This item is only available as the following downloads:
1 OF BEAUTY By CAROL WU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MAS TER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011
2 2011 Carol Wu
3 To my family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank my parents for their love and full support throughout my graduate education I also truly appreciate the help that Hsiao Ying Liu Cheng Kang Guan, Brena Ta i, Mei Han Kao and Wei Chang Chuang offered me during the hardest time of this process. I have been lucky to be blessed with love and friendships. Academically, I would like to thank my thesis committee Dr. Robyn Goodman, Dr. John Sutherland, and Dr. Jon Morris for their guidance I especially thank my chair Dr. Robyn Goodman for her patience and advice throughout the entire process
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 16 Universality of Physical Attractiveness ................................ ................................ ... 16 Phy sically Attractive Communicators and Persuasion ................................ ............ 21 The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis and the Six Beauty Types ................................ 24 Media Portrayal of Female Beauty Images in Different Cultures ............................ 28 The Perception of Female Beauty Image in Taiwan ................................ ............... 30 Confucianism and Female Beauty Image ................................ ......................... 31 Kawaii Culture and Female Beauty Image ................................ ....................... 32 Western Culture and Female Beauty Image ................................ ..................... 33 Qizhi ( ) and Female Beauty Image ................................ ............................. 34 The Ideal of Pale Skin ................................ ................................ ...................... 35 Building Up a Framework of Female Beauty Types in Taiwan ................................ 35 Classic Beauty ( / ) ................................ ............................. 36 Girl Next Door ( ) ................................ ................................ ............. 36 Cute Acting Beauty ( / ) ................................ ................................ .... 37 Wildness ( ) ................................ ................................ ...................... 38 Intellectual Beauty ( ) ................................ ................................ ....... 38 Edgy ( ) ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 39 Sexy Little Woman ( ) ................................ ................................ ... 39 Using AdSAM to Measure Emotional Responses ................................ ................. 40 Emotional Response and Advertising ................................ ............................... 40 Measuring Emotions ................................ ................................ ......................... 42 Theo retical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 46 Social Comparison Theory ................................ ................................ ............... 46 Social Cognitive Theory ................................ ................................ .................... 49 Need for Present Research ................................ ................................ .................... 50 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 50 3 METHOD AND PROCEDURE ................................ ................................ ................ 54 Pretest ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 54
6 Selection of Pretest Participants ................................ ................................ ....... 54 Pretest Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ....................... 55 Main Study Procedure ................................ ................................ ............................ 56 Selection of Participants ................................ ................................ ................... 56 Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 56 4 FINDING ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 58 Pretest ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 58 Main Study Demographics ................................ ................................ ...................... 59 Research Questions and Hypothesis ................................ ................................ ...... 59 RQ1: How Many Dimensions of Beauty are Present in the Data? .................... 59 RQ2: What Are the Strongest, Weakest, and Middle Examples of Each New Beauty Types? ................................ ................................ .............................. 60 H1: Beauty Types Associated with Sexiness and/or Sexual Maturity (i.e., Wildness and Sexy Little Women) Will Produ ce Less Pleasurable Feelings Compared to Beauty Types Not Associated with Sexiness and/or Sexual Maturity (i.e., Girl Next Door, Cute Acting, Classic Beauty, Intellectual Beauty, and Edgy). ................................ ................................ ...... 61 H2: Beauty Types Associated with Sexiness and/or Sexual Maturity (Wildness and Sexy Little Women) Will Produce Less Arousal Compared to Beauty Types Not Associated with Sexiness and/or Sexual Maturity (Girl Next Door, Cute Acting, Classic Beauty, Intellec tual Beauty, and Edgy). ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 63 H3: Beauty Types Associated with Sexiness and/or Sexual Maturity (i.e. Wildness and Sexy Little Women) Will Produce Less Dominance Compared to Beauty Types Not Asso ciated with Sexiness and/or Sexual Maturity (i.e. Girl Next Door, Cute Acting, Classic Beauty, Intellectual Beauty, and Edgy). ................................ ................................ ........................ 64 RQ3: Is Qizhi Associated with Specific Beauty Types? ................................ .... 65 H4: Models That Are Highly Associated with Qizhi Will Produce More Pleasurable Feelings than Models Not Associated with Qizhi ...................... 65 H5: Models That Are Highly Associated with Qizhi Will Produce More Arousal than Models Not Associated with Qizhi ................................ ........... 65 H6: Models that Are Highly Associated with Qizhi Will Produce More Dominance th an Models Not Associated with Qizhi ................................ ..... 66 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ........ 67 Implications for Advertisers ................................ ................................ ..................... 76 Limitation ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 78 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 78 APPENDIX A PRETES T RESULTS ................................ ................................ .............................. 80
7 B MAIN STUDY DATA (1) ................................ ................................ .......................... 83 C MAIN STUDY DATA (2) ................................ ................................ .......................... 84 D ADSAM PERCEPTIAL MAP ................................ ................................ ................. 85 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 86 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 94
8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Fourteen p hotographs that were selected out from pretest ................................ 58 4 2 Rotated Component Matrix for 7 beauty types ................................ ................... 59 4 3 Strongest, w eakest, and middle examples of W ild ................................ ............. 60 4 4 Strongest, weakest, and middle examples of Classic Intellectual Beauty (CIB) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 61 4 5 Strongest, weakest, and middle examples of Cute ................................ ............. 61 4 6 Comparison of p leasure s cores among h igh and l ow b eauty t ypes .................... 62 4 7 Comparison of a rousal s cores among h igh and l ow b eauty t ypes ...................... 63 4 8 Comparison of d ominance s cores among h igh and l ow b eauty t ypes ............... 64
9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Self a ssessment m anikin ................................ ................................ .................... 43 2 2 Pleasure and a rousal scale for the AdSAM p erceptual m ap ............................. 44 2 3 AdSAM p erceptual m ap ................................ ................................ .................... 45
10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising OF BEAUTY By Carol Wu August 2011 Chair: J. Robyn Goodman Major: Advertising International brands often use the same commercial, model, or spokesperson in different countries to save bugets However, studies have pointed out that different cultures define ideal beauty in different ways Moreover, a lthough studies on beauty types in the United States are abundant, little resear ch exists re garding beauty type frameworks and perceptions in Asian cultures. Thus, this study aim to reduce the risk of using the unsuitable model s in cross cultural advertising by investigating how Taiwanese women perceive different types of beauty The present stu dy built a beauty type framework based on Taiwanese culture and tests the emotional responses of Taiwanese females toward each beauty type. Moreover, the present study also tested how beauty types related to a Taiwanese cultural specific term ( qizhi ) that describes females By understanding how Taiwanese perceive different types of beauty, the problems that the cross cultural advertisers might encounter could be solved. The present study used survey as the research method and AdSA M as the emotional respons e measurement tool to explore how Taiwanese women react to the photographs of different types of beauty.
11 The results indicated that Taiwanese participants perceived three types of beauty that is C ute, C lassic I ntellectual B eauty (CIB), and W ild, which di ffered from how American participants perceived beauty (on two dimensions). In additi on, it was found that the high W ild model (high sexy model) elicited less pleasurable feelings among Taiwanese participants compared to high CIB and high C ute models (low sexy models). This finding indicates that Taiwanese female participants considered high sexy models as a negative image Moreover, high C ute model provided significantly lower arousal and higher dominance than did high W ild and high CIB models while high W ild and high CIB models were not different from each other. This indicates that Taiwanese women do not consider sexiness or sexual maturity as a dominant factor when comparing themselves with the models In add ition, low arousal toward high C ute models ma y imply that the overuse of cute, infantile looking model has made Taiwanese young women start to feel bored about them. The present study also found that qizhi is correlated with CIB beauty. A lso, r esult revealed that high and middle qizhi models produce d significantly higher pleasure and arousal compared to low qizhi model, while low qizhi model produced significantly higher dominance compared to high and middle qizhi models. This indicates that Taiwanese women consider qizhi a cultural specific concept as an important positive factor when comparing themselves with the models.
12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION From time to time, advertising companies use attractive models to gain attention from consumers. Previous studies have shown that using physically attract ive models as communicators in advertising can positively influence marketing outcomes (Patzer, 1985). For example, several studies have indicated that a physically attractive person will be assumed by others to possess more positive personality traits, su ch as being sociable, happier, and more trustworthy than a physically unattractive person (Shinners, 2009; Di on, Berscheid, & Walster, 1972) Thus, attractive communicators may also International b rands that sell products across various countries are common. To economize during adverting production, corporations often use the same commercial, model, or spokesperson in different countries. For example, the Chanel commercial that cast Nicole Kidman wa s broadcast in both the United States and Taiwan. However, several studies have pointed out that different cultures define beauty and attractive in different ways ( Chung, and Takabe, 2006; Pu, 2003; Cunningham, Wu, Roberts, Barbee, and Druen, 1995; Dobke, Wagatsuma and Kleinke, 1979 ). For example, Asian countries such as Taiwan consider pale skin more attractive than Western countries such as United States (Pu, 2003). Thus, using the same models, advertisements, and spokespersons in different cultures to pr omote products might trigger negative effects. To understand how beauty is perceived in American culture, researchers built a framework that represents how Americans perceive female beauty. Soloman, Ashmore, and Longo (1992) suggested that in American cu lture, six b eauty types can be identified: Classic Beauty, Girl Next Door, Cute, Sex Kitten, Trendy, and
13 Sensual/E xotic. Furthermore, they proposed and subsequently tested the beauty match up hypothesis, which suggests matching beauty types with products t hat are depicted as having the same traits to avoid cognitive dissonance and negative effects. Thus, the beauty match up hypothesis can be used as a framework for the advertising industry in the United States to search for appropriate models and spokespers ons. Continuing the research into the beauty match up hypothesis, Goodman, Morris, and Sutherland (2008) conducted a study to explore the emotional responses of young females to the six beauty types. They discovered that beauty types are not mutually exc lusive. In fact, beauty types can be catego rized into two dimensions: the Classic Beauty/Cute/Girl Next D oor (CCG) dimension, which has fewer sexual t raits, and the Sexual/S ensual (SS) dimension, which has more sexual traits. The results also showed that w omen reported fewer pleasurable feelings toward SS than CCG models, indicating that American women have become bored with sexy models. Although studies on beauty types in the United States are abundant, little research exists regarding beauty types in A sian cultures. A few studies have used the Solomon et al. (1992) six beauty types to determine beauty type preference in Asian cultures (Frith, Shaw, & Cheng, 2005; Lin, 2008; Lin & Yeh, 2009). For example, Frith, Shaw, and Cheng (2005) suggested that Taiw anese media prefer us ing models that are considered Classic Beauty or Girl Next D oor. Although these studies gave us an idea of the types of beauty Asian cultures tend to like, these studies still did not explain how Asian cultures see themselves because i t uses a Western beauty type framework. Moreover, the Solomon et al. (1992) six beauty types might not represent all the beauty types that a culture other than United States has; neither could they explain how other
14 cultures perceive beauty types. Thus, if a cross cultural advertiser uses American culture based advertising, models, or spokespersons in Asian countries, they might not be accepted by Asian viewers. The present study is intended to resolve problems that a cross cultural advertiser might encount er. In other words, by understanding how different countries perceive beauty, advertisers may reduce the risk of using the wrong type of model in their advertising in various countries. The present study describes a beauty type framework based on Taiwanese culture and tests the emotional responses of Taiwanese females toward each beauty type. By reviewing relevant research articles and information from various media, the researcher identified seven beauty types frequently mentioned or discussed by Taiwanese people. The researcher used Goodm an et al. (2008) study as a bas is to test the emotional responses of female Taiwanese toward each pre established beauty type. AdSAM was chosen to be the research tool used to measure the emotional responses of participa nts. The non verbal measurement of AdSAM reduces verbal bias that might be encountered when conducting research in different countries. Also, AdSAM has a demonstrated history as a reliable research measurement to test emotional responses across cultures (Morris & Pai, 1997). Thus, AdSAM was the most suitable research tool to use in testing the emotional responses of Taiwanese participants in the present study. The theoretical frameworks used in this study are social comparison and social cognitive theory Social comparison theory argues that individuals evaluate themselves by comparing themselves to others. Social cognitive theory suggests that humans learn
15 behaviors from observing the behavior of others. These two theories give the researcher a framework to explain how and why emotional responses of participants differed after they viewed various beauty types.
16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter contains a review of the relevant literature on how different cultures perceive physical attractiveness and why attractive models are used as communicators in advertising. It discusses how the beauty type hypothesis has been used empirically. It also explains how the Taiwanese developed their perception of female ideal beauty by reviewing the three cultures (Confucianism, Kawaii and Western cultures) that influence Taiwanese culture. Moreover, it reviews how research articles and different media portray different types of beauty in Taiwan. In addition, definitions of different types of Taiwanese beauty are also discussed in this section. The purpose of this review is to explain how Taiwanese beauty types were built and where the present study fits in this field. Universality of Physical Attractiveness The universality of physical attractiveness has been in vestigated and discussed in numerous studies and articles. Some researchers have indicated that various cultures perceive physical attractiveness in different ways. For example, in China, ideal female wing shaped eyebrows, large eyes shaped like peach stones, small mouth, black hair, narrow waist, rounded hips, air, doe eyes, and smooth On the other hand, some studies have pointed out that the universality of physical attractiveness does exist across cultures; that is, some cultures appreciate the same physical traits, including averageness ( e.g. Langlois & Roggman, 1994; Rubenstein,
17 Langlois, & Roggman, 2002; Valentine, Darling & Donnelly, 2004; Rhodes, Sumich & Byatt, 1999; Langlois, Ritter, Roggman, & Vaughn, 1991) and infantile traits of facial features ( e.g., Luo, Lu & Lee, 2011; Glocker et al., 2009; Berry and Mcarthur, 1985; Sternglanz, Gray, & Murakani, 1977). Sternglanz et al. (1977) discovered that faces with infantile looks such as high forehead, small nose, small mouth, round face, and large eyes are preferred by most viewers. In this study, researchers asked American participants from different ethnic groups to rate the attractiveness of facial features such as eye height and eye width. The results showed a particular preference for babyish facial features that was highly significant. Moreover, the preference for these traits was consistent among different ethnic groups. Similarly, Luo et al., (2011) found that Chinese adults considered faces of infants more attractive than older children. In this study, researchers recruited 60 male and female adults from Southwest University in China and showed them 148 children images from age 0.08 to 6.42. The results showed that participants felt more positive toward infantile faces. In other words, adults showed preferences toward faces less than 4.5 years of age. Moreover, Glocker et al. (2009) conducted an experiment to see how American undergraduate students react to high infantile faces (e.g., round face and high forehead) and low infantile faces (e.g., narrow face and low forehead). The resul ts showed that infantile facial features were positively perceived as cute by American participants. Further, Berry et al. (1985) conducted a study with 80 American undergraduates to evaluate different faces. The results indicated that participants consid ered babyish facial
18 appearance, such as big round eyes, high eyebrow and small chin as having more positive personalities such as nave, honest, kind and warm. which refers to the face that has the configuration that is close to the mean facial configuration of the population (e.g., Langlois et al., 1994; Cunningham et al., 1991 ; Valentine et al., 2004; Rhodes et al., 1999; Langlos et al., 1991) Langlois and Roggman (1994) cond faces. In this study, researchers digitalized sample faces and mathematically averaged the values of their features (p. 115). That is, these digitalized faces were created by mathematically averag ing the features of several individual faces. After that, the researchers asked American participants to judge different kinds of faces. The results demonstrated that mathematical averageness of facial features is a key point in positive aesthetic judgment Faces that are closest to the population mean are preferred by others. Similarly, Valentine et al., (2004) conducted a study by having 48 British students evaluate digital photographs of 16 White females. The results showed that faces that were morphed b y the computer to be closer to average facial shapes were perceived as more attractive than others. Moreover, Rhodes et al., (1999) discovered that the attractiveness of average faces was not only due to symmetrical facial configuration. In this study, res earchers conducted experiments to see how Australian participants evaluate different faces. The results showed that average configuration of faces remains attractive when the effect of
19 symmetry was partialled out, which indicated that average faces were at tractive but symmetrical configuration was not the only reason attribute to the attractiveness. Furthermore, Langlois et al., (1991) conducted a study in which 52 six month old American infants looked at different faces (e.g., white, black, male, and femal e) to see how they reacted to them. The results showed that the infants looked longer at the attractive faces (average faces) regardless of race, age, and sex. In other words, infants were more interested in prototypical faces (average faces). However, som e studies do not support the averageness hypothesis (Perrett, May, & Yoshikiwa, 1994; Alley and Cunningham, 1991; Cunningham, Barbee, and Pike, 1990; DeBruine, Jones, Unger, Little, & Feinberg, 2007). These studies pointed out that perspective of evolutionary theory, faces that have extreme features might be more attractive than average faces (Rubenstein et al., 2002). For example, humans may prefer the ones that have extr eme characteristics from the aspect of optimal outbreeding (Perrett et al., 1994). Perrett, May, and Yoshikiwa (1994) showed composite faces to Japanese and British participants and asked them to rate the attractiveness of each face. Although participants from different cultures (Japan and United Kingdom) showed the same preference for the facial composites, the face they preferred was not always the average face. Similarly, DeBruine et al. (2007) conducted experiments to see whether averageness is the key point in influencing facial attractiveness. In this study, researchers recruited participants from different countries to see how they react to
20 different faces. These participants were mostly from the United States, Great Britain, Germany, France, and Can ada (Mostly Europeans). The results indicated that there were non average facial characteristics, such as femininity, that were considered attractive by participants. Thus, the researcher suggested that under some specific conditions, averageness and attra ctiveness can be distinguished by participants. Furthermore, Cunningham et al. (1990) conducted a study to find out how women perceive facial attractiveness in men. The researcher recruited 100 American undergraduate White women to evaluate the photographs of White men. The results showed that participants considered several traits, such as exceptionally large eyes, cheek bones and chins, to be more attractive. Nose was the only facial feature that was considered attractive when average sized. Other studies have investigated how people from different ethnic cultural backgrounds perceive facial attractiveness in different ways (Wagatsuma and Kleinke, 1979; Cunningham, Wu, Roberts, Barbee, & Druen, 1995; Dobke, Chung, & Takabe, 2006). Wagatsuma and Kleinke (19 79) found that Asian Americans and Caucasian Americans judge facial attractiveness slightly differently. For example, Asian participants preferred black and dark brown hair more than Caucasian participants. On the other hand, Caucasian participants preferr ed Roman noses more than Asian participants. Furthermore, Cunningham et al. (1995) asked participants from different ethnic groups to rate photographs of women who were Asi an, Hispanic, black, and white. The results showed that even though Asians, Hispani cs, and whites consider many facial
21 features to be on the same level of attractiveness, Asians find sexual maturity and expressive features less attractive than the others. On the other hand, Dobke et al. (2006) conducted a survey study of 50 Japanese and 50 Korean females to rate their preferences for various facial aesthetics. This study discovered that the two cultures do not have the same preferences toward beauty. For Physically Attractive Communicators and Persuasion This section reviews the literatures relevant to the relationship between ph ysical attractiveness and effectiveness of persuasion. The beauty is good stereotype and the criticism of it are discussed. Previous studies have pointed out that whether communicators are attractive or not will influence the effectiveness of their persuas ion on viewers (Dion, Berscheid, & Walster, 1972; Shinners, 2009; Caballero and Pride 1984; Halliwell and Dittmar, 2004; Hahle and Homer, 1985). In other words, attractive communicators are more persuasive than unattractive ones when in the same condition. Part of this process may be because a physically attractive person is often assumed by others to possess a more positive personality (Dion et al., 1972; Shinners, 2009), which then transfers to the product. For example, Dion et al., (1972) conducted an ex periment to explore whether a physically attractive person is assumed to have a better personality and a more successful life. The results showed that physically attractive people are considered to possess positive personalities, such as being sociable and happier, compared to unattractive people. The beauty is good stereotype was thus demonstrated in this study.
22 Related to the beauty is good studies are advertising and marketing studies that have found physically attractive communicators in advertising may influence marketing outcomes, because attractive models influence message receivers to form a more ( Caballero and Pride 1984; Halliwell and Dittmar, 2004; Hahle and Homer, 1985 ) Caballero and Pride (1984) c onducted an experiment to see whether attractiveness and sex of models that were used in direct mail advertisements would advertisements featuring highly attractive female mode ls or no models at all triggered Similarly, Kahle and Homer (1985) conducted an experiment by recruiting American undergraduates to evaluate disposable razor ads. The resul ts showed that the purchase intention changed when the attractiveness of celebrity endorser varied. The purchase intention got higher when using a highly attractive endorser. Further, Halliwell and Dittmar (2004), who conducted an experiment in United King dom, found that the size of a model (thin and average sized) did not influence the was highly attractive. However, some studies pointed out that HAMs work only when the p roduct is attractive related (Kamins, 1990; Bower and Landreth, 2001). Kamins (1990) conducted a study asking participants to rate the appropriateness between product and model match up. Kamins found that using physically attractive communicators as spokes persons for attractiveness
23 level of persuasion. Alternatively, the level of persuasion will not be enhanced when using a physically attractive spokesperson for attractiveness unrelated products. Similarly, Bo wer and Landreth (2001) investigated the effectiveness of highly attractive models (HAMs) and normally attractive models (NAMs) pairing with different attractive relevant products such as lipsticks, ear rings, acne cover and acne treatment. The participant s were Americans undergraduates. The results indicated that highly attractive model were not suitable for all products. In other words, HAMs were the same effective as NAMs when it came to problem solving products such as acne treatment. Although the attra ctiveness bias has been supported, the beauty is good stereotype was not fully demonstrated in all studies. Some studies pointed out that attractiveness bias is not as strong as has been suggested (Brumbaugh 1993; Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; B ower, 2001; Cash and Smith, 1982) Brumbaugh (1993) conducted an experiment to see how attractiveness affects advertising effectiveness. The results showed that having physically attractive models as spokespersons in advertisements is not the only element perceptions. How viewers make personality inferences toward models is another In addition, a study by Eagly et al. (1991) pointed out that although the beauty is good stereotype doe s exist, audiences will not always infer positive personalities from physically attractive communicators. That is, the perceivers decide their inferences about physically attractive communicators instead of directly endowing positive personalities on them. Also, although perceivers mostly assumed that the p hysical
24 attractiveness of communicators means stronger social competence, perceivers did not assumed that physically attractive persons were stronger in intellectual competence. A study conducted by Bowe r (2001) demonstrated that using highly attractive models (HAMs) will sometimes even decrease the effectiveness of persuasion in advertisements. This negative impact occurs when viewers perceive themselves to have strong negative experiences and lower self esteem when comparing themselves with HAMs. perception of physical attractiveness could shape the behaviors and personalities of themselves, Cash and Smith (1982) conducted a study investigating ho w male and female American college students react to the self perceived physical attractiveness and how this influenced their behaviors and personalities. The results showed that self perception of physical attractiveness did not have a significant influen ce on personality as the social stereotype has suggested. Moreover, the attractiveness effect was stronger for men than women. For example, among males, attractiveness provided more success expectancies and lower anxiety. The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis and the Six Beauty Types up Hypothesis: Congruence between Types of Beauty and Product Images in Advertising Soloman et al. (1992) suggested that instead of viewing beauty as two dimensions (attractive and unattractive), perceivers can (p. 24). Thus, Soloman et al. (1992) that helps them associate different personalities and lifestyles with specifi c types of beauty. Moreover, Soloman et al. (1992)
25 with a specific type of beauty will be more suitable for some particular products in advertisements. In their study, Soloman et al. (1992) collected a set of model photographs and asked American fashion and beauty magazine editors to categorize them by b eauty type. The editors were asked to use words to describe each type of beauty. Six beauty types were distinguished in this part of study. The six beauty types were Classic Beauty/Feminine (as perfect physical features, especially facial features / a soft and/or romantic look) Cute (as child like physical features and/or attire) Sensual/Exotic (sexual looks/non Caucasian), Girl Next Door (denoting a natural, unmade up appearance and simple attire) Sex Kitten (sexual looks but more overt and youthful than Sensual), and Trendy (an off beat look, perhaps flawed or asymmetrical, in contrast to a Classic B (p. 25). In the second part of the study, the editors were asked to evaluate the suitability of and magazines. The results showed that participants consider match ups such as Cosmopolitan / Sex K itten, Chanel /Classic B eauty, and White Linen /G irl Next D oor to be most effective. Taking the study of Soloman et al. (1992) as a base, Goodman, Morris, and S emotional responses toward the six beauty types. Two hundred and fifty eight female college undergraduates were recruited as participants. Researchers followed the Solomon et a l. (1992) pre established definitions of six beauty types and selected 42
26 photographs that represented the six beauty types (7 photographs for each beauty type). The survey was divided into two sections. First, participants were asked to use a 5 point Lik ert scale ranging from completely agree to completely disagree to rate each photograph on the six beauty types (p. 152). In this part of study, the survey results showed that the six beauty types could be combined into two dimensions: and Classic Beauty/Cute/Girl Next In the second part of the survey, participants were asked to use AdSAM to measure their emotional responses (pleasure, arousal, dominance) toward each photograph. The results showed that emotional r esponses of young females toward the SS and CCG beauty types differed significantly. Participants felt greater pleasure, arousal, and dominance toward CCG models than SS models (p. 147). Taking the six beauty types as a base, Martin and Peters (2005) cond ucted interviews to discover how adolescent girls perceive the six beauty types. Eighty participants were recruited for this study. The participants were females aged 7 to 13. In the interview, participants were asked to categorize 47 photographs as sexy/n ot sexy, trendy/not trendy, and cute/not cute. Also, the participants were asked to pick out the showed that preferences for beauty types among young girls varied by age. The youngest group tended to like the models who showed they were being normal or being like mom. However, they were inconsistent in choosing beauty types they preferred. The medium age group showed pref erence toward models that were Cute, Trendy, and Girl Next D
27 398). In other words, most o f the older participants chose C ute and T rendy models. The sexy models and the models who looked like boys were least desired among all the age gro ups (e.g., sexy and exotic models). Some studies have explored the most prevalent types of beauty in the media. For example, Englis, Solomon, and Ashmore (1994) conducted a content analysis of fashion magazines and television music videos to explore how d ifferent beauty ideas were distributed across different media (print vs. television) and formats (advertising vs. music video). The results showed that music videos emphasize the Sensual/E xotic beauty type. T he Exotic/Sensual, Trendy, and Classic B eauty ar e the three beauty types that appeared most frequently in magazine advertising. Other studies have continued the investigation of Soloman et al. (1992) and looked at how product traits match up with beauty types. Barulich (2006) conducted an experiment to explore the preferences for beauty type among young females. This experiment investigated how different brands of products are matched up with cute or sexy models. The results showed that college aged females preferred models that have a cute beauty image rather than a sexy image. Furthermore, both sexy and cute models were matched up with products that have traits similar to the models. In other words, high cute/low sexy models fit with a cute brand image better than high sexy/low cute models; high sexy/l ow cute models fit with a sexy brand image better than high cute/low sexy models. Some studies took the six beauty types as a framework to look into the beauty ideas of cultures other than the United States. Lin (2008) conducted a content analysis to explo re the beauty type preferences in Taiwanese print ads. The results indicated
28 that Taiwanese ads tended to have female models that looked conservative (i.e., n ot sexy or sensual). Thus, the Classic Beauty and the Girl Next D oor were the two beauty types mos t frequently used in Taiwanese ads. Similarly, Frith, Shaw, and Cheng (2005) took the six beauty types as a base and from Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States. The resul ts showed that the three cultu res tended to portray women as Classic B eaut y the most. However, the United States had a higher percentage of portrayin g female models as Sex Kittens and S ensual. Taiwan had a highe r percentage of portraying the Girl Next D oor Singapore had a higher percentage of the Classic B eauty. Media Portrayal of Female Beauty Images in Different Cultures In this section, studies that compared how female images are being portrayed in Eastern and Western media are discussed. By content a nalyzing information from the media, researchers have discovered how different cultures focus on female beauty images in different ways. For example, Frith et al., (2005) discovered that the ads in Singapore and Taiwan emphasized cosmetics and facial beaut y products, whereas U.S. ads focused more on clothing. In Also, other studies have investigated how different countries emphasize the presentation of sexuality in advertising (Hsiung, 1995; Nelson and Paek, 2005). Nelson and Paek (2005) content analyzed magazine ads from seven countries (Brazil, China, France, India, South Korea, Thailan d, and the U.S.) and found that China had the lowest degree of sexuality in magazine ads, while France and Thailand have the
29 highest. In addition, a content analysis conducted by Hsiung (1995) discovered that female models in Taiwanese advertisements wore more seductive clothing than models in the United States. The kind of female image different countries prefer to present in the media has also been investigated. Jung and Lee (2008) compared female images in the U.S. media with South Korean media. They fou nd that U.S. models tended to emphasize sexiness compared to Korean models. On the other hand, Korean female models were more likely to emphasize passivity and submissiveness. Similarly, Maynard and Taylor (1999) content analyzed Japanese and U.S. Sevent een ads. They discovered that Japanese Seventeen and Japanese magazines portrayed teenage girls in different ways because these two countrie instance, American culture celebrates being independent, while the Japanese tend to form their identity through a group or community. Furthermore, Hung, Li, and Belk (2007) focused on how women are presented in Chin ese media. They categorized four types of female images that appeared most often in Chinese ads: cultured nurturer, strong woman, flower vase, and urban sophisticate. According to their definitions, the cultured nu rturer represented women who are dependent on men. The strong woman stood for women who were smart, confident, and self reliant. The flower vase indicated women who were physically beautiful and concerned about their appearance. The urban sophisticate stoo d for women who were obsessed with material goods and concerned with luxury leisure. The results suggested
30 that Chinese readers embraced the image of Western femininity, such as independence (urban sophisticate and strong woman). However, Chinese readers r ejected the overly sexy. Chinese readers tended to like a female image that combined the traits of women in a collective society (e.g. softness, chastity, hard work) with Western femininity (e.g. self sufficiency) (p. 1048). The Perception of Female Bea uty Image in Taiwan Taiwan is a multi cultural society composed of various ethnic groups, including Taiwanese aborigines and immigrants from China, Vietnam, and other East Asian countries. Moreover, Taiwan has been under the influence of three different cu has shaped the traditional values (e.g., submissive image for females) that dominated Taiwanese society for years (Lin, 2008). On the other hand, 50 years of Japanese colonizat ion (1895 1945) also influenced the lifestyle and values of Taiwanese people. ( kawaii ) Japanese females. Taiwanese females have also followed this cuteness trend in past years (Chua ng, 2005). Finally, as Western culture has been introduced to Taiwan, the definition of Taiwanese cultural values has started to shift once more. Taiwanese females have embraced Western ideas of femininity, such as being independent and strong. Taiwanese s ociety has blended these three cultures into its own unique new Taiwanese culture, which influences many aspects and values of the society. The perceptions of female roles, ideal beauty, aesthetics, and beauty types in Taiwan have also been under the influ ence of this new Taiwanese culture. In this section, the ways in which Confucianism, Japanese culture, and Western culture influence the perception of
31 beauty in Taiwan will be discussed. Also, other elements that influence Taiwanese perceptions of beauty, such as skin color and qizhi will also be examined. Confucianism and Female Beauty Image Confucian values established the idea that women should be perceived as conservative in Taiwanese culture. In Confucian concepts, women should follow the behaviors as bei other words, the woman who follows Confucian values shows a submissive image instead of a strong or sensual image. Lin (2008) further argued that by looking through the scope of the six beauty types, Tai wanese media tend to have more Classic Beauty and Girl Next D oor models Likewise, another content analysis co nducted by Lin and Yeh (2009) indicated that domestic magazines in Taiwa lassic and friendly Taiwanese culture. Furthermore, other studie s have also indicated how Confucian ideas influence practices emphasized the Confucian principles of familial loyalty, obedience, and
32 were searching for the equivalent of traditional Confucian status symbols in modern day Kawaii Culture and Female Beauty Image Although Japan ended its colonization 65 years ago, Taiwan has been under the influence of Japan culturally and economically throughout the years. Japanese culture has influenced how Taiwanese people perceive female beauty images in many ways. Kawaii culture is one of the Japanese aesthetics that most strongly influences how Taiwanese perceive female beauty images in recent years It should be noted that Kawaii 2004; Kinsella, 1995 ; Yano, 2009 ). The word kawaii can be translated into English a s idea of kawaii from the idea of cute in United States. Yano suggested that the kawaii your face kaw aii kawaii sunaoni (obedient or docile), enryogachi (reserved), kodomoppoi (childish), mujaki (innocent or without evil intent), and musekinin 7, p. Kawaii culture not only has become a popular beauty trend in Japan but also has spread to other East Asian countries. For instance, in Taiwan and Singap ore, being kawaii or buying kawaii products has become part of popular culture (Chuang, 2005; Ng, 2001).
33 Western Culture and Female Beauty Image movies, TV shows, magazines, and a dvertisements, educated women about a different Western media culture has influenced Taiwanese perceptions of female beauty in two ways. First, the wave of feminism from th in Taiwan. Because they have acquired Western female values, such as being independent and expressing their own thoughts, and more opportunities in education and work, females in Taiwan have tended to abandon trad itional Confucian values (the three obediences). Instead, Taiwanese females have started to focus on having knowledge, being confident, and pursuing physical attractiveness. The image of an independent and smart woman has been established gradually in Taiw anese society. Second, as martial law ended in 1987, the Taiwanese government gradually opened up to the import of foreign goods and foreign owned advertising companies Cosmopolitan, Elle, Marie Clair e, and Bazaar, have appeared in the Taiwanese magazine market. These magazines have introduced Taiwanese women to Westernized images of females, such as being sexy. For example, Taiwanese women have started to focus on their body shape and to embrace the i dea of having a sexy curvy body shape (Wang, 2009). It should be noted that the embracing of Western culture by Taiwanese females does not mean their total Westernization. Instead, modern Taiwanese womanhood can lues and local values together into a tapestry of 2004, p. 361). For example, although the Taiwanese version of Cosmopolitan magazine
34 uses images from the Western version, the articles in the Taiwanese version are written by Taiwanese writers, which embed new meanings into the original images and weaves out the new values (Chang, 2004). Qizhi ( ) and Female Beauty Image Qizhi ?: Re finement, Gender and Language Ideologies i 8 ) argued that qizhi is one of the most important elements for Taiwanese people in evaluating whether a female will be liked by others or not. A search through Google (traditional Man darin version) qizhi a girl with qizhi thousands of books with qizhi in the title. For example, some of these b Qizhi ( ) ( Ways of Being a ( ) ( Besides Qizhi, You Need ( ) ( 2010). Taiwanese females care about their own qizhi ; Su (200 8 ) indicated that as a girl growing up in Taiwan, she encountered many occasions in which people comment on her qizhi (p. 334). So what is qizhi ? Su concluded that qizhi en evaluating a when a female is described as not having qizhi An equivalent word for qizhi is not found in dictionaries. Although many qizhi
35 these two words cannot fully translate the original meaning of qizhi On the other hand, Su (2004) stated that af ter gathering a huge amount of qizhi translations online, he could conclude that there are six ways to translate qizhi into English: an aura of elegance, with class, character and temperament, chic, debonair, and charisma. However, he also stated that thes e translations are not totally equivalent to qizhi, and thus, they should be used carefully in different contexts. The Ideal of Pale Skin Traditionally, pale skin has been considered a beautiful physical trait in Taiwanese society. In Asian cultu res, white skin is perceived as a sign of luxury and prestige (Li, Min, Belk, Kimura, & Bahl, 2008).There is an old saying in Taiwan that having pale skin can overcome any three ugly physical traits ( ). Sometimes Taiwanese females carry umbrellas in the sun just to prevent their skin from getting darker. Female consumers in Taiwan prefer skin whitening products, such as whitening night creams, more than females in Western countries. Also, sunscree n related products are favored by Taiwanese female consumers (Pu, 2003). Building Up a Framework of Female Beauty Types in Taiwan Although different beauty types have been mentioned by Taiwanese media, a framework of Taiwanese beauty types has still not be en constructed. Previous studies of Taiwanese beauty types used the U.S. framework (e.g., the six beauty types). the same way audiences that the United States does. Thus, a framework of beauty types from a Taiwanese perspective is needed. By reviewing the academic literatures, magazine and website articles (see References) and information from the media, it can
36 be seen that seven female beauty types are percei ved by the Taiwa nese audience: Classic Beauty, Cute Acting, Wildness, Edgy, Girl Next Door, Intellectual Beauty, and Sexy Little W oman. Classic Beauty ( / ) Th e idea of the Taiwanese female Classic B eauty type was influenced by ese jia gui xiu) is commonly used in Taiwan to indicate this type of beauty. Accord ing to the jia gui xiu; ) educated, and well pe of beauty is similar to the Classic B eauty of the Solomon et al. (1992) six beauty types. The appearance of this beauty ty pe includes perfectly symmetrical physical features, a soft romantic look, classic or classy attire, and soft makeup (Goodman et al. 2008, p. 152). Girl Next Door ( ) The concept of the Girl Next D oor (lin gia nu hi; ) in Taiwan is similar to the concept of the G irl Next D oor in the United States. Fashion magazines in Taiwan often use this term to describe celebrities or models that are pure, fresh, wear less makeup, and are easygoing, approachable, and pretty without pretension. For example, Taiwa n Panorama next Stefanie Sun. Vita next
37 describe Taiwanese actress Lin, Yi Chen. The appearance of this beauty type is a like, youthful physically, and pretty without pretension. It should be noted that this beauty type can be explain ed as a combination of the Girl Next Door and C ute from the Solomon et al. (1992) six beauty types. Cute Acting Beauty ( / ) The concept of this beauty type is deeply influenced by Japanese kawaii culture. Generally speaking, kawaii means child innocent, pure, simple, genuine, gentle, vulnerable, weak, and inexperienced soci al kawaii (here cute refers to a kawaii style cute instead of an American style cute) has become a alking being cute in an unnatural way or acting cute. It should be noted that the kawaii sty le cute is not the same as the C ute in the Solomon et al. (1992) six beauty types. Although both styles celebrate being youthful and child like, the kawaii acting), while the American style of cute is more natural. The appearance of this type of beauty is delicate
38 and round in facial features (e.g ., round eyes), youthful physical features, child like, and unnatural facial expressions (e.g. winking eyes). Wildness ( ) Western magazines have been widely circulated in the Taiwanese magazine market for a long time. Wildness is a type of beauty orig inating in Western culture. It is akin to the concept of being mature and sexy. From the perspective of Taiwanese females, the female models who appear in Western magazines are glamorous and sexy (Yang, 2004). These models often have Western like (mostly C aucasian) facial features and a sensual, sexy look. Chinatimes of beauty (The Evolution of Taiwanese Beauty). Also, the magazine indicated that when referring to this type of beauty, an image of a sexy girl wearing a swimsuit pops into expressive sexual look, mature, and strong facial features. Intellectual Beauty ( ) The intellectual Beauty is not usually mentioned in the U. S. society, but it is often referred to in Taiwanese culture. The concept of intellectual ( zhi xing ; ) beauty is widespread in many Mandarin speaking countries, including China, Taiwan, and Singapore. According to Xinhuanet, Intellectual B eauty usually r efers to a woman who is: zhi xing usually have a very good career, but they are different from the so de gendered while working; but they are feminine while in a relationship para. 1)
39 In other words, this kind of beauty means a woman who is experienced, knowledgeable, has qizhi and is calm and elega nt. I ntellectual B eauty is the type of beauty that emphasizes confidence independent, and intellectual ability. The appearance of an Intellectual B eauty might not always have symmetrical physical features or a romantic look. This type of beauty will have a mat ure and confident look. Edgy ( ) The idea of Edgy mostly comes from popular culture or the fashion industry. the media as 2010). Chinese singer Faye Wang, who is famous in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, and unusual outfits. The appearance of this type of beauty i s similar to the appearance of T p. 152). Sexy Littl e Woman ( ) Sexy Little W oman combines the traits of the C lassic B eauty, Girl Next Door and W ildness. It usually refers to a young girl who is on the way to turning into a mature and feminine woman. A woman of this beauty type is pure and fresh as a g irl, but at the same time, she is also sexy and feminine as an adult. In other words, women who are example, the media portrayed famous singers BY2 as this type of bea uty on their
40 eighteenth birthday; they were girl next I, 2010). The appearance of this ty pe of beauty is similar to the Sex Kitten. The Sexy Little W oman is youthful, sexy, and has soft fa cial features. Using AdSAM to Measure Emotional Responses This section discusses two aspects of the research. First, it discusses the relationship between advertising and emotional response. Second, it explains the reason why the researcher chose AdSAM as a method to measure emotional responses. Emotional Response and Advertising Studies have demonstrated that emotion is an important element in monitoring experiment to test whether cognitive or affective reactions were stronger on remembering. In this study, participants were shown different polygons in a very short time and asked to rate them on a like to dislike scale afterward. At the end, the participants were tested for recognition memory. The results showed that the participants found it easier to distinguish the stimuli by using liking as the response instead of cognitively identifying them as old or new Zajonc concluded that affective reactions can occur sooner than c ognitive judgments. Moreover, he concluded that affective reactions can be reliable in discriminating the differences even if recognition memory is absent. Other studies have also demonstrated that emotional response is a mediator for the effect of advert ising and brand attitude. For instance, Holbrook and Batra (1987) proposed a new approach to examine how emotional response mediates the attitude toward ads and brand attitudes. They used 72 television ads and asked adult female
41 participants to answer thre e sections of questions after they saw each ad. In the first section, participants had to rate each ad on seven bipolar adjectives. In the second section, participants were asked to rate 24 advertising appeals from weakly to strongly on a 7 Likert scale. F inally, in the third section, participants were asked to rate their questions rel ated to the attitude measure of the ads and brands both before and after the analysis. The results showed that the responses of participants could be divided into six factors: emotional, threatening, mundane, sexy, cerebral, and personal. In the end, Holbr ook and Batra (1987) concluded that the six factors indicated that three dimensions of emotions (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) were the mediators of ad content and brand attitudes. By continuing the research about how affect is related to intention, M orris, Woo, Geason, and Kim (2002) used AdSAM a non verbal research tool, to measure emotional response to ads. In this study, the researchers intended to determine the relationship among cognitive, affective, and conative attitudes. The researchers recr uited 23,168 non student participants to evaluate 230 advertisements. In addition to using AdSAM to rate their emotions toward the stimuli, participants were also asked to answer questions about whether they were likely to buy the product or visit the sto re. The results showed that affect predicted cognitive attitude and action better than cognition. Moreover, the results also showed that affect was not mediated by cognition.
42 Measuring Emotions Researchers have developed and tested many approaches to m easuring emotional response ( e. g. verbal self report by using adjectives check list); however, the complexity of emotion itself sometimes make it difficult for researchers to find the most efficient and accurate way to measure emotion (Morris, 1995). Rece nt studies suggested that a dimensional approach can assess emotional responses most accurately (Russel, 1989; Mehrabian and Russell, 1977; Havlena and Holbrook, 1986). For example, the research of Mehrabian and Russell (1977) provided strong evidence in d emonstrating that different emotional responses can be combined into three bipolar dimensions. These three dimensions of emotions include the pleasure displeasure dimension, the level of arousal, and the dominance submissiveness dimension. In this study, r esearchers asked participants to use verbal report emotion scales (Semantic Differential scale) in evaluating their feelings after reading paragraphs about emotional eliciting situations. The results not only showed that the basic emotions are three dimens ions but also showed that these three dimensions can appear without influencing one another. As previously mentioned, some approaches used adjectives to describe emotions. On the other hand, some researchers have looked at measuring emotion through visual stimuli. For example, SAM (Self Assessment Manikin) is considered a useful, practical and easy way to measure emotional responses (Lang, 1985). Bradley and Lang (1994) conducted an experiment to compare the effectiveness of measuring emotion between visual and verbal approaches (i.e., SAM and Semantic Differential S cale). The results showed that the correlation across the two measurement tools is high, which indicated that SAM is also an effective tool in measuring emotion.
43 SAM depicts three dimensions of e motion (PAD) with three rows of graphic manikins. Each row has graphic manikins on a nine point scale as representative of the three dimensions of emotion (Figure 2 1). Row one is the pleasure scale, which has characters ranging from smiling/happy to frown ing/unhappy. Row two is the arousal scale, ranging from a sleeping character with eyes closed to an excited character with eyes wide open. The last row is the dominance scale, ranging from a small submissive character to a large powerful character (Morris & Pei, 1997). Participants circle on each row the figure that best represents their feelings after seeing the stimuli. Figure 2 1 Self a ssessment m anikin SAM has been transformed into AdSAM in order to be more suitable for testing emotion in marketi ng context (Morris, 1995). In fact, Ad SAM has been used as an emotion measurement tool for advertising strategy applications (Morris and Pai, 1997; Morris, Straubaugh & Nthangeni, 1996; Morris, Woo, Geason & Kim, 2002). For
44 example, Morris et al. (2002) u sed AdSAM to examine the effectiveness in conducting internet surveys compared to traditional paper test to examine emotional response toward brands. The results showed that the internet is a reliable medium for distributing advertising questionnaires. T h e results of Ad SAM can be translated into PAD scores and graphed on the AdSAM perceptual map (Figure 2 2). By evaluating the map using the standard pleasure and arousal scale (Figure 2 3), researchers and advertising practitioners can compare each tested item in an effective way. For example, the emotional response of viewers toward different commercials and products may be compared and examined by using the AdSAM perceptual map. In this way, the advertisers will be able to decide product placement or cr eative strategy. Moreover, the PAD scores can also be evaluated through a database that includes emotional adjectives (similar to the verbal responses toward the stimul i. Figure 2 2 Pleasure and a rousal scale for the AdSAM p erceptual m ap This thesis used AdSAM to measure emotion for two reasons. First, AdSAM was specifically designed to use in a marketing context as compared to other methods to
45 measure emotional response. Second, the scales are non verbal, which reduces any bias that might influence cross cultural emotional response research (Morris & Pei, 1997). Figure 2 3 AdSAM p erceptual m ap Indeed, AdSAM has been successfully used to measure emotional responses across cultures. For example, Morris and Pai (1997) recruited 64 Taiwanese and 50
46 American participants to measure their emotional responses toward 12 commercials. The results showed that AdSAM effectively measured the emotional responses of th e participants from Taiwan and from United States. One ad evoked a different pleasure score and one ad evoked a different arousal score in the two cultures. Morris and Pai (1997) concluded that by unifying the advertising message of international brand ima ges, commercial production costs can be resolved (1997, p. 15). Theoretical Framework This section reviews the literature relevant to two theories: social comparison theory and social cognitive theory. These two theories provide the researcher with a fra mework to examine this study. Social Comparison Theory According to Festinger (1954), humans are driven to compare themselves with cognition of what they are like and wha t they are capable of doing depends on how they compare their situation, opinions, and abilities with images of others. Moreover, social comparison theory also states that when individuals consider certain abilities or opinions important to them, their dri ve to reduce any discrepancy related to the abilities and opinions will also be stronger (Festinger, 1954). For example, when a girl sees a highly There are two kinds of comparisons in social comparison theory upward and downward. Individuals choose an upward comparison or downward comparison
47 depending on their motive. In the process of self evaluation with advertising models, females tend to compare themselves upward most of the time because advertising models are mostly attractive females. That is, females ar e comparing themselves with someone who has more desirable attributes than they do. This kind of upward comparison sometimes results in negative effects, such as having lower satisfaction with oneself or creating a negative mood (Richins, 1991; Tiggemann & Mcgill, 2004). For example, female viewers that often make upward self evaluation comparison with highly attractive models might feel more depressed than others because they might be less satisfied with their own appearance. Tiggemann and Mcgill (2004) co nducted a study that related to upward they saw thin idealized female models. The researchers recruited 126 female undergraduate students as participants. The researchers responses before and after exposure to the thin idealized models in the advertising. The results showed that participants had an increased negative mood and increased body r full body image, thus representing the upward comparison. However, self evaluation is not the only comparison motive. Other researchers have explored two other comparison motives self enhancement and self improvement. In the process of self enhancement, individuals tend to compare themselves downward. By comparing themselves with others who are worse off or less fortunate, individuals can boost their subjective well being and protect their self perceptions (Suls, Martin, & Wheeler, 2002). In this way, an esteem can be maintained and the
48 individual can feel better about himself or herself. For example, when a female viewer make self enhancement comparison with the highly sexy model to boost her subjective well being. In other words, by downward comparing with the sexy model, the female viewer can feel better about herself. On the other hand, self improvement is used by individuals who tend to improve by lea much of (Wood, 1989). In other words, individuals compare themselves upward hoping to learn from someone who has better attributes than they. For instance, when a female viewer sees a highly attractive model is in the ads, she might make a self improvement comparison with the model. In other words, the female viewer hopes to learn positive attributes from the highly attractive model such as wearing trendy clothes and makeup as t he model. Martin and Gentry (1997) conducted a study that tested the different motives of comparison, including self evaluation, self enhancement, and self improvement. This experiment explored how pre esteem and self per ception were affected when they held different motives while seeing highly attractive models. In this study, Martin and Gentry recruited 268 participants from grades four, six, and eight. The results showed that motives are influential elements in perceivi ng oneself. When self enhancement was triggered as the motive, a positive effect occurred on participants through downward comparison. That is, the participants maintained their self esteem by downward comparison.
49 Social Cognitive Theory Social cognitive theory states that individuals are not only shaped by inner forces and their environment, but they also develop and adapt to different situations by learning from observing others (Bandura, 1978; Bandura, 2002). Observation of the behaviors of others and o 1978, p. 14). By obse tactics and strategies of behavior that enable them to go beyond what they have seen in the media being praised for her thin body type, the girl will be likely learn the behavior (getting a thinner body) of the attractive model to achieve her goal being liked by others. Social cognitive theory uses a triadic reciprocal model to explain the process of learn ing behaviors by observing others (Bandura, 2002). This model is composed of three factors: personal, behavioral, and environmental factors. Personal factors (cognitive, affective, and biological events), behavior patterns, and environmental events influen ce and bi direct each other (Bandura, 2002, p. 121). By learning from observation, individuals have the capacity to self regulate and self regulation relies on discrepancy production and discrepancy reduc goals to motivate themselves to achieve their goals by using their resources and skills. After the goal has been achieved, individuals will set other higher goals for themselves
50 (Bandura, 2002, p. 123) satisfaction will be strengthened by meeting the standards they anticipated. In the process of observational learning, individuals have the capability to reflect on their own observations. In other words, to make sure whet her the cognitive function is accurate, individuals self reflect by generating ideas, acting on them, or predicting occurrences based on them (Bandura, 2002, p. 124). Need for Present Research ponses and perceptions toward physical attractiveness and different beauty types, these studies have mostly focused on Western cultures and ideals. Even though some studies have explored the aesthetic of East Asian cultures toward female beauty types, East Asian investigated. Some studies have used Western beauty types (e.g., the six beauty types) as a basis to investigate Asian beauty cultures. However, using a Western framew ork to examine other cultures might not be able to provide a complete explanation of non Western cultures. Thus, the present research was intended to build a beauty type framework for an Asian culture and explore how the viewers of the culture perceive eac h beauty type. Conclusion This study took the research of Goodman et al. (2008) as a basis to further different types of Taiwanese beauty. Based on the literature, the following hypotheses and research questions were suggested: RQ1 : How many dimensions of beauty are presented in the data?
51 RQ2 : What are the strongest examples of each beauty type? Researchers have found that Western females tend to combine six beauty types into two dimensions (Goodman et al., 2008) those that are strongly associated with sexiness and those that are not. According to the previous research, there is a possibility that Taiwanese beauty types might be combined because some of the Taiwanese beauty types a re not mutually exclusive. Thus, RQ1 and RQ2 address this problem. Cunningham et al. (1995) found that Taiwanese participants responded less positively (showed less interest) toward sexual maturity compared to Western participants because sexual maturity conveyed the ideas of strength, dominance, and competence. However, Taiwanese culture emphasized female submissiveness. Thus, Taiwanese participants preferred (and were interested in) female looks that had less sexual maturity. In other words, Taiwanese pa rticipants preferred immature looking females On the other hand, Goodman et al. (2008) demonstrated that females have less pleasurable feelings, less arousal, and less dominance toward sexy models; in other words, women are not attracted to and hold nega tive attitudes toward highly sexual females. Thus, H1 : Beauty types associated with sexiness and/or sexual maturity (i.e., Wildness and Sexy Little W oman) will produce less pleasurable feelings compared to beauty types not associated with sexiness and/or sexual maturity (i.e., Girl Next Door, Cute Acting, Edgy, Classic Beauty, and Intellectual B eauty).
52 H2 : Beauty types associated with sexiness and/or sexual maturity (i.e., W ildness and Sexy Little W oman) will produce less arousal compared to beauty types not associated with sexiness and/or sexual maturity (i.e., Girl Next Door, Cute Acting, Edgy, Classic Beauty, and Intellectual B eauty). H3: Beauty types associated with sexiness and/or sexual maturity (i.e., Wildness and Sexy Little W oman) will produce le ss dominance compared to beauty types not associated with sexiness and/or sexual maturity (i.e., Girl Next Door, Cute Acting, Edgy, Classic Beauty, and Intellectual B eauty). Researchers have found that qizhi is one of the most important elements in Taiwane male or not. Taiwanese like ( e.g ., have positive emotional responses to) females who have qizhi (Su, 200 8 ). Thus, RQ3: What beauty types are highly associated with qizhi ? H4 : Models that are highly associated with qizhi will produce more pleasurable feelings than models that are not associated with qizhi Also, given the positive association toward having qizhi females are likely to be attracted to models that have higher qizhi. According to social cognitive t heory and social comparison theory, people learn their behaviors from others who possess better traits. Thus, participants will be aroused by upward comparisons to these models for social improvement purposes. H5: Models that are highly associated with qiz hi will produce more arousal than models that are not associated with qizhi
53 Qizhi e in Taiwanese society (Su, 200 8 qizhi controllable, H6: Models that are associated with qizhi will produce more dominance than models that are not associated with qizhi
54 CHAPTER 3 METHOD AND PROCEDURE This chapter explains the survey conducted to a nswer the research questions and address the hypotheses. This includes the selection of participants, selection of pictures, and pretest/main study procedures. Since present study takes the research of Goodman et al. (2008) as a basis to further explore th e dimensions of beauty and the emotional responses of viewers, the same method (survey) was chosen in this study. Pretest To pretest the 7 Taiwanese beauty types (i.e., Cute Acting, Classic Beauty, Intellectual Beauty, Girl Next D oor Wildness, Sexy Littl e Woman, and E dgy), six photographs for each type were selected based on the definitions presented in chapter two for a total of 42 photographs. These photographs were gathered from Asian websites and magazines from the past five years. Photographs of each Taiwanese beauty type were selected by following the criteria of the six beauty types study done by the waist shots, no visible product logos or brand names, the models are pictured alone without other p eople or animals, no pictures deviate markedly from the model size, no color photos, and only clothed looking ble. Selection of Pretest Participants The participants in the pretest were students from a university Taiwanese Student Association and alumnae from a Taiwanese university. A total of 30 participants were recruited for the pretest. To ensure the particip ants were primarily socialized in Taiwanese culture, a screening question was asked to ensure all participants had not
55 lived outside of Taiwan for more than six years. Only females who were age 21 to30 were allowed to participate in the study because recru iting participants from a similar age group reduces the possibility that age is a confounding variable. Additionally, women in this age group are highly sought a fter for advertising purposes. Thus, gender and age screening questions were included in the qu estionnaire. The questionnaires were put on Qualtrics and distributed by email. All of the questions were asked in Mandarin so as to choose specific terms suitable to the Taiwanese culture. Pretest Questionnaire Forty two photographs were presented in the pretest questionnaire. Each beauty type had six representative photographs. There were three versions of the questionnaire to avoid having the participants get tired of answering the same questions and perhaps influencing the validity of the study. Each pa rticipant only needed to answer one version of the questionnaire so each version had approximately 10 participants rate it. Each version contained 14 photographs (2 for each beauty type), and each version contained different sets of photographs. Questionna ires were presented online and randomly assigned to the participants by email. Questionnaire 1 consisted of photographs e1, i1, g1, w1, ca1, cb1, s1, e2, i2, s2, cb2, w2, ca2, g2. Version two consisted of e3, g3, w3, s3, cb3, ca3, i3, e4, g4, w4, s4, cb4, ca4, i4 Version three questionnaire consisted of e5, cb5, g5, w5, ca5, i5, s5, ca6, cb6, g6, w6, e6, i6, s6. In the pretest, participants were shown a photograph and immediately asked to rate how much the photograph represented each of the seven beauty t ypes on a 5 point Likert scale ranging from completely agree to completely disagree. Participants were asked to evaluate the model as pictured to avoid anything they may have known about
56 the model (Goodman et al., 2008, p. 152). After examining the results of the pretest, the researcher selected two photographs for each beauty type based on the highest means and lowest standard deviations. Thus, 14 photographs were chosen in the pretest ( Table 4 1 ) Main Study Procedure Selection of Participants The partic ipants were students from a university Taiwanese Student Association and alumnae from a Taiwanese university. A total of 301 valid participants were recruited in the main study. The same screening question was asked as in the pretest to ensure the particip ants were primarily socialized in Taiwanese culture. Again only females who were age 21 to30 were allowed to participate in the study. Questionnaires were put on Qualtrics and distributed by email, and all of the questions were asked in Mandarin. Question naire The main study was divided into two sections. The goal of section one was to determine the emotional responses of Taiwanese females toward the 14 photographs. AdSAM was used as a tool to measure the emotional responses of participants. The 14 photog raphs selected from the pretest were used in section one. Participants were shown a photograph and immediately asked to use AdSAM to evaluate their emotional response to the photograph. The goal of section two was to discover how participants categorized the 14 photographs into beauty types, thereby verifying the results from the pretest. Moreover, it also was intended to explore how participants rated the qizhi of each model.
57 Section two used procedures similar to those used in the pretest. That is, par ticipants were asked to use a 5 point Likert scale, which ranged from completely agree to completely disagree to rate each of 14 photographs on each of the seven beauty types. Participants were also asked to use the 5 point Likert scale, which also ranged from completely agree to completely disagree to rate each of the 14 photographs on having qizhi or not. Two versions of the questionnaire were created with each version containing all 14 photographs. The only difference between the two versions was order of the 14 photographs, which were randomly assigned by the researcher. The researcher created two versions of the questionnaire to eliminate bias and to avoid having the participants get tired of answering the same questions and perhaps influencing the va lidity of the study. Each participant was randomly assigned only one version of the questionnaire. Because AdSAM tended to measure the emotional response of the participants, which need the instant reaction of participants. Thus, the AdSAM questions were asked first in both versions of questionnaires to avoid participants getting tired in answering the questions which influencing the results.
58 CHAPTER 4 FINDING This chapter provides an overview of the statistical methods and the results of each research question and hypothesis. SPSS 16.0 was used for the data analysis. Factor analysis was used to answer RQ1 and RQ2 (beauty dimensions). Pearson correlation was employed to determine RQ3 (beauty type that related to qizhi ). Repeated measures analysis of vari ance (ANOVA) was conducted to measure H1, H2, H3 (compared PAD to each new beauty type), H4, H5, and H6 (compared PAD of high, middle and low qizhi models). Finally, PAD scores were transferred into AdSAM perceptual map to help researcher compare and exam ine data effectively. Pretest The pretest was conducted to select the two best examples for each beauty type. Following this pretest, the researcher selected the photographs with the highest means and lowest standard deviations for each beauty type ( Append ix A for statistics of all beauty types). Thus, 14 photographs were selected for the main study (Table 4 1) Table 4 1 Fourteen p hotographs that were selected out from pretest Beauty t ype Photograph n umbers Mean Standard d eviation Classic Beauty Cb1 Cb 3 4.60 4.40 0.52 0.70 Cute Acting Ca3 Ca5 4.70 4.70 0.48 0.48 Girl Next Door G3 G5 5.00 4.80 0.00 0.42 Sexy Little Women S1 S2 4.40 4.10 0.52 0.57 Intellectual I3 I5 4.70 4.80 0.48 0.42 Wildness W1 W2 4.80 4.80 0.42 0.42 Edgy E3 E5 4.90 4.70 0. 32 0.48
59 These photographs are cb1 and cb3 (Classic Beauty); ca3 and ca5 (Cute Acting); g3 and g5 (Girl Next Door); s1 and s2 (Sexy Little Women); i3 and i5 (Intellectual Beauty); w1 and w2 (Wildness); and e3 and e5 (E dgy). Main Study Demographics The p articipants in the main study were students from a Taiwanese Student Association at a major university and alumnae from a Taiwanese university. There were 301 participants. Around 53% of participants were 21 to 25 years old; 47% of participants were 26 to 30 years old. Research Questions and Hypothesis RQ1: How Many D imensions of B eauty are P resent in the D ata? A factor analysis was conducted using Varimix rotation to check whether each type of model was mutually exclusive. A three factor Varimix solution best explained the research question (Table 4 3). It was found that Girl Next Door (.871) and Cute A cting (.841) factored together while Classic Beauty (.829) and Intellectual B eauty (.804) factored together. On the other han d, W ildness (.84 7) comprised in factor 3. Sexy Little Women and Edgy factored close to W ildness, but did not meet the breakdown (.7 21 ) of the factors. Table 4 2 Rotated component m atrix for 7 beauty types Beauty t ypes Factor1 Factor2 Factor3 Classic Beauty Girl Next Door Cute Acting Wildness Intellectual Sexy Little Women Edgy .187 .841 .871 .186 .382 .265 .487 .829 .171 .176 .072 .804 .473 .020 .115 .121 .105 .847 .178 .625 .633
60 The three factors provided evidence that the seven types of beauty were not mutually exclusive In fact, they could be combined into three new beauty types. These thre e new beauty types were renamed as Classic Intellectual Beauty (CIB) ( formally Classic Beauty and Intellectual B eauty), Cute ( formally Girl Next D oor an d Cute Acting), and Wild (W ildn ess). RQ2: What A re the S trongest, W eakest, and M iddle E xamples of E ach N ew B eauty T ypes? Because the beauty types did not match with the original grouping, the researcher examined the means of each model to find the strongest, weakest, and middle examples of each new beauty type. Tables 4 4, 4 5, and 4 6 show the two strongest, m iddle, and weakest examples of C ute ( M =2.6541), CIB ( M =2.9843) and W ild ( M =2.8716) groups. The two strongest exemplars of each new beauty type were the ones that had the highest me ans, while the weakest exemplars of each new beauty type were the ones that had the lowest means. The two models that were closest to the grand means were used as the middle examples. It should be noted that there was only on e middle example for C ute, for there was only one model (cb1; M =2.5444) that was close to the C ute grand mean ( Appendix B for detail). Table 4 3 Strongest, w eakest, and middle examples of W ild Wild Model Wild m ean Cute m ean CIB m ean Wild r ank (N=14) Cute r ank (N=14) CIB r ank (N=14) Strong W2 4.3446 1.8814 2.7119 1 11 7 W1 4.3277 1.7542 2.4633 2 12 10 Middle E5 2.7910 1.6102 2.6751 6 13 8 Cb1 2.5968 2.5444 3.7863 7 7 4 Weak Ca5 1.9492 3.8362 1.9124 13 3 13 G5 1.8065 4.1089 2.4113 14 1 11 Grand Mean 2.8716 2.6541 2. 9843
61 Table 4 4 Strongest, weakest, and middle examples of Classic Intellectual Beauty ( CIB ) C lassic I ntellectual B eauty (CIB) Model CIB m ean Cute m ean Wild m ean CIB r ank (N=14) Cute r ank (N=14) Wild r ank (N=14) Strong I3 4.3145 1.9556 2.4194 1 10 8 I5 4.2258 2.0685 1.9516 2 8 12 Middle S1 3.2500 3.2097 3.5000 6 5 5 W2 2.7119 1.8814 4.3446 7 11 1 Weak Ca5 1.9124 3.8362 1.9492 13 3 13 Ca3 1.8145 3.4798 2.1371 14 4 10 Grand Mean 2.9843 2.6541 2.8716 Table 4 5 Strongest, weakest, an d middle examples of Cute Cute Model Cute m ean CIB m ean Wildness m ean Cute r ank (N=14) CIB r ank (N=14) Wild r ank (N=14) Strong G5 4.1089 2.4113 1.8065 1 11 14 G3 4.0367 2.226 1.9548 2 12 11 Middle Cb1 2.5444 3.7863 2.5968 7 4 7 -------Weak E5 1.6102 2.6751 2.7910 13 8 6 E3 1.5726 2.5282 4.1694 14 9 3 Grand Mean 2.6541 2.9843 2.8716 RQ2 listed out the strongest and weakest examples of each new beauty types. nces or the similarities among each new beauty type, which helped the researcher to clearly and effectively examine H1, H2, and H3. H1: Beauty Types Associated with Sexiness and/or Sexual Maturity (i.e., Wildness and Sexy Little Women) Will Produce Less P leasurable Feelings Compared to Beauty Types N ot Associated with Sexiness and/or Sexual Maturi ty (i.e., Girl Next Door, Cute Acting, Classic Beauty, Intellectual B eauty, and Edgy). A repeated measures analysis of variance (within group F=135.44, df=5, sig .=.000 and Between group F=5261.28., df=1, sig. = .000) revealed significant differences in
62 pleasure among high and low be auty types. This includes high Wild (W2), low W ild (G5), high CIB (I3), low CIB (Ca3), high Cute (G5), and low C ute (E3). A post hoc c omparison of means at a 95% confidence interval was used to determine significant differences bet ween means as shown in Table 4 6 Table 4 6 Comparison of p leasure s cores among h igh and l ow b eauty t ypes Group Model Pleasure m ean Std. e rror 95% c onfiden c e i nterval Lower b ound Upper b ound High CIB I3 7.194 1 .117 6.963 7.424 High Cute G5 (same as Low Wild) 7.000 1 .172 6.660 7.340 Low Wild G5 (same as High Cute) 7.000 1 .172 6.660 7.340 Low Cute E3 5.847 2 .140 5.570 6.124 High Wild W2 5.105 3 .153 4.802 5.408 Low CIB Ca3 2.952 4 .150 2.655 3.248 1 I3 and G5 had significantly greater Pleasure scores than all others. 2 3 significantly lower than Pleasure scores for I3, G5, and E3 and significantly greater than Ca3. 4 High CIB ( M =7.194) and high Cute (same as low W ild) ( M =7.000) had significantly greater pleasur e means than other models, but were not different from each other. On the other hand, low C M =5.847) was significantly lower than high CIB and high C ute, but s ignificantly greater than high W ild ( M =5.105) and low CIB ( M =2.952). Furthe r more, high W CIB high Cute (low Wild), and low C ute, but significantly greater than low CIB Finally, low CIB supported ( Appendix B, C and D for AdSAM Perceptual Map and detail statistic numbers of each model)
63 H2: Beauty T ypes Associated with Sexiness and/or S exual Maturity (W ildness and S exy L ittle Women) Will P roduce L ess A rousal C ompared to B eauty T ypes N ot A ssociated w ith S exiness and/or Sexual M aturity (G irl Next D oor, C ute A cting, C lassic B eauty, Intellectual B eauty, and E dgy). A repeated measures analysis of variance (within group F=14.52, df=5, sig.=.000 and between group F=2001.28., df=1, sig. = .000) revealed sig nificant differences in arousal among high and low beauty types. A post hoc comparison of means at a 95% confidence interval was used to determine significant differences bet ween means as shown in Table 4 7 Table 4 7 Comparison of a rousal s cores among h igh and l ow b eauty t ypes Group Model Arousal m ean Std. e rror 95% c onfidence i nterval Lower b ound Upper b ound Low Cute E3 5.290 1 .174 4.945 5.635 High CIB I3 5.113 1 .190 4.737 5.489 High Wild W2 5.016 1 .196 4.629 5.403 High Cute G5 (same as Low Wi ld) 4.097 2 .189 3.723 4.470 Low Wild G5(same as High Cute) 4.097 2 .189 3.723 4.470 Low CIB Ca3 3.653 2 .210 3.237 4.069 1 W2, I3 and E3 had significantly greater Arousal scores, but were not different from each other. 2 s were significantly lower than W2, I3 and E3, but not significantly different from each other. Low C ute ( M =5.290), high CIB ( M =5.113), and high W ild ( M =5.016) had significantly greater arousal scores than others, but were not different from each other. O n the other hand, high Cute (same as low W ild) ( M =4.097) and low CIB ( M arousal scores were significantly lower than high W ild, high CIB and low C ute, but not significantly different from each other. Thus, hypothesis 2 is not supported.
64 H3: Beaut y T ypes A ssociated with Sexiness and/or S exual Maturity (i.e. Wildness and S exy L ittle Women) Will P roduce L ess D omina nce C ompared to Beauty T ypes N ot Associated with Sexiness and/or S exual Maturity (i.e. Girl Next D oor, C ute A cting, C lassic B eauty, I ntel lectual B eauty, and E dgy ). A repeated measures analysis of variance (within group F=12.21, df=5, sig.=.000 and between group F=2417.05., df=1, sig. = .000) revealed significant differences in dominance among high and low beauty types. A post hoc comparison of means with a 95% confidence interval was used to determine significant differences betw een means as shown in Table 4 8 Table 4 8 Comparison of d ominance s cores among h igh and l ow b eauty t ypes Group Model Dominance m ean Std. e rror 95% confidence i nt erval Lower b ound Upper b ound Low CIB Ca3 6.121 1 .238 5.650 6.592 High Cute G5 (same as Low Wild) 5.935 1 .189 5.561 6.310 Low Wild G5 (same as High C ute) 5.935 1 .189 5.561 6.310 High Wild W2 5.137 2 .192 4.757 5.517 High CIB I3 5.113 2 .181 4.754 5.472 Low Cute E3 4.573 2 .178 4.220 4.925 1 Ca3 and G5 had significantly greater Dominance scores but were not different from each other. 2 W2, I3 and E3 were significantly lower than Ca3 and G5 but not significantly different from each other. Low CIB ( M = 6.121) and high Cute (low W ild) ( M =5.935) had significantly greater dominance scores than others but were not different from each other. On the other hand, high W ild ( M =5.137), high CIB ( M =5.113) and low C ute ( M =4.573) were significantly lower than low CIB and high Cute (low W ild) but not significantly different from each other. Thus, hypothesis 3 is partially supported.
65 RQ3: Is Qizhi Associated with Specific Beauty T ypes? A Pearson correlation was conducted to see whether qizhi was correlated with the thre e beauty types. The correlation between qizhi and CIB was positive (r=.915) and significant ( p < .000). On the other hand, both Cute (r= .122) and W ild (r= .221) were not correlated with qizhi H4: Models That Are Highly Associated with Qizhi Will Produce M ore Pleasurable Feelings than Models Not A ssociat ed with Q izhi A repeated measures analysis of variance (within group F=64.19, df=5, sig.=.000 and among group F=8440.94, df=1, sig. = .000) revealed significant differences in pleasure scores among the hig h qizhi model (I3), medium qizhi model (G3) and low qizhi model (Ca3). A post hoc analysis at a 95% confidence interval provided evidence that both the high qizhi model ( M =7.19) and medium qizhi model ( M =7.18) were not significantly different from each oth er for pleasure score. However, both the high qizhi model and the medium qizhi model had significantly higher pleasure score than the low qizhi model ( M =2.95). Thus, hypothesis 4 is partially supported. H5: Models That Are Highly Associated with Qizhi Will Produce More Arousal than Models Not A ssoci ated with Q izhi A repeated measures analysis of variance (within group F=64.19, df=5, sig.=.000 and between group F=8440.94, df=1, sig. = .000) revealed significant differences in arousal scores among the high q izhi model (I3), the medium qizhi model (G3), and the low qizhi model (Ca3). A post hoc analysis at a 95% confidence interval showed that the high qizhi model ( M =5.11) and the medium qizhi model ( M =5.10) were not significantly different from each other. Ho wever, it showed that the high qizhi model and the medium qizhi model both had significantly higher arousal scores than the low qizhi model ( M =2.95). Thus, hypothesis 5 is partially supported.
66 H6: Models that Are Highly Associated with Qizhi Will Produce M ore Dominance than Models Not A ssociate d with Q izhi A repeated measures analysis of variance (Within group F=64.19, df=5, sig.=.000 and between group F=8440.94, df=1, sig. = .000) revealed significant differences in dominance scores among the high qizhi m odel (I3), the medium qizhi model (G3), and the low qizhi model (Ca3). The post hoc analysis provided evidence that the high qizhi model ( M =5.11) and the medium qizhi model ( M =5.26) were not significantly different from each other for dominance scores. The low qizhi model ( M =6.12) had a significantly higher dominance score than the high and the medium qizhi models. Thus, hypothesis 6 is not supported.
67 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCL USION This chapter discusses the possible reasons that contribute to the res ults and the implication for advertising practitioners and future research. The discussion takes place by comparing present results with previous studies to see how different cultures perceive beauty differently and how Taiwanese cultural perception toward female beauty altered over time. Results revealed that pre established beauty types were not mutually exclusive and instead were three beauty types. The new beauty types included C ute ( formally G irl N ext Door /Cute A cting), CIB ( formally C lassic B eauty/ I ntellectual Beauty), and Wild (Wildness). Thus, the C ute dimension had youthful and infantile qualities that were considered girlish and immature (Chuang, 2005; Kinsella, 1995). The C lassic I ntellectual B eauty ( CIB ) dimension had qualities of a more mature and romantic look than did the C ute dimensio n (Goodman, et al., 2008). The W ild dimension featured a mature and a more sexual look than the other two dimensions (Goodman, et al., 2008; Soloman, et al., 1992). The factor analysis indicated that Sexy Littl e W om a n and E dgy did not group with any of the new beauty types. Sexy Little W omen loaded on three factors; however, it did not meet the breakdown in any of the factors, indicating that it was difficult for participants to distinguish this beauty type from the other types. According to the pre established definition of Sexy Little W om a ined the characteristic of the Girl Next D o or, Classic Beauty and W ildness. This might be the reason why it
68 was difficult for participants to distinguish Sexy Little W om a n from the other beauty types. On the other hand, E dgy factored higher on factor 3; however, it did not meet the breakdown of the factor analysis This indicated that participants consider this type of beauty as being similar to W ild, although it did not meet all of the chara cteristics of a ild. According to the pre established definit ion of E dgy, the idea of this type of beauty eme T rendy beauty type (Goodman, et al., 2008; Soloman, et. al, 1992). It is p ossible that the definition of E dgy was only relevant to beauty professionals and beauty editors Perceiv ers that are not in the beauty industry cannot clearly define this category (Goodman, et al., 2008). Furthermore, Goodman et al., (2008) found that participants in the U.S. perceived beauty on two dimensions (SS and CCG), while the present study indicated that Taiwanese participants perceived and categorized dimensions of beauty in a different way than the U.S. participants. This finding is significant because it suggest s that cross cultural advertisers should be cautious when using the same advertis ement model, or spokesperson s in the U.S and Taiwan because people from different cultures may hold different perspectives on beauty. Results concerning the strongest examples of each new Taiwanese beauty types the strongest example of each 2 was the strongest example of W ild, which indicated tha ild (e.g., mature and sensual looks) compared to the other mode ls. The strongest examples
69 provide advertisers in Taiwan a beauty type framework to refer to when looking for models and spokesperson for advertising. Results also found that qizhi is positively correlated with CIB but not correlated with Cute and W ild bea uty types. It has been pointed out that qizhi is one of the most qizhi indicates that her look and he r personality follows the expectations of what a woman should be like in mainstream Taiwanese culture. Thus, this finding indicated that CIB has a refined disposition that Taiwanese women favored. Qizhi can be translated into English as classy, elegan t and charisma tic (Su, 200 4 ). In other words, cla ssy, elegan t and charisma tic might be considered positive characteristics (refined positions) that a CIB since qizhi and CIB were correlated, it can also be said that having qizhi means having a mature and romantic look. This finding is significant because it provided cross cultural advertisers a new aspect to understand this cultural specific term in order to well communicate with Taiwanese consumer and c lients. H ypothesis 1 predicted that models associated with sexiness will produce less pleasurable feelings. Findings revealed that H1 was supported. Indeed, model that had a h igher degree of sexiness (high W ild model) tended to produce higher levels of negative reaction (lower pleasure) toward female participants. In other words, sexiness and sexual maturity were considered negative characteristics for Taiwanese women. The results supported the previous argument that Taiwanese people do not like sexual maturity because it convey s the ideas of strength, dominance, and competence, which
70 contradicts the female submissiveness and docility that Taiwanese culture emphasize s ( Cunningham et al., 1995). In addition, some stud ies have discovered that sexy women ar e considered negatively and seen as promiscuous and having lower intellectual competence (Glick, Larsen, Johnson, and Branstiter, 2005; Lee, 1975). These negative characteristics might also be the reasons that sexy models are unappealing to Taiwanese women Further more the finding s of H1 also indicate that although Taiwanese women had previously considered sexy and glamorous models in Western magazines positively and saw it as fashionable trend when American fashion magazine came to Taiwan ; the ir definiti on s of sexiness seem to have altered over time. Taiwanese women see sexiness as more of a negative trait than a favorable fashion style nowadays. This finding is similar to the study of Goodman et al. (2008). Goodman et al. (2008) pointed out that young Am erican women consider sexy models unappealing because they were tired of being sexualized and objectified in advertisements. Since Taiwanese culture has been influenced by American (Western) culture through its various media (movies, TV show, magazine, adv negative feeling toward sexiness come from the same place as American women they are tired of being sexualized and objectified Therefore, advertisers should be cautious when using a sexy model in both Taiwanese and American advertisement s for it might cause negative reactions. However, cross cultural advertisers can use the same low sexy model in both Taiwan and U.S. to save on advertising budgets. H ypothesis 2 and 3 predicted that sexy models will pro duce less arousal and less dominance. However, the finding s indicated that sexy models actually produced higher
71 arousal and less dominance. One possible explanation is that Taiwanese women feel strongly influenced and intimidated by se xy models because sexy models convey the strength, dominance, and competence) the Taiwanese cultural norm ( Cunningham et al., 1995) One research article has pointed out that Taiwanese female have been influ enced by Western magazines that impl y that sex and sexiness is the path to liberation (Yang, 2004). Thus, Taiwanese women considered being sexy as a sign of gaining power, individuality, and independence (Yang, 2004). In other words, some Taiwanese women s ee sexiness as a tool to empower themselves a nd to share equal rights with m e n through sexual liberation (Yang, 2004). However, the mainstream Taiwanese culture still expects women to be submissive and docile (Lin, 200 9 ; Cunningham et al., 1995 ). Thus, it is arousing and intimidating because they rebel against Taiwanese cultural expectations and because they are intimidated by these women, they don t feel high pleasure toward them. Another i mplication of the hypothese s result about sexy models is related to social comparison theory. When individuals make a self evaluation by comparing upwards, they encounter negative effects and feelings (Richins, 1991; Tiggemann & Mcgill, 2004). Since the h igh W ild model (sexy model) produce d little pleasure and dominance as well as feelings of apprehensive indifferent, and ambivalence, it is likely that participants use models that have higher level of sexiness for self evaluation comparisons to assess the ir own value and abilities (Goodman et al., 2008). H ypothese s 2 and 3 also found that high CIB (I3), high Wild (W2), and low C ute (E3) models produced more arousal an d less dominance than did high Cute (G5), low
72 W ild (G5), and low CIB (Ca3) models. In othe r words, finding revealed that H2 was not supported and H3 was partially supported. Since high CIB and high W ild model produced similar arousal and dominance, there is a possibility that Taiwanese participants did not consider sexiness as being as importan t factor as the researcher expected when comparing themselves with the models. I n other words, since that high C ute model produced significantly different arousal and dominance than high CIB and high W ild model, it is likely that the high CIB and high W ild model both have attributes (mature looking ) that the high C and this attribute influenced countries such as Taiwan, Singapore and Japan consider being cute a fashion trend in recent years and the culture of cuteness appears everywhere in daily life (Chuang, 2005; Ng, 2001; Kinsella, 1995; Miller, 2004). Moreover, according to the definition of new beauty types, the appearance of both CIB and W ild are mo re mature than child like. I t i exciting to Taiwanese women. Thus, Taiwanese women evaluate models by whether they are mature or have Indeed, hi gh C ute model produc ing lower arousal can be contributed to the over use of infantile looking models ( culture of cuteness ) in Taiwan that studies from the mid 2000s found the Taiwanese to be highly interested in (Chuang, 2005; Hjorth 200 5 ) Because of thei r overuse, it i s possible that Taiwanese females start ed to feel bored with this type of model. O ne study pointed out that although several years ago Japanese females consider ed cuteness (acting cute) a popular fashion trend in recent years, Japanese women start ed to negatively perceive acting cute as boring and fake
73 because it displays overly childishness and femininity (Miller, 2004). Thus, it is possible that t he low arousal toward the high C ute model means that the definition of cute and infantile looki ng models changed in Taiwan because of the overuse which is similar as what happened in Japan (Miller, 2004). Although the current result s indicated that Taiwanese women still consider cute as a positive trait (high pleasure), the low arousal score (whic h wa s unexp ected by the researcher) impl ies that Taiwanese women have changed the ir perception and definition s toward infantile looking models like Japan did. In other words, it is possible that Taiwanese will begin to gradually feel negatively toward cute models because Taiwanese culture is consistently influenced by Japanese cultural trends. Furth ermore, high C ute model produc ing higher dominance can be explained as the model has a strong quality of i nfantile traits that in taking care of them (Glocker st al., 2009) which includ es vulnerability, powerlessness, submissivene ss, and fragility (Madge, 1997) T hus, it is reasonable that Taiwanese participants will naturally feel more powerful and more domin ated over high C ute models. Another implica tion of why high C ute models pro duced more dominance is relat ed to social comparison theory that the participants ma d e self enhancement comparisons by comparing downward to high C ute models (Suls et al., 2002). Thus models that poss ess infantile appearance produce an image of fragility and powerlessness (Madge, being, making participants felt more powerful than others.
74 H ypotheses 4, 5, and 6 predicted that models that have higher qizhi will produce more pleasure, arousal and dominance. The results revealed that H4 and H5 were partially supported and H6 was not supported. In fact, although the results indicated that qizhi is an important element in influencing pleasure, arousal and domin ance, the scores were only influenced significantly under an extreme situation that is, models with little to no qizhi at all) produce d significantly lower pleasure, lower arousal, and higher dominance than high and average qizhi models. In Taiwanese cultu qizhi qizihi characteristic (Su, 2008). Thus, all one needs to produce positive feelings is to show at least some characteristics associated with qizhi classy, elegan t rom antic look, and classic. In other words, since qizhi correlated with CIB all one needs to produce positive feelings is to show at least some characteristics associated with CIB Another implication of this finding is related to social comparison and socia l cognitive theory. Social cognitive theory ind icates that participants learn from the behaviors and consequences of models (Bandura, 2002). Social comparison states that individuals compare themselves upward and learn from others for self improvement (Woo d, 1989). Therefore, it is possible that participants aspire to compare themselves with the models that possess positive traits favored by others. In other words, participants compared upward for self improvement purposes and expect ed to learn positive att ributes from high and middle qizhi ( CIB ) models. Thus, they were highly interested and excited by high and middle qizhi ( CIB ) model s. On the other hand, given that not having qizhi (low CIB ) is a negative characteristic under Taiwanese context (Su,
75 2008), the lack of arousal elicited by weak qizhi models can be explained as participants attempting to avoid negative images that make them feel uncomfortable. H ypothesis 6 predicted that low qizhi ( low CIB ) model will pro duce less dominance because low qizhi model did not follow Taiwanese culture expectation having a refined position (Su, 2008) In other words, low qizhi model will be more uncontrollable compare d to other models because she rebel s against Taiwanese culture norm. However, this argument was not supported by the results. Instead, low qizhi produced significantly higher dominance to Taiwanese women. The possible explanation for this result is that participants are making self enhancement comparison by comparing themselves with someone that is worse off to boost their subjective well being (Suls, et al., 2002). Thus since low qizhi model possess negative traits that were not liked by others, Taiwanese female s will consider themselves better than low qizhi models within a Taiwanese context. In this w ay, participants feel more powerful than the weak qizhi model, which is the reason why the weak qizhi model provides more dominance than do the high and middle qizhi models. Finally, previous research has explored how Taiwanese women perceived and balance d between traditional (Confucianism) value and modern (Western) value (Lin, 2008; Yang, 2004 ; Chang, 2004 ). The current results provide a scope from the aspect of emotional responses to seek possible explanations of how Taiwanese women interweave and perce ive traditional and modern value s related to female status and female portrayal s In other words, having lower pleasure feelings toward high W ild and lower arou sal/high dominance toward high C ute models indicated that Taiwanese women are not interested in extreme modern ideas (highly competence, empowered by
76 sexual liberation or being sexual objectified) and extreme traditional value (submissiveness and docility). Indeed, they showed higher pleasure and arousal towa rd the high CIB model wh o is neither sub mi ssive nor highly competence. Thus the high CIB model is appealing because she balanced between the traditional and modern values by possessing both posit ive cultural specific traits ( e. g. qizhi ) and positive modern value (not submissive). Thus, it is pos sible that Taiwanese women expected to be independent and self supported (not to rely on men), but at the same time they also tried to please mainstream Taiwanese culture so that they will not be disliked. Implications for Advertisers The present study pro vides new ways for advertisers to approach female consumers in Taiwanese culture RQ1 and RQ2 not only indicate that Taiwanese participants perceive and categorize dimensions of beauty in a different way compared to participants in United States (Goodman, et al., 2008), but also provided a framework and examples for cross cultural advertisers to follow and refer to. Findings related to H1, H2, and H3 help cross cultural advertisers in three aspects. oward beauty types, advertisers will know what kind of model they should choose when trying to sell products in Taiw an. For example, according to H 3 when advertisers want to trigger vel of dominance, using a high C ute, low CIB and low W ild model will be much more suitable than other kinds of models. Second, H1, H2, and H3 provide a framework for cross cultural advertisers to choose suitable models and spokespersons for both Taiwanese and American female viewers In this way, c ross cultural advertisers can use the same commercial, model, or spokesperson in two cultures for the same products as a means to save money. For
77 example, cross cultural advertisers can save money by using the same low sexy models both in Taiwan and the U. S. because female viewers from both cultures have positive feelings (higher pleasure scores) toward low sexy models. Third, the results also indicated that advertiser practitioners should be very cautious when using high C ute models in Taiwan. Although T aiwanese people showed strong interest in cute models before (Chuan g, 2005 ), the current finding discovered that young Taiwanese women feel bored about the infantile looking model now. Thus, it might not always be necessary to use high C ute model when targ eting young Taiwanese women. Further, since Taiwanese advertising decision makers are mostly middle age men, they might perceive high C ute model s differently from young Taiwanese women and make poor decision s when choosing the spokesperson or model for the product. In addition, advertiser s should be critical of the current trend in Taiwan (or even in the East Asia) toward high C ute models in the future, for the definition and perception toward cute model may be changing. Just because something is trendy doe sn t mean that it produces positive emotional responses. On the other hand, RQ3, H4, H5, and H6 explored how Taiwanese participants perceive the relationship between beauty and qizhi The findings provided a new aspect for cross cultural advertisers to und erstand how Taiwanese participants perceive beauty from their cultural perspective. Findings also help cross cultural advertisers and researchers in three ways. First, since qizhi is an important element in evaluating beauty and there is no equivalent tran slation in English for this concept, cross cultural advertisers may encounter language and cultural barriers when trying to underst and the
78 Taiwanese perspective o n beauty. The se studies findings can help reduce this problem. Second, the results indicated that all one needs to produce positive feelings is to show at least some characteristics associated with qizhi such as having an elegant and romantic look. In other words, as long as the advertisers make sure the model or spokesperson they use has qizhi the young Taiwanese women will have very little chance to feel ing negatively toward the model and spokesperson. Third, previous research and newspaper articles that related to qizhi are mostly focus ed on the field of lingu istics or translations (Su, 200 4 ; Su, 200 8 ). The present study provided a new aspect (emotional responses) that has never been discussed in previous research to explain how Taiwanese women perceive qizhi As such, these findings can help other fields, such as the study of linguistics and cross cultural studies in understanding qizhi and Taiwanese culture from different perspectives. Limitation Although this study revealed many important findings, there were some limitations. This study used a convenience sample from university student ass ociations and s and level s w ere very similar. Thus, the research results cannot be generalized beyond this sample. Another limitation is that the 42 models used in the pretest contained bot h celebrities and non celebrities. I t i s possible that participants ratings were influenced by their knowledge of the celebrity rather than their image alone Future Research Future research should investigate how Taiwanese men perceive and categorize be auty types as well as their emotional responses toward different beau ty dimensions.
79 Future research sh ould also conduct experiments to determine how Taiwanese beauty types match up with different products. Moreover, future research should examine how peopl e categorize male beauty types and determine whether people have different emotional responses toward each type. Furthermore, future research should also explore how other cultures, such as European or African cultures, perceive beauty types. Finally, fut ure research should recruit participants from different age groups to explore whether they perceive beauty from different perspectives
80 APPENDIX A PRETES T RESULTS
83 APPENDIX B MAIN STUDY DATA (1) Model Cute Classic Intellectual Beauty ( CIB ) Wild Ple asure Arousal Dominance Qizhi G3 4.0367 2.226 1.9548 7.1855 5.0968 5.2581 3.25 G5 4.1089 2.4113 1.8065 6.8814 4.1638 5.7401 3.41 Ca3 3.4798 1.8145 2.1371 3.1921 3.5989 5.9322 2.0 0 Ca5 3.8362 1.9124 1.9492 4.0645 3.3629 6.1532 2.21 Cb1 2.5444 3.7863 2. 5968 5.8475 4.2881 5.4407 3.84 Cb3 3.1215 3.9661 2.3277 6.871 0 4.9677 5.2903 3.96 I3 1.9556 4.3145 2.4194 7.113 0 5.0282 5.0282 4.32 I5 2.0685 4.2258 1.9516 5.2429 3.6215 5.1638 4.18 W1 1.7542 2.4633 4.3277 4.6694 4.1532 4.8548 2.66 W2 1.8814 2.7119 4. 3446 5.1048 5.0161 5.1371 2.9 0 S1 3.2097 3.25 00 3.5 000 6.8418 5.5932 5.2147 3.53 S2 1.9774 3.4944 3.9266 6.1613 5.2823 4.9194 3.46 E3 1.5726 2.5282 4.1694 5.9492 5.2429 4.6723 2.57 E5 1.6102 2.6751 2.791 0 4.0806 4.25 00 5.0 000 2.84 Mean 2.6541 2.9843 2.8716 5.6575 4.5475 5.2718 3.2236
84 APPENDIX C MAIN STUDY DATA (2) Model Statistic Classic Beauty Girl Next Door Cute Acting Wildness Intellectual Sexy Little Women Edgy Qizhi G3 Mean 2.55 4.33 3.74 1.95 1.90 2.75 1.93 3.25 Std. d eviation .866 .68 8 .879 .891 .766 1.086 .876 .909 G5 Mean 2.71 4.35 3.87 1.81 2.11 2.48 1.79 3.41 Std. d eviation .881 .599 .754 .695 .757 1.000 .747 .733 Ca3 Mean 1.85 2.84 4.12 2.14 1.77 2.56 1.87 2.00 Std. d eviation .762 1.143 1.086 .990 .753 1.061 .786 .826 Ca5 M ean 2.01 3.31 4.37 1.95 1.82 2.61 1.97 2.21 Std. d eviation .849 .981 .816 .709 .716 1.012 .836 .832 Cb1 Mean 4.05 2.75 2.34 2.60 3.52 3.42 2.44 3.84 Std. d eviation .731 .951 .825 1.019 .879 .866 1.015 .790 Cb3 Mean 4.10 3.31 2.93 2.33 3.83 3.51 2.40 3.96 Std. d eviation .731 .965 .957 .822 .801 .918 .979 .771 I3 Mean 4.06 2.20 1.71 2.42 4.57 3.22 3.15 4.32 Std. d eviation .810 .836 .741 .929 .513 1.032 1.012 .578 I5 Mean 4.07 2.31 1.82 1.95 4.38 2.54 2.24 4.18 Std. d eviation .848 .859 .687 .835 .593 .887 .949 .612 S1 Mean 3.16 3.15 3.27 3.50 3.34 4.25 2.48 3.53 Std. d eviation .974 1.052 1.068 1.024 1.051 .658 .975 .831 S2 Mean 3.44 1.97 1.98 3.93 3.55 3.69 3.16 3.46 Std. d eviation 1.027 .726 .757 .776 .916 .884 1.021 .832 W1 Mean 2.06 1.79 1.72 4.33 2.86 3.02 4.00 2.66 Std. d eviation .784 .656 .600 .626 1.046 1.042 .826 .819 W2 Mean 2.24 1.93 1.84 4.34 3.19 3.54 3.29 2.90 Std. d eviation .833 .833 .724 .731 1.019 1.055 .995 .853 E3 Mean 1.78 1.65 1.49 4.17 3.27 2.90 4.40 2.57 Std. d e viation .645 .699 .577 .621 .949 1.088 .596 .973 E5 Mean 2.01 1.65 1.57 2.79 3.34 2.29 4.44 2.84 Std. d eviation .822 .747 .663 1.101 1.050 .913 .789 .851
85 APPENDIX D ADSAM PERCEPTIAL MAP
86 LIST OF REFERENCES Allison, A. (2004) Cuteness as Japan's Mi llennial Prod uct i n J. J. Tobin, Pikachu's G lobal A dventure: T he R ise and F all of P okmon (pp. 34 49) Durham and L ondon: Duke University Press. Baker, M J. and J. Churchill (1977) The Impact of Physically Attractive Mo dels on Advertising Evaluations Journal of Marketing Research 14, 538 555. Bandura, A. (2002) Social Cogniti ve Theory of Mass Communication In J. Bryant, & D. Zillman (Eds.), Media Effect: Advances in Theory and Research (2nd ed., pp. 121 153) Mahwah: NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Bandur a, A. (1978) Social Learning Theory of Aggression Journal of Communication 12 29. Barulich, D. (2006) Beauty Match Up and Self Concept Congrui ty in Advertising Unpublished M T hesis University of Florida. Berry, D. S. and L. McArthur (1985) Some Components and Consequences of a Babyface Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48 (2), 312 323. Bjerke, R. and R. Polegato (2006) How Well Do Advertising Images of Health and Beauty Travel Across Cultu res? A Self Concept Perspective Psychology & Marketing, 23, 865 884. Bower, A. B. (2001) Highly Attractive Models in Advertising and the Women Who Loathe Them: The Implications of Negative Affect for Spokesperson Effectiveness Journal of Advertising 30, 51 63. Bowe r, A. B. and S. La ndreth (2001) Is Beauty Best? Highly versus Normally A ttractive Models in Advertising Journal of Advertising 30, 1 12. Brumbaugh, A. M. (1993) Physical Attractiveness and Pe rsonality in Advertising: More t han Just a Pretty Face? Advances in Consume r Research 20, 159 164. Caballer o, M. J. and W. Pride (1984) Selected Effects of Salesperson Sex and Attractiveness in Direct Mail Advertisements The Journal of Marketing 48 (1), 94 100. Caballero, M. J. and P. Solomon (1984) Effects of Model A ttra ctiveness on Sales Response Journal of Advertising 13 (1), 17 23. Caballero, M. J., Lumpkin J. R., and C. S. Madden (1989) Using Physical Attractiveness as an Advertising Tool: An Empirical Te st of the Attraction Phenomenon Journal of Advertising R esearch 16 22.
87 Cash, T. F. and E. Smith (1982) Physical Attractiveness and Personality a mong American College Students The Journal of Psychology 111, 183 191. Chang, J. S. (2004) Refashioning Womanhood in 1990s Taiwan: An Analysis of the Taiwanese E dition of Cosmopolitan Magazine Modern China 30, 361 397. Chuang, T. i. (2005) The Power of Cuteness: Female Infantization in Urban Taiw an Greater China 52, 21 28. Cunningham, M. R., Wu, C. H., Roberts, A. R., Barbe e, A. P., and P. B. Druen (1995) Their Ideas of Beauty Are, on the Whole, the Same as Ours : Consistency and Variability in the Cross Cultural Perception of Female Physical A ttractiveness Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68, 261 279. DeBruine, L. M., Jones, B. C., Unger L., Little, A. C., and D. R. Feinberg (2007) Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attracti ve Faces Are Not Always Average Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 33, 1420 1430. Dion, K., Bers cheid, E., and E. Wal ster (1972) What Is Beautiful Is Good Journal of Personality and Psychology 24, 285 290. Dobke, M., Chung, C., and K. Takabe (2006) Facial Aestheti c Preferences a mong Asian Women: Are All Oriental Asians the Same? Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 30, 342 347. Eag ly, A. H., and S. Chaiken (1975) An Attribution Analysis of the Effect of Communicator Characteristics on Opinion Change: The Case of Communicator A ttractiveness Journal o f Personality and Social Psychology 32 (1), 136 144. Eagly, A. H., Ashm ore, R. D., Makhijan i, M. G., and L. C. Longo (1991) What Is Beautiful Is Good, But. .: A Meta Analytic Review of Research on the Physical Attractiveness St ereotype Psychological Bulletin 110, 109 128. Education, M. O (1994) Revised Mandarin Dicti onary ( ). Retrieved 02 07, 2011, from Ministry of Education, R.O.C.: http://dict.revised.moe.edu.tw/ Englis, B. G., Solomon, M. R., and R. D. Ashmore (1994) Beauty before the Eyes of Beholders: Th e Cultural Encoding of Beauty Types in Magazine A dvertising and Music Television Journal of Advertising 49 64. Friedma n, H. and L. Friedman (1979) Endorse r Effectiveness by Product Type Journal of Advertising Research 63 71. Frith, K ., Shaw, P., an d H. Cheng (2005) The Construction of Beauty: A Cross Cultural Analysis Journal of Communication 56 70.
88 Glick P., Larsen S., Johnson C., and H. Branstiter (2005) Evaluations of Sexy Wom en in Low and High status Jo bs Psychology of Women Quarterly 29, 389 395. Glocker, M. L., Langleben, D. D., Ruparel, K., Loughead, J. W., G ur, R. C., and N. Sachser (2009) Baby Schema in Infant Faces Induces Cuteness Perception and Motivation for Caretaking in Adults Ethology 257 263. Goodman, J. R., J on, M. D., and S. C. John (2008) Is Beauty A Joy Forever ? Young Women's Emotional Responses to Varying Types of Beautiful Advertising Models Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 85, 147 168. Hall iwell, E. and H. Dittmar (2004) Does Size Matter? The Impact of Model's Body Size on Women's Body Focused Anxiet y and Advertising Effectiveness Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 23 (1), 104 122. Han, Wu, Huang, Xu, and Zhang ( ) (2006, 11 20) The Evolution of Taiwanese Beauty ( ) Chinatimes. Taipei: Chinatimes ( ). Havlena, W. J. and M. B. Holbrook (1986) The Varieties of Consumption Experience: Comparing Two Typologies of Emotion in Consumer Behavior Journal of Consumer Research 13 (3), 394 404. Hjorth, L., (2005) Odours of Mobility: Mobile Phones and Japanese Cute Culture in the Asia Pacific Journal of Intercultural Studies 26, 39 55. Holbrook, M. B. and R. B atra ( 2011) Assessing the R ole of E motions as M ediators of C onsume r R esponses to A dvertising Journal of Consumer Research 14 (3), 404 420. Hovland, R., McMahan, C., Lee, G., Hwang, J. S., and J. Kim (2005) Gender Role Portrayals in American and Korean Adverti sements Sex Roles 53, 887 899. Hsiung, S. H. (1997, Dec ember) A Comparison of Women's Portrayals in U.S. and Ta iwanese Magazine Advertisements A Master's Thes is of San Jose State University United States: UMI Company. Hung, K. H., Li, S. Y., and R. W. Belk (2007) Global understandings: F emale R P erceptions of the N ew W oman in Chinese A dvertising Journal of International Business Studies, 38, 1034 1051. Joeph, W. B. (1982) The Credibility of Physically Att ractive Communicators: A Review Journal of Advertising 11, 15 24. Jon D. Morris and F. Pai (1997) A Design for Measuring and Interpreting Emotional Response to Standardize Advertisement Across Cultures: When East Meets West 1 18. University of Florida.
89 Jung, J. and Y. Lee (2009) Cross Beauty Magazine Advertisements in th e United States and South Korea Clothing & Textiles Research Journal 1 14. Kahl e, L. R. and P. M. Homer (1985) Physical Attractiveness of the Celebrity Endorser: A Social Ada ptation Perspective T he Journal of Consumer Re search 11, 954 961. Kamins, M. A. (1990) An Investigation into the "Match up" Hypothesis in Celebrity Advertising: When Beauty Maybe Only Skin Deep Journal of Advertising 19, 4 13. Kinsella, S. (1995) Cut ies in Japan i n L. Skov, & B. Moeran, Wome n, Media, and Consumption in Japan (pp. 220 254) Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. Lang, P. J. (1985) The Cognitive Psychophysiology of Emotion: An xiety and the Anxiety Disorders Hillsdaie: Lawrence Erlbaum. Langlois, J. H. and L. A. Roggman (199 0) Attractive Faces Are Only Average Psychological Science 1, 115 121. Langlois, J., Ritter, J. M., Roggman L. A., and L. S. Vaughn (1991) Facial Diversity and Infant P references for Attractive Faces Developmental Psychology 27 (1), 79 84. Li, E P., Min, H. J., Belk, R. W. Kimura, J., and S. Bahl (2008) Skin Lightening an d Beauty in Four Asian Cultures Advances in Consumer Research 35, 444 449. Li ang, N. (Ed.) (2010) Avatar like: the Edgy New Lo ok of Fan ( ) Retrieved 02 05, 2011, from CRI Online ( ): http://big5.cri.cn/gate/big5/gb.cri.cn/27564/2010/05/05/1326s2839992.htm Lin, C. (20 01 ) Chinese East Asian Singer Successor: Girl Next Door Stephanie Sun become F amous in Taiwan ( ) Taiwan Panorama Magazine pp. 100 102. Lin, C. (2008) Sexual Issues: The Analysis of Female Role Portrayal Preferences in Ta iwanes e Print Ads Journal of Business Ethics 83, 409 418. Lin, C. and J. Yeh (2009) Portrayed Idealized Ima ges and Physical Attractiveness Journal of Business Ethics 90, 61 79. Lu, J. (Ed.) (2009 ) Teach Yo u How to Wear Like an Inte lle ctual Woman ( ) Retrieved 02 08, 2011, from Xinhuanet News: http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/www.sh.xinhuanet.com/2009 01/15/content_ 15462914.htm
90 Madge, L. (1997) Capitalizing on "Cuteness": The Aesthetics of Social Relations in a New Postwar Japanese Order The Journal of the German Institute for Japanese Studies 155 174. Martin, M. C. and J. W. Gentry (1997). Stuck in the Model T rap: The Effects of Beautiful Models in Ads on Female Pre Adolescents and Adolescents. Journal of Advertising 26 (2), 19 34. Martin, M. C. and C. O. P eters (2005) Exploring A dolescent G I dentification of B eauty T y pes T hrough C onsumer C ollages Jo u rnal of Fashion Marketing and M anagement 9, 391 406. Maynard M. L. and C. R. Taylor (1999) Girlish Images across Cultures: Analyzing Japanese ver sus U.S. Seventeen Magazine Ads Journal of Advertising 28, 39 48. Bra dley, M. and P. J. Lang (1994), Me asuring Emotion: The Self Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Di fferential Journal of Behavior 25 (1), 49 59. Meh rabian, A. and J. Russel (1977) Evidence for a Three Factor Theory of Emotions Jou rnal of Research in Personality 273 294. Miller, L. ( 2004) You Are Doing Burikko! Censoring / Scrutinizing Artifice rs of Cute Feminity in Japanese i n S. Okamoto, & J. Smith (Eds.), Japanese Language, Gender, and Ideology: Cultural Models and Real People (pp. 148 165). New York: Oxford University Press. Mi ll s, J. and Araonson, E. (1965) Opinion Change as a Function of the Communicator's Attract iveness and Desire to Influence Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1 (2), 173 177. Morris, J. D. (1995) Observations: SAM: The Self Assessment Maniki n An Efficient Cross Cultural Measurement of Emotional Response Journal of Advertising Research Morris, J. D., Strausbaugh K. L., and M. Nthangeni (1996) Emotional Responses to Advertisement (or Commercia l) Across Cultures Conference o f the America n Academy of Advertising Morris, J., Woo, C ., Geason, J., and J. Kim (2002) The Power of Affect: Predicting Intention Journal of Advertising Research 7 17. Nels on, M. R. and H. Paek (2005) Cross Cultural Differences in Sexual Advertising Content i n a Transnatio Sex Roles 53, 371 383. N g, W (2001) The Hello Kitty Craze in Singapore: A Cultural and Comp arative Analysis Asian Profile 29, 481 491.
91 Patzer, G. L. (1985) The Ph ysical Attractiveness Phenomena New York and L ondon: Plenum Press. Perrett, D. I., May K. A., and S. Yoshikawa (1994) Facial Shape and Judgments o f Female Attractiveness Nature 239 242. Pu, Y. R. (2003) Comparison of Cosmetic Advertisements: Strategies for Cultural Adaptations in Women's Magaz ines in Tai wan Master's Thesis University of Florida. Rhodes G. and L. A. Zebrowitz (Eds.) (2002) Facial Attractiveness: Evolutionary, Cog nitive, and Social Perspectives London: Ablex. Rhodes, G., Sumich, A., and G. Byatt (1999) Are Average Facia l Configurations Attractive Only Because of Their Symmetry ? Psychological Science 10 (1), 52 58. Richins, M. L. (1991) Social Comparison and t he Idealized Images of Advertising The Journal of Consumer Rese arch 18 (1), 71 83. Rossi D. L (1975) Th e Whore vs. t he Girl Next Door: Stereotypes of Woman in Playboy, Penthouse and Oui Journal of Popular Culture 9 (1), 90. Rubenstein, A. J., Langlois, J. H., and Roggman, L. A. (2002) What Makes a Face Attractive and Why: The Role of Averageness in Defining Facial Beau ty i n G. Rhodes, and Zebrowitz L. A. Facial Attractiveness: Evolutionary, Cognitive, and Social Perspectives (pp. 1 33). London: Ablex. Shaffer, D. R., Crepaz, N., and C. Sun. (2000) Physical Attractiveness Stereotyping in Cross C ultural Perspective: Similarities and Differences between Americans and Taiwanese Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology 31, 557 582. Shahani, C., Dipboye R. L., and M. Thomas (1993) Attractiveness Bias in the Interview: Explor ing the Boundaries of an Effect B asic and A pplied S ocial P sychology 14 (3), 317 328. Shahani Denning, C. (2003) Physical Attractiveness Bias in Hi ring: What Is Beautiful Is Good Retrieved 01 23, 2011, from hofstra.edu: http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/about/administration/provost/hofhrz/hofhrz_s03_denni ng.pdf S hinners, E. (2009) Effects of t pe on Perceived Trustworthiness UW L Jo urnal of Undergraduate Research 1 5. Sigal, H. and D. Landy (1973) Radiating Beauty: Effects of Having a Physically Attracti ve Partner on Person Perception Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 28, 218 224.
92 Solomon, M. R., Ashmor e, R. D. and L. C. Lo n go (1992) The Beauty Match Up Hypothesis: Congruence between Types of Beauty an d Product Images in Advertising Journal of Advertising 21, 23 34. Sternglanz, S. H., gr ay, J. L., and M. Murkami (1977) Adult Preferences for Infantile Facial Fe atures: A n Ethological Approach Animal Behavior 108 115. Su, J. C. J. (2004 ) How to Say Qizhi in Eng lish ( ) Time Studies 81. Su, H. Y. (2008) What D oes I t M ean T o B e A G irl with Q izhi ?: Refinement, G ender a nd L anguage I deologies in C ontemporary Taiwan Journal of Sociolinguistics 12, 334 358. Suls, J., Martin, R. and L. Wheele (2002) S ocial Comparison: Why, with Whom, and with What Effect? Current Dire ctions in Psychological Science 11 (5), 159 163. Tai, S. H. and J. L. Tam (1997) A Lifestyle Analysis of Fe male Consumers in Greater China Psychology & Marketing 14, 287 307. Tiggem annn, M and B. Mcgill (2004) The Role of Social Comparison in the Effect of Ma ga zine Advertisement on Women' s Mood and Body Dissatisfaction Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 23 (1), 23 44. T ill, B. D. and M. Busler (2000) The Match Up Hypot hesis: Physical Attractiveness, Expertise, and the Role of Fit on Brand Attitude, Pu rchase Intent and Brand Beliefs Journal of Advertising 29, 1 13. Valentine, T., Darling, S. and M. Donnelly (2004) Why A re A verage F aces A ttractive? The E ffect of V iew and A verageness o n the A ttractiveness of F emale F aces Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 11 (3), 482 487. Vormese, F. (2000) Ethnic B eauty : Asian i n N. Chahine, C. Jazdzewski, M. P. Lannelongue, F. Mohrt, F. Rousso, & F. Vormese, Beauty in Twentieth Cen tury (pp. 252 265). New York: Universe. Wagatsu ma, E. and C. L. Kleinke (1979) Ratings of Facial Beauty by Asian American and Caucasian Females The Journal of Social Psychology 109, 299 300. Wang, P. (2010 ) Why D o W omen H ave to W ear B ra? ( ) Retrieved 02 06, 2011, from CTS ( ): http://news.cts.com.tw/cts/life/201003/201003040421824.html Wood, J. V. (1989) Theory and Research Concerning Social Comparisons of P ersonal Attributes Psychological Bulletin 106 (2), 231 248. Yano, C. R. (2009) Wink on Pink: Interpreting Japanese Cute a s It Grabs the Global Headlines The Journal of Asian Studies 68, 681 688.
93 Yuan, X. (2009) Sweet Heart Next Door Lin Yi Chen: Ways to B ecome a Beauty ( : ) Vita: Health, Body & Mind for Women 15. Zajonc, R. B. (1980) Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences American Psychologist 35 (1), 151 175.
94 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Carol Wu was born in Madison Wisconsin. After the age of 3, her whole family moved to Taiwan where she received most of her education When she was 11, she moved to San Diego, California for one year with her family where she attended fourth grade before moving back to Taiwan In 2007, she e arned her B.A. degree from the Drama and Thea tre Department at National Taiwan University. She receive d her Master of Advertising degree from the University of Florida in 2011. After graduation, Carol plans to pursue a career that is related to cross cultu ral communications.