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Construction Worker Health

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043256/00001

Material Information

Title: Construction Worker Health A Web-Based Approach to Selecting Alternatives to Hazardous Materials and Procedures
Physical Description: 1 online resource (142 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Pesantes-Tavares, Eileen R
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: construction -- health -- worker
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Construction workers health has been studied mostly under occupational health environments. Most studies examine the effects that exposure to harmful substances and procedures can have. Other studies refer to changes that can be made to procedures to avoid hazardous situations and to safeguard the health of the construction workers. Some recommendations have been adopted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and others are the result of and the efforts of other agencies such as the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and its maximum exposure values and how to minimize exposure. Unfortunately, health issues are largely disregarded by different construction stakeholders such as owners, designers and construction managers, primarily because of the latency period from the time and length of exposure to the onset of the effects of that exposure. Safety has been given considerable attention because the cause and effect lag time is minimal, as a worker who has an accident, usually sees the effects at the same moment the accident happens. The adoption of safety regulations by OSHA to prevent injuries and the importance given to safety by construction professionals makes safety an important issue in construction. Jobsites have safety training and safety talks to avoid accidents, but health issues are rarely addressed in these talks. Besides putting together the different substitutions in procedures and materials, this study aims to present it in a way accessible to construction managers and other construction stakeholders to ensure their adoption. A web-based database, organized using Construction Specification Institute (CSI) Masterformat 1995, has been developed to provide easy access to the different substitutions that can be made to safeguard the health of the construction worker. Furthermore, the database can be access from design software programs like Sketchup through an application programming interface programmed in Ruby. It can also be accessed from Excel, a common tool use by estimators to do their project estimate, via an add-in programmed in Visual Basic. Moreover, it translates to Extensible Markup Language (XML) that later can be integrated to design software and other tools to provide the information at the planning and design stages of the project. This study does not include all divisions of the CSI Masterformat as it only covers divisions 2 through 5 which are: Sitework, Concrete, Masonry and Metals divisions. It will cover issues that affect long term such as respiratory illnesses, ergonomics, and cancer related agents. Items that require special training, such as dealing with asbestos, will not be covered. Furthermore, this research does not include the different requirements for safety and health protection that manufacturers of construction materials need to provide for their workers. Only construction site issues will be addressed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Eileen R Pesantes-Tavares.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Ellis, Ralph D.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043256:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043256/00001

Material Information

Title: Construction Worker Health A Web-Based Approach to Selecting Alternatives to Hazardous Materials and Procedures
Physical Description: 1 online resource (142 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Pesantes-Tavares, Eileen R
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: construction -- health -- worker
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Construction workers health has been studied mostly under occupational health environments. Most studies examine the effects that exposure to harmful substances and procedures can have. Other studies refer to changes that can be made to procedures to avoid hazardous situations and to safeguard the health of the construction workers. Some recommendations have been adopted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and others are the result of and the efforts of other agencies such as the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and its maximum exposure values and how to minimize exposure. Unfortunately, health issues are largely disregarded by different construction stakeholders such as owners, designers and construction managers, primarily because of the latency period from the time and length of exposure to the onset of the effects of that exposure. Safety has been given considerable attention because the cause and effect lag time is minimal, as a worker who has an accident, usually sees the effects at the same moment the accident happens. The adoption of safety regulations by OSHA to prevent injuries and the importance given to safety by construction professionals makes safety an important issue in construction. Jobsites have safety training and safety talks to avoid accidents, but health issues are rarely addressed in these talks. Besides putting together the different substitutions in procedures and materials, this study aims to present it in a way accessible to construction managers and other construction stakeholders to ensure their adoption. A web-based database, organized using Construction Specification Institute (CSI) Masterformat 1995, has been developed to provide easy access to the different substitutions that can be made to safeguard the health of the construction worker. Furthermore, the database can be access from design software programs like Sketchup through an application programming interface programmed in Ruby. It can also be accessed from Excel, a common tool use by estimators to do their project estimate, via an add-in programmed in Visual Basic. Moreover, it translates to Extensible Markup Language (XML) that later can be integrated to design software and other tools to provide the information at the planning and design stages of the project. This study does not include all divisions of the CSI Masterformat as it only covers divisions 2 through 5 which are: Sitework, Concrete, Masonry and Metals divisions. It will cover issues that affect long term such as respiratory illnesses, ergonomics, and cancer related agents. Items that require special training, such as dealing with asbestos, will not be covered. Furthermore, this research does not include the different requirements for safety and health protection that manufacturers of construction materials need to provide for their workers. Only construction site issues will be addressed.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Eileen R Pesantes-Tavares.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Ellis, Ralph D.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2013-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043256:00001


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1 CONSTRUCTION WORKER HEALTH : A WEB BASED APPROACH TO SELECTING A LTERNATIVES TO HAZARDOUS PROCEDURES By EILEEN ROSA PESANTES TAVARES A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Eileen Rosa Pesantes Tavares

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3 To my husband and kids

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my committee, Dr. Charles Glagola, Dr. Ronald Cook and Dr. Jimmie Hinze, for sharing their knowledge and experience. I especially thank my chair committee, Dr. Ralph D. Ellis, for his encouragement and guidance, and for always being willing to share his vast experience and knowledge; his contribution to my years at The University of Florida is invaluable. I will also like to t hank Ms. Pam Susi and the people from The Center for Construction Research and Training ( CPWR ), who have been constant sources of information. Special thanks go to my parents Ne ida and Hiplito, and siblings Rosala, Hugo and Natacha, who unconditionally believe in me and encourage me to aim higher each time. I am deeply grateful to my husband Miguel, who supports me in all m y endeavors, without his companionship and love this road would have been more difficult and less enjoyable. I am also grateful for my kids Esteban and Elisa, for their patience and understanding even at their early age as they are my inspiration and my reason to keep on going every day Last but not least I w ould like to thank my friends especially those in Gainesville, for being the best support group anyone could ask for.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 LIST OF ABBREV IATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 11 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 15 Health and Safety in Construction ................................ ................................ .......... 15 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 16 Overview of Solution ................................ ................................ ............................... 16 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 19 Opening Remarks ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 19 Health Issues in Construction ................................ ................................ ................. 19 Skin Diseases ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 20 Respiratory Conditions ................................ ................................ ..................... 20 Silica exposure ................................ ................................ ........................... 22 Welding fume s exposure ................................ ................................ ........... 23 Diesel exposure ................................ ................................ ......................... 24 Musculoskeletal Disorders ................................ ................................ ................ 25 Construction Sustainability ................................ ................................ ...................... 26 Sustainability, a Definition ................................ ................................ ................ 26 Rating Sys tems ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and the Green Movement ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 28 LEED and safety ................................ ................................ ........................ 28 LEED and health ................................ ................................ ........................ 29 Designing fo r Safety ................................ ................................ ............................... 30 The Early Years ................................ ................................ ................................ 30 Designing for safety available software tools ................................ ............. 32 Designing for Safety and Health in the United King dom ................................ ... 32 Prevention through Design ................................ ................................ ............... 33 Management of Health in Construction ................................ ................................ ... 35 European Construction Institute ................................ ................................ ....... 35 Civil Engineering Contractors Association ................................ ........................ 35 United States Department of Labor ................................ ................................ .. 36

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6 3 SUBSTITUTIONS AND MODIFICATIONS ................................ ............................. 37 Opening Remarks ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 37 Survey Demographics ................................ ................................ ............................. 37 Construction Specification Institute MASTERFORMAT 1995 ................................ 39 Division 2 Site Construction ................................ ................................ ................... 40 Activities Covered by this Division ................................ ................................ .... 40 Survey Results ................................ ................................ ................................ 41 Demolition ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 42 Open Trench vs. Tr enchless Methods for Pipe Installation or Replacement .... 43 Open cut method for installation and replacement of pipes ....................... 44 Trenchless methods for new installation ................................ .................... 45 Trenchless methods for pipe replacements ................................ ............... 47 Emission comparison between open cut and trenchless me thods ............. 47 Costs comparison between open cut and trenchless methods .................. 48 Schedule impact to the project ................................ ................................ ... 50 Pavers, Curbs and Sidewalks ................................ ................................ ........... 50 Cost and schedule impact ................................ ................................ .......... 51 Division 3 Concrete ................................ ................................ .............................. 51 Activities Covered by this Division ................................ ................................ .... 51 Survey Results ................................ ................................ ................................ 51 Crystalline Silica ................................ ................................ ............................... 52 Concrete Activities that Generate Silica Dust ................................ ................... 53 General grinding equipment ................................ ................................ ....... 53 Cost considerations ................................ ................................ ................... 55 Schedule considerations ................................ ................................ ............ 56 Other concrete activities ................................ ................................ ............ 56 Pr ecast vs. Cast in Place Concrete ................................ ................................ .. 56 Division 4 Masonry ................................ ................................ ................................ 57 Activities Covered by this Division ................................ ................................ .... 57 Survey results ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 58 Hazardous Conditions ................................ ................................ ...................... 59 Division 5 Metals ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 61 Activities Covered by this Division ................................ ................................ .... 61 Survey results ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 61 Hazardous Conditions Encountered when Working with Metals ...................... 62 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ........................... 65 4 DATABASE C ONFIGURATION ................................ ................................ .............. 66 Opening Remarks ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 66 Database Language ................................ ................................ ............................... 66 Available Information ................................ ................................ .............................. 67 Additional Information ................................ ................................ ....................... 70 Using the Application ................................ ................................ .............................. 70 Accessing Existing Information ................................ ................................ ......... 70 Entering New Information ................................ ................................ ................. 73

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7 Tran slating to Extensible Markup Language (XML) ................................ .......... 75 Ruby and Sketchup ................................ ................................ ................................ 76 Estimates in Excel ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 77 5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH ................................ ......................... 78 Accomplishments ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 78 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 79 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 81 B CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE MASTERFORMAT 1995 ......... 85 C EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES ................................ ................................ ...................... 91 D WEB BASED DATABASE CODE ................................ ................................ ........... 94 E SKETCHUP API CODE ................................ ................................ ........................ 129 F EXCEL MACRO CODE ................................ ................................ ........................ 132 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 134 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 141

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Division 2 subdivisions ................................ ................................ ....................... 40 3 2 Project unit cost per type and pipe diameter. ................................ ...................... 49 3 3 Division 3 subdivisions ................................ ................................ ....................... 51 3 4 Recommended limit values of crystalline silica ................................ ................... 53 3 5 Equipment requirements for controlling silic a dust when grinding ..................... 55 3 6 Division 4 subdivisions ................................ ................................ ....................... 58 3 7 Division 5 subdivisions ................................ ................................ ....................... 61 3 8 Hazardou s welding fume constituents ................................ .............................. 64 4 1 Division 2 Sitework available information ................................ ......................... 67 4 2 Division 3 Concrete available information ................................ ......................... 68 4 3 Division 4 Masonry available information ................................ .......................... 69 4 4 Division 5 Metals available information ................................ ............................ 69

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Database output ................................ ................................ ................................ 18 2 1 Reported illnesses between 1995 2009. ................................ ............................ 20 2 2 Leading causes of respiratory diseases in the c onstruction industry in 2001 ..... 21 3 1 Survey demographics question 2 ................................ ................................ ....... 38 3 2 Survey demographics question 3. ................................ ................................ ...... 39 3 3 Survey results of hazards for division 2 ................................ .............................. 41 3 4 Auger boring (Courtesy of Advanced Underground) ................................ ........... 45 3 5 Horizontal directional drilling (Courtesy of Advanced Underground) .................. 46 3 6 Pipe bursting (Courtesy of Advanced Underground) ................................ .......... 47 3 7 Survey results of hazards for division 3 ................................ .............................. 52 3 8 Survey results of hazards for division 4 ................................ .............................. 59 3 9 Survey results of hazards for division 5 ................................ .............................. 62 4 1 Divisions screen ................................ ................................ ................................ 71 4 2 Subdivisions screen for division 2 Sitework ................................ ....................... 71 4 3 Subdivision activities ................................ ................................ .......................... 71 4 4 Recommendations under activities ................................ ................................ ..... 72 4 5 Recommendations cost and schedule impact ................................ .................... 72 4 6 Create a new division ................................ ................................ ......................... 73 4 7 Create new subdivision ................................ ................................ ...................... 73 4 8 New subdivision with activities ................................ ................................ ............ 74 4 9 New activity with recommendations ................................ ................................ .... 74 4 10 New recommendation screen ................................ ................................ ............. 75 4 11 ................................ ................................ ............................. 75

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10 4 12 XML code for screen view on figure 4 9. ................................ ............................ 76

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11 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists API Application Programming Interface ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers BIM Building Information Modeling BREEAM Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method CASBEE Comprehensive System for Building Environmental Efficiency CECA Civil Engineering Contractors Association CMU Concrete Masonry Unit CPWR The Center for Construction Research and Training. Formerly known as The Center to Protect Worker Right s. CSI Construction Specification Institute DGNB German Sustainable Building Council ECI European Construction Institute FBGC Florida Green Building Coalition FCAW Flux cored Arc Welding GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding GP General Practitioner GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding GV General Ventilation HAVS Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome HEPA High Efficiency Particulate Air LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEV Local Exhaust Ventilation

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12 LTCR Lost Time Case Rate Mg/m 3 Milligrams per cubic meter NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PEL Permissible Exposure Limit RFID Radio Frequency Identification RSP Respirable S uspended P articles SAW Submerged Arc Welding SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding SS Stainless Steel TLV Tolerance Level Values TWA Time Weighted Average VOC Volatile Organic Compound WMSD W ork R elated M usculoskeletal D isorders XML Extensible Markup Language

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13 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy A WEB BASED APPROACH TO SELECTING ALTERNATIVES TO HAZARDOUS PROCEDURES By Eileen Rosa Pesantes Tavares December 2011 Chair: Ralph D. Ellis Major: Civil Engineering Construction workers health has been st udied mostly under occupational health environments. Most studies examine the effects that exposure to harmful substances an d procedures can have Other studies refer to changes that can be made to procedures to avoid hazardous situations and to safeguard the health of the construction workers. Some recommendations have been adopted by the Occupational Safety and Health Adminis tration ( OSHA ) and others are the result of and the efforts of other agencies such as the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ( ACGIH ) and its maximum exposure values and how to minimize exposure. Unfortunately health issues are large ly disregarded by different construction stakeholders such as owners, designers and construction managers primarily because of the latency period from the time and length of exposure to the onset of the effect s of that exposure Safety has be en given considerable attention because the cause and effect lag time is minimal, as a worker who has an accident, usually sees the effects at the same moment the accident happens. The adoption of safety regulations by OSHA to prevent injuries and the importance gi ven to safety by construction professionals makes safety

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14 an important issue in construction. Jobsites have safety training and safety talks to avoid accidents but health issues are rarely addressed in these t alks. Besides putting together the different su bstitutions in procedures and materials, this study aims to present it in a way accessible to construction managers and other construction stakeholders to ensure their adoption. A web based database organized using C onstruction S pecification I nstitute (CS I) M as terformat 1995, has been develop ed to provide easy access to the different substitutions that can be made to safeguard the health of the construction worker. Furthermore, the database can be access from design software programs like Sketchup through an application programming interface programmed in Ruby. I t can also be access ed from Excel, a common tool use by estimators to do their project estimate, via an add in programmed in Visual Basic. Moreover, it translate s to Extensible Markup Language ( XML ) that later can be integrated to design software and other tools to provide the information at the planning and design stages of the project. This study does not include all divisions of the CSI Masterformat as it only covers divisions 2 through 5 which are: Sitework, Concrete, Masonry and Metals divisions. It w ill cover issues that affect long term such as respiratory illnesses, ergonomics, and cancer related agents. Items that require special training, such as dealing with asbestos, will not be covered. Furthermore, this research does not include the different requirements for safety and health protection that manufacturers of construction materials need to provide for their workers. Only construction site issues will be addressed.

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15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Health and Safety in Construction When describing health in construction it is important to differentiate between the distinctly different issues of health and safety. Konz and Johnson (2000 ) provided the term effects of foreign chemicals upon the body it considers health. Safety deals with the short term effects of physical agents upon the b ody cause long term harm to a worker which includes chemicals that act over time to take effect on the body. It might also include cumulative trauma caused by repetitive strain. Konz and Jo hnson (2000) include in their discussion the reasons why it may take a long time to address a health issue: long lag between exposure/dose and response ignorance of the effect due to lack of information, ignoring the effect due to long latency period companies benefit from ignoring long term health issues as health costs may be paid by individuals. Safety and health of construction workers have been of great concern in construction, with safety being given greater attention than health due to its imme diate and observable consequences. Hallowell and Gambatese (2009) in their study of safety programs prepared a classification system of 10 construction specific accident types that included only three related to health, including overexertion, repetitive m otion, and exposure to harmful substances. These three classifications refer primarily to long term effects which take away their urgency. The CPWR The Center for Construction Research and Training Chart Book (2008) presents overexertion as the third lea ding

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16 cause of injuries, constituting 18% of non fatal injuries with lost time recorded, with contact with objects and falls having a higher non fatal injury rate with reported lost time. In the data presented in the Chart Book, illnesses (long term and sh ort term) reported with lost time represent about 2.5% of all non fatal injuries. Even so, the long term consequences of some of these illnesses need to be taken into account when deciding what materials or procedures are to be used o n the construction sit e. Problem Statement Although there are numerous studies on different issues concerning the long term health of construction workers, there is no clear evidence of solution implementation in the construction industry. Furthermore, most of the studies are made by occupational health experts and very little has been transferred to the construction management and engineering parties In the US there is no clear guidance on what to do to safeguard the long term health of the construction worker; however there are more clear regulations and recommen dations on what to do regarding the safety of workers. The ever changing environment of construction projects and the lack of continuity of projects, jobs and workers negatively contribute to health implementation plans in the construction industry. Moreov er, the absence of immediate negative effects of material exposures makes the situation even harder to manage. Overview of Solution The solution to be presented in this thesis is to assemble a database tha t in a user friendly manner and in a web based e nvironment can present changes, modifications and additions that can be made to day to day operations on a construction project. The database present the different recommendation s organize d using the CSI Masterformat version 1995 ( CSI, 1995 ) For the purposes of this report,

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17 the database will only address divisions 2 through 5. Future research may complete the database and incorporate all divisions. The database can also be viewed as an XML document which can allow the user to incorporate it into other applications that can extend the use of the database. The changes, modifications and additions recommended will come from previous research recommendations found through the literature review. Furthermore, it will include cost data for the diffe rent items which is not normally found in the current research. Besides the cost data, if the alternative requires a change in schedule, it will be included in the output along with any recommendations for training and certifications. The web based applica tion will work in the following manner: The user will first select a division; in the next step the user will select a subdivision and then a procedure that will be performed at the jobsite. After selecting the procedure, the application will give the user the best method to protect the worker s either an alternative to the procedure or extra protection and any cost or schedule changes that need to be accounted for when selecting the alternative. The database also has the alternative of adding divisions, su bdivisions, procedures and other information. This is to make it easier to update and to add new information as it becomes available. Figure 1 1 shows how the user will navigate the database to find the applicable information for the activity to be perform ed.

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18 Figure 1 1. Database output

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19 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Opening Remarks There are different specializations that study health issues in construction. Occupational health experts comprise the bulk of those studying the effects of hazards that can be encountered o n construction site s A lthough a gencies such as NIOSH and centers such as CPWR an d AGCIH do extensive studies on health issues on the construction engineering and management side there is less recognition of the importance of this topic. This chapter will present the main health issues that concern this dissertation, the rel ationship between sustainability and safety and health in construction, and the design for safety and health concept. Moreover, different management systems will be reviewed. Health Issues in Construction Health issues are not as notorious or dramatic as i njuries mainly due to the time that the effects take to manifest themselves ( Konz & Johnson, 2000 ). Furthermore, most are not reported which makes them impossible to track (Gyi, Gibb & Haslam, 1999) Also most contractors usually do not perform health ev aluations on their employees and less attention is given to subcontractors. Figure 2 1 shows compile d information from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics on i llnesses cases reported between 1995 2009 ( BLS, n.d. )

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20 Figure 2 1. Reported illnesses between 1995 2009. Skin D iseases From the reported cases, skin diseases are the most commonly reported. Different causes can be attributed to skin diseases such as dermatitis due to dusts, chemicals, contaminants and sun damage ( European Construction Institute, EC I, 1999 ) that primarily affect concrete workers, brick layers, painters plasters, cleaners, insulators, and other workers that may come in direct contact with different substances that may be harmful to the skin. Respiratory C onditions From the CPWR cha rt book 2008 the following are the most common hazards identified with respiratory use are shown in Figure 2 2. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Reported Cases (Thousands) Reported Illnesses from 1995 2009 Skin disease Respiratory conditions Poisonings All other illnesses

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21 Figure 2 2 Leading causes of respiratory diseases in the construction industry in 2001 ( adapted from CPWR Chartbook 2008 ) The focus of the CPWR investigation relate d more to silica dust (concrete work, sand blasting, grinding, among others), lead and asbestos (demolition work), carbon monoxide (operating engineers and labors in general) and welding fumes (steel trades ) Although t he BLS reports that the cases of respiratory diseases are under a 1,000 per year as shown Figure 2 1 it is important to understand that this value represents only reported cases. Gyi, Gibb and Haslam (1999) conducted surveys to obtain data on accidents an d illnesses in the UK. They acknowledged that health is usually not a major concern and that a very small number of general contractors performed health evaluations of their employees and seldom did this include subcontractors. This was despite the fact t hat construction workers are in the top five risk groups for contract ing 24.1% 12.7% 10.1% 9.5% 8.5% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% Silica dust Lead Carbon monoxide Asbestos Welding fumes Leading Causes of Respiratory Diseases in the Construction Industry

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22 skin diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, lower respiratory diseases, trauma and poisoning, among other illnesses. Regarding health issues, they concluded that there is very little he alth monitoring and that there is limited meaningful communication between occupational health and health and safety departments that generates a positive or proactive response. Silica e xposure NIOSH reports that deaths due to silicosis which is caused by exposure to silica are under reported due to improper diagnos is of the disease. Furthermore, it is believed that the BLS data under report silicosis related deaths because their data are based on employer reports instead of hospital discharge. Again, the issue of reporting inaccurately on health issues undermines the problem cause d by hazardous agents. A study done with data between 1979 and 1995 ( Linch, Miller, Althouse Groce and Hale 1998 ) shows that the workers most affected by crystalline silica (th e most common type is quartz which ) are construction workers, specifically masonry workers, steel workers and painters E xposure to construction workers occurs mainly when sandblasting and grinding /cutting metal masonr y or concrete. Per the study workers in these areas were exposed to at least 10 times the recommended exposure limits as set by NIOSH. They stated that there is not enough done to control crystalline silica exposure. In another study ( Woskie, Kalil Bello and Virji 2002), worker exposures to quartz, diesel, dust and welding fumes in the heavy and highway construction segment was researched. The researches argue d that in construction, due to the constant change in location which causes changes in duration of tasks and environmental conditions it is not suitable to apply the same methods to identify hazards as in manufacturing. The

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23 tasks that they stud ied regarding silica exposure included trenching, excavating and earthmoving where silica exposure depends on the percentage of quartz in the soil being excavated. Other activities studied include d drilling, grinding and cutting of concrete and slurry walls. They found that laborers have the highest mean exposure to respirable dust and quartz followed by opera ting engineers. Highest exposure of respirable quartz tasks are concrete finish ing work and demolition. A study published regarding excessive silica exposure ( Rappaport Goldberg, Susi and Herrick, 2003) presents the exposures of four groups, namely brick layers, painters, operating engineers and laborers. They found that the overexposure to silica varied from 64.5% to 100% o the occupational exposure limits as set by NIOSH (value is 0.05 mg/m 3 ). They also studied dust exposure with overexposure values rangi ng between 8.2 and 89.2%. They also concluded that better controls are needed to minimize worker exposure to silica and dust. As the previous studies conclude, other studies concurred that silica exposure o n construction sites is high and current controls are not adequate ( Flanagan, Seixas, Becker Takacs and Camp, 2006). Research of controls and what activities produce the most exposure needs to continue to advance the body of knowledge OSHA in 2009 that presents different ways to minimize silica exposure in different construction tasks. Welding fumes exposure Exposure to manganese presumably has neuropsychological effects to welders ( Flynn & Susi, 2009 ). Flynn and Susi (2010) anal yzed three databases of welding exposures to manganese, iron and total particulate mass with a focus on neurological outcomes. Their results show a high correlation of manganese with total particulate and

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24 iron (over .7). They also measured the values in fr ont of the welders helmet and behind the helmet. Values of total particulate and iron were usually lower behind helmet than those in front of it Manganese exposure showed no change due to location. In this study arc welding was found to result in higher exposure to manganese than th e American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) tolerance level values ( TLV ) They recommend ed the following: use of local ventilation and avoidance of confinement. They also recommend ed that OSHA measure behi nd the helmet to assess how well the existing engineering controls work. Welding fumes are a possible carcinogen according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer ( IARC ) ( 1990 ). While some studies on cancer mortality did not show elevated risks ( Steenland, Beaumont and Elliot, 1991 ) others have shown a significant elevation of risks ( Moulin, Wild and Haguenoer 1993 ). Sheet metal workers show elevated risk of obstructive lung disease from welding fume exposure ( Hunting and Welch, 1993 ). Woskie et al (2002) i n their study o n heavy and highway construction found that the highest exposure to welding fumes occurs on excavation support operations were overexposure is of 77% of the ACGIH TLV of 5 mg/m 3 Diesel e xposure Diesel fumes include carbon, n itrogen, water, carbon monoxide, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( Health and Safety Executive, HSE 1999 ). Diesel exposure among laborers is caused by heavy equipment operating on jobsite s A study conduct ed between 1971 and 1992 revealed that operators of heavy equipment did not show an increase in lung cancer compared to other construction workers ( Jarvholm and Sil verman, 2003 ). Other studies ( Wong, Morgan, Kheifets, Larson and Whorton 1985 ) found that even though lung cancer was

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25 not significantly different, liver cancer had a higher incidence in the population. A third study ( Boffetta Harris and Wynder, 1990) did not show conclusive evidence to support a relationship of lung ca ncer and diesel exhaust exposure. Another effect of exposure to diesel fumes is pulmonary function decrease. This can be manifested as a sthma and/or chronic bronchitis ( Oliver Miracle McMahill, Littman, Oakes & Gaita, 2001) It was found that 13% of the laborers and 11.4% of operating engineers presented a sthma symptoms while symptomatic chronic bronchitis was present in 6.5% and 1.9% respectively. CPWR reports that in chest x rays of different types of construction workers between 1996 and 2006, 15.6% o f the laborers and 11.7% of the operating engineers showed abnormal results Musculoskeletal D isorders The CPWR Chart book (2008) presents the data of work related musculoskeletal Chart Book shows sprains and strains as constituting 34.7% of all non fatal injuries and illnesses with reported days away from work. Heat and chemicals account ed for 1.3% of the lost workday cases. Data related to age groups also shows that workers in their 40s and 50s have an increased incidence of occupational health problems such as WMSD and lower back disorder s ( LBD ) A study conducted in ergonomics in const ruction (Hess, Hecker, Weinstein and Lunger, 2004) important to find new ergonomic ways for the construction worker to reduce WMSD. Moreover, ergonomics in construction needs to be studied in greater depth to catch up with other industries such as manufacturing and computers.

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26 Hess et.al. (2004) introduced skid plates attached to concrete filled hoses to measure the risk of LBD on concrete laborers versus no use of the skid plates. They concluded that, although further studies need to be made to account for other concrete laborer activities, such as pulling, the use of skid plates significantly reduces the risk of LBD. Construction Sustainability Sustainability has been given an important role in the construction indus try. The g lobal warming movement and environmentally friendly organizations have driven the industry into building green and sustainable. Federal government agencies required that new buildings and building retrofit s be certified as green by one of the rat ing systems available. Private owners are also certifying their new buildings as a way to show their concern for the environment. But, One question that needs to be answered is how safer for construction workers are the regulations for certifying a constru ction as green. First, Sustainability, a D efinition There are different definitions o f what sustainability is but this one goes closer to Sustainable D evelopment (1998) : Maintaining economic growth while producing the absolute minimum of pollution, repairing the environmental damages of the past, using far fewer non renewable resources, producing much less waste, and extending the opportunity to live in a pleasant and healthy envir onment to the whole population. Sustainability has three components: environmental equity, economical equity and social equity Furthermore, s ustainability not only refers to green design but also to the social and economical implications of the life cycle of the structure. For something to be

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27 sustainable it has to have more than green products, but its procedu res, its methods of producing the structures need to take into account how society is affected, including construction workers and their work environment ( Prevention through Design, n.d. ) Rating S ystems Different systems of rating the sustainability of bu ildings have been developed throug hout the years. They are mostly focused on the final occupant well being and on energy savings. Some of them are BREEAM, Green Globes, CASBEE, DGNB, FGBC and LEED. Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment M ethod (BREEAM) has established benchmarks in the areas of energy, ecology, water use, internal environment, pollution, transport, materials, waste and management processes, that help in the measures of performance of a design, con struction and use ( BREEAM, n.d. ). Green Globes is the Canadian adaptation of BREEAM that is also use d in the United States. The areas of assessment on new buildings and renovations are similar to BREEAM with their attractiveness deriv ed from their online a ssessment and rating (Green Globes n.d. ) Comprehensive System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE ) is a tool developed in Japan to assess environmental performance of buildings ( CASBEE, n.d. ) German Sustainable Building Council (DGNB in German) has as a main goal of promot ing the construction of sustainable and economically efficient buildings. Its area s of quality assessment are: ecological economic, socio cultural and functional, technical, process and site ( German Sustainable Building Council, n.d. ) Florida Green Building Coalition (FBGC) is a Florida statewide program that aims to provide economic, social and environmental benefits for promoting sustainability. Its assessment areas are: e nergy, water, site, health, material, disaster mitigation and a general part. Health assessment refers mostly to final building occupant comfort and health, although some points refer to construction workers such as Construction IAQ Management Plan, Before Occupancy and Low Emitting Materials, but most of them are about 1 point from a minimum of 50 points that are needed for certification ( Florida Green Building Coalition, n.d. )

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28 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and the Green Movement LE ED was developed by the US Green Building Council to be used as a rating system that certified buildings as green by providing third party verification in matters such as energy savings, water and air quality and CO 2 emissions reduction ( U.S. Green Buildin g Council, USGBC, n.d ). The certifications are point based ( up to 100 points plus 10 bonus points) and are divided in C ertified (40+ points), Silver (50+ points), Gold (60+ points) and Platinum (80+ points). LEED and s afety The main question that needs to be answered is how safe are LEED projects vs. non LEED projects. To assess this, it is imperative to check on the different requirements that LEED has to certify a building and see how they can affect the safety of the const ruction worker. Some of the credits affect indirectly the safety of the construction worker ( U.S. Green Building Council, USGBC, n.d ). In regards to recycling and separating the scraps and waste from recyclable material, this may have good and bad effects. On the positive side, if the site is maintained by segregating all the waste into recyclable and non recyclable categories the site will be easier to manage. O n the other hand, worker s now need to spend time separating materials that otherwise w ould have go ne into just one container Workers are now spending additional time o n chores that probably were not originally schedule d which take time from other construction activities. Separating recyclable material from scrap can cause minor injuries F or exampl e separating nails from wood to recycle both may result in an increased risk of injury Another point that can cause an unsafe site can be seen in the design itself. A design that is trying to get points by using daylight might have a high atrium that req uires workers to be on high cherry pickers or work at elevation in the structure. This

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29 situation can make a job riskier as falls can occur if proper safeguards are not implemented. A study done by comparing LEED projects to non LEED projects showed that th e RIR was slightly higher on LEED projects than on non LEED projects ( Rajendran, Gambatese & Behm 2009 ). In regards to the lost time case rate ( LTCR ) there was no significant difference shown between the two types of projects. Some comparison limitations make this study one that need s to be use d with caution. For example, it was difficult to divide the data by types of projects ( e.g commercial, institutional, and residential ) due to not having sufficient project s of each type. Also, t here were different contractors involved with different safety records; one project can have lower rates just because the contractor has a better safety management and will not have an ything to do with the project being LEED or not Moreover, the owner effect on the LTRC Another point of comparison could have been between different levels of certification. T he data available within levels was not sufficient to make an accurate test. Other limitations refer to ownership, location, facility type and number of projects. LEED and h ealth There are two credit earning areas ( U.S. Green Building Council, USGBC, n.d ) that promote the health of the construction worker Both are under Indoor e nvironmental quality namely c onstruction i ndoor a ir quality management plan and low emitting refers to maintaining high air quality standards during construction. The second point, which gives 4 credits, indirectl y affects the construction worker as low emitting materials are part of assuring the well being of the final occupants. These products that are also

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30 call ed low volatile organic compounds (VOC) materials have fewer emissions during and after application help ing with the health of the installers as well as the final occupants. Designing for Safety The designing for safety concept has been widely studied in the US since the d what designers were doing to safeguard the construction workers and their worries and limitations. Recent surveys can show the changes, if any in the way designers see safety and health in construction. The Early Y ears The first of these surveys (Hinze & Wiegand, 1992) presented the disconnect between designers and contractors by noting that 70% of the design firms that were interviewed did not address construction worker safety and health in their design s Other design firms in contrast mention ed that they not only did constructability reviews of the plans but that they also made decisions taking into accou n t the safety of workers. In this first survey the authors made a list of examples of different design aspects that can positively affect constructio n worker safety and health. Among the ones that may affect their health are : substitution of hazardous materials for less hazardous materials, noise emissions from installed equipment, and methods for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). From th e designer respondents that were not willing to get involve d in safety, the responses included that they do not get involve d in those decisions, they consider those decisions as means and methods of construction which is the responsibility of the contracto r and that their lawyers recommended them to not get involve d to avoid any liability issue.

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31 Contractors were also interviewed and, although the majority did constructability reviews, only a couple ha d safety personnel in the constructability reviews and mainly to insure compliance with OSHA regulations. They also provided examples of safety provisions that they saw in the design and provided others that could be added to the list. They all referred to safety issues. Gambatese and Hinze (1999 ) conducted research to create a design tool that could be used as a resource for designing for safety concepts. They conducted a survey to accumulate existing design solutions to safety issues with the idea of updating as new concepts arise. They not onl y interviewed companies, but also reviewed manuals and check lists. Liability issues and lack of knowledge w ere identified as the major obstacles of implementation. Their main idea was to fill the gap between design standards and construction worker safety One of the major obstacles in regards to addressing safety and health during design is the liability issue. Gambatese (1998 ) propose d that there should not be a conflict for the designer to take worker safety into account when designing a project. Furth ermore, by citing the fundamental canon s of the National Society of Professional Engineers which states that Engineers shall) hold paramount the safety, health and ed if it is ethical and moral to exclude construction w orkers from design decisions From court cases involving injuries to construction workers, Gambatese (1998) stated that designers are expected to do what any reasonable designer would have done, and presently, that does not include safety features in the d esign. He argue d that if clients insist that designers incorporat e worker

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32 safety concerns in their design s there may be a change and designing for safety may become a standard practice. Designing for s afety a vailable s oftware t ool s The Construction Industr y Institute (CII) in 1996 fund ed research to create a list of design suggestions that incorporate safety in design concepts. This research, that compile s over 4 00 safety in d esign suggestions. This software tool was designed with the main objective to make the design suggestions available for designers. The resulting tool, although functional, was not easy to use or update, making difficult to assess the usefulness of the soft ware (Marini, 2007). In 2007, as part of his degree requirement s James Marini Jr. developed a more user friendly software tool that incorporates safety in design suggestions available and also has an easier platform to update and add newer sugge stions. Designing for Safety and H ealth in the United Kingdom In 1994 the C onstruction Design and Management (CDM) regulations came into effect in the United Kingdom These regulations obligate designers to address safety and health management in the planning and design stages. Therefore, designers share the responsibility of safety and health of the construction workers with the contractors (Baxendale & Jones, 2000 ). The main points of the requirements are: the appointment of a planning supervisor by the owner to ensure that safety i s tak en into account during planning and design; the designer has to eliminate or minimize safety hazards; and the creation of a health a nd safety file to record details of the construction. Regarding designers, the main idea of the CDM regulations is to incorporate safety and health in the whole development process from conception to construction.

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33 Prevention through D esign The Center to P study on the viability of des igning for safety (Gambatese, Behm & Hinze, 2005). Through this study they found that not only do designer s need to have the knowledge of what to do but they must also accept it as part of the design process. Although more than a decade has passed between th at study and the Hinze & Wiegand (1992) study, not many changes can be seen. A lmost half of the respondents did not want to accept the concept of designing for safety Most respondents still mentioned that this was part of means and methods in construction and will responsibility and that their liability could increase. Designers were also asked to rank different aspects of a project wit h quality and end user safety receiving the highest priority while construction safety had the lowest. Other negative impacts perceived by respondents included cost, schedule and productivity. T he authors concluded the following keys for implementation: Ch ange in the designer mindset toward safety Establishment of a motivational force to promote designing for safety Increase designer knowledge of the concept Incorporate construction safety knowledge in the design phase Utilize designers knowledgeable about design for safety modifications Make design for safety tools and guidelines available for use and reference Mitigate designers liability exposure Designing for safety is also known about as prevention through design (PtD). Toole and Gambatese (2008) ident ify four trajectories for PtD to progress. They are: Facilitat ing prefabrication Designers choosing materials and systems that are safer Designers performing construction engineering Designers consider ing the construction space to reduce hazards

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34 Prefabrication will bring the preparation of construction components in to a controlled factory setting. Some added costs will also be incurred due to the cost s of transportation of the components due to the increasing oil prices and the wear and tear o n th e transportation vehicles Materials and systems that are safer are usually study with the end user in mind However, occupational safety and health research can stud y the effects of new materials and systems to construction workers. When designers perfor m construction engineering, the end result sh ould be a better application of design by more knowledgeable individuals. Problems can arise regarding who the designers are contracting with for this service, whether it is the owner or the contractor. Although designers may take into account the existing hazards that can occur o n a construction site, there may be miscommunication s with contractors. Designers should stipulate in the construction documents w h ere hazards exist s o the contractors will be aware of t hem. The OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable has a workgroup on designing for construction safety. The NIOSH National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) Construction Sector Council also has a workgroup on construction hazards prevention through design. This two work groups in conjunction with Professor Mike Toole from Bucknell University, maintain the Prevention through Design website which provides information on designing for safety including the history of the PtD to recent studies, challenges and future goals ( Prevention through Design, n.d. )

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35 Management of Health in C onstruction European Construction Institute The European Construction Institute (ECI) ECI Guide to Managing Health in Construction. to plan construction operations to guard the health of the construction workers. Each section is divided by a health issue presenting the risk indicators, high risk activities and health risk management before and dur ing employment. Civil Engineering Contractors Association I n Europe the Civil Engineering Contractors Association (CECA) of the United Kingdom, commissioned Loughborough University to develop a health management toolkit to address the large numbers of po or health issues of construction workers (Brace and Gibb 2004.) The study consisted on different questionnaires to assess the key health issues in construction, which are: hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), muscular problems, dermatitis, hand injuries, no ise induced deafness and respiratory problems. The toolkit was divided into 5 areas: h ealth reporting, a questionnaire to help i n the reporting of ill health issues; health questionnaire, to be completed by new employees and to be updated every year; Gene ral Practitioner (GP) registration; and key health problems, including toolbox talks and how to do self checks. In 2008 Bust, Gibb and Brace (2004) evaluated in a study the implementation of the toolkit and found that 11 respondents use d parts of it but n one use it in its entirety. One respondent only used the health reporting information, and the ones that already ha d a health questionnaire used theirs in place of the toolkit. Incomplete questionnaire s were common and some others answer ed no to the questi ons. On GP registration eight of the companies recommended th at workers register if they ha d not The key health

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36 issues p ortion was the most frequently used showing hand vibration with the highest rank followed by noise induced deafness and muscular prob lems. United States Department of Labor OSHA has created a cooperative program called Alliance with its main objective being to work with different organizations to prevent worker injuries and illnesses Alliance not only involves construction organizations, but also includes general industries, immigrant workers, small business and transportation organizations among others. Organizations that are partners with OSHA through Alliance are not exempt from OS HA inspections or citations if required. OSHA also has a site w h ere their safety and health regulations are available to companies These regulations not only present the required controls and protections to apply for different tasks, but they also descri be how to record and report incidents, training and education, first aid and medical attention and inspections among others.

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37 CHAPTER 3 SUBSTITUTIONS AND MO DIFICATIONS Opening Remarks This chapter covers the different recommendations for changes, mostl y in procedures, that can be done to help safeguard the health of construction workers. It covers divisions 2 through 5 of the CSI Masterformat 1995. These divisions are: sitework, concrete, masonry and steel. This list is not all inclusive, as many differ ent procedures are either still in development or have not been studied. Furthermore, not all tasks covered in the divisions studied necessitated a change or warranted substitutions, either because one is not available or the activity does not present a se rious health risk The different changes presented here reflect what is available currently and how it can be used to minimize health hazards for construction workers performing the ir tasks and those around them wh o might also be affected by the activity. A preliminary survey conducted gave us a starting point on what issues are most important per division. Survey Demographics The survey was done to get a preliminary idea of what issues professionals involved with construction workers believe are the most important. 29 responses were received. Three demographic questions were asked to understand the sample population that answered the survey. The first question asks if the respondent has worked or is currently working in the construction industry. From the 29 respondents 22 answered yes to this questions while 7 answered no. The second question refers to in what capacity they have or are working in the construction industry while the third question refers to for how long. Figures 3.1 and 3.2 sumarize the ans wers to questions 2 and 3 respectively.

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38 Figure 3 1 Survey d emographics q uestion 2 7 3 1 1 7 2 2 3 5 7 2 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 N/A union worker Non-union worker Occupational Health Professional Management Designer (Architect, Engineer, etc.) Specialized Subcontractor Owner Government Consultant Academia Other Question 2 If you answered Yes to the previous question, in what capacity?

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39 Figure 3 2 Survey d emographics question 3. Questions 4 through 7 refer to each of the five divisions includ ed in this research: Sitework, C oncrete, Masonry and Metals. The results of those questions are included in each division section. The survey questions are included in Appendix A Construction S pecification Institute MASTERFORMAT 1995 The M asterformat is a list for organizing tasks classi f ying them by related areas of work. It serves to organize specifications, accounting and other project information so all project participants can communicate using the same system. The M asterformat is mostly use d on commercial projects ; it is not use d w idely on transportation or industrial projects ( Construction Specification Institute, CSI, 1995 ) 7 4 5 5 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 N/A 0-5 5-10 10-20 Over 20 Question 3 How many years have you worked in construction?

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40 There have been different editions of the M asterformat. The la test edition is from 2004, but the 1995 edition is still more commonly use d The 1995 Masterfor mat has 16 divisions and each division has different tasks to subdivide the bigger items into smaller packages. This thesis will concentrate o n divisions 2 through 5 which are: Sitework, Concrete, Masonry and Steel respectively. Division 2 Site Construction Activities Covered by this D ivision Each division has different main subdivisions that are subsequently divided into smaller work packages. To examine a complete list of CSI Masterformat 1995 see A ppendix B Table 3 1 includes the subdivisio ns on division 2. Table 3 1. Division 2 subdivisions Code Subdivision 02050 Basic Site Materials and Methods 02100 Site Remediation 02200 Site Preparation 02300 Earthwork 02400 Tunneling, Boring and Jacking 02450 Foundation and Load Bearing Elements 02500 Utility Services 02600 Drainage and Containment 02700 Bases, Ballasts, Pavements and Appurtenances 02800 Site Improvements and Amenities 02900 Planting 02950 Site Restoration and Rehabilitation

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41 Survey Results The results of the survey of the survey for this division are shown in figure 3 3 below: Figure 3 3. Survey results of hazards for d ivision 2 Each respondent was asked to list at most five hazards for the work done in this division. For division 2 we had 105 responses when we add the responses from each individual respondent. In place hazards include asbestos, lead and similar materials that are considered hazardous to any person disturbing them. Ergonomics include back problems, vibratio n due to equipment use, muscle problems, lifting, and repetitive motion. Hearing loss refer to noise issues. Silica and dust are related to breathing issues. If we combine the numbers of those three we obtained 32 which is the highest 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 diesel vision problems welding fumes natural contaminants skin disease heat/sun other contaminants accidents dust Silica breathing issues hearing loss ergonomics inplace hazards Division 2 Hazards

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42 concern among respond ents in regards to workers hazards in division 2. Demolition and trenching can be contributors to these hazards. Demolition Demolition is under subdivision 02200 that refers to Site Preparation. Demolition itself under subdivision 02200 has code number 0 2220. During demolition activities different types of substances are release d into the air. The most widely known substance associated with demolition, especially in older buildings is asbestos Long term exposure to asbestos is associated with lung, peri toneal and abdominal cancers and also with respiratory diseases (EPA, 2011) In the case of a known human carcinogen as asbestos, r emediation companies with expertise of dealing with this type of material perform the work. It is important to make an asses sment of the demolition project to provide the extra cost and time needed to perform this part of the demolition work in a safe way. Because the requirements for demolishing asbestos are so specialized and require expert companies, it is not included in this database. Regular demolition activities can produce high levels of dust that come in contact procedures, the cont inuous skin contact with debris can cause dermatitis and other related skin diseases that can be avoided by the use of simple protective gear. During demolition activities the ECI (1999) recommend s that workers that might be affected should cover themselve s to avoid direct contact with harm ful substances and to minimize cold, hot and wind exposure that can leave skin unprotected. Gloves, protective clothing and the use of waterproof dressings to protect cuts and other injuries are highly recommended.

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43 Open T rench vs. T renchless M ethods for P ipe I nstallation or R eplacement Utilities installation is contemplated under subdivision 02500 Utilities Services, which is divided into the different utilities. Replacement of existing pipes can be found under subdivisi on 02950 Site Restoration and Rehabilitation with code 02955 Underground Pipe Restoration. Another subdivision that can be used for this work is 02400 Tunneling, Boring and Jacking that has code 02441 for Microtunneling, and 02445 for Boring and Jacking Conduits. To maintain everything under one subdivision, both new installation s and replacement s are shown in subdivision 02500 in the database. Underground utilit y replacement has been a major problem because most U.S. cities have old and deteriorated sys tems. contemplates that the majority of the systems have reached their useful life and are in need of replacement. Replacement of pipes can be done by an open trench or by using newer trenchless methods. Trenchless metho ds are mostly used in urban areas were space is limited and traffic congestion is a problem. Another issue is pavements cuts that alter the integrity of the pavement and can reduce its life up to 40% (Jung and Sinha, 2007). Moreover, trenchless technology not only serves to substitute existing pipes for new ones but it can install a replacement pipe with an increase in diameter size of up to 300% of the original (Lueke and Ariaratnam, 2001). New installation by open cut or trenching methods presents most o f the same problems as replacement s Among these are the following ( Myers, Stickrod, Abraham and Iseley 1999; Woodroffe and Ariaratnam, 2008): Soil Disposal Contaminated material that is dug out can result in costly dispos al

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44 Water pollution Water systems can be polluted during excavation due to soil erosion and contaminated particulate s traveling to different bodies of water. Air pollution Airborne particulates can cause pollution of air, not only from the soil, but from the equipment used during excavation (Ariaratnam and Sihabuddin, 2009) Impact to roadways Cuts reduce pavement life. Reconstruction of roadways and adjacent structures (sidewalks, driveways, etc) add to the cost of the project. This cost can be of up to 70% of the total project c ost, including soil handling. Noise pollution Equipment use d for excavation produces high levels of noise and can be a nuance in residential areas. Inconvenience to roadway users Pedestrians, drivers, business owners and patrons are affected adversely w hen closing roadways and sidewalks. Worker safety O pen cut construction was rated between 1999 2000 as the fourth most deadly occupation in the United States Ano ther issue that can affect the health of the construction worker when performing open trench activities included the soil which is 12% quartz, the most common type of silica R espirable dust can contain high amount s of quartz to make the operation unsafe to the operators and workers necessitating the use of respirator s and respirators. The prope r safety measures will depend on the percentage of quartz in the soil (Woskie et al ., 2002) Another issue that Woskie et al. (2002) studied is that excavation support activities include welding of mild steel using manual metal arc These activities cannot be completely eliminated by using trenchless methods that are performed in the same space. Open cut method for installation and replacement of pipes Open cut methods usually require a trench to be excavated along the length of the pipe to be installed or replaced. When replacing pipes, the cut can be convention al or narrow (Selvakumar Clark and Sivaganesan 2002 ). Conventional refers to making a trench as it would have been made for new installation. Narrow refers to keeping the c ut

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45 to its absolute minimum possible (Morris, 1996). The trench might be dug with vertical sides, with sloped sides (V shape) or with stepped or benched sides (Young and Trott, 1984) OSHA require that worker protection be provided in the form of shoring, s loping the trench wall or using a trench shield Backfill need s to be place d carefully in order to not disturb the pipe alignment. It does not need to be compacted in all cases (Jung and Sinha, 2007). Trenchless methods for new installation New installation can be made by the following methods (Abbot, 2005): Impact M oling Small conduit follows non steerable impact head driven by pneumatic hammer. Auger Bor i ng (See Figure 3 4) For small to medium diameter conduit installed undercrossing o r short distances where alignment is not important. Figure 3 4 Auger boring (C ourtesy of Advanced U nderground) Pipe R amming Non steerable pipe installation technique where a casing or the actual pipe is driven by an impact hammer. Horizontal D irectional D rilling (HDD) (see Figure 3 5) A pilot hole is drilled with a steerable drill, used when obstacles are expected. The hole is enlarged as needed and maintenance of alignment is provided by use of slurries, bentonite and polymers.

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46 Figure 3 5 Horizontal directional drilling (Courtesy of Advanced Underground) o Guided drilling systems Mini and Midi HDD For shorter crossings and locations. Same as HDD but smaller distances and diameters and less powerful equipment. Small and medium diameter tun neling and pipe jacking A tunnel boring machine (TBM) with a cutter wheel may be used to bore the tunnel. Tunnel is supported by ribs and boards or in situ lining or jacked pipe. Microtunneling Remote controlled steering jacking method of installing pi pes. o Auger Large diameter unidirectional auger. o Slurry Used in excavations under groundwater without the need of dewatering. Slurry helps keep constant pressure with the underground pressure and avoid groundwater and soil to fill the new tunnel. o EPB Same as the slurry, only that is uses the recently excavated material to maintain balanced pressure. o Pilot pipe method similar to midi and mini HDD but includes shoe in front that provides 360 rotation. These methods present different advantages and dis advantages, having in common as main advantage the minimal disturbance to the surface; a major disadvantage for both methods is the high equipme nt costs (Jung and Sinha, 2007; Woodroffe and Ariaratnam, 2008). Furthermore there is a risk of abandonment due to

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47 unforeseen conditions such as changes in ground, obstructions or equipment failure (Abbott, 2005). Trenchless methods for pipe replacements Pipe bursting Figure 3 6, eliminates the existing pipe and at the same time pull s in the new pipe in the alignm ent of the original pipe It can be done with a static, pneumatic or hydraulic bursting head (Selvakumar, et. al., 2002). The burst pipe fragments are pushed to the surrounding soil making pipe removal unnecessary. New pipes can be of a bigger size than ex isting ones and they can go from 6 in ches to 48 in ches in diameter. Figure 3 6 Pipe bursting (Courtesy of Advanced Underground) Emission comparison between open cut and trenchless methods In a comparison study between trenchless pi p e replacement and open cut methods the average percentage of reduction in different emissions was found to be 80% when trenchless methods were used instead of open cut methods The principal difference is that open cut is equipment intensive and time consuming T renchless methods usually use only one type of equipment and because there is minimal need of excavating back filling time is reduce d drastically (Ariaratnam and Sihabuddin, 2009).

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48 The main emissions that were studied are all part of diesel fumes. The percent reduc tions shown below are the reduction of emissions found when using a trenchless method instead of open cut Hydrocarbons (HC) 75% reduction. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 74.1% reduction. Carbon monoxide (CO) 78.1% reduction. Nitrogen oxide (NO x ) 82% reductio n. Total organic compounds (TOC) 85% reduction. Sulfur Oxide (SO x ) 79.9% reduction. As stated previously, diesel fumes may cause lung cancer and different respiratory disease such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. Reducing these fumes for construction workers may reduce respiratory illnesses among them. Costs comparison between open cut and trenchless methods The main difference between open cut and trenchless methods is the amount of excavation needed. Open cut methods require excavations throughout the whole project, while trenchless methods need minimal excavation usually at the start and finish locations and some in between depending on the method use. However trenchless methods may have a higher equipment cost as the equipment needed is more specialized and sophisticated than regular trenching equipment (Jung and Sinha, 2007). From the literature, Table 3 2 presents the costs from different trenching projects. The first column indicates the type of project; the second column refers t o the pipe diameter being installed; the last column refers to the unit cost of the installation per inch of diameter per lineal ft of the installation (Jung and Sinha, 2007)

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49 Table 3 2. Project unit cost per type and pipe diameter. Type of project P ip e diam (in) Unit cost $/in diam/ft Open cut 7.87 $ 16.81 7.87 $ 18.18 9.84 $ 13.06 7.87 $ 18.03 7.87 $ 17.18 Average $ 16. 65 T renchless 12.40 $ 16.17 6.89 $ 20.69 Average $ 18.43 One project was taken out of the list due to a substantial difference in diameter size and unit cost. The percent difference between the average costs of both types of projects is as follows: Other authors (Boyce and Bried, 1998) show a price range of pipe bursting between $7 and $9 /ft/in diam. for microtunneling between $17 and $24 and for HDD between $10 and $24, which compares to the ones in Table 3 2 Trenchless method costs average 10% higher than open cut methods. There are other qualitative costs that have been quantified and that add co st to the project. These qualitative costs are based on social costs (traffic delay and loss of income) and environmental costs (noise costs). Social and environmental costs ad d an average of $314.59/in diam/ft (Boyce and Bried, 1998) to an open cut projec t and an average of $22.10 to a trenchless project. T he total average cost taking into account the social and environmental costs is $331.25 for open

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50 cut and $40.53 for trenchless methods. Even though social and environmental costs are being quantified, th Schedule i mpact to the project A trenchless project is expected to be completed in l ess time than an open cut. This is due to not having to excavate before laying the pipe, and backfilling the trench after laying the pipe. From the projects listed in Table 3 2 the average productivity rate for open cut projects was 19.21 ft/day, while the trenchless projects average d of 68.6 ft/day. Overall daily production is 67 feet for open cut and 18 feet for trenchles s projects A reduction in days can avoid overruns in overhead costs, liability issues and inconveniences to the public in general. Pavers Curbs and Sidewalks Under subdivision 02700 Bases, Ballasts, Pavements and Appurtenances, there are codes for unit pavers (02780), sidewalks (02775) and curbs and gutters (02770 ). Manual handling of pavers can cause MSDs due to the weight of the pavers and repetitive nature of the work (HSE, 2005) Interpave (2006a) Concrete Paving and Kerb Association, provides information on the type of equipment that can be used to install pave r s to avoid workers having to carry them. This equipment is shown in Appendix C Pavers can also contribute to respirable dust and silica when they are cu t prior to installation. It is recommended that designers take into account the type and size of pavers they use when designing a project to avoid or minimize the number of cuts needed (Interpave, 2007). The des ign should include the specific size and installation design that will avoid cut ting of the pavers. If cuts cannot be avoided, wet cutting tools and dust respirator s shall be provided to workers.

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51 Cost and s chedule i mpact The cost and schedule impact s of u sing pavers instead of asphalt in the case of roads or concrete in the case of sidewalks and curbs, have not been widely studied. Interpave (2006b) provides information that shows the cost of permeable pavers being lower through the who le life of the syste m than cast in place concrete but similar to asphalt when both can be used. They still advised that a serviceable life study of pavers shall be made as it is not clear how long is their useful life but it is estimated to be between the useful lives of a sp halt and concrete (between 10 to 40 years) Division 3 Concrete Activities Covered by this D ivision The concrete division refers to all concrete tasks, mate rials and related materials. Table 3 3. Division 3 subdivisions Code Subdivision 03050 Basic Concrete Materials and Methods 03100 Concrete Forms and Accessories 03200 Concrete Reinfor c eme n t 03300 Cast in Place Concrete 03400 Precast Concrete 03430 Site Precast Structural Concrete 03500 Cementitious Decks and Underlayment 03600 Grouts 03700 Mass Concrete 03900 Concrete Restoration and Cleaning The database will concentrate o n the following subdivisions: 03300, 03400, 03500 and 03600. Recommendations also apply to Site Precast Structural Concrete (0343 0) and Concrete Restoration and Cleaning (03900). Survey Results The survey results for this division are as shown in figure 3 7:

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52 Figure 3 7. Survey res ults of hazards for division 3 For this division 74 answers were received. The other contaminants rel ates to components of cement that can cause skin diseases as well as respiratory ones. Silica and dust are primarily related to respiratory diseases and skin diseases. Crystalline Silica Crystalline silica can be found in three different forms: q uartz, t he most common type, cristobalite and tridymite. All these forms can be found in respirable size particles ( Occupational Sa fety and Health Administration, OSHA, n.d. ). The main illness cause by silica exposure is s ilicosis which refers to scar tissue formed in the lungs due to silica dust inhalation that reduces the lungs ability to take up oxygen. Also, lung cancer has been associated with crystalline silica exposure (Steenland, 2005). Silica dust can also 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 accidents heat/sun vision problems ergonomics hearing loss dust Silica other contaminants skin disease Division 3 Hazards

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53 cause dermatitis as workers nee d to be protected to avoid skin contact as stated in the demolition section. There are different agencies that have determined the maximum values of exposure of crystalline silica for workers. OSHA calls for a benchmark of 0.1 mg/m 3 for an 8 hour TWA; NIOS H recommends it to be only 0.05 mg/m 3 for a 10 hour TWA, while the ACGIH recommends the exposure to be limited to 0.025 mg/m 3 for an 8 hour TWA (OSHA, 2009 ; Flynn and Susi, 2003 ). Values are shown in T able 3 4. Table 3 4. Recommended limit values of c rysta lline s ilica Agency Limit (mg/m3) OSHA 0.1 for Quartz, 0.05 for Cristobalite and Tridymite (8 hr TWA) NIOSH 0.05 for all three types (10 hr TWA) ACGIH 0.025 for all three types (8 hr TWA) Concrete Activities that G enerate S ilica D ust There are different activities related to concrete work that generate respirable silica dust : concrete grinding for finishing and polishing concrete, cutting chipping and drilling (Flynn and Susi, 2003 ; Meeker, Cooper, Leftkowitz and Susi, 2009 ) Concrete grinding due to decorative concrete work is fast growing and requires workers to work in poor ventilated areas (Akbar Khanzadeh et.al. 2010). General grinding equipment For grinding equipment OSHA offers two types of recommend ations : wet grinding and equipment with vacuum dust collection (VDC) (OSHA, 2009). One study performed in laboratory conditions, was done by comparing uncontrolled conventional grinding, wet grinding and local exhaust ventilation ( LEV ) non HEPA grinding The test was done first without ge neral ventilation and repeated with general ventilation (GV) The results show ed that the best way to perform grinding is by having general ventilation (GV) and

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54 a grind er with an LEV system (Akbar Khanzadeh et.al. 2007). Although the results show a reduction of dust from uncontrolled conventional grinding to LEV grinding is of 99.2%, the actual value measured using a LE V with the grinder was 0.132 mg/m 3 which is still higher than the values recommended by the different agencies. Another laborator y study was performed by compar ing uncontrolled grinding, shop vacuum ing wet grinding and HEPA LEV systems under general ventilation and non general ventilation configurations (Akbar Khanzadeh et.al., 2010). In th at study the use of a HEPA LEV with genera l ventilation produced the lowest reading at 0.11 mg/m 3 still higher than the recommended limits, but showed a reduction of 99% from uncontrolled conventional grinding Because the values are still higher than the lowest recommended limits of 0.025 mg/m 3 b y the ACGIH, the authors recommend ed th at workers use a respirator with a factor protection of 10. On the other hand, the value obtained with LEV avoiding the need for any type of respirator. The authors also recommen d ed that if any of the other methods were used for grinding that a respirator should be used. For wet grinding and shop vacuum methods, they recommend the use of a half respirator respirator and for uncontrolled grinding the use of a full face respirator was recommended as long as the general ventilator was on. In the case of no general ventilation, the use of a half respirator respirator was recommended for shop vacuum, full respirator for wet grinding and powered air purifying respirator for uncontrolled grinding. However, th e s e dust respirator s and respirator s are only for use by the worker performing the task and do not protect the workers performing other tasks nearby. Appendix C sh ows examples of equipment used in the different studies.

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55 Table 3 5 shows some advantages and disadvantages of the different equipment that can be used to minimize silica dust. Table 3 5. Equipment requirements for controlling silica dust when grinding (Ak bar Khanzadeh, 2010) Equipment Extras with GV (Per OSHA PELs) Advantages Disadvantages HEPA LEV None No need of extra equipment Not a standard equipment Training may be required Needs regular cleaning to be effective Cost may be an issue Shop vaccum Half m ask Standard Equipment on jobsite Needs regular cleaning to be effective Half respirator needed Workers may stop using respirator May not protect adequately even with the respirator Wet grinding H alf m ask Standard Equipment on jobsite Half respirator needed O perator control s water flow Workers may stop using respirator May not protect adequately even with the respirator Uncontrolled grinding F ull respirator Standard Equipment on jobsite Needs full respirator Workers may stop using respirator May not protect adequately even with the respirator Cost considerations Most of the equipment recommended is already part of the equipment use d for concrete grinding ; h owever, HEPA filters might be an addition that also comes with training issues to ensure proper equipment and handling. The cost of a new LEV HEPA is around $2,000 but its motor has a life of 1,400 hours when the equipment is maintained properly. See Apendix B for example of LEV HEPA

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56 Schedule c onsiderations Because the main equipment in use is basic for grinding there should not be any impact on the schedule. On the other hand, the use of HEPA filters may require extra time for training and, depending on the use, time for filter changing. An extra task that the safety personnel of the project need to keep track of is the cleaning of the equipment and changing of the filter to ensure that the respirable silica is maintained to a minimum. Each piece of equipment need s to have a maintenance log to ensure proper maintenance is given to the equipment. A r adio f requency i dentification (RFID) manual. Other concrete activities Other activi ties such as concrete drilling and cutting, present the same problems as concrete grinding. Recommendations are similar such as the use of HEPA filters and/or dust respirator s and respirators. OSHA recommendations present wet cutting as most effective to r educe silica dust (OSHA 2009). If the recommendations of the previous referenced study is followed (Akbar Khanzadeh, 2010), then a full face respirator may be needed to minimize the silica dust particles per when there is no general ventilatio n and half face respirator when there i s general ventilation. Table 3 5 can be used as a reference for these tasks. Precast vs. Cast in Place Concrete Precast concrete usually needs the same type of activities as cast in place with some exceptions and modi fications When precast members are required o n a project they are fabricated in a plant that will cast them usually in reusable metal forms and in more controllable conditions. Not only quality can be controlled, but if prestressed is

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57 combined with pre cast concrete up to 60% savings on the amount of concrete can be achieved (Yee, 2001a ; Yee, 2001b ). Precast pieces can also be finished in the precast plant including painting them; this can save time and will also reduce the exposure of other workers to t he finishing and painting activities of concrete. The main disadvantage that precast concrete can have is the distance from the plant to the project. If there is no plant near to the project, transportation costs may not be offset with savings in materials and time. Another major disadvantage is the precast members may need to be transported through crowded and narrow streets. Busy and crowded streets can be avoided by scheduling deliveries during off peak hours, while narrow streets are more difficult to a void if that is the only way to the construction site. A more extensive study of precast plant configurations, emissions, and other health and safety issues need to be performed to get a better comp arison between precast and cast in place concrete The studies that were evaluated for concrete grinding, cutting, etc, refer to cast in place concrete entailing work that were performed on the project site. The expected results on a precast plant are lower emissions, resulting in a healthier workplace Division 4 Masonry Activities C overe d by this D ivision Division four covers activities that deal with bricks, stone, concrete blocks or CMUs other masonry units and their related materials and tasks.

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58 Table 3 6. Division 4 s ubdivisions Code Subdivision 04050 Basic Masonry Materials and Methods 04200 Masonry Units 04400 Stone 04500 Refractories 04600 Corrosion Resistant Masonry 04700 Simulated Masonry 04800 Masonry Assemblies 04900 M a sonry Restoration and Cleaning Because the basic material is the actual masonry unit and stone, most of the recommendations refer to most of the subdivisions. Still, in the database, they are under 04200 Masonry Units. The recommendations also apply to 04400 Stone, 04600 Corrosion Resistant Masonry and 0 4900 Masonry Restoration and Cleaning. Survey results Survey results for division 4 are shown in figure 3 8 below:

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59 Figure 3 8. Survey results of hazards for division 4 For this division 60 responses were received. Other contaminants, as in division 3, al so refer to cement related components. Ergonomics issues refer to vibration, muscle and back problems, lifting, repetitive motion and upper extremities issues such as carpal tunnel. Hazardous C onditions Most of the same hazardous conditions that affect c oncrete, also affect masonry construction. Crystalline silica and respirable suspended particles are the main hazardous agents encountered by workers in common masonry operations such as grinding, cutting and tuckpointing. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 vision problems inplace hazards dust skin disease hearing loss ergonomics Silica other contaminants Division 4 Hazards

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60 To reduce respirable silica dust due to masonry grinding, the same type of equipment and configurations as recommended for concrete can be used here. The use of a LEV HEPA vacuums in the same manner that it is recommended for concrete can minimize the silica dust during masonry grinding. Cutting masonry can be done in the same manner as concrete cutting, but there is an advantage of masonry operations that most concrete operations do not have, namely that masonry can be cut using stationary saws instead of handheld equipment. The main ad vantages of using stationary saws are not only for dust control considerations but also ergonomic and safety considerations ( Meeker et.al, 2009). These are: Worker s do not have to bear the weight of the tool Avoidance of accidental cuts and amputations Sta tionary saws can use a wet cutting method which minimizes the exposure to respirable silica dust Handheld tools generate higher dust levels Gasoline power ed equipment is prohibited o n scaffoldings The main advantage that contractors see in the use of handheld equipment in general is that workers do not have to stop the activity to go to a cutting station sav es time (Meeker et.al, 2009) The best way to reduce silica dust due to cutting is the use of a wet stationary saw and general ventilation. The use of a full face respirator with tank is highly recommended (OSHA, 2009). If the use of a handheld tool is to be considered, an LEV vacuum should be attached to the tool to minimize dust; water cutting i s also possible when using hand held tools. Tuck pointing operations require the use of handheld equipment due to the nature of the operation. The use of a wet grinder is not advisable as the mortar becomes a

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61 paste that can adhere to the surface and block the work being done (Flanigan et.al 2006). It is advisable t o use a LEV system or vacuum dust collector (VDC) system (OSHA, 2009; Meeker et.al, 2009). Division 5 Metals Activities Covered by this D ivision This division refers to all metal work, from str uctural steel to ornamental metal work. It also includes new and restoration work as well as cleaning procedures. The main subdivisions are shown in T able 3 7. Table 3 7. Division 5 s ubdivisions Code Subdivision 05050 Basic Metal Materials and Methods 05100 Structural Metal Framing 05200 Metal Joists 05300 Metal Deck 05400 Cold Formed Metal Framing 05500 Metal Fabrications 05600 Hydraulic Fabrications 05700 Ornamental Metal 05800 Expansion Control 05900 Metal Restoration and Cleaning Survey results The survey results for division 5 are shown in figure 3 9 below:

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62 Figure 3 9. Survey results of hazards for division 5 Other contaminants refer to related materials to welding such as lead, chromium and radiation. Ergonomics includes vibration, lifting and repetitive motion. Most ergonomics problems are related to musculoskeletal disorders, MSDs. Hazardous Conditions Encountered when W orking with M etals The most common and hazardous condition encountered when working with metals is wel ding. Welding is used in structural steel, in HVAC piping as well as in industrial duct work, mechanical components such as boilers, chillers, etc, and in ornamental components (Meeker, Susi, & Flynn, 2007) There are over 80 different types of welding fo r commercial applications (Antonini, Taylor, Zimmer & Roberts, 2004), with arc welding being in the most common use for structural steel welding. Arc 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Silica dust breathing issues vision problems skin disease accidents hearing loss ergonomics metals other contaminants welding fumes Divison 5 Survey Results

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63 welding is the process wh ere an electric arc is produced between an electrode and a metal object to melt t hem together. Some electrodes are consumed during the process and some are not (Cary, 1979) T he following are the most common arc welding types (Cary, 1979; Tamboli, 1999) : Shielded Metal Arc Welding, SMAW The shield is produced by the decomposition of the electrode. Used mainly for miscellaneous components and repairs. Flux cored Arc Welding, FCAW The electrode is consumed during this type of welding; the shield is produce d by a flux inside the electrode. Most popular in structural steel fabrication a nd erection. Submerged Arc Welding, SAW The flux produced covers the arc providing for a smoke and spatter free weld. The main disadvantage is that the weld is not visible requiring an experience d welder or an automatic welding machine. Because the arc i s hidden multiples welds can be done in a confined space. Gas Metal Arc Welding, GMAW Similar to FCAW but with the advantage of not leaving residual slag and the disadvantage of being sensitive to rust. Not typically used in structural steel fabrication or erection. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, GTAW The electrode is made out of t ungsten and the gas is usually argon. It is commonly used in aluminum and stainless steel (SS) applications. Some of the effects that long exposures to welding fumes can have in w elders is presented in T able 3 8.

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64 Table 3 8. Hazardous welding fume constituents (copy with permission from Antonini, Lewis, Roberts, & Whaley, 2003). Fume Uses Potential hazard concern Aluminum Alloy and filler metal Conducive to ozone production Barium Fluxing agent Eye, nose and throat irritant Cadmium Plating and brazing alloy Respiratory irritant, metal fume fever Chromium Stainless steel alloy Lung carcinogen Copper Alloy and coating material Respiratory irritant, metal fume fever Fluorine Fluxing agent Respiratory irritant Iron Most common fume component when welding steel Siderosis Lead Brass, bronze, and steel alloy Nervous system and kidney effects Magnesium Light metal alloy Respiratory irritant, metal fume fever Manganese Steel alloy Nervous system effect s, respiratory irritant Molybdenum Steel alloy Nickel Stainless steel alloy Lung carcinogen Silicon Fluxing agent Tin Bronze and solder alloy Metal fume fever Titanium Fluxing agent Zinc Galvanized steel, paint coatings Metal fume fever The AC GI H TLV for welding fume particulate s is 5 mg/m 3 ; for manganese it is 0. 2 mg/m 3 Previous studies have shown that without any LEV the exposure levels can have a mean value of over 9 mg/m 3 and manganese exposure of 0.100 mg/m 3 (Woskie, et.al, 2002). Furthermore, experimental studies have shown that a significant reduction can be made when a n LEV is used during welding F ield experiments have shown reduction s on the mean values of welding f umes and manganese exposure, but they have not shown a significant reduction for welding fumes. Manganese readings obtained after adding the use of a LEV d id not exceed the ACGIH TLV, the OSHA PEL or the NIOSH REL (Meeker, et.al, 2007).

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65 Recommendations Fr om the literature it was found that welding process es such as GMAW and GTAW generate a lower manganese exposure than that of FCAW, which is the most common welding used in structural steel. If substitution of FCAW by either GTAW or GMAW was possible, a sig nificant reduction of manganese exposure can be achieved (Meeker, et.al, 2007). T he process es and the different materials use d in each type of welding, make it difficult to substitute one with the other. The main recommendation for welding operations is the use of a n LEV. HEPA LEVs for grinding equipment can also be used for welding operations.

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66 CHAPTER 4 DATABASE CONFIGURATION Opening Remarks The presentation of the recommendations is the most important aspect of this study. Most of the discussion on d ifferent solutions presented in the previous chapters has being presented before T he main problem that previous studies have is the audience they can reach The main focus of this dissertation is to make the information readily available and eas ily unders t oo d by construction managers and other construction project stakeholders that may need to alter their activities in order to accommodate features presented in this database. The database interface was created to be user friendly. Because it is a web bas ed application, portability is possible in different devices. Future configurations can be made to present it as an application for smart phones and similar devices Even so, the work presented here can be used in any type of device. Another possibility is the connection of the database with design and BIM software such as Google SketchUp and Autodesk Revit. Database L anguage The application is written in ruby on rails version 3.0.8. Ruby on rails is an open source framework, built on top of the Ruby langua ge, to create web based data centric applications (rubyonrails.org) For the development of the application and code structure, examples from different sources were used as a base for implementation (Ruby, 2011; Hartl, 2010; Thomas, 2009) These examples a re covered under open source licenses, which allows re use in any sort of code. A copy of the code can be found in Appendix D

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67 Available Information The information that is available for the users for this work is limited to Divisions 2 5 of the CSI Masterformat 1995. These divisions are 2 Sitework, 3 Concrete, 4 Mason ry, and 5 Metals, see F igure 4 1 Under each division, the user can find the applicable subdivision. These subdivisions can be found in Appendix B Because of the limits of this investi gation, only some subdivisions have information on what can be done to make it safer for the construction worker. See T able 4 1 for a sample of the sitework information, Table 4 2 for sample of concrete, Table 4 3 for a sample of masonry and Table 4 4 for a sample of Metals. Table 4 1. Division 2 Sitework available information Subdivision Activity Recommendations Cost Impact Schedule Impact Protects Against 02200 Site Preparation Demolition Protective clothing, gloves, Full respirator $200 $300 None Dermatitis, Respiratory Illnesses 02500 Utility Services New Utilities microtunneling + 10% O pen T rench 30% of O pen T rench Respiratory Illnesses h orizontal directional drilling + 10% O pen T rench 30% of O pen T rench Respiratory Illnesses impact moling + 10% O pen T rench 30% of O pen T rench Respiratory Illnesses auger moling + 10% O pen T rench 30% of O pen T rench Respiratory Illnesses pipe ramming + 10% O pen T rench 30% of O pen T rench Respiratory Illnesses Pipe Replacement pipe bursting + 10% O pen T rench 30% of O pen T rench Respiratory Illnesses 02700 Pavements Unit pavers Use mechanical installation and avoid cutting N/A N/A MSDs, Respiratory Illnesses

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68 Table 4 2. Division 3 Concrete available information Subdivision Activity Recommendations Cost Impact Schedule Impact Protects Against 03300 Cast In Place Concrete Concrete grinding LEV HEPA $2,000 None All items protect against respiratory illnesses LEV HEPA and shop vacuum will also protect surrounding workers. ShopVacuum + half respirator $200 $300 None Wet grinding tool + half respirator $200 $300 None Full respirator $200 $300 None concrete cutting LEV HEPA $2,000 None ShopVacuum + half face respirator $200 $300 None Wet cutting tool + half face respirator $200 $300 None Full face respirator $200 $300 None 03400 Precast Concrete Concrete grinding LEV HEPA $2,000 None ShopVacuum +half face respirator $200 $300 None Wet grinding tool + half face respirator $200 $300 None Full face respirator $200 $300 None concrete cutting LEV HEPA $2,000 None ShopVacuum + half respirator $200 $300 None Wet cutting tool + half face respirator $200 $300 None Full face respirator $200 $300 None 03600 Grouts tuckpointing LEV HEPA $2,000 None ShopVacuum +half respirator $200 $300 None Wet tool + half face respirator $200 $300 None Full face respirator $200 $300 None

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69 Table 4 3. Division 4 Masonry available information Subdivision Activity Recommendations Cost Impact Schedule Impact Protects Against 04200 Masonry Units Grinding LEV HEPA $2,000 None All items protect against respiratory illnesses such as silicosis LEV HEPA and shop vacuum will also protect surrounding workers. ShopVacuum +half face respirator $200 $300 None Wet grinding equpment + half face respirator $200 $300 None Full face respirator $200 $300 None cutting LEV HEPA $2,000 None ShopVacuum +half face respirator $200 $300 None Wet cutting equpment + half face respirator $200 $300 None Full face respirator $200 $300 None tuckpointing LEV HEPA $2,000 None ShopVacuum +half face respirator $200 $300 None Wet equpment + half face respirator $200 $300 None Full face respirator $200 $300 None Table 4 4. Division 5 Metals available information Subdivision Activity Recommendations Cost impact Schedule Impact Protect Against 05100 Structural Metal Framing welding LEV $1,000 None All items protect against respiratory illnesses such as silicosis. LEV HEPA and shop vacuum will also protect surrounding workers. 05200 Metal Joists welding LEV $1,000 None 05300 Metal Deck welding LEV $1,000 None 05500 Metal Fabricati ons welding LEV $1,000 None 05700 Ornamental Metal welding LEV $1,000 None

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70 Additional Information Additional information provided to users is necessary for them to make a more informed decision. The database includes information regarding what disease can be avoided or minimized by taking the recommended precaution s and a description of the disease. It also includes a link to what are the OSHA minimum requirements for the different tasks in the database. The recommendations include d in the database can be from OSHA minimum requirements, if additional safeguards have not been developed for the task. When additional recommendations are found, they are added to the database even if they go beyond OSHA requirement s The database is not only trying to provide for a simpler way to access information, but to provide additional information than what is readily available such as that provided by OSHA and other similar entities. Using the A pplication Accessing Existing I nformation The application allows the user to choose the division, subdivision, and activity for their project. It then shows a list of recommendations for this activity, and the cost and schedule impact for the chosen recommendation For example: If installing new underground utilit y piping the first screen is shown in Figure 4 1.

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71 Figure 4 1. Divisions screen After choosing the Division 2 for Sitework, the next screen shows the subdivisions see figure 4 2. Figure 4 2. Subdivisions screen for d i vision 2 Sitework After a subdivision is selected, in this example 02500 Utility Services, the next screen presents a list of different activities that the user can choose from. Figure 4 3. Subdivision activities

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72 After an activity is chosen, the next screen presents different recommendations that will help safeguard the health of the construction worker (see F igure 4 4). Figure 4 4. Recommendations under activities In F igure 4 5 the user can find information re garding cost and schedule impact of the selected recommendation. It also provides information on the health issues that can be mitigated when adopting the recommendation and a website to find more information on the illness. Figure 4 5. Recommendations c ost and schedule impact After choosing the recommendation, the budget and schedule can be adjusted according to the information given by the database. The database can be used in most browsers including Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Mozzilla Firefox, and Safari.

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73 Entering New I nformation The database lets the user enter new information for future projects and it incorporates it to the main database following these steps: 1. Create a new division If the activity belongs to a division that has not be en def ined, the database lets you create a new division, see F igure 4 6. If the Division exists, the user will choose the corresponding one from the home menu, see F igure 4 1. Figure 4 6. Create a n ew d ivision 2. Create a new subdivision After either creating a new division or selecting from the list, the user can create or select and existing subdivision where the activity to be added belongs. See F igure 4 7. Figure 4 7. Create n ew s ubdivision 3. Create a new activity The activities can be selected from a drop down menu depending on the division. Each activity is linked to a cost and schedule impact. See F igure 4 8.

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74 Figure 4 8. New subdivision with activities 4. Activities can also be added and f rom the dropdown menu, different recommendations can be added to the activity. See F igure 4 9. Figure 4 9. New activity with recommendations 5. Recommendations can also be added and the following information is needed to complete the recommendation information: recommendation, cost impact, schedule impact, protect against, url with more information. See F igure 4 10.

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75 Figure 4 10. New recommendati on screen Translating to Extensible Markup Language (XML) One of the capabilities added to the application is that i t translates the code into XML. The main idea behind XML is its simplicity so it can be generally applied and used over the internet. Figure 4 11 presents the database screen that is visible. Figure 4 1 2 presents the XML code that applies to it. Figure 4 11 Users screen view

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76 Figure 4 1 2 XML code for screen view on f igure 4 9. Ruby and Sketchup Google SketchUp is a drawing tool that lets the user do 3 D designs of structures and their surrounding neighborhoods and cities. It also lets the user animate the design to show it from the perspective of someone walking on the streets. It is a useful tool to perspective making it a tool attractive for designers to show their work to owners. SketchUp also has a free version that has most of the capabilities tha t the professional version has, including the ability to translate to and from AutoCad programs such as Architecture Revit. Google SketchUp lets its users create A pplication Programming interfaces (APIs) to customize their SketchUp environment. These API s are created in r uby on rails and are added to the menus. A new button is created that connects to the application that is added. The database that was created and presented in this chapter was made on ruby on rails and will be adapted to work on SketchUp. The tool will identify the materials use d in the design and connect it to the alternatives provided in it. For example: If the design calls for a steel structure the API will open the web based database in the division 5 page. Then, the user will go to the structural steel subdivision and see the different recommendations, the cost and schedule changes and the illness that using this alternative will protect against. The API code will be made available in

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77 the website for those users that will like to add it to their Sketchup copy. See Appendix E for the API code. Estimates in Excel There are different tools that can be used to create estimates. But, a basic tool that is still widely used when preparing estimates is Excel. To make the database accessible from Excel a Macros created using Visual B asic applications was done. When the M acro is run in an Excel workbook, it will attach a hyperlink to the task name that will open the database in the corresponding division. The website will have the VBA code so it can be copied to Excel. See Appendix F for the VBA code.

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78 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTU RE RESEARCH The database created through this research will provide easily accessible information of construction materials and procedures that may be replaced or modified to make them safer for the construction worker. Designers can lo ok through the database for replacements to incorporate them in their specifications and material schedules. Contractors can also use the database to modify or change procedures during the construction process. Furthermore, OSHA has historically addressed only reportable and immediate causation injuries and illnesses, not taking into account long term effect of hazardous materials and procedures. This database will give the user information on how to protect the construction worker from these hazards. This research seeks to provide a point of reference for designers and all part ies involved in the construction process of what materials and procedures can be changed or modified to improve the long term health of the construction worker. It will also bring awa reness of the importance of the health of the construction worker that is commonly overlooked due to its long delay in effects because of the accumulative effect. Because the database works in almost any browser, the user has the flexibility to use the env ironment that is available and more comfortable to them. Furthermore, having the database web based, gives the user the opportunity to use it without having to depend of a specific device. It also helps on maintaining the information current by having only one place were the information needs to be updated. Accomplishments The following points have been accomplished in this dissertation: Extensive study of the major hazards encountered in the first 4 divisions of the CSI masterformat which are:

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79 o Heavy equi pment emissions o Crystalline silica o Dust effects both on skin and respiratory system o Comparison between precast and cast in place concrete o Welding fumes o Noise The creation of a web based environment that presents this information in a user friendly manner that is also: o Accessible from any web browser o Centralized for easy and instantaneous updates o Portable and not dependant on one specific device Database is accessible from Sketchup through an application that reviews the materials used for the design and op ens the database in the corresponding divisions. The Database is also accessible from Excel through macros that can be used when using Excel for an estimate. It will evaluate the estimate items and add a hyperlink to the corresponding materials that will c onnect the database to the estimate. Translate to xml language that m akes it easier to adapt to other programs for incorporation on design and preconstruction phases. Future Research r the design of a structure. This tool can process, generate and manage building data throughout its life cycle. This data includes geographical information, component properties and quantities, spatial relations and building geometry. The design created b y Revit is graphical, dynamic and in real time which provides designers and builders with the latest information of the building. Furthermore, Autodesk Revit has Take off, MEP coordination and environmental analysis tools that can help a contractor during the construction process. As a future research, a tool that interacts with BIM software and provides alternatives for materials that are harmful to the construction worker s can be

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80 created. This tool will use the database created with the proposed research and connect it with the building data generated by BIM software. Other issues that need to be further researched are: Precast advantages over cast in place concrete on respirable particle emissions Precast cost and schedule impact on a project and respirable particle emissions when compare d to the use of cast in place concrete or asphalt. Other divisions of the CSI Masterformat to include materials and procedures for any type of project. The development of applications that can be downloaded to smart phones and similar devices to make the search through the database easier when using this type of devices. Creation of a Macros that can be used in Microsoft Project to connect the database to the project schedule. RFID tags to hold the information of how to install materials in a safely manner and for tools to provide information of what extra equipment or precautions if necessary need to be taken into account when using them fo r specific tasks that can contribute in unhealthy conditions for the w orkers. The development of specifications that relate to the database use to make it part of the construction process.

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81 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONS 1. Have you worked or are you currently working in the construction industry? a. Yes b. No 2. If you answered Yes to t he previous question, in what capacity? (Answer N/A if have never worked in construction. You can select more than one answer.) a. N/A b. Union worker c. Non union worker d. Occupational health professional e. Management f. Designer (Architect, Engineer, etc.) g. Specialized s ubcontractor h. Owner i. Government j. Consultant k. Academia l. Other 3. How many years have you worked in construction? (Answer N/A if you have never worked in construction) a. N/A b. 0 5 c. 5 10 d. 10 20 e. Over 20 4. Sitework Health Issues This section refers to health issues that can arise in sitework. Sitework includes the following subdivision: (If you need more clarification of tasks in this division please go to : http://www.mc2ice.com/support/estref/popular_conversion_files/construct_code /Division2.html) Division 2 Sitework 02050 Basic site materials and methods 02100 Site remediation 02200 Site preparation 02300 Earthwork 02400 Tunnels, bores and jacks 02500 Utilities Services

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82 02600 Drainage and containment 02700 Bases, ballasts, pavement and appurtenances 02800 Site improv ements and amenities 02900 Planting 02950 Site restoration and rehabilitation Remember to include only health hazards that can cause short and/or long term illnesses and not safety issues that are mostly related to accidents. For example: If the question refers to building waterproofing a concern regarding roofing installation may be the fumes from the products used and not the possibility of falls. If you don't know the answer, just leave it blank. Enumerate at most five important health hazards that can affect a construction worker performing a task under this division? 5. Concrete work health issues This section refers to health issues that can arise in concrete tasks. Concrete includes the following subdivisions: (If you need more clarification of tasks in this division please go to : http://www.mc2ice.com/support/estref/popular_conversion_files/construct_code /Division3.html) Division 3 Concrete 03050 Basic materials and methods 03100 Forms and accessories 03200 Concrete reinforcing 03300 Cast in place concrete 03400 Precast concrete 03430 Site precast structural concrete 03500 Cementitious decks and underlayment 03600 Grout 03700 Mass concrete 03900 Restoration and cleaning Remember to include only health hazards that can cause short and/or long term illnesses and not safety issues that are mostly related to accidents. For example: If the question refers to building waterproofing a concern regarding roofing installation may be the fumes from the products used and not the possibility of falls. If you do n't know the answer, just leave it blank. Enumerate at most five important health hazards that can affect a construction worker performing a task under this division? 6. Masonry work health issues This section refers to health issues that can arise in mas onry tasks. Masonry includes the following subdivisions: (If you need more clarification of tasks in this division please go to : http://www.mc2ice.com/support/estref/popular_conversion_files/construct_code /Division4.html)

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83 Division 4 Masonry 04050 Basic materials and methods 04200 Masonry units 04400 Stone 04500 Refractories 04600 Corrosion resistant masonry 04700 Simulated masonry 04800 Masonry assemblies 04900 Restoration and cleaning Remember to include only health hazards that can cause short and/or long term illnesses and not safety issues that are mostly related to accidents. For example: If the question refers to building waterproofing a concern regarding roofing installation may be the fumes from the products used and not the possibility of falls If you don't know the answer, just leave it blank. Enumerate at most five important health hazards that can affect a construction worker performing a task under this division? 7. This section refers to health issues that can arise metals work Metals inclu des the following subdivisions: (If you need more clarification of tasks in this divisio n please go to : http://www.mc2 ice.com/support/estref/popular_conversion_files/construct_code /Division5.html) Division 5 Metals 05050 Basic materials and methods 0510 0 Structural Metal Framing 05200 Joists 05300 Metal deck 05400 Cold formed metal framing 05500 Metal fabrications 05600 Hydraulic fabrications 05700 Ornamental metal 05800 Expansion control 05900 Metal restoration and cleaning Remember to include only hea lth hazards that can cause short and/or long term illnesses and not safety issues that are mostly related to accidents. For example: If the question refers to building waterproofing a concern regarding roofing installation may be the fumes from the product s used and not the possibility of falls. If you don't know the answer, just leave it blank. Enumerate at most five important health hazards that can affect a construction worker performing a task under this division?

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84 8. Please use this space to add any comments, concerns and/or questions you may have. Thank you for your participation.

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85 APPENDIX B CONSTRUCTION SPECIFI CATIONS INSTITUTE MA STERFORMAT 1995 Division 1 General Requirements 01100 Summary 01200 Price and payment procedures 01300 Administrative requirements 01400 Quality requirements 01500 Temporary facilities and controls 01 600 Product requirements 01700 Execution requirements 01800 Facility operation 01900 Decommissioning Division 2 Sitework 02050 Basic site materials and meth ods 02100 Site remediation 02200 S ite preparation 02300 Earthwork 02400 Tunnels, bores and jacks 02500 Utilities Services 02600 Drainage and containment 02700 Bases, ballasts, pavement and appurtenances 02800 Site improvements and amenities 02900 Planting 02950 Site restoration and rehabilitation Division 3 Concrete 03050 Basic materials and methods 03100 Forms and accessories 03200 Concrete reinforcing 03300 C ast in place concrete 03400 Precast concrete 03430 Site precast structural concrete 03500 Cementitious decks and underlayment 03600 Grout 03700 Mass concrete 03900 Restoration and cleaning

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86 D ivision 4 Masonry 04050Basic materials and methods 04200Masonry units 04400Stone 04500Refractories 04600Corrosion resistant masonry 04700 Simulated mas onry 04800 Masonry assemblies 04900 Restoration and cleaning Division 5 Metals 05050 Basic materials and methods 05100 Structural Metal Framing 05200 Joists 05300 Metal deck 05400 Cold formed metal framing 05500 Metal fabrications 05600 Hydraulic fabrications 05700 Ornamental metal 05800 Expansion control 05900 Metal restoration and cleaning Division 6 Wood and plastics 06050 Basic materials and methods 06100 Rough carpentry 06200 Finish carpentry 06400 Architectural woodwork 06500 Structural p lastic 06600 Plastic fabrications 06900 Wood and plastic restoration and cleaning Division 7 Thermal and moisture protection 07050 Basic thermal and moisture protection materials and methods 07100 Dampproofing and waterproofing 07200 Thermal protection 07300 Shingles, roof tiles and coverings 07400 Roofing and siding panels 07500 Membrane roofing 07600 Flashing and sheetmetal 07700 Roof specialties and accessories 07800 Fire and smoke protection 07900 Joint sealers

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87 Division 8 Doors and windows 08050 B asic materials and methods 08100 Metal doors and frames 08200 Wood and plastic doors 08300 Specialty doors 08400 Entrances and storefronts 0 8500 Windows 08600 Skylights 08700 Hardware 08800 Glazing 08900 Curtainwalls Division 9 Finishes 09050 Basic materials and methods 09100 Metal support assemblies 09200 Plaster and gypsum board 09300 Tile 09400 Terrazzo 095 00 Ceilings 09600 Flooring 09700 Wall finishes 09800 Acoustical treatment 09900 Paint and coatings Division 10 Specialties 10100 Visual disp lay boards 10150 Compartments and cubicles 10200 Louvers and vents 10240 Grilles and screens 10250 Service walls 10260 Wall and corner guards 10270 Access flooring 10290 Pest control 10300 Fireplaces and stoves 1034 0 Manufactured exterior specialties 10350 Flagpoles 10400 Identification devices 10450 Pedestrian control 10500 Lockers 10520 Fire protection specialties 10530 Identification devices 10550 Post office specialties 10600 Partitions 10670 Storage shelves 10700 Exterior protection 10750 Telephone spe cialties

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88 10800 Toilet, bath and laundry accessories 10900 Wardrobe and closet specialties Division 11 Equipment 11010 Maintenance equipment 11020 Security and vault equipment 11030 Teller and service equipment 11040 Ecclesiastical equipment 11050 Library equipment 11060 Theater and stage equipment 11070 Instrumental and music equipment 11080 Registration equipment 11090 Checkroom equipment 11100 Mercantile equipment 11110 Commercial laundry equipment 11120 Vending equipment 11130 Audiovisual equipm ent 11140 Vehicle service equipment 11150 Parking control equipment 11160 Loading dock equipment 11170 Solid waste handling equipment 11190 Prison equipment 11200 Water supply and treatment equipment 11280 Hydraulic gates and valves 11300 Fluid waste treat ment and disposal equipment 11400 Food service equipment 11450 Residential equipment 11460 Unit kitchens 11470 Darkroom equipment 11480 Athletic, recreational and therapeutic equipment 11500 Industrial and process equipment 11600 Laboratory equipment 11650 Planetarium equipment 11660 Observatory equipment 11680 Office equipment 11700 Medical equipment 11780 Mortuary equipment 11850 Navigation equipment 11870 Agricultural equipment 11900 Exhibit equipment Division 12 Furnishings 12050 Fabrics 12100 Art 1 2300 Manufactured casework

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89 12400 Furnishings and accessories 12500 Furniture 12600 Multiple seating 12700 System furniture 12800 Interior plants and planters 12900 Furnishings restoration and repair Division 13 Special construction 13010 Air supported structures 13020 Building modules 13030 Special purpose rooms 13080 Sound, vibration and seismic control 13090 Radiation protection 13100 Lightning protection 13110 Cathodic protection 13120 Preengineered structures 13150 Swimming pools 13160 Aquariums 131 65 Aquatic parks 13170 Tubs and pools 13175 Ice rinks 13185 Kennels 13190 Site constructed incinerators 13200 Storage tanks 13220 Filter underdrains and media 13230 Digester covers and appurtenances 13240 Oxygenation systems 13260 Sludge conditioning syste ms 13280 Hazardous material remedition 13400 Measurement and control instrumentation 13500 Recording instrumentation 13550 Transportation control instrumentation 13600 Solar and wind energy equipment 13700 Security access and surveillance 13800 Building automation and control 13850 Detection and alarm 13900 Fire suppression Division 14 Conveying systems 14100 Dumbwaiters 14200 Elevators 14300 Escalators and moving walks 14400 Lifts 14500 Material handling 14600 Hoists and cranes 14700 Turntables

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90 14800 Scaffolds 14900 Transportation Division 15 Mechanical 15050 Basic materials and methods 15100 Building services pipe 15200 Process pipe 15300 Fire protection pipe 15400 Plumbing fixtures and equipment 15500 Heat generation equipment 15600 Refrigeration equipment 1570 0 HVAC equipment 15800 Air distribution 15900 HVAC instrumentation and controls 15950 Testing, adjusting and balancing Division 16 Electrical 16050 Basic materials and methods 16100 Wiring methods 16200 Electric power 16300 Transmission an d distribution 16400 Low voltage distribution 16500 Lighting 16700 Communications 16800 Sound and video

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91 APPENDIX C EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES Hydraulic clamping equipment to install block cluster. Manual cutter that minimizes the respirable dust and silica released to the air

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92 Wet cutting equipment

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93 Dustcontrol DC 2800c/Auto LEV HEPA filter with about 1400 hours of motor life. The brushes life is 600 700 hours original brushes, 400 hours first replacement and 300 hours second replacement. Cost is around $1950 new. (Information and figure courtesy of Dustcontrol)

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94 APPENDIX D WEB BASED DATABASE CODE ======================================= FILE: doc/README_FOR_APP ======================================= = Construction Worker Health: == Alternatives to Hazardous Materials and Procedures Application to find and map recommendations for a lternative procedures that will result in reduced negative health impact for construction workers. This application is written in ruby on rails (http://rubyonrails.org/) version 3.0.8. Ruby on rails is an open source framework, built on top of the Ruby la nguage, to create web based data centric applications. A list of references for ruby on rails development can be found at: http://rubyonrails.org/documentation We used version 1.9.2 of the ruby language. References for ruby language can be found at: http://www.ruby lang.org/en/documentation/ The following books were heavily used as references during the development of the application, and code structure and examples from these books were used to base our implementation (these examples are covered under open source licenses allowing re use in any sort of code): http://pragprog.com/titles/rails4/agile web development with rails http://ruby.railstutorial.org/ruby on rails tutorial book http://ruby.railstutorial.org/ruby on rails tutorial book http://pragprog.com/titles/ruby3/programming ruby 1 9 The following websites provided hints, and examples used to implement sections of the code: http://guides.rubyonrails.org/getting_started.html http://railscasts.com/ rails screen ca sts http://teachmetocode.com rails screen casts http://api.rubyonrails.org Documentation for framework http://stackoverflow.com question and answer web site The application allows the user to choose division, subdivision, and activity fo r their project. It then shows a list of recommendations for this activity, and the cost and schedule impact if the recommendation is followed.

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95 ======================================= FILE: Gemfile ======================================= source 'http://rubygems.org' gem 'rails', '3.0.8' gem 'sqlite3 ruby', '1.3.2', :require => 'sqlite3' group :development do gem 'rspec rails', '2.6.0' gem 'annotate models', '1.0.4' end group :test do gem 'rspec rails', '2.6.0' gem 'webrat', '0.7.1' g em 'spork', '~> 0.9.0.rc5' gem 'factory_girl_rails', '1.0' end ======================================= FILE: config/routes.rb ======================================= Thesis::Application.routes.draw do match '/', :to => 'divisions#index' matc h 'root', :to => 'divisions#index' match '/home', :to => 'divisions#index' root :to => 'divisions#index' resources :recommendations resources :activities resources :subdivisions resources :divisions resources :maps # The priority is based upon order of creation: # first created > highest priority. # Sample of regular route: # match 'products/:id' => 'catalog#view' # Keep in mind you can assign values other than :controller and :action

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96 # Sample of nam ed route: # match 'products/:id/purchase' => 'catalog#purchase', :as => :purchase # This route can be invoked with purchase_url(:id => product.id) # Sample resource route (maps HTTP verbs to controller actions automatically): # resources :prod ucts # Sample resource route with options: # resources :products do # member do # get 'short' # post 'toggle' # end # # collection do # get 'sold' # end # end # Sample resource route with sub resources: # resources :products do # resources :comments, :sales # resource :seller # end # Sample resource route with more complex sub resources # resources :products do # resources :com ments # resources :sales do # get 'recent', :on => :collection # end # end # Sample resource route within a namespace: # namespace :admin do # # Directs /admin/products/* to Admin::ProductsController # # (app/cont rollers/admin/products_controller.rb) # resources :products # end # You can have the root of your site routed with "root" # just remember to delete public/index.html. # root :to => "welcome#index" # See how all your routes lay out with "rake routes"

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97 # This is a legacy wild controller route that's not recommended for RESTful applications. # Note: This route will make all actions in every controller accessible via GET requests. # match ':cont roller(/:action(/:id(.:format)))' end ======================================= FILE: app/controllers/subdivisions_controller.rb ======================================= class SubdivisionsController < ApplicationController # GET /subdivisions # GET /sub divisions.xml def index @subdivisions = Subdivision.all respond_to do |format| format.html # index.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @subdivisions } end end # GET /subdivisions/1 # GET /subdivisions/1.xml def show @subdivision = Subdivision.find(params[:id]) session[:subdivision] = @subdivision.name @breadcrumb = "#{session[:division]}|#{session[:subdivision]}" respond_to do |format| format.html # show.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @subdivision } end end # GET /subdivisions/new # GET /subdivisions/new.xml def new @subdivision = Subdivision.new respond_to do |format| format.html # new.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @subdivision } end e nd

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98 # GET /subdivisions/1/edit def edit @subdivision = Subdivision.find(params[:id]) end # POST /subdivisions # POST /subdivisions.xml def create map_string_activities_to_object @subdivision = Subdivision.new(params[:subdivision]) respond_to do |format| if @subdivision.save format.html { redirect_to(@subdivision, :notice => 'Subdivision was successfully created.') } format.xml { render :xml => @subdivision, :status => :created, :location => @subdivision } else format.html { render :action => "new" } format.xml { render :xml => @subdivision.errors, :status => :unprocessable_entity } end end end # PUT /subdivisions/1 # PUT /subdivisions/1.xml def update @subdivis ion = Subdivision.find(params[:id]) map_string_activities_to_object respond_to do |format| if @subdivision.update_attributes(params[:subdivision]) format.html { redirect_to(@subdivision, :notice => 'Subdivision was successfully updat ed.') } format.xml { head :ok } else format.html { render :action => "edit" } format.xml { render :xml => @subdivision.errors, :status => :unprocessable_entity } end end end # DELETE /subdivisions/1

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99 # DELETE /subdivisions/1.xml def destroy @subdivision = Subdivision.find(params[:id]) @subdivision.destroy respond_to do |format| format.html { redirect_to(subdivisions_url) } format.xml { head :ok } end end def map_s tring_activities_to_object # Map from string to actual object to insert unless params.nil? or params[:subdivision].nil? or params[:subdivision][:activities].nil? params[:subdivision][:activities].collect! { |r| unless r.empty? Activity.find(r) end } params[:subdivision][:activities].compact! end end end ======================================= FILE: app/controllers/activities_controller.rb ======================================= class ActivitiesController < ApplicationController # GET /activities # GET /activities.xml def index @activities = Activity.all respond_to do |format| format.html # index.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @activities } end end # GET /activities/1 # GET /activities/1.xml def show @activity = Activity.find(params[:id])

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100 @breadcrumb = "#{session[:division]}|#{session[:subdivision]}|#{@activity.name}" session[:activity] = @activity.name respond_to do |format| format.html # show.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @activity } end end # GET /activities/new # GET /activities/new.xml def new @activity = Activity.new respond_to do |format| format.html # new.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @activity } end end # GET /activities/1/edit def edit @activity = Activity.find(params[:id]) logger.debug("AT EDIT with PARAMS: #{@params}") if Rails.env.development? end # POST /activities # POS T /activities.xml def create map_string_recommendations_to_objects @activity = Activity.new(params[:activity]) respond_to do |format| if @activity.save format.html { redirect_to(@activity, :notice => 'Activity was successfully created.') } format.xml { render :xml => @activity, :status => :created, :location => @activity } else format.html { render :action => "new" } format.xml { render :xml => @activity.errors, :status => :unprocessable_entity } end end

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101 end # PUT /activities/1 # PUT /activities/1.xml def update @activity = Activity.find(params[:id]) map_string_recommendations_to_objects respond_to do |format| if @activity.update_att ributes(params[:activity]) format.html { redirect_to(@activity, :notice => 'Activity was successfully updated.') } format.xml { head :ok } else format.html { render :action => "edit" } format.xml { render :xml => @ac tivity.errors, :status => :unprocessable_entity } end end end # DELETE /activities/1 # DELETE /activities/1.xml def destroy @activity = Activity.find(params[:id]) @activity.destroy respond_to do |format| format.html { redirect_to(activities_url) } format.xml { head :ok } end end def map_string_recommendations_to_objects # Map from string to actual object to insert unless params.nil? or params[:activity].nil? or params[:activit y][:recommendations].nil? params[:activity][:recommendations].collect! { |r| unless r.empty? Recommendation.find(r) end } params[:activity][:recommendations].compact! end end

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102 end ===================== ================== FILE: app/controllers/application_controller.rb ======================================= class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base protect_from_forgery end ======================================= FILE: app/controllers/divisions_controller.rb ======================================= class DivisionsController < ApplicationController # GET /divisions # GET /divisions.xml def index @divisions = Division.all respond_to do |format| format.h tml # index.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @divisions } end end # GET /divisions/1 # GET /divisions/1.xml def show @division = Division.find(params[:id]) session[:division] = @division.name @breadcrumb = "#{session[:di vision]}" respond_to do |format| format.html # show.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @division } end end # GET /divisions/new # GET /divisions/new.xml def new @division = Division.new respond_to do |format| format.html # new.html.erb

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103 format.xml { render :xml => @division } end end # GET /divisions/1/edit def edit @division = Division.find(params[:id]) end # POST /divisions # POST /divisions.xml def create @division = D ivision.new(params[:division]) respond_to do |format| if @division.save format.html { redirect_to(@division, :notice => 'Division was successfully created.') } format.xml { render :xml => @division, :status => :created, :location => @division } else format.html { render :action => "new" } format.xml { render :xml => @division.errors, :status => :unprocessable_entity } end end end # PUT /divisions/1 # PUT /divisions/1.xml def update @division = Division.find(params[:id]) respond_to do |format| if @division.update_attributes(params[:division]) format.html { redirect_to(@division, :notice => 'Division was successfully updated.') } format.xml { head :ok } else format.html { render :action => "edit" } format.xml { render :xml => @division.errors, :status => :unprocessable_entity } end end end

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104 # DELETE /divisions/1 # DELETE /divisions/1.xml def destroy @division = Division.find(params[:id]) @division.destroy respond_to do |format| format.html { redirect_to(divisions_url) } format.xml { head :ok } end end end ======================================= FILE: app/controllers/r ecommendations_controller.rb ======================================= class RecommendationsController < ApplicationController # GET /recommendations # GET /recommendations.xml def index @recommendations = Recommendation.all respond_to do |for mat| format.html # index.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @recommendations } end end # GET /recommendations/1 # GET /recommendations/1.xml def show @recommendation = Recommendation.find(params[:id]) @breadcrumb = "#{session[:division]}|#{session[:subdivision]}|#{session[:activity]}|#{@recommendation. name}" session[:recommendation] = @recommendation.name respond_to do |format| format.html # show.html.erb format.xml { render :x ml => @recommendation } end end # GET /recommendations/new # GET /recommendations/new.xml

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105 def new @recommendation = Recommendation.new respond_to do |format| format.html # new.html.erb format.xml { render :xml => @recomme ndation } end end # GET /recommendations/1/edit def edit @recommendation = Recommendation.find(params[:id]) end # POST /recommendations # POST /recommendations.xml def create @recommendation = Recommendation.new(params[:recommendation]) respond_to do |format| if @recommendation.save format.html { redirect_to(@recommendation, :notice => 'Recommendation was successfully created.') } format.xml { re nder :xml => @recommendation, :status => :created, :location => @recommendation } else format.html { render :action => "new" } format.xml { render :xml => @recommendation.errors, :status => :unprocessable_entity } end end end # PUT /recommendations/1 # PUT /recommendations/1.xml def update @recommendation = Recommendation.find(params[:id]) respond_to do |format| if @recommendation.update_attributes(params[:recommendation]) format.html { redire ct_to(@recommendation, :notice => 'Recommendation was successfully updated.') } format.xml { head :ok } else format.html { render :action => "edit" }

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106 format.xml { render :xml => @recommendation.errors, :status => :unprocessa ble_entity } end end end # DELETE /recommendations/1 # DELETE /recommendations/1.xml def destroy @recommendation = Recommendation.find(params[:id]) @recommendation.destroy respond_to do |format| format.html { redirect_to(recommendations_url) } format.xml { head :ok } end end end ======================================= FILE: app/models/activity.rb ======================================= # == Schema Information # Schema version: 20110612051555 # # Table name: activities # # id :integer not null, primary key # name :string(255) # created_at :datetime # updated_at :datetime # class Activity < ActiveRecord::Base attr_accessible :name, :subdivisions, :recommendations has_many :substitutions has_many :workcategorizations has_many :subdivisions, :through => :workcategorizations has_many :recommendations, :through => :substitutions private # ensure that there are no recommendations referencing this division def ensure_not_referenced_by_any_recommendations

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107 if recommendations.empty? return true else errors.add(:base, 'Recommendations present') return false end end en d ======================================= FILE: app/models/substitution.rb ======================================= # == Schema Information # Schema version: 20110612195636 # # Table name: substitutions # # id :integer not null, primary key # activity_id :integer # recommendation_id :integer # created_at :datetime # updated_at :datetime # class Substitution < ActiveRecord::Base belongs_to :activity belongs_to :recommendation end ===================== ================== FILE: app/models/recommendation.rb ======================================= # == Schema Information # Schema version: 20110612210312 # # Table name: recommendations # # id :integer not null, primary key # name :string(255) # cost_impact :string(255) # schedule_impact :string(255) # created_at :datetime # updated_at :datetime

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108 # class Recommendation < ActiveRecord::Base attr_accessible :name, :activities, :me has_many :substitutions has_many :activities, :through => :substitutions validates :name, :presence => true, :uniqueness => true def me self end def show_schedule_impact if schedule_impact.blank? "None" else schedule_impact end end de f show_cost_impact if cost_impact.blank? "None" else cost_impact end end # def activity_name # if activity.nil? # "" # else # self.activity.name # end # end # end ======================================= FILE: app/models/subdivision.rb ======================================= # == Schema Information

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109 # Schema version: 20110612051555 # # Table name: subdivisions # # id :integer not null, primary key # name :string(255) # division_id :integer # created_at :datetime # updated_at :datetime # class Subdivision < ActiveRecord::Base attr_accessible :name, :division_id, :activities belongs_to :division has_many :workcategorizations has_many :activities, :through => :workc ategorizations validates :division_id, :presence => true validates :name, :presence => true, :uniqueness => true before_destroy :ensure_not_referenced_by_any_activities def division_name self.division.name end def full_name #{division_name}:#{name}" end private # ensure that there are no activities referencing this division def ensure_not_referenced_by_any_activities if activities.empty? return true else errors.add(:base, 'Activities present') return false end end end

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110 ======================================= FILE: app/models/workcategorization.rb ======================================= # == Schema Information # Schema version: 20110612210312 # # Table name: workcategorizations # # id :integer not null, primary key # activity_id :integer # subdivision_id :integer # created_at :datetime # updated_at :datetime # class Workcategorization < ActiveRecord::Base belongs_to :activity belongs_to :subdivision end ======================================= FILE: app/models/division.rb ======================================= # == Schema Information # Schema version: 20110612051555 # # Table name: divisions # # id :integer not null, primary key # name :string(255) # created_at :datetime # updated_at :datetime # class Division < ActiveRecord::Base has_many :subdivisions validates :name, :presence => true, :uniqueness => true before_destroy :ensure_not_refere nced_by_any_subdivisions private # ensure that there are no subdivisions referencing this division def ensure_not_referenced_by_any_subdivisions if subdivisions.empty? return true

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111 else errors.add(:base, 'Subdivisions present') return false end end end ======================================= FILE: app/views/layouts/application.html.erb ======================================= Thesis <%= csrf_meta_tag %> <%= render layouts/stylesheets' %> <%= stylesheet_link_tag :all %> <%= javascript_include_tag :defaults %>
<%= render 'layouts/header' %>
<% flash.each do |key, value| %>
<%= value %>
<% end %> <%= yield %>
<%= render 'layouts/footer' %> <%= debug(params) if Rails.env.development? %>
==================== =================== FILE: app/views/layouts/_stylesheets.html.erb ======================================= <%= stylesheet_link_tag 'blueprint/scree n', :media => 'screen' %> <%= stylesheet_link_tag 'blueprint/print', :media => 'print' %> <%= stylesheet_link_tag 'blueprint/ie' %>

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112 <%= javascript_include_tag :defaults %> <%= stylesheet_link_tag 'custom', :media => 'screen' % > ======================================= FILE: app/views/layouts/_footer.html.erb =======================================
======================================= FILE: app/views/layouts/_header.html.erb =======================================
"Deepview Image Visualizer", :class => "round span 7") % ->

<%= @title %>

<% unless @breadcrumb.nil? %>

<%= @breadcrumb %>

<% end %>
======================================= FILE: app/views/activities/show.html.erb =======================================

<%= notice %>



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113

<%= @activity.name %>

Recommendations:

    <% @activity.recommendations.each do |r| %>
  • <%= link_to r.name, r %>
  • <% end %>
<%= link_to 'Update Recommendations', edit_activity_path(@activity) %> | <%= link_to 'Back', activities_path %> | ======= ================================ FILE: app/views/activities/new.html.erb =======================================

New activity

<%= render 'form' %> <%= link_to 'Back', activities_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/activities/_form.html.erb ======================================= <%= form_for(@activity) do |f| %> <% if @activity.errors.any? %>

<%= pluralize(@activity.errors.count, "error") %> prohibited this acti vity from being saved:

    <% @activity.errors.full_messages.each do |msg| %>
  • <%= msg %>
  • <% end %>
<% end %>
<%= f.label :name %>
<%= f.text_field :name %>


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Add Recommendation: <%= collection_select(:activity, :recommendations, Recommendation.all, :id, :name, { :prompt => "Select one or more recommendations from list below:", :selected => @activity.recommendations.collect { |v| v.id.to_s }}, { :multiple=>true, :size=>6 } ) %>
<%= f.submit %>
<% end %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/activities/index.html.erb ======= ================================

Activities

<% @activities.each do |activity| %> <% end %>
Name Number of Recommendations:
<%= link_to activity.name, activity %> <%= activity.substitutions.count %> <%= link_to 'Edit', edit_activity_path(activity) %> <%= link_to 'Destroy', activity, :confirm => 'Are you sure?', :method => :delete %>

<%= link_to 'New Activity', new_activity_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/activities/edit.html.erb

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115 =======================================

Editing activity

<%= render 'form' %> <%= link_to 'Show', @activity %> | <%= link_to 'Back', activities_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/subdivisions/show.html.erb =======================================

<%= notice %>

<%= link_to @subdivision.division_name, @subdivision.division %> : <%= @subdivision.name %>

Activities:

    <% @subdivision.activities.each do |s| %>
  • <%= link_to s.name, s %>
  • <% end %>
<%= link_to 'Edit', edit_subdivision_path(@subdivision) %> | <%= link_to 'Back', subdivisions_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/subdivisions/new.html.erb =======================================

New s ubdivision

<%= render 'form' %> <%= link_to 'Back', subdivisions_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/subdivisions/_form.html.erb ======================================= <%= form_for(@subdivision) do |f| %> <% if @subd ivision.errors.any? %>


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<%= pluralize(@subdivision.errors.count, "error") %> prohibited this subdivision from being saved:

    <% @subdivision.errors.full_messages.each do |msg| %>
  • < %= msg %>
  • <% end %>
<% end %>
<%= f.label :division %>
<%= collection_select(:subdivision, :division_id, Division.all, :id, :name ) %>
<%= f.label :name %>
<%= f.text_field :name %>
Add Activities: <%= collection_select(:subdivision, :activities, Activity.all, :id, :name, { :prompt => "Select one or more activities from list below:", :selected => @sub division.activities.collect { |v| v.id.to_s }}, { :multiple=>true, :size=>6 } ) %>
<%= f.submit %>
<% end %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/subdivisions/index.html.erb =======================================

Select Subdivision



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117 <% @subdivisions.each do |subdivision| %> <% end %>
Division Subdivision Activities with recommendations
<%= link_to subdivision.division_name, division_path(subdivision.division_id) %> <%= link_to subdivision.name, subdivision %> <%= subdivision.activities.cou nt %> <%= link_to 'Edit', edit_subdivision_path(subdivision) %> <%= link_to 'Destroy', subdivision, :confirm => 'Are you sure?', :method => :delete %>

<%= link_to 'New Subdivision', new_subdivision_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/subdivisions/edit.html.erb =======================================

Editing subdivision

<%= render 'form' %> <%= link_to 'Show', @subdivision %> | <%= link_to 'Back ', subdivisions_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/recommendations/show.html.erb =======================================

<%= notice %>

Recommendation: <%= @recommendation.name %>

Used f or Activities: <% unless @recommendation.activities.empty? %>

    <% @recommendation.activities.each do |a| %>
  • <%= link_to a.name, a %>
  • <% end %>

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    118
<% end %>

Cost impact: < %= @recommendation.show_cost_impact %>

Schedule impact: <%= @recommendation.show_schedule_impact %>

<%= link_to 'Edit', edit_recommendation_path(@recommendation) %> | <%= link_to 'Back', recommendations_path %> =============== ======================== FILE: app/views/recommendations/new.html.erb =======================================

New recommendation

<%= render 'form' %> <%= link_to 'Back', recommendations_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/recommendations/_form.html.erb ======================================= <%= form_for(@recommendation) do |f| %> <% if @recommendation.errors.any? %>

<%= pluralize(@recommendation.errors.count, "error") %> prohibited this recommendation from being saved:

    <% @recommendation.errors.full_messages.each do |msg| %>
  • <%= msg %>
  • <% end %>
<% end %>

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<%= f.label :activ ity_id %>
<%= collection_select(:recommendation, :activity_id, Activity.all, :id, :name ) %>
<%= f.label :name %>
<%= f.text_field :name %>
< %= f.label :cost_impact %>
<%= f.text_field :cost_impact %>
<%= f.label :schedule_impact %>
<%= f.text_field :schedule_impact %>
<%= f.submit %>
<% end %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/recommendations/index.html.erb =======================================

Listing recommendations

<% @recommendations.each do |recommendation| %>

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120 <% end %>
Name Cost impact Schedule impact
<%= link_to recommendation.name, recommendation %> <%= recommendation.show_cost_impact %> < %= recommendation.show_schedule_impact %> <%= link_to 'Edit', edit_recommendation_path(recommendation) %> <%= link_to 'Destroy', recommendation, :confirm => 'Are you sure?', :method => :delete %>
< br /> <%= link_to 'New Recommendation', new_recommendation_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/recommendations/edit.html.erb =======================================

Editing recommendation

<%= render 'form' %> <%= l ink_to 'Show', @recommendation %> | <%= link_to 'Back', recommendations_path %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/divisions/show.html.erb =======================================

<%= notice %>

<%= @division.name %>

Subdivisions:

    <% @division.subdivisions.each do |s| %>
  • <%= link_to s.name, s %>
  • <% end %>
<%= link_to 'Edit', edit_division_path(@division) %> | <%= link_to 'Back', divisions_path %> | <%= link_to 'Add subdivision', new_subdivision_path, :division => :id %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/divisions/new.html.erb =======================================

New division

<%= render 'form' %> <%= link_to 'Back', divisions_path %>

PAGE 121

121 ======================================= FILE: app/views/divisions/_form.html.erb ======================================= <%= form_for(@division) do |f| %> <% if @division.errors.any? %> < div id="error_explanation">

<%= pluralize(@division.errors.count, "error") %> prohibited this division from being saved:

    <% @division.errors.full_messages.each do |msg| %>
  • <%= msg %>
  • <% end %> < /ul>
<% end %>
<%= f.label :name %>
<%= f.text_field :name %>
<%= f.submit %>
<% end %> ======================================= FILE: app/views/divisions/index.html.erb =======================================

Divisions

<% @divisions.each do |division| %> <% end %>
<%= link_to division.name, division %> <%= link_to 'Edit', edit_division_path(division) %> <%= link_to 'Destroy', division, :confirm => 'Are you sure?', :method => :delete %>


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<%= li nk_to 'New Division', new_division_path %>
======================================= FILE: app/views/divisions/edit.html.erb =======================================

Editing division

<%= render 'form' %> <%= link_to 'Show', @division % > | <%= link_to 'Back', divisions_path %> ======================================= FILE: db/schema.rb ======================================= # This file is auto generated from the current state of the database. Instead # of editing this file, please use the migrations feature of Active Record to # incrementally modify your database, and then regenerate this schema definition. # # Note that this schema.rb definition is the authoritative source for your # database schema. If you need to create the applicati on database on another # system, you should be using db:schema:load, not running all the migrations # from scratch. The latter is a flawed and unsustainable approach (the more migrations # you'll amass, the slower it'll run and the greater likelihood for i ssues). # # It's strongly recommended to check this file into your version control system. ActiveRecord::Schema.define(:version => 20110612210312) do create_table "activities", :force => true do |t| t.string "name" t.datetime "created_at" t.datetime "updated_at" end create_table "activities_recommendations", :id => false, :force => true do |t| t.integer "activity_id" t.integer "recommendation_id" end

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123 create_table "divisions", :force => true do |t| t.string "name" t.datetime "created_at" t.datetime "updated_at" end create_table "maps", :force => true do |t| t.string "element" t.string "material" t.string "activity" t.string "csi_code" t.string "alternative" t.decimal extra_cost" t.integer "schedule_impact" t.string "impact_uom" t.datetime "created_at" t.datetime "updated_at" end create_table "recommendations", :force => true do |t| t.string "name" t.string "cost_impact" t.string "schedule_impact" t.datetime "created_at" t.datetime "updated_at" end create_table "subdivisions", :force => true do |t| t.string "name" t.integer "division_id" t.datetime "created_at" t.datetime "updated_at" end create_table "substitutions", :force => true do |t| t.integer "activity_id" t.integer "recommendation_id" t.datetime "created_at" t.datetime "updated_at" end create_table "workcategorizations", :force => true do |t| t.integer "activity_id" t.integer "subdivision_id" t.datetime "created_at" t.datetime "updated_at"

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124 end end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110612200706_add_division_id_to_activities.rb ======================================= class AddDivisionIdToActivities < ActiveRecord::Migration def self.up add_column :activities, :subdivision_id, :integer end def self.down remove_column :activities, :subdivision_id end end ======== =============================== FILE: db/migrate/20110612210312_delete_subdivision_id_from_activities.rb ======================================= class DeleteSubdivisionIdFromActivities < ActiveRecord::Migration def self.up remove_column :activities, :subdivision_id end def self.down add_column :activities, :subdivision_id, :integer end end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110612195636_create_substitutions.rb ======================================= class CreateSubstitutions < ActiveRecord::Migration def self.up create_table :substitutions do |t| t.integer :activity_id t.integer :recommendation_id t.timestamps end end

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125 def self.down drop_table :substitutions end end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110612051555_create_table_activities_recommendations.rb ======================================= class CreateTableActivitiesRecommendations < ActiveRecord::Migration def self.up create_table : activities_recommendations, :id => false do |t| t.references :activity, :recommendation add_index :activities_recommendations, :activity_id add_index :activities_recommendations, :recommendation_id # TODO: figure out later why the example is doing this: #remove_column :activities, :recommendations end end def self.down # TODO: figure out later why the example is doing this: #add_column :activities, :recommendations dr op table activities_recommendations end end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110612204936_delete_activity_id_from_recommendations.rb ======================================= class DeleteActivityIdFromRecommendations < ActiveRec ord::Migration def self.up remove_column :recommendations, :activity_id, :integer end def self.down add_column :recommendations, :activity_id, :integer end end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110611212314_create_subdivisions.rb

PAGE 126

126 ======================================= class CreateSubdivisions < ActiveRecord::Migration def self.up create_table :subdivisions do |t| t.string :name t.integer :division_id t.times tamps end end def self.down drop_table :subdivisions end end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110611234119_create_activities.rb ======================================= class CreateActivities < ActiveRecord::Migrat ion def self.up create_table :activities do |t| t.string :name t.timestamps end end def self.down drop_table :activities end end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110612204949_delete_recommendation_id_from_activities.rb ======================================= class DeleteRecommendationIdFromActivities < ActiveRecord::Migration def self.up remove_column :activities, :recommendation_id end def self.down add_column :activities, :recommendation_id, :integer end

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127 end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110611212259_create_divisions.rb ======================================= class CreateDivisions < ActiveRecord::Migrati on def self.up create_table :divisions do |t| t.string :name t.timestamps end end def self.down drop_table :divisions end end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110611234349_create_recommendations.rb ======================================= class CreateRecommendations < ActiveRecord::Migration def self.up create_table :recommendations do |t| t.string :name t.string :cost_impact t.string :schedule_impact t.integer :activity_id t.timestamps end end def self.down drop_table :recommendations end end ======================================= FILE: db/migrate/20110612205736_create_workcategorizations.rb =======================================

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128 class CreateWorkcategorizations < ActiveRecord::Migration def self.up create_table :workcategorizations do |t| t.integer :activity_id t.integer :subdivision_id t.timestamps end end d ef self.down drop_table :workcategorizations end end

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129 APPENDIX E SKETCHUP API CODE module EPSTH def EPSTH.get_faces(sel) list = [] sel.each { |s| if s.is_a? Sketchup::Face list << s end } list end # This breaks *really* easily if we start changing division names; # Need to provide a mapping of name to ID; ideally we juts pass the # name as part of the url (somethign like: # UI.openURL("http://epesantes th 2011.heroku.com/divisions/find?na me=#{name}") # And the rails application does the mapping of name to division NAME_TO_ID_MAP = { # ID Type # 1 Sitework # 2 Concrete # 3 Masonry # 4 Metals "concrete" => "2", "cement" => "2", "masonry" => "3 ", "brick" => "3", "metal" => "4", "steel" => "4", "iron" => "4", #"Asphalt" => ?? } def EPSTH.get_material_name(s) s.material.display_name unless s.material.nil? end def EPSTH.map_material_name(name) unless name.nil? NAME_TO_ID_MAP.each { |key, val| if name =~ /#{key}/i return val end

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130 } return name end end def EPSTH.get_unique_material_name_list(faces) return if faces.nil? nameset = Set. new faces.each { |f| name = EPSTH.get_material_name(f) nameset.insert name unless name.nil? } nameset end def EPSTH.get_selected_faces sel = Sketchup.active_model.selection unless sel.empty? EPSTH.get_faces(sel) end end def EPSTH.show_selected_faces_material_names names = "Nothing selected" faces = EPSTH.get_selected_faces if faces.nil? names = "No selected faces found" else names = EPSTH.get_unique_material_name_list(faces).to _a.join(';') end names end def EPSTH.add_thesis_submenus plug_menu = UI.menu("Plugins") return if plug_menu.nil? submenu = plug_menu.add_submenu("Eileen Thesis") return if submenu.nil? submenu.add_item("Show selected materials") {

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131 UI.messagebox(EPSTH.show_selected_faces_material_names) } submenu.add_item("Open recommendations for selected materials") { faces = EPSTH.get_selected_faces list = EPSTH.get_uniq ue_material_name_list(faces) if list.nil? || list.size == 0 UI.messagebox("No materials selected") else list.each { |name| UI.openURL("http://epesantes th 2011.heroku.com/divisions/#{EPSTH.map_material_name(name)}") #UI.messagebox("http://epesantes th 2011.heroku.com/divisions/#{EPSTH.map_material_name(name)}") } end } end end EPSTH.add_thesis_submenus

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132 APPENDIX F EXCEL MACRO CODE Option Compare Text 'to avoid case sensitiveness 'Subroutine Sub AddHyperlinkFormula() Dim MyPath As String, MyFile As String, FriendlyName As String, c As Range 'hyperlink location MyPath = "http://epesantes th 2011.heroku.com/" 'Evaluation of description cells of estimate For Each c In [A2:A7] 'Link t o Concrete, Division 3, database If c.Value Like "*Concrete*" Then MyFile = "divisions/2" FriendlyName = c.Value c.Formula = "=HYPERLINK(""" & MyPath & MyFile & """,""" & FriendlyName & """)" Else 'Link to Masonry, Division 4, database If c.Value Like "*Masonry*" Then MyFile = "divisions/3" FriendlyName = c.Value c.Formula = "=HYPERLINK(""" & MyPath & MyFile & """,""" & FriendlyName & """)" Else If c.Value Like "*brick*" Then MyFile = "divisions/3" FriendlyName = c.Va lue c.Formula = "=HYPERLINK(""" & MyPath & MyFile & """,""" & FriendlyName & """)" Else If c.Value Like "*stone*" Then MyFile = "subdivisions/19" FriendlyName = c.Value c.Formula = "=HYPERLINK(""" & MyPath & MyFile & """,""" & FriendlyName & """)" Else 'Link to Metals, Division 5, database If c.Value Like "*steel*" Then MyFile = "divisions/4" FriendlyName = c.Value c.Formula = "=HYPERLINK(""" & MyPath & MyFile & """,""" & FriendlyName & """)" Else If c.Value Like "*metal*" Then MyFile = "divisions/4" FriendlyName = c.Value c.Formula = "=HYPERLINK(""" & MyPath & MyFile & """,""" & FriendlyName & """)" Else 'Link to Sitework, Division 2, database If c.Value Like "*demolition*" Then MyFile = "divisions/1"

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133 Friendly Name = c.Value c.Formula = "=HYPERLINK(""" & MyPath & MyFile & """,""" & FriendlyName & """)" Else If c.Value Like "*utilit*" Then MyFile = "divisions/4" FriendlyName = c.Value c.Formula = "=HYPERLINK(""" & MyPath & MyFile & """,""" & Frien dlyName & """)" End If End If End If End If End If End If End If End If Next End Sub

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134 LIST OF REFERENCES Abott, D.G., (2005). Practical considerations in the selection and for the use of microtunneling vs other trenchless techniques. Proceedings Conference on North American Society for Trenchless Technology No Dig Show Orlando Fl, April 24 27, 2005. Akbar Khanzadeh, F., Milz, S., Ames, A., Susi, P., Bisesi, M., Khuder, S., & Akbar Khanzadeh, M. (2007). Crystalline Silica Dust and Respirable Part iculate Matter During Indoor Concrete Grinding Wet Grinding and Ventilated Grinding Compared with Uncontrolled Conventional Grinding. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 4 (10), 770 779. doi:10.1080/15459620701569708 Akbar Khanzadeh, F., Milz, S., Wagner, C., Bisesi, M., Ames, A., Khuder, S., Susi, P., et al. (2010). Effectiveness of Dust Control Methods for Crystalline Silica and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter Exposure During Manual Concrete Surface Grinding. Journal of Occupatio nal and Environmental Hygiene 7 (12), 700 711. doi:10.1080/15459624.2010.527552 Antonini, J. M., Lewis, A. B., Roberts, J. R., & Whaley, D. A. (2003). Pulmonary effects of welding fumes: Review of worker and experimental animal studies. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 43(4), 350 360. doi:10.1002/ajim.10194 Ariaratnam, S. T., & Sihabuddin, S. S. (2009). Comparison of Emitted Emissions Between Trenchless Pipe Replacement and Open Cut Utility Construction. Journal of Green Building 4 (2), 126 140. doi:10.3992/jgb.4.2.126 Engineers, Reston VA. Retrieved from http://apps.asce.org/reportcard/2009/grades.cfm Baxendale, T., & Jones, O. (2000). Construction design and management safety regulations in practice progress on implementation. International Journal of Project Management 18 (1), 33 40. doi:10.1016/S0263 7863(98)00066 0 Behm, M. (2005). Linking constr uction fatalities to the design for construction safety concept. Safety Science 43 (8), 589 611. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2005.04.002 Blanc P. D. (2007), Metal Fume Fever. Olson KR, Poisoning & Drug Overdose (5th edition). Retrieved from http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=2677865 Boffetta P., Harris, R.E., & Wynder, E.L., (1990). Case control study on occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer risk. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 17(5), pp.577 591. doi:10.1002/ajim.4700170504

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135 Boyce, G.M., & Bried, E.M. (1998). Social cost accounting for trenchlessprojects. Proceedings Conference on North American Society for Trenchless Technology No Dig Show Alburquerque N.M., NASTT, pp. 3 12. Brace, C.L., & Gibb, A. G. (2004). Health Management in the Construction Industry. Contemporary Ergonomics Boca Raton Fla. pp. 274 279. Bureau Labor of Statistics, BLS. (n.d.). Illnesses cases reported between years 1995 2009 Ret rieved from the Bureau Labor of Statics website, http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshsum.htm Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method BREEAM (n.d.). About BREEAM. Retrieved on March 12, 2011 f rom http://www.breeam.org/ Bust, P., Gibb, A.G., & Brace, C. L. (2008). Implementing a Health Management Toolkit in the Construction Industry. Contemporary Ergonomics London: Taylor & Francis, pp. 197 202. Cary, H. ( 1979). Modern welding technology Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice Hall. Center for Construction Research and Training (CPWR) (2008). The construction chart book. The US construction industry and its workers 4th edition. Silver Spring, MD. Retrieved from http://www.cpwr.com/rp chartbook.html Comprehensive Assessment system for Built environment Efficiency, CASBEE (n.d.). An Overview of CASBEE Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://www.ibec.or.jp/CASBEE/english/overviewE.htm Construction Specification Institute, CSI (1995). CSI Masterformat version 1995 .Retrieved from the construction Specifications Institute Website, http://www.csinet.org/masterformat Dust Control (2011). DC 2800c/Auto: Original Instructions Retrieved on June 12, 2011 from Dust Control website, http://www.dustcontrol.com/upload/Products/user_instructions/2800c Auto_94112_94116.pdf European Construction Institute. (1999). The ECI guide to managing health in construction. London : Thomas Telford. Enviro nmental Protection Agency. (2011, March 7). Asbestos (CASRN 1332 21 4) Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0371.htm#I.A. Flanagan, M. E., Seixas, N., Becker, P., Takacs, B., & Camp, J. (2006). Silica Exposure on Construction Sites: Results of an Exposure Monitoring Data Compilation Project. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 3 (3), 144 152. doi:10.1080/15459620500526552

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136 Florida Green Building Coalition, FGBC (n .d.). FGBC Facts Sheet Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://floridagreenbuilding.org/files/1/File/FGBC_Organizational_Fact_Sheet2011. pdf Flynn, M. R., & Su si, P. (2003). Engineering Controls for Selected Silica and Dust Exposures in the Construction Industry -A Review. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 18 (4), 268 277. doi:10.1080/10473220301406 Flynn, M. R., & Susi, P. (2009). Neurological risks associated with manganese exposure from welding operations A literature review. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 212 (5), 459 469. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.12.003 Flynn, M. R. & Susi, P. (2010). Manganese, Iron, and Total Particulate Exposures to Welders. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 7 (2), 115 126. doi:10.1080/15459620903454600 Gambatese, J. (1996). Addressing Construction Worker Safety in the Project Design (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wash ington, 16 May 1996). Gambatese, J. A. (1998). Liability in Designing for Construction Worker Safety. Journal of Architectural Engineering 4 (3), 107. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1076 0431(1998)4:3(107) Gambatese, J. & Hinze, J. (1999). Addressing construction wo rker safety in the design phase Designing for construction worker safety. Automation in Construction 8 (6), 643 649. doi:10.1016/S0926 5805(98)00109 5 Gambatese, J. A., Behm, M., & Hinze, J. W. (2005). Viability of Designing for Construction Worker Safe ty. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 131 (9), 1029. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733 9364(2005)131:9(1029) German Sustainable Building Council, DGNB (n.d.). The German Sustainable Building Council Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://www.dgnb.de/_en/about/Portrait/index_portrait.php Green Globes. (n.d.). What is Green Globes? Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http: //greenglobes.com/about.asp Gyi D.E., Gibb A. Roger A, D. & Haslam, R. (1999). The quality of accident and health data in the construction industry: interviews with senior managers. Construction Management & Economics 17 (2), 197 204. doi:10.1080/01446199 9371691 Hallowell, M. R., & Gambatese, J. A. (2009). Construction Safety Risk Mitigation. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943 7862.0000107

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138 Linch, K. D., Miller, W. E., Althouse, R. B., Groce, D. W., & Hale, J. M. (1998). Surveillance of respirable crystalline silica dust using OSHA complianc e data (1979 1995). American Journal of Industrial Medicine 34 (6), 547 558. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097 0274(199812)34:6<547::AID AJIM2>3.0.CO;2 B Lueke, J. S., & Ariaratnam, S. T. (2001). Rehabilitation of Underground Infrastructure Utilizing Trenchless Pip e Replacement. Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction 6 (1), 25. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1084 0680(2001)6:1(25) Marini, J. (2007). Designing for construction worker safety: A software tool for designers Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida. http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/UFE0020222 Meeker, J. D., Cooper M. R., Leftkowitz, D. & Susi, P (2009). Engineering Control Technologies to Reduce Occupational Silica Exposures in Masonry Cutting and Tuckpointing. Public Health Reports 124 101 111. Meeker, J., Susi, P., & Flynn, M. (2007). Manganese and Welding Fume Exposure and Control in Construction. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 4(12), 943 951. doi:10.1080/15459 620701718867 Morris, J. (1996). Cost effective management of water pipelines and networks London. Moulin, J. J., Wild, P., Haguenoer, J. M., Faucon, D., De Gaudemaris, R., Mur, J. M., Mereau, M., et al. (1993). A mortality study among mild steel and stainless steel welders. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50 (3), 234 243. doi:10.1136/oem.50.3.2 34 Myers, M. B., Stickrod, T. W., Abraham, D. M., & Iseley, T. (1999). Microtunneling Technology for Conduit Construction. Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction 4 (2), 56. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1084 0680(1999)4:2(56) Occupational Sa fety and Health Administration, OSHA (2009). Controlling Silica Exposures in Construction Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Sa fety and Health Administration, OSHA ( n.d. ). Crystalline Silica Exposure Health Hazard Information Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor. Oliver, L. C., Miracle McMahill, H., Littman, A. B., Oakes, J. M., & Gaita, R. R. (2001). Respiratory symptoms and lung function in workers in heavy and highway con struction: A cross sectional study. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 40 (1), 73 86. doi:10.1002/ajim.1073 President's Council o n Sustainable Development (1998). Sustainable Communities Task Force report Washington, DC (730 Jackson Pl., NW, Washi ngton 20503), President's Council on Sustainable Development

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139 Prevention through Design. (n.d.). Prevention through Design Concept Retrieved, march 11, 2011 from www.designforconstructionsafety.org Rajendran, S., Gambatese, J. A., & Behm, M. G. (2009). Impact of Green Building Design and Construction on Worker Safety and Health. Journal of Construction Engineering and Mana gement 135 (10), 1058. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733 9364(2009)135:10(1058) Rappaport, S. M. (2003). Excessive Exposure to Silica in the US Construction Industry. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 47 (2), 111 122. doi:10.1093/annhyg/meg025 Ruby, S. (2011). Agile Web development with Rails (4th ed.). Raleigh N.C.: Pragmatic Bookshelf. Schneider, S., & Susi, P. (1993). Final Report: An Investigation of Health Hazards on a New Construction Project (No. OSH1 93) (p. 52). Washington, DC: Na tional Institute of Occupa tional Health (NIOSH), Center to Protect Workers' Right (CPWR). Selvakumar, A., Clark, R. M., & Sivaganesan, M. (2002). Costs for Water Supply Distribution System Rehabilitation. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 128 (4), 303. doi:10.1061/ (ASCE)0733 9496(2002)128:4(303) Steenland, K., Beaumont, J., & Elliot, L. (1991). Lung cancer and mild steel welders. American Journal of Epidemiology 133:220 229. Steenland, K. (2005). One agent, many diseases: Exposure response data and comparative ri sks of different outcomes following silica exposure. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 48 (1), 16 23. doi:10.1002/ajim.20181 Tamboli, A. R. (1999). Handbook of structural steel connection design and detail New York: McGraw Hill. Thomas, D. (2009). Raleigh N.C.: Pragmatic Bookshelf. Toole, T., & Gambatese, J. (2008). The Trajectories of Prevention through Design in Construction. Journal of Safety Research 39 (2), 225 230. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.20 08.02.026 U.S. Green Building Council, USGBC (n.d.). What LEED is Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1988 W ong, O., Morgan, R. W., Kheifets, L., Larson, S. R., & Whorton, M. D. (1985). Mortality among members of a heavy construction equipment operators union with potential exposure to diesel exhaust emissions. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 42 (7), 435 448. doi:10.1136/oem.42.7.435

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140 Woodroffe, N. J. A., & Ariaratnam, S. T. (2008). Cost and Risk Evaluation for Horizontal Directional Drilling versus Open Cut in an Urban Environment. Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction 13 (2), 85. do i:10.1061/(ASCE)1084 0680(2008)13:2(85) Woskie, S. R., Kalil, A., Bello, D., & Virji, M. A. (2002). Exposures to Quartz, Diesel, Dust, and Welding Fumes During Heavy and Highway Construction. AIHA Journal 63 (4), 447 457. doi:10.1080/15428110208984733 Yee, A.A. (2001a). Social and environmental benefits of precast concrete technology. PCI Journal vol 46, part 3, pp 14 19. Yee, A.A. ( 2001b). Structural and economic benefits of precast/prestressed concrete construction PCI Journal vol 46, part 4 pp 34 43. Young, O.C., & Trott, J.J. (1984). Buried rigid pipes: Structure design of pipelines New York: Elsevier

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141 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Eileen R. Pesantes Tavares was born in San Juan Puerto Rico on December 1971. She studied c ivil e ngineering at the University of Puert o Rico at Mayagez, graduating Magna c um L aude and second in her class in 1994. After finishing her bachelor degree she worked for the U nited States Army Corp of Engineers at the Engineer Research and Developing Center, formerly known as Waterways Experiment Station in Vicksburg, M ississippi in the capacity of Research Structural Engineer. In the fall of 1994 she started her master s in c ivil e ngineering with a concentration on s tructural e ngineering m echanics and m aterials at the Un iversity of California at Berkeley, finishing in December 1995. From 1996 to 1997 she worked as a structural engineer and as a roof field supervisor for various projects in the San Francisco Bay Area. In fall of 1997 she was admitted in the Masters in Sc ience in Civil and Environmental Engineering with a concentration on c onstruction e ngineering and m anagement at Stanford University, graduating in June of 1998. After graduation she worked as a project engineer and preconstruction engineer for various com panies in the San Francisco Bay Area. In 2002 she returned with her family to Puerto Rico we re she started teaching at her Alma M atter The University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez, advanced courses in c onstruction e ngineering and m anagement in the Civil E ngineering and Surveying D epartment. She also taught courses in p roject m anagement in the General E ngineering D epartment. To keep current with the construction industry, she also worked as a consultant in different project s on the west side of the island. In 2008 the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez, offered her the oppo rtunity to pursue a PhD in the c onstruction e ngineering and m anagement area for which she applied and was accepted at the University of Florida. She received her Ph.D. in the fall of 2 011 and

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142 expects to continue teaching, one of her passions, at a higher education institut ion Eileen is married to Miguel Sosa, a software engineer, and has two kids, Esteban 1 1 and Elisa 6