adhesive/ c aulk/paint) Use Category Brand Subdivision Substances WAL MART Primer Interior Ceiling KILZ Ceiling Paint Stain Blocking Silica, crystalline quartz Silica, crystalline cr istobalite Flux Calcined Diatomaceous Earth (DE) WAL MART Primer Interior/ Exterior Multi Pu rpose paint primer Zinsser Bulls Eye 123 Primer For all Surfaces Titanium dioxide Butyl Acetate Ethylene Glycol Magnesium Silicate Zinc Oxide Ethyl Acrylate

PAGE 156

156 LIST OF REFERENCES AJPH. "Policy Statement Adopted by the Governing Council of the Americal Public Health Association." The American Journal of Public Health 1984: 305. Baram, Michael S. LLB. "The Right to Know and the Duty to Disclose Hazardous Information." Public Health and the Law 1984: 385. CDC. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. June 8, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/about.html (accessed June 29, 2011). "The Centers f or Disease Control and Prevention." The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. June 08, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/about.html (accessed June 29, 2011). CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention. June 29, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov /niosh/rtecs/default.html (accessed June 29, 2011). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention. February 16, 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/rtecs/RTECSfeatures.html (accessed June 29, 2011 CII. "Construction Industry Institure." RS7 1 Costs and Ben efits of Materials Management Systems 2010. https://www.construction institute.org/scriptcontent/more/7_1_more.cfm (accessed November 9, 2010). CII. "Construction Industry Institute." SP32 2 Zero Injury Economics. 1993. https://www.construction institu te.org/scriptcontent/more/sp32_2_more.cfm (accessed October 7, 2010). Dong, Xiuwen, Yurong Men, and Alisa Fujimoto. "OSHA's Enforcement of Construction Safety and Health Regulations." In The Construction Handbook, Fouth Edition by Xiuwen Dong, Yurong Men and Alisa Fujimoto, 47. Silver Spring: EEI Communications, 2008. Dong, Xiuwen, Yurong Men, and Alissa Fujimoto "Limitations and Observations of the Data." In The Construction Chart Book, Fourth Edition by Xiuwen Dong, Yurong Men and Alissa Fujimoto, xvi. Silver Spring: EEI Communications, 2007. Dong, Xiuwen, Yurong Men, and Allisa Fujimoto "Health Risk Factors and Chronic Illnesses Among Construction Workers." In The Construction Handbook, Fourth Edition by Xiuwen Dong, Yurong Men and Allisa Fujimoto, 4 6. Silver Spring: EEI Communication, 2008. EHS. Environmental, Health and Safety Online 2011. http://www.ehso.com/cssmsds/msdsoverview.htm (accessed June 30, 2011). EPA. United States Envi r o nmental Protection Agency. June 28, 2011. http://www.epa.gov/ab outepa/history/index.html (accessed June 29, 2011).

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157 United States Environmental Protection Agency. June 08, 2011. http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/history/org/origins/reorg.html (accessed June 28, 2011). United States Environmental Protection Agency. June 08, 2011. http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/history/org/origins/reorg.html (accessed June 29, 2011). Hardesty, Charles, and Michael L. Marshall. "100 Most Cited Construction Standards and Their Relative Ranking to 1991." In The 100 most Frequently Cited OSHA Co nstruction Standards in 1991: A Guide for the Abatement of the Top 25 Associated Physical Hazards by Charles Hardesty and Michael L. Marshall, 7. Washington: The U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993. Hardesty, Charles, and Michael L. Marshall. "Distribut ion of the 100 Most Frequently Cited Standards by Subpart." In The 100 Most Frequently Cited OSHA Construction Standards in 1991: A Guide for the Abatement of the Top 25 Associated Physical Hazards by Charles Hardesty and Michael L. Marshall, 15. Washingt on: The U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993. IARC. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2011. http://www.iarc.fr/en/about/index.php (accessed June 30, 2011). NPS. "National P ark Service." Conserve O Gram. Hazardous Materials Health and Safety Update. 1993. http://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/conserveogram/02 01.pdf (accessed June 30, 2011). NSC. The Facts About The Hazard Communication Standard. A Guide Book. Chicago: The N ational Safety Council, 1985. NTP. National Toxicology Program. Department of Health and Human Services. February 17, 2005. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/INDEX9A33.HTM?objectid=7201637B BDB7 CEBA F57E39896A08F1BB (accessed June 29, 2011). Perkins Jimmy L MS, and Vernon E. Rose DrPHD. "Occupational Health Priorities for Health Standards: The Current NIOSH Approach." The American Journal of Public Health 1979: 444. OSHA. "At A GLANCE OSA." The United States Department of Labor. Occupational Safety and Health Ad ministration. 2011. http://www.osha.gov/Publications/3439at a glance.pdf (accessed June 29, 2011).

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158 The United States Department of Labor. 2011. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDAR DS&p_id=10593 (accessed June 29, 2011). United States Department of Labor. 2011. http://www.osha.gov/about.html (accessed June 28, 2011). United States Department of Labor. 2011. http://www.ehso.com/msdssites.php?URL=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.osha.gov%2F pls%2Foshaweb%2Fowadisp.show_document%3Fp_tab le%3DSTANDARDS%2 6p_id%3D10099 (accessed June 30, 2011). OSHA. "United Stated Department of Labor." Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines. 2010. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/index.html (accessed October 12, 2010). OSHA. "United States Depa rtment of Labor." Occupational Health & Safety Administration of Hexane. 2010. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/n hexane/recognition.html (accessed October 9, 2010). OSHA. "United States Department of Health." RS7 1 Costs and Benefits of Materia ls Management Systems. 2010. https://www.construction institute.org/scriptcontent/more/7_1_more.cfm (accessed October 13, 2010). US DOL. United States Departmen of Labor. 2011. http://www.osha.gov/dsg/topics/safetyhealth/standards.html (accessed June 29, 2 011). "United States Department of Labor. Hazard Communication Standard." Occupational Safety Hazard and Health Administration 2011. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRE TATIONS&p_id=19849 (accessed July 17, 2011). Wagn er, G. "International Agency for Research on Cancer." Cancer Registration: Principles and Methods. 1991. http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs online/epi/sp95/sp95 chap2.pdf (accessed June 30, 2011).

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159 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Born and raised in the south we st of Colombia, and having family residing in Miami, Florida, the researcher was able to learn English as a second language. In 2004 he graduated from high school and months later moved to Gainesville, Florida to get his mmunity College, now called Santa Fe College. After two years of attending this college, the researcher was accepted into the undergraduate college of Design, Construction and Planning at the University of Florida. Four years later, in 2010 he graduate d w school at UF. With the submittal of th is thesis, the author is completing a master degree at t he University of Florida M.E. Rinker Sr., School of Building Construction