Beyond Capitals and Kings

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Title:
Beyond Capitals and Kings A Comparison of Animal Resource Use among Ten Late Classic Maya Sites
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1 online resource (220 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Sharpe,Ashley E
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Anthropology
Committee Chair:
Emery, Kitty F
Committee Members:
Milbrath, Susan
Defrance, Susan D

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
aguateca -- animal -- animals -- archaeology -- artifact -- bone -- bones -- capital -- chimino -- classic -- craft -- crafting -- culture -- de -- deer -- del -- diversity -- economic -- economy -- elite -- environment -- fauna -- faunal -- fidelity -- guatemala -- habitat -- hierarchy -- inter -- interaction -- intersite -- intra -- intrasite -- kinel -- lacandon -- late -- maya -- mayan -- mesoamerica -- mexico -- nacimiento -- negras -- non -- organization -- period -- peten -- petexbatun -- piedras -- political -- polity -- power -- punta -- rank -- resource -- resources -- ritual -- shell -- shells -- sierra -- society -- socioeconomic -- specialization -- species -- status -- subordinate -- subsistance -- tecolote -- trade -- usumacinta -- yaxchilan -- zooarchaeological -- zooarchaeology
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Anthropology thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
Maya archaeology has become increasingly focused on exploring the details underlying socioeconomic relationships among ancient communities. This study compares the faunal remains from ten Late Classic period (c. A.D. 550-850) Maya sites of varying size and social complexity in order to explore patterns regarding ancient political and economic interactions at the little-understood subordinate communities in the Peten region of northern Guatemala. The study investigates a number of topics within the broad subject of socioeconomics, including subsistence practices and trade, power and status relations on an inter- and intra-site basis, political-economics of ritual practices, and crafting activities. Faunal comparisons focusing on these topics are used to determine whether the subordinate communities were microcosms of the larger political centers or capitals, whether they were economically and politically integrated with the larger centers, or whether they functioned independently in terms of how they used animal resources. Faunal remains from this study come from three capitals and seven subordinate communities representing three polities: Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan in the Usumacinta region, and Aguateca in the Petexbatun area. Similarity among animal-based activities at the sites is assessed using comparisons of species abundance, diversity and equitability, habitat fidelity (to determine resource source), deer skeletal distribution, and remains from bone and shell crafting activities. These comparisons provide evidence that correlations in animal resource use once existed among intra-site social ranks, among sites of varying size, and between regions during the Late Classic period.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ashley E Sharpe.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local:
Adviser: Emery, Kitty F.

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UFRGP
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Applicable rights reserved.
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lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID:
UFE0043392:00001


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1 BEYOND CAPITALS AND KINGS: A COMPARISON OF ANIMAL RESOURCE USE AMONG TEN LATE CLASSIC MAYA SITES By ASHLEY E. SHARPE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQU IREMENTS FOR THE DE GREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Ashley E. Sharpe

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3 To my parents Who taught me the value of curiosity

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to a number of individuals for helping me finish this thesis, f irst and foremost among them my advisor, Dr. Kitty Emery. With her expertise and, sometimes more importantly, patience, I was able to accomplish much more with this study than I had originally anticipated. I am also grateful for her help in providing me wi th the original datasets of the faunal material she had analyzed from Piedras Negras and Aguateca, and for acquainting me with a number archaeologists and other individuals both directly and indirectly associated with the excavations covered in this study, all of whom were able to provide invaluable assistance in my quest to reconstruct past patterns of animal resource use. I must also thank my supervisory committee member, Dr. Susan deFrance, for helping me with some of the initial identifications for the Sierra del Lacandon material when I first began the analysis, and for urging me to look at the broader implications of some of my data. I am also grateful to my committee member, Dr. Susan Milbrath, whose passion for ancient Maya culture and mythology prom pted me to explore explanations I would not otherwise have considered. Among those who were able to provide me with first hand accounts of the excavations at the sites in this study, and who were always more than willing to answer any questions I had (eve n down to the provenience of a single bone), I am grateful to Dr. Charles Golden (Brandeis University) and Dr. Andrew Scherer (Brown University), the directors of the Sierra del Lacandon Regional Archaeological Project, and where the idea for this project first originated. I must thank Dr. Golden and Dr. Scherer not only for contributing their faunal assemblages to this study, but for their continued interest in the investigation and its future research applications I am grateful as well to Dr. Bruce Bacha nd (Brigham Young University) and Dr. Markus Eberl (Vanderbilt University) for

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5 their help providing provenience and excavation data from the sites of Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento, respectively. I must also thank Dr. Daniel a Triadan and Dr. Takeshi Inoma ta (University of Arizona) for providing me the opportunity to visit the sites of the past Aguateca and Punta de Chimino excavations, so that I could better envision not only where faunal remains were recovered, but how social interactions may have taken p lace between the households and administrative centers in the communities. I also owe a favor to Coral Montero (La Trobe University), who went out of her way to hunt down and scan an original copy of Heriberto Soto zooarch aeological remains in Mexico City. Finally, I thank all of those at the University of Florida, particularly the researchers at the Florida Museum of Natural History, who were able to help me finish this thesis in a timely manner. Zooarchaeology Collection Manager Irvy Quitmyer provided his invaluable expertise when I needed to identify some of the more ambiguous fish elements. Mammalogy Collection Manager Candace McCaffery was also very helpful when I needed to track down comparative elemen ts of certain ra re taxa. Furthermore none of this research would be possible without funding from a University of Florida Graduate Alumni Fellowship. Most of all, I am grateful to the support and genuine interest shown by all of those who helped me complete this project.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 6 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 Current Understanding of Maya Political Organization ................................ ........... 16 .......................... 18 The Study Areas: The Usumacinta and the Petexbatun ................................ ......... 19 Overview of Research Methods ................................ ................................ .............. 21 2 OV ERVIEW OF MAYA POLITICAL THEORY AND ECONOMICS ......................... 26 Territorial Organization and Inter site Hierarchies ................................ .................. 26 Zooarchaeology and the P olitical Economy of the Maya ................................ ........ 30 Subsistence and Trade ................................ ................................ .................... 30 Status and Power Relations ................................ ................................ ............. 34 Craft Specialization Using Animal Products ................................ ..................... 35 Animals in Ritual Performance ................................ ................................ ......... 36 Summary of Maya Political Structure and Economics ................................ ............ 37 3 BACKGROUND TO THE REGIONAL SETTINGS ................................ .................. 38 The Usumacinta Re ..................... 38 The Petexbatun ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 44 Summary of the Regional Settings ................................ ................................ ......... 48 4 MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................ ................................ ................ 54 Excavation Methods and Artifact Acquisition ................................ .......................... 54 Laboratory Analy sis and Identification ................................ ................................ .... 58 Principal Quantification Methods ................................ ................................ ............ 59 Other Datasets ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 61 Comparative Methods ................................ ................................ ............................. 61 Species Abundance ................................ ................................ ......................... 62

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7 Diversity and Equitability (Evenness) ................................ ............................... 63 Habitat Fidelity ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 65 Body Portion Distribution ................................ ................................ .................. 66 Crafting ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 67 Potential Sources of Bias ................................ ................................ ........................ 67 Taphonomic Bias ................................ ................................ .............................. 68 Recovery Bias ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 69 Analytical Bias ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 70 5 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 72 Overall Comparisons of Identified Taxa and Species Abundance .......................... 72 The Usumacinta Region ................................ ................................ ................... 73 The Yaxchilan polity ................................ ................................ ................... 73 The Piedras Ne gras polity ................................ ................................ .......... 78 Summary of the Usumacinta site comparisons ................................ .......... 79 The Petexbatun Region ................................ ................................ .................... 80 Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento ................................ ............................. 81 Subordinate site assemblage comparisons with Aguateca ........................ 83 Species Abunda nce among the Three Polities ................................ ................. 84 Comparisons of Taxa by Social Rank ................................ ................................ ..... 85 The Usumacinta Region ................................ ................................ ................... 86 The Petexbatun Region ................................ ................................ .................... 89 Comparisons between Polities ................................ ................................ ......... 92 Comparison of Ritual Practices ................................ ................................ ............... 93 Ritual Practices Observed in the Usumacinta ................................ .................. 93 Ritual Practices Observed in the Petexbatun ................................ ................... 94 Summary of Ritually Deposited Taxa ................................ ............................... 95 Taxonomic Diversity ................................ ................................ ................................ 96 Diversity Comparisons between Capital and S ubordinate Sites ....................... 96 Diversity and Social Rank ................................ ................................ ................. 98 Habitat Fidelity ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 99 Distribution of White Tailed Deer Elements ................................ .......................... 102 Artifact Production ................................ ................................ ................................ 103 Summary of Results ................................ ................................ .............................. 105 6 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 157 Regional Comparisons ................................ ................................ .......................... 158 Capital and Subordinate Center Comparisons ................................ ...................... 160 Species Abundance and Diversity ................................ ................................ .. 160 Evidence for Ritual Animal Use ................................ ................................ ...... 169 Habitat Fidelity: Capital and Subordinate Centers ................................ .......... 172 Artifact Production at the Capital and Subordinate Centers ........................... 174 Summary of Capital and Subordinate Center Comparisons ........................... 175 Social Status Rank Comparisons ................................ ................................ ......... 176 Comparisons of Species Abundance and Diversit y by Status Rank ............... 176

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8 Habitat Fidelity: Comparisons by Status Rank ................................ ............... 181 Selective Distribution of White Tailed Deer Skeletal Eleme nts ....................... 182 Artifact Production among Status Ranks ................................ ........................ 184 Summary of Social Status Rank Comparisons ................................ ............... 185 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 185 7 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 187 Zooarchaeology and Late Classic Political Economics ................................ ......... 187 Proposals for Future Research ................................ ................................ ............. 189 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 191 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 192 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 220

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1 Timeline of the lowland Maya c hronology. ................................ .......................... 24 5 1 Relative abundance of faunal remains recovered from the Usumacinta capitals of Yaxchilan and Piedras Negras ................................ ........................ 107 5 2 Relative abundance of faunal remains recovered from the five Usumacinta subordinate sites ................................ ................................ .............................. 114 5 3 Relative abundance of faunal remains recovered from the Petexbatun capital, Aguateca ................................ ................................ .............................. 121 5 4 Relative abundance of faunal remains recovered from the two Petexbatun subordinate sites, Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento ................................ ...... 126 5 5 Comparison of species abundance of select taxa across social ranks at Piedras Negras ................................ ................................ ................................ 130 5 6 Species abundance of select taxa at Yaxchilan, Rank 1 ................................ .. 131 5 7 Species abundance of select taxa at Tecolote, Rank 1 ................................ .... 131 5 8 Comparison of species abundance of select taxa at El Kinel, Ranks 1 and 2 .. 132 5 9 Comparison of species abundance of select taxa across social ranks at Aguateca ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 133 5 10 Species abundance of select taxa at Punta de Chimino, Rank 1 ..................... 134 5 11 Species abundance of select taxa at Nacimiento (elite, rank undefined) .......... 134 5 12 NISP of select taxa in ritual deposits from P iedras Negras .............................. 135 5 13 NISP and MNI of select taxa in ritual deposits from Tecolote ........................... 135 5 14 NISP and MNI of select taxa in ritual deposits from El Kinel ............................ 136 5 15 NISP of select taxa in ritual deposits from Aguateca ................................ ........ 136 5 16 NISP and MNI of select taxa in ritu al deposits from Punta de Chimino ............ 137 5 17 NISP and MNI of select taxa in ritual deposits from Nacimiento ....................... 137 5 18 Shannon Weaver diversity and equitability values for all sites ......................... 138 5 19 Shannon site social rank ........................ 138

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10 5 20 D istribution of white tailed deer elements ................................ ......................... 139 5 21 Artifact production totals for select sites ................................ ........................... 139 5 22 Artifact production totals by social rank at Piedras Negras ............................... 140 5 23 Artifact production totals by social rank at Aguateca ................................ ........ 140

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Map of Guatemala and the three polity capitals included in the study (Piedras Negras, Yaxchilan, and Aguateca) ................................ ................................ .... 25 3 1 Map of the Usumacinta regi on and the Sier ...... 49 3 2 Map of Tecolote. ................................ ................................ ................................ 50 3 3 Map of El Kinel. ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 51 3 4 Map of the Petexbatun region. ................................ ................................ ............ 52 3 5 Map of Punta de Chimino. ................................ ................................ .................. 53 5 1 Shannon Weaver diversity an d equitability values of the ten study sites, in order of rank. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 141 5 2 Shannon Weaver diversity values for social ranks among the five largest assemblages. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 142 5 3 Habitat fidelity values for the seven largest assemblages. ............................... 143 5 4 Habitat fidelity values for the Usumacinta capitals by social rank.. ................... 145 5 5 Habitat fidelity values for the Petexbatun capital of Aguateca by social rank. .. 147 5 6 White tailed deer skeletal distribution according to clas s rank and site.. .......... 150 5 7 Relative proportions of artifact production stages compared by site hierarchal level.. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 154 5 8 Relative proportions of artifact production stages at t he capital sites by social rank ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 155

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the R equiremen ts for the Degree of Master of Arts BEYOND CAPITALS AND KINGS: A COMPARISON OF ANIMAL RESOURCE USE AMONG TEN LATE CLASSIC MAYA SITES By Ashley E. Sharpe August 2011 Chair: Kitty F. Emery Major: Anthropology Maya archaeology has become increasingly foc used on exploring the details underlying socioeconomic relationships among ancient communities. This study compares the faunal remains from ten Late Classic period ( c. A.D. 550 850) Maya sites of varying size and social complexity in order to explore patte rns regarding ancient political and economic interactions at the little understood subordinate communities in the P e t n region of northern Guatemala. The study investigates a number of topics within the broad subject of socioeconomics, including subsistenc e practices and trade, power and status relations on an i nter and intra site basis, political economics of ritual practices, and crafting activities. Faunal comparisons focusing on these topics are used to determine whether the subordinate communities wer e microcosms of t he larger political centers or capitals whether they were economically and politically integrated with the larger centers, or whether they functioned independently in terms of how they used animal resources. Faunal remains from this study come from three capitals and seven subordinate communities representing three polities: Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan in the

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13 Usumacinta region, and Aguateca in the Petexbatun area. Similarity among animal based activities at the sites is assessed using com parisons of species abundance, diversity and equitability, habitat fidelity (to determine resource source), deer skeletal distribution, and remains from bone and shell crafting activities. These comparisons provide evidence that correlations in animal reso urce use once existed among intra site social ranks, among sites of varying size, and between regions during the Late Classic period.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Socioeconomic relationships among ancient Maya communities have become a focal point for archaeol ogical investigations over the last several decades. Our understanding of Maya political organization has grown rapidly as research methods improve and expand on previous studies, but comparisons conducted thus far regarding political capitals and their su bordinate communities have largely focused on comparing ceramic typologies, architectural styles, and, if available, hieroglyphic inscriptions of inter site relations (Ashmore 1991; Ball 1993; Chase and Chase 1996a; Freidel 1979; Marcus 1976, 1983) In this study I propose to go a step further and use the zooarchaeological analysis of faunal material uncovered at Late Classic ( c. A.D. 550 850) sites of varying size and organizational compl exity in the Usumacinta and Petexbatun regions of Guatemala to explore whether the smaller communities were microcosms of t he larger political centers, whether they were economically and politically integrated with the larger centers, or whether they functioned independently in t erms of how they used animal resources. Ten sites, including three capitals and seven subordinate centers, are compared in this study. I id entify animal remains from five subordinate sites of varying size and political affiliation excavated by the Sierra del Archaeological Project in the Usumacinta region, and compare these with remains recovered from the primary or polity capital sites with which all five subordinate sites were affiliated: Piedras Negras, previously identified by Dr. Kitty Emery (2007, 2008a) and Y axchilan, identified by Heriberto Soto Toral (Soto Toral 1998) I also identify animal remains from two subordinate sites in the Petexbatun region, Naci miento and Punta de Chimino,

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15 comparing them with the remains recovered from one of th e Petexbatun twin capitals, Aguateca, the latter of which have been previously analyzed by Emery (1998; 2004) These datasets provi de me with two comparable assemblages from two geographic regions, three polity capitals, and the subordinate sites within their territories. This study evaluates how the various animal related activities were integrated in both primary and subordinate com munities. I explore whether the animal based ritual and non ritual activities carried out at smaller communities were similar to activities pe rformed at the larger centers, or if the smaller communities acted independently and used animal resources in ways that differed significantly from their primary centers. I also explore whether the smaller communities were strongly integrated into a capital controlled economic system in which animal resources were provided by subordinate communities to the more powerf ul centers. Since the animal remains from the larger polity centers have already been analyzed, and since the archaeological record of these sites is better understood than that of the smaller centers, the larger centers serve as the basis for comparison. Similarity among animal based activities at the sites are assessed on whether the domestic, ritual, and non domestic remains from subordinate centers are comparable in terms of species diversity, specific taxa, and skeletal elements to similar contexts in the urban centers, as well as to similar contexts from other sites within and between the political units. Two contextual distinctions are made between the assemblages from these different sites. First, in addition to a general review of remains from all contexts, animal remains are assessed separately concerning their use in ritual functions. This

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16 assessment helps determine whether there was a continuity in how ritual activities were performed between sites of variable size. In addition, structures o f dif ferent status ranks are assessed separately and compared Status levels have been determined by the excavators at households within the capitals and subordinate centers based on non faunal indicators Material from households in the subordinate centers is assessed as to how similar it is to that of capital site status groups, an analysis that aid s our understanding of the organization of power in the subordinate centers. Overall, these comparisons show not only how similar or different subordinate centers w ere from the more urban capitals, but how much interaction took place between sites of various sizes. Current Understanding of Maya Political Organization Our knowledge of Maya political organization has improved significantly over the last few decades. Le ss than 50 years ago, the Maya political system was discussed in terms of peasants and farmers residing around sites used primarily for religious ceremonies that were devoid of a permanent population (Becker 1979; Thompson 1966) More recent research over the past two decades has introduced the conc ept of hierarchical political tiers within polities and a primary division into two large (Martin and Grube 1994, 1995) Although the details are debated, it is now generally agreed that Maya communities were linked in diverse organizational groups by political alliances made between sites of various size, and that the largest sites were, to some extent, dominant over the smaller communities that resided within the borders of a polity (Chase and Chase 1998; Demarest 1996; Martin and Grube 1995; Share r and Golden 2004) for this study, a polity is considered to include a capital and the surrounding hinterland

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17 region, including smaller subordinate communities that may have been assoc iated with the more populous and politically complex capital on the basis of their proximity to the capital center, whether they shared similar architectural and artistic styles and features, and if there are hieroglyphic inscriptions indicating their poli tical alliance (Foias and Emery [In Press]:12 13; Sharer and Traxler 2005:77) The extent to which the ruling elite at the capital centers controlled the subordinate si tes within the surrounding territory led many Maya scholars to argue for either a (Chase and Chase 1996a; Marcus 1993) Although curr ent studies emphasize the diversity of organizational strategies along a continuum, the nature of socioeconomic organization is still debated (Foias and Emery [In Press]; Iannone 2002) On one side of the debate, scholars argue that sites exhibiting large monumental construction projects and control over important resources (e.g. water and salt) had a highly centralized government, which maintained strict control over the production and exchange of trade goods (Chase and Chase 1996b, 1998; Haviland 1992; Lucero 1999b; McKillop 2002) Advocates of the weak or decentralized model argue that elites had little control over the local economy and interactions between sites, and that the production and trade of goods was performed without strict elite supervision (Dem arest 1992, 1996; Fox et al. 1996) Currently, research suggests that some sites may have achieved centralized socioeconomic infrastructures over time, such as Tikal, Calakmul, and Caracol, but many other sites did not exhibit such a strict control over t he political relations and economics of their surrounding territory (Foias and Emery [In Press]; Iannone and Connell 2003)

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18 This study aims to exa mine how subordinate centers in the Usumacinta and Petexbatun regions functioned in relation to the capital centers through a focus on the use and distribution of an imal resources, based on the remains of bone and shell material. An analysis of the extent and type of control subordinate centers had over th eir own resources allows us to better understand their relationship with the more populous capitals More specific information might reveal how these relationships were played out, such as whether the residents of subordinate sites provisioned the capital sites with local resources, and whether they mimicked the resource use habits of the capital centers or had a more restricted use of c ertain resources A more detailed explanation of the different types of subordinate communities currently recognized in Ma ya political theory is presented in Chapter 2: Overview of Maya Political Theory and Economics. Zooarchaeology is more than a simple taxonomic analysis of the list of species recovered from a s ite; it has been used to compare animal resources across social strata and time periods within and between sites, revealing consumptive norms, cultural prohibitions, and selective access and control over certain species or even parts of species. In the anc ient Maya world, animals and their products served many important functions, providing a source of food, medicine, and materials for craft production (Carr 1991, 1996; Emery 2004c, 2009; Hohmann 2002; Moholy Nagy 19 97; Pohl and Feldman 1982; van der Merwe et al. 2000) Animals also played a pertinent role in Maya mythology and religion, and their symbolic value allowed them to enhance status relationships (Emery 2003b, 2004b, 2005; Masson 1999; Pohl 1981, 1983, 1994) Zooarchaeological remains are therefore a useful material for understanding the economics, politics, and religious beliefs of ancient Maya society.

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19 Four common themes in zooarchaeology worldwide include subsist ence and trade (e.g. Binford 1984; Clark 1987; Lyman 1982; Zeder 1991) power and status relations (e.g. Crabtree 1990; deFrance 2009; Reitz 1987; Scott 1996) crafting and other specializations using animal products (e.g. Choyke and Bartosiewicz 2001; Clark 1995; Middleton et al. 2002) and animals in ritual performance (e.g. Lev Tov and McGe ough 2007; Pohl 1983; Sandweiss and Wing 1997; Yuan and Flad 2005) Together, these themes provide a framework for tracking the use of animal resources within and between communities, and this framework is a convenient means for understanding Maya animal use by different status groups of a community, and between sites within a larger political unit such as the polity. These themes are central to the purposes of the present study, which seeks to compare the use of faunal resources at several sites to invest igate the relationships that once existed between sites belonging to different political affiliations, different site organizational levels (i.e. capitals versus subordinate centers), or individuals of different status rank (elites versus non elites). Chap ter 2 describes how each of these four themes can be assessed in the Maya zooarchaeological record and how they have been investigated in the past, both within and outside of the Maya area. The Study Areas: The Usumacinta and the Petexbatun The two regions chosen for the present study, the Usumacinta and the Petexbatun (Figure 1 1), include neighboring but politically distinct polities within environmentally similar locations. The regions were selected for four primary reasons: first, both regions housed we ll studied Late Classic complex political units, including capital and subordinate sites; second, archaeological fieldwork in each region has recovered substantial faunal material from several subordinate sites (little to none of which has

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20 been previously analyzed) and from the regional capitals (already extensively studied and published); third, most of the sites were roughly contemporaneous, facilitating comparisons between sites; and fourth, the site histories of the Usumacinta and Petexbatun are similar Both regions experienced rapid settlement growth and increases in political complexity during the Early Classic period ( c. A.D. 200 550), with primary urban centers that rose to dominance by the Late Classic period ( c. A.D. 550 850). By the end of th e Late Classic, both regions had been substantially abandoned: site archaeologists from both regions argue that the polities had succumbed to ever increasing political and economic tensions as part of the broader southern lowland "Maya collapse" (Demarest 1994; Golden et al. 2008; Houston et al. 2000) In Chapter 3 I provide a more detailed account of the sociopolitical histories of these two areas. Five subordinate communities within the Usumacinta region are incl uded in this study: Tecolote, El Kinel, Arroyo Yaxchilan, Esmeralda, and Ana. The first three had once been located within the borders of the Yaxchilan polity; the latter two were within the territory once controlled by Piedras Negras. The animal remains f rom the capitals themselves, Yaxchilan and Piedras Negras, have been already studied; the results of their faunal analyses are included in the present study as a comparative reference (Emery 1999a, 2001, 2008a; Soto Toral 1998) Excavations on the five subordinate centers are more recent (2002 Regional Archaeological Project (SLRAP), directed by Drs. Charles Golden, Andrew imary goals was to form a preliminary assessment of what life was like within the little understood subordinate communities, as well as what their relationship was with the larger capitals (Golden and

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21 Scherer 2006; Golde n et al. 2005a) The faunal analysis from these sites will shed more light on these questions. The two Petexbatun polity sites examined in this study are Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento. These two subordinate sites had switched allegiances over time as p olitical factions battled for supremacy in the region (Bachand 2006; Demarest and Escobeco 1997; Eberl and Vela 2004) but by the Late Classic period, both were allied with the neighboring site of Aguateca, one of the twin capitals of the polity alongside Dos Pilas. In this study, the faunal remains previously analyzed from Aguateca are included for comparison with the subordinate communities (Emery 1998, 2004a; Emery and Aoy ama 2007) Excavations at each of these sites were conducted by the Petexbatun Regional Archaeological Project (PARP) directed by Drs. Arthur Demarest, Juan Antonio Valdes, and Stephen Houston (Demarest 1994, 1997, 2006) The Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento faunal material analyzed for this particular study comes from the 2003 2006 excavations conducted by the Aguateca Archaeological Project, directed by Drs. Takeshi Inomata and Daniela Triadan (Ponciano et al. 2004, 2005) Excavations were directly overseen by Dr. Marcus Eberl (Nacimiento) and Dr. Bruce Bachand (Punta de Chimino) (Bachand 2006; Eberl 2007) Archaeological excavations at these two sites, like those of the SLRAP, were aimed at understanding the political and social organization of the smaller site communities in rel ation to the larger polity capitals. Overview of Research Methods Animal remains from the ten analyzed sites in this investigation have been assessed on their use in dietary, economic, political, and ritual practices This assessment determines whether the re was continuity in how animal related activities were performed between sites of variable size, and provides evidence for how the se

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22 were integrated in both capital and subordinate communities. I explore whether the smaller communities were replicating th e activities performed at the larger centers or if the smaller communities act ed independently and use d animal resources in ways that differed from those at the primary centers I also explore how faunal resources might have been controlled within si tes b y comparing remains on the basis of social rank. Finally, I investigate the extent to which capital and subordinate centers may have been linked by provisioning or redistribution between subordinate centers and the capitals. I compare animal remains from s ubordinate centers of various sizes and political complexity with the published reports of remains from the capitals to which the archaeologists have shown they were allied. The animal remains from the larger polity capitals have already been analyzed, and their archaeological record is better understood; therefore, the larger centers serve as the basis for comparison. I compare similarities in the use of animal resources among the sites based on whether the remai ns from subordinate centers are comparable i n terms of species diversity and specific taxa to remains recovered from the capital centers. I also compare animal use between different social ranks within each site, and specifically examine remains from ritual deposits as a subset of the larger study. Similarities and differences are assessed using comparisons of species abundance, diversity, habitat fidelity (to determine resource source), deer skeletal distribution, and the extent of bone and shell crafting. Overall, these comparisons are used to exp lore not only the similarities and differences in animal use between the subordinate centers and the urban capitals, but also how much interaction took place between these sites. The results indicate that, although the quantity and type of faunal remains d iffer markedly at each site, there are

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23 overarching patterns revealing similarities within individual social classes, site ranks, and political affiliation between the two regions, particularly in regards to proportions of terrestrial, riverine, and marine taxa. These patterns suggest that animal resource use was, in part, dictated by cultural and political norms.

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24 Table 1 1. Timeline of the lowland Maya chronology. [Adapted from Lucero, Lisa. 1999. Classic Lowland Maya Political Organization: A Review. Jou rnal of World Prehistory 13(2):211 263 (Page 212, Table 1).] Period Dates Middle Preclassic c 1000 400 B.C. Late Preclassic c 400 B.C. A.D. 250 Protoclassic c 50 B.C. A.D. 250 Early Classic c A.D. 250 550 Late Classic c A.D. 550 850 Te rminal Classic c A.D. 850 1000 Postclassic c A.D. 1000 conquest

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2 5 Figure 1 1. Map of Guatemala and the three polity capitals included in the study (Piedras Negras, Yaxchilan, and Aguateca). Image produced with Google Earth, 2011.

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26 CHAPTER 2 OVE RVIEW OF MAYA POLITI CAL THEORY AND ECONO MICS The structure of Ancient Maya political and economic institutions is still unclear, but recent research suggests that the organization of polities was generally fluid across both space and time, and that one def initive model does not suffice to succinctly explain all of Maya political theory (Lucero 1999a; Marcus 1993; Masson and Friedel 2002) Thus, archaeologists need as many methods as possible to reconstruct the nuanc es of Maya society within and between specific sites before they can create broader generalizations across regions and time frames. Faunal remains are particularly useful in this regard, for they can provide evidence for dietary behavior, status relations, craft specialization, trade and control of animal resources, and ritual practices Territorial Organization and Inter site Hierarchies Our understanding of politics as it is reflected in the archaeological record of the large capitals such as Tikal, Calak mul, and Copan, far exceeds what we know about the organization of smaller, subordinate communities. The larger political centers were usually the first sites discovered by early archaeologists, and were often the easiest to identify and access; thus, most of Maya research has focused on these primary centers. More recently, archaeologists have turned their interest to the Maya who resided outside the densely settled centers, those who may have lived within scattered communities of varying sizes throughout Mesoamerica (Fash 1994; Robin 2003; Wilk and Ash more 1988) These communities ranged in size from important political centers that rivaled the polity capitals, to tiny hamlets consisting of only a family or two living in pole and thatch structures. These smaller communities left fewer material traces, and so their internal organization and external contacts are more difficult to identify.

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27 A number of archaeologists developed theories to explain the organization of these ancient communities. All theories generally focus on the separation of Maya communi ties into overarching groups known as polities, which, in this study, is identified as the territory controlled by a capital center (Sharer and Traxler 2005:77) ; however, the exact organization of these polities, as well as the number of polities that existed at any one time, remains a matter of contention. Some have argued that by the Late Classic pe riod ( c 550 Tikal and Calakmul, and that communities divided their loyalties between these two sites (Martin and Grube 1994, 1995) Others have argued, on the basis of emblem glyphs, that only four polities existed at any one time during the Classic period, a nd that these four may have changed over the centuries (Marcus 1976, 1993:152) Many archaeologists today recognize many more polities of various sizes and political importance, and distinguish each polity as havin g a single capital ruled by a king, and a number of smaller subordinate communities ruled by lesser nobles; however, the amount of control the ruling elite had over political and economic institutions is a point of contention, with scholars arguing that po lities were either strongly or weakly centralized (Chase and Chase 1996a; Demarest 1996; Foias and Emery [In Press]; Fox et al. 1996) Epigraphic and material evidence, such as elite goods traded between capitals, indicate that these polities formed coalitions through military and marriage alliances (Chase and Chase 1998; Foias 2002; Haviland 1977; Marcus 1992b; Matthews 1991) Within the polities, archaeologists generally c oncur that the internal organization was governed independently (Lucero 1999a; Webster 1997:136; Willey 1991)

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28 Joyce Marcus developed a model for the organization of subordinate centers that has been fitted to a n umber of different regions within the Maya lowlands (Escobedo 1997; Folan et al. 1995; Golden et al. 2008; Marcus 1973, 1983; Sharer and Golden 2004) According to this model, a capital was surrounded by a number o f smaller secondary centers, often placed equidistant around the primary center, barring impediments such as mountains and rivers. These secondary centers were ruled by a lesser noble, possibly a relative of the king. While generally smaller than the prima ry centers, they still contained monumental architecture, inscriptions, defenses, and be stationed on key trade routes. These secondary centers were, in turn, surrounded by still smaller tertiary centers. Tertiary centers, governed by lesser nobles, would have inferior architectural planning, a more dispersed settlement pattern, and little to no evidence of monumental sculptures. Tertiary centers were still involved in trade to some degree, and incorporated defensive features. Quaternary centers, or village s, consisted of less than ten, loosely spaced patio groups, and had little or no masonry architecture. Finally, hamlets consisted of one or two families living in perishable structures near water and other necessary resources. all communities were involved in agricultural production to varying extents, and members of each community hunted and fished locally available animal resources. The internal organization of the larger polities by the Late Classic period hypothetically woul d have encouraged occupational diversity and household specialization (Aoyama 2007; Becker 1973; Peregrine 1991; Widmer 2009) Elites at the capitals may have engaged in specialized craft activities in addition to their roles in political and religious affairs, while the middle and lower classes may have been

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29 servants, farmers, hunters, part time crafters, and possibly even merchants (Dahlin et al. 2007, 2009) The subordinate centers may have had a less complex version of the organization observed in the primary centers, with the smaller villages relying primarily on hunting and agriculture. How much interaction the sites had on a regular basis, such as whether the subordinate communities produced surplus goods to send as tribute or provisions to the larger communities, is still not well understood in the archaeological record. In this study, tribute is defined as the mandatory provisioning of certain items, in this case animal related products including meat, skins and furs, or bone and shell craft commodities, to the elite members of a polity capital by the lesser or non elite ranks of the capital or by the subordinate communities. Zooarchaeology can play a role in further de fining characteristics for each of the on monumental inscriptions (Marcus 1976; Matthews 1991) the geospatial relationship of known sites across the landscape (Chase and Chase 1996a; Folan et al. 1995) and similarities in ceramic, artistic, and architectural styles (Ball 1993; Houston 1998a; Ma rcus 1992a; Schele and Miller 1986) What these do not tell us is the variation of animal use between sites, which would have affected subsistence practices, ritual activities, and status mar kers. Did the different site levels within a polity have similar animal remains, representing similar species and body portions? Were specific animal species, or portions of certain animals, reserved for religious functions such as feasts, burials, and other ritual ceremonies and is this pattern observed across all si tes, or only at sites of a certain level or political affiliation? Were animals disposed of in similar manners acr oss all sites regardless of level /affiliation? Were all sites involved in trade,

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30 or were certain items only traded among the more populous, hi gher tiered centers? Did the lower tier sites pay tribute to the larger communities or the primary center elites, and if so, what species or portions of animals usually served as tribute? These are only a few of the questions that have yet to be thoroughly addressed in the field of Maya zooarchaeology. Zooarchaeology and the Political Economy of the Maya Zooarchaeology has taken a number of approaches to understanding the political economies of ancient societies. Four common issues that zooarchaeology addre sses within the broad theme of political economics include subsistence and trade (Binford 1984; Clark 1987; Lyman 1982; Zeder 1991) power relations (Crabtree 1990; deFrance 2009; Reitz 1987; Scott 1996) crafting and other specializations (Choyke and Bartosiewicz 2001; Clark 1995; Middleton et al. 2002) and the political economics of religion and ritual activities (Lev Tov and McGeough 2007; Pohl 1983; Sandweiss and Wing 1997; Yuan and Flad 2005) These issues overlap to varying extents within different societies. Comparison of the economic systems from other areas of the world, combined wit h our increasing understanding of Maya society and political economics, forms a framework for tracking the dynamic political economic structure throughout Mesoamerica. Subsistence and Trade The economics behind subsistence activities and trade is directly linked to the political organization of the Maya polities. Because we do not fully understand how the Maya political systems had been organized, and whether these systems were consistent through time, zooarchaeological work addressing this issue has been p rimarily site specific (for a few notable exceptions, see Emery 2010, [In Press];

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31 Masson 2004; Thornton 2011) Questions that have been asked in this regard include: Did the Maya hunt and fish for surplus stock to trade (Dahlin et al. 2007; Lange 1971; Masson and Peraza Lope 2008) ? How were surplus materials stored (Brown and Gerstle 2002 ) ? Were any animal species husbanded (Carr 1996; van der Merwe et al. 2000; White et al. 2001b) ? Was trade directed by the government, or was it largely controlled by commoners (Dahlin et al. 2009; Masson and Peraza Lope 2004; Pohl and Feldman 1982; Robin 2003) ? How did elite and non elite trade differ (Emery 2003a; Thornto n 2007, 2011) ? In regards to subsistence, hunting and fishing likely contributed to the majority of the Maya diet in terms of meat. In many other cultural areas of the world, the topic of subsistence is often directly linked to domestication (Reitz and Wing 2008:287) The do mestication of bovids, caprids, and equids in the Old World and camelids in South America significantly altered political relationships by securing a near steady source of animal products and facilitating inter site communication and trade. Yet as far as w e know, the only domesticated vertebrate species the Maya controlled were dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ) and, in the later periods, turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ). Dogs and turkeys may both have been intentionally raised for meat and to serve as symbolically important actors in ceremonies, either as feast foods or sacrificial victims (Clutton Brock and Hammond 1994; Emery et al. [In Press]; Gotz 2008; Hamblin 1984; Shaw 1995) It is commonly believed that the white ta iled deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) was husbanded by certain Maya groups, in part based on ethnographic accounts from Bishop Diego de Landa from the sixteenth century, citing that women had tamed and took care of the deer near their households (Pohl and Feldman 1982; Tozzer 1941:127)

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32 Stable carbon isotopes in dog and dee r remains have been analyzed to determine whether they were intentionally fed maize; however, the results of these studies show that even though dog carbon isotopes may indicate greater maize consumption, particularly among dogs from ritual contexts (White et al. 2001a, 2004) deer isotopic signatures do not vary significantly enough to suggest intentional feeding (van der Merwe et al. 2000; White et al. 1997) The trade of faunal materials has be en most commonly tracked in the Maya region by using the principal of biogeography: if a species is not native to a region or particular habitat, it was likely imported. Although this analysis has been useful for tracking the movement of marine species, es pecially shells and fish (see Masson and Peraza Lope 2008; McKillop 1995, 1996) it does not address whether or not ubiquitous inland species, such as deer or peccary, were traded, especially between domestic conte xts. Recent research using strontium isotopes has been able to shed some light on the matter: fauna tested at the sites of Motul de San Jose and Trinidad de Nosotros, Guatemala, as well as Tipu, Belize, identified some animals that did not match the local strontium signatures (Freiwald 2010; Thornton 2007, 2011) Much of the strontium research performed thus far has suggested that species such as white tailed deer and peccary recovered from burials, caches, and othe r special deposits in elite contexts were most commonly traded long distances (> 50 km) when compared to animal remains found in non ritual deposits, suggesting that the trade of terrestrial animal goods may have been directed by elites requiring animals f or special occasions (Thornton 2011:228 232)

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33 Inter and intra site trade can also be tracked by studying the concentration of specific body portions of animals across a site This analysis has proved particularly useful when examining trade patterns in other areas of the world. Quantifying the proportions of cranial and postcranial elements of fish at a site has been invaluable for tracking the trade of fish between coastal a nd inland sites, such as at the ancient marketplaces of Harappa in the Indus Valley (Belcher 2005) and the early commercial fishing communities of Iron Age Norway (Perdikaris 1999) Skeletal distributions can also be used to track trade, such as in the Andes where higher proportions of c amelid crania and foot elements were found at sites of higher elevation while the inverse was true of lowland communities, possibly signifying a trade system transporting dried meat between the two locations (Miller and Burger 1995) In the Maya area, where midden material is not often concentrated in a single location as it is in other societies of the wor ld, mapping skeletal portion distribution across a site is not common. Masson attempted several studies using this technique, however, both at Laguna de On (Masson 1999) and Mayapan (Masson and Peraza Lope 2008) At Laguna de On, she found that larger animals appeared to have been butchered in one location and redistributed among the elite, whereas smaller animals did not appear to have been selectively dispersed throughout the community (Masson 1999:105 106) At Mayapan, areas of marine fish with high proportions of postcranial elements may indicate the trade of salted fish from the coast (Masson and Peraza Lope 2008:175, 178) Thornton (2011) has also analyzed skeletal portioning of white tailed deer at the sites of Motul de San Jose, Aguateca, Dos Pilas, and Cancuen, to reveal significantly greater proportions of fore and hindlimb elements among the higher

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34 ranking nobility w hen compared to the lower classes (Thornton 2011) Quantification of skeletal elements has also shown that certain bones of deer, such as tibiae and metapodials, were most frequently used for crafting activit ies (Emery 2008b) Thus, preliminary results from skeletal distribution analyses on Maya zooarchaeological remains suggest that the technique may provide evidence regarding the purposeful distribution of animal parts for possible socioeconomic purposes. Stat us and Power Relations Control of subsistence activities and trade leads us to the issue of power relations in political economics. The procurement, preparation, distribution, and consumption of animal products are all directly linked to the theme of power Power relations can manifest themselves in status differences and political alliances. Certain animals may have been a symbol of power, controlled for power, or offered as tribute or tax to maintain power relationships. Status is most commonly traced by differential access to resources (e.g. deFrance 2009; Emery 2003b; Haller et al. 2006; Van der Veen 2003) Elite individuals often have access to a wider variety of species (Jackson and Scott 2003), or to socially with a particular quality, myth, or specific supernatural entities (Masson 1999; Pohl 1981, 1983) Several studies, such as those at Aguateca, Maya pan, and Caracol, have shown that higher status households often contain a greater diversity of animal species, as well as a greater proportion of larger bodied animals, including deer and peccary, and species with special cultural significance, including felines, crocodiles, and certain marine fish and shells (Emery 2003b; Masson and Peraza Lope 2008; Teeter 2004) It is not known whether there were specific rules governing the distribution of animal

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35 goods througho ut a polity, but it seems that as political complexity intensified through time, these status differences steadily increased (Chase 1992; LeCount 2001; Palka 1997; Wright 1997) It is likely some measure of control existed, but we do not know how prevalent it was throughout each polity, especially for smaller subordinate communities, or whether the smaller subordinate communities hunted animals in excess in order to provision the more populous capitals Craft Specia lization Using Animal Products Specializations, particularly the crafting of bone and shell material, can also provide insights into socioeconomics. Many studies regarding Maya crafting have dealt with elite crafters (see Becker 1973; Emery and Aoyama 2004; Moholy Nagy 1997; Widmer 2009) It appears that many elites had the time and resources available to conduct crafting activities, usually to create ornamental objects such as beads, bangles, and figurines. Some of these craftmakers seem to have been affiliated with or were part of the royal family (Emery 2009:458) Equally substantial evidence for crafting among the commoners is lacking, with the notable ex ceptions of a non elite Terminal Classic assemblage consisting of utilitarian artifacts (e.g. awls and needles) at Dos Pilas (Emery 2008b, 2009) and Preclassic shell artifacts recovered at the Belize Valley site of Pacbitun (Hohmann 2002) In the Valley of Oaxaca near the Pacific coast of southern Mexico, a Late Preclassic (300 B.C. A.D. 100) shell workshop was uncovered at Ejutla; although it appears that several commoner households engaged in shell ornament manufacture across the site, the recipients of the craft items were never determined (Feinman and Nicholas 1993; Middleton et al. 2002) Dos Pilas, Pacbitun, and Ejutla raise several interesting questions: Did commoners craft items to distribute among their own community, or were

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36 they also part of a larger trade network that distributed goods outside of the community? Did commoners craft items as payment or tribute to elites? A further examination of craft mate rials at subordinate communities and peripheries of large capital centers may provide some information in this regard, especially if zooarchaeologists track the locations of craft production and craft consumption (i.e. the finished product) across sites, s uch as comparing proportions of finished craft items versus debitage. It may be that the presence or absence of workshops at a site will be indicative of whether or not the finished products were locally manufactured or obtained through trade. Animals in R itual Performance If Maya archaeologists can be sure of one thing, it is that religion and ritual activities played a central role within the political economic organization (Wells and Davis Salazar 2007) The Maya rulers (themselves divine kings) often associated their power with the gods and other supernatural entitie s in their artwork and inscriptions; Maya priests and temples were centrally located at every substantially large community in order to signify the might of the ruler and to serve as a means of direct communication with the gods (Freidel and Schele 1988; McAnany 1995; Schele and Miller 1986) Like other cultures of the world, animal sacrifices were made at key locations and specific calendrical and life cycle events so as to maintain order in the universe and to please the gods (Brown 2004; Emery et al. 2009; Kunen et al. 200 2) A number of different rituals would have required animals, including ritual caching, calendrical celebrations, termination ceremonies, and feasts. Certain symbolically significant animals have been identified within many of these contexts, including f elines, canines, and deer (Freidel and Reilly 2009; Montero Lopez 2009; Pohl 1981; Shaw 1995; White et al. 2004) Specific variations among each of these rituals have not been

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37 thoroughly investigated, since most ha ve been analyzed on a case by case basis. Many of these activities have been studied in elite contexts, but far fewer have been analyzed using material deposited by commoners. This is yet another area that is in need of further investigation, particularly when comparing ritual activities and feasting between capital and subordinate communities and between elite and non elite households. Summary of Maya Political Structure and Economics Archaeological research suggests that the Maya hierarchical framework wa s relatively fluid across time and space, and that a system of state like polities emerged gradually over time (Chase 1992; Demarest 1992; Foias and Emery [In Press]; Marcus 2004b; Sharer and Golden 2004) Classic Maya polities consisted of a capital and its surrounding territory, including satellite communities. The extent to which these communities were economically dependent on the primary centers, such as whether polities had a strongly or weakly centralized gov ernment, is still debated and may have differed between polities, although recent research into hieroglyphic records of polity interactions, architectural and artistic relationships, and the distribution of trade items between sites has begun to reveal det ails of how communities interacted in the past (Ball 1993; Chase and Chase 1996b; Houston 1998b; Matthews 1991; Schele and Miller 1986) Animal products would have also played a significant role defining subsistenc e and trade patterns, social rank, crafting, and religious activities within each community. Thus, understanding how these products were obtained, used, and discarded at sites of varying political affiliation and size will enhance our understanding of Maya society on a broader scale.

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38 CHAPTER 3 BACKGROUND TO THE RE GIONAL SETTINGS In the past, excavations in the Maya area focused almost solely on large capital centers, but recent decades have seen a steady rise in the number of investigations aimed at explo ring the smaller sites located between polity capitals (Lucero 1999a; Marcus 2004a; Masson and Peraza Lope 2004; Schortman and Urban 1994; Sheets 2000) These investigations enhance our understanding of what life w as like for the Maya who lived outside of the crowded cities, living in villages that may have been part of a complex trade and social network defined by vacillating alliances and regional governing hierarchies. The two regions of interest in this study, t he Usumacinta and the Petexbatun, are areas where a number of such excavations have taken place. The large polity capitals of these regions have already been extensively excavated, but recent research into the subordinate communities has begun to uncover a wealth of information pertaining to the political, economic, and cultural practices of these smaller sites. This chapter provides the background for understanding the history of the two regions, both in terms of their ancient forebears and in terms of the modern excavations. over 2000 square kilometers (Golden et al. 2008) Many archaeological sites, linked in ancient times by political and economic relations, line the Usumacinta River on the border between Guatemala and Mexico (Figure 3 1). The park is b ounded on the west side by the river, which also serves as a natural and political boundary between the two

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39 Usumacinta region include the capitals of two large Maya polities, Pi edras Negras and its rival to the south, Yaxchilan. Yaxchilan is located on the western bank of the Usumacinta and on the Mexican side of the border, and so is not officially located within ties are. Both capitals were occupied from the Preclassic through Terminal Classic periods ( c 2000 B.C. A.D. 900), and both reached political apogees during the Late Classic period (A.D. 550 850). Research on the settlement patterns of Piedras Negras the capital of the northern polity, was directed between 1997 2000 by Dr. Stephen Houston of Brigham Young University and Dr. Hector Escobedo of the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (Houston and Escobedo 1997; H ouston et al. 1999, 2000) Excavations at Yaxchilan were directed by the Instituto de Nacional de Antropologa e Historia of Mexico (Garcia Moll 1996) Zooarchaeological remains from Piedras Negras have been analyzed by Dr. Kitty Emery at the Florida Museum of Natural History (Emery 1999b, 2001, 2008a) The faunal material from Yaxchilan i s under analysis by Mexican zooarchaeologists (Soto Toral 1998; Soto Toral and Polaco 1994) Both the Piedras Negras and Yaxc hilan polities included many subsidiary communities that have only recently begun to be surveyed (Golden et al. 2005a; Scherer 2005) rainforest, and so previous survey and excavation projects have focused primarily on the largest sites. A number of monuments uncovered over the last several decades by looting now reside in museums and private collections (Scherer 2005:5 6) and offer clues concerning the complicated history shared between the two rival states; however,

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40 because they lack any information in regards to provenience, little can be inferred conclusively from the ir artwork and inscriptions. The area between the two capital cities has been cloaked in mystery until only recently, with only a handful of sites officially registered by the Guatemalan government. AP), directed by Dr. Charles Golden (Brandeis University), Dr. Andrew Scherer (Brown University), and Lic. Ana Lucia Arroyave (La Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala), has conducted a number of excavations over the last several years with the intention of learning about the past interactions among the numerous sites scattered throughout the region (Golden and Scherer 2006; Golden et al. 2003, 2004, 2005b) The project has focused on determining how social hierarc hies and ancient landscapes influenced settlement and fortification patterns, how and where trade relations were conducted, and how agricultural communities interacted with the more populated capitals. The project team is currently discovering, mapping, an d conducting preliminary excavations at smaller sites within the surroundings of the Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan polities. The rural subordinate centers are of particular interest, because their exact role within the polities, both politically and econom ically, is only vaguely understood. An analysis of the zoological and botanical remains uncovered at each site may provide some insight into what specific activities were conducted within the communities. The remains of agricultural terraces at many of the se sites, as well as mi crobotanical evidence of Zea mays and other cultigens, suggest that these rural centers engaged in agricultural projects, either organized by the central polity government or by the local community, and may have even partially suppo r ted the primary centers (Johnson et al.

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41 2007; Scherer 2005:11 12) Far less is known of the zooarchaeological material, and if animal products may have been traded among the various sites and stat us groups, such as tribute and other methods of provisioning, or if differential access to specific animal products occurred within sites. Since the communities vary in size and political affiliation, the contents found in these middens and ritual deposits can help define economic and social differences among the subordinate centers. Preliminary surveys conducted by the SLRAP using GPS mapping and IKONOS satellite imagery have uncovered evidence of the strategic placement of subordinate communities surroun ding the central polities of Yaxchilan and Piedras Negras (Garrison et al. 2008; Golden et al. 2005a; Scherer 2005:19 20) These sites appear to vary considerably in size, and also reflect differences their politic al and economic integration with the more urban capitals. Fortifications uncovered at several of the sites, which include ditches, trenches, and the post holes from large wooden fences, indicate that the communities were partially responsible for the defen se of the polities during wartime (Golden 2009; Golden and Scherer 2006; Golden et al. 2008:265 266) The fortification walls are identified as defensive features based on their similarity to walls in the Petexbatu n (Demarest et al. 1997; Golden 2009:291) These defensive features may have been necessary as the region between Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan became increasingly more populated duri ng the Late Classic period, and the two polities began to incorporate smaller hamlets into their state boundaries and battle over territorial disputes (Golde n 2009:296; Golden et al. 2008) Five subordinate sites are included in the present study. Faunal material has been uncovered at these sites during excavations that took place from 2002 2009. The five

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42 sites represent the lower three subordinate levels bel ow the capital (following the site ranking system as described by Marcus 1973, 1976), and may thus provide information that can compare socioeconomic differences between the site levels, if the four tiered model does, indeed, accurately describe the politi cal layout of the Usumacinta region. Three of the sites are believed to have been subordinate to the Yaxchilan polity: Tecolote, El Kinel, and Arroyo Yaxchilan (Golden and Scherer 2006; Golden et al. 2004, 2005b; Sc herer 2005) Tecolote (Figure 3 2) appears to have been an important secondary center near the Yaxchilan Piedras Negras border, and contains a number of defensive features that suggest it was partially responsible for protecting the polity (Golden 2009) El Kinel (Figure 3 3) could arguably be designated a quaternary center based on its lack of masonry architecture, but the discovery of an inscribed stela like monument at the center of the site has brought this into question; thus, it is presently considered a tertiary center (Golden and Scherer 2006:8 11) A Late Classic/Terminal Classic midden located near the monument and over part of the largest structure at the site may provide inf ormation as to how the social organization of this site relates to larger centers nearby. The neighboring site of Arroyo Yaxchilan has been identified as a small quaternary center (Valenzuela 2007) Due to the fact that these subordinate communities exhibited densely arranged mound group formations surrounded by low lying areas of flat terrain, it is hypothesized that these subordinate sites may have been agricultural centers organized and controlled by the capital of Yaxchilan (Scherer 2005:10 11) These communities may have regularly supplied food and other resources to the capital center. Current investigations in

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43 center organizational planning are underway to address this important question (Golden and Scherer 2006; Johnson e t al. 2007) and Ana (Golden et al. 2005b, 2008) Esmeralda is a tertiary center and, u nlike El Kinel, contains several examples of stone architecture, including a ballcourt near the site core (Golden et al. 2005b:6 9) Ana is a rural quaternary site that has produced only a sm all artifact assemblage. Although secondary centers under Piedras Negras have been investigated in the past, such as La Mar in Chiapas, Mexico, these lie outside the SLRAP limits, and faunal remains that may have been uncovered at these sites are not inclu ded in the present study. Thus far only a limited number of excavations have been performed at these sites, and it is not yet clear what their relationship may have been. However, the populations of both Esmeralda and Ana appear to have increased after Pie dras Negras became a regional power center during the Late Classic and decreased subordinate communities had been partly reliant on the power exhibited by the capital (Golden et al. 2005a) The three largest sites, Tecolote, El Kinel, and Esmeralda, constitute the majority of the SLRAP faunal assemblage. Most of the remains from the sites, and from these three sites in particular, were excavated from test pits in and around the largest structures and house mounds within the site cores. Contexts are primarily of three types: ritual caches, burial deposits, and midden deposits around the exterior of structures and from within collapsed rubble and fill. All context types in this study were identified by the original excavators of each project.

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44 The SLRAP is presently working on understanding the politics of the region by looking to the nearby Petexba tun polities as a basis for understanding the organization of the Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan polities (Golden and Scherer 2006; Golden et al. 2005a, 2008) Similarly, this zooarchaeological study includes compari son of faunal remains from various Petexbatun sites with different subordinate status. These provide a basis for comparison with similarly ranked sites within the Usumacinta area, and reveal evidence for whether subordinate centers had used their animal re sources in a manner comparable to that of the primary capitals, particularly in regards to dietary and ritual practices. The Petexbatun The Petexbatun region is located in the southwestern part of the Petn District of Guatemala, along the Petexbatun River from which it derives its name (Dunning et al. 1997; Foias 2002) have been as advantageous for transportation and trade in the past as it is today. The region is also located between the Central Petn to the north and the Guatemalan Highlands to the so uth, making it a prime center for trade between the lowland and highland communities. A number of centers have been identified in the region, many having been excavated to various extents, including Aguateca, Dos Pilas, Arroyo de Piedra, Tamarindito, Nacim iento, and Punta de Chimino (Demarest 1997, 2006; Eberl and Vela 2004; O'Mansky and Dunning 2004; Palka 1997; Valds 1997) The sites of Ceibal (Ponciano et al. 2007) and Cancuen (Demarest 1999, 2000) were annexed during part of the Late Classic and were occasionally part of the polity as well. Many of these sites appear to have had an unstable political relationship, w hich ultimately ended

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45 when many of the sites were vacated in the Terminal Classic period (Demarest 1994, 2006) Archaeological research in the Petexbatun area has been ongoing for the past several decades, and has been conducted by a number of dif ferent investigations, each building upon the previous studies. Dr. Gordon Willey directed the early Harvard Peabody Museum projects around Altar de Sacrificios and Ceibal during the 1970s, focusing primarily on excavating the largest epicenters, uncoverin g textual inscriptions and monumental artwork, and constructing a ceramic classification sequence (Demarest 1997; Willey 1973, 1990) In the late 1980s, Drs. Stephen Houston and Arthur Demarest of Vanderbilt Univer sity initiated excavations in the region, focusing on the Late Classic capital of Dos Pilas and its surroundings (Demarest 1997:211; Hous ton 1993) A subsequent phase of the Vanderbilt excavations, the Petexbatun Regional Archaeological Project (PARP), co directed by Drs. Arthur Demarest and Juan Antonio Valdes from 1992 1996, stressed a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the histor y of the region, which included extensive mapping of the area, ceramic and architectural analysis, paleoecology, geoarchaeology, and osteology (Dunning et al. 1997; Dunning et al. 1998; Foias and Bishop 1997; Housto n 1993; Wright 1997) This project included various subprojects at other sites in the region, including Aguateca, Tamarindito, and Arroyo de Piedra (Es cobedo 1997; Inomata 1995, 1997 ; Valds 1997) Aguateca, a j oint capital alongside Dos Pilas during much of the Late Classic, offered a unique opportunity to study the remains of household floors relatively in situ invaders in A.D 830 (Emer y and Aoyama 2007; Inomata 1997 ) The site was excavated

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46 as part of the PARP and the Aguateca Archaeological Projects (AAP Phase I and Phase II), the latter under the direction of Drs. Takeshi Inomata and Daniela Triadan (Univer sity of Arizona) from 1996 2004 (Demarest 1997; Inomata 1995 ; Inomata et al. 2002) Evidence suggests that Aguateca had become a polity capital by the Late Classic ( c. 600 800 A.D.), during a time when alliance s were shifting between the various sites in the region. The unusual deposits at Aguateca allowed researchers to assess the functions and occupants of each household individually, in order to understand family and group organization, craft activities, stat us tiers, food storage and preparation, and various other domestic activities and occupational specialties (Inomata and Triadan 2000, 2003; Triadan 2000) The zooarchaeological material recovered from Aguateca ca me from a number of contexts, both domestic and non residential, and could often be separated into social class, such as elite and non elite, as well as social occupation (Inomata 1995 ) Emery (2003b) along with Aoyama (2007) looked for distinguishing patterns across the site in regards to social differentiation between specific households, particularly in regard to class rank and craft specialty. Although there did not appear to be a significant difference between the faunal remains uncovered from households w ith a specific occupational specialty, Emery (2003) found disparities among the different social ranks in terms of the diversity and taxa of animal species present. Higher ranking households deer and felines, while lower ranking households tended to have smaller animals, such as agouti and paca. When compared to other material uncovered by the PARP investigations during the 1990s, the Aguateca data reveals that the lower ranked households con tained

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47 animal material similar to those once belonging solely to the elites, suggesting the lower classes may have been emulating the higher ones, and that a possible power struggle had emerged over time between the separate classes. While the Aguateca da ta provide evidence of Late Classic sociopolitical variation at a primary center, there are a number of secondary centers in the Petexbatun that have produced faunal material as well, which can be assessed using Aguateca as a base for comparison. Two of th ese sites, Nacimiento and Punta de Chimino, have recently excavated faunal assemblages that have been inventoried but not thoroughly analyzed (Emery et al. 2008) Faunal remains from Punta de Chimino (Figure 3 5), recovered during the earlier PARP excavations, h ave been identified by Emery (1997) Both sites were subordinate to Aguateca, and are classified as secondary centers (Bachand 2006; Eberl 2007) Nacimiento is the smaller of the two sites, and had been occupied prior to the seventh century, before Tamarindito and Arroyo de Piedra, the Early Classic r egional capitals, had been overthrown by Dos Pilas (Eberl and Vela 2004) It is not ye t understood how Nacimiento had been affected by the change in rulership, but its Late Classic architectural components closely resembled those of Aguateca, suggesting an alliance existed between the two sites. Punta de Chimino had been occupied since the Middle Preclassic, was politically subordinate to Aguateca during the Late Classic, and after the fall of Aguateca and Dos Pilas, it appears to have been made a vassal to Ceibal, having adopted a similar ceramic style by the Terminal Classic (Demarest and Escobeco 1997) The z ooarchaeological remains from these two subordinate communities, when compared with the material from Aguateca, may provide evidence

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48 of similarities or variations between subsistence behavior, status preferences or differential access to certain species or parts of species, and variation or similarities in the ritual use of animal species. Summary of the Regional Settings The Usumacinta and the Petexbatun are two regions that provide a chance for comparing faunal assemblages from sites of varying social ran k among three contemporary Late Classic polities. Since the faunal material from the polity capitals (Aguateca, Piedras Negras, and Yaxchilan) has already been analyzed in previous studies, material from the subordinate centers will provide an opportunity to assess patterns of faunal use and management at smaller sites. Comparing the use of animal resources within and between sites of different size and political affiliation may reveal variations in economic, cultural, and political organization on a broade r scope than was previously attainable when focusing solely on the polity capitals.

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49 Figure 3 1. [Adapted from Arroyave, Ana Luca, Charles Golden and Andrew K. Scherer. 2009. Proyecto Regional Arqueologico, Sierra del 2009, Informe No. 7 (Page 6, Figure 1). Guatemala Ci ty .]

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50 Figure 3 2. Map of Tecolote. [Adapted from Scherer, Andrew K. and Charles Golden. 2009. Tecolote, Guatemala: Archaeological Evidence for a Fortified Late Classic Maya Political Border. Journal of Field Archaeology 32:285 305 (Page 288, Figure 3).]

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51 Figure 3 3. Map of El Kinel. [Adapted from Golden, Charles and Andrew K. Scherer. 2006. Border Problems: Recent Archaeological Research along the Usumacinta River. The PARI Journal 7(2):1 16 (Page 8, Figure 11).]

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52 Figure 3 4. Map of the Petexbatun region. [Adapted from Eberl, Markus. 2007. Community Heterogeneity and Integration: The Maya Sites of Nacimiento, Dos Ceibas, and Cerro de Cheyo (El Petn Guatemala) During the Late Classic Ph.D. Dissertation (Page 11, Figure 1 2). Tulane University, New Orleans .]

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53 Figure 3 5. Map of Punta de Chimino. [Adapted from Inomata, Takeshi. 1989. Reconocimiento, Registro, y Mapeo del Sitio de Punta de Chimino In Proyecto Arq ueologico Regional Petexbatun: Informe Preliminar #1, Primera Temporada edited by Art hur Demarest and Stephen Houston, pp. 130 142 (Page 131, Figure 1). Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, Guatemala.]

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54 CHAPTER 4 MATERIALS AND METHOD S The following chapter details the methods and resources used to procure and analyze the faunal remains a ssessed in this study. The excavation procedures used by the SLRAP and PARP are discussed, as well as how the faunal assemblages were transported and stored for analysis. Identification and quantification techniques are outlined, which include both general quantification procedures as well as comparative methods used to address specific questions, such as trade, local habitat types, and workshop activities on an inter and intra site basis. Finally, an assessment of several of the biases inherent in this pa rticular study is presented so as to better understand the results of the data. Excavation Methods and Artifact Acquisition Faunal assemblages acquired from seven different archaeological sites are included in this study, in addition to comparative results from previous zooarchaeological analyses performed on assemblages from Yaxchilan, Piedras Negras, and Aguateca. Two of the assemblages analyzed in the present study, those from Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento, were excavated by the PARP between the years of 2003 2006. The other five assemblages were excavated under the direction of the SLRAP from 2002 2009, and include the sites of Tecolote, El Kinel, Esmeralda, Ana, and Arroyo Yaxchilan. Although these two projects were striving to answer different resear ch questions aimed at enhancing our understanding of these two regions, the projects shared similar excavation strategies for the recovery of faunal material, in part because the project director for Piedras Negras, Dr. Steven Houston, co directed the PARP in its first years

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55 with Dr. Arthur Demarest (Demarest 2006) Excav ation units at sites in both regions ranged in size from simple one by one meter test pits focusing on determining the chronological sequence of a structure or plaza, to large trenches several meters in length designed to obtain a much more detailed unders tanding of the living spaces in certain structures. For most operations, the projects used quarter inch meshes to screen soil for small artifacts. The majority of the faunal material from all seven subordinate sites was washed in the field prior to analysi s. The faunal material recovered at Punta de Chimino came from three locations at the site (Figure 3 5), all excavated under the direction of Dr. Bruce Bachand (then a graduate student of Brigham Young University) from 2003 2005 (Bachand 2005, 2006) The majority of the material came from a number of units covering the main Acropolis Group, specifically Structures 6 and 7. The project was especially interested in the Acropolis in order to determine its construction sequence, which would provide Terminal Classic periods, as well as what its relations had been with nearby sites in the region, including the much larger site of Aguateca. Material was also excavated from a ceremonial precinct defensive wall located near the Acropolis, and a test excavation in the West Group located on Mound 59. The Nacimiento faunal assemblage came from a number of different house groups and plazas, both within the site c enter and near the outskirts of the site (Eberl 2007; Eberl and Vela 2004) Excavations w ere directed by Dr. Marcus Eberl (at the time a graduate student of Vanderbilt University) under supervision of Drs. Takeshi Inomata and Daniela Triadan (University of Arizona). Project goals were aimed at gaining a

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56 better understanding of the layout of th e residential groups in the area, and how their organization related to that of the nearby capital of Aguateca, which presumably held control over the region by the Late Classic. Most of the groups were identified definitively as residences, and although t hey varied in terms of social rank, most appear to have been of upper to middle class status, a determination made primarily on the types of ceramic artifacts uncovered from the structure floors and fill, as well as the similarity in the architectural plan s with higher status households at Aguateca. A significant portion of the faunal material also came from within a rock shelter located near these residences (Eberl 2007:184 186) Although artifacts uncovered from inside the rock shelter included Late Classic ceramic sherds of several storage vessels, fragments of a rusted iron object near the surface of the remains suggested that the material may have been disturbe d in recent times. annual field seasons, with the most extensive excavations centered on Tecolote, one of the largest sites within the borders of the Yaxchilan polity (Go lden 2009) Fauna from Tecolote was recovered during the 2004 and 2008 field seasons, and came from a number of structures near the site center, which may have held administrative and religious functions (Arroyave 2004) No true midden was identified at Tecolote, but a large concentration of faunal material was recovered from one of the central administrative buildings, D3 1, in what was likely a termination ritual. A much smaller contemporary site near Tecolote, El Kinel, was excavated from 2006 2007 t o determine the organization of residential communities within the Yaxchilan (Golden and

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57 Scherer 2006:8 11; Golden et al. 2006, 2007) Excavati ons at El Kinel centered on two sides of a watercourse that may have once been a man made canal that bisects the and were primarily focused on recovering the material from a large residential midden located atop the remains of the largest structure of the site, H10 1. The South Sector excavations were also focused primarily on understanding the construction sequenc es of residential platform groups. The quaternary center of Arroyo Yaxchilan was only briefly excavated during the 2007 field season (Valenzuela 2007) Shallow test pits were placed in plazas and around the vicinity of structures at the site in order to determine the general site chronology. Nearly all of the faunal material from these excavations was recovered from t he initial humus layers. Esmeralda and Ana, located within the Piedras Negras polity borders, were excavated during the 2004 field season (Dardn 2004; Menendez Bolaos 2004) Excavations at both sites were brief, and were carried out primarily to obtain a general understanding of the chronological sequence of sites in the area. Sh allow test units were placed in and around plazas and structure mounds. Like Arroyo Yaxchilan, most fauna was recovered in the initial humus layers. Faunal material from all seven sites was placed in individually labeled cloth or plastic bags and shipped to the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) with permission from the Guatemala Institute of Anthropology and History (Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, IDAEH), and under the direction of Dr. Kitty Emery. Emery performed a preliminary inventory an d assessment of all material from Punta de

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58 Chimino and Nacimiento in the AAP laboratory in Guatemala City, making identifications for only mollusk and turtle remains. The identified material was kept in storage in Guatemala, while the remaining material wa s shipped to the United States. Faunal material from excavations at Punta de Chimino that were performed prior to 2003 was not included in this study (see Emery 1997) The assemblages from all seven sites are curated by Emery within the Environmental Archaeology Program collection at the Museum. Laborato ry Analysis and Identification I analyzed all of the faunal material in the FLMNH Environmental Archaeology Program laboratory, with the exception of the Petexbatun turtles and shells identified in Guatemala City by Emery. Preliminary inventories of the Pu nta de Chimino and Nacimiento material initially made by Erol Kavountzis and Elyse Anderson included only very rough identifications primarily at the class level (Emery et al. 2008) I updated the preliminary inventory and identified the majority of the AAP exca vated Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento vertebrate and non turtle remains housed in the EAP identifications were overseen by Emery, who was also responsible for the identifi cations of the faunal assemblages from Aguateca and Piedras Negras, a fact which significantly increases the comparability of the samples. My identifications in the EAP lab were also guided by Irvy Quitmyer, the laboratory collection manager. I identified specimens by taxa and element, as well as by age, sex, and surface modifications, such as weathering, burning, and artifactual modifications. Fragmentation complete element ). Weights were also measured for all specimens.

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59 Taxonomic designations were based on the most recent version of the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (www.itis.gov), as of the time this report was written. Resources in the lab were used to augment identification efforts, primarily the EAP zooarchaeological comparative collection. Relevant field and anatomy guides were also consulted. In a few cases, specimens were identified using comparative material ions. Certain taxa, namely those elements that were the most fragmentary or eroded, could only be identified to the class level or above. Bones that could not be identified to n a number of different size ranges. For this study, mammals ranging in size from large were those that ranged from an average sized white tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) to smaller dogs and other carnivores, including raccoons and foxes, down to and including bats, and gophers. Prin cipal Quantification Methods The primary means of quantifying the specimens was by number of individual specimens (NISP). As will be explained shortly, the NISP is prone to several biases that may hinder its usefulness as a quantification tool; however, fo r the purposes of this study it was deemed the most useful primary means of assessing abundance among the fauna taxa represented, since the comparative datasets for the capital sites primarily used NISP, and since conservative estimates were made whenever possible regarding highly fragmentary specimens (i.e. turtle and armadillo shells). These latter remains

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60 were found in high frequencies throughout all of the sites, so that although they are overrepresented, their numbers are consistently overemphasized at all sites. In order to lessen the bias that comes from highly fragmented mammal or turtle shell remains, individual NISP values were assigned to specimens of a size equal or greater than 1.0 cm, unless the complete element or shell was smaller than 1.0 cm The minimum number of individuals (MNI) was also calculated for all remains. Although MNI has been the subject of much debate among zooarchaeologists due to its penchant for misrepresenting the data by underestimating the number of individuals present (Grayson 1978; Lyman 2008:45 46; Marsh all and Pilgram 1993) it is useful in this study since it provides a means of quantifying highly fragmentary elements such as turtle and armadillo shells, which are difficult to assess on the basis of the NISP alone. In this respect, the MNI provides a m ore practical understanding of the number of individuals represented in these samples. Also, the primary bias of MNI is related to variation in sample size and diversity of taxa, issues which are of less concern in this study since samples were fairly cons istent in size. Here, the MNI was calculated by determining the number of same sided elements of a species within an area of excavation (Grayson 1973; White 1953) by the difference in age of ind ividuals (if recovered from the same context), as well as significant differences in provenience. For example, two different elements from the same species would be considered two different individuals if the elements were recovered in different structures ; if they happened to be found within the same structure, they would be counted as two individuals if they were found in different chronological periods alongside different assemblages. MNI was calculated based on aggregate samples

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61 from separate time perio ds within structures. It is possible that food sharing occurred at some of the household groups, so that some skeletal elements may have been distributed among different structures across a plaza (Dahlin et al. 2009; Sheets 2000) ; however, due to the dispersed nature of excavations at the subordin ate centers, this factor was not taken into account for MNI calculations in this study. Further biases pertaining to the MNI method are elaborated upon at the end of this chapter. Other Datasets The results of the analysis of the faunal assemblages from th ese seven sites were compared with datasets from three previously analyzed sites: Yaxchilan, Piedras Negras, and Aguateca. The Yaxchilan zooarchaeological remains were analyzed by Heriberto Soto Toral (1998) The original Piedras Negras and Aguateca data were made available to me by the analyst (Emery), in addition to fina lized reports on the assemblages (Emery 1998, 1999b, 2007; Emery and Aoyama 2007) All three of these datasets were used as a basis for understanding the use of fauna at the polity capitals. Comparative Methods A n umber of different comparisons were made to distinguish patterns among the sites on the basis of site rank (primary, secondary, etc), political affiliation, and intra site social status. Most of the material from the sites is dated to the Late and Terminal Classic periods, and so this study will focus exclusively on this timeframe. Thus, although Punta de Chimino had faunal material dating from Middle Preclassic to Postclassic contexts (Bachand 2006) only the Late Classic remains were used for the comparative analyses. Some analyses could not be performed at the smaller sites, including Arroyo Yaxchilan, Esmeralda, and Ana, due to the small size of their assemblages.

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62 Inter site comparisons, either to assess the ext ent of variation among the faunal assemblages affiliated with different polities or to assess differences among sites of different size, included assessments of species abundance, diversity, equitability, use of taxa in specific contexts (midden or fill ve rsus burials or caches), and species habitat fidelity. Comparisons of social rank within sites, specifically between structures evaluated by the excavators to have housed residents of upper, middle, or lower class standing, also included analyses of specie s abundance (especially among taxa considered to have been valuable or symbolically charged), diversity, equitability, and body portion distribution of white tailed deer, the latter of which would show preferential access to certain parts of deer by specif ic social classes. The social ranks used in this study were based on determinations made by the original excavators of the sites. class citizen of a secondary or tertiary site may not have wielded the sa me amount of political power as an elite from a primary center, and so many inter site comparisons using these terms should be regarded as relative to the social ranks observed within each site. Species Abundance The basic comparison method used for all si tes in this study was species abundance, which was measured by the relative proportion of remains of each separate taxon. Abundance values were based on NISP and MNI counts, and were represented by percentages so as to compare the contribution of each taxo n to the site assemblage as a whole. Since several categories in the overall abundance tables are generalized or focused on the relative proportions of the most specifica lly identified taxa, leaving out most taxa identified to the class level or above, as well as taxa that were likely intrusive,

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63 including terrestrial mollusks and small rodents. Comparisons only used material definitively dated to the Late or Late/Terminal Classic period. Species abundance was used to compare the overall assemblages recovered from individual sites, as well as sites of different size (e.g., primary versus secondary centers) and sites of different political affiliation. Abundance values were a lso us ed to compare ritual deposits between sites Ritual contexts were regarded as either definitive burial offerings or cache and termination deposits. Structure and plaza fill, collapse material, and middens were deemed non ritual contexts, although it is possible that ritual items were discarded and incorporated into these assemblages. In a few instances at the capitals, such as certain burials and some of the material recovered from the natural chasm at Aguateca, it was difficult to discern whether or not the fauna was purposefully placed as an offering or if it was discarded as fill or midden debris; thus, material from these undetermined contexts was not classified as belonging to a ritual deposit. Diversity and Equitability (Evenness) Diversity, the relative importance of taxa in each assemblage, was assessed using the Shannon Weaver formula (Cruz Uribe 1988; Reitz and Wing 2008:245 247) : i )(log e p i ) Weaver diversity index value, and p i is the relative abundance of individuals for each taxon in the assemblage. In this study, the NISP is used for the basis of p i since the MNI values were not available from usually differentiated to the most specific level possible, ideally the level of species, in

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64 order to avoid overlapping categories in the same assembl Equitability, the measure of how evenly distributed each taxon is, was measured with the following formula (Reitz and Wing 2008:247) : e S Weaver diversity calculated for the sample in question, and S is the number of taxonomic categories for which the NISP values were derived. Equitability values range on a scale from 0 1.0, wi 1.0. The diversity and equitability formulae are important for understanding variation within and between assemblages, and may reveal whether animal ac quisition and use focused on a diverse range of species, a small suite of favorites, or a specific taxa. Again, obviously intrusive animal taxa, including small rodents and burrowing terrestrial mollusks, were excluded from these analyses. In the case of o ne shattered tapir skull recovered from El Kinel, the number of individual elements (i.e. teeth, mandibles, and cranium) was used for the diversity calculations instead of the number of fragments. Similarly, armadillo scutes, which were almost always group ed together in single the faunal assemblages from large Maya capitals has shown that they often have considerably high diversity, perhaps due to their size and amount of control over surrounding territories (see Chapter 2), this study uses the diversity test to determine

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65 whether primary level site assemblages have higher diversity than those of the smaller subordinate communities. Habitat Fidelity Habitat fidelity assessm ents were made at the sites containing the largest assemblages in order to analyze the types of environments from which the sites were extracting their animal resources, as well as if different site or social ranks were procuring resources from specific ha bitat types. Habitat fidelity can reveal information about the type of environments that may have surrounded individual sites in the past. Fidelity values used in this study were based on values proposed by Emery and Thornton (2008b) which u sed current ecological data for species living in the Mesoamerican region. Five habitats were included in this study: mature forest, secondary or disturbed forest, agricultural fields or residential zones, rivers, and wetlands. Fidelity values represent th e likelihood individuals of a specific taxon will spend their time in a particular habitat. These values are then used in conjunction with the NISPs of each non overlapping taxon at a site to determine the proportionate representation of each habitat by th e zooarchaeological assemblage data (see Emery and Thornton 2008 for further description of this method). In this study, habitat fidelity was used to determine whether sites of certain size and organizational complexity (i.e. capitals versus subordinate c enters) were obtaining resources from a particular habitat or from several different habitats. It was also used to determine if certain intra site social ranks were obtaining animal resources from certain habitats, in which case it was expected that upper elite ranks may have exhibited more control over the trade and acquisition of certain taxa, and so would have been able to obtain resources from a wider variety of habitat types.

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66 Body Portion Distribution In an effort to understand specific patterns of ani mal resource distribution at each site, the distribution of body parts for white tailed deer was assessed in relation to social rank within and between sites. White tailed deer were the only taxa chosen for this analysis because they were the most abundant and ubiquitous animal taxa at all of the major sites (as they are at all Late Classic lowland Maya sites), and are considered to have been the most valued dietary and ritual species among the animals used by the Late Classic Maya. It is hypothesized in th is study that the elite at the largest sites would have greater access to preferred body portions, which they may have been provisioned with; the elite assemblages from the subordinate communities would not exhibit significant evidence of body portioning, due to their less regimented social hierarchies. Skeletal portioning was categorized by the following: cranial elements included the cranium, mandible, teeth and antlers; axial elements constituted the vertebrae, sternum, ribs, and sacrum; forelimbs includ ed the scapula, humerus, radius, and ulna; hind limbs included the pelvic bones, the femur, the patella, the tibia, and the fibula; finally, distal elements consisted of carpals, tarsals, metapodials, and phalanges. The numbers of these elements, assessed on the basis of the minimum number of elements present (MNE) rather than the NISP, were compared between sites and social ranks to the expected frequency of elements for each portion (Reitz and Wing 2008:222 223) in order to determine if certain sites or social ranks within each site favored particular body portions.

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67 Crafting Bone and shell artifacts, including both finished products and the debitage left behind from crafting activities, were assessed in order to identify where craft activities took place at the sites and if they were performed by members of specific social ranks was the only site in this study where definitive crafting activity was identified in previous studie s (Aoyama 2007; Emery and Aoyama 2004; Inomata and Stiver 1998) Modified carving, polishing, incising, or smoothing. Cut marks that appeared to be deliberately stationed crosswise on elements were considered artifacts as well, since they may have been part of the process of artifact production (Emery and Aoyama 2004, 2007) ; howev er, it is possible some marks that were regarded as the results of craft production were, in fact, evidence of butchering. All identified artifacts were counted on the basis of NISP, and their relative frequencies were assessed on either a rank by rank bas is at the larger sites, or against the entire recovered assemblage at the subordinate communities. The analysis for crafting included specimen counts for both finished products and discarded material that had been in the process of production, primarily de bitage. Individual production stages were not assessed for this study, since, as will be explained in Chapter 5: Results, there was not enough data to evaluate production stages at the subordinate communities to warrant such an analysis. Potential Sources of Bias As with all research, this study is subject to a number of potential sources of bias. These may be the result of the original deposition of the faunal remains, the taphonomic processes that acted upon the remains over time until their recovery, the methods of

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68 recovery during excavation, and the methods used for identification and quantification. A brief overview of these biases is necessary in order to better comprehend the results of the analysis. Taphonomic Bias Much has been written on the subjec t of the deposition and taphonomy of animal remains (Andrews 1995; Lyman and Fox 1989; Marean 1991; Schmitt and Lupo 1995; Stanchly 2004) and several models have been made to illustrate the various factors that co uld affect bones and shells through time (Lyman 1994:24 31; Meadow 1980) Faunal remains recovered by archaeologists may come from both intentionally deposited material, such as discarded bone and shell waste in middens, or b e the product of scavengers and other commensal animals that inadvertently ended up in the archaeological record. Scavengers, including rodents and various carnivores, can wreak havoc on a faunal assemblage when it is initially deposited (Hudson 1993; Marean and Spencer 1991) Various other taphonomic processes, such as weathering, dampness, and survival as it lies in the ground over hundreds or thousands of years. In the Petn of Guatemala, remains are at the mercy of a generally humid, warm environment, which facilitates the decomposition of bone. Inconsistent wet and dry periods also work to de stroy bone, especially bone deposited in the vertisol soil common to the region, which is prone to drastically expanding and contracting throughout the dry and wet seasons (Stanchly 2004) Acidic soils have also been cited as another detriment to the preservation of faunal material, both bones and shells (Stahl 1995:154) In this study, preservation conditions were probably similar across all sites, since the Petexbatun and Usumacinta

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69 regions occupy similar terrain and climate types. How ever, material recovered in the moist humus layer closest to the surface may be in the worst condition and are the least likely to be identified with any confidence; thus, sites where the majority of faunal material was recovered from this layer, (i.e. Esm eralda, Ana, and Arroyo Yaxchilan) were least likely to produce identifiable material. Recovery Bias Once faunal remains have survived the ravages of time, they must survive the pick and the trowel. Methods of excavation in the Maya region today are genera lly designed to preserve as much archaeological material as possible, but inevitably many bones and shells are destroyed during the excavation process. Furthermore, whether or not excavated soil is screened can vastly improve the chances of identifying fau nal material, especially that of smaller birds and fish (Hageman and Goldstein 2009; Quitmyer 2004; Schaffer 1992) The material obtained in this study came from excavations using a quarter inch mesh size. Since qu arter inch screens are not as ideal for spotting many species of fish and other small animals as are eighth and sixteenth inch screens, particularly in the Maya lowlands (Thornton [In Press]) it can be assumed that a portion of these small vertebrate and shell remains were not recovered. The recovery of faunal material during a n excavation is also dependent on where the excavations take place. The excavation goals for all seven of the subordinate sites included in this study differed, and thus the specific contexts from which material was recovered varied, ranging from middens t o ritual caches to the fill of structures and plazas. Although this provides a wide range of contexts from which to compare and contrast material, the varied contexts can make identifying patterns in the zooarchaeological assemblage much more difficult. Fo r this study, the majority of the

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70 faunal remains came solely from plazas and structures in an effort to make comparisons more reliable. Faunal assemblages in this investigation also varied significantly in size, perhaps in part a result of the excavation strategy. Excavations at some sites, such as Punta de Chimino, Nacimiento, Tecolote, and El Kinel, focused on the largest structures near the site centers and also produced the greatest quantity of remains. Excavations at some of the smaller sites, such as Arroyo Yaxchilan and Ana, consisted of a few shallow test pits located in the central plazas, and only recovered fragmentary remains found in the initial humus layers. Analytical Bias Identification and quantification procedures are also not without their share of bias. Extensive use of comparative material in the FLMNH Environmental Archaeology Program Laboratory was performed in order to minimize inaccuracies in identification. Museum zooarchaeologists Emery (program curator) and Irvy Quitmyer (program c ollection manager) were also available for consultation during the analysis phase of the research, and were able to verify issues with identification. As mentioned earlier, biases may emerge from many of the quantification techniques, especially the prima ry stage of quantification using the NISP. The NISP is known to over represent the proportion of highly fragmentary elements of certain taxa in an assemblage, such as turtle and armadillo shells and the long bone shafts of large mammals (Grayson 1973; Lyman 1985; Reitz and Wing 2008:203 204) The MNI, another important quantification technique used in this study, often under represents the number of individuals present in an assemblage (Casteel 1977; Grayson 1978; Marshall and Pilgram 1993; Plug and Plug 1990) This may be particularly true regarding the

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71 middens assessed in this study, where high concentrations of bones were found in a single area, and where differentiating b etween individuals became much more difficult. Conservative estimates were made in all instances as to the minimum number of individuals present for each taxon, but there is a likelihood that the actual numbers differ from these approximations. Since the N ISP and the MNI are the basis for many of the comparative analyses used in this study, such as diversity and habitat fidelity, any biases inherent in these two techniques are also present in the other results. All efforts were made during the course of th is analysis to minimize the effects of bias on the data; however, as with all scientific analysis, particularly that dealing with a sample from a much larger total assemblage, unintentional biases will inevitably influence the results. By keeping these sou rces of bias in mind, however, we can hope to mitigate their effect on the data and its interpretation.

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72 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS The following chapter describes the results of the comparative analyses for the seven subsidiary sites and the three capitals, focus ing on important correlations in the data from the Late Classic period that provide information regarding variations in site size, political affiliation, social status, ritual behavior, trade and exchange, and how local ecology may have influenced resource use Overall trends observed in the faunal records from each of the seven sites are assessed at first on an individual basis focusing on the subsidiary centers, followed by a comparison on the intra polity level using data from the regional capitals, and finally a comparison between polities. These results are followed by more focused comparisons of the remains of ritual activities, species diversity between sites and social ranks, habitat fidelity values between sites and ranks, the distribution of white tailed deer skeletal elements across sites, and finally the extent of artifact production using animal remains at each site. Overall Comparisons of Identified Taxa and Species Abundance This section compares the proportionate abundance of specimens from th e different animal taxa recovered in the various site assemblages. The assemblages from the Usumacinta sites are reviewed first, followed by an overview of the Petexbatun site assemblages and an overall comparison between both regions. Since the data from the capital sites (Piedras Negras, Yaxchilan, and Aguateca) has been reviewed in previous studies (e.g. Emery 1998, 2007; Soto Toral 1998) results from the analyses of the subordinate site assemblages is discussed in greater detail, with the capital site datasets serving as a basis for comparison. Faunal material from both non ritual and ritual (special) deposits are included together in this overall analysis, which is meant to

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73 assess the quantities and qualities o f the faunal assemblages at each of the sites, particularly in regards to variations or similarities between the two regions, among the three polities, and among sites of different size (primary centers, secondary centers, etc.). The Usumacinta Region The results of the faunal analysis at the capital centers (Table 5 1) reveals that the primary centers have considerably larger assemblages than t he subordinate centers (Table 5 2). The Yaxchilan polity assemblages come from sites ranging from primary (Yaxchil an) to quaternary (Arroyo Yaxchilan) centers. The Piedras Negras polity data did not include a secondary site assemblage, and comprised only Piedras Negras and Ana, a quaternary center. Of the five subordinate sites, El Kinel, a tertiary center in the Yaxc hilan polity, had a significantly greater number of specimens (NISP = 3258) than the others. Tecolote, a secondary Yaxchilan center, was the largest site in terms of size and political complexity of the five subordinate communities; however, it had far few er remains than El Kinel (NISP = 340), even though it had been more intensively excavated. The three remaining sites (Esmeralda, Ana, and Arroyo Yaxchilan) each contributed less than 100 specimens to the overall Usumacinta assemblage. All of the site assem blages consisted of both bone and shell remains, with the exception of Esmeralda, which lacked mollusks. For every assemblage, the number of bones exceeded that of shells. The Yaxchilan p olity Looking first at the subordinate Yaxchilan polity data (Table 5 2), Tecolote was the only Usumacinta site ranked at the secondary level that was included in this analysis, and its zooarchaeological remains came almost exclusively from Late Classic contexts.

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74 Most of the material was recovered from structure and plaza f ill, and one ritual deposit that will be explained in more detail later in this chapter. Although unidentified mammal material makes up a sizable proportion of the overall assemblage by NISP (42.65%), jute ( Pachychilus indiorum ) are also fairly abundant (1 2.06%). When comparing MNI values for Tecolote, jute is by far the most common species present in the assemblage (33.61%). Terrestrial gastropods, white tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ), and peccary (Tayassuidae) are also present in higher proportions than other identified taxa. Turtles (Testudines) are overrepresented in the NISP count (9.41%), due to a single shattered shell; thus, the MNI count is more reliable (1.68%). Overall, mollusks and th NISP and MNI (81.41% and 92.44%, respectively). El Kinel was a much smaller site than Tecolote, and the only tertiary site included faunal material came from Late Classic contexts. An extensive Late Classic/Terminal Classic midden located atop the largest structure mound at the site, Structure H10 1, Late Classic middens were als o identified at El Kinel, one between Structures L9 3 and L9 4 in the South Sector and another near a South Sector aguada (water hole), both of recovered from structural fill and collapse. No remains came from obviously ritual related contexts except for a few bones and shells located in the fill around several burials, which may or may not have been purposeful deposits.

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75 Species abundances differ strikingly when quantifie d by NISP and MNI at El Kinel, in this case due to the overabundance of easily fragmentary elements, specifically turtle and armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) carapaces. According to the NISP, turtles make up the largest percentage of any taxa (29.07%), but according to the MNI they make up a smaller proportion (7.30%). Rodents and armadillos also contribute significantly to the NISP (12.46% and 10.80%, respectively). Armadillos only represent 0.86% according to the MNI. Unlike armadillos, the rodent bones w ere not the product of a few shattered individual elements, but mostly intact specimens. Rodents far exceeded any other taxa in terms of the MNI (36.48%); their elevated numbers are mostly the result of an unusual deposit located near a single burial at th e base of the Structure H10 1 midden. These remains are excluded from later analyses since they are most likely intrusive, although the possibility exists that this is an intentional deposit. In terms of both the NISP and the MNI, certain large to medium bodied mammals typically found at most Maya sites were fairly common at El Kinel. These included the white tailed deer (NISP = 5.34%, MNI = 3.86%) and domestic dog (NISP = 1.10%, MNI = 2.15%). Smaller mammals appear to have been less common (NISP and MNI < 1.0%), including the two Agoutidae species ( Agouti paca and Dasyprocta punctata ), as well as foxes, opossums, rabbits, and gophers. Mammal species that are fairly unusual to encounter in faunal assemblages, including jaguars ( Panthera onca NISP = 0.03%) a nd tapirs ( Tapirus bairdii, NISP = 3.47%), were concentrated in the Structure H10 1 midden. Reptiles and amphibians were also fairly common across the site. Amphibians, specifically frogs and toads (Anura), were present in fairly high quantities (3.86% by

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76 MNI), almost exclusively in the middens. As mentioned above, turtles were also fairly common, even when their contribution to the total abundance of all species is amended using MNI (NISP = 29.07%, MNI = 7.30%). Larger bodied taxa, including the slider ( T rachemys scripta NISP =7.46%, MNI = 0.86%) and Central American river turtle ( Dermatemys mawii NISP = 7.21%, MNI = 1.29%) appear to have been favored over smaller species such as the Kinosternid mud and musk turtles according to the NISP (2.30%), but pos sibly not if using the MNI count (2.15%). Other reptiles included the green iguana ( Iguana iguana NISP = 0.25%) and crocodile (Crocodilia, NISP = 0.61%), both likely represented by one fairly large individual each, located in the Structure H10 1 midden. Although very few fish bones were recovered from any of the Sierra del Centropomus sp .), the M ayan cichlid ( Cichlasoma urop h thalm a ), and catfish, at least one species of which could be identified as a blue catfish ( Ictalurus furcatus ). These identified species are native to freshwater habitats. As at Tecolote, mollusks were also common within the El Kinel assemblage, and were found throughout the site. Freshwater mussels were the most common, in terms of both the NISP and the MNI (NISP = 3.38%, MNI = 17.60%). Since many of the mussels found alongside Psoronaias sp (a member of the Unionidae family), it is possible they may have mostly, if not all, belonged to the Psoronaias genus. Unlike Tecolote, jute were not common, since only a single individual was uncovered at the entire site. Ano ther river gastropod,

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77 the apple snail ( Pomacea flagellata ) was also found at El Kinel in small numbers (NISP = 0.12%, MNI = 2.58%), although it was entirely absent from the Tecolote assemblage. The smallest site of the Yaxchilan polity datasets, Arroyo Y axchilan, consisted of only seven specimens (MNI = 4). This assemblage came solely from excavations in the humus layer of the plazas around mounds that once held perishable superstructures, and were in poor condition. Armadillo, turtle, and a marine olive shell were the only identifiable specimens below the taxonomic level of class at the site. Species that were most common at the other sites, particular deer, were lacking. Comparing these three subordinate centers with the previously identified remains at the capit al center of Yaxchilan (Table 5 1) shows that several similarities exist among the datasets, particularly between Yaxchilan and the small tertiary center of El Kinel. Although Yaxchilan is a much larger site than El Kinel, it produced a faunal as semblage about a third of the size (NISP = 1446), in part because its faunal remains came only from excavations at the central Acropolis (Soto Toral 1998). Like the subordinate centers, the Yaxchilan assemblage did not have many shell remains (NISP = 4.0 1%), and of these, few were marine (NISP = 9.00% of the mollusk total). One of these marine shells was an olive ( Oliva sp. ) a species that was found at all three subordinate centers, including the small quaternary site of Arroyo Yaxchilan. Jute, common at the nearby site of Tecolote, were not found at Yaxchilan. No amphibian species were identified in the Yaxchilan assemblage, and reptiles were not as common as they were at the other sites (NISP = 5.74%). The proportions of river turtles and sliders, whic h were about the same at El Kinel, were also similar at Yaxchilan (2.35% and 2.70%, respectively), although turtles in general made up a small

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78 proportion of the total (5.26%). At the same time, birds, which were exceedingly rare at the subordinate centers, were more common at Yaxchilan (3.60%), and included several species not found at the other sites, such as turkeys ( Meleagris ocellata ), owls ( Ciccaba viragata ), and the Muscovy duck ( Cairina moschata ). In terms of mammals, Yaxchilan stands apart from th e subordinate centers due to its large proportion of white tailed deer (51.31%). Yaxchilan also had several species that were not found at the other centers, including puma ( Puma concolor 0.48%) and howler monkey ( Alouatta pigra 0.90%). Some species, suc h as pocket gopher ( O r thogeomys hispidus 0.07%) and tapir (1.11%), were recovered at both Yaxchilan and El Kinel. Other species, such as peccary (4.50%), dogs (2.56%), and pacas (1.04%), occurred in similar frequencies as they did at Tecolote and El Kinel The Piedras Negras polity The two subordinate centers in the Piedras Negras polity, Esmeralda and Ana, each contained less than 100 specimens, mostly recovered from the initial humus layers or plaz a and structure fill (Table 5 2). Esmeralda was a tertiar y center that may have exceeded El Kinel in terms of size, yet it has not been excavated as extensively and past excavations produced only a few faunal remains (NISP = 60). Over 80% of the specimens recovered at Esmeralda were only identifiable to the leve l of class, since the remains were in poor condition. Those that were identified below class included turtles (NISP = 13.33%), armadillo (3.33%), and peccary (1.67%). Ana, a quaternary center about the same size as Arroyo Yaxchilan and consisting of only a few residential mounds, produced only nine faunal remains, a third of which were jute (MNI = 50.00%). The rest, mostly mammals, were not identifiable below the level of class.

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79 Comparing the Piedras Ne gras capital dataset (Table 5 1) with the subordinate community assemblages is difficult since the former is considerably larger and more diverse (NISP = 5715). Almost 10% of the Piedras Negras assemblage consisted of mollusk species, over 30% of which were marine shells, which were absent at the subordinate centers. Fish, also absent from the subordinate center assemblages, were recovered at Piedras Negras (2.33%), and included several marine species, such as rays and possible marine catfish (Ariidae). Birds were found at neither Esmeralda nor Ana, and only made up a small percentage of the overall total of specimens recovered at Piedras Negras (1.75%). Reptiles and mammals were the most common taxonomic classes recovered at Piedras Negras. As at Esmeralda, turtle species were the most common reptile recover ed (NISP = 87.12% of the reptile total). Both sites also had armadillo (NISP = 0.63% at Piedras Negras) and peccary (0.54%). For the most part, Piedras Negras was considerably different than the subordinate sites, and contained a significant number of deer (10.52%). Carnivores, such as dogs and wild cats, were also fairly common (1.38% and 0.30%, respectively). The Piedras Negras assemblage also included a wide variety of small mammals, such as gophers, squirrels, rabbits, and agoutis. Summary of the Usumac inta site comparisons Overall, the Usumacinta site residents appear to have preferred medium and large sized mammals, such as deer, peccary, and dog, as well turtles, particularly the larger slider and river turtle species. Most of the species identified w ere common in the region, with marine shells and, in the case of Piedras Negras, marine fish, being the only indication of trade with other regions. Fish and birds were rare at all of the sites.

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80 There is some indication that sites within the polities share d more similarities than when compared between polities, although this assertion is difficult to make since the Piedras Negras polity lacks data from the subordinate communities. Piedras Negras contained a wider variety and quantity of marine shells than t he Yaxchilan assemblages did. Jute were also much more common in the Piedras Negras polity than at the Yaxchilan sites. In terms of fish, Piedras Negras was the only site that had marine fish (mostly rays), although other species were similar at both polit ies (mostly catfish and cichilds). Reptiles were very common in both polities, and mostly consisted of freshwater turtles, probably from the Usumacinta River. Common subsistence species, such as dogs, peccary, and agouti, were found in similar proportions at all sites. Tapir was only found at the Yaxchilan sites. The frequency of deer was unusually high at Yaxchilan (over half the assemblage by NISP). Overall, mammals, river turtles, and river shells were the most common taxa found at the sites. The Petexba tun R egion When comparing the assemblage f rom the Petexbatun capital of Aguateca (Table 5 3) with those from its secondary subordinate centers of Punta de Ch imino and Nacimiento (Table 5 4), it is apparent that Aguateca has considerably more faunal remains than the other two sites. This is both the result of the more extensive series of excavations that occurred at the capital, as well as the contextual nature of the remains that were recovered. Since Aguateca was rapidly abandoned preceding an attack by an unknown assailant, a large quantity of faunal remains, both bones and shells, was found in situ on the floors of several structures. The remains at the two secondary centers came primarily from structure and plaza fill, and so bone and shell remains were not found in such high concentrations as at Aguateca.

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81 Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento, although both classified as secondary centers, and both excavated for a similar length of time, had significantly differ ent assemblage si zes (Table 5 4). However, as explained in Chapter 3, the Punta de Chimino site plan was much more concentrated than that of Nacimiento, and excavations at the latter took place primarily in residential house groups. The Punta de Chimino assemblage was the larger of the two (NISP = 1214), and although excavations at the site produced material ranging from Middle Preclassic to Postclassic contexts, only the material from the Late Classic period is analyzed here. Nacimiento had a much smaller assemblage size ( recently disturbed cave deposit, the remains came from exclusively Late Classic contexts. The two sites also differed significantly in terms of the proportions of bone to sh ell remains, even though they were both located immediately next to the Petexbatun vertebrate material only constituted 36.4% of the total. Discounting unidentifiable mammals, the most popular taxa by abundance at Central American river turtle (NISP = 29.74%, MNI = 7.46%), which is completely also contains a high quantity of white tailed deer (NISP = 9.47%, MNI = 8.96%), which was not as abundant in the consisted primarily of two species of river gastropod: the ap ple snail (NISP = 44.12%, MNI = 22.08%) and jute (NISP = 12.50%, MNI = 24.68%). By comparison, Punta de Chimino had far fewer of these two species (NISP = 0.74% and 0.08%; MNI = 8.96%

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82 and 1.49%, respectively). The most numerous non mollusk taxon at Nacimie nto was rodents (NISP = 6.99%, MNI = 5.19%). The number of mammal remains at both sites differed significantly, especially in terms of artiodactyls versus carnivores and small mammals. Artiodactyls, specifically white tailed deer, make up the majority of identifiable mammal remains at Punta de Chimino (NISP = 63.54%, MNI = 34.78%). At Nacimiento, however, they only constitute a small portion (NISP = 14.00%; MNI = 21.05%). Many of the mammals from Nacimiento that were recovered from a cave deposit, mostly c onsisting of rodents and river mollusks, may not be primary; although the cultural material associated with the remains included Late Classic domestic vessels, the faunal material included the incisor of a donkey ( Equus asinus ), an Old World domesticate th at indicates the cave material had been disturbed by Post contact activity. Even though reptiles had been common throughout most of the Usumacinta assemblages and were the most abundant class at Punta de Chimino (NISP = 33.69%, MNI = 17.91%), they were o ne of the least represented vertebrate classes at Nacimiento (NISP = 1.10%, MNI = 2.60%), less so than even amphibians by NISP (1.71%). Birds were also all but non existent at Nacimiento, being represented by a single unidentified humerus located in the ca ve (NISP = 0.37%, MNI = 1.30%). At Punta de Chimino, however, several bird taxa could be identified below the level of class, including turkeys ( Meleagris sp .), ducks or geese (Anatidae), pigeon/doves (Colombidae), and parrots ( Amazona sp .). At least two species of fish (NISP = 1.73%, MNI = 7.46%) were recovered from Punta de Chimino, but were absent from the Nacimiento assemblage. All fish that could

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83 be identified below the level of class, with a single exception, were freshwater varieties, akin to those found within the Usumacinta assemblages (i.e. catfish and cichlids). Although Nacimiento did not have any fish, the cave material included the claw of a freshwater crab (Brachyura), the only example of a crab found at any of the Petexbatun and Usumacinta s ites, including the primary centers. Since the cave was not located near a water source, it is not likely the crab was a natural deposit, and so may have intentionally been placed in the cave by humans. Of the mollusks, freshwater gastropods were the most common taxon at Nacimiento (NISP = 89.02%, MNI = 46.75%); at Punta de Chimino, freshwater mussels (Unionidae, specifically Psoronaias sp ) were the most common mollusk (NISP = 62.96%, MNI = 8.96%), although a significant quantity of apple snails were pres ent as well (NISP = 16.67%, MNI = 8.96%). At both Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento, marine shells comprised a small fraction of the mollusk total (NISP = 7.41% and 1.73%, respectively; MNI = 4.48% and 3.90%). Subordinate site assemblage c omparisons with Agu ateca The Aguateca assemblage (Table 5 3) differed considerably from those of the the unusual context of the recovered remains, most of which were left behind in situ by consisted of shell species (NISP = 41.59%). Marine shells made up over a quarter of at the subordinate centers, their numbers were considerably greater at Aguateca (NISP = 11.64%).

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84 The mollusk remains at Aguateca more closely resembled those at Nacimiento (with the exception of marine shells), whereas the vertebrate material was more simil ar to that found at Punta de Chimino. Fish occurred infrequently (NISP = 0.26%) and included most of the same species found at Punta de Chimino (i.e. catfish and cichlids), although stingray spines were recovered in certain special deposits. Freshwater tur tle species were also common (NISP = 18.28%), particularly river turtle (NISP = 4.55%) and sliders (7.55%). Birds were not common (NISP = 0.21%), but included similar species found at Punta de Chimino, including parrots ( Amazona sp. ) and turkeys. The vari ety of mammal species found at Aguateca was not much greater than that found at Punta de Chimino, although the quantities of specimens recovered from each individual taxon was higher. Carnivores were found in considerably greater numbers, particularly dogs (NISP = 1.14%) and wild cats (0.40%), the latter of which included several species, such as jaguars, ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), and margays ( Leopardus weidii ). Of the artiodactyls, peccary were not found in considerably greater numbers than the subordi nate sites (NISP = 0.22%), and deer were found in similar frequencies (NISP = 5.06%). Overall, the large quantity of river clam and marine assemblage and those of its sub ordinate centers, although the frequencies of many vertebrate taxa are roughly similar, particularly those of the most common vertebrates recovered, turtles and deer. Species Abundance among the Three Polities When comparing the total species abundance val ues from all sites, it is immediately apparent that the largest subordinate centers had, for the most part, the greatest number of taxa and the greatest quantities of specimens. The smallest sites,

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85 the two quaternary centers (Arroyo Yaxchilan and Ana), had the least number of specimens. In terms of mammals, white tailed deer were present at nearly every site and often comprised the highest proportion of identifiable mammal material, especially at the largest sites. Turtles were also fairly common at most si tes, particularly the larger slider and river turtle varieties. Birds were generally absent at most sites. Amphibians, although infrequent and only uncovered in the largest assemblages, consisted solely of frogs/toads. Fish were also fairly uncommon, and w hen present, consisted almost exclusively of freshwater species, mostly catfish and cichlids, although stingray spines were found at both Piedras Negras and Aguateaca. Mollusk quantities vary considerably across all sites. Freshwater gastropods (jute and apple snails) and clams were generally the most common; at Aguateca, however, marine shells were the dominant species (68.36% of mollusk by NISP). At the subordinate centers, jute were either present in very high (Tecolote, Nacimiento) or very low (El Kine l, Punta de Chimino) quantities; river clam also appear to fluctuate between high and low frequencies, although their highly fragmentary nature may lead to their disproportionately high numbers at some locations. Marine shells were fairly infrequent at all sites except the capitals of Aguateca and Piedras Negras. Species of marine mollusks were variable in the Petexbatun assemblages, but consisted mostly of olives in the Usumacinta area. Comparisons of Taxa by Social Rank The following describes the results of comparisons drawn between the assemblages from structures of different status ranks at each of the polities (Piedras Negras, Yaxchilan, and Aguateca), followed by an overall comparison of status ranks among all three polities. The purpose of these comp arisons is to determine whether

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86 certain taxa were used by specific social ranks, and if these patterns exist at all three polities, or only are instead only observed in a specific region (the Usumacinta or the Petexbatun). As had been described in Chapter 4: Materials and Methods, social status was the smaller surrounding communit ies. The larger primary centers of Piedras Negras and Aguateca were divided into four major status groups, based on the architectural style of structures and the associated artifacts found in each context (Escobedo and Houston 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001; Inomata 1995, 1997 ) These groups included the royal family and palace (Rank 1); noble households located near the site core (Rank 2); a secondary level of elites, identified both near the site centers and sometimes nea r the peripheries (Rank 3); and finally a non elite class, usually occupying the smallest house mounds near the outskirts of the community, or in the case of Aguateca, low class servants and artisans living near the elite households (Rank 4). Most of the Y axchilan excavations occurred near the center core of the site (Soto Toral 1998) and therefore I tentatively identify them as belonging to upper elite status. The secondary and tertiary centers each had two major divisions: the elites (Rank 1) and lesser or non elites (Rank 2). The Usumacinta Region Social status could be determined from the contexts of two of the subsidiary Usumacinta sites: Tecolote and El Kinel. The remains from the other three sites (Esmeralda, Ana, and Arroyo Yaxchilan) came primarily from surface (humus) proveniences in plazas, and so status could not be definitively determined. Due to the

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87 nature of the excavations at Tecolote, all of the faunal material that could be identified to a particular social class came from the epicenter of the site, presumably in elite contexts. At El Kinel, status could be divided into both an upper and lower rank, in which the largest mound at the site where the monument was located, Structure H10, was considered to hold Rank 1 status while the majority of the other structures at the site, all smaller than Structure H10, were classified as Rank 2. Tables 5 5 through 5 9 show the proportions of major taxa categories identified within each rank for the Late Classic assemblages at Piedras Negras, Yaxchilan, Tecolote, and El Kinel, based on the total NISP for each rank. MNI information is not available from Piedras Negras or Yaxchilan; thus, the MNI counts are only given for the smaller two sites. However, it should be noted that general patterns in the MNI do not differ significantly from those observed f rom the NISP data when both are available, as can be observed in the Tecolote and El Kinel NISP and MNI data presented in Tables 5 7 and 5 8 where the majority of taxa appear in relatively similar proportions when using both quantification methods; thus, the NISP data by itself likely reflects reasonably accurate patterns observable in the assemblage. In terms of mammals, deer appear to have been the most common commodity found in all Usumacinta sites except Tecolote, and across most social ranks in site s where it was found. In every case, white tailed deer dominated the assemblages, particularly at Yaxchilan, where deer made up over half of the site assemblage. Deer were found in roughly the same proportions at Piedras Negras across all social ranks (~8 13% by NISP), and in both Rank 1 and Rank 2 contexts at El Kinel (~5 8% by NISP and MNI).

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88 Of the other mammals, dogs were also fairly common, occurring in roughly the same proportions at every site level and social rank (~0.5 2.5%). Peccary were rarer, e specially at Piedras Negras (<1.0% in all social ranks); the three Yaxchilan sites generally had more peccary among assemblages from the higher social ranks. Felids were only found in the elite rank contexts at Piedras Negras, and the Rank 1 contexts at bo th Yaxchilan and El Kinel (all <1.0% by NISP). Agouti/paca appear to have been slightly more common among the elite ranks at Piedras Negras, but their values are roughly the same at the other sites, regardless of social rank (~1%). Turtles were commonly found across all social ranks. For the sites closest to the rivers, large river turtles and sliders were the two most popular species, and there does not seem to be a pattern in their use among the social ranks. Tecolote was the only site included in this part of the analysis that was located several kilometers from a river, and did not include river turtle. Frequencies for fish varied only slightly across social ranks at the sites, although they were more common in the lower ranks at Piedras Negras, parti cularly Rank 3 (9.08% as opposed to ~1% among the other ranks). Three species that were extremely rare at all of the sites were tapir, turkeys, and crocodiles. Tapir were only found at the Yaxchilan sites, and only among the elite contexts. The El Kinel t apir remains likely belonged to a single individual, since the remains consisted of fragmented cranium and mandible elements. Turkeys were found among the remains of the middle class elites at Piedras Negras and the core elites at Yaxchilan. The latter rem ains were all identified as belonging to the ocellated turkey, Meleagris ocellata No turkeys were found at any of the subordinate sites; in fact, the smaller sites had very few bird remains in general. Like tapirs, crocodiles were only

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89 found at the Yaxchi lan sites (<1.0%), and were confined to the elite contexts. Interestingly, the tapir and crocodile remains at both El Kinel and Yaxchilan were found in the same contexts (Yaxchilan Structures 16, 19, and 23 around the Central Acropolis, and between Acropol is Structures 22 and 33, and in the Structure H10 1 midden at El Kinel), and mostly consisted of cranial elements from large individuals (Soto Toral 1998:39 40) Popular mollusk species found at the majority of the sites included river clams, jute, and marine shells. River clams occurred in the greatest frequencies at the lowest ranks at both Piedras Negras and El Kinel. Jute were also most common among the lowest ranks at these two sites. However, they were proportionately highest at Tecolote among the Rank 1 material (NIS P = 12.17%, MNI = 33.90%). Marine shells also do not conform strongly to social boundaries, and are found at all sites and ranks in roughly similar proportions. Marine mollusks were proportionately the greatest among the Rank 1 contexts at Piedras Negras ( 5.56%), whereas they occurred in roughly the same proportions at the other sites. Overall, there are some taxa that appear to have been common in roughly similar proportions among all social classes at the Usumacinta sites; these include deer (mostly the white tailed species), peccary, dogs, and turtles. Other species appear to have been confined to the upper elite social tiers, mainly wild cats and marine mollusks. On the other hand, some species were most commonly found in the lowest ranked contexts, inc luding fish and river clams. The Petexbatun Region Tables 5 9 through 5 11 list the distribution of the most common taxonomic groups by social rank at the sites of Aguateca Punta de Chimino, and Nacimiento, respectively. As with the Usumacinta data, MNI values for Aguateca were unavailable at

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90 the time of this study. Based on excavation data (e.g. Inomata 1995) Aguateca was divided into the same four social divisions as Piedras Negras. Almost al l of the material at Punta de Chimino came from the central Acropolis, and so it is assumed that the material was deposited by upper elite or ruling elite individuals (Rank 1). The Nacimiento material came from a number of residential groups dispersed arou nd the site; most of these appear to have been elites, although their exact rank is uncertain (Eberl and Vela 2004) The material from a cave deposit located near a lower class residential complex was not included in this comparison, since it included the incisor of a donkey and was therefore of questionable context. Since none of the Nacim iento residences belonged to the ruling elite, I consider for the present time that the Nacimient o material compared in Table 5 11 probably belongs to a lower social rank than that of Punta de Chimino. Finally, it should be noted that many of the remains a t Aguateca came from the detritus of various activities left behind on house floors when the site was rapidly abandoned, as explained in Chapter 3; thus, Aguateca has a higher proportion of remains that were not purposefully deposited in midden or fill ref use. In regards to the artiodactyls, frequencies of deer remains, mainly the white tailed deer, varied across all social ranks among the sites. At Aguateca, they were proportionally least at the lowest social rank (1.16%), and highest among the Rank 2 eli te contexts (7.32%). At the subordinate centers, their frequencies were roughly the same as the Rank 2 elite at Aguateca. Peccary were rare in most contexts regardless of social rank (<0.5% in all contexts). Dogs were found in slightly greater proportions (>2.0%) in the Rank 1 contexts of Aguateca and Punta de Chimino. Wild cats were rare (<1.0%) in most contexts, and

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91 completely absent from the Rank 4 contexts at Aguateca. Agouti/paca were also generally rare at all three sites. With the exception of Aguat than most other vertebrate species throughout the social rank tiers at Aguateca and Punta de Chimino, but were absent at Nacimiento. In the Rank 1 contexts at Aguateca, turtles made up less than 1.0% of t he total NISP; however, in the other three ranks, they made up a third of the totals, including 61.00% of the Rank 4 remains. River turtle occurred in the highest proportions in the higher ranks. River turtle also occurred in higher proportions than other turtles species in the Rank 1 contexts at Punta de Chimino. Other vertebrate species were not particularly common. These included the turkey and crocodile, which were only found among the middle ranks at Aguateca, and in similar proportions at Punta de Ch imino (<1.5%). Fish were also rare (<2.0%), and Chimino. Aguateca showed considerable variety in its mollusk assemblage, particularly among the marine taxa. Over 3,000 mar ine shell remains were found at Aguateca, compared with the four found at Punta de Chimino and two at Nacimiento. Those at Aguateca were concentrated among the upper elite and ruling class ranks, although a considerable number of marine shells were also fo und among the non elite (Rank 4), who may have been artisans. In regards to freshwater mollusks, river clam were particularly popular in most contexts, especially among the Rank 1 assemblage at Aguateca (26.65%). Jute were mostly concentrated in the Rank 2 contexts at Aguateca

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92 (1.21%) and in various contexts at Nacimiento (NISP = 46.15%), but were almost top ranking elite contexts, as well as at Nacimiento. Deer and turtles were the most common vertebrates across most social classes. The higher ranked social classes tended to have more river clam and marine mollusks. The middle classes of Aguateca (Ranks 2 and 3) tended to have the highest proportions of most species (i.e. deer, dogs, cats, fish), which were found in similar proportions at Punta de Chimino as well, revealing a correlation between the middle ranked elite of Aguateca and the top ranked elite at Punta de Chimino. Comparisons between Polities Despite the fact that the sites used in this comparison were contemporaneous during the Late Classic period, they exhibit a considerable degree of variation among their assemblages. The following overviews some of the general relationships discovered among the three polities, in regards to comparisons of taxa by social rank. Overall, there appears to be considerably more variation between the two major regions of the Usumacinta and the Petexbatun than amon g the three different polities. Species found in the highest ranked elite contexts at the Usumacinta sites were generally found in the middle ranked elite and lesser elite groups at Aguateca, whereas the Aguateca elite had proportionately more shellfish. T hese taxa included peccary, wild cats, agouti, turkeys, and crocodiles. Deer were common in all social ranks at the Usumacinta sites, but were mostly concentrated in the upper elite ranks at Aguateca. River turtles showed some indication of being used more frequently among the higher ranked elite at Aguateca and Punta de Chimino than the lower ranks, but there was no

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93 relationship between their use among elite and non elite contexts at the Usumacinta sites. In both regions, fish were most common among the lo wer ranked elite (Rank 3) contexts. Mollusks occurred far more frequently among the highest ranks at the Petexbatun sites than the Usumacinta ones, particularly marine shells and river clams. The inverse occurred at the Usumacinta sites, where river clams were proportionately higher in the lowest ranking contexts. Marine mollusks were the only taxa found in proportionately higher values among the top ranked elite at both the Usumacinta and Petexbatun regions. Comparison of Ritual Practices The following des cribes the results of the comparison of faunal remains found in ritual deposits in both the Usumacinta and Petexbatun sites. For the purposes of this study, ritual remains included any bones or shells found in clearly designated deposits, such as caches, b urials, and termination deposits. As described in Chapter 2: Overview of Maya Political Theory and Economics, many animals in the Maya region had special symbolic connotations. Thus, the purpose of this comparison is not to identify which animals were ritu ally significant, but to instead determine any patterns in the use of specific animal taxa in ritual deposits according to political affiliation or site size. Ritual Practices Observed in the Usumacinta Tables 5 12 through 5 14 show the distribution of imp ortant taxa from definitively identified ritual contexts at the Usumacinta sites. Again, MNI values were only a vailable for Tecolote (Table 5 13) and El Kinel (Table 5 14 ). Yaxchilan did not have any information available to quantify values for ritual rema ins, with the exception of the

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94 mention of several elements of two pumas found near two separate monuments (Stela 1 and 3) near the center of the site (Soto Toral 1998:38) Piedras Negras (Table 5 12 ) had the most variety and largest quantities of remains in its ritual deposits Many taxa were found in proportionately greater quantities at this site than the subsidiary sites, particularly deer and agouti/paca. Some ritually deposited taxa, including turkeys, crocodiles, and marine mollusks, were only found at Piedras Negras. Wil d cats were only found at the two capital sites, Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan, and not at the subsidiary centers. Piedras Negras and the subsidiary center of Tecolote shared several taxa in ritual deposits, despite the fact that Tecolote was a subsidiary c enter in the Yaxchilan polity; these taxa included peccary, agouti/paca, fish, and jute. Ritual deposits at El Kinel were rare, and only included a few possible burial offerings. The only ritually deposited taxa shared by Piedras Negras and the both of the two subsidiary communities were turtles and river clam. Ritual Practices Observed in the Petexbatun Tables 5 15 through 5 17 list the ritual remains recovered from the three Petexbatun sites. As at the Usumacinta sites, ritual deposits include termination deposits, caches, and conclusive burial goods; in the case of Aguateca (Table 5 15 ), cache remains also included a significant number of artifacts deposited in the unique grieta or natural gorge, which runs through the site. Definitive ritual deposits we re rare at the subordinate centers. At Punta de Chimino (Table 5 16 ), the only ritual offering dating to the Late Classic was a questionable deposit located near the west face of Structure 6A, beside a stucco mask (Bachand 2005:15.7 8) The only ritual offering unc overed at Nacimiento (Table 5 17 ) included a bowl placed in a burial in one of the upper class residences, which contained several jute (Eberl 2007:263, 265)

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95 Aguateca had a far greater variety of ritually deposited taxa than the subordinate communities, and while some species were only found at Aguateca, others were shared w Aguateca deposits included peccary, wild cats, agouti/paca, and marine mollusks. A guateca and Punta de Chimino shared several ritually deposited vertebrates, which included deer, dogs, fish, and turtles, the latter consisting mostly of the large river rit ual deposits were mollusks, specifically river clam and jute, both freshwater species. Summary of Ritually Deposited Taxa Ritually deposited taxa showed more similarities when compared between sites of different size than sites within the same polity. The capitals, in particular, shared many ritually deposited taxa that were rare or nonexistent in the subordinate center deposits. These included wild cats, agouti/paca, and marine mollusks. Peccary and dogs were mostly only found at the capital deposits as we ll. Turkeys might have been expected to be an important ritual taxa based on their depictions as offerings in the early Colonial Maya codices and historical records (Bricker 1991; De Landa 1941:146; Seler 2004: Madr id 24 27, Dresden 25 28) as well as in archaeological representations (Sharpe et al. [In Press]) ; however, only three bones were recovered from Piedras Negras. Crocodiles, which would also have been expected to be a symbolically important species based on archaeological representations and ethnohis toric documents (Joyce 2001; Thurston and Healy 2010) were similarly rare. Ritually deposited taxa found at most sites, both capitals and subordinate centers alike, included turt les, fish, and river clam, all taxa that could be acquired from the rivers. Jute were also found at both capital

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96 and subordinate communities, although they occurred in greater proportions at the subordinate centers. Overall, ritually deposited taxa appear to have differed more in relation to site size than polity or region. Taxonomic Diversity This section compares the taxonomic diversity calculated for all ten sites included in the study. Taxonomic diversity was assessed in order to observe variations in t he breadth of animal resources used at each of the sites, as well as how evenly distributed remains were among species types. Diversity was compared between the different site levels to determine whether greater diversity correlated with larger sites; furt hermore, it was compared among the different social ranks within the largest sites, in order to determine which rank had access to the greatest variety of animal species. Diversity Comparisons between Capital and Subordinate Sites Figure 5 1 (Table 5 18 ) c ompares diversity and equitability (evenness) values across each of the sites included in the study, arranged according to site level (primary, secondary, etc). Contrary to the initial hypothesis that the capital sites would have the highest diversity due to their size and the greater economic and political links between the capitals and other regions (as described in Chapter 4), this was not the case; whereas both the Piedras Negras and Aguateca assemblages had higher diversity than any other site, Yaxchil an had less diversity and equitability than two of its subordinate centers, Tecolote and El Kinel, and more closely resembled the secondary centers in general. This may have been due to the proportionately high number of deer tha t made up its total assemblage. Piedras Negras had the highest 2.6303 ). Interestingly, El Kinel, although being a small tertiary

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97 and which c onformed more closely to those observed at the primary centers than any of the other sites. The secondary centers tended to have higher diversity than the tertiary and quaternary centers, with the exception of El Kinel. Tecolote displayed the highest div Yaxchilan, as its neighbor El Kinel had done. Punta de Chimino had the lowest turt le remains found at its Acropolis. The two smaller secondary sites, Nacimiento and Tecolote, had equitability values that were at least half as much greater. The quaternary centers had the least number of remains, and since they also had some of the lowest diversity values, their equitability values came close to the absolute equitability term of 1.0. When comparing intra polity variation, the capitals tended to have the most diversity, with decreasing values (and often increasing equitability) as sites b ecame progressively smaller. However, the sites within the Yaxchilan polity were an exception to this rule. The exception does not seem to be the result of the quantity of remains recovered from the sites, since Tecolote had far fewer remains than Yaxchila n did; instead, it seems to be primarily due to the number of deer found at the capital of Yaxchilan, a pattern that was not observed at any of the other centers. This result may also have been due to the fact that excavations at Yaxchilan were concentrate d at the central Acropolis, and so did not include the same variety of contexts excavated at Piedras Negras and Aguateca.

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98 Diversity and Social Rank Figure 5 2 (Table 5 19 ) compares diversity among class rank at the three capitals, as well as the secondary center of Punta de Chimino and the tertiary center of El Kinel. These sites were chosen because they had the largest assemblages and, in the case of the first four, clearly defined class differences. Although diversity is not necessarily a direct measure o f social rank, it has been hypothesized that the elite members of society often have access to a wider variety of resources, and that this is reflected in higher diversities in their material remains (for example, s ee Jackson and Scott 2003; Pohl 1994; Zeder 1991) However, it is notable that deposit s (Ranks 2 and 3) at both Piedras Negras and Aguateca had the greatest diversity of taxa The rank 1 structure deposits at these sites were simi lar in diversity to the lowest rank at Piedras Negras (the non elite contexts). The lowest diversity values were generally confined to deposits from the lowest ranks, except for the deposits of the non elite class at Piedras Negras, which exhibited a simil ar amount of diversity in its assemblage to that of the rank 1 Piedras Negras were not particularly variable, whereas they ranged the most across the social ranks at Aguateca. Punta de Chimino had the lowe st diversity of any elite context, due to the number of turtle remains recovered at the central Acropolis. At El Kinel, the Structure H10 1 midden material is similar to that from upper elite structures at the capitals The material recovered from what may have been lower class residences at the site exhibit diversity values that conform to what would be expected for the lowest ranking households in the primary communities. These studies therefore indicate that, although elite contexts tend to exhibit highe r diversity than those of non elites, the highest (and often, ruling) elite

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99 class contexts exhibit less diversity than those of the middle elite. The elite at the subsidiary centers tend to have less diversity than the elite at the primary centers, althoug h their diversity values still exceed those of the subordinate non elite assemblages. Habitat Fidelity This section compares habitat fidelity values among the different sites in order to determine what types of environments may have surrounded each site du ring the Late Classic period. Sites of different size are compared to determine if the environments surrounding the capital sites differed from those around the smaller subordinate communities. Habitat fidelity values were also compared among the different social ranks at the capital sites to determine if elite members of the sites were obtaining animal resources from different environments than the non elite inhabitants. Habitat types included in this assessment were mature forest, secondary or disturbed f orest, agricultural or residential areas (devoid of forest cover), rivers, and wetlands. Figure 5 3a compares total fidelity values for the three capital sites, as well as the subordinate centers. By region, the two Usumacinta capitals (Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan) had higher forest fidelity values than the Petexbatun site of Aguateca, where inhabitants apparently relied more on river and wetland resources. River and wetland taxa were least proportionately frequent at Yaxchilan. Of the terrestrial habitat types, secondary forest values were highest at all three sites. Figure 5 3b compares the fidelity values based only on the terrestrial data. Interestingly, when the river and wetland habitats are excluded, the terrestrial data looks nearly identical for a ll three of the capital sites, with mature forest habitats occurring at the lowest frequencies and secondary and cleared forest at the highest frequencies.

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100 Examining the subsidiary center fidelity values from Figures 5 3a and b, it is immediately noticeab le that all four centers compared here (Punta de Chimino, Nacimiento, Tecolote, and El Kinel) relied considerably more on river taxa than any other habitat type, similar to the pattern observed at Aguateca. Tecolote had a slightly higher proportion of matu re forest taxa, although the proportions were low (<0.1) at all four sites. El Kinel was the only site with a relatively greater proportion of wetland taxa than the other sites (0.19). When examining the terrestrial habitat data alone (Figure 5 3b), value s differ considerably among the four subsidiary sites. Whereas all four had resembled the Aguateca assemblage when assessing both riverine and terrestrial habitat types, none of the subordinate centers closely resemble any of the capital sites when looking at terrestrial data alone. The terrestrial habitat fidelity values for the capitals was nearly identical, and the subordinate center that came closest to resembling their pattern was El Kinel, although it had a greater proportion of mature forest taxa. Th e other Usumacinta site, Tecolote, had the highest proportion of mature forest taxa. The two Petexbatun sites had higher secondary and cleared forest (agricultural) habitat values than the capital sites, as well as the Usumacinta subordinate centers. Figu re 5 4a compares fidelity values for all habitat types at the different social t proportionately as social rank decreased at Piedras Negras. The proportion of mature forest taxa also appears to have decreased down the social tiers. This is most

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101 notice able in Figure 5 4b, which compares the terrestrial habitat data for the different social ranks. Figure 5 5 compares the four ranks at Aguateca. Due to the unusual nature of of shell working activities, Figure 5 5b models the fidelity values for Aguateca without including mollusk species. As at Piedras Negras, riverine taxa are more common among the lesser and non elite social ranks when the shell remains at Aguateca are exclu ded. When examining the terrestrial data alone (Figure 5 5c), the top three ranks (greater and lesser elites) have remarkably similar habitat fidelity proportions, with forest taxa appearing in slightly greater proportions among the non elite assemblage. T his is the opposite of what was observed at Piedras Negras, where the elite had higher proportions of mature forest taxa. Overall, it appears that the residents of the Petexbatun sites relied more heavily on species from riverine habitats than did those of the Usumacinta sites. There is some indication that the Usumacinta site residents used more mature forest species, particularly at the subordinate sites. The subordinate centers relied significantly more on riverine taxa than the capitals, with the except ion of Aguateca. In terms of social rank at the capital centers, the lesser and non elite at both Aguateca and Piedras Negras obtained the highest quantities of species from riverine habitats. When comparing terrestrial habitats, the proportion of mature f orest taxa decreased down the social ranks while agricultural taxa increased at the Usumacinta capitals, but the opposite occurred at Aguateca. Of the terrestrial habitat types, taxa from secondary forest habitats were

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102 the most common at nearly all of the sites, with taxa from mature forest habitats appearing the least. Distribution of White Tailed Deer Elements This section reviews the analysis of the distribution of white tailed deer elements across each site by social rank and site size to determine if t he highest ranking elite of the primary centers were consuming significantly higher proportions of certain body parts. It was hypothesized in Chapter 4 that portioning would not be as extensive at the smaller communities, since they would not have such a r egimented social hierarchy. Overa ll, as Figure 5 6 and Table 5 20 show, these hypotheses proved true: the higher classes at the capitals were the only groups to have significantly higher proportions of fore and hindlimbs than the expected values, and the l owest ranking classes at the these centers displayed a similar pattern in body part distribution to the secondary and tertiary centers. Thus, the results show that the higher classes at the capitals had shoulders and haunches. Selective acquisition of certain body portions, and possibly even provisioning, appears to have been taking place most extensively at the primary centers. For the capital datasets, the royal elite and t op ranked core elite (Ranks 1 and 2 on all of the previous comparisons) were grouped due to sample size. The elites at all three primary centers displayed significantly higher proportions of fore and hindlimbs than would be expected from a full carcass, wi th Yaxchilan having the most. The Aguateca elite had significantly more hindlimbs, but not forelimbs. Cranial, axial, and distal elements were usually at expected levels, or, as often was the case concerning the axial elements, were significantly less than expected.

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103 The lower ranking elite at the primary centers exhibited distribution patterns that were remarkably similar to the values that characterized the higher ranking secondary and tertiary communities. Within the deposits of the primary center lower ranking elite, and also those of the subsidiary center elite, the quantities of fore and hindlimbs were usually higher than the other body parts, though they often fell around the expected frequency, unlike the capital sites. There is an unusual dearth o f cranial and axial elements at most of the sites, with the exception of Yaxchilan. Even among the top ranking elite at both Piedras Negras and Aguateca, cranial elements fall within the lower half of the expected frequency range. Axial elements fall below the expected frequencies for all sites except Yaxchilan. As will be explained in the next chapter, this does not appear to have been the result of poor preservation alone, since cranial elements included teeth, which would have been expected to preserve b etter than any other element type. Thus, the results show that not only was there selective acquisition for fore and hindlimbs among the elite at the three capitals, but that all sites, with the exception of Yaxchilan, lacked cranial and axial elements in their recovered assemblages. Artifact Production The following describes the extent of artifact production at the sites by comparing the amount of bones and shells that were either debitage or finished products. The purpose of this analysis was to determin e whether crafting activities were more or less commonly conducted at the capital or subordinate centers. Remains of artifact production were also compared at the two capital centers of Piedras Negras and Aguateca, which both had the largest assemblages, i n order to determine if artifact production took place in particular social ranks (i.e. high elite, lesser elite, or non elite

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104 classes). Craft production was categorized into three groups: finished products, consisting of either intact artifacts or the bro ken remains of carved or polished artifacts; artifacts in production distinguished by bones and shells the exhibit evidence for clear cuts on the sides but no finished (i.e. polished or smoothed) surfaces; and artifacts in an undetermined stage, either bec ause they could not be clearly distinguished as finished products or debitage, or because they could not be clearly distinguished from butchering debris. The sites of Yaxchilan and Tecolote are excluded from this analysis, since neither had clearly documen ted evidence for artifact production debris, although both sites had some examples of finished artifacts. Table 5 21 and Figure 5 7 show the relative proportion of finished artifacts and those in production in the largest assemblages, including both capi tal (Piedras Negras and Aguateca) and subordinate (Punta de Chimino, Nacimiento, and El Kinel) centers. Finished products were most proportionately common at the largest sites, with the exception of Nacimiento, where they were also found in high proportion s. Evidence for crafting debitage occurred most frequently at Punta de Chimino and El Kinel, in roughly similar proportions. The number of artifacts at the largest site was considerably higher than at the subordinate centers, although there does not appear to be relationship between the number of artifacts and the size of the site, since El Kinel, a tertiary center, had a larger number of artifacts than the two secondary sites. Figure 5 8 shows the proportions of finished artifacts and debitage in the asse mblages from different social ranks at the two capital s ites, Piedras Negras (Table 5 22) and Aguateca (Table 5 23 ). Perhaps because many of the artifacts at Aguateca were left in situ when the site was abandoned, it has a significantly greater number of

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105 a rtifacts than Piedras Negras. At both sites, artifactual debitage was greatest among the middle elite classes (Rank 2 and Rank 3), whereas evidence for finished products was greatest among the ruling elite (Rank 1). Evidence for artifact production in the form of debitage was proportionally highest among the upper elite at Piedras Negras, but at Aguateca debitage occurred most frequently among the lesser elite class. Overall, the proportion of debitage from craft activities was greatest at the subordinate communities when comparing sites by size, and greatest among the middle and lesser ranking elite at Piedras Negras and Aguateca when comparing social ranks at the capitals. The proportion of finished artifacts was greatest among the ruling elite ranks at the capital sites. From this analysis, it appears that the middle ranking elite and the subordinate communities were the most involved in craft making activities. Summary of Results The results from these analyses indicate that there was marked variation a mong the faunal assemblages from each of the centers during the Late Classic period regardless of size, political affiliation, or social rank; however, a few unique trends emerge. The faunal assemblages from the largest sites tend to have the highest speci es diversity among the upper elite, although this is partly due to the number of marine shells recovered at the capital centers, evidence of their greater economic power and trade reach. El Kinel was the major exception among the subordinate centers, since although it was a small tertiary center, its remains exhibited considerable species diversity and therefore resembled those of the capital centers. Diversity appears to be linked to site size in that top tiered sites had a greater diversity of animal reso urces than did the lower level sites. There is no appreciable difference in taxonomic diversity between sites within the two polities. Class rank differences are found at the

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106 primary, secondary, and tertiary site levels, and generally consist of an elite c lass with greater numbers of larger bodied mammals and marine mollusks, a middle class group with greater taxonomic diversity than either the highest or lowest ranks, and lower ranked groups with the least taxonomic diversity. Elite animal resources origi nate from a wide variety of habitat types, whereas lower ranks tend to rely more on riverine species, such as turtles and freshwater shellfish. Elites also had greater access to mature forest species, suggesting possible trade and provisioning with other a reas. In addition to social rank differences, habitat fidelity values show that there was a greater reliance on forest taxa in the Usumacinta region, and on riverine species in the Petexbatun. The subordinate communities relied considerably more on riverin e taxa than the capital sites had done, with the exception of Aguateca. In terms of possible evidence of provisioning for deer skeletal elements, significantly high quantities of fore and hindlimbs were recovered from the elite classes at the primary cente rs, but not at the subordinate sites. Finally, evidence for craft production was greatest among the subordinate centers when comparing sites by size, and among the middle ranking elite at the capital sites when comparing social ranks, suggesting that the u pper elite classes, who had the greatest proportion of finished products, were the recipients of these crafted items. Overall, there are several clear distinctions between class rank that emerge at all of the sites, as well as variations on the regional (U sumacinta versus Petexbatun) level, the implications of which will be assessed in further detail in the next chapter.

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107 Table 5 1. Relative abundance of faunal remains recovered from the Usumacinta capitals of Yaxchilan and Piedras Negras arranged in taxo nomic order Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Yaxchilan Gastropoda Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 1 0.07 Orthalicus princeps Tree snail 4 0.28 Cassis madagascariensis Cameo helmet 2 0.14 Turbinella angulata West Indian chank shell 1 0.07 Oliva sp. Olive shell 1 0.07 Bivalvia Unionidae River clam 2 0.14 Nephronaias microdon River clam 10 0.69 Psoronaias psoricus River clam 17 1.18 Psoronaias ostreatus River clam 19 1.31 Arca zebra Turkey wing ark clam 1 0.07 Reptilia Crocodylus moreletii Morelet's crocodile 7 0.48 Kinosternon sp. Mud turtle 3 0.21 Dermatemys mawii Central American river turtle 34 2.35 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 39 2.70 Aves Dendrocygna autumnalis Black bellied whis tling duck 1 0.07 Cairina moschata Muscovy duck 1 0.07 Buteo nitidus Grey hawk 29 2.01 Crax rubra Great curassow 10 0.69 Meleagris ocellata Ocellated turkey 7 0.48 Geococcyx velox Lesser roadrunner 1 0.07 Ciccaba virgata Mottled owl 3 0.21

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108 Table 5 1. Continued Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Yaxchilan Mammalia Philander opossum Grau four eyed opossum 1 0.07 Alouatta pigra Howler monkey 13 0.90 Dasypus novemcinctus Nine banded armadillo 2 0.14 Sylvila gus brasiliensis Forest rabbit 2 0.14 Orthogeomys hispidus Pocket gopher 1 0.07 Agouti paca Lowland paca 15 1.04 Canis familiaris Domestic dog 37 2.56 Urocyon cinereoargenteus Grey fox 2 0.14 Puma concolor Puma 7 0.48 Pecari tajacu White lipped peccary 55 3.80 Tayassu pecari Collared peccary 10 0.69 Sus domesticus/scrofa Domestic pig 5 0.35 Mazama americana Brocket deer 63 4.36 Odocoileus virginianus White tailed deer 742 51.31 Bos taurus Cow 1 0.07 Tapirus ba irdii Baird's tapir 16 1.11 Unidentified Unidentified 281 19.43 Total 1446 100.00 Piedras Negras Gastropoda Pachychilus glaphyrus Jute 1 0.02 Pachychilus indiorum Jute 149 2.61 Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 36 0.63 Annularii dae Land snail 1 0.02 Chondrothyra sp. Land snail 1 0.02 Euglandina sp. Wolfsnail 7 0.12 Neocyclotus dysoni Tree snail 10 0.17 Orthalicus sp. Tree snail 8 0.14

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109 Table 5 1. Continued Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Piedra s Negras Gastropoda Conidae Sea snail 1 0.02 Conus cf. sozoni Sozon's cone 1 0.02 Busycon coarctatum Turnip whelk 1 0.02 Busycon sinistrum Lightning whelk 1 0.02 Busycotypus canaliculatus Channeled whelk 1 0.02 Cassidae/Strombidae Helme t/Conch 1 0.02 Strombidae Conch 4 0.07 Strombus sp True conch 4 0.07 Strombus cf. pugilis West Indian fighting conch 1 0.02 Oliva sp. Olive shell 4 0.07 Oliva sayana Lettered olive 2 0.03 Olivella nivea/perplexa Dwarf olive 1 0.02 Cypraea sp. Cowry 1 0.02 Dentalium sp. Tusk shell 1 0.02 Nerita versicolor Four tooth nerite 1 0.02 Gastropoda Gastropod 7 0.12 Bivalvia Gastropoda, marine Marine gastropod 67 1.17 Unionidae River clam 50 0.87 Nephronais sp. Rive r clam 2 0.03 Psoronaias sp. River clam 86 1.50 Cardiidae Cockle shell 2 0.03 Papyridea soleniformis Spiny paper cockle shell 1 0.02 Carditamera sp. Cardita 2 0.03 Chione cf. cancellata Cross barred venus 1 0.02 Spondylus americanus Spondylus 63 1.10 Lucina cf. muricata Spinose lucine 1 0.02

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110 Table 5 1. Continued Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Piedras Negras Bivalvia Anomalocardia sp. Venus shell 1 0.02 Ostrea sp. Oyster 1 0.02 Tellina sp. Tellin 1 0.0 2 Undetermined Mollusca Bivalvia Bivalve 2 0.03 Mollusca Mollusk 21 0.37 Chondrichthyes Mollusca, marine Marine mollusk 3 0.05 Dasyatidae Stingrays 16 0.28 Actinopterygii Rajiformes Ray/Sawfish/Skate 2 0.03 Siluriformes Catfish 10 0.17 Ictaluridae Freshwater catfish 3 0.05 Ictalurus sp. Freshwater catfish 33 0.58 Ariidae Marine catfish 5 0.09 Actinopterygii Fish 63 1.10 Amphibia Actinopterygii, small Fish, small 1 0.02 Bufo sp. Toad 1 0.02 Bufo marinus Marine toad 1 0.02 Anura Frog/Toad 4 0.07 Amphibia Amphibian 3 0.05 Reptilia Amphibia/Reptilia Amphibian/Reptile 1 0.02 Crocodylidae Crocodile 1 0.02 Squamata Scaled reptile 13 0.23 Lacertilia Lizard 20 0.35 Iguanidae Iguana 1 0.02 Iguana iguana Green iguana 3 0.05

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111 Table 5 1. Continued Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Piedras Negras Reptilia Testudines Turtle 243 4.25 Kinosternidae Mud/Musk turtle 2 0.03 Kinosternon sp. Mud turtle 2 0.03 Staurotypus tri porcatus Giant musk turtle 5 0.09 Dermatemys mawii Central American river turtle 115 2.01 Emydidae Pond turtle 13 0.23 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 70 1.22 Cheloniidae/Dermochelyidae Sea turtle 23 0.40 Serpentes Snake 12 0.21 Reptilia Reptile 18 0.31 Aves Reptilia, small Reptile, small 2 0.03 Tigrisoma mexicanum Bare throated tiger heron 2 0.03 Phalacrocorax sp. Cormorant 1 0.02 Strigidae True owl 4 0.07 Phasianidae Gallinaceous birds 3 0.05 Colinus s p. Quail 16 0.28 Meleagris sp. Turkey 6 0.10 Columbridae Pigeon/Dove 1 0.02 Aves Bird 28 0.49 Aves, large Bird, large 7 0.12 Aves, medium Bird, medium 8 0.14 Mammalia Aves, small Bird, small 24 0.42 Didelphidae Opossum 2 0.03 Didelphis sp. Opossum 3 0.05 Dasypus novemcinctus Nine banded armadillo 36 0.63 Rodentia Rodent 141 2.47

PAGE 112

112 Table 5 1. Continued Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Piedras Negras Mammalia Sigmodontinae Rodent 6 0.10 Sigmodon hisp idus Hispid cotton rat 1 0.02 Ototylomys phyllotis Big eared climbing rat 4 0.07 Muridae Rodent 1 0.02 Sciurus deppeii Deppe's squirrel 2 0.03 Sylvilagus sp. Rabbit 10 0.17 Geomyidae Gopher 5 0.09 Orthogeomys sp. Gopher 12 0.21 Orthogeomys hispidus Pocket gopher 7 0.12 Agoutidae Agouti/Paca 1 0.02 Agouti paca Lowland paca 26 0.45 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 62 1.08 Carnivora Carnivore 2 0.03 Canidae Canid 6 0.10 Canis sp. Dog/Wolf 2 0.03 Canis lupus fam iliaris Domestic dog 77 1.35 Urocyon cinereoargenteus Grey fox 2 0.03 Procyonidae Raccoon/Coati 2 0.03 Procyon lotor Raccoon 4 0.07 Nasua narica Coati 3 0.05 Mustelidae Weasel 2 0.03 Felidae Felid 3 0.05 Leopardus pardalis Ocelo t 1 0.02 Panthera onca Jaguar 3 0.05 Puma concolor Puma 10 0.17

PAGE 113

113 Table 5 1. Continued Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Piedras Negras Mammalia Artiodactyl Artiodactyl 15 0.26 Tayassuidae Peccary 28 0.49 Pecari tajacu Colla red peccary 2 0.03 Tayassu pecari White lipped peccary 1 0.02 Cervidae Deer 18 0.31 Mazama sp. Brocket deer 17 0.30 Odocoileus virginianus White tailed deer 566 9.90 Mammalia Mammal 1074 18.79 Mammalia, medium large Mammal, medium l arge 848 14.84 Mammalia, medium Mammal, medium 308 5.39 Mammalia, medium small Mammal, medium small 245 4.29 Undetermined Vertebrata Mammalia, small Mammal, small 90 1.57 Tetrapoda Tetrapod 3 0.05 Vertebrata Vertebrate 729 12.76 Tota l 5715 100.00

PAGE 114

114 Table 5 2. Relative abundance of faunal remains recovered from the five Usumacinta subordinate sites arranged in taxonomic order Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Yaxchilan Tecolote Gastropoda Pachychilus indioru m Jute 41 12.06 40 33.61 Bulimulidae Land snail 3 0.88 3 2.52 Chondropoma sp. Land snail 5 1.47 4 3.36 Euglandina sp. Wolfsnail 16 4.71 6 5.04 Helicina amoena Land snail 3 0.88 3 2.52 Neocyclotus sp. Tree snail 3 0.88 1 0.84 N eocyclotus dysoni Tree snail 7 2.06 7 5.88 Orthalicus sp. Tree snail 3 0.88 3 2.52 Orthalicus princeps Tree snail 4 1.18 2 1.68 Pomatiidae Land snail 2 0.59 1 0.84 Oliva sp. Olive shell 2 0.59 2 1.68 Gastropoda Gastropod 10 2.94 6 5.04 Gastropoda, large Gastropod, large 1 0.29 1 0.84 Gastropoda, very small Gastropod, very small 1 0.29 1 0.84 Bivalvia Unionidae River clam 5 1.47 3 2.52 Psoronaias sp. River clam 4 1.18 3 2.52 Undetermined Mollusca Mollusca Mollu sk 1 0.29 1 0.84 Actinopterygii Actinopterygii Fish 1 0.29 1 0.84 Amphibia Anura Frog/Toad 1 0.29 1 0.84 Reptilia Iguana iguana Green iguana 1 0.29 1 0.84 Testudines Turtle 31 9.12 1 0.84 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 1 0.29 1 0.84 Aves Cardinalidae Cardinal 1 0.29 1 0.84 Aves Bird 1 0.29 1 0.84

PAGE 115

115 Table 5 2. Continued Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Yaxchilan Tecolote Mammalia Chiroptera Bat 3 0.88 3 2.52 Rodentia Rodent 5 1.47 3 2.52 Orthogeomys sp. Gopher 2 0.59 2 1.68 Agouti paca Lowland paca 1 0.29 1 0.84 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 2 0.59 1 0.84 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog 2 0.59 1 0.84 Artiodactyla Artiodactyl 1 0.29 0 0.00 Tayassuidae Peccary 9 2.65 3 2.52 Cervidae Deer 1 0.29 1 0.84 Odocoileus virginianus White tailed deer 5 1.47 4 3.36 Mammalia Mammal 52 15.29 2 1.68 Mammalia, medium Mammal, medium 67 19.71 1 0.84 Mammalia, medium small Mammal, medium small 8 2.35 1 0. 84 Mammalia, small Mammal, small 18 5.29 0 0.00 Undetermined Vertebrata Vertebrata Vertebrate 3 0.88 1 0.84 Vertebrata, medium small Vertebrate, medium small 2 0.59 1 0.84 Vertebrata, small Vertebrate, small 11 3.24 0 0.00 Total 34 0 100.00 119 100.00 Yaxchilan El Kinel Gastropoda Pachychilus indiorum Jute 1 0.03 1 0.43 Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 2 0.06 2 0.86 Pomacea sp. Apple snail 4 0.12 4 1.72 Bulimulus sp. Land snail 5 0.15 5 2.15 Euglandina sp. Wolfsnail 2 0.06 2 0.86

PAGE 116

116 Table 5 2. Continued Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Yaxchilan El Kinel Orthalicus princeps Tree snail 1 0.03 1 0.43 Oliva sp. Olive shell 1 0.03 1 0.43 Gastropoda, large Gastropod, large 2 0.06 2 0.86 Gastropoda, very small Gastropod, very small 1 0.03 1 0.43 Gastropoda, terrestrial Gastropod, terrestrial 1 0.03 1 0.43 Gastropoda, marine Gastropod, marine 1 0.03 1 0.43 Bivalvia Unionidae River clam 74 2.27 27 11.59 Psoronaias sp. River clam 36 1.10 14 6.01 Undetermined Mollusca Mollusca Mollusk 3 0.09 3 1.29 Actinopterygii Ictaluridae Freshwater catfish 4 0.12 3 1.29 Ictalurus furcatus Blue catfish 4 0.12 1 0.43 Perciformes Perch like fish 1 0.03 1 0.43 Centropomus sp. Snook 2 0.06 1 0.43 Cichlasoma urophthalma Mayan cichlid 4 0.12 2 0.86 Actinopterygii Fish 22 0.68 3 1.29 Amphibia Anura Frog/Toad 27 0.83 9 3.86 Reptilia Crocodylidae Crocodile 20 0.61 1 0.43 Lacertilia Liz ard 6 0.18 3 1.29 Iguana iguana Green iguana 8 0.25 1 0.43 Testudines Turtle 88 2.70 3 1.29 Testudines, medium large Turtle, medium large 246 7.55 0 0.00 Testudines, small Turtle, small 2 0.06 0 0.00 Kinosternidae Mud/musk turtle 1 3 0.40 2 0.86 Kinosternon sp. Mud turtle 62 1.90 3 1.29

PAGE 117

117 Table 5 2. Continued Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Yaxchilan El Kinel Staurotypus triporcatus Giant musk turtle 2 0.06 1 0.43 Chelydra serpentina Snapper tur tle 1 0.03 1 0.43 Dermatemys mawii Central American river turtle 235 7.21 3 1.29 Emydidae Pond turtle 55 1.69 2 0.86 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 243 7.46 2 0.86 Aves Aves, medium small Bird, medium small 1 0.03 1 0.43 Ave s, small Bird, small 2 0.06 1 0.43 Mammalia Didelphis sp. Opossum 5 0.15 2 0.86 Dasypus novemcinctus Nine banded armadillo 352 10.80 2 0.86 Rodentia Rodent 406 12.46 85 36.48 Muridae Rodent 1 0.03 1 0.43 Leporidae Rabbit 1 0.03 1 0. 43 Sylvilagus sp. Rabbit 3 0.09 1 0.43 Orthogeomys hispidus Pocket gopher 5 0.15 1 0.43 Agoutidae Agouti/Paca 2 0.06 1 0.43 Agouti paca Lowland paca 6 0.18 1 0.43 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 5 0.15 3 1.29 Carnivora Carnivore 6 0.18 0 0.00 Canidae Canid 14 0.43 0 0.00 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog 36 1.10 5 2.15 Urocyon cinereoargenteus Grey fox 2 0.06 1 0.43

PAGE 118

118 Table 5 2. Continued Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Yaxchilan El Kinel Felidae, large Felid, large 1 0.03 0 0.00 Panthera onca Jaguar 1 0.03 1 0.43 Artiodactyl Artiodactyl 16 0.49 0 0.00 Tayassuidae Peccary 26 0.80 3 1.29 Cervidae Deer 40 1.23 0 0.00 Mazama sp. Brocket deer 29 0.89 4 1.72 Odocoi leus virginianus White tailed deer 174 5.34 9 3.86 Tapirus bairdii Baird's tapir 113 3.47 1 0.43 Mammalia Mammal 465 14.27 1 0.43 Mammalia, medium large Mammal, medium large 29 0.89 0 0.00 Mammalia, medium Mammal, medium 180 5.52 0 0.00 Mammalia, medium small Mammal, medium small 49 1.50 0 0.00 Mammalia, small Mammal, small 4 0.12 0 0.00 Undetermined Vertebrata Vertebrata Vertebrate 99 3.04 1 0.43 Vertebrata, medium large Vertebrate, medium small 2 0.06 0 0.00 Ver tebrata, medium Vertebrate, medium 3 0.09 0 0.00 Vertebrata, small Vertebrate, small 1 0.03 0 0.00 Total 3258 100.00 233 100.00

PAGE 119

119 Table 5 2. Continued Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Yaxchilan Arroyo Yaxchi lan Gastropoda Olividae Olive shell 1 14.29 1 25.00 Reptilia Testudines Turtle 2 28.57 1 25.00 Mammalia Dasypus novemcinctus Nine banded armadillo 2 28.57 1 25.00 Mammalia Mammal 2 28.57 1 25.00 Total 7 100.00 4 100.00 Piedr as Negras Esmeralda Reptilia Testudines Turtle 1 1.67 1 9.09 Testudines, medium small Turtle, medium small 5 8.33 1 9.09 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 2 3.33 1 9.09 Mammalia Dasypus novemcinctus Nine banded armadillo 2 3.33 1 9.09 Tayassuidae Peccary 1 1.67 1 9.09 Mammalia Mammal 45 75.00 2 18.18 Mammalia, medium Mammal, medium 1 1.67 1 9.09 Mammalia, medium small Mammal, medium small 1 1.67 1 9.09 Undetermined Vertebrata Vertebrata Vertebrate 2 3.33 2 18.18 Total 60 100.00 11 100.00

PAGE 120

120 Table 5 2. Continued Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Piedras Negras Ana Gastropoda Pachychilus indiorum Jute 1 11.11 1 25.00 Pachychilus sp. Jute 2 22.22 1 25.00 Mammalia Mammal ia, medium Mammal, medium 5 55.56 1 25.00 Undetermined Vertebrata Vertebrata Vertebrate 1 11.11 1 25.00 Total 9 100.00 4 100.00

PAGE 121

121 Table 5 3. Relative abundance of faunal remains recovered from the Petexbatun capital, Aguateca arranged in ta xonomic order Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Aguateca Anthozoa Faviidae Brain coral 1 0.01 Gastropoda Pachychilus indiorum Jute 85 0.67 Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 93 0.73 Euglandina sp. Wolfsnail 2 0.02 Neocyclotus dyson i Tree snail 4 0.03 Orthalicus sp. Tree snail 1 0.01 Jenneria pustulata Pustulate cowry 7 0.06 Morum tuberculosum Lumpy morum 1 0.01 Staphylaea nucleus Wrinkled cowry 21 0.17 Xancus angulatus West Indian chank shell 3 0.02 Patella m exicana Limpet 1 0.01 Polinices duplicatus Shark's eye 1 0.01 Cassidae/Strombidae Helmet/Conch 14 0.11 Strombidae Conch 954 7.54 Strombus sp. True conch 119 0.94 Strombus alatus Florida fighting conch 5 0.04 Strombus gigas Queen con ch 6 0.05 Strombus pugilis West Indian fighting conch 4 0.03 Strombus raninus Hawkwing conch 1 0.01 Cassididae Helmet 6 0.05 Cassis sp. Helmet 1 0.01 Cassis flammea Flame helmet 87 0.69 Cassis madagascariensis Cameo helmet 24 0.19 Cypraea cervinetta Cowry 2 0.02 Cypraea zebra Measled cowry 3 0.02 Trivia sp. Trivia 2 0.02 Trivia pediculus Coffeebean trivia 4 0.03

PAGE 122

122 Table 5 3. Continued Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Aguateca Gastropoda Busycon spirat um Pearwhelk 2 0.02 Olividae Olive shell 119 0.94 Oliva sp. Olive shell 259 2.05 Oliva porphyria Olive shell 30 0.24 Oliva reticularis Netted olive 200 1.58 Oliva sayana Lettered olive 66 0.52 Olivella nivea Snowy dwarf olive 5 0.04 Olivella perplexa Dwarf olive 370 2.92 Conus jaspideus Jasper cone 11 0.09 Conus verrucosus Cone 13 0.10 Pleurotomella bairdi Pleurotomella 1 0.01 Pleuroploca gigantea Horse conch 1 0.01 Fasciolaria tulipa True tulip 1 0.01 Pru num apicinum Common Atlantic marginella 759 6.00 Columbella rusticoides Rusty dovesnail 1 0.01 Nassarius vibex Bruised nassa 1 0.01 Gastropoda Gastropod 1 0.01 Gastropoda, marine Gastropod, marine 298 2.35 Bivalvia Nephronais sp. River c lam 11 0.09 Psoronaias sp. River clam 1462 11.55 Spondylus sp. Spondylus 140 1.11 Pectinidae Scallop/Clam 1 0.01 Mytilidae Marine mussel 2 0.02 Anadara sp. Ark 1 0.01 Bivalvia, marine Bivalve, marine 1 0.01

PAGE 123

123 Table 5 3. Continued P olity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Aguateca Undetermined Mollusca Mollusca Mollusk 6 0.05 Mollusca, marine Mollusk, marine 50 0.40 Chondrichthyes Dasyatidae/Myliobatidae Stingray 3 0.02 Actinopterygii Siluriformes Catfish 1 0.01 Siluriformes (freshwater) Freshwater catfish 1 0.01 Cichlidae Cichlid 4 0.03 Actinopterygii Fish 24 0.19 Amphibia Ranidae Frog 1 0.01 Reptilia Crocodylus sp. Crocodile 3 0.02 Lacertilia Lizard 3 0.02 Testudines Turtle 969 7.66 Ki nosternon sp. Mud turtle 169 1.34 Staurotypus triporcatus Giant musk turtle 16 0.13 Kinosternidae/Dermatemydidae Mud/River turtle 420 3.32 Dermatemys mawii Central American river turtle 576 4.55 Trachemys/Kinosternon Slider/Mud turtle 178 1 .41 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 955 7.55 Serpentes Snake 1 0.01 Boa constrictor Boa constrictor 1 0.01 Aves Meleagris sp. Turkey 6 0.05 Crax rubra Great curassow 1 0.01 Amazona sp. Parrot 1 0.01 Aves Bird 14 0.11 A ves, medium Bird, medium 3 0.02 Aves, small Bird, small 2 0.02

PAGE 124

124 Table 5 3. Continued Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Aguateca Mammalia Didelphidae Opossum 2 0.02 Philander opossum Gray four eyed opossum 1 0.01 Dasypus novemci nctus Nine banded armadillo 70 0.55 Artibeus lituratus Great fruit eating bat 3 0.02 Rodentia Rodent 5 0.04 Sciurus sp. Squirrel 1 0.01 Ototylomys phyllotis Big eared climbing rat 1 0.01 Agoutidae Agouti/Paca 3 0.02 Agouti paca Lowl and paca 17 0.13 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 7 0.06 Carnivora Carnivore 227 1.79 Canidae Canid 107 0.85 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog 144 1.14 Procyon lotor Raccoon 1 0.01 Felidae Felid 36 0.28 Leopardus pardalis Ocelot 1 0 .01 Leopardus weidii Margay 1 0.01 Panthera onca Jaguar 13 0.10 Artiodactyl Artiodactyl 6 0.05 Tayassuidae Peccary 28 0.22 Cervidae Deer 41 0.32 Mazama sp. Brocket deer 47 0.37 Odocoileus virginianus White tailed deer 552 4.36 Mammalia Mammal 1493 11.80 Mammalia, medium large Mammal, medium large 730 5.77 Mammalia, medium Mammal, medium 142 1.12 Mammalia, small Mammal, small 8 0.06

PAGE 125

125 Table 5 3. Continued Polity/Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP Aguateca Undetermined Vertebrata Tetrapoda Tetrapod 2 0.02 Vertebrata Vertebrate 351 2.77 Total 12656 100.00

PAGE 126

126 Table 5 4. Relative abundance of faunal remains recovered from the two Petexbatun subordinate sites, Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento arrange d in taxonomic order Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Aguateca Punta de Chimino Gastropoda Pachychilus indiorum Jute 1 0.08 1 1.49 Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 7 0.58 5 7.46 Pomacea sp. Apple snail 2 0.16 1 1.49 Eug landina, small Wolfsnail 1 0.08 1 1.49 Orthalicus sp. Tree snail 3 0.25 3 4.48 Gastropod, marine Gastropod, marine 3 0.25 2 2.99 Bivalvia Psoronaias sp. River clam 34 2.80 6 8.96 Bivalvia Bivalve 2 0.16 0 0.00 Bivalvia, Marine? Biva lve, marine 1 0.08 1 1.49 Actinopterygii Actinopterygii Fish 14 1.15 1 1.49 Siluriformes Catfish 2 0.16 1 1.49 Ictaluridae Freshwater catfish 2 0.16 1 1.49 Cichlasoma sp. Cichlid 3 0.25 2 2.99 Amphibia Bufo sp. Toad 1 0.08 1 1.49 Reptilia Crocodylidae Crocodile 15 1.24 2 2.99 Lacertilia, medium Lizard, medium 2 0.16 1 1.49 Testudines Turtle 17 1.40 1 1.49 Testudines, medium large Turtle, medium small 9 0.74 0 0.00 Kinosternidae Mud/Musk turtle 1 0.08 0 0.00 Kinosternon sp. Mud turtle 2 0.16 1 1.49 Staurotypus triporcatus Giant musk turtle 1 0.08 1 1.49 Dermatemys mawii Central American river turtle 361 29.74 5 7.46 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 1 0.08 1 1.49

PAGE 127

127 Table 5 4. Continued Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Aguateca Punta de Chimino Aves Meleagris sp Turkey 3 0.25 1 1.49 Anatidae Duck/Geese/Swan 1 0.08 1 1.49 Colombidae Pigeon/Dove 1 0.08 1 1.49 Amazona sp Parrot 1 0.08 1 1.49 Ave s Bird 2 0.16 0 0.00 Aves, small Bird, small 1 0.08 1 1.49 Mammalia Didelphidae Opossum 14 1.15 1 1.49 Dasypus novemcinctus Nine banded armadillo 1 0.08 1 1.49 Alouatta pigra Howler monkey 2 0.16 1 1.49 Agoutidae Agouti/paca 1 0.08 0 0.00 Agouti paca Lowland paca 11 0.91 3 4.48 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 3 0.25 2 2.99 Carnivora, small Carnivore, small 2 0.16 1 1.49 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog 35 2.88 5 7.46 Panthera onca Jaguar 1 0.08 1 1.49 Arti odactyla Artiodactyl 1 0.08 0 0.00 Tayassuidae Peccary 2 0.16 1 1.49 Cervidae Deer 3 0.25 0 0.00 Mazama sp Brocket deer 1 0.08 1 1.49 Odocoileus virginianus White tailed deer 115 9.47 6 8.96 Mammalia Mammal 227 18.70 1 1.49 M ammal, medium large Mammal, medium large 36 2.97 0 0.00 Mammalia, medium Mammal, medium 216 17.79 0 0.00 Mammalia, medium small Mammal, medium small 20 1.65 0 0.00

PAGE 128

128 Table 5 4. Continued Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Aguateca Punta de Chimino Undetermined Vertebrata Vertebrata Vertebrate 28 2.31 0 0.00 Vertebrata, small Vertebrate, small 1 0.08 0 0.00 Total 1214 100.00 67 100.00 Aguateca Nacimiento Gastropoda Pachychilus indiorum Jute 34 12.50 19 24.68 Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 120 44.12 17 22.08 Helicina amoena Land snail 1 0.37 1 1.30 Orthalicus sp Tree snail 3 1.10 3 3.90 Prunum apicinum Common Atlantic marginella 1 0.37 1 1.30 Gastropoda Gastropod 1 0.37 1 1.30 Gastropoda, marine Gastropod, marine 2 0.74 2 2.60 Bivalvia Nephronaias sp River clam 4 1.47 1 1.30 Psoronaias sp River clam 7 2.57 5 6.49 Malacotraca Brachyura Crab 1 0.37 1 1.30 Amphibia Bufo marinus Marine toad 4 1.47 1 1.30 Reptilia Iguana iguana Green iguana 1 0.37 1 1.30 Testudines, medium large Turtle, medium small 1 0.37 1 1.30 Testudines, medium Turtle, medium 1 0.37 0 0.00 Aves Aves, small Bird, small 1 0.37 1 1.30 Mammalia Didelphis sp. Opossum 7 2.5 7 2 2.60 Dasypus novemcinctus Nine banded armadillo 1 0.37 1 1.30 Primates Primate 2 0.74 1 1.30 Rodentia Rodent 19 6.99 4 5.19

PAGE 129

129 Table 5 4. Continued Polity Site Class Taxon Common Name NISP %NISP MNI %MNI Aguateca Nacimiento Mammalia Le poridae Rabbit 1 0.37 0 0.00 Sylvilagus sp Rabbit 1 0.37 1 1.30 Agouti paca Lowland paca 1 0.37 1 1.30 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 2 0.74 1 1.30 Carnivora Carnivore 1 0.37 0 0.00 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog 3 1.10 2 2.60 Procyonidae Raccoon/Coati 1 0.37 1 1.30 Tayassuidae Peccary 4 1.47 1 1.30 Cervidae Deer 3 1.10 1 1.30 Odocoileus virginianus White tailed deer 3 1.10 2 2.60 Equus asinus Donkey 1 0.37 1 1.30 Mammalia Mammal 12 4.41 2 2.60 M ammalia, medium large Mammal, medium large 17 6.25 1 1.30 Mammalia, medium Mammal, medium 1 0.37 0 0.00 Mammalia, medium small Mammal, medium small 1 0.37 0 0.00 Mammalia, small Mammal, small 1 0.37 0 0.00 Undetermined Vertebrata Vertebr ata Vertebrate 8 2.94 0 0.00 Total 272 100.00 77 100.00

PAGE 130

130 Table 5 5 Comparison of species abundance of select taxa across social ranks at Piedras Negras Taxon Rank 1 NISP %NISP (total 2304) Rank 2 NISP %NISP (total 2115) Rank 3 NISP %NISP (tot al 881) Rank 4 NISP %NISP (total 189) Jute 64 2.78 47 2.22 11 1.25 13 6.88 River Clam 54 2.34 49 2.32 3 0.34 30 15.87 Marine Mollusk 128 5.56 26 1.23 9 1.02 5 2.65 Fish 18 0.78 25 1.18 80 9.08 2 1.06 Crocodile 0 0.00 1 0.05 0 0.00 0 0.00 River Turtle 57 2.47 24 1.13 27 3.06 2 1.06 Other Turtle 181 7.86 85 4.02 33 3.75 33 17.46 Turkey 1 0.04 2 0.09 3 0.34 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 59 2.56 15 0.71 13 1.48 0 0.00 Dog 17 0.74 40 1.89 16 1.82 3 1.59 Wild Cats 13 0.56 4 0.19 0 0.00 0 0.00 Peccary 10 0.43 12 0.57 7 0.79 1 0.53 Deer 272 11.81 173 8.18 114 12.94 25 13.23 Tapir 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Note: Specimens with no rank/ambiguous context not included (NISP = 226) MNI counts unavailable at time of study.

PAGE 131

131 Table 5 6 Species abundance of s elect ta xa at Yaxchilan, Rank 1 Taxon Rank 1 NISP %NISP (total 1446) Jute 0 0.00 River Clam 48 3.32 Marine Mollusk 5 0.35 Fish 0 0.00 Crocodile 7 0.48 River Turtle 34 2.35 Other Turtle 42 2.90 Turkey 7 0.48 Agouti/Paca 15 1.04 Dog 37 2.56 Wild Cats 7 0.48 Peccary 65 4.50 Deer 805 55.67 Tapir 16 1.11 Note: NISP counts from previously published data (Soto Toral 1998); comparable MNI counts unavailable Table 5 7 Species abundance of select taxa at Tecolote, Rank 1 T axon Rank 1 NISP %NISP (total 337) Rank 1 MNI %MNI (total 118) Jute 41 12.17 40 33.90 River Clam 6 1.78 5 4.24 Marine Mollusk 2 0.59 2 1.69 Fish 1 0.30 1 0.85 Crocodile 0 0.00 0 0.00 River Turtle 0 0.00 0 0.00 Other Turtle 32 9.50 2 1.69 Turkey 0 0.00 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 3 0.89 2 1.69 Dog 2 0.59 1 0.85 Wild Cats 0 0.00 0 0.00 Peccary 9 2.67 2 1.69 Deer 6 1.78 5 4.24 Tapir 0 0.00 0 0.00 Note: Specimens with no rank/ambiguous context not included (NISP = 3, MNI = 1).

PAGE 132

132 Table 5 8 Comparison o f species abundance of select taxa at El Kinel, Ranks 1 and 2 Taxon Rank 1 NISP %NISP (total 2677) Rank 1 MNI %MNI (total 156) Rank 2 NISP %NISP (total 541) Rank 2 MNI % MNI (total 72) Jute 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.18 1 1.39 River Clam 15 0.56 9 5.77 74 13.68 3 0 41.67 Marine Mollusk 1 0.04 1 0.64 1 0.18 1 1.39 Fish 34 1.27 10 6.41 3 0.55 1 1.39 Crocodile 20 0.75 1 0.64 0 0.00 0 0.00 River Turtle 2 0.07 1 0.64 233 43.07 2 2.78 Other Turtle 631 23.57 8 5.13 80 14.79 6 8.33 Turkey 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 10 0.37 2 1.28 2 0.37 2 2.78 Dog 30 1.12 2 1.28 6 1.11 3 4.17 Wild Cats 2 0.07 1 0.64 0 0.00 0 0.00 Peccary 25 0.93 2 1.28 1 0.18 1 1.39 Deer 211 7.88 7 4.49 30 5.55 5 6.94 Tapir 113 4.22 1 0.64 0 0.00 0 0.00 Note: Specimens with no rank /ambiguous context not included (NISP = 40, MNI = 5)

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133 Table 5 9 Comparison of species abundance of select taxa across social ranks at Aguateca Taxon Rank 1 NISP %NISP (total 4075) Rank 2 NISP %NISP (total 6718) Rank 3 NISP %NISP (total 1004) Rank 4 NISP %NISP (total 859) Jute 1 0.02 81 1.21 3 0.30 0 0.00 River Clam 1086 26.65 360 5.36 19 1.89 8 0.93 Marine Mollusk 2251 55.24 1127 16.78 11 1.10 209 24.33 Fish 4 0.10 10 0.15 19 1.89 0 0.00 Crocodile 0 0.00 2 0.03 1 0.10 0 0.00 River Turtle 11 0.27 517 7.70 44 4.38 4 0.47 Other Turtle 13 0.32 1898 28.25 272 27.09 524 61.00 Turkey 0 0.00 5 0.07 1 0.10 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 0 0.00 10 0.15 15 1.49 2 0.23 Dog 95 2.33 31 0.46 7 0.70 11 1.28 Wild Cats 17 0.42 28 0.42 6 0.60 0 0.00 Peccary 6 0.15 20 0.30 1 0.10 1 0.12 Deer 102 2.50 492 7.32 36 3.59 10 1.16 Note: MNI counts unavailable at time of study.

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134 Table 5 10 Species abundance of select taxa at Punta de Chimino, Rank 1 Taxon Rank 1 NISP %NISP (total 1214) Rank 1 MNI %MNI (total 67) Jute 1 0.08 1 1.49 River Clam 34 2.80 6 8.96 Marine Mollusk 4 0.33 3 4.48 Fish 21 1.73 5 7.46 Crocodile 15 1.24 2 2.99 River Turtle 361 29.74 5 7.46 Other Turtle 31 2.55 4 5.97 Turkey 3 0.25 1 1.49 Agouti/Paca 15 1.24 5 7.46 Dog 35 2.88 5 7.46 Wild Cats 1 0.0 8 1 1.49 Peccary 2 0.16 1 1.49 Deer 119 9.80 7 10.45 Table 5 11 Species abundance of select taxa at Nac imiento (elite, rank undefined) Taxon NISP %NISP (total 39) MNI %MNI (total 28) Jute 18 46.15 12 42.86 River Clam 6 15.38 4 14.29 M arine Mollusk 2 5.13 2 7.14 Fish 0 0.00 0 0.00 Crocodile 0 0.00 0 0.00 River Turtle 0 0.00 0 0.00 Other Turtle 0 0.00 0 0.00 Turkey 0 0.00 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 2 5.13 1 3.57 Dog 2 5.13 1 3.57 Wild Cats 0 0.00 0 0.00 Peccary 0 0.00 0 0.00 Deer 3 7.6 9 2 7.14 Note: Specimens with ambiguous context not included (NISP = 233; MNI = 25)

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13 5 Table 5 12 NISP of select taxa in ritu al deposits from Piedras Negras Taxon NISP %NISP (total 1011) Jute 17 1.68 River Clam 107 10.58 Marine Mollusk 143 14.14 Fish 102 10.09 Crocodile 1 0.10 River Turtle 4 0.40 Other Turtle 30 2.97 Turkey 3 0.30 Agouti/Paca 53 5.24 Dog 8 0.79 Wild Cats 4 0.40 Peccary 6 0.59 Deer 83 8.21 Note: %NISP based on ritual total within rank MNI counts unavail able at time of study. Table 5 13 NISP and MNI of select taxa i n ritual deposits from Tecolote Taxon NISP %NISP (total 179) MNI %MNI (total 61) Jute 39 21.79 38 62.30 River Clam 1 0.56 1 1.64 Marine Mollusk 0 0.00 0 0.00 Fish 1 0.56 1 1.64 Crocodile 0 0.00 0 0.00 River Turtle 0 0.00 0 0.00 Other Turtle 31 17.32 1 1.64 Turkey 0 0.00 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 1 0.56 1 1.64 Dog 0 0.00 0 0.00 Wild Cats 0 0.00 0 0.00 Peccary 7 3.91 1 1.64 Deer 0 0.00 0 0.00

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136 Table 5 14 NISP and MNI o f select taxa i n ritual deposits from El Kinel Taxon NISP %NISP (total 53) MNI %MNI (total 20) Jute 0 0.00 0 0.00 River Clam 24 45.28 14 70.00 Marine Mollusk 0 0.00 0 0.00 Fish 0 0.00 0 0.00 Crocodile 0 0.00 0 0.00 River Turtle 0 0.00 0 0.00 Other Turtles 18 33.96 2 10.00 Turkey 0 0.00 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 0 0.00 0 0.00 Dog 1 1.89 1 5.00 Wild Cats 0 0.00 0 0.00 Peccary 0 0.00 0 0.00 Deer 1 1.89 0 0.00 Table 5 15 NISP of select taxa i n ritual deposits from Aguateca Taxon NIS P %NISP (total 4184) Jute 9 0.22 River Clam 1098 26.24 Marine Mollusk 1449 34.63 Fish 21 0.50 Crocodile 0 0.00 River Turtle 4 0.10 Other Turtle 51 1.22 Turkey 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 18 0.43 Dog 140 3.35 Wild Cats 20 0.48 Peccary 174 4.1 6 Deer 89 2.13 Note: MNI counts unavailable at time of study.

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137 Table 5 16 NISP and MNI of select taxa in ritual deposits from Punta de Chimino Taxon NISP %NISP (total 67) MNI %MNI (total 5) Jute 0 0.00 0 0.00 River Clam 0 0.00 0 0.00 Marine Mollusk 0 0.00 0 0.00 Fish 3 4.48 1 20.00 Crocodile 1 1.49 1 20.00 River Turtle 39 58.21 1 20.00 Other Turtle 0 0.00 0 0.00 Turkey 0 0.00 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 0 0.00 0 0.00 Dog 3 4.48 1 20.00 Wild Cats 0 0.00 0 0.00 Peccary 0 0.00 0 0.00 Deer 9 13.43 1 20 .00 Table 5 17 NISP and MNI of select taxa in ritual deposits from Nacimiento Taxon NISP %NISP (total 7) MNI %MNI (total 4) Jute 6 85.71 3 75.00 River Clam 1 14.29 1 25.00 Marine Mollusk 0 0.00 0 0.00 Fish 0 0.00 0 0.00 Crocodile 0 0.00 0 0.00 Riv er Turtle 0 0.00 0 0.00 Other Turtle 0 0.00 0 0.00 Turkey 0 0.00 0 0.00 Agouti/Paca 0 0.00 0 0.00 Dog 0 0.00 0 0.00 Wild Cats 0 0.00 0 0.00 Peccary 0 0.00 0 0.00 Deer 0 0.00 0 0.00

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138 Table 5 18 Shannon Weaver diversity and eq uitability values for all sites Site Level Site Diversity (H') Equitability (V') 1 Aguateca 2.6010 0.6082 1 Piedras Negras 2.6303 0.6301 1 Yaxchilan 1.6519 0.4725 2 Nacimiento 1.4607 0.7507 2 Punta de Chimino 1.5638 0.4745 2 Tecolote 1.9205 0.6927 3 El Kinel 2.2875 0.648 7 3 Esmeralda 0.6390 0.5817 4 Ana 0.9003 0.8194 4 Arroyo Yaxchilan 1.0397 0.9464 Table 5 19 Shannon Weaver diversity values site social rank Site Level Site Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 1 Piedras Negras 2.2952 2.6739 2.4397 2.0896 1 Ag uateca 1.8689 2.5080 2.5500 0.9202 1 Yaxchilan 1.6519 2 Punta de Chimino 1.5638 3 El Kinel 2.1254 1.3921

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139 Table 5 20 Distributio n of white tailed deer elements EK Rank 1 EK Rank 2 PC Rank 1 PN Rank 1/2 PN Rank 3 PN Rank 4 YX Rank 1 AG Rank 1/2 AG Rank 3 AG Rank 4 Cranial 5 1 12 24 4 1 51 20 0 0 Axial 10 0 3 12 2 1 71 4 0 0 Fore Limb 11 2 12 46 10 1 199 15 7 2 Hind Limb 15 4 10 77 31 6 251 74 14 3 Distal 52 5 42 156 43 12 170 34 8 3 Note: EK = El Kinel, PC = Punta de Chimino, PN = Piedras Negras, YX = Yaxchilan, AG = Aguateca See p age 66 for description of portion elements Table 5 21 Artifact pro duction totals for select sites Piedra Negras (Level 1) Aguateca (Level 1) Punta de Chimino (Level 2) Nacimiento (Level 2) El K inel (Level 3) NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a Finished 388 86.80 4716 97.22 14 43.75 5 100.00 17 48.57 Production 59 13.20 135 2.78 18 56.25 0 0.00 18 51.43 Undetermined 84 525 13 1 16 Total (Determined ) b 447 84.18 4851 90.23 32 71.11 5 83.33 35 68.63 Total 531 100.00 5376 100.00 45 100.00 6 100.00 51 100.00 Notes: a %NISP values are based on the total number of remains for which production stage could be determined; b t otal %NISP based on total NISP, including remains with an undetermined production stage

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140 Table 5 22 Artifact production totals b y social rank at Piedras Negras Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a Finished 209 93.30 108 74.48 56 90.32 15 93 .75 Production 15 6.70 37 25.52 6 9.68 1 6.25 Undetermined 0 63 20 1 Total (Determined) b 224 100.00 145 69.71 62 75.61 16 94.12 Total 224 100.00 208 100.00 82 100.00 17 100.00 Notes: a %NISP values are based on the total number of remains f or which production stage could be determined; b total %NISP based on total NISP, including remains with an undetermined production stage. Table 5 23 Artifact production to tals by social rank at Aguateca Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a NISP %NISP a Finished 3223 99.26 1333 94.27 60 70.59 100 95.24 Production 24 0.74 81 5.73 25 29.41 5 4.76 Undetermined 57 429 27 12 Total (Determined) b 3247 98.27 1414 76.72 85 75.89 105 89.74 Total 3304 100.00 1843 100.00 112 100.00 117 100.00 Notes: a %NISP values are based on the total number of remains for which production stage could be determined; b total %NISP based on total NISP, including remains with an undetermined production stage

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141 Figure 5 1. Shannon Weav er diversity and equitability values of the ten study sites, in order of rank. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Index Value Diversity Equitability Primate (Capital) Centers Secondary Centers Tertiary Centers Quaternary Centers

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142 Figure 5 2. Shannon Weaver diversity values for social ranks among the five largest assemblages For the subordinate centers (Punta de Chimino and El Kinel), Rank 1 is the e quivalent to an upper ruling elite class, and Rank 4 is the non elite class. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Index Value Piedras Negras Aguateca Yaxchilan Punta de Chimino El Kinel Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4

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143 Figure 5 3. Habitat fidelity values for the seven largest assemblages. Habitat types include: mature forest (MF), secondary or disturbed forest (SEC), agricultural and residen tial areas (AGR/RES), rivers (RIV), and wetlands (WET). A) Habitat fidelity values for the primary (capital) and subordinate centers; B) terrestrial habitat values for the primary and subordinate centers. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Fidelity Index A MF SEC AGR/RES RIV WET Piedras Negras Yaxchilan Aguateca Tecolote Punta de Chimino Nacimiento El Kinel

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144 Figure 5 3. Continued 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 Fidelity Index B MF SEC AGR/RES Yaxchilan Aguateca Piedras Negras Punta de Chimino Nacimiento Tecolote El Kinel

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145 Figure 5 4. Habitat f idelity values for the Usumacinta capitals by social rank. A) Habitat fidelity values for all habitat types; B) fidelity values for terrestrial habitats. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Fidelity Index A MF SEC AGR/RES RIV WET Yaxchilan Piedras Negras Rank 1 Piedras Negras Rank 2 Piedras Negras Rank 3 Piedras Negras Rank 4

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146 Figure 5 4. Continued 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 Fidelity Index B MF SEC AGR/RES Yaxchilan Piedras Negras Rank 1 Piedras Negras Rank 2 Piedras Negras Rank 3 Piedras Negras Rank 4

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147 Figure 5 5. Habitat fidelity values for the Petexbatun capital of Aguate ca by social rank. A) Habitat fidelity values for all habitat types; B) habitat fidelity values without mollusk data; C) fidelity values for terrestrial habitats. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Fidelity Index A MF SEC AGR/RES RIV WET Aguateca Rank 2 Aguateca Rank 3 Aguateca Rank 4 Aguateca Rank 1

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148 Figure 5 5. Continued 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Fidelity Index B MF SEC AGR/RES RIV WET Aguateca Rank 1 Aguateca Rank 2 Aguateca Rank 3 Aguateca Rank 4

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149 Figure 5 5. Continued 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 Fidelity Index C MF SEC AGR/RES Aguateca Rank 1 Aguateca Rank 2 Aguateca Rank 3 Aguateca Rank 4

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150 Figure 5 6. White tailed deer skeleta l distribution according to class rank and site. The blue box delineates the expected standard deviation (1.2177) from the mean observed/expected ratio. A) Distribution at Piedras Negras (PN); B) distribution at Yaxchilan, status Rank 1 only; C) distributi on at Aguateca (AG); D) distribution at the subordinate communities of Punta de Chimino (PC) and El Kinel (EK) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 A PN Rank 1/2 PN Rank 3 PN Rank 4 Cranial Axial Forelimb Hindlimb Distal Anatomical Region Observed/Expected Ratio

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151 Figure 5 6. Continued 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 B Cranial Axial Forelimb Hindlimb Distal Anatomical Region Observed/Expected Ratio

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152 Figure 5 6. Continued 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 C AG Rank 1/2 AG Rank 3 AG Rank 4 Cranial Axial Forelimb Hindlimb Distal Anatomical Region Observed/Expected Ratio

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153 Figure 5 6. Continued 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 D PC Rank 1 EK Rank 1 EK Rank 2 Cranial Axial Forelimb Hindlimb Distal Anatomical Region Observed/Expected Ratio

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154 Figure 5 7. Relative proportions of artifact product ion stages compared by site hierarchal level Piedras Negras and Aguateca are primary centers, Punta de Chimino and Nacimiento are secondary centers, and El Kinel is a tertiary center. Artifacts with indeterminate production stage are not included. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Piedra Negras Aguateca Punta de Chimino Nacimiento El Kinel Artifact Proportion Production Finished NISP = 447 NISP = 4851

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155 Figure 5 8. Re lative proportion s of artifact production stages at the capital sites by social rank: A) Piedras Negras; B) Aguateca. Artifacts with indeterminate production stage are not included 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Artifact Proportion A Production Finished NISP = 145 NISP = 62 NISP = 16

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156 Figure 5 8. Continued 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Artifact Proportion B Production Finished NISP = 3247 NISP = 1414 NISP = 85 NISP = 105

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157 CHAPTER 6 D ISCUSSION The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between sites of various size and rank within three Late Classic lowland polities using the analysis of faunal remains I assessed similarities or differences in terms of how animal resources were used for subsistence, expres sing social divisions, carrying out ritual activities, trade and provisionin g, and crafting. The study identified whether or not the capital and subordinate community residents were using animal resources in similar ways if animal use patterns were simila r or different between status groups within and between sites, and if there was regional variation or similarity in the manner the Usumacinta site resident s used their animal resources as opposed to the inhabitants of the Petexbatun area. I suggest that th ese similarities and differences offer a view of the links between members of different social classes, between subordinate and capita l sites, and between polities. The following discussion is divided into three sections, examining general observations m ade in regards to variations of taxonomic diversity and use of specific taxa at all of the sites, first on a regional basis, then between capital and subordinate communities, and finally, between elite and lesser or non elite social tiers. The section conc erning comparisons between capital and subordinate centers also includes a discussion of the ritual deposits uncovered at the different sites, as well as comparisons of habitat fidelity and craft production. The section on social rank comparisons also incl udes these discussions, in addition to an analysis of the white tailed deer body portioning results. These analyses are presented to address the original questions of the study, including whether the Usumacinta and Petexbatun polities used animal

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158 resources differently, whether capital and subordinate centers used similar animals within polities or whether animal use was more similar between sites of the same level (primary, secondary, etc.), and whether taxa varied between elite and non elite status ranks. Since the number of recovered specimens from each of the capitals and subsidiary communities varied widely, it was difficult to draw comparisons between centers of the same rank among the different polities. The subordinate communities usually had far fewe r remains than the capital sites since the larger sites were more extensively excavated. However, the secondary centers of Tecolote, Nacimiento, and Punta de Chimino, as well as the tertiary center of El Kinel, had substantially large assemblages with whic h to compare. Unfortunately, the tertiary center of Esmeralda (in the Piedras Negras polity) and the two quaternary sites of Ana and Arroyo Yaxchilan (in the Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan polities, respectively) had too few remains to draw viable comparison s, and were not included in many of the analyses performed in this study. Thus, subsidiary center information for the Piedras Negras polity is lacking, and so conclusions made from the capital/subsidiary center analyses are primarily made on data from the Yaxchilan and Petexbatun polities. Information from the quaternary centers is also exceedingly limited, and is only briefly discussed in the following sections. Regional Comparisons In regards to regional comparisons, the Usumacinta sites tended to have pr oportionately more terrestrial mammals, while the Petexbatun sites had more riverine species, including greater proportions of turtles, freshwater clams, and snails. Since most of the sites in the study were located beside rivers, with the exceptions of

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159 Te colote, Esmeralda, and Ana, the environment does not seem to have been the main factor for this subtle dichotomy observed between terrestrial and freshwater animal resources used between the two regions. River turtle and shells were found at most of the si tes and in a variety of different contexts, so it seems that they were a resource that all of the sites were taking advantage of; however, their proportions were greater at Aguateca and its subordinate communities, suggesting that this was a regional patte rn that may warrant further investigation in the future. Although the Usumacinta sites had a greater overall proportion of terrestrial fauna than the Petexbatun sites did, the latter sites still relied a great deal on terrestrial species, particularly de er (especially the white tailed species) and dog. The proportions for dogs were roughly the same when compared between both regions (dog NISP ~0.5 2.5%), indicating that this species, the only domesticated mammal in the study, was perhaps equally important for both areas. Proportions of deer were considerably more variable among site assemblages (NISP ~1.5 56%) although they tended to exceed those of dogs. Yaxchilan had an unusually high proportion of deer remains, which accounted for over half the site as semblage. This may be the result of excavation bias, however, since these remains were recovered from excavations in and immediately surrounding the central Acropolis at the site, where the remains of ritual activities, feasts, and other elite performances that relied on important large bodied taxa such as deer were likely deposited. Overall, it appears that while freshwater taxa were preferred in the Petexbatun region when compared with the Usumacinta sites, most terrestrial taxa were used in roughly simil ar proportions.

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160 Capital and Subordinate Center Comparisons Species Abundance and Diversity The capital and subordinate community assemblages revea led a number of variations in regards to comparisons based on both political affiliation and level of subordin ance. In the Petexbatun region, and in the Piedras Negras polity, the capitals faunal assemblages had considerably more taxonomic diversity than those of the subsidiary centers (Figure 5 1), but among the sites in the Yaxchilan polity, the secondary and t ertiary center assemblage s were more taxonomically diverse than those from the capital. The greater taxonomic diversity exhibited at the other two capitals, Piedras Negras and Aguateca, can be primarily attributed to the larger number and variety of marine mollusks recovered at both sites than at their subordinate communities. Since subordinate centers such as Tecolote and El Kinel exhibited a similar level of diversity to the capital sites when marine taxa were excluded from consideration, meaning that the y had relied on a similar variety of local terrestrial and freshwater resources, taxonomic diversity alone does not appear to be an accurate measure for assessing the variation in political level of subordinate centers below the level of capital. The prese nce of marine shells in high quantities at the three capitals was the major factor that differentiated the capitals from all levels of subordinate sites. One might speculate that, in a land without domestic pack animals, canoes would have been the easiest means of transporting shells, and that traders would have had little difficulty interacting with smaller communities along the riverside to the same extent as the polity capitals had done (Cunningham Smith 2001; Thompson 1949; Teeter and Chase 2004 ) Howev er, very few marine shells were recovered from the subordinate communities

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161 located directly on the shores of the large river routes, such as Punta de Chimino and El Kinel. Punta de Chimino had only four shell remains, and yet it is located only a few kilom eters away from Aguateca, where several thousand marine shells were recovered. This suggests that the capitals were the primary recipients of the marine shell trade, and perhaps controlled the distribution of this commodity to the surrounding communities. Marine shells may have been shipped directly to the primary centers, and then distributed from these centers to the surrounding communities. The most common taxa found at the majority of sites included deer, dogs, turtles, river clams, and freshwater snail s. These five taxa groups are not unexpected, since they are frequently found in many Late Classic period assemblages (for example, Collins 2002; Pohl 1976; Teeter 2004; White et al. 2004) While deer were a common food and ritual item throughout the history of the Maya, from the Preclassic through the Postclassic periods, they were especially popular at most sites during the Late Classic period (Carr 1996; Montero Lopez 2009 ; Pohl 1981, 1994) Deer are one of the largest land mammals in Central America, and they are fairly ubiquitous across many environmental zones, while being particularly drawn to agricultural fie lds where they can browse on plants such as maize. Their pop ularity at both the capital and subsidiary communities of the Petexbatun and the Usumacinta areas is therefore not surprising. However, their proportionate representation at the various sites tended to vary (ranging from 0 56% by NISP), and was especially high within the Yaxchilan polity sites, particularly the capital and its nearby subordinate center of El Kinel. The exact reason for these high proportions is not clear, but may reflect a local cultural preference within the polity during the Late Classic period.

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162 Dogs were found throughout most of the assemblages, although they were usually present in far fewer numbers than deer, as was mentioned in the previous section. Proportions of dog remains did not vary significantly among sites, regardless of whethe r they were capitals or subordinate centers. Like deer, dogs were probably also used for food at these sites, although they do not seem to have been a common staple due to the low quantity of remains found at all sites (~0.5 2.5% by NISP). At Piedras Negra s, Punta de Chimino, and El Kinel, small cut marks on various dog skeletal elements, both appendages and vertebrae, provide further evidence for their use as food items or possibly even for skins There is no clear indication that any were used for a part icular ritual function at the subordinate centers since they were not found in any caches (with the single exception of a possible dog tooth found in the fill of an El Kinel burial), although they were used as offerings at the capitals, a pattern that will be discussed later in this chapter. Freshwater turtles were ubiquitous throughout most of the sites. Large bodied turtle species, such as the common slider and Central American river turtle, were only found at sites located near rivers. Since many of the turtle specimens that were accounted for came from large individuals, it appears that larger sizes were selected over smaller individuals. The smaller mud and musk turtle species were not frequently recovered (<2.0% by NISP at all sites), and provide furth er evidence that larger turtles were preferred over small individuals. Today, mud and musk turtles are not commonly eaten by modern residents, since their flesh is considered to retain a musky flavor. It is possible that, in the past, they had been used mo st often as musical instruments (Healy

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163 1988) or for medicinals (Emery 2008d). Turtles in general were probably a readily obtainable resource for both riverside capital and subsidiary centers alike. Freshwater clams (specifically, Psoronaias sp .), jute, and apple snails made up the vast majority of mollusk taxa at all sites, particularly at the subordinate centers. Like the turtles, they were probably an easy resource to obtain for sites located beside rivers or other water sources. River clams frequent movi ng water systems as do the jute (Covich 1983; Healy et al. 1990). The apple snails are found in still waters including man made aguadas and are able to aestivate to weather the seasonal drying of intermittent swamps Freshwater clams, found in the fill fr om nearly every site in the study, are frequently recovered from many Maya sites throughout the lowland region (Powis 2004) These clams were commonly used for both subsistence and crafting; at several of the sites in this study, including the capital sites of Aguateca and Piedras Negras and the tertiary site of El Kinel, river clam ornaments were uncovered. In regards t o freshwater snails, jute were found in higher frequencies at most sites than apple snails. Jute were usually recovered in either very high (Piedras Negras, Nacimiento, and Tecolote) or very low (Yaxchilan, Punta de Chimino, and El Kinel) concentrations, a pattern that did not appear to conform to grouping either sites within a specific polity or sites of a particular hierarchal level. The high concentrations of jute may be linked to ritual functions at both the capital and subordinate centers, which will b e discussed in more detail later in this chapter. Many other species of taxa were equally rare at all sites, regardless of political affiliation or level of subordinance. These included peccary, tapir, wild cats, small

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164 mammals, birds, crocodiles, and fish. These taxa are discussed separately below. Some of these species, particularly the tapir and wild cats (both < 2.0% by NISP at all sites), may have been rare due to naturally low populations in the surrounding habitats, and were possibly also restricted fo r use since they were usually found in ritual deposits, as will be explained later in this chapter. However, the small taxa may be missing due to a lack of either preserved or recovered remains (see the earlier discussion of the study biases in Chapter 4) The dearth of peccary remains at all sites is unusual (<5.0% by NISP at all sites), since they occur in much higher proportions at other sites (Collins 2002; Hamblin 1984; Pohl 1976; Teeter 2004) Proportions of p eccary remains do not differ significantly among the different sites within polities, regardless of whether they are capital or subordinate centers. Their overall paucity may be an indication of dietary preference among the Late Classic communities in the Usumacinta and Petexbatun areas, or a sign that peccary were not particularly common in these two regions. It is also possible that they had been overhunted by the Late Classic period (Emery 2008c) This latter possibility could be assessed by a more in depth comparison of peccary remains from sit es that existed in the area during the Preclassic and Early Classic periods. The low proportions of tapir and wild cats (i.e. jaguars, pumas, ocelots and margays) may also have been due to low numbers in the natural environment. Today, these species are a ll critically endangered due to a combination of overhunting and low reproductive rates (Novack 2003; Novack et al. 2005; Tobler et al. 2006) Wild cats were found in considerably higher proportions at the capitals than at the subordinate sites perhaps not surprisingly given their symbolic association with rulership

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165 Interestingly, tapir were only recovered from the Yaxchilan polity sites (specifically, Yaxchilan and El Kinel), and puma were only found in the Piedr as Negras and Yaxchilan assemblages. Since these taxa prefer forested areas undisturbed by human activity, it may be that these habitats were more common in the Usumacinta region than the Petexbatun. It is also possible that the tapir and wild cat remains served a particular ritual related function at the Yaxchilan sites, since the two species were found in similar contexts. The wild cat and tapir remains at the capital site of Yaxchilan were recovered from the central Acropolis. At the nearby tertiary cent er of El Kinel, the remains were found in the Structure H10 1 midden, and exhibited various cut marks indicative of crafting activities rather than butchering. In the case of the El Kinel tapir bones, the mandible of one individual had been turned into a r asp. Since these animals do not appear to have been hunted often due to their low NISP and MNI counts, and since many of the bones were cut, the animals and their remains were probably hunted and used for very specific, and possibly ritually related, purpo ses. Other mammals, especially smaller species such as agouti, paca, and rabbit, were found in far fewer numbers at all of the sites (usually <1.0% by NISP). This was particularly the case at the subordinate centers. At the primary centers, specifically Pi edras Negras and Aguateca, small animals were frequently recovered in the ritual caches; however, their higher proportions may be due in part to the fact that near complete skeletons had been deposited in these caches, and so the number of remains recovere d was higher than that usually recovered from fill and midden deposits. Since rodents are found in abundance in many of the assemblages, the inability of small

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166 mammal bones to preserve in the lowland tropics is probably not the reason most small mammals ar e lacking in the assemblages. A more likely explanation is that larger bodies species, particularly deer and dog, were being selected f or consumption rather than the smaller mammals. This may have been partly due to these species having been raised in comm unities, even in the case of the deer, which may have been husbanded (see Carr 1996; White et al. 2001). Whether this selectivity is a phenomenon observed only during the Late Classic period at the subordinate communities is a question that warrants furth er investigation. It has been argued that selectivity of certain species increased over time among the higher ranking elite at some Maya centers during the Late and Terminal Classic periods as a means for elite members of society to differentiate themselve s from the rest of the community (Emery 2003b; Masson 1995; Pohl 1994) ; however, the opposite has also been observed at several Terminal and Postclassic sites in the Yucatan (Hamblin 1984; Wing and Steadman 1980) while other sites observed no change at all (Teeter 2004) Another possible explanation for the lack of small mammal remains may be th at the bones from these animals were usually boiled or cooked in such a way that they readily decomposed after disposal, or that the bones were disposed of in ways that render them inaccessible to archaeologists. The deleterious effects of preparation meth ods on animal bones have been investigated only sparingly in zooarchaeology (Lupo and Schmidt 1997; Roberts et al. 2002) and the same is true for disposal methods (Emery and Brown 2008; Hayden and Cannon 1983) The rodents in the subordinate Usumacinta and Petexbatun assemblages were proba bly not consumed (for evidence of rodent consumption at other sites, see Barragan 2007), since they were

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167 found most often with burials alongside small lizards and other intrusive species. Yet the bones of other small mammals, such as rabbits, gophers, and agouti, were largely missing. Interestingly, most of the remains that were identified of these species were teeth and cranial elements. Although armadillo scutes were fairly numerous at many of the sites, particularly El Kinel, all other elements of this s pecies were rare to nonexistent. These patterns seem to suggest that the Late Classic Maya at the subordinate centers were boiling or otherwise destroying the postcranial bones of these animals during preparation or disposal, after perhaps beheading and re moving the shell (when necessary) and other undesirable parts of the animals. It is also possible that remains of the smaller animals were consumed by carnivores, particularly dogs. Since dog remains were recovered from nearly all sites, they were probab ly commonly raised throughout this area of Guatemala during the Late Classic period. Dogs and other scavengers have been known to destroy considerable quantities of animal bones shortly after deposition (Hudson 1993; Walters 1984), and it is likely the bon es of small mammals would have survived less frequently than those of larger mammals. Birds were fairly uncommon in all of the assemblages (<4.0% by NISP at Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan, <1.0% at all other sites). There was no particular pattern to the tax a of birds recovered at the sites; even the turkey, one of the few New World domesticates found throughout Mesoamerica, was almost nonexistent in the assemblages. Turkey remains occurred in slightly highe r frequencies at the Acropoli at Yaxchilan and Punta de Chimino, indicating that they may have been used for special functions. Although there is more variety among the bird species found at the capital

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168 sites as opposed to the subordinate centers, it is not significantly greater; in fact, more species of bi rds were recovered at Punta de Chimino than Aguateca. Regional variations among bird species is also not noteworthy, with the exception of parrots ( Amazona sp .), which were only recovered from the Petexbatun sites. Since it seems doubtful that the Maya did not hunt birds in a land where, even today, one cannot travel anywhere without hearing the songs of hundreds of different species, it is more likely that the bones had not survived the taphonomic processes of decomposition, or, as has been posited about t he small mammal bones, bird bones were des troyed during food preparation or discard (i.e. dogs) Fish were rare at all of the sites as well (<3.0% by NISP at all sites), despite the fact that most of the sites were located beside rivers. In humid tropical environments such as that of the Mesoamerican lowlands, fish bones do not preserve well in the archaeological record (Colley 1990; Stanchly 2004) Furthermore, since the sites in this study were screened using a 6.35 mm mesh (quarter inch), a relatively large screen size for obtaining fish bo nes (Hageman and Goldstein 2009; Schaffer 1992; Wing and Quitmyer 1985) it is probable that most remains that would have been preserved had been lost during the excavations. Of the few remains that were recovered, most showed a considerable lack of diversity, and mainly consisted of either catfish or cichlids, both of which could be obtained from the rivers. Stingrays were only recovered from the capital sites, excluding Yaxchilan, which suggests that, although ray spines were an important component of royal and elite symbolic fauna (Haines 2008), the trade of marine fish was uncommon among inland sites in this area, particularly among the subordinate centers.

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169 This also coincides with the trend observed regarding th e distribution of marine shells at the sites. Overall, the comparison of capitals and subordinate centers revealed several intriguing results. The capital assemblages tended to exhibit greater diversity, but this was primarily the result of a higher propor tion of marine shell species, a resource the capitals may have controlled. Although the subordinate centers lacked marine resources, most exhibited considerable diversity among their terrestrial and freshwater fauna, including even small tertiary centers l ike El Kinel. Species that were most common among site assemblages, regardless of level of subordinance, and included deer, dogs, turtles, river clam, and freshwater snails. These species were likely all easily accessible resources. Other taxa, such as pec cary, were surprisingly uncommon at all sites, perhaps because they had been overhunted in the region by the Late Classic period. Small mammals, birds, and fish were also rare at most sites, the former especially so at the subordinate centers. There is a p ossibility that small bodied mammals were not hunted as frequently at the subordinate centers as at the capitals, but it is also possible that their remains were destroyed during preparation procedures such as boiling. Poor preservation and recovery method s may also have been responsible for the lack of small boned animals at most sites. In general, with the exception of marine taxa, animal resource use at the subordinate centers was remarkably similar to that of the capitals. Evidence for Ritual Animal Use R itual assemblages tended to var y among the sites, particularly when comparing capital and subsidiary centers, the latter of which lacked substantial ritual deposit remains. The ritua l remains at Aguateca differ ed more than at any other site, even when

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170 co mpared to the other Petexbatun communities. In fact, the ritual species used at Aguateca shared remarkably little similarity to those at nearby Punta de Chimino and e was found at each of the subordinate centers, and so there was little material to draw comparisons from. Among the higher social classes at the primary centers it grows increasingly more difficult to discern commonplace food items with symbolically diff used animals that may have served a ritual purpose in addition to their place on the menu. This distinction may be particularly hard to make when examining faunal remains recovered from palace contexts, because if the royal family was considered to have di vine standing, then it logically follows that anything that had been served to them would have held some sort of sanctified connotation. Thus, much of the highest ranking elite fauna recovered from floor surfaces, structure fill, and middens in and around the palaces at the primary centers may have been involved in ritual activities. However, some ritual deposits were clearly demarcated as special features upon excavation, such as caches, termination deposits, and burial goods. These were assessed separatel y from non ritual or ambiguous deposits in this study. In terms of vertebrate species, Aguateca differs from the Usumacinta sites to the north, in that its ritual deposits display relatively high quantities of dog (3.35% by NISP), peccary (4.16%), and wil d cat (0.48%) remains. By comparison, these species are fairly rare in the caches and burials at the other sites, although wild cats, specifically puma, wild cats may have been linked to a perceived connection to power and kingship

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171 (Benson 1998; Coe 1972; Joralemon 1975) although it is interesting to note that pumas were used at Yaxchilan in place of the spotted jaguar and ocelot commonly depicted in Maya art. Peccary and dogs have been found in caches and, in the case of the latter, burials, throughout the Mesoamerican region (Middleton et al. 2002; Pohl 1983; Shaw 1995; Valadez et a l. 1999) ; however, like at the Usumacinta and Petexbatun sites, their numbers tend to vary. Dogs were found in higher proportions in ritual deposits at the Petexbatun sites (>3.0% by NISP at Aguateca and Punta de Chimino) than the Usumacinta sites (<2.0% at all sites), although this may be partly the result of the lack of ritual deposits recovered from the subordinate centers. Perhaps the clearest pattern that can be discerned when comparing all of the ritual contexts in this study is that the capital cent ers (excluding Yaxchilan) have more river clam and marine mollusk species in their caches than at any of the subordinate centers. These shells were often modified into ornaments such as beads and pendants, suggesting that the form of the artifact was often just as important as whether or not it was an exotic species. The subordinate centers had to make do with the less valuable freshwater taxa, such as clams and jute, which may be why they are particularly abundant in the caches at Nacimiento, Tecolote, an d El Kinel. Jute appear to have been an especially important species used for ritual offerings. At Nacimiento, several jute had been left in a cave, as well as in an offering in a bowl placed beside a burial; at Tecolote, at least forty jute had been depos D3 1. Halperin and colleagues (2003) have suggested that the ancient Maya associated jute with the watery underworld of Xibalba, which i s why the shells are often found in

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172 cave deposits. Because the underworld is also associated with death, this may explain the purpose of the jute deposited in the burial at Nacimiento and the termination ceremony at Tecolote, since termination ceremonies w ere performed to commemorate (Garber et al. 1998) Thus, the jute in the case of the latter may have been commemorating the death of the Tecolote palace. In summary, ritually deposited rem ains often had the most species diversity at the primary centers. Mollusks, particularly marine species, were the most frequently recovered animal taxa in ritual deposits, suggesting that the shells may have held special symbolic significance. Other freshw ater species, such as turtles, fish, and freshwater mollusks, were also found in both capital and subordinate center ritual deposits. This may have been due to the symbolic importance that freshwater species held, including their possible association with the underworld, as well as how easily accessible they were from the nearby rivers. Most vertebrate taxa tended to differ between sites, which may have been the result of each of the particular ritual deposit functions, depending on the taxa that were requi red for a particular offering. Habitat Fidelity: Capital and Subordinate Centers Habitat fidelity was assessed in this study in order to determine from which habitats site resident s were obtaining their resources, which could potentially serve as a proxy t o determine what the local environments were like around each of the sites during the Late Classic period (Figures 5 3 through 5 5). Overall, the results of this analysis suggest that the Usumacinta sites relied more on terrestrial species than the Petexba tun sites, which concentrated more on taxa located in river and wetland environments. When examining the relative frequencies of the terrestrial habitats across

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173 the sites, it is apparent that secondary forest and cleared forest or agricultural field habita ts were the most popular areas from which sites were obtaining their resources. The major difference between the capital and subordinate communities was the higher proportion of freshwater species found at the latter sites, suggesting that the subordinate centers relied primarily on the rivers when obtaining animal resources. To an extent, this result makes sense since all of the sites, with the exception of Tecolote, are located next to a major river (either the Usumacinta or the Petexbatun). However, Teco lote is located several kilometers away from the Usumacinta River, and still exhibits high river habitat fidelity values. This is the result of a high proportion of freshwater species that were recovered from the termination ritual found at the site, which included both jute and turtles. Thus, the results from Tecolote serve as a warning that habitat fidelity values may not always accurately reflect the immediate surrounding environment of a site, since cultural variables, including animals procured for rit ual purposes, may influence the data, especially if the initial dataset is relatively small. The subordinate centers vary between one another and do not closely resemble the capital sites. Regarding the Usumacinta sites, El Kinel exhibited similar terrestr ial habitat patterns to the nearby capitals, although it had slightly higher mature forest values; this may make sense if one were to consider that the area immediately around the capitals would have likely been more deforested than the areas around the sm aller subordinate communities like El Kinel. Although Tecolote also exhibited a high mature forest influence on its fidelity values, this value is based on very few faunal remains, and thus is not particularly reliable. Punta de Chimino had similar terrest rial fidelity values to Aguateca, namely, a higher influence of agricultural field taxa than was observed at the

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174 Usumacinta sites, which may indicate that the area around Punta de Chimino and Aguateca had been deforested to a greater extent during the Late Classic period than in the Usumacinta area. Nacimiento is located further downstream from Aguateca than Punta de Chimino is (nearly 3.0 km), and has a less dense site plan that spreads over 1.5 km 2 (Eberl and Vela 2004) Thus, it may have been in an area with greater forest vegetation than the other two sites. Overall, the habitat value s suggest that the Petexbatun region may have experienced slightly more deforestation than the Usumacinta area during the Late Classic. Furthermore, subordinate centers generally relied more on freshwater resources than did the primary centers, particularl y in the Petexbatun area. Nevertheless, habitat values must be analyzed with caution, since, as in the case of Tecolote, unique deposits, such as those resulting from ritual activities, may significantly bias the data against the influences of the natural habitat. Artifact Production at the Capital and Subordinate Centers Although faunal remains modified as artifacts (i.e. beads, pins, rasps, etc) were found at nearly all of the sites, evidence for artifact production was proportionally greatest among the s ubordinate communities, with the exception of Nacimiento (Figure 5 7). Most of the worked and finished artifacts at the capitals were made from marine shells. As has been mentioned previously, marine shells, in general, were exceedingly rare at the subordi nate communities, and the majority of their artifacts were made from bones and river shellfish. This suggests that marine shell products were confined to the capital sites, and were not frequently distributed outside of the capitals. Since the marine shell artifacts at Piedras Negras and Aguateca consisted almost entirely of finished products, it is not clear whether these artifacts were produced at the capitals, or

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175 if they had been traded from coastal sites. At other contemporary Late Classic sites, such a s Tikal and Copan, there is evidence from debitage that local artisans were involved in marine shell artifact manufacture (Aoyama 1995; Moholy Nagy 1994) Although unmodified marine shells were found at Aguateca and Piedras Negras, the debitage that would be expected from shell working activities is was found in low quantities, suggesting the mar ine shells may have been processed by artisans in another location, possibly near the coast, and sent as finished items to the capitals. Although the comparison of artifact production among social ranks will be discussed in the next section, in regards to the subordinate communities, it is interesting to note that even at relatively large secondary centers such as Punta de Chimino, where most of the artifactual material came from the central Acropolis, marine shell artifacts were still lacking, despite the fact that it was located only a few kilometers away from Aguateca, where artifacts made from exotic materials were common. Thus, the trade of artifacts from exotic materials may have occurred rarely, and may have been controlled and distributed from the ca pitals to the subordinate communities. The artisans at the subordinate communities made their own bone and shell tools and jewelry when necessary; whether they often traded their own finished products to other communities, or even to the capitals, is not k nown. Summary of Capital and Subordinate Center Comparisons Although the capital and subordinate centers relied on many of the same key species (i.e. deer, dogs, turtles, and freshwater shellfish), their assemblages differed significantly. One important di fference between primary centers and the subordinate communities was the considerable number and diversity of marine mollusks in the assemblages of the former. The trade of marine resources may have been controlled by

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176 the inland capitals and distributed to the subordinate communities. The capitals also had more marine and terrestrial fauna in their ritual deposits than those of the subordinate centers, which instead had more freshwater shellfish. In terms of habitat fidelity, the Usumacinta capitals exhibit ed a higher proportion of terrestrial fauna than the subordinate communities, although Aguateca and the other Petexbatun sites all had higher proportions of freshwater taxa, which may indicate a regional preference. Finally, evidence for artifact productio n was proportionally higher at the subordinate centers, which may have been responsible for manufacturing their own bone and shell tools and ornaments, whereas the higher proportion of finished products at the capital centers may indicate the trade of fini shed craft products to capital sites from other areas. Social Status Rank Comparisons Comparisons of Species Abundance and Diversity by Status Rank When comparing different social ranks at the sites, one clear pattern that emerges from the zooarchaeologica l datasets is that the higher ranks (the upper elite) exhibit a greater diversity of species than the lower ranks (the lesser and non elite), regardless of site size or political aff iliation (Figure 5 2, Table 5 19 ). This increase in diversity is often acc ompanied by a decrease in equitability, as the higher ranks also tend to focus on a few key species, especially wild cats, deer, crocodiles, and marine taxa, which may have been intended to create a distinction between their activities and diet when compar ed with that of the non elites. Wild cats were one of the few taxa that were confined to the elite ranks at all sites, suggesting that they were important for distinguishing the elite and commoner classes. Wild cats, particularly jaguars, have long been k nown to have been associated with kingship among the Maya (Ballinger and Stomper 2000; Benson 1998; Coe 1972)

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177 and this theme is evidenced by their proportionately greater numbers among the ruling elite classes at Piedras Negras, Aguateca, and Yaxchilan. Jaguars were probably used for their hides and bones rather than for consumption, since these products could be used as a symbolic display of status. Jaguar remains that exhibited cut marks attributed to artifact pr oduction were also recovered from the Rank 1 contexts at El Kinel, suggesting that even elites at subordinate communities valued this species as a status marker. Another important species that might have been expected to appear in higher frequencies among the elite classes is the white tailed deer; however, deer appear to have been used only slightly more frequently among the upper elite than the other classes according to the results of this study, with lower class ranks proportionately exceeding higher r anks at Piedras Negras. Unfortunately, Yaxchilan lacks data from lower elite and non elite ranks to make any comparisons in this regard. At other Late Classic sites, deer were found in higher proportions within elite contexts (Masson 1995; Montero Lopez 2009; Pohl 1994) Teeter and Chase (2004:165) note that the dichotomy of deer between elites and non elites is most prevalent at coastal communities, suggesting that deer were less common in these areas a nd were traded with the inland centers, who may have been preparing deer carcasses to trade with the coastal sites in exchange for marine resources, as has also been proposed by Pohl (1990:168) While there is no clear evidence that this was the case among the Usumacinta and Petexbatun sites in this study, the lack of a distinct proportional difference in deer remains between the elite and lesser or non elite groups indicates that deer were commonly hunted by all classes.

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178 Although evidence for crocodiles was rare at all sites, th ey appear to have been limited to the elite contexts. At the subordinate centers, they were recovered from the Acr opolis at Punta de Chimino, and among the Rank 1 material at El Kinel, suggesting that they were also important among the elite ranks at the subordinate centers. At other sites in the Maya area, crocodiles are frequently found in elite contexts, particular ly as special offerings, such as burials and caches, suggesting that they were not a common subsistence item. For example, they have been found in the probable feasting and ritual remains uncovered at the Postclassic elite contexts of Laguna de On (Masson 19 99) Cohla (Shaw 1991) and Lamanai (Stanchly 2007) as well as Classic period cache deposits at La Joyanca (Emery and Thornton 2008a) Ceibal (Pohl 1976:179) and Tikal (Coe 1990:485; Wright 2005) Like the jaguar and other wild cats, crocodiles were probably prized for their symbolic associations, such as their relationship with the mythic watery underworld of Xi balba, as well as the Earth (sometimes Cosmic) Monster, whose cave like maw opened into this underworld (Pohl 1983:81; Stocker et al. 1980; Thurston and Healy 2010) Marine products were also mostly confined to the elite classes, with the exception of Aguateca. Marine fish were only found among the upper elite contexts at Aguateca and Piedras Negras. As mentioned, marine fish were found exclusively at the large capitals, excluding Yaxchilan, and consisted primarily of stingray spines. The ray spines were likely used in religious ceremonies that involved bloodletting sacrifices, such as those observed on the stelae from Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan (Haines et al. 2008; Joralemo n 1974; Tate 1992:88 89) The only non cartilaginous marine fish identified among the remains, a member of the catfish family (Ariidae), is a peripheral species

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179 known to enter brackish waters, and may be a problematic identification (Emery, personal commu nication). There is also considerable evidence at the capital sites, specifically Piedras Negras and Aguateca, that marine mollusks were relegated to the elite classes. As discussed earlier, marine mollusks were much more common at the primary centers than they were at the subordinate communities, suggesting their distribution had been controlled by the capital centers. Since the elite at the capitals had the greatest number and diversity of marine shells than other status groups at these primate centers, t his suggests that the elite were in control of the marine shell trade, and that the shells were a valuable exotic commodity, possibly due in part to the difficulty in transporting them in large numbers between inland sites. Marine shells generally occurred in higher proportions among the lowest ranks (the non elites) at the capitals than they did among the elite ranks of the subordinate communities, again suggesting that the capitals were in control of the distribution of marine resources. Thus, the lowest ranks at the capitals had greater access to marine shells than the subordinate centers. The only subordinate site to have two clearly demarcated status ranks, El Kinel, did not have enough marine shells (NISP and MNI = 2) to show a distinct difference betw een the two ranks. The lesser and non elite contexts examined in this study tended to have higher proportions of freshwater species, primarily turtles, freshwater clams (with the exception of Aguateca), and snails. These species were probably abundant in the local rivers, and so were easily accessible. Dogs were also found in all lesser and non elite contexts at the capitals, in roughly the same proportions as the elite classes (~0.5 3.0% by NISP); this suggests that dogs were probably not an especially i mportant species used to

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180 demarcate status, unless particular breeds were used by specific social ranks, evidence for which is still difficult to obtain in faunal analyses (Blanco et al. 2008; Valadez Aza 1994; Vala dez Aza, et al. 2001, 2002) Freshwater fish, mainly cichlids and catfish, were also commonly found in the lower social ranks, suggesting that, unlike marine species, they were not limited to any specific status group. At the Petexbatun sites, there is s ome indication that the large river turtle species, Dermatemys mawii was preferred by the elite classes at Aguateca and Punta de Chimino. At the Usumacinta sites, this species occurs in roughly equal proportions with the other turtle taxa, particularly th e common slider ( Trachemys scripta ). There is little evidence for an elite preference for river turtle at other sites outside of the Petexbatun and Usumacinta area. At the large site of Caracol in Belize, river turtle were identified as a preferred species (Teeter 2004) ; nevertheless, other reports, including those from other Petn sites, have suggested that river turtles are fairly ubiquitous in most areas, and that their use was not necessarily limited to the upper classes (Gotz 2008; Pohl 1976; van der Merwe et al. 2000) The Petexbatun elite may have had a preference for river turtles, but most turtles in ge neral were likely an easily accessible resource for inhabitants living on the riversides. Overall, the faunal remains from the different social ranks exhibit several general trends. Assemblages belonging to elite contexts tend to have the greatest taxono mic diversity. Some species, such as wild cats, crocodiles, and marine fish and mollusks, were confined to the elite classes, suggesting that the elite either used these taxa to symbolically promote their status rank or that the trade of exotic species was carefully controlled. White tailed deer, although found among the elite faunal assemblages of

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181 other sites, were recovered in similar proportions in all assemblages examined in this study, including those belonging to the non elites. Taxa that made up the greatest proportions of lesser and non elite assemblages included turtles and freshwater mollusks, which were probably easily obtained from the rivers. In general, control of exotic taxa appears to have been the most significant distinguishing characterist ic between the elite and non elite classes. Habitat Fidelity : Comparisons by Status Rank In addition to using habitat fidelity data as a proxy to determine what habitats may have been like around sites during the Late Classic period, it was also used to as sess whether or not specific social ranks at the capital centers were obtaining their animal resources from particular habitat types. The overall results suggest that the upper elite at all three capitals obtained more animal taxa from terrestrial habitats than the lesser and non elite did, and the latter relied proportionately more on freshwater species. Although secondary forest and cleared forest or agricultural field habitats were the most popular areas from which site resident s were obta ining their res ources across nearly all social ranks, m ature forest taxa decrease down the rank ladder at the Usumacinta capitals, which may suggest that these taxa were possibly being provisioned in greater numbers to the core elite While the opposite appears to have o ccurred at Aguateca, this may not actually be the case: when taking Figure 5 5b into account, which excludes the proportionately high number of river clams that had mostly constituted crafted artifacts, the lower classes were obtaining the vast majority of their resources from the river, namely in the form of turtles. Thus, the Aguateca elite were obtaining proportionately higher numbers of mature forest species and lower numbers of freshwater species than the lesser and non elite classes.

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182 In summary, the habitat fidelity values suggest that different social ranks at the capitals were obtaining their resources from different habitat types, with the elite classes procuring more mature forest species and the non elite obtaining more river and wetland resource s, which may have been more readily accessible. This coincides with the results for the capital and subordinate habitat fidelity comparisons discussed previously, where the smaller communities also relied proportionately more on readily obtainable freshwat er species. Selective Distribution of White Tailed Deer Skeletal Elements The results of the study that examined the distribution of white tailed deer remains across each of the larger sites revealed marked variation among the different social ranks (Figur e 5 6). The initial hypothesis, that the higher ranked sites would have exhibited significant indication of portioning of specific body parts among the top tiered elite than at any other site (described in Chapter 4), was proved correct: at each of the cen ters, fore and hindlimbs of deer were significantly overrepresented. This pattern did not occur at any of the other sites, regardless of site size or rank, and therefore serves as a strong indication that the governing elite of the capital sites were sele ctively procuring, and possibly even being provisioned with, fore and hindlimbs over other body parts. Generally, the lesser elites (Rank 3) at each capital site exhibited similar deer skeletal distribution patterns to the upper level elite (Rank 1) at b oth Punta de Chimino and El Kinel. None of these distribution patterns revealed significant overrepresentation of body portions. Selective acquisition of fore and hindlimbs among the core elite at the capitals indicates that these body parts were valued t he most, and that the elite had the power to obtain significant quantities of these parts. It is possible that the elite were

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183 being provisioned with fore and hindlimbs, either by special hunters from the community or nearby subsidiary centers, or as tribu te items. Cranial and axial elements at nearly all of the sites were significantly underrepresented, suggesting that something was causing a dearth of these particular elements. Natural taphonomic factors might be cited as one reason, although teeth, whic h would be expected to survive the ravages of time better than any of the other elements of the body, were also lacking. Since very few deer teeth were recovered from any of the sites, this suggests that the entire skulls were missing. The absence of cra nia may be the result of the particular butchering practices implemented by the Maya in these communities. It is possible that a form of the the carcass at the site of th e kill, taking what are considered to be the most valued body parts and organs and leaving the rest of the animal behind (Lyman 1985; Perkins and Daly 1968; Turner 1989) It is also possible that certain elements, particularly the skulls, were distributed to different members of the community for specific reasons, or discarded in separate locations. At the Postclassic site of Mayapan, deer skulls were found concentrated in particular locations, possibly for use as h eaddresses and other ritual functions (Masson and Lope 2008:180 181) although skull elements were exceedingly rare elsewhere at the site. At the Late Classic site of Cern, where many artifacts had surviv ed remarkably intact due to the unique preservation conditions provided by the ashfall from a volcanic eruption, a white tailed deer skull was found alongside other ceremonial artifacts concentrated in one room (Brown and Gerstle 2002:102 103) Even in modern ceremonies in the Guatemalan Highlands, deer skulls

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184 forest and supernatural animal guardians by being placed in a cave or rock outcropping (Brown 2002; Brown and Emery 2008) Deer headdresses are commonly depicted in Maya art: even at Yaxchilan, individuals, often captives, sport such headgea r on stelae, lintels, and structure reliefs (Tate 1992:77 78) Thus, the unequal distribution of body parts exhibited acro ss all of the sites may in part be due to the selective use and disposal of different skeletal elements used for different functions. Artifact Production among Status Ranks Artifact production was proportionately greatest among the middle elite ranks at th e capital sites when comparing production across social ranks ( Figure 5 8, Tables 5 22 and 5 23 ). The royal elite at the capital centers had the highest proportions of finished artifacts in their assemblages (>90.0% by NISP), signifying that they may have been the recipients of many of these crafted products. The non elites also had high proportions of finished artifacts, suggesting that the middle ranked elites and lower elites were most active producing crafted items. Unfinished artifacts found in middle elite contexts were made from a variety of material, from marine shell to bone, and may have been an indication that these middle ranks were involved in specialized craft related activities, such as the production of jewelry, tools, or needles for textile production. At Piedras Negras and Aguateca, the majority of finished artifacts found in the upper elite contexts were made from marine shells (59.81% by NISP at Piedras Negras, 63.98% at Aguateca). Since marine shells were generally rare in all other cont exts, this suggests that the upper elite had the most access to this exotic commodity, and may have controlled its distribution to other social ranks. Furthermore, as was discussed

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185 previously, marine artifacts at the subordinate centers were exceedingly ra re. The elite at the capitals may have been distributing these exotic goods in low numbers to the subordinate centers, perhaps in return for certain tribute items (such as the mature forest taxa mentioned earlier). The site of production for the marine she ll artifacts remains a mystery. Summary of Social Status Rank Comparisons In general, the upper and ruling elite classes had more taxonomic diversity than the non elite classes, in part due to the greater proportion of exotic and symbolic species in the el ite assemblages, such as marine taxa, wild cats, and crocodiles. Mature forest species were also proportionately higher among the upper and ruling elite classes at the capitals, suggesting these animals or their products may have been provisioned or used a s tribute from lower status individuals living and hunting outside of the urban capital. The ruling elite at the capitals also appear to have been provisioned with significantly higher proportions of fore and hindlimbs of white tailed deer. The middle eli te ranks had the largest proportion of artifact debitage, suggesting they may have been held specialized jobs as artisans. The non elite classes had the least taxonomic diversity at the sites, and relied mostly on freshwater species such as turtles and she llfish, which may have been easily accessible. Overall, there are distinct social status variations observable in the faunal assemblages from all sites that had more than one class distinction. Chapter Summary By analyzing and comparing patterns in the var ious faunal assemblages concerning subsistence, social rank, trade, crafting, and religious activities at each of the site centers, a number of complex and intriguing trends have come to light. Patterns

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186 for animal use tend to vary from site to site and bet ween polities, but higher ranked elite at the largest sit es tend to share several animal use preferences not observed in the lower ranking contexts, such as greater species diversity, a predilection for deer and other large mammals, a greater proportion of taxa procured from mature forest environments than the lower classes, and, in the case of white tailed deer, access to a significantly greater proportion of fore and hindlimbs, likely considered to be the preferred body portions. There is some evidence t hat animal products may have been traded in more than one direction between sites of different size: hunters living at subordinate communities may have been provisioning elites living at the primary centers with mature forest species, while the primary cen ters appear to have controlled the distribution of marine shells among communities. Animals used for ritual activities at all of the sites differed significantly, which may have been an indication that specific animals were required to perform particular c eremonies; however, mollusks appear to have been common ritual offerings at all sites. Overall, although the results show distinct variations among the social ranks and different subordinate centers, they also reveal the complexity inherent in the way the ancient Maya made use of their animal resources.

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187 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION Zooarchaeology and Late Classic Political Economics This study compared the archaeological faunal assemblages recovered from ten sites of varying size and political complexity from Lat e Classic contexts in the Usumacinta and Petexbatun regions The comparisons allowed me to identify and assess the similarities and differences in use of animal resources by the ancient Maya, focusing on comparisons between regions, polities, capital and s ubordinate centers, and elite and non elite status groups. These comparisons also included assessments of ritual practices, trade and exchange, and how local ecology influenced resource use. The results suggest that, although the quantity and type of fauna l remains differed markedly at each site, there are overarching patterns revealing similarities within individual social classes, site ranks, and political affiliation. These patterns indicate that animal resource use was, in part, dictated by cultural and political norms. In terms of taxa identified among the three polities, sites varied most by region, with the sites of the two Usumacinta polities, Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan, exhibiting more similarities between one another than when either was compare d with the single Petexbatun polity, Aguateca. Habitat fidelity results suggested that residents of the Usumacinta polities generally relied on more terrestrial species, particularly forest taxa, than did those of the Petexbatun sites. At the same time, th e Petexbatun site resident s relied more on freshwater species, and had a greater proportion of taxa that frequented agricultural fields, perhaps indicating that the local area around these sites had been more heavily deforested than the Usumacinta region b y the Late Classic period. Some species were also generally more prevalent in the assemblages of one region over

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188 another, such as deer from the Usumacinta sites and river turtle in most of the Petexbatun assemblages, which may be an indication of cultural preference or the particular symbolic meaning of these species to members of these polities The results from the comparisons made between the different site levels revealed that the most significant difference between the capital centers and the subordin ate communities was the large proportion of marine shells recovered from the former. This suggests that the capitals were in control of the distribution of marine products. Terrestrial and freshwater taxa, for the most part, were remarkably similar in freq uency in both capital and subordinate site assemblages, although the subordinate centers relied more on freshwater taxa, particularly turtles and freshwater shellfish, than the primary centers. Ritual taxa tended to conform to site levels: primary center a ssemblages had the most varied assortment of ritual taxa, including dogs, turkeys, wild cats, and marine species, while secondary and tertiary center resident s mostly used turtles and freshwater shellfish as offerings. Due to the low quantity of comparable remains recovered from the tertiary center of Esmeralda and the two quaternary centers of Ana and Arroyo Yaxchilan, no definitive comparisons can be made between the different levels of the subordinate centers at this time. However, evidence from the tert iary center of El Kinel in the Yaxchilan polity suggests that the tertiary communities can closely resemble their capitals, since both El Kinel and Yaxchilan had similar site assemblages. In regards to social rank, it was found that higher classes had the most species diversity, more ritually symbolic taxa (i.e. wild cats and crocodiles), and often considerably more marine taxa. Assessing the habitat fidelity of animals across different

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189 social ranks, it was found that higher ranks were often procuring reso urces from a wider range of habitat types, particularly mature forest species, which suggests some of these animals may have been provisioned to the elite at the capital centers. Lower classes tended to rely more on freshwater species, which may have been easier to procure than many terrestrial taxa. Several taxa, including deer and dogs, exhibited little proportional variation between the different social ranks. Finally, social rank comparisons at El Kinel show that these class divisions existed at the sub ordinate communities, even at the level of tertiary centers. Proposals for Future Research This study has only begun to examine the patterns surrounding the use of animal resources at sites according to social rank, site size, and political affiliation. It is obvious that more information is necessary to strengthen the conclusions drawn from this specific analysis. I suggest a plan for what zooarchaeologists should focus their research on in future investigations, since this study has shown some areas where our knowledge of Maya animal use is most lacking. Clearly, one area of research that is in critical need of attention of both zooarchaeologists and general archaeologists alike is the study of the smaller subordinate communities located between large pol ity centers. The single tertiary center that provided the largest faunal assemblage of any subordinate center in this study, El Kinel, shows that substantially large and diverse faunal assemblages were deposited by small residential communities. The El Kin el faunal results even conformed to what would have been expected of a site containing elite and non elite class ranks, suggested that social hierarchies were in place at small communities as well as the more politically complex capitals. The results from the subordinate sites also show that

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190 these communities can resemble the capitals of their respective polities, suggesting that the specific use of animal resources varied between polities. Future investigations into these similarities could provide more in formation regarding the distinct cultural traits and taxonomic preferences for each polity. Continuing from the argument for the necessity of further investigations at subordinate centers, research into peripheral or lower class residences at the capital sites is also needed. Although this study was able to compare assemblages from at least four social tiers at the primary centers, the assemblages from the non elite contexts were considerably smaller than those of the upper elite. This is primarily due to the fact that most excavations took place at the central cores of Maya capitals, where elite residences and administrative structures are concentrated. This was the reason no lesser or non elite faunal remains were available from Yaxchilan. An improved kno wledge of how the middle and lower classes of Maya society lived would provide us with the full picture of Maya life, and not just a biased understanding of the proportionately smaller elite class. Finally, Maya zooarchaeologists and archaeologists will need to gain a better understanding of the basic rules of ancient economics in the Mesoamerican region, specifically in terms of the supply and demand of certain animal products. This study has shown that the regional capitals appear to have been controlli ng the distribution of marine resources throughout the subsidiary inland communities; it has also provided evidence for a greater access to mature forest species among the elite at the primary centers as opposed to the lesser and non elite, as well as prop ortionately greater quantities of fore and hindlimbs from white tailed deer. Furthermore, the results suggest

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191 that crafting activities were most frequently conducted by the middle elite classes at the primary centers, as well as at the subordinate centers as a whole. What is still unclear is how these trade and provisioning systems had been controlled. Did the capitals govern certain trade routes for particular materials, and if so, how did they decide what was redistributed to the subordinate centers, and which centers were given certain items? Were marine shell artifacts crafted at the primary centers, such as Aguateca, or were they produced at coastal sites and afterward shipped to the primary center elite? Did the subordinate centers have craft specialis ts who traded their products between sites? If the Maya elite at the capitals were acquiring more mature forest species than the rest of the community, as well a more deer fore and hindlimbs, were they obtaining these animals from particular sources, such as hunters stationed at the subordinate communities? Finally, did any of these patterns change through time, particularly during the rise of polity organization during the Preclassic period? These are only some of the questions that will need to be elabora ted on in the future. Summary This study has shown that, despite the unique diversity exhibited among the faunal assemblages from individual sites, correlations exist across sites of varying size, rank, political affiliation, and region that reveal continu ities in how animal resources had been used by the Late Classic Maya. Complex sociopolitical relationships once existed between capital and subordinate communities, and the analysis of faunal remains has proven to be one means of tracking these ancient int eractions. Future analyses will no doubt discover other methods to analyze these relationships, thus enhancing our currently limited knowledge of how subordinate communities operated on an intra and inter site basis.

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192 LIST OF REFERENCES Andrews, Peter 1995 Experiments in Taphonomy. Journal of Archaeological Science 22(2):147 153. Aoyama, Kazuo 1995 Microwear analysis in the Southeast Maya lowlands: Two case studies at Copn, Honduras. Latin American Antiquity 6:129 144. 2007 Elite A rtists and Craft Producers in Classic Maya Society: Lithic Evidence from Aguateca, Guatemala. Latin American Antiquity 18:3 26. Arroyave, Ana Luca 2004 TC Operaciones 1, 3 y 4: Excavaciones de Sondeo en el Area Central y en un Grupo Periferico del Sitio Tecolote In Proyecto Aqueologico Parque Nacional Sierra del Lacand n, Piedras Negras 2004, Informe No. 2 edited by Charles Golden, Luis Alberto Romero, Karla Alvarez Dardn and Martn Rangel, pp. 44 58. Guatemala City. Arroyave, Ana Luca, Charles Golden and Andrew K. Scherer 2009 Proyecto Regional Arqueologico, Sierra 7 Guatemala City. Ashmore, Wendy 1991 Site Planning Principles and Concepts of Directionality among the Ancient Maya. Latin American Antiquity 2:199 225. Bachand, Bruce R. 2005 Parte VI: Excavaciones en Punta de Chimin o Resumen In Informe del Proyecto Arqueol gico Aguateca: La Temporada de Campo 2005 edited by Erick M. Ponciano, Daniela Triadan and Takeshi Inomata, pp. 15.11 15.22. Instituto de Antropologa e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala City. 2006 Preclassic Exc avations at Punta de Chimino, Petn, Guatemala: Investigating Social Emplacement on an Early Maya Landscape Ph.D Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tuscon. Ball, Joseph W. 1993 Pottery, Potters, Palaces and Polities: Some S ocioeconomic and Political Implications of Late Classic Maya Ceramic Industries In Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century A.D. edited by Jeremy A. Sabloff and John S. Henderson, pp. 243 272. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. Ballinger, Diane A. and Jeffery Stomper 2000 The Jaguars of Altar Q, Copan, Honduras: Faunal Analysis, Archaeology and Ecology. Journal of Ethnobiology 20(2):223 236.

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195 Clark, John E. 1995 Craft specialization as an archaeological category. Research in Economic Anthropology 16:267 294. Clutt on Brock, Juliet and Norman Hammond 1994 Hot Dogs: Comestible Canids in Preclassic Maya Culture at Cuello, Belize. Journal of Archaeological Science 21:819 826. Coe, Michael D. 1972 Olmec Jaguars and Olmec Kings In The Cult of the Feline edited by E. P. Benson, pp. 1 12. Dumbarton Oaks Library and Collection, Washington, D.C. Coe, William R. 1990 Excavations in the Great Plaza, North Terrace and North Acropolis of Tikal: Tikal Report No. 14, Volume II and VI. University Museum Monograph 61. Universit y of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Colley, Sarah M. 1990 Analysis and Interpretation of Archaeological Fish Remains. Archaeological Method and Theory 2:207 253. Collins, Lisa M. 2002 The Zooarchaeology of the Copan Valley: Social Status and the Search fo r a Maya Slave Class Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge. Covich, Alan 1983 Mollusca: A Contrast in Species Diversity from Aquatic and Terrestrial Habitats In Pulltrouser Swamp: Ancient Maya Habitat, Agricult ure, and Settlement in Northern Belize edited by Billie Lee II Turner and Peter D. Harrison, pp. 120 139. University of Texas Press, Austin. Crabtree, Pamela J. 1990 Zooarchaeology and Complex Societies: Some Uses of Faunal Analysis for the Study of Tr ade, Social Status, and Ethnicity. Archaeological Method and Theory 2:155 199. Cruz Uribe, Kathryn 1988 The Use and Meaning of Species Diversity and Richness in Archaeological Faunas. Journal of Archaeological Science 15(2):179 196. Cunningham Smith, Pe tra 2011 Fish from Afar: Marine Resource Use at Caracol, Belize. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Central Florida, Orlando.

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196 Dahlin, Bruce H., Daniel Bair, Tim Beach, Matthew Moriarty and Richard Terry 2009 The Dirt on Food: Anci ent Feasts and Markets Among the Lowland Maya In Pre Columbian Foodways: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Food, Culture, and Markets in Ancient Mesoamerica edited by John E. Staller and Michael D. Carrasco, pp. 191 232. Springer, New York. Dahlin, Bruce H., Christopher T. Jensen, Richard E. Terry, David R. Wright and Timothy Beach 2007 In Search of the Ancient Maya Market. Latin American Antiquity 18(4):363 384. Dardn, Karla 2004 Sitio Arqueologico Esmeralda In Proyecto Arqueologico Parque Nacional S ierra del Lacand n, Piedras Negras 2004, Informe No. 2 edited by Charles Golden, Luis Alberto Romero, Karla Alvarez Dardn and Martn Rangel, pp. 133 148. Guatemala City. De Landa, Fray Diego 1941 Translated by Alfred Tozzer. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 18. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. deFrance, Susan D. 2009 Zooarchaeology in Complex Societies: Political Economy, Status, and Ideology. Journal of Archaeological Research 17:105 168. Demar est, Arthur A. 1992 Ideology in Ancient Maya Cultural Evolution: The Dynamics of Galactic Polities In Ideology and Pre Columbian Civilizations edited by Arthur A. Demarest and Geoffrey Conrad, pp. 135 157. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe. 1994 The Petexbatun Regional Archaeological Project: War, Peace, and the Collapse of Maya Civilization In Five Hundred Years After Columbus: Proceedings of the 47th International Congress of Americanists edited by E.Wyllys Andrews and Elizabeth O. Mozz illo. Tulane University, New Orleans. 1996 Closing Comment to Forum on Theory in Anthropology, The Maya State: Centralized or Segmentary? Current Anthropology 37(5):821 824. 1997 The Vanderbilt Petexbatun Regional Archaeological Project 1989 1994: Overv iew, History, and Major Results of a Multi disciplinary Study of the Classic Maya Collapse. Ancient Mesoamerica 8(2):1 33.

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197 1999 Investigaciones Arqueolgicas y Reconocimiento en la Zona del Sitio Cancuen. In XIII Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueolgica s en Guatemala Museo Nacional de Arqueologa y Etnologa, Guatemala City. 2000 Cancuen Archaeological Project. Report Submitted to the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI), [updated 1 April 2000, cited 15 May 2011]. Availa ble from http://www.famsi.org/reports/96034/index.html. 2006 The Petexbatun Regional Archaeological Project: A Multidisciplinary Study of the Maya Collapse Vanderbilt Institute of Mesoamerican Archaeology, Nashville. Demarest, Arthur A. and Hector L. Es cobeco 1997 El Proyecto Arqueolgico Punta de Chimino: Objetivos, descubrimiento e interpretaciones preliminares de la temporada de campo de 1996 In X Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueolgicas en Guatemala, 1996 edited by Juan P. Laporte and Hector Esco bedo, pp. 392 396. Museo Nacional de Arqueologa y Etnologa, Guatemala City. Demarest, Arthur A., Matt O'Mansky, Claudia Wolley, Dirk Van Tuerenhout, Takeshi Inomata, Joel Palka and Hector Escobedo 1997 Classic Maya Defensive Systems and Warfare in the Petexbatun Region: Archaeological Evidence and Interpretations. Ancient Mesoamerica 8(2):1 36. Dunning, Nicholas P., Timothy Beach and David Rue 1997 The Paleoecology and Ancient Settlement of the Petexbatun Region, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica 8(2):2 55 266. Dunning, Nicholas P., David J. Rue, Timothy Beach, Alan Covich and A. Traverse 1998 Human environment interactions in a tropical watershed: The paleoecology of Laguna Tamarindito, El Petn, Guatemala. Journal of Field Archaeology 25(2):139 151. Eberl, Markus 2007 Community Heterogeneity and Integration: The Maya Sites of Nacimiento, Dos Ceibas, and Cerro de Cheyo (El Petn, Guatemala) During the Late Classic Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Tulane University, New Orleans. Eberl, Markus and Claudia Vela 2004 Explorations at the Site of Nacimiento, Petexbatun, Petn In Symposium of Archaeological Investigations in Guatemala, 2004 edited by Juan P. LaPorte, Brbara Arroyo and Hctor E. Meja, pp. 1 14. Museo Nacional de Arqueolog ia y Etnologia, Guatemala City.

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198 Emery, Kitty F. 1997 The Maya Collapse: A Zooarchaeological Inquiry Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Cornell University, Ithaca. 1998 Uso de Fauna en Grupos Domesticos: Dieta y Ritual en Aguateca In Inf orme Preliminar del Proyecto Aguateca: La Temporada de 1998 edited by Takeshi Inomata, Erik Ponciano and Daniela Triadan. Instituto de Antropologia e Historia, Guatemala City. 1999a Captulo 29. Informe zooarqueolgico: temporada de 1999 In Proyecto Arq ueo lgico Piedras Negras. Informe Preliminar No. 3. Tercera temporada, 1999 edited by Hctor L. Escobedo and Stephen D. Houston, pp. 401 404. Informe entregado al Instituto de Antropologa e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala City. 1999b Ritual Deposits an d the Piedras Negras Faunal Remains In Proyecto Piedras Negras: Informe Preliminar edited by Stephen D. Houston. Instituto de Antropologa e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala City. 2001 Informe zooarqueolgico 2000: Utilizacin de animales por la lite e n Piedras Negras In Proyecto Arqueolgico Piedras Negras: Informe Preliminar No. 4, Cuarto Temporada, 2000 edited by Hector Escobedo and Stephen D. Houston, pp. 559 566. Instituto de Antropologa e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala City. 2003a Natural Re source Use and Classic Maya Economics: Environmental Archaeology at Motul de San Jose, Guatemala. Mayab 16(33 48). 2003b The Noble Beast: Status and Differential Access to Animals in the Maya World. World Archaeology 34(3):498 515. 2004a Analisis Secunda rio de la Taxonoma de los Restos Animales de Aguateca: Informe del Trabajo de 2003 2004 en el FLMNH In Informe Final y Solicitud de Convenio, Proyecto Arqueolgico Aguateca edited by T. Inomata. Instituto de Antropologa e Historia de Guatemala, Guatema la. 2004b Animals from the Maya Underworld: Reconstructing Elite Maya Ritual at the Cueva de los Quetzales In Behavior behind Bones: The Zooarchaeology of Religion, Ritual, Status, and Identity edited by Sharyn Jones O'Day, Wim Van Neer and Anton Ervync k, pp. 101 113. Oxbow Books, Oxford. 2004c Maya Zooarchaeology: New Directions in Method and Theory Costen Institute of Archaeology, Monograph 51, University of California, Los Angeles.

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199 2005 Animals and Ritual in the Copn Acropolis: Zooarchaeology of Special Deposits (2004 Research Season). Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Archaeology, Inc. 2007 Aprovechamiento de la Fauna en Piedras Negras: Dieta, Ritual y Artesana del Periodo Clsico Maya. Mayab 19:51 69. 2008a Reporte Sobre Los Res tos Animales del Sitio de Piedras Negras: Sumario De Los Resultados 2004 2008 Instituto de Antropologa e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala City. 2008b Techniques of Ancient Maya Bone Working: Evidence from a Classic Maya Deposit. Latin American Antiquity 19(2):204 221. 2008c A Zooarchaeological Test for Dietary Resource Depression at the End of the Classic Period in the Petexbatun, Guatemala. Human Ecology 36(5):617 634. 2008d Medicinal Curation and Use of Animals by the Itzaj Maya of Guatemala: Implica tions for Zooarchaeology Proceedings of the Canadian Association of Archaeology Peterborough, ON 2009 Perspectives on ancient Maya bone crafting from a Classic period bone artifact manufacturing assemblage. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28:458 470. 2010 Dietary, Environmental, and Societal Implications of Ancient Maya Animal Use in the Petexbatun: A Zooarchaeological Perspective on the Collapse Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville. In Press Zooarchaeology of Motul de San Jose: Animals in Environmental and Economic Perspective In Politics, History, and Economy in the Classic Maya Polity of Motul de San Jose, Guatemala edited by Antonia E. Foias and Kitty F. Emery. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Emery, Kitty F. and Kazuo Aoyam a 2004 The Elaboration Of Bone Artifacts In Domestic Groups Of The Maya Elite At Aguateca, Petn. Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Archaeology, Inc. [updated 2005, cited 15 May 2011]. Available from http://www.famsi.org/reports/03101/77emery _aoyama/77emery_aoyama.pdf. 2007 Bone tool manufacturing in elite Maya households at Aguateca, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica 18:69 89.

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200 Emery, Kitty F. and Linda Brown 2008 Ethnoarchaeological Studies of Animal Material Disposal Patterns in the Southe rn Maya Lowlands and Implications for Maya Zooarchaeology Paper presented at the Annual Meeting for the Society for American Archaeology, March 26 30, Vancouver, British Columbia. Emery, Kitty F., Michelle LeFebvre, Elyse Anderson and Erol Kavountzis 20 08 Reporte Preliminar de los Resultos Zooarqueologicos: Proyecto Aguateca Phase II, 2005 2008 Instituto de Antropologa e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala City. Emery, Kitty F., Susan Milbrath, Elyse Anderson and Erol Kavountzis 2009 Maya Codices, Caves and Animals: Zooarchaeological and Symbolic Evidence Paper presented at the Animal Symbolism in the Mesoamerican Codex Tradition, November 19 21, University of New Mexico Latin American and Iberian Institute, Albuquerque. Emery, Kitty F. and Erin K. Th ornton 2008a Reporte Preliminar de los Restos Faunisticos Recuperados en El Sitio de La Joyanca, Petn, Guatemala Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala City. 2008b Zooarchaeological Habitat Analysis of Ancient Maya Landscape Chan ges. Journal of Ethnobiology 28(2):154 179. Emery, Kitty F., Erin Kennedy Thornton, Nicole C. Cannarozzi, Stephen Houston and Hector L. Escobeco In Press Ancient Animals of the Southern Maya Highlands: Zooarchaeology of Kaminaljuyu In Archaeology of A ncient Mesoamerican Animals edited by Christopher Gotz and Kitty F. Emery. Oxbow Press, David Brown Book Company, Woodbridge. Escobedo, Hctor L. 1997 Arroyo de Piedra: Sociopolitical Dynamics of a Secondary Center in the Petexbatun Region. Ancient Meso america 8:307 320. Escobedo, Hector L. and Stephen D. Houston 1997 Proyecto Arqueolgico Piedras Negras: Informe Preliminar No. 1, Primera Temporada, 1997. Report. Instituto de Antropologa e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala City. 1998 Proyecto Arqueol gico Piedras Negras: Informe Preliminar No. 2, Segunda Temporada, 1998. Report. Instituto de Antropologa e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala City.

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220 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ashley Sharpe is a native New Englander who studied archaeology and biology at 2009. After working on archaeological excavations in both Guatemala and Syria and having the opportunity to study animal remains from both regions, she realized that the study of ancient animals could be just as interesting as studying live ones, and that a great deal is still unknown about past human and animal interactions. This prompted her to move across the country to pursue a graduate degree in a nthropology at the University of Florida in Gainesville. She has since had the fortune to work with and lea rn from the exceptional researchers at the Environmental Archaeology Program of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Ashley has also been able to work on a number of projects in Guatemala and Belize, both in the field and in the lab. She is continually f ascinated by the number of ways animal remains can be used to reconstruct the past, from ancient environments to complex social organizations, and intends to pursue further investigations in the field of zooarchaeology for years to come