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1 THE CONSTITUTION OF SUBJECTS IN THE LONG REVOLUTION: RACE, THE POLICE POWER, AND THE EVERYDAY SHAPING OF THE ENSEMBLE STATE By ANDREW SCOTT CATEY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011
2 2011 Andrew Scott Catey
3 To Henry ( ita ego dixi vobis ), and to Tiara, with tremendous love to both
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is conventional in the Acknowledg ments section of written works to produce a list of names and remark their indispensability. It is an omissible (for the reader) prelude to se I acknowledge into the methodological, analytical, and theoretical corpus of the whole of this dissertation, and indeed, of my life as a researcher, thinker, and writer. The list presented below is not a mere enumeration; rather, it is a case of social epistemology and ontology, of knowledge, of becoming, belonging, and behaving in a social world. No one gets there alone, and so in addition to the dedication above, I want to render a second enunciation of my certain debts to the following people, without whom this work would not have been achieved. First, to Tiara, my exceptional wife whose patience, endurance, and forbearance have been stretched beyond anything any person should be expected to suffer. She has seen me through a decade of tumult with forti tude, serenity, and the healing touch of Universal Spirit, and there are no words to express my gratitude and my sense of the blessings she has brought into my life. I hope that I may give back some increment of what she has given me in the last decade (pl us), our first together, and the first of many more. Second, to Henry, colleague, confidante, and full time sounding board; the countless hours together in our office hovel at the U niversity of M ontana and the rounds of arguments about the relative merit was always worth it, damn it. Third, this section would be tortuously incomplete were I to fail to mention Greg, Tom, Sandy, and Randy; mentors all, and deeply cherished friends, although I have never ful ly or adequately expressed the depth of my admiration and respect for them. Each saw some kind of potential in a working class kid with an
5 attitude and enormous navet; each took steps to make me realize possibilities for myself and others; and each model ed for me appropriate ways of working towards achieving honorable objectives. Each was tested in their belief in me, and remained resolute in the face of my manifold and untoward shortcomings. Their fidelity to my future continues to awe me and provides an exemplar for my own efforts to engage the life of the mind, to work for social justice, and to teach the next generations of scholars. On the proverbial journey of a thousand steps, these quiet teachers were there, unstintingly, as I took my initial, tent ative, and fumbling paces into a new and intimidating social reality. I also owe similar thanks for inducements, correctives, and forbearances to my doctoral chair and mentor, Dr. Faye Harrison. Faye went out on a limb for me on a number of occasions, and secured my place in not one but two doctoral programs; indulged my theoretical and intellectual peregrinations with just the right combination of laissez faire and command and control, and enabled and steered my final round of academic professionalization with grace, benevolence, good humor, tactful firmness, and profound generosity of spirit. I have had the ridiculously good fortune to have a doctoral committee of superbly conscientious, caring, and committed scholars. In addition to Dr. H arrison, I extend deep thanks to Dr. Elizabeth Dale. My experience in graduate school would have been profoundly different had it not been for Dr. Dale and the cohort of students she gathered, of which I am grateful to count myself as member, although inte rloper may be a more suitable appellation. I would especially like to thank her for her close scrutiny of my writing and thinking, and as importantly, my vocabulary. Dr. Dale continues to push
6 me to exercise more thoughtfulness in the way I answer question s. If I persist in stampeding toward the complex and subterranean at the expense of the most basic questions, I do so in contravention of her advice and good sense. Dr. Maria Stoilkova offered much valuable counsel for my fieldwork and research, and espec jargon, but a shorthand and conveyance of ideas and ensembles of information. At a moment when I was both exhilarated and overwhelmed, and struggling with the language of the discipline without worry. Dr. James Davidson has been a stolid and inquisitive member of the committee. He has been consistently available for discussion of my work His attention and dedication have been most rewarding. For an eleventh hour save, my deep thanks to Dr. David Daegling. In addition, throughout my time at University of Florida, Dr. Daegling has been consistently available and ready with useful advice and dir ection. He has also offered some of the onversation, and warm friendship A number of professors, administrators, and students in the Levin College of Law made my passage through law school and through the dual degree pr ogram much more interesting and productive. I extend deep thanks to Professor Kenneth Nunn, who has been a strong and constant ally in the process. Professor Nunn is a model of proper action and engagement, and I owe him a great deal. I also give my thanks to Dr. Danaya Wright, Professor Mich elle Jacobs, Professor Katheryn Russell Brown, Professor Berta Esperanza Hern ndez Truyol, and Melissa Bamba. Each of them
7 provided excellent courage, leadership, skill, and knowledge for me in law school and far beyond A number of graduate colleagues eased the wending of ways through various stages of graduate study, and made the process enjoyable. Among these, I especia lly want to recognize and thank AC Hall, Judy Anderson, Camee Maddox, Antonio de la Pe a, Joel Blac k, Erin Cunningham, and Bill Me rcer for creating and maintaining community, for their willingness to engage with material far distant from their own interests, and their needed help to make sense of the various bits. Others who deserve my gratitude and rec ognition include Roberto Barrios, Susann Ullberg, Pedro Pav n, Moneyede Martin, Vanessa Vargas, Quin Gilchrist, Jorja Williams, Marlo David, Felicia A n o n yu o Rahmane Idrissa, Suchat Wongsinnnak, Tania Varela, Amanda Holmes Lesley Gail Atkinson, Sarah Page Chan, Nicole Griffin, Steckley Lee, Edward Gonzalez Tenant, and Matt Watson. My apologies to anyone left off the list. In addition, without the consistent excellent work of the staff of the Department of Anthropology, many obstacles would have been much m ore difficult to get round, and perhaps been insurmountable. My wholehearted gratitude to Karen Jones, Pat King, Pam Free man, and Nita Bagnall. I stress my debt to them and their fine and conscientious work on my behalf. These people have touched me in un ique and profound ways, and in addition to acknowledging their integral role in my ability to bring this project and manuscript to after all these years! Without thei r guidance, laughter, strength, commitment, and
8 sometimes just plain orneriness, I would have ended up someplace very different, and doubtless very much less rewarding. A number of people in Wales stand out as benefactors, colleagues, and frien ds; as colla borators and guides. Above all, I want to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Dr. Mark Drakefor d, Dr. Andy Pithouse, Jane Hutt AM Lesley Griffiths AM Steve Jones, Sue Bowyer, and Rhona Probert. My entry and access to levels of government, and therefore my ability to conduct t h e dissertation research, were enabled and furthered by these outstanding members of the public square in Cambria and beyond. Dr. Drakeford was my contact at the School of Social Sciences at Cardiff University and a Specia l Adviser in the Welsh Assembly Government during the year I conducted my fieldwork. He was unflagging in his willingness to assist, and unsurpassable in his efforts to make sure that I achieved my research goals. Without his interventions, my access to mu ch useful research would sure ly have been circumscribed. Dr. Drakeford took to the hustings while I wrote this dissertation, and his election as Labour representative for Cardiff West bodes well for his constituency. I wish him success, and I know that Car diff West, Cardiff city, and Wales will realize in him a dedicated, tireless, and exceptional public servant, one with his eye on the stranger and the duty of care we owe to her. In addition to the general election in 2011, a referendum in Wales on the dev olution of full law making powers appeared on the political horizon and with the start of the Fourth Assembly, we have passed over the threshold of an even deeper and broad er transformation of politics and government, moving toward full
9 legislative competence for W ales. Dr. Drakeford among the most important in realizing and shaping the devolved future. Dr. Andy Pithouse is Chair of the Sc hool of Social Sciences at Cardiff University, and in this role he received my letter of application for a visiting fellow position in the School. He made the decision to connect me with Mark Drakeford, and the rest, as they say, is history. I was fortunat e to become much better acquainted with Dr. Pithouse during my time in Cardiff, and I am pleased to count him as friend. Indeed, in homage to a longstanding anthropological tradition, Dr. Pithouse and his wife Cerys adopted me into their family, making me that a nave colonial was better taken care of than he could have imagined, and probably should have been. The Pithouse clan provided me with food, drink, and conversation that cannot be compared, and they brought me into their circle of friends, which appended my research in ways that I would not have been able to think of or achieve on my o wn. Would that we could at the Conway for a pint and bit of conversation. Jane Hutt is the Assembly M ember ( AM) for the Vale of Glamorgan, and Cabinet Minister in the Welsh Assembly Government. She had the distinction of the slightest electoral margin in the Third Assembly, and I am pleased to r eport that her success was much stronger in the elections for the Fo urth Assembly. Jane has served as Health Minister and Business Minister, among others, and is currently the Minister for Finance and Leader of the House. Jane is a brilliant, dedicated, and indefatigable politician and leader. I was extraordinarily fortuna te to have been able to work with her during my time in Wales.
10 Lesley Griffiths is AM for Wrexham in North Wales was a Labour backbencher in the National Assembly for Wales during my fieldwork tenure. She welcomed me into her office and made me a part of her routine, allowing me to integrate into the everyday workings of the National Assembly, and see at firsthand the daily life of a representative and legislator. Just as I left the country in 2009, a new Cabinet came into power for the remainder of the T h ird Assembly, and Lesley was appointed as Deputy Minister for Scienc e, Innovation, and Skills. She has been re elected to the Fourth Assembly, and is willingness to take me o n, to befriend me, and to enable my conduct of research for this project. I am also immensely gratified by her successes and her new role in the Assem bly Government. Diolch yn fawr Steve Jones was Head of Office for Lesley Griffiths when I arrived, and is among my most important interlocutors for thi s project. Over the course of my year in the field, I spent a couple hundred hours with Steve, and we had conversations that ranged from an. Labour Party, devolution, government in both London and Cardiff, the bureaucracy, and the Civil Service were positively invaluable, and I would be woefully under inf ormed in innumerable ways had it not been for Steve. Throughout, he was unfailingly good natured, good humored, and willing to share a good belly laugh. I owe to Steve a debt that cannot be repaid, or even fairly accounted. Sue Bowyer and Rhona Probert we office in Barry, in the Vale of Glamorgan. They are present on virtually every page of
11 this dissertation, and their exceptional character as human beings and as deeply conscientious caseworkers and constit utional agents of equality are inscribed on my heart. Their generosity of spirit, of time, of comradeship, and of welcome are unsurpassed. It is my grateful opportunity also to acknowledge my debts to Glenn Jordan, Reader at Glamorgan University and Director of the Butetown History and Arts Centre, and Dr. Chris Weedon, Lecturer at Cardiff University and Chair of the Centre for Critical and Cultural Theory. Glenn and Chris are simply exceptional human beings, scholars, and friends. Without pause, they welcomed me into their work and into their home, and made me feel a part of their shared communities in Butetown and in Cardiff more generally. I can safely say that without their interventions and introductions, my research w ould have suffered greatly, and I would have missed an extraordinary set of relational experiences that fundamentally shaped not only my fieldwork, but my self. Members of the Black and Minority Ethnic ( BME ) community in London, South Wales, and the farth est reaches of the Cambrian home went well beyond the pale in their readiness to listen openly and critically to my research plan and objectives, to participate as interlocutors, and to point me in new directions. There are far too many who earned my grat itude and trust to recount them all, but several stand out: CC, CR, experience of health illness, and difference), I would like to thank especially AR, GT, HW, MB, SS, and ZR.
12 In addition, personnel in the following organizations were invaluable to the progress of my research: Race Equality Foundation; Cardiff and the Vale Mental Health Dev elopment Project and their Race Equality First service; Hafal; Gofal; Mind Cymru, Cardiff Mind, and Mind in the Vale; Afiya Trust; Awetu; Black Association of Women Step Out (BAWSO); Black Voluntary Sector Network Wales (BVSNW) headquarters in Cardiff, esp ecially Michael, Nicky, and Patty; Riverside Community Centre; Riverside Communities First; Butetown History and Arts Centre; National Mental Health Development Unit; MENCAP; Cardiff and the Vale Coalition of Disabled People; Swansea Chinese Community Co o p Centre; and Lamajo. As well, I owe and give with enthusiasm my thanks to interlocutors within the community of carers, those who sacrifice and struggle and mobilize resources for the improvement of their families, loved ones, and communities, and who bea r the unfunded applause of political expedience and efficiency. There are literally dozens of carers who took an interest in my research and provided me with illuminating conversation, details on their lives, roles and aspirations, and in many cases, care, in the form of warm meals, friendship, hospitality, and camaraderie. I would like to single out SL, who called me on my second day in Cardiff, while I sat wondering where to begin. She had her own story to tell, and she connected me to, I think, everyone in the whole of Wales and approximately half of London. She is the embodiment of the legisprudential S/subject. A number of people in Local Authorities in Wales, England, and Scotland were profoundly helpful, and helped me to make the constitutional connections between the everyday practices of local government and larger principles and macroscalar events of the pos itive and ensemble state. Local Councillors and members of local authority
13 dep artments were instrumental to my research, and I acknowledge them and their dedication to democratic process. Ramesh Patel, Jaswant Singh, Margaret Wilkinson, Bronwen Brooks, Ric hard Bertin, Christopher Elmore, Gordon Kemp, Thomas Tudor, Cerys Furlong, Iona Gordon, Delme Greening, Mohammed Sarul Islam, and Franc esca Montemaggi. My apologies to those I have left off. If I have done well any part of this research and writing, it is due to the manifold and brilliant interventions of each of these people, to whom I give my deepest thanks, who made this dissertation and my professional development possible in so many exceptional ways. Their collective and individual presences in these pages are palpable for me; my most earnest hope is that these presences can be sensed by readers, and appreciated for the humanistic and optimistic ecumenism displayed by each of them, every day, in their working and personal roles. Each of them went well beyond what was necessary to assist me with the development and execution of this project and the multiple research foci it entailed. I am deeply indebted to them, and to their willingness to entertain my impositions with good humor and humility. Their ent husiasm and collaborative ethos were truly inspirational, and helped to create the conditions for the success of this project and beyond. Most especially I thank them for their ability to cut through jargon and complexity, and see the kernels of value in t he strings of words I tossed about. Impressive, the lot of them. I would also like to acknowledge the value of the 2007 2008 investigation of Peter Tyndall, the Public Services Ombudsman for Wales who reported on the procedural and substantive violations by the Vale of Glamorgan Council and its officers in the case of Ian Reed. Most especially, I gesture to the importance of his articulation of the need for
14 hearsay, and conjecture in the process of decision making, and [for] the C ouncil [to] (Public Services Ombudsman for Wales 2008:summary) In a so cial and political universe characterized by a great deal of cynicism and disenchantment, the impact of these recommendations, should not be overlo oked or underestim ated. To Mr. Tyndall and assurance that their work and ethos is not lost on the publics w ith whom I worked. Preliminary labors that developed into several of the chapters of this dissertation were presented at professional conferences, and I would like to thank those who facilitated my early efforts. Several chapters are built around a core o f material that I conference of the Society for Applied Anthropology in Sa nta Fe, New Mexico in 2009. Dr. Jennifer Jai Hale Gallardo and Dr. Roberto Barrios were kind enough to include me at the last minute, and give me the needed opportunity to try out several ideas in a public and sympathetic forum. Jai and Berto both gave me excellent feedback, as did Dr. Antonio de la Pea and our panel discussant, Dr. Faye V. Harri son. Their comments and constructive critique pushed me in new and useful directions, and forced me to recognize certain limitations, and, more importantly, potentials that I had overlooked. My thanks to each of them.
15 Chapters 5 and 6 are developed from a paper presented at the University of Cambridge, for the Graduate Symposium on Risk and Uncertainties attached to the conference Challenging Models in the Face of Uncertainty, hosted by the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences, and Humaniti es in September of 2010. Dr. Erika Masnerus, Dr. Brian McGillivary, and Dr. Hauke Riesch accepted my paper proposal, and enabled my participation in a very productive forum. Several participants were particularly instructive and helpful, and I would like t o thank them for their generosity and patience with me as I worked through a very preliminary set of ideas. Mathijs Kouw of the Virtual Knowledge Studio at Maastricht University, Pierre de Larmin of the cole Normale de Sup rieure, and Liam Heaphy of the U niversity of Manchester were tremendously supportive and gracious, and I extend my gratitude to them. Business School, in the conference rain these days? co convened by Professor Steve Woolgar and Dr. Tanya Schneider of the Innovation, and Society. Professor Woolgar and Dr. Schneider were enormously gracious and excellent hosts, and were responsible for a re markable conference. I would like to extend them both a hearty thank you, for accepting my paper, and for the kind words and constructive advice given. In addition, several conference participants commented on the paper, and provided me with networking opp ortunities that have proven extraordinarily useful. My thanks to Professor Steven Chance of Oxford University, Dr. Sabine Maasen of the University of Basel, and Professor Jose Garcia of the Pontifical Academy and UNESCO. I would like to give a
16 very special thank you for kind encouragement to Professor Nikolas Rose of the London School of Economics and Political Science. Finally, there is one last memorial that I have wanted to acknowledge since 1991: Requiescat in pace, William DuBray. His death has marked my life in untellable ways, and I owe him an un re payable debt of consciousness raising. May he have found peace.
17 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 20 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 23 Prologue ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 23 Cara Navalis: A Brief Preliminary Excursus ................................ ............................ 29 Triangulating Constitutional Analysands: Legislation, Regulation, and Race .......... 35 The British Constitution ................................ ................................ .................... 35 Police Power ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 37 Legisprudence ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 42 Developing Legisprudence ................................ ................................ ............... 46 Of Law, Legislation, and Legisprudence ................................ .......................... 47 The Field and the Conceptual Field: Law, Regulation, and Rule Regimes in the New Britain ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 51 Policing Political Order: The Equalities Regime ................................ ............... 56 Policing Public Health: Medicolegal Therapeutic Regime ................................ 58 Subjectivization, Mediation, and Intersubjectivity ................................ .................... 59 S/subjects ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 59 Mediation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 62 Intersubjectivity ................................ ................................ ................................ 63 S/subjects of Difference, Governing through Difference ................................ ......... 64 The Public Square ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 67 Racing the Political Epistemic: Mainstreaming Equality and Some Results ............ 70 2 BRITAIN: ENSEMBLES, EMBLEMS, DILEMMAS ................................ .................. 75 The State and the Nations: Devolution, Ter ritorial Politics, and Ensemble Relations ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 86 Decentralization and the Welfare State in Britain ................................ ............. 89 New Labour and New Britain? ................................ ................................ .......... 89 Wales: A Case Study of Devolution and Territorial Politics .............................. 95 3 SITUATING LEGISLATION IN A BRIEF SKETCH OF THE INTELLECTUAL HISTOR Y OF THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF LAW ................................ .................. 100 Welsh Law: A Brief Excursus and Justification for Theoretical Practice ................ 106 A Brief Critical Review of Anthropologies of Law and Government ...................... 111 Anthropologies of Law ................................ ................................ .......................... 116
18 Integrating Analyses of Law, the Police Power, and Government ........................ 129 4 LEGISPRUDENCE: ENGAGING AND THEORIZING LEGISLATION .................. 140 Ramifications ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 141 Applying a Legisprudential Lens ................................ ................................ ........... 152 Complexity ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 154 Legal Technologies ................................ ................................ ........................ 157 Legal Semiotics ................................ ................................ .............................. 159 Legal Agency, Relations, and Practices ................................ ......................... 162 5 LEGISPRUDENCE AS METHODOLOGY: CONSTITUTING AND MEDIATING SUBJECTS IN LEGISLATED ENVIRONMENTS ................................ .................. 165 Heuristic Legispru dence: Discovering, Learning, Problem Solving ....................... 171 Navigating the Ethnographic Workday ................................ ................................ .. 174 George Falstaff and the Rulebook: The Scalar Effects of Epistemologies of Ignorance ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 184 Cici Williams: Professionalizing the Social Work Student ................................ ..... 188 Fayez Bashir : Outcomes of Difference in Metadiscursive Practices ..................... 192 Linking the Ethnographic Workday with Methodological Practice ......................... 195 6 LEGISPRUDENCE AS ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK: INSTITUTIONAL RELATIONS AND MANIFESTING STRUCTURES THROUGH AGENCY ........... 202 Procuring Equality (or Fairness?) ................................ ................................ ......... 204 Mrs. Fei: Becoming a Stakeholder ................................ ................................ ........ 212 Stephen Lewis: Fictions of Belonging and Behaving and the Outsider Witho ut .... 222 Politics and Poetics ................................ ................................ ............................... 231 7 LEGI SPRUDENCE AS THEORY: POLITICAL EPISTEMICS, NORMATIVE GOVERNANCE, AND DIALOGISM AND POLYPHONY ................................ ...... 235 The Workbench and the Workspace ................................ ................................ ..... 236 The Political Epistemic: Whiteness as Norm ................................ ......................... 240 Jennifer Gross: Calibrating the Politics of Inequality ................................ ............. 242 Idil and Miski Dourad ................................ ................................ ............................ 247 Normative Governance: Official Poetics and the Carnival Response ................... 249 Ahmed Al Sayyed ................................ ................................ ................................ 252 Agency in the Theaters of Law: Language, Dialogism, and Polyphony ................ 255 From the Street to the Assem bly and Back Again ................................ ................ 259 8 CONCLUSION: LONG REVOLUTIONS, POLITICAL EPISTEMES, AND EVERYDAY ENSEMBLES ................................ ................................ ................... 266 The Long Revolution in Anthropology ................................ ................................ ... 267 The Long Revolution in Britain ................................ ................................ .............. 274
19 The Long Revolution in Europe, or Government, Governance, Govern mentality: Normative Practices and Official Poetics ................................ ........................... 277 Baroness Davari: Walking the Constitutional and Political Hybrids ....................... 283 ...... 286 APPENDIX A DEMOGRAPHIC AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION ................................ ......... 292 B MAPS AND FIGURES ................................ ................................ .......................... 294 C DEVELO PING LEGISPRUDENCE: A PERSONAL HISTORY AND EMERGING EPISTEMIC ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 305 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 312 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 346
20 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Map of Britai n in Europe ................................ ................................ ................... 294 1 2 Map of Britain with in tern al national boundaries ................................ ............... 295 1 3 Map of South Wales and th e South Wales corridor ................................ .......... 296 1 4 The Assembly Estate ................................ ................................ ........................ 297 1 5 Cardiff Bay the Pierhead Building a nd the Senedd ................................ ......... 298 1 6 The Sene dd ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 298 1 7 Assembly Members crossing the skywalk ......... 299 1 8 The Siambr ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 299 1 9 The Orie l ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 300 1 10 Overlooking Card iff Bay and Penarth in 2009 ................................ .................. 300 1 11 (north end) of Bute Street ................................ ......... 301 1 12 Community m ural in Butetown ................................ ................................ .......... 301 1 13 Butet own History and Arts Centre ................................ ................................ .... 302 1 14 National Health Service Centre, Riverside n eighborh ood ................................ 302 1 15 Medical Assessme nt Unit, Llandough Hospital ................................ ................. 303 5 1 The author at work as constituency caseworker ................................ ............... 303 8 1 Parliamentary E state in 2009 ................................ ................................ ............ 304 8 2 Parliamentary Estate, Westminster Bridge, and the London Eye ..................... 304
21 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for th e Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE CONSTITUTION OF SUBJECTS IN THE LONG REVOLUTION: RACE, THE POLICE POW ER, AND THE EVERYDAY SHAPING OF THE ENSEM BLE STATE By Andrew Scott Catey August 2011 Chair: Faye V. Harrison Major: Anthropology This study examines race and equality in Britain in the context of recent transfers of power from Parliament in London to representative legislatures in the regions of Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. These transfers, called devolution, have dramatically altere d the political and legal landscape and the political, cultural and moral economies of Britain, bringing into existence novel practices of law making, regulation, and governing. Part of the drama of equality in Britain concerns the objectives of equality and related legislative strategies, and achievement of these objectives in various sectors, including public service delivery, industry, and government. These objectives and the routes to achieve them are newly inflected as a result of devolution and the capacity of the regional admin i strations to diverge politically and legally from the strategies implemented by Parliament. In order to innovate in the sociolegal examination of the seismic architectonic shifts that are occurring as a result of the constitu tional transformation of Britain I develop a methodological, analytical, and theoretical rubric
22 that I call legisprudence. I use legisprudence to analyze three sets of outcomes : political epistemics, normative governance, and the role of language in reali zing stated goals. Devolution is the most consequential constitutional innovation in Britain in the last century and carrie s significant everyday consequences. One result of devolution is the new asymmetrical governing arrangements between London and the regions, relations politico In order to better understand the ensemble state, and the institutions, practices, and relations that manifest it, I explore a number of interrelated case studies involving political and legal elites, members of the professions in service delivery, and everyday people. These are fine grained ethnographic portraits typical of the experiences and consequences of race bias and exclusion that I observed wh ile conducting the research on which this study is based. By attending to the details of the tensions inherent with expressions of these, I illustrate the obstacles to and oppo rtunities for articulating and achieving race equality in Britain. The result is a constitutional ethnography, an ethnographic portrait not only of the human experiences of marginalization, exclusion, and exploitation, but of the constitutional order itself, and the role of non elites in the actualization and obstruction of constitutional principles in everyday worlds
23 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION It seems to me that we are living through a long revolution, which our best descriptions only in part interpret. It is a genuine revolution, transforming men and institutions; continually extended and deepened by the acts of millions, contin uously and variously opposed by explicit reaction and by the pressure of habitual forms and ideas. Yet it is a difficult revolution to define, and its uneven action is taking place over so long a period that it is almost impossible not to get lost in its e xceptionally c omplicated process ( Williams 1961:10 ) My interest reign, Marxist, and postmodern conceptions of power, in the contrasts created by inter transferences between them, in coordinating the syntactical flat style and the paradigmatic depth style into original vectors, through emphasizing semiotic positioning a nd movement ( Sandoval 2000:77 ) Prologue In these pages, I tell a story. It is a constitutional story, a constitutional It is a story about imagining sovereign community, about the persistent reconstruct ion of liberal government and its rationalities, and about the regulation of social relations. It is a story concerned with the positive state, the forging of institutions, and the ordering of public life in the political commonwealth. It is also a story o f powerful traditions of social governance, the routes to political change, management of public affairs, and the regulation of public and private life in the interest of the common welfare. In short, it is a story about the British state, the role of legi slatures in the constitutional order, and the fundamental power of government to administer the public welfare and regulate public order. I tell this story in part in order to build a new public anthropology, one oriented to the intersections of the social and the symbolic, the polity and society, and the ( Novak 1996:9 ) The public
24 anthropology I imagine is also one that allows for the possibility of a humanism capable of envisioning a creative vernacular agency in the constitutional order and colonial legacies of the New Britain. This public anthropology is one attuned both to the constitution of public authority and its exertions in pursuit of order, civility, and reg ulated liberty, and to the transgressive potential of the popular and profane. ( Bakhtin 1968 ) that ebullient topography of proximate spaces, of civic praxis and sidewalks, markets and transversal thoroughfares, inhabited by state and civil society in perigee, where hegemonies are brewed, where the public and private implode, where distinctions ar e mapped onto bodily dispositions, and the sensuous relations of the body to the world are strategized, apprehended, and enlivened ( cf. Marx 1988 ) The public square is characterized by the polyglot languages of architecture, law, tradition, and commerce standing in connection with urban and national wholes, where structures and movement articulate and inter generate, where cultural subjects, material objects and relations of exchange comingle in patterned, yet potentially startling ways. It is that ( Bourdieu 1984:6 ) new intellig ibilities of subjecthood, of becoming, belonging, and the sacred with the profane, the lofty with the low, the great with the insignificant, the ( Bakhtin 1973:123 ) T he public square is the collective space where citizens and others come together to generate common meanings, to make sense of shared histories and experiences, to
25 grapple with the understandings of membership, obligations, the nature of community, and the sic ( Pasquino 1991:111 ) In the New Britain, the public square is a dense, op aque, cacophonous habitation which the political epistemic strives to surveill and tame through official poetics and the constructed hermeneutics of regulated order and civility, coupling the narratives and the practices of law with those of order. It is t he commons mapped, delineated, adjudicated, and ordered according to the civilizing projects of bourgeois practice, oriented around particular understandings of social phenomena, yet not entirely contained by these practices. It is simultaneously an ordere d and a transgressive space, a measured yet carnival space, where constitutional agency takes on unforeseen shape, where sovereign imaginings and everyday subjects encounter and transform one another. It is a paradoxical alloy of social forces. Similarly, legally, politically, rhetorically, and a very old construction. Its recent vita began as an and political culture and institutional framework for engaging subjects, and administering the archipelago state and its ensemble of proliferating relations ( Blair 1997 ) It is a constitutional idea, vesting large scale reform with the mantle of sovereign integrity. It was offered by Tony Blair, first in 1994 as new leader of New Labour, and th en as Prime Minister (1997 respected tradition of sovereign reconstruction, a tradition embedded in the genealogies of kings, Arthurian romance and chronicle, and an organicist constitutional narrative. His
26 construction simultaneously placed Britain in a very material history, and abstracted New Britain from the vagaries of that history. It also reconstellated the constitutional dynamics of sovereignty and positive stateness as an ensemble of relations and a new realpolitik of externality (Europeanization and globalization) and internality (decentralization and devolution) (see Figures 1 1, 1 2) As is characteristic of legal ideas, New Britain and the constitutional innovation required to ach ieve it were ideas in action, performative ideas which make things true just by saying them ( Bourdieu 1987 ) Engrossed in legal and political texts and orations, the elements of the New Britain and integral constitutional reform came into being and produced their own effects. Idea, lan guage, institutions. And subjects. New Britain is not simply a set of legal and political structures, objective structures really existing in a cold, hard, real, calculable world; it is also a new array of subject positions and subjectivities, new powers t o interpellate and new interpellations, a reconfigured human framework upon which are hung speaking roles, authorizations, the state and its agencies, and the demos, arrayed along the razor edge where I write, between domination by law and resistance to law among its creative agents on the parquet of the Commons and on the thoroughfare of the commons. My analysis of this framework centers on the artifice of the stakeholder the fin de sicle successor to the enterprising subject, and on the civic assimi lationist idiom of fairness a genre which intends to bring together, and express, a restated commitment to, public and social values, collapsing multiple forms of equality (access, opportunity, outcome), and aiming to remediate social exclusion. This medl ey of ideas blends
27 antecedents, and illuminating the depth of British embeddedness in European flows. The stakeholder represents reciprocal investments between one and so ciety, and inhabits a represented and phenomenological world where symbols and socialities, communities and bodies, texts and people come together qua the New Britain. Fairness transmutes the juridical principle of equality, and represents the embedding of multiple Labour ( Williams and Johnson 2010 ) Taken together, stakeholders and fairness are the the barbarism at its heart ( Taylor 2001 ) This barbaris m resides in the tensions of law and forms of violence, and efforts to negotiate these tensions ( Benjamin 1996 ; Derrida 1990 ) I contend that constitutional politics are deeply invested in this negotiation, that the police powers are an integral tool of liberal constitutionalism, and that the management of difference, specifically race and its cognates, is one of the key historical projects that has shaped constitutional coherence and driven sovereign ambitions. Race, the police power, an d the legal, political, social, and cultural practices of constitutional ordering are interleavened in the political epistemic of the New Britain ( Glaeser 2010 ) I argue that both abstractions, the stakeholder and fairness, constitute a understanding of the nature, role, and place of difference in the p ublic square and in the means ends calculus of liberal governance. Together, the stakeholder and fairness are intended to provide cover for sustained manifestations of inequality and discontent arising from the bodily presence of Others on the archipelago, and to allay the ginned
28 up twenty ( Goodhart 2004 ) ocities so fundamental to a risk sharing ( Williams and Johnson 2010:29 ) This narration, this political epistemic, ( Rosenfeld 2011 ) ( Du Bois 1903 ) and first century [which is] the issue of how we ( Hall 1993a ) My constitutional ethnography then, is concerned ( Solomos and Schuster 2002:43 ) and with the constitutional, legislative, and regulatory tools used to simultaneously emphasize and sublimate race as a constituent o f the political epistemic. I conclude that New Britain must recognize and acknowledge the variegated ways it participates in the ( Evens Foundation 2002 ) Stakeholder society and fairness articulate a particular retargeted vision of common values and of Britishness itself. Working through the figures of stakeholder and fairness, New Labour, New Britain, and new Britons, are engaged in multiple struggles ( Gramsci 1971 ; Hall 1988b ) These struggles, and the contested sovereignties that are a significant dimension of them, are
29 over t regardless of class, race, beliefs or anything else: in every community, in every corner of the country ( Department of Communities and Local Government 2010:12 ) This, then, is the nucleus of my constitutional story: to illustrate the archipelagic amb itions of New Labour for the once and future New Britain, and how new constitutional, institutional, and experiential orchestrations have emerged to give expression to some of these ambitions, and to frustrate others. The dominant representation is of the stakeholder society enacting fairness in the public square The process is less deliberate than all that, of course. But law, here understood as constitutional, statutor acts of naming and instituting ( Bourdieu 1987:838 ) Complementing Bourdieu, I insist that law is also a primary cultural field in Britain, an essential and foundational sign system through which British folk understand and explain themselves, their nation, and their histories. This is where I begin, with t he phenomenological experience of the logics of (liberal) regulation and legislation, the strategies of constitutional order, the m echanics of legal technologies. Cara Navalis: A Brief Preliminary Excursus We ambled, Cara Navalis 1 and I, looking to pierce the core of (new) British ness. buffeting us, jackdaws hanging stationary in the bluster. I had asked her to explain life in
30 Britain, to tell me how British folk explain them selves to themselves. She rubbed her hands together, closed one eye, pursed her lips. British its government, the tiers of government from the done since Alfred [the Great]. But if you ask me about the nations different story. I o We mooted this order of signs and the definitions of character as we ambled, circling around the symbolism of these images, connecting them with the public practices of la w, politics, ethics. For my part, I sought to know legal reason enchanted by the properties of culture and culture enchanted by the lie of reason and the national and civic inflections of these enchantments, the principles of liberty and equality in the c onstitutional fantasy Cara humored me in my endeavor. Together, though for different reasons, Cara and I sought a new hermeneutic, one that could provide a handle for the emerging scales of being ways of being, and the constitution of political order in the New Britain. Ours was a n effort to understand ourselves and the new world in which we found ourselves sharing space and time. some, in which self government and freedom were at stake, and in tension wi th remade visions of public welfare and order. This was a new world of the rule of law antagonized by the conflicts of the public and social with the private and economic, a new world of
31 state and civil society relations, where stakeholders bestride the in stitutions of governance, fairness, equality. These new relations are being (re)structured along new tendential lines of force and the suspension of human beings in between, asymmetrical suspensions that sustain relations of race and class, citizen and imm igrant, as well as those of gender, age, mental disorder, and others. Asymmetrical suspensions that marginalize, but that can also beget creative agency. Perhaps then, not so new. Certainly not a ruptured world, but a new configuration on the long path of ( 1961 ) y Philip Corrigan and Derek Sayer ( 1985 ) On this path, amid these reconfigurations, Cara and I sough t out the anaphora of ex centricity, the paths and repetitions that announce, sublimate, and suppress difference, subjecthood, becoming, belonging and behaving How does a new legal and regulatory regime take root, in the soil, in the heart, in the memory in the body politic, in its movement toward emblematicity? What relays convey the newness of a governance ? Of the new requirements of order and civility? How does the i mage become appearance, and the appearance reality? The British state and its institutions are transforming, the old social hierarchies being overthrown, enabling the festival imagination of new national futures. But how does the state, through its govern ment, its public reason, and its legal acts, shed enough of its present culturality to convert (revert?) to a different culturality, to renewed and remapped spatio conceptual apperception s of selves, communities nation s ? What happens interiorly to these n ew spatio conceptual cosmos and the human integuments
32 that hold them together? In these transformations, what is the nature of rules and of government? How is governing accomplished when a prior way the unitary state, gives way only partially, inc ompletel y, directionally to a novel way, the union state, or more precisely, the ensemble state ? T he M4 motorway, Great Northern rail, and coastal waters still link London and the S outh Wales corridor (see Figure 1 3) not merely as tran sport infrastructure, but as symbols of communication; not only as particular authorized channels of mobility of persons, ideas, and governing practices, but as ciphers of plural consubstantiality and a particular relation of domination, albeit one that is under duress, and yieldi ng to multivalent demands. W hat happens w hen the fluid conduits of historic membership in the Commonwealth and the challenging inflections and multiple voices of language or culture or socialism find both soothingly conventional and disruptively novel expr ession, and are given form and outlet in the new institutions, practices, and legal politics of the ensemble state? The coercive monopoly and legal unity of Britain have been transmogrified in the New Britain, into an asymmetrical political and legal orde r with a renovated structure of national territorial presences and voices. This is the constitutional story I seek to tell, or one part of it, anyway. I went to Britain to learn how monopoly and unity have been alt ered, how the tendencies and asymmetries a nd suspensions work in practice, and how the new symphony of emerging nationhoods is being scored and orchestrated in the new settlement, by whom and with what consequential effects My elemental research questions were concerned with the reconfigured rel ations between the social and the symbolic in Britain, relations restructured through the everyday practices of governance and regulatory action, and experienced in the daily banal. Cara was among
33 my first interlocutors, among the first to listen to my ( so mewhat inchoate) hypotheses about regulation and public order, constitutional change and agency, equality and fairness, and the concerns of legal anthropology. She was the first to laugh change and of all things The laughter was not derisive, nor was her summation: the world is filled with things that seem not to be connected but are. I know what the New Britain ed in to it, stakeholder enunciated with a wink, an ironic gesture to the political ambition and to the actual network s, the rhizome of everyday intersubjective relations in which she finds herself a Welsh woman, a Briton, BME [Black and Minority Ethnic], the mother of a disabled son, daughter of a mother with dementia, a carer and worker, a nd a thorn in the side of my Assembly Government. she is hooked, the stakes that she h olds, connect her to the institutional framework of regulated society, struggles for equality, and the renovations enacted in the names of Europeanization and globalization of modernization, and of decentralization and devolution These also connect her to multiple sets of becoming and belonging, to many overlapping and compound communities of identity and alloyed categories of affiliation. This is the new constitutional settlement in the New Britain, aspirationally a long delayed return to the regulated society of local self government, of subsidiarity and municipal rights, of common sense and common law, a Renaissance of civic humanism tempered with the liberalism of Locke and Mill, the antagonized local dimensions of public law and constitutional politics. Within this order of signs, Cara found herself, like
34 others, as a responsibilized stakeholder and as an agent of fairness and the fairly regulated society of the new modernized constitutional settlement ( Levi and Valverde 2001 ) always been a concern, in need of civility and proper order Layers of belonging embedded in a newer sense of becoming and propriety, attributes whi ch simultaneously raise her in relief, and situate her in a condition of regularity and normality. An outsider within, with multiple inflections ( Harrison 2008 ) Civility and order My heart and brain skittered when she spoke these words, these key concerns of mine. I learned m uch from Cara, and she convey ed a close knowledge, both in our talks and in her actions, of the rules, rights, duties and expectations that were newly tied to the territories of transmogrification the agencies of subjectivization, the jurisdictional work the ordering of mobilities, and the instrumentalities of governing, of regulating, the new social and public order. Through her personal struggles, and those shared with members of her communities of identity, Cara clearly engaged with the new relation s of New Britain a synecdoche for the ensemble state and the and civic virtue. I went looking for the empirics and epistemics of the relations of race and mental illne ss with governance and regulation. I found Cara and a host of other magnificent people willing to share with me their experiences of racialization and of mental disorder, of equality and fairness, or having a stake in the constitutive discourses and public practices of the (new) political and legal tradition in (New) Britain.
35 Triangulating Constitutional Analysands: Legislation, Regulation, and Race What I offer in this dissertation is a triangulation of constitutional elements; that is, of elements of my constitutional ethnography: legislation, the police power and regulation, and race. I borrow from John and Jean Comaroff to think of these frames beings in their quotidian ( 2009:21 ) That is, I use my triangulations in an emic sense, getting at the ways these abstractions are involved in the processes of the production and inhabitation of identity and subjectivity among numerous and variously situated types of person Let me briefly address each term. The British Constitution Some wonder whether such a thing as the British constitution actually exists. There is no single charter document, no founding moment, no originary legal instrument brought into effect in British (or English) political history. There is no statute or other legal text superior to all others. The law courts recognize and rely upon certain documents, provisions, rules, and convention s as constitutional on account of their antiquity and articulation of principle, but this is largely a matter of the search for ( Johnson 2004:1 ) The skeptical view is the minority view, however, and it is generally well accepted that Britain does indeed have a constitution, a constitutional order, and a well developed body of constitutional jurisprudence. The absence of a founding charter leads to a variety of conceptualization s of the British constitution: it is unwritten, it is piecemeal, it is scattered, it is a political (rather than a legal) constitution ( Barendt 19 98 ; Raz 1998 ; Sartori 1962 ) Current fashion tends to favor the conclusion t hat the British constitution is (1) uncodified; and (2) organic ( Johnson 2004 ; Wicks 2006 ) There has been much
36 general current legal consensus maintains that it is better to think of the constitution as uncodified: constitutional materials most certainly are written, they are not, however, codified in a single document or set of documents ( Wicks 2006 ) The notion of the organic constitution is usually attributed to Albert Venn Dicey a major nineteen th century figure in Br itish law and constitutionalism. While Dicey did not use these terms in his major work Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution he did argue that the British c onstitution w as ( Dicey 1908:192 ) From his ot of deliberate design, but of a long used to indicate the idea that the c onstitution was allowed to grow naturally, rather than having ey Low 1904; Ada m Tomkins 2003). J.G.A. Pocock suggests that constitutional organicism is linked to the principle in English historical thought of an organic connection between the past and the present ( 1987:245 ) The British constitution thus exists as texts, as (represented) image, and as experience ( Wormald 1998 ) and cannot be abstracted from the sweep of British history and the sovereign fantasies that have characterized that hi story ( Ingham 2001 ) What it boils down to is the ordinariness of the British constitution: the granular presence of its order of signs in everyday life, its inseparability from ordinary legislation, 2 and its regulatory implications, implications that are both legalistic and Foucauldian. In other words, the British const itution, or perhaps better stated, the British constitutional order,
37 is a disciplinary, epistemic, an d philosophic essence which grounds state action and the administration of the public good as well as British (and connected Commonwealth ) identities and ways of knowing the self as subject The constitution thus authorizes the police power, which I insist is central to constitutional law. In my reading of British constitutional principles, actions, and history, I think of the British constitution like Fra nk Michelman, as an ensemble of monumental elements, including Magna Carta the Acts of Union, and the Bill of Rights of 1689, but also of common statutes and political conventions that authorize the quotidian activation of constitutional operations ( 2006 ) The ensemble constitution is a key underpinning of my formulati on of the ensemble state, about which more below. Police Power ( Farmer 2006:161 ) an institution and obviously a central part of state power and ( Neocleous 2006:17 ) William Blackstone identified the police power as essential to the and police and oeconomy individuals of the state, like members of a well governed family, are bound to conform their behavior to the rules of propriet y, good neighbourhood [ sic ] and good manners; to be decent, industrious, and inoffensive in the ir ( Blackstone 1979:162, emphasis in original ) theory of the general principles of law and ( 1978:398 ) Hegel, somewhat more prolixly, asserted that the police power the particularity of civil society, [and it does s o] as an external order and arrangement
38 for the protection and security of the masses of particular ends and interests which have ( 1991:269 270, emphasis in original ) For his part, (Marx 1972:104) th ( Marx 1993a:88 ) ( Foucault 1979:319 ) I the police power ( 1988:46 ) Sometimes Foucault distinguished police power from the reason of state, as in Omnes et Singulatim ; sometimes he argu ed that the police power was the expression of the ( 2010a:5 ) as that thoroughgoing dominance ( 1991:215 ) Echoing Hegel ( and invoking Rousseau ) Michael Hardt and Antonio Negr i focus on the relationship of sovereignty and the police power. They state that sovereignty i political machine that rules across the entire society ularities in the ( 2000:87 88 ) brings us more or less full circle, back to the concerns of the nature of the state, the exercise of state power and the essential funct ion of the police power in hypostasizing the state
39 Across centuries, then, f rom Blackstone to Adam Smith to Hegel to Marx to Foucault to Hardt and Negri on the threshold of the millennium the police power has been recognized as a key technology of government a nd of the production, reproduction and maintenance of social order. During the twentieth century, however, the concept of the police was transfigured from one which captured the range and breadth of the complex of technologies of power comprising Etat to one narrowly concerned with law enforcement institutions, the body of uniformed officials, and the disciplines of criminal science. In this dissertation, I take up the challenge s of restoring a larger sense of police power and police science; of i nquiring into the nature, scope, and operation of the police power ( Dubber and Valverde 2 006 ) ; of theorizing the specifics of its deployment and effects especially as regulatory power ( Neocleous 2006 ; Novak 1996 ) and of registering its basic constitutional role As the materials above suggest, the police power is a complex technology and set of activities that impinge on the relation between the state and civil society, on issues of work and working classes (including their making ), on processes of othering and of racialization, and on the role of law in the implementation of police (i.e. regulatory) initiatives. It has an evolutionary trajectory, implicating both absolutism and liberalism, as well as neoconservatism and neoliberalism. At its most fundamental, the police power entails the concern with public order and civility (in the typical formulations found in Britain and Canada), or with the health, welfare, security, and morals of a population (in the US legal formulation) ( Valverde 2006 ) It is more usefully considered as a set of activities than as an institution, activities that, since the bourgeois revolution, have sought to fix the security of property and the structure of wage labor; activities that both
40 produce and seek to resolve the tensions between public and private relations; administrativ e practices concerned with spaces, with groups, and with the production of proper, that is, orderly and civil, behavior. The materia ls above also demonstrate that there is a relationship between sovereignty and police power, but not an identity. Sovereign ty and police power are not through the exercising police power ( Dubber 2006:109 ) The materials above also illustrate Agamb ( Agamben 2000:102 ) Police has been an enduring concep tual and practical instrument for imagining and constructing sovereign ambition, and for organizing and exercising power, manifest in highly variegated modes of that exercise, imbricating multiple sets of agents in the designation of objectives and impleme ntation of projects to achieve those objectives. Its reduction in the twentieth century has impoverished our understanding of the nature and scope of power (especially in the sense of social power and the extension of state power into the spaces of civil s ociety ), its exercise and productivity, and the myriad ways that subjectivities and power interact. Recovery of police instruments has dangers, however. In its origins, the police ( Neocleous 2006:19 ) It is often linked specifically with emergencies and executive privilege, and the unilateral exercise of executive authority. Such breadth, while evocative and suggestive, diminishes the value of the police as a conceptual instrument, and so we need to
41 art iculate forms of specificity, establish some links between the police power and actual institutions, practices, and forms of agency that it enables or disables ( Neocleous 2006 ; cf. Novak 1996 ; Tomlins 1993 ; Valverde 2003b ) Specificity on this order will facilitate closer analyses of variegated practices of power and the situated and urgent struggles these produce, from person al encounters, to moral exhortation in the public square, to transactions in markets and civil society, to formal state regulatory applications. Anthropological examinations of hegemony, colonial strategies of rule, biopower, discipline, governmentality, and policy provide some signposts in a search for specificity, but insufficiently consider (1) the relations between police, law, and political administration; (2) legislation and its fruits ; and (3) the constitutional (and constitutive) role of the police power The specificity I seek finds expression in the connections between go vernment, legislation and regulation, elements that are integral to the administration of the state and civil society, and the management of spaces and popula tions and their attr ibutes. To locate this specificity, I triangulate the constitution, legislation, regulation, and race. In a nutshell, my analysis has its genesis in the welfare state (and ongoing reconstructions of it), and the place of race and health in the administrat ion of welfare regimes. I argue : (1) that the production of social order is a key aim of liberal poli tical and legal cultures; and (2) that in Britain, the police power exercised through legislation and regulation, instrumentalize particular concept s of r ace and health and the appropriate practices of administration of these; so as to (3) bring about desired
42 the macro projects of social order necessarily entail micro interactions, and it is through these intersubjective interactions that the technologies o f power achieve their traction. Legisprudence Triangulating the relationship s between constitution, legislation, regulation, and race is an important developme nt in the anthropology of law, and new tools for this project need to be developed, explored and elaborated. This is one of my main objectives. At issue are: institutionalization, and political and institutional contexts; the origins emergence, and scope of the police power, its modes of exercise, and the wa ys in which it is limited ; and the ways in which the police power is activated and its goals achieved ( Tomlins 2006 ) The majority of sociolegal scholarship on the police power and police science ( Polizeiwissenschaft ) has concentrated on cri minal law, which nece ssarily co locates the police power with jurisprudence the uniformed police and penal institutions, and academic criminal science Along with Dubber and Valverde ( 2006 ) and several of their contributors, I want to shift attention away from criminal law and jurisprudence toward constitutional order and the matrix of legislation regulation. W here, for two reasons. The first is that legisprudence the set of tools I propose and develop, is, in the most generic sense, focused on positive law. 3 This entails constitu tions, statutes, regulations, and other posited forms of law, and so legisprudence as I intend it can easily cognize these varieties. The second is that in the British context, there is no bright line between constitutional law and ordinary legislation, so there is no need to parse whether legisprudence is applicable to constitutional analysis.
43 Legisprudence in nuce is a set of frames for inquiring into, analyzing, and theorizing legislation and its positive kin a s texts, as rules, as discourses as representational and literary practices, as technologies, as relational, and as productive of consequential effects which formally and performatively fabricate new forms of subjecthood and interpellate new subjects. Legisprudence in my formulation is concerned with the ways legislative and regulatory technologies are used to bring about a particular public order, to discourage particular types of disorder, and to (at least normatively) bring about a certain type of civility. It also facilitates the tri angulation of constitution, and the matrix of legislation regulation as the core of the police power. This approach to the operations of law and government is distinct in recent sociolegal scholarship, and unique in the anthropological literature. This uniqueness stems, in part, from the anthropological tendency vis vis law to ignore legislatures and privilege jurisprudence ( but see, e.g., Gershon 2008 ; Gershon 2011 ; Greenhouse 2005 ; In press ; Lazarus Black 2001 ; Moore 1984 ; Schneider 1998 ; see also Weatherford 1985 for an early exception which examines the US Congress ) In political analyses this privileging takes shape as discussions of sovereignty ; in legal analyses it takes sha pe a s dispute resolution More recent anthropological engagements with the concerns of jurisprudence have considered security ( Eriksen, et al. 2010 ; Feldman 2005 ; Lakoff and Collier 2008 ) criminality ( Clarke and Goodale 2010 ; Comaroff and Comaroff 2006 ; Schneider and Schneider 2008 ) and the rule of law ( Mattei and Nader 2008 ) These are important studies, but they sustain the disciplinary elision of constitutions, legislatures, and legislation as analytical object s (although there are useful exceptions regarding constitutional analysis in Comaroff and Comaroff )
44 The distinctiveness o f my approach is my divergence from the common assumption that law, properly, is the privileged prerogative of the s tate and of political elites. I also counter the familiar assumption that legislation is both suspec t and beyond the ken of anthropologists. Attention to recent developments in Britain and Europe frustrate these notions, and productively so. Directing our focus to the everyday practices and consequences wrought through legislative and regulatory enactmen ts can help to illuminate the intersubjective, interpersonal, and deeply humanized relations which characterize legislation and regulation, which I arrogate to the province of legisprudence and which augurs the patriation of legislation to the anthropolog ical imaginary. More precisely, my con cern is with governing through difference in the present historical moment, and with the conjugation of the discourses and practices of legislation, the police power, and economy vis vis the administration and manag ement of forms of difference. I ask how civil government pursues its objectives, what rules are deemed necessary to the achievement of those objectives, and what agents are interleavened as necessary participants ( cf. Tomlins 2006 ) That is, governors seek to achieve a particular public and social order, proper forms of behavior, and efforts are based largely on the (historical and contemporary) conceptual constructions of difference, including categories of race, ethnicity, multiculturali sm and related forms of pluralism, as well as the other symbolic hierarchies, including gender, age, mental illness, heterosexism. My ( Comaroff and Comaroff 2009:17 ) This argument begins to
45 answer the question, How do the constitution, legislation the police power, a nd government coalesce in the everyday administration of designated public, political, and soci al goals? This is less obvious than a superficial reading will appreciate. In the first place, this coalescence is not static or uniform. Rather, it is an achieved, hegemonic conjuncture of interests, means, and ends. This hegemony needs to be rendered in its full complexity, ( Dezalay and Garth 2002:311 ) In the second place, the matrix of legislation, regulation and government is not straightforward. It is not a matter of sovereignty and the coercive sta te of the Weberian imaginary; nor is it a matter of rule promulgation and rule obedience. Rather, it is a matter of continuously negotiated everyday practices that tak e shape from circumstances. This sha pe taking is not an objective or functional process of legal practices reflecting extant real conditions, but one of ontology, of mutual constitution, in which knowledge, law making, enactment, objectives, and circumstan ce comingle, immanently co producing one another, the legal, political, and social equivalent s In the third place, the coalescence I examine is not universal. Rather, the modalities of the exercise of police power differ between and within states and polities. Thus, Britain, by way of example, does not implement police projects necessarily similarly to Fr ance, the E uropean U nion Japan, Brazil, South Africa or the U nited S tates Nor is Britain characterized by a particular relation of law and the police power but by variegated sets of practices and regimes, so that governance from London differs from that at the level of regional administrations in Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast.
46 These inter and intra state differences share histo rical linkages, such as imperialism, (post)colonialism, and globalization, but these do not produce, necessarily, identical understandings or enactments of projects of ordering and civility. Finally, the achievement of the coalescence and reactions to it a re the result of struggle taking place in multiple sites, and at multiple political and social levels. Developing Legisprudence The approach I begin to develop needs to be understood in terms of my primary interest in official and formal 4 law; that is, la w that generally goes by the names of positive law, written law ( lex scripta ), or codified law. Positive law in general includes constitutions, legislation, and subsidiary forms, including delegated or secondary legislation, regulations, administrative rul es, statutory instruments, standing orders, rules of procedure, and so on. For my purposes, I use legislation and its adjutant, regulation, throughout, and highlight several important facets of the analysis of these: institutions, infrastructures, relation s and practices, the variety of legal instrumentalities, legal technologies, and the everyday operation of government. I weave these several threads together in the fabric of a narrative that holds that law generally, and legislation more precisely, are hi storical and ethnospecific products; that it is, law is contingent, ( Hall 1988b:46 ) Legislation is also inescapably relational, intersubjective, and dialogic. In my formulation, the historical, ethnospecific, and dial ogic production of legislation is not only an elite prerogative, but rests on a polyphonic foundation which encompasses the demos, the public square, and everyday interaction ( Bakhtin 1968 )
47 Law, or in fine, legislation, is also born of struggle. Just what this misleadingly simple statement means lies at the heart of my thinking and research. What constitutes struggle, and what is the nature of struggle? Who struggles, and why? Under what circ umstances? Against whom? For what? With what outcomes? What I learned from my field research is that the struggles involved in law making are hegemonic, that legislation is a site where struggles between dominant collectives and marginalized actors is play ed out in manifold ways and space, a site in which multiple forms of difference, belonging, and becoming are accommodated and contested: nation, language, class, race, ethnicity, gender, age, mental disorder. These struggles engage a much wider set of acto rs, occupy a much broader sociopolitical topography, and implicate a much more variegated set of interests than I had anticipated. What is at stake in the production of legislation is more than merely social order, morality, culture, or safety; more than m erely the domination of one historic bloc over another. What is at stake is the ensemble state itself, how life is properly lived, and the designation and instrumentalization of particular forms of order and civility for the achievement and justification o f political objectives ( Rose 2006 ) A fuller account of my development of leg isprudence appears in Appendix C Of Law, Legislation, and Legisprudence The ma in lineaments of this project aro se from my interest in systems of meaning and of signification, and the experiences of self and agency within these systems I conceive of law as one such system along with science, music, religion, mathematics, art, kinsh ip These systems of meaning and signification in their cross cultural manifestations, share a universality of some sort, yet each is ethnospecifically distinct and locally bedizened, not merely in a relative sense; nor merely in the sense of
48 variations o n a theme; no r merely in the sense of analogous mechanisms for knowing or conveying knowledges; nor merely in the sense of more or less authentic monodies flowing in various global scapes; but as unique and polychromatic ontologies, humanly enacted chiaros curos bustling about in the welter of the making and enlivening of social worlds, and of representing and living these social cosmographs Law, to date, has received little ethnographic attention in this way, and legislation virtually none, although promis ing and suggestive bits are sprinkled throughout the anthropological literature ( Coombe 1998b ; Geertz 1972b ; Mandel 2008 ; Thomas 1996 ; Turner 1957 ) and in related disciplines ( Fitzpatrick 1991 ; Kahn 1999 ; Pottage 2004 ; Thomas 2004 ; Wagner, et al. 2005 ) I examine the nature and role of legislatio n, in order to offer tentative suggestions and develop possibilities for remedying its absence in the literature. My work with law and legislation rests on two fundamental beliefs. The first is my belief that words and ideas are historical phenomena and p rimary social drivers, as dynamic and powerful as social relationships and material reality. They shape human experience, relations, bodies, consciousness and its communication, and the social wholes in which we live and act ( Beaulac 2004 ) The second is my belief that law and legislation matter, that the encounter with law and with legislated environments is powerfully constitutive of the social and of the self. I bring these two beliefs into conversation and explore their mutual relations as a crucial dimension of my overall research concerns, which this manuscript begins to address. These two beliefs transmute into the propositions that words both represent and constitute reality and personhood, and that the use of words in law represent s and creates reality and personhood in certain determinate ways. These propositions then
49 assemble into hypotheses regarding the interactions of wholes and parts; the exercise and relations of power and power holding; the role of categories as instruments and as technologies of both Othering and self making; the social division of labor and inequalities; and the social and intersubjective activeness of ideas, words, and thinking. If social reality is represented and shaped by words and ideas, then changes i n words and ideas will produce changes in social reality. One place to test this formulation is in the domains of legislation, regulation, and government under conditions of substantial social, political, and legal transformation. This is precisely what ha s happened in Britain in the last decade and more, and thus my decision to design and conduct my research in Britain, and my focus on Wales as an ethnographic laboratory. This dissertation is thus an ethnography of law concerned with legislation and its r elations with (social) power, language, and ideas, as well as its role in shaping human consciousness, and the constitution of personhood and reality in circumstances of significant sociopolitical change. My work contributes to social and cultural theory b y (re)habilitating constitutional orders, legislation, regulation, and government in the anthropological imaginary, to demonstrate their participation in the realms of human life that concern the discipline. In order to get at these issues, I focus on the problem of difference, in two registers. The first is difference at the national, or territorial level, attending to Wales as both a constituent of Britain and a novel political actor with new competence to design divergent national policy and shape its ju risdictional and territorial environment. The second is difference within Wales, and the role difference plays in government. These forms of difference, and their interactions, will be examined through two related yet distinct le gislative agendas and
50 policy strategies. The medicolegal therapeutic regime which focuses attention on difference at the level of Wales; and the equalities regime which focuses attention at This focusing should not give the impression of mutual exclusivity: for example, the medicolegal therapeutic regime entails difference within Wales, as well as difference at the national territorial level. I position it primarily in terms of the nation bec ause the management of the NHS Wales and public health more generally is a key point at which policy divergence has taken place in Wales, as a functionality where Wales has clearly distinguished its priorities and preferences from those of its national ter ritorial sibs in the ensemble state. Likewise, the equalities regime transcends national territorial boundaries in Britain, but the conceptualities of difference, namely race and ethnicity, and the management of difference have their own specificity within the remit of the National Assembly for Wales and the Welsh Assembly Government. In addition to de transcendentalizing forms and instruments of rule, there are additional particulars that distinguish this study of devolution, law making, regulation, and t he everyday conduct of government. Wales is not a state in any conventional sense, and so analytics of the state need to be problematized in order to be useful. In devolved settings, the nation state is no longer an ultimate referent for legal authority, a nd functions in a subsidiary role ( Swiffen 2011 ) Michel ( 1995 ) tooling in order to get at the issues of statalization involved (see also Das and Poole 2004 ; Mitchell 2006 ) A primary concern d, reproduced (or reiterated, as the case may be), and sustained. A corollary to this is concern for
51 ( Dale 2001 ; Feldman 2008 ; Meek 1970 ; Rose 1996 ) This is one objective of my legisprudence framework. For my purposes, I unders tand authority to include: (1) the ways by which leadership arrogates and asserts power, that is, the competences of governing; (2) the ways by which leadership demonstrates the grounds for belief in that power and competence; and (3) the ways by which acc eptance of those grounds is indicated by members of the populace. There is a clear relationship between authority and governing, and so one set of queries I want to ask in the circumstance of devolution is, how do leaders enact authority? How do people see hear, read, and believe in that authority? Legisprudence provides me with tools for exploring these issues in context. The Field and the Conceptual Field: Law, Regulation, and Rule Regimes in the New Britain This dissertation represent s an extract of my thinking and research on the historical career of the culture of law, and of the longue dure relations between law, the state, social divisions, and power. The extract can be best described as a political and cultural economy of legal politics, that is, a s an analysis of the place occupied by constitutions, legislation, and regulation in the structure of social formations, of the role ( Hall 1986:10 ) understood in tw o senses: a broad sense of law as the whole corpus of binding rules of a community; and a narrow sense of law as legislation and its progeny. Context should make meaning apparent; where it does not, I will use more precise language. This will occasionally make for cumbersome language, but this is necessary for the work at hand.
52 The dissertation as a whole is part of my larger interests in political and legal anthropology, namely constitutional orders, law and subjectivity, and the role of law in shaping so cial and cultural realities. These broader interests reflect my concern with the intersections of law, the state, governme nt, and the social on the observation that these are generally under theorized in anthropology. In this dissertation, however, I focus more precisely on le gislation for several reasons: f irst, because I am convinced that legislation and legislated environments are foundational in phenomen ological and experiential terms; s econd, because some of the work on government is already being done by those who study the anthropology of the state and of bureaucracies, and so in this project I hope to build on and complement that work, rather than rethink it; and t hird, because legislation allows for a reinvigorated attention to the operationalizatio n of ideologies in the achievement of political goals. In order to enter into an examination of legislation, I focus on a concrete historical analysis of the current political conjuncture in Britain, namely the continuing crisis of the postwar welfare sta te consensus and the fin de sicle emergence of New Labour in the administrations of Tony Blair (1997 2007) and Gordon Brown (2007 2010). This conjuncture is characterized by an acceleration of welfare state restructuring under New Labour, and by political and legal decentralization as a primary component of the discourses, practices, and strategies of restructuring. One of the key dimensions of decentralization has been devolution the transfer of certain limited powers from Parliament in London to newly elected legislative bodies in Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast. Devolution is, in general in this context, the transfer of administrative powers, that is, the powers formerly exerci sed by a Minister of the Government. This transfer
53 has taken the shape of asymmetrical empowerment, in which different national settlements have been legislated for Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. For my analysis, I draw my ethnographic and empiric al data from these developments i n Britain, with a focus on England and Wales, where I conducted the by short fieldwork projects conducted in Edinburgh. This time frame enabled me to experience a complete annual political and legal cycle, which runs from August to August. The largest proportion of my time in the field was spent in Wales, but I shuttled regularly to London and spent a considerable amount of time there. Th e focus of my field research centered on the structures, practices, processes, and discourses of governing and of law making in London and Cardiff, emergent modes of governing, and modalities of the exercise of power brought about by decentralization and d evolution. This entailed attention to Parliament and the National Assembly for Home Civil Service. On a parliamentary model, government, or the executive, is drawn from the members of the elected legislature. In London, this body is the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister. Parliament and the operation of government in the abstract are o f Westminster. The Cabinet refers to the Government in its concrete sense, and the departments of government and civil bureaucracy are referred to colloquially as Palace, wh ere most government departments are housed. I will use these terms throughout.
54 In Cardiff, the National Assembly for Wales resides in Cardiff Bay, overlooking the Bay, the Barrage, and Penarth to the southwest (Figure 1 10 ) It sits astride the historic d ocklands, adjacent to Butetown (also known as Tiger Bay), a neighborhood populated historically by dock laborers and their families, and currently home to a diverse and dynamic population ( Jordan and Wheedon 2000 ) (Figures 1 11, 1 12, 1 13 ) The National Assembly has two elements, the elected legis lative or parliamentary body, called the National Assembly for Wales, which comprises all the elected Assembly Members (AMs); and the Cabinet Government, called the Welsh Assembly Government. The Assembly Government is led by the First Minister, and compos ed of eight other Ministers and Deputy Ministers whose functions correspond to devolved competencies, including health, education, local government, culture, transport, and so on. The structure, electoral system, linked institutions, legal competencies and detailed operational rules are specified in the Government of Wales Act (2006). Hywel and the Senedd ( Figure s 1 4, 1 5, 1 6 ) business offic Commission. (F igure 1 7 ) The Senedd houses the Siambr (Figure B 8 ) the political debating chamber of the ery, a caf called the Oriel (Figure 1 9 ) committee rooms, and meeting spaces. In addition, the Civil Service personnel attached to the Assembly are housed in Cathays Park, north of the Bay, near Cardiff University and the downtown center.
55 the National Assembly for Wales; to ministerial offices and committee rooms; to hospitals, community care facilities, and clinical settings (Figures 1 14, 1 15 ) ; to the homes of raced and mentally disordered Welsh, English, and multiple ethnic and national Others in Cardiff and South Wales, as well as in caravan parks and homeless camps in Cardiff and adjacent towns and areas. I track between these spaces, between the micro meta and mac ro levels in order to draw my depiction of life, law, and reality under conditions of legal and political decentralization. My overarching research concern is with Britain, especially as it fits in larger European, Atlantic, and global edifices, but I high light Wales as a case study and heuristic. My work and results have implications for other contexts of political decentralization and reconstruction of governance, including other European states, the E uropean U nion itself, the United States, and beyond. My ethnographic research spun itself out in these legal, political, and social landscapes. Granular engagements began in Butetown, Riverside, and Grangetown, diverse m ultiracial and multiethnic populations. From there I moved to the establishment worlds of the Assembly, Parliament, and the Civil Service, and from there, back to the thoroughfare and the mtier worlds of the professions. I wore out a good deal of shoe lea and the Senedd, between the Bay and Cathays, between Cardiff and London, in Westminster Palace, and between Westminster and Whitehall. Getting a handle on the New Britain, on con stitutional agency, legislative action, regulation, and devolution as
56 events, processes, and the everyday activities of rule required a lot of leg work, literally, as well as substantial movement and flexible navigation. Within these contexts, I focused o n the everyday practices of law making, regulating, and governing, circuits and repetitions of movement between and within political and legal spaces, intersubjective relations among rulers and ruled, and the enactment of the annual legal and political cyc les, including key rituals, ceremonies, events, and persons. Ultimately, I decided to examine in detail two service delivery regimes 5 which I term the equalities regime and the medicolegal therapeutic regime as these shape public sector reforms and produce new local identities in terms of with the figure of the stakeholder and the discourse of fairness grounds my anal ysis of the constitution, legislation, and the police power. Policing Political Order: The Equalities Regime The current equalities regime is grounded in the Race Relations Act 1976 and its s tatutory and regulatory progeny. These include, for example, the Equality Bill 2009 (passed with royal assent as the Equality Act 2010 ) and policy strategies for designating, achieving, and enforcing diversity and equality goals They also include governing practices that interpolate law makers, constituency staff, loc al government departments, and a distinct network of agencies, actions, personnel, and categories into the activities that together make up the modalities of rule and governing that take shape ( Althusser 1990 ) of the political administrat ion of the state and civil society. The equalities regime signifies, for my purposes, public and social policy agendas and strategies for managing difference in Britain. In the twentieth century, this
57 encapsulates oscillations around issues of the indigen ous population and migrants, and the sets of rights and protections variably afforded to each. Key discursive dimensions include equality, equal treatment, discrimination and anti discrimination, human and other rights, refugees and asylum seeking, diversi ty and multiculturalism. Difference in these terms has historically focused, in asymmetrical ways, on disability, gender, race, dealt with in the main in separate l egislative texts, regulatory frameworks, and policy sic bringing each of these strands together in a single document. Harmonization and restatement of relevant enactments were la rgely intended to create the conditions for decreasing forms of discrimination, alleviating inequality, and improving opportunities. One of the signature developments of conjoining the equality strands is the move hout Britain. These approaches are inflected forms part of the law of England and Wales. It also, with the exception of Section 190 and Part 15, forms part of the l aw of Scotland. There are also a few provisions which on to detail the territorial application and the intertextual linkages between the Equality Act and prior legislat ion. The Act, its intertextual interlocutors, and related and derivative instruments, such as regulations, guidance, and rules promulgated by Ministers. Together, prior legislation that remains in effect and intertextually imbricated legislation, coupled w ith the Equality Act 2010 itself, its statutory instruments, and its ongoing amendments, create the basis for the equalities regime as I conceptualize it. It should
58 be understood that the regime does not denote a singular Britain wide apparatus for regulat ing, administering, and governing, but an inflected set of approaches that vary territorial ly within the insular imaginary and the ensemble state. (For relevant statistics on race in Britain, see Appendix A.) Policing Public Health: Medicolegal Therapeutic Regime The medicolegal therapeutic regime is grounded in the Mental Health Act 1983 and its 2007 amendment, the policy strategy of community care, which developed out of the deinstitutionalization moves of the 1960s and 1970s, and governing practices that interpolate a similar array of roles, persons, and institutions as above, plus hospitals, physicians, social workers, pharmacies, consumers, carers, and others. Here also, it should be remembered that the regime is not uniform across the archipelago, but comprehends divergences at the national territorial level. Acts I refer to are not the sole bases or centers of these regimes, so much as nodes in a complex, baroque legal, poli tical, and institutional ecology and an architecture of law, policy, and government subtended by a set of principles and framework goals relating to the postwar social democratic consensus and its ongoing reconstruction. I argue that both regimes are enact ments of the police power, instantiations of political administration through which the state and civil society mutually interact and co produce one another, and jointly S/subjectivizing and interpellating S/subjects. I also argue that cultural hegemony is articulated and enacted in part through the practices of police and political administration.
59 Subjectivization, Mediation, and Intersubjectivity One major question in my research into and analysis of law is h ow political and other S/ subjects are shaped Additionally, I ask how this shaping is orchestrated. This formulation, S/subjects, needs some clarification, as do my use of mediation and intersubjectivity, and my understanding of the relations between these. S/subjects In conventional current configur is the citizen and juridical bearer of enforceable rights ( O'Donnell 1999:312 ; see also Stack 2010 ) Citizenship is more than rights, however; mor e than merely legal or merely political. Citizenship is also an issue of action, and of participation in social processes, including, but not limited to, legal and political processes. I want to br oaden the scope of the configuration of citizenship, action and social process to entail persons with different instrumental and engrossed relations with systems of law and processes of law making. s who are auth orized as formal, official makers of law These may be understood primarily as elites, as law makers, or as s involved in law craft : staff lawyers and consultant lawyers w orking in and for a legislative entity; the legislators in both the legislative and constitu ency spaces; Civil Service officials and others in the civil bureaucracy and public service ; advisers; clerks; researchers; those who manage the business side of parliamentary operations; translators; recorders and (legal) reporters; elected and appointed and hired individuals at mul tiple levels of government; and the practical roles and workspaces necessary to the shuttling of le gislative materia ls through various offices, channels,
60 committees, archives, databases, printers, copiers, software programs, file fol ders, and media as these materials follow a sort of life course of becoming legislation In short, there are a multitude of Subjects of th e law, of people authorized to participate in the production of formal, official law, as legislation, as regulations, as rules, as guidance and best practices recommendations, as amendments, as developing informal means of achieving formal ends These are my Subjects of law legislated world in their everyday experiences, but who have no formal authorization to participate in i ts making: the raced, the mentally disordered, the CHA Vs and ASBOs, 6 the compliant and non compliant the immigrant and the refugee the carer, the aged, the family member with power of attorney, the un/employed, the child, the bully In order di law craft I suggest that these subjects are inte gral to the constitution and to the work of law, the police power, and government, that they form the embodied substrate of thought upon whi ch the activities of Subjects of law are fashioned, that they participate, even if indirectly, in the pr oduc tion of law and in the conduct of government, that they are interactants in the fractal spaces of a baroque legal ecology They are integral on the one hand as figures and on the other hand as real, proper, named, identified, diagnosed, observed, and enmi nded 7 bodies. Their appearance as the figural representations of embodiments as well as in earthy, bodily incarnations are indispensabl e, even obligatory, to legislation, regulation, and the conduct of government. in this fashio n to signal both their hybridity as mutually sustaining forms of being (in both personal and communal senses) and their
61 indissociability in t he production of law and the everyday work of government, are, in my productions and works ( Fischer 2007:283 ) In addition, these points of atta chment are irreducible to linear or causal or unidirectional analysis and they are not fungible. The implosion should, furthermore, be read and understood not as a binary construct, but as a spectrum. This spectrum, however, is not linear, with fixed poin ts at which particular roles or types of person are located; rather, it is rhizomatic, a dendritic array around which roles and persons may be variously arrayed according to context and circumstance. Legislation, for instance, is not simply a product, the outcome of political debate and majority voting procedures that establishes a rule or set of rules Rather legislation is complexly intertextual, intersubjective, and social; it is co constituted and recursive; and it is contingent, dependent upon local r ealties and local imaginaries, even as it draws on principles and conventions with considerable time depth, and larger narratives of modernity, autonomy, reason, universalized political idioms, globalization, morality It is produced and made to cohere as through the S/ subjects of law, their work, their conduct, their institutionalizations, their manifold interactions, their interweavings, and the ramifications of their activities, words, presences, exp ectations, duties, fears, wrong doings, (mis)identifications, orations and infrastructures that channel these interactions that legislation and the conduct of go vernment take shape, and police initiatives are achieved.
62 Mediation To achieve an integration and analysis of subjectivity, and as a foundation of my formulation and analysis of S/subjecthood, I adopt the idea o f mediation, to demonstrate ontological commitment s to sociality and relationality, to structural embeddedness, to the role of law, police power, and government in constituting social worlds and ( Harrison 2008:201 ) I n order to think through the multiple mediations at work in knowledge production and subjectivization processes I have borrowed and adapted ideas and content from Marx ( Marx 1993a ; 1993d ) Cedric Robinson ( 1983 ) Stuart Hall ( 1986 ) Donna Haraway ( 1991 ) and Harri ( 2008 ) An important feature of my use of mediation is the consideration of the ways that the governed respond to the deontological efforts of governors to conduce subjectivization and the prosopic relations involved. In a Marxis ant application, mediation amounts to the reconciliation of opposing forces through a mediating object. one hand, and the social and cultural on the other. In brief, the l aborer produces exchange value congealed in the commodity form, to which symbolic value accrues or is assigned. These objectified elements then circulate, are consumed, and provide the next round of both labor and of capital investments to sustain the prod uctive process. Out of production, circulation, and consumption, then, subjectivities and culturality are produced in accompaniment to economic production in an integrated, indissoluble set of processes ( Marx 1993b ; see also Murray 1988 ) Th ese subjectivities (and culturalities) are multiple. T he laborer, for example, comes to recognize herself as laborer, and also as member of various situated
63 collectives, such as family, neighborhood, union, class, nation, citizen. The capitalist also is similarly subjectivized. Between th ese poles of subjecthood, other positions and inhabitations emerge as well, all the result of multiple mediations and multiple infoldings ( Deleuze 2006 ) Relatedly, mediation in a juridical sense is the reconciliation of opposing parties through a third party, and the activities involved also subjectivize all parties involved in multiple ways. These el ements of sociality have been well researched in the adjudication centric model of the anthropology of law ( see e.g. Ewick and Silbey 1998 ; Merry 1990 ; see also the materials in Part III of Moore 2005 ) It remains to be undertaken in an analysis of law that foregrounds legislation. I consider legislation, the police power, and government as subjectivizing and culturally productive, and I stress the role of communication as mediator. Communication sho uld be understood relatively broadly, to encompass not only language (representation and signifying practices), but the processes of communic ation, as well as the form, 8 content technologies, and instruments of communication. Along with legislation, regul ation and the conduct of everyday government, these shape an architecture, an ecology, and a politico legal pedagogy ( Prozorov 2004 ) as well as rationalities and technologies of self making/subject making ( Moore 1998 ; Niezen 2009 ; Ong 2006 ; Rose 1990 ; cf. Ulysse 2008 ) This is the nature of the mediation of S/subjects as I conceptualize it. Intersubjectivity I insist that legislation is irremediably inters ubjective, that the relations of legislation are a hybrid of the dialectical and the dialogical, and that legislation, regulation, and the conduct of government arise not solely from the institutional spaces of their formal genesis, but from relations of e veryday living with others. Intersubjectivity
64 is a key dimension of the relationality of law as I understand it. It embraces the microsocialities of the public square and the micropolitics of law making, situating the labor of law making, the works of legi slation, and analysis of the institutions of law making in human relations. Perhaps most importantly, my application of intersubjectivity is i ntended to recover the commonal ty, the invisible and vernacular elements whom law makers encounter and with whom they co habit lived worlds. My approach to intersubjectivity is heavily dependent upon Bakhtin ( Bakhtin 1968 ; 1981 ) and his interpreters ( Brandist and Tikhanov 2000 ; Peeren 2008 ) as well as Marx ( Marx 1993a ; 1993d ) and scholars who engage with his social ontology ( Gould 1978 ; Wendling 2009 ) My basic approach to intersubjectivity is based on my belief that the relations I detail in this dissertation must be essentially conceived as ontological and et hical, that is, as relations of becoming, belonging, and behaving. S/sub jects of Difference, Governing t hrough Difference In liberal democracies, rights are one key mechanism by which groups and individuals seek and a ttain self realization ( Taylor and Gutmann 1994 ) ; that is rights are one condition of possibility for recognition and accommodation of (certain forms of) difference 9 These forms are subject to ongoing revision, both through emendation and through interpretation. Difference, then, is historically specific and contingent, and rights, or related rationales for figuring and governing thro ugh particular forms of difference, are also contingent. Appending a jurisprudential approach to rights with a legisprudential one, and attention to the positive actualizations of rights, is a useful way of driving forward analysis of subjectivity, of gove rning, and of difference as constitutive
65 of political epistemologies, material and discursive practices, and consequential outcomes. Legisprudence offers us a methodology by which we can begin to examine contingency and relations, through attention to the ius the res and the locus of rights and other legal technologies. By examining the intersections of rights and difference, for example, we can contemplate how distinctions are conceptualized and represented, how boundaries of inviolability are drawn aro und those distinctions, under what circumstances such boundaries are enforced (or not), the conferral of status on certain types of person (or community, or other figure), how definitions are constructed, how principles are articulated and imported into le gal reasoning and legal texts, where these principles come from (considering dimensions of both time and space), and the effects of abstraction as sociolegal and medicolegal technology ( Thomas 2004 ) I argue that the conditions of possibility for governing in a liberal democracy require difference; that is, mechanisms and procedu res of inclusion and exclusion, the practices whereby difference is recognized as constitutive yet separate, simultaneously acc ommodated and harbored, yet margin alized and segregated. Giorgio Agamben, in ( 1976:143ff ) ( Agamben 1998:7 ) Agamben writes, of course, not of difference or rights, but of bare life, of the mere existence of the human figure, Homo sacer as that entity ( Agamben 1998:8, 7 ) I adopt bare life, as girders of conceptualizations of difference, and of the material, semiotic and
66 epistemological dimensions of its administration. Difference, in other words, constitutes politic al and legal being and action, as well as the conditions of possibility for governing and for thinking and bringing about social transformations. This work of inclusi ve exclusion, of adequating universal, abstract, sovereign human figures (whether biopoli tical, Homo sacer the citizen rights bearer, or other formulation) with concrete, situated, particular identities, is not epiphenomenal, not merely an outcome of (neo)liberal politics, but a core feature of the conditions of possibility of liberal govern ing and allied to strategies of accumulation and translocal mechanisms of political economic engagement. The strugg les of a politics of equality, the struggles of a politics of difference the recognition of identity, status and equal dignity, and contes ts between these, are necessary to (neo) liberal democratic government for building new capacities and linking these and their embodied carriers to the strength and growth of the political, social, and economic nation ( Goodale 2009 ; Kahn 2005 ; Stears 2007 ) careful management ( Ong 2006:187 ) The modes of the politics and economics of difference may take different forms, such as imperialism, multiculturalism, neoliberalism, enclosure, scarcity, or marginality, among others, but at the core of each mode is a method of thinking and seeking to manage difference ( Taylor and Gutmann 1994 ; Tully 2007 ) I argue that this is a much more fundamental process than simply the denial of equal access or equal outcomes; it is, rather, an integral and obligatory dimension of (neo)liberal governing.
67 In attending to difference in its rapport with legislation, regulation and government, and more specifically in addressing the ways of constituting, cognizing, and regulating difference, and for creating the conditions and instrumentalities for legislation, regulation, and government to appropriate, manage, a nd administer difference, I make a case for new possib ilities for legislation and law making as object s of anthropological inquiry; for law and policy as coordinat ed and choreographed human activities; and for the consideration of government as everyday practice that mediates S/subjects, objects, aesthetics, and emotional lives with structured institutional and normative architectures and with sorted pasts, husbanded presents, and poised futures The social intercourse that I argue forms the basis for S/subjectivation, mediation, and intersubjective crossings is situated in the public square. The Public Square The public square I have in mind is not the public sphere of Habermas and others, the apparatus of civil society and the state arrogated by bourgeois society and made into measured, deracinated, benign, and banal procedures. It is not a space of sanitized transactional encounters. It is a common space, a frank space, a bazaar populated by diverse arrays of folk. It is the space in which individuals are encompassed and laid bare as surfaces, in which thei r lives are accomplished and assessed, licensed for consumption. It is an agent of transformation and tradition, an instrument of estrangement, a source of familiarization and defamiliarization of laws, habits, official poetics and normativities, and of the conjugation of intimacies that work profound personal and collective effects and materialize the apparatus of government.
68 This public square is public not because it exists in an oppositional binary with the open visible and audible Public life adopts the most varied means for making itself public and accounting for ( Bakhtin 1981:123 ) Certainly the sense of private content is important to the materials of pub lic life and the public square. It is more important however, to look more closely at the ways by which the contradictions inherent in the pubic private oppositional structure are worked out in such a way that the oppositional structure is maintained, yet the boundaries challenged at the same time and with what consequential effects I argue that difference, especially in its forms of race and mental disorder, is one mechanism through which this contradiction is enacted. 10 These forms of difference are quintessentially public hermeneutics: we believe they re veal to us elemental realities about their bearers, and we believe they are necessarily problematics that belong within the prerogative of the government of social heterogeneity, and the administration of the police power of health, welfare, safety, and mo rals. This is not to claim a natural basis for distinguishing and responding to the Other; rather it is to remark on the work involved in the constitutive regulation of difference, the strategies of representation and cum public discourses ( Bakhtin 1981 :127 ) The surfaces of this hermeneutic condense the contradictions that drive forward the everyday work of government: the emergence and existence of heterogeneity and its crystallization and consolidation as particularized forms of difference that sha pe the behaviors of authority. The public square is a key site where the transformative influence of difference is enacted in simultaneous and multiplex ways: as personal identity; as relational among
69 participants; as a presence that recursively shapes th e self, the other, and macrosocial forms of belonging; and in the very principles of engagement with and management of difference itself. Constructing the (analytical) public square enables a closer accounting This is a key lacunae in anthropologie s of law and politics. [t]he general activity of the law (which is wider than purely State and governme ntal activity and also includes the activity involved in directing civil society, in those zones which the technicians of law call legally neutral i.e. in morality and in custom generally) serves to understand the ethical problem better, in a concrete sens e ( Gramsci 1971:266, 195 ) For Gramsci, in other words, law, and especially legislation, provides the basis for both coercion and consent, structuring both state and civil society, and effectively transgressing the frontier between them. It effectively re politicizes civil society, simultaneously (re)locating civil society in the political sphere, locating the civil laity in the visible grids of political goals and strategies, and harnessing these political goals and strategies to lay institutions and agents ( cf. Neocleous 1996 ) One of the primary ( Gramsci 1971:195 ) Gramsci comes from the civil law tradition, a legal culture and understanding that is somewhat different from Anglo common law culture, and so the possibility remains that positive law, for the Anglo mind, is not of the same character as for Gramsci. I argue that in the Anglo common law world, positive law, legislation and regulation, carries the same educative, regularizing (i.e. hegemonic) function with which Gramsci was familiar. The differenc e is one of emphasis, of political legal culture and
70 legal politics, that is, of the inherited and subjectivizing traditions of law as a point of collective self identity. Where these struggles are engaged, there we find the public square. In my constituti onal ethnography, my attention to ordering and civic humanism in the public square, we find a present characterized by the immanence of the past, by the immanence of common l aw and common sense, of the common good and the Commonwealth. Grounding the ethnog raphy in the public square, as space of transformation, hybridization, mediation, the commonplaces of shared symbolic orders, and the collisions of innovation and estrangement, opens new optics on the sovereign fantasies of nation and transnational unifica tion across the archipelago and beyond, and the descent of the idea of the unitary state to its present ensemblage and jurisdictional diversification. My constitutional ethnography considers central tendencies and variation, continuities and change order and disorder in the (New) British state, and the sense making that accompanies these moments, interleavening public practices and civic virtues and the open ended obligation of government. Within these macro social abstractions, I take stock of measures of life and health, and place people, and myself, in the streams of history, memory, and the social. Racing the Political Epistemic: Mainstreaming Equality and Some Results Taking stock of these measures, my data and analysis entail primarily the examinatio n of race and ethnicity, of m the local lexicon), and the intersections of these. I focus on equalities legislation, policy agendas, and delivery strategies, and on mental health legislation, policy agendas, and delivery strategies. These are considered in the context of the multiple tensions and contradictions wrought by the 1997 ascendance of New Labour and the decentralizing reforms implemented in the decade following. These tensions and contradictions
71 str ucture relations between Westminster and the devolved administrations, as well as within the devolved territories themselves. There are three main results to my research on race, equality, and health, which may be categorized as epistemology, culture, and language. The epistemic result is my finding that much of the design and delivery of various programs and interventions are constructed on the premise of whiteness as normative. The cultural result is an issue of normative governance; that is, the constru ctions of definitions, of positive rules, and of the conduct of rule according to political and legal rationalities that remain bound in the historical world and cultural archaisms of Englishness cum Britishness and the exclusions that result. The language result is multiplex. It is one main issue, the provision of interpretation and translation, currently at stake in the delivery of services and in therapeutic relationships, yet the frequent absence of adequate professional interpretation and translation s ervices structures interactions in ways that sustain racist practices. Furthermore, this lack of adequate communication between physicians (GPs) and patients prevents the provision of equal care, and actually tends to increase costs of health care service delivery. These three problem areas are not easily disaggregated, and there are clearly overlaps between the domains, but I maintain that the separation is necessary for analytical purposes. In the remainder of this manuscript, I will apply legisprudence to the making and consequen tial effects of legislation, the exercise of the police power and regulatory action, and the everyday conduct of government. 11 Key to this is the examination of changes not just in political and legal domains, but in social relati ons and cultural practice, and modes of subjectivity ( Gill 2008 ) Crucial also is attention to changes in
72 representational practices 12 and the functioning of legislation, the police power, and government as systems of signification and of meaning maki ng. In the final analysis, I will demonstrate the reality making provisions of law and policy; the epistemic commitments at stake; and the fab rication and actions of persons. What my analysis offers, then, is legisprudence an anthropology of legislation and police power as the helix of government and of lawcraft designed to get at the labor and constituents of law making, regulation, and the conduct of the everyday business of government. I focus on the mechanisms, institutions forms of reasoning, metho ds, and practices involved; as well as the agents, relations, institutions, infrastructures, language, cultural imagery, knowledge production, representations, figures, and ideas entangled in the productive processes. In short, my approach deploys a materi al, semiotic, and epistemological framework in order to apprehend, understand, and describe law, policy, and government, and the consequential effects of these, especially under conditions of decentralization and related forms of state restructuring. The crux then, is the conjugations of race mental health and illness, and the police power through everyday interpersonal and intersubjective relations especially in the public square, to fabricate the new conjunctural disposition of Britain, or what I am c of the long revolution ( Williams 1961 ) It is an unfinished product, one reaching perpetually beyond its present Its interior and exterior concat enations and articulations bring the British sta te into its current being: the ensemble of constitutional texts, principle, and conventions; the ensemble of nations; technologies of democratic governance and public administration ; the hegemony of liberal ideologies and practices; sociality and
73 communication; occupation of the spaces between the constituent nations and the EU; and the cultural consolidations that characterize its prese nt moment. Within the long revolution and the present political conjuncture, particular forms of subjecthood, personhood, and activities of becoming belonging behaving are ( Gramsci 1971 ; cf. Hall 1986 ) Wh at I present below is an analysis of the constitution, legislation and regulation as mechanisms of the police power, that is, me chanisms for shaping the ensemble state, for fabricating order in the public square, for navigating the dialectic of state and civil society, for constituting, or bringing into being, forms of subjecthood, and for interpellating S/ subjects. Addressing thes e issues will fill out the pages of this manuscript, but an historical brief might be in order here, to orient the reader. Let me begin as Dylan Thomas might have, somewhere near the beginning. 1 The name s of all interlocutors are pseudonyms unless otherwise noted. 2 Legislation derives from lex [l] ( Garner 2000:738 ) 3 particular political community by political superiors, as distinct from moral law or law existing in an ideal community or in some nonpolitical community Positive law usually consists of enacted law the codes, statutes, and regulations that are applied ( Garner 2000:948 ) Giambattista Vico referred to it as ius theticum law that begins from a thesis, and is characterized by a laying down or setting forth of a positive statement ( 1998 ) constitutions; legislation, statutes, and acts (these three are synonymous terms for primary legislation); statutory instruments, such as regulations (including secondary, delegated, and subordinate legislation); procedures (i.e the rul es for r ulemakers); and administrative rules Although positive law is often juxtaposed against natural law, as is implicit in the definition above, my intention is rather to position it in relation to juristic forms of law; that is, to evoke the instituti ons and persons involved in the production of legislation and its progeny. 4 Official and informal modes of law will also come into play, for instance discretion, issues of guidance and recommendations These are important and integral components of the legal regimes which I address more specifically below 5 Regulations, or regulatory regimes more generally, derive from legislation, but are in the main the prerogative of agencies of the executive, and are a key dimension of policy making. Delegated legi slation, subordinate legislation, and statutory instruments bring the asymmetries of central and local government into view, and in the case of Britain, this is one place where devolution gets interesting. The relations
74 within law and within the law politi cs matrix are brought into relief through consideration of the formal modes of law and policy, and through the consideration of the persons, institutions, infrastructures, conventions, roles involved in the production of law and policy and their instrument alization in the daily work of government 6 live in housing estates that are provided/funded by the local Council, and who have a criminal record Most often it is presumed to correctly identify young men, especially young men of color, who wear hoodies and related types of clothing ASBO is short for Anti Social Behavior Order, or those who have received such an order and the associated meaning s that at tach to it Both of these terms are derogatory, formal political and legal discussions in the Assembly, in local go vernment settings, in the British Parliament as well as in di scussions with physicians, psychiatrists, social workers, nurses, academics, and caseworkers. 7 as, bearers of rationality (Reason and Understanding) t associates 8 I suggest, following Bakhtin ( 1981 ) that form is content, and that this is an important consideration for legisprudence. Legislation and its component textual technologies (formal legalese; a preamble or introduction; organization into enumerated sections; composition and articulation of legal technologies such as duties, rights, rules, sanctions; definitions; the architecture of intertextual linkages to existing legal inscriptions) convey meaningful information and contribute formally to the processes of subjectivization and cultural p roduction. Similarly, policy instruments, such as White Papers, Green Papers, consultations, and related technologies including regulatory powers, convey information through form, as well as through content (and through form as content; a White Paper as su ch conveys information distinct from and superior to a Green Paper, for example). 9 This should not be construed t imply that citizenship is only an issue of rights. Rather, I conceive of a much larger variety of actions and processes that enable one as ci tizen. It is not merely a legal or political category, but a social and cultural one which requires nuanced thinking, especially where subjects do not participate in political or legal processes per se 10 As will become obvious throughout the remainder of this dissertation, my thinking and theorizations were (are) fundamentally and powerfully shaped by a number of women in encountered in my field research, as well as works by and encounters with feminist, womanist, and subaltern scholars. I wish to acknowl edge publicly my profound debt to these organic and academic scholars. I also wish to state for the record that the intersections of race and mental disorder with gender and sexuality must be understood to acutely inflect my field experiences and process o f working through my field materials and writing this dissertation. From project design to field emplacement, to data elicitation, to analysis and interpretation, to representation and writing, this work is deeply influenced by relations of race, gender, a nd sexuality. Limitations of space and an already (overly) complex argument make me reticent to fully engage the implications and empirics of the role of gender and sexuality on my work and thinking. In a subsequent project, I will address these relations more closely and cogently. 11 The ability to self govern was crafted and tractioned in the original devolution settlement, Government of Wales Act (1999), and amended and re authorized in Government of Wales Act (2006). 12 Representation carries, of course, dual implications, and I use it here somewhat playfully, and ironically, intending to evoke both meanings. In developing this approach, I am in skilful examination of this duality in Der ach t zehnte Brumaire des Louis Bonaparte especially his distinguishing use of vertreten (to represent in a political sense, i.e as proxy) and darstellen (to represent, or as Spivak standing of this distinction draw s also on the discussion in Spivak (1988)
75 CHAPTER 2 BRITAIN: ENSEMBLES, EMBLEMS, DILEMMAS We are a top sliced country, used to years in which we had no decisions to make, but all the time in the world to complain about decisions made about us by others. It really is difficult, after centuries of not being in charge of your own affairs, to have the confidence to reverse that state of affairs, when the opportu nity to do so presents itself. [T] he promise th at an Assembly in Cardiff [ mean t] taking out an insurance policy against the sha com ing back to Wales ( Morgan 2009 ) On a blustery, cold morning in February, Rhodri Morgan, the then First Minister of Wales said to me, How can sand different types of In some ways he was lucky, because Wales [ laughs ], Wales is a identifying the differences between us: people who speak Welsh, people people from the South. The Welsh in Wales and the English in Wales. Native Britons, migrants and outsiders. People are very aware, and Wales is always threatening to fly into bits. You need things that bind people together. Universal services do that. He blew into cupped hands as we made our way to his car, preparing to leave Cardiff for the town of Tredegar, to the north about 20 kilometers. His driver, Sarge, held the door for Rhodri, and we climbed in. Once settled, he opened a copy of the Guardian and war social that is, Aneurin Bevan, a Welsh Labour Party MP from 1929 to 1960, and Cabinet Minister from 1945 ( Lowe 2005:183ff ) ecided to launch this measure in Bevan was born in Tredegar on the threshold of the twentieth century. Tredegar was, and remains, a poor village in the South Wales Valleys, on the edge of the
76 coalfields. Bevan was the son of a coal miner, went to work in the colliery, and became Federation. He was nominated as the Labour Party candidate for Ebbw Vale in 1928, and won handil y in the 1929 General Election ( Goodman 1997 ) By the General Election of 1945 Bevan was positioned for entry into Government, and the Labour in part on the recommendations of the Beveridge Report, detailed a number of initiatives that together formed what came to be ( Jefferys 2002 ; Lowe 2005 ) Key among these initiatives was the NHS. Attlee (1945 1951) brought about the comprehensive social transformations envisioned in the manifesto, and Bevan, as Health Minister, was integral to the shaping of the NHS and the details of its functioning ( Webster 2002 ) Unemployment, unfair trea tment of on is ( Bevan 1952:106, 100 ) action, of course, and is better understood as a hegemonic moment in British history, in which collective historic blocs organize [the] existing society at onc ( Hall 1988a:7 ) The result, the welfare state, was the achievement of
77 the social democratic consensus, organized around a particular set of arguments regarding the appropriate role s of the state and the market in distributing resources and making services available to citizens and others. These arguments were constitutional, institutional, and moral ethical. The postwar consensus marked the ascendance of central planning and social priorities over the laissez faire and individualism of classic liberalism, and a constitutional and institutional shift in the nature of the state and of governance. Central planning relies heavily on the police power as a justification and organizing pri nciple, as illustrated by the postwar confidence in central control and the power of the state to function as a leveling instrument, smoothing the crises of capitalism and the disparities it generates. Health is a key component of the police powers arrogat ed by the state, and newly instrumentalized by the welfare state, and is thus a crucial governing strategy. The erection of the NHS and its figural role as the primary symbol of the welfare state accomplished both the practical and the ideological aspirati ons of centralizing power, shoring up the prerogative of power in central institutions, redistributing wealth, and creating the institutions of the welfare state and infrastructures of service delivery. Indeed, today, many Britons, perhaps most, view the N HS and the state as one and the same ( Dearlove and Saunders 2000 ; Lowe 2005 ) NHS, but with the emergence of new concerns with race and ethnicity, and with the relat ions between white Britons and racialized Others took shape largely through immigration and alienage legislation and policy strategies. The interwar period had been
78 characterized by conflagrations, especially in the Race Riots in 1919, which broke out in v irtually every major city acro ss the whole of Britain. T he issues of racism and ethnic bigotry were dealt with largely through criminal law and policing result ing from the positioning of raced persons and communities within the interlocking frameworks of ( cf. Cohen 1972 ) world war that the British Parliament began seriously using civil le gislation and social policy to set goals for managing the populations arriving on British shores from the Commonwealth countries and beyond. Increasingly, the consolidating institutions of the welfare state were also obliged to develop methods for deliveri ng services to growing ethnic and racial populations. During this period, seismic demographic and cultural shifts were taking place. The postwar consensus was not an easy, straightforward, or teleological achievement. The NHS and other institutions of the welfare state had to be built from the ground up, so to speak, and this had to be done in a political economic environment of financial crisis, war debt, destruction of great swaths of the built and social landscapes, and the general disarray following the war. Into this environment were also entering relatively large numbers of migrants: those displaced by war, colonials from the imperial margins, laboring populations seeking work (Drake 1954; 1955; Little 1972) These movements were not new, but their scale increased, prompting multiple responses from the British state, political parties, the Civil Service, and the professions This historical moment marked the inception of a concentrated state response, through legislation, to manage these incoming populations, and a simultaneous popular reaction built on fear of the
79 ( Bagilhole 2009 ; Holmes 1988 ; Little 1972 ) These fears attained perhaps their most vitriolic political expression in Enoch Powell, Conservative MP from 1950 Race Re lations Bill 1968 In the speech, Powell and against the imagery and rhetoric of an thousand years of English [ sic Aeneid Powell prophesied that he, ( Telegraph 2007 ) The inflammatory rhetoric and t he passage of the Race Relations Act 1968 Little wonder that race relations in Britain have foundered, frequently accommodating the thrust of racial populism and the language of racist agenda setting. In addition to the regular Labour Conservative ideo logical and electoral oscillations, the postwar era also witnessed the resurgence of Fascist parties organized ( Dearlove and Saunders 2000 ) Fascism has a relatively untold history in Britain, and although such a history is beyond the scope of this dissertation, it is important to note that the major political parties, Labour, Tories, and Liberal Democrats alike, were each pushed by their fascist interlocutors, and each of the parties responded by co opting at leas t in part the
80 concerns, language, and recommendations of fascist agitators, including the National Front and the British National Party ( Dearlove and Saunders 2000 ) 1 focused on s ( Dearlove and Saunders 2000:106 ; see also the discussion in Solomos, et al. 1982 ) The emergence and consolidation of the welfare state, the increase of human div ersity and the rise of multiculturalism, and the rancorous politics of racism in Britain are deeply entwined in the political epistemic, and continue in the present to shape legislative and policy strategies, as well as ground level intersubjective relatio ns, and the everyday operation of government in Britain. In this mix, the postwar social democratic consensus, or the welfare state settlement, has been continuously contested, perhaps most aggressively by Margaret Thatcher. Under Mrs. Thatcher, the centr al state was attacked for its fosterage of dependency, and its functions were marketized, in order to bring the discipline of the market to the public sector ( Hall 1988b ) In the NHS, this took the shape of internal markets, which were intended to create the conditions for competition between providers of services, such as hospitals, increased efficiency of operation, and reduced costs for pu rchasers. These conditions would, it was asserted, make health care better, choice among providers, and reducing wait times for services ( Thatcher and Cooke 1989 ) 2 discrimination initiatives, equal opportunity and diversity legislation, and policy advances also ground to a standstill. In 1978,
81 ( Brandt 1986 ) welfare state (and indeed of the state itself), the racist proscriptions inscribed in the Immigration Act 1988 and her rhetoric and dilatory political maneuvering on equal opportunity and diversity stirred urban unrest in 1980, 1981, and 1985 ( Bagilhole 2009 ) The violence and its aftermath coupled with the political trends and transformed the idea ( Cheung Judge and Henley 1994 ) Accusations of racism plagued Thatcher, and compelled her successor, John Major, to try to play down the worst of it, to little avail. It was into this milieu that New Labour entered under Tony Blair in 1997, and it was under Blair and his successor Gordo n Brown (2007 2010) that constitutional transformation was rapidly and radically pushed forward, creating devolution, the impetus for the Equality Act 2010, and the development of the regimes through which I organize my analysis. The particular meanings a nd applications of the principles and framework goals inscribed in the equalities and medicolegal therapeutic regimes are in constant flux as different historical blocs deploy them for particular social, political, and legal purposes. They are essentially the basis for the development of the welfare state. In Britain, the ( Poor Law Commissioners 1834:334 ) This distinction hinged on animosity toward and contempt for non labor a nd idleness, and the assumption that the relief system encouraged these, therefore undermining the whole edifice of the
82 British economy ( Dean 1991 ; Neocleous 1996 ) To combat the (be lieved) propensity of the poor to inactivity and thus indigence, counterincentives were necessary, namely eligibility restrictions and severe discipline. Additionally, oversight was a key requirement, and so the Poor Law Commission the unavoidable discrepancies and corruption created by the ( Neocleous 1996:1 19 ) This was the birth of means testing, and the development of the hated approach to poor relief, which demanded the deeply intrusive and shaming ways by which people demonstrated their immiseration, including the parading of poverty in front of a rel ieving officer sent out to check on the reality of squalor and want. Following the economic crises of the 1920s and 1930s and the toll of World War II, the postwar Labour Government in Britain briefly swept means testing to one side, in favor of universal services, a system in which everybody paid in, and everybody was entitled to payout in times of hardship. The economist William Beveridge chaired the Inter Departmental Committee on Social Insurance and Allied Services, which recommended widespread reform s in the existing system of social insurance ( 1942 ) The report became known as the Beveridge Report, and was directly influential in the creation of the system of National Insurance and the National Health Service, the emblem of the welfare state in Britain. Most scholars usually credit Beveridge as the ( Lowe 2005 ; Williams and Johnson 2010 ) It still occupies a place in the political episteme, continuing to orient current debates over universal versus means tested, or targeting, services.
83 Even in the context of the immediate post war political climate, however, governments at the Westminster end began to favor a return to means testing, although there were moments of universalism preferences. Since 1979, means test ing has been the privileged mechanism for determining the distribution of welfare benefits and services, on the argument that scarce resources need to be allocated where need is greatest. Such a preference necessarily introduces some sort of test to identi fy need, which carries with it issues of stigma, fear, and layers of complexity. The means testing versus universal services debate is a key site of divergence between Westminster and the devolved administrations. In the regions, that is, in Wales, Scotla nd, and Northern Ireland, collective Victorian system of means testing has left a strong animosity. The history of means testing and a nearly visceral reaction to its most egregious failings has produced favor for, where possible, universal services. This animosity and viscerality are also part of the political epistemic, which has taken on significant new dimensions in the context of devolution and constitutional reform. As a Special Adviser to Welsh Assembly Government told me, likely not to claim benefit are single women over the age of 75 in Wales. We know that claim it is because it is a complicated system and you have The Welsh Assembly Government, where it is able, prefers universal services. So where prescriptions ar
84 The concerns and potential remedies of the Victorian and post war eras continue to populate official poetics in the ongoing reconstruction of (neo)liberal governance in Britain, although draped in different se improvement of workfare. Means testing and discourses of targeting have given way to rhetorics of sm and inclusion have given way to stakeholding, with serious consequences for vernacular lifeways. My concerns in this regard are dual: on the one hand, with the political significance of race and health in political administration, that is, the position that discourses and practices of race and health occupy within (neo)liberal welfare governance. On the other hand, I am concerned with the ways these discourses and practices shape the experience of racialization and medico legalization. In short, this poi ( Hall 1993b:2 ) and the ethnography of communication (or lack thereof) and its social effects. Welfare reform is a big ticket domestic political and fiscal item for many countries, with significant transnational, regional, and global implications. The relationship of ra ce and reform is an important yet relatively understudied phenomenon in welfare service delivery and welfare reforms. My research centers on this phenomenon, drawing linkages in the specific sense of race vis vis public sector reforms, and namely relatio ns between reform proposals and enactments, health care, and race and ethnicity.
85 The welfare accommodation, between the state and the market, plays out through principles of service delivery. These struggles are engaged in legal, political, economic, social, and cultural fields, as participants seek to articulate and establish their meanings and in some cases achieve hegemony ( Gramsci 1971 ; cf. Hall 1986 ; Hall 1999 ) Decentralization and devolution are broad instantiations of these struggles; the equalities and medicolegal therapeutic regimes are two points at which the struggle is engaged on more precise terms. I examine these struggles and the role of legislation in objectives. This means, mainly, attention to legi implementation; and in the constitution of polities and nations, institutions and infrastructures, subjectivities and modes of consc iousness. This brief and schematic discussion is not meant to inculpate any particular person, party, or set of ideas, but rather to illustrate the spectra between which oscillations of political debate occur, and to implicate the set of ideas that popula te and are drawn upon in the deliberative practices of constitutional ordering, legislative production, and the everyday work of government. Law making in Britain, including its variant processes in the devolved administrations, takes place in contexts of historical legacies of colonialism, industrial extraction, globality, poverty, labor, and marginality that continue to inflect the contemporary political and legal ecology. These elements populate the cognitive worlds of legislators and others involved in law making, shaping the political epistemic in determinate ways. These legacies, in other words, are material
86 and symbolic, and saturate the deeply humanized relations of law making and governing in Wales and in much of Britain more generally. They also in form the awareness of and desire to participate in historical change and movement that characterizes most of my interlocutors, from the demimonde of the street to the more rarefied and totemic worlds of the political chambers. My interest is in understandi ng law making and political legal rule regimes from the perspective of the cognitive worlds of those who create law, and of legal and political subjects more generally, and connecting these with the outcomes of equality and other institutional initiatives. Withi n this observation analytical space, I give specific attention to particular forms of difference, namely race (and ethnicity) and mental disor der, as objects of law and government and with distinct problematizations and consequential effects More p recisely, I examine difference in Britain in two senses: the national territorial sense brought about through political and legal devolution, and the legal subjective sense within the national territorial jurisdictions, especially as these vary between the center and the devolved administrations. The State and the Nations: Devolution, Territorial Politics, and Ensemble Relations Devolution is a complex, asymmetrical, and emergent mode of government. The devolved administrations are not independent, and de volved Britain is not a federal or quasi federal state. Parliament in Westminster explicitly retains its sovereign prerogative, but has transferred executive powers to the regional administrations, institutionalized in an elected Assembly in Wales, an elec ted Assembly in Northern Ireland, and an elected Parliament in Scotland. The understanding of these powers as executive in nature is an important cultural artifact, and presents a seeming paradox:
87 what does it mean to transfer executive powers to a legisla tive body? On the Montesquieuian ( 1989 ) notion of the separation and balance of powers, this paradox seems to je opardize legitimate governing, and compromise the notion of limited government. In British constitutional terms and on the Parliamentary model, however, the embeddedness of the executive within the legislature is a conventional and relatively unproblematic mode of political and legal operation. More prosaically, the transfer of executive powers means that the functions of the former Secretaries of State for Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland have been bundled and delegated to the legislative bodies. In other words, the powers conferred upon the new legislative institutions in Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast are those formerly exercised by Ministers. This is important for two reasons: first, it illustrates the nature of the powers to be exercised by the n ew legislatures; and second, it illustrates the nature of the legislative remit of these institutions. In essence, these powers are limited, circumscribed, subject to Parliamentary oversight (and overrule and potential retraction), and bound to the delinea ted jurisdictions of the national regions. These are specifically national territorial and regional powers. The sovereign powers are not shared or segmented between multiple levels of government as in a federal state like Germany or the US; nor are soverei gn powers unified in a confederation, like Switzerland, Serbia and Montenegro, or Canada. Rather, the center, Parliament, as the state, with supreme power vested in an d vigorously guarded by Parliament. Within this formal construction, portions of the Parliamentary prerogative for certain fields of action are delegated to the devolved administrations. 3
88 The bundling and delegation have been precisely legislated in the A cts of settlement, namely the Government of Wales Act 1998 (and its amendment and reauthorization in 2006), the Scotland Act 1998, and the Northern Ireland Act 1998 (and its amendment in 2009). These Acts are constitutional legislation; they are integral t o the British constitutional order, alongside Magna Carta (1215), the Glorious Revolution (1688), the union moments, 4 the extension of the franchise (1832), Parliamentary sovereignty (1911), accession to the European Communities (1972), and the incorporati on into domestic law of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1998) ( cf. Wicks 2006 ) In British constitutionalism, some constitutional legislation and ordinary legislation. As pointed out in the introductio n, Britain has no single written constitution, nor is the British constitution codified as such. ( Dicey 1908:24 ) These conventions are practices, related to functions, which are not legally enforceable, but which are binding upon those to whom they apply. The British constitutional order is characterized by oscillations between rules of law and conventions, and the malleable and somewhat open ended nature of their co operation. As an example, the office of Prime Minister, quite obviously a ( Wicks 2006:62 ) It is a conventional ( Jennings 1959:81 82 ) Conventions are an essential part of the British constitutional order and the British culture of law and legal politics.
89 Decentralization and the Welfare State in Britain Decentralization and devolution have reshaped the legal and political landscape of Britain. They have also reshaped legal and political discourse, and the material and semiotic practices and epistemic communities of law making, po lice power initiatives, and the conduct of government. In addition, these processes have reconfigured the discourses and statuses of key objects of knowledge in legislation, regulation, and government. These objects include such totemic concepts as the soc ial, the citizen, the public sector, justice and equity, and the goals of governing, especially services, service provision, service delivery, and service outcomes. Decentralization and devolution, in other words, have become integral dimensions of the Bri tish and the local cultural fields. Part of the effect of devolution has been not merely the creation of new entities of government in Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, but the transformation of the meaning of the political constitution, of the politi cal commonwealth, and the nature of the state and nation. Nation, state, law, culture, and sociopolitical practices have all been fundamentally altered, reconstellated, in the devolved lifeworld. It is in this sense inscription and legibility in the everyday and in the interoceptive understandings of self, community, nation, constit ution, and state. New Labour and New Britain? Devolution 5 has been consistently narrated as an effort to decentralize without compromising the supremacy of the center, namely of Parliament. This is a paramount consideration in Britain, because of the doct rine and philosophy of Parliamentary sovereignty 6 and its epistemic basis comprising such principles as liberty, democratic
9 0 inclusion, representation, accountability, the maintenance of government, the separation of power, and the regulated monarchy ( Blackburn and Kennon 2003 ; Child 2002 ; Goldsworthy 1999 ) From the Magna Carta in 1215, to the formal annexation of Wales in 1536, to the Glorious Revolution of 1688, t o t he Union of England and Scotland in 1707, to the Reform Act of 1832, and Constitutio n is understood to have come about as a result of evolution, not deliberate construction. I t is an uncodified document, operating through both conventio ns and legal rules ( Loughlin 1992 ; Tomkins 2003 ) It is a political, rather than a legal, constitution, and a s a general statement, it is unique in the democratic world These are crucial elements of the political epistemic in Britain, and of the symbolic nature of the British c onstitution in its role as figurative escutcheon. This role has been integral to the political societies it birthed, and to shaping the experience of being British as well as the experiences of encounter s with Britain and the British The end of the twentieth century, and beginning of the twenty first, has seemingly brought about the end of this historic and organic const itution, and a different politico legal and cultural bte is emerging from the loss of empire, the transformation of the marmoreal imperial scape, accession to Europe, and the sweeping constitutional reforms initiated in 1997. Indeed, as Vernon Bog onstitution [ sic ] seems to be abo ut to British constitutionalism and constitutional history, and British politico legal history more generally, were however, a relatively unchanged political imaginary until 1997, ( Bogdanor 2005 ) This political
91 imaginary is deeply rooted in an insular sense of place, in the archipelagic aspirations of British sovereignty, so that global imperial loss was rarely narr ated as constitutional change; merely an external development in the Empire or the Commonwealth. Home rule in Ireland and devolution to Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are more explicitly framed as constitutional change. This change, what some call re volution and other refuse to call revolution, was undergirded by a set of modernist principles, common to Enlightenment European tradition These included modernization, flexibilization, accountability, transparency, subsidiarity, and increased individual rights Critical dimensions of the principled basis were consensus, trust, and subsidiarity and multilayered democracy. Devolution it self was only one component of the lar ger, more encompassing program of decentralization and consti tutional reform focused on institutional transformation in the judicial system (creation of a Supreme Court, incorporation of the Human Rights Act), the House of Lords (removal of all but 92 hereditary peers, removal of the Law Lords, and calls for an elected House), the House of Commons (reduction in the numbers), voting reform (introduction of proportional voting for representation in the European Parliament), local government reforms, formalization of the constitutional independence of the Bank of England from the Government, a s well as transparency moves and freedom of information innovations. ( Bogdanor 2005 ; House of Commons and Secretary of State for Wales 1997 ) This was a program d esigned to bring government closer to the people affected by decision [ sic ]. This modernization project created a new political economy in Britain and new cultural politics in law, policy, and government across and between the regions. From a
92 US perspective, these changes may strike one as relatively benign, perhaps even trivial. From a British perspective, they are deeply affecting and momentous transformations of identity producin g historico cultural institutions and normative means of political operation that attach to a value system and sense of self. This constitutional transmogrification is believed by some to mark the end of the ( Bogdanor 2009 ) In addition to being significant legal and political changes, these innova tions are also potent cultural symbols, and sites of struggles over meaning and signification As such, they produce and are the product of emergent social differences and differentiations They are n ot merely differences in inter personal or identity term s, but differentiations in national historical terms, and in contemporary geopolitical and neoliberal terms Furthermore, t he question whether these changes mark t he end of the historic British c onstitution is itself a cultural as well as political and leg al question, drawing into the discussion the na ture and status of constitutions and of the Brit ish constitution more precisely. At the time of its proposal 7 and in the run up to the referenda, devolution was frequently assessed as an attack on the Britis place in the world, and a diminution of Britishness. A number of the reforms, especially the implementation of the Human Rights Act and the creation of the supreme court, were interpreted as fundamental challenges t o the political bedrock of Parliamentary sovereignty and to understandings of the proper ways of doing law, policy, and government. The political commonwealth, for many in the later 1990s, was being squeezed between an intrusive and oppressive European Uni on and inappropriately assertive nationals in the Celtic fringe. Demands from historically resident communities
93 of color, migrants, refugees, and others added to the perception that something fundamentally British was being challenged and replaced. New Lab our increasingly came to be maligned by cultural, political, and social conservatives as the destroyer of (British) worlds. The reforms, however, are not merely changes in law or the dominance of a particular ethnic, racial, religious, national, or partis an ideology T hey are material changes, especially in the creation of new institutions of law, politics, and government. They are semiotic changes, or innovations in the ways by which meaning is assigned, authorized, contested. T hey are epistemological cha nges, or shifts in the ways by which realit y is known and intervened upon. Importantly, t hey are also culturally specific These changes, at their root, are about the fou ndational myths of the British s tate, and have to do with notions of Britishness and o ther forms of national and other identities, membership and (non)belonging, the conduct of politics and government, the historic meta narratives of liberty, justice, equality, and the nature of proper humanness and related symbolic forms that populate the British self imaginary As such, they interpellate and reconstruct history, for instance the history of colonization throughout the archipelago and in wider contexts. These reconstructions are then mapped onto the new poetics and institutions of constituti onal transformation, generating a new political theology of the social body, the body politic, and particular types of personal bodies in their connections with the rhetorics and practices of stakeholding and fairness, for instance, within the regime envir onments of equalities and medicolegal therapeutic strategies.
94 Devolution as one of these reforms, is a n instantiation of and response to the practical self controversies we have carried on s ince the seventeenth century about the best constitution of the political community ( Habermas 2001:xli, italics mine ) For Tony Blair and the advocates of devolution and constitutional reform, the political community in ( Cabinet Office 1999a ) This urge to modernize attached itself to particular infrastructures, namely the public sector, including health care, education, housing, employment, and benefits, among others; to particular institutions, including hospitals, schools, the Treasury, and the criminal justice system; to the democratic framework of the country; and to the oper ation of government itself ( Cabinet Office 1999a:4 ) But, what does it mean to modernize a modern system? For Blair, it meant open deserves) trust among its electorate. This is fairly conventional political rhetoric, but a ttention to the discourses of constitutional change, decentralization, devolution, the stakeholder society, and fairness highlights two essentials as the standards of action and evaluation: efficient conduct of government, and quick, relevant decision maki ng by agencies of the public sector. Law and the police power are implicated in both standards, as exemplars of functioning, and as instruments of implementation and measurement. From the perspective of Westminster and Whitehall decentralization and devo lution were move s towards modernization, flexibilization, and integration, toward
95 government to make life better ( Cabinet Office 1999a:4,5 ) From the perspective of the regions, Wales Scotland, and Norther n Ireland, decentralization and devolution meant the transfer of partial legal and political c ompetences, responsibility for some of policy silos and for the achievement of stated poli cy objectives. In the case of Wales, this includ ed health, education, housing, social services, economic development, agriculture, heritage, transport and roads, and Welsh language, among others, and the delivery of legal obligations in those fields. In ad dition, it required the taking on by a brand new organization, the National Assembly, of the (re)design and fiscal burdens of these responsibilities and the navigation of reconfigured relations with Parliament and the Cabinet, as well as those with the Eu ropean Union, through funding, oversight, and joint working requirements. Wales: A Case Study of Devolution and Territorial Politics [D] evolution is all about drawing more and more people into the business of government, rather than keeping them in their place and out of ours ( Morgan 2009 ) In the case of the National Assembly for Wales and the W elsh Assembly Government devolution has capacitated the Assembly with the complex and heavy obligation of fashioning a novel social body and a novel body politic, a socio cultural legal Welsh specificity on the other The ( Haraway 1997:29 ) performance of authority, and to its role in constituting publics, a public square, and subjects ( Egginton 2010 ) Its successes have not been a given. The percept ual and
96 practical transition to devolved government was a hard fought effort: even for advocates Carwyn Jones, personal communication, February 4, 2009). Recognition and acceptance by Welsh publics of the authority of the Assembly and of its statu s as the political center in Wales have been hesitant, incremental, and slow. Each success, however, has cumulatively assisted in the performance and persua siveness of devolved government. This is so such that by the tenth anniversary of devolution in 2009 Rhodri Morgan, the then First Minister could remark that, as a result of manifold capacity building initiatives, public building efforts, and successful was not a talki people into the business of government, rather than keeping them in their place and out ( Morgan 2009 ) form of leadership, the triumph over the 2000 2001 hoof in mouth crisis, the passage of its fi rst Measure, 8 the successful negotiation of the first legislative competence order (LCO), 9 school breakfasts and free prescriptions, and the formation of the One Wales coalition government (and the translation of the One Wales principles into practice) in 2007. The making body with
97 power an d authority to both sanction and persuade in order to pursue its commitments to achieving a specific Welsh way of governing. Since 1999, the legislative output of the Assembly has been relatively consistent: between 1999 2010 there have been twelve Measur es passed, and 2,164 pieces of subordinate legislation. This means an average of 180 legal instruments each year, with peak years in 2000 (224 pieces) and 2006 (222 pieces). 10 Are these big numbers? What does it mean? As a comparison, between 2000 2010, the British Parliament itself passed 399 Acts, and 21,563 statutory instruments, an average of 2,196 legal instruments each year in approximately the same period. Massive, and hardly the full extent of 11 Better scala r comparisons, perhaps, would be with Scotland and Northern Ireland, devolved regional siblings of Wales. Between 1999 2010, Scotland, which has an elected Parliament and therefore is of a different politico legal order than Wales, passed 163 Acts and 4, 818 statutory instruments. This works out to an average of 452 legal instruments each year, with peak years in 2005 (493 pieces) and 2007 (601 pieces). In the same years, Northern Ireland, with an elected Assembly and on the same order as Wales, passed 75 Acts, 5,904 statutory rules, and 117 Orders in Council. 12 This means an average of 871 legal instruments per year during which the Northern Ireland Assembly was operational, with peak years in 2003 (475 pieces) and 2005 (482 pieces). 13 The Northern Irish cas e is somewhat distinct, for several reasons, not the least of which is the fact that the Northern Ireland Assembly was suspended between
98 the years 2002 and 2007. Nonetheless, compared to its devolved siblings, Wales seems to have been relatively quiescent. Is this important? Is it illustrative? These figures certainly leave us with some general questions: 1. What counts as law? Or more specifically, what counts as legislation and therefore as the constitutive analysand of legisprudence? 2. What is the rela tionship of legislation to other forms of positive law? 3. What is the relationship between the particular form of government and its ability and willingness to produce law? And 4. What has devolution wrought, in terms of legislation, the police power, the conduct of government, and the outcomes of struggles for equality? 1 The British National Party (BNP) was resurgent during the period of my field research, promoting a white Britain; employment, housing, and education preferences for white Britons; apartheid and anti miscegenation laws; active campaigning whites. A scandal mplicating a relatively large and diverse array of elites, including high ranking police and military officers, Members of Parliament, mayors and local government councilors, clergy, doctors, lawyers, academics, and others. In addition, in local and Europe an elections held during the period, the BNP secured a number of seats, provoking a strong reaction, including large demonstrations in Cardiff, Bristol, Birmingham, and other cities, and the creation of the anti fascist organization Hope Not Hate (see http://www.hopenothate.org.uk/ ). 2 One of the more absurd measures of success was death during hospital stay, which was counted as a successful outcome of throughput. 3 devolution, this means that the devolved administrations act as agents of Parliament, their powers an ( Martin and Law 2006:157 ) 4 The Union of England and Wales occurred de facto and militarily during the reign of Edward I and was announced (but not legislated) in 1295. The de jure unification occurred under Henry VIII in 1536 and 1542. The Union of th e monarchs of England and Scotland was a negotiated result achieved in 1701. The Union of Great Britain and Ireland, which formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was achieved in 1800. The Irish Free State, under a form of Home Rule autonomy separated from the union in 1922, and in 1927 Parliament enacted the name change to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Republic of Ireland seceded formally in 1948. Devolution, I argue, is a new configuration of the union histo rather than as a unitary state ( Wicks 2006 ) In my formulation, I signal the union and its multiplex 5 The political and legal processes of devolution began with referendums on devolution in Scotland and Wales, and on a partnership form of devolution in Northern Ireland (in conformity with the Good Friday
99 Agreement); and, following on successful referendums in each region, the passage of Acts implementing the terms of devolution: the Scotland Act (199 8), which created a directly elected Scottish Parliament; the Government of Wales Act (1998), which created the directly elected National Assembly for Wales; and the Northern Ireland Act (1998), which created the directly elected Northern Ireland Assembly 6 Kingdom although this is really an unsatisfact ory prescription ( Goldsworthy 1999:237 ) 7 Tony Blair campaigned in 1996 on the devolution platform; the Labour Party won the election and entered into Government in 1997. The referenda were held in 1998, and the initial Acts of the devolution settlement were debated and passed in 1999. 8 Measure is the term used to indicate primary legislation passed by the National Assembly with Royal assent In Parliament, primary legislation ins called an Act of Parliament; a Measure is its equivalent in Wales Primary legislation passed by the legislatures of Scotland and Northern Ireland are also called Acts 9 An LCO is an additional legal instrument for drawing down powers to the Assembly. The Government of Wales Acts delineate framework powers, within which certain competences are not within the purview of the Assembly, In these cases, to legislate or act the Assembly must obtain an LCO. This process will soon be formally rescinded, as the 2011 referendum on full law making powers for the Assembly was succes sful, and the Assembly will be granted these powers in the upcoming Parliamentary and Assembly sessions (i.e. in the Fall of 2011). 10 The statistics of legal output come from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ ( a ccessed November 25, 2010). 11 In addition, there are Local Acts, Ministerial Orders, and other forms of law that could be considered. For the purposes of the comparison here, Acts and Statutory Instruments are sufficient. 12 During this period the Northe rn Ireland Assembly was suspended, therefore no Acts were passed. Statutory Rules and Orders in Council continued to be created, however, through the administrative apparatus of Whitehall and the Secretary of State for Ireland, hence the peak years of outp ut during the suspension. 13 It should a lso be clarified that the Northern Ireland Assembly has a particular legal technology, the Order in Council, that is nominally not shared with the National Assembly for Wales or the Scottish Parliament although the Order in Council and the Legislative Competence Order share qualities
100 CHAPTER 3 SITUATING LEGISLATION IN A BRIEF SKETCH OF THE INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF LAW The central organizing metaphor in Anglo American law and in sociolega l scholarship generally is the dispute. This metaphor has brought with it a privileged focus on jurisprudence, although other contenders have emerged in the discursive pantheon and theoretical industries of law and social sciences, including rights, citizenship, constitutionalism, criminal substantivism, law and economics, and law in context I 1 to correct the deficiencies of the anthropology of law. Legisprudence consi ders law not as cases, but as legislation. It cognizes positive law in all its forms: legislation, constitutions, statutes, statutory instruments, regulations, rules, and the myriad related technical forms that accompany positive law: provisions, codicils, amendments, guidance, procedures, contracts, compacts, and so on. The breadth of law, in this formulation, encompasses legislatures, executives, and courts 2 ; policing institutions; para institutions, such as civil services, and central banks; quasi public bodies engaged (or authorized) as legal actors; as well as the empowerments and inducements awarded to civil society and private interests in the pursuit of goals of public order and proper social formation. In addition, legisprudence also entails the cul tural expectations of governing through these forms, and normative expectations of equality before the law. In other words, I understand law to consist simultaneously of the rules of law, and the ru le of law, and this forms the background and c ontext in which I offer my analysis of legislation and police power. 3
101 This is not to adopt an a critical stance that takes the normative or the cultural at face value. I do not presume that the rule of law proceeds fairly and equitably, that all persons ar e equal before the law, or that the rules of law are not implicated in unfair forms of accumulation, marginalization, exclusion, and expropriation in contexts of historical and contemporary, domestic and global, political and economic restructurings. Quite the opposite. However, such fictions and ramifications are a necessary dimension of the analysis of law, and can tell us a great deal about particular societies, and such considerations deeply inform my research, analysis, and interpretations. The absence of ( Thomas 2004 ) denotation of law as coldly rational, I do take his concern seriously, and agree with him that attention to the rules of law, the content of legislation, its practitioners, and its institution My position should also not be presumed to indicate an instrumentalist approach to law. I do not mean to suggest that legal prescriptions and behavior are isomorphic. Nor do I assume that in Britain, o r in any other setting, for that matter, that cultural familiarity with, expectations of, or shared meanings regarding law predominate. Rather, as my field research has made clear to me, notions of law, legality, and lawfulness take manifold different shap es, as do legal consciousness and legal agency. Part of my argument in this dissertation is that law in situ that is, law making in Britain and the devolved administrations, has constitutive valence, and brings new ways of being into being, aligning citiz ens, migrants, refugees, and others in common ways, transforming
102 and shaping simultaneously S/subjects, institutions, and the polity. Police power is an integral dimension of these enactments and their consequential effects. I deploy legisprudence as both a heuristic for developing research into legislation, and a framework for theorizing legislation My basic approach is the consideration of content, production, products, and consequential effects, which enables me to examine not just legislation, but legi slative bodies and delibera tion and related legal practices, as well as subjectivization and the relationships of law and cultural or racial difference, especially in struggles for equality and recognition. Building on the intellectual foundations of legal realism, critical legal and critical race theories, and the lineage of anthropolo gy of law scholarship, I aim to broaden the scope of what gets to count as relevant for inquiries into law and as the valid object of (sustained) analysis for anthropologies of law There is a tendency to myopia in the anthropol ogy of law, a tendency which: (1 ) heuristics for entering into analyses of law; and which (2 ) reduces the complexi ties of the intellectual tradition of the field, creat ing a linear trunk of dogmatic res earches out of a relatively diverse dendritic array of inquiries and representations The intellectual iscursively establishes ( Haraway 1997 ) ; my starting point is the need to transform the received ideas that have patterned the univocal account s of law established and performed within the discipline. Law cannot be reduced to dispute resolution, rights, citizensh ip, or criminal substantivism. It cannot be reduced to rules, norms, or processes. It cannot be reduced to social control, domination, or the
103 instrument of social sectors. It cannot be reduced to an epiphenomenon; nor to one element of binary constructions with culture, economics, or society. Finally, an adequate historical reconstruction of, and innovative agenda for, the anthropology of law cannot be reduced to the debates that privi leges these aspects Although law is ir reducible to conflict management, rights, citizenship, or criminal substantivism, there is a strong tendency to do just that The field is densely packed with analyses of disputes, methods and sites of dispute resolution, participants in disputes, and the nature of the dispute as a social microcosm In themselves, such analyses are relatively unproblematic Taken as a whole, however, to the extent that they define the field and foreclose alternatives, the y are quite problematic, for four primary reasons Fi rst, is the privileging of judicial forms of law qua law There is a presumption, usually unreflexively accepted, that there is no other dimension or site for finding law and its relations with the social This presumption rearticulates and reinscrib es con ventional analytical boundaries, and makes difficult the development of alternative ap proaches to the examination, analysis and interpretation of the phenomena of law and it s relations with the social, with the cultural, with the self and with subjectivi zation. Second is the filtering effect of the jurisprudential approach. The reading, the reception, and the effects of reception of the works o f the anthropology of law bring about a set of epistemological standards that tend to red uce the breadth and div ersity of prior researches. For example, Gluckman ( 1955 ; 19 56 ; 1965 ) analyses of law tends to be reduced to merely analyses of dispute resolution If we temper the abridgement work done by the focus on juristic forms of law, we can read a number of importan t
104 their relations to their cultural settings, or what one might think of as an ontological concern; and his concern for reasoning, that is, for the epistemological cognitive, and deliberative activities and choices that populate the judicial process In short, rather than a focus only on the judicial process and dispute resolution per se be read to engage a broader array o f anthropological concer ns, which enables a certain rehabilitation of his work to anthropology in general, as a contribution to a field of inquiry Movement away from the core trend does occur but slowly and sporadically, de laying the development of alternate research and analytical possibilities Third, is the tendency to reduc e the modes of inquiry into law to constructions of practice and theory, in either an interiorized sense or an exteriorized sense. The interiorized p oses advocacy (practicing law) versus jurisprudence (legal ph ilosophy and legal education). The exteriorized either poses law as an autonomous domain susceptible to only or lumps law into polit ics. These juxtapositions erect boundaries and treat them as real, conceptually demarcating social and political, and theoretical and practical spaces, illustrating an achieved consensus, or an achieved hegemony. Analysands are treated as if they belong, n aturally, to one or another bounded domain, rather than as local conditions and agent motivations and intentions, acting and conducing action, simultaneously challen ging and (re)constituting extant boundaries and communities of interest ( Bowker and Star 2000 ; Star 2010 ; Star and Griesemer 1989 )
105 Fourth is the tendency to pose law in terms of positivism naturalism debate s or to sterile rehearsals of materialist and idealist disagreements about essences, whether these are historical or transcendental, and what rela tion such essences have to political communities. Although these are useful historiographic and philosophical p oints that tell us something about the historical epistemologies of law and its socio cultural settings and about the human sciences that analyze law, they do not constructively engage with relevant contemporary concerns If my analysis holds, it follows that there can be no single unitary concept of what law is; rather, it is diverse across fields, time, professions, and practices, as well as across typological and substantive identifiers. Legal philosophers, legal theorists, and social theorists have di ffering ideas as to the nature and identity of law Practitioners, too, have varying ideas, so that lawyers, advocates, legislators, judges, jailers police and medicolegal personnel understand and interact differently with law Th ese differences are not just theoretical or practical but are also discursive, that is, material semiotic, epistemological, and representational. They are built into institutions and infrastructures; inscribed in stat utes, statutory instruments, regulations, and ordinances; and they subtend the procedural isms of law, in the taking of evidence; committee work; deliberating bills; amending proposed texts; voting; conducting tribunals; conforming to the requirements of standing orders; teaching law, and professionalizing. In decentr alizing Britain, and in the post devolution administrations in Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, the political, institutional, epistemological, and practical realities of the work of law and the conduct of government have been significantly transforme d. This has had the effect of making the local and ethnospecific dimensions of legislation
106 in Britain and in Wales and the other regions newly relevant and compelling. semantics, and pragmatics of law making, the police power, and the everyday work of government ( Haraway 1997 ) In this dissertation, I argue for the normalization of legislation and its progeny as disciplinary commonpla ces. Before I proceed to the conceptual development of legisprudence, however, let me ground this discussion in some particulars from Wales. Welsh Law: A Brief Excursus and Justification for Theoretical Practice For the first time since the tenth century, a Welsh law was passed in 2008. 4 This law, the NHS Redress (Wales) Measure 2008 was enabling legislation which targeted liability reform within the NHS, but with implications for public law in Wales more generally. As enabling legislation, this M easure extended the capacity of the Welsh Government and Ministers to create subordinate (that is, Welsh) legislation, securing and strengthening the legal framework of devolution in Wales. It also was a part of a Britain wide movement toward self regulati on as a preferred mode of governing, and ( 2006 ) He althcare Quality Improvement Plan ( 2008 ; 2010 ) The Redress Measure a rather humble bit of legislation, is credited with the inauguration of rejuvenated Welsh law making, although this contention is only partially accurate. During my year of fieldwork, the Assembly passed two Measu res, and had 2011, there has been enough law making activity to warrant the emergence of a specifically Welsh corpus of law, and
107 an institutional and epistemological infrastructure to support the n otion and practical which features sections dedicated to the legislation of the devolved regions, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. up themes endemic to the anthropology of law, including What is law? What is the relationship between law and politics? and What is the relationship between law and identity, or law and subjectivity? Devolution opens new windows on these questions. In the paragraph above, and in many analyses of devolution, Wales undergoes a historical re existence, its mimetic effect, is pegged to law, and more specifically, to legislation, to the positive enunciations of the Welsh legislature and government. This is relatively unsurprising, and a rather banal observation characteristic of our expectations of polities as functional entitie s. Or is it? Our question, What is law? can now be repositioned, not to ask about the definition or nature or essence of law, but about what gets to count as law, as the meaningful and useful analysand in the anthropology of law and politics. Additionally, consideration of the connections between polity and legislation can lead to fruitful discussions of the symbolic capital of law making, as well as of the control over the shape of the political narrative as newly authorized political and legal agents take on the role of national myth makers, generating, at least in part, the conditions for imagining community.
108 Colloquially, we understand that legislation is a privileged function of the state, but in disciplinary terms, anthropologists of law and politics have typically consigned legislation to the analytical and interpretive dustbin. What is law? conventionally incomplete inventory, and in an absurd way, if we accept as a s tarting premise that the polity and law are necessarily conjoined, then the dispute centric model more or less removes Wales from the analytical world: Wales has no court system of its own, it has no system of dispute resolution that is its own. The judici ary in Wales is an arm of Her 5 Certainly there are courts in Wales, but they are not Welsh courts, so the linkages between law and society, between law and politics as drawn by court centric models, creates odd and d iscordant prescriptive, descriptive and interpretive effects. A better response to What is law? related technologies of law, such as subordinate legislation delegated legislation and statutory instrumen ts to count as law, then our conceptualization of law changes, is enlarged, becomes more encompassing. If we do allow these other forms of legal technology to count, then the first bit of law passed by the National Assembly was The Education (School Govern ment) (Wales) Regulations, 1999 made August 5, entered into force September 1, and one of 30 pieces of law passed that year. A survey of the competences, of the scope and po litico legal topography of devolution: education, housing, agriculture, health, local government, transport. A look at an introductory text of one of these instruments is also revealing:
109 The National Assembly for Wales makes the following Order in exerci se of the powers conferred on the Secretary of State for Wales by Section 126(3) of the Nat ional Health Service Act 1977 and section 5(1), and paragraph 29(1) of Schedule 2 to the National Health Servic e and Community Care Act 1990 and of all other powers enabling the Secretary of State in that behalf and now vested in the National Assembly for Wales, considering it appropriate in the interests of the heal th service to make this Order and after completion of the consultation prescribed under paragraph 29(3 ) of The National Health Service Trusts (Wales) (Dissolution No. 2) Order 1999 footnotes removed). This preamble gives us insight into the distribution of devolved power, the historic and ongoing nature of the relationship of Wales with England and Britain; the Assembly as representative of a new modality of legality and of governing; the importation of prior principles; the inscription of democratic mandates and the drawing of boundaries; and the vision and early governing objectives of the Assembly, namely the dissolution of the existing health infrastructure, a precursor to subsequent institutional and structural reform of the National Health Service in Wales focused in large part on principles of social governance. Furthe r, the preamble demonstrates the intertextual nature of law, the deep ecology of legislative (institutional, statutory, and regulatory) architectures, and the presumptive nature of Parliamentary law, that is, its supremacy, its binding nature, its sense of permanence (albeit, ironically inflected through a related sense of impermanence, transitoriness, and mutability). The preamble also highlights the material contemporary political climate.
110 Importantly for the work at hand, the preamble, and the instrument it introduces, also underscores the nature of health as a critical dimension of governing: on the one hand, as the largest budget item in Wales; on the other, as a key element of the poli ce power, of the reason of state and Polizeiwissenschaft Health is also a key site at which struggles for equality are enacted, and the multiple intersecting rules regimes and policy strategies and practices are crucial to these struggles in complex ways. The preamble normal, and normalizing domains through which governing, including valuation, is properly to proceed ( Dubber and Valverde 2006 ; Foucault 1988 ; Gordon 1991 ; Valverde 2003a ) In this environment, the limits on political power are seen in the text, in the content of statutory and regulatory documents. New claim s to legitimacy, to rule, and to authority over the identification and management of public issues are also seen, as are parallel claims, from the Assembly and Parliament, on the political and legal constituents of the territorial nation. D evolution has brought about novel material, semiotic, and epistemic realities, through a precise form of law, the statute and its progeny, that articulate the design and intent of c hange; through a more encompassing sense of law as a necessary and proper component of or dering society; and a particular way of imagining social worlds and their futures, as well as the technologies to constitute and progress those imagined worlds and futures ( Geertz 1972b ; Goodman 1978 ) We often imagine this generic sense as the system of law, the rule of law, or as Paul Kahn ( 1997 ) has called it, the t stake, in part, are concepts of the public weal and contests over the identification and implementation of problems and solutions, and how best to a chieve
111 designated goals for the interests involved. I n general, regardless of the goals, the nature of reforms, or partisanship in the designation of problems and solutions, there is virtual unanimity regarding law as the proper, indeed, the indispensable mechanism for achieving all aspects of change Attention to decentralization and devolution in Britain, to the development of the National Assembly for Wales, and its law and policy making and conduct of government open a novel lens for the anthropology o f law, with implications for the discipline more generally. A Brief Critical Review of Anthropologies of Law and Government The intellectual tradition of the anthropolog y of law and policy is discontinuous in two sense s. First, the privileging of dispute resolution as the central, or indeed the sole site in which law is to be found has generated a relatively overdetermined corpus of anthropological analyses of courts, criminal justice, and rights. The second is the dearth of integrative work that considers law and government as significant and germane co constituents of social worlds observed by anthropologists. My goal is to suggest remedies for these problems, not in order to overthrow extant agendas of research, but to supplement and to embed a new dimen sion within existing frames. I attempt this not just to place legislation in social context, but in intellectual context, and to remove legislation from isolation and recover its popular dimensions. I remain shocked and beleaguered by the state of the disc ipline in this regard, and its willingness to ignore the important role of legislation in the social worlds we study, its presence for those who inhabit the multiple and particularized stories we tell, its generative nature in the lives of those with a sta ke in its everyday engulfment. Anthropology needs to understand legislation as something other than just a corpus of rules or the besmirched product of cynical political instrumentalisms. In
112 addition, practitioners need to become more familiar with and co mfortable with legislatures. 6 There is no place on our globe that goes unlegislated, no place that is beyond the gaze and the imagination of the legislator. The encounter with legislated core dimension of the of the legislator. I have learned in my field work that ordinary folk are keen observers of their local legal systems, and of larger This is not to say that they share the same familiarity with legal things as enjoyed by familiarize the unfamiliar. This broad (self imposed) mandate covers, if such a distinction is sustainable. both the intellectual and the popular: to familiarize an thropologists with legislation and at the same time to engage with popular encounters with, understandings of, and agency vis vis the law. The analysis of legislated and regulated environments, and the recovery of these intellectual and popular dimension s of law, also includes the effort to give law (back) to the people. This entails inquiring into both the meanings that legislation intends and the meanings that people attach to legislation in particular times, places, and contingent circumstances. Ultima tely, on the long view, this has clear implications for our understanding of the relationship of the ( Dale 2009 ) Regarding the over empha sis on dispute resolution, criminal substantivism, and rights, the salient point to note is the absence of considerations of rules of law and positive law, especially legislation, in the anthropological literature ( Snyder 19 81a ) My argument is that such rules are essential social and cultural artifacts, but one would be hard pressed to find sustained antecedent work in anthropology to commend the
113 argument (but see the following excellent exceptions: Borneman 1992 ; Coutin 2000 ; Holston 2008 ; Mandel 2008 ; Moore 1998 ) The distinction upon which this argument rests must be understood carefully: the early works of legal ethnography were certainly concerned with rules, but this concern encountered two obstacles. First, much of the classic l egal ethnographic work was attentive to rules primarily as these were inductively derived from attention to courts, delicts, and trouble cases; second, the reception of these works has sublimated their attention to positive rules of law. Legislation and re lated forms of positive law are missing from both ethnographic and intellectual concern. These forms need to be objects of analysis and its interlocutors. The emphas is on and development of case interests and case methods emanates from three antecedents. First, from natural law and social contractarian theories; second, from the hegemony of Anglophone researchers and Anglo colonial administrations in the execution of early legal ethnographic research and writing; and third, the ascendancy of the realist movement. These factors created a path on which the anthropology of law has found itself, will little initiative or support for alternatives. Where alternative approach es have developed, they have been circumscribed within resolution. For example, much time and ink have been devoted to debating the questions of whether law is universal or locally variable ( Bohannan 1957 ; Gluckman 1955 ) ; whether law is better conceptualized as rules or as processes of dis pute resolution ( Comaroff and Roberts 1981 ; Moore 1978 ; Radcliffe Brown 1952 ; Turner
114 1957 ) ; or whether dispute settlement is more properly judicial, formal, and rule based or negotiated, social, and politicized ( Gluckman 1955 ; Gulliver 1963 ; Nader 1995 ) Whatever the particular merits of the argume nts, and the preferences of each of these scholars and their allies in debate, fundamentally, the discussion resides in a context of dispute management. What happened, then, to the precocious explorations of forms of positive law in the classics of legal ethnography? Many of the early ethnographers of law were aware of, concerned with, and attentive to positive law (as regulations, legislation, or codes), but the reception of their work has infrequently taken up these concerns. Where these concerns have be en addressed, some excellent work has been produced ( e.g. Coombe 1998b ; Coutin 2000 ; Darian Smith 1999 ; Mandel 2008 ; Maurer 1997 ; Moore 1998 ; Perry and Maurer 2003 ; Snyder 1999 ; Snyder 1981b ; Snyder and Savan 1977 ; Thomas 1996 ; 2004 ) but, as noted above, it is discontinuous, in the sense that it is not cumulative or sustained, and there is little in the way of a corpus of literature to which one can turn to uncover what anthropologists collectively think about legislation, constitutions, regulatory regimes, or related forms of positive law. There is also little in the way of calls for a remediation of this l acuna, and much that pretends to recognize the gap does so as much to dismiss as to rectify. collapse of law into disputing and its theoretical consequences should not be consequences of this collapse, and finding a way forward is not as easy as Donovan
115 wo uld like us to think. It certainly is not as simple as his suggestion that practitioners continues to present clear difficulties and limitations for the discipline of anthropol ogy generally, and for the specific subfield of the anthropology of law in particular. I have three main objections to the ongoing neglect of positive law in the ethnographic literature. First is the absence of theorization of legislation specifically, an d positive law more generally. Second is the backward looking inclination of anthropological studies of adjudication and dispute resolution, which tends to create a past oriented, sacralist, traditionalist, romantic, and conservative corpus of research and writing. The tendential nature of such research and reportage positions ethnographic subjects vis vis their histories in particular and limiting ways. Third is the virtual removal of futures orientations of groups under study. Legislation, much more tha n judicially derived rules, situates a people in terms of their sense of their own future and control over that future, as well as their sense of autonomy ( Moore 2005 ) Anthropological research that precludes or excludes legislation and other forms of positive law also excludes these futures and the relationship o f a particular group of people to their future. The effect of this is not just to deny people their future and their capacity to imagine it, to seek to shape and change it; the effect is also to remove peoples from the future and to foreclose their presenc e and potential as historical agents. This epistemological colonization is an artifact shared across much anthropological literature and scholarly activity, and one which has resulted in significant empirical, interpretive, and intellectual losses. Recover y of historical, epistemological, and intellectual agency is an important
116 activity for anthropologists to undertake, including recovery among ethnographic subjects themselves, and the recovery of the intellectual products of anthropological scholars margin alized on account of their race, class, gender, and other identity features delegitimized by epistemologies of ignorance ( Harrison 1997 ; Harrison and Harrison 1999 ; Sullivan and Tuana 2007 ) This effort at recovery underlie s and serves to justify much of my work for this dissertation. Let me draw a partial portrait of the existing literature and its gaps, in order to link the assertions above to the intellectual history of the discipline. Anthropologies of Law Henry Sumner Maine began his seminal Ancient Law most celebrated system of jurisprudence known to the world begins, as it ends, with a (1986:1) Maine was referring, of course, to Rome and Roman law, and his use of these as figures was design ed to highlight his arguments against prevailing nineteenth century legal ideologies, characterized by the ahistoricism and utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and John Austin. Bentham had argued that the end of legislation was not to conserve tradition, but to bring about the greatest good for the greatest per se existed only where a sovereign posited it. Both thinkers were fundamentally concerned with positive law, and its role in social ordering and achi eving specific future goals. Enculturated in the common law system of England, however, each was at pains to explain the role and function of jurists: for Bentham and Austin, the jurist was responsible for interpreting positive rules and applying them, in
117 legislated politico legal env ironment. He was also deeply interested in the relationship the rules of positive law. antec edents of law, and the comparative analysis of law. What has often been made of instance of evolutionist thinking, and as a series of contrasts that illuminate the stagist evolutionary commonplaces of archaism and modernity ( Moore 2005:20ff ; Rouland 1994 ) These developmental contrasts are generally pared down to progressive development of social forms: sentiment to contract; family to territory; collective to private property; and the two most famous: tort to crime; and status to contract. Out of these mo st famous contrasts, what has captured the anthropological imagination is legal relativity, thus extending the project developed by Montesquieu ( 1989  ) goes virtually unnoticed, and the breadth of his attention to codes, codification, the universality (historically and geographically) of written law, and the fundamentally constitutive na ture of written law is generally elided. His belief and robustly supported argument that local variability in law proceeds from within law itself is a key dimension in theoretical and ideological genealogies regarding the autonomy of law. Coupled with rela ted ideas of the source and direction of causal changes in culture and society, crime and rights, which themselves garner relatively little attention in his writings. Main
118 ( 1986:vii ) Unfortunately, in the anthropology of law, the insights and debates stimulated rarely tend towards the issues of codes, codification, rules of positive law, or the independence of law. Ancient Society ( Morgan 2000 ) Morgan emphasized the link between law and property, and id ea of property in the human mind commenced in feebleness and ended in becoming its master passion. Governments and laws are instituted with primary reference to its ( 2000:521 ) For Morgan, property was the driving force of evolution, which had produced the shift from an originary human condition of matriarchy to a latterl y condition of patriarchy, the institution of which was the basis of variety, and so the distinction between law and custom, for example, remains untheorized in his writing. Morgan did draw on John Locke and other social contract theorists, however, and it seems clear that the existence and importance of codified rules are a basic premise for Morgan, including for the Iroquois, among whom he conducted fieldwork. In M connected to property, and thus to the advent and firm establishment of civilization. however, preferring instead t o recall his concern with kinship, his evolutionist ideologies evolution was historical, not teleological. The causes of change, for Morgan, arose from
119 initial conditi ons, and were therefore external to the theory rather than derived from it, making his evolutionism empirical, not formal ( Morgan 2000 ) P ositive rules of law these rules from the analysis of social change, social conditions, or historical movement becomes quite problematic for understanding or appreciat contribution to ethnographies of law. The general failure to acknowledge his modifications of evolutionism (and the move away from a natural law approach that they signal) and their import for anthropological analysis of law r esults in the failure to develop lines of thinking that explore the role and relationship of positive rules of law to historical, cultural, and social change. It should be noted that Morgan was an early ethnographic fieldworker, and based much of his thin king and writing on his encounters with ethnographic subjects and his empirical observations of these experiences. The genesis of the core anthropological method is conventionally credited to Bronislaw Malinowski, however. Arising from new, expanding, and intensified (colonial) encounters with a diverse array of human groups, and ongoing debates regarding the theoretical issues of evolutionism, functionalism, and universalism (and their paired alternates), the social sciences in the late nineteenth and earl y twentieth centuries were consumed by major concerns with the attributes and comparability of human groups. Commonest among the arguments was the suggestion notions, but often ended up reinforcing them, not due necessarily to their own theorizations and interpretations of empirical materials, but more often to the reception
120 and inter pretation of their works. Maine and Morgan, for example, were both received reductively, as noted above, and this conventional reading has largely perdured to the present. One result of this has been the sustained assertion that certain types of people, Crime and Custom in Savage Society ( 1926 ) based on his fieldwork among the Trobriand Islanders between 1915 and 1918, it is virtually impossible to cont inue to make this claim in good conscience, or societies. his taxonomy that embrac es the classic distinction, also seen in Maine, between governing all of tribal ( 1926: 30 31 ) and he devoted considerable space in the text ( 1926:31 ) This aspect of his writing i s nearly completely ignored by his successors, however, in favor of his material on crime, his vague definition of it, the absence of coercion he remarked, and his analysis of the functionalism of the category of criminal acts; that is, the recognition of certain acts as a particular type of violation of social norms functions to foster reciprocity and sustain social cohesion, (see e.g. Conley and O'Barr 2002 ; Nader 2002 ; Radcliffe Brown 1952 ) The reception and the effect of the reception of Crime and Custom in Savage Society Ancient Law and
121 Ancient Society h as thus played a key role in the overdetermination of dispute resolution and criminal substantivism in the anthropological literature, and the neglect of positive law, of extra judicial rules, rule functions, and rule effects. Where rules of conduct have been explicitly considered, early ethnographers tended to focus on their existence, their capture in codebooks, and the nature of their enforceability. This work was conducted nearly exclusively in colonial settings, and the preeminent work in this regard ( 1938 ; 1943b ) writings on the codification of indigenous law, based on his fieldwork among the Tswana of the a rule of conduct which the Tswana were willing to enforce constituted a rule of law. Schapera was commissioned and funded by the colonial government and collected lists of these rules, by enabling the allocation to Native groups autonomy of decision making in certain limited domains of social life ( Donovan 2008 ; Moore 1969 ) From our vantage point in late modernity, this is clearly an ethically challenged or production, although his work has survived and continues to be used by independent Botswana ( Heald 2003 ) It should also be noted that Schapera ( 1943b ) Handbook has exerted relatively little anthropology ( Moore 1969:262 )
122 mechanism of both continuity and change and the role of chiefs as innovators of social change ( Schapera 1943a ; 1947 ; 1970 ) Nonetheless, his work is explained away as merely lists and generally atheoretical. His attention to the making and instrumentalization of rules and their recovery and maintenance demonstrates at least formally the significance of positive and codified rules for both society and for however, tends to be regarded as mildly interesting, but more or less unproductive for anthropolo gy ( cf. Moore 2005 ; perhaps more illustrative is Schapera's absence from recent important texts in the anthropology of law, including Nader 2002 ; Rosen 2006 ; Starr and Collier 1989 ; Starr and Goodale 2002 ) Where rules of conduct have been considered on less pragmatic a dministrative terms, ethnographic and theoretical attention has tended to be directed at their functional roles as mechanisms of social regulation. Building on and extending as law, legal ethnography in the mid attention to actual enforcement and the institutions and structures of enforcement. These developing enforceability concerns, however, subsumed rules within the act ivities of enforcement institutions, namely forms of tribunal (as distinct from a police force, for instance), thus reinscribing and (re)privileging adjudication centric design preferences and models of the nature, character and essence of what gets to cou nt as law. Instances typically considered to embody this approach in the classic legal ethnographic literature include Gluckman ( 1955 ; see also 1956 ) on the Barotse, and Bohannan
123 ( 1957 ) on the Tiv. For Gluckman, rules were of primary importance. He argued law should be understood as a body of rules, including statutes and judicial enunciations. nciation of rules by courts, but he did attend significantly to issues of legislation also, as well as the relationship of posited rules to adjudication. His attention to positive rules of law in legislation and statute, however, has been obscured by the r eception of his work and subsequent expansions upon it. Bohannan himself, in his linguisti c analysis, interpreted as equivalent to making legislation ( Bohannan 1957:55 ) Clearly, for Bohannan, the legal life of non European indigenous peoples is characterized only by jural phenomena, as exemplified by the Tiv. The argument between Gluckman and Bohannan turns out to be not merely one of comparative methodologies and the analytical relevance of western legal categories. It was, rather, rooted in distinctions drawn over the nature and sources of law, and the t call a full spectrum of law as a system, which includes posited rules (whether or not written or codified) as well as the institutions and infrastructures of dispute resolution. The premise argued by Bohannan, that native or tribal peoples are characteri and was a characteristic assumption held by many anthropologists, including the realists in legal anthropology. It is also one which continues to affect the field of the anthropology of law. 7 The ult imate legal realist ethnography of the period, and one which demonstrates the jural premise, is doubtless The Cheyenne Way: Conflict and Case Law in Primitive Jurisprudence ( Llewellyn and Hoebel 1941 )
124 conceptualizations of law, of what gets to count as law, and of what constitutes the proper sites and metho ds for legal anthropological inquiry. From the realist ascendency, courts, cases, and the trouble case method emerged as the privileged model of legal analytically with these dat a case already adjudicated (and the past tense is important; it was improper, for Llewellyn and Hoebel, to consider cases in progress). Their underlying functionalist premise, significantly inf luenced by Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and its outcomes should be predictable ( Llewellyn and Hoebel 1941 ) Regulation was one mechanism for channeling behavior, but the rather dim view of human nature held by the realists meant that they viewed regulation as misguided at best, with generally little to do with actual human behavior, and therefore ineffective as a deterrent. Bad Preeminently for the realists, this process of sorting out social messes is the work of courts, and dispute resolution, especially the trouble case, becomes not just a functional element of any society, but a microcosm of that society and its preferences for social ac tion. In other words, attention to the resolution of cases of dispute enables the anthropologist to inductively derive general rules of law and general propositions about the nature of a particular society. Although the realist movement receded and encount ered robust challenges from processualists, critical theorists, poststructuralists,
125 and others in the latter half of the twentieth century, the realist premises and, more importantly, the ongoing processes of reception of The Cheyenne Way The Judicial Pro cess among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia and Justice and Judgment among the Tiv among others, continue to inflect the anthropological imaginary, setting and maintaining conventional boundaries around law both in its internal distinction, i.e. jurispru dence versus legisprudence; and in its external distinctions, i.e. law vis vis politics and law vis vis society. The research and writings of Gluckman, Bohannan, Llewellyn and Hoebel, and their intellectual progeny continue in the realist vein, sublima ting positive law to juridical phenomena, and continuing to relate dispute resolution to larger social frames and the theoretical concerns of the discipline: for example, legal universalism for Gluckman; relativism and arbitration for Bohannan. The beginn ings of novel inquiry and challenges to the overdetermination of courts and dispute resolution can be found in work of Leopold Pospisil ( 1958 ) based on his fieldwork among the K apauku Papuans. His research and writing stands out in the ethnographic literature of the mid twentieth century. Pospisil shifted the discipline in two important ways. First, he asked again the der array of social institutions and the ways by which the relationships between institutions, society, and members of society worked to produce social order. Regarding the former, his interest was in establishing and articulating a clearer distinction bet ween law and other forms of social regulation, including custom and religion ( Pospisil 1958 ; 1971 ) None of his predecessors had adequately defined law, and so Pospisil set out to make such a
126 definition, and to do so, he opted to examine a much more diverse array of regulatory technologies, including institutions, rules, and related phenomena. Pospisil also drove forward scientific and comparative methodologies through his use of existing data to design and test theories regarding culture change and making generalizable cross cultural statements. Pospisil has been both applauded for his scientific approach ( Donovan 2008 ) and condemned for his scientism ( Goodale 1998 ) For my purposes what is useful from Pospisil, irrespective of his figuration in disciplinary debates over empirical versus text based and interpretive approaches, is his willingness, like Gluckman, to readily accept codes and regulations as relevant and important legal elements and as cognizable anthropological analysands. Granted, he tended, like the other realists, to privilege judicial or related authoritative decision making in trouble cases; nonetheless, the breadth of his category of law laid important, albeit infr equently taken up, groundwork for the analysis of positive law and rules of law. characterized by early ethnographic efforts to identify, to carve out and define the domai n and methods of the anthropology of law, as well as discussions of what American and European legal systems were able to learn from those of their nonliterate peers. 8 Disciplinary concerns had shifted from the evolutionism of the nineteenth century (altho ugh implicit evolutionism often remained), to a more general structuralist, functionalist, and translational concerns with legal difference and cross cultural commensuration of different legal forms and legal systems. Perhaps the most salient contributions of the classics of legal anthropology were their ethnographic sensibility and depth of research; their empiricality; their emphases on the complex contexts of law
127 as social action; their interest in the nature, sources, and identity of law; and their resi stance to the siren of defining what law should be ( Moore 2005 ) These contributions established a firm foundation upon which later exemplary developments in the field were built methodological and theoretical concerns in legal anthropology f ocused on novel approaches to pluralism, the extension of field researches to western countries, greater concern for the issues of decolonization, post colonialism and sociolegal developments ( Rosen 1978 ) as well as a more coherent approach to both the conduct of research and the professionalization of a generation of legal anthropologists Key figures in legal anthropology in this movement included Laura Nader, June Starr, and Barbara Yngv esson, among others Nader emerged during this period, and established her dominance in the field, including intellectual and conceptual leadership and her determined effort to raise and professionalize the next generation of legal anthropology scholars ( Nader 1969 ; 1965 ) Nader, Moore, and Merry have virtually defined the field of the anthropology of law since the transition, although important additional voices have been heard throughout The transition out of the classic era was also characterized in part by a period of malaise in Anglo Americ an legal ethnography, a circumstance noted by Simon Roberts ( Roberts 1978 ; 1979 ) ( Fuller 1994:9 ) Rob to more general anthropological concerns ( 1978:4 ) Even as Roberts issued his plaint,
128 however, important works were published that moved the discipline forward on the western Atlantic, although the desultory status of the anthropology of law in Britain continued ( Fuller 19 94 ; Snyder 1981a ) Among these works are Hamnett ( 197 7 ) Moore ( 1978 ) Nader ( Nader 1969 ; Nader and Todd 1978 ) and by 1981, in a revivifying and expanding field, Roberts had rever sed himself and co authored a valuable text with John Comaroff ( Comaroff and Roberts 1981 ) Other innovative and benchmark works of the period that demonstrated the energy and creativity of practitioners were published by Cohn ( 1987 ) Greenhouse ( 1988 ) Mertz ( 1988 ) Moore ( 1986 ) Rosen ( 1989 ) and Snyder ( 1981b ; Snyder and Hay 19 87 ) however, there is virtually no call for or seeming interest in positive law or legislation in these works, however While they do make useful contributions in terms of law as process, legal pluralisms, language, the cultural role of law, rights, and the exploration of justice and fairness, as well as new discussions of crime and policing, these works all above More recent texts have been somewhat more interesting as regards dimensions other than dispute resolution Eve Darian Smith ( 2004 ) for example, examines legal categories and legal discourses as they produce Native American subjectivities in a politico legal universe of Indian gaming, ethnic tensions, and racism Merry ( 2005 ; 2006 ) tracks legal discourses across multiple registers and networked universes, and interrogate s the contours of law and the role of transnational legal forms in cultural transformations. Bowen ( 2003 ) offers an archaeology, based on archival research and courtroom based ethnography, of public reasoning, and while he does not challenge the
129 model of adjudication, he does expand the boundaries of legal anthropology and connects it in a more symmetrical and organic sense with the concerns of political anthropology. In this, he also illuminates new potential for anthropologies of policy and government. Goodale ( 2009 ) for his part, begins to link legislated worlds with larger political, philosophical, and foundational concerns, such as rights, liberalism, law and the making of modern subjects, law in action, intentionality, and critical reflexive approaches to the study of law ( see also Goodale 2005 ) Although he does briefly consider law in its positive form, he does not offer any meaningful analysis of it, and in fact tends to regard finite set of universal normative principles that are, to greater or lesser degrees of ( Goodale 2009:32 ) These are common miscon ceptions directed at Civil Law systems and their filial emplacements, and are of little analytical or heuristic value. Even among these recent innovations, in the legal ethnographic state of the art, there remains a disconnect regarding positive law and le gislation, as well as more compelling questions about the person and person making, although Darian Smith comes closest to an articulation in kinship with my own work, and her writing demonstrates a sustained and broad concern ( 1999 ; 2004 ; 2010 ) Integrating Analyses of Law, the Police Power, and Government fers, perhaps most seriously, from the absences of law in its analyses. Nader ( 2007 ) has remarked this absence of law most clearly, directing the criticism at work of members of the Interest Group for the An thropology of Public Policy (IGAPP) in the American Anthropological
130 Association ( Wedel and Feldman 2005 ; Wedel, et al. 2005 ) and the burgeoning corpus of policy ethnographies, which build on the works in Shore and Wright ( 1997 ) The salient point to note is the lack of attention to and theorization of the relationships between law and policy as related but distinct instrumentalities of governing. Their conjugation as the helix of government accomplishes much of the work of police power initiatives. Regarding the dearth of work that addresses law, policy and government considered together, the salient point to note is, as above, the absence of sustained theorizations of their mutual relations. I find this to be largely an issue of the nature of what anthropolo gists consider to be legal data. The reign of the scientistic approach during the twentieth century compelled researchers and theorists to do two things. First, to assume the necessity of boundable, discrete data sets; and second, to compile these data set s so as to be quantifiable, commensurable, and comparable across cultural units. What this epistemological premise conduced was research that sought to distill various levels of analysis: society > political organization > order and control mechanisms > le gal data. Legal data thus occupied a (relatively minor) position analogous to kinship data, religious data, etiquette, and others, so that polite behavior, kin relations, economic transactions, and divine mandates became indistinguishable from enforceable rules, formal institutions of legal interaction, legal rituals and roles. ( 1978 ) critique, and it is a valuable critique. His s olution, however, led in the wrong direction, and to the malaise in legal researches in British social anthropology ( Fuller 1994 )
131 Since Radcliffe ( 1952 ) work, in which he obviously considered law and political organization to be essentially the same thing, or at least shared elements of a parent domain, law has been either subsumed as part of the political, that is, as just another element of order and co ntrol; or positioned merely as an instrument of politics, ( 1978 ; 1979 ) advocated the abolition of the subfield of the anthropology of law precisely because separating it out from po litics and government was, he believed, impossible and misleading. A better solution than abolition, however, is to recognize the importance of law ( qua legislation), its analytical separability from politics, and the fruitfulness of analyzing the joint na ture of legislation, policy, and government. Implicit in this approach are the additional problems associated with the colonial mindset, which took for granted that the legal in colonized settings must have been customary, and therefore even more closely joined up with kinship, religion, etiquette and other normative forms of order and control. Colonial science, therefore, established a pattern of legitimacy for research and analysis that severely limited the possibilities for the observation and analysis of what gets to count as law. These limitations were also derived from the further constraint imposed by equating the legal with social order, social control, and, latterly, pluralism. Certainly, kinship, religion, and etiquette are important features of social order and social control. To equate the legal with order and control, however, is a serious error in the intellectual history of the anthropology of law. It certainly is true that law and legal actions and institutions are important mechanisms of or der and control. However, to assume that the legal is merely one mechanism of order and control is a very positivist, empiricist,
132 instrumentalist, and functionalist approach to law, one that fails to understand the breadth and capacity of law as a generati ve, constitutive, and ramified social rhizome. What is needed, then, is a new way to mobilize law and its joint relations with policy and government. I use the idea of government rather than politics in part because I want to step away from (1) the epist emological presumption of the unified hierarchy of politics and law, and (2) the implied combativeness of the political. In the first sense, this enables me to consider positive law eo ipso In the second, rather than structuring analysis around the presum ption that relations are necessarily and mainly agonistic, conflictual, mutually exclusive, and ideologically dogmatic, it enables me to consider additional modes of relationality: contrastive relations, consensus orientations, and deliberative practices a mong agents and collectives, and within institutions. Too much of the anthropological and human sciences literatures are inflected through the assumption that human nature is conflictual, that human relations are structured through diremptive binaries, and that proper analytical techniques take binary oppositional structure as the correct starting point These binaries are articulated in a number of not become more recently a co nventional formulation of recognition of the Self through the Other, that is, the Self is recognizable only as being not the Other. This is fairly standard fare throughout the human sciences ( ) historical legal epistemologies ( Dore 2007 ; Schmitt 2005 ) psychoanalysis ( Lacan and Fink 2006 ; Lacan and Miller 1988 ) poststructuralism ( Derrida 2002 ) I diagnose this assumption as deriving in part from entrenched epistemological tendencies to structure social and analytical worlds around binaries which are necessarily discordant and combative.
133 P art of the problem I dis cern is the dearth in the anthropology of law of an accumulation of knowledge based on ex perience in research. T he development of the anth ropology of law has lacked coherence and sustained cumulative efforts This has resulted in sporadic institutionalization of the discipline, and a general lack of awareness of the salience of law to everyday social activities, and its analogous existence with other cultural domains, such as economy and religion, for example P art of this stems and the willingness of anthropology (and the social sciences more generally) to go along with this myth and relegate law to a rarified analyt ical location From this place law has become largely esoteri c, a specialized, and at time s questionable subfield ( Roberts 1978 ) The rejection of the idea of anth ropology of law as a viable distinct subfield results in law, especially in its positive forms, becoming little more than an appendage of political anth ropology. I n its lack of attention to certain details, the tradition has missed the greater part of law and lawcraft : its production ; the logics and forms of reasoning th at support it; its integral role in modernist, enlightened, rationalist, and liberal governmental projects In other words, we have missed the analyzability and understandability of law and its fundamental relatio nship with governmen tal rationalities a nd technologies, and its relevance in the creation and shaping of soci al subjectivities. I suggest that the anth ropology of law needs a much larger social, spatial and practical domains than it conventionally has, or currently does We need to go beyond the end products of cases, consciousn ess, documents, policies, and the like and diligently and rigorously examine the manifold transacti onal elements including within law, that conjuga te to produce
134 these finalities and the totalities the y shape and index Such ( problematic ) totalities include society ; the citizen ( i.e. a total or totalized subject which implodes the matrix of the nation; the st ate (i.e. representations of the state in binary terms, which presume an all or nothing, zero sum reality to the existence of the state and state power ); the na tion state; forms of globalization ; and constitutive antinomies of modernit y, such as public private, nature culture, science nature, self other. Partial analyses, however, incompletely recognize and theorize the relations between law, other sociocultural domains, and society in general. If we assume, for instance, that law is merely a mirror of the social ( cf. Hall and Karsten 2009 ) then our analytical impulses, as well as our results, are curtailed ( Chase 2005 ; Niezen 2010 ; Rosen 1999 ) Additionally, the analyses of law in anthropology need to extend well beyond the bounds of institutions, rules, processes, agen ts, and consciousness. Such analyses must embrace examination of novel domains that excite the anthropological imagination: the situated practices and pluralities of knowledge production; the role and influence of normative (organizing) schemata, such as A nglophone empiricism, positivism, post modernism and the mutually constitutive rela tions between law and these philosophical and practical traditions; and the construction and use of knowl edge to achieve social ends, including data gathering, facts, inference, conclusions, and forms of reasoning. Law is a site of implosion of technologie s for imagining, knowing, and seeking to intervene in social worlds. The gathering of facts and other data forms, the formulation of propositional and theoretical knowledge and the conversion of these into mechanisms of, justifications for, and means of v aluing and evaluating government are important aspects of law, relatively neglected by anthropologists. The aggregation of
135 these into the epistemes within which lawcraft is undertaken is an important dimension in my development of legisprudence. Based on my ethnographic research, I have come to realize that the problems ( Feldman 2005 ) and elites of lawcr ( Comaroff and Comaroff 2007 ) currently are frequently addressed th rough both legislative and policy solutions. These problems include, for example, creating a desired social order; producing appropriat e subjective dispositions; and achieving security, economic, and fiscal goals. Accomplishing these goals largely or primarily through policy instruments is an important development for both legal and political anthropology. It is also a development which h as, historically, struck fear into scholars of constitutionalism and democratic governance. The fear stems from the assumption that policy solutions are more or less unilateral Executive undertakings, and are therefore anti majoritarian and not subject to transparency and legitimating processes of participatory production ( Baker 2002 ) Such fears find their origin in a distinction d rawn between Civil Law and Common Law systems, often presented metonymically as the difference between France and England, in which France is positioned as an government ( Bradley and Ewing 2007 ; Ziegler, et al. 2007 ) This political epistemic, which has its analog in human sciences in the privileging of dispute resolution, draws a false image of le social, and cultural artifacts and poetics. I take up analysis of this forced and false legal cum national division in a separate project.
136 The effort to solve problems through pol icy represents a somewhat novel approach to governing, which should be understood less as instantiation of egregious executive misuse of power, but rather as an effort to rely on persuasion, consensus and capacity building as the means to stated ends. I d iagnose the move toward policy precisely, a particular approach to the exercise of police power. I also believe that policy solutions should not stand in distinction or opposition to legislative or regulatory solutions. These should be approached as related sociopolitical instruments employed differentially as needed. Furthermore, I believe that in the New Britain, policy solutions have an (independent) origin connected to the particular political form that governing has taken in the last decade, namely, the multiplication of devolved polities and partial supplanting of law by polic y as the preferred instrumentality of rule in sub state jurisdictions. If such is the case, as I believe it is in Wales and the other devolved regions of Britain, the implications are powerful, shifting power, at least partially, away from the privileges o f sovereignty (coercion, enforceable sanction) and adjudicative procedures for rectification of non conformity, to persuasion, audit measures, and a deepening cyberneticist ontology of political legal ecology that favors communication and learning procedur es between institutions and infrastructures of government. This is not an endorsement of any variety of the so is to begin to inquire into the processes by which state (and statal) elites are re spatializing re territorializing, (re)consolidating their power, re figuring their sovereign imaginaries and the insular territories over which they preside, and undertaking
137 ( Ferguson and Gupta 2002 ; Loughlin 1996 ; Mansfield and Soli ngen 2010 ; Rose 1996 ; White, et al. 2010 ) Rather than reinvent the wheel of the anthropology of law, I seek to append a novel approach to existing lite ratures on courts and adjudication, human rights, criminal justice, law as culture, and related efforts, and to extend the potential of the (sub)field of the anthropology of law into new domains of law and new approaches to the analysis of law. In this eff ort, I adopt, adapt, and build on recent works in anthropology that move beyond the conventional jurisprudential approach. Among these are works that address the production of fictions and their necessity to social life ( Clarke 2009 ; Clarke and Goodale 2010 ) ; legality and constitut ions as fetish, and disorder as a normative mode of governance in postcolonial states ( Comaroff and Comaroff 2006 ) ; the impact on daily life of intellectual property regimes ( Coombe 1998b ) ; the role of immigration law in shaping migrant exper ience and resistance in the US ( Coutin 2000 ) ; the intersections of local, national and European law and their impacts on nationalism and autonomy ( Darian Smith 1999 ) ; in Bolivia, the mutualities of liberalism, everyday social practic es, and patterns of intention in appropriations of law at local levels ( Goodale 2009 ) ; administrative law making and decision ( Latour 2010 ) ; the rule of law as a mask for new practices of capital accumulation and expropriation ( Mattei and Nader 2008 ) ; international finance regimes and legal exclusion in the Caribbean ( Maurer 1997 ; see also Maurer and Schwab 2006 ; Perry and Maurer 2003 ) ; womanhood and resistance to the legal ideologies and institut ions of patriarchy in India ( Moo re 1998 ) ; and the historical anthropology of Roman law and legal institutions
138 ( Thomas 2004 ) Each of these is exceptional, and each demonstrates the potential for anthropologies of law that look beyon d the adjudicative. These works also impinge, albeit some only peripherally, on my concerns with the police power, the relations of the state and society, relations of the social and the symbolic, relating law to the world beyond legal institutions, and le gal agency and social change. This is one goal of the remaining chapters of this dissertation. 1 See Appendix A for a thorough discussion of my development of the concept 2 We encounter a difficulty here, however, that elicits an ethnographic sensibility. The conventional (American) distinction of three separate and coordinate branches of government, which mutually balance and constrain each other, is not always a useful org anizing principle in analyses of law. In Britain for example, the executive (Prime Minister and Cabinet) is not separate from the legislature (House of Commons); the historical role of High Chancellor enjoyed executive, legislative, and judicial competenc ies and privi leges ; and the highest court of appeal, the Law Lords, was a body abstracted from the upper chamber of Parliament, the House of Lords. Wh ile these have undergone significant transformation recen tly (i.e. the abolition of the office of Lord Cha ncellor) ( Bogdanor 2005 ) the ethnospecific nature of law and its political organization should remain top of mind for the analyst and the reader. There are other institutions and roles in Britai n government and politics that transgress the easy simplification of a Montesquieuian coordinate branch analysis. Attention to the police power is an effective way to overcome the limitations of the coordinate branch analysis. 3 In order to distinguish la w in the narrow sense of legislation from law in the formal systemic sense, I will use fairly specific terminology (as terms of art) throughout this dissertation: legislation, regulation, positive law, constitution, statute, act, rule, procedure, ordinance 4 This statement can be found on the virtual tour of the National Assembly for Wales, at http://senedd.nafw server.org/en/index_standalone.html (accessed November 21, 2010). I should note made through the thirteenth century ( Davies 1996 ) 5 The British systems in Britain one for England and Wales, another for Scotland, and a third for Northern Ireland (see http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/CrimeJusticeAndTheLaw/Thejudicialsystem/DG_4003097 ) (accessed November 27, 2010) 6 The relative lack of attention to legislatures and legislation is not unique to anthropology, but is a trend in the Anglo American human sciences more generally, as remarked by the contributors to Bauman and Kahana ( 2006 ) 7 ( 1988 ) discussion of the Mashpee case, and in the work of Audra Simpson ( 2008 ) I should also note that I have contracted as a researcher for litigation undertaken by several Native groups in the US and Canada, and much of my work has centered on questions of have had law in the pre colonial past. The state, courts, lawyers, and academics, in my experience, begin from the assumption
139 that Indigenes do not possess the attributes of law/legislation, and therefore the burden of proof is on Indigenes to demonstrate their historical pre European relationship with positive forms of law. This is a nearly impossible burden, and has resulted in state based decisions and actions that unjustly expropriate land, resources, and cultural properties, as well as legitimize treat y violations, trust violations, and practices of eradication. 8 Gulliver ( 1963 ) Barkun ( 1968 ) and Fallers ( 1969 ) also belong to this classic era, and their ethnographies are important contributions to the field. Each e ndorses traditional processes of dispute settlement as the proper object of analysis.
140 CHAPTER 4 LEGISPRUDENCE: ENGAGING AND THEORIZING LEGISLATION ( 2008:5 ) ( 1996:18 ) social facts. I developed legisprudence in order to do so. There are, in a nutshell, three sets of institutional relations that concern me: government and law; governme nt and the police power; and law and police power. Within these, I am interested in vernacular agency, dialogism and polyphony, political epistemics, and mediation. In this chapter, I lay out the basic groundwork for legisprudence as an apparatus; in subse quent chapters, I will detail the constituent dimensions of legisprudence: as methodology, as heuristic, as analytical framework, and as theory. The basic question I pose is, What are the ways in which government seeks to achieve goals through the use of legislation, regulation, and the police power? This is much less instrumental than it may seem; indeed, it should be read constitutively, in the sense that governments seek to effect order, civility, and public welfare through legal (that is, legislative a nd regulatory) regimes that generate their own conditions of possibility, that enable the institutions, infrastructures, and humanisms that can bring about proper ways of being, acting, and doing. This includes institutions that are not part of the state o r government, such as institutions of civil society and the private sector, linking these with government through legal regimes and the police power. In Britain, the equalities and medicolegal therapeutic regimes collocate state, civil society, and privat objectives. In the case of equality, these objectives are understood in the main as the
141 sic ], and any other conduct that is prohib (Equality Act 2010 §149). 1 These protected characteristics are age, disability, gender reassign ment, marriage and civil partnership, race, religion or belief, sex, and sexual orientation (Equality Act 2010, §4). The Equality Act is only one piece of the substantial legislative and regulatory architecture of the equality regime. Its effects are achi eved in part through repeal of certain prior enactments, such as the Race Relations Act 1976 and parts of the Equality Act 2006, and revocations of sets of regulations (Equality Act 2010 Schedule 27). Other existing Acts and Regulations are unaffected and continue in effect toward the (aspirational) achievement of the objectives of designated forms of equality. Ramifications Felicia Afua Morrow met me at the entrance to City Hall with an effusive greeting and infectious enthusiasm. She owns a training cons ultancy with specialized programming in equality and diversity, BME consultation, and leadership and management. Her primary focus is on equality in the workplace, and the legal duties owed by private companies who exercise a public function, as well as th eir obligations in recruiting and contracting for employment. On this day, Felicia was co organizing and hosting a conference on mental health and ethnicity in Wales. Service users, carers, charities, NGOs, private companies, local health departments, the medical and legal professions, the Welsh Assembly Government, and the Department of Health in London were all represented, and each representative spoke to the themes of delivering equality, achieving outcomes,
142 experiences of inequality and poor mental he alth, racism and related forms of bias, legal obligations, and less formal social mechanisms of anti discrimination and how to integrate duties, morality, and the economics of equality. The Draft Equality Bill 2009 was circulating, and a public consultatio n was taking place across Britain. The Bill was at the forefront of the minds of many who attended the conference. The conference was split between the main Hall and adjacent smaller rooms where participants broke off for workshops, targeted training, and some fairly intense panel discussions. The main Hall was a large high ceilinged room with faux marble statuary in high niches heroic figures of the sacred and secular past gazed down on us as we conferenced. The Hall had a slightly elevated stage backed by a tattered and threadbare curtain, discolored from the sunlight streaming in from the high windows. Motes of dust could be seen floating in the morning rays. There was a parquet wood floor and a runner of old carpet around the outer perimeter of the Ha ll. Large round tables populated the floor. Each table had settings for eight, each setting had a name placard of folded card stock, a water glass, and a set of flatware. As Felicia and I walked into the main Hall, a crew was finishing the set up, moving a podium into place, mic checking, and taping down power cables. help, and I know t positively beaming, and the energy in the room was buzzing. She introduced me to my table mates, and rushed off as someone called out to her from the podium.
143 I sat at table 2 with three women of the Chinese community in Swansea, a general practitioner (GP) from Cardiff, the Undersecretary of Health from London, a mental health NGO Director from Liverpool, and Felicia herself, although she was mostly busy elsewhere throughout the day. The three women, all seated to my right, were speaking together, and when they noticed that I was watching them, switched to English. They related to me that they had been discussing the Draft Equality Bill consultation and the responses they had tendered. race, and people. The Government needs to be clear what they are doing, what communities are Chinese community as well as other ethnic minority communities in Britain. But not just that. We also need a voice, a Chinese community voice, to speak to Members of Parliament and to the Welsh Assembly Government, because they have really no idea that we exist, t hat we have needs as individuals and as communities. They think the gesturing vigorously and speaking fast. Sh e code switched throughout, with Ellen and to make sure that translation services are available. We Chinese [cannot be expected
144 to] speak perfect English, to speak Engl ish well enough [to give complete information English well yet, and myself have b oth needed doctors, and both needed translators. strategy was supposedly based on research and best practices, and recommended that translation services be provided. This was never universally achieved, and was very much not consistent, especially in Wales, but across most of Britain, too. And they have no way to measure compliance. Anyway, at the local authority level, we end up on the sharp end of the stick, with no communication between health departments and social services departments, limited provision of services, lack of fundin g, and outright hostility Joy had managed a London based registered charity t hat offered translation and other services for Chinese speakers in medical, legal, and other settings. Several years ago, she had left the charity to start a similar organization in Wales, where the need was great. It was based in Cardiff, and served Chine se people and communities in Cardiff, Swansea, Newport, and other places along the South Wales corridor. She had received an OBE 3 for her work, and both the Queen and Prince Charles had visited her offices and commended her accomplishments.
145 The conference got underway just at that moment, with Felicia opening the microphone, introducing herself and welcoming all of us. Chairs shuffled, tea and coffee cups clinked as they were returned to saucers, and the rumble of conversation quieted. Felicia was a captiv ating speaker, and drew us in with stories, inflections, and presence. She laid out the program for the day, the goals of the conference, and highlighted some of the important speakers and contributions we could anticipate. Throughout the day we would hear a short series of speakers, followed by break outs, and then a return to our tables for coffee and snacks, lunch, and late afternoon tea. There was much networking going on, a rich exchange of ideas, and detailed discussions of equality and how to achieve it. At our table, Jo, the Undersecretary for Health and Cecilia Huang had an intense conversation, with interpretive assistance from Andrew Chen, the NGO Director. April, Ellen, and I continued our discussion of language equality in detail, with Gwynedd J joining in, as well as her colleague Nicola Creak, from Health Inspectorate Wales, who returned to our table often. Felicia made the rounds, occasionally offering a few words t o our conversations, and generally ensuring that we were engaged with one another, discussing the conference themes and topics. The conference was, by all accounts, a terrific success. 4 During my period of field research, I was able to participate in a nu mber of similar events, mostly throughout South Wales, but also in Bristol, London, and Edinburgh, and I was able to follow through with participants in many of these events, to gauge the impacts and the political and legal ramifications of the humanized a nd personal encounters. These events are in many cases powerful means by which thinking is oriented, and an extraordinary
146 instrument of deliberative practice. They also are a key dimension of the public square as I conceptualize it. Coupled with other larg e scale formal practices, such as public consultation, stakeholder identification and engagement, interest group mobilizations and demonstrations, as well as smaller scale practices, such as surgeries, meetings with political representatives and their staf fs, and petitions, these events bring together citizens and other political subjects with lawyers, business people, service providers, professionals, elected representatives, Civil Servants, and others, creating a humanized process of developing legislativ e and regulatory practices. Legal instrumentalities, institutions, and infrastructures, in other words, take on a less abstract and decontextualized nature. Legisprudence as I formulate it is deeply interested in these dimensions of law making. Rather than simply a formal succession of stages from draft to Act, legislation entails a much broader social actualization that needs accounting. In the case of the conversations through to a number of critical junctures. Details were taken on by Felicia in subsequent work she conducted, including at least two workshops attended by local thought to consider t 23, 2009). She confirmed that since the workshop she has lobbied her supervisor in the local healt h department and a number of local councilors regarding the provision of translation services.
147 Details from the conference, including names, specific quotes, and paraphrases also were translated into the everyday work of the Health Inspectorate Wales and the mains treaming equality strands, and our responsibility to make sure that everyone in February 4, 2011). From there, these data made their way to the offices of Assembly Members, and at least three times into the Plenary debates in the Siambr, although the filtering mechanisms at work tend to foreground the general issues of language, and obscure the specific demands articulated by members of BME communities. This has the effect, in Wales, of sometimes becoming linked with the issue of Welsh language. This filtering was evident in my experience regarding the claims of members of the Chinese community, as well as Somalis, Sudanese, Haitians, and others. The technologies and infrastructures at work in the development of law making in the National Assembly include email, intranet, wired and mobile phones, texts, electronic messaging, social networking, the political whip and other Party procedures, hardcopies of evidence summaries, committee reports, consultations, file folders and boxes, official and personal letters, and a variety of informal mechanisms, such as corridor conversations, chats over tea, and the occasional exchange over ales down to the local pub. 5 I was able to follow bits of material through each of these technologies and infrastructures, and identity some general p atterns and outcomes, such as the filtering effect, as discussed throughout this dissertation.
148 I was also able to witness both formal and informal communication of content from this conference (and other events) in Westminster and Whitehall. These communi cations were less detailed, and more broadly focused on (constitutional) ex centricity; that is, the inflecting role of devolution and prerogatives of the devolved administrations, rather than on seeking specific remedies in Parliament or Cabinet policy st rategies for the ideas, concerns, and complaints articulated. At this level, the mass of information flowing into the workspaces of decision makers is enormous, and subject to a number of management devices that drastically thin the texture of data. Noneth eless, at the committee level and in corridor conversations, I observed references to both Felicia and Joy and the concerns that they articulated, as well as to the more pointed issue of the presence of the Chinese community in Britain, and appropriate int erventions available to law makers. Furthermore, the conference was the topic of a number of posts and threads on listservs and other electronic collectivities. I monitored four such lists, including the intranet for the National Assembly for Wales for Me mbers and their support staff; the intranet for the Labour Party; a listserv entitled Minority Ethnic Health; and the Wales Equality and Diversity in Health and Social Care Support Service (WEDHS) email group. Information regarding the conference appeared on each of these lists, both before and after. Entries on the Assembly intranet mostly regarded the announcement of the conference, although Gwynedd Jones posted a summary that was read and discussed by three Assembly Members (in my presence), and at least one Minister that I know of, as well as her constituency office staff. The Minister, her staff and I all reflected on the conference and the information from the conference, as well as the
149 presence and needs of the Chinese community in the constituency. T he Labour Party intranet announced the conference, but I saw no follow up. The Minority Ethnic Health listse rv is a Britain wide group that primarily comprises government, legal, and medical professionals. Several members were p resent at the conference, an d three of these wrote detailed narrative assessments. Lengthy and engaged discussions ensued, largely devoted to the issue of language and translation services, and the legal status of interpretation and translation services. With two exceptions, none of the posts addressed the Chinese community; rather, all particular tegies that integrate, and place on a similar legal footing, the multiple strands of equality that constitute and orient the existing political epistemic. Where distinction s were made regarding BME specificities in the discussions, there were two main vari eties. On the one hand, particular clinical interests, such as diabetes, smoking, and heart disease, took over the discussion. On the other hand, locally prominent ethnicities were raised to the level of representative BME community, and determine much of the content of subsequent threads. One list member and conference reluctance o May 5, 2009).
150 Much of the Minority Ethnic Health thread was concerned with the legal status of la nguage and translation services. This status is more or less unstable as regards health care delivery, not only in Britain, but in Europe more generally. Devolution has recommen translation services, creates another; and European Directives create a third. Ambiguous legal language adds another dimension to the uncertainty. The palimpsest of authorities, ju risdictions, and obligations brings about contradictory responses. Some are galvanized by the confusion, and undertake to lobby, agitate, and work toward clarification in legal language and in legal duties. Others throw their hands up and pledge to work lo cally to achieve outcomes. Still others try to actualize their networks, and to Parliament via multiple networked agents. Some are motivated to capitalize on the confusio n, to the detriment of minority communities and persons. What is most interesting about conferencing, networking, electronic social collectivities, and the human and institutional responses to specific demands is the way that information percolates throug h the political and legal institutions, infrastructures, and technologies, and resonates with human beings conducting their work in and through these institutions, infrastructures, and technologies. This is not to paint a pretty picture of a ground swell o f good intentions gaining legal traction. Indeed, what percolates is often hostile, and some resonances are with pre existing prejudices regarding minority populations, fiscal burdens, and the obligations of the state vis vis individuals and minorities.
151 Much of the information that flows upward is met with hostility and rejection. In more than one conversation, I was privy to a significant amount of animosity directed at, variously, Chinese, migrants in general, and migrants working illegally in Britain. I also and European migrants. This might be due in part to European law and the privileging of EU citizens, but, for example, Swiss, Serbians and Albanians, who are not EU citizens, and persons from the region of North Africa and the Middle East, but less so to Indians, Caribbeans are fitted into the conceptual scheme. Although I want to emphasize that there are exceptions to this, I discern a fairly clear pattern of the norma tivity of whiteness at all levels, including the formulation of legislation and regulation. One effect of this is the design of services and service delivery, and social order more generally, around a presumed normative core that is white; specific needs a nd provisions are understood as deviations from this norm, which both furthers exclusions, and associates expenditures, and therefore minorities, with undue fiscal burdens. Ultimately, the Equality Bill 2009 became the Equality Act 2010, the flagship legis passage of the Act and royal assent, and there is nothing facially in the Act that gives a ny indication that it is permeated by the specifics of the conference. At any rate, this is not terribly relevant, really. My goals with legisprudence are not to demonstrate or prove
152 a clear connection between particular events and particular legislative o utcomes. This seems an impossible and Sisyphean task. My goals are, in part, to locate legislators, as well as legislation and the regulatory instruments to which it gives rise, in the public square, dee ply imbricated in relation s that orient thought, beha vior, and action. Legislation and regulation in this sense are simultaneously catalysts that emerge from the crucible of interactions in the public square, and hybrids that re enter, creating new effects and consequences in ongoing processes of (trans)form ation of public order, civic virtue, and constitutional integrity. Applying a Legisprudential Lens Legisprudence, as I formulate it, entails the ethnographic observation, analysis, and theorization of forms, issues, institutions, and practices of legislat ion, 6 as well as the extensive social spaces that contribute to the processes of law making. I use it to distinguish my work and my objects of inquiry from jurisprudential, natural (or moral) law, and customary (or chthonic) law approaches, although there are clearly overlaps and intersections with each of these. My primary objectives in arguing for the conceptual and analytical utility of legisprudence are: (1) to examine legislation, legislators, and legislatures and the social, cultural, political, and l egal environments in which they operate, and to ground legislation as both product and evocative object in these larger social and vernacular worlds; (2) to recognize the political origins of legislation, but without sublating legislation to the political dialectic or falling prey to the contempt for democratic engagement and practices that such sublation represents; (3) to examine the consequential and constitutive effects of legislation; and (4) to open a space for considering the labor involved in law ma king and the production of related forms of positive law and public policy.
153 Legisprudence at its core is a theory of legislation, concerned with the province, provenance, properties, and structure of legislation and regulation. More broadly, it is a metho dology, a heuristic, and analytical framework, and a theoretical apparatus for thinking through and about legislation. While it has clear implications for constitutional law, public and administrative law, for my purposes in this dissertation, I am concern ed mainly with the statutory and regulatory architectures that comprise the particular legal regimes under discussion. The following four chapters will address the four dimensions of legisprudence, but let me provide some basic detail here. Legisprudence is designed to accomplish several things. First, it allows for the isolation of legislation and regulation from jurisprudence. Second, it positions legislation and regulation as primary analysands. Third, it serves as a heuristic for interrogating legislat ion and regulation, which opens multiple spaces for theorization. Fourth, by isolating legislation and regulation, and moving these into our main observation and analytical space, it reduces the tendency in anthropologies of law to explain away both writte n law and its effects. My approach to legisprudence is one of disaggregation and reassembly. I first disaggregate my materials into four subdomains: methodology, heuristic, analytical, and theoretical. After due cooking of these materials, I then reassemb le them, using a set of conceptual tools from the human sciences to look across the borders of my subdomains to see how linkages are forged in the making of law, the design and implementation o f police power projects, and the everyday conduct of government research design, data elicitation, ethical commitments, and the epistemological and
154 ontological demands of the execution of a research program. It also allows for an emic app roach, asking how the legislator and others go about doing their work as such. As a heuristic, legisprudence enables us to ask innovative and probing questions about legislatures, legislators, legislation, and legislated and regulated environments. This al so works as an emic query, seeking the structured ways that legislators and others discover, learn, and act in a given set of circumstances. As an analytical framework, legisprudence focuses on: (1 ) the production of legislation; (2) its c ontent ; and (3) l aw molar relations and linkages and its participation in cultural production and subjectivization. Finally, as a theoretical apparatus legisprudence brings a multidimensional optic for ex amining, describing, analyzing, and interpreting legislation and its consequential effects in social worlds For my purposes, reassembling these subdomains involves four core elements for consideration: complexity; legal technologies; legal semiotics; and legal relations and practices. Complexity Theorizing complexity in law is a difficult task, confounded by conceptualizations of law as a system; by the preeminence of courts; by narratives of autonomy, objectivity, and progressive rationalization; and by the abrogation of theoretical and analytical prerogative by anthropologists and others in the human sciences. Complexity in law too often is phrased in terms of legal pluralism, which itself tends to be built on epistemological conventions that map law on to states or onto cultures cum nations ( Benton 2002 ) Law becomes the will of the sovereign, the voice of the people, or the general will in these formulation s, and div ersity and complexity tend to get thinned to post hoc narratives of domination which presume stabilized institutions, processes, and
155 authorities. This domination can be narrated as imperial or colonial, that is, originating in transnational or transcultura l and external processes of imposition; or it can be narrated as classed, raced, or gendered, that is, originating (largely) within domestic and internal relations of stratification and hierarchy; or as hybrids of these. At its base, whether articulated i n terms of sovereignty, nationality, or domination, the complexity of law as pluralism proceeds along these lines of tendency as neatly packaged, so that complexity becomes external to law itself, an issue of political objectives, of balancing, or assimila ting, or tolerating the non dominant forms subsumed within a particular dominance environment. What is really a concern with heterogeneity is displaced and presented as complexity. Actual complexity, namely the internal complexity of law, of law in the mak ing, of law as fields of forces populated by manifold actants ( Latour 2005 ) tends to be lost to these formulations. ( cf. Ong 2006:ch. 8 ) ( Kwa 2002:26 ) It is instead to argue for the phenomenological and immanent realness of law, for explorations of the ways in which subjects and social members flourish as a result of association and cooperation, for attention to the compoun d and intricate synoptic behaviors involved in its materialization and creative system) is an achievement that needs to be accounted for, rather than assumed ( Deleuze 2006 ; Egginton 2010 ; Ong 2006 ) forces, as experience, event, process, culture. I maintain, contrary to prevailing
156 narratives, that law is inherently un stable, ir rational, and sub jective, and thus requires an extraordinary amount of ideological and rhetorical work to make it appear stable, rational, objective, uniform, and unified. Holding the disparate elements together and providing the veneer of stability are key achievements, and integ ral elements of its complexity. I am not suggesting that law is disorganized, anarchic, or chaotic, but that its architectonics are something accomplished ( Bakhtin 1990 ) These accomplishments are textual (and intertextual), rhetorical, discursive, ideological, relational, and infrastructures, rituals, rules, roles, and subjectivities ar e historical and political achievements, and it is the work of this achievement that needs examination, analysis, and explication. What I do not want to suggest is that law follows directly from the war of politics, however. Certainly political dynamics a re important, but we cannot assume that the production of law arises or follows directly from political conflict. We also cannot assume that political objectives result necessarily in legal teleologies. Institutional forms, partisan interests, clashes betw een strata of legal agency, and variegated and changing demands inflect the products of law in multivalent ways, and the relationships between legislation, regulation, and politics must be understood to b e non laminar, nonlinear, and discontinuous. It is t hrough law and police power technologies that strategic political objectives are pursued and attended to in their ongoing development, and through the everyday work of government that adjustments are determined, decided, executed. This is a parsimonious sy nthesis of the law, police, and government matrix with which I am concerned. The phenomenological dynamics that make up this matrix are in need of
157 much more sophisticated analysis in political and legal anthropology, and explorations gy and complexity can provide constructive contributions to the anthropology of law. I will add ethnographic thickness and empirical substance to these claims in the following chapters. Legal Technologies Legal technologies primarily entail the specializ ed instruments and technical forms of legislation and regulation, including statutes, ordinances, rules, duties, sanctions, and so forth. I also suggest that organizing frames, such as positivism, naturalism, or moralism, are themselves a variety of techno logy that needs consideration as such. These frames function in much the same way as a genre, with formal elements that constrain and limit possibilities, that condition members (or audiences) to expect that things will proceed in certain ways ( Bakhtin 1986 ) For example, John Chipman Gray, Harvard professor law, did not believe that statutes are law themselves, merely a source of law ( Gray 1927 ) This is a particular perspective on positivism, with implications for the operation of law, and the analysis of law, or the natu re of law, not the least implication being that statutes are excluded from such an analysis. In addition, technologies as I use the term includes the principles, expectations, and values of a given legal culture, including contractarian rationales, interp retive conventions, rationalism, objectivism, democracy, majoritarianism, consensual decision making, and related forms of legitimation, justification, aesthetics, and ideological function. Somewhat more broadly, this also includes such concerns as the rul e of law, and particular regimes, or ways of organizing sets of legal technologies into a focused apparatus.
158 making, and the touchstones that these rely upon ( Dyer 1997:90 ) My interest also extends to consideration of the social groups with a role in the production of legal facts and artifacts, and extending the bounds of such groups to accommodate a broader array of vernacular players; the relationship between technologies and agency; and the interpretive flexibility that characterizes the linguistic and related artifacts of legislation ( Kline and Pinch 1996 ; Pinch and Bijker 1984 ) These elements are often situated in a conventi onal framework that privileges objectivity, rationality, and generalizability, and expectations which deeply influence agents, practices, products, and analyses of law, bringing about particular effects ( Habermas 2001 ; Steiner 2002 ) Overall, my focus on the technologies of law making is one way of escaping narratives of autonomy and determinism, which depict legal change as arising from within t he law itself, following a logic of its own, and creating external, independent effects on society ( Perez and Teubner 2006 ; Tomlins 2007 ; Walker 2003 ) Autonomy and determinism as components of a theory of law are insufficient; as a theory of society, inadequate; as a theory of social and cultural change, limited and partial at best. Technologies nicely transgress my self imposed subdomain boundaries, enabling a closer examination of the articulations at work in law making, among stakeholders, between agents, in site s, across jurisdictions, through languages. Thinking through the technological metaphors thus facilitates moving beyond the passive approach that regulation as actively s haped by, and actively shaping, society, relationality, and culture,
159 and to reclaim the liberatory potential of agency pursued through objectification entailed in positive law ( cf. Cussins 1996 ) Legal Semiotics The examination and explication of legal semiotics is not just the analysis of ( Goodrich and Hachamovitch 1991:159 ) Semiotics enables us to get at the semantics, syntactics, and pragmatics of law, as well as the repr esentations and discourses found in legal texts and images. It also enables exploration of the ( ) ; and on the other hand, the Althusserian s a way to track the emergence of new discourses and subject positions, as well as the displacements effected by these ( Hall 1988b:49 ) Legal semiotics offers a method for analysis of the culture of law, the language of law, ideologies, and subjectivities ( Hall 1988b:48 ) In my concrete historical context, this entails the discourses of decentralization, devolution, stakeholding, and fairness, and the new subject positions of devolution, of a transformed constitutionality, and of reordered conceptions and practices of the common weal. Among these are citizenship, border identities, and new national and regional identities, as well as the reconfi gured self sufficient and responsibilized individuals of (neo)liberalizing projects: exercisers of choice, responsible citizens, the ( 1997 )
160 continuation of and reaction against T hatcherism, or what Stephen Driver and Luke post Thatcherite ( 1998:1, italics original ) Devolution is the new common sense in Britain. The struggle for its definitions were largely won by New Labour, although not in any settled kind of way, and since the May 2010 formation of the Conservative Liberal Democrat governing coalition in London, these definitions and the prevailing common sense have been subject to heg emonic achievement, one that requires ongoing material and ideological struggle. Legislation, regulation, and police power projects are integral to this ongoing struggle. The ongoing struggle is not simply one of particular items of legislation or regulati on, however, but also embrace historically and culturally significant principles by which Britons explain themselves to themselves: the constitution, Parliamentary sovereignty, liberty, nationhood. For instance, and somewhat ironically, the transfer of pow er to the regional administrations included police prerogatives, the instruments of which are now being activated in order to deepen the devolution settlements and challenge the reserved powers of Parliament. Law, as we know and can see demonstrated in the devolution contestations, simultaneously oppresses and provides the conditions for resisting oppression. This is certainly not a nirvanic situation, nor one that necessarily favors the resistors. It is, however, an interesting dimension of legal politics and the operation of law, pointing to challenges to liberal assumptions of the zero sum game of sovereignty and power, and to the (post)colonial reconfigurations that elaborate, multiply, and proliferate power, rather than draw it into discrete and separab le packages ( Benton 2010 ; Valverd e 2006 )
161 Then existing discourses, representations, and subjectivities in Britain were 2007. Decentralization and devolution took shape, in part, through the formulation of new subj ectivities and interpellation of subjects into these constructions. From New Labour and subsequent amendments (e.g Government of Wales Act 2006 ) and to the recent (March of 2011) referendum on devolving full legislative power to the National Assembly for Wales, legislation and regulation have played and continue to play key roles in the processes of subjectivization and interpellation, and legisp rudential semiotics enables critical analysis of the production of the imaginaries and topographies of decentralization and devolution, and their representation and inhabitation as conditions of, simultaneously, political unity and separateness. Such an a nalysis might embrace the emergence of a distinct Welsh way of doing things within the ensemble state; understood as divergence and convergence modulated together, infolding and producing the ensemble state through everyday public practices ( Deleuze 2006 ) Through these practices, and the legal texts and images that underlie, constitute, and authorize them, the contradictory and conflictual relations of neoliberal (post?)capitalism and welfare state restructuring are rhetorically and ideologically mani fest, that is, made material. Examination on these terms allows me to bring together speakers and the spoken, the ethnographic, the material semiotic, communicativity and its generativity, themselves multi dimensional facets that help to capture the ways by which law, government, society, and culture are intertwined. By convention, we may think of law as
162 formal, or as rational, or as autonomous, but it is undeniably linguistic, and an examination of the semi otics and poetics of legislation and regulation are key aspects of legisprudence. Primarily, this entails language and modes of communication; the mutual symbols, for ms of communication, and ways of knowing that comprise the fabrication of legislation are important to its analysis as process, practice, and product. I treat them as necessary constituent cultural resources, without which the particular form of social reg ulation and technology of social and cultural engineering called the police power could not be. Legal Agency, Relations, and Practices The relations and practices of law making include the involvements at play in the production, content, and effects of le gislation. I insist that legislation is irremediably intersubjective, that the relations of legislation are dialogical, and that legislation and regulation arise not solely from the institutional spaces of their formal genesis, but from relations of everyd ay living with others. This intersubjectivity entails the microsocialities of the public square and the micropolitics of law making, situating the labor of law making, the works of legislation, and analysis of the institutions of law making. As well, it in cludes the recovery of the invisible and the vernacular, of those with whom law makers interact beyond the deliberating chambers and hallways of political and legal power, who contribute to the shaping of thought and bring to the fore particular ideas, con cerns, and needs, often embodying, visibilizing, and abjecting the social thresholds and repertoires of social representations for imagining the body, the subject, the polity, and available mechanisms for pursuing police power projects of social and cultur al
163 engineering ( Kristeva 1982 ; Stallybrass and White 1986 ) Legislation may objectify the body and its margins, creating categories and classificatory taxa which channel attention and resources, but legislators and their adjutants come into daily and often unruly contact with bodies which bear fully the marks of their origins, their earthl iness, their life and traumas. These relations influence the direction of legislation, and need to be taken seriously by anthropologists. Politics is doubtless the most obvious force shaping legislation, but legislation and its progeny are more than simpl y applied politics. I argue that this relationship does not proceed in any simple or straightforward sense. An understanding of the political and the implications of particular ways of ordering and conducting the political is necessary, but not sufficient, to the understanding of law making and its products, as well as the exercise of the police power. Rather than assuming a direct, goal oriented, class oriented, or domination centered approach to the analysis of the making and functioning of legislation, I consider the institutional, infrastructural, intersubjective, interpersonal, and social relations that conduce the construction of legislation as a form of law. In the next three chapters, I will present moderately more detail on the subdomains of legis prudence, with greater attention to the ethnographic thickness and empirical detail that give substance to the approach. In addition, in each chapter, I will gesture to the reassembly of the parts into comprehensive whole of legisprudential inquiry. 1 (Equality Act 2010 §1). 2 tish colloquialism.
164 3 Order of the British Empire, an order of chivalry and an honor bestowed by the Queen, which sic ] distinguished service in the arts and sciences, and public services outside of the Civil Service and work with charitable an d welfare organisations [ sic ( The British Monarchy 2011 ) The OBE was instituted by George V in 1917, and was the first order of chivalry to reward women and foreigners for service to the Kingdom. 4 Felicia commissioned me to assist with the post conference assessment, and so, of the 83 registered participants, I was able to follow up with 65. For the most part t his consisted of survey instruments and questionnaires but also included fourteen one on one interviews with: two service users; two carers; four local authority councilors; two local authority health department staff; as well as with Gwynedd Jones, Nicol a Creak, and Andrew Chen. These interviews ranged in length from 30 minutes to two hours. 5 6 Legisprudence can also accommodate constitutions, statutory instruments, regulations, rules of procedure, a mendments, and so on, but I limit my inquiry here to legislation and regulation.
165 CHAPTER 5 LEGISPRUDENCE AS METHODOLOGY: CONSTITUTING AND MEDIATING SUBJECTS IN LEGISLATED ENVIRONMENTS Mimesis is completely histori ( 2003:xxvii ) Establishing the truth claims and representations of reality, or the signification and investiture of meaning, is one of the achievements of the mi metic effect of figural language ( Whi te 1999 ) A nthropological truth claims are now (post Geertz ) grounded in thickness; more thickness equals more truth, or more realism. This is something of a truism, but perhaps worth restating. Said insisted that writing in the thickness idiom aims at ( 2003:xxi ) In the anthropology of law cum legislation, reality, or the apprehension and representation of reality is somewhat thin, especially in terms of the human element involved. An integral part of that missing element of the realism of constitutional principles and legislative domains is th e popular, demotic element, that is, attention paid to the scope and range of common human action and effective agency ( Said 2003:xxvii ) I thicken my ethnography of legislation regulation, and government by enriching the theater of law and politics, by examining inversions of symbolic hierarchies, by transfiguring the drama of legal and political development and praxis through the interweaving of vernacular agency with sovereig n ambition. This is not merely to gesture to the masses in figural terms but to draw out popular forces as actual parti cipants in the construction, production and actualization of positive legal phenomena, including rules, dut ies, regimes, principles, an d therapeutic and other relations.
166 representation ( 2008:50 ) This broadening of the cast of players, the linking of history and common folk in their being as political and legal subjects, broadens also the ethnographic context in which thes e subjects inhabit and experience legislated and regulated environments, as well more focused dimensions of those environments: equality and fairness, stakeholding and public order, and therapeutic relationalities. It also broadens the ethnographic context of law making itself, the exercise of the police powers, and the everyday conduct of government. This is more than a renovated project to study up ( Nader 1972 ) or an expanded e ffort to study through ( Reinhold 1994 ) It is, rather, an effort to mutually immerge the vernacular and the sovereign which for me entails no t just the conjoined examination of political elites and the demotic commonalty but also an e xamination of official poetics and the political epistemic in their mutual relations with multiple varieties and gradations of colloquial speech and action. In other words, I want to avoid reproducing the symbolic hierarch ies of high and low and conventional representations of binarisms, in favor of multiple and scalar sets of situated and imbricated agents. My constitutional ethnography is not only a story about official culture versus carnival, but one that tries to get a t the transecting realities of behavior and agency. T he ways in which law makers and their adjutants conceptualize their inhabited world s and their status as makers and movers of those worlds and of history is not a rarefied epidemial abstraction fabricat ed and imposed from above. On the contrary, it is
167 part of an organic social development that arises from casual encounters, structured engagements, inchoate contestations, and directed struggles. Importantly, bringing together the vernacular and the sovere ign in an analysis of legislation, regulation, and government opens an optic on discriminatory classifications, their discursive elaborations, their authorizations through actions, epistemologies, and modes of governance, and their distributed and interloc king nature. This optic enables me to consider the ways in which ethno nationalism, race, gender, heterosexism, and related classificatory symbols mutually sustain one another, linking, understanding, and representing bodies, social formations, geographic spaces, and psyches through dominant repertoires ( Stallybrass and White 1986 ) I t is i n this sense that I approach political elites as Subjects of law and politics; that is those who are authorized and who assume authority to comprehensively know, adequately discern, and meaningfully shape legal and political worlds, and to constitute and orient proper legal and political subjects These Subjects are deeply embedded in local communities, immersed in the calls and claims of constituents and others affected by decision making and government action. For me, the question is one of authorit y, more than legitimacy, and the self ( as the case may be better stated ). Integrating this understanding into legisprudence is a move intended, in part, to brin g trends in late modern intellectual hist ory and phil osophy into anthropology in an empirical way; that is, to ethnographically explore the concerns of epistemology, post structuralisms, the pathologies of reason, skepticism, and the role of language in law making, the exercise of the police powe r, and the everyday conduct of government.
168 As a resea rch methodology, legisprudence facilitates the interrogation of a number o f interrelated problematics, key issues in social theory that link legislation the police power, and government. In the main, a nd in their broadest formulations, I have thr ee such problematics in mind: (1) the relation of the individual to the social and the social to the symbolic (and the nature of macro orders and methods for investigating th eir properties); (2) subject object relations, which I frame as the relationship between the material, the conc eptual, and the social; and (3 ) the roles (and origins) of k nowledge, language, and action (especially in the sense of behaviors) in generating, sustaining, ( Frisby and Sayer 1986:122 ) As ethnographic practice, legisprudence also facilitates grounded encounters with, and thin environments ( Roseberry 1989:10 ) As an illustration, Robins and Aksoy ( 2001 ) note that identity and community h ave become problematic as conceptual tools, and novel approaches are required in order to apprehend the relational fields in which ethnographic subjects (and researchers) find themselves, and the complex coordination of cultural reference points that our i nterlocutors must seek to achieve in order to find forms of belonging and have those forms acknowledged. In the case of Britain generally and Wales more specifically, nation, national identity, and community are key legal and political problematics (that i s, key ordering devices with particular socio historical efficacies), as are the discursive and material practices of racialization. In addition to political problematics, they are also key tools of cultural and social engineering. As pointed out above, th ese conceptualities and
169 political legal tools often privilege whiteness as normative, and attempt police projects of social and cultural engineering on these terms. Within the ethno nation (and the ethno national hierarchy of Britain), other symbolic hiera rchies are at work: race, ethnicity, minority, gender, sexuality, language ability, mental health status, age, not good yet, at really comprehending and addressing need a mong minority communities. We still presume that Wales is a white country. Fitting ethnic minorities into that in really helpful ways continues to elude us, although we clearly have a stake in 2009). Legisprudence offers novel ways to analyze and theorize the role of legislation, regulation, and government in te rms of these ordering functions. This includes cultural and s ocial engineering efforts, the effective means of allocating material, s ymbolic, and knowledge resources, of structuring the struggles for equality. It also offers a new route for public engagements, for a public anthropology that has something to say about legislation, regulation, and government, and something to say to those in positions to listen and take constructive action. For my purposes in this chapter and those following, legisprudence is intended to capture an encompassing representation, from the ground up, so to s peak, of constitutional agency, of subjectiviz ation, and of the mediation of emergent relations: therapeutic, between agents of government and the vernacular in the spaces of the public square, between the State, polity, citizens, and others It entails a detailed examination of the theater 1 of law, p olitics, social relations, objects, and knowledge, to demonstrate the breadth and extent of persons, spaces, materials concepts,
170 experiences, and labors which traffic in the production of legislation and the police power as well as in the quotidian opera tion of government In its method of re presentation, legisprudence is meant to figure, through both metonym and synecdoche the complex and systematic political and legal ecology of law making in Britain and in Wales with a view toward d eveloping its impl ications more broadly 2 As a figural idiom, I i ntend legisprudence to educe the constitutive relations between and among disparate agents, many of whom are rarely attributed any role in the pro duction of legislation, regulation, and government. My constit uent elements of legisprudence, such as deliberation, anaphora, political theater, vernacular agency, and S/subjecthood, are figural and literal terms that I deploy t o refer to reality and reality effects ( Auerbach 2003 ; see also White 1999 ) Conventi onal accounts of law making focus on binaries of elite and common, or official and popular, and the work of elites and officials those directly involved with the fabrication of the products of law, with program s of re gulation and policy, and with the functions of government. This reproduces conventional symbolic hierarchies of high and low, and the epistemologies that accompany these in European cultural settings ( Stallybrass and White 1986 ) In anthropolog y, these epistemologies are often at work, built into analyses of the processes and products of law, especially in conventional work that disaggreg ates the official into domains of law and politic s, with the focus regarding law centered on judi cial products and producers. Building on my dis cussion above the anthropology of law needs to be pu shed forward on three fronts: (1 ) the examination and theorization of legislation and related non judicial legal sites, forms, and practices; (2 ) the consideration of public reasoning and the relations of forms of reasoning to particular
171 (types of) outcomes i n p olitico legal theaters; and (3 ) the analysis of the role played by non elites in the production of legislation Legisprudence is designed to tackle these dimensions singly and in their interrelations. Ethnography is well suited to the contemplation of these fronts due to its emphasis on propinquity and attention to the immanence of structures, practices and concrete human actions as well as its concern for the sets of layered relationship s in any given setting. Through legisprudence as a method for o rganizing ethnographic inquiry and presentation regarding legislation, regulation, and government I offer my examination of these fronts i n the context of law making regulation, and governing in Britain inflected through the emergent realities of devolu tion, with a particular focus on race equality a nd exercises of the police power and as the everyday conduct of government. Heuristic Legisprudence: Discovering, Learning, Problem Solving I have developed the practice of legisprudence as a heuristic, a fr amework and a model of action for the examination of these problematics, their political and academic contextualizations (that is their conditions of epistemic possibility and genealogies), and their constitutive elements, practices, and processes In ord er to get at the essence of each and all of these, what is required, rather than exemplars or definitions, is an examination of experience and of practice; that is, certai n specific way ( Latour 2010:x, italics in original ) I embed experience and pr actice in my legisprudential research and analysis in m y strategies f or investigation (that is, my methods of inquiry and data elicitation), as well as in my strate gies of presentation, and co implicated issues of ethics, the relationships between interlocutors, an d reflective considerations ( Clandi nin and Murphy 2009 )
172 As a methodology then, I understand legisprudence to entail not only acquiring and analyzing data and the application of interpretive instruments and conventions, but also epistemological commit ments; ontological commitments (th at is, the suppositions implied by the assumption of the existence of analytical materials or categories); and ethical commitments. These ethical commitments entail primarily, but not only, issues of relational ity, including my responsibility as researche r and as author to act as witness to the conditions of life that participants in my field research experience, especially those who are silenced and marginalized, and my obligation to emphasize the pol icy implications of my research ( Clandinin and Murphy 2009 ; Scheurich and Young 1997 ) to bring explicitly into my project issues of discovery, learning, and problem solving. Primarily I mean my own processes of discovery, learning and problem solving as investigator; that is, how does one go about investigating legislation, regulation, the police power, and the co nduct of government? Where does one begin? What questions can serve a heuristic func of law and its adjutants ( Lave, et al. 2010:659 ) Discovery, learning and problem solving also extend to other investigators, of course. There are two caveats that accompany my configuration of the heuristic model. The first is that the heuristic can also be applied to the subjects of study. I can ask my probing questions of the knowledge and actions of the agents of law, whether vernacular or official, that is, to inquire as to their ways of discovering, learning, and problem solving. The second is that my approach should be distinguished from the
173 psychological/psychotherapeutic approach to heuristics and the law offer ed elsewhere ( see, e.g., Gigerenzer and Engel 2006 ) A heuristic model, then, as part of the methodological approach to the study of legislation and legislated environments, structures our ways of inquiring and knowing. activities and relations through systematic application of the force of politically organized society, or through social pressure, backed by force, in such a s ( Garner 2000:712 ) in other words, is a genred narrative field and system of rationalization ( Briggs and Bauman 1992 ; see also Poovey 2008 ) ( Haraway 1997:4 ) mingling multiple domains and discursive formations: state, nation, order; modernity, reason, calculation; justice, rig ht, territory, jurisdiction. These definitions tend to overdetermine law, to present it as a marmoreal singularity of force and reason, of coercion and consent, authorized by political society. Such overdeterminations and related epistemic conventions are useful heuristic challenges, and therefore can serve as interesting starting points, however. It is the singular vision and apprehension of law as edifice that I challenge, for instance. Law, I insist, is not a single edifice, not coherent, not marmoreal. Furthermore, law and legislation are not the same thing; law and adjudication are not the same thing, although this latter formulation has held conjunctive sway in recent memory. Legisprudence is tasked to capture the hidden communions that congeal to mat erialize law in its
174 legislated and regulated forms, and to facilitate critical analysis not only of legislative work and institutions, but of the relationships between legislation regulation, and government, or more generally, the analysis of legislatures and their position in constitutional states and in political society. It is also tasked to capture the material, symbolic, and epistemological achievements that effect the hegemonic vision of law as singular, unified, coherent, and autonomous. Navigating the Ethnographic Workday M y Cambrian adventure, between the pastoral cozy of the countryside, the gritty streets of the urban and town landscapes, and the wild mercury of the Celtic Se a, unfolded something like this. The great majority of my fieldwork was spent working in an ordinary sense. I normally spent three or four days per week at work the Bay : in a the National Assembly ; or at work ency offices in Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan check, an ID and electronic pass card, and an official email account. My access was not unrestricted, but I was welcomed and made to drafted or co drafted legal and policy materials, walked files and other materials through formal processes, met with constitu ents, wrote official correspondence, handled casework, assisted with surgeries, 3 visited schools, elder care facilities, hospitals, and entourage, kept diaries and notes for official meetings, and co mmunicated on behalf of Assembly Members with the press, MPs, local authorities, the civil bureaucracy, service departments, and private and
175 voluntary sector personnel. This accounte d for a total of approximately 10 00 hours of work distributed over twelve months. I n Wales, I was invited to participate in official Party functions, both within the Assembly, as part of the regular weekly unfolding of the business of government, and outside of the Assembly, in meetings, dinners, election events, rallies, hustin gs, speeches, lectures, and the like. I also visited and spent significant amounts of time in constituency offices in other parts of Wales in the offices of local government councilors and in health and social service department s in Cardiff, the Vale of Glamorgan Swansea, Caerphilly, and Blaenau Gwent. This work accounted for almost 500 hours of field time. In London, I had similar responsibilities, but on a somewhat smaller scale. I worked with backbench Members of Parliament in the House of Commons a s well as with clerks, and with staff, doing work basically identical to that which I un dertook with Assembly Members in Wales Much of the constituency work I did for MPs was done in Wales, although I also worked briefly with MPs in other parts of Great B ritain including in Scotland. I also shadowed a number of Ministers and Deputy Ministers as well as Members of the House of Lords, over the course of many days, although I was never quite as closely aligned with Parliamentarians as I was with Assembly Me mbers. The time spent working with Parliamentarians and others in London accounted for near ly 4 00 hours of field work Finally, I volunteered for three organizations: a local community hi story organization in Cardiff ; a Black Voluntary Sector Network orga nization headquartered in Cardiff ; and a Britain wide organization that deals with BME persons with mental
176 health concerns. My association with these organizations enabled access to hospitals, to clinicians, to nurses, to health executives, to medical adm inistration staff, to social workers, to psychologists and psychiatrists, to legal representatives, to various race e quality organization staff, and to person nel in related race and ethnicity settings and in public and mental health settings across S outh Wales, and in England and Scotland I worked a variable number of hours with each of these groups during an average week. In total, this volunteering accounted in a formal sense for approximately 200 hours of field time, although informally, I spent a gre at deal of ethnographic time with people that I met through these networked affiliations In total, I have ten handwritten royal octavo notebooks (200 pages each) indexed and cross referenced ; daily computerized field diary summaries; 167 recorded interv iews ranging from twen ty to 200 minutes in length as well as about 100 hours of recorded conversations, speeches, lectures, and conference and workshop presentations ; two gigabytes and approximately 4000 hardcopy pages of official, unofficial, and embargo ed documents; and four gigabytes of photos and video footage Together, these materials constitute the bulk of my field research data made early rounds with friends, acquaintances, and others for breakfast, coffee or tea, and discussions of the morning news, catching up from previous encounters, and just gene ral conversation about the goings on in Wales, Britain, Europe, and the world. Some of these were one on one meetings, more often there were several of us who would meet. Some meetings took place in homes, some in restaurants, cafs, and coffee shops. Many of these meetings also took place on sidewalks and on walks
177 These morning engagements were extraordinarily productive, an order of socio communication in which I was consistently able to observe the iterations and anaphora of legal culture and legal politics at work in the everyday, and see the actualization (and otherwise) of constitutional pr inciples and the aspirations of political society. They reminded me of the power of the speaking voice as a communication and socialization technology. They also highlighted the nature of relationality, sociality, and especially commensality. Talking over food and drink in a relatively relaxed atmosphere is a favorite social lubricant and learning method. Usually by seven or seven thirty I was off to another morning meeting, another round of cappuccino and croissant or Welsh cakes with another set of inter locutors and another set of concerns and topics. Following this, normally around eight thirty, I began to make my way to my various formal work sites. On a Tuesday, this meant taking the nd toward the Bay. Bute Street and the dockside neighborhood Butetown, colloquially known as Tiger Bay, for a long time home to waves of migrant labor, and a historic c rucible of sorts, where multicultural diversity, of both devolved Wales and the New Britain, continue to be struggled with ( Drake 1954 ; Drake and National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers 1966 ; Jordan and Wheedon 2000 )
178 Church, along Bute Street, usually meeting friends and acquaintances, who frequently Bay, passing the Butetown History and Arts Centre (Figure B 13 ) or the Bay Arts Centre, depending which route I took, across Bute Place, onto the concrete plaza of the offices. Tuesdays I worked in the office of Victoria Davies, a Labour backbencher from a constituency in North Wales. On a Wednesday or Thursday, this routine was the s ame, the main difference being the office in which I worked. On a Friday, I went to constituency offices, catching the Arriva Trains Wales from Cardiff Central to the cities, towns, and villages of destination (Figure 8 1 ) Once I arrived at the Assembly on a Tuesday, usually between nine and nine thirty, the everyday business of governing was alr eady underway. Victoria Davies, the Labour backbencher, was invariably already bustling: on the office telephone, coordinating with her constituency staff in the office in North Wales, texting from her the weekly Plenary, committee meetings, and appointments, and in constant communication with David Evans, her head of office, who sat at a desk just adjacent, conducting the daily business of the office: press contacts and press releases, drafting the office (DE, personal communication, October 9, 2008).
179 Dave usually had a paper cup of tea steeping beside him, the television switched on and tuned to various news outlets: BBC, SkyNews, ITN. It ran silently, mostly, until an item caught his eye. He w ould jab a finger on the remote, intent on the story for a moment, then return to the work at hand. Vic and Dave would routinely take a break for special televised segments, such as interviews with Assembly Members and others, or morning political shows, o ffering running commentary on both the interviewers and the interviewees, the questions asked, the answers given, the set design and lighting, clothes and hair, how the particular topics at hand were relevant to their own work, and the tides of political c oncern that shifted and flowed in the press, in the hallways, in committee rooms, and on the floor of the Siambr, as well as in broader and more encompassing gyres of regional, national, European, and global politics. Hywel is a rabbit warren of corridors, stairways, and offices, and on the days I shadowed Victoria, it was a calorie burning endeavor. An actual day typifies the daily conduct of governing: from the office on the t hird floor to conference rooms on the ground floor for a meeting with stakeholders in Commission; then into an adjacent room to meet with interest group representatives concerned about environmental degradation and the use of plastic shopping bags; to the caf on the second floor and a meeting with one or two other AMs regarding a proposal to build a nuclear power plant across the Severn; back downstairs for the launch of a new report on communications and the digital g ap in Wales; to a Party meeting regarding the proposal to cull badgers in an effort to eradicate bovine tuberculosis; to another launch, of a new Assembly initiative on domestic abuse; to a
180 third launch regarding further education in North Wales; to an eco nomic meeting with meeting with the chief executive of a drug and alcohol rehab facility, followed by an appointment with the policy adviser for the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; to a fourth launch; and then back to the office again, to prepare for the weekly Plenary debate and government business. weekly Plenary in th Bethan, from an adjacent county in the North and housed in the office next door would knock, open the do the floor of the Siambr. The Presiding Officer would call the Siambr to order, and announce Questions to the First Minister (FMQs). An AM would stand, frame a FMQs lasted 45 minutes or so, followed by substantive policy statements, legislative statements, and other items of gov ernment business. On a Tuesday, plenary time is devoted entirely to government business. On a Wednesday, another regular day for plenary debates, remaining government business is addressed, followed by opposition business. During my time in the field, the Welsh Assembly Government was a coalition of Labour and Plaid Cymru, the nationalist party of Wales, called the One Wales Coalition. The Conservatives, or Tories, colloquially, and the Liberal Democrats were in the opposition.
181 During the plenary, AMs drif ted in and out, taking their seats and joining the procedural formalities of deliberations as necessary. Assembly staff were also constantly coming and going, delivering large envelopes and bits of message paper to AMs. It is common for the Siambr to be le ss than full throughout, except when there are major debates and when the vote is called at the end of the day, normally around five As for me, after we crossed the sky walk, I would break off from Victoria and allery perched above the Siambr. For the remainder of the afternoon, on both Tuesdays and Wednesdays, I would watch the deliberations, and take notes, occasionally donning headphones to listen to the deliberations in Welsh, via the real time streaming of b ilingual translations that the Assembly provides. Watching from above, I had the impression of a staid and formal process underpinned by perpetual human activity, which struck me as an attractive figure for legislation, regulation, and government more gene rally. This idea, of the Siambr as an index, fills in some of the content of my metonymic and synecdochic dimensions of legisprudence. (and Vic, once she returned), and then listen as other AMs with offices on the same sorts, a gathering place for a group of collegial AMs and their staff members, where a number of informative conversations t ook place. Victoria and Dave were both virtual magnets, friendly, warm, and funny, as well as intensely interested and deeply invested in their work. I often found myself lost amid the cultural, political, and shared insider material that passed between pe ople in these informal get
182 certain that frequent bewildered looks must have crossed my face. At these moments, Dave, Victoria, and the others, with good humor and a lot of laughter, would take a few minutes to bring me up to speed on the particulars, sweeping through Welsh history; Welsh and British politics; personal relations that had family roots generations deep; a famous but important personalities; principles, rules, exceptions; and a lau ndry list of details that grounded their particular actions today in the iterations of law, language, history, custom, and relationships that inflected (DE, personal commu nication, November 11, 2008). This was how much of my time was spent in the spaces of the Assembly, the main differences being the different offices in which I worked. These differences were not minor, in so far as the apparent dedication and workloads were often quite distinct, and ga 2008). On a Friday, I would catch the 9:20 train out of Cardiff, and go to work in the constituency office of Laura Mills, the Minister for whom I worked. Her office staff, Liz Gray and Cerys Lang, brought me into their working world with grace, welcoming me immediately, quizzing me on my research, and using what I told them to organize my working time in the office. They included me in virtually everything, and spent hours familiarizing me with cases, files, the procedures of dealing with cases, local pol itics and the peccadilloes of the local councilors, the ins and outs of the bureaucracy of the local
183 the historical British industrial landscape, the famous folk wh o come from there and come to there on holiday, and the nature of the working class community that characterized the town and set it off from the rural and generally wealthy surrounds. The office and the town were a study in the deep care that Laura, Liz, and Cerys all had for personally benefitted enormously from that care, and I learned from Liz and Cerys much about law and politics in the town, in Wales, and in Brita in. On a Monday, my ethnographic workdays were anything but routine. I rarely found myself in the Assembly, mainly because many AMs leave on Friday, spend the weekends in their constituencies, and travel on Monday, to return to the conduct of business on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday. Mondays found me more or less across the whole of South Wales, and occasionally beyond: in local authorities, in health and social services departments, in Cathays Park with Civil Servants of the Assembly, at Cardiff Unive rsity, where I would frequently meet with faculty and graduate students to discuss research, consider joint projects, and plan lectures, workshops, and seminars. Monday evenings I was often engaged in graduate student organizational meetings and colloquia, student or two sharing some bit of their research. Other evenings in the week usually found me at dinners, lectures, pub and restaurant gatherings, charity events, awards ceremonies, receptio ns, gallery shows, and so on. The days rarely ended before ten The next several sections of this chapter, although what they describe did not take place in the Assembly or in constituency offices, draw heavi ly from these workday
184 routines and the relations that interpellated me into much larger macro projects of governing. The following accounts begin to ground the constitutive relations and encompassing representation that I intend legisprudence to capture an d portray. The chapter will conclude with sections in which I begin to draw connections with my theoretical practice. George Falstaff and the Rulebook : The Scalar Effects of Epistemologies of Ignorance George Falstaff and I found ourselves talking together on a spring evening, over a table of curries. Rich, almost intoxicating aromas wafted around us. We were part of a large house party thrown by Tony Rose, with catered Indian cuisine, bottles of red, wh ite, and dessert wines, and several varieties of beer on hand. We had met twice health executive through the rounds of psychiatric services. George and I had spent a good amount of time talking both times, and he was familiar with my project. We struck up a conversation moving gradually from perfunctory niceties to a more engaging conversation about psychiatric health care and service delivery in Cardiff. George is the lea d social worker employed by the Cardiff County Council, and moves between a number of hospitals, clinics, and other sites. He referred to himself as communication, Ju ne 25, 2009). Devolution to him meant little more than an additional 1983 [Mental Health] Act, which worked just fine, the organization was much better. Under the 2007 [ Mental Health] Act, my ability to treat my patients with competence is gradually being eroded. Now, the structure of devolution and the structure of the health
185 treat devolution had wrought a new disconnect in service delivery and in his capacity as a medicolegal therapeutic agent, a disconnect that separated him from his understanding of fairness and equity. This disconnect had then been exacerbated by the institutional reforms implemented by the First Assembly (1999 2003), and further worsened by the passage of the Mental Health Act 2007. t conflict with my ability what do I have to do to conform? OK, this is a Black, what do I have to do to conform? Now, here comes an elder, a gay, a Pakistani, whatever. Do I have to make sure they speak English? And the nest of filth in Cathays [Park, the offices of the civil bur shrugging, and refused to clarify what he had meant by this statement. George poured himself a refresher of red wine, picked a samosa from the table and popped it in his mouth. He gestured for me to follow him, and we walked out of the kitchen, to a table in the garden, well away from the others. He leaned in and lowered h is voice as he began. Arabic, Pales tinian, I think, or something. Anyway, h e knew he was psychotic, and he
186 was deeply, deeply afraid, so we deemed him a suicide risk. The st George leaned back, rested his head on the back of his chair and rolled his eyes. Letting go a long plosive sigh, he exhaled through puffed cheeks and pursed lips. A pause. He leaned forward again, flattening his palms on the table between us and s preading out and nave I mean, teach them what its actually like to be there. So Fayez is in crisis, and th e student shouts that we need a translator. ried about getting a translator! She even left to retrieve her manual and show me that a transla tor is required wher e there is might be! a problem communicating! Unbelievable. She just walked away, and came back while He shook his head, eyes closed, looked up again and ran his left h and along the side of perhaps especially, during a crisis? I hid my lack of understanding by looking down, scribbling a few notes to myself in my field journal. When I looked up again, George we got Fayez sorted. The n we had a terrible row afterwards. I had to spe ak with her about how to conduct herself properly and of course it had to go in her performance evalua social work after all. S he has to realize what it takes to be a professional, and
187 pr George What was the problem with her going His face hardened. significant emphasis as he leaned in close raised his voice, and enunciated speaking to English speakers, so there was absolutely no reason, no need for a translator. Had the student bothered to pay attention, or ask, she would have learned that, and there would have been less tension, it would have been a less tense situation. Instead, she something meant that Fayez had to be incapable of understanding. between different race groups, they all look down on one another. Anyway, i of unthinking and unattentiveness that always comes up with minority students ignoring details and running to the rule book, afraid to break the rules for fe ar of sanction or a lower grade. student is a part of the p Finally, then, her actions worsen an already bad, an already crisis, situation. Thoroughly unacceptable, and I told her so, and made sure that the rest of the staff knew of the problem, for Fayez she was distraught as well as to prevent it from happening again, or at least I hoped so. And it went into her
188 sat back, sipped wine actions are really I he issued a long, burdened sigh proper work, patients get better treatment and we run much more efficiently. When they I studiously kept me eyes and attention focused on my notebook, writing. He relented, turned aside and lit a cigarette. Standing to As I told you But I can connect you That information is not private? I thought to myself. Cici Williams: Profes sionalizing t he Social Work Student As it turned out, I already knew the student, and from my associations with students at Cardiff University had heard rumors of the incident George narrated. The ardiff University. I first met her when I was looking for the mailroom in the Glamorgan Building, which houses the School of Social Sciences, and blundered into a graduate student meeting. She beckoned me to the seat beside her, and offered me a glass of w presentation on inequality in social care, and when she finished, she grabbed my arm and hustled me out to The Pen and Wig a local student hang ou t. We chatted for an hour or so, and she volunteered to be interviewed for my project, if I was interested. I was, and a few weeks later we arranged to meet at the Cato Arms on a fine fall evening, as a golden pink sunset ushered in the end of the day. Cic i sipped from her beer, gave
189 Traffic buzzed by on Cathedral Road. A family bustled along the sidewalk with wheeled suitcases and a pram. We talked for a bit, getting t o know each other a bit more. The talk slowly turned to research and the politics of inequality in Wales. raised an eyebrow, and she took the invitation to explain. easy. Th up with the worst bloke in Cardiff. Racist, sexist, hates gays. Great credentials for a social worker, right? Anyway, this kid comes in, Fayez. He was referred, his mom brought him in. He was acutely unwell, and communication with him was difficult, and [George] Falstaff just ignored her, kind of pushed her to one side, and started the and incap she threw up air quotes, half mockingly imitated the delivery around her glass, her knuckles white, her knees pulled
190 she still felt after several months made a deep impression on me. I asked her if she wanted to stop. She wiped a out a hand? Try to comfort her? I opted just to remain silent, to let her proceed when she was ready. to prison. Falstaff just insisted that both Fayez and his mother were fluent in English, and he waved me away, just dismissed me. It went bad from there, and I ended up with the blame. Fal staff wrote me up, like I Fayez, who ended up on an adult ward, though clearly a ward with younger people would have been more suitable. And time she finished, Cici was exhausted, drained and angry, her entire body clenched at the memory. We sat in silence again for a time. The blue of twilight had begun to settle, street lights were coming on. A light in the yard adjacent began to glow behind her profile, a tear streak glistened on her cheek. policy in Wales is clear about ensuring that the patient is central. If I want to be an appropriate p ractitioner, then I have to follow the rules. Not just because they are rules, legislation and the policy in Wales I want to help people, disproportionately represented in all the negative ways: psychosis, criminal and anti
191 d, and far more likely to be administered medicines rather than other therapies. I know from my own experiences in common assumption is that somehow mental disorder is more permanent for us. So I want to see people given proper treatments and proper care, but also I want to see equality and fairness in the system. I have a stake in it from both sides, and this is part horizon for many senior staff and practitioners. There is a disconnect between the new Me framework. What goes on in practice is not in line with either British law, Welsh law, or best practices. What Parliament and the Assembly want and what crisis teams do are not a t all the same thing. Not even close. And the result is predictable: minorities, women, and gays and lesbians continue to experience extremes of isolation, rejection, inequ have no my difference is sickness. I think we all are.
192 areness of diversity. Racial, cultural, religious, sexuality, and the relationship of these with mental illness. That awareness has got to come from the top, the leaders have to lead. Not just in the health service, but in the Assembly. Not all Blacks are schizophrenic, you know? Not all knife crime is committed by Blacks. Being gay is not supposed to be considered a mental disease any more. The psychosis I experience is not due to being gay, and being gay is not the run by them? The system is still completely biased. What happens, because of that, is that my identity affected everything on th Fayez Bashir: Outcomes of Difference in Metadiscursive Practices I connected with Fayez, through his mother, after George gave me their names and contact details, and informed exp erience. She emailed me one day in November of 2008, asking if I would be interested in speaking with Fayez. I replied affirmatively, and over the next two days we ex changed emails, a dialogue that culminated in her invitation to me [thei r] November, I made my way there. 4 the most difficult, I think, but Fayez does not speak of it. Since then, he has changed, boys. Fayez said nothing to me about it, until the polic e came. It was devastating. I thought our lives were over.
193 We spoke for about forty minutes, over tea. She excused herself, and left the room, returning with Fayez, and introduced us. While his mother looked on, I explained my research to F ayez and aske d if he would be willing to speak with me. He was, and we began. experience and diagnosis When I had my first episode, I was hearing voices, I felt and finally it got so bad there was nothing to do but make a referral. I ended up on the ward. But nd I can feel it, I can feel being change. I had a lot of anxiety, a lot of rage, and I had hallucinations. That was bad, and I was scared to say anything to anyone, because normal pe hallucinations. It just got so overwhelming. But knowing, I mean ha ving a diagnosis, a word that describes me now, the floor. He was silent for about a minute and half. 5 who never left me alone. Always bullying me, calling me names, but whether at the epithet, the curse or the image of the brutality her son had suffered, they started punching me, hitting me,
194 when the police came, someone reported the fight The CHAVs I think got ASBOs, 6 and they started hitting me, and I was just really angry and shouting. The police refused to believe me, and said that I must have been on drugs because I was angry and shouting. They wrote me up in their report, and they came to our house That was when the referral had to be made and I It took me some time to work out these details, and to understand what had happened to Fayez. George had insisted that the police had brought him in, that he was was uncertain as to whether the police had been involved. In reality, the police did not bring Fayez in. havior began to really worry his mother and so she contacted the general practitioner (GP), who referred her to a consultant The consultant recommended an assessment, and arranged an appointment. Before the appointment, however, the stress of the fight and the ensuing couple of days built up in Fayez and his mother decided to take him to the hospital. His mother put a hand on I went to see him every day, but he was so blank, so empty because of the medications. When they finally let him out, they gave me a handful of pills. Only that! No help with what to do, how to care for him. The doctor who had first seen him [George Falstaff]
195 society, treated fairly, instead of being shunned. Everybody with the kinds of difficulties Fayez had no history of dr ug use or of violence, and had only had the one psychotic episode, which probab ly resulted in part from a serious physical assault. His referral, did not directly involve the police; nevertheless, assertions of drug misuse, and violent behavior were taken up as true at the point of intake, and his acute psychosis was taken as evidenc e of the veracity of the history. Proper treatment in his case was communication, May 25, 20 09). The desire for security and the mapping of colonial assumptions on postcolonial bodies, psyches, and geographic spaces continues apace as a characteristic of the an d his mother, transect and collocate the symbolic hierarchies and institutional roles that compose the regimes, establishing the means for governing, namely, the containment of difference and its ambivalent expressions. Linking the Ethnographic Workday with Methodological Practice My ethnographic workdays run throughout these portraits. I knew George through relations with Members of the National Assembly for Wales, relations which I was able clinicians, social workers, psychiatrists, nurses, and others (Stoilkova, personal communication). Cici I met as a result of the appointment I had at Cardiff University during my fieldwork, an appointment that was the result of relations developed with Car diff University faculty and staff in the National Assembly. My relationship with Fayez grew out of the reference from George,
196 but also from work in the constituency office for a local AM. Each relationship was not only built from snowballing, but recursive and very interestingly interconnected, due in part to the relatively personal nature of political and social life in Wales. These workdays and the intimate interconnections also form the core of legisprudence as a heuristic and a methodology for this pro ject, that is, as a way of thinking about and inquiring into legislated environments, and the dense sets of relations and consequential effects that characterize the role of legislation, legislatures, and legislators in the everyday worlds of vernacular ag ents, articulating statecraft in the ensemble state, service delivery and the professions, and the demos. As I have stated above, the key institutional relations with which I am concerned are those between legislation, the police power, and government, and legisprudence as methodology is concerned with the examination of these relations and the forms of agency that both mediate and are mediated by the institutions. This mediation produces S/subjectivities, materializes the political epistemic, institutional izes the legal and political landscape, and creates the formal authorizations for the actions of legislating, regulating, administering, and governing. This includes sociolegal instrumentalities, like discretion, which enable ambivalent and sometimes contr adictory actualizations of official requirements, as is often the case regarding equality achievements. has indexical potentiality and often multiple outcomes. Race, language, and the practices that are believed to bring about equality are brought together in the actions and interactions that constitute everyday governing, and in the actual and symbolic struggles over the normative structure of the community and dominant cultura l
197 repertoires. In this situation, these struggles are putatively private issues which became 7 a contest played out in the public square largely in the terms George established, and wrap ped in the high discourse of political society: fairness, efficiency, stakeholding. The multiple conversations I shared with people about the incident centered on questions about ation, June are not just an interpersonal struggle, but a constitutive part of th e apparatus of everyday governing, the maintenance of a particular social order, and the antagonistic enactments of agency that differentially activate constitutional principles. the principles, of liberty and equality, and also are a constitutive part of the apparatus of everyday governing, and the struggles over the content of the political episteme. In this case, his authority are enacted not onl y as rules of hierarchy, but as mechanisms of ordering and sense making with powerful symbolic charge. Although George was not authorized to perform the precise diagnosis, he did explain psychosis to Fayez, and became an important figure of the therapeutic status one of language per se but of (the absence of) translation of the cultural concepts of
198 mental disorder and meaningful elaboration of the material and discursi ve extremes of psychosis, sectioning, incapacitation, and deprivation of liberty. The exalted aims of fairness, equality, and therapeutic quality became, for Fayez, little more than a debasing move that altered his self inflecting his ability to cope once released to community care. Furthermore, the iterative nature of the narrative of violence and drug use, on every intake form, repeated in every encounter with medicolegal personnel, a constant barrage of assertion linked with NHS and social care institutions, with letterhead paper, with uniforms, and with his existence in community, was so constant that Fayez began to forget whether or not h e had ever used drugs, had ever committed violence. There were many days that he was able to say with confidence that neither was accurate; there were many other days when he was unable to say with certainty. In several of our conversations, Fayez demonstr ated an ambivalent internalization. He discursively sublimated his uncertainty in general statements about the improper nature of violence and drug use, thus subtly expressing the dominant repertoire and inculpating himself for types of behavior he had not engaged, desolating and abjecting his sense of self. George was a key agent of meditation in this subjective transition, along with others in the medicolegal institutional regime. Although I do not want to suggest that this was intentional or deliberate, it does highlight the power of proceduralisms and of the constant repetition of regulated procedure and its contribution to formulae of identity and recognition. Because of the status of the NHS as a premier institution of the state, because of police invo lvement, and because of the profile of the NHS reorganizations
199 conducted in devolved Wales, the encounter with psychosis, for Fayez and his mother, became an issue of government, of multi level statecraft. This dimension also took deep phenomenological and existential hold among others, friends and relatives of Fayez, shaping familial and community relations and affirming the symbolic hierarchies of g them with the state and government (EB, field interview, May 29, 2009). s professional sense of self, a corporeal actualization of the symbolic repertoires of difference and hierarchies of centers and margins, of the proper social body and its borders. Not only the physical bodies with all of the deviations they represented for prominent role in individual and social life, and its category of experience and continual government and integral to its proper functioning, participates in the everyday continuatio n of well ordered society. In his role as psychiatric social worker, George condenses the multi layers of governing in the New Britain: his empowerment and obligations under the Mental Health Act 2005, the Mental Health Act 2007, and other legislation that sustains and performs the England and Wales hybrid; the practices required or recommended by the Welsh Assembly Government; the duties imposed by the Local Authority; the administrative rules and guidance within the NHS and the health care system more gen erally, and the ethical guidelines of his profession, all locate George in a complex legal and political ecology and constitutional matrix, in which the
200 facts of difference give him the iconography of his memento hodii his knowledge of legislation, the police power, and government, and ultimately with the emerging constitutional narrative of the New Britain ( cf. Tomlins 2010 ) I argue that, together, the protagonists in these stories differentially enact constitutional principles, and constitutional fantasies, in this case issues of equality, fairness, and rights. Each account points up issues of language (including what constitutes adequate language ability and the extent of legal obligation), of the political epistemic, and of normative governance. I will return to these threads and argument below, in order to further illustrate their articulations with l egislation, regulation, and governance in the constitutional ethnography of New Britain. 1 in the sense of the place where dramatic performances take place ( Egginton 2010 ) I do not intend to evoke the metaphors or rheto 2 I shoul released Public Justice and the Anthropology of Law (2010) entails an analysis of human rights, and addresses some of my concerns, namely the role of communication in the construction and conveyance of understanding of/within normative systems, and attention to the problematic of the public and its role vi s vis the construction and functioning of normative systems. 3 A surgery is a session at which elected representatives and their staff are available to be consulted locally on more or less regular o ccasions. These consultations may take place in the con stituency office or another local site such as a town hall, or a school The Welsh Assembly Government Minister for whom I worked was renowned for her surgeries. 4 Mrs. Bashir arranged for a family friend to be present to translate as necessary. Their fa mily moved to Britain in 2001 and to Cardiff in 2003. Mrs. Bashir has a very good command of English, but she finds herself nervous speaking to native speakers, and was much more comfortable with the friend present to assist her. Fayez himself has become a fluent English speaker. 5 CHAV is a derogatory acronym that stands for Council Housing and Violent. It generally refers to young men who live on housing estates owned by local Councils, and who are stereotyped as anti social, criminal, and violent.
201 6 An ti Social Behavior Order, a civil order issued against a person who engages in anti social behavior (see the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, ch. 37, as amended by the Anti Social Behaviour Act 2003, ch. 38, §85). 7 In addition to the accounts from George, Ci ci, and students at Cardiff University, the incident was related to me by five separate people, in five separate organizations: a Local Health Board executive, a Cardiff constituency caseworker, a Black Voluntary Sector Network executive, a journalist, and a professor in Cardiff University Law School.
202 CHAPTER 6 LEGISPRUDENCE AS ANA LYTICAL FRAMEWORK: I NSTITUTIONAL RELATIO NS AND MANIFESTING STRU CTURES THROUGH AGENC Y It should be clear, following from the poststructural corpus of writing, that there is no preexisting subject (or subjectivity), no formed, unified, and completed identity, whether of the racialized minority, the mentally disordered person, the woman, the homosexual, the politician, the doctor the homeless, the aged. The intellectual ( Valverde 2006:103 ) which regards the production of these objectivized and subjectivized roles and identities, and their mutual interactions, as well as their interactions with existing and changing social environments, institutions, and relations. Additionally, I suggest that what is needed is more attention to institutionalization, the creation or transformation of institutions, their conditi ons of possibility, and the recursive relations of mediation between agents and structures. This chapter begins to unravel these relations and conditions. Key to this challenge is the recognition that power, law, and capitalism have productive dimensions ( Foucault 1991 ; Marx 1993b ; Marx and Engels 1972 ; Phillips 1980 ; Robinson 1983 ; Sunder Rajan 2006 ; Yanagisako 2002 ) These dimensions emerge from the dialectical and dialogical relations of subjects and the social, and the socio historical, socio communicative practices that constitute and shape them ( Bakhtin 1968 ) The relations a re critical to legisprudence as a model and as a theoretical framework, and to my analysis of legislation, regulation, and government. The relations of subjectivity have, of course, received analytical attention, much of which proceeds from premises of an integrated Cartesian cogito or a splintered Nietzschean self. Recent signposts on the intellectual highway of this concern include
203 ( 1971 ) ( 1976 ; 2005 ) processes of self making and self ( 1994 ) development of interpellation and the ( 1983 ) schizophrenic capitalism; among others ( see e.g. Aretxaga 1997 ; Hoy 2009 ; Ortner 2006 ; Rose 2006 ; ) My own thinking has been significantly shaped by the concern with subject formation, and the role of legislation, regulation, and government in these processes. Interpellation is a foundational concept for me, as is subjectivation, and especially ( 1986 ; 2006 ) The fold transgresses the conventional herm eneutic which posits an indicative relationship between surfaces (including behavior) and psychic identity as essence. these phenomena turning into one another in a continuous process of becoming and self actualization, necessarily involving language, environment, and learning in the making of selves and subjects. In addition, the fold is an extendable metaphor, which can also be usefully applied to institutions, or rather to institutive and constitutive processes, so that a given institutional reality is not an outside or surface appearance overlaid on an interior space (of history, or of particularized function), but the expression of infoldings, of outsides and ins ides interacting. A similar metaphor, the mangle, has been suggested by Pickering ( 1995 ) but I opt for the fold because it allows for a more useful political and legal ecology, for the processes and harmonics of multiplicities interacting, and for a more
204 sensuous perception of radiations and ramifications. The fold is immanent wit hin the the impression of an external agent undertaking the action required to produce the mangled reality, thus sustaining a sort of old school structuralism. Through the metaphor of the fold and of infolding, I bring subjectivity and the rejection of the notion of a congealed self into my legisprudential analysis, to consider several moments of the whole of a given analysand: complexity; the co productive relations of legislation and S/subjects; the constructions and experiences of what the self seems to be at any given moment, what it may become in future, and the nature of its mutability in legislated environments. 1 Conjugating these concerns within the framework of l egisprudence enables consideration of the extant influences on possibilities for action, possibilities for living ( Hacking 1999 ) The case materials detailed in the following sections bring out issues of subjectivization, interpellation, and the co productive mediations of S/subjects and institut ions. Procuring Equality (or Fairness?) hallway toward the meeting room There was a conference scheduled to begin shortly I was standing in the hallway outside the room, We had just stepped off the elevator, and he had begun a whispered conversation with the Minister for Finance They huddled together a few paces away, locked in a very serious conversation, from the look of it This was the fourth time in as many days that I had stood in this hallway, very nearly in this exact spot, waiting for a public event to begin,
205 and I found myself again looking at the framed blac k and white photographs that decorated the hallway, images of another century, mostly rural, hinting at the history and heritage of Wales Several of the Assembly staff had taken it upon themselves to take pity on the somewhat awkward and out of place fore igner standing in the hallway, perhaps a bit too intent on the photos, waiting for his designated guides and guidance Mary was one of these staff members, who seemed rather pleased to look out for a lost soul in the guise of anthropologist n atured smile belied the chidi ng, and she patted me on the arm as she passed I smiled back Just then James put a hand on my elbow Listen pat on the arm and friendly smiles. Listen, Scott, go in and find a seat, the Minister and I will be right there handwritte M inister yes? Anything else I can help you with? OK? he winked
206 Sit near er the down the hall, where the Minister was just finishing another conversation He and James put their heads together again, and resumed I walked into the conference roo m Several long tables were arranged in a square at one end of the room, and the chairs positioned around this square were already nearly filled As I would find out, these were mostly business owners from around Wales, as well as a few academics The head of the table was reserv ed for the Minister and his officials There were several rows of chairs set up in the remaining space of the room, and I sat, near the front, and opened the file on the adjacent seat James appeared with a biscuit get a b iscuit or something? A t asked and he crunched his, brushing crumbs from the front of his pale blue shirt . We just had a chat about your research, and I briefed him on your work here so far, and your conclusions on for remember anyone being here for a year Espe cially an anthropologist! t ing soon Have you had a biscuit? Do l of the attendees, and handed the Minister a sheaf of papers, poking a finger at the top page, and then riffling through the remainder, nodding his head and speaking The Minister glanced over at me, nodded and gave a small wave; James followed the gaze, and let go with a broad
207 smile and a wave of his own I waved back, nearly losing control of the file folder and papers, which I had moved to my lap About a minute passed, and the Minister cleared his throat, announcing that we were ready to begin, and Jam es appeared, taking his place on the chair adjacent to me As the Minister began to detail the agenda, James leaned over to me, whispering know, and touches on virtually ev ery piece of business we conduct Environment, farming, education, economy, finance, local government, health care, housing, sustainability, all of it hard to mainstream race equality through procurement, to make sure that it s front ended, in terms of employment, as well as measured outcomes. Procurement is s ome o and parcel of everything, and mainstreaming as part of the procurement process really ensures that we get it in from the ground up, so to speak. T hese are some very important people here today from around Wales awarding contracts that are going to be fair and sustainab le, especially for SMEs [Small and Medium Sized Enterprises] and for social enterprise generally The other side of it is service delivery and providing services, and procurement, in terms of cost and quality, is instrumental to the outcomes of service d elivery . And policy is really the main way we organize our work and objectives here ve read the [Government of Wales] Act, so you know that improving public services is one of the
208 he stopped and scribbled a note on the pad in his lap tive framework to do that follow, of course, and that, well, enables us, but really, law is replaced, in many ways, Placing duties on public bodies is with my hand; James looked down and scribbled again . The Minister is quite keen on the on relationships between departments and people, and local government agencies, especially health and social care It s regulating through persuasion, and the text inquires have been quite positive, so far. So LSBs will be crucial to improving care, and they are one of the ways we will achieve the goals of the coalition government and achieve our larger political objectives, like equality. P rocurement is essential to understanding and conducting the business of governmen James was a garrulous interlocutor, and a favorite of mine at the Assembly My discussions with him were uniformly enlightening and rife with nuggets that could keep a researcher asking questions for a good long time On this day, he left me with two key ideas: that law is being supplanted by persuasive measures; and the nexus between legal duty, persuasion, and the conduct of government These turned out to be a serendipitous leaving, one to which we returned later, and which gave me quite useful
209 ques tions to ask of other special advisers, Assembly Members, and Ministers and their officials T his relationship, of legislation, persuasion and government, or perhaps more cogently framed as the nature (and effects) of the relationship betwe en law and poli tics, is foundational to legisprudence and to understanding, partially, institutional relations and the recursive mutualities of agency and structures. ationship between law and politics. In a normative sense, it throws a wrench into the works of sociolegal and sociopolitical analysis Law is stamped with the im primatur of reason derived from several centuries worth of political epistemics and legal semiotics. One the one hand, assumptions reg arding the autonomy of law, the internal drivers of its evolution, and its existence as a remove from the everyday of society and the impurities of mere political behavior. Much of the talk about law, especially about legislation, centers on processes of d eliberation, understood as rational social engagement of controversy, and consensus, understood as, at least representativeness in the f inal closure enactment of legal instruments. Politics, on the other hand, are more or less ideological ly driven, a parti san product based on tenets of belief and sets of strategies for achieving objectives agreed internally to a party, and thus not representative, not accountable, not deliberate in the same way. Such partisan objectives may be subject to pragmatic concern s certainly, but somehow politics is distinct from, and less than, law and persuasion is less than deliberate and reasoned prescriptions. If policy and regulation through persuasion have come to replace law as the regular way of conducting the business of government, it would seem problematic: at the very least achieving th rough unilateral processes of
210 Ministerial rule making what ought to be achieved through negotiation, coordination, interaction across the partisan boundaries and other social fragments This development in the Welsh context partakes of a long standing concern within the conventional political epistemic, the S/subjective apperception of English and British as quintessentially a common law constitutional environment. Rooted in place and th e history of place in the arch ipelago, the sense of self arises from groundedness (literally) in the soil and the ius soli determination of citizenship and recognition. This self government. English, or British, normative governance, in this instance, its exceptionalism, posits the action s of ministers of state as administrative measures, characteristically (and negatively) embodied by the French and the civil law system, the continental derivative of the Renaissance uptake of Roman law precursors. These administrative approaches, derogate relationship with injustice from the jurisprudence of Edward Coke (Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 1606 1613, and Lord Chief Jus tice, 1613 1616) to the preeminent English legal historian John Baker ( 2002:151 ) The Assembly opponent termed it, brings constitutive and institutive measures to the fore, experimenting with ways of grounding them in intersubjective fields, rather than in duties, prescribed responsibilities, sanctions. More carrot than stick, more consent than coercion, a number of my interlocutors, within the Assembly, within Local Authorities,
211 within the professions, and among the commonalty, had serious reservati ons about the legitimacy of such actions, and the predicted and likely outcomes. But perhaps this is to overdraw the distinction between law and politics much been said about the partisan nature of law itself and of the production of it, as t he re sult of multiparty compromise, and outcomes dependent upon mere numbers in majoritarian systems? Is the replacement of legal duty with persuasion or administrative fiat a next logical step in conducting the business of government? How does one go about inv estigating the claims? I contend that this is nothing new, that law (that is, rules of law) and its alter, whether as persuasion or as ministerial fiat, have always been conjoined in the British constitutional order, that the opposition of common law juris prudence and administrative law is a constructed opposition with a long history and an intraclass character, a struggle over proper politico legal order and the maintenance of social order more broadly. I find this tension inscribed in British constitution al, legislative, and regulatory history from the medieval period to the present. Devolution itself is the transfer of administrative, i.e. ministerial, functions, and the regimes I have under consideration rely in significant part on persuasion and other f orms of consensus manufacture, rather than on sanction or imposition. Rule r egime s contribut e significantly to the mediation of social, political, and professional S/ subjectivities and I argue that legislation and government are key participants in the se processes and in the relation of these subjectivities to the totality of society These S/ subjectivities relate to capital accumulation, for example, beyond a simple generic sense of creating a laboring population or educing concern for the working class T o get at this relationship and its ramifications, we need to examine the
212 role of difference and inequality as these are structured into legal and political activities, such as procurement, but also in deliberation, and legal and political products, such as statutes, regulations, and guidance, and legal and political outcomes, such as infrastructures, contracts, equality of access to service delivery, delivery of services themselves, clinical and other encounters, and so on. Procurement impinges on each o f these, and is therefore an important dimension of the equalities regime, of mainstreaming equality, and of seeking to achieve equality outcomes in devolved Britain. Although procurement places a statutory duty to promote race equality on public providers and those with whom they contract, its achievement through other means is a potent example of the manifesting of structures and institutions through intersubjective agency. In the case of the conference I attended with James, the main focus was on social housing, with implications for social landlords, contractors, and local authorities. The implications open a lens not just on questions of the theoretical dimensions of structures and agency, or the pragmatic dimensions of the extent of law and politics, b ut on the relationship between positive proactive duties to comply with race equality mandates and persuasive mechanism to supplement these duties, and the institutivity of S/subjective relations. Mrs. Fei: Becoming a Stakeholder Mrs. Fei came from Guangz hou, in China. 2 When she first arrived in Britain, in torment in my marriage, and depression. How did I come out from the darkness of my per cent of the Chinese population [in Birmingham] might have been suffering from one
213 realized that all the negativity and the darkness I experienced because of my marriage contributed [to the depression] and had great impact on me, but there was a lack of information for me, and I had no way to find out and this made me act in some stupid Soon thereafter, she moved with her husband and daughter to Cardiff. About two months after settling in the Riverside neighborhood, close to the Taff river embankment, she was in a bank and suddenly felt unable to control her emotion very well, just that everything seemed to go very dark, and I felt pressure in my head, like it would shatter. I was shaking, and began to hallucinate. Spirits floated in my eyes and spoke to me. I think I shrieked, and I ran out of the bank. I realized that I needed treatment, otherwise I would end up in an institution. I spoke to my daughter Her daughter took her to a doctor, who told them Mrs. F ei was experiencing psychosis and would need to be hospitalized. She was. Just after her admission, her daughter married and moved to Swansea, about 40 minutes away by car. Up to that point, her daughter had been the only interpreter available, and all in teractions with doctors and hospitals had been mediated through her daughter. Suddenly, her daughter was gone, and she no longer had a way to communicate with doctors or staff. A deep sense of fear, isolation, and loneliness overcame Mrs. Fei. Her husband divorced her, her daughter, in addition to no longer being available every day, was also growing weary of helping to care for her mother, and she was involuntarily committed to a room on a hospital ward for severe mental
214 disorder. Her daily seclusion was i nterrupted only by a nurse who entered her locked room twice a day to administer injections. She broke into screams, actions which were interpreted as manifestations of psychosis, in need of increased medication. s anyone hear me? Does anyone know the others when they came into Her outbursts were interpreted as the further worsening of her condition, and she was again sedated and medicated. hter visited me, and I told her I had to leave this place. I medicines made m e so heavy in my thinking. It was no good. My daughter told me that I it be three years? How could my daughter have stopped coming to see me for three Before I contacted [Swansea Chinese Community Co right treatment, for example, should I go to the NHS, or some place for older people? Now I know where to go, and how to get the treatment I need for my clinical condition of dep ression. Since 2007, I have decided to stay in Britain. I registered with the NHS, and since then I been very actively engaged with [the Centre]. I have participated in a lot of activities, even as a volunteer in the health project, providing mentoring ses sions for the
215 newcomers in mental health care. I know that happiness is not something we can take for granted, it is something we must strive for within ourselves. From my experience, I can conclude the following: first, there must be something done to mot ivate ourselves, and find what is missing in terms of our emotional well being. Second, there must be something done to help us seek help from other sources. I must also set a target in my future and overcome these difficulties. And third, it is very impor tant to participate, to volunteer, and to engage more with other people. The more I engage with mental health users, the more confidence I build, because I know one day a lot of people will recover. ity building of mental health users, to turn them into very active volunteers and stakeholders, which is a very good therapy. And also, there should be more interaction and understanding between different areas. I would also like to say that interpretation is very good and necessary, so that I can understand all the things that are said by professionals, and it is something that a lot of services have not achieved. I know that a change in my surroundings means a change in my clinical condition, and so now I stay in Britain. I go back to China sometimes, I stay in Britain sometimes. Right now I am in Swansea, and my daughter is her e, and she helps me, she still translates for me sometimes, and I still volunteer at the Centre The main problem now is that we d (cu ltural) logics of understandings of di fference; namely of racialized and ethnicized collectivities as somehow coherent, unified and aware of themselves as such; of the symbolic hierarchy of mental illness; of
216 the nature and needs of Otherness. These cultural logic s the outcome s of the historical and social epistemologies at work in situated social and politico legal space s in Britain, proceed on a more or less scientized set of assumptions regarding intra group affinities. Racialized populations are presumed to share things, nam ely, biological and cultural things, including genes and phenotypes, heritage and solidarity. Ethnicized populations are usually held to share similar sorts of things, with, in general, a stronger emphasis on cultural things, language, religion, beliefs, c ustoms. 3 These political epistemics, these ways of understanding Others, create partic ular modes of management and instrument s of governing and administering the social, conducing the forging and elaboration of institutions, infrastructures, legal regimes, discourses, and particular forms of relationality and sociality. Historically, and for too long, particular forms of difference and diversity have been shaped (determined?) di fference itself, as well as the design of infrastructures for forms of evaluation. Chinese populations in the British insular imaginary and official poetics have long been bel ieved as self segregating, isolated, interiorly caring collectivities ( Benton and Gomez 2008 ) As a physician said to me, The problem we face is that the Chinese are invisible and secretive. They deliberately form enclaves, they resist outsiders, and they take care of their are up with the times or who will give adequate detail for me to make a thorough examination and diagnosis. I know there is specific need there, in the Chinese community, but how do we break do wn that Chinese wall and get through to them? The clinical picture is quite sad for them, really. How do we consult with a fragmented group that has no viable representation?
217 retice nt to make those needs clear and come out to take advantage of the health and social care we off er. Mrs. Fei and others constantly run up against this prejudice, finding themselves discursively and materially positioned as in need, but living within an et hnic community that will provide. ( Williams and Johnson 2010:4 ) This negative politics is one of the consequential effects of law, policy, and government in liberal polities. Britain and Wales are site s in which to gauge the politics of difference and need, and the instrumentalization of i deologies to achieve goals. Mrs. Fei understands herself as a stakeholder, a key interactant in the institutional life of the Swansea Centre and its delivery of services, and simultaneously as an effective agent, or executant, of g overnment objectives, assisting with service delivery and the remediation of need. government. The y are seen by and made through the production of law and policy and the actions of governors and others constitution of the subjects sorted into these categories, as well as those Subjects sorted into roles authorized to manage, administer, and adjudge difference in manifold ways and settings These are not causal relations, but epistemological, ontological, and intersubjective relations that operate in dialectical, polyphonic, dialogical, and mutually constitutive ways. Ultimately, the existence and functional operationalization of the
218 catego ries of race/ethnicity and mental disorder conduce change not simply at the micro level of personal and subject ive change, but also at the mezzo level (institutional, organizational, community, professional), and at the macro level of polity, nation, state, culture. The struggles brought out in these narratives drive forward my constitution al story. On the one hand, we have a Chinese community seeking to embed itself. On the other Chinese in Britain are subsumed within a single Chinese community, and the premise that it is a community that is simultaneously unified and fragmented, turned interiorly and averse to engage exteriorly. These fallacies characterized the speech of the maj ority of members of the professions, academics, and political and legal elites who participated in my research, and illustrate the nature of the obstacles face by Chinese in Britain. The politics of inequality here are built on a set of putatively univers al behavioral and cultural norms, norms that reflect white, middle class political economic positions and the epistemic narratives that shield these positions from recognition of their behavioral practices, the perception of which register s the Chinese community as is vis modernity: it is impossible for modern institutions and agents to reach out to the Chinese community, to provide education, health, and inclusion; at the same time, it is
219 impossible for the Chinese community to engage modernity, because of th eir i ntrinsic style of communal relations. The common belief is that the Chinese actively seek self segregation, and the needs of community members are looked after by the community. generate inequality, exclusion and health needs ( Briggs 2001:672 ) The totalizing image of Chinese presented in the narratives of politic al, legal, and professional elites both embraces the whole of the Chinese as a race, or cultural collective, and sustains the acceptability of racist practices. (in)ability, nationality, and health status. The interlocking hierarchies in which she found herself as a depressed, i.e. mentally disordered, woman conjugated to shape the conditions of her confinement, therapy, and eventual release (to her daughter, not to the instit utions of community care, an important distinction in the procedural release process and in the ongoing intersubjective manifestations of institutions ). The medicolegal therapeutic regime, that is, structured the relationship of Mrs. Fei with her physician s, psychiatric workers, nurses, social workers, hospital administra tion, legal advice, police, judges, members of the voluntary sector, other Chinese, and her family. These relations take on the shape of violence, malpractice, and labor expropriation, or w ould, except for the symbolic portrayal of her situation as self generated, the result not legitimating implications for existing social inequality. On the one hand it r eflects and au thenticates social practices found ed on race based stratifications as a primary mechanism of managing diversity; on the other hand, it deepens and elaborates
220 prevailing race categories and the adjutants discursively coupled to these categorie s, ideologies. Mrs. Fei comes to stand metonymically for the Chinese community in Britain, a categorical figure that confirms both the weakness and susceptibility of the Ch inese body to defective topos (separateness, domestic violence, accelerated and uncontrollable mental disorder) and the confirmation that th is body in its collective forms is intractably resistant to, and therefore alien to, the British body politic. The c ulturalist argument, separateness and incommensurability, (re)casts racist epistemes in the language of modernizing and constitutional concerns: separateness defines the Chinese in official poetics as anti stakeholders even thought Mrs. Fei and others app rehend themselves clearly as stakeholders. Additionally, r esistance and incommensurability relieves the state and its community or local agents from the obligations of fairness. After all, treating such a recalcitrant group on a par with disciplined other s indefensibly channels resources in people apart in the sovereign community. The Chinese in other words, are responsible for the mistreatment they experience as Ch inese. It is also important to note how political epistemic s and official poetics make their way int o diverse social spaces: personal, familial, communal When I met Mrs. Fei, she was adamant that her illness and recovery were her responsibility, that as a Chinese woman, she had particular inclinations that disposed her to avoid the British, and cause unnecessary hardship to health care providers and to the economic system as a whole.
221 Her daughter was also quite convinced that the issue of fairness was par amount, and interpretation facilities, cultural competence among health care workers, or targeted health care initiatives. at the NHS ought to help me, to translate for me, to make information available to me, to care for me so I could get better. I know now that this is not right, that it is up to me to learn English so I can get the best care, and to know where to go to find the information I need, so that my doctors can treat me efficiently. I was nave and stupid then, but I know better now, and I can announcements, newspaper coverage, ph offices and hospitals, literature available from the constituency offices of the local Assembly Member and Member of Parliament, conversations with local volunteers, visits to the Assembly and online broadcasts of Assembly and Parliamentary debates, and a proliferation of publications available at the local Chinese Centre [in Swansea] understanding and h er sense of appropriate action. Further, among the majority of my interlocutors in the Chinese communities in London, Newport, Cardiff, and Swansea, the prevailing sense of how to best proceed is responsibilities as citizens and sta Gi Huang, a prominent Chinese physician told me (GH personal communic ation, February 24, 2009 ). A key rationale for this understanding links stakeholding to devolution, audit measures, and grant availability. Dr. Huang went on at length about the gains m ade
222 Chinese service users, to use the mainstream NHS service in mental health that they are entitled to. The NHS doctors refer to us, and in many cases we can see the patie nt on the same day. And I can say, that this is not easy, but we have been successful, to get interpreters, to get lawyers for tribunal hearings, because we have focused on education, making clear the responsibilities we share, and the obligations our pati ents and their carers have. The only reason our funding was continued was because we were able to improve the service users engagement with the mental health service, and report on these efficiency improvements to prove the benefits to the NHS, to the Dep of community care and health and social care reforms more generally. On the one hand, faced with economi c burdens and institution al failures, the state has chosen over the course of several decades, to pursue the option of de institutionalization for health and responsibilizing stakeholde rs. Stephen Lewis: Fictions of Belonging and Behaving and the Outsider W ithout ending process of cleansing, forever cleansing. They steal my dignity, cleanse me of my dignity, every time they gin up fear by talkin measures, their outcomes. And the forces of good just crush us further. Our own
223 Stephen was a mentally disordered Black man living in the Riverside neighborhood of Cardiff. He said this to me after many weeks of getting acquainted, a gesture to my persistence in seeking his participation in my field research. He rock ed slightly as he spoke the words, tapping his palm on his thigh, his eyes focused on something distant. A cadence underlay his words, his utterance had a particular meter and rhythm, a poetry. His voice was a deep gravelly eminence that seemed to rumble o ut of him with its own substance. When he finished, he sat back and lapsed into silence. This was a usual mode of interaction with Stephen, one which compelled several mutual acquaintances to comment on the difficulty of being around him. I came to unders tand tive not just as poetry, but as a type of poetics ( Bakhtin 1973 ) as a specifi c, characteristic way of speaking, a kind of ritualized speech and communicative sociality, a subjectifying and situating form of speech that located his apperception of (non)belonging, the absen ce of a sense of becoming, and his awareness of and engagement with the historic shifts in the political landscape and cultural order that are the effects of constitutional change and decentralization in Britain. The referents in his quote are a complex o rder of signs. The avocado for example, individualized racism in the ensemble state. Throughout our interactions and conversations, he reiterated this metaphor to convey human suscep tibility to the Notting Hill race riots in the 1970s or the race riots in Oldham in 2001 The avocado is
224 also a critical metaphor for Stephen, which he uses to ask about his identity, whether he is Afro British, Afro European, Afro Caribbean, or something other altogether. What do I make of myself, out of what they are trying to make of himself in a complex palimpsest of language, official agencies, legal requirements, and [Race Relations Act 1976 ] was new, the commission [for racial equali ty] was just And they told me the a Black man w ith schizo phrenia, in a devolved nation acknowledge this reticulate humanity. The time Stephen spent with me, the words he spoke evinced not only his own struggle with mental illness, racism, and oppression, but were also a sort of living expos of much broader struggles. phen had once been a vendor at the local community market. This is how Cara and he had met. He had had to cease his selling during a recent period of great stress, when his schizophrenia worsened and he increasingly withdrew from his everyday activities. Even with intr oduction, however, Stephen remained recalcitrant, professing noninterest in my project and my being in Wales. I told this to Cara, and she winked and
225 opening the door. He rarely spoke first, but simply looked at me and waited for me to speak first I would, often to no avail. For seven weeks this went on. I tried each week to devise a different way of trying to ge t Stephen to speak with me, a new way to engage him, an innovative approach to drawing out the interlocutor. None was successful, and the effort became frustrating. I repeated to myself that this was research with people with mental illness, that I had to expect these kind s es, 5, 10 20 trying, ered. tea, seated a t a small square table. There were two additional cups on the table, one steamed, freshly poured. The other was empty, waiting, it seemed. cuppa she was more somber than usual, even her use of the nickname she had given me seemed perturbed. I sat. Stephen poured tea for me. Then he spoke. ni versity here, you probably are and pol iticians, and volunteers, and l a w yers have come in here and taken from us for decades. And of that taking has been returned
226 We spent several hours together that day, as Stephen and Cara related to me icular state of the community, and political actions taken as a result. These experiences have fostered a deep mistrust of researchers, politicians, civil servants, acade mics, students, and even the voluntary sector. for us, they do things to us. They have an idea of w hat the community should look like, and they try to red over a white surface, a rainbow of only certain colors, a surfac e that hovers over their political Illumination dawned on me slowly. In the first conversation I had had with Stephen, I had introduced myself as a visiting fellow at Cardiff U niversity, and I mentioned that I had begun my research by meeting with key staff at a number of voluntary sector organizations that deal with issues of race, mental illness, homelessness, and related concerns. Unwittingly, without the deeper familiarity w ith the city and its designated spaces that better, more aware, diligence would have provided me, I positioned myself as precisely the kind of researcher that Stephen, and many others, it would turn out, detested and feared. Not an auspicious beginning, an engage me in those first weeks. I later learned that Cara had intervened with Stephen,
227 chance. After this, our weekly conversations became signif icantly more interleavened. Stephen was the son of a Jamaican father and an Irish mother. His father James had migrated to Britain aboard the Empire Windrush in 1948, met and married family of three. Stephen was the oldest, born in 1949, and had two sisters, Berniece, born in 1952, and Una, born in 1955. The family moved several times, in searc h of work for both parents, and the children consequently had grown up in, among others, London, Birmingham, and Glasgow. Bernie ce died in 1969 of a hemorrhage, and as a lecturer at Glasgow University. communicating. When I met Stephen in 2008 he was fifty nine, and had been living with his illness for nearly thirty years. His experience with the mental health services and the medicolegal therapeutic regi mes in the UK dated to the 1970s and his most intense experiences occurred late in the decade and into the 1980s, during the NHS He remained in Glasgow for several He slowly watched his world contract: involuntary commitment, hospitalization, job loss, reliance upon benefits, a move to council housing, loss of friends and kin, stigmatized reactions to his diagnosis and behavior, ina bility to interpret emotion and connect with
228 motivated incidents, and suffered seri ous neglect, as well as seemingly endless bureaucratic shuffling between health care and social services departments. He ended and insisted he move to Cardiff with her. He arrived in Card iff in 1996. After his arrival, Stephen was able to maintain help This was when he met and befriended Cara. His condition began to worsen, however, and in 1998 they sought assistance. intervention of Ramesh Anar, a constituency caseworker for the local AM, by 1999 Stephen had gotten medical care, psychiatric care, social work care, and job placement assistance. and they died while Stephen was still in Glasgow. I think this was a easy to be Black in Glasgow even now, and back then it was worse, of course. Not that to take credit for her role in hel ping Stephen to work toward recovery. She waved her and his struggle to find his place. Ramesh was a godsend, too A decade later, when I met Stephen, he was livin g on his own, working at a local a supermarket chain, and spending his free time painting, weaving, and
229 learning to wood carve from a Ghanaian man recently settled in Cardiff. He also spent a great deal of time continuing to navigat e the mental he alth system and the benefits system. Most recently he had been seeking to obtain direct payments, so that he can back to surgery this week to talk to Ramesh. He said that he thinks we should be able to Stephen clearly considered himself an outsider, in many sense s. He stated to me more than once that he was not really a member of society, that he did not belong, either objectively or subjectively, and we discussed at length the many mechanisms of exclusion and enforcement of the sense and reality of not belonging. Among his most serious concerns were the micro practices of his exclusion and the minute reminders of his location in multiple interlinked hierarchies of value. It was clear to him that his pointed comments, mean humor and humiliation, micro ( Harrison 2008 ) It became apparent, however, th at something else was at stake. I began to think in terms of outsiders without S/subject interlocutors termed it, in a simile that likens fluidity to rigid incompatibility, and involves notions of proper order, or at least r hetoricized strategies of orderliness which exist in ambivalent juxtaposition with the high discourses of stakeholding and fairness, of inclusion and equality.
230 The prosaic formula of the simile provides insight into how both elements are to be apprehended and interpreted in terms of becoming, belonging, and behavior, and gives some indication of how political epistemics structure intersubjective relations and processes of mediation. A physician, Jennifer Gross, spoke of her Somali and other patients as bein s effectively preventing her from proper assimilation and interfering with her ability to get description of the p rocess, that she was able to rise out of the strictures of community (opaque) gaze of state agents, his involuntary commitment and pharmaceuticalization, and obedience to the authorized demands of the state, to speak (or not), to act (or not) in those ways deemed appropriate by Subjects of law, the police power, and government. In these comments and practices, echoed numerous times during my field work, minorities, especially ethnic minorities 4 are, through discursive and material practi ce, a category already standing conceptually and physically As such a category, it is also a signal of difference, of the inferiority in the symbolic hierarchies of race, and of the government of raced difference. Domination, assimilation, and propriety are
231 interdiscursively linked with the languages and epistemologies of equality/fairness, stakeholding, an d constitutional principle. Outsiders without are thus characterized by relations in suspension, b ut irremediably not in solution. I n illustrative moments of pre judice, these outsiders without clarified in their presence as Other, and as Others somehow be yond the embrace of citizenship, language membership, and insular fantasies of belonging and right acting. Multiple meanings are implied in the phrase outsiders without namely experiences of external ness and lack, and perceptions of deficiency. nd beneath the veil of grudging toleration, but a veil which is easily pierced, replaced by revulsion, vilification. I learned much from Stephen and Cara regarding insights into the nature and experience of extreme social distance, hierarchy, and transgre ssion; and into the production of status in the bourgeois political epistemic, and the micropolitics of multiculturalism (and other forms of pluralism) and exclusion in (neo)liberal preferences regarding the conduct, obligations, and limits of government. Politics and Poetics The case materials in this chapter illuminate agency and structure, or perhaps better, action and structure, dilemmas that affect the delivery of services, the perceptions and treatment of Others, and the differential achievement of c onstitutional principles and other aspirations of political society. Each case also illustrates the constructed nature of public and private binaries, the hybrid essence of the public
232 square, and the flurry of associations that conjugate to reveal institut ions, structures, mediations. Procurement joins private ownership and private work, including domestic ownership and production, to public goals of economic supply and to political objectives of equality (in employment, in service delivery) and of stakeho lding, and to mechanisms of justification, transparency, and accountability, opening private worlds to public scrutiny, at least to an extent and under certain circumstances. Mrs. Fei demonstrates the integral role played by private actors in the operatio n of rationalities of governing that rely on non public entities to deliver services and assist in the remediation of need. Stephen Lewis shows how relational fields are constructed and enacted, including over the long term, and implicate the academy and research into his illness and Becoming, belonging, behaving, and evaluations of these by authorized Subjects are prominent relational and cultural fields in which S/subjects must navigate complex cultural coor dinates in order to achieve the recognition that subtends belonging and the valuations that subtend becoming and (proper) behavior. Institutionalization, or the legislative and regulatory constitution and activation of institutions of service delivery man ifests itself in these intersubjective fields. This is something of a chicken and egg question, the causal directionality of which I wish to challenge. A common assumption regarding institutionalization in these terms is that the legislature or authorized entity creates an institution, staffs it, and then it begins operating, only then creating effects in the world. I insist that a better approach is
233 to query the very processes by which the legislature is authorized, regressing the analytical genesis and e xamining the creation of conditions not as originary but as themselves a constituent dimension arising from intersubjectivity acting on and within existing structural and institutional constraints. No institution is created from thin air, or by collective s of persons previously exempt from the reticular interconnections of constitutional, legislative, and regulatory reality. In Britain, the National Assembly for Wales and the Welsh Assembly Government were fabricated from extant institutions, power arrays, and deployments of legislative, regulatory, and administrative materials. The Mental Health Act 2007 and the Equality Act 2010 were engineered within a functioning and complex political and legal ecology, out of densely entwined sets of technologies, epis temologies, practices, and relations. The new rules imposed by these Acts descended upon actors already immersed in the legislated and regulated environments of public service delivery, and already ensconced with their own prejudices, expectations, and dem ands, complexly interwoven with official poetics, political epistemics, and the public square. Established and emerging relations solidified some structures, challenged the manufacture and realization of others, transgressed the actual operation of still others. Political epistemics, normative governance, and the twinned dimensions of dialogism and polyphony implode to mediate the design, creation, implementation, operation, evaluation, and maintenance of the alloyed institutional array of legislation, reg ulation, and everyday government on the archipelago, from habeas corpus to stakeholding, between Parliament and the domicile, from the street to the Siambr, in clinics, hospitals, offices, NGOs, and others.
234 1 I am deliberately conflating the subject and the self here, in order to try to think thr ough subject object and mind body polarities, and to bring embodiment and the bodily principle to the fore 2 I interviewed Mrs. Fei with the assistance of an interpreter, Sue Lee. Although I was adamant that she receive payment for her time, Ms. Lee insisted that I did not need to pay her. We agreed that I would donate £ 100 to the Swansea Chinese Community Centr e Co op instead. 3 This tends to be an ideological assertion, rather than a principled or ethical or reflexive reality. The criteria of ethnicity, if they were ever really free of biology, are becoming heavily biologized, and cially of culture of poverty arguments ( Lewis 1965 ; Moynihan 1965 ) and the recent resurgence of these popular, journalistic, and political arguments, as well a s their appendage ideologies ( Cohen 2010 ) 4 But also applying to socioeconomic, religious, disabled, gendered, and other collectivities.
235 CHAPTER 7 LEGISPRUDENCE AS THEORY: POLITICAL EPISTEMICS, NORMATIVE GOVERNANCE, AND DIALOGISM AND POLYPHONY Through political epistemics I examine understanding and the conceptualizations of the structure s of reality and the nature of the possibility for action as it is conceived and constituted by the S /s ubjects of legislation, regulation, and the everyday conduct of government ( Glaeser 2010 ) Conceptualization here has dual implications: on the one hand, in a verbal sense, it refers to the cognitive and intersubjective processes of consciousness, that is, of perceiving and seeking to understand and know the world as it is perceived, and as it has been received On the other hand, conceptualization refers, in a nominal sense, to the fabrication and promulgation of representations of the world and the understanding and knowing of it through these representations, as well as intervening in the wo rld based on these representations. T hese inflections are not in any causal or linear relationship; rather, I ass ume them to be in dialectical, dialogical, and polyphonic relations, which, furthermore, are not simply limited to the minds actions, or inter actions of elites Concepts, conceiving, understanding, and acting, and the dialectic of these extends to history, and more importantly, to the social grounds of a political world Capturing this ensemble of temporalities, spatialities, socialities, enthr iving diversity, heteroglossia, and polyphonic dialogics with empirical ethnographic thickness has been a primary objective of mine. The relations I discuss throughout this dissertation are a multiparty traffic in practices, people, places, objects, and i deas, which I attempt to encapsulate, condense, and represent as constituents of my legisprudence framework. At issue are particular forms of socio communicativity and the relations between practices, contexts of action, language, culture, molecular molar relations, and the everyday interactions that I
236 unde rstand to be constitutive of the political and cultural economy of legislation, regulation, and the conduct of government in Britain. This approach entails attention to the spectrum of processes, events, practices institutions, and agents that comprise the material, symbolic, epistemological, and socio communicative system of legal and political decision makin g and governmental activity. Legisprudence, in addition to its heuristic value and analytical fo cus also offers a model of action; a search for adequate methodological practice and theoretical language for conceptualizing and writing about legal agency, the fraught constructions of domination and resistance, and law as a vector of oppression. These e lements, this spectral array, the search, are brought together, engineered and reverse engineered, as it were, on the workbench. The Workbench and the Workspace The workbench is a metaphor of human action and of spatiality that I use to capture the sense of the construction involved in law making, not just in the office desk dimension, but throughout the legislative enterprise, from casual encounters and structured interactions between officials and vernacular agents to framework conditions and constitutio nal principles. I borrow the metaphor of the workbench from Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar ( 1979 ) approach privi leges ethnographic method, namely participant observation, in order to obtain a close perspective on legislators, regulators, and the everyday work of government, similar to the methodological approach to science advocated by Latour and Woolgar in their seminal text Laboratory Life ( 1979 ) and developed vis vis the experimental life by Shapin and Schaffer in Leviathan and the Air Pump ( 1985 )
237 Whereas Latour and Woolgar ( 1979:29 ) science in situ mine the process of the production of law, or more precisely, legislation and regulation in situ and how these operate as the helix of government. The discursive practices involved in the productio n of legislation and regulation are located in the (debati ng) chamber, committee rooms, and office spaces; on desks and in file folders; in digital databases; in corridors; over tea in the Oriel. 1 In short, these practices are found where law makers are found at work, where they are socialized and immersed in the technical culture of procedure, rule boundedness, party conformity, and the socio and knowledges th at result in law making and regulation, and that are extended into society, into the public square as the apparatus, aspirations, and rationalities of governing ( Latour and Woolgar 1979: 29 30 ) Part of my rationale for construing the workbench as residing in these diverse setting s, and construing the making of law to include patterned informalities is to disconnect law from its normative partner of formality My position is that: (1 ) l aw is not only the outcome of constrained and prescribed patterns of interaction (procedura l adherence and voting); and (2 ) the informalities of place, space, interaction, and socialization are not merely political, rather they are integral to the creation of professional Subjectivities of law, and to the production of law and its formal manifestations This is not to suggest that law is politics, or that politics is law, however; it is to suggest that law has its origin in politics, that its vivification i s indissoluble from politics, and that the epistemological decision to separate politics from law obscures the political genesis of law and the choices made that bring it into existence in its particular
238 forms ( Wintgens 2005 ) This same epistemological decision tends to preclude the inclusion of vernacular interactants in constitutional and legal politics, a nd in the actualization of government as targeted activity, such as service delivery. This decision leaves a fairly large array of S/subjects and executants out of the research and analytical enterprise, eliding certain dimensions of the activities of gove rnment and the consequential effects of these activities. I suggest that a fuller picture of legisprudence and anthropological attention to institutions of law making, but a much broader field of vernacular agents that participate in the production (and obstruction) of law This includes constituency staff; professionals in academic disciplines, medicine, engineering, and science; and, most crucially for my approach to the analysis of law Attention to the workbench and the material cultures and practices that embrace the labor and labor atories of the production of law raise additional questions, such as, What are the usu al narratives and the sustaining technologies of l egislation, regulation, and government ? The instruments of law, or the tec hnolegal devices that I think with and through, include rules, norms, doctrines, and substantive domains of legal theory and practic e Tort, contract, and crime are not merely doctrines or substantive fields of law, but instruments for organizing theory, and ways of getting from the machinery of law (production) to the unifying theories, rather than the reverse Approaching the history and substance of law in this way allows for simultaneous explorations of sociohistorical developments (industrialization, urbanization, colonization, embourgeoisement) as well as the labor history involved, especially as these connect to
239 consequential dev elopments in the fields of law, including parliamentarianism and the emergence of rights, equality, labor regimes and regulation ( Hassel 2008 ) medico legal therapeutic regimes, and others Similarly, substantive conceptual tools such as difference and its specific forms, including race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, age, mental illness, and others, are also instruments for organizing theory, as well as for understanding sociopolitical worl ds, and designing interventions for regulating and for administering populations. scient ( 1979:34 ) I adapt this vis vis legisprudence to develop a better analytical hand le on our understanding of legal, political, and governing practice, and how law makers do the work not just of constructing ordered accounts out of disordered arrays of observations, but how (and where, and under what conditions) they observe, organize, a nd order in the first place Once they do the work of observing, ordering, and then constructing accounts, I examine how these are given formal imprimatur as laws, policies, rules; how these authorized technical forms do the work of culture change, of stan dard setting ( Normensetzung ), and of constituting social and political bodies; and how these get linked discursively and institutionally to broader apprehens including formulations of who is (normatively) in, and who is out, and why. In other words, legisprudence enables examinations of how the actual, the figurative, the literal, and the cognitive interact, how they implode in various (and variously unified ) forms, and how these achieve the status of authority and epistemological tak en for
240 grantedness as representations of reality. There are, in other words, complementary centripetal an d centrifugal forces operative in the production and implementation of law, and the execution of governance. These forces provide a useful diversificat ion of the binary of dominance and resistance that underlies much sociolegal analysis. T he workbench, in essence, brings together manifold constituents, which are ordered, deliberated, and alchemized as official, authoritative, technolegal forms; these fo rms then are transmitted which means more than their formal promulgation, but also their social inscription, or their translation as norms, their uptake in terms of subjectivation and ways of being. I suggest that legislation conduces behaviors, that beha that co produce or co constitute the relationship between law making, regulating, governing, and S/subject formation that ought to center in an anthropological approaches to legisprudence. The materials I employ in this dissertation are designed to draw our attention to law as constructed, and to the role of knowledge practices in that construction. Where people come together and traffic in the ideas, experiences, and ratio nalities that influence the construction of technolegal instruments and their everyday application as instruments of governing, there we find the workspace and the workbench of legislation, regulation, and government. The Political Epistemic: Whiteness as Norm the idea of the political epistemic in order to sustain the threads of my argument in this manuscript. One of the key things I discovered during my field research was the active maintenance of the valuation of whiteness as the model for (a) understanding the (British) world, and (b) designing legal and political interventions in
241 that world. This maintenance sustains a racialized political, cultural and moral economy across the archipelago, co implicating the knowledge practices of law, politics, and governance in their various worksites. Normative whiteness factors into the results of my research at the epistemological, cultural, and linguistic lev els, inflecting human relations and institutional relations across ( Mills 2007:11 ) It is a problem that is recognized. Remedies are often actively resisted, however, as practices of not knowing, as practices of denial of correctives, as cultural and political rationali ties generated within, and in turn (re)generating the conditions of possibility of domination, exclusion, and oppression. Normative whiteness indexes not just ignorance, but epistemic failure, the absence of political reflexivity, and an unwillingness and inability to operationalize contrary knowledges. One of my key interlocutors in the National Assembly was chagrined when I reported this finding to him. Chagrined, but not surprised. e, bruary 05, 2009). Generations of fear and mistrust, but also of hostility to the Assembly itself, to political society and the official poetics of equality, fairness, inclusion. Hostility to the calls emanating from government, calls perceived as intrusio ns into professional practices in the clinic, the hospital, the academy. Active ignorance is among the most
242 disturbing dimensions my findings. It accomplishes a number of effects in addition to the maintenance of hierarchies and exploitation. It also creat es a hostility between the Assembly and members of the professions, setting up an intellectual and political segregation that mirrors the crisis of faith in politics and in the ability of law to accomplish objectives. Failures of government are not, then, straightforward, but distributed, so that service deliverers who bear the unknowledges of racism are complicit in causing failures, in sustaining and perpetuating racism, but without transparency, without accountability; blame shifts, to the politicians, o or to service users and racialized Others, responsible, as with Fayez Bashir, Cici Williams, Mrs. Fei, and Stephen Lewis, for their own and their communal problems. 2 Jennifer Gross: Calibrating the Politics of Inequality On a day in lat e April, I sat at table with a general practitioner, a social worker and several other health care professionals, two academics, and their spouses. We convened our party in the mid the hedges and foxglo ve, dressed against a lingering chill, in the rays of a genial but rather pallid spring sun. Over pints of ale, bottles of wine, and plates of curry, cheeses, and fruit we parleyed well into the night, discussing the state of the Welsh polity, the impacts of devolution on education and health care providers, and the looming electoral punishing that Labour was likely to face when then Prime Minister Gordon Brown decided to call the election. Scandal abounded throughout the political commonwealth: sex and mon ey in London; iPods and trouser presses in Cardiff. These sets of outrages are stories themselves, but the political shenanigans at the moment had been flushed out, it seemed. For a time, anyway.
243 So there we sat, over drinks and dinner. Settling darkness and a fine Welsh mist had driven us indoors finally, and the wine had everyone feeling warm and expansive. A good humor had settled over us and we were steeped in a pleasant camaraderie, the nearby fireplace crackling and popping. The talk turned, in time, to questions of my research. I started with talk of the Butetown and Riverside neighborhoods in which I was working, both largely minority populations, both designated as deprived communities by the National Assembly for Wales. I held forth for a while, a t turns critical of and charitable to the political practices of deprivation and race relations. The mood gradually became somewhat somber, and I turned to a few comedic tales of the things I had seen and heard in the hidden corners of law and government, to lighten the tone. The somber worker employed by Cardiff city, returned to a comment I had made about racism in Wales and the negative impact that I believe changes in equalities legislation will have on minority communities. the minorities I see in th drugs, and that has consequences. The new legislation is necessary for us to do our role in sectioning, o therwise how will these people get the attention and the treatment
244 I stammered feeling the sear of an anger blush rising to my cheeks. I knew it was filling my eyes, too. His misdirection irked me: I had said nothing of policing. How should I answer? Our good humor had evaporat ed. The physician Jennifer, broke in. grow the stuff, the drugs, the opium, the heroin, the Pakistanis move it, and the So malis sell it especially around Butetown and Grangetown, but in Riverside also. The men selling it are also pimping out their sisters and daughters, and probably their wives, for all I know. And the Somalis just refuse to integrate, yet they use the public services jus t like everyone else. The mothers, some of whom have been here for years or even generations, refuse to learn and speak English. They have about six words in English and they bring their school aged children with them into my surgery to translate for them. you know. sentence, just left it hanging there for us to draw our own inferences of what it is that the I asked her whether she sees Somalis in her pra ctice, which she answered in the M y practice is in Butetown. I clinical interactions with Somali patients, she replied I felt incensed, and betrayed, somehow. I had known that she worked in Butetown, and thought that she did so out of antiracist concern. Now, I had found a presumed alliance to be absent, and worse, found myself to have been profoundly nave. The
245 blush felt hotter on my face, and I had begun to sweat from the heat of the fire and my rising anger. I felt a rivulet trickl e slowly down my back. I had to say something, to express my objection to the real and manifest racism I believed I was hearing, to connect this everyday racism with the bias encoded in equality strategies, to point up the links between abstractions of rac ism and enactments of racism, around the table, in the clinic, at the psychiatric sectioning of mentally ill and racialized persons. Anthony leaned forward, and with an emphatic gesture, began, do wells sitting around complaining about the Somalis or the Irish or whate ver other group you might have. But, u colonials He clapped me on the back, laughed heartily and poured wine all round. I reached for the glass, simultaneously bother ed and relieved id the physician Tony tribal and they refuse to enter into Incredulous, my felt betrayal and the shame at my navet were But Tony, Welsh and the Irish? And i ultimately underlies the rationale for devolution? That the Welsh, Irish, and Scots are nationally, which might be read as integrate ht, but its different now. I picture of a group of people who never really fit the stereotype, who may have had a
246 use it, or who moved with relative ease between there and the political leadership, who are not doing anything about it, and who are actually cou rting the votes in Muslim areas. I think Rhodri [Morgan, then First Minister] has been to a hundred Eids this year alone. And Labour and Plaid [Cymru, the nationalist party in Wales] are cutthroat in their attempts to get that vote. The Muslims vote en masse you know, and whoever secures that vote can assure themselves a place in the Assembly. have Chinese Bangladeshis, Pakistanis, Indians, Persians, have their own languages and culture and mostly they keep to themselves, they take care of their own. coming down from the Assembly. How are we legitimately supposed to implement policy, whether at hospital or in the classroom, given these circumstances, given the ways that they A desiccated silence followed that seemed to close the argument. I weighed the value of one last effort, but decided this was not the place to wage the battle. Tony leaned back, and the others settled themselves more comfortably in their chairs. A toast accompanied by relieved laught er. I raised my glass, drank then excused myself, and went to the toilet Once the door was shut, I pulled out my field journal and furiously scribbled sever al paragraphs, beginning with Note the shifts between different abstractions of person: Somalis i n general, as a type or category of problematic person which indexes a disconnect
247 between deservingness and assimilation; and the person who presents for care or services, who becomes putatively deracinated, just another body in need of the clinical gaze, a body that has no effect on that gaze (and produces, so claimed, no AFFECT in that gaze), has no reciprocally informative presence for the GP in her own assessment of her role as a GP. y] with a particular population [Somalis] and gender distinctions, = racialized women as deficient mothers and prostitutes who model poor integration behavior for children, and men who engage in non conventional and immoral economic activities, i.e. drug s elling. All of these representations are perceptually/ideologically held to be more or less repugnant and objectionable, and linked not just to deprivation and race, but also to political reorganization, political practice, the implementation of government objectives in the public sector, and especially to the sense of self of medical, social work, academic, and other professionals. = epistemologies of ignorance, whiteness as norm. This exchange haunted me for the remaining months that I was in the field, a nd I found myself for a time without the intellectual or emotional tools to understand and cope with what I felt to be a practice of deliberate degradation, of intentional rejection of alternative ways to conceptualize difference and plural relationalities I also was troubled by my own complicity in these processes, as had been pointed out to me by began to work its way into my psyche and intellect. Idil and Miski Dou rad The friend was Ibrahim Dourad. His mother, Idil, is a patient of Jennifer Gross, and has seen her a number of times in recent years. Idil speaks very little English, and during her first visit to the clinic had extreme difficulty in communicating her p ain and medical issues to the staff. The staff either refused or were unable to provide an interpreter, or help Idil with a referral to a clinic that would provide language assistance. This caused Idil a great deal of worry and concern about diagnosis, tre atment, follow up, and medicine. She resolved to take her daughter, Miski, with her to translate the next
248 time she presented to the clinic. It did not go well. Idil relayed to me that at first, the staff refused to let Miski into the treatment room with he r, because she is a minor. Then they The doctor came into the waiting room, impatient to see Idil an d wondering why began to scold me. She got very close to my face and spoke loudly and pointed her Miski turned to Idil, explained our conversation, and waited while Idil responded. She tells me how to live, what to do, the proper ways of being a good neighbor in Cardiff. What does this have to do with my sickness? I go to her as a doctor for medicine, and she tells me I must learn English and give up Idil began to speak again, adding that it was inappro priate for [Miski] to be there, because the information may be private. language er must learn to speak English. You people have been here long Idil, Miski, Ibrahim, and I continued to talk for nearly two hours. Miski was visibly exhausted by the end o f it, and I assumed the same for Idil, although she was mostly
249 stoic throughout. Idil wished me a good night, and Ibrahim walked with me along Bute Street, to Callaghan Square, where we parted. I returned to my flat, trying to work through the information I had just received, to put it together with other bits floating in my mind, to square all of it with the constitutional and legal politics I was t here researching. When I got back to my garret, I spent several hours writing notes, indexing details that had come up in disparate conversations, interviews, and encounters. I Normative Governance: Official Poetics and the Carnival Response Luigi Boccherini a virtuoso cellist an d composer of the eighteenth century, wrote Marie Joseph Ch nier, July 18, 1799) It is in this sense that I assimilate subjectivity and mediation into my legisprudence L ike a musical composition, legislation the police power, and government achieve little without a body of subjects over whom authority is exercised, and who respond to authority, its official poetics, and its enunciations. Certainly, S/subjects of law are not performers in the same sense as musical performers, but the embodied, visceral, carnal relationship of S/subjecthood in law can ( Baxandall 1985:48 ) and tableau vivant totalities ( Diderot 1987:199 ; s ee also Le Guin 2006 ) Adapting these potentials, and in line with some of the writing of Barthes, I treat legislation, regulation, and the practices of governing, in part, as both a work that is, as finished products for consumption (congealed as a statute, a rule, or, more broadly, an institution or role in the delive ry of services), and a text
250 ( Barthes 1974:57 ) Legislation, regulation, and the conduct of government, in other words, are distributed social artifacts that can only actualize through huma n action. Or inaction. Or resistance to action. Constitutional agency takes manifold forms, including the obstruction of the objectives of political society by the very executants relied upon for their implementation. S/subjects, in this formulation, come sic ( Barthes 1974:56 ; cf. Hoogland 2003 ) The interactions of official poetics and the i n the processes of co production of both persons and the material, symbolic, and epistemological worlds in which they find themselves ( Braidotti 2002 ; Hoogland 2003:2 ) In part, this is a theoretical question of aesthetics; the aesthetics of text, the aesthetics of law, of the embedded and embodied responses of affect, sensuality, and judgment tied to particular forms of cultural production and cultural narration. The off icial poetics inscribed in legislation, regulation, and the conduct of government project intention, volition, a sense of worlds, and the attributes of modes of being in such worlds. Poetics, epistemics, and executants interpellate one another, in processe s of (mis)communication and (mis)recognition, imbuing interactions with contradictory, indeterminate, heterogeneous, and ultimately generative meanings. 3 This plurality is an ontological necessity for the productive and dynamic encounter to enable new mode s of being, new S/subjectivities or the affirmation of existing S/subjectivities. These encounters are not typically the effect of a subject reading a statute or a regulation, but
251 of a complex set of institutional and social mediations and appropriations, explanations and understandings, that bring the material, the semiotic, and the epistemological together dialectically and dialogically, shaping not only S/subjects and intermediaries, whether these are human or non human, corporeal or non corporeal, but a lso institutions, systems, pedagogies, hegemonies, actions. What results are patterns of shared yet contradictory meaning that bring about subjectivities and social worlds, simultaneously approximating and distancing these, and regularizing them in the hor izons of reality. These regularizing processes, which we might refer to as common sense and prejudice ( r 1991 ) subsequently flatten the dynamic and generative nature of poetics epistemics executants interactions and the image ideas and subjectivities that emerge from these interactions, reifying them, reducing them to fungible types, and conflating pers onal embodiment and experience with collectivized representations of these ( Hage 2010 ) Such representations are then affixed to larger generic ideas of difference and the problematizations of difference, so that personal experience becomes predicated to the gener ic image ideas (such as race, or mental disorder), producing or maintaining forms of hegemony and domination ( Chakrabarty 2007 ) Images, and other forms of sign, and perception e merge from concrete, corporeal sociality; referents are invested with meaning through these complexes of language, text, institutions, and persons. In other words, generativity becomes representation, and the volitionary and intentional aspects of legislat ing and regulating, of governing and the police power, take effect. Executants are S/subjectivized, and reality is not merely
252 reproduced, but created and recreated in an ongoing way, with the public square acting as agent of transformation. Ahmed Al Sayye d In Britain, the Human Rights Act (1998) and equalities legislation (including the Equality Act 2010), are both linked to the European Convention on Human Rights, and both impose duties for the fair and equitable treatment of persons who share protected c haracteristics: race, age, gender, age, disability, religion or belief, and sexual orientation. These duties, what we call rights, create institutions, create effects, have important social consequences, and require dense networks and forms of labor to com e into being. Attention to the positive content of rights as legislation is important because it gives us insights into human behavior and action that rights in a court centered approach cannot provide. Rights, as rules, cross borders, imbricating concern s external to a particular right per se One such emerging development, currently of concern to Stonewall UK and Stonewall Cymru, is the rights of gay and lesbian asylees and refugees, especially as they have occasion to use mental health services. Similar ly to the treatment of Fayez Bashir, Cici Williams, Mrs. Fei, Stephen Lewis, and Idil Miski detailed above, Ahmed Al Sayyed encountered a legislated and regulated environment constructed, at least in part, around rights, and the protection of him as a homo sexual and as an asylum seeker. The environment is also populated by human agents who bear the epistemologies of ignorance discussed above, unknowledges that carry extreme consequences. I met Ahmed on the street, under a sheet metal sky in December. Moist ure had crystallized in his beard as walked to meet me, and small frozen bits clung to his
253 whiskers. Ahmed is a young gay man who fled Somalia to avoid capital punishment for homosexual acts. He had escaped following several episodes of torture, and made h is way to Britain. He has kin in Cardiff, and traveled there to join them and find work. Initially, a cousin and his family had taken him in, and they shared an apartment in Grangetown for a few months. Ahmed was desperate to hide his sexuality from his fa mily, and when the cousin and other members of his family learned that he is gay, they forced him out of the apartment. When I met him in late 2008, Ahmed was living ap plied for asylum when he arrived, but someone, he suspected the cousin, had reported him as illegally present, and he had had difficulty sorting out the asylum process as a result. He had been detained twice, and a social worker, convinced that he was suic idal, had involuntarily committed him for assessment. He was determined to be psychotic and detained for three days, until he was released to his cousin and On the day we met, Ahmed had just learned that his application had been denied, and that he was to be deported back to Somalia. The social worker had reported that of asylum. Ahmed was devastated by the loss of family, the bureaucratic and penal nightmare of the medicolegal and asylum systems, and deportation back to Somali and likely death. Friends from Stonewall Cymru had intervened on his behalf, but were unable t o convince the case worker that Ahmed actually is gay. The case worker also refused to believe, despite documented proof, that Ahmed faced capital punishment in
254 Somalia. Stonewall Cymru members went to the Welsh Assembly, to the Minister for Social Justice but because asylum and refugee concerns are non devolved, the Minister could do little, although he did promise to intervene through persuasion with colleagues in London. His Stonewall friends then took Ahmed to London, for a meeting with staff in the Home Office. During all of this, Ahmed fell seriously ill, and had to spend several days in hospital. While there, he was recommitted for psychiatric evaluation, and re diagno sed deportation was an act of anti social behavior. I saw him just after he was discharge d to am and their Parliament, to no avail. A short time later, Ahmed was returned to Somalia. citizens, a powerful NGO and lobby, legislation and regulations, rights, a devolved administration, and the Home Office are joined together in a generative project of social order, one which aspires to the creation of fundamental changes in identity, so that mental health professionals are f orced to confront and alter their biased perceptions of the homosexual subject; in which politicians and bureaucrats must re evaluate their political constituencies; in which two es and LGB persons, are brought together as political and legal subjects, and as constitutional
255 agents, participating in the co production of law, policy, and practice. Unfortunately, the challenges of this project of social, political, and cultural engine ering encountered the recalcitrance of situated bearers of the unknowledges of racism, homophobia, and fear of the otherness of mental disorder. This recalcitrance activated constitutional agency, and assuming an archaic epistemology of homosexuality as mental disease. This aspirations of political society, inscribed in legislation, regulation, and governing practice from the European Union and its Conventions and Directi ves, to the British Government, to the devolved administration in Wales, were thwarted by the incompetence and recalcitrance of political S/subjects in powerful roles of determination. Agency in the Theaters of Law: Language, Dialogism, and Polyphony As s tated above, one thing that is necessary to the anthropology of law is to address the conventional separation s in legal analysis, namely those between law and politics, and those between the j udicial and legislative. It is also necessary is t o account for the historical epistemologies out of which these cleavages arose, found root, and flourished and current epistemologies that structure not only the official poetics and enunciations of legislation, regulation, and government, but the quotidian everyday ag ents of governance and their decision making. T he conventional separation s of law politics and of judicial legislative domains, positions the judge as the primary agent of law, the law finder, or law applier. In this construction, litigants, or disputants, tend to have relatively little presence, and less agency in so far as they have consciousness of law, or respond to law, or are incorporated into
256 so ciety through conformity to rules and norms, or have strategies for avoiding rules and norms In these constructions, official language is more or less all one hears. There is little in the way of heteroglossia, of vernacular poetics and enunciations, of d ialogic interactions or of polyphony, the mere presence of multiple voices in any given politico legal setting. A similar problem also obtains whe re legislators or politicians are examined, for instance in academic law and political science studies that c onsider legislatures and legislation Agency in these formulations tends to reside with the elites of law making. I prefer to attribute agency to common folk and to their vernaculars to attribute real agency in the theaters of law and government, i n law m aking, the exercise of police power, and the conduct of government. This is simultaneously an epistemological and ontological commitment and an empirical discovery, to which the ethnographic portraits above gesture as synecdoche. It is not a construction of officials versus commonality, however, It is a much more nuanced analytical stance, one which seeks to account for the minute gradations that exist in the vertical hierarchy of officials commonality, as well as the ambivalent positions occupied by rea l people ( Stallybrass and White 1986 ) No person stably inhabits a single subjecti ve position at any given moment. S/subjective positions are, rather, contingent, multivalent, and variegated depending on a given array of intersubjective relations at play. I have tried in the ethnographic case materials above to capture the asymmetries o f agency and S/subjecthood, and the fraught working out of dilemmas of action and structure in legislation, regulation, and government.
257 T he relationship between S/ subject s and structure s and the problematic of the relationship between individual and comm unity, are in need of (re)thinking, and this rethinking can usefully begin with the (re)appropriation of legislation or positive law more generally In addition, in the threshold moment of decentralization and devolution law makers and others also asked n ew questions impinging on the principles of law and constitutionalism, the state and the nations, and cultural particularity. The questions included What would count as law and government in the newly devolved regions? What would be the roles of new polit ical and legal institutions, agencies, and agents? What would happen to previous structures? and, What was to happen to the arrangements that had previously structured the internal order of political commonwealth, the delivery of services, and the relation ship between governors and governed? Considering these questions and the answers settled upon moves us away from representations of law as unified, often univocal, and systemic. It also moves us away from conventional approaches to agency and power, and t he epistemics of hierarchy and binary. What is needed now is a clarifica tion of alternatives, and this space, between ethnography and jurisprudence, is where I interpolate legisprudence. My initial, tentative formulation of legisprudence focused narrowly on issues of practices, that is, on the practices that occurred in debates about law in the institutions tasked with making law My dissertation fieldwork focus was, initially, overly narrowly dedicated to legislative chambers, especially to the floor of t he Senedd, t o the House of Commons in Parliament, and the process es by which a bill becomes law It quickly became apparent that this restricted perspective was unsuitable for obtaining credible
258 answers t o the questions I was asking so I turned to the literature of science and technology studies, and to the work of anthropolog ists influenced by this literature. The science and technology literature drove me in turn to begin thinking more precisely about working law re and practices ( Galison 1997 ; see also Thomas 199 1 ) as well as r elations between the molecular molar analytical terrains and the specific human integuments that connect institutional landscapes, political society, epistemologies, and real, e mbodied persons. This led me to an interrogation of the settings, the environments in which legislation is made, and t hen to the idea of the work and workspace s of legislation and to question s concerning how the mat erial culture, symbolic hierarchies, and political epistemics of law makers, governors, and their authorized adjutants should be observed, questioned, understood and analyzed Legislation, regulation, and government are domain s of cultural production in this formulation, domains in which disti nctions which get to count ( White 1999:vii ) Law in this sense resides in language use, practice, ritual, knowledge ; and the di stinctions which get to count do so as fact s as normal ity as categorically real, as proper, as imperative In other words, epistemologies materialize, and the analytical gaze must consider the material, symbolic, and epistemological in the analysis of government and the executants of government, and the consequentia l effects of their epistemic commitments. These elements, what we might call the banality of law as a domain of cultural production, are important. Positioning legislation as obje ct of anthropological inquiry brings the productive process of law making an d the potentials of constitutional and
259 legal agency into greater relief, and highlights the cultural belief in legislation as a primary mechanism for identifying and remediating soci their own role as keepers of legal kn owledge, and as keepers of the secrets of proper order and right behavior. These highlights point to t he nature of political and legal authority the importance of the sense of perpetual changeability (of legal texts themselves, of the social, and of perso ns, as well as of history in general), especially as enacted through interpretation and discretion. They also highlight the status and entwinement of both knowledg e and ignorance and the relationship of praxis and cultural meaning as these bring abou t the constitution of S/subjects and the achievements (or obstruction) of the aspirations of political society. From the Street to the Assembly and Back Again Fayez and I walked together in Sophia Gardens, adjacent to Cardiff Castle, crossing over the River Ta ff. We paused to watch some young boys fishing from the bridge. I leaned with my back agai nst the railing, enjoying a rare day of autumn warmth. Fayez, leaning out over the railing, peered into the water and murmured quietly to himself. head in return. A bicyclist rode slowly by, decked out in a pinstrip e suit and bowler hat, a blue and red umbrella dangling from his handlebars He tipped his hat as he drifted by. It was a lat e fall afternoon, and both Fayez and I were in shirt sleeves. Sun sparkled Fayez turned away from the river, looked at me. ch cocked one eye, shook my head.
260 my mom has been trying to get, that it will be easier now that the government is he re. descending the ramp on the east side of the bridge, and strolling into B ute Park on our w ay to the Caff Nero for a coffee and pastry We encountered Cici there, and chatted together for a few minutes before she had to move along, back to work at Race Equality First. Fayez and I stayed together for another half an hour or so, until he drifted on his way. He tossed a quick wave through the glass as the door closed behind him, then merged into the sidewalk foot traffic of this little piece of the public square in devolved Wales in the New Britain. I began to think about legal politics and consti tutional agency, and the essential roles played by Fayez and Cici in my coming to grips with devolution and constitutional transformation on the archipelago. As I sat, sipping a cappuccino, I wrote in my field journal, exploring ideas of postcoloniality a nd their application to legislation, regulation, and government in the New Britain, and their utility in the framework of legisprudence. I was sure that I was looking at the differential actualization of constitutional principles, but how does one write th at cogently? I began with the twinned ideas of desire and disgust, situated in interlinked symbolic hierarchies. These are the intimate familiars of postcolonial analysis, and seemed a solid starting point, a place from which to begin thinking more precis ely about the nature of intersubjective relations within legislated environments, and how these
261 relations are in mutual traffic with the ideas and practices of exclusion, inequality, and racism. George Falstaff, for instance, embodies the epistemological presumption of the normativity of whiteness, Britishness (as a synonym for Englishness), and heterosexism, and he observes, with no irony, the regimes of fear that structure minority relations, deeply affecting intergroup interactions, and inflecting intra group interactions as well. the hierarchies of color, but also of the ethno nations of Britain, conflating the symbolic repertoires, and simultaneously eliding the disproportionate presence of Blackness in the psychiatric services. This epistemology, of normative whiteness, structures how George conducts himself, that is, the enactment of normative governance, and influences whether the objectives of political society, such as rights and equality, are achieved, as language provision, or respect for patients and cultural difference. His epistemology is invested in vertical hierarchies and related notions of social order. His symbolic hierarchies include not only the macro scalars of race and ethnicity, but much more personal and focused relations, such as his own (superior) ability to ex ercise discretion juxtaposed vis ability to function outside of the rules. This inability, for George, necessarily compromises patient care (quality) and imposes constraints on the service and on servic
262 structured their encounters. His discretion and her formalism, then, are a crucial poin t of intersubjective intersection, through which (his) (un)knowledge is affirmed, and comes to constitute a sort of ground level hierarchy that enables George to assert his embodied self as both dominant and exemplary of his antithetical professional norma lity. He also links rule adherence and formalism, as intellectual and practical George also inscr ( Stallybrass and White 1986:3 ) as his discursive elaborations encode multiple forms of discrimination. The hierarchies of race, gender, sexuality, and mental illness implode in the encounter between George, Cici, and Fayez, an implosion that links e pistemology to normative governance and ultimately to three distinct forms of exclusion: of Cici; of s mother. This governance is the structuring instrumentality of discretion, a crucial tool of the rules regimes under consideration. In thi s case, discretion, specifically the decision not to provide interpretation for the intake process, stakeholding, each of which were transcoded, somewhat splenetica lly, as confrontational to delivery of services and professional conduct. cum discretion is, in my reading, orientalizing and subversive of the constitutional principles of equality, rights, accountability, and transparency. His aesthetic and moral judgments not only structured his performance as psychiatric worker and as superviso r and educator, but
263 also reinscribed and reenacted hierarchy and cultural (colonial) history, reproducing the ( Williams 1977 ) The subversion, and the epistemological pathologies of the bourgeois executants deta iled in these pages, are a prominent component of what I have come to understand as the barbarism at the heart of the modern constitution ( Taylor 2001 ) s sectioning implode in these accounts, bringing to the fore critical questions regarding the operation of government an d the everyday actions of authorized agents of the regulatory apparatus. This entails forms of rule, th e science of government ( Polizeiwissenschaft or the police power), and the role of these in and as (neo)liberal modernity, that is, as modes of power wh ich constitute and characterize liberal forms of rule and modernity These modes are characterized in and their desired/desiring and intentional embodiments, that compose the socio comm unicative space s of legislation, regulation, and government. The (common) designated socio political fields, such as populations, communit ies, territories, citizens, minorities, criminals, the elderly, the mentally disordered, and so on To get at this critical question requires the historicization of government and of the sciences of the internal order and administration of the polity as well as the granular detail of everyday actions and intersubjective relations. This mean s not just the emplacement of a particular government in temporal and chronological streams, but also the exploration of the conditions of possibility of governing, as well as the empirical operation of government and its consequential effects in everyday, quotidian terms. The
2 64 conditions of possibility of governing are more than merely derivative of the conditi ons of possibility of knowledge. T hey are more than simply fu nctions of the establishment of (the acceptability and predication of the of) representations of knowledge of obje ctive natural and social worlds ( Canguilhem 1989 ; see also Han 2002 ) More is required, of course, and this dissertation is merely a first step toward a more substantiated and comprehensive legisprudence. I hav e attended, briefly, to some of the multiplex mechanisms that structure social relations and construct and reproduce in an ongoing way social inequalities and the struggles to contest them. This is a crucial dimension of legisprudence as methodological, analytical, and theoretical practice, especially regarding efforts to account for the structure and execution of my inquiry, as well as my epistemological and ethical commitments. The next step in my ongoing project concerning constitutional agency, the pu blic square, and becoming, belonging, and behaving in the sovereign fantasies of Britain will entail additional ethnographic research in the other devolved regions, as well as in England itself, and to develop a comparative approach to insular hegemonies a nd the aspirations of political society. 1 The Oriel is a caf in the Assembly building, situated above the Senedd from which visitors can see pro ceedings in the Siambr an overview of the main entrance, and exterior ly, views of the Cardiff skyline, Cardiff Bay, a nd the Bay area. 2 My research findings parallel those of the Macpherson Report ( 1999 ) which concluded the official inquiry into the racially motivated murder of the Black youth Stephen Lawrence in 1993. The inquiry recomme ndations for its amelioration (see also Hall 1999; Harrison 20 02) My research indicates to me that similar forms of racism populate the institutions of service delivery, especially in health and social care. One major difference is that service delivery is more dispersed than and lacks a similar centralized struc ture to the Met, and so correctives face additional challenges. 3 Generative here should not be taken to imply progressive or beneficial. On the contrary, generative can mean the creation of new systems of oppression, new and subtler ways of committing un detectable racist micro aggressions, novel mechanisms of exclusion, and so on. Generativity as I use it should be linked conceptually with everyday structurations, such as language (Hill 2008) knowledge (Clandinin and Murphy 2009; Gardiner 2006) and sociality (Certeau, et al. 1998; Featherstone 1992; Ldtke 1995) as
265 well as more narrow ly construed practices, such as governing (Feldman 2008) and law (Ewick and Silbey 1998; Goodale 2009)
266 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION: LONG REVOLUTIONS, POLITICAL EPISTEMES, AND EVERYDAY ENSEMBLES In this dissertation, I have tried to adopt the position of a sort of post glossator, concerned with the relationship between law and government, the modern equivalent of Institutes ( Ullmann 1946 ) Where Justinian posited his constitution Tanta giving the force of law and imperial legitimacy t o the Digest in 533, and the Glossators adapted his codifications for a kind of complaisant medievalism attentive to the needs of the courts, the Post Glossators reacted vigorously to medieval authority and insisted on the application of the dialectics of scholasticism to law and politics. These Renaissance legists and humanist civilians evanesced the coordination of law and rationality, demanding the abandonment of medieval juridicality, and a move toward the usus modernus Pandectarum 1 ( Savigny 1979 ) I have undertaken a similar move, looking to the relationship between law making and society, between municipal law and the body politic. My analog to Justinian and the Institutes is Tony Blair and the British constitution, although I do not wish to push this (extreme) metaphor too far. Legisprudence is my post glossatorial innovation, a heuristic and framework for inquiring into legislation, regulation, and government in their complex interrelations, as well as the material, symbolic, and epistemological scaffolds over which they are draped, and through which authority makes its claims, states its goals, and strives to achieve its ends. These ends are not uniform among Subjects and law and their adjutants, as we have seen, and the intragroup tensions are a key site of the production of pathologies of reason and distortions of constitutional agency. These conclusions are drawn from my empirical research in the New Britain, and based on (emic) constitutional discourses and practices, and legal politics withi n Britain. My diagnosis of the
267 subversion of constitutional principles and aspirations, in other words, is not grounded in universalist or imposed notions of what a constitution order ought to look like, or what constitutional politics ought to seek to ach ieve; rather, it is grounded in the cultural history, political epistemics, and the longue dur e of insular constitutional evolution and sovereign aspirations across the archipelago. This dissertation, in other words, straddles and seeks to draw together t Welsh scholar Ray mond Williams and to his heirs in critical cultural studies. These are the long revolution in anthropology, the long revolution in Britain, and the long revolution in Europe. The Long Re volution in Anthropology In the anthropology of law, it is virtually anathema to suggest that legal doctrine is, or ought to be, material for our disciplinary attention This stems mainly from presumptions that the objective of an anthropology of legal doc trine might lead to Such thinking This kind of epistemological closure has analogues in theology and science Prior to the tu rn of the twentieth century there was no intellectual permit for (social) science to study th e content of religion, such as religious belief and religious practice ( Kahn 1999 ) Similarly, u ntil the second half of the twentieth century, the social sciences had no remit to examine the content of science. Such inquiry available until scholars such as David Bloor ( 1976 ) and Barry Barnes ( 1974 ; Barnes and Shapin 1979 ) of the Edinburgh School challenged the classical epistemological constraints established by Karl Mannheim ( 1952 ) and Robert Merton ( 1957 ) (Jensen 2010; see also Stengers 1997; 2000)
268 Classical epist emology concerning religion and science maint ained a dual set of mand ates. These were: (1 ) that there was a clear distinction between external factors, which scientists could study, and internal factors, which remained beyond the reach of social scientif ic inquiry and analysis; and (2 ) that internal factors were virtually removed from external influence, that developments in religion and science were the result of logical internal progressions ( Jensen 2010 ) Part of the concern was over fear of reformist ag the content of religion or science was to critique and correct that content Similar closure continues to characterize the anthropology of law Doctrine, rules, standards, and particular legal forms are more or less off limits to social scientists left to legal academics and legal historians to understand and explain ( but see the following for suggestive and interesting exceptions: Comaroff and Comaroff 2006 ; Maurer 2005 ; Pottage and Mundy 2004 ; Thomas 2004 ) As with religion and science before, much of the concern is epistemological, although some continue to worry that anthropologist s will judge the content of law, perhaps find it wanting, and seek to inte rfere ( Donovan and Anderson 2003 ) It is unlikely, however, that anthropologists interested in the content of law would be concerned to make such judgments or to seek to intervene or correct and only rarel y trespassed by the wily ethnographic tortfeasor It seems shortsighted and limiting to draw and maintain such borders, and the value to ethnographic inquiry of legal doctrine, principles, standards, and fictions, and the generative effects of these on soc ial worlds and subjectivities, should be reconsidered I insist that these connections and effects are clear and compelling
269 I suggest therefore, that it is time for anthropology to break the lock, and constructively possess the territory within Knowled ge of the difference between a post obit bond and a writ of quare clausum fregit need no longer reside solely in the purview of the lawyers, the legal academics, or the historians of legal doctrine Understanding and translating these into other contexts i upon fidelity to the meaning and content of indigenous terminology, such as the jir ( 1957 ) The content of law, its texts, rules, standards, and doctrines, shape worlds and the conditions of possibility for inhabiting an d experiencing those worlds: kinship, domestic relations, categories of personhood, inheritance, property forms, relations between individuals and the state, symbolic hierarchies, valuations, and pasts and futures, among others It is crucial that ethnogra phers begin to take seriously the what will count as [real] and as matters of fact get constituted for and by many ( Haraway 1997:50 ) 2 The content of law, I argue is indispensable to the anthropology of law, and a cr ucial dimension of the material, semiotic, and epistemic basis of my legisprudence framework. 3 Such content may be interpreted as deriving exclusively from the privilege of government, which I do not mean t o suggest The rules of law, figured and xclusively to the s tate ( cf. Asad 2004, regarding the argument that an abstract law presumes the State and state power required for its actualization ) This is an erroneous assumption however, and one that a segment of legal anthropologists, namel y those interested in demonstrating the legal rationality of indigenes as bearers of both culture and reason
270 have long been at pains to counter ( Fallers 1969 ; Gluckman 1955 ; Gomme 1880 ; Haar, et al. 1979 ; Hoebel 1940 ; Llewellyn and Hoebel 1941 ; Maung Maung 1963 ; Meek 1937 ; Noon 1949 ) Sta maintain that parallel normative systems of ordering and control can and do exist, and have done, and non s I do not wish to engage this argument herein, however, as it is beyond the intended s cope of my analysis. ( I note, however, that this recovery of indigenous rationality and legal iates this dissertation, and to which I will return immediately below. ) presumably imposing the will of, the Austinian legislator ( Austin 1995 ; 2005 ) not because this is a higher form of law or more relevant, but precisely because anthropology has largely dismissed legislation and the rules of law from its purview By opening legislation and the rules of law to consideration, the content and doctrinal development of law are opened to analysis from the outside, and the ways that seemingly ancient and esoteric forms of law can ta ke on new dimensions, as useful records rooting inquiries into social ontology My research was designed around the examination, specifically, of government, that is, of the institutions, persons, and relations that constitute ruling entities, the production of law within these entities, and the relationship between l aw, government and the constitution of the social body This should not be read as implying that I believe that law emanates solely from government As my argument has developed throughout this manuscript, it should be clear that this
271 is not for me a guidi ng assumption. I suggest only that government is one locus from which law emanates It is a locus that is privileged in certain times, places, and cultural colonial contexts, but it is not necessarily exclusive, and my work should not be read as suggesting a nece ssary link between law and the s tate, or, as the case may be, law and the polity. 4 Law (and policy) can arise from private interests ( Schepel 2005 ) from NGOs ( Likosky 2005 ; Riles 2000 ) from other non s tate actors ( Likosky 2002 ) and from among those captured by the idiom s of commonalty, carnival, or below ness ( Rajagopal 2003 ; Rodrguez Garavito and Santos 2005 ; Santos 2002 ) To ignore these generative sites and presume that law emanates solely, or even primarily, from the state, the polity, or government, is to linger in the constraints imposed by modernist epistemologies. Schol ars in the anthropology of law have rarely teased out the structured relations of law and modernist epistemologies, and more rarely have attempted to work through the implications of modernist ontology and epistemology for legal epistemology 5 ( but see Dore 2007 for a non anthropologist's comprehensive effort to remediate these absences ; cf. Edwards, et al. 2008 ; Littlewood 2002 ; 2006 ; Moore and Sanders 2006 ) In this sense, the work I pre sent here, especially in its attention to dimensions of political epistemics writings on the soc iology of scientific knowledge, or SSK, and related fields ( Barnes, et al. 1996 ; Bloor 1991 ; Thorpe 2008 ; see also Watson Verran and Turnbull 1995 ) What I aim to achieve is more than a re articulation of Marxian formulations of ideology and critique of ideology, or of a Foucaul dian power/knowledge couplet or its extension by Spivak ( 1992 ) M y ont ological epistemic concern is with claims to rationality, method and reasoning in law, technologies of knowledge, and the c oherentizing effects of law,
272 that is, how law authorizes, sustains and reproduces social worlds, simultaneously rationalizing and legitimizing these worlds for their i nhabitants These need to be understood in their particular social, cultural, and political contexts, and compared with aspiration s and designated goals. In the case materials I have presented, there is a their realization in the everyday practices of governing. This contest has widespread and pernicious effects, and form s the basis for my diagnoses of distortions of constitutional agency, subversions of the problematics of sovereignty ( Haahr 2008 ) and the barbarism at the heart of the modern constitution. These are not simply issues of power, and while the Foucauldian power/knowledge couplet is an important contribution to post structural, postcolonial, ethnic, feminist, queer, and critical and other discourses, it needs further extension in general terms, and it needs in particular to be more adequately applied to law. 6 I am also interested in the analytical approaches deployed (or not) to capture these ontological epistemic dynamics for various bodies of sociolegal literature, and the way such analytical approaches think about and position S/subjects as I have described them above. This is a main feature of public anth ropology as I construct it. That is, in my conceptualization of public anthropology, I make a distinction between, on the one hand, anthropology with a broader understanding of the public and who constitutes publics; and on the other, engagements with vari ous publics, and the enactment of various forms of public and political action. I tend to simplify this distinction as one of ethnographic witness vis vis the responsibilities of public and political engagement. By constructing this distinction, I also s eek to usefully integrate the elements, and link them through levels of analysis (Al Mohammad 2011; Forman 1994)
273 For instance, understanding Subjects as not just persons, but as members of bureaucracies, and the shift in moral cal culus that this positioning and everyday embedding fosters and requires. Recognizing the constraints placed on moral action by the structures and objective features of law making, police power initiatives, and governing are important elements of my ethnogr aphic analysis above. Norms and adherence and conformity to norms and more concrete legal rules and duties read as an assertion of the laminar behavior of authorized political a gents; such agents, or Subjects in my formulation, are equally prone to ignorance, misfeasance, and harm as to conformity. Recognition of the nuances and the variegated empirics of behavior in different structural settings and sociohistorical co ntexts should occupy our attention and analyses. More importantly, however, is conceptuali zing subjects as participants in law making processes is a unique recovery of agency and its relationship with structural features; this is, for me, an imperative of public anthropology. This imperative entails the recognition of those at the margin s as more than merely marginal. These subjects must be seen, rather, as agents of moral and rational action in multiple contexts, whose enminded bodies subtend the polar di mensions of the S/subject distinction, whose presence is not simply figural, but real and generative, providing witness of the experiences of the margins. Public anthropology must recover these positions and provide voice for them, but must also be attenti ve to the ways by which they reveal the fears of broader society and especially of those who govern. The raced, the mentally disordered, the sexually exceptional, the poor, and others excite the imagination of their
274 res that make society uneasy (see e.g. Hall, et al. 1978) Anthropology, in my view, has a role, and an obligation, not just in giving voice, but in terms of documenting the pertinent issues more broadly, by collating and disseminating texts (oral and written) and experiences of marginalization and injustice, including the (historic and continuing) injustices perpetrated by anthropology itself. This is the foun dation of my understanding of public anthropology, which then, in concrete terms, seeks to constructively and critically bring these subjects into the public square as recognized and essential contributors to discourses and practices of knowing, of interve ning, of reforming, of including. Bringing subjects more visibly into the public square also challenged us to more clearly identify which publics we need or want to address, under what conditions, and in what ways. Adapting to the various demands of variou s types of public is the final dimension of my approach to public anthropology. The Long Revolution in Britain Ray mond revolutions: the democratic, industrial, and cultural revolutions ( 1961:10 ) In his analysis, the revolution is a long process and sequence of beginning, of ending, and be sic ] makes the shape, and the shape remakes the ( 1961 ) I understand this formulation in terms not only of art, as was the focus of regulation, and government. How any particular group of people exists in history and shapes rules and norms of becoming, bel onging, and behaving recursively shapes the political and social body itself in a process of ongoing transformation, accommodation, was cultural critical, however, not self congratulatory. It was a cautionary analysi s that pointed out the need to pay attention to
275 steps forward and steps back, the retractions and retrenchments of rights and the high discourses of constitutionalism, Parliamentary sovereignty, and liberty, as well as the vernacular polyphonies of bigotry and efficiency, of racialization and the experiences of raced persons and collectives, of need, desire, and hope. To paraphrase William James, then, what is it that has concluded that we are concluding about? Legisprudence is not simply a perspective on law. It is a perspective on social anthropology as an enterprise and situated practice. Looking at law, the rules of law, and law dissertation, the main concern has been the very difficult task of bringing into history those invisible people who populate our ethnographic worlds, who often are relegated to s upporting roles in the theaters of law, politics, and cultural production. The lie agreed upon in the human sciences, that which concludes that these are rarefied domains, the prerogative of elites, and are abstracted from the social, sustains as analytica l fields which overdetermine those institutions that fit, namely, in this case, juridical institutions and jurisprudence. It is, I believe, time we move d beyond this, and beyond the case study of Britain and Wales to suggest and thi nk about ways in which e thnographic familiarity with law can better info rm our understanding of cultural apperceptions and practices in other, divergent settings. As well, we ought to (re)consider the role of legislation and regulation in identifying need, in structuring services and their delivery, and in the amelioration of issues of inequality as a general (that is, constitutional) principle, as well as in specific
276 forms of inequality and discrimination, including racism, sexism, ageism, anti immigration, heterosexism, religiou s intolerance. T he cultural and political economic struggles over the control of polities, political constituencies, and politico legal charters, over constitutions and legislative competence, over discretion and constraint, over stakeholding and fairness are key sites of elaboration of the material, semiotic, and epistemological interactants that legisprudence seeks to capture and actively populating both sovereign and bureaucratic imaginaries, interpellatin g S/subject and histories, and seeking to sustain symbolic hierarchies, hegemonies, and the material consequences of exclusion, exploitation, oppression ( Cohen 2006 ) One monster inhabiting the New Britain is exclusion and unfairness, and the epistemologies of ignorance that counter projects of inclusio n, equality, and opportunity. Both the projects of inclusion and the practices of exclusion require certain types of historical subjects, subjects to whom I have given some ethnographic flesh in these rn epistemologies and modern rationalities of governing are not merely part of a disciplinary project in anthropology, or insular projects of the study of Britain, but of larger historical and global projects aimed at provincializing Europe, of placing Eur ope in its (post)colonial, historical, and cultural (see e.g., Chakrabarty 2007 ; Gilroy 2005 ; Smith 2006 ; Spivak 1999 ) I hope that this disse rtation makes some small contribution to these projects.
277 The Long Revolution in Europe, or Government, Governance, Governmentality: Normative Practices and Official Poetics Government, or the exercise of political authority, entails the collective organs responsible for public administration, as well as the principles, processes, institutions, and agents involved in decision making in the polity, and the implementation of decisions, through, for instance, legislation, policy, or other mechanisms ( Loughlin 2004 ; Tomkins 2003 ) My approach to the analysis of government needs to be understood as distinct from, and complementary to, discourses of governance and governmentality in the human sciences have been drawn primarily from policy studies and political science, and generally focus on institutional which centralization and control are challenged by in stitutional and policy networks which deliver services in ways that government is not (has never been) able ( Rhodes 1997:5ff ) Governance owes its academic pedigree largely to the wor k of Niklas Luhmann, and his emphasis on polycentricity, mutual challen ges of intelligibility between systems, and an agonistic mode of development ( Luhmann 1982 ) metapho r often juxtaposed governments should steer and not row) In other words, government should concern itself with the creation of the that is, the ability of non governmental entities to act, rath er than the imposition of directives from above Good gove rnance in turn means the negotiation of policy implementation and the best possible combination s of public, private and voluntary sectors in
278 the delivery of services ( see, e.g., Stoker 2000 ) Presumptive equality among negotiati ng and cooperating partners is held to best conduce mutually beneficial results, and the posi tive sum nature of these results will accrue not just to services or delivery of services and related obligations, but also to the societal achievement of democratic outcomes more generally Governmentality studies, on the other hand, writings and seek to understand the nature of power and of the operation of government (of the self and of others) Foucault ( 2000: 219 220 ) : 1 The ensemble formed by the institutions, procedures, analyses, and reflections, the calculations and tactics that allow the exercise of this very specific and complex form of power, which has as its target populations, as its principal form of knowledge political economy, and as its essential technical means apparatuses of security 2 The tendency that, over a long period and throughout the West, has steadily led toward the preeminence over all other forms (sovereignty, discipline, and so on) of this type of power resulting, on the one hand, in the formation of a whole series of specific governmental apparatuses, and on the other, in the development of a whole complex of knowledges [saviors] 3 The process or, rather, the result of the process through which the state of justice of the Middle Ages transformed into the administrative state during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and gradual ly becomes This is a somewhat long description, an d conceptually muddled in so far as If we restrict ourselves to just the first but I include th e full quote for two reasons: (1 ) to convey Foucaul ) to illustrate (part of) the basis on which subsequent governmentality studies have proceeded to define themselves and to approach their analytical objects
279 has come to understand itself as governmentality studies in the last two decades Foucauldian ated by a cadre of (mostly Anglo ) neo Foucauldian s which delineates governmentality in a rather works, especially his lectures, which demonstrate his ongoing struggle with power, polit ics, and the nature, forms, operations and effects of government (see, e.g., Foucault 2003 ; 2010a ; 2010b ) The emergent dogma tends to conflate biopolitics, security and discipline as the primary (or sole) concerns of governmentality, elements which clearly were important to Foucault, but which he did not use to circumscribe an understanding of (see, e.g., Barry, et al. 1996 ; Burchell, et al. 1991 ; Dean 2010 ; Miller and Rose 2008 ; Rose 2006 ) In positioning my analytic of government vis vis thinking, to build upon the insights of Foucault and his in tellectual progeny, yet avoid the conflation of government with rationality and related m issteps that have developed in the proliferation of governmentality scholarship Out of this dogma and reductionism, Dean, Miller, Rose and other neo Foucauldian s focus primarily on two dimensions for analysis: (1 and efforts to shape subjects that conform to policy, and (2 ) the organized practices t hrough which such subjects are governed At first glance, this would seem to condense my own approach; however, there are a number of
280 divergences First, and most importantly, is my attention to the recursive and mutually co constitutive nature of the rela tionship of governors and governed It is not enough to examine the production of subjects; rather, or in addition, I want to examine the ways in which subjects participate in the constitution of government and rule regimes Second, or the neo Foucauldian s are drawn from the analysis of policy; that is, they are by and large, not based on ethnographic presence in the fields of government, and so elide a critical methodological dimension, and collapse actual practices into the categor ies of policy analysis and political science Third, policy is only one of the instrumentalities of governing, and, as Laura Nader ( 2007 ) has pointed out, d, from analysis of government) is law Nader points to the relations between law and behavior, and she invokes rules, but her main focus in the rule of law as an ideological framework used to justify plundering. This is an important statement and concern, but needs to be extended to specifica lly and explicitly cognize legislation. My approach privi leges the ethnographic derivation of and the integration of legislation into analysis of the work of policy and the everyday practices of the conduct of government. It is concerned primarily with (1 ) political ontology; (2 ) reflective and se lf conscious governing; and (3 ) the will to progress ( cf. Li 2007 ) This trilogy will be elaborated below. A s indicated above political and social ontologies are crucial to my approach to analysis of law and governme nt Ontology here is not used to refer to a transcendent or ( Bourdieu 1977:78 ) and to the perception or apprehension of such
281 structures, possibilities, and actions An essential charac teristic o f ontology as I use it as method for inquiry and for representation, is that it is always in motion, a developing cosmos; not merely a background against which things develop, but a developing thing in itself Reflective, self conscious governing is inten ded to bore into the ways by which governors assess, evaluate, reason about, communicate about (and with), and deliberate on their political world (i.e in the sense of their mtier ), their social world (i.e in the sense of the populated universe in which they are embedded and in which they intervene), and the obligations that characterize their governing activities These include the variform practices, technologies and rationalities of calculatio n, information, knowing, and acting as governors. The idea ( 1978 ; 2009 ) analysis of Trger ; that is, who are crucial to the persistence of forms of macro social phenomena ( Coulter 2001:31 ; cf. Kalberg 1994 ) These Trger ( Coulter 2001:31 ) In my f ormulation, governors are self conscious Trger in the sense suggested by Weber, although I revise and modify his concept. orient ed to their belief that the polity an d government exist and that actions undertaken as a polity or government are authoritative, legitimate, legal, and valid, that the polity or
282 government exists ( Weber 1978:14 ) Necess ary to this existence are the conditions of possibility that enable it, the actions of the governors, and the presence and actions of the governed. I will expand on these analytical and methodological poin ts and demonstrate their ramified operations in gre ater detail below. Trger the bearers of self conscious, patterned (cultural) actions, are essential to my analysis of the everyday practices and the logics of practical conduct that constitute government There is potent ial here for error, namely, the r eification of a general micro macro dichotomy characterized by a metaphorical macro that only emerges from micro interactions, and Weber deployed his particular methodological individualism precisely in order to avoid the fallacy of reification of macro soc ial abstractions, such as the state ( Weber 1978 ) This is also a problem frequently encountered (and unresolved) by other theorists, including symbolic interactionists and some ethnomethodologists In the end, it leaves us with the ontological problem of the actuality of macro phenomena Some scholars have tried to resolve the issue by recourse t o geography or architecture: macro social phenomena occupy physical and built space, and we can see cities, banks, and so on T his leaves the institution al question unanswered however : What does it mean for a government, for example, to do something ( Coulter 2001 ) ? I will try to answer this question below The third element of my trilogy is the will to progress ( 2007 ) ( 1924 ) conceptualization of the kn ( 1976 ) Simultaneously shaping and emerging from the given polythetic reality in which they find themselves operating, and developing from their reflective
283 practices of self conscious governing, governors in mod ern government (and arguably in amodern, or ante modern forms as well) are motivated by a desire to advance society and poli tics and they are ensconced within discursive frameworks and a general expectation of the producti on of change for the better, that is, the making of progress Part of my concern is to rethink conventional analytical causalities, to make the political, rather than the economic, the historical a priori the driver of history, the instrument of historical consequence and human progress Rather than a determinative determined structure that entails a material foundation of economics upon which a political edifice is erected, and out of which ideologico cultural epiphenomena emerge, I favor the priority of the political; that is, the mater ial relational structured around the conflict s, contrasts, and negotiations of values, as the foundation and en structuring mechanism of social universes 7 Instead of capitalism democracy, I want to think about my ethnographic data first in terms of the po litical formation; not as an overdetermined the empirical form of governing rulership ( Herrschaft ), so that issues of political and cultural economy are examinable as strategies of accumulation and the recursive effects of these strategies rather than as causally privileged phenomena that shape social and subjective cosmologies Bringing all of this to analytical fruition is the task confronting the long revolution in Europe as it takes its next steps. Baroness Davari : Walking the Constitutional and Political Hybrids Baroness Davari and I sat adjacent to the Thames Palace of Westminster (Figure 8 1 ) A fine breeze swept across the water and ruffled the collar of her blue blouse. She had short hair, stylishly short, and a lively demeanor. She poured a bit of milk, which plumed into the amber depths of her tea She stirred
284 clinked the spoon twice on the rim of the china te acup, returned spoon to saucer, and brushed absentl y at a stray cake crumb stranded alone on a slightly darkened stain on the wood. The Baroness was a key interlocutor of mine in Parliament, and had been a keen early supporter of the decentralization agenda and constitutional reforms proposed by the Labour Government in 1997. Porch in Westminster Hall. We ascended the stairs to the east, entered and crossed used and escorted me swiftly along the east corridor, down a set of steps to a landing, and the Members dining area. A quick order of tea, and onto the deck, pulling out chai rs and dropping our bags beside us as we sat, both of us slightly out of breath. Behind her stood Westminster Bridge, with a steady stream of traffic trundling across. Even above the sound of the river the rumble of lorries and busses was audible, just at the threshold of hearing, more of a felt experience. Further along in the distance and opposite, the glass and steel cabins of the London Eye flashed and shone in the sunlight, slowly crawling across the horizon (Figure 8 2 ) Adjacent, just over the balcon y of the deck, a buoy bobbed and jolted in the wake of passing craft. We both peered at the greenish grey Thames. innit surprise, which she seemed to intend with a wink and a gri wondered if she meant the changing political organization of the UK or the building
285 the built side of the Palace here. It used to flood, to flood right into the hall, just there. Then they built it up so the journal change and rebuilding, metaphor fo r reforms? As if still tapped into my metaphor for devolution, I suppose. How far do our territorial waters extend, and how do we keep them from flooding in where they So began our conversation, which lasted nearly an hour before the Baroness returned inside for an evidence session on European subsidiarity and regionalism. Between these two poles of decentralization and Europeanization, I interviewed her about the nature and attributes of constitutional transformation and political reorganization in the UK, the modernization agenda and public sector reforms, and the effects of recent legislative and policy strategies in the UK and the devolved administrati ons, including the equalities and medicolegal therapeutic regimes. Twenty four minutes into our discussion, I transitioned to questions about the National Health Service, mental health issues in the UK, and the issues facing minority communities throughout the political commonwealth. as an aide rushed to the table, opened a file folder, and whispered in her ear. They conferred quietly for a few moments, before the aide jotted notes on the file, and remarked aloud on the upcoming session. The Baroness waived her hand, then fished her mobile from a pocket, swept the screen and dialed as the aide hurried away. She
286 attention to my field journal and to capturing the content and character of the conversation. The Baroness finished, laid the mobile on the table between us, returned I a m both a service user, for nearly 20 years now, and a lawmaker in the House of Lords. This gives me a unique perspective on the making of law, and the political concerns that go into it, and the needs of the mentally ill and those being discriminated again st. I can tell you about my experiences, from primary care to hospital to community care, and about how our legislative system works. All of which, of course, are now caught up in the streams of devolution and our European commitments. The mobile buzzed a nd from the corner of my eye I noticed her aide hurrying back to the table as the waters of the Thames slapped on the deck moorings. avalis, as we stood with our backs to Cardiff Bay, the wind buffeting us, at the foot of a swath of steps and railings rising to the glassed foyer of the Senedd. A clear, bright, crisp day, and our tiny, distanced reflections were just visible to us, wobbl ing in the panes, with glinting breaks on the She painted an image of Wales as the ill patrimony. communally grounded socialist and Welsh Labour Party, and the constitutional
287 rather more like the m tossing us our bits, and staled blood brought on by too many e read the White paper. The whole thing has been one long journey through a partial inheritance, with bits of Welsh accoutrements is good that we have our own government now, more or less. If we c an achieve independence and real law making powers, it will make a difference. Anyway, nationalism is dead, the nation is The Right Honorable Peter Hain had been Secretary of State for Wales in 2005 devolution was re engaged in Westminster, Cardiff, and beyond. The re engaged debate brought back to the political fore the extent a nd nature of decentrali zation in the United Kingdom and its consequences. Decentralization had emerged as a key political discourse and maneuver in 1997, during the Parliamentary campaign and elections that saw the end of eighteen years of Conservative government and the emergen a deliberative strategy and agenda, and to material and semiotic reality i n 1998, as Yes Campaigns referenda, and, finally, as enacted legislation in 1999 that created and empowered the institutions and infrastructures of the National Assembly for Wales, the Scottish Parliament, and the Northern Ireland Assembly. Human dimensio ns followed as cadres of lawyers, politicians, Civil Service personnel, academics, public sector workers, voluntary sector, business people, and others convened to determine operational questions, and grind into motion the gears, relations, and languages o f
288 functionality. The institutions were then peopled, through party mechanisms, elections, appointments, and the host of internal procedural activities necessary to the daily tasks of conducting government. None of this was simple, or straightforward, or li near, and much of it took place in the breaches, in the small, quiet spaces of prosopic commensality. In these spaces, personal engagements and conflicts slowly forged the local artifices of political reason and governing techniques ( cf. Foucault 1998 ) where state restructuring, cultural reconfiguratio ns, and social and subjective formations coalesced to take momentary shape. These shapes were largely transient, as it worked out, but formative, nonetheless, establishing parameters and conventions of behavior and institutional performance, and also enabl ing demonstrations of what would come to be considered right, proper, and normal, as well as demonstrations of what would come to be patently improper and unsuitable to the conduct of the new Welsh politics in the new political institution of the Assembly, ( Secretary of State for Wales 1997:8 ) a nswer end of the twentieth century. It was said to strengthen the unity of the UK, while empowering the Celtic Nations. It was said to increase rights, while inculcating a sense of ownership, of stakeholding in the institutions and processes of law, politics, an d government. It was said to be part and parcel of modernizing Parliament and politics. Most importantly, perhaps, it opened up Government, and was imbued with admirable constitutional qualities: equality, subsidiarity, transparency. The constitution was t o be democratized in novel ways, not through extension of franchises, but through processes designed to bring decision
289 making closer to the people, through the thorough restructuring of political institutions. It ( Secretary of State for Wales 1997:7 ) This subsidiarity was levered make the newly elected legislatures, like the National Assembly for Wales, an accepted ( Secretary of State for Wales 2005:6 ) Devolution, decentralization, and the other elements of constitutional transformation in the New Labour administrations were intended as correctives, to modernize the c onstitution, legal politics, and the state, to remedy the lingering pathologies of classism, racism, colonialism, and bourgeois overreach. Cara Navalis, Stephen Lewis, Mrs. Fei, Cici Williams, Idil Dourad, and Fayez Bashir, among others, offered unambiguou s representations of the problems that are sustained in the present historical conjuncture. I had virtually no idea what Cara Navalis meant that day as we mooted the Assembly, and it took me several weeks to develop an understanding and appreciation for h er perspective. I was in Wales in 2008 2009, a full decade after the establishment of the Assembly, a decade that had proceeded by and large under the leadership of a single First Minister, Rhodri Morgan, and a consistent set of Cabinet Ministers and Assem bly Members. A decade in which the Assembly had achieved a great deal, and had realized notable successes. The end of the decade was marked by celebration and triumphant recallings of the progressive development of the Assembly, its movement
290 toward a sense of itself as fully operational and fully rationalized. This is perhaps a Hers was a story not of the ideal nature of origins and development, but of the atavisms of dec entralization and devolution, of the disruptive effects of constitutional transformation and of legislation in her life and her sense of self. Hers was not a theogony of devolution, of the victory of liberty, of the triumph of political rationality and the incremental and parallel maturations of the Assembly and the New Britain. She did not loo k back, or look over, or look down from above. She preferred to look under, to look sideways, to look askew, in order to understand herself and her Wales in familiar terms. Her telling was a fraught history, perhaps even lowly, derisive, and ironic, in which the material, semiotic and epistemological articulations of power implode as public sector reform and the new demands, yet continued performance, of service delive ry and service deliverers who bear the unknowledges of racism and domination. For Cara, there was no veil to be rent, no mask to unveil, no ocean of clear red water to cross. Devolution is important, but its grandiosity disguises what for her is only a ch anged reality of surfaces and of measured spectacle to navigate in the everyday. For her, there is something hereditary, but perhaps not quite inherited, for its origins are not what they are claimed to be, and its successes not as clearly achieved as ofte n claimed. Her decentralized everyday is still structured by the intensities of racialization and mental disorder on the archipelago, and by the stigmas, demands, and dismissals enacted by authority, experienced in the quotidian banality of discretionary a cts that enact constitutional agency by obstructing constitutional principles, producing,
291 mimetically, the reality and reality effects of the barbarism at the heart of the modern constitution. 1 2 Haraway (1997) is that she deploys are commensurable with examination and analysis of law 3 Accordingly, autonomy cannot be ascribed to law without attention to the construction of selves, and the that are required for, for instance, persons and rules to co constitute (Cussins 1996). 4 Str ictly speaking, Wales is not a s tate, but is typ ically referred to by scholars studying devolution and relations within Britain lso their non 5 There is also relatively little attention to legal ontology, which I will address in a subsequent project. 6 This is not to engage the debat e regarding whether or to what extent Foucault rejected law (Hunt and Wickham 1994) or to develop the question of his position on law (Golder and Fitzpatrick 2009) Rather, it is to point to a need within the anthropology of law for more sustained attentio n to: (1) his work generally; and (2 ) the expansion of the foundations he established, especially in terms of the emergent dogmas surrounding power/knowledge and governmentality 7 everything.
292 APPENDIX A DEMOGRAPHIC AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION According the 2001 Census, the popula tion of the United Kingdom is 59 million. 4.6 million, or 7.9%, are reported as non white. Half of this number resides in London, the remainder are distributed throughout the country, mostly in urban centers, but with s izable communities even in some remote and rural locations (Office for National St atistics 2005) The following table and graph diversity. These charts are reproduced from the Office for National Statistics and used according to the terms of the Open License Agreement and the UK Government License Agreement
293 Source: Office for National Statistics licensed under the Open Government License v.1.0
294 APPENDIX B MAPS AND FIGURES Figure 1 1. Map of Britain in Europe (map courtesy of Edward Gonzlez Tennant)
295 Figure 1 2. Map of Britain with internal national bou ndaries (map courtesy of Edward Gonzlez Tennant)
296 Figure 1 3. Map of South Wales and the South Wales corridor (map courtesy of Edward Gonzlez Tennant)
297 Figure 1 4 The Assembly Estate ( map copyright National Assembly for Wales, used with permission)
298 Figure 1 5 Cardiff Bay, the Pierhead Building (center), and the Senedd (right), 2009 (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey) Figure 1 6 The Senedd (2009) (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey)
299 Figure 1 7 Hywel to the Senedd (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey) Figure 1 8 The Siambr (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey)
300 Figure 1 9 The Oriel (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey) Figure 1 10 Overlooking Cardiff Bay and Penarth in 2009 (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey)
301 Figure 1 11 top of Bute Street (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey) Figure 1 12 Community m ural in Butetown (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey)
302 Figure 1 13 Butetown History and Arts Centre (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey) Figure 1 14 National Health Service Centre, Riverside n eighborhood (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey)
303 Figure 1 15 Medical Assessment Unit, Llandough Hospital (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey) Figure 5 1 T he author at work as constituency caseworker (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey)
304 Figure 8 1 Parliamentary Estate in 2009 (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey) Figure 8 2 Parliamentary Estate, Westminster Bridge, and the London Eye (photo copyright Andrew Scott Catey)
305 APPENDIX C DEVELOPING LEGISPRUDENCE: A PERSONAL HISTORY AND EMERGING EPISTEMIC As repeated throughout this dissertation, I insist that a useful new direction for political anthropology and the anthropology of law is engagement with and theorization of legislation as elements of a field of inquiry missing from the discipline. In order to think through this lacuna and begin developing my theorization of legislation and its kin, I sought early on in my doctoral studies to formulate a term or phrase that could conveniently convey the breadth of object s relations, and processes that I wan t to examine I settled on the innovation s I attempt in this dissertation I began using the term legisprudence in 2003, after an intense effort to work through a number of problematics that had engrossed me while conduc ting graduate studies at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology. At the time, I thought it was my own neologism, but I discovered later it was also used by a number of European scholars of legal theory and legal philosophy and it became the title of a journal started in 2004 In 2001 2003, while at Holy Cross, I was consumed with two research projects. One focused on the School and seminary itself, and the economia of reception and non law and related doctrinal forms. The second focused on historical canon law, syncretism, and the dialectics of centralization. I was exploring the historic Church dogmas and processes of localization in early Christi an churches, with special focus on Christianity in Ireland through the mid seventh century. 1 My goals were
306 twofold, both practical and theoretical. The first was to explore the historical convergences and divergences of official and local realities of cano n law, dogmatics, and systematic theologies in Ireland of the seventh century. The second was to research and analyze historic circumstances in order to situate extant problems at the School and suggest ways to remediate those problems. I began my researc h in late 2001, starting with an examination of the issuance, consolidation, and codification of canon law by the Ecumenical Councils, that is, treating canon law as legislation, and the reception and performance of canonical rules by churches, monasteries and political entities distant from the centers of Church 2 knowledge about the e arly development of Christianity in Ireland. Finally, I wanted to bring forward, and into an intellectual mainstream, an anthropological analysis of canon law and its cultural histories. Following my gradua tion from Holy Cross, I entered graduate school i n the Ph.D program in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Tennessee and my work there began with a focus on historical religion and anthropology in Western Europe. The work I had conducted at Holy Cross had left me unsatisfied in my searc h for a framing device and theoretical apparatus and while at Tennessee I continued to search for an appropriate way to mainstream the ideas I was working with. when I took a course in ancient and medieval historical sources with Dr Michael Kulikowski (now at Penn
307 State) For this course, I wr in Anglo Saxon Law: The Berkshire C ase, A.D 990 ned the codification of law, centra lizing initiatives of government and administration, the function of the monarch as executive, and the role of law in the consolidation of medieval monarchy. 3 In the paper I analyzed an Old English laws uit which occurred during the reign of the English king thelred II (A.D 978 1013, 1014 1016), and which concerned an estate in Berkshire. The lawsuit proceeded according to procedures established by legislation promulgated by Edgar (the Peaceable, A.D. 9 59 975) one of th predecessors, and was closely watched from the political center Conventional sociolegal and legal historical scholarship assumed in the case t ( cf. Wormald 2001 ) Analyses of the case therefore tended to proceed according to the (modernist) assumption that the truism governed legal activity; that is, that felicity and compromise characterized medieval litigation and other and the goals and outcomes of litigation. A mity in the kingdom was held, interpretively, as the first objective, which In my paper, I argued instead that kin gship, authority, and the nature of positive law were at stake, and that the historical epistemology of law, especially in the period under consideration, was more different tha n the modernist inflection tended to assume In order to make the argument, I needed a analytical idioms the distinguishment It was later, in
308 simultaneous coinage and usage by the legal philosopher Luc Wintgens an d his collaborators ( Wintgens 2002 ; 2005 ) In addition, it seems that the word was used also by both Jeremy Bentham and Sir William Blackstone in the eighteenth century Rather than a neologism, then, I stumbled upon a qualified existing term with an exemplary genealogy and utility for my own approach to the anthr opology of law Nonetheless, legisprudence as I deploy it is conceptually distinct from legisprudence as deployed by Wintgens and others (and by Bentham and Blackstone as well). For Wintgens and other scholars of law and legal philosophy, the objectives o f legisprudence are encapsulated in the mission statement of the journal Legisprudence ( see e.g., Hamers and Finkelstein 2009:423 ) Indeed, the improvement effort is an ongoing central dimension of legal scholarship more broadly ( Kahn 1999 ) and one which distinguishes the anthropology of law from other legal analytical disciplines. Anthropologists of law, including myself, are not, in general, oriented toward goals of producing more correct pieces of legislation or reform of legislative processes. That is, legisprudence as I formulate it is not a normative endeavor, but an empirical and contextual one. F or my part, my interests lie primarily in analysis of legislation from the perspective of anthro pological theory, or designating how proper law making should proceed or how proper legal rules or texts ought to appear. In it comes into being is not generally the goal of social science The issue for me is not to improve legislation and its production in a normative sense but to analyze legislation and legislatures in terms
309 of concrete historical circumstances and output, a nd gauge their operation, relevance, and efficacy on the merits of their place in particular historical, social, and cultural circumstances. In addition, I seek to understand what legislation means to those who draft it, live by it, accord it importance in the art of government and social ordering; and circumstances. These circumst ances, the demands and goals at stake, the ontological and epistemological commitments involved, the systems of ethics and moralities invoked, the variegated meanings, and the contestations at issue are important dimensions of my formulation of legispruden ce. The improvement debates are conceptually and practically linked to correlated concerns with the nature, behavior, and output of legislatures as unavoidably political entities. The basic premise held by many, and ascendant in our contemporary historica l ( cf. Waldron 1999a ) I do take a side in this debate. I hold that neither statement is an accurate description of legislation or legislatures in the abstract. Particular pieces of legislation, or the situated process by which pieces of legislation come into being may be problematic, even unprincipled and undignified, in particular circumstances and according to particular perspectives; legislatures may be crude and highly politicized at a given moment. These, however, are matters of sociocultural analysis, of empirical and interpretive wor k, and like Waldron ( 1999a )
310 But what is more important from an anthropological perspective is the place of legislation and legislatu res in the official poetics and sociopolitical mythos of many societies ( Bakhtin 1981 ) the practi ces that characterize legislation and legislatures, and the subjectivities and relations that constitute them and that they bring into being. In functioning, to social organization and cohesion, to cultural sense making, to apprehended relations with time and space, and to understandings of the self as are kinship, economy, science, medicine, religion, environment, and history. They are a part of the sine qua non of social reality. This sense of the integralness and centrality of law, especially legislation and positive law more generally, is the foundation of my work, and the motivator for my effort to reutilize law as legislation and the legitimacy of these as a nthropological analysands ( cf. L atour 2010 ) In addition to this (re)habilitation, my interests in law reside in the hope of connecting law, especially in its legislative and positive forms, more comprehensively as an analytical and explanatory habiliment to other social domains. My conceptual and analytical use of legisprudence, and the interpellation of law into the domains of the social is designed to move toward the achievement of these goals. 1 Preliminary material from this project was presented at the biannual conference of the Society for the Anthropology of Religion in April of 2003. This presentation was mainly concerned with the intellectual history of canon law, and the rec eption of literatures dealing with marginalized issues and historic practices of Orthodoxy/Catholicism 2 This division is a false distinction for the period I was considering, and I use it here only as a convenient shorthand. 3 1189) use of legislation. Henry used legislation to strengthen his position and implement reforms. Among these reforms were: the creation of judicial remedies in his Royal co urts (on the basis of which he is often credited with the creation of the English Common Law); improvement of the functioning of Norman
311 and creation and normalization of the centralized bureaucracy. This research focused primarily on these ( Berman 1983 ; Makdisi 1999 )
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346 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Andrew Sc ott Catey received his Bachelor of A rts and Master of Arts in anthropology fr om the University of Montana, in 1994 and 2000 respectively. He also studied theology at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Th eology, where he received his Master of Theological S tudies in 2003. Following his graduation from Holy Cross he enrolled at the University of Tennessee, where he studied for one year before transferring to University of Florida to complete his graduate edu cation. In addition to the Doctor of Philosophy degree, Mr. Catey also received a Juris Doctorate from