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Record for a UF thesis. Title & abstract won't display until thesis is accessible after 2013-08-31.
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english
Creator:
Blanco Coto,Mario Alberto
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Botany, Biology
Committee Chair:
Williams, Norris H
Committee Members:
Soltis, Douglas E
Judd, Walter S
Sheehan, Thomas J
Whitten, William M

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by Mario Alberto Blanco Coto.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
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Adviser: Williams, Norris H.
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INACCESSIBLE UNTIL 2013-08-31

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1 A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS LOCKHARTIA (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) By MARIO ALBERTO BLANCO COTO A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D EGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Mario Alberto Blanco Coto

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3 To my parents, who have always supported and encouraged me in every way

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many individuals and institutions made the completion of this dissertation possible First, I thank my committee chair, Norris H. Williams, for his continuing support encouragement and guidance during all stages of this project and for providing me with the opportunity to visit and do research in Ecuador W. Mark Whitten, one of my committee members, also provided much advice and support both in the lab and in the field Both of them are wonderful sources of wisdom on all matters of orchid research. I also want to thank the other members of my committee, Walt er S. Judd, Douglas E. Soltis, and Thomas J. Sheehan for their many comments, suggestions, and discussions provided. Drs. Judd and Soltis also provided many ideas and training through courses I took with them. I am deeply thankful to my fellow lab members Kurt Neubig, Lorena Endara, and Iwan Molgo for the many fascinating discussions, helpful suggestions, logistical support, and for providing a wonderful office environment. Kurt was of tremendous help in the lab and with Latin translations; he even let me appropriate and abuse his scanner. Robert L. Dressler encouraged me to attend the University of Florida, provided interesting discussions and insight throughout the project and was key in suggesting the genus Lockhartia as a dissertation subject. Mark W. Chase also provided much logistical support and productive discussions on the evolution of oncidioid orchids. The late Miguel A ngel Soto Arenas was an unparalleled source of information on the Mexican species of Lockhartia Kent Perkins provided invaluable assistance in requesting, managing, and returning specimen loans, and general advice on specimen annotation and curation.

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5 Although some Lockhartia plants were already available at the Florida Museum of g of my study, several institutions and individuals contributed additional living and/or preserved material that improved the Cartago, Costa Rica), the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens (Sarasota, Florida), the Missouri Botanical Garden (Saint Louis, Missouri), the Muenchen Nymphenburg Botanical garden (Munich, Germany), the University of Washington Botany Greenhouse (Seattle, Washington), the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Surrey, England) Tropical Orchid Farm ( Haiku, Hawaii) Ecuagenera Ltda. (Gualaceo, Ecuador) Patrici a Harding ( Lebanon Oregon ), and Marv Ragan (Jacksonville, Florida) Spe cial thanks go to my colleagues Jorge Warner, Franco Pupulin, Diego Bogarn, Melania Fernndez, Ada m Karremans and Robert and Kerry Dressl er of Lankester Botanical Garden, for providing plant material, drawings, literature, logistical support from Costa Rica, and general assistance during my numerous visits to my home country Thanks are due to Barbara S. Carlsward, who hosted me in her lab at Eastern Illinois University for work on the preparation of anatomical slides. Gretchen Ionta and Karen Kelley assisted me during the operation of the Scanning Electron Microscope at ICBR. Bernard Hauser kindly all owed me to use his dissecting and compound microscopes for making photographs of anatomical slides. DNA sequencing was performed by the ICBR core facility at the University of Florida. Thanks g o to many other individuals who in one way or another provided logistical support and friendship in the field, lab, and/or herbarium away from Florida or provided assistance from their respective localities : Richard Abbott, Germn Carnevali, Cssio

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6 van den Berg, Phillip Cribb, Stig Dalstrm, Daniela Dutra, Marcela Fe rnndez, Guenter Gerlach, Giovanny Giraldo, Eric Hgsater, Mike Heaney, Bruce Holst, Eric Hunt, Daniel Jimnez, Samantha Koehler, Carlos L. Leopardi, Andrs Maduro, Carlos O. Morales, Jeffrey Parker, Robert Pemberton, Darin Penneys, Pepe Portilla, Ixel Que sada, Ivn Ramrez, Gustavo Romero, Gerardo Salazar, Emily Serrano, Jyotsna Sharma, Katia Silvera, Rodrigo Singer, Samuel Sprunger, Hans Stadthagen Fred Stauffer Delsy Trujillo, Roberto Vsquez, and Carly Voight Many herbaria, too numerous to mention he re (but cited in the Taxonomic Revision [ C hapter 3] ) loaned specimens for study, sent specimen images, and/ or allowed me to visit and annotate their collections. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is especially acknowledged for providing a Kew Latin America R esearch Fellowship that enabled me to visit their collections and those of several other important European herbaria. Big thanks are due to the A merican Orchid Society for a Furniss Foundation Graduate Student Fellowship which provided essential support d uring three years of this project The Botanical Society of America and the American Society of Plant Taxonomists provided seed grants through their respective graduate student award programs. I want to thank the former Botany Department the Biology Depar tment and the Florida Museum of Natural History, for their financial and logistical support during the entire duration of my studies at the University of Florida Last but not least, I want to thank my wonderful girlfriend, Cynthia Maria Silva, for her co ntinuous support, encouragement, and help during the last three years of my dissertation work.

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7 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 14 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 16 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ .................. 19 2 TAXONOMIC HISTORY ................................ ................................ ......................... 21 3 TAXONOMIC REVISION ................................ ................................ ........................ 30 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ............................ 31 Materials ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 31 Herbarium Methods ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 Species Concepts and Circumscription ................................ ............................ 32 Phenology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 33 Distribution ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 34 Taxonomic Treatment ................................ ................................ ............................. 35 Genus Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ............................. 35 Genus description ................................ ................................ ...................... 36 Key to the species of Lockhartia ................................ ................................ 38 Species Treatment ................................ ................................ ........................... 43 Lockhartia acuta (L indl.) Rchb. f. ................................ ............................... 43 Lockhartia amoena Endrs & Rchb. f ................................ ........................ 50 Lockhartia bennettii Dodson ................................ ................................ ....... 58 Lockhartia cladoniophora Rchb. f. ................................ .............................. 61 Lockhartia compacta R. Vsquez & M.A. Blanco ................................ ....... 64 Lockhartia dipleura Schl tr. ................................ ................................ .......... 66 Lockhartia endresiana M.A. Blanco ................................ ........................... 70 Lockhartia galeottiana A. Rich. ex Soto Arenas ................................ ......... 74 Lockhartia genegeorgei D.E. Benn. & Christenson ................................ .... 80 Lockhartia goyazensis Rchb. f. ................................ ................................ .. 84 Lockhartia grandib ractea Kraenzl. ................................ ............................. 91 Lockhartia hercodonta Rchb. f. ex Kraenzl. ................................ ............. 100 Lockhartia imbricata (Lam.) Hoehne ................................ ........................ 109 Lockhartia ivainae M.F.F. da Silva & A.T. de Oliveira .............................. 123 Lockhartia latilabris C. Schweinf. ................................ ............................. 125

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8 Lockhartia lepticaula D.E. Benn. & Christenson ................................ ....... 127 Lockhartia longifolia (Lindl.) Schltr. ................................ .......................... 129 Lockhartia lunifera (Lindl.) Rc hb. f. ................................ .......................... 137 Lockhartia micrantha Rchb. f. ................................ ................................ .. 143 Lockhartia oblongicallosa Carnevali & G.A. Romero ............................... 157 Lockhartia obtusata L.O. Williams ................................ ............................ 159 Lockhartia oerstedii Rchb. f. ................................ ................................ ..... 161 Lockhartia oxyphylla M. A. Blanco ................................ ........................... 171 Lockhartia parthenocomos (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f. ................................ .......... 173 Lockhartia parthenoglossa Rchb. f. ................................ .......................... 177 Lockhartia rugosifolia M.A. Blanco ................................ ........................... 183 Lockhartia serra Rchb. f. ................................ ................................ .......... 186 Lockhartia tenuiflora M.A. B lanco ................................ ............................ 190 Lockhartia verrucosa Lindl. ex Rchb. f. ................................ .................... 1 93 Poorly Known Taxa ................................ ................................ ........................ 200 Lockhartia macrantha Lem. ................................ ................................ ...... 200 Lockhartia parthenocomos var. crispula Regel ................................ ........ 201 Excluded Name: Fernandezia obtusa Lindl. e x Linden ................................ .. 201 4 MORPHOLOGY, ANATOMY, AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY ................................ .... 209 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ .......................... 210 Morphology ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 210 Anatomy ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 210 Results and Discussion ................................ ................................ ......................... 211 General Habit ................................ ................................ ................................ 212 Roots ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 212 Morphology ................................ ................................ .............................. 212 Anatomy ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 213 Stems ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 215 Morphology ................................ ................................ .............................. 215 Anatomy ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 218 Homology ................................ ................................ ................................ 220 Leaves ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 220 Morphology ................................ ................................ .............................. 220 An atomy ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 224 Inflorescences ................................ ................................ ................................ 226 Morphology ................................ ................................ .............................. 226 Anatomy ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 232 Flowers ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 233 Morphology ................................ ................................ .............................. 233 Anatomy ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 244 Fruits ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 246 Morphology ................................ ................................ .............................. 246 Anatomy ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 247 Seeds ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 249 Seedlings ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 250

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9 Cytogenetics ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 251 Phytochemistry ................................ ................................ ............................... 252 5 PHYLOGENY ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 276 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ .......................... 278 Molecular Analyses ................................ ................................ ........................ 278 Taxon sampling ................................ ................................ ........................ 278 Molecular techniques ................................ ................................ ............... 279 Analyses ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 281 Morphological Analyses ................................ ................................ .................. 283 Taxon sampling ................................ ................................ ........................ 283 Characters ................................ ................................ ............................... 283 Analyses ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 285 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 286 Molecular Analyses ................................ ................................ ........................ 286 Morphological Analyses ................................ ................................ .................. 289 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 290 Molecular Analyses ................................ ................................ ........................ 290 Morphological Analyses ................................ ................................ .................. 292 Taxonomic Implications ................................ ................................ .................. 295 Character Evolution ................................ ................................ ........................ 296 Stem ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 297 Leaves ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 298 Inflorescences ................................ ................................ .......................... 299 Peria nth color ................................ ................................ ........................... 300 Flower orientation ................................ ................................ .................... 300 Sepals and petals ................................ ................................ .................... 301 Labellum ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 301 Column ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 304 6 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................. 329 APPENDIX: INDEX TO HERBARI UM COLLECTIONS EXAMINED ........................... 332 Numerical List of Species of Lockhartia ................................ ................................ 332 List of Collections ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 332 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 344 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 359

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10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Major morphological groups of Lockhartia and their constituent species .......... 254 4 2 Stomatal dimensions of selected species of Lockhartia ................................ ... 255 4 3 Seed dimensions of selected species of Lockh artia ................................ ......... 255 5 1 Information for accessions used in the molecular phylogenetic analyses of Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 305 5 2 Morphological characters and character states used in the phylogenetic an alysis of Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ....................... 307 5 3 Morphological character matrix for Lockhartia and outgroup taxa .................... 309 5 4 Features of DNA regions used in this study in relation to the most parsimonious trees from each MP analysis ................................ ...................... 310

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Geographic distribution of the genus Lockhartia ................................ ................. 20 3 1 Distribution of Lockhartia acut a ................................ ................................ ....... 203 3 2 Distribution of Lockhartia amoena L. endresiana and L. grandibractea ......... 203 3 3 Distribution of Lockhartia bennettii and L. rugosifolia ................................ ...... 204 3 4 Distributi on of Lockhartia cladoniophora and L. micrantha .............................. 204 3 5 Distribution of Lockhartia compacta L. genegeorgei and L. lepticaula ........... 205 3 6 Distribution of Lockhartia dipleura ................................ ................................ ... 205 3 7 Distribution of Lockhartia galeottiana L. oerstedii and L. verrucosa ............... 206 3 8 Distribution of Lockhartia goyazensis L. imbricata L. ivainae and L. lunifera 206 3 9 Distributi on of Lockhartia hercodonta and L. longifolia ................................ .... 207 3 10 Distribution of Lockhartia latilabris L. oblongicallosa and L. parthenocomos . 207 3 11 Distribution of Lockhartia obtusata and L. partheno glossa .............................. 208 3 12 Distribution of Lockhartia oxyphylla L. serra and L. tenuiflora ........................ 208 4 1 Generalized growth habits of Lockhartia and related taxa ................................ 256 4 2 Root cros s section of Lockhartia serra ................................ ............................. 257 4 3 Stem and leaf structure of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia ............................. 258 4 4 Stem anatomy of Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ............. 259 4 5 Leaf abaxial epidermis of L ockhartia ................................ ................................ 260 4 6 Leaf adaxial epidermis of Lockhartia ................................ ................................ 260 4 7 Leaf anatomy of Lockhartia ................................ ................................ .............. 261 4 8 Abaxial epidermis and associated subepidermal tissues of Lockhartia longifolia ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 262 4 9 Variations in inflorescence position in Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia ........... 263

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12 4 10 Mode of inflorescence development in Lockhartia ................................ ............ 264 4 11 Floral mor phology of the Imbricata group of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia .. 265 4 12 Floral morphology of the Longifolia group of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia 266 4 13 Floral morphology of the Parthenocomo s group of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 267 4 14 Floral morphology of Lockhartia subgenus Pseudobulbosa ............................. 267 4 15 Column of Lockhartia serra with recently removed pollinarium ......................... 268 4 16 Measurements of flowers and floral parts in Lockhartia as reported in species descriptions ................................ ................................ ......................... 269 4 17 Labellar trichomes of Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ....... 270 4 18 Labellar anatomy of the Imbricata group of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia ... 271 4 19 Fruit development of Lockhartia lunifera ................................ ........................... 272 4 20 Ovary and fruit anatomy of Lockhartia ................................ .............................. 273 4 21 Seeds of Lockhartia ................................ ................................ .......................... 274 4 22 Protocorms and seedlings of Lockhartia ................................ ........................... 275 5 1 Representative phylogram of Lockhartia based on the analysis of ITS sequences. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 311 5 2 Representative phylogra m of Lockhartia based on the analysis of four combined plastid DNA regions ................................ ................................ ......... 312 5 3 Representative phylogram of Lockhartia based on the analysis of five combined DNA regions ................................ ................................ ..................... 313 5 4 Maximum parsimo ny 50% majority rule consensus tree for the combined analysis of Lockhartia based on five DNA regions ................................ ............ 314 5 5 Strict consensus of the analysis of 44 morphological characters of Lockhartia (including L. genegeorgei ) ................................ ................................ ................ 315 5 6 Strict consensus of the analysis of 44 morphological characters of Lockhartia (excluding L. genegeorgei ) ................................ ................................ ............... 316 5 7 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for stem orientation and number of internodes per s tem in Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ..... 317

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13 5 8 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for leaf abscission and leaf decurrence in Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 318 5 9 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for differential leaf size along the stem and leaf blade configuration in Lockhartia ................................ ....................... 319 5 10 Hypothetical evolutionary scen ario for inflorescence position and inflorescence structure in Lockhartia ................................ ............................... 320 5 11 Hypothetical evolutionar y scenario for inflorescence initiation and inflorescence branching mode in Lockhartia ................................ ................... 321 5 12 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for perianth base color and flower orientation n Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ................... 322 5 13 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for sepal orientation and petal configuration in Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ............... 323 5 14 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for labellum conf iguration and labellum lateral lobes in Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ................ 324 5 15 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for callus shape and callus trapezoid ledge in Lockhartia ................................ ................................ .......................... 325 5 16 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for callus texture and callus indument in Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 326 5 17 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for the elaiophore cushion and the basal tuft of secretory hairs in the labellum in Lockhartia ................................ .......... 327 5 18 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for column wing sh ape and stigma shape in Lockhartia ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 328

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14 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S 1500 base ycf1 (plastid DNA) 1200 base ycf1 (plas tid DNA) bp base pairs CI consistency index cm centimeters cult. cultivated (in specimen citations) FAA formalin alcohol acetic a cid solution ( 0. 5:9: 0. 5) FLD f i eld locality d ata H height ITS i nternal t ranscribed s pacer (nuclear DNA) km kilometers kV ki lovolts L length LM light microscope or light microscopy LS longitudinal section m meters mg miligrams min minutes mL milliliters ML maximum likelihood mm millimeters mM millimolar MP maximum parsimony

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15 ng nanograms OTU operational taxonomic unit RI reten tion index s seconds SD standard deviation SEM s canning e lectron m icroscope sp. species (singular) spp. species (plural) trnH psbA intergenic spacer between the trnH and psbA genes (plastid DNA) trnL F intergenic spacer between the trnL and trnF genes ( plastid DNA) TS transverse section W width g micrograms L microliters m micrometers M micromolar

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16 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for th e Degree of Doctor of Philosophy A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS LOCKHARTIA (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) By Mario Alberto Blanco Coto August 2011 Chair: Norris H. Williams Major: Botany The Neotropical orchid genus Lockhartia is morphologically very distinct fro m others in the subtribe Oncidiinae. Although a few taxonomic revisions of this genus have been published in the past, the species circumscriptions have heretofore remained unsatisfactory, and the evolutionary relationships among them have remained unknown No detailed morphological or anatomical survey focused on the genus has been carried out before The present monographic treatment aims to improve our understanding of this group of plants. A review of the taxonomic history of the genus is presented, whi ch explains the fragmentary state of knowledge prior to the beginning of this project. It details the contrasting views of different taxonomists on the systematic position of these plants, which reflects their unusual morphological traits. It also lists th e existing floristic works that deal with the genus, which often apply inconsistent species delimitations and unsatisfactory keys for their identification. It also provides a summary of the various phylogenetic studies that have included species of Lockhar tia A taxonomic revision of the genus is presented, which provides updated species circumscriptions, detailed morphological descriptions and geographic distribution

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17 summaries, and exhaustive herbarium specimen citations. Twenty nine species are recognized including five new species : Lockhartia compacta R. Vsquez & M. A. Blanco, L. endresiana M. A. Blanco, L. oxyphylla M. A. Blanco, L. rugosifolia M. A Blanco, and L. tenuiflora M. A. Blanco. A detailed morphological and anatomical survey of the genus is p resented The structure of roots, stems, leaves, inflorescences, flowers, fruits, seeds, and seedlings is documented and discussed The unusual shoot morphology of these taxa is unlike that of any other members of subtribe Oncidiinae. Particular attention is given to the strange structure of the inflorescence which appears to be unique among the angiosperms. On morphological grounds, the genus Lockhartia can be divided in two subgenera, Lockhartia and Pseudobulb osa The former is subdivided in to three informal phenetic groups: the Parthenocomos group, the Longifolia group, and the Imbricata group. In turn, the latter is subdivided in to three subgroups: the Imbricata subgroup, the Oerstedii subgroup, and the Acuta subgroup. A phylogenetic study of the genus is presented. Separate analyses using DNA sequences and morphological data have contrasting results, with the morphological analysis resulting in much less resolved cladograms. Molecular analyses indicate that t he major groups mentioned above may not be monophyletic, and thus they are not formally recognized as subgeneric taxa. Morphological analyses provide some support for the hypothesis that Lockhartia genegeorgei (the sole member of subgenus Pseudobulbosa ) ma y be an intergeneric hybrid, but this cannot be confirmed in the absence of molecular data. Finally, the evolution of selected morphological characters is

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18 traced on a cladogram adapted from the results of molecular analyses, and their putative ecological a nd evolutionary significance is discussed in this context.

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19 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION Orchids of the genus Lockhartia are naturally distributed from central western Mexico to southeastern Brazil (Fig. 1 1). They are epiphytes that belong in the subtr ibe Oncidiinae, a group that contains ca. 1600 species throughout the Neotropics (Pridgeon et al. 2009). Most species have a very particular vegetative morphology, with elongate stems c ompletely covered by imbricate laterally flattened leaves. The shoots resemble hair braids, and for this reason species of Lockhartia Historically, the systematic position of this genus has been controversial, although recent phylogenetic studies based on molecular data have confirmed its relatively isolated position within the subtribe Oncidiinae (Taxonomic History C hapter 2 ). For many years, Lockhartia has been con sidered a taxonomically confusing genus even when plants are occasionally cultivated as ornamentals or botanical curiosities (Hawkes, 1965). The detailed morphology and anatomy of these plants are very incompletely known, as ar e the evolutionary relationships among its species. The present study, designed as a traditional botanical monograph, aims to resolve these knowledge vo ids. The information presented here will hopefully prove useful for future studies on the biology and conservation of these plants

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20 Figure 1 1. Geographic distribution of the genus Lockhartia based on herbarium specimen records. See Taxonomic Revision ( C hapter 3) for details.

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21 CHAPTER 2 TAXONOMIC HISTORY The earliest known collections of Lockhartia were made by Jean Baptiste Patris ( 1764 to 1783, French Guiana) and by Hiplito Ruiz and Jos Antonio Pavn (1776, Peru). Other early collections were made by Jean Baptiste Leblond (1784 to 1789, French Guiana), by Martn de Sess y Lacasta (1789, Mexico), Alexander von Humboldt and Aime Bonpland (1799, Venezuela), and by Juan Tafalla (1803, Ecuador). In 1783, Lamarck described the first species of Lockhar tia as Epidendrum imbricatum based on Patris's collection. However, Lamarck did not cite a type specimen, and his description was quite simplistic and lacked an illustration; as a result, the true identity of E. imbricatum remained in obscurity until 1952 when Hoehne concluded it must have been a species of Lockhartia The specimens on which Lamarck based his description were identified only during the preparation of the present monograph ( Taxonomic Revision C hapter 3 ). In 1792, Richard described the sam e species as Epidendrum biserra based on Leblond's collection. Live plants of this species were sent to the United Kingdom by David Lockhart, the first superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Trinidad; when one of these flowered in cultivation in 18 27, William Jackson Hooker described it as Lockhartia elegans in his honor, establishing the genus. However, a few months later, George Loddiges (who also managed to flower a plant in his commercial greenhouse), transferred L. elegans to Fernandezia Ruiz & Pav., a genus described in 1794. Even though Ruiz and Pavn never described any species of Lockhartia under their genus Fernandezia they annotated their own collection of Lockhartia from Peru

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22 and the Mexican specimen of Sess with the generic name Fernan dezia That probably influenced Loddiges. Lindley (1833) followed this circumscription, and from 1836 to 1846 he described three species of Lockhartia under the genus Fernandezia ( F. acuta F. lunifera and F. longifolia ). Lindley (1846) placed Fernandezia in an unranked group he called Vandeae, subgroup Brassidae. At first, Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach also included Lockhartia in Fernandezia and described F. parthenocomos in 1852; however, a few weeks later he transferred that species to Lockhartia and wen t on to describe a remarkable 16 additional species in that genus throughout his life. Reichenbach (1855) was also the first to publish a revision of the genus (reprinted in Reichenbach, 1864), in which he recognized 10 species. Reichenbach placed Lockhart ia in his "Subordo Epidendreae" (roughly corresponding to the currently accepted subfamily Epidendroideae; Chase et al. 2003). However, Reichenbach's important contribution to the taxonomy of Lockhartia was eclipsed by the provision in his will to lock up his herbarium for 25 years after his death (1889 1914). As a consequence, his specimens were not available for study during that period and several synonymous names were published by Schlechter and Kraenzlin. Bentham (1881) followed Lindley in placing Loc khartia in tribe Vandeae, but he elaborated Lindley's classification by dividing each tribe into subtribes. Bentham's tribe Vandeae contained eight subtribes, including the Oncidieae and the Sarcantheae (endings for suprageneric taxa were not yet standardi zed then). Bentham divided tribe Sarcantheae into three "series", and placed Lockhartia in the first series along with Centropetalum Lindl. (currently Fernandezia ), Pachyphyllum Kunth, and four other

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23 Asiatic genera. Bentham acknowledged that his subtribe S arcantheae was based mostly on vegetative characters and that its subdivisions were probably too artificial. Soon after, Pfitzer (1882), Mbius (1887), and Ridley (1896) expressed that Lockhartia was better classified in the Oncidieae, instead of the Sarc antheae. Pfitzer (1887, 1889), in his own family wide classification of the Orchidaceae, placed Lockhartia in a group called the "Monandrae Oncidiinae Odontoglossae". In his famous horticultural and systematic treatment of the orchid family, "Die Orchidee" Schlechter (1914) listed the species of Lockhartia found in cultivation in Europe at the time. Schlechter considered that Lockhartia was very distinct morphologically, and created a subtribe exclusively for it, Lockhartiinae. Later, Schlechter (1926) pla ced Lockhartia in a tribe of its own (Lockhartieae), in subfamily Monandrae, division Acrotonae, tribe Kerosphaereae, series Pleuranthae, subseries Sympodiales (a system modified from that of Pfitzer). Despite other classifications proposed during the foll Kraenzlin (1923) published a second revision of Lockhartia ; he recognized 29 species, although not exactl y the same ones recognized in the present monograph. Kraenzlin described four new species of Lockhartia two of which are considered synonyms here. He illustrated most species, although several of his drawings are somewhat inaccurate and thus not very usef ul for identification ( Garay, 1970 b ). Kraenzlin (1923) did not recognize the tribe Lockhartiinae, and instead placed Lockhartia in an unranked group called the "Pseudomonopodiales", within the monandrous orchids. Besides Lockhartia this group inc luded the genera Pachyphyllum

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24 Centropetalum (currently Fernandezia ), Dichaea Lindl., Orchidotypus Kraenzl. (currently a synonym of Pachyphyllum ), and Pterostemma Kraenzl. These genera share a "pseudomonopodial" growth habit (i.e., shoots with seemingly in determinate apical growth, but that normally stop growing once they reach a certain length and then generate daughter shoots from the base). Lockhartia however, differs from the others in that its stems have the potential to produce terminal inflorescence s, and thus have truly determinate growth. It is unclear if Pfitzer or Kraenzlin realized this. Hawkes (1952), while considering the merits of Kraenzlin's classification, felt that Lockhartia was misplaced in this group and suggested that it was better kep t in Schlechter's subtribe Lockhartiinae. Mansfeld (1937) was the next orchidologist to propose a family wide classification, and he followed Schlechter in recognizing a subtribe Lockhartiinae within tribe Vandeae. Aside from this, he did not make any cont ributions to the taxonomy of Lockhartia Dressler and Dodson (1960) proposed a completely new classification of the Orchidaceae, and put Lockhartia in the Oncidium alliance". They remarked that Lockhartia is distinctive in habit, but has no other consist ent feature to distinguish it from the other genera of this group." Wirth (1964) acknowledged that Lockhartia is likely an isolated lineage within the Oncidiinae, but suggested that it could be related to Oncidium Sw. section Walueuwa (Regel) Schltr. (the latter currently lumped with Gomesa R. Br.; Pridgeon et al. 2009). Garay (1963) hypothesized that Lockhartia is closely related to Oncidium section Iridifolia (Kraenzl.) Garay (= Psygmorchis Dodson & Dressler, currently placed in Erycina Lindl.; Pridgeon et al. 2009) because of the shared lack of an abscission layer in the

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25 leaves and their superficially similar flowers. Dodson and Dressler (1972) argued against this view and pointed out significant differences in the pollinarium structure of both taxa and suggested that Lockhartia could be related to Centropetalum (= Fernandezia ). Dressler (1974) modified his original classification accordingly and transferred Lockhartia in subtribe Lockhartiinae, tribe Pachyphylleae Dressler. Later, Dressler (1981) moved Lockhartia to subtribe Oncidiinae Benth., although in a subgroup of its own. Finally, Dressler (1993a) suggested that Lockhartia might be closely related to Fernandezia Pachyphyllum, and Raycadenco Dodson (groups he also moved to subtribe Oncidiinae), ba sed on their similar pollinarium morphology. Senghas (1995) published a synopsis of Lockhartia as part of the posthumous accepted 19 species. However, this treatment was obv iously prepared in haste, and Lockhartiinae, and placed it with several other subtribes in a special group ("Tribella Bipolliniata") within tribe Oncidieae. This group includes all the oncidioid genera with (Williams et al. 2001). Szlachetko (1995) also reco gnized subtribe Lockhartiinae within tribe Oncidieae, and he also included Raycadenco ; Senghas (1995) put that genus in its own subtribe, Raycadencoinae. In a cladistic analysis of morphological data of 98 genera of Orchidaceae, Freudenstein and Rasmussen (1999) recovered Lockhartia as sister to Dichaea (the

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26 latter genus is nested in subtribe Zygopetalinae Schltr. according to molecular data; Pridgeon et al. 2009, and references therein). They acknowledged that many of their results were probably cause d by convergence of morphological traits, and did not make any taxonomic decisions based on them. Chase and Palmer (1989; 1992) published the first molecular studies (analyzing plastid DNA restriction site variation) of subtribe Oncidiinae, but did not in clude species of Lockhartia The first molecular phylogenetic study to include Lockhartia was that of Freudenstein and Chase (2001), for an assessment of the phylogenetic utility of the mitochondrial nad1 b c intron in Orchidaceae; t hey sampled only five sp ecies of subtribe Oncidiinae (as circumscribed by Pridgeon et al ., 2009, the classification followed here). Lockhartia amoena the only species of the genus included in the latter study, was recovered as sister to a species of Rodriguezia Ruiz & Pav. Willi ams et al. (2001 a,b ) published phylogenetic analyse s of DNA sequence data of a larger number of taxa of the Oncidiinae, including two species of Lockhartia Their results showed that Lockhartia formed a clade, nested within the subtribe but without good su pport for an exact placement. A similar result (with one species of Lockhartia ) had been obtained previously in a phylogenetic analysis of subtribe Stanhopeinae and related groups (Whitten et al ., 2000). Zelenko and Chase (2002) published a preliminary cl adogram of subtribe Oncidiinae (probably produced before those published by Williams et al. 2001), in which Lockhartia appears as sister to the Excavatum group of Oncidium ( Oncidium section Excavata Kraenzl., now Vitekorchis Romowicz & Szlach., pro parte ) Another cladogram showing this relationship was published by Chase et al. (2005) as a

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27 summary of previous studies. However, a sister relationship between Lockhartia and the Oncidium excavatum group was neither shown or mentioned by Williams et al (2001) nor was it recovered in any of their subsequently published analyses. Vitekorchis appears to be an isolated lineage within the Oncidiinae, but more closely related to Oncidium and related genera than to Lockhartia (Pridgeon et al. 2009; Whitten et al. in prep.). A recent cladistic study of the Oncidiinae, based exclusively on morphological and anatomical data (Stern & Carlsward, 2006), included two species of Lockhartia but resulted in cladograms that were either unresolved or weakly supported. Williams et al. (2005) cited unpublished analyses in which Lockhartia appeared as sister to a clade formed by the Telipogon Kunth, Pachyphyllum and Ornithocephalus Hook. groups, and used two species of Lockhartia as an outgroup for their analysis of the Telipogon alliance. A similar relationship was found by Sandoval Zapotitla et al. (2010 b ) with a combination of molecular and morphological characters. However, additional analyses using a much larger sample of taxa in the Oncidiinae and additional DNA regions (Whi tten et al ., unpublished; preliminary results in Pridgeon et al. 2009) have shown that Lockhartia represents an isolated group within the Oncidiinae (as previously hypothesized by Chase, 1986), separate from the clade formed by Fernandezia Pachyphyllum and Raycadenco and apparently not sister to the above mentioned clades. An interesting development in the taxonomy of Lockhartia was the discovery of L. genegeorgei D.E. Benn. & Christenson, described in 1998. The vegetative morphology of this taxon is hi ghly aberrant for the genus; it has pseudobulbs and articulated,

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28 conduplicate leaves, although the inflorescence and floral morphology is very similar to that of Lockhartia (Taxonomic Revision, Chapter 3 ). Bennett and Christenson established the subgenus P seudobulbosa to accommodate this species (the only subgeneric division proposed to date), while Senghas (2001) considered it too distinct from Lockhartia and segregated it to the genus Neobennettia Senghas. Chase (2009) hypothesized that L. genegeorgei is simply a species of Lockhartia that shows several plesiomorphic character states. Another possibility is that L. genegeorgei is a natural hybrid between a species of Lockhartia and a species of Oncidium Unfortunately, L. genegeorgei is rare and attempts t o extract DNA from the few herbarium specimens available have failed. This species is provisionally accepted as a member of Lockhartia in the present treatment, pending analyses of molecular data (when available). Annotated treatments of Lockhartia (often within larger floristic works, and not including unannotated or unvouchered checklists) have been published for various countries or regions: Belize (Ames and Correll, 1953; McLeish et al. 1995), Brazil (Cogniaux, 1906), Central America (Hemsley, 1882 188 6; Williams, 1956), Costa Rica (Ames, 1937; Dressler, 1993b; Atwood and Mora de Retana, 1999; Pupulin, 2002; Dressler, 2003), French Guiana (Leme, 1955; Christenson, 1997), Guatemala (Ames and Correll, 1953), the Guyana Highland (Schweinfurth, 1967), Hond uras (Nelson Sutherland and Ortiz Kafati, 2007), Mexico (Williams, 1951; McVaugh, 1985), Nicaragua (Hamer, 1984 a ; Hamer, 2001), Panama (Standley, 1928; Allen, 1949; Dressler, 1993b), Peru (Schweinfurth, 1961), Suriname (Werkhoven, 1986), Trinidad (Grisebac h, 1864; Cogniaux, 1910; Schultes, 1960, 1967), and Venezuela (Ernst, 1878; Foldats, 1970).

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29 The nomenclature and species circumscription in most of these differs from the present taxonomic revision. Lockhartia is still poorly understood in Colombia, despi te the large size of that country and its central position in the overall geographic distribution of the genus. This stems from a lack of a modern floristic treatment of Orchidaceae for that country, and the paucity of herbarium collections (in both Colomb ian and foreign herbaria).

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30 CHAPTER 3 TAXONOMIC REVISION The genus Lockhartia is one of the most distinctive among the Neotropical epiphytic orchids. Unlike most of its relatives in subtribe Oncidiinae, the plants lack pseudobulbs (except in one species) and have elongate stems with imbricate, equitant, unifacial leaves without an abcission layer. Inflorescences are produced from both the apex of the stem and the axils of the leaves. The inflorescences are also unique in the Orchidaceae in that they are p seudo cymose (Schneckenburger, 1993), that is, they have sympodial development but clearly are derived from an ancestral raceme (the prevailing type of inflorescence among orchids). The structurally complex flowers are medium sized to small, either white o r yellow with brown blotches, and subtended by perfoliate floral bracts. Chapter 4 ( Morphology and Anatomy ) treats the morphology and architecture of the plants in more detail. Species of Lockhartia occur from southern Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil; they a re absent in the Caribbean, except for the island of Trinidad. Plants of Lockhartia can be found near sea level to ca. 2800 m elevation, in forests that do not experience a pronounced dry period. William Jackson Hooker described the genus Lockhartia in 182 7. To date, 56 basionym names have been validly published (8 of them in the last 20 years). Despite several attempts to revise the genus (Reichenbach, 1855; Reichenbach, 1864; Kraenzlin, 1923; Senghas, 1995), several species remain insufficiently character ized and/or poorly delimited. The present revision aims to provide a clear view of the taxonomy of the genus.

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31 Materials and Methods Materials This revision is based on the study of herbarium material complemented by collections made in the field and from c ultivated plants. The study of living material was critical to my understand ing of morphological differences between several species. Approximately 227 5 individual herbarium specimens (sheets with specimens and/or illustrations and jars with material prese rved in liquid, representing 1514 different collections) from 6 7 herbaria were studied. The vast majority of these was examined directly; approximately 5% of the specimens were studied indirectly through photographic images, and many of these were duplicat es of specimens studied directly. The following herbaria provided specimen loans ( § ), images ( ), and/or were visited (*). Acronyms follow Index Herbariorum (Thiers, 2011): AAU AMO B BH BM*, BR BRIT C CAS* (including DS), CAY § CICY § CINCH COL CR*, DAV DUKE*, E F § FLAS*, FTG*, FSU G § *, Harvard University Herbaria (A, AMES, GH, ECON), HLDG HOXA HUA INB*, INPA IRBR JAUM JBL*, K *, L § M*, MA *, MEXU § MG MICH § MO § *, MOL NY § *, OXF P*, PMA*, PH § QCA*, QCNE*, RB RENZ*, RSA S SCZ*, SEL § *, SP TEX § (including LL), TRIN § U § UC § *, US § USJ*, USM VEN W*, WIS WU*, XAL § and Z*. Herbarium M ethods Specimens were compared to each other, to the type specimens (when these were available), to descriptions in t he protologues (for all 55 validly published basionym names attributable to Lockhartia ), and to descriptions in various floristic treatments ( Taxonomic History [ C hapter 2] has a complete list of floristic works consulted). The flowers of ca. 25 specimens w ere rehydrated by soaking them in concentrated ammonia

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32 (NH 4 OH) at room temperature (ca. 25 water (Taylor, 1976). Rehydrated flowers were drawn (whole and dissected) using a dissecting microscope with a camera l ucida attachment. Copies of the drawings were attached to the specimens. The overall morphological variation was assessed visually, and selected morphological characters were measured (quantitative characters ; Figs. 4 3A and 4 16 ) or scored (qualitative ch aracters). Specimens that share a certain amount of similarity in these characters were assigned to morphospecies. These morphospecies were compared to type specimens and to literature descriptions, and names (and synonyms) were assigned to each. Descripti ons for each accepted species were prepared, taking into account the variation observed in the available material (herbarium specimens and live plants), and all herbarium sheets were annotated. After dehiscence, the fruits of Lockhartia rapidly dehydrate and shrink substantially, and their valves become reflexed. Undehisced fruits may shrink a little in diameter upon drying, but the length is not affected in a significant way. Thus, the shape and dimensions of fruits in the species descriptions are based o n non dehisced, presumably mature fruits from herbarium specimens (dehisced fruits were not measured), and also on mature fruits measured in life, when these were available. Species Concepts and C ircumscription It would be difficult in the limited amount o f time available for this study to carry out population genetic analyses in most natural populations of Lockhartia Thus, a morphological concept has been adopted for the practical delimitation of species (i.e., a phenetic species concept sensu Judd et al. 2008). It is assumed that the resulting morphospecies correspond to independent evolutionary lineages (i.e., the evolutionary

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33 et al. 2008). The possibility of limited hybridization or introgression a mong these presumed lineages is not excluded, as some of the observed morphological variation suggests this possibility for a few species pairs. However, it is assumed that these lineages have maintained a genetic pool mostly independent from each other (t hus, the theoretical cohesion species concept is also implicitly accepted; Templeton, 1989). For the most part, the analyses based on molecular data (obviously based on a relatively small set of individuals and an incomplete set of species) agree with the species circumscriptions that resulted from the taxonomic revision ( Phylogeny C hapter 5 ). The species recognized here are not necessarily assumed to be monophyletic; monophyly is not an appropriate criterion for species recognition because reticulate, no nhierarchical, and nondivergent relationships among conspecific individuals are incompatible with grouping by monophyly ( Davis, 1999; Judd et al. 2008). Phenology The flowering phenology of each species in its natural habitat is summarized in the species descriptions. The collecting date of flowering specimens (including those that did not have any flowers present in the herbarium sheet, but whose labels indicated the presence of flowers) was recorded and entered in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Specimen s prepared from plants in cultivation were excluded to avoid introducing artifacts of abnormal flowering times caused by artificial environmental conditions. For each species, the number of specimens in flower per month was plotted to obtain an indication of the intensity of flower production throughout the year ( data not shown ). The data for most species for which numerous (>25) flowering specimens are

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34 available indicate that flowering occurs throughout the year, although with definite highs and lows depen ding on the season. The phenology of fruit production was not described, mainly because fruits often remain attached to the inflorescences even after dehiscence, and, in some cases, it can be difficult to distinguish dehisced fruits from fruits that have s plit open due to pressing upon collection. Also, orchids that bear only fruits in the field are rarely collected for the herbarium because of the difficulty of identification; thus, fruiting specimens are undersampled. Fruit production, however, necessaril y follows flower production (with an obvious delay for dehiscence and seed dispersal ). Fruits generated through artificial pollinations tend to mature in 2 to 4 months after initiation. Distribution The geographic distribution for each species is summarize d in the species descriptions. An estimated 50% of the herbarium specimens examined that have field locality data (FLD) have geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). These were entered in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. For the rest of the specimens with FLD but without coordinates, these were found, whenever possible, with the aid of gazetteers, various online databases (e.g., www.geonames.org www.biogeomancer.org ), or the program Google Earth version 5.2.1 ( www.google.com/earth/ ). Whenever there was ambiguity as to the exact locality of a specimen, or if the coordinates given in the label were not in agreement with the i ndicated locality, the specimen was not used for mapping the distribution of the species. In a few cases where only a major political subdivision was indicated (e.g., province or municipality) and no other records of that species were available for the reg ion, the coordinates of the approximate center of that political unit were entered as an approximation, as any

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35 deviation from the actual point of collection would be minuscule in the scale of the resulting distribution maps of the entire species. All obta ined coordinates were transformed from their original format (commonly in degrees, minutes and seconds) to decimal degrees, and entered in the program ArcGIS version 9.3.1 (Esri, Redlands, California) to generate distribution maps for each species. Taxonom ic Treatment Twenty nine species of Lockhartia are recognized, including the anomalous L. genegeorgei (which is placed in a different genus by some authors; see comments under that species). Thus, 26 valdly published names have been assigned to synonymy (s everal of these for the first tim e). Five species new to science are also included among the 29 recognized species. Geographic coordinates were obtained for a total of 982 collections (ca. 66% of all specimens examined). Many of the rest are collections pr epared from cultivated plants with either no or vague original locality data. The a ppendix has an index to all numbered collections examined and their assigned species. Abbreviations for authours of plant names follow Brummitt and Powell (1992) and the Int ernational Plant Name Index ( www.ipni.org ) throughout Genus Lockhartia Lockhartia Hook., Bot. Mag. 54: t. 2715. 1827. TYPE SPECIES: Lockhartia elegans Hook. (= Lockhartia imbricata (Lam.) Hoehne) Lockhartia subgen. Pseu dobulbosa D.E. Bennett & Christenson, Lindleyana 13: 51 (1998). TYPE SPECIES: Lockhartia genegeorgei D.E. Bennett & Christenson Neobennettia Senghas J. Orchideenfreund 8(4): 364 (2001 [preprint distributed 12 Sept. 2001]) TYPE SPECIES: Lockhartia genege orgei D.E. Bennett & Christenson

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36 Genus description Caespitose, sympodial, rhizomatous epiphytes (rarely lithophytes). Stems of most species elongate, of determinate growth, not branched (or rarely producing daughter shoots with roots at the base) erect or pendent, oval in cross section, usually completely covered by the leaf sheaths; one species ( L. genegeorgei ) with a pseudobulb at the apex of the erect portion of each stem. Roots white, cylindrical, not(or rarely) branched, normally arising only from the rhizome, occasionally from the upper nodes as well. Leaves always distichous, glabrous, with entire margins, in most species laterally flattened and unifacial (except for the sheath), without an abscission line, more or less triangular in outline, acute to rounded apically, arranged in two rows, with imbricating bases, completely covering the stem (leaves bifacial, conduplicate, and with an abscission layer in L. genegeorgei ). Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, 1 30 flowered pseudo cymes often several per shoot and then either simultaneously or sequentially produced (normally in a basipetal fashion); inflorescence bracts triangular, conduplicate and folded along midvein to suborbicular, amplexicaul and expanded, in some species showing a morphological gradient from base to apex of the rachis. Flowers widely open to campanulate, normally resupinate, with no apparent preferred orientation in some small flowered species, or flowers facing down in some species with pe ndent stems, or by bending of the pedicel in some species with erect stems; perianth and column white or yellow, frequently with orange and/or brown spots or blotches on the labellum and column, without detectable fragrance. Sepals valvate, widely ovate to oblong, obtuse to acute, frequently with a minute, near apical keel on the abaxial surface, flat to slightly concave, the median sepal similar to the lateral ones. Lateral petals widely ovate to oblong, round to acute, frequently with slightly undulating

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37 (scalloped) margins; some species with petals arched toward the front of the flower and with reflexed margins. Labellum suborbicular to markedly 3 lobed, the lateral lobes (if present) obscure to elongate; if elongate then wide oblong to linear, frequently arching toward the front of the flower; midlobe (when present) pandurate to (rarely) subquadrate, frequently divided in four lobules; callus present or absent; when present either (1) a glabrous or tuberculate thickening extending from near the base to th e middle of the labellum, commonly with a concave cushion like thickening at the base, with minute secretory hairs within, located near the point of attachment of the labellum, (2) a raised, concave central area, often surrounded by a toothed keel, with a trapezoid projection at the base that bears minute glandular hairs, or (3) a transverse, irregular ledge in the central part of the labellum. Column relatively short, subtruncate, straight to slightly curving upward, trigonous to hemispherical in cross sec tion, winged or not, devoid of a clinandrium; anther terminal, anther cap subhemispherical, with an apical beak, glabrous to micropapillate, with two internal septae; pollinarium with two pyriform pollinia, each one with a caudicle that connects to a branc h of a narrow, bifid tegular stipe, which in turn has an apical, exposed (not covered by the anther cap) sticky, round viscidium (each pollinium with a longitudinal groove and the stipe lanceolate and entire in L. genegeorgei ). Fruit a dehiscent capsule, p endent (nodding in species with erect stems), subspherical, fusiform or elongately pyriform, smooth, glabrous, glaucous in some species, dehiscing by three longitudinal slits while still green, but soon becoming dry; each valve soon becoming reflexed, with many hygroscopic hairs attached near the margin of each valve on the internal surface. Seeds minute, fusiform, with elongated testa cells arranged longitudinally.

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38 Key to the species of Lockhartia 1a. Leaves linear, usually >10 cm long, conduplicate and bi facial to the apex, with an abscission layer; stems with a terminal, exposed, oblong pseudobulb; pollinarium stipe lanceolate and entire; plants from Peru (subgenus Pseudobulbosa ) ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 9. L. genegeorgei 1b. Leaves more or less triangular in side view, <6 cm lo ng, bifacial and conduplicate only at the base, the rest unifacial and isobilateral, without an abscission layer; stems elongate and narrow, devoid of pseudobulbs, hidden by the imbricating leaves; pollinarium stipe linear and bifid; plants from anywhere i n the neotropics (subgenus Lockhartia ) ................................ ................................ .............................. 2 inflorescence openly branched, wiry, divaricate, with suborbicular, amplexicaul, small (2 4 mm) bracts; rachis internodes 4 times as long as the bracts or longer; flowe labellum ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 1. L. acuta not or rarely apiculate; inflorescence never wiry and divaricat e; rachis internodes no more than twice as long as the bracts; flowers not as above ................................ .... 3 3a. Labellum suborbicular when spread flat, with lateral lobes much wider than long, .............................. 4 3b. Labellum suborbic ular or not, with lateral lobes either absent or not much wider than long, or labellum suborbicular but convex ................................ ................................ 8 4a. Flower base color white ................................ ................................ ............................. 5 4b. Flower base color yellow ................................ ................................ ........................... 6

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39 5a. Leaves acute, plants pendent; labellum with a longitudinally elongate, oblong callus; plants from NE Venezuela ................................ .......................... 20. L. oblongicallosa 5b. Leaves obtuse to round, plants erect; labellum with a transverse, ledge like callus; plants from Peru ................................ ................................ .................... 3. L. bennettii ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 26. L rugosifolia ........................ 7 7a. Labellum with a transverse, ledge like callus; plants from the Venezuelan Coastal Range ................................ ................................ ....................... 24. L. parthenocomos 7b. Labellum devoid of a callus, only with a central area co vered with minute hairs; plants from the Guiana Shield ................................ ............................. 15. L. latilabris 8a. Labellum suborbicular to oblong, devoid of lateral lobes; callus consisting only of a concave depression near the base of the labellum, surrounded by a raised rim; flowers yellow or white; stems flexuous, pendent or with a tendency to become ................................ ................................ .. 9 8b. Labellum various, but often with conspicuous lateral lobes near the base; callus rarely absent, or more commonly present and consisting of a tube rculate thickening that extends from the base to the middle portion of the labellum; flowers always pro parte ) ............................ 12 9a. Leaves obtuse, widely elliptic to ovate; flowers >16 mm in diameter, plants from Panama and Colombia ................................ ................................ ........ 21. L. obtusata 9b. Leaves acute, narrowly triangular; flowers <12 mm in diameter plants from anywhere in the Neotropics ................................ ................................ .................... 10

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40 10a. Flowers white with an orange callus; rim of callus provided with a pair of prominent teeth distally ................................ ................................ .................... 12. L. hercodonta 10b. Flowers yellow with an orange callus; rim of callus with a single hooked, conical, or tuberculate tooth distally, or tooth absent ................................ ............................... 11 11a. Mature stems consistently pendent, usually >30 cm long; leaves curved toward stem apically, often sig moid; labellum suborbicular; rim of callus with a hooked, conical, or tuberculate tooth distally ................................ .................... 17. L. longifolia 11b. Mature stems pendent or not, usually <30 cm long; leaves curved away from stem, never sigmoid; labellum oblong to pandurate; rim of call us devoid of a distal tooth, or this very subtle ................................ ................................ ..... 25. L. parthenoglossa 12a. Plants from Mexico and Central America ................................ .............................. 13 12b. Plants from South America (including Trinidad) ................................ .................... 21 13a. Labellum apex obtuse to retuse; column one third to one half as long as the la bellum; plants from Costa Rica ................................ ............................ 6. L. dipleura 13b. Labellum apex emarginate and bilobed; column less than one third as long as the labellum; plants from anywhere in Mesoamerica ................................ .................... 14 14a. Column wings wider near the base of the column; plants from Costa Rica and Panama ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 15 14b. Column wings wider near the middle or near the tip of the column; plants from anywhere in Mesoamerica ................................ ................................ ...................... 16 15a. Distal part of callus forming a mass of low, verrucose tubercles ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 11. L. grandibractea 15b. Distal part of callus forming 5 7 l ongitudinal toothed keels .............. 7. L. endresiana

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41 lobes of labellum absent to elongate; callus smooth or merely papillate ................ 17 de at its widest point; lateral lobes of labellum always elongate; callus tuberculate (rarely papillate) .................. 18 ................................ .... 4. L. cladoniophora 17b. Flowe ................................ ............................. 19. L. micrantha 18a. Labellum midlobe subquadrate to obscurely pandurate when flattened, wider across the basal lobules, and wider than long ................................ ....... 2. L. am oena 18b. Labellum midlobe markedly pandurate when flattened, wider across the apical lobules, and longer than wide ................................ ................................ ................. 19 19a. Callus of labellum covered with cone or teeth like tubercles; shoots (stems and lly .......................... 22. L. oerstedii 19b. Callus of labellum covered with cushion like tubercles to almost smooth; shoots ................................ ..................... 20 20a. Callus of labellum relatively thick and wider distally, not bifid or only obscurely so; inflores cence bracts almost perpendicular to the rachis and markedly distichous, the inflorescences thus appearing scalariform; leaves frequently straight or slightly curved toward stem; plants from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas range (including Guatemala and extrem e E Oaxaca) ................................ .................. 29. L. verrucosa 20b. Callus of labellum relatively low and oblong, bifid; inflorescence bracts imbricate, spirally arranged, the inflorescences thus not appearing scalariform; leaves

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42 frequently curved away from stem; plants from W Mexico (Naya rit to central Oaxaca) ................................ ................................ ............................. 8. L. galeottiana 21a. Callus of labellum smooth or seemingly absent; flowers usually <8 mm tall ......... 22 21b. Callus of labellum tuberculate or with cushion like thickenings; flowers usually >8 mm tall ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 24 22a. Labellum unlobed; plants fro m Par state in Brazil .............................. 14. L. ivainae 22b. Labellum commonly with lateral lobes; plants from elsewhere in the Neotropics .. 23 23a. Callus of labellum formed by a single low keel; plants from Bolivia .... 5. L. compacta 23b. Callus of labellum formed by 2 subparal lel keels; pla nts from Colombia and Venezuela ................................ ................................ .......................... 19. L. micrantha 24a. Plants from anywhere W of the Andes ................................ ................................ .. 25 24b. Plants from anywhere E of the Andes ................................ ................................ ... 26 25a. Flowers 12 14 mm tall; column longer than wide; plants from NW Ecuador (and probably SW Colombia) ................................ ................................ ..... 23 L. oxyphylla 25b. Flowers 17 22 mm tall; column wider than long; plants f rom W Ecuador and NW Peru ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 27. L. serra 26a. Plants from the E slopes of the Andes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia .. 27 26b. Plants from the Bolivian or Venezuelan lowlands (50 0 m or less) or anywhere in Brazil or the Guianas ................................ ................................ .............................. 28 27a. Column dolabriform, wider than long, with flabellate wings .............. 16. L. lepticaula 27b. Column rhombic, as long as wide, with triangular wings ................... 28. L. tenuiflora

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43 28a. Lateral lobes of labellum absent to 2 mm long, less than half as long as midlobe; labellum midlobe suboblong; callus oblong; plants from the Guianas, Venezuela, and N Brazil ................................ ................................ ........................ 13. L. imbricata 28b. Lateral lobes of labellum 3 5 mm long, subequal to midlobe in length (rarely shorter); labellum midlobe pandurate; callus wider distally; plants from Bolivia and Brazil (S of the Amazon) ................................ ................................ ......................... 29 29a. Flowers usually 7 10 mm tall; plants from the Brazilian planalto or the S Amazon basin i n Brazil and Bolivia ................................ ............................... 10. L. goyazensis 29b. Flowers usually 12 18 mm tall; plants from the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlntica) biome of E and SE Brazil ................................ ................................ ....... 18. L. lunifera Species Treatment Lockhartia acuta (Lindl.) Rchb. f. 1. Lockhartia acuta (Lindl.) Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 10: 767. 1852. Fernandezia acuta Lindl., Bot. Reg. 21: tab. 1806. 1836. TYPE: [TRINIDAD & TOBAGO:] Trinidad, June 1836, Ex. Hort Thomas A. Knight s.n. (voucher not found; lectotype, here designated : illustration in Bot. Reg. 21: tab. 1806. 183 6) Lockhartia pallida Rchb. f., Bonplandia (Hanover) 2(2): 14. 1854. SYNTYPES: [VENEZUELA]. Carabobo, Ex Hort ., H. Wagener 103 sub Keferstein s.n. ( lectotype, here designated : W Reich. Orch. 44377; drawings of lectotype: W Reich. Orch. 419, AMES 39379; po ssible iso lectotype: K Lindl. 78998, excluding Fendler 1431 Wagener 3 Keferstein s.n and type illustration of Fernandezia acuta ); and [PANAMA]. Port Chagres, sent by Dr. Beer, Keferstein s.n. Lindl. 78998)

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44 Lockhartia l asseri Schnee, Rev. Fac. Ing. Agron. (Maracay) 1: 120. 1952. TYPE: VENEZUELA. Barinas, Ro Paguey, 1942, T. Lasser 752 (holotype: VEN [image seen]; isotype: VEN [flowers in spirit, not seen]) flattened, triangular in side view, with straight to slightly incurving margins, imbricate and completely covering the stem, obliquely acute to apiculate or mucronate (rarely truncate or praemorse), exposed part of largest leaves Inflorescences sequenti inflorescence bracts amplexicaul, cordate, acute, the distal ones rounder, Flowers resupina tall, white; the labellum occasionally tinged yellow or pale orange, the anther cap white to yellow. Sepals elliptic to ovate, slightly concave, Petals long elliptic to oblong, flat to slightly concave, apic ally rounded, Labellum subpandurate, with 4 lobules on the distal half, near the distal end, 3 mm wide near the middle; lobules round to acute; callus c tuft of longer, orange hairs at the very base of the labellum, 0.5 mm long. Column winged, m, with an entire margin; stigmatic cavity narrowly elliptic to pandurate, 1 0.5

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45 mm; pollinarium 0.8 mm long, stipe bifid. Fruit Nomenclatural notes: Fernandezia acuta was based on a plant imported and cultivate d by Thomas Andrew Knight (1759 1838), but this plant was probably never vouchered. The only sheet labeled as F. acuta in the Lindley herbarium at Kew (K Lindl. 78998) has a copy of the original illustration in color, an entire plant ( Fendler 1431 ), two plant fragments ( Wagener 3 and Keferstein s.n. ), and a packet with flowers. cited in the protologue. The or iginal illustration is thus designated as lectotype. One of the plant fragments mounted on that sheet ( Keferstein s.n .) probably came from the same cultivated plant used by Reichenbach f. to describe Lockhartia pallida (the annotation, in Reichenbach f.'s Lockhartia pallida Ex Panam. 103 material (prepared later from t he same cultivated plant as the type). The other fragment A number for Wagener's collection was not mentioned in the protologue of Lockhartia pallida but it is written on the label of the only herbarium sheet with an actual plant fragment with the name L. pallida in the Reichenbach f. herbarium (W Reich. Orch. 44377), and this specimen has locality information consistent with the protologue. The only other sheet at W with the name L. pallida (W Reich. Orch. 419 only has drawings (originals?) of the illustrations published in the protologue.

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46 Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the year, but more abundantly during the months of December, January, and February. Dis tribution: Distributed from southern Costa Rica (Golfo Dulce region, Puntarenas province) to Venezuela and Trinidad & Tobago (present in Trinidad, but absent from Tobago), from sea level to 900 m (Figure 1). A sterile specimen that strongly resembles L. ac uta from the province of Jinotega in Nicaragua ( Rueda & Coronado 7868 MO) is included here, although it could conceivably be a stout plant of L. oerstedii Daniel Jimnez (pers. comm., 2010) observed (but did not voucher) plants of L. acuta in Pital de Sa n Carlos (Costa Rica), a locality on the Caribbean side of the continental divide, which, together with the putative Nicaraguan record, suggests that L. acuta occurs (rarely) in eastern Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Additional specimens examined: COLOMBIA. Wi thout locality: Ospina Hernndez 770 (JAUM); Saunders 2068 (W Reich). Magdalena: Parque Nacional Tayrona, alrededores de Pueblito en la zona Arqueolgica, cerca de la quebrada "Las Lajas"; "La Boquita" y "El Tigre", 250 m, 1979, Moreno 497 (COL); Santa Mar ta, 457 m, 11 Jul. 1903, Smith 2374 (BM, F, G, GH, K, MICH, MO, NY, P); Santa Marta, Minca, 610 m, Wagener s.n. (K Lindl, G), 600 m, 30 Jun. 1933, Giacometto 106 (AMES). Meta: without specific locality, 25 Feb. 1937, Renz 3013 (RENZ), 500 m, Dec. 1937, Ren z 3014 (RENZ); P.N.N. Tinigua, Ro Duda, Serrana Chamusa, Centro de Investigaciones Ecolgicas La Macarena, trocha bao despus del 3er cao (RII 1200 m), 350 m, Oct. 1996, Stevenson 1935 (COAH, COL); Sierra de la Macarena, Plaza Bonita, 400 m, 16 Nov. 19 49, Philipson et al. 1434 (BM, COL, UC); Cordillera La Macarena, trocha entre el Ro Guejar y el cao Guapayita, Cao Yerli, 500 m, 20 Dec. 1950, Idrobo & Schultes

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47 759 (AMES, COL); Cao Entrada, 500 m, 22 Dec. 1949, Philipson & Idrobo 1856 (BM, NY, UC), 24 Dec. 1949, Philipson & Idrobo 1901 (BM, COL, UC). Santander: Vicinity of Barranca Bermeja, Magdalena Valley, between Sogamoso and Colorado Rivers, 100 m, 27 Feb. 1935, Haught 1593 (AMES). COSTA RICA. Without province or locality: Cultivated, Tonduz s.n. (G), 6 Jun. 2005 (cult.), Pupulin 4375 (JBL Span 19 (CR). Puntarenas: Esquinas Forest Preserve, 0 m, 10 Jan. 1951, Allen 5761 (SEL); Golfito, P.N. Piedras Blancas, La Bolsa, near the river, 70 m, 12 May 2001, Huber & Weisserhofer 2548 (CR, WU); Golfito, Puerto Jimnez, P.N. Esquinas, Fila Way, 200 m, 17 Feb. 2000, Wania 94 (CR); Osa Peninsula, about 5 km W of Rincn de Osa, N and W of the airfield, 50 m, 9 Jan. 1970, Burger & Liesner 7245 (F); Osa, El Campo, subiendo por la fila entre Aguabuena y Baneguitas, cuenca superior de Quebrada Banegas, bajando hasta la Quebrada Digo Digo, 350 m, 13 Jan. 1991, Herrera 4812 (MO); Osa, Sierpe, Los Mogos, 200 m, 11 Dec. 1990, Herrera 4765 (CR, INB, MO); P. N. Piedras Blancas, sen dero Fila (near La Gamba), 200 m, 16 Mar. 2002, Arauz Surez 3149 (WU); Refugio de Vida Silvestre de Corcovado, 30 Jul. 1988, Campos s.n. (USJ); Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce, cabeceras de Quebrada Vaquedano, 400 m, 28 Dec. 1991, Aguilar & Herrera 799 (INB, MO); Osa Peninsula, about 5 km W of Rincn de Osa, 50 m, 24 May 1973, Burger & Gentry 9022 (CR, F). NICARAGUA. Jinotega: Municipio de Bocay, Reserva Bosawas, faldas del Cerro Wizo, 200 m, 18 Feb. 1998, Rueda & Coronado 7868 (MO). PANAMA. Without provinc e or locality: 3 May 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2567 (FLAS); 4 Mar. 1912 (cult.), Pring s.n. (MO); 28 Jul. 1880, Jelski s.n. (W Reich); 1976, Taylor 10 (K spirit); Pittier 255 (AMES); Cultivated, Powell 51 (K); Cultivated, Powell s.n (AMES); Canal Zone, Silvest re s.n.

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48 (MO); Cruces Hills, 1894, Fawcett s.n. (BM); Nature trail at Camp 1 on Madden Dam Highway, 1 Apr. 1939, Elmore J3 (RSA). Coln: Boho, 11 Apr. 1910, Crawford 525 (PH); Manzanilla Island near Aspinwall, 1861, Hayes 106 (BM, K); Near Gatn, 1859, Hay es s.n. (AMES); NW part of Canal Zone, area W of Limn Bay, Gatn Locks and Gatn Lake, N of Mindi Hills, along Quebrada Morito, 28 Mar. 1956, Johnston 1740 (AMES); Ro Gatuncillo, vicinity of Santa Rosa, 25 m, 24 Feb. 1947 (cult.), Allen 4253 (G). Panam [including Canal Zone]: Around Culebra, 50 m, 1911 (cult.), Pittier s.n. (AMES); Balboa, cultivated at Gamboa, Powell 52 (K); Barro Colorado Island, Jan. 1939, Brown 151 (F), 20 Feb. 1969, Croat 8056 (DUKE, F, MO, NY, SCZ), Aug. 1928, Chickering 60 (MICH), Dec. 1933, Avils 34 (F), 3 Oct. 1973, Montgomery 161 (MO), 16 Jul. 1971, Croat 15569 (MO), 27 Oct. 1931, Shattuck 234 (F, MO), 22 Mar. 1971, Croat 14042 (MO); Cerro Jefe, 700 m, 23 Feb. 1970, Dressler 3824 (PMA); Chiva Chiva, 0 m, 23 Jan. 1923 (cult.), P owell 52 (AMES), 3 Dec., Christopher s.n (AMES); Drowned forests of Quebrada Tranquila and its branches, 70 m, 8 Jan. 1935, Dodge & Allen 17325 (K); Foot hills E of City, 0 m, cultivated at Gamboa, Powell 52 (AMES, K, MO); Gigante Bay, 19 Mar. 1932, Shatt uck 837 (F, MO); Past Ro Ipeti, along Panamerican Highway about 4 5 km E, 9 Feb. 1977, Folsom & Collins 1677 (MO); Pedro Miguel, 0 m, Nov. 1922 (cult.), Powell 52 (AMES, S); San Jos Island, Perlas archipelago, Gulf of Panama, about 55 mi SSE of Balboa, 2 2 Jan. 1946, Johnston 1217 (AMES, US); Trail from Ro Espav toward Ro Agua Clara, 23 Jan. 1972, Gentry 3775 (MO); Upper Chagres River, Quebrada Melgada, 70 m, 13 Jan. 1935, Steyermark 17515 (AMES, BM, G, K, MICH, S, U, UC); El Llano Cart road, km 19, 35 0 m, 3 Feb. 1986, Nevers et al. 6881 (MO), km 24.5 30, 200 m, 23 Jan. 1985, Nevers et al. 4589 (MO). TRINIDAD

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49 & TOBAGO. Trinidad [without specific locality]: 18 Jan. 1905, Bradford 5305 (BM, K); 12 Mar. 1895 (cult.), Bonsall s.n. (K); 3 Mar. 1918 (cult.), Broadway 8765 (TRIN); 22 Apr. 1890 (cult.), Broadway 4030 (TRIN); anonymous s.n (K spirit); anonymous s.n. (W Reich); Ryan s.n. (C). San Juan Laventille: Caura Valley, outside Caura Caves, 14 Jun. 1988, Chaboo s.n (TRIN). Siparia: Siparia, 22 Mar. 1957 (cult.), Downs s.n (AMES); Broadway s.n (AMES). VENEZUELA. Anzotegui: [near border between Anzotegui and Sucre]: Between Ro Len of Quebrada Danta and Ro Zumbador, NE of Bergantn, 500 m, 24 Feb. 1945, Steyermark 61123 (AMES, F). A ragua: Prope Coloniam Tovar, 1854, Fendler 1431 (AMES, K, K Lindl). Barinas: without specific locality, 300 m, 4 Feb. 1953, Renz 7901 (RENZ); Reserva Forestal Caparo, Unidad I, parte sur entre pica 7 y 9, 16 18 kms SE del campamento Cachicamo, E de El Cant n, 100 m, 9 Apr. 1968, Steyermark et al. 101993 (VEN); Reservas Forestales de Ticoporo, 7 Nov. 1977, Fernndez 2836 (F); Ro Michay, Reserva Forestal de Ticoporo, 5 May 1966, Marcano Berti 905 (MO). Gurico: Guatopo, 610 m, Dunsterville 449 (K). Lara: Bar quisimeto, 1893, Mocquerys s.n (AMES, P, S); Cumbre del Cerro Gordo, al N de Barquisimeto, 900 m, Jan. 1924, Saer 107 (NY, VEN); Distr. Palavicini, 60 m, 16 May 1959, Renz 9465 (RENZ). Miranda: Cerros del Bachiller, near E end, between base and summit, ab ove Quebrada Corozal, S of Santa Cruz, 10 km (by air) W of Cupira, 60 m, 25 Mar. 1978, Steyermark & Davidse 116725 (MO); Distr. Acevedo, 900 m, 7 Feb. 1960, Renz 9784 (RENZ); Distrito Paez, drainage of the Ro Guapo, Cerro Ribern between Ro Guapo and Ro Chiquito, 44.5 km directly (in a straight line) SE of Caucagua, 200 m, 1 Jun. 1977, Davidse & Gonzlez 13613 (MO, VEN); Dto. Paez, Qda. Chaguaramas, 7 Jun. 1977, Gonzlez & Davidse 950 (VEN).

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50 Yaracuy: Distr. Nirgua, 200 m, 7 Sep. 1959, Renz 9685 (RENZ). Z ulia: without specific locality, 200 m, 21 Jan. 1951, Renz 6602 (RENZ), 500 m, 17 Dec. 1950, Renz 6579 (RENZ), 26 Oct. 1950, Renz 6550 (RENZ); Distrito Perij, 200 m, 12 Feb. 1947, Renz 4198 (RENZ); Ro Negro, Perij, 1 Feb. 1954, Aristeguieta & Montoya 20 77 (VEN); Sierra de Perij, Ro Yasa, abajo de "Kasmera" (Estacin Biolgica de la Universidad de Zulia), al SO de Machiques, 270 m, 24 Aug. 1977, Steyermark & Fernndez 99691 (VEN). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: anonymous s.n. (K spirit); 1870, anonymous s.n. (K); Jan. 1878, anonymous s.n. (K); Sep. 1888, anonymous s.n (K); Mar. 1889, anonymous s.n. (K); Oct. 1895, anonymous s.n (K); 4 May 1899, anonymous s.n. (G); 23 Feb. 2009, Blanco 3221 (FLAS); 2 Dec. 1908 (cult.), Nash 24685 (NY); 8 Feb. 1905, Smith s.n. (BM). Commentary: Lockhartia acuta is easily recognizable by its relatively thick and rigid shoots, coriaceous leaf epidermis, leaf apices often apiculate to subpraemorse, open, wiry inflorescences with long (4 10 cm) internodes and small (3 4 mm) bracts, and small, whitish flowers. There is slight geographic variation in the shape of the labellum lobules (e.g., round in Costa Rican plants vs. acute in those from Venezuela and Trinidad), but the morphology is ot herwise very homogeneous. Lockhartia amoena Endrs & Rchb. f 2. Lockhartia amoena Endrs & Rchb. f., Gard. Chron. 666. 1872. TYPE: COSTA RICA. Endrs s.n ., Ex Hort. Hamburg Botanic Garden, Feb. 1872 ( lectotype, here designated : W Reich. Orch. 44339; drawin g of holotype: AMES 24870, line drawings in pencil, excluding color drawing of flower). Lockhartia costaricensis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni. Veg. 3(31 32): 81. 1906. TYPE: COSTA RICA. [San Jos: Prez Zeledn], Los Palmares [de El General,

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51 Prez Ze fide Gazetteer of Costa Rican Plant Collecting Locales], January 1897, H. Pittier, Inst. Phys. Geogr. Cost 10592 (holotype: B, [destroyed, drawing of holotype: AMES 23170]; lectotype, here designated : BR, image s een; original floral analysis by Schlechter published by Mansfeld in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 49: T. 79, Nr. 313. 1931) Stems erect or descending, more or less rigid, unifacial, laterally flattened, triangular in side view, with straight (occasionally incurving or outcurving) margins, obtuse to (rarely) acute, ex per stem (produced either simultaneously or sequentially), with up to 7 inflorescences flowers produced more or less mm tall, yellow, the labellum and column heavily spotted with purple brown; the labellum often with white areas around the callus; the anther cap white to yellow. Sepals ovate, long elliptic to oblong, curved toward the front, margins reflexed, apically obtuse or rounded, Labellum 3 lateral lobes elongate, oblong, obtuse apica midlobe obscurely divided in 4 lobules, subquadrate, emarginate, wider across the the basal

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52 lobules folded backwards, the distal lobules pro jected fowrward; callus elongate, more or less rectangular; basal part forming a concave cushion with a basal tuft of short, sometimes appearing as several low keels. Column broadly winged, lacerate margin; stigmatic cavity elliptic to pandurate, 0.8 0.5 mm; anther cap galeate, 1 mm long; pollinarium 1 mm tall, stipe bifid Fruit not seen. Nomenclatural notes: The sheet with the type specimen of Lockhartia amoena (W Reich. Orch. 44339) has a piece of paper inside the bluish packet with the Reich. Orch. 44351) with the same number. However, the labellum in the drawing has an undivided midlobe, and possibly represents L. dipleura Because the type of Lockhartia amoena was simply cited as having been collected by Endres in Costa Rica, whithout an ass ociated collection number, and the confusing state of the Endrs collections in W, the specimen W Reich. Orch. 44339 is designated as lectotype. One specimen ( Endrs s.n. AMES 26068) might be part of the same field gathering, but is not type material beca use the type specimen was prepared from cultivation at the Hamburg Botanic Garden. The only extant specimen of Pittier, Inst. Phys. Geogr. Cost. 10592 (the type specimen of Lockhartia costaricensis ; see Pittier, 1923, for this notation) is at BR and has a There are no flowers with this specimen, but at AMES there is a copy of a drawing from

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53 the Schlechter herbarium in Berlin with a floral dissection and a single piece of stem. This indicates that the specimen at BR was originally a unicate, but that Schlechter took a piece (including all the flowers) with him to Berlin. This fragment, now destroyed (Ames, 1944), should be considered the holotype. The remaining specimen at BR is designated here as lectotype. Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the year, but more abundantly during the months of December, January, and February. Distribution: Costa Rica and Panama, from 300 to 1800 m on the Pacific slope (Fig ure 2). The locality data of a specimen prepared from a cultivated plant (supposedly collected in Pacayas in Cartago province, Costa Rica) is probably erroneous (and thus excluded from the distribution map); no other collections are known from this well bo tanized Caribbean slope locality. Hamer (1984b) reported Lockhartia amoena from Nicaragua and possibly Guatemala, but no specimens from those countries have been seen; the Nicaraguan specimen cited by Hamer is actually a plant of L. micrantha and the vou cher for the illustration is a Costa Rican plant of L. grandibractea Schweinfurth (1961) listed L. amoena for Peru, based on a misidentified specimen of the then undescribed L. lepticaula Additional specimens examined: COSTA RICA. Without locality: 12 No v. 1936 (cult.), anonymous s.n. (K); 6 Jan. 2009 (cult.), Bogarn 3989 (JBL spirit); Endres 302 (W Reich); Endres s.n (W Reich, multiple sheets); Mason 2397 (K spirit); Pfau 79 (W Reich); Endres 214 (W Reich). Alajuela: Naranjo, Cerro Espritu Santo, 1245 m, Sep. 1922, Brenes s.n. (NY); San Carlos, Quesada, Puente de Casas, 400 m, 6 May 1978,

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54 Todzia 251 (CR, F); San Ramn, Alto Calera, 7 Jan. 1930, Brenes 11599 (NY); San Ramn, camino a Piedades Sur, 6 Feb. 1989, Retana s.n. (USJ); Colinas de San Ramn, 14 Nov. 1927, Brenes 1672 (F), 19 Nov. 1927, Brenes 3427 (NY), 21 Jan. 1925, Brenes 1193 (AMES, BH, NY); San Ramn, El Socorro, 1120 m, 18 Jan. 1924, Brenes 825 (CR); San Ramn, La Palma, 1270 m, 12 Jan. 1928, Brenes 1672 (CR, NY); San Ramn, Los Angeles, 11 00 m, 21 Dec. 1936, Sols Rojas 502 (BM, CR, F); San Ramn, Mondongo a Santiago, 825 m, 9 Jan. 1930, Brenes 11599 (AMES, F); San Ramn, Ro Jess, 850 m, Dec. 1921, Brenes 212 (AMES, CR); San Ramn, San Pedro, 990 m, 23 Jan. 1925, Brenes 2436 (CR, F); San Ramn, Santiago, Cerros del Mondongo, 925 m, 7 Jan. 1930, Brenes 11599 (CR). Cartago: Pacayas, Jun. 1986 (cult.), Mora 32 (USJ; questionable locality). Puntarenas: Aguabuena, 3.5 km W of Rincn, four hectare permanent sample plot 1 km N of BOSCOSA station, 350 m, 12 Jan. 1993, Thomsen & Korning 224 (C, CR, K); Along Ro Sonador, near Panamerican Highway, El General Valley, 600 m, 31 Jan. 1965, Williams et al. 28789 (F); Along the Ro Cacao above Pan American Highway, El General Valley, 900 m, 30 Jan. 1965, Williams et al. 28665 (F); Coto Brus, Cordillera de Talamanca, Agua Caliente, Ribera Ro Cotn y alrededores aguas termales, 1000 m, 1 Feb. 1995, Villalobos 27 (CR, FLAS, INB, MO); Coto Brus, P. I. La Amistad, Cordillera de Talamanca, Estacin Pittier, Ro Cotn, Aguas Calientes, 1680 m, 1 Feb. 1995, Alvarado 23 (INB, F, K, MO); Coto Brus, Z.P. Las Tablas, Cordillera de Talamanca, Lmite Zona Protectora Las Tablas, sendero a Quebrada Gemela, 1650 m, 30 Jan. 1995, Chinchilla 28 (FLAS, INB, MO); Coto Brus, zo na no protegida, cuenca Trraba Sierpe, Finca Cafrosa, Fila Palmital, 1800 m, 31 May 1998, Gamboa 2198 (INB); Golfito, near and along trail leading from

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55 Km 3/Torres rd. to Quebrada Culebra (tributary of Ro Sorpresa), ca. 2.5 km (by air) NE of Golfito, 300 m, 1 Feb. 1992, Grayum et al. 10089 (INB, MO); Golfito, P.N. Corcovado, Pennsula de Osa, Cerro Rincn, 745 m, 30 Jan. 1998, Gamboa et al. 2138 (INB); Guavn, Haut Cabagra, prs de Buenos Aires, 650 m, Mar. 1892, Pittier (I.P.G.C.R.) 6598 (BR); Hills abov e Palmar Norte, trail to Buenos Aires, 830 m, 17 Feb. 1951, Allen 5888 (SEL); Osa, Sierpe, San Juan, Fila Casaloma, siguiendo la trocha a Sierpe, estribaciones Cerros Chocuaco, 500 m, 28 Jan. 1991, Herrera 4883 (CR, F, INB, MO); Cordillera de Tilarn, Mont everde, headwaters of Queb. Amapala, 3 km SE from the village of San Luis, Pacific slope moist forest, 1200 m, 28 Jan. 1993, Haber et al. 11424 (CR, INB, MO); Ro Sirena [Ro Sereno?], Sabalito, 1991, Soto s.n (USJ spirit). San Jos: Coronado, Cascajal, 8 Nov. 2005 (cult.), Schug 270 (JBL spirit); Dota, E slope and crest of Cerro Nara, 1100 m, 31 May 2005 (cult.), Pupulin et al. 1162 (JBL spirit); Dota, R.F. Los Santos, cuenca del Savegre, San Isidro de Dota, sendero La Flecha, por sendero a Fila Mora, 700 m, 24 Jan. 2003, Morales & Gonzlez 10236 (INB); Edge of Ro Sonador, 36 km S of San Isidro El General, 533 m, 27 Feb. 1966, Molina et al. 17932 (F); Reserva de Vida Silvestre Boracayn, Fila Costea, near Prov. Puntarenas border, ca. 10 km E of Dominical southern Fila Tinamastes near Cuesta Yeguas, 6 Mar. 2006 (cult.), Clark 141 sub Blanco 3212 (FLAS); Tarraz, estribaciones del Cerro Hormiguero, 900 m, 23 Mar. 1999, Estrada & Binder 2086 (CR); Tarraz, San Lorenzo, estribaciones SE de Cerro Toro, 900 m, 4 Apr. 1997, Estrada et al. 724 (CR); Vicinity of El General, 900 m, Dec. 1935, Skutch 2316 (AMES, K, MICH, MO, NY, S, SEL, US). PANAMA. Without locality: 17 Feb. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 2556 (FLAS); 12 Nov. 1976 (cult.), Dodson s.n (SEL). Chiriqu: Withou t locality, Jan. 1982, Micklow s.n (MO); 12

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56 mi. W of Potrerillos, 1067 m, 30 Mar. 1934, Brown s.n. (AMES); E of Cuesta Piedra along Ro Macho Monte, 950 m, 12 Feb. 1985, Luer et al. 10520 (MO). Cocl: El Valle, 22 Jan. 1984, Chase 84101 (K spirit); Hills N of El Valle de Antn, vicinity of La Mesa, 1000 m, 21 Jan. 1941, Allen 2313 (AMES); Mountains beyond La Pintada, 400 m, Hunter & Allen 586 (AMES, MO); Ro Cocl del Norte, 457 m, 14 Jan. 1958 (cult.), Newcomb s.n (AMES, BH, F, G, K, M, MO, NY, UC, US). Herrera: Chepo de las Minas, 650 m, 17 Dec. 1977, Dressler 5749 (FLAS); Hill above Chepo de las Minas, 700 m, 19 Dec. 1977, Folsom et al. 6962 (MO, PMA, SEL). Panam: Cerro Campana, 1000 m, Dec. 1951, Cope s.n (AMES); Cerro Campana, 26 Jun. 1968, Dressler 3526 (PMA); Cerro Campana, 8.6 miles SW of Capira, 700 m, 29 Jun. 1970, Luteyn 1016 (DUKE, GH). Veraguas: 2/10 mi beyond fork in road at Escuela Agrcola Alto Piedra on road to Ro Calovbora, 750 m, 3 Apr. 1976, Croat & Folsom 33917 (MO); 5 mi W of Santa Fe on road past Escuela Agrcola Alto Piedra on Pacific side of divide, 800 m, 18 Mar. 1973, Liesner 870 (MEXU, MO, NY, SEL, TEX); Above Santa Fe and above Alto de Piedra, on ridge trail to top of Cerro Tute Arizona, 1150 m, 6 Feb. 1988, McPherson 12088 ( MO); Vicinity of Escuela Agricultura Alto Piedra near Santa Fe, trail to top of Cerro Tute, 975 m, 6 Oct. 1969, Antonio 1995 (F, MO). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: anonymous s.n (K spirit); Chase 8167 (K spirit). Commentary: Lockhartia amo ena is diagnosed by the combination of long labellum side lobes, subquadrate (obscurely tetralobulate) labellum midlobe with heavy brown spotting and whitish areas on the basal lobules (the last trait easily overlooked), and a wider than long column with o bliquely subquadrate wings.

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57 As a member of the Imbricata group, L. amoena can be difficult to distinguish from other congeners if flowers are not available. It is a vegetatively variable species; plants from central Panama have relatively robust stems and numerous flowers per inflorescence, while those from southern Costa Rica have narrower, more flexible stems with fewer (up to 5) flowers per inflorescence. However, the floral morphology is rather uniform. The relative robustness of the plants is also app arently related to the elevation, with the more robust plants occurring at higer places. Several authors have treated Lockhartia grandibractea as a synonym of L. amoena (e.g., Hamer, 1984a; Mora and Atwood, 1992b; Atwood and Mora de Retana, 1999; Dressler, 2003). Both species are superficially similar, and have overlapping geographic and elevational distributions. The inflorescence bracts of both species can be almost as large as the flowers (they are the largest in the genus), although there are population s of both species with much smaller bracts. However, the column of L. grandibractea is visibly longer and has smaller and differently shaped wings; the labellum midlobe is also narrower and more clearly tetralobulate. Stout plants of L. amoena tend to have larger, more open inflorescences than plants of L. grandibractea Both species also have contrasting phenologies; the flowering peak of L. amoena occurs during the dry season (December to February), while that of L. grandibractea occurs during the middle of the rainy season (June to September). No intermediate forms have been detected. Atwood & Mora de Retana (1999) also included L. dipleura in the synonymy of L. amoena but the former species is considered distinct in this treatment (see notes under L. di pleura ).

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58 It is remarkable that no fruiting collections are known among the numerous ones studied; perhaps successful pollination and/or fertilization are uncommon in this species. Lockhartia bennettii Dodson 3. Lockhartia bennettii Dodson, Icon. Pl. Trop., ser. 2, 1: t. 88 (1989). TYPE: PERU. Amazonas: Bngara, 5 km North of the North end of lake Pomacocha on the road to La Rioja, 2000 m, 8 Oct. 1964, collected live only, pressed 1 fl. 14 Jan. 1965, by D.E. Bennett in Lima, Peru, P.C. Hutchinson 6813 sub D. E. Bennett s.n. ( lectotype, here designated : UC 299010, mounted on right side of sheet) Stems erect or pendent, more or less rigid, cm long when reproductive, with l aterally flattened, triangular in side view, with straight to slightly incurving margins, Inflorescences both terminal and axillary from distal part of the stem, prod inflorescence bracts amplexicaul, conduplicate, ovate, obtuse to acuminate, Flowers resupinate, across, white, the labellum with a large, central yellow blotch almost completely covered with orange or brown reticulations; the column wings yellow dotted with brown, and the anther cap white. Sepals elliptic to oval, concave, obtuse, Pet Labellum suborbicular, obscurely 3 flattened;

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59 midlobe wider than lon g, transversely oval, retuse, margin gently undulate, callus rectangular, smooth, puberulous, gradually increasing in thickness distally, occupying the entire central portion of the labellum, forming an irregularly undulate ledge at the base Column narrowly 3 mm, the wings obliquely lanceolate and pointed forward, 1 2 mm; anther cap galeate, 1 1.5 mm; pollinarium 1 mm tall, stipe bifid. Fruit not seen. Nomenclatural notes: The sheet annotated as the type by Dodson (UC 299010) has two different gatherings prepared from the same plant in cultivation. No mention P.C. Hutchinson 6813 1 Both gatherings have their own label, 1 on its label (same as in the protologue), and thus it is designated as lectotype. It consists of a single pressed flower in a paper packet Benn prepared from the same cultivated plant, but at a different date than the original type 6813 One of these is mounted on the same sheet as the holotype. Although they can be considered represent different gatherings (collected at different dates) (McNeill et al. 2006) Phenology: The few field col lections available indicate that the species flowers at least in March and July. Several other collections do not indicate a month of preparation or were made from plants in cultivation. Dodson and Bennett (1989b) indicated the

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60 flowering period to be from June to August, an observation probably based on cultivated plants in Lima. Distribution: Endemic to Peru in the departments of Amazonas, Cajamarca, and Hunuco (expected in San Martn), from 1800 to 2700 m on the eastern (Amazonian) side of the Andes (Fig ure 3). It might occur also in extreme southern Ecuador in the Zamora Chinchipe province, but I have not seen any Ecuadorian collections. Additional specimens examined: PERU. Without locality data: 1877, Vidal Sngue s.n. (P); Cultivated, Whitten 99232 (F LAS). Amazonas: Bongar, 5 km N of the N end of Lake Pomacocha on the road to La Rioja, 2000 m, 31 Aug. 1965 (cult.), Hutchinson 6813 sub D.E. Bennett s.n (UC, mounted on left side of holotype sheet, possible clonotype), 16 Jul. 1966, Hutchinson 6813 sub Bennett s.n (SEL, possible clonotype), 15 Jan. 1965 (cult.), 16 Jul. 17 Sep. 1966 (cult.), Hutchinson 6813 sub Bennett 2843 (AMES, possible clonotype), 15 Jan. 1965 (cult.), Hutchinson & Wright 6871 (UC); Chachapoyas, 2700 m, 4 Jul. 1978, Lpez & Aldave 8 553 (HUT). Cajamarca: Jan, Jan, 1986 m, 16 Mar. 2009, Vsquez 218 (MOL); Jan, Jan, Rinconada, San Jos de la Alianza, 2000 m, 18 Mar. 2009, Vsquez 231 (MOL). Hunuco: Mua, 2 Mar. 1959, Woytkowski 5228 (MO); Near Mua, 1830 m, Bennett 53 (SEL). CULTI VATED [without original locality data]: anonymous s.n (K spirit); 22 Feb. 2004, Blanco 2554 (FLAS); 25 Jan. 2000, Whitten et al. 1704 (FLAS). Commentary: Lockhartia bennettii is one of five species of campanulate flowered lockhartias. It is immediately di stinguished from the others by its white flowers with a large orange brown area at the base of the labellum. The protologue of L. bennettii indicates a pendent habit, and I have seen photographs of a plant with pendent stems;

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61 however, all the plants I have seen in cultivation have clearly erect or ascending stems. This might be a variable character in this species. There are relatively few field collections of Lockhartia bennetii which is surprising given its relatively showy flowers and that it is not too rare in cultivation. Lockhartia cladoniophora Rchb. f 4. Lockhartia cladoniophora Rchb. f., Flora 71: 150 151. 1888. TYPE: [COSTA RICA. Endrs 2526 ], Ex Hort Hamburg Botanic Garden, 2 January 1875 (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 44364, including five differen t sets of illustrations, apparently made from the original plant in cultivation, or possibly from more than one plant) with cent, unifacial, laterally flattened, triangular to subfalcate in side view, with straight (occasionally incurving) margins, obtuse to round apically (rarely acute), exposed part of largest leaves Inflorescences both terminal and axillary fr om the distal or middle portion of the stem, obtuse, Flowers resupinate, widely the column with a reddish brown infrastigmatic bar. Sepals ovate, slightly concave, obtuse, Petals elliptic to oblong, obtus e, 2 mm. Labellum 3 oblong, obtuse apically, bent toward front, midlobe divided in 4 lobules, pandurate, emarginate, wider across the basal lobules when flattened, 5

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62 the basal lobules slightly folded backwards, the distal lobules straight; callus formed by two subparallel low keels that converge distally, extending from the base to h a minuscule pad of glandular trichomes. Column winged, 1.5 mm long, 2 mm wide; wings rhombic, 0.5 0.5 mm, with an entire to crenulate margin; stigmatic cavity 0.5 0.5 mm; anther cap galeate, 1 mm long; pollinarium 1 mm tall, stipe bifid. Fruit not se en. Nomenclatural notes: The sheet annotated as the type (W Reich. Orch. 44364) has a stem with one flower, a packet and five pieces of paper (four with pencil drawings, one with a watercolor). These pieces of paper have (clockwise from top left): 1) penc il drawings of flowers from front and back, inflorescences, labellum, column, and L. Bl. Endes 2/76 2.77 cladoniophora End. 2526, 1875, 2 Jan 1876. 3 Jan Endres 1 5 2526 cladonioph. Dec. 86 here is cladoniophora Rchb. f. 17 Jan 77 The protologue makes no mention of a collector or collection number, but three of the illustrations on the typ here as the type on the basis of the year being the same as that in the protologue) has End. 2526. Colombia in 1875 (Ossen bach et al. 2010); thus, he must have collected the live plant in Costa Rica before he sent it to Hamburg, where it flowered in January 2, 1875. The

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63 same plant cul tivated in Hamburg during subsequent flowerings in 1876, 1877, and 1886. Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected from January to March and June to October, but flowers are probably produced throughout the year. Distribution: Endemic to Costa Rica, from 600 to 1100 m on the Caribbean slopes of the Guanacaste, Tilarn, and Central Cordilleras (Figure 4). Additional specimens examined: COSTA RICA. Alajuela: 27.6 km NE of Liberia in forested pass area between Volcn Santa Mara and Volcn Miravalles, ea stern lower slopes of Volcn Santa Mara, 800 m, 28 Feb. 1978, Utley 5914 (DUKE); Beside Laguna Mara Aguilar, 780 m, 28 Mar. 1969, Lent 1522 (F); Parque Nacional Rincn de la Vieja, rd. to Colonia Blanca by Quebrada Rancho Grande, 700 m, 10 Oct. 1978, Tod zia 478 (CR); Santa Mara National Park, road down Caribbean slope, ca. 1 km W of E end of park, 7 km E of colored house at junction of road to Hacienda Santa Mara, 600 m, 8 Feb. 1978, Liesner 5184 (CR, MO); Upala, Aguas Claras, Hotel Termales Azules, 700 m, 28 Jan. 2005, Karremans et al. 290 (JBL spirit); Upala, Zapote, desvo a la izquierda despues del puente sobre el Ro Zapote, en sentido Bijagua Pueblo Nuevo, ladera E del Volcn Miravalles, siguiendo la margen del Ro Zapote, 675 m, 12 Feb. 2007, Boga rn et al. 2352 (JBL spirit). Cartago: Turrialba, La Esperanza, camino a Simari, 1100 m, 18 Jun 2010, Morales 19167 (INB); S of Taus, along Ro Pejibaye, 750 m, 7 Oct. 1979, Todzia 802 (CR). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: 23 Jan. 1981, Chase 81010 (K spirit); 19 Oct. 1979, White s.n. (SEL).

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64 Commentary: Lockhartia cladoniophora is most similar to L. micrantha but it is distinguished from that species by the inflorescences produced sequentially (instead of simultaneously) with larger, more wid ely open flowers produced sequentially on each inflorescence. As expected, both species are sister taxa according to DNA data. Lockhartia cladoniophora is rare and is known from relatively few collections. Until recently, Lockhartia cladoniophora was an ob scure name, possibly overlooked because of the omission in the protologue of the collector or country of and stylized to be useful. Herbarium specimens have been mis identified as L. micrantha and more recently, as L. chocoensis (Bogarn et al. 2008); the later name is here considered a synonym of L. micrantha Lockhartia compacta R. Vsquez & M.A. Blanco 5. Lockhartia compacta R. Vsquez & M.A. Blanco, sp. nov TYPE : BOLIVIA. Santa Cruz: Prov. Florida, El Sillar, 1350 m, Parque Nacional Ambor, epfita en bosque tucumano boliviano, 3 Julio 1995, R. Vsquez 2522 (Holotype: LPB) Lockhartia micrantha Rchb.f. affinis, sed callo ligulato simplici (non bifido). Stems appa unifacial, laterally flattened, triangular in side view, with straight to slightly incurving margins, acute t Inflorescences axillary (and probably also terminal) from the distal half of the stem, with long; inflo rescence bracts amplexicaul, infundibuliform, cordate acute when flattened,

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65 mm tall, yellow with scant brown markings at the base of the lateral lobes of labellum and dark brown at base of column; labellar callus pale brown. Sepals elliptic to obovate, 2.5 mm. Petals elliptic, flat, apically rounded, 4.5 3 mm. Labellum trilobate; the lateral lobes oblong, gradually di minishing in width, erect, 3 1 mm, apically rounded; midlobe distally tetralobulate, near the apex, with a slightly concave disk 1 1.5 mm at the base (with glandular h airs); prolonged into a simple oblong callus, 2.5 1 mm. Column triangular, an ther cap not seen; pollinarium 0.5 mm tall, viscidium triangular, stipes bifid, with two pollinia, pollinia ellipsoid, 0.2 mm long. Fruit not seen. Phenology: flowering at least in July and September. Etymology: named for the very compact vegetative and f loral habit of the plants. Distribution: Endemic to the province of Florida, department of Santa Cruz, in the eastern side of the eastern Andean cordillera in Bolivia, from 1000 to 1300 m (Figure 5). Additional specimens examined: BOLIVIA. Santa Cruz: Prov Florida, Refugio Los Volcanes, Ro Elvira, 1000 m, 17 Sept. 2001, Vsquez et al. 4259 (Herb. R. Vsquez); Vsquez et al. 4281 (Herb.R. Vsquez). Commentary: Lockhartia compacta is very similar to L. micrantha but differs from that species in the simple (not bifid), ligulate labellar callus. Also, the lateral lobules of

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66 the midlobe are positioned more distally in the labellum of L. compacta The ranges of both species are separated by thousands of kilometers. Lockhartia compacta could be confused with L. goyazensis which also occurs in Bolivia, but in Bolivia that species is restricted to lower elevations in the Humid Evergreen Forest and Humid Amazonian Forest biomes ( sensu Vsquez and Ibisch, 2000). Lockhartia goyazensis has slightly larger flowers wit h longer, narrower labellum lateral lobes and a massive, tuberculate callus that covers a large portion of the midlobe. Lockhartia compacta is known from very few collections and is seemingly rare and restricted to a small area of the Bolivian Tucuman Fore st biome. This area appears to be the southern limit of distribution of the genus Lockhartia in the Andes ( L. lunifera and L. goyazensis occur farther south in Brazil). Plants of L. compacta are likely overlooked by collectors because of their small flower s. Lockhartia dipleura Schltr. 6. Lockhartia dipleura Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 19: 69 70. 1923. TYPE: COSTA RICA. [San Jos: Barva], San Jernimo [de Moravia], 1350 m, fide Gazetteer of Costa Rican Plant Collecting Locales], 1922, C. Werckl 102 (holotype: B [destroyed]; neotype, designated [as lectotype] by Pupulin in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 163: 140. 2010: drawing of holotype, AMES 31614) Lockhartia integra Ames & C. Schweinf., Schedul. Orchid. 10: 108. 1930. TYPE: CO fide Gazetteer of Costa Rican Plant Collecting Locales], 13 Jan 1926, P.C. Standley & J. Valerio 44675 (holotype: AMES; isotype: US).

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67 Stems erect to descending, more or less Leaves marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly and obliquely lanceolate in side view, with straight to sligh tly incurving margins, acute, exposed part of largest leaves ence bracts amplexicaul, infundibuliform, cordate acute when flattened, Flowers yellow with chocolate brown blotches on the labellum and column; labellar callus mostly brow n. Sepals elliptic to obovate, acute to 1 mm, acute; midlobe subpandurate, obtuse to slightly retuse, callus subrectangular, the basal part forming a subquadrate concave cushion with a basal tuft of short, glandular hairs, 2 1.5 mm, the distal part forming 2 or 3 subparallel, tuberculate, low keels 3 1.5 mm. stigmatic cavity ovate, 1 0.5 mm, rostellum remnant digitiform, protruding into apical part of stigma; anther cap galeate, 1 mm long; pollinarium 1 mm tal Nomenclatural notes: It appears that the type specimen of Lockhartia dipleura was a unicate (no duplicates have been found), and it was destroyed during World War II (Ames, 1944). Schlechter and Ames had an act ive exchange program, and an artist

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68 (Ames, 1944). This activity continued even after Schl have th Lockhartia dipleura at AMES does not have this label, and thus it cannot be considered original material (that is, not seen by Schlechter), and cannot be designated as a lecto lectotypification. Lockhartia integra was described from a specimen with a flower in bad condition ( and no longer present on the sheet), and the isotype does not have flowers. Louis O. Williams noted ( in sched. side lobes should be, and suggested that this entity could be the same as L. micrantha Later, Atwood and Mora de Retana (1999) put L. integra in the synonymy of L. pittieri Schltr. (= L. parthenoglossa Rchb. f.). However, the vegetative morphology of the type of L. integra is different from that of most plants of L. micrantha and L. parthenoglossa The callus with three longitudinal ridges, the basal, subquadra te, concave disc, and the relatively large column suggests that L. integra is conspecific with L. dipleura On the other hand, the possibility remains that the type collection of L. integra is a stout plant of L. micrantha and that the above mentioned fea tures represent artifacts from a poorly preserved, rehydrated flower.

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69 Phenology: The few field collections available indicate that the species flowers at least in January, May, and July. Distribution: Endemic to Costa Rica, where it grows from 500 to 1350 m on the Caribbean slope of the Tilarn and Central Volcanic Cordilleras (Figure 6). A report from Corcovado National Park (near sea level, on the Pacific coast in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica) is based on a plant flowered in cultivation at Lankester Bo tanical Garden; this locality is questionable and the collecting data for that plant were probably erroneous. Additional specimens examined: COSTA RICA. Without locality: 1 Aug. 1994 (cult.), anonymous s.n. (USJ spirit). Alajuela: Reserva Biolgica Monteve rde, Ro Peas Blancas, 800 m, 8 May 1989, Bello 880 (CR); Reserva de San Ramn, May 1989 (cult.), Mora s.n (USJ); S of Aguas Zarcas, above the Ro Aguas Zarcas, 500 m, 20 May 1968, Burger & Stolze 5104 (F); San Carlos, Cordillera de Tilarn, falda N del Volcn Arenal, camino a Tabacn, 500 m, 18 Jan. 1994, Lpiz et al. 121 (INB); San Ramn, Reserva Biolgica A.M. Brenes, 10 Jun. 1994 (cult.), Mora s.n. (USJ spirit, 2 jars); Upala, C.B. Guanacaste Rincn de la Vieja, Cuenca del Pizote, San Cristbal, sende ro al vivero por el Ro Cucaracho, 620 m, 31 Jan. 1998, Quesada 528 (INB). Cartago: Jimnez, Pejibaye, Taus, Ro Pejibaye, 1 km after the school of Taus, 700 m, Aug. 2009 (cult.), Pupulin et al. 7734 (JBL spirit). Puntarenas: Sirena de Corcovado, Jul. 1989 (cult.), Mora s.n. (USJ; questionable locality). Commentary: Lockhartia dipleura is distinguished from other species in the Oncidium provided with three parallel, verrucose keels, and a somewhat cucullate column. The

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70 leaves tend to be acute and narrower than in other Costa Rican species (except for L. oerstedii which often has darker green leaves and much larger flowers). It is most similar to the South American L. imbricata which ha s a callus composed of numerous, tiny tubercles not organized in files, shorter (often non existent) lateral lobes, and a proportionally smaller column. The drawing of L. dipleura published by Mora & Atwood (1992c) includes a dissected flower whose parts w ere not flattened, and thus the labellum appears published by Pupulin 2010 ) of a rehydrated flower better shows the shape of the flattened labellum. Lockhartia dipleura was pu t in the synonymy of L. amoena by Atwood and Mora de Retana (1999), but that species has a much wider, subquadrate, retuse labellum midlobe and much wider, flabellate column wings. No intermediates seem to occur between both taxa. Dressler (2003) considere d L. dipleura a synonym of L. micrantha but the latter species has much smaller flowers produced simultaneously Lockhartia dipleura is apparently a rare species, judging from the few collections available. Lockhartia endresiana M.A. Blanco 7. Lockhartia endresiana M.A. Blanco, sp. nov TYPE: COSTA RICA. Alajuela: without flowers on 23 Jan. 2001 by M. Blanco, R. Moran, E. Watkins & E. Vargas, flowered in cultivation at Lankester Botanical Garden on 15 Jul. 2002, M. Blanco 1803 (Holotype: USJ 79983; clonotype, flowered 23 January 2001: FLAS)

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71 Lockhartia grandibracteata Kraenzl. affinis, sed callo constans ex carinis octo parallelis denticulatis, et lobis basalibus labelli angustio ribus. Stems erect, more or less Leaves marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, triangular in side view, acute, with straight to incurving margins, exposed part of largest leaves 3 6 mm. Inflorescences both terminal and axillary from the portion cordate, obtuse to round a pically, 8 8 9 mm; pedicel and ovary 14 mm long. Flowers tall; yellow with dark chocolate brown markings on the lateral lobes, disk, and central keels of callus of the labellum, and a dark brown line at the base of the c olumn; occasionally spotted on the upper part of the column and at the base of the petals. Sepals ovate to elliptic, slightly concave, obtuse, 6 7 4 5 mm. Petals oblong elliptic, slightly incurved, with revolute margins, rounded to truncate apically, 7 7 .5 4 4.5 mm when flattened. Labellum trilobate; the lateral lobes oblong, incurved, 6 1.5 mm, apically obtuse to rounded; midlobe divided in 4 lobules (the two basal ones triangular and projected backward, the two distal ones rounded when flattened), a pically emarginate, 10.5 11 mm long, 10.5 11.5 mm wide (across the widest part of midlobe when flattened); callus subpandurate, the basal part forming a subquadrate concave cushion with a basal tuft of short, glandular hairs, 2 2 mm, the distal part form ed by 6 8 high (to 1.5 mm tall), subparallel, denticulate keels, 4 3.5 mm when labellum is flattened. Column hastate, truncate, held perpendicular to the

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72 labellum, 3 3.5 mm long, 4.5 5 mm wide at base, 2.3 mm wide distally; anther cap hemispherical, 1 1. 3 mm in diameter; pollinarium not seen. Fruits not seen. Phenology: field collections indicate that flowering occurs from March to Etymology: the epithet honors Augustus R. Endrs (1838 1874) (Ossenbach et al. 2010), who first illustrated this species. Endrs also collected the type specimens (or sent live plants that were used to prepare the types) of several other names in Lockhartia (e.g., L. amoena Endrs & Rchb. f., L. cladoniophora Rchb. f., L. grandibract ea Kraenzl., L. hercodonta Rchb. f. ex Kraenzl., and L. odontochila Kraenzl.). Distribution: presently known only from Costa Rica, from 600 to 1450 m on the Caribbean slope of the Guanacaste and Tilarn cordilleras and on the Pacific side of the Talamanca cordillera (Figure 2). The collections from the Zona Protectora Las Tablas suggest that this species also occurs in adjacent Chiriqu province of Panama, but no collections from that country have been identified yet. It is possible that some Panamanian he rbarium specimens without flowers, annotated as Lockhartia cf. grandibractea Kraenzl. during this study, are actually L. endresiana ; both species cannot be distinguished without flowers. Additional specimens examined: COSTA RICA. Without locality: 19 Oct. 1994 (cult.), LeDoux & Stern 355 (MO). Alajuela: Guatuso, Cote, Lago Cote, 640 m, 4 Jun. 2004, Gmez Laurito 14314 (USJ); San Carlos, Quesada, Puente de Casa, 400 m, 6 May 1978, Todzia 251 (CR, 2 sheets). Cartago: Turrialba, Guayabo, 16 Sep. 1991, Mora s.n (USJ spirit 57678); Turrialba, Tayutic, Vereh, Grano de Oro, 2 km al E,

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73 camino a Llanos del Quetzal, 1200 m, 28 Jul. 1995, Herrera & Cascante 8163 (CR, F, K) Guanacaste: Guatuso, Cordillera de Tilarn, Lago Coter, 700 m, 18 May 1997, Rivera 3080 (CR); L iberia, Parque Nacional Guanacaste, Estacin Cacao, 1100 m, 2 Jun. 1990, Carballo 40 (CR). Puntarenas: Buenos Aires, Boruca, 700 1000 m, Jul. 1976, Ocampo 1423 (CR); Coto Brus, San Vito, Estacin Biolgica Las Cruces, Sendero Ridge, 28 Aug. 2008, Oviedo Br enes 214 (HLDG), 1219 m, 16 Aug. 1967, Raven 21820 (F), 1 mile due S of San Vito de Java, 1067 m, 18 Aug. 1967, Raven 21906 (CR, DUKE, F, PMA, SEL, U); Ro Sirena [Ro Sereno?], Sabalito, 1991, Soto s.n. (USJ spirit); Zona Protectora Las Tablas, Finca Las Alturas, road from Las Alturas to Fila Tigre, 1450 m, 3 Jul. 2004 (cult.), Pupulin et al. 4493 (JBL spirit), 22 Mar. 2003 (cult.), Pupulin et al. 4518 (JBL spirit). Commentary: Lockhartia endresiana is most similar to L. grandibractea with which it share s the general shape of the labellum and column. However, it differs by the structure of the callus (composed of eight parallel denticulate keels, vs. a compact mass of low tubercles in L. grandibractea ), and by the narrower basal lobes (arms) of the labell um. There are intermediate forms between both species in the area around the Costa Rican Panamanian border, and it is likely that there is hybridization between them, especially because both species flower mostly during the rainy season. However, the morph ological extremes are different enough to justify, in my opinion, their treatment as different species. In the absence of flowers, it is practically impossible to tell the two species apart, and difficult to distinguish either of them from L. amoena. Endr s prepared a detailed drawing of Lockhartia endresiana ( Endrs 302 W Reich. Orch. 33697), which includes a stem with an inflorescence, front and side view

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74 of the flower, a detail of the callus base with the elaiophore, six details of the column, and the p ollinarium with detached pollinia. At the bottom and on the right side there are drawings of a column with wide, flabellate wings, possibly of L. amoena There is no indication of the original locality for any of these elements in the drawing, and their co rresponding vouchers have not been found and may have not been preserved. Lockhartia galeottiana A. Rich. ex Soto Arenas 8. Lockhartia galeottiana A. Rich. ex Soto Arenas, Icon. Orchid. 10: plate 1038, xvii xviii. 2008. Based on Ophrys imbricata Sess & Mo cio, Pl. Nov. Hisp., ed. 2: 142. (1887? )1890. Non Orchis imbricata Sess & Mocio (Fl. Mexic., ed. 2: 199. 1894 or 1896?), nec Epidendrum imbricatum Lam. ( Lockhartia imbricata (Lam.) Hoehne). TYPE: [MEXICO. Guerrero: Chilpancingo de los Bravo], mountains of Acahuizotla, July [1789], M. Sess s.n. (lectotype, designated by Soto Arenas, Icon. Orchid. 10: plate 1038. 1 Epidendrum imbricatum with the negative No. 40963 of the Chicago Natural History Museum, MA 4335 [photo seen], photo: F; Fernandezia imbricata Ses s s.n. (his name not written on the specimen; see Nomenclatural notes below)], BM 000534515. 1, Serapias imbricata Institute for Botanical Documentation (Pittsburgh, P A, USA), Torner Coll ection No. 6331.0183 [photo seen], copy (hand painted) in G [DC. plate no. 1197; photo: Chicago Natural History (Field) Museum negative no. 30867; prints in F, MICH, MO]) long when reproductive, with leaves wide. Leaves marcescent, unifacial,

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75 laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, subfalcate, with outcurving to straight (rarely incurving) margins, obtuse (rarely obliquely acute), exposed surface of largest l eaves Inflorescences both terminal and axillary from upper portion of sequentially, exserted portion long, internodes bracts am plexicaul, widely ovate, cordate, obtuse, apiculate, appressed or oblique (forming an acute angle) to the rachis, imbricate; pedicel and ovary mm long. column heav ily spotted with reddish brown; the lateral lobes with oblique longitudinal brown stripes; the anther cap white to yellow. Sepals ovate to elliptic, slightly concave, obtuse, lobate, wide across lateral lobes when flattened; lateral lobes div ided in 4 lobules, pandurate, emarginate, wider across the distal lobules when flattened, margin irregularly undulate, backwards, the distal lobules flared obliquely downward; callus elongate, suboblong; basal part forming a concave cushion with a basal tuft of short, glandular hairs, 2 the distal portion forming an oblong mass of low tubercles, 4 wider and bifid distally. Column broadly winged, 2 mm long, 4.5 mm wide; wings suboblique, subquadr ate ovate, 2 2 mm, with a entire to denticulate margin; stigmatic cavity oblong to pandurate, 1 pollinarium 1 mm tall, stipe bifid.

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76 Nomenclatural notes: The specimen cited here a s the probable isotype of Ophrys imbricata Fernandezia imbricata that Pavn sold thousands of specimens from the Sess and Mocio herbarium to private, mainly British collectors (McVaugh, 1977), many of which ended up in BM. It was unusual for Pavn to modify the names of Sess and Mocio, but he probably recognized the specimen as a member of Fernandezia (as originally circumscribe d by Ruiz and himself), and he probably changed it from either Ophrys or Epidendrum and discarded the original label. Pavn never collected in Mexico. The painting of the type cited above was made by Atanasio Echeverra y Godoy (one of the artists of the S ess expedition) directly from the live plant in the field. The original is now deposited in the archives of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation in Pittsburgh. A hand painted copy (DC. plate 1197, part of the copy set commissioned by Augustin Py ramus de Candolle) is held at G, with photos in several herbaria (e.g., F, MICH, MO, from the Field Museum negative no. 30867). The number and is not a collection number (McVaugh, 1985). The detailed locality data and year for the type collection of Ophrys imbricata are inferred from the Sess and Mocio expedition itinerary presented by McVaugh (1977). The plant was collected by Sess in 17 the expedition (including valid species descriptions) were published posthumously a

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77 century later. McVaugh (1977) discus sed the complexities and uncertainties of the true dates of these publications, which do not always match the year printed on them. Fernandesia galeottiana A. itinerary, published by McVaugh (1978). Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the year, but more abundantly during the months of May, June, and July; no flowering collections have been made in A ugust. Distribution: Endemic to western Mexico, in the states of Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit, and Oaxaca, from 550 to 1500 m in the Sierra Madre del Sur and the southern portion of the Sierra Madre Occidental (Figure 7). A watercolor of this species by Gale otti and currently in P (not seen, but cited by Soto Arenas in the protologue) was apparently made from a plant collected in Juquila (Oaxaca), and has a note stating that L. galeottiana occur s (rarely) as high as 2000 m. Additional specimens examined: MEXICO. Without locality: anonymous 10 (K spirit); Aug. 1888 (cult.), Bull s.n. (K); Karwinski 3041 (G). Guerrero: 1 mi N of Agua de Obispo, 1006 m, 1 Jul. 1952, Rowell 2995 (F, MICH); Agua del O bispo, 975 m, 11 Jun. 1954, Ryan & Floyed 34 (LL); Atoyac El Gallo, km 54, 27 Sep. 1981 (cult.), Hgsater 4770 (AMO, 4 sheets); Atoyac, El Ranchito, 11 km al NE de El Paraiso, 1100 m, 25 May 1986, Soto Nez & Solrzano 12799 (MEXU); Atoyac, El Ranchito, 1 3 km al NE de El Paraso, 1100 m, 22 Apr. 1985, Soto Nez & Aureoles 8432 (E, MEXU); Camino Atoyac El Gallo, arriba de Paraso, km 54, 3 Aug. 1987 (cult.), Hgsater 4770 (AMO, 2

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78 sheets), 8 Jun. 1984 (cult.), Hgsater 4770 (AMO, 5 sheets), 26 Sep. 1986 (cu lt.), Hgsater 4770 (AMO, 3 sheets), 27 Feb. 1977 (cult.), Hgsater 4771 (AMO); Chilpancingo, 22 Jun. 1977 (cult.), Ackerman 870 (SEL), 7 Jul. 1978 (cult.), Ackerman 1213 (SEL), 7 Apr. 1978 (cult.), Pridgeon s.n (F); Galeana, Plan de Carrizo, 750 m, 14 Oc t. 1939, Hinton et al. 14640 (AMES); Galeana, Sierrita, 800 m, 28 Jun. 1939, Hinton et al. 14366 (AMES); Km 339 40 between Acahuizotla and Agua de Obispo in highway to Acapulco, 914 m, 1 Oct. 1949, Moore 5145 (AMES, BH); Mexico Acapulco road, km 341 342, J ul. 1941, Sawyer 103 (F); Near Cantiles de Joveritos, km 353 road Mxico Acapulco, 900 m, 3 Mar. 1932 (cult.), Oestlund 2687 (AMES, MEXU, MO, S, US); Near end of road to El Fresno Microondas, turnoff to which is 2 mi S of El Rincn on Acapulco Iguala Hwy. (#95), 1100 m, 28 Sep. 1983, Chase 83253 (AMO, K spirit, MICH, MO, SEL); Near Jaltianguis, 550 m, 21 Jun. 1934 (cult.), Oestlund 1720 (AMES, BM, S, US); Region of Acahuizotla, Jul. 1942, Sawyer 680 (F); Region of Joveritos, 800 m, 19 Mar. 1936 (cult.), Oes tlund 3280 (AMES, MO); San Luis Acatln, 20 km al N de Miahuichn, 1050 m, 24 May 1983, Gonzlez Loera & Castaneda 324 (MEXU); Sierra Madre, above La Providencia, Acapulco, 21 Nov. 1882, Hancock 4 (K, 2 sheets). Jalisco: 10 miles S of Autln toward La Reso lana, 1463 m, 15 Jul. 1949, Wilbur & Wilbur 1728 (DS, DUKE, F, MEXU, MICH, WIS); Purificacin, La Estancia, Sierra de Purificacin, 1450 m, 20 Nov. 1987, Daz Luna 19346 (AMO); Road W of Autln, 1311 m, Jun. 1955, Johnson 1254 40 (SEL); SW of Autln, towar d Manzanillo, 1200 m, 9 Apr. 1949, McVaugh & Wilbur 10223 (AMES, G, MEXU, MICH, NY, US). Nayarit: Ca. 10 mi W of Tepic on road to Jalcocotn, 26 Dec. 1949, Dressler 1007 (US); Jocolcotn, 20 Dec. 1946, Dawson s.n (RSA); Near La Yerba, ca. 20 km NW of Tepi c on

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79 Jalcocotn road, 12 Jul. 1961, Dressler & Wirth 2704 (AMES, BRIT, MO, UC, US); Xalisco, El Astal, cerca de la capilla en el ejido El Cuarenteno, 1450 m, 22 May 1996, Alvarado & Ibarra 352 (MEXU); Xalisco, La Carbonera, 16 Jun. 1992, Alvarado 51 (MEXU) Oaxaca: Pluma Hidalgo, Pochutla, Cerro Espino, al E de la finca cafetalera Monte Cristo, 1250 m, 24 Feb. 1988, Campos 1499 (MEXU); Pochutla, Cal. S. Antonio, Cerro del Machete, 1500 m, Feb. 1941, Reko 6061 (AMES, MEXU, RSA); Pochutla, Finca Monte Cristo, Cerro Espino, 1000 m, 8 Feb. 1977, Souza & Soto 7139 (MEXU); Pochutla, San Miguel del Puerto, 50 m al N del casco de la finca Monte Carlo, 900 m, 29 Mar. 2002, Saynes et al. 2907 (MEXU); Pochutla, San Miguel del Puerto, Finca Montecarlo, al N rumbo al Ran cho Las Lobas, 1210 m, 31 May 2001, Saynes et al. 2191 (MEXU); Teoxomulco, Karwinski s.n (G). COUNTRY UNKNOWN : C. America (cult.), Renz 14492 (RENZ). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: 24 Jul. 1983, Chase 83147 (K spirit); 2 Jun. 1932, Ecuador, below Quito, Oestlund 2688 (AMES, S; locality likely erroneous). Commentary: Lockhartia galeottiana is most similar to L. verrucosa from which it is distinguished by the leaves often slightly curved away from the stem (vs. straight to incurved), the usua lly shorter, congested inflorescences with spiral phyllotaxy produced sequentially (basipetally) along the stem (vs. generally several produced simultaneously), often more than one flower produced in each inflorescence (vs. usually only one), and the narro wer, bifid callus of the labellum. The apical lobules of the labellum midlobe tend to be somewhat wider than in L. verrucosa. The distinctive leaf shape is, however, somewhat variable (even in the same plant), and some collections (or individual stems) can appear more similar to those of L. oerstedii (with long, narrow

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80 shoots with straight leaves) or L. verrucosa (with leaves slightly curved toward the stem). The floral differences, however, are consistent. Lockhartia galeottiana and L. verrucosa are allopa tric (the former occurs in the Sierra Madre del Sur and the southern part of the Sierra Madre Occidental in western Mexico, while the latter occurs in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in southern Mexico and Guatemala), and their ranges are separated by the Chiv ela Pass in Oaxaca. Lockhartia galeottiana is the northernmost species in the genus, and it is not sympatric with any other species of Lockhartia Collections of Lockhartia galeottiana have traditionally been treated as L. oerstedii in the l iterature (e.g. McVaugh, 1985) and annotated as such in herbaria. However, L. oerstedii has narrower stems, a wider callus, taller callus tubercles, and occurs from Chiapas to Panama. Lockhartia genegeorgei D.E. Benn. & Christenson 9. Lockhartia genegeorgei D.E. Benn. & Christenson, Lindleyana 13: 53, fig. 15. 1998. Neobennettia genegeorgei (D.E. Benn. & Christenson) Senghas, J. Orchideenfr. 8: 364. 2001. TYPE: PERU. Huanuco: Leoncio Prado, 3 Km SW of Cueva de Pavas, Alturas de Huachipa, September 1992, E. Jara P. sub D .E. Bennett 5199 ( lectotype, here designated : s sheet, with the following label data: PERU. Huanuco: Leoncio Prado, 3 kms from the road to Tingo Mara, Alturas de Huachipa, 5 January 1992, D.E. Bennett 5199 24 NY 4660; isotype: USM, transferred to MOL fide E.A. Christenson, not found in either Stems erect or arching, long when reproductive (to the apex of the pseudobulb

PAGE 81

81 terminated by a single pseudobulb; pseudobulb narrowly elliptic, more or less flattened, truncate to slightly oblique apically, with a single apical leaf. Leaves (in cluding foliaceous bracts of stem) conduplicate, linear, acute, with an abscision layer; apical leaf without a sheath, conduplicate but folded lenghtwise for ca. half of its l ength, Inflorescences axillary from the leaf immediately subtending the pseudobulb, exserted portion internodes ute, rachis bracts amplexicaul, subrotund, Flowers resupinate, widely open, mm tall, yellow with two orange bands on the callus, the column yellow with orange lines on the wings and a pale white 2 3 mm. sigmoid in profile, obscurely lobed, lacking arm like basal lobes, obscurely pandurate when flattened but much wider below the middle, retuse, the margins reflexed in life except two parts; the basal part a concave, elliptic cup 3 2 mm, with a dense, oblong pad of very short (<0.5 mm) glandular trichomes in the middle; the distal part formed by 2 raised (1 mm), smooth, convergent keels, together 2 1.5 mm. Column broadly winged, 3 mm long, 3.5 mm wide; wings oblique, subquadrate, each with a raised midvein, 1.5 2 mm, with a slightly irregular margin; stigmatic cavity teardrop shaped, acuminate toward the anther, 2 0.6 mm; rostellum elongate, 0.7 mm long; anther cap slightly s urpassing

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82 column wings, galeate, subrostrate apically, 1.7 1 mm; pollinarium 1.7 mm tall, stipe elongate, subspathulate, entire, wider near the pollinia 1 0.2 mm. Fruit not seen. Nomenclatural notes: David E. Bennett (1923 2009) frequently prepared Each pseudo duplicate was given a suffix number after the collection number assigned to the cultivated plant, and the date of preparation was indicated on the label. S everal such pseudo duplicates were designated as isotypes for orchid species that Bennett described together with Eric A. Christenson. However, because these pseudo duplicates cannot be considered part of the same gathering (in the sense used by the Intern ational Code of Botanical Nomenclature; McNeill et al. 2006), such specimens are not true isotypes and should be treated simply as paratypes. The four known dry specimens of Lockhartia genegeorgei prepared by Bennett (four in NY, one in FLAS) have label data that are partially inconsistent with the protologue (the paratype in spirit at MOL does not have a label with it, other than the 24 date of preparation disagrees with that given in the protologue. However, it is the most complete specimen. The date mentioned in the protologue probably refers to the date of preparation of the description and/or illustration. the species and not to individual plants. This idea is supported by the following sentence from the protologue: s of L. genegeorgei seen by 5199

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83 improbable that all of these were prepared from the same cultivated plant, especially because the type illustration shows a rather small pl ant. In any case, none of the additional specimens at NY or FLAS can be considered true duplicates. The herbarium collections of David Bennett previously deposited in USM and in Christenson pers. comm. 2009), but the isotype of L. genegeorgei has not been found at any of these herbaria (Delsy Trujillo, pers. comm., 2010). The only specimen in MOL is in spirit, and has a different Bennett number ( 7321 ) than the type collection. Phenology: Al l four known herbarium specimens (including the type) were apparently prepared from plants in cultivation in Lima, where they flowered in January, September, and December. Distribution: Endemic to Peru, where it has been collected only in Hunuco departmen t, province of Leoncio Prado, at 1200 m (Figure 5). Additional specimens examined: PERU. Hunuco: Leoncio Prado, heights above Huachipa, 3 km from the road to Tingo Mara, 1200 m, 5 Jan. 1992 (cult.), E. Jara sub Bennett 5199 13 (NY); Leoncio Prado, height s above Huachipa, 3 km from Cueva de Las Pavas, 20 Dec. 1991 (cult.), Jara sub Bennett 5199 19 (FLAS); Leoncio Prado, heights above Huachipa, 3 km from the road to Tingo Mara, 1200 m, 12 Sep. 1992 (cult.), Jara sub Bennett 5199 6 (NY); "Same general local ity as the type", Oct. 1995, Jara sub Bennett 7321 (MOL spirit). Commentary: Lockhartia genegeorgei is immediately recognizable by its relatively short stems terminated by a pseudobulb, linear, articulated, conduplicate leaves that are much longer than tho se of any other species of Lockhartia strictly axillary

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84 inflorescences, long (up to 12 cm) inflorescence peduncles, labellum without lateral lobes but with a large elaiophore (about 1/3 the length of the labellum) and a strange, folded callus, elongate ro stellum, and elongate and entire (non bifid) stipe. Lockhartia genegeorgei is the most deviant species in the genus, so much so that Bennett and Christenson (1998) put it in a subgenus of its own ( Pseudobulbosa D.E. Benn. & Christenson) and Senghas (2001) erected the genus Neobennettia for it. However, this species also has a number of traits that are diagnostic of Lockhartia : the pseudo cymose inflorescence development, the amplexicaul, widely ovate and expanded inflorescence bracts (as in most species of the Imbricata group of subgenus Lockhartia ) and the elaiophore (putatively functional) formed by a field of minute trichomes in a depression at the base of the labellum. Chase (2009) suggested that Lockhartia genegeorgei has reverted to an ancestral veg etative morphology more typical of other members of subtribe Oncidiinae, implying that the other species of Lockhartia show a paedomorphic condition. It may also be that L. genegeorgei is sister to the reminder of the genus and that it retained several ple siomorphic traits. Yet a third possibility is that L. genegeorgei is a natural hybrid (or a lineage of hybrid origin) between a species of Lockhartia (probably the sympatric L. lepticaula ) and a species of Oncidium Unfortunately, L. genegeorgei remains a rare species (very few herbarium collections are known, all from the same area) and no live material or DNA has been available to test these hypotheses; repeated attempts to extract DNA from herbarium specimens have failed. Lockhartia goyazensis Rchb. f. 1 0. Lockhartia goyazensis Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 10: 768. 1852. TYPE: BRA Z IL. Goyaz [Gois]: between Arrayas [ sic ; Tocantins: Arraias] & Sn Domingos [ sic ; Gois:

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85 So Domingos], May 1840, G. Gardner 4360 (holotype: W; isotypes: BM, CGE [not seen], E [image se en], G [3 sheets], K, K Lindl. [mounted on the right side of the type sheet of Lockhartia lunifera ], OXF [image seen], W. Possible type fragment: single flower in packet Gardner packet ; rehydrated by Kraenzli n). Leaves marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, triangular in side view, with outcurving (occasionally straight) margins, obtuse to truncate (commonly rounded), exposed part of largest leaves Inflorescences both terminal and axillary from the distal part of the stem, with exserted portion mm long; inf lorescence bracts amplexicaul, widely ovate, cordate, obtuse, apiculate, pedicel and ovary Flowers resupinate, widely open, spots and line s around the callus and on the lateral lobes, and an open V shaped dark lobate, midlobe divided into 4 lobules, more or less pandurate, emarginate, margin irregu larly undulate, lobules projected downward; callus more or less triangular or drop shaped; basal part

PAGE 86

86 th cavity rh ombic to hemispheric, 0.8 0.8 mm; anther cap not seen; pollinarium not seen. Nomenclatural notes: George Gardner collected the type in 1840 somewhere between the towns of Arraias and So Domingos (in southeastern Tocantins a nd northeastern Gois states, in their current delimitation); both towns are ca. 77 km apart. Tocantins was not established as a separate state until 1988, and it was part of Gois at zil, Gardner (1846) described that part o f his voyage in pages 376 379 (C hapter XI). The type was likely collected on May 8 th 1840, when Gardner traveled between Fazenda Gamelleira and Fazenda Mang, still closer to Arraias than to So Domingos (and thus p robably still in Tocantins state). Part of the entry for that day describes the locality where the type was likely collected: had seen since leaving the Province of Rio de Janei ro, and which I little expected to find in the district where we were now travelling. It contained descripti on of the landscape could allow someone familiar with the area to locate the site. One of the isotypes of Lockhartia goyazensis at G has the year 1841 instead of 4360

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87 Lockhartia macrocarpon (written on Maciel et al. 1475 MG) was never published, and to my knowledge, was never even proposed by Louis Claude Richard. However, this name probably originated from a Lockhartia plant, Cat asetum macrocarpon and on which the genus Lockhartia was established ( Lindley, 1824, and nomenclatural notes under L. imbricata ). How this name came to be associated with a recent collection of L. goyaze nsis is a mystery. Phenology: Plants have been collected in flower mostly from April to August, and occasionally in other months of the year. Distribution: Central Brazil and eastern Bolivia, at least from 150 to 900 m (Figure 8). However, most collections lack elevational data. Lockhartia goyazensis is a common species in the Brazilian planalto and the southern Amazon basin in the states of Gois (including the Distrito Federal Brasilia), Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Rondnia, and southern Par. It has been collected a few times in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. In Bolivia, it is known from the eastern Amazonian lowlands in the states of Beni, Pando, and Santa Cruz. Additional specimens examined: BOLIVIA. Beni: Vaca Diez, 20.8 km E of Riberalta on road to G uayaramern, 230 m, 25 Sep. 1981, Solomon 6413 (MO, SEL); Vaca Diez, camino de Riberalta hacia Guayaramerin, desviando al camino a Cahuela, 150 m, 15 Aug. 2000, Kromer & Acebey 1442 (LPB). Pando: W bank of Rio Madeira between Cachoeiras Madeira and Miseric ordia, 29 Jul. 1968, Prance et al. 6604 (INPA, K, NY); W bank of Rio Madeira, 4 km above Abuna, 23 Jul. 1968, Prance et al. 6264 (COL, F, GH, INPA, K, MG, NY, S, U). Santa Cruz: Guarayos, 5 km al S de las

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88 instalaciones de Perseverancia, Riberas del Ro Neg ro, 275 m, 16 Jul. 1992, Vargas et al. 1701 (NY); Guarayos, Reserva de Vida Silvestre Ros Blanco y Negro, Ro San Martn (Concesin Oquiriquia), 300 m, 4 Sep. 1993, Vargas & Tagua 2728 (F); uflo de Chvez, Perseverancia, vecindad del Ro Negro, tributari o del Ro Baures, a 75 km S del lmite del Dpto. de Beni y 150 km O del Ro Paragua, 200 m, 16 May 1991, Mostacedo & Foster 84 (F); uflo de Chvez, Reserva de Vida Silvestre "Ros Blanco y Negro", Laguna Pajaral, 14 Aug. 1992, Saldas et al. 2177 (LPB); V elasco, campamento El Refugio, a 1500 m al N de la casa, yendo al cerro por el camino de la ribera del Ro Paragua, 180 m, 26 Jun. 1994, Guilln 1946 (MO, NY); Velasco, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff M., Cataratas Federico Ahlfelt, Ro Paucerna, 210 m, 11 May 1994, Vsquez et al. 2203 (LPB Vasq); Velasco, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff M., Ro Itenez, Flor de Oro, Ro Itenez, 200 m, Jun. 1993, Vsquez et al. 2126 (LPB Vasq); Velasco, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, camino a El Encanto, 260 m, 6 Nov. 1995, Ro driguez & Foster 765 (MO); Velasco, Parque Nal. Noel Kempff Mercado, campamento en Lago Caimn, tramo de bosque desde el Ro Itenez hasta el lago, 250 m, 4 Oct. 1995, Vargas et al. 4040 (F); Velasco, Ro Paragua, 200 m, Apr. 1984, Moreno sub Vsquez 911 (L PB Vasq); [Velasco], beim Ro Tarvo, km 8.1, 30 Aug. 1951, Schmidt 2 (M). which was founded in 1960], 1841, Duparquier s.n. (BM); "Jar, Rio Branco, Amazonas", 1 913, Kuhlmann 3464 (RB). Amazonas: In flumine Madeira et in arbor sylvae sapurensis, Flum. Nigri, Martius 2694 (M); Rio dos Pombos, by waterfall about 4 hours by canoe N of the intersection with Transamazon Highway and 74 km E of Aripuana river, 23 Jun. 19 79, Caldern et al. 2651 (INPA, K). Braslia: APA de

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89 Cafuringa, Fazenda Palestina, margem esquerda do Rio Sal, 2 Oct. 1992, Pereira & Alvarenga 2271 (K, SP). Gois: without locality, Apr. 1844, Weddell 2581 (P); "Goyaz", Jun. 1920, Herter 6930 (L); Cabecei ras de Gois, Fazenda Raizama, km 20 da rodovia GO, 850 m, 29 Mar. 1994, Pereira 2588 (K, SP); Goinia, Dec. 1936, Brade s.n. (RB); Niquelandia, estrada de acesso a Lt CODEMIM, Serra da Mesa, 17 km apos a entrada para Rosariana, 11 Jul. 1996, Pinho dos San tos et al. 487 (SP); Niquelandia, estrada de terra vicinal a GO 237 (Niquelandia/Colinas), entrada a 600 m da ponte sobre o bagagem a 40 km desta, 410 m, 14 Apr. 1992, Walter et al. 1294 (RB); Niquelandia, Macedo, Mata ca. 03 km abaixo da mina de nquel, 2 8 Jun. 1996, Azevedo et al. 1011 (SP); Prximo a Cromenia, 28 Aug. 1978, Magnano 287 (RB, 2 sheets); Region of the southern Serra Dourada, 20 km E of Formoso, 16 May 1956, Dawson 14865 (RSA); Region of the southern Serra Dourada, 21 km SE of Formosa, E of Amaro Leite, 14 Jan. 1965, Dawson 14952 (UC); Serra do Caiap, ca. 50 km S of Caiaponia, road to Jata, 900 m, 27 Jun. 1966, Irwin et al. 17870 (F, K). Mato Grosso: Aripuan, Dardanelos, parte baixa da cachoeira das Andorinhas, 26 Sep. 1975, Lisba et al. 285 (INPA); Aripuan, Projeto Juina, arredores do aeroporto, 12 Jun. 1979, Silva & Rosario 4879 (MG, NY); Cupim prope Palmeiras, 20 Dec. 1893, Lindman A2457 (S, 2 sheets); Margem esquerda do Rio Juruena, arredores do acampamento da promisa, terreno de roch a de granito, SC 21 VC, 19 Jun. 1977, Rosa & Santos 2143 (INPA, MG, MO, RB, U, US); Sandy E bank of Rio Aripuana, N of Humboldt Campus, 9 Oct. 1973, Prance et al. 18303 (INPA, NY); Sta. Cruz, Nov. 1891, Moore 692 (BM, K, NY); Tres Lagoas, km 85 da estrada para Alto Sucuri, Fazenda Barreirinho, margens do Rio da Prata (afluente do Rio Sucuri), 29 Aug. 1985, Barros 1163 (SP); Tres Lagoas, margem

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90 direita do Sacuri, 18 Jun. 1964, Correa Gomes 1948 (SP). Minas Gerais: without locality, Apr. 1915, Vincent 6930 (L); Estaco Experimental Agua Limpia, 9 Mar. 1949, Granofremas 2555 (RB); Horto Florestal de Paraopeba (EFIEX IBDF), Munic. de Paraopeba, 700 m, 11 May 1974, Martinelli & Fernandes da Silva 320 (RB); Ituiutaba, Fazenda do Fundai, 7 Jul. 1950, Macedo 2466 (NY, RB, S [2 sheets], SP, UC); Unai, localidade denominada Palmital, na confluencia do corrego das Lages com o Rio Preto, 27 Apr. 1993, Pereira & Alvarenga 2493 (K). Par: Agua Azul, em campina cortada pela estrada que vai de Xinguar a So Flix do Xing , km 55 na margem esquerda do Rio Agua Preta, 1 Jun. 1994, Silva et al. 331 (MG); Altamira, Rio Iriri, margem direita do Rio Iriri, cachoeira do Desvo (Amaro Velho), 18 Aug. 1986, Vasconcelos et al. 15 (MG); Itaituba, Base Area do Cachimbo, km 792, 19 A pr. 1983, Silva et al. 36 (INPA, NY); Marab, Carajs, N 1, lado S da estrada, 14 Sep. 1984, Silva & Santos 7 (MG); Pau Grogan 355 (INPA); Prope Porto de Moz in ripa flu. Xing, [10 Sep. 1819], Martius 2694 (M, W Reich); Se rra dos Carajs, 12 km W of camp ECB on the ferrovia, ca. 57 km W of road BR 150, 26 Jun. 1982, Sperling et al. 6349 (K, NY); Serra dos Carajs, 6 km SE of AMZA camp N 1, 19 May 1982, Sperling et al. 5731 (F, K, MG, NY). Rondnia: Alvorad do Oeste, Linha 64, a 07 km da BR 429 em direo a Costa Marques, 1 May 1987, Cid Ferreira 9001 (INPA); Ariqumes, cultivated in Munich Botanical Garden, Gerlach s.n. (FLAS, M); Cacoal, BR 364, rodovia Cuiaba Porto Velho, km 234, ao N da cidade, morro da torre da EMBRATEL 23 Jun. 1984, Cid et al. 4753 (INPA, K, MG, NY, SEL); Ji Paran, Rio Jar, 20 Jul. 1987, Martuscelli s.n. (SP); Porto Vehlo to Cuiaba highway, 4 km S of Nova Vida, 15 Aug. 1968, Forero & Wrigley 7074 (NY); Presidente Mdici, BR 364, km 14, 17 May 1985,

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91 M aciel et al. 1475 (MG); Rodovia Presidente Mdici Alvorad, Rio Muqui, 18 Jun. 1983, Silva 6217 (INPA, RB [2 sheets]). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: Jul. 1896, (K). Commentary: Lockhartia goyazensis is most similar to L. lunife ra from which it can be distinguished by the leaves that often curve slightly away from the stem, the slightly smaller flowers, the elaiophore cushion often provided with a pair of distal rounded tubercles, and the narrower distal lobules of the labellum midlobe. The two species are largely allopatric, with L. goyazensis distributed in the Brazilian planalto and southern Amazon basin (including eastern Bolivia), and L. lunifera having a more coastal distribution, from southern Bahia to Santa Catarina. Herb arium specimens of L. goyazensis are occasionally misidentified as L. lunifera In the northern part of its distribution, Lockhartia goyazensis is parapatric (has limited overlap) with L. imbricata and it is possible that there is some hybridization betwe en them. Plants identified as L. goyazensis from that region tend to have wider and shorter labellum side lobes than those from farther south, although the callus morphology is uniform throughout the species range. Lockhartia goyazensis was illustrated in Dodson and Vsquez (1989) as L. ludibunda (a synonym of L. lunifera ). Lockhartia grandibractea Kraenzl. 11. Lockhartia grandibractea Kraenzl., Pflanzenr. (Engler) IV, 50 (Heft 83): 15, fig. 2H. 1923. TYPE: COSTA RICA. [Cartago, Dec.] A.R. Endrs s.n. (lect otype, here designated : drawings by A. R. Endrs of Endrs 629 W Reich. Orch. 33713; isolectotype: W Reich. Orch. 33709; voucher not found; epitype, here designated :

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92 COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Reserva Biolgica Monteverde, Ro Peas Blancas, Quebrada Gemelas, E. Bello 1224 (INB; iso epitype: MO) Lockhartia triangulabia Ames & C. Schweinf., Schedul. Orchid. 8: 80 81. 1925. Lockhartia amoena var. triangulabia (Ames & C. Schweinf.) C. Schweinf. & P.H. Allen, Bot. Mus. Leaf. 1 3(6): 150. 1948. TYPE: PANAMA. Chiriqu: [Boquete], Palo Alto Hill [in isotypes], 4000 5000 ft. [1220 1524 m], December 1923 [in potential isotypes], C.W. Powell 362a C.W. Powell 362 a Stems erect to descending, more or less rigid, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, acute to obtuse (occasionally rounded), with straight to incurving margins, exp osed part of largest leaves Inflorescences both terminal and axillary from the distal part amp lexicaul, infundibuliform, subrotund, cordate, obtuse to apiculate, glaucous, 7 11 5 10 mm; yellow with orange brown markings on the lateral lobes and on and around the call us, and a dark brown line at the base of the column; basal lobules of labellum midlobe often with a white background. Sepals ovate to elliptic, slightly concave, obtuse, 7 8 4 5 mm. Petals oblong elliptic, slightly incurved, with revolute margins, rounde d to truncate apically, 7 8 4 5 mm when flattened. Labellum trilobate, 11 12 14 15 mm (across lateral lobes); the lateral lobes oblong, incurved, 7 9 1.5 mm, apically obtuse to

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93 rounded; midlobe divided in 4 lobules (the two basal ones triangular and projected backward, the two distal ones rounded when flattened), apically emarginate, 8 9 mm long, 11 12 mm wide (across the widest part of midlobe when flattened); callus suboblong, wider distally, the basal part forming a subquadrate concave cushion with a basal tuft of short, glandular hairs, 2 2 mm, the distal part formed by an irregular mass of tubercles 5 4 mm when labellum is flattened. Column hastate, truncate, narrowly winged, wider near the base, held perpendicular to the labellum, 3 3.5 mm lo ng, 3.5 mm wide across the wings, 2 mm wide distally; anther cap hemispherical, 1 1.3 mm in diameter; pollinarium not seen. Fruit obovoid, non glaucous, 17 23 7 8 mm. Nomenclatural notes: Kraenzlin mentioned Endrs as the only collector in the protologue of L. grandibractea ; thus only a collection by him can be considered as the type. However, Kraenzlin only annotated two specimens collected by Hbsch as cannot possibly be considered type material in the modern sense (Christenson, 1994). are drawings of Endrs 629 mounted on two sheets. The voucher for these drawings has not been found, bu t there is a handwritten description by Endrs (W Reich. Orch. 33713) with the number 629 Endrs s.n. (W Reich. Orch. 45080, without flowers) is the voucher (if the original label was lost), but th is specimen was annotated by Kraenzlin as L. amoena and presently there is no way to confirm or reject this possibility.

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94 L. grandibractea (as circumscribed here) or L. endresiana but the protol ogue drawing shows a labellar callus made up of a mass of low tubercles, which is diagnostic of the former. The name Lockhartia triangulabia is based on Powell 362a (holotype at AMES). Another specimen at AMES, Powell 362 etatively different and appears to be L. endresiana number was probably assigned by Ames and Schweinfurth to distinguish between both specimens. There is a previously undetected duplicate number ( Powell 362 ) in MO, which is vegetatively identical to Powell 362a In annotations made to the specimens in AMES, R.L. Dressler suggested that L. triangulabia might respresent a hybrid complex between L. oerstedii and L. amoena a conclusion I disagree with. Phenology: Flowe ring plants have been collected throughout the year, but more abundantly during the months of June, August, and September (middle of the rainy season in the region). Distribution: Costa Rica and western Panama, from 500 to 1700 m (Figure 2). In northern an d central Costa Rica it is found almost exclusively on the Caribbean slopes of the Guanacaste, Tilarn, and Central Volcanic cordilleras, but in the Talamanca Cordillera of southern Costa Rica and western Panama it is found almost exclusively on the Pacifi c slopes. Additional specimens examined: COSTA RICA. Without locality: 26 Nov. 1936 (cult.), anonymous s.n. (K); 28 Oct. 1922 (cult.), anonymous s.n. (K); anonymous s.n (K spirit, 2 jars); Endres s.n (W Reich, sterile); 1882, Huebsch s.n (W Reich, 2 she ets); 24 Oct. 1950 (cult.), Lankester s.n (K); 2 Oct. 1950 (cult.), Lankester s.n. (K);

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95 Cultivated, Lankester s.n (BM); 19 Sep. 2004 (cult.), Pupulin 2953 (JBL spirit); Cultivated, Rowlee & Rowlee 292 (AMES). Alajuela: Cataratas de San Ramn, Jun. 1988, Retana s.n. (USJ); Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Peas Blancas Valley, just above the "German's", 900 m, 12 Dec. 1989, Atwood & Morris 4111 (SEL); Monteverde Reserve, Peas Blancas river valley, Atlantic slope, 800 m, 3 Oct. 1986, Bello ex Haber 5705 (MO); Monteverde, confluencia Quebrada Leona y Ro Peas Blancas, Aug. 1989, Campos s.n (USJ); P. Nac. Rincn de la Vieja, Colonia Blanca, 7 km al S en Finca Los Mora, Quebrada Mora, 600 m, 3 Aug. 1991, Rivera & Jimnez 1514 (CR, INB); Reserva Biolgica A lberto Brenes, 1200 m, 21 Jun. 2007 (cult.), Rojas et al. 7021 (JBL spirit); Reserva Biolgica Monteverde, Ro Peas Blancas, Finca Cornelio, 950 m, 18 Sep. 1987, Haber & Bello 7588 (INB); Reserva Biolgica Monteverde, Ro Peas Blancas, Laguna y Quebrada Celeste, 850 m, 4 Nov. 1989, Bello 1452 (INB); Reserva de San Ramn, aprox. 30 km NNO de San Ramn, 8 Dec. 1984, Dressler & Biologia 350 296 (USJ); Reserva Forestal Arenal, Ro Peas Blancas, Quebrada Agua Gata, Finca Francisco, 1200 m, 19 Sep. 1990, Oband o 118 (F, INB, K, USJ); Reserva San Ramn, Jun. 1986, Retana s.n. (USJ); San Ramn, cuenca del San Carlos, de San Miguel sobre carretera de lastre, ruta a Laguna Pocosol, ca. 1.5 km antes del puente del Ro San Lorenzo, 500 m, 23 May 2001, Rodriguez & Lpi z 7362 (INB); Upala, P.N. Guanacaste, Cordillera de Guanacaste, Estacin San Ramn, Dos Rios, Sendero El Nspero, 550 m, 4 Apr. 1995, Quesada 306 (INB). Cartago: Atlantic rainforest of Ro Birrs canyon, 1000 m, 20 Oct. 1959 (cult.), Horich sub Blydenstein s.n. (UC); Cach, Aug. 1989, Castelfranco s.n. (USJ); La Fuente, 1110 m, 20 Sep. 1923, Lankester s.n. (AMES); La Fuente, E Turrialba, 1200 m, 23 Aug. 1925, Alfaro 74

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96 (AMES); Pejibaye, La Selva, 1100 m, 7 Jan. 2001 (cult.), Pupulin 2794 (USJ); Ro Birrs c anyon, 1000 m, 16 Oct. 1961 (cult.), Horich sub Hutchinson s.n. (MO); Ro Navarro, forests above Orosi, 1524 m, 26 Nov. 1946 (cult.), Allen 3832 (SEL); Turrialba, 1 Apr. 1924, Alfaro 39971 (AMES, US), Alfaro 40231 (AMES); Turrialba, 1000 m, 20 Jun. 1932, K upper 1628 (M); Turrialba, entre Santa Cruz y Pacayas, Oct. 1990 (cult.), Cambronero s.n. (USJ); Turrialba, Guayabo, Aug. 1989, Retana s.n. (USJ, 2 sheets); Turrialba, Moravia de Chirrip, 1000 m, 17 Feb. 2004 (cult.), Pupulin et al. 3626 (JBL spirit); Tur rialba, Moravia de Chirrip, 3 km despus de un albergue en Hacienda Moravia, 1100 m, 30 Jul. 2005 (cult.), Karremans & Ferreira 875 (JBL spirit); Turrialba, Pejibaye, Selva, 1100 m, 22 Feb. 1996, Blanco et al. 657 (CR); Turrialba, Platanillo, 700 m, 21 Ma r. 1954, Len 4352 (USJ); Turrialba, San Antonio, orillas del Ro Guayabito, Quebrada Loca, 1450 m, 26 Sep. 2004 (cult.), Karremans & Karremans 400 (JBL spirit); Turrialba, Santa Cruz, El Retiro, 1400 m, Jan. 1941, Valerio 1287 (CR, F); Vicinity of Orosi, 30 Mar. 1924, Standley 39686 (AMES), Standley 39908 (AMES, US), Standley 39942 (AMES, US). Guanacaste: La Tejona, N of Tilarn, 600 m, 25 Jan. 1926, Standley & Valerio 46014 (AMES); Las Nubes de Ro Chiquito, 1200 m, Chase 15882 (K spirit); Las Nubes, Tila rn, 1.5 km N Las Nubes on road to Tilarn, 1300 m, 6 Aug. 1988, Haber & Atwood 8564 (CR); Tilarn, Cerro Frio, zona Monteverde, vertiente Pacfica, 1100 m, 30 Jun. 1987, Haber & Bello 7329 (MO). Limn: Regin SE del Lago Dabagri, cruzando las filas hacia Telire (Laguna Tiestos y Fila de los Aguacatillos), 5 Nov. 1984, Gmez et al. 23191 (MO, SEL); Talamanca, Lago sin nombre al pie de Fila Lleskila, 1160 m, 4 Nov. 1984, Gmez et al. 23117 (MEXU, MO). Puntarenas: [Coto Brus], Between Las Cruces Botanical Gar den and Ro Jaba, ca. 3 km SE of San Vito de

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97 Coto Brus, 1050 m, 11 Jul. 1985, Grayum 5591 (MO); [Coto Brus], 1 mile due S of San Vito de Java, 1067 m, 18 Aug. 1967, Raven 21906 (CR, DUKE, F, PMA, SEL, U); [Coto Brus], Wilson's finca, 6 km S of San Vito de Java, 1219 m, 16 Aug. 1967, Raven 21820 (F); Coto Brus, 1000 m, 23 Feb. 1992, Pupulin s.n (USJ); Coto Brus, cuenca Trraba Sierpe, Z.P. Las Tablas, Estacin Biolgica Las Alturas, sendero a Fila Tigre, 1360 m, 26 Jun. 1999, Alfaro 2452 (INB); [Coto Brus], San Vito de Java, 22 Sep. 1968, Mathias sub Rodrguez 1183 (USJ); Coto Brus, Zona Protectora Las Tablas, Finca Las Alturas, road from Las Alturas to Fila Tigre, 1450 m, 6 Jun. 2005 (cult.), Pupulin et al. 4515 (JBL spirit); Coto Brus, Zona Protectora Las Tablas, Las Alturas de Cotn, Las Alturas Biological Station, S slopes of Cerro Chai, 1500 m, 2 Jul. 2007 (cult.), Pupulin et al. 5834 (JBL spirit); Entre Agua Buena y San Vito de Jaba, 1200 m, 22 Oct. 1964, Jimnez 2471A (F); [Coto Brus], Finca Las Cruces 6 km S of San Vito de Java, 1220 m, 10 Feb. 1971, Gills & Plowman 10095 (A); Monteverde, Ro San Luis valley, Pacific slope below Monteverde, 900 m, 14 Jul. 1988, Haber 8526 (CR, MO); Monteverde, upper San Luis river valley on Pacific slope below Monteve rde, 1300 m, 23 Aug. 1986, Haber 5393 (SEL), Haber 5397 (MO); Puntarenas, Cordillera de Tilarn, San Luis, Buen Amigo, Monteverde, 1100 m, 10 Nov. 1993, Fuentes & Fuentes 566 (CR, INB); Puntarenas, Sendero La Catarata, por el ro, 1100 m, 5 Mar. 1993, Fuen tes 200 (CR, INB). San Jos: Acosta, Cangrejal, Escuadra, Tiquires, Hacienda Tiquires, 1200 m, 4 Apr. 2007 (cult.), Valverde et al. 2009 (JBL spirit), Valverde et al. 2020 (JBL spirit); Acosta, cuenca del Pirrs Damas, Acosta, Fila Zoncuano, Tiquires, en e l sendero a Tiquiritos por la fila, 1000 m, 13 May 2001, Morales 8059 (INB); Acosta, cuenca del Pirrs Damas, Fila Ayarales, falda NE, Quebrada Ayarales, camino al Cornelio, 1250 m,

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98 13 May 2001, Morales 8025 (INB). PANAMA. Without locality: Powell s.n. (A MES). Chiriqu: Without specific locality, 914 m, Jan. 1919 (cult.), Powell 75 (AMES, MO); Al E del sitio de presa en Fortuna, 6 May 1976, Mendoza 310 (PMA); Between Pinola and Quebrada Seco on the Chiriquicito Caldera trail, 21 Apr. 1968, Kirkbride & Duke 1017 (MO [2 sheets], NY); Boquete, Palo Alto Hill, 1220 m, Dec. 1923 (cult.), Powell 362 (AMES), Camino hacia la Finca Landau, NE del campamento de Fortuna (sitio de presa), 1100 m, 9 Jun. 1976, Correa et al. 2164 (PMA); Camp Hornito, Fortuna Dam site, 10 00 m, 13 Aug. 1976, Dressler 5342 (FLAS, PMA); Cerro Hornito, 1700 m, 14 Dec. 1976, Luer et al. 1314 (SEL); E del sitio de presa en Fortuna, 17 Feb. 1976, Mendoza et al. 128 (PMA); E of the Fortuna main campsite, 1200 m, 12 Sep. 1977, Folsom et al. 5273 (C R, MO); Fortuna Dam area, Fortuna Chiriqu Grande, 0.7 m, NW of center of dam, 1080 m, 27 Jun. 1994, Croat & Zhu 76487 (MO); Fortuna watershed, 3 4 km beyond AOKI camp, 1200 m, 5 Jun. 1980, Folsom et al. 8062 (TEX); La Fortuna hydroelectric project, 1040 m 19 Mar. 1978, Hammel 1987 (MO); NO del campamento Fortuna, 1000 m, 23 Sep. 1976, Correa 2618 (DUKE, MO, PMA); Vicinity of Gulaca, 8.6 mi from Planes de Hornito, La Fortuna on road to dam site, 1219 m, 9 Jul. 1980, Antonio 5004 (MO, PMA); Watershed for t he Fortuna Project Dam, above dam site, 1300 m, 7 Jun. 1980, Folsom et al. 8195 (TEX); Watershed for the Fortuna Project Dam, at first stream below the AOKI camp, 1100 m, 6 Jun. 1980, Folsom et al. 8127 (TEX). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: 17 Jan. 1916, anonymous s.n (K); 2 Nov. 1920, anonymous s.n. (AMES); 5 Oct. 1914, anonymous s.n. (K); MBG 59 67 17, anonymous s.n. (SEL); MBG 60 8 19, anonymous s.n. (SEL); anonymous s.n (K spirit, 2 jars); 28 Dec. 1914, anonymous s.n (K); 25 Jan. 1927, anonymous s.n. (K); 23

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9 9 Mar. 1925, anonymous s.n. (K); 23 Mar. 2004, Blanco 2559 (FLAS); 9 Dec. 1964, Fisulnauz s.n. (WU); 18 Jul. 1987, Whitten 3432 (FLAS); 17 Jun. 1984, Whitten s.n (FLAS). Commentary: Lockhartia grandibractea is most similar to L. endr esiana from which can be distinguished by the callus of the labellum made up by an irregular mass of round, low tubercles (instead of several longitudinal, toothed keels). However, both species are extremely similar otherwise (see c ommentary under L. endresian a ). Lockhartia grandibractea has been synonymyzed under the superficially similar L. amoena by several authors (Hamer, 1984a; Mora and Atwood, 1992b; Senghas, 1996; Atwood and Mora de Retana, 1999; Dressler, 2003), but the floral structure of both species is consistently different. The labellum midlobe of both L. grandibractea (and L. endresiana ) is more pronouncedly tetralobulate and narrower in profile than that of L. amoena There are also important differences in the column, with that of L. grandibract ea and L. endresiana being longer than that of L. amoena and with small triangular wings restricted to the base. Plants of L. grandibractea tend to be stouter and have larger inflorescence bracts than those of L. amoena However, there is some overlap bet ween both species in these traits, and stout plants of L. amoena can be difficult to distinguish from L. grandibractea in the absence of flowers. Illustrations of Lockhartia grandibractea have been published by Hawkes (1953) and Senghas (1996, line drawing ), both as L. amoena The voucher for the illustration of L. amoena L. grandibractea but the drawing, which was obviously done from the dried specimen, is highly stylized and shows a floral morphology no t consistent with that of the actual specimen.

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100 Lockhartia hercodonta Rchb. f. ex Kraenzl. 12. Lockhartia hercodonta Rchb. f. ex Kraenzl., Pflanzenr. (Engler) IV, 50 (Heft 83): 8, fig. 2A. 1923. TYPE: COSTA RICA. [Escaz?], A.R. Endrs s.n. [number not indi cated] (lectotype, here designated : Endrs 167 W Reich. Orch. 18012; isolectotypes: W Reich. Orch. 2985, W Reich. Orch. 2993, W Reich. Orch. 2994, W Reich. Orch. 2999, W Reich. Orch. 33683 [drawing], W Reich. Orch. 33704 [drawing, Reich. Orch. 33708 [drawing], W Reich. Orch. 44372 [one flower and drawings], W Reich. Orch. 338 [original pencil drawing by Endrs and inked version; copy at AMES]) Stems descending to pendent, more or less flexible, cm long when r eproductive, Leaves marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly and obliquely lanceolate and falcate to slightly sigmoid in side view, with incurving margins toward the apex, acute, expose d internodes i nflorescence bracts amplexicaul, conduplicate, narrowly triangular in side view, acute to acuminate, appressed to the rachis and imbricate, (folded), often transitioning from leaves in elongate inflorescences; Flowers r esupinate or non resupinate, or more commonly pendent (facing down), widely open, tall, white (reportedly yellow in some Ecuadorian collections) frequently tinged with yellow on the callus and tepal bases and with orange blotches on the trichome fie ld of the callus and the tips of the callus teeth. Sepals ovate, concave, acute,

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101 mm. Petals obovate to oval, apically obtuse or rounded, slightly concave and projected obliquely forward, Labellum suborbicular, convex, obscurely 3 lobate, truncate to retuse, oval, located on the central proximal portion of the labellum, concave, surrounded by 4 elevated (2 mm high) teeth, with an oblong field of glandular trichomes in t he central area and on a trapezoid ledge pointed toward the base of the labellum, mm. Column winged, 2.5 3 mm (including wings), the wings obliquely subquadrate with an entire to denticulate margin, 1.5 1 mm; anther cap galeate, 1 0.7 m m; pollinarium 0.7 mm tall, stipe apparently bifid. Fruit globular to obovoid, mm. Nomenclatural notes: In the protologue of L. hercodonta Kraenzlin stated that the type was collected by Endrs; however, he did not specify a collection number and failed to annotate any specimens as types. Thus, a lectotype is designated here (from material annotated by Kraenzlin). The numbers associated with collections by Endrs likely represent species numbers, not collection numbers in the modern sense (C. O ssenbach, pers. comm. 2010). Thus, other specimens that have the same number as the lectotype ( 167 ) are not necessarily iso lectotypes. Two drawings of L. hercodonta made by Endrs have other numbers associated with them ( 1324 W Reich. Orch. 32256, and 25 28 W Reich. Orch. 35156), but no actual specimens with those numbers exist in the Reichenbach herbarium in W. Kraenzlin further indicated in the protologue that Reichenbach intended to describe this species but never got to publish it; Reichenbach had eve n prepared a

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102 lithographic illustration of the species. Copies of this unpublished illustration are deposited in AMES and W. Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the year, but much less abundantly from April to July. Distribution: From Belize and Guatemala to Ecuador, from 300 to 2000 m (Figure 9). No collections from El Salvador and Colombia are known, but it is expected to occur in those contries as well. In Central America, L. hercodonta occurs on both sides of the continental divide (although in Panama it has been collected only on the Pacific side). In Ecuador (and presumably in Colombia) it occurs only on the western (Pacific) side of the Andes. This species tends to grow in deep shade and windy locations (Mora and Atwood, 1992e; Atwood and Mora de Retana, 1999). Additional specimens examined: BELIZE [formerly BRITISH HONDURAS]. Cayo: Maya Mountain divide in the vicinity of Doyle's Delight (DD), along North Ridge Trail, 0.1 0.5 km N of DD, 1000 m, 22 Aug. 2007, Holst 8921 (SEL). To ledo: without specific locality, Adams K56 (K spirit); Camp 2, 6 8 km SE of Union Camp, trail from Camp 2 to Camp 3, 665 m, 15 Feb. 1997, Hawkins 1428 (MO); Helicopter landing site 500 (HLS 500), 3.5 km E of Union Camp, area 1 km ENE of helicopter landing pad on main ridge of SW end of Little Quartz Ridge, 940 m, 19 Feb. 1997, Hawkins 1489 (MO, SEL); In high ridge, on base of hill beyond Union Camp, Edwards Road beyond Columbia, 13 Mar. 1948, Gentle 6469 (LL, NY). COSTA RICA. Without locality: anonymous s. n. (K spirit); 4 Aug. 2002 (cult.), Blanco 2284 (USJ); 5 Sep. 1963 (cult.), Dodson 2549 (SEL); Horich s.n. (MO); Oct. 1915, Lankester s.n. (K); 1913, Lankester

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103 s.n (K); 27 May 2007 (cult.), Ossenbach s.n (JBL spirit); 8 Nov. 2005 (cult.), Schug 247 (JBL spirit). Alajuela: La Balsa area, 10 Aug. 1976 (cult.), Marshall s.n. (SEL); Parque Nacional Rincn de la Vieja, rd. to Colonia Blanca by Quebrada Rancho Grande, 7 Jul. 1978, Todzia 431 (CR); Puntarenas, R. B. Monteverde, Cordillera de Tilarn, Estacin Al emn's, 1000 m, 10 Sep. 1991, Bello et al. 4039 (INB); Res. Forestal de San Ramn, 800 m, 17 Feb. 1989, Merz 233 (CR); Reserva Biolgica Monteverde, Ro Peas Blancas, 800 m, 14 Jan. 1988, Haber & Bello 8092 (CR), 900 m, 25 Mar. 1988, Haber & Bello 8336 (C R); Reserva Biolgica Monteverde, Ro Peas Blancas, Laguna de Poco Sol, 750 m, 5 Aug. 1989, Bello 1049 (INB, MO), 700 m, 14 Dec. 1989, Bello 1649 (CR); Reserva Biolgica Monteverde, Ro Peas Blancas, Manuel Rojas Finca, 850 m, 2 Nov. 1989, Bello 1434 (IN B); Reserva Biolgica Monteverde, San Ramn, Estacin Alemn's, 900 m, 17 Oct. 1991, Bello et al. 4098 (INB); Reserva de San Ramn, along the course of Ro Lorencito, W to the refuge, 1050 m, 21 Aug. 1991, Germani 70 (USJ); Reserva de San Ramn, along the path to the refuge, 1050 m, 18 Aug. 1991, Pupulin 92 (USJ); Reserva de San Ramn, along the upper course of the Ro Lorencito, 1200 m, 22 Aug. 1991, Pupulin 133 (USJ); San Carlos, La Fortuna, Finca El Jilguero, sector basal y medio de Volcn Chato, 900 m, 20 Nov. 1992, Herrera 5524 (CR, K, US); San Ramn, 25 Jul. 1928, Brenes 945 (NY); San Ramn, La Palma, 1800 m, 29 Oct. 1922, Brenes 365 (CR), 1190 m, 30 Oct. 1922, Brenes 365 (AMES), 1175 m, 2 Jan. 1924, Brenes 783 (CR), 29 Aug. 1924, Brenes 1034 (NY), 117 5 m, 29 Aug. 1924, Brenes 2284 (CR), 1175 m, 5 Oct. 1927, Brenes 2638 (CR), 1180 m, 30 Oct. 1922, Brenes 2894 (NY), 1984, Mora s.n (USJ spirit), 3 Aug. 1935, Quirs 245 (F), Quirs 304 (CR, F); San Ramn, Los Angeles, Reserva

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104 Biolgica de San Ramn, Las R ocas, 2 km al O de Finca de Carlos Gonzlez, 1000 m, 16 Feb. 1994, Herrera & Mora 6879 (CR, USJ); San Ramn, Los Lagos, entrada a la Reserva Biolgica Alberto Brenes, 800 m, 23 Jan. 2001, Blanco et al. 1792 (USJ); San Ramn, R.B. Monteverde, Cordillera de Tilarn, San Ramn, Ro Peas Blancas, Refugio Eladio's, Sendero Eston's, 800 m, 5 Mar. 1992, Bello et al. 4548 (INB); San Ramn, Reserva Biolgica Alberto Brenes, 1000 m, 4 Sep. 2004 (cult.), Bogarn 982 (JBL spirit), 900 m, Bogarn 1887 (JBL spirit); San Ramn, San Pedro, 1200 m, Nov. 1921, Brenes 192 (CR); San Ramn, San Rafael, 24 Feb. 1945, Echeverra 4110 (CR, F); Sarapiqu, Cariblanco, 11 Sep. 1957, Lankester 2 (CR, 2 sheets). Cartago: El Mueco, S of Navarro, 1400 m, 8 Feb. 1924, Standley 33740 (AME S); Jimnez, Bajos de El Humo, entre ros Humo y Vueltas, ladera E de Cerros Dun, 1400 m, 1 Apr. 2009 (cult.), Bogarn et al. 5769 (JBL spirit); Navarro, 24 Jul. 1924, Lankester 905 (AMES); Turrialba, Las Abra, ladera SE del Volcn Turrialba, puente sobre el Ro Guayabo, 2000 m, 2 Sep. 2008 (cult.), Bogarn & Kisel 4927 (JBL spirit); Turrialba, San Antonio, 1400 m, 10 Feb. 2004 (cult.), Bogarn et al. 703 (JBL spirit); Vicinity of Orosi, 30 Mar. 1924, Standley 39957 (AMES). Guanacaste: Abangares, Upper San Gerardo Valley, 5 km N of Monteverde, Atlantic slope/continental divide, 1500 m, 12 Oct. 1989, Haber & Zuchowski 9552 (CR); Area de Conservacin Guanacaste, Estacin Pitilla, Fila Orosilito, 700 m, 12 Nov. 1990, Ros 189 (CR); Cordillera de Tilarn, 1 km al N de Las Nubes de Ro Chiquito, zona Monteverde, Atlantic slope, 1300 m, 4 Sep. 1988, Haber & Zuchowski 8699 (CR); Las Nubes de Ro Chiquito, 1 km NW of village on continental divide, hilltop, 1300 m, 27 Mar. 1989, Haber & Atwood 9164 (CR); Liberia, P.N Guanacaste, Cordillera de Guanacaste, Estacin Cacao, sendero a la cima del volcn,

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105 1100 m, 17 Sep. 1995, Espinoza 1373 (INB); Liberia, SW (Pacific) slope of Cerro Cacao, Cordillera de Guanacaste, 1350 m, 9 Aug. 2007, Grayum et al. 12545 (INB); Liberia, W (Pacific) slope of Cerro Cacao, between Estacin Cacao and Casa Fran(k), headwaters of Quebrada Florcita, 1100 m, 12 Aug. 2007, Grayum & Garca 12659 (INB); P. Nac. Rincn de la Vieja, colecta en el Mirador, Ro Negro, 1 Oct. 1990, Rivera 697 (CR); Parqu e Nacional Guanacaste, Estacin Cacao, 1100 m, 25 Nov. 1990, Espinoza 104 (INB); Tilarn, San Gerardo Abajo, Ro Cao Negro, Fincas Quesada y Arce, 1100 m, 5 Dec. 1991, Bello & Cruz 4290 (INB, MO). Heredia: An 2 Ostabhangen der Barba [sur les pentes orient ales du Barba], 1200 m, 22 Dec. 1881, Lehmann 1058 (BM, G); Sarapiqu, Colonia Virgen del Socorro, camino a Cariblanco, Ro San Fernando, 750 m, 13 Feb. 2004 (cult.), Bogarn et al. 732 (JBL spirit); Yerba Buena, NE of San Isidro, 2000 m, 22 Feb. 1926, Sta ndley & Valerio 49263 (AMES). Limn: Limn, Almirante, cuenca superior del Ro Xichiari, 1300 m, 14 Aug. 1995, Herrera 8486 (CR, K); Siquirres, Las Brisas de Pacuarito, subiendo por la fila superior de la margen izquierda de Quebrada Jesus, hasta Cerro Tig re, 1550 m, 2 Nov. 1995, Herrera et al. 8659 (CR, K, MEXU). Puntarenas: Monteverde Reserve, 2 km SW Station, in leeward cloud forest, 1500 m, 7 Apr. 1993, Ingram & Ferrell 1793 (SEL); Monteverde Reserve, Sendero Nuboso, 1550 m, 1 Nov. 1993, Atwood et al. 5 027 (USJ); Monteverde, on property of Jan Lowther known as the "Paja", 1425 m, 27 Nov. 1989, Atwood & Morris 4019 (SEL); [Buenos Aires], Piedra del Convento, 850 m, Feb. 1891, Pittier [ I.P.G.C.R. ] 3857 (BR); Puntarenas, Guacimal, Altos de Ro Veracruz, Fin ca Brenes, 1300 m, 12 Jan. 1990, Bello 1782 (INB); Reserva Biolgica Monteverde, trail to Peas Blancas, near the Refugio Alemn, 910 m, 26 Mar. 2000, Pupulin 2251 (USJ); Ro San Luis,

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106 Monteverde, Cordillera de Tilarn, 1100 m, Sep. 1977, Dryer 1633 (CR). San Jos: About 1 mi beyond divide between San Isidro del General and coastal town of Dominical, 900 m, 22 May 1976, Croat 35290 (MO, SEL); Concepcin, 1500 m, 4 Nov. 1978, Todzia 515 (CR); La Hondura, 1700 m, 2 Mar. 1924, Standley 36280 (AMES); La Hondura 1300 m, 15 Aug. 1933, Valerio 801 (CR, F); La Palma, 1400 m, 7 Oct. 1960 (cult.), Horich sub Hutchinson s.n. (UC); La Palma, 1600 m, 17 Mar. 1924, Standley 38270 (AMES); Paso de La Palma, Jul. 1986, Mora s.n. (USJ); San Marcos de Tarraz, 1927, Valerio 1 8 (F); Tarraz, Npoles, estribaciones al O de Cerro Pito, 1200 m, 30 Nov. 1995, Herrera et al. 8781 (CR); Vsquez de Coronado, Parque Nac. Braulio Carrillo, along sendero La Botella, 750 m, 13 Jan. 1991, Ingram & Ferrell 856 (CR, SEL); Vicinity of El Gene ral, 1190 m, Dec. 1935, Skutch 2334 (AMES), 1100 m, Aug. 1936, Skutch 2844 (AMES); Zurqu, 28 Oct. 1969, Gmez 2412 (F). ECUADOR. Without locality: 29 Sep. 2003 (cult.), Whitten et al. 2383 (FLAS). Esmeraldas: From Lita to Alto Tambo, 600 m, Mar. 1999 (cu lt.), Hirtz 7436 (SEL). Imbabura: Above Ro Chalguayaco, below Magnolia, lower Intag Valley, 1372 m, 17 Sep. 1944, Drew E 642 (AMES); Along trail from Garca Moreno to Magnolia, 1585 m, 11 Sep. 1944, Drew E 566 (AMES); Along trail to Ro Chalguayaco, below Magnolia, lower Intag Valley, 1372 m, 12 Sep. 1944, Drew E 575 (AMES); Trail to San Luis de la Vega, below Garca Moreno, 1067 m, 9 Sep. 1944, Drew E 555 (AMES). Manab: Pedernales, Cerro Pata de Pjaro, 10 km E of Pedernales, Finca of the family Arroyo, 300 m, 19 Jun. 1996, Clark et al. 2670 (GH, MO, QCNE, SEL). GUATEMALA. Solol: S slopes of Volcn Atitlan above Finca Moca, along Ro Bravo below Aposento woods, 1250 m, 21 Jun. 1942, Steyermark 48039 (AMES, F). HONDURAS. Olancho: Unin de los ros de El

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107 Pinol, El Tigre, y Las Cantinas, 1200 m, 29 Jan. 1993, Nelson & Andino 14502 (GH). NICARAGUA. Without locality: Heller 3790 (SEL); Heller s.n. (SEL); 914 m, 28 Jul. 1975 (cult.), McCullough s.n (SEL); 13 Aug. 1968 (cult.), Warr 15 (K). Boaco: Monte Azul San Jos de los Remates, 1000 m, 12 Feb. 1983, Moreno 20276 (MO). Granada: Lado NW del Volcn Mombacho, Finca San Joaqun, 800 m, 15 May 1981, Moreno & Henrich 8498 (MO); Near summit of extinct volcano Mombacho, 1345 m, 9 Apr. 1971, Atwood 5468 (BM, BRIT GH, MICH, MO, NY, SEL [2 sheets]); Volcn Mombacho, 15 Feb. 1977, Atwood 77153 (SEL). Jinotega: 2 mi N of Santa Mara Ostumas, 1219 m, 1960, Heller 1271 (SEL, 2 sheets); Bocay, Reserva Natural Kilamb, comunidad Santa Teresa de Kilamb, 900 m, 8 Jan. 200 1, Rueda et al. 15572 (MO); Cerro Grande, 1234 m, Heller 1271 (SEL); Macizos de Peas Blancas, top and N slope of steep ridge SW of finca of Manuel Estrada (El Cielo), S of Ro Gusaneras, 1200 m, 16 Jan. 1979, Stevens 11584 (MO); Weuili, comarca Aguas Roja s, Reserva Natural Kilamb, 1250 m, 19 Mar. 2001, Rueda et al. 15854 (MO), Rueda et al. 15940 (FLAS, MO); Wiwili, Reserva Cerro Kilamb, 1100 m, 29 Aug. 2000, Rueda et al. 14756 (MO). Matagalpa: Along road to La Fundadora about 5 km N of Sta. Mara de Ostu ma, Cordillera Central de Nicaragua, 1400 m, 16 Jan. 1965, Williams et al. 27714 (F); Macizos de Peas Blancas, SE side, drainage of Quebrada El Quebradn, peak WNW of Hda. San Martn, 1400 m, 20 Jan. 1982, Stevens et al. 21195 (MO, SEL); Macizos de Peas Blancas, SE side, drainage of Quebrada El Quebradn, slopes N and W of Hda. San Martn, 1000 m, 18 Jan. 1982, Stevens et al. 21097 (MO). Zelaya [Regin Autnoma Atlntico Norte]: Along trail from Cerro El Inocente toward Cerro Saslaya, reaching saddle betw een the peaks and at this point near the source of Cao Majagua, 1050 m, 8 Mar. 1978, Stevens 6698 (MO);

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108 Siuna, Reserva de BOSAWAS, Cerro La Albndiga, ubicado al frente del Cerro Saslaya en direccion E, 1200 m, 15 Apr. 1999, Rueda et al. 10738 (MO). PANA MA. Without locality: 15 May 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2575 (FLAS); 7 Sep. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 3232 (FLAS); Dressler 102 (K spirit); Taylor 63 (K spirit); 15 Nov. 2006 (cult.), Whitten 3345 (FLAS). Chiriqu: Camp Hornito, Fortuna Dam site to Cerro Fortuna, 120 0 m, 16 Aug. 1976, Dressler 5397 (FLAS); Cerro Colorado, about 50 km N of San Flix, 1300 m, 19 Aug. 1975, Dressler 5126 (FLAS); Trail W from Fortuna Dam Camp to La Fortuna, 1300 m, 23 Feb. 1985, Hampshire & Whitefoord 36 (BM); Vicinity of Fortuna Dam, alo ng ridge at southern boundary of watershed, 1250 m, 28 Apr. 1986, McPherson 9119 (MO); Vicinity of Fortuna Dam, along roadside and in forest between road and reservoir, 1100 m, 5 Dec. 1987, McPherson 11812 (MEXU, MO, PMA). Cocl: Above El Valle, 900 m, 20 Feb. 1985, Luer et al. 10646 (MO); Alto Calvario, 800 m, 20 Apr. 1977, Folsom & Jaslon 2711 (MO); Hills above El Valle de Antn, 3 Oct. 1967, Dressler 3051 (PMA). Panam: Along trail to Cerro Brewster from Ro Pacora valley, 670 m, 19 Nov. 1985, McPherson 7514 (MO); Area surrounding Rancho Chorro, mountains above Torti Arriba, Caazas mountain chain, 400 m, 3 Dec. 1977, Folsom et al. 6667 (MO, 2 sheets); Campo Tres, 3 mi NE of Altos de Pacora, 500 m, 10 Mar. 1973, Liesner 563 (MO); Cerro Jefe, 1000 m, 2 Mar 1976, Luer et al. 702 (SEL), 900 m, 2 Mar. 1976, Taylor 13205 (K, K spirit); In high ridges of the Serrana de Maj, S of the village of Ipet, ca. 5 hrs. walk from the village, 650 m, 31 Mar. 1982, Huft et al. 1680 (MO); La Eneida, region of Cerro Jefe, 21 Dec. 1969, Dressler 3769 (FLAS); Old Chepo Rd, turn off to Cerro Azul, 900 m, 14 Jan. 1984, Chase 84004 (K spirit). Veraguas: Near first branch of Ro Santa Mara, about 8 km NE of Santa Fe, 21 Dec. 1975, Dressler 5231

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109 (FLAS); On Caribbean slope above Ro Primero Brazo 5 mi NW of Santa Fe, 700 m, 18 Mar. 1973, Liesner 962 (MO); Vicinity of continental divide, third branch of Ro Santa Mara to drop off to lowlands, 12 15 km NW of Santa Fe, 650 m, 16 Nov. 1974, Dressler 4837 (FLAS). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: 28 Aug. 1958, anonymous s.n (K spirit); anonymous s.n. (K); anonymous s.n. (K spirit, 2 jars); 6 Sep. 2002, Blanco 2286 (FLAS); Whitten 99232 (FLAS). Commentary: Lockhartia hercodonta is most similar to the Andean L. longifolia f rom which can be distinguished by the generally shorter stems and leaves, the white flowers, and the labellum callus with two basal and two distal teeth instead of only one. It is also similar to L. parthenoglossa (which has a similar geographic distributi on) but that species has leaves that curve away from the stem, slightly larger, yellow flowers, and an elongate labellum. Some collections of Lockhartia hercodonta form NW Ecuador (e.g., Drew E 555 ) are described as having yellow flowers, and the two apica l teeth of the callus in these specimens are partly fused. Likewise, some specimens of L. longifolia from that region resemble L. hercodonta vegetatively. This suggests that hybridization between both species occurs there. Lockhartia imbricata (Lam.) Hoehn e 13. Lockhartia imbricata (Lam.) Hoehne, Arq. Bot. Estado So Paulo, n.s., form. maior, 2: 139. 1952. : Epidendrum imbricatum Lam., Encycl. (Lamarck) 1: 189. 1783. Non Epidendrum imbricatum Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 110. 1831, nec Epidendrum imbricatu m var. angustifolium Cogn., Fl. Bras. (Martius) 3(5): 171. 1898. TYPE: [FRENCH GUIANA]. Cayenne, [1764 J.B. Patris s.n. ( Lectotype, here designated : G, unnumbered sheet with several plants and two old

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110 labels, one of which rea isolectotype: G). Epidendrum biserrum Rich., Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 105, 112. 1792; as Lockhartia biserra (Rich.) Christenson & Garay, Lindleyana 11: 17. 1996. TYPE: [FRENCH GUIANA ]. Cayenne Crescentia cujete August [1784 1789], J.B. Leblond s.n. [ 414 in G] (Lectotype, here designated : P 456058; isolectotypes: G, P 00456059) Lockhartia elegans Hook., Bot. Mag. 54: tab. 2715. Feb 1827; Fernandezia elegans (Hook.) G. Lodd., Bot. Cab. 13: tab. 1214. Jun 1827. TYPE: [TRINIDAD & TOBAGO:] Trinidad, D. Lockhart s.n. Ex Hort. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, [flowered on or before 1817?], (holotype: drawing based on live plant, BM?, not found; voucher not found Lectotype, here d esignated : illustration in Bot. Mag. 54: tab. 2715. 1827) Lockhartia weigelti Rchb. ex Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 10: 767. 1852. TYPE: SURINAM. Paramaribo [ fide isotype at G], [1827 1828], C. Weigelt s.n. (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 44366 [excluding Fr. W.R. Host mann 366 ], microfiche seen; isotypes: BM 534528, G, K Lindl. 79006, PH 1071506; possible isotype: NY [Surinam, Ex herb. Schweinitz ]) Lockhartia obtusifolia Regel, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. sr. 4, 6: 378. 1856. Non Fernandezia obtusa Lindl. ex L. Linden, Ill. H ort. 29: 51. 1882. TYPE: COLOMBIA [probably VENEZUELA]. Lansberg s.n. [probably J. G. van Lansberge], Ex Hort St. Petersburg Botanic Garden, March 1856 (holotype: LE, image seen; photos of holotype: K, NY)

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111 Lockhartia floribunda Rchb. f., Hamburger Garten Blumenzeitung 16: 179. 1860. TYPE: Original locality unknown, Ex Hort. Professor Fregge in Abtuaundorf near Leipzig (Germany), 1860 (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 44373 [excluding Jelski 8 ]) Stems erect, more or less rigid, leaves; shoots (stem and leaves) mm wide. Leaves marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, obtuse to round apically, with (mostly) straight margins, exposed part of large st leaves Inflorescences both terminal and axillary from the distal half of the stem, exserted portion inflorescence bracts amplexicaul, infundibuliform, ovate, c ordate, acute to apiculate, 2.5 5 1.5 3.5 mm; pedicel and ovary mm long. yellow with dark chocolate brown markings on and around the labellum callus, and a dark brown line at the base of the column. Sep als ovate to elliptic, slightly concave, obtuse to acute, 3.5 4.5 2.5 3 mm. Petals oblong elliptic, widely spread, with slightly revolute margins, rounded to truncate apically, 4 5 2 2.5 mm when flattened. Labellum entire to trilobate, 4.5 6 2.5 6 mm (across lateral lobes or widest point of labellum); the lateral lobes (when present) triangular to oblong, slightly incurved, acute, 0 2.3 0.7 mm; midlobe entire, subspathulate to obscurely pandurate, obtuse to retuse, 3 4 mm long, 2.5 3.5 mm wide (acro ss the widest part of midlobe when flattened); callus oblong to subpandurate, the basal part forming a subquadrate concave cushion with a basal tuft of short, glandular hairs, 1.5 2 mm, the distal part formed by a mass of minute tubercles, 3 1.5 2 mm. Column winged, 2.5 mm long, 3 mm wide (including wings),

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112 the wings trapezoid, with a denticulate margin, 1.5 2 mm; anther cap hemispherical, 1 mm in diameter; 1 mm long, with a bifid stipe. Fruit obovoid, 5 16 2 6 mm. Nomenclatural notes: Lockhartia im bricata has a complicated nomenclatural history. First, the identity of the type specimen of Epidendrum imbricatum Lam. has rtunately he did not indicate the name of the collector nor in whose herbarium he saw it. Although vague, the description in the protologue almost certainly applies to a species of Lockhartia (as convincingly argued by Hoehne (1952), and L. imbricata (as c ircumscribed here) is the only species of the genus known to occur in French Guiana, where it is very common. Schweinfurth (1967) erroneously listed the type of L. imbricata as having been collected in Trinidad, without any additional data. Christenson (19 96) also assumed the type was collected in Trinidad, and cited P as the herbarium of deposition. Romero Gonzlez (2005) correctly cited the type of L. imbricata as having been collected in French Guiana, although deposited in P Lam. (indicated as not seen but with a photograph at AMES; this photograph has not been found and this citation was probably erroneous). Moreover, there are no Lockhartia specimens in the general collection at P old enough to have possibly been studied by Lamarck on or before 1783, a nd there are no Lockhartia specimens at all in the historical herbaria of either Lamarck or Jussieu already searched for the type specimen in P and failed to find it (Hoehne, 1952). Thus, the type has to be searched in the other herbaria studied by Lamarck.

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113 Augustin Pyramus de Candolle and now in Geneva. Lamarck based many of his species on materi collection identified here as the type of L. imbricata ( Patris s.n ., G, 2 sheets) is to my knowledge the only extant Lockhartia specimen that could have possibly been collected before 1783 and examined by Lamarck before the publication of the protologue (see did not annot ate either sheet, but I have little doubt that he based his Epidendrum imbricatum on this collection. Jean Baptiste Patris arrived in Cayenne on December 19, 1764. He explored some parts of the interior of French Guiana in 1766 1767, and lived in Cayenne until his death in 1786 (Chaa, 1970). Epidendrum biserrum is extremely simple; the information concerning locality and collector are taken from the first page of the article (Richard, 1792), where it is clearly indicated that all the plants described there were sent from Cayenne by Leblond. Jean Baptiste Leblond collected in various places in French Guiana during the years 1784 1789 (Pouliquen, 2001) (1786 to 1803 according to Lescure, 1998). The isotype at G has a label clearly an Epidendrum biserra Richard, Act. Soc. Hist. Nat., Cayenne, Herb. Leblond 414 Epid. bi erra

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114 Two sheets in P are labeled as holotype and isotype of Epidendrum biserrum although these annotations are recent. The sheet marked as holotype has a label that indicates it belonged to the herbarium of Louis Claude and Achille Richard. The sheet m arked as isotype belonged to the herbarium of E. Drake (part of the Richard herbarium came to P via the Drake del Castillo collection; (Stafleu and Cowan, 1983). The protologue of Lockhartia elegans implies that Hooker based his description on a drawing (i plant nor on a herbarium specimen. This drawing has not been found, and thus the illustration published in the protologue is designated as lectotype. In fact, it appears that t he plant on which that drawing was based, which was the plant sent by David Lockhart from Trinidad, flowered in cultivation at Kew on or before 1817 (at least 10 years before the publication of the species), according to Lindley (1824), who, while commenti ng about the genus Catasetum mentioned: C. macrocarpon of Richard being scarcely known except by name. Before the publication, however, of the work of M. Kunth, in which the genus was established, two other plants had been seen in this country, bo th of which still remain to be recorded; the one was a plant which, some time before 1817, flowered in the garden at Kew, where it was called Lockhartia I t must be noted, however, that Lockhart first arrived in Trinidad in 1818, not 1817, and immediately became super intendent of the botanic garden that by 1824 the plant was no longer alive, and all that remained for Hooker to study Romero Gonzlez (2005) cited the type of L. elegans Lockhart ex Hort. Kew s.n. even if it existed, it could not be considered the type because Hooker did not base his description directly on it.

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115 The vouch Fernandezia elegans is mounted (along with a copy of the painting) on the same sheet as the isolectotype of Lockhartia micrantha ( Hinds s.n .) in the Lindley herbarium at Kew; however, this is not a type. It is a different plant of the same species, as explicitly mentioned by Loddiges. Loddiges did Fernandezia A fragment of the latter specimen is in W. Lockha rtia elegans Hook. Bot. Mag. tab. 2715. Trinidad plant on which the original drawing was prepared. However, there is no way to know for sure. This fragment is mounted on the same shee t as another fragment labeled as Lockhartia lunifera in the same handwriting. An unnumbered specimen in NY (Surinam, Ex. herb. Schweinitz ) is likely an isotype of Lockhartia weigelti Lewis David von Schweinitz (1780 1835) frequently Cowan, 1985). Regel republished the description of his Lockhartia obtusifolia in 1857 (Gartenflora 6: 131) along with an illustration not originally included in the protologue. The number on the illustration was erroneous (191 vs. 190), but it is the only illustration of a species of Lockhartia and it clearly corresponds to L. imbricata In the illustration, the species Lockhartia obtusa robably led some authors to assume that this combination was based on the then yet unpublished Fernandezia obtusa The lived republic that

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116 encompassed the modern countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, and Ecuador, from 1819 to 1831. In fact, Ernst (1878) cites L. obtusifolia for Caracas, Venezuela, and not from Colombia. Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the y ear, but more commonly from August to November, and with a minor peak in March. Distribution: Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, and northern Brazil (states of Amap, Par, and Roraima), from sea level to 800 m (Figure 8). A specimen from Colombia ( anonymou s s.n ., P), consisting of only flowers mixed with others of a different species, is likely based on a cultivated plant with erroneous locality information. Lockhartia imbricata is very abundant in the Guianas and eastern Venezuela; it is apparently rare i n the adjacent northern portions of the Amazon basin (Brazilian states of Par and Roraima, and the southern portion of Amap), although one collection of confirmed identity is known from southern Par state (close to the border with Mato Grosso, on the so uthern part of the Amazon basin). Another collection from Portuguesa state in western Venezuela, which is relatively isolated from other known populations, lacks specific locality data and its locality information could be erroneous. Early reports from Mex ico and Panama (as L. elegans ) can be traced to misidentified specimens of L. galeottiana and L. micrantha cited by Lindley (1834), Grisebach (1864), and Hemsley (1882 1886). Additional specimens examined: BRAZIL. Without locality: Cultivated, anonymous s. n (K); Hoffmannsegg s.n. (B Willd.); Pohl 172 (M). Amap: Bacia do Oiapoque, Rio Camopi, 20 Aug. 1960, Irwin et al. 47678 (MG); Coastal region, along road to Amap, vic. Km 108, Rio Pedreira, 0 m, 18 Jul. 1962, Pires & Cavalcante 52197

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117 (NY); Mouth of Rio Iaue, 21 Aug. 1960, Irwin & Westra 47683 (B, F, GH, MG, MICH, NY, U); Rio Araguari, at mouth of Anicahy, above camp 14, 8 Oct. 1961, Pires et al. 51564 (NY); Rio Araguari, Cachoeira Pedra Fina, Camp 13, 9 Oct. 1961, Pires et al. 51590 (K, NY); Rio Oiapoque lower and middle slopes of Mt. Bagotte, 3 km SE of Boa Esperana, 100 m, 19 Aug. 1960, Egler 47678a (NY); Serra do Navo, Rio Amapari, Macaco Ore Body, 8 Nov. 1954, Cowan 38169 (NY). Par: without specific locality, 1835, Home s.n. (K); 1 km ao S de Goro tire, 500 m de Rio Preto, 20 Aug. 1985, Gly 439 (MG); Almeirim, Monte Dourado, estrada do S de Pacanari, 5 Dec. 1978, Santos 475 (INPA, MG, U); Amazonas Gebiet, Taperinha bei Santarm, 28 Jul. 1927, Ginzberger & Zerny 680 (F, W, WU); Barcarena, praia do C aripy, Baa do Maraj, 19 Jun. 1984, Lins et al. 423 (MG); Ilha do Mosqueiro, near Par, 0 m, 3 Nov. 1929, Killip & Smith 30552 (AMES, NY, US); Itaboca [cachoeiras], Burchell 9200 (K); Rio Jari, Moute Dourado, Planalto B. (Pilao), 23 Oct. 1968, Silva 1304 (NY, SP). Roraima: Caracara, Parque Nacional do Viru, na beira da Estrada Perdida, 27 Nov. 2006, Carvalho et al. 931 (INPA); Rio Branco, Serra de Carauma, Nov. 1908, Ule 7733 (G, K); SEMA Ecological Reserve, Ilha de Marac, N end of the Trilha de Preguic a (very close to the Furo de Santa Rosa), 27 Jan. 1988, Ratter & Milliken 6126 (K). COLOMBIA. Without locality: anonymous s.n. (P; questionable origin, possibly cultivated). FRENCH GUIANA. Without locality: Mar. 1847 (cult.), anonymous s.n. (P). Commune unknown: Camp no. 3, Roche no. 1, Akouba Booka goo Soula, Bassin du Ha, 500 m au SO, 160 m, 26 Aug. 1987, Granville et al. 9733 (CAY); Fleuve Approuague, Rivire Arataye, Saut Parare, ilet pres du camp de base, 29 Oct. 1978, Sastre 6261 (CAY); Fleuve Appro uague, Rivire Arataye, Saut Parare, zone a prelevements non limits, 13 Mar.

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118 1978, Sastre 5843 (CAY, NY, P, U); Kutaka, 134 m, 17 Dec. 1991, Veth 206 (CAY, U); Maroni River above mouth of Marouini River, island in river near Antecum Pata, 140 m, 18 Aug. 1 987, Weitzman 206 (MO, NY, U, US); Mont Saint Marcel, zone centre E du massif, fort sommitale du sommet de 500 m ENE, 450 m, 28 Jul. 2002, Granville et al. 15543 (CAY); Saint Eloi, Region de Sal, a 3 km a l'E de Saint Eloi, sur le layon vers le pic Matec ho, 200 m, 21 Sep. 2000, Granville et al. 14343 (CAY, NY). Apatou: Region de Paul Isnard, Montagne Lucifer, versant sud, a 3.5 km NNE de Citron, 450 m, 11 Nov. 1982, Granville 5258 (CAY, P). Camopi: En amont du confluent Oyapock Yawe, haut Oyapock, 29 Aug. 1985, Prvost & Grenand 2014 (CAY, P); Sommet de l'innselberg, 3 4 km ENE du Grand Croissant, N de Camopi, 265 m, 3 Dec. 1983, Feuillet 1132 (CAY, P). Cayenne: Cayenne, 1839, Leprieur 134 (G), Rothery 246 (K), 1846, Rothery 1853 (K). Maripasoula: Dans les ilots de l'Itany, en aval d'Antecume Pata, confluent de l'Itany (Haut Maroni) et du Marouini, 20 Nov. 1977, Cremers 5093 (CAY [2 sheets], P), 27 Mar. 1979, Cremers 5522 (CAY); Montagne Bellevue de l'Inini, extremit S, versant NW, 350 m, 11 Sep. 1985, Gr anville et al. 8150 (CAY); Plante rameiree des iloli de l'Itany en aval d'Antecume Pata, 1979, Cremers 6009 (CAY); Plante rameiree du Saut Domosoula, amont de Touinki (HI Itani), Oct. 1979, Cremers 6008 (CAY); Rivire Grande Ouaqui, a 8 km en amont de son confluent avec la Petite Ouaqui, rive droite, 13 Jul. 1973, Granville 4960 (CAY, P); Rivire, Grand Inini en aval et en amont de Degrad Fourmi, 13 Sep. 1985, Granville et al. 8204 (CAY, P, U); Saut Macaque, 12 Sep. 1961, Schnell 12158 (P). Roura: Roura, 18 58, Sagot s.n. (P, 2 sheets), 1858, anonymous s.n. (K). Saint Laurent du Maroni: St. Jean du Maroni, 11 Mar. 1914, Benoist 850 (P). Sal: 2 km SW of Sal, blue track, 180 m, 27 Aug. 1986, Ek & Montfoort 135 (CAY); 2 km SW

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119 of Sal, track Limonade, 180 m, 9 Aug. 1986, Ek & Montfoort 251 (NY, U), 11 Aug. 1986, Ek & Montfoort 252 (NY, U); Fleuve Grand Inini, en aval de Degrad Fourmi Bord de la crique Adolphe, 140 m, 11 Aug. 1985, Granville 7421 (CAY); La Carbet Mais trail, 8 Sep. 1989, Mori et al. 20857 (NY); L a Fume Mountain Trail, 350 m, 13 Aug. 1987, Mori & Gracie 18710 (NY); La Fume West, 250 m, 26 Aug. 1989, Mori & Ek 20725 (NY); Sal, 20 m, 12 Aug. 1986, Freiberg 15 (B); Sal village, 13 Oct. 1976, Veyret 1410 (CAY, P); Sal, autour du village, 13 Oct. 1 972, Granville 4576 (CAY, P). GUYANA [formerly BRITISH GUIANA]. Without locality: 1869, Jelski s.n (WU). Barima Waini: Sebai Ck., Kaituma River, 18 Mar. 1945, Fanshawe 2420 (K, NY, U, US). East Berbyce Corentyne: Corentyne River, Nov. 1879, Jenman 147 (P ). Pomeroon Supenaam: Pomeroon River, Pomeroon District, 17 Dec. 1922, de la Cruz 3108 (NY, US). Upper Takutu Upper Essequibo: Acarai Mts., 10 km S of Sipu River, upper slopes of highest peak in central Acarai Mts., 800 m, 5 Sep. 1998, Clarke et al. 7491 ( US); Along side of newly cleared right of way, 15 20 km NE of Surama Village Rd., 90 m, 1 Mar. 1990, McDowell et al. 2094 (US); Kanuku Mts., Rupununi River, Puwib River, near "the farm" of the Captain of Sandcreek, 80 m, 14 Feb. 1985, Jansen Jacobs et al. 211 (B, U); Kanuku Mts., slope of Nappi Mt., Camp 2, 450 m, 13 Nov. 1987, Jansen Jacobs et al. 919 (U); Kuyuwini River watershed, Bat Mt; N and NE slopes of inselberg, 300 m, 19 Sep. 1993, Henkel et al. 3061 (CAY, GH, MO, NY, U, US); Kuyuwini River watersh ed, between headwaters Toucan & Marudi creeks, 2 4 km S of Marudi Mtn., 250 m, 16 Sep. 1993, Henkel et al. 2972 (GH, MO, US); NW slopes of Kanuku Mountains, in drainage of Moku moku Creek (Takutu tributary), 150 m, 31 Mar. 1938, Smith 3586 (AMES, F, K, NY, P, U, W); Rewa River, 0 5 km S of Great Falls, 90 m, 20 Sep. 1997,

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120 Clarke et al. 6615 (CAY, NY, U); Rewa River, Spider Mountains, 400 m, 23 Sep. 1999, Jansen Jacobs et al. 6122 (U); Rupununi River, betw. Kwattamang Landing & Rewa Village, 100 m, 29 Sep. 1 997, Clarke et al. 6775 (US), Clarke et al. 6780 (CAY, US); Rupununi, E Kanuku Mountains, NE of Warimure, 200 m, 27 Jan. 1991, Jansen Jacobs et al. 2261 (U); Rupununi, foothills of NW Kanuku Mts., near Moco Moco village, 100 m, 28 Oct. 1979, Maas & Westra 3892 (U); S Rupununi Savanna, Aishalton Mts; 2 km S of Aishalton village, 200 m, 12 Oct. 1993, Henkel et al. 3447 (GH); SE Kanuku Mts., Makaparima Mtn. foothills, 4 km NNE of Crabwood Creek camp, 400 m, 26 Oct. 1981, Hoffman 400 (NY, US); Upper Rupununi Ri ver, near Dadanawa, 14 Jun. 1922, de la Cruz 1503 (AMES [2 sheets], F, MO, NY, PH); Western extremity of Kanuku Mountains, in drainage of Takutu River, 600 m, 4 Mar. 1938, Smith 3290 (NY). SURINAME. Without locality: Mar. 1842, Hostmann 366 (BM, G, K [2 s heets], OXF, P); Hostmann 685 (G, P [2 sheets], S [2 sheets]); Tulleken 384 (L). Brokopondo: Brownsberg Forest, 450 m, Mar. 1981, Ingham sub Kimnach s.n. (AMES). Commewijne: Lower Suriname River tributary, Paulus Creek, 31 Dec. 1950, Florschutz & Florschut z 902 (U). Marowijne: Anansitabbetje, Granholosoela, Tapanahony River, 2 Aug. 1973, Teunissen & Teunissen 1117 (U); In Montibus, qui dicuntur Nassau; border of Marowijne R. above base camp, 27 Feb. 1949, Lanjouw & Lindeman 2334 (AMES, U); Via secta ab Moen go tapoe ad Grote Zwiebelzwamp, along Djai creek, W of camp, 5 Oct. 1948, Lanjouw & Lindeman 662 (U). Nickerie: Area of Kabalebo Dam project, forest E of road km 26, 30 m, 11 Sep. 1980, Lindeman et al. 337 (U). Para: Agila, N of Auca along Surinam river, d istr. Suriname, 1 May 1977, Teunissen & Teunissen 1240 (U); Berlyn, 11 Mar. 1830, Splitgerber 721 (L). Sipaliwini: Upper Coppename R., Raleigh Falls, 25 Aug. 1920, Pulle

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121 345 (AMES, U); Wilhelmina Gebergte area, Lucie River, on small granitic islands in riv er, near confluence of Oost Rivier, 225 m, 12 Sep. 1963, Irwin et al. 5565 0 (NY, U); Wilhelmina Gebergte, 1 km SE of Juliana Top, headwaters of West River, 800 m, 27 Aug. 1963, Irwin et al. 55135 (NY). TRINIDAD & TOBAGO. Trinidad [without specific localit y]: Feb. 1876 (cult.), anonymous s.n. (K); anonymous s.n. (M); Cruger 1523 (TRIN); Cruger 2246 (K); Mar. 1913 (cult.), Hill 23 (K); Cultivated, Loddiges s.n (K Lindl). Corporation/county unknown: Matchepoorie, 11 Mar. 1921, Britton & Britton 2223 (NY). Co uva Tabaquite Talparo: Near Piparo Settlement, Williamsville, 29 Nov. 1919, Broadway s.n. (AMES, BH, G, K, NY). Princess Town: Moruga, 19 Mar. 1921, Britton & Broadway 2442 (AMES, NY). Siparia: Siparia, Nov. 1954, Downs s.n. (AMES). VENEZUELA. Anzotegui: Between Ro Len of Quebrada Danta and Ro Zumbador, NE of Bergantn, 500 m, 24 Feb. 1945, Steyermark 61123 (AMES, F, G [2 sheets], VEN). Bolvar: Canaima, Dunsterville 348 (AMES [drawing], K, K spirit); El Palmar, Fundo La Esperanza, a unos 15 km al S de El Palmar, 200 m, 23 Jun. 1998, Daz et al. 3725 (VEN); Padre Chien, a 24 km de El Palmar en la va hacia Ro Grande, 275 m, 12 Apr. 1997, Daz et al. 3184 (SEL); Padre Chien, El Palmar, Ro Grande, 300 m, 14 Apr. 1997, Chacn 786 (SEL, VEN); Piar, Ciudad Piar, Orinoco, 350 m, 16 Nov. 1958, Renz 9207 (RENZ); Ro Caura, 5 20 km S (ro arriba) del campamento Las Pavas (Salto Par), 220 m, May 1983, Morillo & Liesner 8805 (MO, VEN); Ro Caura, arriba del Salto Par, en las islas 2 3 km arriba del campamento L as Pavas, 250 m, 14 Jan. 1977, Steyermark et al. 112959 (VEN); Sierra Imataca, Ro Toro (Ro Grande), between Ro La Reforma and Puerto Rico, N of El Palmar, between Ro Reforma and rapids above Ro Reforma, 200 m, 14 Dec. 1960, Steyermark 88069 (AMES, VEN ); Sifontes, 28 km

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122 al N de Tumeremo, entre cabeceras del Ro Guarn y Fundo Caratal al S de la Serrana de Nuria, 200 m, May 1986, Fernndez 3139 (VEN); Sucre, Ro Caura, sitio AC12, Cerro del Puerto, 200 m, 30 Nov. 2000, Daz et al. 4886 (SEL). Delta Amac uro: Between La Margarita and Puerta Miranda, Ro Acure, 80 m, 26 Nov. 1960, Steyermark 87814 (NY); Ro Cuyubini, along lower section of river, upstream from Casa Cuyubini, 90 m, 12 Nov. 1960, Steyermark 87486 c ultivated], 1851, Hermens s.n (P). Portuguesa: Without specific locality, 350 m, 13 Nov. 1951, Renz 7529 (RENZ). Territorio Federal Amazonas: Atures, Ro Coro Coro, stream and slope E of river, W of Serrana de Yutaje, 6 km N of settlement of Yutaje, 320 m, 22 Feb. 1987, Liesner & Holst 21315 (MO). CULTIVATED [and/or without original locality data]: 1 Feb. 1951 (cult.), anonymous 2605 (U); 15 Apr. 1918 (cult.), anonymous s.n (K); 22 Feb. 1961 (cult.), anonymous s.n. (NY); 20 Sep. 1889 (cult.), anonymous s.n (G); anonymous s.n (K spirit, 2 jars); 7 Feb. 1986 (cult.), Granville 8302 (CAY); 13 Dec. 1973 (cult.), Lee 150 (BH); 6 Dec. 1972 (cult.), Magrum 167 (BH); Mason 1811 (K spirit); 22 Sep. 1979, Pires 16995 (MG). Commentary: Lockhartia imbricata is mos t similar to the Costa Rican endemic L. dipleura from which can be distinguished by its (generally) more obtuse leaves, the labellum with shorter, wider lateral lobes and callus not organized in longitudinal keels, and the proportionately smaller column. Lockhartia imbricata is variable in the degree of development of the lateral lobes of the labellum (although, when present, they are very short). However, the other floral features appear to be reasonably uniform through most of the geographic range of the species. Only in the SE portion of its range is there any morphological variation that

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123 suggests the possibility of hybridization with L. goyazensis (although collections from this region are relatively few). Lockhartia imbricata is very common in the Guia nas, judging by the number of collections made there. The only other species of Lockhartia in the region is L. latilabris which has pendent stems, longer, acute leaves, larger, campanulate flowers, a subentire labellum devoid of a callus, and a much more restricted geographic distribution (see notes under that species). Lockhartia ivainae M.F.F. da Silva & A.T. de Oliveira 14. Lockhartia ivainae M.F.F. da Silva & A.T. de Oliveira, Biol. Mus. Paraense Emlio Goeldi, Bot. 17(2): 263 TYPE: BRASIL. Estado do Par, municpio de gua Azul do Norte, na margem do Rio gua Azul, Jun. 1999, A.T. de Oliveira 03 (holotype: MG, photo seen). long when reproductive, leaves; shoots (stem and leaves) Leaves marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, obtuse to round apically, with outcurving margins, exposed part of largest leaves Inflorescences both terminal and axillary from the distal p exserted portion inflorescence bracts amplexicaul, campanulate to widely open, suborbicular to ovate, cordate, acute to pedicel and ovar y 9 mm long. Flowers resupinate, widely open, yellow with a few reddish brown spots on the callus and on each side of the stigmatic cavity. Sepals oval to oblong, obtuse, reflexed, 3 mm. Petals ovate to oblong, acute, 5 2.5 mm. Labellu m entire, ovate, emarginate, 5.5 4 mm;

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124 callus a subtle, oblong thickening with a basal tuft of minute glandular hairs in a slight depression, 4 Column winged, widely rhomboid, 2 mm long, 2.5 mm wide (including wings); the wings triangular, 0. 5 1 mm; anther cap hemispherical, 1 mm in diameter; pollinarium 0.7 mm tall, apparently with a bifid stipe. Fruit not seen. Phenology: The only two specimens known have been collected in flower in July. Distribution: Known only from the municipality of A gua Azul do Norte in Par state, Brazil (Figure 8). The elevation in the area ranges from ca. 250 to 500 m. Additional specimen examined: BRAZIL. Par: Agua Azul, em campina cortada pela estrada que vai de Xinguar a So Flix do Xing, km 55 na mrgem esq uerda do Rio Agua Preta, 1 Jun. 1994, Silva et al. 330 (MG). Commentary: Lockhartia ivainae is cautiously accepted here as a valid species. Only digital images of the type were available for study, and the paratype does not have any flowers. The floral mor phology (based on the illustration published in the protologue and a photograph published by Ferreira Fernandes da Silva & Fernandes da Silva, 2010) seems distinctive enough to warrant specific recognition; however, it could also represent a prematurely op ened bud or malformed flower of L. imbricata or L. goyazensis The vegetative morphology, with the leaves gently curving away from the stem, agrees with that of L. goyazensis If it is indeed a valid species, the tiny, inconspicuous flowers could explain t he paucity of collections. Lockhartia ivainae labellum (the least elaborate in the entire genus). The callus consists merely of a pair of subtle, smooth keels that merge distally, barely thicker than the rest of the labellum. The floral b racts are also very small.

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125 Lockhartia latilabris C. Schweinf. 15. Lockhartia latilabris C. Schweinf., Fieldiana, Bot. 28(1): 200 203, fig. 41. 1951. TYPE: VENEZUELA. Bolvar, Salto de Iwaracar mer, at western end of Sororopn tepu, 1615 m, 15 Nov. 1944, J.A. Steyermark 60222 (holotype: F, isotype: AMES) Stems desceding to pendent (occasionally suberect when young), more or less flexible, shoots (stem and triangular in side view, with straight margins (slightly incurving near the tip), obliquely acute, expos Inflorescences both terminal and axillary from distal part of the stem, with inflorescence bracts amplexicaul, condupli mm; across, yellow, the labellum either completely yellow or with a large central area blotched in reddish brown, th e column either completely yellow or with reddish brown blotches. Petals obovate, apically obtuse to rounded, Labellum entire, suborbicular to obreniform, wider than long, retus callus represented by a slightly thickened, smooth, puberulous area in the central portion of the labellum, 5 9 mm, with a subtle apical transverse depression 2 mm wide (callus otherwise absent). Column narrwoly winged, 2 3 mm, the wings triangular, 1 0.5 mm; anther cap galeate, 1 0.7 mm;

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126 Phenology: The few flowering specimens available have been collected during the months of August, September, and November. Distribution: West central Guyana and eastern Bolvar state in Venezuela, from 490 to 1615 m (Figure 10). Apparently also present in Brazil, on the basis of a plant illustrated by Ferreira Fernandes da Silva and Fernandes da Silva (2010), where it is reported as a new species record for that country. No specific locality data are given for judging from the distribution o f other collections, the species is expected to occur in the northern portion of the Brazilian state of Roraima. This species is aparently restricted to the Pacarama Mountains and the Gran Sabana formation in the Guiana Shield. Additional specimens examin ed: GUYANA. Cuyuni Mazaruni: Upper Mazaruni River basin, Mt. Ayanganna, talus at base of cliff, along NE side, 900 m, 1 Aug. 1960, Tillett & Tillett 44961 (NY, VEN); Upper Mazaruni River basin, Kako River, along Pat Bailey's line to top of Karowtipu, 490 m 20 Sep. 1960, Tillett & Tillett 45470 (NY). Potaro Siparuni: Mt. Kopinang, along creek near camp, 1350 m, 7 Apr. 1988, Hahn et al. 4296 (MO). VENEZUELA. Without locality: Dunsterville 245A (K [description and drawing only, no voucher found]). Bolvar: K m 120 S of El Dorado on the road to Sta. Elena de Uairn, 1100 m, Dunsterville 1243 (K [description only, no voucher found]); Piar, summit of Amaruay tepui, SE quarter of tepui, 550 m, 12 May 1986, Liesner & Holst 20847 (VEN). Commentary: Lockhartia latila bris is most similar to L. parthenocomos from which can be distinguished only by the lack of an irregular distal ledge in the callus. The callus of L. latilabris is so subtle that some authors have described the species as not

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127 having one. Both species are extremely similar and impossible to distinguish vegetatively (without locality data), and even if flowers are present the labellum has to be studied in detail. However, they are allopatric, separated hundreds of kilometers by the lowlands of the Orinoco b asin Lockhartia latilabris occurs in the region around the intersection of the borders of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana, while L. parthenocomos is restricted to the Venezuelan Coastal Range. Lockhartia lepticaula D.E. Benn. & Christenson 16. Lockhartia le pticaula D.E. Benn. & Christenson, Icon. Orchid. Peruv. plate 678. 2001. TYPE: PERU. Huanuco: Leoncio Prado, above Cueva de Las Pavas, 950 m, 10 Nov. 1991, E. Jara P. ex Bennett 5326 (holotype: Herb. Bennettianum, transferred to MOL according to Eric A. Ch ristenson, pers. comm. 2009, not found, probably never prepared ; lectotype, here designated : plate 678 in Icon. Orchid. Peruviarum. 2001) Stems erect or descending, more or less rigid, with leaves; shoots (stem and l unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, with straight to slightly incurving margins, acute to narrowly rounded apically, exposed part of largest leaves Inflorescences both te rminal and axillary from the distal half of the long, widely ovate to suborbicular, cordate, obtuse to apiculate, yellow, the petals occasionally whitish yellow, the labellum with reddish brown to purplish brown spots around the callus and on the lateral lobes, the callus mostly

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128 orange. Sepals elliptic, slightly concave, acute to obtuse, suboblong, round to subtruncate apically, tened; lateral lobes elongate, 1 mm; l lobules straight; callus Column ; wings obliquely flabellate, with an irregularly denticulate margin, 1.5 2 mm, with an entire to denticulate margin; stigmatic cavity subpandurate, 0.8 0.8 mm; anther cap galeate, 1 mm in diameter; pollinarium 0.8 mm tall, stipe bifid. Fruit not seen. Phenology: The relatively few specimens available indicate that the species flowers at least from May to November. Distribution: Bolivia and Peru, from 670 to 1320 m, on the eastern (Amazonian) side of the Andes (Figure 5). The sole Bolivian record cited here was identified from a photo of the herbarium specimen and an illustration by Roberto Vsquez; its flowers seem to be somewhat smaller than those of Peruvian collections. Additional specimens examined: BOLIVIA. Santa Cruz: Florida, Ro La Junta, entre La Angostura y Bermejo, 15 Oct. 1993, Vsquez et al. 2119 (LPB Vasq). PERU. Without locality: Bennett 4601 (MOL spirit); 8 Jun. 2010 (cult.), Blanco 3237 (FLAS). Cajamarca: San Ignacio, Huarango, Localidad Romerillo, 1170 m, 8 Nov. 1997, Campos 4558 (HAO [destroyed, photo seen], MO, USM). Hunuco: Hunuco, Monzn,

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129 cerca Tingo Mara, 700 m, 21 Jun. 1953, Ferreyra 9313 (AMES, UC, USM), 14 Sep. 1954, Ferreyra 10078 (AMES, UC, USM); Leoncio Prado, Rupa Rupa, al O de Tingo Mara, 700 m, 22 Aug. 1978, Schunke 10 514 (BRIT, MO); Tingo Mara, 670 m, 29 Oct. 1948, Carpenter 106 (AMES); Tingo Mara, Ro Hullaga, 4 Oct. 1972, Croat 21087 (F, FTG, MO, SEL). Pasco: Oxapampa, Distr. Chontabamba, camino a Pusapno, 1800 m, 6 Apr. 2005, Becerra et al. 1014 (HOXA). San Mart n: Rioja, Pardo Miguel, 1.5 km al O del centro poblado Aguas Verdes, 1320 m, 24 Jun. 1997, Snchez Vega & Dillon 9013 (CPUN, HAO [destroyed, photo seen], SEL). Ucayali: Padre Abad, Boquern de Padre Abad, 1000 m, 24 May 1993, Jara sub Bennett 6026 (NY). C ULTIVATED [without original locality data]: 9 May 2004, Blanco 2573 (FLAS); 27 Sep. 1988, Whitten 3433 (FLAS). Commentary: Lockhartia lepticaula is most simiar to the primarily Ecuadorian L. tenuiflora from which is distinguished by its wider labellum mid lobe and flabellate column wings. The two species appear to be parapatric, and no intermediates have been detected. Lockhartia lepticaula is also similar to L. serra which can have similarly flabellate column wings, but that species has much larger flower s, petals more pronouncedly arched forward, and relatively longer, obtuse labellum side lobes. Further, the two species occur on opposite sides of the Andes. Lockhartia longifolia (Lindl.) Schltr. 17. Lockhartia longifolia (Lindl.) Schltr., Repert. Spec. N ov. Regni Veg. Beih. 6: 99. 1919. : Fernandezia longifolia Lindl., Orchid. Linden. 13. 1846. TYPE: VENEZUELA. Mrida: neighborhood of Mrida [city], 5000 ft [1524 m], July 1842, J. Linden 660 (holotype: K Lindl.; isotypes: BR, G, P, W Reich. Orch.).

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130 Lockha rtia platyglossa Rchb. f., Linnaea 41: 106. 1877. TYPE: [COLOMBIA. Antioquia:] Medelln, [1872 1875], G. Wallis s.n. (W Reich. Orch. 44350). Lockhartia hologlossa Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 199. 1920. TYPE: [COLOMBIA]. Cauca [Possibly Valle del Cauca]. Ca. 1800 m, M. Madero s.n (holotype: B, destroyed. Lectotype, here designated : Tab. 71, Nr. 274 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 57. 1929) Lockhartia unicornis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 7: 200. 1920. TYPE: [COLO MBIA.] Cauca [now Valle del Cauca]: Cali, West Cordillera, 1500 2000 m, 6 Aug 1883, Lehmann 3290 (holotype: B, destroyed. Lectotype, here designated : K 000078997; isotypes: AMES, BM, G [photos: AMES, F, MO, SEL], NY). Lockhartia tuberculata D.E. Benn. & C hristenson, Brittonia 46: 241, 243, fig. 9. 1994 TYPE: PERU. Junn: Chanchamayo, headwaters of Ro Toro near Puente San Flix, 29 Feb. 1992, O. del Castillo ex Bennett 5403 (holotype: USM fide protologue, MOL fide E. Christenson, pers. comm., not found; l ectotype, here designated : NY). Leaves marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular and falcate to slightly sigmoid in side view, with incurving (rarely straight) margins toward the apex, and axillary from the distal fourth of the stem, up to 7 per stem (produced conduplicate, narrowly triangular in side view, acute to acuminate, app ressed to the

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131 tall, yellow with brick red spots on the callus. Sepals ovate to oval, concav e, acute to ide when flattened; callus suborbicular to oblong, located on the central proximal portion of the labellum, concave, surrounded by an elevated ridge (to 1 mm high) and a single tooth (to 2 mm tall) at the apex, with an oblong field of glandular trichomes i n the central area with an entire to denticulate margin, 1.5 1.5 mm; anther cap galeate 1.3 1.3 mm; mm. Nomenclatural notes: Although clearly a species of Lockhartia the exact identity of Fernandezia longifolia remained in obscurity for 13 0 years. The holotype in The structure of the flowers unknown to me he Reichenbach herbarium at W has one flower, but Reichenbach seemingly failed to notice that it was an isotype of F. longifolia and annotated the specimen as L. parthenocomos This specimen was also overlooked as a type when the Reichenbach f. herbarium was photographed for the IDC microform (Burns Balogh, 1988). Reichenbach (1857) initially listed F. longifolia as a

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132 synonym of his own Lockhartia parthenocomos and later (Reichenbach, 1855; species o bscurissima et ob florum defectum non recognoscenda, igitur delenda L. longifolia as a putative synonym of L. parthenocomos while Dunsterville and Garay (1959) and Foldats (1970) listed L. parthenocomos as a synonym of L. l ongifolia It was not until 1973 when, at the request of Dunsterville and Garay (1976), Peter Taylor rehydrated the flower from the holotype of L. longifolia and both species were recognized as different from each other. The illustration selected here as l ectotype of Lockhartia hologlossa is the original by Mansfeld (1929). Mansfeld also published the original drawing by Schlechter of L. unicornis in the same publication According to the protologue of Lockhartia tuberculata the holotype (the only specimen cited) was deposited in USM. According to Eric Christenson (pers. comm., 2009), all the types of orchids described by Bennett and Christenson that were originally dep osited in USM were transferred to MOL, although a search for them in either herbarium failed to find the type of L. tuberculata (Delsy Trujillo, pers. comm. 2010). However, an unmarked type specimen of L. tuberculata was found in NY; this specimen is proba bly the only extant voucher, and thus will be designated as lectotype. Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the year, but more abundantly during January and February.

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133 Distribution: From Colombia and western Venezuela south to Bolivia, from 750 to 2800 m on both sides of the Andes (but only on the eastern side in Peru and Bolivia) (Figure 9). Additional specimens examined: BOLIVIA. Without locality: Bang 2286 ( AMES, BM, E, F, G [2 sheets], GH, K [2 sheets], M, MICH, MO, NY [4 sheets], P H, W, WU, Z). Cochabamba: Ro Juntas, 800 m, 13 Apr. 1892, Kuntze s.n (NY, 2 sheets). La Paz: Inquisivi, near the pass above Circuata, "Polea", 2500 m, 30 Jan. 1983, Luer et al. 8654 (SEL). Santa Cruz: Yungas de San Mateo, 2000 m, 11 Apr. 1911, Herzog 198 8b (L). COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Parque Nacional Natural "Las Orqudeas", sector Calles, margen derecha del Ro Calles, arriba de la confluencia con el Ro Polo, 1400 m, 28 Mar. 1988, Cogollo et al. 2737 (JAUM). Boyac: Municipio Santa Mara, vertiente orient al de la Cordillera Oriental, 1400 m, 15 Aug. 2010 (cult.), Giraldo 206 (COL). Caquet: without specific locality, 1200 m, 26 Feb. 1979, Renz 4007 (RENZ). Cauca: Popayn, Lehmann s.n. (W Reich). Magdalena: Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, on trail between fin ca Reflejo and finca Cecilia in quebrada E of Quebrada Indiana, 1700 m, 1 Sep. 1972, Kirkbride 2043 (COL [2 sheets], NY). Norte de Santander: Ocaa, 1500 m, 1849, Schlim 1026 (K). Tolima: Entre Murillo y El Lbano, 15 km de Murillo, 2000 m, 8 Apr. 1984, Al bert de Escobar et al. 4208 (HUA). Valle del Cauca: Cordillera Occidental, vertiente oriental, Hoya del Ro Cali, Pichinde, Alto de Miravalle, hacia la Leonera, dehesas, 2020 m, 28 Oct. 1944, Cuatrecasas 18319 (AMES, F); Cordillera, arriba de Saladito, cer ca al cerro de la televisora, 2000 m, 27 Jan. 1970, Espinal 3735 (COL); Farallones de Cali, 2000 m, 15 Oct. 1882, Lehmann 2020 (G, 4 sheets); San Antonio, Estacin de la Televisora de Cali, 1900 m, 16 Oct. 1962, Schmidt Mumm 149 (COL, 2

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134 sheets). ECUADOR. Without locality data, or province unknown: Huacapamba [?], 19 Jan. 1883, Poortman 482 (K, P [2 sheets]); anonymous s.n (K spirit); 25 Jan. 2000 (cult.), Whitten et al. 1646 (FLAS), 29 Sep. 2003 (cult.), Whitten et al. 2385 (FLAS). Azuay: Along road from Gualaceo to Chiguinda, Jan. 1989, Hirtz et al. 4004 (MO). Bolvar: Huaranda [Guaranda], [Jun. 1803], Tafalla 444 (G, W Reich). Cotopaxi: 3 km E of El Palmar on road Quevedo Latacunga, 800 m, 5 Apr. 1980, Dodson & Gentry 10198 (SEL); Bosque Integral Otonga, 1400 m, 21 Apr. 1999, Muoz & Tapia 130 (SEL), 22 Apr. 1999, Muoz & Tapia 231 (QCNE), 1450 m, 18 May 1999, Muoz & Tapia 392 (QCNE); Tenefuerste, Ro Pilalo, km 52 53, Quevedo, Latacunga, 750 m, 21 Feb. 1982, Dodson & Gentry 12788 (MO, QCA, SEL). Imbabur a: Reserva Los Cedros, 1300 m, 3 Jul. 1999, Endara & Cooper 308 (QCA). Loja: Cachaco on road from Yangana to pass on road to Valladolid, 2450 m, 1 Jul. 1982 (cult.), Dodson et al. 13296 (SEL); Cachaco, near pass between Yangana and Valladolid, 2400 m, Mar. 1985, (SEL); Ramos pamba road Vilcabamba Valladolid, Sep. 1980, (SEL); Yangana, Andr s.n (K). Morona Santiago: Chiuhinda [Chiguinda?], 1861, Pearce s.n. (BM). Napo: Along Ro Borja, 1700 m, 16 Feb. 1990, Dalstrm 1346 ( SEL); Baeza, 1500 m, Hirtz 8 (SEL); Baeza, al pie del Ro Quijos, 2500 m, 2 Sep. 1995, Cornejo & Bonifaz 4497 (AAU); Baeza, riverside approx. 1 km SW of the village, 2000 m, 20 Oct. 1976, Ollgaard & Balslev 10212 (AAU, AMES, F, MO, NY, SEL); Desviacin Bae za Lago Agrio 2 km antes de Baeza, al margen del Ro Papallacta, 1900 m, 21 Aug. 1989 (cult.), Hgsater & Dodson 8922 (AMO, 4 sheets). Pichincha: 5 km E of the Ro Toachi at km 33 on road Santo Domingo to Quito, 1000 m, 1 Feb. 1987, Dodson & Hirtz 16908 (M O); Along the mining road above Minas Toachi, 1200 m, 27 Feb. 1982, Hirtz & Len

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135 111 (SEL); Quito Sto. Domingo via Chiriboga, km 85, 1200 m, 16 Feb. 1991, Dodson et al. 18675 (MO, QCNE); Palanda, Regin de la Cordillera del Cndor, sector Sur, Parroquia Sa n Francisco de Vergel, cuenca alta del Rio Vergel, Pica Sangola, 2200 m, 12 Mar. 2005, Quizhpe et al. 995 (QCNE), Pica de Sol Naciente, 2100 m, 15 Mar. 2005, Quizhpe et al. 1070 (QCNE); Quito, Nanegal, Hacienda El Carmen, c. 5 km airline SE of Nanegal, 120 0 m, 9 Jul. 1991, Webster et al. 28964 (DAV); Quito, Nanegal, Bosque Protector Maquipucuna, along trail from guava plantation to Ro Tulambi, 1300 m, 10 Jul. 1992, Webster et al. 29301 (DAV, QCNE). Zamora Chinchipe: Cerro Colorado, S of Nambija, 17 Feb. 20 02, Hirtz et al. 8007 (SEL); Zamora Cenepa, ca. km 25 km 33, 1700 m, 5 Dec. 1957, Dodson 242 (SEL); Zumba, 1200 m, 10 Nov. 2001 (cult.), Hirtz 7817 (SEL). PERU. Without locality: Bennett 6427 (MOL spirit); 1876, Vidal Senege s.n. (P). Cajamarca: San Igna cio, San Jos de Lourdes, base del Cerro Picorana, 2010 m, 20 Jan. 1999, Daz et al. 10352 (CPUN, GH, MO, SEL); San Ignacio, San Jos de Lourdes, Campamento Zural, camino al Cerro Picorana, 2010 m, 28 Jan. 1999, Daz et al. 10552 (MO). Cusco: Chirumbia, 20 00 m, Dec. 1956, Vargas 11381 (CUZ; photos: F, NY); Quispicanchis, Ttio to Murayaca, Marcapata, 1960 m, 28 Jan. 1943, Vargas 3138 (AMES, CUZ [photos: F, NY]); Urubamba, 101 km from Cuzco between Pampacahua and Cedrobamba, Quebrada and Ro Pachachoca, Santu ario Histrico Machu Pichu, 2800 m, 8 Jul. 1989, Nez et al. 11107 (MO); Urubamba, Machu Picchu, 2020 m, 4 Jan. 1946, Vargas 5546 (AMES). Hunuco: Mua, 1830 m, Bennett 15 (SEL); Mua, Ruiz s.n. (BM, MA). Junn: Huacapistana, 25 Apr. 1964, Bennett 462 (AM ES, UC); Huacapistana, 1800 m, 6 Jun. 1929, Killip & Smith 24296 (AMES, F, G, K, NY, UC, USM); Satipo, Cordillera Vilcabamba, Northern Cordillera Vilcabamba, E slope, upper

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136 River Poyeni watershed, 2050 m, 23 Jun. 1997, Boyle et al. 4568 (F, USM). Pasco: Ox apampa, Distr. Oxapampa, sector Muchuymayo, zona de amortiguamiento del Parque Nacional Yanachaga Chemillen, 2024 m, 23 Mar. 2010, Perea et al. 4126 (HOXA). VENEZUELA. Mrida: without specific locality, 1200 m, 19 Dec. 1961, Renz 5138 (RENZ, 2 sheets). T chira: 18 km SW of La Fundacin, 950 m, 14 Mar. 1981, Liesner & Gonzlez 10567 (VEN); On road from San Jos de Bolvar to La Mesa, 1500 m, Dunsterville 1273 (K). COUNTRY UNKNOWN: Rio de Cachaco, Andr s.n (K). CULTIVATED [and/or without original locality data]: 19 Aug. 2010 (cult.), Blanco 3215 (FLAS); Pavn s.n (G); 4 Apr. 2000 (cult.), Whitten 3434 (FLAS). Commentary: Lockhartia longifolia is most similar to L. hercodonta but that species has white flowers ( c ommentary under L. hercodonta l ists further differences). Lockhartia parthenocomos which has been confused with L. longifolia in the past, occurs in the Venezuelan Coastal Range and has much larger flowers with a concave labellum and a non crateriform callus. Lockhartia rugosifolia which has been confused with L. longifolia in herbaria, also has a concave labellum with a non crateriform callus, although the flowers are much smaller than those of L. parthenocomos ; its leaves are rugulose, while those of L. longifolia are smooth. The leaf morphology of Lockhartia longifolia is variable throughout its geographical leaves (i.e., that form a narrow angle with the stem), plants from elsewhere in Colombia, Ecuador, and P eru tend to have longer leaves that are slightly sigmoid and that diverge Collections from Bolivia have relatively straight leaves. Some collections from NW

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137 Ecuador vegetatively r esemble L. hercodonta which suggests there could be hybridization between both taxa ( comment ary for L. hercodonta ). The type of L. tuberculata from central Peru has unusually incurved leaf tips. Moreover, the flowers of Lockhartia longifolia are quite v ariable in size, with a 3 fold difference between extremes (e.g., the type of L. tuberculata from Peru has flowers 6 mm across, while Cuatrecasas 18319 from Colombia has flowers 18 mm tall). However, this variation is continuous and the morphology of the f loral parts, including the callus and column, are relatively uniform. Schweinfurth (1955) also commented on the variable flower size of this species (as L. hologlossa ). Lockhartia lunifera (Lindl.) Rchb. f. 18. Lockhartia lunifera (Lindl.) Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 10: 767. 1852. : Fernandezia lunifera Lindl. 92, 1839. SYNTYPES: BRAZIL. [So J.T. Descourtilz s.n (plate 60 in Epidendres des forts vierges du Br France, Paris ); BRAZIL. Without further locality data, Ex Hort G. Loddiges s.n. ( lectotype, here designated : K Lindl. 79001 [including watercolor of flower in life near the bottom left corner of the sheet; excluding Gar dner 4360 Jamieson s.n and Jameson s.n .]); and BRAZIL. [Bahia], near Ilheos [Ilhus], [probably collected between 10 Nov. 1818 and 18 Feb 1819], C.F. von Martius s.n. (not found; not in BR, K, or M). Lockhartia ludibunda Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 15: 159. 185 7. TYPE: [BRAZIL. Santa Catarina:] near Joinville, Ex Hort. Consul Schiller [near Hamburg], Schiller s.n. (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 44340; possible isotypes: W Reich. Orch. 44341 and 44342)

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138 reproductive, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, with slightly outcurving (occasionally straight) margins, obtuse to truncate (commonly rounded) a pically; caul, ovate sh brown blotches and lines around the callus and on the lateral lobes; and an open V shaped infrastigmatic dark brown band. Sepals elliptic to widely oval or ovate, slightly concave, to flattened. Labellum 3 when flattened; lateral lobes elongate, straight to falcate (curving upwards) when flat tened, oblong, obtuse to round apically (often crenulate near the apex), curved distal lobules projected downward or somewhat flaring; callus more or less triangular, becoming wider and slightly bifid distally; basal part forming a concave cushion with a basal tuft of short, glandular hairs, 1 2 mm; the distal portion forming a subtriangu lar

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139 1 mm, with a minutely crenulate margin; stigmatic cavity narrowly pandurate, 1 0.3 mm; anther c ap galeate, 1 mm long; pollinarium 0.8 mm tall, stipe bifid. Fruit obovoid to ellipsoid, Nomenclatural notes: Only two of the three elements cited in the protologue of Fernandezia lunifera have been found. The specimen present in L indley's herbarium at K is designated as the lectotype. There are three additional collections mounted on the same sheet as the lectotype. These are: 1) Jameson s.n from Peru, a stem with an attached flower, possibly of Lockhartia lepticaula ; 2) Jamieson s.n from Nanegal (Ecuador), collected in 1854; a stem without flowers, vegetatively reminiscent of L. serra ; and 3) Gardner 4360 from Brazil, which is an isotype of L. goyazensis There is also a small watercolor of the flower in life, apparently of Loddi this is too part of the lectotype. There are three extant Lockhartia specimens collected by von Martius in M, but The Descourtilz mentioned by Lindley in the protologue is not Michel Etienne Descourtilz (1775 1835), who worked mostly in the Caribbean, but his son, Jean Thodore Descourtilz (? 1855), who worked for the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro. His watercolors and (informal) descripti ons of Brazilian orchids (Descourtilz, 1825 1855) Bibliothque de L'Institut de France in Paris. It appears that Lindley examined these paintings and described several species based on them.

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140 A specimen from the H.G. Reichenbach herbarium ( W Reich. Orch. 44329) is annotated as the type of Lockhartia lunifera but it does not correspond to any of the original elements cited by Lindley in the protologue. Reichenbach (1855) clearly stated: h Houtt. Gard., Oct. 1848, H. Kegel stem must be the plant cultivated by Josst. None of these two collections are types There are three specimens at W Reich. Orch. labeled Lockh artia ludibunda seems to be the one first sent by Consul Schiller to Reichenbach, and the one that Reichenbach used to describe the species. It has two stems with detached flow ers (in a packet ), and a piece of paper with several drawings in pencil of different parts of the plant. Although Reichenbach f. never published these drawings, Kraenzlin (1923) A second specimen in Vienna (W Reich. Orch. on its label, here interpreted to be the year 1868, and thus eliminating it as possible type material of L. ludibunda The third specimen (W Reich. Orch. 44342) has no indication of the d ate of preparation, but a detached flower in the packet is clearly the one on which the drawing attached to the holotype was based. Fernandezia robusta Reichenbach (1855; 1864) as a name used for a pla nt in cultivation by Senator Martin Johann Jenisch II (1793 1857) of Hamburg. Reichenbach also made clear that this unpublished name corresponds to Lockhartia lunifera Fernandezia

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141 robusta t is not validly published under Article 34.1 of the Code (McNeill et al. 2006). Reichenbach (1855) mentioned the destroyed in Berlin along with many other Klotzsch c ollections; however, a probable duplicate (a fragment consisting of a single flower), originally part of the Meisner herbarium, exists in NY. The combination Fernandezia robusta (Bateman) Schltr. is a synonym of L. verrucosa and its homonym F. robusta (Sc hltr.) Senghas is a synonym of Fernandezia sanguinea (Lindl.) Garay & Dunst. Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the year, but more abundantly from December to March. Distribution: Southwestern Brazil (from southern Bahia to Santa Ca tarina), and possibly in northeastern Argentina (in Misiones province), from sea level to at least 700 m (very few specimens have elevation al data) in Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlntica) biome (Figure 8). The sole Argentinian record (from Iguaz National Par k) is based on a specimen that lost its flowers, but its vegetative and inflorescence morphology and Atlantic Forest habitat strongly suggest that it is L. lunifera although it could also be L. goyazensis Notably, no species of Lockhartia have been repor ted for the Argentinian or Brazilian portions of the Iguaz Falls area (Johnson, 2001; Cervi and Borgo, 2007). Additional specimens examined: ARGENTINA. Misiones: P. Nal. Iguaz, 26 Jan. 1997, Ospina 1435 (COL ; identification tentative ). BRAZIL. Without l ocality: anonymous s.n (K spirit); anonymous s.n. (M); 15 Aug. 1920 (cult.), Doring 5174 (M); Glaziou 1120 (P); 1817, Raddi s.n. (G). State unknown: Rio Macabe, 1845, Riedel 8

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142 (P). Bahia: Jaguaquara a Apuerema, 4 Oct. 1972 [1973?], Pinheiro s.n. (INPA); U na, estrada Sao Jos Una, entre os kms 40 e 45 a partir da BR, 8 Oct. 1992, Amorim et al. 821 (NY, U); Erskine 235 (K spirit). Espritu Santo: Sta. Isabel, 9 Jan. 1947, Krieger & Roth 1120 (RB). Minas Gerais: Serra do Gongo Socco [Serra do Gandarela], 4 Ma r. 1922, Hoehne s.n. (SP). Paran: Alexandra, 11 May 1909, Dusn 8107 (AMES, F, NY, S); Caioba, 10 Jan. 1936, Hoehne s.n. (SP); Facenda Marumby, 14 Jan. 1914, Dusn 14274 (K, MICH, S); Jacarehy, 11 Jan. 1915, Dusn 16333 (AMES, S), 9 Feb. 1916, Dusn 17692 (MO, S); Rio Imbuguass, 22 Apr. 1910 (cult.), Dusn s.n (L, P, S). Rio de Janeiro: Without specific locality, 1 Jun. 2004 (cult.), Bocayuva s.n. (RB), Gaudichaud s.n. (G); Bords de la riv. Paquequer, Feb. 1889, Neves Armond 41 (AMES, BR); Carmo, Neves A rmond 294 (BR); Carmo de Cantagallo, 1938, Neves Armond s.n. (RB); Petrpolis, Bairro de Matto Grosso, Feb. 1928, Spannagel 131 (SP); Rio Serra de Carioca, 700 m, 22 Mar. 1951, Pabst 1284 (AMES); Sebastianpolis [Rio de Janeiro], Dec., Martius 2237 (M); Se rra da Carioca, Estrada do Sinmer, 600 m, 22 Apr. 1951, Pabst 1034 (S). Santa Catarina: Ad ripas fluvii Pirahy, 19 Sep. 1897, Schwacke 13226 (RB); Blumenau, 10 Feb. 1941, anonymous s.n. (RB); Sacco Grande, Insula St. Catharina, 3 Sep. 1950, Rohr 42 (AMES) ; Saco Grande, Insula, Dec. 1950, Pabst 819 (M). So Paulo: without specific locality, 19 Jul. 1996 (cult.), Mller 1987/96 (RENZ); "Alto da Serra, Rio Grande, etc.", 1904, Edwall (Comm. Geogr. Geol. S. Paulo) 1877 (BR); Brasilia prope San Paulo", Bowie & Cunningham s.n. (BM); Cananeia, Ilha do Cardoso, ao vilarejo de Maruja, 22 Jun. 1989, Romaniuc Neto et al. 846 (HUEFS, RB); Cubato, 30 Dec. 1923 (cult.), Gehrt 14606 (NY); Iguap, Estaco Ecolgica Jureia Itatins, Serra da Jureia, ao redor da cachoeria d o Salto, 12 Dec. 1990, Gomes da Silva

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143 et al. 103 (SP); Iguap, Reserva da Jureia, trilha para a figueira grande, 14 Mar. 1990, Rossi et al. 556 (SP); Iguap, Rio Peroupava, Boa Vista, 1 Jan. 1919, Brade 8527 (K, M, NY); Prope Raiz da Serra, 20 m, Jun. 1901 (cult.), Kerner 22 sub Wettstein & Schiffner s.n. (WU, 2 sheets); Santos, Sonomocabas, 30 Mar. 1875, Mosn 3800 (S). CULTIVATED [and/or without original locality data]: 27 Aug. 1922 (cult.), Ames s.n. (AMES); anonymous 1670 (W Reich); 8 Nov. 1922 (cult.) anonymous s.n (BR); 6 Jun. 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2576 (FLAS); 16 Aug. 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2670 (SEL spirit); 14 Aug. 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2688 (FLAS); 16 Nov. 2006 (cult.), Blanco 3219 (FLAS); Chase 82231 (K spirit); 28 Jul. 1983, Chase 83157 (K spirit, supposedly from Costa Rica but must be erroneous); Oct. 1848 (cult.), Kegel s.n. (W Reich); 13 Dec. 1912 (cult.), Lambach 1139 (BR); 30 Nov. 1994 (cult.), LeDoux & Stern 379 (MO). Commentary: Lockhartia lunifera is very similar to L. goyazensis but it ca n be distinguished from that species by the usually shorter, straight er leaves, larger flowers, and wider labellum midlobe (see more details under L. goyazensis ). It is also similar to the Central American L. amoena which is vegetatively variable, can hav e multiple flower s open simultaneously in each inflorescence, and has a subquadrate labellum midlobe. Lockhartia lunifera is the southernmost species in the genus, and it is not sympatric with any other Lockhartia Lockhartia micrantha Rchb. f 19. Lockhar tia micrantha Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 10: 768. 1852. Non Lockhartia macrantha Lem. SYNTYPES: PANAMA. Veragua [Veraguas], [15 20 March 1837], R. Hinds s.n. (lectotype, designated by Atwood in Icon. Pl. Trop. pl. 1449. 1992, here narrowed down: W Reich. Orch. 5 5160 [excluding Cuming s.n .; Isolectotypes: K 78996,

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144 K [excluding Wood s.n .], K Lindl. 78999 [excluding Loddiges s.n .], W); and PANAMA 1830 [erroneously 1831, 1833, 1834 or 1835 in some labels ], H. Cuming s.n. [or 20 1297 or 1298 ] (BM 534525, BR 681386, K [3 sheets], OXF, W, W Reich. Orch. 55160 [excluding Hinds s.n .]) Lockhartia chiriquiensis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Reg. Veg. 12: 215. 1913. TYPE: PANAMA. Chiriqu: vicinity of San Felix, 0 H. Pittier 5286 (holotype: US, drawing and photo of holotype: AMES; isotypes: B [destroyed, drawing: AMES 26840], BM, NY). Lockhartia choconsis Rchb. f. & Triana ex Kraenzl., Pflanzenr. (Engle r) IV, 50 (Heft 83): 19, fig. 2E. 1923. 1857. J. Triana s.n (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 44328; isotype: P 456060). Lockhartia lankesteri Ames, Schedul. Orchid. 5: 3 6. 1923. TYPE: COSTA RICA. C.H. Lankester 448 (holotype: AMES). Lockhartia pandurata Pupulin, Rev. Biol. Trop. 46(4): 998. 1998. TYPE: COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: Aguirre, Parque Nac ional Manuel Antonio, 80 m, 11 July 1995, F. Pupulin 313 (holotype: USJ; isotype CR, not found). marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, triangular in side view, with straight (rarely incurving or outcurving) margins, obtuse to obliquely truncate apically (sometimes round

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145 terminal and axillary from from the distal three fourths of the stem, up to 12 per stem (pro inflorescence bracts amplexicaul, widely ovate to suborbicular, cordate, acute to obtuse an spots around the callus and/or the column with a reddish brown infrastigmatic series of do l lobes absent) when flattened; lateral lobes (when present) very short and obscure to mm; midlobe entire to obscurely 4 lobulate, subovobate to rhombic, emarginate, wi der subquadrate, 1 1 mm, with a small tuft of glandular trichomes; the distal part formed by two subparallel, smooth to obscurely tuberculate, low keels that converge di stally (often not detectable in rehydrated flowers), 1.5 1 mm, with an entire to crenulate margin; stigmatic cavity 0.6 0.2 mm; anther cap galea te, 1 mm Nomenclatural notes: Reichenbach f. cited two collections in the protologue of Lockhartia micrantha which should therefore be considered syntypes: Veragua Hinds

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146 Panama Cuming day Panama. The da y Panama was part of Colombia. Richard Hinds was a naturalist on board of the H.M.S. Sulphur during a mission to survey the Pacific coast of the New World. The Sulphur surveyed the coast of Veraguas on March 15 20, 1837; the coastal localities of Bahia Hon da and Pueblo Nuevo (both of them in the modern province of Veraguas) are mentioned by Belcher (1843) as part of Hugh Cuming explored the Pacific coast of South and Central America during his D iscoverer in 1828 1830 (Dance, 1980). Cuming was based in Chile (a country outside of the natural distribution of Lockhartia ), and several duplicates of the syntype bear labels with the pre error). Some syntype duplicates indicate different years on their labels (1831, 1833, 1834 and 1835), which do not represent collecting dates (Cuming stayed in England from 1831 until 1835 (Dance, 1980). Those years probably represent dates of distributio which were taken care of by William Jackson Hooker. Several sheets have numbers written on their labels: 20 (W), 1297 (one sheet at K), and 1298 (one sheet at BM and two sheets at K). Hooker most likely assigned these numbers while he organized the collection numbers, and his specimens often have conflicting numbers and locality names (Rolfe 1908; Johnston 1936). Even if there are several gatherings represented

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147 L. micrantha all of them can be considered syntypes as Reichenbach f. likely studied all of them before he described the species. ents of both Cuming 1298 an indication that they were taken from either the specimen at BM of from the specimens at K. None of the other sheets of either collection has any remaining flowers. Lindley (1834) cited Cuming 1298 as Fernandezia elegans Mora and Atwood (1992d) cited Hinds s.n at W as the type of Lockhartia micrantha (effectively designating a first step lectotype) but there are two sheets currently at W; the lectotype is here restricted to the sheet that belonged to et al ., 2006). Christenson (1995) made the argument that Pittier's Panamanian collections of Orchidaceae at US should be regarded as holotypes. In 1913, a set of type fragments (apparently including Lockhartia chiriquiensis ) was sent from US to B at the request of Ignatz Urban (then director of B); these isotypes were destroyed during WWII (Ames, 1944). The collecting date on the specimen labels of Pittier 5286 (type of Lockhartia chiriquiensis including the drawing at AMES) is January 1912, but this must be an error; Pittier was in San Flix twice in December of 1911, but not in January of 1912 (Dwyer, 1973). Schlechter was aware of this, because in the protologue he cited the collection date as December 1911.

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148 Both holotype and isotype of L. chocoensis Lockhartia choconsis R chb. f. & Triana, Forts de Choco This indicates that Reichenbach intended to publish this species jointly with Triana, although he never did it. A later annotation on the holotype by Kraenzlin reads Lockhartia chocoens is Rchb. f. et Krnzlin. (as mentioned in the protologue by Kr ae nzlin) and dissected one; the two remaining entire flowers are in bad shape. Unfortunately, the isotype specimen has no flowers. province of Alajuela) as the type locality for L. lankesteri but a paper slip in the packet Lockhartia Aguas Zarcas San Carlos Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected from November to August, with well marked maximum in January, February, and March (the peak of the dry season in most of the species geographic range). No flowering collections have been made in September or October, which normally are the rainiest months. Distribution: From Nicaragua to Colombia and Venezuela, from sea level to 1500 m (Figure 4). Collections from Colombia and Venezuela occur at generally higher elevations (700 1500 m) than most Central Ame rican ones (0 Fendler prepared a Venezuelan collection supposedly from the state of Aragua; no actually brought from Tchira to Aragua and flow ered there in cultivation. A specimen supposedly from Suriname ( Chase 86194 K spirit) lacks specific locality data and was likely prepared from a cultivated plant with erroneous information.

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149 Foldats (1970) also listed Suriname and Guyana in the geographic range of L. micrantha but he cited no vouchers, and his reports are likely based on misidentified specimens of the vegetatively similar L. imbricata cited by Cogniaux (1906), Kraenzlin (1923), and Maguire (1948). Additional specimens examined: COLOMBIA. Boyac: Municipio de Santa Mara, vertiente oriental de la Cordillera Oriental, 1400 m, Feb. 2011 (cult.), Giraldo 230 (COL). Caquet: San Vicente del Cagun, carretera de Neiva a San Vicente, entre los sitios Sibate y las Morras (kms. 110 116), Cordiller a Oriental, Vertiente Oriental, 1000 m, 27 Nov. 1990, Betancur & Churchill 2226 (COL, HUA, US). COSTA RICA. Without locality, or locality questionable: Endres s.n. (W Reich); Sanford 6 (K spirit); ed by Abel Delgado on the Williams et al. 28866 (F, NY). Alajuela: Orotina, 250 m, Nov. 1923, Lankester 782 (AMES, 2 sheets); Surubres prs de San Mateo, 27 Jan. 1892, Biolley 7093 (BR, G); Trincher a [Finca], Endres s.n. (W Reich); Vicinity of Capuln, on the Ro Grande de Trcoles, 80 m, 2 Apr. 1924, Standley 40201 (AMES). Cartago: Turrialba, grounds of Instituto Interamericano, 610 m, 12 Dec. 1947, DeWolf 303 (AMES); Vicinity of Pejivalle, 900 m, 7 Feb. 1926, Standley & Valerio 47034 (AMES, US), Standley & Valerio 47100 (AMES). Guanacaste: Above Ro Las Caas, 500 m, 14 Feb. 1930, Thomas 7905 (AMES); Aguilares, 600 m, 29 Jan. 1926, Standley & Valerio 46377 (AMES, US); Hills S of farmhouse, Hacienda Granadilla, 500 m, 11 Feb. 1930, Dodge & Thomas 7182 (AMES); Hojancha de Nicoya, 200 m, 29 Jan. 1942, Len 963 (CR [2 sheets], F); Quebrada Grande, SE of Tilarn, 650 m, 27 Jan. 1926, Standley & Valerio 46097 (AMES), Standley & Valerio 46118 (AMES, US);

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150 Ti larn, 250 m, 20 Mar. 1923, Valerio 1 (CR); Upper portion of can of Ro San Jos, 460 m, 12 Feb. 1930, Dodge & Thomas 7892 (AMES); Vicinity of Lbano, 260 m, 15 Jan. 1926, Standley & Valerio 44927 (AMES, US); Vicinity of Tilarn, 500 m, 10 Jan. 1926, Sta ndley 44161 (AMES, US), Standley 44271 (AMES, US), Standley & Valerio 44989 (AMES). Heredia: Magsasay, sendero entre el campamento Canta Rana y Ro Peje, 400 m, 14 Jan. 1983, Chacn 75 (CR, MO). Puntarenas: Buenos Aires, Ujarrs, orilla Ro Ceibo, 300 m, 2 9 Dec. 1981, Ocampo 3423 (CR); Corcovado Nat. Park, near Estacin Sirena, 3 Dec. 1989, Merz 406 (CR); Esquinas Forest, area between the Ro Esquinas and Palmar, 30 m, 1 Dec. 1949, Allen 5366 (F, SEL); Golfito, P. N. Piedras Blancas, Valle de Coto Colorado, Ro Bonito, 100 m, 12 Apr. 1996, Fletes et al. 255 (INB); Golfito, P.N. Corcovado, Pennsula de Osa, Estacin Sirena, Sendero Sirena, 10 m, 12 Jun. 1994, Aguilar 3376 (CR, INB); Golfito, Parque Nacional Corcovado, Estacin Biolgica Sirena, 100 m, 6 Jan. 2005 (cult.), Bogarn et al. 1241 (JBL spirit); Golfito, Parque Nacional Corcovado, Pennsula de Osa, Estacin Sirena, Sendero Ollas, 10 m, 12 Feb. 1994, Aguilar 3115 (CR, INB, FLAS, MO); Isla Violn, Jul. 1974, Poveda & Gmez 4715 (CR, 3 sheets); Manuel A ntonio, Quepos, 26 Jan. 1989, Mora s.n. (USJ); NE of Sabalito along road to La Unin, 800 m, 17 Jan. 1967, Burger & Matta 4534 (CR, F); Near Rincn de Osa, 100 m, 17 Feb. 1974, Liesner 2202 (MO); On Maxwell Cone's "El Volcn" farm at the junction of Ro A ngel and Ro Volcn, El General Valley, 450 m, 2 Feb. 1963, Williams et al. 24231 (CR, F, GH); Osa, El Campo, subiendo por la fila entre Aguabuena y Baneguitas, cuenca superior de Quebrada Banegas, bajando hasta la Quebrada Digo Digo, 350 m, 13 Jan. 1991, Herrera 4812 (CR, MO); Osa, Pennsula de Osa, Rancho Quemado, 200 m, 20 Jan. 1993, Quesada 377 (INB); Osa, Puerto

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151 Jimnez, 5 m, 7 Apr. 1930, Brenes 12216 (CR, F); Parque Nacional Corcovado, Estacin La Leona, junto a Quebrada La Leona, 0 m, 21 Jan. 1993, A guilar 1642 (CR, INB); Parque Nacional Corcovado, Sirena, Jack's 800 Trail, 150 m, 15 Feb. 1988, Kernan 150 (INB); Pennsula de Osa, cerca del Ro Volcn, Feb. 1989 (cult.), Campos s.n (USJ); Playa Blanca road near Rincn de Osa, 0 m, 15 Feb. 1974, Liesne r 2156 (CAS, MO, NY); Playa Blanca, Golfo Dulce, 0 m, 25 Feb. 1933, Valerio 369 (F); Punta Quepos, 3 km S of Puerto Quepos, cove at NE base of peninsula, up to main ridge, 80 m, 21 Jan. 1987, Grayum 7975 (CR, MO); Reserva Marenco, Pennsula de Osa, 23 Feb. 1992, Pupulin s.n (USJ); Rincn de Osa, 7 Dec. 1966 (cult.), Rodrguez 1044 (USJ); Rincn de Osa, Osa Peninsula, about 5 km W of Rincn de Osa, 50 m, 24 May 1973, Burger & Gentry 9022 (CR); Santo Domingo de Golfo Dulce [Puerto Jimnez], Mar. 1896, Tonduz [I.P.G.C.R.] 10053 (BR); Vicinity of Tinoco Station, area between the Ro Esquinas and Palmar Sur de Osa, 30 m, 16 Mar. 1950, Allen 5489 (F, US). San Jos: Santa Mara, Jun. 1869, Endres 543 (W Reich); Turrubares, Pacific side, 225 m, 6 Mar. 1926, Alfaro 265 (AMES); Z. P. La Cangreja, Santa Rosa de Pursical, en las faldas de la Fila La Cangreja, 500 m, 6 Jan. 1993, Morales 1016 (INB). NICARAGUA. Without locality: 1867, Tate 459 (K). Chontales: Between Acoyapa and San Miguelito, 366 m, Aug., Heller 2385 (S EL, 3 sheets). Managua: Sierra de Managua, Ro Masigua, 600 m, Apr. 1938, Garnier 1831 (AMES, F). Matagalpa: Ro Blanco, "El Blsamo", 1 km al W de Ro Blanco, 200 m, 17 Mar. 1984, Moreno 23609 (MEXU, MO, SEL). Ro San Juan: El Castillo, comunidad Boca de Escalera, 1 km al O, 100 m, 4 Feb. 2005, Urbina 832 (MO); San Bartolo, 28 Jul. 1972, Robbins 6135 (MO, SEL). Zelaya [now Regin Autnoma Atlantico Norte]: Along new road to Mina Nueva Amrica (leading more or

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152 less W from ca. 14.3 km N of El Empalme on main road to Rosita), ca. 6.3 km from main road, 29 Apr. 1978, Stevens 8433 (MO); Along new road to Mina Nueva Amrica (leading more or less W from ca. 14.3 km N of El Empalme on main road to Rosita), ca. 7.7 km from main road, 29 Apr. 1978, Stevens 8429 (MO); Along new road to Mina Nueva Amrica (leading more or less W from ca. 14.3 km N of El Empalme on main road to Rosita), ca. 8.6 km from main road, 27 Apr. 1978, Stevens 8362 (MO); Along road between El Empalme and Limbaika, ca. 1.5 km SE of Palmera, 60 m, 24 Feb. 1979, Stevens 12946 (MO, SEL); Siuna, Comarca El Hormiguero, trocha El Hormiguero, 7 Jan. 1983, Ortiz 602 (MO, SEL). Zelaya [now Regin Autnoma Atlantico Sur]: Along new road from Ro Blanco to Ro Copalar, ca. 31 km E of Ro Blanco, 13 Feb. 1979 Stevens 12140 (MO, SEL); El Zapote, 40 km al NE de Nueva Guinea, camino al NE de San Martn, 130 m, 26 Feb. 1984, Sandino 4745 (MO). PANAMA. Without locality, or locality ambiguous: 28 Jan. 1908 (cult.), anonymous 153 (K); 6 Dec. 1978 (cult.), Atwood 78 134 (SEL); 23 Mar. 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2558 (FLAS); 20 Aug. 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2671 (FLAS); 22 Nov. 1977 (cult.), Henderson s.n (SEL); 28 Nov. 1978 (cult.), Medina s.n (SEL); Cultivated, Powell 51 (K); 7 Apr. 1978 (cult.), Pridgeon s.n (SEL); 28 Apr. 2001 (cult.), Silvera 18 (FLAS); 9 Apr. 2002 (cult.), Silvera 72 (FLAS); "Hills E of city and in the province of Chiriqu, sea level to 4000 ft. Blooms in January and February", cultivated, Powell 51 (AMES, MO). Province unknown: Cruces, 0 m, 22 Nov. 1922 (cult.), Powell 3189 (AMES); Milaflores, 0 m, Jan. 1923 (cult.), Powell 3203 (AMES); Ojo del Agua, 0 m, Dec. 1922 (cult.), Powell 3048 (AMES); Santa Luca, Mar. 1839, Barclay 2800 (BM). Chiriqu: Without specific locality, 1219 m, Dec. 1923 (cult.), Powel l 3476 (AMES); Burica Peninsula, San Bartolo Lmite, 18 km W of

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153 Puerto Armuelles, 450 m, 24 Feb. 1973, Bussey 584 (MEXU, MO, SEL). Cocl: 2 mi N of Cerro Piln, 900 m, 16 Mar. 1973, Liesner 722 (MO); A few km above El Valle, 1000 m, 6 Mar. 1976, Luer et al 752 (SEL), Luer et al. 764 (SEL); Cerro Gaital, 7 Mar. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 3223 (FLAS); Cerro Pajita, hills N of El Valle de Antn, Fld. Gamboa, 1000 m, 18 Feb. 1947, Allen 4259 (BM, BR, G [2 sheets], F); Crest of Cerro Pajita, N of El Valle, 1200 m, 2 Jan. 1947, Allen 3939 (AMES, G); El Valle de Antn, 1000 m, 16 Mar. 1946, Allen 3420 (MO); El Valle de Antn, slopes of Cerro Gaital, 14 Nov. 1999 (cult.), Whitten 99233 (FLAS); Hills above El Valle de Antn, 23 Nov. 1967, Dressler 3194 (PMA); Hills N of E l Valle de Antn, vicinity of La Mesa, 1000 m, 21 Jan. 1941, Allen 2318 (AMES); On the Mesa above El Valle, 900 m, 5 Dec. 1983, Luer et al. 9259 (SEL); Penonom, 15 m, 23 Feb. 1908, Williams 623 (NY, 3 sheets); Region N of El Valle de Antn, 1000 m, 13 Jan 1942, Allen 2903 (AMES). Coln: Upper Ro Piedras headwaters, along trail from end of Santa Rita Ridge Road, ca 11 km SW of Cerro Braja, 600 m, 2 May 1981, Sytsma et al. 4210 (MO). Darin: 10 km NE of Jaqu, ridge and steep slopes at headwaters of Ro Pa varand, 427 m, 30 Jan. 1981, Sytsma & (MO); 10 km NE of Jaque, ridge to headwaters of Ro Pavarand, 365 m, 1 Feb. 1981, (PMA, SEL); Cerro Sapo, 488 m, 1 Feb. 1978, Hammel 1181 (MO); E slope of Cerro Sapo, 762 m, 3 Feb. 19 78, Hammel 1282 (MO); Ensenada del Guayabo, along shoreline and lagoons on NW coast, 18 km SE Jaqu, 0 m, 11 Jan. 1983, Garwood et al. 159 (BM). Los Santos: Vicinity of Tonos, Gunico, 36 m, 27 Feb. 1963, Stern et al. 1836 (MO, US). Panam [including Cana l Zone]: 1 km al E del campamento de los guardabosques de INRNARE, sendero de interpretacin, 800 m, 29 Apr. 1993, Correa et al. 9502 (F, PMA); 2 3 mi S of Goofy Lake, rd. to Cerro Jefe,

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154 610 m, 10 Dec. 1966, Lewis et al. 295 (MO); Along telephone cable tra il between splice S16 and S49, Ro Indio, 12 Jan. 1935, Steyermark & Allen 17437 (AMES, BM, G, MICH), Steyermark & Allen 17440 (BM); Altos de Pacora, 800 m, 4 Mar. 1976, Taylor 13224 (K, K spirit); Area entre Cerro Jefe y La Eneida, 900 m, 12 Feb. 1971, Co rrea et al. 1736 (PMA); Balboa, Nov. 1923, Standley 25494 (AMES); Barro Colorado Island, 17 Feb. 1939, Zetek s.n. (MO); Cerro Campana, 500 m, 20 Feb. 1984, Churchill & de Nevers 4975 (MO); Cerro Campana, 5 Mar. 1969, Dressler 3610 (PMA, FLAS), 400 m, 13 Ja n. 1967 (cult.), Hutchinson & Dressler 2881 (AMES, UC), 850 m, 11 Mar. 1973, Liesner 597 (MO); Cerro Campana, near tower, 30 Mar. 1977, Folsom et al. 2301 (MO); Cerro Jefe, 17 Aug. 1967, Dressler 3022 (PMA), 21 Jan. 1967, Dwyer 8367 (MO), 800 m, 23 Feb. 19 77, Folsom et al. 1864Z (MO), 1000 m, 2 Mar. 1976, Luer et al. 703 (SEL), 1000 m, 13 Feb. 1977, Luer & Luer 1407 (SEL), 700 m, 30 Aug. 1977, Maas et al. 2714 (U), Taylor 65 (K spirit); Cerro Jefe, 1.5 mi along first right fork near summit, 850 m, 22 Nov. 1 980, Sytsma & Antonio 2337 (MO); Drowned forests of Quebrada Tranquila and its branches, 70 m, 8 Jan. 1935, Dodge & Allen 17325 (AMES, G, K, MICH, MO); In vicinity of Cerro Campana, 884 m, 14 Feb. 1978, Utley 5706 (DUKE); Kanal Zone, 11 Jan. 1965 (cult.), Fuernkranz s.n (WU); La Eneida, region of Cerro Jefe, 1 Jan. 1968, Dressler 3302 (PMA); Mountains N of Cerro Jefe, 26 Aug. 1967, Stimson et al. 5421 (NY); NE slope of Cerro Jefe on road to Buenos Aires, 792 m, 27 Jan. 1966, Tyson et al. 3258 (SCZ); Parque Nacional Altos de Campana, sendero de interpretacin, parcela 5 5, 1 Apr. 1989, Prez 363 (PMA); Pedro Miguel, 0 m, Nov. 1922 (cult.), Powell 3049 (AMES, 2 sheets); Ro La Maestra, 25 m, 4 Dec. 1936, Allen 61 (AMES, MO [2 sheets], NY, PH, US); Ro Pedro M iguel, near East Paraso, 7 Jan.

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155 1924, Standley 29984 (AMES, US); Serrana de Maj, trail between headwaters Ro Ipet Grande and Charco Rico, 700 m, 27 Jan. 1984, Churchill & de Nevers 4411 (MO); Slopes of Cerro Jefe beyond Cerro Azul between 4 8 miles, 2 5 Jan. 1970, Wilbur & Weaver 11380 (DUKE); Summit of Cerro Campana, 31 Mar. 1969, Porter et al. 4932 (MO). Veraguas: Baha Honda, 28 Mar. 1939, Elmore H23 (F, MICH), 21 Feb. 1934, Taylor 1510 (AMES, MICH, RSA); Sona, Baha Honda, Playa del Sol, 2 m, 3 Jul. 2001, Castroviejo et al. 16162 (MA); Vicinity of Santa Fe, Ro Santa Mara, 305 m, 26 Mar. 1947, Allen 4429 (G). SURINAME. Without specific locality: 13 Nov. 1986, Chase 86194 (K spirit, possibly cultivated, country of origin likely erroneous). VENEZUEL A. Aragua: Prope Coloniam Tovar, 1854, Fendler 1432 (K, K Lindl). Tchira: 10 km E of La Fundacin, ca 15 km by road, above Represa Dorada, 800 m, 14 Mar. 1981, Liesner & Gonzlez 10529 (MO [2 sheets], VEN); Ro San Buena, 10 km E of La Fundacin, around R epresa Dorada, 700 m, 13 Mar. 1980, Liesner et al. 9620 (MO, VEN); Road from San Cristbal to Macanillo, 1500 m, Nov. 1972, Dunsterville & Dunsterville 1255 (K, VEN), Mar. 1977 (cult.), Dunsterville & Dunsterville s.n. (VEN); San Cristbal, 1350 m, 29 Nov. 1959, Renz 9739 (RENZ, 2 sheets). CULTIVATED [and/or without original locality data]: anonymous s.n. (K spirit, 2 jars); 18 Apr. 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2561 (FLAS), Blanco 2562 (FLAS); 8 Feb. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 3220 (FLAS); Chase 8170 (K spirit); 22 Mar. 1977 (cult.), Cheekwood s.n. (SEL); Endres s.n. (W Reich); 9 Dec. 1987 (cult.), LeDoux & Stern 154 (MO); 6 Jan. 1988 (cult.), LeDoux & Stern 170 (MO); 9 Mar. 1988 (cult.), LeDoux & Stern 218 (MO); 17 Mar. 1975 (cult.), Mason 14 (K, K spirit); Mason 14P (K spirit); 24 Mar. 1976 (cult.), McDiarmid s.n (SEL); 22 Feb. 1988 (cult.), Ploch s.n. (SEL); 20 Jan. 1912 (cult.), Shaffer s.n (K).

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156 Commentary: Lockhartia micrantha is easily recognizable by its small floral bracts and flowers, several flowers open at onc e per inflorescence, the often simultaneously produced inflorescences, and the small, subspherical fruits ( L. hercodonta and L. parthenoglossa can have fruits of similar shape and size, but their leaf shape is completely different). The stem s and leaves of L. micrantha are variable in size; many collections have quite small shoots (which facilitates identification), but others are more robust and can be difficult to distinguish from other species of Lockhartia when inflorescences are absent. Plants with ver y short (juvenile?) shoots can produce flowers (e.g., Dressler et al. 764 SEL, has a flowering shoot only 4 cm tall!). The shape of the labellum is also variable; the side lobes can be well developed or completely absent, although individual plants produc e flowers of consistent shape. Lockhartia micrantha is very similar to L. cladoniophora a rare species with slightly larger and fewer flowers (see discussion under that species for further differences). Lockhartia chocoensis is interpreted here as conspec ific with L. micrantha and different from plants from northwestern Ecuador that have been known by that name (treated here as L. oxyphylla ). The drawing attached to the holotype sheet of L. chocoensis (probably made by H.G. Reichenbach) is somewhat stylize d and shows a callus formed by three longitudinal keels, possibly an artifact from rehydration. Furthermore, the leaf shape in the holotype and isotype of L. chocoensis are more similar to those of L. micrantha than to L. oxyphylla and the isotype shows a n inflorescence (without flowers) arising from the central portion of the stem. Even when no modern collections of L. micrantha from the Colombian department of Choc have

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157 been seen there are collections from the adjacent Pacific coast of Darin province in Panama. Garay (1970 a ) published a photograph of a Colombian plant of L. micrantha (as L. chocoensis ). Costa Rican material identified as L. chocoensis by Bogarn et al (2008) corresponds to L. cladoniophora It is perplexing that in Central America L. micrantha is more abundant below 500 m elevation, while in Colombia and Venezuela (from where relatively few collections are known) the same species seemingly occur s only at or above 700 m. The South American plants do not differ morphologically in any sig nificant way from the Central American ones and thus they are here considered conspecific. Lockhartia oblongicallosa Carnevali & G.A. Romero 20. Lockhartia oblongicallosa Carnevali & G.A. Romero, Orchids Venezuela, ed. 2: 1138, unnumbered figure on page 4 60. 2000. TYPE: VENEZUELA. Monagas: near Caripe, flowering in cultivation, originally collected by T. Odehnal, March 1976, T. Odenhal s.n. sub G. C. K. Dunsterville 1352 (holotype: drawing at AMES; voucher not found and possibly never prepared; copy of typ e drawing: K, and published in the protologue). Leaves marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, na rrowly triangular to suboblong in side view, with mostly straight margins (slightly incurving near the tip), obliquely acute, third of the stem and possibly also termina l, 1

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158 pendent, campanulate, ca. 10 mm across, white with a yellow callus and a pale pink band at the distal end of the callus. Sepals ovate, concave, obtuse, 7 5 mm. Petals 5 mm. Labellum entire, suborbicular, concave and diffi cult to spread, retuse, margin the base to the middle of the labellum, covered with yellow glandular trichomes, 4.5 1.5 mm, with a somewhat bifid apex. Column narrowly w inged, 2.5 3 mm, the wings obliquely rectangular, 1 2 mm; anther cap galeate, 1 mm in diameter; pollinarium stipe Nomenclatural notes: Although not obvious from the phrasing of the pro tologue, the designated type is the drawing prepared by G.C.K. Dunsterville deposited at AMES (G. Carnevali and G. Romero, pers. comm. 2009). The voucher for this illustration has collecti ons ), and was possibly never prepared. Phenology: The type is the only collection with flowers, but it produced them in cultivation in Caracas. A small plant cultivated at the Muenchen Nymphenburg Botanische Garten (Munich) produced flowers infrequently. Distribution: Endemic to the mountains around the city of Caripe, in Mnagas state, Venezuela (Figure 10). The only specimen with elevational data was collected at 1300 m. Additional specimens examined: VENEZUELA. Mnagas: Caripe, [Sep. 1799], Humboldt & B onpland 571 (B Willd., image seen); Caripe, Hacienda La Cuchilla, 16

PAGE 159

159 Jan. 2009, Leopardi 311 (IRBR); Summit of Cerro de la Cueva de Doa Anita, south of and bordering valley of Caripe, 1300 m, 7 Apr. 1945, Steyermark 61930 (C, F, VEN). Commentary: Lockhart ia oblongicallosa is a narrow endemic of the area around Caripe in Mnagas state, Venezuela. It is similar to both L. latilabris and L. parthenocomos but those two species have much larger, yellow flowers with a transverse callus, and do not occur in the same area. The oblong callus is unique among the campanulate flowered species of Lockhartia (i.e., the Parthenocomos species group) Lockhartia obtusata L.O. Williams 21. Lockhartia obtusata L.O. Williams, Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 9: 209, f. 8. 1941. TYPE: PANAMA. Cocl: Hills north of El Valle de Antn, 1000 m, 23 June 1940, P.H. Allen 2160 (holotype: AMES) marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, obliquely oblong to elliptic in side view, with straight to outcurving margins, obtuse to round with a subapical notch (at the apex of the sheath), rarely acute in relatively narrow leaves; exposed part of larges t leaves cence bracts amplexicaul, ovate, acute to acuminate, loosely appresed to the rachis and resupinate, widely open, or

PAGE 160

160 yellowish white area around the callus; anther cap yellowish white. Sepals ovate to oval, ly the central proximal portion of the labellum, concave, surrounded by a low ridge (0.5 mm high) and a single tooth (2 mm tall) at the apex, with an oblong field of glandu lar trichomes in the central area and on a trapezoid ledge pointed toward the base of the 6 mm. Column winged, dolabriform, 2.5 4.5 mm (including wings), the wings flabellate, with an entire to crenulate margin, 1.5 2 mm; anther cap g aleate, 1.3 1.2 mm; pollinarium 0.8 mm tall, stipe bifid from the base. Fruit obovoid, dark Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected in January and June, but flowers are likely produced at other times of the ye ar as well. Distribution: Known only from the mountains around El Valle de Antn (Cocl province, Panama) and Cerro Mutat (Choc department, Colombia), from 500 to 1000 m (Figure 11). The sole Colombian record is based on a drawing and a photograph publis hed by Misas Urreta (2005). Although I have not seen the specimen, the illustrations clearly represent L. obtusata Additional specimens examined: COLOMBIA. Choc: Serrana del Baud, Cerro Mutat, 500 m, Misas Urreta 306 (HPUJ, drawing seen). PANAMA. Wit hout locality: 9 May 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2572 (FLAS); 23 Dec. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 3025 (FLAS). Cocl: Cerro Gaital, above El Valle de Antn, 10 Jun. 1999 (cult.), Whitten

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161 99231 (FLAS); El Valle, 22 Jan. 1984 (cult.), Chase 84102 (K spirit); El Valle de A ntn, N Hills, 29 Jun. 1946, Allen 3550 (G); El Valle de Antn, vicinity of La Mesa, 1000 m, 22 Jun. 1941, Allen 2579 (SEL); Valle de Antn, 15 Jun. 2002 (cult.), Blanco 2106 (USJ, USJ spirit). Commentary: Lockhartia obtusata is immediately recognizable by its elliptic to widely oblong leaves and large, yellow flowers with a crateriform callus. No other species of Lockhartia has similar leaves, and the other three species with a crateriform callus have much smaller flowers (although a few collections of L. longifolia have flowers that are nearly as large). There are very few field collections of Lockhartia obtusata ; it is probably a rare species. Lockhartia oerstedii Rchb. f. 22. Lockhartia oerstedii Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 10: 767 768. 29 October 1852, nom. co ns. prop (Taxon 59: 1895. 2010). TYPE: COSTA RICA. [Heredia], Barva, 7000 ft [2133 m], 7 Mai 1846 [5/47 in K], A.S. O ersted s.n. [ 7056 in C] (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 44337; isotypes: C, G, K Lindl. 79002 [excluding Fendler 1432 ; photo: AMES 23432]); poss ible isotype: W Reich. Orch. 44338; drawing of type: W Reich. Orch. 44336 [copy of drawing: AMES 24875; photo: AMES 23432]) Oncidium mirabile Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 10: 697. 1 October 1852. Lockhartia mirabilis (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f., Xenia Orchid. 1: 100, 106 1855, nom. rej. prop. (Taxon 59: 1895. 2010). TYPE: PANAMA. Chiriqui, Warszewicz s.n. (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 44335; drawing of holotype: AMES 24874). Lockhartia lamellosa Rchb. f., Hamburger Garten Blumenzeitung 21: 300. 1865. TYPE: MEXICO. [probably Chiapas], Ex Hort. Consul Schiller Schmidt s.n (lectotype,

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162 designated by Soto Arenas, Icon. Orchid. 10: xvii xviii. 2008, to be corrected: W Reich. Orch. luding the two pencil illustrations; photo: AMES 24873) Lockhartia odontochila Kraenzl., Pflanzenr. (Engler) 4, Fam. 50 (Heft 83): 17. 1923. TYPE: COSTA RICA. Endrs s.n. (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 58236; drawing of holotype: AMES 41424). Stems erect (rare becoming markedly narrower distally. Leaves marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, wi th straight to slightly incurving margins, obtuse to terminal and axillary from the distal half of the stem, up to 9 per stem (produced sequentially, or rarely simultaneousl bracts amplexicaul, subtriangular to ovate, cordate, acute to apiculate, frequently sigmoid or recurved in side view, conduplicate to expanded, held more or less tall, yellow, the labellum and column heavily spotted with reddish brown; the lateral lobes with oblique longitudinal brown stripes or dots forming lines; the anther cap white to suboblong, curved toward the front, margins reflexed, apically obtuse to subtruncate,

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163 distal margin, excluding the lateral lobes which curve toward the base when flattened), ttened; lateral lobes elongate, oblong to divided in 4 lobules, pandurate, emarginate, wider across the distal lobules when 15 mm, the basal lobules folded backwards, the distal lobules flared obliquely downward; callus obovate; basal part the distal portion forming a spathulate mass of low subquadrate ovate, 1.5 cavity oblong to subpandurate, 1 0.5 mm; anther cap gal Nomenclatural notes: Reichenbach published Oncidium mirabile one month before he published Lockhartia oerstedii He eventually transferred O. mirabile to Lockh artia The name L. mirabilis has heretofore remained in relative obscurity, probably because its type consists of a single, partially dissected flower while the name L. oerstedii has been widely applied to this species A proposal for conservation of the name L. oerstedii against O. mirabile has been presented (Blanco and Williams, 2010). In the protologue of L. oerstedii pr

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164 year in one of these is erroneous. The specimen at C does not indicate the date, but has the number 7056 (absent in the other specimens). The name Lockhartia lamellosa is ba sed on a cultivated plant of Mexican origin. A sheet with three drawings in W seems to be the only material that is congruent with the protologue; one of those drawings was designated as lectotype by Soto Arenas (2008), but he cited the wrong herbarium acc ession number. The correct accession number is indicated above. Mora and Atwood (1992a) and Atwood & Mora Retana (1999) listed Stange (one of the gardeners of the consul Schiller) as the collector of the type specimen of L. lamellosa However, Reichenbach only cited Schiller and his chief gardener Schmidt in the protologue. The actual person that sent the plant from Mexico is unknown. The drawing at AMES of the type specimen of Lockhartia odontochila (probably s a flower near the tip of the tallest stem, but that flower is now missing from the type specimen in Vienna. The drawing does not show the critical structure of the labellum, but the vegetative morphology and the description in the protologue clearly indi cate that it is the same as L. oerstedii Lockhartia tzeltal some of the populations considered here to belong in L. oerstedii Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the year, but much more abundantly during the months of May, June, and July (the beginning of the rainy

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165 Distribution: Southern Mexico (Chiapas state) to western Panama (Chiriqu province), from 600 to 2200 m, on both s ides of the continental divide (Figure 7). No collections are known from El Salvador, and only one collection is known from Nicaragua. It is apparently rare in Guatemala and Honduras, but it is very common in Costa Rica and western Panama. Additional speci mens examined: COSTA RICA. Without locality: anonymous s.n (VEN); 4 Aug. 2002 (cult.), Blanco 2283 (USJ); 26 Jul. 2003 (cult.), Blanco & Whitten 2462 (JBL spirit); 11 Jun. 2007 (cult.), Bogarn 3937 (JBL spirit); 1 Sep. 1932, Kupper 32 (M); 28 Aug. 1922, Lankester s.n. (AMES); 18 Dec. 2000 (cult.), Pupulin 2741 (JBL spirit); 19 Jun. 2001 (cult.), Pupulin 2813 (USJ); 21 May 2002 (cult.), Pupulin 3854 (USJ); 2 Jun. 2002 (cult.), Ruiz 8 (USJ); 10 Nov. 2005 (cult.), Schug 246 (JBL spirit); 8 Jun. 1896 (cult.), Tonduz s.n (G); 29 Aug. 1932, Valerio 145 (CR, F). Alajuela: Alfaro Ruiz, Guadalupe de Zarcero, 1650 m, 30 May 1938, Smith 688 (AMES, F, K, NY); Reserva de San Ramn, 1000 m, Aug. 1989, Retana s.n. (USJ); San Ramn, Reserva Biolgica Alberto Brenes, 900 m, 1 Jun. 2000 (cult.), Blanco 1520 (USJ); San Ramn, San Pedro, 3 Jun. 1987, Nez Rivas 8 (USJ); Valverde Vega, Bajos del Toro, Hacienda Ro Toro, Reserva Biolgica Privada Bosque de Paz, 1500 m, 19 Sep. 2008 (cult.), Karremans & Muoz 1965 (JBL spirit); Valverde Vega, cuenca del Ro Toro, Reserva Biolgica Bosque de Paz, Jardin de Orquideas Dr. Stephen H. Kirby, 1450 m, 1 Sep. 2004, Muoz 04 102 (USJ). Cartago: without specific locality, 1265 m, 1888, Cooper 5967 (BR); 8 Jun. 1933, Valerio 192 (CR, F); A gua Caliente del Llano, 1300 m, 11 May 1906, Brenes s.n. (NY); Bord du Ro Reventado, 23 Jun. 1906, Brenes s.n. (NY); Cartago, 8 Jun. 1933, Brenes s.n. (NY); Copalch [Colpach], Candelaria, 1854,

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166 Nov., Endres 302 (W Reich); Oreamuno, Cipreses, 1850 m, 1 J un. 2000 (cult.), Pupulin 798 (USJ), 23 Jun. 1988, Pupulin et al. 834 (USJ); Orosi, Jul. 1924, Alfaro s.n (AMES, US), 20 Jun. 1924, Alfaro s.n. (AMES, US); Pacayas, 26 Jun. 1987, Ruiz Boyer 18 (USJ); Tierra Blanca, 2200 m, 22 May 1932, Kupper 1414 (M); Tr es Ros, Pizote, Los Lotes, 24 Jun. 1967, Rodrguez 1068 (USJ); Tres Rios, San Ramn, El Pizote, 1770 m, 19 Jun. 1984, Gmez & Herrera 23035 (CR, DUKE, F, MEXU, MICH, MO, NY, WIS); Tres Ros, Tirib, Estacin del ICE, 4 Jun. 1987, Vargas 24 (USJ); Turrialb a, 11 Jun. 2006 (cult.), Pupulin 3605 (JBL spirit); Vicinity of Cartago, 1425 m, Feb. 1924, Standley 39282 (AMES, US). Heredia: Barba [Barva], 1100 m, 20 Jul. 1941, Len 851 (CR, 2 sheets); Barva, camino hacia Calle Higuern, a orilla del Ro Macarrn, 180 0 m, 25 Jan. 2004 (cult.), Bogarn & Prendas 676 (JBL spirit); Barva, Lajas del Roble, Mar. 1993, Cruz s.n. (USJ); El Roble, 1500 m, 10 May 1938, Valerio 2595 (AMES); Fuentes de Prez, San Jos de la Montaa, 1475 m, 12 Apr. 1957, Jimnez 7 (CR); Rancho Fl ores [slopes of Volcn Barva], 22 Feb. 1890, Pittier I.P.G.C.R. 2342 (BR); San Rafael, camino a Las Chorreras, orilla del Ro Segundo, 1600 m, 14 Jan. 2003 (cult.), Bogarn 44 (JBL spirit); Sarapiqu, 1000 m, Aug. 1989, Retana s.n. (USJ); Upper Ro Porros above San Jos de la Montaa, 1700 m, 4 Dec. 1959 (cult.), Horich sub Blydenstein s.n. (UC), 23 Sep. 1960 (cult.), Horich sub Hutchinson s.n (MO), 5 Oct. 1963 (cult.), Horich sub Hutt s.n (AMES), 24 Jun. 1964 (cult.), Horich sub. Hutt s.n (US); Vara Bla nca, 7 Jun. 1987, Snchez 8 (USJ). Puntarenas: without specific locality, 1500 m, 1 Mar. 1984, Chase 84327 (K spirit); Buenos Aires, Cuenca Trraba Sierpe, Estacin Tres Colinas, Finca Vctor Arias, 1680 m, 12 Sep. 1996, Alfaro 824 (INB, MO); Buenos Aires, Cuenca Trraba Sierpe, Potrero Grande, Tres Colinas, bajando hacia

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167 Helechales, 1700 m, 25 Apr. 2006, Rodrguez et al. 10137 (INB); Buenos Aires, R.I. Ujarras, Cordillera de Talamanca, Ujarras, margen izquierda de Quebrada Dorora, camino a Ro Lori, 1520 m 11 Mar. 1993, Herrera 5863 (CR, INB, MO); Coto Brus, Cuenca Trraba Sierpe, Zona Protectora Las Tablas, sobre Fila Palmital, 1440 m, 24 May 1999, Alfaro 2304 (INB); Coto Brus, Z.P. Las Tablas, Cordillera de Talamanca, Lmite Zona Protectora Las Tablas, C erro Quijada del Diablo, 2100 m, 22 Mar. 1996, Navarro 280 (INB, MO); [Monteverde], on farms of Joe Stucky and Marvin Rockwell, 1370 m, 5 Jul. 1989, Atwood 89278 (AMES, SEL [2 sheets]); Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve and community, Cordillera de Tilarn, 1400 m, 30 Jul. 1981, Neill 5068 (BM, CR, MO); Monteverde, in community near cliff edge, 1350 m, 15 Jun. 1989, Atwood 89184 (SEL); Parque Nacional Amistad, Las Tablas, near the upper Ro Cotn, 1400 m, 14 Jul. 1982, Todzia 1922 (CR). San Jos: Acosta, Cerr o el Dragn, 1800 m, 2 Nov. 2005 (cult.), Valverde 600 (JBL spirit), 1600 m, 2 Nov. 2005 (cult.), Chinchilla sub Valverde 636 (JBL spirit); Aserr, Z.P. Caraigres, cuenca del Pirrs Damas, Aserr, Parrita, Quebrada Concha, 1550 m, 6 Dec. 2002, Morales et a l. 8848 (INB); Caon, 1300 m, 1 May 1932, Kupper 1088 (M); Parque Bolvar, 28 Apr. 1935 (cult.?), Valerio 1011 (F); Prez Zeledn, Herradura, 1000 m, Aug. 1989, Retana s.n. (USJ); Prez Zeledn, San Isidro, cerca Ro General, 1000 m, Aug. 1989, Retana s.n. (USJ); Santa Mara, 15 May 1928, Stork 2100 (AMES, MO), 25 May 1928, Chacn sub Stork 2324 (AMES, MO), 1524 m, 15 Apr. 1928, Danielson sub Stork 1495 (AMES [2 sheets], MO); Santa Mara [de Dota], May, Endres 543 (W Reich); Vicinity of Santa Mara de Dota, 1500 m, 14 Dec. 1925, Standley 41610 (AMES), Standley 42822 (AMES). GUATEMALA. Without locality: Jun., Hamer s.n. (F, MO). Alta Verapaz: Cobn, 1219

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168 m, 5 Sep. 1920, Johnson 727 (AMES, US); Rd. Chama Cobn, 914 m, 1 Aug. 1920, Johnson 556 (AMES); San Cris tbal, Sep. 1870, Bernoulli & Cario 566 (RENZ, 2 sheets); San Cristbal A.V., carretera a Baleu, 1000 m, 28 Jul. 1994, Vliz et al. 943886 (MEXU). Huehuetenango: Between Las Palmas and Chacula, Sierra de los Chucumatanes, 1400 m, 1 Sep. 1942, Steyermark 51 744 (AMES, F). HONDURAS. Comayagua: Jicarito, 610 m, 23 Jul. 1933, Edwards 469 (AMES, 2 sheets); Siguatepeque, Cicirinteca, 1219 m, 24 Sep. 1932, Edwards 256 (AMES). Olancho: (El Guamil), Agalta National Park, 19 km NNW of Catacamas, 1300 m, 4 Jun. 1992, Hawkins et al. 479 (EAP, MO). MEXICO. Chiapas: without specific locality, 700 m, 10 Jul. 1991, Cribb s.n. (K spirit); Comitn, Los Lagos, 35 mi SE of Comitn, road San Jos to Montebello, 15 Apr. 1949, Carlson 1798 (F); E of Comitn, 1400 m, Nagel & Monz n 6991 (F); La Trinitaria, 13 km al E de Tziscao, camino a Pacayal, 5 km al E de Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 1000 m, 9 Aug. 1985, Chehaibar et al. 206 (MEXU); Ocosingo, Schmeling 6250 (F); Ocosingo, a 2 km al N de Naja, camino a Palenque, 840 m, 23 Sep. 1988, Mart nez & Stevens 23964 (MEXU); Ocosingo, comunidad Lacandona de Naha, 27 km al SE de Palenque, por la carretera fronteriza hasta el crucero Chancala, despues 55.6 km por el camino de terracera hacia Monte Lbano, 950 m, 26 Dec. 1993, Durn & Levy 10 (MEXU); Ocosingo, Laguna Ocotal Grande, 800 m, 6 Feb. 1973, Breedlove 33022 (DS); Ocosingo, Laguna Ocotalito a 12 km al N de Monte Lbano camino a Chancala, 980 m, 2 Feb. 1986, Martnez 17162 (MEXU, MO); Ocosingo, limestone area near Laguna Ocotal Grande, ca. 25 30 km SE of Monte (Cerro) Lbano (which is ca. 45 km E of Ocosingo), 950 m, 20 Jul. 1954, Dressler 1482 (AMES, MEXU, MICH, US). NICARAGUA. Without locality: Heller s.n (SEL; possibly

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169 the same as Heller 1796 or 10804 known only by drawings at SEL, report edly from Nueva Segovia: N of Jalapa, 690 m). PANAMA. Without locality: 18 Apr. 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2563 (FLAS spirit); 23 Dec. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 2565 (FLAS); Powell s.n. (AMES); Jun. 1936, Purdom s.n. (AMES); 18 Jul. 1997 (cult.), Whitten 99234 (FLAS ). Chiriqu: without specific locality, 914 m, 17 Mar. 1919 (cult.), Powell 75 (K, MO); 1219 m, May 1923 (cult.), Powell 3352 (AMES); Apr. 1858, Wagner s.n. (M); 16 km above town at Volcn, along N side of savanna, 1798 m, 13 Feb. 1978, Hammel 1575 (MO); 2 mi N of El Hato del Volcn, 30 May 1970, Croat 10648 (CAS, MO); 3 mi N of el Volcn, 1524 m, 28 Jun. 1969, Tyson 5853 (MO, 2 sheets); Along road to Cerro Azul, ca 2 km above Escuela Jaramillo Arriba #3 E of Boquete, 1450 m, 11 Aug. 1974, Croat 26741 (MO, SEL); Along stream near FSU Field camp at Cerro Punta, 25 Apr. 1969, Lazor 2821 (MO); Along upper end of the Horquete road above Boquete, 1524 m, 17 May 1971, Proctor 31959 (LL); Behind the Florida State University cabin, 2.2 mi below Cerro Punta on the W side of Volcn Chiriqu, 1830 m, 22 Jun. 1970, Luteyn 873 (DUKE); Boquete, Bajo Mono, 1372 m, 19 Apr. 1938, Davidson 584 (AMES, BM, F, US); Boquete, slopes below Cerro Horqueta, along Quebrada Horqueta, 1600 m, 22 Jun. 1971, Webster 16714 (DAV); El Boquete 1300 m, 1912, Maxon 5096 (F), 1000 m, 2 Mar. 1911, Maxon 5097 (F); Guadalupe, 2000 m, 15 Mar. 1985, Hampshire & Whitefoord 622 (BM); Hill E of Audubon Cabin, S of Cerro Punta, 1400 m, 12 Jul. 1983, Hamilton & Krager 3866 (MO); Llano del Volcn, 1500 m, 2 7 May 1946, Allen 3502 (AMES, BM, G); Llano E of El Hato del Volcn, 2012 m, 5 Apr. 1979, Hammel et al. 6778 (MO); Near Costa Rican border, 13 km by road S of Ro Sereno, Finca Hartmann, 1400 m, 12 May 1991, Henshold & McPherson 1014 (F, K, MA, MO, NY); Ri dges south

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170 of Finca Lrida, 1828 m, 26 Jul. 1947, Allen 4764 (G, P); Slopes above Los Llanos, above Volcn, 2000 m, 4 Jun. 1986, McPherson 9316 (MO); Slopes on Cerro Horqueta, 1650 m, 13 Aug. 1974, Croat 29942 (MO); Valley of the upper Ro Chiriqu Viejo, vicinity of Monte Lirio, 1300 m, 27 Jun. 1935, Seibert 132 (MO), Seibert 133 (BM), Seibert 186 (AMES, K [2 sheets], MO, NY, WIS); Vcty. Boquete, lumber road into the hills E of the Ro Caldera, 1372 m, 23 Jul. 1947, Allen 4666 (G); Vcty. Finca Lrida, uppe r S slopes of the Quebrada Velo, 1524 m, 25 Jul. 1947, Allen 4743 (F, G, U); Vicinity of Boquete, Finca Collins, 1676 m, 24 Jul. 1959, Stern et al. 1125 (MO, 2 sheets); Vicinity of Casita Alta, Volcn Chiriqu, 1500 m, 28 Jun. 1938, Woodson et al. 966 (AME S, BM, US); Vicinity of Cerro Punta, 2000 m, 24 May 1946, Allen 3493 (BM); Vicinity of Finca Lrida, 1750 m, 7 Jul. 1940, Woodson & Schery 236 (AMES, MO); W facing slope, E of Ro Macho de Monte, ca. 6 km NE of El Hato del Volcn, 1700 m, 9 Feb. 1986, Gray um 6480 (MO, SEL). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: anonymous s.n (K spirit, 5 jars); anonymous s.n. (W Reich, 2 sheets); 2 Jul. 1909 (cult.), Beauvard 6930 (G); 3 May 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2566 (FLAS, 2 sheets); 4 May 1977 (cult.), Marshall s .n (SEL); 1886 (cult.), (BM); 19 Oct. 1979 (cult.), White s.n. (SEL). Commentary: Lockhartia oerstedii is very similar to L. galeottiana and L. verrucosa but it differs from them in its generally narrower shoots, narrower labellum isthmus, m ore pronounced callus tubercles, and more southern distribution. Lockhartia oerstedii and L. verrucosa are sympatric in parts of Guatemala and Chiapas and both species experience their peak flowering during the same months (May to July); however, I have no t seen any intermediate specimens that suggest hybridization.

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171 Many collections of Lockhartia oerstedii have tall shoots that become progressively narrower distally, and leaves that are very appressed against the stem (i.e., diverging at a narrow angle from it). The leaves also tend to be darker green (both in life and in the herbarium) than other sympatric species of Lockhartia Lockhartia oerstedii is one of the most common species in the genus in southern Central America, although it seemingly becomes les s abundant farther north, judging from the fewer collections. Lockhartia oxyphylla M. A. Blanco 23. Lockhartia oxyphylla M. A. Blanco, sp. nov TYPE: ECUADOR. Esmeraldas: Quininde, Fundacin Paraso de Papagayos, Centro de Rescate de Aves y Mamferos, km 2 via Esmeraldas, 6 Jul. 1996, J.L. Clark, N. Binder & W. Naranjo 2796 (holotype: QCNE; isotypes: MO, SEL). Lockhartia micrantha Rchb.f. affinis, sed foliis longioribus acutis, inflorescentiis succedaneis, floribus grandioribus et succedaneis, et callo verr ucoso. marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, with straight to slig htly incurving (rarely slightly outcurving) margins, acute (rarely obtuse or rounded), long; inflorescence bracts amplexicaul, narrowly lanceolate to widely ovate, subcordate,

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172 Flower brown spots on most of the labellum (except on the distal midlobe lobules). Sepals elliptic, slightly concave, acute to apiculate (apex navicular), 5 2.5 mm. Petals suboblong to narrowly obovat e, obtuse to round, 5 2 mm. Labellum 3 across lateral lobes when flattened; lateral lobes elongate, suboblong to attenuate, lobulate, pandurate, wider acros concave cushion, subquadrate, 1 1.5 mm, with a small tuft of glandular trichomes; the distal part formed by a mass of low (1 mm tall) tubercles, 3 1.5 mm. Column narrowly winged, w decurrent, hemispherical, 0.5 1 mm, with an entire margin; stigmatic cavity oval, 1 5 mm. Phenolo gy: Flowering plants have been collected from May to November. Distribution: Northwestern Ecuador (provinces of Esmeraldas, Imbabura, and Pichincha), on the Pacific slope of the Andes, from 100 to 1550 m (Figure 12). Expected in the adjacent department of Nario in Colombia. Additional specimens examined: ECUADOR. Without locality: Sodiro s.n. (QPLS, 2 sheets); 29 Sep. 2003 (cult.), Whitten et al. 2382 (FLAS), Whitten et al. 2441 (FLAS). Esmeraldas: Bocana de Ene, 50 m, 22 Apr. 2003, Cornejo & Bonifaz 7701 (QCNE); Km 12 on road under construction from Lita to Alto Tambo (21 kms), 725 m, 20 May 1987, Dodson et al. 17138 (MO, QCNE); Km 8 Lita Altotambo, 740 m, 19 Jul. 1988, Dodson & Gentry 17512 (MO, QCNE); Quininde, Bilsa Biological Station,

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173 Montaas de Mache 35 km W of Quinind, 5 km W of Santa Isabel, 400 m, 5 May 1995, Clark & Watt 804 (QCNE); Quininde, The Mache Chindul Ecological Reserve, Bilsa Biological Station, 35 km W of Quinind, 5 km W of Santa Isabel, 500 m, 17 Nov. 1996, Clark 3660 (SEL). Imbabur a: Below Garca Moreno, lower Intag Valley, 1219 m, 19 Sep. 1944, Drew E 674 (AMES); Between Lita and Alto Tambo, Blanco 2488 ( SEL spirit); La Unin, lower Intag Valley, 1311 m, 20 Sep. 1944, Drew E 690 (AMES). Pichincha: Nanegal, 1854, Jamieson s.n. (K Li ndl); Parroquia Nanegal, Loma Cachillacta, 6 6.5 km airline SE of Nanegal, 1540 m, 7 Sep. 1993, Webster et al. 30408 (QCNE), 1550 m, Webster et al. 30428 (DAV, QCNE); Valle Nanegal, 8 Aug. 1874, Sodiro s.n (QPLS). Commentary: Lockhartia oxyphylla has been known by the name L. chocoensis (Dodson, 2004), the latter treated here as a synonym of L. micrantha (see comments for that species). Lockhartia oxyphylla differs from L. micrantha in its more elongate, acute leaves, stems with few, sequentially produced inflorescences, much larger flowers produced sequentially on each inflorescence, and a verrucose tuberculate callus. In addition, the shoots of L. oxyphylla tend to be relatively longer and narrower than those of L. micrantha The two species do not appear to be sympatric. Lockhartia parthenocomos (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f. 24. Lockhartia parthenocomos (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 10: 767. 29 Oct 1852. : Fernandezia parthenocomos Rchb. f., Bot. Zeit. 10: 639. 10 Sep 1852. SYNTYPES: [VENEZUELA]. Caracas, Ex. Hor t ., Keferstein s.n (not found); and [VENEZUELA]. Caracas, Ex. Hort ., Leipzig, 52 [1852], Wagener 102 sub Keil s.n ( lectotype, here designated : W Reich. Orch. 44365; possible iso lectotype: K Lindl. 79003, excluding Fendler 2443 )

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174 Lockhartia parthenocomos var. purpurata Rchb. f., Bonplandia (Hanover) 3: 215, 1855. TYPE: VENEZUELA. [Caracas], imported by Senator [Martin Johann] Jenisch, cultivated by Mr. Kramer and by Mr. Geitner, Ex Hort Erdbranden near Planitz [Zwickau, Saxony, Germany] (holotype: W Reic h. Orch. 44355; possible isotype: W Reich. Orch. 44356). Stems pendent, more or less flexib laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, with straight to slightly incurving margins, obliquely acute, exposed part Inflorescences both terminal and axillary from the distal one third of the stem (produced cts amplexicaul, ovate to lanceolate, acute to long. Flowers apparently non yellow, the labellum often brownish and the callu s and column occasionally with purplish subreniform, obscurely 3 de when flattened; side midlobe wider than long, transversely suboval to reniform, retuse, margin gently upying the entire central portion of the labellum, forming an irregularly toothed ledge at the base of the 3 mm (excluding

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175 anther cap), the wings obliquely lanceolate and pointed forward, 1 2 mm; anther cap galeate, 1.2 0.8 mm; pollinarium 1 mm tall, stipe bifid from the base. Fruit subglobose Nomenclatural notes: In the protologue of L. parthenocomos Reichenbach mentioned two plants flowered in cultivation, a nd thus both should be considered syntypes. Reichenbach did not specify the original field collector nor the country of origin in the protologue, but later revealed that the plant had been collected by 1877) in Car acas, Venezuela (Reichenbach, 1855). Only one of the syntypes has been found, and it will be formally designated as the lectotype. The specimen at K Lindl. cited here as a possible isotype is annotated as Lockhartia parthenocomos bach's handwriting, but has no further data. It might be a type fragment given to Lindley by Reichenbach. It is mounted on the same sheet as Fendler 2443 also L. parthenocomos Lockhartia parthenocomos var. purpurata is here considered to be a mere color variation of L. parthenocomos The flowers in the type specimen have no noticeable distal teeth on the callus (thus resembling the very similar L. latilabris from the Guiana Shield), although that could be an artifact of the drying process. In the protolog ue, Reichenbach did not indicate from where in Venezuela the plant originated; however he later stated that the plant also came from Caracas (Reichenbach, 1855). No type material for Lockhartia parthenocomos var. crispula has been located, and the meager o riginal description is unsufficient for confirming the identity of this taxon ( Poorly Known Taxa, below).

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176 Phenology: The few flowering field collections available have been made in March, June, October, November, and December. Flowers are probably prod uced sporadically throughout the year. Distribution: Endemic to Venezuela, in the states of Aragua, Carabobo, and Miranda, from 750 to 1600 m in the Venezuelan Coastal Range (Figure 10). The locality bably this was just the shipping port for the plants. Additional specimens examined: VENEZUELA. Aragua: without specific locality, 1000 m, 12 Dec. 1953, Renz 8137 (RENZ, 2 sheets); Hacia la cumbre de Rancho Grande, Parque Henri Pittier, 29 Oct. 1980, anony mous s.n. (VEN); Parque Nacional Pittier, on steep slopes facing N (seaward) between summit of pass and Choroni, 1200 m, 3 Nov. 1962, Steyermark 55398 (VEN); Parque Nacional Pittier, slope facing N (seaward) between summit of pass and Choroni, 1200 m, 3 No v. 1962, Steyermark 90994 (AMES); Prope Coloniam Tovar, 1856, Fendler 2443 (K, K Lindl). Carabobo: Above Hacienda Cura, between Valencia and Maracay, 1600 m, 8 Jan. 1939, Alston 6195 (BM); Bejuma, al O de la carretera Bejuma Canoabo, entre la Cumbre Paragu ito y Cerro El Marquero, 1000 m, 27 Jun. 1999, Meier & Kunert 5000 (VEN), Meier & Kunert 5004 (VEN); Laderas arriba de las cabeceras del Ro San Gin, arriba de Los Tanques y La Toma, entre Quebrada No. 2 y Quebrada de Los Verros, al S de Borburata, 750 m, 29 Mar. 1966, Steyermark 95293 (VEN). Miranda: Without specific locality, anonymous 1552 (W Reich); Los Guayabitos, Dunsterville 245 (K). Commentary: Lockhartia parthenocomos is diagnosed by the pendulous habit, the large, campanulate, yellow flowers with a concave labellum, and the transversely

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177 oriented callus with an irregularly toothed distal ledge. It is most similar to L. latilabris which lacks a callus ledge. It has also been confused with both L. longifolia and L. rugosifolia ; see comments under th ose species for distinguishing characters. Lockhartia parthenocomos is the only member of the genus present in the Venezuelan Coastal Range west of Caracas. Lockhartia parthenoglossa Rchb. f. 25. Lockhartia parthenoglossa Rchb. f., Hamburger Garten Blumen zeitung 21: 300. 1865. TYPE: Without original locality data, Ex Hort Consul Schiller [near Hamburg, Germany], 9 April 58 [1858], Stange s.n. (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 44352) Lockhartia pittieri Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 216. 1913. TYPE: Ex Hort Mrs. Rosseau in Culebra, April 1911, H. Pittier 3401 (mixed collection ; lectotype, here designated : plant on right side of sheet, excluding plant of left side, US ; isotype: B [destroyed]; drawing of ho lotype: AMES) Lockhartia variabilis Ames & C. Schweinf., Schedul. Orchid. 8: 81 82. 1925. TYPE: PANAMA. [Coln]: Wooded hills near Frijoles, 0 m, Ex Hort. Garden, Jan Feb 1924, C.W. Powell 355 ( Lectotype, here designated : AMES 28131 ; isolectotype: AMES spirit, not seen) marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular and subfalcate in side view, with outcurvin g (rarely straight) margins, acute (the apex occasionally minutely round), rugulose

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178 both terminal and axillary from the distal half of the stem, up to 10 per stem (produced simultaneo conduplicate to flat, narrowly lanceolate, acute to acuminate, held obliquely from the (occasionally subob mm wide when flattened; callus elliptic, located on the central proximal portion of the labellum, conc ave, surrounded by an elevated ridge (up to 0.5 mm high), often with a single distal tooth (up to 1.5 mm tall) and a proximal trapezoid, glabrous ledge (1 mm long) pointed toward the base of the labellum, the ridge and part of the central area glandular pu bescent, 2 (including wings), the wings subtriangular with an entire margin, 0.5 1 mm; anther cap galeate, 1.3 1 mm; pollinarium 0.7 mm tall, stipe bifid from the base. Fruit subglobular to obovoid, 4 9 Nomenclatural notes: This species has been known for many years by the name Lockhartia pittieri The type specimen of L. pittieri at US has an annotation in pencil that ent was sent at the request of Ignatzius Urban after Schlechter had examined the specimen and returned it to US; thus the specimen at US must be considered the holotype (Christenson, 1995). However, there are two stems mounted on the type sheet,

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179 representi ng two different species. The sterile stem on the left is probably L micrantha and is clearly not what Schlechter described. The stem on the right side is formally designated here as the lectotype to preserve the circumscription of this species. The flow er in spirit of Powell 355 at AMES is effectively a duplicate, and thus the dry specimen is designated as lectotype of L. variabilis Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the year. Distribution: From Guatemala and Belize south to nor thwestern Colombia, from sea level to at least 700 m (Figure 11). A collection based on a cultivated plant ( Valerio s.n ., USJ) indicates an elevation of 1350 m, which does not coincide with the known elevation of the indicated locality, and is thus probabl y erroneous. The sole Ecuadorian specimen was prepared from a cultivated plant owned by an orchid grower who traveled to Panama on a frequent basis. The locality data reported by the plant owner is probably erroneous; no field collections of L. parthenoglo ssa are known from Ecuador. Additional specimens examined: BELIZE. Toledo: without specific locality or date, Adams K57 (K spirit); Blue Creek, above Blue Creek village, 40 m, 19 Feb. 1979 (cult.), Adams B12 (K, K spirit); Ca. 40 km SW of Punta Gorda, Dolo res Estate, 1 Feb. 1990, Balick et al. 2567 (NY, SEL); In high ridge, on hill top beyond Central Camp, Edwards Road beyond Columbia, 11 Jun. 1951, Gentle 7363 (LL); In high ridge, on hill top near Carmelita Camp, Edwards Road beyond Columbia, 1 May 1951, G entle 7321 (LL); Vicinity of Sapote Camp, c. 6.5 mi due W of Medina Bank, 244 m, 23 Apr. 1976, Proctor 35940 (MO). COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Chigorod, vereda Malagn, Cao Malagn abajo (El Cocuelo), 220 m, 11 Jan. 1986, Rentera et al. 4573 (JAUM); Turbo,

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180 ca rretera Tapn del Darin, sector Ro Len lomas aisladas, 40 m, 26 Nov. 1983, Brand & Gonzlez 599 (JAUM), 29 Dec. 1983, Brand & Escobar 806 (COL, JAUM, MO), 28 Feb. 1984, Brand & Gonzlez 954 (JAUM); Turbo, Tapn del Darin, 50 m, 16 Apr. 1985, Rentera e t al. 3812 (COL, JAUM). Choc: Baha Solano, 0 m, 13 Feb. 1947, Haught 5570 (COL); Riosucio, Parque Natural Nac. Los Katyos, Ro Cacaricas a Cristales, 70 m, 2 Dec. 1976, Len 656 (COL, MO); Norte de la Costa Pacfica [Serrana del Baud], 100 m, Jul. 1988 Misas Urreta 186 (COL, HUA, JAUM). COSTA RICA. Without locality: 18 Apr. 1967, Hespenheide s.n. (USJ). Alajuela: San Carlos, 1923, Lankester 681 (AMES); San Carlos, Bijagua, Zapote, camino a Bijagua centro cerca del Ro Zapote, 510 m, 15 Dec. 2005 (cult .), Bogarn & Pupulin 2241 (JBL spirit), Bogarn & Pupulin 2242 (JBL spirit); San Carlos, cerca de Ciudad Quesada, 1350 [350?] m, 7 Nov. 1993, Valerio s.n. (USJ spirit), 16 Feb. 1994, Valerio s.n. (USJ). Guanacaste: Parque Nacional Guanacaste, Estacin Pit illa, sendero El Mismo, Finca La Pasmompa, 700 m, 9 Dec. 1990, Ros 246 (INB). Limn: Cerro Coronel, E of Laguna Danto, 20 m, 15 Sep. 1986, Stevens & Montiel 24610 (MO); Sixaola, hills between headwaters of Quebrada Mata de Limn and upper branches of Queb rada Tigre, and lowland forest of Quebrada Tigre drainage, Finca Anai, 25 m, 18 Nov. 1984, Grayum et al. 4456 (MO). Puntarenas: Coto (Golfo Dulce), 0 m, 17 Feb. 1933, Valerio 574 (F); Esquinas Forest, area between the Ro Esquinas and Palmar, 30 m, 30 May 1950, Allen 5555 (SEL); Golfito, Esquinas, La Gamba, bosque de los Austriacos, Tropenstation, 200 m, 22 Sep. 2008 (cult.), Blanco & Serrano 2653 (JBL spirit); Golfito, P.N. Piedras Blancas, Sendero Fila (near the Tropenstation La Gamba), 200 m, 18 Apr. 200 2, Olbrecht & Arauz Surez 3335 (CR, WU); Osa, Rancho Quemado, sector SE,

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181 Sierpe, 400 m, 4 Nov. 1991, Marn 252 (INB); Osa, San Juan, 24 Sep. 2004 (cult.), Cambronero sub Pupulin 2615 (JBL spirit); Osa, Sierpe, Los Mogos, cabeceras de la Quebrada Taboga, 2 00 m, 14 Dec. 1990, Herrera 4783 (INB); Parque Nacional Corcovado, Cerro Brujo, 600 m, 24 Jan. 1991, Castro 256 (USJ); R.F. Golfo Dulce, Pennsula de Osa, Aguabuena O, cerca de casa de Don Beto, 50 m, 21 Nov. 1992, Aguilar 1497 (INB). ECUADOR. Guayas: Nea r Bucay, 20 Oct. 1979 (cult.), Estrada sub Dodson et al. 9235 (SEL; locality questionable; plant probably from Panama). GUATEMALA. Petn: Los Arcos Cadenas road, km 142/143, E, 16 Dec. 1969, Contreras 9369 (CAS, LL [2 sheets]). NICARAGUA. Chontales: with out specific locality, Tate 492 (K); 3 mi E of La Libertad, 670 m, Heller 5824 (SEL). Ro San Juan: El Castillo, comunidad Las Maravillas, 5 km al N, 100 m, 11 Nov. 2004, Guzmn 1066 (MO); El Castillo, Reserva Indio Maz, a lo largo del cao El Pavn, a 3 km de su desembocadura en el Ro Bartola, 1 Jan. 1997, Rueda et al. 5228 (MO). Zelaya [now Regin Autnoma Atlantico Norte]: Along new road to Mina Nueva Amrica (leading more or less W from ca. 14.3 km N of El Empalme on main road to Rosita), ca. 10 km fr om main road, 23 Feb. 1979, Stevens 12691 (MO). PANAMA. Without locality data: Braga 2074 (RB); 1967, Bristan 1508 (MO); May 1991 (cult.), Dressler 9573 (USJ spirit). Province unknown: Cativa Porto Bello trail, 0 m, Jan. 1924 (cult.), Powell 361 (AMES). C oln: 1 2 km from the Portobelo Highway up the Ro Guanche, 50 m, 17 Feb. 1982, Knapp & Schmalzel 3618 (MO); 10 mi SW of Portobelo, 2 4 mi from coast, 24 Mar. 1973, Liesner 1098 (MO); Ft. Sherman and mouth of Chagres R trail, 0 m, Jan. 1924 (cult.), Powell 372 (MO); Navy Reservation, N of Gamboa, upper Ro Mendoza, 7 Feb. 1969, Dressler 3605 (PMA); Near Gatn Station, P. Rail Road, 4 Feb. 1860, Hayes

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182 524 (NY, 2 sheets); Santa Rita lumber road, ca. 15 km E of Coln, 20 Apr. 1971, Dressler & Williams 3974 (PM A); Santa Rita lumber road, E of Coln, 23 Feb. 1968, Dressler 3392 (PMA), 20 Mar. 1969, Dressler 3621 (FLAS); Santa Rita ridge, 500 m, 17 Feb. 1986, McPherson 8468 (MO); Santa Rita Ridge near Agua Clara rain gauge, 4 Mar. 1973, Kennedy 2726 (MO); Santa Ri ta Ridge Rd., 20 22 km from Transismithica Hwy., 305 m, 25 Sep. 1980, Sytsma 1345 (MO), Sytsma 1363 (MO); Santa Rita Ridge, ca. 7 mi from Transisthmian Highway, 198 m, 21 Dec. 1981, Wilbur et al. 15070 (DUKE); Trail from end of Santa Rita Ridge Road to Ro Piedras, 600 m, 16 Feb. 1980, Antonio 3776 (MO). Darin: 10 km NE of Jaque, headwaters of Ro Pavarand, 427 m, 31 Jan. 1981, (MO); 10 km NE of Jaque, ridge and steep slopes at headwaters of Ro Pavarand, 427 m, 30 Jan. 1981, Sytsma (MO); Darien, 2 3 mi SE of Pijibasal on Ro Paraseneco, ca. 9 10 mi S of El Real, 18 Dec. 1980, Hartman 12073 (MO, PMA); Hills SE of Ro Chico, ca. 10 km upstream from Nazareht, 300 m, 20 Dec. 1980, Hahn 138 (MO); Marragant and vicinity, 3 m 3 Apr. 1908, Williams 1008 (AMES, NY). Panam [including Canal Zone]: Barro Colorado Island, 4 Dec. 1980 (cult.), Ackerman s.n. (FLAS); El Llano Cart highway, 10 12 km N of El Llano, 2 Mar. 1974, Dressler 4621 (FLAS, PMA); Km 12 13 on the El Llano Cart road, 380 m, 25 Feb. 1976, Kennedy & Dressler 3523 (F); Parque Nacional Soberana, Ro Agua Salud, entre el puente y el vertedero, 50 m, 11 Mar. 1997, Mitre 342 (PMA, SCZ). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: 26 Jan. 1907 (cult.), Nash 24686 (NY ); 31 May 1911 (cult.), Nash 24686 (NY); 3 Mar. 1915 (cult.), Nash 24686 (NY). Commentary: Lockhartia parthenoglossa is most similar to L. hercodonta but that species has smooth leaves that curve inward distally and white flowers with a

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183 suborbicular label lum. It can also resemble L. longifolia which also has longer stems and leaves, sigmoid, smooth leaves that curve inward distally, and a suborbicular labellum. Even when not in flower, plants of Lockhartia parthenoglossa can be distinguished from other Lo ckhartias by their leaves noticeably curving away from the stem and rugulose foveolate texture (the last character shared with L. rugosifolia although not as pronounced as in that species). Plants with juvenile foliage can resemble a narrow leaved L. herc odonta but that species has smooth leaves. Lockhartia rugosifolia M.A. Blanco 26. Lockhartia rugosifolia M.A. Blanco, sp. nov TYPE: PERU. Amazonas: [Bongar?], Utcubamba river floodplain forest near Jazan (below Shipasbamba), 1400 m, 29 Jun. 1962, J.J. W urdack 1090 (Holotype: AMES 104844; isotypes: NY, USM) Lockhartia parthenocomos (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. affinis, sed foliis rugulosis, bracteis inflorescentiarum complanatis lateraliter, et floribus valde parvioribus. Stems completely pendulous, more or less fl marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, with straight to slightly incurving or outcurving margins, acute, rugul ose foveolate; exposed part of half of the stem, resembling grass spikelets, up to 11 per stem (sequentially y; the rachis completely inflorescence bracts amplexicaul, conduplicate, narrowly triangular to ovate, acute,

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184 e floral bract. several pale brownish orange horizontal bars across the center of the labellum (under the trichome pad). Sepals ovate, slightly concave, acute, 5 6 3 4 mm. Pet als widely elliptic, flat, apically rounded, 6 5 mm. Labellum suborbicular, shallowly 3 elliptic, slightly concave, 3 e, retuse, occupying the central portion of the labellum, not markedly thickened, 4 2.5 mm. Column narrowly winged, subrhombic to spathulate, 3 2 mm, the wings obliqu ely oval and decurrent, wider distally, 0.5 1.5 mm; anther cap galeate, 1 1 mm; pollinarium not seen. Fruit obovoid, 12 15 7 mm. Phenology: field collections indicate that the plants flower at least in the months of January, May, June, August, and Oc tober, and probably throughout the year. Distribution: Presently known from the Peruvian department of Amazonas, in the provinces of Bongar, Chachapoyas, and Rodrguez de Mendoza, in the Utcubamba river basin, from 1200 to 1600 m, on the eastern (Amazonia n) side of the Andes (Figure 3). Apparently also present in the southeastern Ecuadorian province of Zamora Chinchipe, on the basis of Hirtz et al. 7329 (from a cultivated plant) and 753 (RPSC, not found, identified as L. parthenocomos in www.tropicos.org ); see commentary below. Additional specimens examined: ECUADOR. Without locality data: 3 May 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2568 (FLAS), Blanco 2569 (FLAS), Blanco 2570 (FLAS); 25 Jan. 2000

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185 (cult.), Whitten et al. 1645 (FLAS); 29 Sep. 2003 (cult.), Whitten et al. 2432 (FLAS, QCA). Zamora Chinchipe: Zumba, Mar. 2000 (cult.), Hirtz et al. 7329 (SEL). PERU. Without locality data: anonymous s.n. (K spirit); 18??, Mathews s.n. (BM). Amazonas: Bngara, vicinity of Campom iento Ingenio 1 3 km up road to Pomacocha from Puente Ingenio, 1300 m, 27 Jan. 1964, Hutchinson & Wright 3837 (AMES, UC), 5 May 1964 (cult.), Hutchinson 3837 (AMES, UC); Campomiento Ingenio on Ro Utcubamba, 300 km E of Olmos, 1250 m, 10 Oct. 1964, Hutchin son & Wright 6849 (UC 2 sheets); Chachapoyas, Jazn (Ingenio Chachapoyas), en ribera derecha del Utcubamba, 1200 m, 28 May 1963, Lpez et al. 4275 (AMES, HUT); [Rodrguez de Mendoza], Mendoza, 1600 m, 8 Aug. 1963, Woytkowski 8172 (GH, MO, SEL). Commentary: Lockhartia rugosifolia has been confused with both L. longifolia and L. parthenocomos both of which it resembles vegetatively. It differs from L. longifolia in its straight, verruculose leaves, campanulate flowers, concave labellum and non crateriform ca llus. The floral morphology is more similar to that of L. parthenocomos although that species has smooth leaves, much larger flowers, and occurs only in the Venezuelan Coastal Range. The spikelet like condensed inflorescences with strongly conduplicate, d istichous bracts and the rugulose leaf texture are diagnostic of L. rugosifolia The leaves of L. parthenoglossa are also rugulose but much less pronounced ly so (and apparent only under magnification). Dodson and Bennett (1989a) and Dodson (2002: 453) pub lished illustrations of this species, identified as Lockhartia parthenocomos

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186 Lockhartia serra Rchb. f. 27. Lockhartia serra Rchb. f., Otia Bot. Hamburg. 1: 6. 1878. TYPE: ECUADOR. Guayas: Guayaquil, Litoral Ebene, Mai 1876, F.C. Lehmann 92 (number from ho lotype label) (holotype: W Reich. Orch. 44331; photo: RPSC) Lockhartia schunkei D.E. Benn. & Christenson, Icon. Orchid. Peruviarum 3: plate 486. 1998. TYPE: PERU. Tumbes: Zarumilla, 10 Km E of El Caucho, Bosque Nacional de Tumbes, 580 m, 15 Mar. 1993, M. Cavero B. 314 ex D.E. Bennett 6563 (holotype: MOL spirit; isotype: USM, not found) unifacial, lat erally flattened, narrowly triangular to obliquely lanceolate in side view, terminal and axillary from the distal third of the stem, up to 4 per stem (sequentially produce pedicel and yellow, the labellum with brown to purplish brown spots around the callus and on the lateral lobes (the latter almost solid brown), the callus mostly orange; the column with dark brown d ots on the wings and a V shaped infrastigmatic line. Sepals ovate to Petals suboblong to obovate, round to subtruncate apically, markedly arched forward, margins reflexed

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187 lateral lobes when flattened; lateral lobes elongate, oblong, obtuse to subtruncate, slightly fal basal lobules folded backwards, the distal lobules flared; callus suboblong; the base forming a co ncave cushion with a tuft of short, glandular hairs, 1.5 2 mm; the distal with an ir regularly denticulate margin, 1.5 2 mm, with an entire to denticulate margin; stigmatic cavity subpandurate, 1.2 0.7 mm; anther cap galeate, 1.5 mm in diameter; Nomenclatural notes: The holotype of L. schunkei consists of a single flower in spirit at MOL, and the isotype at USM (which should have been transferred to MOL) has not been found. However, the original description and illustration of L. schunkei clearly indicate that this name is synonymous with L. serra which is widespread and common in the coastal forests and adjacent lowlands of western Ecuador. Phenology: Flowering plants have been collected throughout the year, but with a higher frequency f rom April to June. Distribution: Central and southern Ecuador and extreme northwestern Peru (Tumbes department), from sea level to 720 m, on the coastal lowlands west of the Andes (Figure 12).

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188 In Ecuador, L. serra is relatively common in humid forests in t he provinces of Guayas and Los Ros. One historical collection is known from Manab, a province that has been heavily deforested in recent decades. It is expected to occur also in El Oro province. One collection ( Asplund 16454 S, included in Figure 12) w as supposedly collected in the province of Esmeraldas. However, this is a questionable locality ; no other collections of L. serra are known from this province which is dominated by a much more humid rain forest, and the specimen appears to have been prepa red from a cultivated plant (possibly with erroneous data). Additional specimens examined: ECUADOR. Without locality: 22 Jun. 1977 (cult.), Ackerman 878 (SEL); 9 May 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2574 (FLAS); 11 Aug. 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2669 (FLAS); 30 Jun. 2009 ( cult.), Blanco 3228 (FLAS); 22 Mar. 1976 (cult.), Brenner 10 (SEL); "Bauas" [Guayas?], Lehmann H.K. 1143 (K); Lehmann 8905 (K); 12 Feb. 1919 (cult.), Powell 50 (K); Sodiro s.n. (QPLS; without label); 26 Sep. 1991 (cult.), Wagner s.n. (USJ); 29 Sep. 2003 (c ult.), Whitten et al. 2431 (FLAS). Esmeraldas: Timbre, 24 May 1955 (cult.?), Asplund 16454 (S; locality questionable). Guayas [including Santa Elena]: 10 km W of Pedro Carbo, 23 Jul. 1940, Haught 3083 (AMES, NY); Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco, 300 m, May 1 993, Cornejo 20 (QCNE); Capeira, km 21 Guayaquil to Daule, 70 m, 18 Sep. 1981, Dodson & Dodson 11350 (MO, SEL); Cerro La Camarona, Cord. Colonche, 150 m, 6 Sep. 1979, Valverde 1823 (SEL); Guayaquil, 10 Jan. 1842, I.K.C. s.n. (K); Guayaquil, Bosque Protecto r Cerro Blanco, carretera a Salinas, km 15, 350 m, 15 Aug. 1991, Rubio et al. 1766 (QCNE), Rubio et al. 1818 (QCNE); Guayaquil, Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco, carretera

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189 Guayaquil Salinas, km 15, 100 m, 6 May 1992, Tipaz et al. 836 (QCNE, 2 sheets); Guayaqu il, Cerro Azul, va a la costa, km 12, 500 m, 18 Mar. 1992, Palacios & Rubio 9981 (QCNE); Guayaquil, esclusas de Puerto Nuevo, 0 m, 10 May 1964, Valverde 306 (COL, US); Hacienda Barcelona, 12 km from Guayaquil on road to Salinas Playas, 20 Apr. 1962, Gilma rtin 683 (US); Prop. Puente de Chimbo, Sodiro 128 (QPLS); Road Guayaquil Quevedo, along river at La Toma, 20 m, 15 Apr. 1960, Dodson 22 (MO, SEL, US). Los Ros: 41.5 km S of Quevedo, Nuevo Zapotal, 9 Jun. 1971, MacBryde 419 (AMES, MO, NY, QCA, SEL); Hacien da Clementina, 30 m, 19 Dec. 1945, Harling 94 (S); Hacienda Clementina, Cerro Samama, above Ro Mombe, ca 38 km NE of Babahoyo, 200 m, 23 May 1994, Stahl & Knudsen 1186 (S); Quevedo, 15 Aug. 1964 (cult.), Bennett & Dodson s.n. (AMES, UC); San Antonio de Co luma, km 39, on the road Puebloviejo Guaranda, 250 m, 20 Apr. 1980, Holm Nielsen 22932 (AAU); Vinces, Jauneche forest, between Mocach and Palenque on the Estero Peafiel, 70 m, 3 Oct. 1979, Dodson et al. 8735 (MO, SEL), 24 Jan. 1981, Gentry et al. 30772 ( MO, QCA, SEL); Zapotal, km 56 Babahoyo to Quevedo, 220 m, 8 Jun. 1974 (cult.), Dodson 5588 (SEL), 2 Aug. 1976 (cult.), Dodson 5588 (QCA). Manab: Baha de Caraquez, Jun. 1903, Lehmann B.T.95 (AMES, GH, K, L, NY). PERU. Tumbes: Matapalo, El Caucho Campover de, parcela de evaluacin permanente del Proyecto Flora de Per, bajando a la quebrada, 16 Mar. 1995 (cult.), Vargas & Salviz 972 (USM); Zarumilla, entre P.C. El Caucho y P.C. Campoverde, Bosque Nacional de Tumbes, Reserva de Biosfera del Norveste, 720 m, 7 Jul. 1992, Daz et al. 4702 (B, HUT, MO, USM). CULTIVATED [without original locality data]: 28 Jul. 2004, Blanco 2668 (FLAS); 20 Sep. 1958, Dress 7015 (BH); 16 May 1893, Linden s.n. (BR); 22 Jan. 1978, Robledo 5 sub Luer 2805

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190 (SEL); 18 Dec. 1909, Nash 2 8294 (NY), 23 Dec. 1910, Nash 28294 (NY); 9 Apr. 2002, Silvera 73 (FLAS); 18 Jul. 1997, Whitten 99235 (FLAS); 17 Jun. 1984, Whitten s.n. (FLAS). Commentary: Lockhartia serra resembles the Central American L. oerstedii in vegetative morphology and flower si ze and appearance. However, the leaves of L. serra tend to be obtuse or rounded apically and less appressed to the stem (i.e., they diverge at a wider angle). The inflorescence bracts of L. serra are generally bigger and not recurved; the labellum side lob es are almost solid brown (vs. dotted in L. oerstedii ), and the callus tubercles are much lower. This is the species of Lockhartia that occurs farthest south in the lowlands w est of the Andes, in seasonally dry forest, most of which has been destroyed. It is replaced by L. oxyphylla in the much wetter lowland and middle elevation forests of northwestern Ecuador. To the south of Tumbes (Peru), the lowland forests become too dry for most epiphytes and no species of Lockhartia occur there. Lockhartia tenuifl ora M.A. Blanco 28. Lockhartia tenuiflora M.A. Blanco, sp. nov TYPE: ECUADOR. Prov. Sucumbios [actually Prov. Napo: Cantn El Chaco, Parroquia Gonzalo Daz de Pineda]: Feb. 2004, M. Whitten, N. Williams, M. Blanco, K. Neubig & A. Reynolds 2719 (Holotype: FLAS ; isotype: QCA). Lockhartia lepticaula D.E. Benn. & Christenson affinis, sed mediolobo labelli angustiore et alis gynostemii triangulari et parviore. Stems apparently er

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191 laterally flattened, narrowly triangular in side view, with straight to slightly incurving or outcurving marg 5 mm long; inflorescence bracts amplexicaul, widely ovate to suborbicular, labellum with red dish brown to purplish brown spots around the callus and on the lateral lobes, the callus mostly orange. Sepals elliptic, slightly concave, acute to obtuse, 6 6.5 3 3.5 mm. Petals elliptic to suboblong, round to subtruncate apically, slightly curved forw ard, the margins recurved, 6 3.5 mm. Labellum 3 mm wide across lateral lobes when flattened; lateral lobes elongate, narrowly oblong to 1 mm; midlobe divided into 4 lobules, pandurate, emarginate, basal lobules folded backwards, the distal lobules straight; callus suboblong, the base forming a concave cushion with a tuft of short, glandular hairs, 1.5 1.5 mm; the distal portion forming a mass mm long, 3 mm wide; wings subtriangular, with an irregularly denticulate margin, 1 1.5 mm; stigmatic cavity subpandurate, 1 0.4 mm; anther cap galeate, 1.3 1 mm; pollinarium 1 mm tall, stip e bifid. Fruit fusiform to obovoid, 14 16 6 7 mm. Phenology: the few field collections available indicate flowering at least during the months of February, July and November. Cultivated plants are known to flower in March, August, and September.

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192 Distribu tion: Ecuador, and possibly Colombia, from 1100 to 1900 m on the eastern (Amazonian) side of the Andes (Figure 12). Expected in northern Peru. The two Colombian collections have somewhat deteriorated flowers or no flowers at all. Their identification as L. tenuiflora is tentative, based on their vegetative morphology. Etymology: from the Latin tenuis (slim) and floris (flower), in reference to the slim appearance of the flowers in front view, due to the folding back of the lateral lobules of the labellum mi dlobe. Additional specimens examined: COLOMBIA. Department unknown: West. Cordillera, Observatorio, 2600 m, Sep. 1941, Dryander 2527 (US ; identification tentative ). Cundinamarca: Vergara, Vda. El Palmar, 1590 m, 14 Jun. 1993, Chaparro de Barrera & Barrera Torres 168 (COL; identification tentative). ECUADOR. Without locality data: 11 March 2005 (cult.), Blanco 3012 (FLAS), 25 Aug. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 3231 (FLAS); 29 Sep. 2003 (cult.), Whitten et al. 2430 (FLAS, QCA). Morona Santiago: Gualaquiza, Vertiente occidental de la Cordillera del Cndor, arriba del Valle del Ro Quimi, 1600 m, 11 Dec. 2000, Freire 4314 (QCNE); Plan de Milagro, road Cuenca to Limn, ca. 15 km SW of Limn, 1900 m, 20 Nov. 1989, Dodson et al. 17878 (MO, QCNE). Napo: 23 km E of El Chaco, Quito Lago Agrio road, 1700 m, 7 Nov. 1974, Gentry 12596 (MO, NY). Zamora Chinchipe: Zamora Cenepa, River Zamora, 1100 m, 26 Jul. 1960, Dodson 182 (MO, SEL); Loyola, 1800 m, Apr. 2001 (cult.), Hirtz 7687 (SEL, mixed with Epidendrum sp. on separate sheet).

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193 Commentary: Lockhartia tenuiflora is very similar to the primarily Peruvian L. lepticaula but that species has a wider labellum midlobe and flabellate column wings (see comments under L. lepticaula for further information). A color photograph of Lockhart ia tenuiflora was published by Dodson (2002: 451) as L. biserra (Rich.) Christenson & Garay. Lockhartia verrucosa Lindl. ex Rchb. f. 29. Lockhartia verrucosa Lindl. ex Rchb. f., Hamburger Garten Blumenzeitung 15: 53 54, 1859. TYPE: Ex Hort. Consul Schille r, Stange s.n (lectotype, here designated : W Reich. Orch. 44327) Fernandezia robusta Bateman, Bot. Mag. 92: t. 5592. 1866; Fernandesia robusta Lockhartia robusta (Bateman) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni. Veg. 3: 82. 1906. Non Fernandezia robusta (S chltr.) Senghas, Schlechter Orchideen I/B (31): 1926. 1995. SYNTYPES: GUATEMALA. Skinner s.n (not found, or possibly K Lindl. 000079005, Fernandezia verrucosa 23426]); and GUATEMALA. [Izabal: Pu erto Barrios?], Vera Cruz, [1860 1864], Ex Hort Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, May 1864, O. Salvin s.n. (mixed collection; lectotype, here designated : K 000078995, excluding 3 flowers of Lockhartia imbricata originally in upper packet together with 2 flowers of F. robusta now moved to a new, separate packet on right side of sheet; voucher for illustration in Bot. Mag. 92: t. 5592) marcescent, unifacial, laterally flattened, narrowly triangular to oblong in side view, with straight to slightly incurving margins, acute to subtruncate (rarely subpraemorse); rescences both terminal and

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194 axillary from the distal half of the stem, up to 10 per stem (produced more or less simultaneously), with 1 icaul, narrowly triangular to widely ovate, cordate, acute to apiculate, expanded and held more or less perpendicular to the rachis, non ellow, the labellum and column heavily spotted with reddish brown; the lateral lobes with oblique longitudinal brown stripes or dots forming lines; the column with brown dots on the wings and an open V shaped infrastigmatic line; the anther cap white to ye llow. Sepals ovate to oval, slightly mm when flattened. Labellum 3 (from the base to the distal mm wide across lateral lobes when flattened; lateral lobes elongate, oblong to slightly obovate, obtuse to round or subtruncate apically, c downward; callus obovate; basal part forming a c oncave cushion with a basal tuft of short, glandular hairs, 2 2 mm; the distal portion forming a spathulate mass of low 2 mm, with a entire to denticulate margin; stigmatic cavity oval to subpandurate, 1 0.4 mm; anther cap galeate, 1.2 mm

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195 Nomenclatural notes: In the protologue of Lockhartia verrucosa Reichenbach stated that this species was introduced from Joinville (Brazil: Santa Catarina) by Consul G.W. Schiller; however, this species is only known from southern Mexico and Guatemala. The provenance given to Reichenbach by Schiller is obvi ously erroneous, and Reichenbach (1869) later confirmed that the species is of Guatemalan origin. A specimen in the Lindley herbarium at Kew (K Lindl. 000079005), which lacks Fernandezia verrucosa r published that name. Reichenbach undoubtedly saw this specimen and used the specific epithet when he described L. verrucosa Fernandezia verrucosa Lindl., Herb. L. verrucosa but it cannot be consider ed a type in the modern sense because Reichenbach did not cite it in the protologue (although it may be a syntype of Fernandezia robusta see below). Fernandezia verrucosa W3TROPICOS website) as having be L. verrucosa as one used by Lindley and never published. Bateman mentioned two collections in the protologue of Fernandezia robusta (one by Skinner, and another by Salvin) without designating either as the type, and thus both lectotype; it includes three flowers of Lockhartia imbricata in addition to the flowers of the actual plant mounted on the sheet. These three flowers have now been placed in a separate packet Fernandezia verrucosa

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196 herbarium (mentioned above) could be the plant collected by Skinner, but it has no indication of the collector. Izabal, Municipality of Puerto Barrios), not the Mexican sta te (Salvin visited Guatemala several times, but as far as it is known he never collected in Mexico, and no species of Lockhartia are known to naturally occur in the Mexican state of Veracruz). However, such a lowland site (ca. 20 m) is also an unlikely nat ural locality for L. verrucosa a species that normally occurs above 900 m elevation; it was probably either cultivated there or simply shipped from the neighboring port of Puerto Barrios. Fernandezia robusta ut erroneously) cited as a validly published name, was merely listed by Reichenbach (1855; 1864) as one used for a plant of Lockhartia lunifera cultivated by Jenisch ( nomenclatural notes under L. lunifera ). Phenology: Flowering plants have been collect ed throughout the year, but much more frequently during the months of May, June, and July. Distribution: Southern Mexico (Chiapas and eastern Oaxaca) and Guatemala, from 800 to 2200 m (Figure 7). Lockhartia verrucosa is geographically isolated from its put ative sister species, L. galeottiana by the Chivela Pass, which separates the Sierra Madre del Sur from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas. Additional specimens examined: GUATEMALA. Without locality: May 1866, Bernoulli 316 ( BR [2 sheets], G, K, W Reich); May 18 66, Bernoulli & Cario 489 (S). Alta Verapaz: Cobn, 10 Jan. 1941, Dodge 1980 (AMES), 1372 m, 14 May 1940, Lewis 225

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197 (AMES). Quezaltenango: Along old road between Finca Pirineos and Patzuln, 1200 m, 9 Feb. 1941, Standley 86984 (AMES, F [2 sheets]). Sacatep quez: Volcn de Agua, 14 May 1942, Steyermark 46397 (F). San Marcos: Above Finca El Porvenir, up Loma Bandera Shac, lower S facing slopes of Volcn Tajumulco, 1300 m, 9 Mar. 1940, Steyermark 37333 (AMES, F). Santa Rosa: Zamorora, 1500 m, Apr. 1893, Heyde & Lux 4616 (AMES, BR, F, K, M, NY). Suchitepquez: SW lower slopes of Volcn Zunil, between Finca Montecristo and Finca Asturias, SE of Santa Mara de Jesus, 1200 m, 1 Feb. 1940, Steyermark 35271 (F); Volcn Santa Clara, between Finca El Naranjo and upper slopes, 1250 m, 23 May 1942, Steyermark 46596 (AMES, F). MEXICO. Without locality: Jan. 1960, anonymous s.n. (K spirit); 20 Jul. 1967 (cult.), Nevling & Gmez Pompa 295 (A, MEXU). Chiapas: 6 mi N of Ocozocoautla, along gravel road to Apitpac, 1000 m, 9 Ju l. 1977, Croat 40551 (MO); 6 10 km NE of La Soledad along road from Las Margaritas to Campo Alegre, 1600 m, 7 Dec. 1986, Breedlove et al. 66245 (CAS); About 1 mi NE of Hwy 190 from a point about 2.3 mi NW of Comitn, 20 Jul. 1971, Stevens 1277 (MO); Amaten ango del Valle, 1 km above Aguacatenango, 1800 m, 5 Jun. 1988, Breedlove 68954 (CAS, MO); Amatenango del Valle, 1 km N de Col. Benito Jurez, 5 km S desvo carr. a Amatenango, 1780 m, 11 May 1993, Ochoa Gaona et al. 4106 (CAS); Angel Albino Corzo, between Finca Cuxtepeque and Finca Cabaas, 1100 m, 9 May 1988, Breedlove & Bourell 67501 (CAS); Berriozabal Las Vistas, 12 Jun. 1950, Miranda 6372 (MEXU); Coapilla, Panten de Coapilla, 1700 m, 4 Jul. 1991, Cabrera Cachon 159 (CAS [2 sheets], MEXU), 25 Aug. 1994, Cabrera Cachon 224 (MEXU); Comitn, 2 km SE Llano Largo, carretera Villa Las Rosas Comitn, 11 May 1993, Ochoa Gaona et al. 4126 (CAS, CICY); Comitn, Los Lagos, 35 mi SE of

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198 Comitn, road San Jos to Montebello, 15 Apr. 1949, Carlson 1797 (F, 3 sheets); H onduras, near Siltepec, 1500 m, 9 Jul. 1941, Matuda 4369 (AMES, F, LL, MEXU, MO, NY, SEL); Jiquipilas, Los Alpes, 1200 m, 25 May 1995, Castillo 686 (MEXU); La Concordia, 8 km adelante del Rancho Las Cabaas, 1150 m, 10 May 1988, Cabrera Cachn 67 (MEXU); L a Concordia, Cerro El Venado, Poligono V, 1654 m, 19 Apr. 2005, Gmez Dominguez 952 (CAS); La Independencia, 6 10 km NNE of La Soledad along logging road from Las Margaritas to Campo Alegre, 1600 m, 1 Jul. 1981, Breedlove 51267 (CAS); La Trinitaria, 4 km E of La Trinitaria along Mex 190, 1480 m, 8 Jul. 1990, Hampshire et al. 1173 (BM, MEXU); Las Margaritas, 8 km E of Las Margaritas along road to La Soledad, 1700 m, 15 Sep. 1974, Breedlove 37894 (AMES, DS); Mapastepec, El Triunfo Reserve, mule trail W of Ca ada Honda towards El Tomatal, c. 1 km from Caada Honda, 1450 m, 28 Feb. 1990, Hampshire et al. 783A (BM, MA); Montebello Lake district, 1524 m, Oct. 1953, Johnson 353 104 (SEL); Near Hacienda Santa Mara de los Arcos, E of Comitn, 1500 m, 26 May 1936, Na gel sub Oestlund 4541 (AMES); Ocozocoautla de Espinoza, 18 20 km N of Ocozocoautla along road to Mal Paso, 800 m, 20 Oct. 1971, Breedlove & Thorne 21075 (DS); Ocozocoautla, 7 km de Horizonte a Ciprs, al Cerro El Banadero, 1200 m, 10 Jun. 1983, Vsquez 939 (XAL); Ocozocoautla, Reserva del Ocote, al NE del Rancho Corocito, ladera del Cerro La Colmena, 850 m, 27 Apr. 1983, Calzada 9676 (XAL); Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacn, 3 km NW of Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacn, on the slopes below Hy. 195 in the vicinity of Cln ica Yerba Buena, 1646 m, 14 Jun. 1971, Fathrop 7502 (DS, RSA); Road above Teopisca on route to San Cristbal de las Casas, 4 May 1952, Moore 6462 (BH); Totolapa, Rancho Ch'a ha' 5 6 km W of Teopisca, 2200 m, 18 Jul. 1972, Breedlove

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199 26177 (AMES, DS, MO, NY, SEL); Venustiano Carranza, 3 mi S of Aguacatenango along road to Pinola Las Rosas, 1707 m, 25 Jun. 1965, Breedlove 10550 (DS, F, LL, MICH, NY), 15 Jul. 1966, Breedlove 14545 (DS, F, MEXU, WIS); Villa Las Rosas, km 12.3 de la carretera Villa Las Rosas Comi tn, 1630 m, 15 May 1995, Meja & Luna 478 (CICY); Yola, 6 Nov. 1959 (cult.), Alava sub Blydenstein s.n. (MO), 14 Jan. 1965 (cult.), Alava sub Hutchinson s.n. (UC), 16 Oct. 1961 (cult.), Alava sub Hutchinson s.n. (UC), 18 Sep. 1961 (cult.), Alava sub Kimna ch s.n (UC). Oaxaca: San Miguel Chimalapa, Arroyo entre Cerro Verde y Cerro Amargo, al S del camino Benito Jurez La Cinaga, ca. 8 km en lnea recta al SE de Benito Jurez, ca. 32 km en lnea recta al NNE de San Pedro Tapantepec, 1200 m, 4 Aug. 1986, May a 3722 (MEXU, MO), San Miguel Chimalapa, cabecera del Arroyo Caracol, Cerro Guayabitos, al NO de Congregacin Benito Jurez, ca. 40 km en lnea recta al N de San Pedro Tapantepec, 1450 m, 7 Aug. 1984, Maya 376 (CAS, MEXU, MO); Santa Mara Chimalapa, caada al lado S del Cerro El Quetzal (cerro ca. 4 km al N de Cerro Guayabitos), ca. 8 km en lnea recta al NO de Benito Jurez, ca. 44 km en lnea recta al N de San Pedro Tapanatepec, 1600 m, 11 Jul. 1986, Maya 3581 (MEXU, MO). CULTIVATED [and/or without origi nal locality data]: Cultivated, anonymous s.n (BR); cultivated, anonymous s.n (G); anonymous s.n. (K spirit); anonymous s.n. (W Reich); anonymous s.n. (K Lindl; photo: AMES); cultivated, anonymous s.n. (W Reich); 28 Dec. 1914 (cult.), anonymous s.n. (K); cultivated, anonymous s.n. (W Reich); 6 Jun. 2004 (cult.), Blanco 2667 (FLAS); 4 Jun. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 3218 (FLAS); 4 Jun. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 3227 (FLAS); 27 Jul. 2009 (cult.), Blanco 3230 (FLAS); 1 Jul. 1976 (cult.), Dodson s.n (SEL); Gailer 18 (K spirit); Gower s.n. (E); 11 Aug. 2000 (cult.), Mally 105 (CAS); Mason 1194 (K spirit);

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200 Sess s.n. (G); 20 Jun. 1984 (cult.), Staal s.n. (SEL); Cultivated, Veitch 443 (W Reich); May 1889 (cult.), Veitch s.n. (K). Commentary: Lockhartia verrucosa is most si milar to L. galeottiana which has much shorter, congested inflorescences with spiral phyllotaxy and a narrower labellum callus. It also resembles L. oerstedii which has narrower shoots and taller teeth in the callus. See notes under those species for fur ther information. Poorly Known Taxa Lockhartia macrantha Lem. Lockhartia macrantha Lem., Ill. Hort. 12: misc. 57 58. 1865. Non Lockhartia micrantha Rchb.f. TYPE: MEXICO. Ex Hort. Ambroise Verschaffelt (Ghent), [1865?], Ghiesbreght s.n. (not found) The nam e Lockhartia macrantha has hitherto been ingnored although it is validly L. micrantha or because Lemaire compared it with L. lunifera However, Lemaire explicitly described L. macrantha as a new species. Lemaire based his description from a live plant cultivated in Ghent, sent from Mexico by Ghiesbreght. However, no corresponding herbarium material has been found (possibly it was never prepared), and no illustration of it was published. The description can apply equally to L. galeottiana L. oerstedii and L. verrucosa all of which occur in Mexico. Ghiesbreght collected in Chiapas (where both L. oerstedii and L. verrucosa occur; Roriosa, 1887), but he also traveled extensively through o ther Mexican states where he could have collected L. galeottiana In any case, all three of those names (or their basionyms) were published earlier, and thus L. macrantha would be a synonym.

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201 Lockhartia parthenocomos var. crispula Regel Lockhartia partheno comos var. crispula Regel, Ann. Sci Nat., Bot. sr. 4, 6: 378. 1856; Index Seminum [St. Petersburg (Petropolitanus)] 1856: 23. 1856. TYPE: COLOMBIA [probably VENEZUELA]. [ Ex Hort. St. Petersburg Botanical Garden ?], Lansberg s.n. (holotype: LE?, not found) This name is based on a plant reportedly collected in Colombia (but more likely in Venezuela; see nomenclatural notes of L. imbricata ) by someone named Lansberg (possibly J.G. van Lansberge, who collected in Venezuela (Chaudhri et al. 1972), apparently cultivated in the St. Petersburg Botanical Garden in Russia under the name Bothriostigma distichophyllum (as evidenced by its listing in their Index Seminum). No else Ghent by Lansberg) mentioned by Reichenbach (1855) as Fernandezia longifolia That illustration has not been found either. Although the specific epithet suggests it is a species with campanulate flowers (i.e., a member of the Parthenocomos group) the brief description of the flower in the protologue is more consistent with that of a species with long, incurved labellum lateral lobes (i.e., a member of the Imbricata group) However, it is impossible to reconstruct the detailed floral morphology from the meager original description. Excluded Name : Fernandezia obtusa Lindl. ex Linden Fernandezia obtusa Lindl. ex Linden, Ill. Hort. 29: 51. 1882. Fernandezia ] obtusa Ldl., Co Nomen nudum Linden listed this name for a cultivated plant from Colombia, without a description or a diagnosis. No type specimen or illustration attributable to this name has been

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202 found. Reichenbach (1855; 1864) listed this name as dubious, at the end of his enumeration of the species of Lockhartia

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203 Figure 3 1. Distribution of Lockhartia acuta Figure 3 2. Distribution of Lockhartia amoena L. endresiana and L. grandibractea

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204 Figure 3 3. Distribution of Lockhartia bennettii an d L. rugosifolia Figure 3 4. Distribution of Lockhartia cladoniophora and L. micrantha

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205 Figure 3 5. Distribution of Lockhartia compacta L. genegeorgei and L. lepticaula Figure 3 6. Distribution of Lockhartia dipleura

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206 Figure 3 7. Distri bution of Lockhartia galeottiana L. oerstedii and L. verrucosa Figure 3 8. Distribution of Lockhartia goyazensis L. imbricata L. ivainae and L. lunifera

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207 Figure 3 9. Distribution of Lockhartia hercodonta and L. longifolia Figure 3 10. Di stribution of Lockhartia latilabris L. oblongicallosa and L. parthenocomos

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208 Figure 3 11. Distribution of Lockhartia obtusata and L. parthenoglossa Figure 3 12. Distribution of Lockhartia oxyphylla L. serra and L. tenuiflora

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209 CHAPTER 4 MORPHOL OGY ANATOMY AND PHYTO CHEMISTRY Based on their general morphology, the species of Lockhartia are classified in two subgenera; s ubgenus Lockhartia whi ch contains all but one species; and subgenus Pseudobulbosa which has only one member, L. genegeorgei ( which is immediately distinguished from the other species by its vegetative morphology). Subgenus Lockhartia can be subdivided into three informal phenetic groups (Table 4 1): the he subgroups: the Imbricata subgroup (15 species), the Acuta sub group (with one species, L. acuta ), and the Oerstedii subgroup (three species). Plants of subgenus Lockh artia are easy to assign to either of the Imbricata, Longifolia, or Parthenocomos groups, especially when flowers are available. However, these groups are not monophyletic according to m olecular data ( Phylogeny C hapter 5 ), and the status of L. genegeo rgei as a legitimate member of the genus is still unclear (several of its morphological traits suggest it may be a recent intergeneric hybrid between a species of Lockhartia and a species of the genus Oncidium ). The species in the Parthenocomos group tend to be underrepresented in herbaria and are rarely found in cultivation; thus, some details of their morphology and anatomy are still unknown. Various features of the anatomy of Lockhartia species have been reported by Mbius (1887), Weltz (1897), Williams & Broome (1976), N. H. Williams (1979 ), Ziegler (1981), Pridgeon et al. (1983), Mller & Rasmussen (1984), Pridgeon (1987), Chase & Pippen (1988), Porembski & Barthlott (1988), Stern & Carlsward (2006), Szlachetko & Mytnik Ejsmont (2009), and Sandoval Zapo titla et al. (2010 b ), always as part of surveys

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210 of larger taxonomic groups. Many of these authors did not prepare or cite voucher specimens for their study plants, and thus their specific identity cannot be verified. This is significant because many Lockha rtia plants, both in cultivation and in herbaria, were found to be misidentified during the course of this investigation. In the following discussion, the classifications of Chase et al (2003) for Orchidaceae, and of Pridgeon et al. (2009) for subtribe On cidiinae, are followed. Materials and Methods The study of each organ is here divided into morphology (external, macroscopic structure, observable with the naked eye) and anatomy (both external and internal microscopic structure, observable with light micr oscopy and scanning electron microscopy). Morphology Plants of Lockhartia were studied from live specimens cultivated at the Florida Museum of Natural History (approximately 45 plants representing 17 different species), additional plants cultivated and obs erved at other institutions, and from ca. 2275 herbarium specimens representing ca. 1514 different collections ( Taxonomic Revision C hapter 3 ). Flowers, fruits, and vegetative portions of living plants (and a few rehydrated organs from herbarium specim ens) were photographed and/or drawn using a Wild M5 dissecting microscope with a camera lucida attachment. Anatomy Roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits from some of the cultivated plants were fixed in FAA (70% ethanol, acetic acid, and formalin, 9:0. 5:0.5) from two to six days, and then washed in water and stored in 70% ethanol until sectioned. Transverse

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211 were made with a sliding microtome. Roots and flower s were embed ded in paraffin wax alum haematoxylin and counter stained with safranin (Johansen, 1940) Epidermal leaf scrapings were made following method (Cutler, 1978). Sections and scrapings were mounted on glass slides with Canada balsam, and were observed and photographed with a Zeiss Axioskop 40 compound microscope. The length and width of ten guard cells were recorded in one sample ea ch of 10 species (one young leaf per plant per species ; taken five to 10 leaves below stem apex from an actively growing stem ) Seeds of nine plants representing eight species were either fixed in FAA and stored in 70% ethanol, or rehydrated from dry mater ial by placing them in water for five minutes. The length and width of ten seeds per plant were measured using a compound microscope with a calibrated stage micrometer. The leaf surface of one species, the flower surface of five species, and the seeds of t hree species of Lockhartia were observed with an Hitachi S 4000 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at 6 or 8 kV following dehydration with an ethanol gradient, critical point drying, and sputter coating with platinum. Results and Discussion In the rest of this section the various plant structures are described in general for species of subgenus Lockhartia and those of L. genegeorgei if different, are pointed out accordingly. The anatomy of L. genegeorgei has not been studied previously nor in the presen t study and it is possible that it differs in some details from that of the other

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212 species. Therefore, any generalizations about the anatomy of Lockhartia both in the following paragraphs and the cited literature, should be interpreted accordingly. Genera l Habit Plants of Lockhartia are always epiphytes, with a sympodial mode of growth (Holttum, 1955; Dressler, 1981; H. Rasmussen, 1986). All species in subgenus Lockhartia have the same general vegetative structure, with elongate, narrow stems with many int ernodes (always more than 14 in fully grown adult stems, up to 74 in a few cases), that are concealed by the imbricating, non articulated, isobilateral leaves (Chase, 2009 ; personal observation ). This condition is similar to that found in some other, unrel ated genera of epiphytic orchids, such as Dendrobium sections Aporum and Rhizobium (Carlsward et al. 1997), and some species of Angraecum Epidendrum Jacquiniella Oberonia and Podochilus (Fig. 4 1B). This is in sharp contrast to the growth habit of mos t other members of subtribe Oncidinae, which have heteroblastic pseudobulbs (comprised of a single swollen internode) with one to four dorsiventral leaves at the apex and a similar number of leaves at the base (Fig. 4 1A). Lockhartia genegeorgei has an int ermediate condition between that of subgenus Lockhartia and that of most other members of Oncidiinae ; it has relatively short stems that terminate in a heteroblastic (single internode) pseudobulb, and has articulated, linear, conduplicate leaves (Bennett & Christenson, 1998), (Fig. 4 1C). Roots Morphology As in most other members of subtribe Oncidiinae and most epiphytic orchids in general, the roots of Lockhartia are cylindrical, glabrous, have green growing tips and a white velamen (Pridgeon, 1 987). They are relatively thin, ca. 1 The

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213 roots are almost always unbranched or only sparsely branched. Only in rare cases do the roots show regular branching. The only herbarium specimen of L. genegeorgei with roots shows frequent root branching Normally, roots are borne from the basal, rhizome forming portion of the stem. However, some species (e.g., L. amoena L. grandibractea L. longifolia ) occasionally produce roots from more distal portions of the stem. In either case, the roots emerge dir ectly from the base of the axillary bud (usually one per bud, but rarely more). These roots occasionally break through the base of the leaf. The roots produced from the rhizome invariably grow tightly appressed against the surface of the substrate; only th e roots that are rarely produced from the upper parts of the stem hang free. The external morphology of the roots offers no useful taxonomic characters. Anatomy Root transverse sections of three species of Lockhartia ( L. serra L. tenuiflora and L. verruc osa ) were studied with light microscopy. The velamen consists of three to five cell layers (three to four layers found by Pridgeon, 1987; Porembski and Barthlott, 1988). Five cell layers were observed in the velamen of L. serra (Fig. 4 2). Porembski and Ba rthlott (1988) distinguished 10 major types of velamen in the roots of Orchidaceae; Lockhartia as all members of tribe Cymbidieae (sensu Chase et al. 2003) Cymbidium velamen type is characterized by the epivelamen cells s lightly smaller than those of the endovelamen (but otherwise not too different from them), the cells somewhat elongated radially, cell walls with thin, long sinuate thickenings (and these interrupted by numerous large pores in the non

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214 thickened wall portio ns), exodermis cells smaller than those of the endovelamen and with thickened outer tangential walls, and cortex frequently containing tracheoidal idioblasts (but the latter are absent in Lockhartia (Porembski & Barthlott, 1988). In root transverse sectio ns of Lockhartia lunifera and L. oerstedii Stern and Carlsward (2006) observed isodiametric epivelamen cells and isodiametric to anticlinally (radially) ( 1988) characterization. The exodermal cells have U shaped wall thickenings : the anticlinal and internal periclinal walls are thickened ; this was also reported by Stern and Carlsward (2006). The cortex consists of two (in L. verrucosa ) or three cell layers. The cortical cells are par enchymatous, isodiametric, and the diameter of the innermost ones is more than twice that of the exodermal cells. There are conspicuous intercellular spaces where the walls of three or more cortical cells meet. Stern and Carlsward (2006) remark that the wa lls of the water storage cells of the root cortex are smooth (those in the leaves are banded). Stern and Carlsward (2006) reported isodiametric cells with thickened walls in both the endodermis and pericycle of Lockhartia Clear observation of those struct ures was not possible in the microscopic slides prepared for the present study, due to the excessive thickness of the sections. Like most members of subtribe Oncidiinae, roots of Lockhartia lack tilosomes (Pridgeon et al. 1983; Stern & Carlsward, 2006). T he stele consists of a solid cylinder of small diameter xylem cells (apparently tracheids and/or very narrow vessels) on the periphery, with seven major and seven minor groups of phloem cell bundles. Stern and Carlsward (2006) reported a hexarch

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215 root stele in their samples of Lockhartia although they did not publish any illustrations. The major phloem bundles are located about two or three cell l ayers inside the xylem cylinder and alternate with the more peripheral minor phloem bundles. The core of the ste le consists of fibers (with thicker walls than the xylem cells, with no intercellular spaces (also reported by Stern & Carlsward, 2006). Stems Morphology Each unit or branch of the sympodial system is divided into a proximal, short (2 4 internodes, ca. 5 mm long) rhizome segment, which grows appressed to the substrate and has very small bracts, and a distal, elongate (up to 85 internodes and 85 cm long in some species), erect or pendulous leafy portion. In most species of Lockhartia (except in L. genegeorg ei ), the stem axis has the potential to continue growing past the leaf bearing portion and become a terminal inflorescence ( Inflorescences below). In most species, stems are more or less rigid and have a tendency to grow erect. Large plants of these s pecies, however, often produce stems that grow downward (although they remain rigid), probably to avoid shading by other stems of the same plant. Some species that normally produce erect stems in cultivation (e.g., L. acuta ) are described as pendent in man y herbarium collections. Other species have relatively flexible stems that may initially grow upward, but invariably become pendulous as they increase in length (e.g., L. longifolia L. obtusata L. parthenocomos ). The orientation of the stems with respect to gravity, or more specifically, the relative rigidness of the stems, is taxonomically important. One species ( L. bennettii ) seems to be variable in this respect, with some plants producing pendent stems and others having erect stems.

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216 The length of the s tem is variable, depending on the age of the plant, its relative strength, and the environmental conditions. Seedlings and juvenile plants produce progressively taller stems; these juvenile stems cease their growth before the next stem is produced from the ir base. At some point, one of the stems (the first adult stem) produces inflorescences after it stops elongating. Subsequent adult stems continue to become taller until they reach a height that is characteristic of the species or population. In the specie s descriptions ( Taxonomic Revision C hapter 3 ), the stem length is reported only for adult, mature stems (those with inflorescences or inflorescence remnants). Adult stems are here defined as those that have attained the potential to produce an inflorescen ce. Adult, mature stems of Lockhartia imbricata and L. micrantha can be very short (e.g., only 3.5 cm long in Granville 5258 CAY, L. imbricata ), but both of these species can also produce much longer stems (up to 35 or 46 cm long, respectively). On the ot her extreme are the pendent stems of L. longifolia and L. rugosifolia which can reach up to 80 and 84 cm long. In the latter case, these are lengths measured from live plants, as the entire length of the longest stems in these species is rarely included i n herbarium specimens; it is likely that the stems of these species can become much longer in natural conditions. The relative length of the stem is not necessarily related to its orientation (erect or pendent) or relative strength (rigid or flexible); for example, L. acuta and L. lepticaula typically produce rigid, erect stems that can grow up to 76 and 74 cm long, while in L. obtusata and L. parthenoglossa which have flexible, mostly descending to pendent stems, the maximum recorded lengths are 41 and 45 cm, respectively.

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217 The stems of Lockhartia genegeorgei are unique in the genus in having a pseudobulb formed by the last internode (Fig. 4 larger in live plants), and somewhat flattened. The rest of the erect part of the stem has only 4 or 5 internodes. Normally, the stems do not branch. In rare occasions, however, branches do develop from an axillary bud, and these may produce basal roots and additional shoots circles) can eventually beco me established, and probably constitute an (infrequent) base or apical meristem has been damaged; they rarely form in young, healthy stems. In cultivation, the formation of the base and placing it on top of moist Sphagnum moss (Hawkes, 1958). The stem axis is entirely, or almost entirely, concealed by the overlapping leaves (Fig. 4 3A). The apical part of each intern ode is infrequently exposed between the sheaths of the two lower leaves. Only rarely do some internodes grow longer than the subtending leaf sheath and get almost completely exposed. Each stem and its leaves form a distinctly flattened, ancipitous shoot. T herefore, shoot width (measured as the distance between the outermost leaf portions on opposite sides of the shoot; Fig. 4 3A) is re ported for each species in the Taxono mic R evision ( C hapter 3)

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218 Probably because it is normally hidden within the leaves, the stem epidermis is devoid of stomata. The stem surface, however, is never adnate to the inner epidermis of the leaf sheath (but see below for an alternative interpretati on). Stems are somewhat compressed in cross section (often appearing ancipitous), with the two edges aligned with the leaf midribs and axillary buds (i.e., the parastichies). The stem surface is always glabrous and smooth. The leaves are decurrent on the s tem, so that each internode is somewhat wider distally. This is not normally apparent unless the leaves are removed from the stem; after this, the distal end of the internode forms a ledge between it and the narrower base of the next internode. This ledge is slightly wider on the side of the next leaf axil, and supports a small axillary bud, which is completely hidden in the leaf sheath. There is always a visible line that marks the leaf insertion (where the tissues of the stem and leaf separate and diverge ); this line can be whitish to purple, and is often partially or completely hidden by the sheaths of the preceding leaves. Anatomy In cross section, the stem presents three main zones: epidermis, a non (Fig. 4 4A, B). In thick sections, the cortex appears translucent, while the vascular core appears opaque. A similar organization of stem tissues in Lockhartia was noticed by Weltz (1897) and Stern and Carlsward (2006). Among other genera in the Oncidiinae, a clear di stinction between stem cortex and vascular core has been reported in Aspasia lunata Lindl. Gomesa crispa (Lindl.) Klotzsch ex Rchb. f. Warmingia Rchb. f. sp., Oncidium baueri Lindl. (Stern & Carlsward, 2006), and O. sphacelatum Lindl. (Withner et al. 19 74). It is unknown if the stem tissues of Lockhartia genegeorgei are organized into core and cortex.

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219 cross section (Fig. 4 4C). Their external surface is smooth and devoid of stomata. The lack of stomata (or their occurrence in low densities) is actually a common trait of the epidermis of the pseudobulb (and probably stems in general) in many orchids (Solereder & Meyer, 1969). dicular to the stem wings, and base of th e internode ( in the segment surrounded by the closed portion of the leaf sheath ) The cells are parenchymatous, isodiametric, h ave thin walls and small intercellular spaces (Fig. 4 4C). Their walls have banded thickenings (reported as smooth by Stern and Carlsward, 2006). They can be much larger than the epidermal cells (up to 150 m in diameter), and probably function as water st orage cells. Vascular traces in the form of isolated vascular bundles can be observed in the wing portion of the cortex. small, thick walled parenchyma cells (Fig. 4 in diameter, and each cell contains numerous amyloplasts (at least in young, actively growing stems; no old stems were sampled for anatomy). The vascular bundles are collateral, with a cap of fibers facing the outside of the stem, several xylem vessels facing the center, and a few phloem sieve elements in the middle (completely surrounded by the f ibers and vessels) (Fig. 4 4D). The vessels are small cells almost completely filled with a relatively large silica body) appressed to the ir outer facing walls

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220 ( Mller & Rasmussen, 1984; Stern & Carlsward, 2006). Only the fiber caps on the periphery of the vascular core have associated stegmata; the inner vascular bundles lack stegmata. Homology For practical purposes, both stem cortex and stem core are both treated here as part of the stem (al so in the species descriptions of the taxonomic revision, C hapter 3 ). However, it is plausible that the cortex represents the proximal part of the leaf sheath that has become completely adnate to the stem. A similar condition is found in other groups of mo nocotyledons with isobilateral leaves, such as Acorus L. Jacquiniella Schltr. and many Iridaceae (Arber, 1921; Arber, 1925). According to this interpretation, the vascular core represents the stem proper, which has lost its epidermis, and the axillary bu ds have moved up the stem to the new leaf axils. The stem leaf fusion several millimeters below the leaf axil. As in most other taxa in the Oncidiinae, the leaf bases of Lockhartia genegeorgei are not decurrent on the stem. Leaves Morphology As in most other genera in tribe Cymbidieae, the leaves of Lockhartia have a distichous arrangement along the stem. The leaves of all species in subgenus Lockhartia are markedly flatte ned laterally and lack an abscission layer. In the species descriptions (Taxonomic Revision, C hapter 3) and elsewhere in this chapter, the leaf shape for species in subgenus Lockhartia is described as seen in lateral view. If a leaf ceases to be functional it dries up still attached to the stem (i.e., the leaves are

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221 marcesent); it may eventually disintegrate in place or break away from the stem if pulled. The stem wings are probably of foliar origin (see above); however, for practical purposes the base of the leaf is defined here as the point where it diverges from the stem. Usually, there is a change in color and/or texture at this point, and some species (e.g., L. serra ) may have a purple line marking the leaf insertion. Leaves of subgenus Lockhartia hav e three main zones (Fig. 4 3B) : 1) an amplexicaul, tubular, closed sheath that tightly clasps the next internode; 2) an elongate bifacial, open sheath, that gradually diminishes in depth distally, and 3) an isobilateral, nd the open sheath. The closed portion of the sheath is relatively preceding leaf. The length of the open sheath and unifacial blade is variable, depending are categorized Because the leaves of subgenus Lockhartia lack an abscission layer and may be partially fused to the stem, it is unclear what part is homologous with the blade of other Oncidiinae (defined here as the portion of the leaf above the abscissio n layer). Some other members of subtribe Oncidiinae with isobilateral leaves have an abscission layer that divides the open sheath from the unifacial blade (e.g., Macroclinium Ornithocephalus spp.). It is possible that the thin line that marks the leaf in sertion represents the remnant of the abscission layer, which is no longer functional. According to this interpretation, the stem wings are homologous with the leaf sheath, which has (including the

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222 closed and open sheaths, and the unifacial blade) is homologous with the leaf blade proper of other Oncidiinae. Leaf size is variable within species. There is usually a gradient along individual stems; typically the leaves near the base of the shoot (just above the rhizome) are much smaller than those of the middle portion. In many species, the leaves also decrease in size toward the distal portion of the stem (Fig. 4 1B). This is especially noticeable in L. oerstedii which thus has charac L. galeottiana and L. verrucosa do not normally show a distal reduction in leaf size. These are only trends, however, as there is substantial variation in the vegetative morphology of every species. In the species descriptions prepared for the present work ( Taxonomic Revision C hapter 3 ), the leaf dimensions are reported for the largest leaf in each stem, which is usually located near the middle or the basal third of the stem. The leaf length was measured as a straight line (even if the leaf was curved) from the apex to the most basal visible part, usually located in the angle formed by the two previous leaves (the base of the leaf is usually completely hidden by the sheath of the previous leaf, wh ich would require dissection of every specimen to measure the total length). The leaf width was measured as the straight line that reached the widest visible part of the leaf (at or near the top of the tubular sheath), perpendicular to the outer leaf margi n (Fig. 4 3A). Lockhartia genegeorgei (subgenus Pseudobulbosa ) has elongate, linear, conduplicate leaves, provided with an abscission layer that divides the sheath from the blade (Fig. 4 1C). The terminal leaf on the pseudobulb of this species lacks a shea th, but it has an abscission layer at the base. Chase (1986), who surveyed the main leaf

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223 common type of leaf in the subtribe). In subgenus Lockhartia overall leaf shape is taxonomically useful to distinguish some species, but there is extensive interspecific overlap among most others. All species of the Longifolia group have unique leaf shapes that almost always can be used reliably for identification ( L. longifolia has elon gate, sigmoid leaves; those of L. hercodonta are usually shorter and slightly incurved distally; in L. parthenoglossa they curve outward, and L. obtusata has oblong to widely elliptic, obtuse leaves). The leaves of L. galeottiana and L. goyazensis also cur ve away from the stem. Those of L. acuta (Acuta subgroup) are relatively thick and are usually subpraemorse just below the apex, which is often apiculate and sharp to the touch. The leaves of most other species (especially those in the Imbricata group) ar e more or less obliquely triangular and less useful for taxonomic identification. There are some differences among species in the leaf relative length, apical shape, angle of divergence from the stem, and even color, but these are not always consistent and are not reliable by themselves for species identification. The surface of the leaf is always glabrous, and in most species it is smooth. In Lockhartia parthenoglossa and L. rugosifolia however, the surface is rugulose, like that of some species of Macro clinium The leaves of L. rugosifolia are more markedly rugose than those of L. parthenoglossa ; in the later case, the leaf surface has to be observed under magnification to detect the wrinkly surface. In both cases the wrinkles form a reticulating pattern delimiting smooth areoles that contain one or a few stomata. In subgenus Lockhartia the leaf is smooth but has a pattern (more evident under

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224 magnification and toward the leaf base) of tiny, dark green dots in a pale, greyish green background. The dark g reen dots appear to be the stomatal subsidiary cells and possibly other surrounding cells This gives these leaves a characteristic glaucous like appearance from a distance This dotting is frequently retained in herbarium material, but appears to be absen t in the available herbarium specimens of L. genegeorgei The angle of divergence between the stem axis and the leaf base (using its adaxial leaf margin as a guide) is a taxonomically useful character in some cases. Most species have moderate divergence an L. oerstedii L. rugosifolia ). Other species have leaves that are widely divergent from the L. galeottiana L. hercodonta L. longifolia L. parthenoglossa ). Anatomy Mbius (1887) was the first to study the leaf anatomy of Lockhartia as part of his family wide survey of foliar anatomy. He illustrated a leaf cross section of L. lunifera ( Mbius 1887; plate XXIV 2). Other authors that studied the leaf anatomy of Lockhartia include Weltz (1897), N.H. Williams (1979), Mller and Rasmussen (1984), Stern and Carlsward (2006), and Sandoval Zapotitla et al. (2010a, b). T he abaxial epidermis has abundant stomata ( Fig. 4 5). The epidermal cells range have straight to irregular anticlinal walls, and are usually nucleated. Stomata are flush with the epidermis (or, in L. parthenoglossa and L. rug osifolia at the center of wide and have prominent cuticular ledges, with a fusiform shaped slit for an opening. The inner

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225 wall of the guard cells (the one facing the mesophy ll) is conspicuously thickened. As reported by N. H. Williams (1979 ), each stoma usually has four subsidiary cells (two lateral and two polar; i.e., tetracytic), although divided lateral or polar subsidiaries are not uncommon (resulting in five subsidiary cells). The subsidiaries are similar in shape to other epidermal cells, but they often have a higher concentration of chloroplasts and they often stain slightly darker than other epidermal cells. The stomata of Lockhartia thus, they rank among the smallest stomata found in Orchidaceae ( compare with data in Rasmussen, 1987). Table 4 2 provides detailed stomatal dimensions for 10 species of Lockhartia The adaxial epidermis is similar to the abaxial one, except that it is completely devoid of stomata (i.e., the leaf is hypostomatic). The adaxial epidermal cells of Lockhartia longifolia are visibly longer than those of other species (ca. 100 m long). In cross section, the epider mal cells (both abaxial and adaxial) are anticlinally flattened Fig. 4 7E). The three parts of the leaf (closed sheath, open sheath, and isobilateral blade; Fig. 3 3B) are clearly recognizable in cross section (Fig. 4 divided in two zones; an abaxial chlorenchymatous zo ne, formed by two or three layers a water storage zone, formed by three to five layers of relatively large cells (up to 100 m in diameter) devoid of chloroplasts. T his differentiation of the mesophyll was originally noticed by Mbius (1887). Stern and Carlsward (2006) reported the presence of an adaxial hypodermis in Lockhartia which likely corresponds to the non

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226 chlorenchymatous water storage zone. The mesophyll is solid, with minimal intercellular spaces; most cells are approximately isodiametric, and are not arranged in either palisade or spongy parenchyma (a common feature in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism [CAM] photosynthesis; Nelson et al. 2005). Sub stomatal chambers are extremely reduced (usually smaller than adjacent chlorenchyma cells, a common feature among epi phytic orchids; Rasmussen, 1987; Fig. 4 8). Bundles of calcium oxalate raphides are found in some cells of the chlorenchymatous mesophyll ( also reported for Lockhartia by Sandoval Zapotitla et al. 2010 a ). A variable number of longitudinal vascular and fiber bundles is found along the boundary that separates the chlorenchyma from the water storage mesophyll (and thus closer to the abaxial epi dermis). Fiber bundles are usually placed closer to the abaxial epidermis than the vascular bundles. The vascular bundles are collateral, and have prominent abaxial fiber caps that surround the phloem cells, and a few adaxial xylem cells (Fig. 4 8). As in the stem, the fibers have longitudinal rows of stegmata with conical silica bodies on their abaxial side (Mller & Rasmussen, 1984). In the closed and open sheath portions of the leaf, the median vascular bundle (midrib) runs close to the adaxial epidermis but in the isobilateral blade it runs approximately in the middle (in be tween the upper and lower edges; Fig. 4 Inflorescences Morphology Inflorescences of Lockhartia can be both apical and axillary, even on the same shoot (Figs. 4 9). In most orc hids, this is usually a consequence of developmental accidents (e.g., Goh, 1976). Few orchid genera produce both terminal and lateral inflorescences (Arditti, 1992), and species that normally produce both types on the

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227 same shoot (being simultaneously acran thous and pleuranthous, sensu Dressler, 1961) are very rare (e.g., several species in the Epidendrum alberti Schltr. subgroup; Hgsater, 1985). Lockhartia and Telipogon Kunth are the only genera in the Oncidiinae that are normally able to produce terminal inflorescences (although in Telipogon individual species produce either lateral or terminal inflorescences, not both, and it is unknown if their terminal inflorescences are truly terminal or pseudoterminal). It appears that Lockhartia and Telipogon are no t particularly closely related (Whitten et al. in preparation), and the capability to produce terminal inflorescences likely evolved independently in both genera. In some cases, seemingly terminal inflorescences of Lockhartia are actually subterminal; car eful dissection of the terminal leaves reveals their axillary position (Fig. 4 9B). In such cases, the abortive apical bud is completely hidden by the sheaths of the last two leaves. However, truly terminal inflorescences are often revealed by this method (Fig. 4 9A). In some cases, an axillary inflorescence develops from the axil of the last foliaceous leaf next to the terminal inflorescence, and this can potentially be misinterpreted as a case of dichotomous branching (e.g., as in Andersen et al. 1988). Mature stems have the potential to produce several inflorescences. A few species (e.g., L. micrantha L. lepticaula L. obtusata ) normally produce several inflorescences more or less simultaneously on the same shoot. Most other species usually produce infl orescences sequentially, in a basipetal manner (i.e., progressively down the stem from the ape x; Fig. 4 10A). In L. hercodonta L. longifolia and L. parthenoglossa the inflorescences are produced basipetally along the stem, but each inflorescence can rem ain active for many weeks to a few months, and mature stems with several active

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228 inflorescences can give the false impression of having simultaneously developed inflorescences. In at least L. hercodonta L. longifolia L. oblongicallosa and L. obtusata in dividual mature stems have the potential of producing inflorescences over at least two consecutive years (as observed in cultivated plants). Some species (e.g., L. amoena L. micrantha L. verrucosa ) rarely produce terminal or pseudoterminal inflorescences but their axillary inflorescences are still initiated in a basipetal manner along the stem (except for L. micrantha which has simu ltaneous inflorescences; Fig. 4 9D). The sequence of inflorescence initiation along the shoot (for those taxa with the pote ntial to produce more than one inflorescence per stem) has not received much attention in the Orchidaceae. However, most of the taxa that can produce multiple inflorescences per shoot have either simultaneous or acropetal inflorescence initiation Species of Dendrobium Sw. sections Phalaenanthe Schltr. and Spatulata Lindl. have basipetal inflorescence initiation, although subsequent inflorescences develop in different years (Wood, 2006). Inflorescences of Lockhartia are also peculiar in their unique branchi ng pattern (Wirth, 1964; Schneckenburger, 1993). Once the first flower is produced in the axil of a bract, the inflorescence apical meristem aborts, and further extension growth occurs from the axillary bud located one internode below the floral bract. Thi s branch (coflorescence) produces two to four internodes before producing another flower, and then another branch is produced from the axillary bud located one internode below. This secondary branch usually has a reduced number of internodes, but it may co ntinue the process (Fig. 4 10B). In rare cases, the inflorescence can grow almost indeterminately

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229 through repeated axillary branching. Axillary buds located further down on the main axis of the inflorescence have the potential to produce additional branche s, also in a basipetal manner. In Lockhartia acuta the second order branches have only one int ernode before the flower (Fig. 4 10C), which gives the inflorescence a somewhat more open appearance. This branching pattern is highly conserved in Lockhartia a nd I have not seen the apical meristem adjacent to a flower continue the growth of the main axis, either in live plants or in herbarium specimens. Most species of Lockhartia have inflorescences with proleptic branching (i.e., a branch develops only after a flower has been produced by its subtending axis), and thus have seque ntially produced flowers (fig. 4 10B). However, some species of the Imbricata group (e.g., L. acuta L. lepticaula L. micrantha ) have inflorescences with sylleptic branching (i.e., all the branches develop simultaneously), and thus they have simultaneously produced flowers; these inflorescences do not develop any further (Fig. 4 10C). Lockhartia amoena is dimorphic for this character, with lowland populations having proleptic infloresce nce branching, and those from higher elevations having sylleptic inflorescence branching. In inflorescences with proleptic branching, subsequent daughter branches are always produced in a basipetal fashion (the first from the node immediately below the flo ral bract, the second from the node below that one, etc.). The pattern of branch initiation in compound inflorescences of orchids has not received much attention, although acropetal development seems to be the rule (pers. obs.). Basipetal branch developmen t (as expressed in Lockhartia species with proleptic branching) is relatively rare among Orchidaceae, although Oncidium sotoanum R. Jimnez & Hgsater is one example (Light, 1997, as O. ornithorhynchum Kunth), and

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230 apparently O. melanops Rchb.f. as well (Du nsterville & Garay, 1972). The basipetal branch initiation of Lockhartia inflorescences was first noted by Pfitzer (1882), although he did not elaborate further on the inflorescence architecture of the genus. Because a flower is the last fully developed st ructure produced by any given axis, and additional growth of the inflorescence occurs only through branching, the inflorescence of Lockhartia has been called a cyme (e.g., Grisebach, 1864; Dressler, 1981; Pridgeon, 1992; Dressler, 1993). However, true cyme s have determinate development, in which the apical meristem eventually turns into a flower (Weberling, 1989). This is not the case in Lockhartia Careful inspection of the floral bract base often (S chneckenburger, 1993; Fig. 4 10B,C). This appendix represents the remnant of the aborted apical bud, and demonstrates that the inflorescence of Lockhartia is developmentally indeterminate (i.e., polytelic), at least in principle. Thus, the inflorescence of Lockhartia is a modified raceme that is always branched (i.e., a compound raceme) whenever it has more than one flower 1 1 Branched inflorescences in orchids are frequently called panicles. As defined by European botanists, however, a panicle is a branched determinate inflorescence (e.g., a cyme), which d oes not occur in the Orchidaceae (Weberling, 1989; Prenner et al ., 2009 ). The raceme (a monopodial floriferous axis; Bell, 2008) is the basic type of inflorescence throughout the Orchida ceae, sometimes highly modified ( Schneckenburger, 1993) American bota nists explicitly define panicle as a compound raceme (e.g., Judd et al. 2008). Even single flowered orchid inflorescences usually

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231 It is noteworthy that the developmental pattern of the Lockhartia inflorescence appears to be unique, not only among orchids, but (as far as I know) also among angiosperms. Kraenzlin (1923) struggled to categorize it under one of the known inflorescence types, and he compared it to both a corymb and a dichasium. In Lockhartia can be d escribed as polytelic, with single flowered main florescence and coflorescences. However, it does not fit any of the inflorescence types described by Weberling. Thus, I propose the term n it is clearly a modified raceme (polytelic in the strict sense), it has sympodial development (characteristic of cymose, or monotelic, inflorescences). Dressler (1981, 1993) hypothesized that Lockhartia evolved from an ancestor with single flowered infl orescences, and when more flowers per inflorescence were eventually selected for, these evolved by lateral branching instead of continued apical growth. Another possibility is that it is an adaptation to produce multiple flowers with minimal length extensi on of the inflorescence axis, which may be important for the mechanical stability of the long shoots that support those inflorescences. The basal internodes of the inflorescence are usually somewhat flattened, but the more distal internodes are terete. The re is usually a rapid transition between the laterally flattened, decurrent leaves and the dorsiventral, non decurrent bracts in term inal inflorescences (Fig. 4 9). have an aborted shoot apical bud opposite the flower bract, which reveals their racemose nature.

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232 The base of axillary inflorescences is also somewhat flattened because of the tight space within the leaf sheath. The axillary bud is often slightly displaced to the side, so that it partially overlaps with the base of the next leaf sheath (the preceding leaf has to be dissected in order to see this). There is a minuscule (< 1 mm long) prophyll near the base, opposite the main stem axis. The prophyll and the next two or three bracts are tiny and clasping, and are usually hidden inside the supporting leaf sheath. Depending on the species, the exposed parts of the inflorescence can have two types of bracts. Most species have widely ovate to subrotund, cordate bracts, which usually are widely expanded and nearly perpendicular to the inflorescence axis. These inflorescences have a very characteristic appearance, and the bracts can be almost as large as the flowers (although they are always pale green). In contrast, other species (e.g., L. hercodonta L. longifolia L. parthenoglossa L. rugosifolia ) have imbricate, lanceolate, strongly conduplicate bracts that clasp the inflorescence axis. Inflorescen ces of the second type are very compact and inconspicuous; their pseudo cymose branching is apparent only upon dissection under magnification. A few species (e.g., L. bennettii L. obtusata ) have bracts that are somewhat intermediate in shape, being more o r less infundibuliform, although this is a variation of the subrotund shape. Anatomy The internal anatomy of the inflorescence axis and bracts of Lockhartia has not been investigated. The anatomy of the inflorescence rachis is probably similar to that of t are much more flexible and narrower than the stems).

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233 Flowers Morphology The flowers of Lockhartia markedly taller than wide). They have been described as very complex, although they are really of average complexity when compared to those of other genera in the Oncidiinae. In fact, Lockhartia ivainae and the species of the Parthenocomos group have relatively simple flowers Only some of the species of the Imbricata group have labella with relatively complex lobes, folded lobes, and calluses. Flowers of Lockhartia probably produce some kind of fragrance to attract pollinators although these are not detectable by most humans Individual flowers remain open for five to 10 days, after which they wilt and fall if they have not been pollinated. Fitch (1960) reported that flowers of L. oerstedii can remain open for more than 10 days. There are no visible changes in the structure o f the column during anthesis, and the stigma is presumably receptive during most of this period. Most (maybe all) species of Lockhartia secrete oils from specialized trichomes on the labellum (see below). Thus, even when careful observations on the natura l mode of pollination are lacking, it is safe to assume that the pollinators are oil collecting bees. Such bees are diverse in the Neotropics, and the females collect floral oils as an important dietary component for their larvae (Vogel, 1973; Buchman, 198 7; Alves dos Santos et al. 2007). The pedicel is not sharply differentiated from the inferior ovary. During anthesis, the ovary is only slightly thicker and darker than the pedicel, but usually much shorter the pedi cel and ovary can measure from 2 to 20 mm; in the species descriptions, the length of the pedicel includes the ovary (excluding

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234 the description of the fruit, see below). The pedicels in Lockhartia micrantha are short L. serra are l inter and intraspecific variation in the length of this str ucture, and thus the taxonomic value of this character is limited. Almost invariably, the pedicel and ovary do not show any torsion, and thus the flo ral bract is aligned with the dorsal sepal (i.e., opposite the labellum). The pedicel is often bent so that the flower faces obliquely downward, probably an adaptation to prevent raindrops from obstructing access of the flowers to pollinators. In most spec ies of the Imbricata group, the labellum is positioned on the lower side of the flower, regardless of stem orientation, and thus the flowers are resupinate (Dressler, 1981). This is achieved by either torsion of the inflorescence axis, and/or bending of th e pedicel to the appropriate side. In L. micrantha a species that produces multiple simultaneous flowers per inflorescence, the labellum seemingly does not have a preferential orientation with respect to gravity; as a group, however, the flowers tend to f ace mostly downward. In the Longifolia group, L. hercodonta and L. longifolia have pendent flowers that face mostly or completely down; L. parthenoglossa has mostly resupinate flowers, and L. obtusata has non resupinate flowers. In the Parthenocomos group, most species seemingly have pendulous or obliquely resupinate flowers, although L. parthenocomos reportedly has a geniculate pedicel and non resupinate flowers, and L. bennettii has resupinate flowers. The flowers of L. genegeorgei are resupinate. The str ucture of the perianth (especially that of the labellum) of the three major groups of subgenus Lockhartia is so different from each other that they probably would

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235 have been described as different genera, if their vegetative morphology were not so uniform a nd different from that of other Oncidiinae (Figs. 4 11 to 4 13). The flowers of most Lockhartia species are yellow. Four species have white flowers: L. acuta (Imbricata group, Acuta subgroup), L. hercodonta (Longifolia group), and L. bennettii and L. oblon gicallosa (Parthenocomos group). Almost all the species of the Imbricata and Oerstedii subgroups have brown spots and/or dots on various parts of the labellum and column, and very rarely at the base of the petals. However, L. ivainae has completely yellow flowers (although this species is poorly known), and some collections of L. micrantha also have unspotted flowers. Lockhartia longifolia often has tiny to large brown dots on the ventral surface of the column wings, but none of the other species of the Lon gifolia group have any brown spotting; however, they all may have orange spots on various parts of the callus rim. In the Parthenocomos group, L. bennettii and L. parthenocomos have a central area of the labellum with heavy brown spotting (absent in some p lants of L. parthenocomos ), and their column wings can also be spotted. The sepals are ovate, elliptic, ovate, or obovate, rarely oblong, and are often somewhat concave. They have a small subapical keel near the apex, which may make the sepal look shortly acuminate. The sepals may be only partially expanded (like in the campanulate flowers of the Parthenocomos group), more or less perpendicular to the ovary (e.g., in L. micrantha and the Longifolia group), or even completely reflexed from the base, leaning against the pedicel when fully open (e.g., in most members of the Imbricata group). The three sepals are similar in shape, although the lateral sepals may

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236 be sli ghtly oblique at the base ( the side of each sepal adjacent to the labellum slightly wider than the opposite side ) ovate, or obovate, and either more or less flat or folded along the midline so that their margins are bent backwards. In the latter case, the main axis of the petal is often curved forward, making the petals three the larger flowered species in the Imbricata group: L. amoena L. endresiana L. galeottiana L. grandibractea L. oerstedii L. serra and L. verrucosa ; Fig. 4 11A,B). In L. hercodonta L. longifolia and L. obtusata the lateral petals are flat but partially projected forward (Fig. 4 12A). The structure of the labellum is best described separately for each group. In the Imbricata group, the labellum is variously lobed and often longer than wide (Fig. 4 11A,B). Most species have a pair of lateral lobes located at the base of the labellum; these range from short and obscure (e.g., in some morphs of both L. imbricata and L. micrantha ) to markedl y elongate (in most species). In the latter case, the side lobes often curve forward, their tips almost touching each other in some species, and resemble embracing arms; their likely function is to force the pollinator to place its head squarely straight i n front of the column. The three species of the Oerstedii subgroup ( L. galeottiana L. oerstedii and L. verrucosa ) have relatively wide lateral lobes that are often wider near the apex. Other species (e.g., L. cladoniophora L. compacta L. dipleura ) hav e lateral lobes of intermediate length and are only partially curved forward. Both L. imbricata and L. micrantha have morphs with or without lateral lobes, including various degrees of

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237 development when present. The labella of L. acuta and L. ivainae lack l ateral lobes. Most species with long, embracing lateral lobes have brown markings on their adaxial surface ( L. amoena L. endresiana L. goyazensis L. grandibractea L. lepticaula L. lunifera L. oerstedii L. serra L. tenuiflora and L. verrucosa ); the pattern of these markings is often diagnostic of the species or group. For example, the lateral lobes of L. serra are almost solid brown, except for the margins, and the species in the Oerstedii subgroup have three or four series of oblique, interrupted, semi parallel lines. The labellum midlobe is usually longer than the lateral lobes, and is often subdivided into lobules are usually strongly bent back, so much so that in some cases they touch each other behind the labellum; they often have brown spots (in L. acuta L. ivainae and L. micrantha however, the basal lobules are not strongly bent back nor have spots). The two distal lobules are usually straight or flar e out, and do not have any spots; together, they delimit a notch at the apex of the labellum. The callus is formed by a thick ridge that extends from the base to the middle of the labellum, more or less to the level of the isthmus that separates the basal lobules from the distal lobules. The surface of the callus is covered by folds and tubercles of various shapes, either grouped into a single mass or arranged into five or seven parallel keels. Lockhartia acuta L. cladoniophora L. compacta L. ivainae an d L. micrantha have a much simpler callus that consists of two parallel, slightly raised, wide keels; in L. ivainae the callus is almost non existent. In most species of the group, the basal part of the callus consists of a cushion shaped pad with a sligh t depression at its center. Located in this depression, and immediately under the column, is a patch of tiny glandular hairs that secrete small quantities of oil (Silvera,

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238 Lockhart ia acuta L. cladoniophora L. compacta L. ivainae and L. micrantha have either a very reduced elaiophore cushion or none at all, although they all have the pad of secretory hairs at the base of the labellum. The species with a well formed elaiophore cus hion have two kinds of elaiophore hairs (fig. 4 16A,B). One type is relatively long and thick, with clavate tips (up in diameter near the tip; the apex sometimes bifid and then wider); these hairs are restricted to the central part of the elaiophore (immediately beneath the stigma), are parallel to each other, and lie on the surface of the labellum. Their tips are visibly adnate to each other. The second type of hair is much shorter, thinner, and of uniform girth surface of the elaiophore, including the areas flanking the central portion (where the long hairs are located). The long hairs often cover the short ones that occur beneath them. The species with a poorly defined elaiophore cushion appear to have elaiophore hairs of a uniform, intermediate length. The elaiophore hairs of 10 species of the Imbricata group that have been histochemically tested have all stained positively with Sudan IV, indicating that they are the source of the oils. The entire surface of the callus in L. acuta is covered by much smaller trichomes that also stain positively with Sudan IV (Fig. 4 16C). In the Longifolia group, the labellum is suborbicular to oblong or even slightly pandurate (obscurely lobed in L. hercodonta ), but is always entire and sli ghtly to strongly convex (Fig. 4 12). The callus is always crateriform (consisting of a raised, irregular rim that encircles a concavity). The rim can be either high and sharp or low and

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239 more or less rounded, and has either one, two, or four teeth or bulge s. Most species of the group (except L. hercodonta ) have secretory trichomes that line various parts of the rim; these trichomes stain weakly with Sudan IV, indicating that there is a weak production of lipids in them. There is a minute trapezoid ledge at the base of the concavity that is raised proximally and slopes down distally. The bottom surface of the concavity, including part of the trapezoid ledge, is covered with very short hairs that also stain weakly with Sudan IV. The entire callus of the Longif olia group is probably homologous with the elaiophore cushion of the Imbricata group. The labellum of the Parthenocomos group is concave, suborbicular to obreniform when flattened, and obscurely three lobed (Fig. 4 13). The lateral lobes are much wider tha n long and curve up, to partially surround the column. The apex of the midlobe is either straight or slightly convex. Four of the five species in this group have a callus that consists simply of a slightly thickened area at the center of the labellum, whic h forms an irregularly toothed transversal ledge at the level of the separation of the lateral lobes. The callus of L. oblongicallosa is markedly different, consisting of an oblong, longitudinal thickening that is covered with short, orange hairs (probably secretory). The labellum structure of Lockhartia genegeorgei is superficially similar to that of species in the Imbricata group; however, it lacks lateral lobes, has an elongate 4 14). The elaiophore cup of L. genegeorgei is different from the elaiophore cushion of the Imbricata group in that it is not a wide, rounded structure, but it is an oblong concavity surrounded by a pair of sharp keels. In life, the entire labellum is stro ngly sigmoid in lateral view, a condition not found in any species of subgenus Lockhartia

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240 The column (gynostemium) in most Lockhartia species is relatively short and wide either straight or somewhat arched upwards to expose the ventral surface (Figs. 4 11C, 4 15). Lockhartia endresiana and L. grandibrac tea have columns that are seemingly longer than wide, but that is partly caused by their very narrow column wings. In cross section, the column is more or less flat on the ventral side, and moderately convex on the dorsal side. There is no tabula infrastig matica a callus like thickening found at the base of the column in many yellow flowered taxa in the Oncidiinae. The putative function of the tabula infrastigmatica is to allow the bee pollinator to grab it with its mandibles while it attempts to collect o ils secreted by the lateral lobes of the labellum with its front and middle legs. Because Lockhartia species secrete the oils on the base or center of the labellum, the pollinating bees likely use a different method for holding to the flower while visiting the flowers (the presence of a tabula infrastigmatica is often associated with clawed petals, which do not occur in Lockhartia either ). Many species of Lockhartia however, including most of the members of the Imbricata group, have a characteristic dark b rown band at the base of the column immediately below the stigma, for this character. In L. acuta and L. micrantha the infrastigmatic line is usually faint, or made u p by two brown spots on either side of the base of the column. The column of L. rugosifolia lacks an infrastigmatic line, but the disc of the labellum has several transverse, brown bands, the most basal of which is darker and resembles the infrastigmatic l ine of other species. The function of the infrastigmatic line is unknown,

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241 The wings of the column vary from small and triangular or hemispherical (e.g., in L. acuta L. hercodont a L. latilabris L. parthenocomos and L. parthenoglossa ), to greatly enlarged and flabellate (e.g., in L. amoena L. galeottiana L. lepticaula L. longifolia L. obtusata L. oerstedii and L. verrucosa ; Fig. 4 11C). The wings of L. endresiana and L. gr andibractea are triangular and widest at the base of the column. In most species, the column wings expand horizontally on the same plane, rendering the ventral surface of the column flat. Lockhartia dipleura however, has column wings project ed downward, g iving the column a hooded appearance. The margins of the column wings can be either entire, denticulate, or praemorse. The function of the column wings is probably to guide any pollinia attached to the head of a visiting bee towards the stigma. The stigma, like that of most Epidendroid orchids, is concave and sticky. Most species of Lockhartia have an oblong stigma that is about two to three times as long as wide, often slightly narrower at the center, and slightly deeper than wide. This makes the stigma al most slit like. In some flowers, the stigma is so narrow that only one pollinium can be inserted at a time, unless the entire pollinarium is rotated to be perpendicular in relation to the stigma. This suggests that normally only one pollinium of the pair i s inserted in the stigma. The width of the stigma did not change 72 hours after removal of the anther and pollinarium from the column in three species of Lockhartia that were so tested; thus, there is no evidence for structural protandry. The stigma is dee p enough for two pollinia to be completely inserted in it, with only the stipe and viscidium remaining outside. Lockhartia goyazensis has a much wider, subcircular

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242 stigma, and that of L. genegeorgei is teardrop shaped (ovate with an apical narrow extension ). In subgenus Lockhartia the rostellum (as defined by Dressler, 1989) is a minute of the stigma (Fig. 4 11D). The external margins of the rostellum are replicate an d clasp the viscidium and the distal portion of the stipe during anthesis (Szlachetko & Mytnik Ejsmont, 2009). The rostellum of L. genegeorgei is much longer (1 mm), sublinear, and curved outward (Fig. 3 14). As in the vast majority of members of tribe Cy mbidieae, the anther is terminal and incumbent ( sensu Dressler, 1981). The anther bed is relatively flat, smooth, and sits at an angle with respect to the ventral surface of the column (Fig. 4 15). The anther cap is hemispherical, galeate, slightly bilobed at the base (which is located at the apex of the column), and has short apical beak over the rostellum; it measures 0.8 to 1.4 mm in diameter in most species. The anther cap of L. genegeorgei is elongate (ca. 2 mm), almost twice as long as wide, with an a pical beak that covers the long rostellum. In all species, the external surface of the anther cap is characteristically micropapillate, except for the smooth middle line. Internally, the anther cap has a basal, triangular septum that supports the terminal part of the pollinia. Two short triangular projections (ca. 0.3 mm tall) flank the anther cap on the ventral side of the column and probably help in holding the anther cap in place When the anther cap is removed, these The pollinarium in subgenus Lockhartia is unusual (although not unique) among members of subtribe Oncidiinae because of its bifid stipe and elongate caudicles. Each

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243 one of the two pollinia are linked to one tip of the bifid stipe by a caudicle. There is a viscidium ( sensu Dressler, 1989) at the apex of the stipe. As in the rest of tribe Cymbidieae, the stipe is tegular (i.e., it is formed by the epidermal cells or their periclinal walls of the dorsal surface of the rostellum; F.N. Rasmussen, 1986). Thu s, the stipe is much thinner than the caudicles that connect it to the pollinia (Fig. 4 15). The caudicles are formed inside the anther; this can be clearly seen in the microscopical sections of the anther of an unidentified species of Lockhartia presented by Szlachetko and Mytnik Ejsmont (2009). When a pollinarium of Lockhartia (even if freshly removed) is seen from the front, a distinction is not always clear between the stipe and the caudicles. However, if seen from the side (when freshly removed), the c audicles are clearly thicker than the very thin stipe. The pollinia are obpyriform and from 0.2 to 0.5 mm long, depending on the species. The caudicle is an attenuate, basal extension of the pollinium, and there is no sharp delimitation between the pollini um and the caudicle The stipe is usually shorter than the pollinia and caudicles (Fig. 4 15). After several minutes of removal from the anther, the thin stipe usually collapses upon the viscidium. Thus, it may be difficult to detect the presence of a stip e, and the pollinarium in this condition could be confused with that of a pleurothallid orchid. Bentham (1881) commented on finding pollinia in dry specimens of Lockhartia either free or connected by just a viscidium, decidedly an artifact caused by a coll apsed stipe. long. The stipe of Lockhartia genegeorgei is elongate (ca. 1 mm), entire (not bifid), and slightly wider on the end that supports the pollinia; the entire pol linarium is ca. 2 mm

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244 long. The pollinia in all species are yellow, obovoid, with an acute base, and about If one or two pollinia (from the same or a different plant) are deposited on the stigma, the later closes and engulfs the pollinia i n a matter of several hours. If the pollinia are from a compatible plant (most species tested are self incompatible), the ovary enlarges substantially and the perianth withers (Fig. 4 19A). Figure 4 16 illustrates how the measurements of the various flora l parts reported in the species descriptions ( Taxonomic Revision C hapter 3 ) were made. Anatomy The young ovary is nearly cylindrical in cross section, with its wall having approximately 10 cell layers (Fig. 4 20A). The single locule shows three paired, pa rietal, placental ridges. As in most other orchids, the ovules are not differentiated during anthesis (Clements, 1999). 4 is parenchymatous, with minimal intercellular spaces. The epidermal cells are smooth and anticlinally flattened. No stomata were detected in the floral organs. Five to seven vascular bundles are visible in the labellum cross section. The cells of yellow f lowered species contain numerous yellow chromoplasts, and the cells on parts of the flower that have brown spots seemingly have these pigments (probably anthocyanins) in vacuoles. Lockhartia oerstedii has prominent callus tubercles, and these were also stu died in cross section. The tubercles are filled with a solid parenchyma, the cells of which are somewhat elongated in the same direction as the point of the tubercle (Fig. 4 18C,D).

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245 The epidermal cells are papillose. Many other species of the Imbricata gro up also have tubercles in the callus, but not as prominent. In all species studied, the floral trichomes present on the labellum are unicellular and formed by an extension of an epidermal cell. The nucleus of the cell is normally located in the trichome ex tension. As seen with the SEM, the floral trichomes have a smooth cuticle, although sometimes the apical portion of the trichome has crystalline deposits of unknown nature (probably lipoidal). The long elaiophore hairs of L. oerstedii and L. oxyphylla (of the Imbricata species group) are swollen and even bifid at the tip, while the short hairs are never bifid (Fig. 4 17). Williams and Broome (1976) studied the surface of the pollinia of a variety of orchids with SEM, including two species of Lockhartia Lik e in most other members of Oncidiinae, the pollinia of Lockhartia have a smooth, unsculptured surface, other than well defined divisions between either tetrads or individual pollen grains (interpreted as tetrads by Pridgeon, 1999) that form a mosaic like p attern. Dressler (1986), who probably interpreted the bifurcate portion of the Lockhartia stipe as part of the caudicles, indicated that the lat t er are formed almost purely by elastoviscin and are devoid of pollen tetrads. However, Senghas (2001) published SEM images of the pollinarium of Lockhartia cf. amoena (probably L. oerstedii judging from other misidentified photos in the same article) that clearly show the bifid stipe formed by epidermal cells of the rostellum (or their periclinal walls) and the ca udicles made up by somewhat elongate pollen tetrads.

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246 Fruits Morphology Fruits of Lockhartia are smooth, glabrous, nearly round in cross section, globular to long obovoid (attenuate basally, and rounded to truncate apically), and pendulous (Fig. 4 19A). Th ey range in size from 4 to 25 mm long, and from 3 to 10 mm in diameter. Lockhartia hercodonta L. micrantha and L parthenoglossa have small (ca. L. acuta L. lunifera L. micrantha L. oerstedii L. serra ) are glaucous, covered by a whitish waxy bloom that is easily rubbed off if touched. Other species have non glau cous fruits (e.g., L. grandibractea L. obtusata ). The presence of glaucousness is apparent only in live fruits, and thus the state for this character is unknown in species for which fruits are only known from herbarium material. The fruits of other specie s (e.g., L. amoena L. bennettii L. cladoniophora L. compacta L. endresiana L. genegeorgei L. ivainae and L. lepticaula ) are unknown, although they are probably similar in structure to those of other species. Like the fruits of most other orchids, th ose of Lockhartia are unilocular capsules with parietal placentation and loculicidal dehiscence (i.e., the dehiscence lines run along the midrib of each carpel; Rasmussen & Joh ansen, 2006; Figs. 4 19, 4 20). A diagram of a fruit cross section of L. acuta w as first published by Eichler (1875 : 182; as Fernandezia acuta ), and an entire unopened fruit of L. lunifera was first illustrated by Barbosa Rodrigues (1883). Upon maturation, the three valves separate from each other from the apex while they are still gr een, and then recurve, exposing the paired placental ridges located along the middle line of each valve (Fig. 4 19B,C). Because the fruit is pendulous, the

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247 inner surface with the placentae remains protected from raindrops. Hygroscopic endocarpic trichomes line the inner margins of each valve and assist in the dispersal of the seeds by dislodging them from the placentae. The mode of dehiscence of Lockhartia fruits was first described by Prillieux (1857) for L. acuta (as Fernandezia acuta ), and illustrated by Eichler (1875 : 182; as Fernandezia acuta ) and Pfitzer (1882). It is the same in all species of Lockhartia for which dehisced capsules have been observed. Most other members of Oncidiinae have fruits that dehisce through three lateral slits, but in which t he valves remain attached to each other at the apex. The open capsules dry up in a matter of a few days after dehiscence, shrinking substantially in the process. An open capsule can shrink to almost half of its original size. Unopened capsules do not shri nk so much when dried for the herbarium; thus, all measurements of fruits in the species descriptions are taken exclusively from unopened capsules, either from live material or from herbarium specimens. Only seemingly mature capsules were measured. Anatomy Anatomical studies of orchid fruits are few ( Rasmussen & Johansen, 2006, and references cited therein). Transverse sections of an unopened fruit of Lockhartia serra ( Blanco 2574 FLAS) were studied for the following description (Fig. 3 20). The fruit anatomy of other species of Lockhartia has not been studied but is likely similar. The terminology and structural interpretation of orchid fruits proposed by Rasmussen and Johansen (2006) is followed here. including the external and internal epidermises. The external epidermis consists of anticlinally flattened cells (Fig. 4 20C). The ground tissue of the internal cell layers is parenchymatous; the cells are

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248 approximately isodiametric in the region under th e paired placental ridges (i.e., in the region of fusion of two adjacent carpels). However the parenchymatous cells are transversely stretched (and thus thinner) in the areas between the paired placental ridges. A consequence of this is that the fruit wall is thinner between placental ridges than under those ridges (ca. 1.0 mm thick in its thinnest part, ca. 1.8 mm under the ridges). Large brachysclereids are scattered through the fruit wall, although they are more numerous close to the external epidermis ( Fig. 4 20C). These idioblasts are slightly elongate with their long axis aligned radially from the center of the fruit and two to five times as large as t he surrounding parenchyma cells These sclereids possibly serve as a defense against chewing herbivor es. The internal epidermis of the fruit between the placental ridges is formed by a layer of thin walled, globular cells, which are lignified (as evidenced by their positive staining with safranin ; Fig. 4 20D). This layer of cells becomes thinner near the placental ridges and eventually disappears at their base. At the center of the areas between placental ridges (i.e., along the midribs of the carpels, where these split apart) there is a narrow zone of emergence of endocarpic trichomes. These are hollow an d also have lignified walls. The endocarpic trichomes are absent in the young ovary (Fig. 4 20A); thus, they probably develop concurrently with the seeds. formed by much smaller parenchymatous cells. Each major branch of the placenta bears a few dozen ovules. The fruit locule is wide enough (ca. 4.5 mm at its widest point) that the b ranches of one placental ridge do not touch those of other ridges.

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249 At either side of the base of the placental ridges, thick, dark masses can be seen; these are remnants of pollen tube aggregations ( Fig. 4 20B; Rasmussen & Johansen, 2006). Seeds Most orchi ds have wind to 6 mm; in most cases they consist of a simple, fusiform seed coat with a loose embryo and suspensor inside (Molvray & Chase, 1999; Arditti & Ghani, 2000, and references therein). Specie s in subtribe Oncidiinae are rather uniform in their seed morphology; in general, their seeds are similar to those of subtribe Maxillariinae, although usually relatively longer (Chase & Pippen, 1988). The seeds of Lockhartia are typical of those of the On cidiinae, and are unremarkable within the subtribe. Chase and Pippen (1988) illustrated the seed of L. galeottiana (as L. oerstedii ) with SEM, and seeds of three other species were observed with SEM for the present study (Fig. 4 21). In addition, length an d width were measured for seeds of nine different collections representing eight species. The seeds were rehydrated for a few minutes in tap water, put on a microscope slide, and ten seeds from each collection were randomly selected and measured for each c ollection (Table 4 change in length) after drying; it is unclear if rehydrated orchid seeds recover their original width, and the width measurements reported here should be interpreted with caution The seeds of Lockhartia are fusiform, with a slightly wider to truncate micropylar pole. The testa cells are oval and elongate, with thickened anticlinal walls. The ends of the testa cells are round, and the anticlinal walls are sinuate in the zone of ov erlap of

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250 contiguous testa cells. The external periclinal walls are very thin and collapse at maturity, with the result that the anticlinal walls form a network of ridges over the entire testa. Aside from these anticlinal cell ridges, there are neither cell wall extensions nor sculpturing of any kind. This agrees with the seed characters for the genus reported by Ziegler (1981) and Chase and Pippen (1988). The measured length of Lockhartia L. oerstedii ) to L. longifoli a L. micrantha L. lunifera ). The mean length:width ratio varies from 2.1 ( L. oerstedii ) to 5.35 ( L. longifolia ) (Table 4 3). No reliable conclusions can be drawn about patterns among species groups due t o the sparse sampling, but these data probably provide a good indication of the seed size variation in the genus. Seedlings Seedlings of Lockhartia lunifera and L. serra were studied (Fig. 4 22). These were acquired from the commercial firm Troy Meyers Con servatory (Poulsbo, Washington, USA), which provides orchid seed germination services. The seedlings of L. serra were from seeds produced during the present study ( Whitten 2431 Blanco 3228 ). Several protocorms were observed. These are yellowish, ca. 1.5 diameter, almost spherical to slightly elongate (never more than 1.5 times as long as wide), and with a somewhat irregular surface. A greenish leaf primordium occurs on a otyl) is somewhat bluntly pointed. In some cases, the protocorm forms a chain of two or three connected globular structures before producing a leafy shoot (Fig. 4 22E). One or two leafy shoots can emerge directly from a protocorm. These juvenile shoots alr eady show the morphology typical of adult shoots of subgenus Lockhartia

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251 (i.e., without pseudobulbs, and with imbricating, isobilateral leaves), which is frequently observed in herbarium specimens that have juvenile stems still attached to the mature ones. Lockhartia represents a pedomorphic condition (several other genera in the Oncidiinae have seedlings with isobilateral leaves and adults with dorsiventral, conduplicate leaves). The first shoot produced by the protocorm is short, with up to 10 leaves. The next shoot is produced from one of the basal nodes of the first shoot in typical sympodial fashion. Each new shoot is usually taller than the previous one and has several more leaves This progressive growth of new stems continues, and eventually one of the new stems produces a terminal inflorescence ( see description of i nflorescences above). The first two to four juvenile shoots produced by the protocorm have a characteristic morpho logy, with proportionally narrower leaves (as measured from the abaxial to the adaxial edges) with a much wider angle of divergence from the stem (compared with the adult leaves of the same species). This is particularly apparent in some herbarium specimen s that still retain their juvenile stems alongside the adult ones (Fig. 4 22F,G). This form of heteroblasty has been observed in most species for which abundant herbarium material is available and facilitates the recognition of seedlings. Cytogenetics The chromosome number of Lockhartia seems to be x=28 (2n=56); this is based on counts of L. micrantha (Charanasri & Kamemoto, 1975) and L. goyazensis (Pessoa Flix & Guerra, 2000). This is the most common chromosome number in Oncidiinae, and it may be plesiom orphic for the subtribe (Chase & Palmer, 1992). An early count of 2n=14 in L. oerstedii (Garay, 1963) is probably erroneous (Chase, 2009). An attempt

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252 was made during the present study to obtain additional chromosome counts in several species, but unfortuna tely no mitotic figures could be found. Several successful intergeneric crosses involving Lockhartia have been registered by the Royal Horticultural Society (this organization only registers artificial hybrids that have produced flowers) ; the other parenta l taxa are Gomesa crispa (Lindl.) Klotzsch ex Rchb.f., Leochilus scriptus (Scheidw.) Rchb.f., Oncidium cheirophorum Rchb.f., Oncidium pictoides M.W. Chase & N.H. Williams, Otoglossum harlingii (Stacy) N.H. Williams & M.W. Chase, Tolumnia triquetra (Sw.) Ni r, and Trichopilia marginata Henfr. Some of these species have published chromosome counts of 2n=56 ; however, T olumnia triquetra has a published count of 2n=42. The chromosome number and mitotic behavi o r of these hybrids is unknown. The genome size of Lock hartia oerstedii was reported as 1.80 pg/1C nucleus (DNA mass in the unreplicated gametic nucleus) by Chase et al. (2005). According to that study, genome size in the Oncidiinae ranges from 1.10 to 7.70 pg/1C nucleus. Phytochemistry The phytochemistry of L ockhartia has been only sparsely studied. The first analyses were performed by Raffauf (1962), who tested herbarium specimens of several species (including L. acuta L. grandibractea L. imbricata L. hercodonta L. micrantha and L. oerstedii ) for the pre sence or alkaloids (Raffauf did not include a list of species or specimens tested, but several herbarium specimens at AMES bear a stamp that indicate their use in the experiment and the result of the test). Only L. oerstedii tested positive, although Raffa concentrations of over 0.01% (dry weight basis).

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253 Lning (1967), working with fresh plant tissues, detected alkaloids in L. oerstedii (at ca. 0.001% of fresh weight) but not in L. parthenoglossa (as L. pittieri ). The identity of these alkaloids was not determined. Finally, C. A. Williams (1979 ) detected the presence of quercetin in leaves of L. acuta Interestingly, this flavonoid was not detected in any other species of subtribe Oncidiinae, or even tribe Cymbidieae ( sensu Pridgeon et al. 2009). Williams took this as support for the separation of Lockhartia from Oncidiinae.

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254 Table 4 1. Major morphological groups of Lockhartia and their constituent species. See text for details. Subgenus Lockharti a Subgenus Pseudobulbosa Imbricata group Longifolia group Parthenocomos group L. acuta 1 L. amoena L. cladoniophora L. compacta L. dipleura L. endresiana L. galeottiana 2 L. goyazensis L. grandibractea L. imbricata L. ivainae L. lepticaula L. lunifera L. micrantha L. oerstedii 2 L. oxyphylla L. serra L. tenuiflora L. verrucosa 2 L. hercodonta L. longifolia L. obtusata L. parthenoglossa L. bennettii L. latilabris L. oblongicallosa L. parthenocomos L. rugosifolia L. genegeorgei 1 Acuta subgroup 2 Oerstedii s ubgroup

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255 Table 4 2. Stomatal dimensions of selected species of Lockhartia from ten randomly chosen stomata per collection. All Species Collection 1 Length range Length mean Length SD Width range Width mean Width SD Mean L:W ratio L. acuta Blanco 3221 28 2.2 28 1.6 1.00 L. amoena Blanco 2556 23 1.1 27 0.9 0.85 L. hercodonta Blanco 3232 22 1.1 27 1.6 0.81 L. longifolia Whitten 2385 2 25 0.9 24 1.5 1.04 L. micrantha Blanco 3223 24 1.4 27 1.1 0.89 L. obtusata Blanco 3025 26 1.3 28 1.0 0.93 L. oerstedii Blanco 2565 29 0.9 31 0.9 0.93 L. serra Blanco 3228 26 1.0 27 0.7 0.96 L. tenuiflora Blanco 3231 26 0.8 26 1.2 1.00 L. verrucosa Blanco 2667 27 1.8 29 1.7 0.93 1 All vouchers deposited in FLAS. Table 4 3. Seed dimensions of selected species of Lockhartia from ten randomly chosen seeds per collection All values Species Collection 1 Length range Length mean Length SD Width range Width mean Width SD Mean L:W ratio L. acuta Blanco 2567 273 13.8 69 6.9 3.96 L. g randibractea Blanco 2559 277 16.7 94 6.6 2.95 L. longifolia Kuntze s.n. 433 21.8 81 6.9 5.35 L. lunifera Blanco 2688 287 31.7 116 6.7 2.47 L. micrantha Blanco 2561 241 25.7 76 10.8 3.17 L. micr antha Blanco 2562 260 29.2 91 7.4 2.86 L. oerstedii Blanco 3024 202 22.4 96 8.3 2.10 L. serra Blanco 2669 246 19.3 92 11.0 2.67 L. verrucosa Blanco 3227 288 27.0 92 5.7 3.13 1 All vouchers dep osited in FLAS, except Kuntze s.n. (NY).

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256 Figure 4 1. Generalized growth habits of Lockhartia and related taxa, schematic. Length of rhizome segments exaggerated for clarity; roots and rhizome bracts not shown. (A) Typical member of subtribe Oncidiina e (hypothetical ancestral habit). (B) Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia (C) Lockhartia subgenus Pseudobulbosa ( L. genegeorgei ).

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257 Figure 4 2. Root cross section of Lockhartia serra ( Blanco 3228 FLAS). Abbreviations: c cortex; en endodermis; ep epiderm is; ex exodermis; p pith (sclerified); ph phloem; v velamen; x xylem.

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258 Figure 4 3. Stem and leaf structure of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia (A) Schematic representation of a shoot segment with the lowermost leaf removed for clarity and the inte rnal stem structure indicated for the three lower internodes; isobilateral portion of the leaf (including keel) shown with horizontal hatching; stem vascular core and axillary buds shown in white. Also indicated are standard measurements of leaf length ( l L ), leaf width ( l W ), and shoot width ( s W ) as reported in the species descriptions (see text for details). (B) Leaf parts, schematic: closed portion of leaf sheath ( c ), open portion of leaf sheath ( o ), isobilateral blade ( i ), and isobilateral keel ( k ). (C ) Stem segment with leaves removed; arrows point to axillary buds. (D) Three stem segments preserved in ethanol, the one at left with leaves attached. Notice opaque vascular core, translucent cortex, and leaf traces emerging from the base of each internode (i.e., the previous node) All based on L. oerstedii ( Blanco 2565 FLAS).

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259 Figure 4 4. Stem anatomy of Lockhartia TS. (A) L. obtusata ( Blanco 3025 FLAS) and (B) L. longifolia ( Whitten 2385 FLAS); notice vascular core surrounded by cortex. (C) De tail of epidermis and cortex; notice isolated vascular bundle of leaf trace near center, and some cortex cells showing banded wall thickenings; L. serra ( Blanco 3228 FLAS). (D) L. obtusata ( Blanco 3025 ), detail of vascular core in central part of stem; va scular bundle surrounded by amyloplast containing parenchyma. Abbreviations: f fibers; ph phloem; x xylem.

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260 Figure 4 5. Leaf abaxial epidermis of Lockhartia (A) L. micrantha ( Blanco 3223 FLAS), general view of abaxial epidermis, notice abundant s tomata; scale bar = 200 L. oerstedii ( Blanco 2565 FLAS), tetracytic stoma and adjacent cells; L. longifolia ( Whitten 2385 FLAS), stoma with five subsidiary cells; same scale as B. (D) L. lunifera ( Blanco 3219 FLAS), SEM sh owing cuticular ledge covering stoma (edge of guard cell visible through Figure 4 6. Leaf adaxial epidermis of Lockhartia (A) L. verrucosa ( Blanco 2667 FLAS). (B) L. acuta ( Blanco 3221 FLAS). (C) L. longifolia ( Whitten 2385 FLAS), notice vascular bundle along left side of image.

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261 Figure 4 7. Leaf anatomy of Lockhartia TS. (A) L. serra ( Blanco 3228 FLAS), base of leaf, corresponding to closed portion of sheath, enclosing stem; notice distribution of vascular bundles i L. acuta ( Blanco 3221 FLAS); B, closed sheath; C, open sheath; D, isobilateral portion of blade; same scale as for A. (E) L. obtusata ( Blanco 3025 FLAS), detail of leaf cross section. Abbreviations: ab abaxial epidermis; ad adaxial epider mis; ch chlorenchymatous mesophyll; fb fiber bundle; vb vascular bundle; ws water storage mesophyll.

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262 Figure 4 8. Abaxial epidermis and associated subepidermal tissues of Lockhartia longifolia ( Whitten 2385 FLAS), TS. Notice apparent absence of s ubstomatal chambers (possibly an artifact of excessive thickness of section) and stegmata on abaxial side of fiber bundle. Abbreviations: ch chlorenchymatous mesophyll; fb fiber bundle; gc guard cell; sc subsidiary cell; st stegmata.

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263 Figure 4 9 Variations in inflorescence position in Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia (A) Schematic representation of a truly terminal inflorescence; notice undeveloped axillary bud from last foliaceous leaf (indicated by arrow). Based on shoot dissection of L. serra ( Blanco 2669 FLAS). (B) Schematic representation of a pseudoterminal inflorescence; notice the aborted shoot apical bud hidden by the sheath of the last foliaceous leaf (indicated by arrow), and the inflorescence originating from the axil of the same leaf. Based on shoot dissection of L. acuta ( Blanco 3221 FLAS). (C) Old, terminal inflorescence in L. serra ( Blanco 2669 ). (D) Two axillary inflorescences and no terminal inflorescence in L. verrucosa ( Blanco 3227 FLAS).

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264 Figure 4 10. Mode of infloresce nce development in Lockhartia (A) Basipetal inflorescence initiation along a stem, the most common condition in the genus (a few species have simultaneous inflorescence initiation); ovals represent inflorescences; numbers indicate order of inflorescence i nitiation. (B) Structure of a Lockhartia pseudocyme schematic. Proleptic branching represented by numbers; large numbers indicate the order of primary branch initiation (including primary axis, 1); small numbers indicate the order of secondary and tertiar y branch initiation and flower opening on each branch; arrows represent recently initiated br anches. (C) Structure of pseudo cyme of L. acuta schematic. This species has sylleptic (simultaneous) branching and a single internode per secondary branch. Notice filament representing abortive apical meristem opposite each floral bract in B and C.

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265 Figure 4 11 Floral morphology of the Imbricata group of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia L. serra ( Blanco 2669 L. amoena ( Blanco 2556 FLAS). (A) Flower in lateral view (left), front view (center), and pedicel with floral bract (right). (B) Dissected flower; perianth parts flattened except for petal on the right side (shown in its natural configuration); flattened petal distorted. (C) Column, ventr al view. (D) Schematic representation of column with anther cap removed to show the pollinarium; oblique view. (E) Anther cap from behind. Abbreviations: a anther cap; b floral bract; bl basal lobule of labellum midlobe; ca callus; cd caudicles; co c olumn; cu elaiophore cushion; dl distal lobule of labellum midlobe; ds dorsal sepal; isl infrastigmatic line; l labellum; ll lateral lobe of labellum; ls lateral sepal; ml midlobe of labellum; p petal; pd pedicel and ovary; po pollinium; stg r rostellum; stigma; stp stipe; v viscidium; w column wing.

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266 Figure 4 12 Floral morphology of the Longifolia group of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia ; L. hercodonta ( Blanco 3232 FLAS). (A) Flower in lateral view (left) and front view (right). (B) D issected flower; perianth parts flattened. (C) Floral bract and pedicel, and abortive filament. Column parts are similar to those in Figure 4 b floral bract; ca callus; co column; ds dorsal sepal; f abortive filament; l labellu m; ls lateral sepal; p petal; pd pedicel and ovary; t trapezoid ledge.

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267 Figure 4 13. Floral morphology of the Parthenocomos group of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia ; L. bennettii ( Blanco 2554 FLAS). (A) Flower in lateral view (left) and front view (right). (B) Flower in lateral view, sepals and petals removed. (C) Floral bract, flattened. (D) Dissected flower; perianth parts flattened. Column parts are similar to those in Fig. X b floral bract; ca callus; co column; ds do rsal sepal; f abortive filament; l labellum; ls lateral sepal; p petal; pd pedicel and ovary. Figure 4 14. Floral morphology of Lockhartia subgenus Pseudobulbosa ; L. genegeorgei ( Bennett 5199 6 FLAS), rehydrated. (A) Flower in oblique view. (B) D issected flower; perianth parts flattened (labellum could not be flattened properly). Abbreviations: b floral bract; ca callus; co column; ds dorsal sepal; l labellum; ls lateral sepal; p petal; pd pedicel and ovary; r inflorescence rachis.

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268 F igure 4 15. Column of Lockhartia serra ( Blanco 2669 FLAS) with recently removed pollinarium attached to a pin; anther cap not shown. Surface of pollinia that rested on the anther bed is facing down in this image. Sepals and petals removed for clarity. Ab breviations: ab anther bed at column apex; cd caudicles; ec elaiophore cushion at base of labellum; po pollinium; stp stipe; v viscidium.

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269 Figure 4 16 Measurements of flowers and floral parts in Lockhartia as reported in species descriptions. (A) Floral bract and pedicel. (B) Flower of the Imbricata group. (C) Flower of the Longifolia group. (D) Flower of the Parthenocomos group. (E) Column. (F) Pollinarium. (G) Sepals and petals. (H) Labellum of the Imbricata group. (I) Labellum of the Longifo lia group. (J) Labellum of the Parthenocomos group. For Lockhartia subgenus Pseudobulbosa flower height was measured as in B, and labellum dimensions as in I. Abbreviations: a anther; b floral bract; ca callus (callus length includes the elaiophore cus hion) ; co column; cu elaiophore cushion; ds dorsal sepal; fl flower; l labellum; ll lateral lobe of labellum; ls lateral sepal; ml midlobe of labellum; p petal; pd pedicel; po pollinarium; stg stigma; w column wing. Abbreviation suffixes: H h eight; L length; W width.

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2 70 Figure 4 17 Labellar trichomes of Lockhartia ; SEM images. (A) L. lepticaula ( Blanco 2573 FLAS); trichomes in depression of elaiophore cushion. Column wings and anther can be seen immediately above trichome field. (B) Det ail of A; long trichomes (some of them apically bifid) to the right of image; short trichomes visible to the left and under the long ones. (C) Callus of L. acuta ( Blanco 2567 FLAS); notice callus body covered by short trichomes and tuft of longer, capitat e trichomes at base of labellum (arrowhead). (D) Callus of L. obtusata ( Blanco 2572 FLAS); trichomes mostly on raised parts of callus; notice trapezoid ledge (arrowhead). (E) Detail of trichomes in D; notice papillate epidermis. (F) Trichomes covering cal lus in L. bennettii ( Blanco 2554 FLAS).

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271 Figure 4 18 Labellar anatomy of the Imbricata group of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia L. oxyphylla ( Whitten 2382 FLAS), TS at the middle of the elaiophore cushion; long elaiophore trichomes are seen in TS, short elaiophore trichomes in longitudinal or oblique section. (B) L. acuta ( Blanco 2567 FLAS), TS of base of labellum, through the middle of the long elaiophore trichomes (arrowhead in figure 4 17 C). (C) L. oerstedii ( Blanco 2566 FLAS), TS through the lower portion of the callus; notice the lateral lobules folded back against each other (lower part of the image) and the tall callus tubercles projecting from the labellum. (D) Detail of another section of the same flow er; notice cells elongated in the direction of each tubercle and papillate epidermis

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272 Figure 4 19 Fruit development of Lockhartia lunifera (A) Flower and developing fruit on the same inflorescence; notice that ovary enlarges substantially after pol lination, while pedicel does not elongate. (B) Mature capsule at beginning of dehiscence. (C) Capsule completely dehisced but still green; notice exposed endocarpic trichomes. Arrows indicate perianth remnants attached to the median capsule valve (the one opposite the floral bract). A from Blanco 2688 (FLAS); B and C from Blanco 3219 (FLAS).

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273 Figure 4 20. Ovary and fruit anatomy of Lockhartia (A) Ovary of L. acuta ( Blanco 2567 L. serra ( Blanco 2572 FLAS), TS. (B) Entire section of fruit; notice three paired placental ridges alternating with three rows of endocarpic trichomes (two rows of trichomes were lost during sectioning). Position of dehiscence lines is indicated by arrows. (C) Detail of the fru it wall; notice large sclereids (stained pink) embedded in the parenchyma. (D) Detail of internal portion of fruit; notice row of endocarpic trichomes (center) and one branched arm of a placental ridge, with several seeds attached (right).

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274 Figure 4 21 Seeds of Lockhartia SEM. (A) L. oerstedii ( Blanco 2565 FLAS). (B) L. micrantha ( Blanco 3223 FLAS). (C) L. longifolia ( Kuntze s.n. NY). (D) Detail of seed coat of L. micrantha Micropylar pole to the right of the image in A, B, and D, and to the left of the image in C.

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275 Figure 4 22 Protocorms and seedlings of Lockhartia L. lunifera (unvouchered). (A) Protocorm; epicotyl with leaf primordium on top, hypocotyl below (which with first leafy shoots still attached to protocorms (indicated by a rrows); notice two separate leafy shoots produced by a single protocorm in C, and adult (F) and seedling (G) shoots of L. imbricata from the same herbarium sheet ( Ek & Montfoort 251 U ); notice differences in relative and absolute leaf width, shape, and angle of divergence from the stem.

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276 CHAPTER 5 PHYLOGENY The genus Lockhartia is a member of tribe Cymbidieae, subtribe Oncidiinae ( Pridgeon et al. 2009, and references therein) Sever al cladistic studies, focused on the entire family Orchidaceae or on smaller subgroups, have included species of Lockhartia ( Freudenstein & Rasmussen, 1999; Whitten et al. 2000; Freudenstein & Chase, 2001; Williams et al. 2001a, b ; Williams et al. 2005; Sandoval Zapotitla et al. 2010 b ; Neubig et al ., in preparation). While a few of these studies (e.g., Williams et al. 2005; Sandoval Zapotitla et al. 2010b) suggest that the genus Lockhartia is sister to a clade that includes the Ornithocephalus Pachyp hyllum and Telipogon groups, most of them recover Lockhartia as an isolated lineage of uncertain affinity, or sister to a clade that includes most of the genera of the Oncidiinae (with the exception of Cuitlauzina La Llave & Lex., Grandiphyllum Docha Neto Psychopsis Raf. Rossioglossum (Schltr.) Garay & G.C. Kenn. Trichocentrum Poepp. & Endl. and Trichopilia Lindl. ) A more detailed historical account of the classification and systematic placement of the genus is presented in the Taxonomic History ( C hapt er 2) Lockhartia has been divided in two subgenera: subgenus Lockhartia (with all but one species) and the monospecific subgenus Pseudobulbosa (with L. genegeorgei as the only member) Species of subgenus Lockhartia have a vegetative architecture that is both remarkably uniform and very different from that of other taxa in subtribe Oncidiinae. Their flowers can be categorized in three disparate morphological types that could arguably be recognized as separate genera by some traditional taxonomists (it is surprising that this has never been proposed ). Results from a recent phylogenetic analysis of Oncidiinae that includes 13 species of subgenus Lockhartia (a subset of the

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277 ones included in the present analysis; Neubig et al ., in preparation) strongly support this subgenus as monophyletic. Subgenus Pseudobulbosa differs from the other species by some floral characters but especially by its vegetative architecture, which is more similar to that of most other taxa in the Oncidiinae. The vegetative morphology of L. genegeorgei is so distinct that Senghas ( 2001) created the genus Neobennettia for this species. However L. genegeorgei shares several traits with other species of Lockhartia including a unique inflore scence type called a pseudocyme ( Morphology and Anatomy C hapter 4 ) whith strongly suggest a close phylogenetic relationship between them. It has been hypothesized that L. genegeorgei has reverted to an ancestral vegetative morphology ( Chase, 2009). Such a hypothesis implies that its phylogenetic posi tion could be anywhere within the genus (including being sister to the rest of the species). A second possibility is that L. genegeorgei inherited the pseudocyme condition from a common ancestor with other species of Lockhartia but retained a plesiomorphi c vegetative morphology. According to this scenario, L. genegeorgei would necessarily be the sister species of subgenus Lockhartia Yet a third possibility is that L. genegeorgei is a hybrid (or lineage of ancient hybrid origin) between a species of Lockh artia (likely L. lepticaula whose geographic range includes that of L. genegeorgei ) and another taxon of the Oncidiinae, probably a sympatric species of Oncidium or Vitekorchis The latter possibility could be confirmed most convincingly by DNA data (e.g. if the plastid and nuclear sequences had strong but incongruent phylogenetic signals pointing to either putative parent). Unfortunately, DNA of this taxon was not available for this study. Morphological data may provide

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278 some indications of hybridization when comparing cladograms from datasets with and without the putative hybrid ( e.g., McDade, 1990; 1992). The major goal of the present chapter is not to delve further into the phylogenetic position of Lockhartia but to investigate the evolutionary relatio nships among its species, and to explore putative scenarios of morphological evolution within the genus. Specifically, the putative monophyly of the Imbricata, Longifolia, and Parthenocomos groups of subgenus Lockhartia will be tested with molecular and mo rphological data. In addition, morphological data will be used in an attempt to discern which of the three possible evolutionary scenarios mentioned above for L. genegeorgei is best supported. Materials and Methods Molecular Analyses Taxon sampling Specime ns were obtained mainly from cultivated plants (most of which lack original collecting data), and a few wild collected plants. Sixty five plant accessions were sampled, including 57 plants of Lockhartia (Table 5 1). These include 15 of the 19 species of th e Imbricata group, all four species of the Longifolia group, and three of the five species of the Parthenocomos group of Lockhartia subgenus Lockhartia (for a total of 22 out of th e 29 species recognized in the Taxonomic R evision C hapter 3 ). No DNA could be obtained for L. genegeorgei the sole member of subgenus Pseudobulbosa (see below). To increase the taxon sampling and the number of accessions for some species of Lockhartia an attempt was made to extract DNA from 14 herbarium specimens (including fiv e additional species, L. genegeorgei among them). These extractions were

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279 all unsuccessful (they yielded only degraded DNA) Therefore, the molecular analyses only include members of subgenus Lockhartia as well as the outgroup taxa (see below) Lockhartia m icrantha exhibits substantial variation in the shape of the labellum; some individuals have elongate, narrow lateral lobes, while others have extremely reduced lateral lobes or none at all ( Taxonomic R evision C hapter 3 ). Six accessions of L. micrantha were sampled, five of which correspond to the morphotype with short lateral lobes, and one to the long lateral lobe morphotype. These two morphotypes are Because of t he isolated (and to a degree, uncertain) phylogenetic position of Lockhartia in the Oncidiinae, eight species from various clades within that subtribe were included as part of the outgroup: Fernandezia tica Mora Ret. & Garca Castro Grandiphyllum hians (L indl.) Docha Neto Hofmeisterella eumicroscopica (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. Raycadenco ecuadorensis Dodson Rossioglossum ampliat um (Lindl.) M.W. Chase & N.H. Williams Rossioglossum schlieperianum (Rchb.f.) Gar a y & G.C. Kenn. Trichoceros antennifer (Humb. & Bonp l.) Kunth and Trichopilia turialvae Bateman Molecular techniques DNA was extracted from either fresh tissues or from material preserved in silica gel ( Chase & Hills, 1991), using a modified cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) technique ( Doyle & Doyle 1987) scaled to a 1 mL volume reacti on. Approximately 10 mg of mercaptoethanol or proteinase K (25 g /mL; Promega, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin USA). Some total DNAs were then cleaned with QIAquick (Qiagen Valencia, California, USA) PCR purification colu mns as a precaution to remove inhibitory secondary compounds

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280 although no difference in the quality of the obtained total DNA was noted between cleaned and uncleaned samples Five DNA region s were selected for the analyses : the nuclear ribosomal ITS regio the plastid regions trnH psbA (which includes the intergenic spacer between the trnH and psbA genes and the rps19 exon), trnL F (which consists of an intron in the trnL [UAA] g ene and the intergenic spacer between the trnL trnF [GAA] gene), and two non contiguous portions of the putative protein coding plastid gene ycf1 ycf1 ], and the ca. 1500 bp from the ycf1 ]). These five DNA regions were selected because they are easy to align and phylogenetically informative at the species level in Oncidiinae (e.g., Williams et al. 2001a, b; Williams et al. 2005). DNA a mplifications were done with an Eppendorf Mast ercycler EP Gradient S thermocycler (Hauppauge, New York, USA) and reagents from Sigma (St. Louis, Missouri, USA) 0.5 ( added t o eliminate the secondary structure of the ribosomal DNA) 2 Taq polymerase For all plastid regions, the reaction components were : 0.5 D NA (~10 18 2 Taq polymerase. Thermocycler parameters for amplification of the various regions were as follows. For ITS: a touchdown protocol with 94C for 2 min; 15 (94C, 1 min; 76C for 1 min,

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281 reducing 1C per cycle; 72C, 1 min); 21 (94C, 1 min; 59C, 1 min; 72C, 1 min); 72C, 3 min with primers 17SE and 26SE ( Sun et al. 1994). For trnH psbA and trnL F : 94C for 3 mi n; 33 (94C, 1 min; 58C, 1 min; 72C, 1 min, 20 s); 72C, 6 min, with primers F and R ( from Xu et al. 2000) for trnH psbA, and primers C and F (or in two separate reactions with primers [C and D] and [E and F], when C and F alone failed to produce a sing le band) for trnL F ( Taberlet et al. 1991). For both portions of ycf1 : a touchdown protocol with 94C, 3 min; 8 (94C, 30 sec; 60 C, reducing 1C per cycle; 1 min; 72C, 3 min); 30 (94C, 30 sec; 50C, 1 m in; 72C, 3 min); 72C, 3 min, with primers 1F and ( Neubig et al. 2009). California, USA) follow Tris HCl (pH 8.5) and stored at 4C. Clean PCR products were then cycle sequenced using the parameters 96C, 10 sec; 25 (96C, 10 sec; 50C, 5 sec; 60C, 4 min), with protocols. Purified cycle sequencing products were directly sequenced on an ABI 377, 3100 Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA). Analyses Electropherograms were assembled and edited with the program Sequenche r 4. 6 odes, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA) Sequence data were manually aligned

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282 with the program Se Al v2.0a11 ( Rambaut, 1996). Insertions and deletions (indels) were coded as missing data. Maximum parsimony (MP) analyses were performed using PAUP*4.0b10 ( Swofford, 2003) with Fitch parsimony (unordered characters with equal weights ; Fitch, 1971 ). Heuristic searches consisted of branch swapping by tree bisection reconnection (TBR), stepwise addition with 5000 random addition replicates holding five trees a t each step, and saving multiple trees (MulTrees). Levels of support were assessed using the bootstrap ( Felsenstein, 1985) Bootstrap percentages were estimated with 1000 bootstrap replicates, using TBR swapping for five random addition replicates per boot strap replicate. considered strong. All MP analyses were performed for datasets including ITS only, plastid regions only, and all data com bined. Sequence data for trnH psbA and trnL F could not be obtained for some accessions/species (Table 5 1), but these accessions were still included (with missing data) in the combined matrices. Data congruence was tested by using a partition homogeneity test (Farris et al. 1995) in PAUP*4.0b10. Heuristic searches for the partition homogeneity test were performed using 100 replicates and TBR branch swapping. A maximum likelihood (ML) analysis of the combined five region dataset was also performed in PAUP *, assuming a GTR + I + G model (determined by the program JModelT est v.0.1 [Posada, 2008] under the Akaike Information Criterion).

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283 Morphological Analyses Taxon sampling For the morphological analyse s, species (as circumscribed in the Taxonomic Revision [ C hapter 3] ), not individual plants, were treated as operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The two morphotypes of Lockhartia micrantha (see above) were treated as separate OTUs, for a total of 30 ingroup taxa. The same eight outgroup taxa used in the molecula r data matrix were also included in the morphological matrices Characters Forty four gross morphological characters were scored for all the taxa in the matrix, including 17 vegetative characters (six of them related to inflorescence structure ) and 27 repr oductive characters (two of them related to the structure of the mature fruit; Table 5 2). This asymmetry reflects the overall vegetative similarity between species of subgenus Lockhartia (seven of the vegetative characters are uniform within that subgenus ) and the wide variation in their floral structure. Characters were included only if they exhibit variability within the ingroup and/or between the ingroup and the outgroup, and if the variability within individual OTUs (interpreted here as phenotypic plas ticity) is minor compared with the variability among OTUs. Although a survey of anatomical characters was performed as part of this dissertation ( Morphology and Anatomy, Chapter 4), they were not included here for several reasons: 1) samples from the speci es used as outgroups were not available for anatomical study; 2) the anatomical survey was based on only ten species of Lockhartia (most of them members of the Imbricata group, and none from either the Parthenocomos group or subgenus Pseudobulbosa ); 3) lit tle variability among species was detected in most anatomical characters; and 4) anatomical observations were

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284 based on a few sections, usually from a single segment per organ (root, stem, leaf, or flower) of a single plant per species. Thus, the representa tiveness of the resulting character states for the species would not be guaranteed, and including them in the matrix would amount to pseudo replication (in contrast to th e gross morphological character states, which were scored based on multiple samples). The exclusion of anatomical characters is further justified by the study of Stern and Carlsward ( 2006), who determined that these provide negligible phylogenetic signal even among different genera of the Oncidiinae. In general, the exclusion of characters because they have missing data is not recommended ( Poe & Wiens, 2000), but I feel that the combination of the above mentioned factors justifies the exclusion of the anatomical characters. The scoring of character states was based on the examination of 2275 herbarium specimens of Lockhartia representing 1514 different collections ( Taxonomic Revision C hapter 3 ) and several additional specimens for the outgroup taxa, published descriptions (when these were based on illustrated plants or vouchered collecti ons whose identity could be confirmed), and plants in cultivation. Observations of cultivated plants were of particular importance for characters related to the temporal development of structures (e.g., simultaneous vs. basipetal or acropetal inflorescence initiation, etc.). Both unknown and non applicable character states were scored as missing (PAUP* treats both types of characters in the same way). Live plants of outgroup taxa were not available for cultivation and observation; character states related t o the temporal development of structures were inferred from published descriptions, illustrations, and herbarium specimens.

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285 Analyses Two matrices of morphological data were analyzed using MP as implemented in PAUP* 4.0b10. The first matrix (shown in Table 5 3) consists of 30 binary and 14 multistate characters; of 1672 character state cells, 62 (3.7%) are scored as either includes the anomalous species Lockhartia genege orgei matrix is identical to the first except for the exclusion of L. genegeorgei The exclusion matrix consists of 1628 character state cells, of which 59 (3.6%) are scored as either missing or inapplicable. The exclusion matrix was analyzed in order to assess the effect of the presence/absence of L. genegeorgei in the ingroup topology. All characters were treated as unordered and equally weighted (Fitch parsimony). A heuristic search was performed with 10 000 tree bisection reconn ection (TBR) branch swapping searches; starting trees were obtained from stepwise random addition replicates with five trees held at each step, and saving multiple trees (MulTrees) and steepest descent option not in effect. To assess branch support, a boot strap analysis was performed with 1000 replicates and 50 TBR branch swapping searches; starting trees were obtained from stepwise random addition replicates with 5 trees held at each step with MulTrees in effect and steepest descent option not in effect. F or interpretation, The program MacClade version 4.08 ( Maddison & Maddison, 2005) was used to examine patterns of character change in the resulti ng cladograms.

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286 Bayesian inference (BI) analyses were not performed with the molecular datasets. However, BI almost always results in topologies that are essentially congruent with those produced by ML and MP analyses ( Rindal & Brower, 2010). Results Molec ular Analyses Table 5 4 lists the features of the different DNA datasets used in the MP analyses. Although ITS is the shortest of the five regions, it provided the largest number of potentially parsimony informative sites and ingroup nodes with moderate to high support. A sample phylogram is shown in Figure 5 1. In the ITS analysis, the three accessions of Lockhartia amoena often have relatively long branches (grouped with one accession of L. tenuiflora and the sole accession of the long lobe morphotype of L. micrantha in the phylogram of Figure 5 1, although the latter relationship is not always present in all of the most parsimonious trees and is not supported in the 50% majority rule consensus). Although there are a few bases in the ITS sequences of the t hree accessions of L. amoena that appear different from those of most other members of the genus, this long branch is probably an artifact from the incomplete sequences of these accessions (some of them missing almost 50% of the base data due to repeatedly messy electropherograms from one of the primers). ycf1 region is the longest and it provided the second highest number of potentially parsimony informative sites and the same number of ingroup nodes with moderate to high support. ycf1 and trnH psbA regions provided relatively few potentially parsimony informative sites and low support for most ingroup nodes; the ycf1 analysis supports Lockhartia as monophyletic, but there is no t strong support for any internal clade (except for several species represented

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287 by more than one accession) The trnL F ycf 1 in terms of proportion of potentially parsimony informative regions, but it provided the fewest number of ingroup nodes with moderate to high BS For the most part, the bootstrap (50% majority rule) consensus trees produced by the analysis of the different DNA regions are topologically congruent, and most of the supported clades make sense from a morphological viewpoint. There are a few accessions that appear as sister to those of a different species in the trnL F ycf1 trees, but their subtending branches receive weak BS The result of the partition homogeneity test indicates that the different molecular datasets are not statistically incong ruent (p=0.067), and combined datasets of all four plastid regions and all five DNA regions were analyzed (a representative phylogram of the combined plastid regions is shown in Figure 5 BS ; Seelana n et al. 1997 ) top ological incongruences between the ITS and combined plastid datasets, and thus the combined five DNA region bootstrap consensus was taken as an acceptable estimate of the phylogeny of the genus. Figure 5 3 shows one of the shortest trees from this analysis and Figure 5 4 shows the 50% majority rule consensus, with the species that belong to the different morphological groups and subgroups (Table 3 1 Morphology and Anatomy C hapter 4 ) indicated by vertical bars (these are not meant to indicate clades). In the latter tree, Lockhartia is strongly (100% BS) supported as monophyletic (it spine of the tree. None of the three major morphological groups (Imbricata, Longifolia, and P arthenocomos) are supported as monophyletic.

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288 Lockhartia bennettii and L. rugosifolia are strongly (88% BS) supported as sister species, although L. oblongicallosa does not receive bootstrap support as a member of this clade (Fig. 5 4). However, the putat ive monophyly of the Parthenocomos group is still a possibility (there are no strongly supported nodes that are incongruent with this hypothesis ). The monophyly of the Longifolia group is strongly contradicted by the results of the combined analysis (Fig. 5 4). Three species of the Longifolia group ( L. hercodonta L. obtusata and L. longifolia ) form a moderately supported clade (82% BS), but the fourth species ( L. parthenoglossa ) is strongly supported (96% BS) as sister to the Imbricata subgroup. The monop hyly of the Imbricata group is also strongly contradicted by the results of the combined analysis, although its subgroups are supported as monophyletic (Fig. 5 4). The two sampled species of the Oerstedii subgroup form a well supported (99% BS) clade, plac ed along the spine of the tree. Lockhartia acuta (the sole member of the Acuta subgroup) is weakly supported (66% BS) as sister to the ( L. parthenoglossa + Imbricata subgroup) clade, while the Imbricata subgroup receives low (67% BS) support. The monophyly of the Imbricata subgroup is weakly supported (67% BS) by the combined molecular analysis (Fig. 5 4). None of the individual molecular datasets provide support for a monophyletic Imbricata subgroup. In the bootstrap consensus of trnL F ITS, trnH psbA an ycf1 the members of the Imbricata subgroup appear in a polytomy that includes L. parthenoglossa and (in the last three mentioned regions) L. acuta

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289 For the most part, multiple accessions of individual species are either grouped in the same clade (with >50% BS) or at least not strongly supported as sister to a different species. One accession of L. endresiana ( Blanco 1803 ) appears as sister to the only accession of L. dipleura but with low support (60% BS, a relationship also recovered in ycf1 an d combined plastid analysis). One accession of L. lunifera ( Gerlach 141 ) is weakly supported as sister to the only accession of L. goyazensis The five short lobe morphotype accessions of L. micrantha form a weakly supported clade (67% BS), although one o f the internal nodes receives moderate support (82% BS). The only long lobe morphotype accession of this species ( Blanco 3220 ) is not part of that clade, but is part of a basal polytomy of the Imbricata subgroup (a pattern also present in the ITS bootstrap ycf1 and combined plastid analyses, the long lobe morphotype accession of L. micrantha appears in a weakly supported clade with L. cladoniophora (a relationship not recovered by the combined five gene bootstrap consensus ). The overall topology resulting from the ML analysis of the combined five gene dataset (not shown) is very similar to that found by parsimony searches, including levels of bootstrap support for individual branches, with only minor differences in the rela tive placement of individual accessions within the morphological groups and subgroups. Morphological Analyses L. genegeorgei ) produced 467 most parsimonious trees of 182 steps (consistency index [CI] = 0.36, retention index [RI] = 0.74). In the strict consensus (Fig. 5 5) L. genegeorgei is placed outside of the genus in an unresolved position with most of the outgroup taxa. In about half of the most parsimonious trees, L. genegeorgei appears as sister to subgenus Lockhartia but in

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290 many others it appears as sister to Raycadenco ecuadorensis (an outgroup taxon). Subgenus Lockhartia is monophyletic with moderate support (84% BS). Only two clades are recovered within subgenus Lockhartia : 1) a clade with mo derate support (82% BS) formed by the two morphotypes of L. micrantha and 2) a weakly supported clade (54% BS) that includes all members of the Longifolia and Parthenocomos groups. Lockhartia hercodonta L. longifolia and L. parthenoglossa (but not L. ob tusata ) form a weakly supported subclade (53% BS). L. genegeorgei ) produced 38 most parsimonious trees of 168 steps (consistency index [CI] = 0.38, retention index [RI] = 0.76). In the strict consensu s (Fig. 5 6), Lockhartia is monophyletic with strong support (96% BS) but the intrageneric relationships are unresolved. In contrast to the inclusion matrix, the nine members of the Longifolia and Parthenocomos groups have an unresolved position on the spi ne of the tree, while the Imbricata group has poor (61% BS) support as a clade. Discussion In the following discussion, reference will be made to the groups and subgroups of Lockhartia as they were circumscribed in C hapter 4 ( Morphology and Anatomy ; i.e., the Parthenocomos, Longifolia, and Imbricata groups, the latter divided in to the Imbricata, Acuta, and Oerstedii subgroups; Table 4 of one of those groups or subgroups, this does not imply membership in a partic ula r clade Molecular Analyses It is apparent from the molecular analyses that there is strong evidence against the monophyly of the Imbricata and Longifolia groups (Figs. 5 1 to 5 5). The three

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291 accessions of L. parthenoglossa a member of the Longifolia grou p, are strongly supported as sister to a clade formed by the members of the Imbricata subgroup. This relationship is surprising, given the very homogeneous floral structure of the Longifolia group, in particular the callus structure of their labellum and suggests that this floral morphology is either plesiomorphic for this group of species or that it evolved twice Lockhartia acuta and the members of the Oerstedii subgroup appear in different positions of the tree, although these positions receive either l ow support ( L. acuta with 67% BS as sister to the L. parthenoglossa + Imbricata subgroup clade) or no support at all (the Oerstedii subgroup, placed in a basal polytomy of the genus in the five gene bootstrap analysis). All four species of the Longifolia group were sampled, and only four species of the Imbricata subgroup were not sampled for molecular data. The latter four species have clear morphological and geographical affinities to members of the Imbricata subgroup ( L. compacta L. imbricata and L. iv ainae ) or to members of the Oerstedii subgroup ( L. galeottiana ). Thus, their inclusion in the analysis would likely have little effect on the relationships among the major groups of the genus. The inclusion of the first three species may or may not provide additional support to the node that supports the Imbricata subgroup, or improve the resolution within that clade. Based on its general morphology and geographic distribution, it is hypothesized that L. imbricata would probably group with L. goyazensis and L. lunifera It is more difficult to speculate about the putative relationships of L. compacta and L. ivainae on strictly morphological grounds because of their relatively reduced floral size and simplified callus structure. Taking their geographic distri bution into consideration, L. ivainae may be closely related

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292 to L. imbricata and/or L. goyazensis while L. compacta is probably closely related to L. lepticaula None of the individual or combined molecular datasets provide support for the monophyly of th e Parthenocomos group (Fig. 5 5). Lockhartia oblongicallosa appears as part of the basal polytomy of the genus in all bootstrap analyses, and a sister relationship between L. bennettii and L. rugosifolia is only moderately supported (84% BS) by the ITS dat aset. However, the results do not provide strong conflict with the possibility of these species forming a clade. Two species of the Parthenocomos group (the Venezuelan Guyanan L. latilabris and L. parthenocomos ) could not be sampled for DNA data, and their inclusion could potentially change the relationships among the members of this group. Lockhartia oblongicallosa is a narrow endemic to northeastern Venezuela and may be closely related to both L. latilabris and L. parthenocomos (which are probably sister species ); however, the strange callus morphology of L. oblongicallosa is unique in the genus, and it may be an indication that the latter may in fact not belong to a clade formed by other members of the Parthenocomos group. Sampling of both L. latilabris and L. parthenocomos is necessary to test this hypothesis. Morphological Analyses Contrary to my expectations, the analyses of the morphological data were not able to provide resolved and well supported phylogenies. One possible cause is that many charact er states are homoplasious as presently coded ( Character State Evolution below). Another factor that likely contributed to this lack of resolution is that several character states are unique to, and/or invariant within, the ingroup (or at least within subgenus Lockhartia ; e.g., characters 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 15, 39, 40, 41, 42; Table 5 2).

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293 Such characters provide support for the monophyly of the ingroup, but are practically worthless as sources of internal resolution. Despite the low resolution of the ingroup, the comparison of the exclusion and inclusion bootstrap trees indicates that the presence/absence of L. genegeorgei in the analysis has an effect on the topology of the ingroup. The exclusion analysis provides some support for the monophyly of th e Imbricata group, and none for the monophyly of the Longifolia and Parthenocomos groups. In contrast, the inclusion analysis provides some support for a clade formed by members of the latter two groups (and none for the Imbricata group), and places L. gen egeorgei in an unresolved position with most of the outgroup taxa, even when this taxon was designated as part of the ingroup. Unfortunately, the placement of L. genegeorgei in the inclusion analysis cannot be used to discriminate between the three possib le evolutionary scenarios mentioned in the introduction, i.e., that the morphology of L. genegeorgei represents a series of reversal s, plesiomorphic condition s or a product of hybridization. Perhaps some insight about the potential hybrid origin of L. g enegeorgei can be obtained by comparison of the results obtained here with those of McDade ( 1990; 1992). She created artificial hybrids of Aphelandra (Acanthaceae) and used them in similar exclusion/inclusion cladistic analyses of morphological data to inv estigate their placement in the cladograms, and to assess their effect on the topology of the ingroup and other tree parameters. McDade found that 1) inclusion of hybrids results in equal or significantly higher consistency indices (CIs); 2) hybrids tend t o be placed at or near the base of the clade that includes the most apomorphic parent; 3) hybrids between

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294 distantly related parents resulted in cladograms with low CI and major topological changes. Comparison of the inclusion and exclusion analyses of the present study reveals very similar CIs for their most parsimonious trees (0.36 and 0.38, respectively), which by itself does not support or conflict with the hypothesis of hybrid origin. The placement of L. genegeorgei in the inclusion analysis provides mo re support for this hypothesis. About half of the most parsimonious trees of the inclusion analysis place L. genegeorgei as sister to subgenus Lockhartia while the other half places it as sister to Raycadenco ecuadorensis ; the latter placement is incompat ible with both the reversal and plesiomorphic condition evolutionary scenarios. Finally, the inclusion of L. genegeorgei does cause a relatively major topological change in the ingroup, which also agrees with the hypothesis of hybrid origin. The vegetativ e morphology of L. genegeorgei is rare in the Oncidiinae; each sympodial unit consists of a short horizontal rhizome segment, and an erect stem hybrid between L. benne ttii and Oncidium cirrhosum (Lindl.) Beer, observed at the greenhouses of Ecuagenera Ltda. in Gualaceo, Ecuador, has a similar vegetative morphology (although with shorter leaves). This similar phenotype also suggests that L. genegeorgei may be a hybrid be tween a species of Lockhartia and a member of another genus in the Oncidiinae. Despite all this, morphological data alone do not necessarily confirm the hybrid origin of a taxon. As stressed by McDade ( 2000), not all cases of character patterns suggestive of hybridization are necessarily due to that process. The strange morphology

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295 of L. genegeorgei can also be explained (although less satisfactorily) by the reversal hypothesis and the plesiomorphic state hypothesis. Hopefully, molecular data of this taxon, when available, will help clarify its systematic affinities. An analysis of combined morphological and molecular data (an approach advocated by Donoghue & Sanderson, 1992) was not carried out, on purpose. Besides the obvious problem of combining two dispa rate datasets (one with characters obtained from multiple individuals per OTU, the other with characters obtained from single individuals for each OTU), it is apparent that the morphological dataset is plagued by homoplasy and lacks significant phylogeneti c signal. The little phylogenetic signal of the morphological dataset also conflicts with that of the molecular dataset. DNA sequences provide a large amount of data with which to test phylogenetic hypotheses that are based on morphological data; combining the morphological and molecular data would most likely introduce phylogenetic noise (due to the different signals) and problems of circularity in the resulting cladograms ( Givnish & Sytsma, 1997; Hillis & Wiens, 2000). Taxonomic Implications Subg enus Lockhartia received strong support as a monophyletic group from all molecular and morphological analyses. Thus, its recognition as a subgenus (or genus, depending on the systematic position of L. genegeorgei ) is not questioned. Its three major morphol ogical groups, however, either lack support (e.g., the Parthenocomos group) or their monophyly is strongly contradicted by the data (the Imbricata and Longifolia groups, which are paraphyletic). Therefore, despite the intuitive convenience of these groupin gs, they cannot be formally recognized (e.g., as ranked taxa in a Linnean system) if the principles of phylogenetic classification are applied ( Judd et al. 2008).

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296 Two subgroups of the Imbricata group (the Acuta and Oerstedii subgroups) are well supported by the combined molecular analysis. The former, however, is actually monospecific (including only Lockhartia acuta a very distinctive species). The three members of the Oerstedii group ( L. oerstedii L. verrucosa and L. galeottiana ; the last one was not sampled for molecular data but its morphology and geographic distribution strongly suggest that it belongs in this clade) are very similar morphologically to the species of the Imbricata subgroup (which receives low support from the combined molecular ana lysis). The Acuta and Oerstedii subgroups could be recognized taxonomically (e.g., to sectional level), but there would be little practical gain from this (given that other groups could not be recognized). Thus, at this point, I think it is not advisable t o create a subgeneric classification in Lockhartia other than provisionally maintaining the two subgenera until the status of L. genegeorgei is clarified. Character Evolution In order to explore plausible scenarios of character evolution, a tree was const ructed with species for OTUs (including only those species that were sampled for the molecular analysis). The topology of this tree was adapted from that of the phylogram presented in Figure 5 3, and selected characters were traced using MacClade under the accelerated transitions optimization (ACCTRAN). Morphological variations of the various vegetative and reproductive structures of Lockhartia are described in detail in C hapter 4 (Morphology and Anatomy) In the following paragraphs, I will describe featu res only in relation to putative evolutionary scenarios within the genus, in relation to the outgroup taxa, and in terms of character state delimitation (when necessary). The species not sampled for molecular data ( L. compacta L. galeottiana L. genegeorg ei L. imbricata L. ivainae L. latilabris and L.

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297 parthenocomos ) will be mentioned occasionally, but character evolution in relation to them will not be considered at length due to their uncertain position. Character numbers in the figure legends refer t o those in Table 5 2. Stem Stems of Lockhartia can be either erect or pendulous. Large plants of species with erect stems often have individual shoots growing in all directions, but these stems are always relatively rigid. Species with pendulous stems can have stems that are erect when young and not fully grown, but eventually become pendent because they are more flexible (the stem core is probably less schlerenchymatized than in the erect stemmed species). According to the suggested evolutionary scenario ( Fig. 5 7), the pendulous condition has evolved repeatedly at least four times ( L. latilabris and L. parthenocomos not included in the diagram, also have pendulous stems). It appears that the pendulous stem condition occurs in species that grow in less ex posed conditions than other congeners. These plants usually hang from horizontal branches, and their pendulous stems probably represents a strategy to exploit the darker but less crowded space under the branch. The leaves of these species tend to be softer than those of erect stemmed species but a causal relationship for this is not obvious. The number of internodes per stem (i.e., per individual sympodial unit) shows a single evolutionary change (from less than eight to more than 13), and represents a sy napomorphy for the genus. This change is directly related to the distinctive growth habit of Lockhartia Only one of the outgroup taxa ( Raycadenco ) has more than 13 internodes per stem but it is clearly an independent origin. This character is essentially quantitative but with discrete values. The number of internodes was counted only for mature stems (those that have reached their final vegetative length and have produced

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298 inflorescences; young stems and seedl ings can have fewer internodes). Mature stems of Lockhartia usually have many more internodes than 13 (up to 74 in some species), while the outgroup taxa rarely have more than six internodes per stem unit. Lockhartia genegeorgei has less than 13 internodes. Leaves The leaves of subgenus Lockhartia have a very uniform and distinctive morphology. Unlike most other taxa in the Oncidiinae, they lack an abscission layer (Fig. 5 8 ) and thus stay attached to the stem even if they die (i.e., they are marcescent). The loss of an abscission layer appears to be a s ynapomorphy to subgenus Lockhartia The marcescent condition seems to be related to the origin of leaf decurrence (another apparent synapomorphy for the subgenus; Fig. 5 8 ), and to isobilateral foliar blades (Fig. 5 9 ) in Lockhartia These three characters do not seem to be necessarily dependent on each other (some outgroup taxa show various state combinations for them); this justifies their inclusion as separate characters. Chase (1986, 2009) hypothesized that the evolution of isobilateral (psygmoid) leave s in the Oncidiinae has occurred repeatedly through neoteny. Several taxa that have open, conduplicate blades as adults often have isobilateral leaves as seedlings, and in some cases they start flowering even before undergoing a vegetative transformation t o the adult form. The juvenile morphology has likely been permanently fixed for taxa with isobilateral leaves. The differential leaf size along the stem (i.e., whether the leaves near the apex of the stem are larger, subequal, or smaller than the leaves ne ar the center of the stem) displays variation among species Most species have central leaves that are subequal to the apical ones, while others have much smaller apical leaves. The ancestral

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299 condition for the genus is equivocal; central leaves subequal to the apical ones may be either a synapomorphy or a plesiomorphy for the genus (Fig. 5 9 ). Most outgroup taxa have apical leaves that are much larger than the central ones (a condition also present in L. genegeorgei ). It must be acknowledged that there is a mple intraspecific variation in this character, which makes the delimitation of states somewhat arbitrary ( Stevens, 1991; Givnish & Systsma, 1997). Inflorescences The inflorescences of Lockhartia have several remarkable (although easily overlooked) tra its. The pseudocymose condition a clear synapomorphy for Lockhartia (it appears to be unique, even among angiosperms; Fig. 5 10 ). Axillary inflorescence development is the norm in the Oncidiinae, but plants of subgenus Lockhartia can produce terminal inflo rescences (i.e., the apical shoot meristem eventually transitions to produce an inflorescence; Fig. 5 10 ). Also, each shoot can produce multiple inflorescences. By itself, this is not unique in the Oncidiinae, but the order of initiation (basipetal) is hig hly unusual. Basipetal initiation of inflorescences may be either a synapomorphy or a plesiomorphy of subgenus Lockhartia with several reversals to simultaneous initiation (Fig. 5 1 1 ). Most of the outgroup taxa normally produce a single inflorescence per shoot (and thus this character could not be scored for them), but in the few ones that produce multiple inflorescences ( Fernandezia and Raycadenco ), the initiation is acropetal. The state for this character could not be scored either for several species of Lockhartia (Fig. 5 1 1 ), but the character state optimization suggests that the basipetal condition is a synapomorphy for the subgenus.

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300 The proleptic inflorescence branching (i.e., sequential initiation of branches within an inflorescence) is another appa rent synapomorphy for subgenus Lockhartia with several reversals to the sylleptic condition (Fig. 5 1 1 ). The order of inflorescence initiation is independent of the type of inflorescence branching (Fig. 5 1 1 ). Lockhartia genegeorgei has inflorescences tha t are exclusively axillary, pseudocymose, and proleptic. It is unknown if it can produce more than one inflorescence per shoot, and if so, in what order. Perianth color Many (perhaps most) taxa in the Oncidiinae have yellow flowers (often with spots of dar ker colors), and this is true of Lockhartia as well. T he yell ow base color of the perianth may be a plesiomorphic condition for the genus, but the placement of L. oblongicallosa (a species with white flowers) as sister to the rest of the genus in the sampl e phylogeny (Fig. 5 1 2 ) precludes an unambiguous reconstruction for the ancestral condition of this character in Lockhartia Three other species in the genus have white flowers, suggesting at least three independent evolutionary acquisitions for this chara cter state (Fig. 5 1 2 ). Flower orientation Resupinate flowers are likely plesiomorphic for Lockhartia as indicated by outgroup condition (Fig. 5 1 2 ). Most outgroup taxa have resupinate flowers. Six species in the genus have variably oriented flowers, and only one ( L. obtusata ) has strictly non resupinate flowers (i.e., with the labellum consistently placed uppermost in the flower). The diagram in Figure 5 1 2 suggests four independent origins for variable floral orientation occurred in the genus.

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301 Sepals and petals Sepals of Lockhartia can be patent (held more or less perpendicular to the axis of the pedicel) or reflexed against the pedicel (a third state, having the lateral sepals reflexed on the pedicel but the dorsal sepal patent, occurs only in L. genegeo rgei ). The patent condition appears to be plesiomorphic, based on outgroup analysis (Fig. 5 1 3 ). The reflexed condition evolved seemingly twice, once in the Oerstedii subgroup and another time in the Imbricata subgroup, with a secondary reversal in L. micr antha and relatives. Petals of Lockhartia can be either straight (held more or less perpendicular to the axis of the pedicel and relatively flat) or arched toward the front of the flower, resembling horns. These two states appear to be highly correlated wi th the sepal orientation: straight petals occur most often in association with patent sepals, and arched petals occur most often in association with reflexed sepals (Fig. 5 1 3 ). This may have to do with alternate strategies of floral visual display; flower s with patent sepals and straight petals present a larger surface area toward the front, while flowers with reflexed sepals and arched petals have a relatively narrow profile if viewed from the front but are more conspicuous if viewed from the side. Only o ne species ( L. oxyphylla ) has reflexed sepals and relatively straight petals. Labellum The relative complexity and structural variability of the callus provide d several characters for the morphological analysis, but at the same time makes the exact definit ion of character states a difficult task. The independence of the various characters associated with the callus is also difficult to guarantee in the absence of developmental

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302 and gene expression studies (e.g., Stevens, 1991; Givnish & Sytsma, 1997; Mabee, 2000). The labellum of Lockhartia can be convex, concave, or relatively flat. Most outgroup taxa have relatively flat labella (Fig. 5 1 4 ), but the position of several species of Lockhartia with concave labella toward the base of the chosen cladogram, and t he common occurrence of the other two conditions throughout the genus prevents an unequivocal reconstruction for the ancestral condition. It is apparent, however, that the labellum configuration is evolutionarily labile. The relative dimensions of the lat eral lobes also show a significant degree of homoplasy within the genus (Fig. 5 1 4 ). The chosen cladogram suggests that wider than long lateral lobes is the ancestral condition for Lockhartia and this is the condition observed among members of the Parthen ocomos group. Lateral lobes that are at least three times as long as wide occur in the Oerstedii subgroup and in most members of the Imbricata subgroup, although some species of the latter developed shorter lobes. The absence of lateral lobes characterizes the grade formed by the Longifolia group and L. acuta Five callus types can be recognized in Lockhartia but it is unclear if any of these is ancestral to the entire genus (Fig. 5 1 5 ). Most species of the Imbricata group have a callus formed by a single tuberculate keel, and some members of the Imbricata subgroup and L. acuta have a callus formed by two parallel keels (which likely evolved independently ). The crateriform callus type is unique to the species of the Longifolia group; the cladogram in Figure 5 1 5 suggests that this type of callus may have evolved twice, along with the trapezoid ledge. It is difficult to envision how such a complex

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303 structure evolved twice. The callus is a complex structure, and it could possibly be partitioned in more characte rs, but the way to delimit these and their respective states is not obvious. Developmental studies of the callus may assist in creating an improved selection of morphological characters. The callus can also be categorized with respect to its texture (smoot h vs. tuberculate) and indument (glabrous vs. pubescent glandular or pubescent non glandular), although exactly what constitutes a tubercle is difficult to determine. For the morphological analysis, protuberances with a more or less rounded tip were scored as tubercles, while those with a sharp tip (often elongate) were scored as teeth (character 34, not shown in figures). Tubercles and teeth occur in different types of callus (keeled vs. crateriform, respectively), but it is unclear if they are really inde pendent, non homologous structures. According to this characterization, the smooth callus seem s to be plesiomorphic for the genus and the pubescent glandular condition is an apparent synapomorphy (Fig. 5 1 6 ). Tuberculate and glabrous calli evolved at leas t twice (in the Imbricata and Oerstedii subgroups), although those states are not necessarily dependent on each other (e.g., L. cladoniophora and L. micrantha have smooth and glabrous calli). The presence of an elaiophore cushion seems to be correlated wi th the presence of a basal tuft of secretory hairs in the labellum (Fig. 5 1 7 ). The cushion probably functions as a holder for the basal tuft of secretory hairs (and any oil that may be secreted), although two species ( L. acuta and L. cladoniophora ) have o ne structure without the other. The reconstruction on the hypothetical cladogram suggests that the elaiophore cushion evolved twice, but it is unclear regarding the number of times that

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304 the basal tuft of secretory hairs evolved within the genus (the lack o f the basal tuft is seemingly plesiomorphic for Lockhartia ). Column The shape of the column wings is quite variable in Lockhartia and this makes the delimitation of discrete states difficult. Five states were scored, plus two additional ones that occur on common in the genus, but other states are more or less randomly distributed in the cladogram, making it impossible to infer an unequivocal ancestral state (Fig. 5 1 8 ). This underscores the evolutionarily labile nature of the column wings. These structures likely guide the pollinia attached to a pollinator toward the relatively small stigmatic surface during a subsequent floral visit, but the significance of different wing shapes, if any, is unclear. If the detailed shape of the column wings is not that important, then this could explain the high homoplasy apparent in this character. The stigma of most Lockhartia species is narrowly oblong (in contrast to most outgroup taxa), and this appe ars to be a synapomorphy for the genus (Fig. 5 1 8 ). Only one species ( L. goyazensis ) has a relatively wide stigma, which represents a reversal.

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305 Table 5 1. Information for accessions used in the molecular phylogenetic analyses of Lockhartia DNA region sa mpled are A= ITS, B= trnH psbA C = trnL F D= ycf1 ycf1 Taxon a Voucher Herbarium b Gene regions Fernandezia tica Dressler & Atwood s.n. FLAS A,B,C,D,E Grandiphyllum hians Chase 86137 K A,B,C,D,E Hofmeisterella eumicroscopica Whitten 2690 F LAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia acuta Blanco 2567 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia acuta Blanco 3221 FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia amoena Blanco 2555 FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia amoena Blanco 2556 FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia amoena Blanco 3212 FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia bennettii Blanco 2554 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia cladoniophora Bogarn 2352 JBL A,D,E Lockhartia dipleura Pupulin 7734 JBL A,B,D,E Lockhartia endresiana Blanco1803 USJ A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia endresiana Pupulin 4518 JBL A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia goyazensis Gerlach 140 d FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia grandibractea Blanco 2559 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia grandibractea Chase 15882 K A,D,E Lockhartia hercodonta Blanco 1792 USJ A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia hercodonta Blanco 2284 USJ A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia hercodonta Blanco 2286 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia hercodonta Whitten 2383 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia hercodonta Blanco 2575 FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia hercodonta Blanco 3232 FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia lepticaula Blanco 2573 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia lepticaula Blanco 3237 F LAS A,D,E Lockhartia longifolia Blanco 3215 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia longifolia Whitten 2385 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia lunifera Blanco 2670 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia lunifera Blanco 2688 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia lunifera Blanco 3219 FLAS A,B,C, D,E Lockhartia lunifera Gerlach 141 d M A,B,D,E Lockhartia micrantha (s) c Blanco 2558 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia micrantha (s) c Blanco 2561 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia micrantha (s) c Blanco 2562 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia micrantha (s) c Blanco 2671 FL AS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia micrantha (l) c Blanco 3220 FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia micrantha (s) c Blanco 3223 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia oblongicallosa Gerlach 142 d M A,B,D,E Lockhartia obtusata Blanco 2106 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia obtusata Blanco 2572 F LAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia oerstedii Blanco 2283 USJ A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia oerstedii Blanco 2462 JBL A,B,C,D,E

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306 Table 5 1. Continued Taxon a Voucher Herbarium b Gene regions Lockhartia oerstedii Blanco 2563 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia oerstedii Blanco 2565 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia oerstedii Blanco 3224 FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia oxyphylla Blanco 2488 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia oxyphylla Whitten 2382 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia oxyphylla Whitten 2441 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia parthenoglossa Aguilar 1 9 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia parthenoglossa Blanco 2653 JBL A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia parthenoglossa Bogarn 2242 JBL A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia rugosifolia Blanco 2570 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia rugosifolia Whitten 2432 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia serra Blanco 2574 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia serra Blanco 2668 FLAS A,B,D,E Lockhartia serra Blanco 2669 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia serra Whitten 2431 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia tenuiflora Blanco 3012 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia tenuiflora Whitten 2430 FLAS A,B,C, D,E Lockhartia tenuiflora Whitten 2719 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Lockhartia verrucosa Blanco 2667 FLAS A,B,D,E Raycadenco ecuadorensis Whitten 3285 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Rossioglossum ampliatum Chase 84104 K A,B,C,D,E Rossioglossum schlieperianum Chase 83449 K A,B, C,D,E Trichoceros antennifer Whitten 2353 FLAS A,B,C,D,E Trichopilia turialvae Whitten 2947 FLAS A,B,C,D,E a A uthor names are given in Chapter 3 f or Lockhartia s pecies a nd in the Materials and Methods section for other t axa b Herba rium acronyms follow Index Herbariorum (Thiers, 2011). c For Lockhartia micrantha morphotype. d Gerlach numbers refer to total DNA samples and are li sted here for cross referencing with individual plants; the actual herbarium vouchers are unnumbered ( Gerlach s.n .).

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307 Table 5 2. Morphological characters and character states used in the phylogenetic analysis of Lockhartia F ig ures 4 11 to 4 14 and 4 16 (Morphology and Anatomy C hapter 4 ) e xplain the terminology. Character Character state s 1 Stems erect (0); pendulous (1) a 2 Internodes per stem less than eight (0); more than 1 2 (1) b 3 Pseudobulbs absent (0); present (1) 4 Leaf abscission layer absent (0); present (1) 5 Leaf base straight (0); incurved (1); outcurved (2) 6 Leaf apex round to obtuse (0); acute (1); subpraemorse (2) c 7 Leaf not decurrent (0); decurrent (1) 8 Leaf sheath terminal notch absent (0); present (1) 9 Central l eaves of stem subequal to apical ones (0); central leaves of stem more than three times as long as apical ones (1); apical leaves of stem more than three times as long as central ones (2) 10 Leaf blade conduplicate (0); isobilateral (1) 11 Leaf texture s mooth (0); rugulose (1) 12 Inflorescences axillary only (0); both terminal and axillary (1) 13 Inflorescence bracts narrowly triangular (0); widely ovate (1) 14 Inflorescence initiation simultaneous (0); basipetal (1); acropetal (2) 15 Inflorescence ra cemose or paniculate (0); pseudocymose (1) d 16 Inflorescence branching sylleptic (0); proleptic (1) 17 Inflorescence bract appressed to rachis or pedicel (0); free from rachis or pedicel (1) 18 Perianth base color yellow (0); white (1); red or pink (2 ) 19 Flower resupinate (0); non resupinate, with labellum uppermost (1); variable orientation (2) e 20 Sepals patent (0); reflexed (1); dorsal sepal patent, lateral sepals reflexed (2) 21 Petals straight (0); arched toward front of flower (1) 22 Petals margins approximately flat (0); reflexed (1) 23 Labellum approximately flat (0); convex (1); concave (2) 24 Labellum lateral lobes absent (0); less than twice as long as wide (1); more than thrice as long as wide (2); wider than long (3) 25 Labellum mi dlobe spotting absent (0); present (1) 26 Labellum apex truncate to acute (0); emarginate to retuse (1) 27 Labellum midlobe distal lobule on same plane as rest of labellum (0); curved forward (1)

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308 Table 5 2. Continued Character Character state s 28 C allus crateriform (0); single oblong keel (1); twin parallel keels (2); central thickening with transverse apical ridge (3); central thickening without transverse apical ridge (4); absent (5) f 29 Labellum midlobe basal lobules absent (0); present (1) 30 Callus texture smooth (0); tuberculate (1) 31 Callus glabrous (0); pubescent glandular (1); pubescent non glandular (2) 32 Elaiophore cushion absent (0); present (1) f 33 Labellum basal tuft of secretory hairs absent (0); present (1) 34 Callus teeth n one (0); one (1); four (2) g 35 Callus trapezoid ledge absent (0); present (1) 36 Column straight, continuous with ovary (0); arched away from labellum (1) 37 Infrastigmatic line absent (0); present (1) 38 Column wings absent (0); subtriangular, base a ttached to entire side of column (1); subtriangular, base restricted to proximal half of column (2); obliquely subquadrate (3); flabellate (4); rounded (5); filiform (6) 39 Stigma round to oval (0); narrowly oblong (1); ovate acuminate (2) 40 Rostellum l ess than 0.4 mm long (0); more than 0.8 mm long (1) 41 Anther cap as long as wide (0); twice as long as wide (1) 42 Stipe entire (0); bifid (1) 43 Fruit subglobular (0); obovoid to subcylindric (1) 44 Fruit epidermis lustrous (0); glaucous (1) a Stems of species with pendulous habit can be erect when young. b This refers to the number of internodes of the erect part of each sympodial unit (excluding the rhizome). c This character is scored as if the leaf apex is isobilateral (as is the case in Lockhart ia subgenus Lockhartia ) or folded lengthwise; thus, a conduplicate leaf that is obtuse when open can still be scored as acute if folded. d The racemose condition includes both branched and unbr anched polytelic inflorescences ( Morphology and Anatomy C h apter 4 ) e Flowers are considered resupinate if the labellum is consistently positioned in the lower part of the flower. f It is possible that the entire crateriform callus of the Longifolia group of Lockhartia is homologous to the elai ophore cushion of the Imbricata group, but in the absence of any developmental study, they are treated here as separate characters. g Callus teeth does not include tall, narrow tubercles of the lower part of the callus of the Imbricata group (e.g., L. oers tedii ).

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309 Table 5 3. Morphological character matrix for Lockhartia and outgroup taxa. Taxon Character number 1 2 3 4 12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 Fernandezia tica 0001200000000200020000000002000 0000000001110 Grandiphyllum hians 0011210020000?0000000001000101000000050010?? Hofmeisterella eumicroscopica 0000010001000?0002000000000500000000001110?? Lockhartia acuta 01000210110111101100000001021010100003100111 Lockhartia amoena 010000100101101?10 011112111111011000131001?? Lockhartia bennettii 0100001001011?1111000023000300100000051001?? Lockhartia cladoniophora 010000101101111110001101110210001000131001?? Lockhartia compacta 0100001001011?1110000002010110011000120001?? Lockhartia dipleura 0100 0110010111111001111210011101100013?0011? Lockhartia endresiana 0100001001011?1110011112111111011000121001?? Lockhartia galeottiana 0100201001011111100111121111110110001410011? Lockhartia genegeorgei 0011010020001?1010020010011010011001132110?? Lockhart ia goyazensis 0100201011011111100111121101110110001300011? Lockhartia grandibractea 01000010010111101001111211111101100012100110 Lockhartia hercodonta 1100111101010111012000000000101002100310010? Lockhartia imbricata 010000101101111110011111100111011000 1400011? Lockhartia ivainae 0100201011011?1110010010000100001000111001?? Lockhartia latilabris 1100011001011?111010002300040010000003?0011? Lockhartia lepticaula 010000100101101010011112110111011000141001?? Lockhartia longifolia 11002110010101110020000 000000010011003100110 Lockhartia lunifera 01002010110111111001111211011101100014100111 Lockhartia micrantha (s) 01000010110110101020110101021001100011100101 Lockhartia micrantha (l) 0100001011011010102011020102110110001310010? Lockhartia oblongicallosa 1100011001011111112000230003001000000310010? Lockhartia obtusata 11000011110110111010000000000010011004100110 Lockhartia oerstedii 01000110110111111001111211111101100014100111 Lockhartia oxyphylla 0100011001011?11100100021101110110001510011? Lockharti a parthenocomos 1100011001011?11101000230003001000000310010? Lockhartia parthenoglossa 1100211001110111000000000000001001100110010? Lockhartia rugosifolia 1100111001110?11002000230004001000000510011? Lockhartia serra 010000101101111110011112111111011000 14100111 Lockhartia tenuiflora 0100001001011110100111121101110110001110011? Lockhartia verrucosa 01000110010110111001111211111101100014100111 Raycadenco ecuadorensis 010121000000020?000100100111012001?01011001? Rossioglossum ampliatum 0011200020000?000 0000001010101000001040000?? Rossioglossum schlieperianum 0011010020000?0010000001100101000000060110?? Trichoceros antennifer 0010110020000?0012100002100400200001000110?? Trichopilia turialvae 0011010020000?0001000023000500000000000100??

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310 Table 5 4. F eatures of DNA regions used in this study in relation to the most parsimonious trees from each MP analysis. All 65 individual accessions were included in the combined matrices even if they had missi ng data for some regions. DNA region No. of species (individuals) Aligned length (bases) Potentially parsimony informative characters No. of shortest trees No. of ingroup n odes Tree length (steps) CI RI ITS 22 (65) 759 128 (17%) 38 11 411 0.35 0.74 trnH psbA 21 (62) 869 29 (3%) 180 5 82 0.22 0.65 trnL F 15 (48) 1272 66 (5%) 22 4 221 0.28 0.71 22 (65) 1528 122 (8%) 84 11 392 0.31 0.69 22 (65) 974 66 (6%) 220 6 291 0.24 0.62 Plastid regions combined 22 (65)* 4643 283 (6%) 114 14 986 0.33 0.66 All regions combined 22 (65)* 5402 542 (10%) 72 20 1398 0.38 0.68

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311 F igure 5 1. Representative phylogram of 38 most parsimonious trees (CI = 0.35, RI = 0.74) of Lockhartia based on the analysis of ITS sequenc es. Branches with groups and subgroups are indicated to the right of the vertical bars. Suffixes L. micrantha indicate long and short lobe morphotype, respectivel y. Asterisk indicates one accession of L. longifolia that appears separate from other members of the Longifolia group.

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312 Figure 5 2. Representative phylogram of 114 most parsimonious trees (CI = 0.33, RI = 0.66) of Lockhartia based on the analysis of th e four combined plastid DNA regions ( trnH psbA trnL F ycf1 ycf1 bootstrap support are indicated in bold. The major species groups and for L. micrantha indicate long and short lobe morphotype, respectively

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313 Figure 5 3. Representative phylogram of 72 most parsimonious trees (CI = 0.38, RI = 0.68) of Lockhartia based on the analysis of five combined DNA regions (ITS, trnH psbA trnL F ycf1 ycf1 support ar e indicated in bold. The major species groups and subgroups are L. micrantha indicate long and short lobe morphotype, respectively. See text for details.

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314 Figure 5 4. Maximum par simony 50% majority rule consensus for the combined analysis of Lockhartia based on five DNA regions (ITS, trnH psbA trnL F ycf1 ycf1 ). Bootstrap support values larger than 50% are indicated above branches. The major species groups and subgroups are indicated to L. micrantha indicate long and short lobe morphotype, respectively. See text for details.

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315 Figure 5 5. Strict consensus of 467 equally parsimonious trees derived from the an alysis of 44 morphological characters (length = 182 steps, CI = 0.36, RI = 0.74) of Lockhartia (including L. genegeorgei indicated in bold) and outgroup taxa. Numbers above branches indicate bootstrap values above 50%. Major morphological species groups o f Lockhartia are indicated to the right of the vertical bars. Notice placement of L. genegeorgei in an unresolved position together with most outgroup taxa.

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316 Figure 5 6. Strict consensus of 38 equally parsimonious trees derived from the analysis of 44 m orphological characters (length = 168 steps, CI = 0.38, RI = 0.76) for Lockhartia (excluding L. genegeorgei ). Numbers above branches indicate bootstrap values above 50%. Major morphological species groups of Lockhartia are indicated to the right of the ver tical bars.

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317 Figure 5 7. Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for stem orientation (character 1) and number of internodes per stem (i.e., individual sympodial unit; character 2) in Lockhartia Outgroup taxa indicated by generic name only (with specific e pithet initial for species of Rossioglossum ).

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318 Figure 5 8 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for leaf abscission (character 4) and leaf decurrence (character 7) in Lockhartia

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319 Figure 5 9 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for differential leaf si ze along the stem (character 9) and leaf blade configuration (character 10) in Lockhartia

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320 Figure 5 10 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for inflorescence position (character 12) and inflorescence structure (character 15) in Lockhartia

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321 Figure 5 1 1 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for inflorescence initiation (character 14) and inflorescence branching mode (character 16) in Lockhartia An empty square at the tip of a branch indicates that the character was not scored for that species, even if t he branch color indicates an unequivocal character state.

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322 Figure 5 1 2 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for perianth base color (character 18) and flower orientation (character 19) in Lockhartia

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323 Figure 5 1 3 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario f or sepal orientation (character 20) and petal configuration (character 21) in Lockhartia

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324 Figure 5 1 4 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for labellum configuration (character 23) and labellum lateral lobes (character 24) in Lockhartia

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325 Figure 5 1 5 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for callus shape (character 28) and callus trapezoid ledge (character 35) in Lockhartia An empty square at the tip of a branch indicates that the character was not scored for that species, even if the branch color in dicates an unequivocal character state.

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326 Figure 5 1 6 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for callus texture (character 30) and callus indument (character 31) in Lockhartia

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327 Figure 5 1 7 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for the elaiophore cushion (character 32) and the basal tuft of secretory hairs in the labellum (character 33) in Lockhartia

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328 Figure 5 1 8 Hypothetical evolutionary scenario for column wing shape (character 38) and stigma shape (character 39) in Lockhartia An empty square at t he tip of a branch indicates that the character was not scored for that species, even if the branch color indicates an unequivocal character state.

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329 CHAPTER 6 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS The present study constitutes a monograph of the Neotropical orchid genus Lo ckhartia It provides a historical review of its taxonomy and systematic relationships, a taxonomic revision based on an exhaustive study of herbarium specimens and cultivated plants, a detailed morphological and anatomical survey, and a study on the evolu tionary relationships within the genus and the probable evolutionary trajectory of selected morphological characters. A total of twenty nine species of Lockhartia are recognized including five species new to science Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela are the countries with most species (ten, eight, and seven, respectively). Colombia remains the country where the genus is least understood, mainly because of the paucity of herbarium collec tions. The morphological study revealed an interesting vegetative arc hitecture, unique in the subtribe Oncidiinae consisting of elongate stems devoid of pseud obulbs, covered with laterally flattened imbricate leaves. The stems are ancipitous, and have a central core of densely grouped vascular bundles, which is surrounded by a parenchymatous cortex The inflorescence of Lockhartia does not fit any of the categories described by Weberling ( 1989) and appears to be unique among the angiosperms. A detailed account of its morphology and dev elopment is presented. The basipetal development of the inflorescences along the shoot, a feature common to many species of Lockhartia but rare among orchids, has received little attention in the past

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330 Based on a phenetic consideration of morphological tr aits, the species of Lockhartia are assigned to two subgenera ( Lockhartia and Pseudobulbosa ), and the former is subdivided in to three main groups (informally called the Imbricata, Longifolia, and Parthenocomos groups). However, phylogenetic analyses of mol ecular data indicate that the three species groups of subgenus Lockhartia probably are not monophyletic, and thus they should not be formally recognized as sections in a phylogenetic classification. Furthermore, the systematic position of the only species of subgenus Pseudobulbosa is unclear; it could either represent a species well nested in the genus but that has partially reverted to an ancestral vegetative morphology, a sister taxon to the rest of the genus, or a natural intergeneric hybrid. A phylogene tic analysis of morphological data suggests that the latter is the case, but this cannot be confirmed in the absence of molecular data (DNA of this species could not be obtained for the present study). Tracing of morphological characters using parsimony on a cladogram obtained from th e molecular phylogenetic analyse s indicates that the following characters are probable synapomorphies for the genus (or, at least, for subgenus Lockhartia ): 1) more than 13 internodes per stem unit, 2) loss of a leaf abscission layer, 3) decurrent leaves, 4) leaves with an isobilateral free portion of the blade, 5) ability to produce both apical and axillary inflorescences, 6) pseudocymose inflorescence structure 7) proleptic inflorescence branching (with several species having experienced a reversal to the sylleptic branching condition), 8) pubescent glandular callus indument (with several species having experienced a reversal to the glabrous condition) and 9) stigma narrowly oblong (with one species having experienced a rever sal to the oval condition)

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331 Other morphological traits studied appear to be moderately to highly homoplasious within the genus: stem orientation (erect vs. pendulous), leaf size change along the stem, inflorescence initiation (basipetal vs. simultaneous), inflorescence branching (proleptic vs. sylleptic), perianth base color (yellow vs. white), flower orientation (resupinate vs. non resupinate or variable), sepal orientation (patent vs. reflexed), petal configuration (straight vs. arched), labellum configur ation (convex vs. flat or concave), relative size of the labellum lateral lobes, shape of the column wings, and several traits associated with the callus.

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332 APPENDIX INDEX TO HERBARIUM C OLLECTIONS EXAMINED Numerical List of Species of Lockhartia 1. L. ac uta 2. L. amoena 3. L. bennettii 4. L. cladoniophora 5. L. compacta 6. L. dipleura 7. L. endresiana 8. L. galeottiana 9. L. genegeorgei 10. L. goyazensis 11. L. grandibractea 12. L. hercodonta 13. L. imbricata 14. L. ivainae 15. L. latilabris 16. L. leptic aula 17. L. longifolia 18. L. lunifera 19. L. micrantha 20. L. oblongicallosa 21. L. obtusata 22. L. oerstedii 23. L. oxyphylla 24. L. parthenocomos 25. L. parthenoglossa 26. L. rugosifolia 27. L. serra 28. L. tenuiflora 29. L. verrucosa List of Collectio ns The numbers in parentheses refer to the Numerical List of Species presented above. More than one species number listed for unnumbered collections represent specimens mounted on separate sheets or clearly marked as a separate collection, unless otherwise indicated. Collector initials are omitted when they are unknown and/or when they are absent from the specimen labels. Many Lockhartia collections (including several types) are unnumbered, and they are included here for reference (if this list is used for species determination of unnumbered specimens, their data should be compared with those cited in the text). Anonymous collections (76 in total) are excluded.

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333 Ackerman, J.D. 870 (8), 878 (27), 1213 (8), s.n. (25). Adams, B.R. B12 (25), K56 (12), K57 (25 ). Aguilar, R. 1497 (25), 1642 (19), 3115 (19), 3376 (19). Aguilar, R., & G. Herrera 799 (1). Albert de Escobar, L., et al. 4208 (17). Alfaro, A. 74 (11), 265 (19), 39971 (11), 40231 (11), s.n. (22). Alfaro, E. 824 (22), 2304 (22), 2452 (11). Allen, P.H. 6 1 (19), 2160 (21, type of L. obtusata ), 2313 (2), 2318 (19), 2579 (21), 2903 (19), 3420 (19), 3493 (22), 3502 (22), 3550 (21), 3832 (11), 3939 (19), 4253 (1), 4259 (19), 4429 (19), 4666 (22), 4743 (22), 4764 (22), 5366 (19), 5489 (19), 5555 (25), 5761 (1), 5888 (2). Alston, A.H.G. 6195 (24). Alvarado, F. 23 (2). Alvarado, S. 51 (8). Alvarado, S., & S. Ibarra 352 (8). Ames, O. s.n. (18). Amorim, A.M., et al. 821 (18). Andel, T. van, & P. Huyskens 2629 (13). Andr, E.F. s.n. (17). Antonio, T. (or T.M.) 1995 ( 2), 3776 (25), 5004 (11). Appun, C. 1646 (13). Arauz Surez, E.G. 3149 (1). Aristeguieta, L., & C. Montoya 2077 (1). Asplund, E. 16454 (27). Atwood, J.T. 5468 (12), 77153 (12), 78134 (19), 89184 (22), 89278 (22). Atwood, J.T., & W. Morris 4019 (12), 4111 ( 11). Atwood, J.T., et al. 5027 (12). Aubert de la Rue s.n. (13). Avils, S. 34 (1). Azevedo, M.L.M., et al. 1011 (10). Balick, M.J., et al. 2567 (25). Bang, M. 2286 (17). Barclay 2800 (19). Barros, F. 1163 (10). Beauvard 6930 (22). Becerra, E., et al. 1014 (16). Bello, E. 880 (6), 1049 (12), 1224 (11, epitype of L. grandibractea ), 1434 (12), 1452 (11), 1649 (12), 1782 (12). Bello, E., & E. Cruz 4290 (12). Bello, E., et al. 4039 (12), 4098 (12), 4548 (12). Bennett, D.E. 15 (17), 53 (3), 462 (17), 4601 (16), 5199 (9, including the type of L. genegeorgei ; several specimens prepared at different dates, with different number suffixes), 5326 (16, type of L. lepticaula ), 5403 (17, type of L. tuberculata ), 6026 (16), 6427 (17), 6563 (27, type of L. schunkei ), 7321 ( 9). Bennett, D.E., & C.H. Dodson s.n. (27). Benoist, R. 850 (13). Bernoulli, G. 316 (29). Bernoulli, G., & Cario 489 (29), 566 (22). Betancur, J., & S. Churchill 2226 (19). Biolley, P. 7093 (19, also as Pittier 7093). Blanco, M. 1520 (22), 1803 (7, type of L. endresiana ), 2106 (21), 2283 (22), 2284 (12), 2286 (12), 2488 (23), 2554 (3), 2556 (2), 2558 (19), 2559 (11), 2561 (19), 2562 (19), 2563 (22), 2565 (22), 2566 (22), 2567 (1), 2568 (26), 2569 (26), 2570 (26), 2572 (21), 2573 (16), 2574 (27), 2575 (12), 2576 (18), 2667 (29), 2668 (27), 2669 (27), 2670 (18), 2671 (19), 2688 (18), 3012 (28), 3025 (21), 3212 (2), 3215 (17), 3218 (29), 3219 (18), 3220 (19), 3221 (1), 3223 (19), 3224 (22), 3227 (29), 3228 (27), 3230 (29), 3231 (28), 3232 (12), 3237 (16). Blanc o, M., & E. Serrano 2653 (25).

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334 Blanco, M., & M. Whitten 2462 (22), 2463 (11). Blanco, M., et al. 657 (11), 1792 (12). Blydenstein, J. s.n. (11, 22, 29). Bocayuva, M. s.n. (18). Bogarn, D. 44 (22), 982 (12), 1887 (12), 3937 (22), 3989 (2). Bogarn, D., & Y Kisel 4927 (12). Bogarn, D., & A. Prendas 676 (22). Bogarn, D., & F. Pupulin 2241 (25), 2242 (25). Bogarn, D., et al. 703 (12), 732 (12), 1241 (19), 2352 (4), 5769 (12). Bonsall, J. s.n. (1). Bowie & Cunningham s.n. (18). Boyle, B., et al. 4568 (17). Brade, A.C. 8527 (18), s.n. (10). Bradford 5305 (1), 5305 (13). Braga, P.I. 2074 (25). Brand, J., & M. Escobar 806 (25). Brand, J., & M. Gonzlez 599 (25), 954 (25). Breedlove, D.E. 10550 (29), 14545 (29), 26177 (29), 33022 (22), 37894 (29), 51267 (29), 68 954 (29). Breedlove, D.E., & M. Bourell 67501 (29). Breedlove, D.E., & R.F. Thorne 21075 (29). Breedlove, E.E., et al. 66245 (29). Brenes, A.M. 192 (12), 212 (2), 365 (12), 783 (12), 825 (2), 945 (12), 1034 (12), 1193 (2), 1672 (2), 2284 (12), 2436 (2), 26 38 (12), 2894 (12), 3427 (2), 11599 (2), 12216 (19), s.n. (2, 22). Brenes's numbering system is confusing; most labels include several numbers (some in parentheses and/or scratched). The numbers reported here are cautiously interpreted as the "definitive" ones. Brenner, J. 10 (27). Bristan, N. 1508 (25). Britton, N.L., & E.G. Britton 2223 (13). Britton, N.L., & W.E. Broadway 2442 (13). Broadway, W.E. 4030 (1), 8765 (1), s.n. (1, 13). Brown, D.V. s.n. (2). Brown, M. 151 (1). Bull, D.V. s.n. (8). Burchell 920 0 (13). Burger, W.C., & G. Matta 4534 (19). Burger, W.C., & R.G. Stolze 5104 (6). Burger, W.C., & R. Liesner 7245 (1). Burger, W.C., & J.L. Gentry 9022 (mixed: mostly 1, with 19 in one duplicate). Bussey, P. 584 (19). Cabrera Cachn, T.G. 67 (29), 159 (29) 224 (29). Caldern, C.E., et al. 2651 (10). Calzada, J.I. 9676 (29). Cambronero, C. s.n. (11). Campos, A. 1499 (8). Campos, J. 4558 (16). Campos, R. s.n. (1, 11, 19). Carballo, G., et al. 40 (7). Carder, H. s.n. (28). Carlson, M.C. 1797 (29), 1798 (22). Carpenter, J.B. 106 (16). Carvalho, F.A., et al. 931 (13). Castelfranco, D. s.n. (11). Castillo, J.J. 686 (29). Castro, E. 256 (25). Castroviejo, S., et al. 16162 (19). Chaboo, C. s.n. (1). Chacn, I.A. 75 (19). Chacn, L. 786 (13). Chaparro de Barrera, A. & E. Barrera Torres 168 (28). Chase, M.W. 8167 (2), 8170 (19), 15882 (11), 81010 (4), 82231 (18), 83147 (8), 83157 (18), 83253 (8), 84004 (12), 84101 (2), 84102 (21), 84327 (22), 86194 (19). Cheekwood s.n. (19). Chehaibar, T., et al. 206 (22). Chickering A.M. 60 (1).

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335 Chinchilla, M., & IV Curso de Parataxnomos 28 (2). Christopher s.n. (1). Churchill, H.W., & G. de Nevers 4411 (19), 4975 (19). Cid, C.A., et al. 4753 (10). Cid Ferreira, C.A. 9001 (10). Clark, J.L. 3660 (22). Clark, J.L., & C. Watt 804 (23) Clark, J.L., et al. 2670 (12), 2796 (23). Clark, R.B. s.n. (13). Clarke, D. 3264 (13). Clarke, D., et al. 6615 (13), 6775 (13), 6780 (13), 7491 (13). Cogollo, A., et al. 2737 (17). Contreras, E. 9369 (25). Cooper 5967 (22). Cope, W.C. s.n. (2). Cornejo, F.X. 20 (27). Cornejo, X., & C. Bonifaz 4497 (17), 7701 (23). Correa, M.D. 2618 (11). Correa, M.D., et al. 1736 (19), 2164 (11), 9502 (19). Correa Gomes, J. 1948 (10). Cowan, R.S. 38169 (13). Crawford, J. 525 (1). Cremers, G. 5093 (13), 5522 (13), 6008 (13 ), 6009 (13). Cremers, G., & J.J. de Granville 13947 (13). Cremers, G., & F. Crozier 14647 (13), 14919 (13). Cribb, P. s.n. (22). Croat, T.B. 8056 (1), 10648 (22), 14042 (1), 15569 (1), 21087 (16), 26741 (22), 29942 (22), 35290 (12), 40551 (29). Croat, T.B ., & J.P. Folsom 33917 (2). Croat, T.B., & G. Zhu 76487 (11). Cruger 1523 (13), 2246 (13). Cruz, J.S. de la 1307 (13), 1503 (13), 3108 (13). Cruz, L. s.n. (22). Cuatrecasas, J. 18319 (17). Cuming, H. 1297, 1298 and s.n. (19, possible syntypes of L. micrant ha ). D'Alessandro, D. 373 (17). Dalstrm, S., & Arnby 1346 (17). Davidse, G., & A.C. Gonzlez 13613 (1). Davidson, M.E. 584 (22). Davis, D.H. 748 (13). Dawson, E.Y. 14865 (10), 14952 (10), s.n. (8). Delascio Chitty, F.A. 2207 (13). DeWolf, G.P. 303 (19). D az, C., et al. 4702 (27), 10352 (17), 10552 (17). Daz, W., et al. 3184 (13), 3725 (13), 4886 (13). Daz Luna, C.L. 19346 (8). Dodge, C.W. 1980 (29). Dodge, C.W., & W.S. Thomas 7182 (19), 7892 (19). Dodge, C.W., & P.H. Allen 17325 (mostly 19; one duplicat e mixed with 1). Dodson, C.H. 22 (27), 182 (28), 242 (17), 2549 (12), 5588 (27), s.n. (2, 29). Dodson, C.H., & A.H. Gentry 10198 (17), 12788 (17), 17512 (23). Dodson, C.H., & P.M. Dodson 11350 (27). Dodson, C.H., & A. Hirtz 16908 (17). Dodson, C.H., et al. 8735 (27), 9235 (25), 13296 (17), 17138 (23), 17878 (28), 18675 (17). Donselaar, J. van, 2099 (13). Doring 5174 (17). Downs, W.G. s.n. (1, 13). Dress, W.J. 7015 (26). Dressler, R.L. 102 (12), 1007 (8), 1482 (22), 3022 (19), 3051 (12), 3194 (19), 3302 (19) 3392 (25), 3526 (2), 3605 (25), 3610 (19), 3621 (25), 3769 (12), 3824 (1), 4621 (25), 4837 (12), 5126 (12), 5231 (12), 5342 (11), 5397 (12), 5749 (2), 9573 (25). Dressler, R.L., & Biologa 350 296 (11).

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336 Dressler, R.L., & N.H. Williams 3974 (25). Dressler R.L., & M. Wirth 2704 (8). Drew, W.B. E 555 (12), E 566 (12), E 575 (12), E 642 (12), E 674 (23), E 690 (23). Dryander, E. 2527 (28). Dryer, V.J. 1633 (12). Dunsterville, G.C.K. 245 (24), 245A (15), 348 (13), 449 (1), 1243 (15), 1273 (17), 1352 (20, type of L. oblongicallosa [drawing]). Dunsterville, G.C.K., & E. Dunsterville 1255 (19), s.n. (19). Duparquier s.n. (10). Durn, A., & S. Levy 10 (22). Dusn, P. 8107 (18), 14274 (18), 16333 (18), 17692 (18), s.n. (18). Dwyer, J.D. 8367 (19). Echeverra, J.A. 4110 (12). Edwall 1877 (18). Edwards, J.B. 256 (22), 469 (22). Egler, W.A. 47678a (13). Ek, R.C., & D. Montfoort 135 (13), 251 (13), 252 (13). Elmore, F.H. H23 (19), J3 (1). Endara, L., & M. Cooper 308 (17). Endres, A.R. 167 (12, including lectotype of L. hercodonta ), 214 (2), 302 (mixed: 2, 7, 22), 543 (mixed: 19, 22), 629 (11, drawing, lectotype of L. grandibractea ), 2526 (4, lectotype of L. cladoniophora ), s.n. (2, including type of L. amoena ; 19; 22, including type of L. odontochila ). Endres's numberin g system is confusing; most of his collections are unnumbered. Erskine, C.M. 235 (18). Espinal, S. 3735 (17). Espinoza, R. 104 (12), 1373 (12). Estrada, A., & H. Binder 2086 (2). Estrada, A., et al. 724 (2). Fanshawe, D.B. 2420 (13). Fathrop, E.W. 7502 (29 ). Fawcett s.n. (1). Fendler, A. 1431 (1), 1432 (19), 2443 (24). Fernndez, A. 2836 (1), 3139 (13). Ferreyra, R. 9313 (16), 10078 (16). Feuillet, C. 1132 (13). Fisulnauz s.n. (11). Fletes, E., et al. 255 (19). Florschutz, J., & P.A. Florschutz 902 (13). Fo lsom, J.P., & L. Collins 1677 (1). Folsom, J.P., & A. Jaslon 2711 (12). Folsom, J.P., et al. 2301 (19), 5273 (11), 6667 (12), 6962 (2), 8062 (11), 8127 (11), 8195 (11), 1864Z (19). Forero, E., & B.L. Wrigley 7074 (10). Fregge s.n. (13, type of L. floribund a ). Freiberg, M. 15 (13). Freire, E. 4314 (28). Fuentes, Z. 200 (11). Fuentes, Z., & E. Fuentes 566 (11). Fuerkranz s.n. (19). Gailer, J. 18 (29). Gamboa, B. 2198 (2). Gamboa, B., et al. 2138 (2). Gardner, G. 4360 (10, type of L. goyazensis ). Garnier, H.A. 1831 (19). Garwood, N., et al. 159 (19). Gaudichaud, C. s.n. (18). Gehrt, A. 14606 (18). Gly, A. 439 (13). Gentle, P.H. 6469 (12), 7321 (25), 7363 (25). Gentry, A. 3775 (1), 12596 (28). Gentry, A., et al. 30772 (27). Gerlach, G. s.n. (10). Germani, M. 70 (12). Giacometto, J. 106 (1). Gillis, W.T., & T.C. Plowman 10095 (11). Gilmartin, A.J. 683 (27). Ginzberger, A., & H. Zerny 680 (13). Giraldo, G.C. 206 (17), 230 (19). Glaziou, A. 1120 (18). Gmes da Silva, S.J., et al. 103 (18). Gmez, L.D. 2412 (12).

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337 G mez, L.D., & G. Herrera 23035 (22). Gmez, L.D., et al. 23117 (11), 23191 (11). Gmez Domnguez, H. 952 (29). Gmez Laurito, J. 14314 (7). Gonzlez, A.C., & G. Davidse 950 (1). Gonzlez Loera, J., & J. Castaneda 324 (8). Gower s.n. (29). Granofremas 2555 ( 10). Granville, J.J. 4576 (13), 4960 (13), 5258 (13), 7421 (13), 8302 (13). Granville, J.J., et al. 8150 (13), 8204 (13), 9733 (13), 10515 (13), 14343 (13), 15543 (13). Grayum, M. 5591 (11), 6480 (22), 7975 (19). Grayum, M., & D. Garca 12659 (12). Grayum, M., et al. 4456 (25), 10089 (2), 12545 (12). Grognan, J. 355 (10). Guilln, R. 1946 (10). Guzmn, R. 1066 (25). Haber, W.A. 8526 (11). Haber, W.A., & J. Atwood 8564 (11), 9164 (12). Haber, W.A., & E. Bello 7329 (11), 7588 (11), 8092 (12), 8336 (12). Haber W.A., ex E. Bello 5393 (11), 5397 (11), 5705 (11). Haber, W.A., & W. Zuchowski 8699 (12), 9552 (12). Haber, W.A., et al. 11424 (2). Hgsater, E. 4770 (8), 4771 (8). Hgsater, E., & C.H. Dodson 8922 (17). Hahn, W. 138 (25). Hahn, W.A., et al. 4296 (15). H amer, F. s.n. (22). Hamilton, C., & K. Krager 3866 (22). Hammel, B. 1181 (19), 1282 (19), 1575 (22), 1987 (11). Hammel, B., et al. 6778 (22). Hampshire, R.J., & C. Whitefoord 36 (12), 622 (22). Hampshire, R.J., et al. 783A (29), 1173 (29). Hancock, W. 4 (8 ). Harling, G. 94 (27). Hartman, R.L. 12073 (25). Haught, O. 1593 (1), 3083 (27), 5570 (25). Hawkins, T., 1428 (12), 1489 (12). Hawkins, T., et al. 479 (22). Hayes, S. s.n. (1). Hayes, Y. 106 (1), 524 (25). Heller, A.H. 1271 (12), 2385 (19), 3790 (12), 582 4 (25), s.n. (12, 22). Henderson, J.L. s.n. (19). Henkel, T.W., & R. James 3640 (13). Henkel, T.W., et al. 2972 (13), 3061 (13), 3447 (13). Henshold, N., & G. McPherson 1014 (22). Hermens s.n. (13). Herrera, G. 4765 (1), 4783 (25), 4812 (mixed: mostly 19, one duplicate with 1), 4883 (2), 5524 (12), 5863 (22), 8486 (12). Herrera, G., & A. Cascante 8163 (6). Herrera, G., & V. Mora 6879 (12). Herrera, G., et al. 8659 (12), 8781 (12). Herter 6930 (10). Herzog, T. 1988 (5), 1988b (17). Hespenheide, H. s.n. (25). Heyde & Lux 4616 (29). Hill s.n. (13). Hill, A.H. 23 (13). Hinds, R. s.n. (lectotype of L. micrantha ). Hinton, G.B., et al. 14366 (8), 14640 (8). Hirtz, A. 8 (17), 7436 (12), 7687 (28), 7817 (17). Hirtz, A., & J. Len 111 (17). Hirtz, A., et al. 4004 (17) 7329 (26), 8007 (17). Hoehne, F.C. s.n. (18). Hoffman, B. 400 (13). Hoffman, B., & D. Artdes 3785a (13). Hoffmannsegg, J.C.G. s.n. (13). Holm Nielsen, L. 22932 (27). Holst, B. 8921 (12). Home, E. s.n. (13).

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338 Horich, C.K. s.n. (12). Hostmann 366 (13), 685 (13). Huber, W., & A. Weissenhofer 2548 (1). Huebsch s.n. (11). Huft, M., et al. 1680 (12). Humboldt & Bonpland 571 (20). Hunter, A.A., & P.H. Allen 586 (2). Hutchinson, P.C. 3837 (26), 6813 (3, including lectotype of L. bennettii ), s.n. (11, 12, 22, 29). Hutchinson, P.C., & R.L. Dressler 2881 (19). Hutchinson, P.C., & J.K. Wright 3837 (26), 6849 (26), 6871 (3). Hutt, D.M. s.n. (22). Idrobo, J.M., & R.E. Schultes 759 (1). Ingram, S., & K. Ferrell 856 (12), 1793 (12). Irwin, H.S., & L.Y.T. Westra 47683 (13). Irwin, H.S., et al. 17870 (10), 47678 (13), 55135 (13), 55650 (13). Jamieson s.n. (23). Jansen Jacobs, M.J., et al. 211 (13), 919 (13), 2261 (13), 6122 (13). Jelski s.n. (1, 13). Jenman, G.S. 147 (13). Jenman 7184 (13). Jenisch s.n. (24, type of L. parthe nocomos var. purpurata ). Jimnez, A. 7 (22), 2471A (11). Johnson, F.B. 1254 40 (8), 353 104 (29). Johnson, H. 556 (22), 727 (22). Johnston, I.M. 1217 (1), 1740 (1). Karremans, A., & D. Ferreira 875 (11). Karremans, A., & D. Karremans 400 (11). Karremans, A ., & M. Muoz 1965 (22). Karremans, A., et al. 290 (4). Karwinski, W.F. 3041 (8), s.n. (8). Keferstein s.n. (1, type of L. pallida ; and 24, syntype of L. parthenocomos ). Kegel, H. s.n. (18). Kennedy, H. 2726 (25). Kennedy, H., & R.L. Dressler 3523 (25). Ke rnan, C. 150 (19). Kerner 22 sub R. von Wettstein & V. Schiffner s.n. (18). Killip, E.P., & A.C. Smith 24296 (17), 30552 (13). Kimnach, M. s.n. (13, 29). Kirkbride, J.H. 2043 (17). Kirkbride, J.H., & J.A. Duke 1017 (11). Knapp, S., & R. Schmalzel 3618 (25) Krieger, P., & P. Roth 1120 (18). Kromer, T., & C. Acebey 1442 (10). Kuhlmann, Y.G. 3464 (10). Kuntze, O. s.n. (17). Kupper 32 (22), 1088 (22), 1414 (22). Kupper, W. 1628 (11). Lambach, L. 1139 (18). Lanjouw, J., & J.C. Lindeman 662 (13), 2334 (13). Lank ester, C.H. 2 (12), 448 (19), 681 (25), 782 (19), 905 (12), s.n. (11, 12, 22). Lansberg s.n. (13, type of L. obtusifolia ). Lasser, T. 752 (1, type of L. lasseri ). Lazor, R.L. 2821 (22). Lean, P.M. 8693 (13). LeBlond 414 or s.n. (13, type of L. biserra ) LeD oux, M., & R. Stern 154 (19), 170 (19), 218 (19), 355 (7), 379 (18). Lee, N.E. 150 (13). Lehmann, F.C. 92 (27, lectotype of L. serra ), 1058 (12), 2020 (17), 3290 (17, type of L. unicornis ), 8905 (27), B.T.95 (27), H.K.1143 (27), s.n. (17). Lent, R.W. 1522 (4). Len, H. 656 (25). Len, J. 851 (22), 963 (19), 4352 (11). Leopardi, C. 311(20). Lpiz, E., et al. 121 (6). Leprieur 134(13). Lewis, M.W. 225 (29). Lewis, W.H., et al. 295 (19). Liesner, R. 563 (12), 597 (19), 722 (19), 870 (2), 962 (12), 1098 (25), 2 151 (19), 2202 (19), 5184 (4). Liesner, R., & A. Gonzlez 10529 (19), 10567 (17).

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339 Liesner, R., & B. Holst 20847 (15), 21315 (13). Liesner, R., et al. 9620 (19). Lindeman, J.C., et al. 337 (13). Linden, J. 660 (17, type of L. longifolia ), s.n. (27). Linder, D.H. 166 (13). Lindman, C.A.M. A2457 (10). Lins, A., et al. 423 (13). Lisboa, P., et al. 285 (10). Loddiges s.n. (13; 18, lectotype of L. lunifera ). Lpez, A., et al. 4275 (26). Lpez, A., & A. Aldave 8553 (3). Luer, C. 2805 (27). Luer, C., & J.Luer 1407 (19). Luer, C., et al. 702 (12), 703 (19), 752 (19), 764 (19), 1314 (11), 8654 (17), 9259 (19), 10520 (2), 10646 (12). Luteyn, J.L. 873 (22), 1016 (2). Maas, P.J.M., & L.Y.T. Westra 3892 (13). Maas, P.J.M., et al. 2714 (19). MacBryde, B. 419 (27). Macedo, A. 2466 (10). Maciel, U.N., et al. 1475 (10). Magnano, H. 287(10). Magrum, L.J. 167 (13). Mally, D. 105 (29). Marcano Berti, L. 905 (1). Marn, J. 252 (25). Marshall, T. s.n. (12, 22). Martinelli, G., & E. Fernandes da Silva 320 (10). Martnez, E. 17162 (2 2). Martnez, E.M., & W.D. Stevens 23964 (22). Martius 2237 (18), 2694 (10). Martuscelli, P. s.n. (10). Mason, L.M. 14 (19), 14P (19), 1194 (29), 1811 (13), 2126 (7), 2397 (2). Mathews s.n. (26). Matuda, E. 4369 (29). Maxon, W.R. 5096 (22), 5097 (22). Maya S. 376 (29), 3581 (29), 3722 (29). McCullough, R. s.n. (12). McDiarmid, R. s.n. (19). McDowell, T., et al. 2094 (13). McPherson, G. 7514 (12), 8468 (25), 9119 (12), 9316 (22), 11812 (12), 12088 (2). McVaugh, R., & R.L. Wilbur 10223 (8). Medina, F. s.n. ( 19). Meier, W., & O. Kunert 5000 (24), 5004 (24). Meja, H., & A. Luna 478 (29). Mendoza, R. 310 (11). Mendoza, R., et al. 128 (11). Merz 233 (12), 406 (19). Micklow, F. s.n. (2). Miranda, F. 6372 (29). Misas Urreta, G. 186 (25), 306 (21). Mitre, M.E. 342 (25). Mocquerys s.n. (1). Molina, A., et al. 17932 (2). Montgomery, G. 161 (1). Moore, H.E. 5145 (8), 6462 (29). Moore, S. 692 (10). Mora (de Retana), D.E. 32 (2), s.n. (6, 7, 12). See also D.E. Retana. Morales, J.F. 1016 (19), 8025 (11), 8059 (11). Morale s, J.F., & J. Gonzlez 10236 (2). Morales, J.F., et al. 8848 (22). Moreno, L.M. 497 (1). Moreno, P., & J. Henrich 8498 (12). Moreno, P.P. 20276 (12), 23609 (19). Mori, S., & R. Ek 20725 (13). Mori, S., & C.A. Gracie 18710 (13). Mori, S., et al. 20857 (13) Morillo, G., & R. Liesner 8805 (13). Mora, P. s.n. (6, 19). Mosn, H. 3800 (18). Mostacedo, B., & R. Foster 84 (10). Mller, A. 1987/96 (18). Muoz, A., & C. Tapia 130 (17), 231 (17), 392 (17). Muoz, M. 04 102 (22). Nagel, O., & E. Monzn 6991 (22). Na sh, G.V. 24685 (1), 24686 (25), 28294 (27). Navarro, E. 280 (22).

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340 Neill, D. 5068 (22). Nelson, C., & R. Andino 14502 (12). Nevers, G.d., et al. 4589 (1), 6881 (1). Neves Armond 41 (18), 294 (18), s.n. (18). Nevling, L., & A. Gmez Pompa 295 (29). Newcomb, G.B. s.n. (2). Nez, P., et al. 11107 (17). Nez Rivas, G. 8 (22). Obando, N. 118 (11). Ocampo, R.A. 1423 (7), 3423 (19). Ochoa Gaona, S., et al. 4106 (29), 4126 (29). Oersted 7056 or s.n. (22, type of L. o erstedii ). Oestlund, K.E.M. 1720 (8), 2687 (8), 2688 (8), 3280 (8), 4541 (29). Olbrecht, E., & E.G. Arauz Surez 3335 (25). Oliveira, A.T. 3 (14, type of L. ivainae ). Ollgaard, B., & H. Balslev 10212 (17). Ortiz, F. 602 (19). Ospina, M. 1435 (18). Ospina H ernndez, M. 770 (1). Ossenbach, C. s.n. (12). Oviedo Brenes, F. 214 (7). Pabst, G. 819 (18), 1034 (18), 1284 (18). Palacios, W., & D. Rubio 9981 (27). Patris s.n. (13, type of L. imbricata ). Pavn 444 or s.n. (17, collected by J. Tafalla). Pearce, R. s.n. (17). Perea, J., et al. 4126 (17). Pereira, B.A.S. 2588 (10). Pereira, B.A.S., & D. Alvarenga 2271 (10), 2493 (10). Prez, R. 363 (19). Pescator s.n. (13). Pfau 79 (2). Philipson, W.R., & J.M. Idrobo 1856 (1), 1901 (1). Philipson, W.R., et al. 1434 (1). P inheiro, R.S. s.n. (18). Pinho dos Santos, H.G., et al. 487 (10). Pires, J.M. 16995 (13). Pires, J.M., & P.B. Cavalcante 52197 (13). Pires, J.M., et al. 51564 (13), 51590 (13). Pittier, H. 255 (1), 2342* (22), 3401 (25, type of L. pittieri ), 3857* (12), 52 86 (19, type of L. chiriquiensis ), 6598* (2), 7093 (19, also as Biolley 7093), 10592* (2, type of L. costaricensis ), s.n. (1). Pittier's numbers from the years 1897 1903 belong to an institutional sequence of the Instituto Fsico Geogrfico de Costa Rica ( noted with an asterisk above, although this notation is absent from the labels); those from later dates belong to his own personal numbering system. Ploch, M.C. s.n. (19). Pohl 172 (13). Pollard, G.R.M. 65 (13). Poortman 482 (17). Porter, D.M., et al. 4932 (19). Poveda, J., & L.D. Gmez 4715 (19). Powell, C.W. 50 (27), 51 (mixed: mostly 19, 1 in one duplicate), 52 (1), 75 (mixed: 11, 22), 355 (25, type of L. variabilis ), 361 (25), 362 (11), 362a (11, type of L. triangulabia ) 372 (25), 3084 (19), 3049 (19), 3189 (19), 3203 (19), 3352 (22), 3476 (19), s.n. (1, 11, 22). Powell's early numbers correspond to putative species, while later numbers (3000 and above) represent gatherings. Prance, G.T., et al. 6264 (10), 6604 (10), 18303 (10). Prvost, M.F., & P. Grena nd 2014 (13). Pridgeon, A. s.n. (8, 19). Pring, G.H. s.n. (1). Proctor, G.R. 31959 (22), 35940 (25). Pulle, A. 345 (13).

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341 Pupulin, F. 92 (12), 133 (12), 313 (19, type of L. pandurata ), 496 (?), 798 (22), 2251 (12), 2741 (22), 2794 (11), 2813 (22), 2953 (11) 3605 (22), 3854 (22), 4375 (1), s.n. (11, 19). Pupulin, F., ex J. Cambronero 2615 (25). Pupulin, F., et al. 834 (22), 1162 (2), 3626 (11), 4493 (7), 4515 (11), 4518 (7), 5834 (11), 7734 (6). Purdom, M.A. s.n. (22). Quesada, F. 306 (11), 377 (19), 528 (6) Quirs, M. 245 (12), 304 (12). Quizhpe, W., et al. 995 (17), 1070 (17). Raddi, G. s.n. (18). Ratter, J.A., & W. Milliken 6126 (13). Raven, P.H. 21820 (11), 21906 (11). Reko, R.P. 6061 (8). Rentera, E., et al. 3812 (25), 4573 (25). Renz, J. 14492 (8). Re nz, O. 3013 (1), 3014 (1), 4007 (17), 4198 (1), 5138 (17), 6550 (1), 6579 (1), 6602 (1), 7529 (13), 7901 (1), 8137 (24), 9207 (13) 9465 (1), 9685 (1), 9739 (19), 9784 (1). Retana, D.E. s.n. (2, 11, 22). See also D.E. Mora (de Retana). Riedel 8 (18). Ros, P. 246 (25). Ros, P., & Curso II de Parataxnomos 189 (12). Rivera, G. 697 (12), 2156 (7), 3080 (7). Rivera, G., & Q. Jimnez 1514 (11). Robbins, S.B. 6135 (19). Rodrguez, A., & R. Foster 765 (10). Rodrguez, A., & E. Lpiz 7362 (11). Rodrguez, A., et a l. 10137 (22). Rodrguez, R.L. 1044 (19), 1068 (22). Rodrguez, R.L., ex M. Mathias 1183 (11). Rohr 42 (18). Rojas, A., et al. 7021 (11). Romaniuc Neto, S., et al. 846 (18). Rosa, N.A., & M.R. Santos (10). Rossi, L., et al. 556 (18). Rothery 246 (13), 1853 (13). Rowell, M. 2995 (8). Rowlee, W.W., & H.E. Rowlee 292 (11). Rubio, D., et al. 1766 (27), 1818 (27). Rueda, R., et al. 5228 (25),10738 (12), 14756 (12), 15572 (12), 15854 (12), 15940 (12). Rueda, R., & I. Coronado 7868 (1). Ruiz s.n. (17). Ruiz, N. 8 (22). Ruiz Boyer, A. 18 (22). Rutris, E. 72 (13). Ryan s.n. (1). Ryan, C.L., & H.A. Floyed 34 (8). Saer 107 (1). Snchez, A.C. 8 (22). Snchez Vega, I., & M. Dillon 9013 (16). Sagot s.n. (13). Saldas, M., et al. 2177 (10). Salvin, O. s.n. (29, lectotype o f L. robusta ). Samuels, J.A. s.n. (13). Sandino, J.C. 4745 (19). Sandwith, N.Y. 705 (13). Sanford, W. 6 (19). Santos, M.R. 475 (13). Sastre, C. 5843 (13), 6261 (13). Saunders 2068 (1). Sawyer, H.D. 103 (8), 680 (8). Saynes, A., et al. 2191 (8), 2907 (8). S chiller s.n. (18, type of L. ludibunda ). Schipp, W.A. 1387 (25). Schlim, L. 1026 (17). Schmeling, A. von 6250 (22). Schmidt & Schiller s.n. (22, type of L. lamellosa ). Schmidt, E. 2 (10). Schmidt Mumm, H. 149 (17). Schnell, R. 12158 (13). Schomburgk 85S (1 3). Schug, W. 246 (22), 247 (12), 270 (2). Schunke, J. 10514 (16). Schwacke 13226 (18). Seibert, R.J. 132 (22), 133 (22), 186 (22).

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342 Sess, M. s.n. (8, type of L. galeottiana ; 29). Shaffer, I.J. s.n. (19). Shattuck, O.E. 234 (1), 837 (1). Silva, J.B., et al 331 (10). Silva, J.B.F. da, & M.R. Santos 7 (10), 330 (14). Silva, M.G. 6217 (10). Silva, M.G., & C. Rosario 4879 (10). Silva, M.N., et al. 36 (10). Silva, N.T. 1304 (13). Silvera, K. 18 (19), 72 (19), 73 (27). Silvestre s.n. (1). Skutch, A.F. 2316 (2), 2334 (12), 2844 (12). Smith, A. 688 (22). Smith, A.C. 3290 (13), 3586 (13). Smith, H. s.n. (mixed collection, 1, 13). Smith, H.H. 2374 (1). Sodiro 128 (27), s.n. (23, 27). Sols Rojas, F. 502 (2). Solomon, J.C. 6413 (10). Soto, R. s.n. (2, 7). Soto Nez, J.C., & S. Aureoles 8432 (8). Soto Nez, J.C., & F. Solrzano 12799 (8). Souza, M., & C. Soto 7139 (8). Span, E. 19 (1). Spannagel, C. 131 (18). Sperling, C.R., et al. 5731 (10), 6349 (10). Splitberger 18 (13), 721 (13). Staal, G.B. s.n. (29). Stahl, B., & J.T. Knudsen 1186 (27). Standley, P.C. 25494 (19), 29984 (19), 33740 (12), 36280 (12), 38270 (12), 39282 (22), 39686 (11), 39908 (11), 39942 (11), 39957 (12), 40201 (19), 41610 (22), 42822 (22), 44161 (19), 44271 (19), 86984 (29). Standley, P.C., & J. Va lerio 44675 (6, type of L. integra ), 44927 (19), 44989 (19), 46014 (11), 46097 (19), 46118 (19), 46377 (19), 47034 (19), 47100 (19), 49263 (12). Stange & Schill s.n. (25, type of L. parthenoglossa ; 29, type of L. verrucosa ). Stern, W.L., et al. 1125 (22), 1836 (19). Stevens, W.D. 1277 (29), 6698 (12), 8362 (19), 8429 (19), 8433 (19), 11584 (12), 12140 (19), 12691 (25), 12946 (19). Stevens, W.D., & O.M. Montiel 24610 (25). Stevens, W.D., et al. 21097 (12), 21195 (12). Stevenson, P. 1935 (1). Steyermark, J.A. 17515 (1), 35271 (29), 37333 (29), 46397 (29), 46595 (29), 48039 (12), 51744 (22), 55398 (24), 60222 (15, type of L. latilabris ), 61123 (mixed: mostly 13, with 1 in one duplicate), 61930 (20), 87486 (13), 87814 (13), 87979 (13), 88069 (13), 90994 (24), 95 293 (24). Steyermark, J.A., & P.H. Allen 17437 (19), 17440 (19). Steyermark, J.A., & G. Davidse 116725 (1). Steyermark, J.A., & J.E. Fernndez 99691 (1). Steyermark, J.A., et al. 101993 (1), 112959 (13), 114418 (13), 114730 (13). Stimson, W.R., et al. 5421 (19). Stork, H.E. 2100 (22). Stork, H.E., ex M. Chacn 2324 (22) Stork, H.E., ex. K. Danielson 1495 (22). Sytsma, K. 1345 (25), 1363 (25). Sytsma, K., & T. Antonio 2337 (19). Sytsma, K., & W.G. D'Arcy 3342 (25), 3345 (19), 3370 (25), 3444 (19). Sytsma, K. et al. 4210 (19). Tafalla, J. 444 (17, as Pavn F.H. 444 in original labels). Tate, R. 459 (19), 492 (25). Taylor, P. 10 (1), 63 (12), 65 (19), 13205 (12), 13224 (19). Taylor, W.R. 1510 (19).

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343 Teunissen, M., & P. Teunissen 1117 (13), 1240 (13), 1343 (13). Thomas, W.S. 7905 (19). Thomsen, K., & J. Korning 224 (2). Thurn, E.F. im 73 (13), 1970 (13), s.n. (13). Tillett, S.S., & C.L. Tillett 44961 (15), 45470 (15). Tipaz, G., et al. 863 (27). Todzia, C. 251 (2), 431 (12), 478 (4), 515 (12), 802 (4), 1922 (22). Tonduz, A. 10053 (19), s.n. (1, 22). Triana, J. s.n. (19, type of L. chocoensis ). Tulleken, J.E. 384 (13). Tyson, E.L. 5853 (22). Tyson, E.L., et al. 3258 (19). Ule, E. 7733 (13). Urbina, D. 832 (19). Utley, K. 5706 (19), 5914 (4). Valerio, J. 1 (19), 101 1 (22), 1287 (11). Valerio, M. 18 (12), 145 (22), 192 (22), 369 (19), 574 (25), 801 (12), 2595 (22). Valerio, O. s.n. (25). Valverde, F.M. 306 (27), 1823 (27). Valverde, R. 600 (22), 636 (22). Valverde, R., et al. 2009 (11), 2020 (11). Vargas, C., & M. Sal viz 972 (27). Vargas, E. 24 (22). Vargas, G., et al. 1348 (7). Vargas, I.G., & N. Tagua 2728 (10). Vargas, I.G., et al. 1701 (10), 4040 (10). Vargas Caldern, C. 3138 (17), 5546 (17), 11381 (17). Vasconcelos, R.T.P., et al. 15 (10). Vsquez, A. 218 (3), 23 1 (3). Vsquez, F. 939 (29). Vsquez, R. 2522 (5, type of L. compacta ). Vsquez, R., ex L.R. Moreno 911 (10). Vsquez, R., et al. 2119 (16), 2126 (10), 2203 (10), 4259 (5), 4281 (5). Veitch, J. 443 (29), s.n. (29). Vliz, M., et al. 943886 (22). Veth, B.M. 206 (13). Veyret, Y. 1410 (13). Vidal Snge, M. s.n. (3, 17). Villalobos, R. 27 (2). Vincent, D. 6930 (10). Wagener, H. s.n. (1). Wagener, H. 102 sub Kiel s.n. (24, lectotype of L. parthenocomos ). Wagner, A. s.n. (27). Wagner, M. s.n. (22). Wallis, G. s. n. (17, type of L. platyglossa ). Walter, B.M.T., et al. 1294 (10). Wania, R. 94 (1). Warr, G. 15 (12). Warscewicz s.n. (22, type of L. mirabilis ). Webster, G.L. 16714 (22). Webster, G.L., et al. 28964 (17), 29301 (17), 30408 (23), 30428 (23). Weddell, M.A. 2581 (10). Weigelt, C. s.n. (13, type of L. weigelti ). Weitzman, A. 206 (13). Werckl, C. 102 (6, type of L. dipleura ). White, W.E. s.n. (4, 22). Whitten, M. 3345 (12), 3432 (11), 3433 (16), 3434 (17), 99231 (21), 99232 (mixed: 3, 12), 99233 (19), 99234 ( 22), 99235 (27), s.n. (11, 27). Whitten, M., et al. 1645 (26), 1646 (17), 1704 (3), 2382 (23), 2383 (12), 2385 (17), 2430 (28), 2431 (27), 2432 (26), 2441 (23), 2719 (28, type of L. tenuiflora ). Wilbur, R.L., & R.E. Weaver 11380 (19). Wilbur, R.L., & C.R. Wilbur 1728 (8). Wilbur, R.L., et al. 15070 (25). Williams, L.O., et al. 24231 (19), 27714 (12), 28665 (2), 28789 (2), 28866 (19). Williams, R.S. 623 (19), 1008 (25). Woodson, R.E., & R.W. Schery 236 (22). Woodson, R.E., et al. 966 (22). Woytkowski, F. 522 8 (3), 8172 (26). Wurdack, J.J. (26, type of L. rugosifolia ). Zetek s.n. (19).

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344 LIST OF REFERENCES Allen PH. 1949. Flora of Panama: Orchidaceae, fourth part. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 36 : 133 245. Alves dos Santos I, Machado IC, Gaglianone M C. 2007. Histria natural das abelhas coletoras de leo Oecologia Brasiliensis 11: 544 557. Ames O. 1937. Orchidaceae. In: PC Standley, ed. Flora of Costa Rica. Part I. Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 18 : 197 306. A mes O. 1944. Destruction of the Schlechter herbarium by bombing. American Orchid Society Bulletin 13: 105 106. Ames O, Correll DS. 1953. Orchids of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Botany 26 : 401 727. Andersen TF, Johansen B, Lund I, Rasmussen FN, Rasmussen H, Sre nsen I. 1988. Vegetative architecture of Eria Lindleyana 3: 117 132. Arber A. 1921. The leaf structure of the Iridaceae, considered in relation to the Phyllode Theory. Annals of Botany 35: 301 336. Arber A. 1925. Monocotyledons, a morphological study Ca mbridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. Arditti J. 1992. Fundamentals of orchid biology J. Wiley & Sons: New York. Arditti J, Ghani AKA. 2000. Numerical and physical properties of orchid seeds and their biological implications. New Phytologist 145: 367 421. Atwood JT, Mora de Retana DE. 1999. Flora Costaricensis. Family #39 Orchidaceae: Tribe Maxillarieae: Subtribes Maxillariinae and Oncidiinae. Fieldiana, Botany New Series 40 : 1 182. Barbosa Rodrigues J. 1883. Structure des orchides: notes d'une tu de Typographie Nationale : Rio de Janeiro. Belcher E. 1843. Narrative of a voyage around the world, performed in Her Majesty's Ship Sulphur, during the years 1836 1842. Vol. 1 Henry Colburn: London. Bell AD 2008. Plant form: An illustrated guide to flo wering plant morphology. 2 nd Edition. Timber Press: Portland. Bennett DE, Christenson EA. 1998. New species of Peruvian Orchidaceae V. Lindleyana 13 : 31 56. Bentham G. 1881. Notes on the Orchideae. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 18 : 281 360.

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359 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mario Alberto Blanco Coto was born in San Jos, Costa Rica, in 1972. He obtained a Bachelor in Sc ience in b iology from the University of Costa Rica (UCR) in 1996. As an undergrad student at UCR, he became very interested in the taxonomy and reproductive biology of plants, particularly orchids. He worked as a research assistant for the late Dora Emilia Mora de Retana, former director of the Lankester Botanical Garden of UCR, in various projects on Costa Rican orchids. In 1997, Mario spent three months as a research intern at the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens in Sarasota, Florida, where he studied the Co sta Rican species of Lepanthes under the guidance of John T. Atwood. He came to the Botany Department at the University of Florida to pursue a PhD under the guidance of Norris H. Williams. Mario plans to continue doing research in plant systematics, morpho logy, and reproductive biology, with an emphasis on the Orchidaceae