Identification of Core Variables to Be Considered in an Assessment of Vocational Earning Capacity in a Legal-Forensic Setting

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Identification of Core Variables to Be Considered in an Assessment of Vocational Earning Capacity in a Legal-Forensic Setting A Delphi Study
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english
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Robinson,Rick H
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University of Florida
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Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
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University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Rehabilitation Science
Committee Chair:
Pomeranz, Jamie Lee
Committee Members:
Young, Mary E
Rosenbek, John C
Miller, M David

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Subjects / Keywords:
capacity -- delphi -- disability -- domain -- earning -- earnings -- employment -- evaluation -- forensic -- impairment -- legal -- rehabilitation -- variables -- vocational -- work
Rehabilitation Science -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Rehabilitation Science thesis, Ph.D.
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Abstract:
The goal of this study was to assess a potential set of items considered core to the assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal-forensic setting. Despite numerous published methods and protocols addressing assessment of vocational earning capacity, there is considerable variability among vocational consultant conclusions and opinions. A high level of variability in opinion and methodology is problematic within legal-forensic settings. A three-round Delphi expert consensus building methodology was utilized in this study. The expert panel size from round one to round three was 47 and 38 respectively, yielding a response rate over all three rounds of expert input of 81%. This study resulted in identification of 232 discrete variables viewed by vocational consultants as core to the assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal-forensic setting. Variables were distributed across 29 distinct domains. The findings of this study provide empirical support for a proposed set of core variables to be used to assess vocational earning capacity. Implications of study findings and recommendations for future research are included.
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Statement of Responsibility:
by Rick H Robinson.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
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Adviser: Pomeranz, Jamie Lee.

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1 IDENTIFICATION OF CORE VARIABLES TO BE CONSIDERED IN AN ASSESSMENT OF VOCATIONAL EARNING CAPACITY IN A LEGAL FORENSIC SETTING: A DELPHI STUDY By RICK ROBINSON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011Rick Robinson

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3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Dr. Chad Betters and Dr. Linda Shaw for their encouragement to pursue doctoral level study in the Rehabilitation Science field. If not for their encouragement, I may have still been talking about entering a doctoral program versus standing at the finish line of this incredible academic journey. I am forever grateful to my doctoral committee members. I am most thankful to my committee chair, Dr. Jamie Pomeranz for being an incredible mentor, colleague and friend. His guidance and advice always led me down the path of greatest success. Dr. Mary Ellen Young was always ready and willing to provide input and guidance on qualitative research methods and design. I thank her for sparking this interest that will continue to be a core methodology in my future research endeavors. From my earliest contact with Dr. Jay Rosenbeck in the rehabilitation science foundations class, his passion for rehabilitation research and application was evident. His gentle encouragement and unyielding commitment to his students and to my doctoral studies is greatly appreciated. I thank Dr. David Miller for his support of my doctoral studies and for his ability to make my qualitative mind think in quantitative terms. To my many colleagues and peers I have consulted with during this journey, and my colleagues around the nation who agreed to participate in this research, I will be forever grateful. Special thanks are extended to Dr. Mike Moorhouse; Dr. Laura Perry; Dr. Horace Sawyer and Dr. Mary Barros Bailey. To Mar garet Odom, I am thankful for her steadfast guidance which was instrumental in navigating the complex waters of doctoral level study. Lastly, I thank the boards of directors for the International Association of Rehabilitation Professionals and the Americ an Board of Vocational Experts for their assistance in recruitment for my dissertation research. Their support was key to the success of this study.

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4 Lastly, to my wife Kimberly who offers unconditional love, emotional support and encouragement to me ev ery day. Her encouragement and willingness to support my dreams has always been unwavering. It is through her strength as a woman, mother and wife that we have been able to achieve success never thought possible when we started lifes journey together s ome 25 years ago.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................3 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................10 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................11 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................12 Background .............................................................................................................................12 Models of Vocational A ssessment ..........................................................................................13 Earning Capacity Evidentiary Standards ................................................................................17 Vocational Earning Capacity and Forensic Damages ............................................................20 Research Question ..................................................................................................................23 2 LITERATURE R EVIEW .......................................................................................................24 Models of Disablement ...........................................................................................................24 Vocational Capacity Determination .......................................................................................27 Genesis and Evolution of Vocational Rehabilitation and Evaluation ....................................28 Vocational Capacity Determination Venues ..........................................................................30 Venue One: Workers Compensation Expert Consultation ..............................................31 Venue Two: Social Security Expert Consultation ...........................................................32 Venue Three: Civil Litigation Forensic Consultation .....................................................39 Standard of Evidence ..............................................................................................................41 Models of Vocational Earning Capacity Assessment .............................................................43 RAPEL ............................................................................................................................43 Shahnasarian Model / Method .........................................................................................46 Deutsch / Sawyer Model .................................................................................................48 Labor Market Access Model ...........................................................................................49 Dillmans Loss of Earning Capacity Model ....................................................................50 McCroskey Vocational Quotient System (MVQS) .........................................................50 Rehabilitation Case Analysis Method (RECAM) ...........................................................51 Economic Foundations of Earning Capacity Assessment ......................................................52 Economic Present Value .........................................................................................................54 Comparison of Consensus Methods .......................................................................................55 Nominal Group Technique ..............................................................................................55 National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference ................................56 Glaser Approach ..............................................................................................................57 Delphi Method .................................................................................................................57 Rationale for Use of the Delphi Method .................................................................................58 The Delphi Technique and Process ........................................................................................59 Application of the Delphi Method to Rehabilitation Research ..............................................63

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6 Review of Delphi Studies in the Field of Rehabilitation ........................................................64 3 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................68 Research Question ..................................................................................................................69 Study Design ...........................................................................................................................69 Expert Panelist Selection ........................................................................................................69 Expert Panelist Incentive to Participate ..................................................................................72 Delphi Procedure ....................................................................................................................73 Round 1 ....................................................................................................................73 Round 2 ....................................................................................................................74 Round 3 ....................................................................................................................75 Consensus ...............................................................................................................................75 4 RESULTS ...............................................................................................................................78 Panel Qualification .................................................................................................................78 Panel Demographics ...............................................................................................................78 Delphi Round 1 .......................................................................................................................82 Delphi Round 2 .......................................................................................................................82 Delphi Round 3 .......................................................................................................................83 Domains of Accepte d Variables ...........................................................................................112 Socioeconomic Domain .................................................................................................113 Cultural Domain ............................................................................................................114 Education Domains .......................................................................................................115 Past Work Domains .......................................................................................................117 Job Acquisition and Maintenance Domain ....................................................................119 Military Service Experience Domain ............................................................................120 Language Skills Domain ...............................................................................................120 Medical History and Treatment Domain .......................................................................121 Medical -Functional Capacity ........................................................................................122 Behavioral Health Domain ............................................................................................123 Household Activities Domain .......................................................................................125 Activities of Daily Living Domain ................................................................................126 Avocational Activity Domain ........................................................................................126 Transportation Domain ..................................................................................................126 Financial Domain ..........................................................................................................127 Ec onomic Domain .........................................................................................................128 Psychometric Instrumentation .......................................................................................128 Transferable Skills .........................................................................................................129 Labor Market Statistical Information Domain ..............................................................131 Labor Market Sampling Domain ...................................................................................132 Work Life Participation .................................................................................................133 Rehabilitation Planning and Services Domain ..............................................................133 Professional Resources Domain ....................................................................................134 Legal Jurisdiction Domain ............................................................................................135

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7 5 CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................................136 Overview of Significant Findings .........................................................................................136 Delphi Study ..................................................................................................................136 Items Unique to LegalForensic Settings ......................................................................137 Economic variables ................................................................................................137 Work life participation variables ............................................................................138 Lega l jurisdiction variables ....................................................................................141 Unique Domain Findings ..............................................................................................141 Labor ma rketing sampling domain ........................................................................142 Cultural domain ......................................................................................................143 Results and the ICF Model ............................................................................................145 Assumptions .........................................................................................................................146 Limitations of the S tudy .......................................................................................................147 Implications of the Study ......................................................................................................149 Data Modeling ...............................................................................................................149 Self Assessment ............................................................................................................150 Training & Educa tion ....................................................................................................151 Recommendations for Future Research ................................................................................152 APPENDIX A RECRUITMENT LETTER TO IARP ..................................................................................154 B RECRUITMENT LETTER TO ABVE ................................................................................156 C PANELIST QUALIFICATION QUESTIONAIRE .............................................................158 D DELPHI ROUND 1 QUESTIONAIRE ................................................................................161 E BETA REVIEWER FEEDBACK AND ACTIONS TAKEN ..............................................174 F QUALITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSISAUDIT TRAIL ..................................................178 G DELPHI ROUND 2 QUESTIONAIRE ................................................................................283 H DELPHI ROUND 3 QUESTIONAIRE ................................................................................322 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................406 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................424

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Worker traits considered in social security claim adjudication .........................................37 4-1 Expert panel practice location ............................................................................................78 4-2 Expert panel highest degree held .......................................................................................79 4-3 Expert panel credentials .....................................................................................................79 4-4 Expert panel memberships .................................................................................................79 4-5 Expert panel years of practice ............................................................................................80 4-6 Expert panel areas of practice ............................................................................................80 4-7 Expert panel percent litigated vs. nonlitigated .................................................................81 4-8 Expert panel percent of litigated cases retained by the defense .........................................81 4-9 Expert panel testimony experience ....................................................................................82 4-10 Variables with mean greater than 5 and interquartile range from 0 to 2 ...........................84 4-11 Variables with mean less than 5 and / or interquartile range greater than 2 ......................98 4-12 Percentage of variables accepted for each domain ..........................................................112 4-13 Socioeconomic variables accepted ..................................................................................113 4-14 Cultural variables accepted ..............................................................................................115 4-15 Education-compulsory (k12) variables accepted ............................................................115 4-16 Education-vocational and apprenticeship v ariables accepted ..........................................115 4-17 Educationhigher education (college) variables accepted ................................................116 4-18 Educationgeneral variables accepted ..............................................................................116 4-19 Past work experience variables specific to the job accepted ...........................................117 4-20 Past work experience variables specific to the employee accepted .................................118 4-21 Past work experience variables specific to the employer accepted .................................118 4-22 Job acquisition and maintenance variables accepted .......................................................119

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9 4-23 Military service experience variables accepted ...............................................................120 4-24 Language skill variables accepted ...................................................................................120 4-25 Medical history and treatment variables accepted ...........................................................121 4-26 Medical functional capacity variables accepted ..............................................................123 4-27 Behavioral health variables accepted ...............................................................................124 4-28 Household activity variables accepted .............................................................................125 4-29 Activities of daily living variables accepted ....................................................................126 4-30 Avocational activity variables accepted ...........................................................................126 4-31 Transportation variables accepted ....................................................................................127 4-32 Financial variables accepted ............................................................................................127 4-33 Economic variables accepted ...........................................................................................128 4-34 Psychometric measurement variables accepted ...............................................................129 4-35 Transferable skill variables accepted ...............................................................................130 4-36 Labor market statistical information variables accepted .................................................131 4-37 Labor market sampling variables accepted ......................................................................132 4-38 Work life participation variables accepted ......................................................................133 4-39 Rehabilitation planning and service variables accepted ..................................................134 4-40 Professional resource variables accepted .........................................................................135 4-41 Legal jurisdiction variables accepted ...............................................................................135

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Level of importance rating scale ........................................................................................74 5-1 Proposed vocational and rehabilitation assessment model ..............................................150

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11 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy IDENTIFICATION OF CORE VARIABLES TO BE CONSIDERED IN AN ASSESSMENT OF VOCATIONAL EARNING CAPACITY IN A LEGAL FORENSIC SETTING: A DELPHI STUDY By Rick Robinson August 2011 Chair:Jamie Pomeranz Major: Rehabilitation Science The goal of this study was to assess a potential set of items considered core to the assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. Despite numerous published methods and protocols addressing assessment of vocational earning capacity there is considerable variability among vocational consultant conclusions and opinions. A high level of variability in opinion and methodology is probl ematic with in legal forensic settings A three-round Delphi expert consensus building methodology was utilized in this study. The expert panel size from round one to round three was 47 and 38 respectively, yielding a response rate over all three rounds of expert input of 81%. This study resulted in identification of 232 discrete variables viewed by vocational consultants as core to the assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal -forensic setting. Variables were distributed across 29 distinct domains. The findings of this study provide empirical support for a proposed set of core variables to be used to assess vocational earning capacity. Implications of study findings and recommendations for future research are included.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTR ODUCTION Backgro u nd The foundation of the modern day vocational rehabilitation profession can be traced back to 1920 with the enactment of the SmithFess Act (Roessler & Rubin, 2006). Also known as the Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act, the Smith Fess Act extended vocational rehabilitation services to civilian individuals with a physical disability (Rubin & Roessler, 2008). Si nce inception of the vocational rehabilitation profession, substantial literature contributions have been made to describe factors and issues relevant to determining a persons vocational and earning capacity. Farnsworth, Field, Field, Griffin, Jayne, Johnson et al. (2005) wrote that the process of vocational evaluation draws upon clinical skills from the fields of psychology, counseling and education. Specific skills include file review, diagnostic interviewing, psychometric testing, clinical observation, data interpretation and career counseling (Farnsworth et al., 2005). Vocational rehabilitation counselors apply these skills when conducting a vocational evaluation. Since inception, the role and function of the vocational rehabilitation counselor has been a topic of debate. Early rehabilitation counseling pioneers advocated for a division of labor with respect to rehabilitation scope and func tion as rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation coordinators (Patterson, 1957) This arbitrary bifurcation was not practical as rehabilitation counselors required a complex continuum of skills that involved counseling, evaluation and coordinating functions (Hershenson, 1990, 1998; Koch, Hennessey, Niese, Tabor, & Petro, 2004; Leahy, Chan, & Saunders, 2003). Over time, the role, function and scope of practice of rehabilitation counselors has evolved into a well established profession with established meth ods, protocols and standards of practice ( Leahy et al., 2003 ; Rubin & Roessler, 2008).

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13 Rubin and Roessler (2008) described the rehabilitation counseling process as involving four sequential steps that include evaluation, planning, treatment and termination. The foundation of the rehabilitation counseling process rests upon the initial vocational evaluation and exploration of vocational options by the counselor. It is the initial evaluation that establishes the rehabilitation parameters for the remaining phases of the rehabilitation process. Inherent to the vocational rehabilitation process, and in particular, the vocational evaluation phase, is a focus on exploring variables such as an evaluees vocationally relevant capabilities, skills and interests both presently and prospectively (Rubin & Roessler, 2008). The variables in composite make up the persons unique vocational profile. With respect to assessment of future earning capacity, the rehabilitation process is used to determine vocational options for which a person is qualified or may be able to be trained. Wages earned from identified vocational options represent the persons vocational earning capacity given their unique vocational profile (Owings, Lewis, Streby, & Hildebrand, 2007). It is the rehabilitation process and framework that has given way to the vocational rehabilitation counselors contemporary role as the generally accepted expert in earning capacity assessment (Owings et al., 2007). Models of Vocational Assessment Isaacson (1977) described four broad categories of variables that influence workers and their careers. These categories include psychological, phys ical, sociological and economic factors. The first two categories, psychological and physical, include consideration of aptitudes; interests, personality and temperament; values; psychological characteristics; training time; physical demands; work conditions and hiring requirements (Isaacson, 1977). The individual psychological and physical factors are best conceptualized as the demands placed upon a worker by the job itself.

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14 The latter two categorie s, sociological and economic, include consideration of occupational regulations; occupational behavioral requirements (both on and off the job); occupational prestige; occupational mobility; economic factors such as supply and demand; and the implications of the interaction(s) between the various sociological and economic factors (Isaacson, 1977). Individual sociological and economic factors are best conceptualized as factors that influence a persons vocational selection that are beyond the walls of the workplace. Some vocational opportunities are ruled out or limited by occupational regulations or barriers. For example, the Fair Labor Standards Act prevents children under the age of 14 from working and limits the number of work hours and work environments for individuals up to 16 years of age (Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938). Certain occupations are commonly held to a higher standard in te rms of occupational behavior requirements. Many professional occupations have codes of ethics or canons of professional behavior that are mandatory to protect the public faith and confidence. Adherence to these codes or canons is not optional, but required in order to be allowed to participate in the vocation. Some occupations within a culture are viewed with greater occupational prestige than other vocations. For example, the practice of law or medicine is typically viewed with greater prestige than are craft types of jobs such as plumbers or electricians. Some jobs offer greater occupational mobility to move into various work settings within a job classification. Economic supply and demand will determine the market conditions under which workers are hired, retained and promoted. Based upon supply and demand factors, the market will define the necessary skill set for a worker to obtain jobs in their chosen profession. For example, a highly skilled employee who has invested significantly in vocat ional training and preparation may not be employable in a market where the training and skill set are in low demand.

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15 Roessler & Rubin (2006) categorized 48 unique factors into four broad categories to b e evaluated in arriving at a diagnostic understanding of an individuals vocational potential. The first category of physical factors gives consideration to disability type, duration, etiology, treatment regimen, progression, medication and side effects, residual functional capacity and the interaction of the environment and an impairment to limit or prompt a vocational disability or handicap. Psychosocial factors address issues related to the persons adjustment to impairment or disability and the status of family and other relationships within a social context. Educational and vocational development factors address a persons educational and work history. This requires an evaluation of the level of ability and aptitude an evaluee may have toward pri mary, secondary and vocational education. Input regarding a persons work history provides information on work skills, duration, preferences, transitions, and impact of the impairment or disability upon employability. Lastly, economic factors provide insight into household resources such as financial support, debt, fixed living expenses, public benefits, health insurance, and expectations of financial need. Power (2006), outlined a comprehensive model of vocational functioning that considers ones existing and prospective vocational assets within the context of ones physical characteristics intellectual characteristics emotional characteristics environmental factors and evaluee specific considerations. Physical characteristics of the individual include variables such as physical appearance, stamina and endurance, general health condition, sensory ability for vision and hearing, motor coordination, personal hygiene, and physical limitations that impact a persons ability to meet the basic work demands of a particular job (Power, 2006) Intellectual characteristics include the persons knowledge of the world of work, educational development, vocational aptitudes, work experience, decision making skills, memory, attention span, work

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16 competencies, vocational interests, personal values, disability related knowledge, and adaptability to the work environment (Power, 2006) Emotional characteristics address a persons mood and temperament, personal needs, work attitudes, individual motivation, adjustment to disability and coping skills (Power, 2006). Environmental factors include family situation and support, financial resources, attitudes of others, workplace accessibility, and community factors (Power, 2006). Evaluee specific considerations include medications and side effects, supportive aids, job opportunity, employment precautions, and individual social skills (Power, 2006). Shahnasarian ( 2004) introduced 14 specific factors that should be addressed in evaluating the vocational earning potential of a person. These factors include stability of career development; work propensity; demonstrated earnings history; phase of career development; su bject specific issues; motivation; ability to apply prior skills; future career development prospects; cognition; prognosis; need and capacity for retraining; pre-existing vocational handicaps; acquired vocational handicaps; and vocational adjustment issues. In addition to the field of vocational rehabilitation, literature from the field of economics also addresses factors to be considered in vocational assessment. The economic literature mainly addre sses vocational rehabilitation issues from a forensic perspective wherein vocational potential and earning capacity are being litigated. Horner and Slesnick (1999) highlight the 1989 Louisiana Court of Appeals case of Landry v. Melacon (1989) wherein the trier of fact ruled: The loss of the ability to work is in itself a compensable element of damages. Earning capacity is not measured by actual loss; even an unemployed, or sporadically employed, plaintiff is entitled to recover for the deprivation of what he could have earned.

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17 Dillman (1987) addressed interfacing the economic and vocational aspects of personal injury cases. Vocational factors to be considered include general educational development; specific vocational preparation; occupational aptitudes; occupational interests; occupational temperaments ; and physical demands (Dillman, 1987) Dillman (1988), described the concept of the age earnings cycle that conceptualizes the interaction between an individuals age, education and gender with the persons expected earning rate over his or her work life. Horner and Slesnick (1999) conceptualized vocational factors within an economic supply and demand model. Supply side factors are presented to an employer by an employee in consideration for employment. These factors include an individuals functional capacity; vocational capacity ; and worker s preferences (Horner & Slesnick, 1999) Demand side factors are external to the individual being evaluated and are a function of the number of jobs available with employers at a given wage rate and for a specific vocational capacity profile (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). The demand side considers local demographics and geography for a particular labor market the unemployment rate and the availability or supply of workers matching the needed vocational profile. Earning Capacity Evidentiary Standards The assessment of earning capacity is a relatively recent extension of the scope of practice of vocational rehabilitation counselors (Owings et al., 2007). Many authors have attempted to define ear ning capacity over the years with most of the definitions differing mainly on semantic terms. This has created significant debate resulting in a lack of consensus (Grimes, 2008). Dobbs (1993) described the concept of a loss of earning capacity as a present or prospective loss of human capital and the opportunity it represents. Dobbs (1993) further opined that even though an injured party may earn the same wages after an injury as before, there may still be a loss of earning capacity. In this situation, the earning capacity loss may be prospective,

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18 representing a diminution in earnings at some future point, or requiring an increase in personal effort to maintain the same level of earnings capacity. Conceptually, if an individuals capacity for work remains the same after an injury, but the probability of the person actually being hired is reduced, the plaintiff has then incurred a measurable loss for which compensation can be sought (Dobbs, 1993). The 8th Edition of Blacks Law Dictionary ( Black's Law Dictionary, 2004) defines earning capacity as a persons ability or power to earn money, given the persons talent, skills, training and experience. Horner and Slesnick (1999) defined e arning capacity as the expected earnings of a worker who chooses to maximize the expectation of actual earnings (p.15). Shahnasarian (2004) presented a concise definition of earning capacity, stating earning capacity refers to an individuals ability to optimize her or his employment efforts and maximize earning (p.3). One of the most important factors in evaluating a loss of earning capacity is the venue in which the legal action takes place (Field, 2008). Because of the inherent variability within and among venues, assessment of earning capacity cannot be reduced to what Choppa and Johnson (2008) referred to as a "paint by number" methodology. In other words, a method or protocol applied in evaluating earning capacity in one venue is likely not able to be applied universally across all matters either within or between venues. This reality of forensic vocational rehabilitation practice has been complicated in recent years, as expert opinions in general have begun to come under greater levels of scrutiny under rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence (Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 1993; General Electric Co. v. Joiner, 1996; Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael, 1999; U.S House of Representatives, 2009). With respect to the testimony of experts, rule 702 states, If scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness qualified as an

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19 expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education, may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise, if (1) the testimony is based upon sufficient fa cts or data, (2) the testimony is the product of reliable principles and methods, and (3) the witness has applied the principles and methods reliably to the facts of the case (U.S House of Representatives, 2009). As noted in Rule 702, an otherwise qualified expert witness may provide expert testimony only if a three prong test is satisfied. First, the experts testimony must be based upon sufficient facts or data. In the first phase of the rehabilitation process, the vocational evaluation establishes the foundation upon which subsequent phases are carried out. It is the vocational evaluation from which the consultant extracts the facts and data to which subsequent methods and protocols are applied. Failure to conduct a thorough evaluation at the front end of the vocational rehabilitation process may place resultant opinions of earning capacity in jeopardy due to a lack of sufficient foundation. The second and third prongs of rule 702 speak to issue of the experts testimony being the product of reliable principles and methods, and of the application of the principles and methods in a reliable manner consistent with the facts of the case at hand. In interpreting rule 702, the courts look to case law for guidance. For nearly seventy years, civil courts in the United States looked to the case of Frye v. United States (Frye vs. United States, 1923) for guidance in the admissibility of expert testimony. Simply stated, Frye held that if ex pert testimony was based on methods generally accepted in the relevant professional field of knowledge, it would be admissible. This standard changed in 1993, when the United States Supreme Court ruled in the hallmark matter of Daubert v. Merrill Dow Pharmaceuticals (Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 1993). In the Daubert case, the court ruled that the Frye standard was no longer to be the standard. The Daubert decision outlined four primary considerations for the admissibility of expert testimony that included: Whether a theory or technique from which evidence is drawn has been tested

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20 Whether the theory or technique has been subjected to peer review and publication Whether the theory or technique has a known potential rate of error or standards Whether the theory or technique used has been generally accepted In large part, Daubert provided clear guidance for the admission of scientific testimony, but did not provide the necessary flexibility inherent in nonbasic science disciplines such as the social sciences. In the 1997 United States Supreme Court decision of General Electric v. Joiner (General Electric Co. v. Joiner, 1996), the high court affirmed the responsibility and discretion of the judge in serving as the gatekeeper in either allow ing or not allowing the testimony of an expert. The Daubert standards were further expanded upon with the 1999 decision in the case of Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael (1999). The Kumho Tire case allowed for considerable leeway in scrutinizing the proposed testimony of experts (Field & Choppa, 2005). Unlike the Daubert ruling which relied upon analyzing an experts testimony within the context of the scientific method, the Kumho ruling provided guidance to the courts in evaluating an experts technical or specialized knowledge for admissibility. The concept of analyzing technical or specialized knowledge as described in rule 702, allowed for the introduction of testimony that is not entirely dependent upon the scientific method. Such is the case in the social sciences and in particular, the field of vocational rehabilitation where the testimony of vocational experts would possibly not meet any one or more of the four primary Daubert considerations. Vo cational Earning Capacity and Forensic Damages In many litigated settings, the end result of the litigation process is a determination of injuries or damages sustained by a claimant or plaintiff (Neulicht & Constantini, 2002). Often, economic damages caused by a loss or reduction in a persons ability to earn wages or a salary can be significant and represent a large proportion of the total damages sought to be recovered (Cohen & Yankowski, 1998). In most courts of law, damages from lost wages due to an injury

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21 or death are measured by an earning capacity standard rather than an actual or expected earnings standard (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). An actual earning standard would only acknowledge the historical earning record of a person and would not be prospective. According to Horner and Slesnick (1999), actual earnings are best conceptualized as a series of outcomes of a complex stochastic process involving the interaction of a persons abilities and preferences with the needs of employers (p .14). An expected earnings standard is simply a series of earning figures, which are the expected values of actual earnings in the corresponding time periods (p.14) (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). Expected earnings rely on a more mathematical solution and therefore are not directly observable. Because of the mathematical foundation of this standard, it does not account for changes in future earnings that are influenced by the unique vocational factors of the individualnamely the individuals abilities, available work o pportunities and the individuals vocational orientation toward future work. Reliance on a persons past vocational decisions to project future vocational course can be flawed -particularly in cases involving injury or a reduction in functional capacity for future work. Using an earning capacity standard, the experts opinions will consider expected earnings of a worker who chooses to maximize their actual earnings. Therefore, earning capacity is not normally affected by voluntary choices made by the worker regardless of whether they choose to exercise their inherent abilities or not. Because of the importance that earning capacity plays in the calculation of damages, the ability to reliably and validly predict a persons future earning capacity is critical. Despite numerous methods and protocols published in peer reviewed journals and textbooks (Andrew, 2004; Cohen & Yankowski, 1998; Drummond, 1996; Drummond & Ryan,

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22 1995; Field, 1993; Havraneck, 2007; Havraneck, Field, & Grimes, 2001; Power, 2006; Roessler & Rubin, 2006; Rubin & Roessler, 2008; Shahnasarian, 2004; Weed & Field, 2001; Wattenbarger & McCroskey, 2004; Sawyer, October, 2002) there remains a high level of variability in the final evaluation product of vocational consultants. In particular, the variability ap pears to be in the underlying foundation of variables considered in arriving at vocational conclusions. In an investigation of attorney opinions of vocational rehabilitation consultant methodologies, Shahnasarian and Lassiter (2002) found attorneys have little confidence in the objectivity or consistency of methods used by forensic vocational rehabilitation consultants. In a study of variables considered by vocational consultants in preparing vocational reports, Robinson, Young & Pomeranz (2009) identified significant variability in variables documented by consultants in written reports outlining their conclusions. In a qualitative cont ent analysis of 30 vocational rehabilitation reports across a range of venues, the authors identified 234 unique variables, but only 22 were found to occur in greater than 50% of the reports. This suggests a low level of methodological reliability in terms of variables documented by vocational consultants across evaluation settings. The study by Robinson et al. (2009) demonstrated a need for research to clarify core variables to be considered by rehabilitation consultants in developing opinions of vocational earning capacity. By identifying core variables, progress may be made towards contracting the degree of variability in opinions, thus improving reliability and defensibility. Variability in opinion and methodology is particularly problematic in legalforensic settings where vocational consultants retained by opposing parties routinely evaluate the same data and apply peer reviewed methods, yet arrive at incongruent or contradictory opinions. Grimes (2008) suggests

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23 that a lack of consensus about the theory of earning capacity, may be related to the application of rehabilitation theory in adversarial settings where parties have competing interests. In a recent literature review by Shahnasarian (2008) a paucity of empirically based research related t o earning capacity assessment was identified. Shahnasarian (2008) opined that a more highly evolved literature base would help to control the issue of incongruent expert opinions derived from a comm on fact pattern. Research Question What are the core variables to be considered in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting ? By researching this question, it is expected that the high level of variability often observed in the opinions of earning capacity opinions may be contracted.

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24 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The assessment of disability as it relates to vocational functioning involves the evaluation of multiple domains of variables. Social, economic and political influences all contribute to how the concept of vocational disability is viewed and defined by professions, organizations and institutions. Because of the varying perspectives held toward the concept of disability, several models have been postulated over the years to explain the various conceptions of disability and the phenomena that contribute to its presence, pervasiveness and resolution. According to Jette (1994), conceptual disability schemas help researchers define and identify interrelationships between variables that contribute to disablemen t. Similarly, the multiple variables that contribute to disablement, also impact a persons vocational functioning both presently and prospectively. This investigator will seek to identify core variables to be considered in an assessment of vocational e arning capacity in a legal forensic setting. Models of Disablement For nearly 30 years, two major theoretical disablement models were widely applied around the world (Jette, 2009). These included the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH) proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) (World Health Organization, 1980) and Nagis Disablement Model (Nagi, 1965) In 2001, the 54th World Health Assembly adopted the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model after four years of field beta testing (World Health Organization, 2001). Prior to development of the ICF, models had focused principally on the traditional medical model to classify disease and disability (Betters & Shaw, 2008) While the early Nagi and ICIDH models included social variables, both were unidirectional. The new ICF model integrated medical and social models into a bio -psychosocial model that synthesized biological, individual and social

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25 perspectives ( Reed, Lux, Bufka, Peterson, Threats, Trask et al., 2005; World Health Organization, 2001). Unlike the models that prec eded it, the ICF model structurally acknowledged the multivariate and bi-directional nature of disabling health conditions. In other words, interventions targeted, or not targeted, at a particular domain could directly influence other domains within the ICF model (Betters & Shaw, 2008). The ICF model includes two major theoretical health and health related components for the conceptualization of functioning and disability. The first domain is comprised of body functions and structures (World Health Organization, 2001). The World Health Organization (2001) defines the human organism in its entirety as the "body". Body functions refer to the physiological functioning of body systems. Body structures then refer to the individual anatomical parts and organs that make up the systems of the body (World Health Organization, 2001). Dysfunction within a body structure or function results in an impairment, which must be differentiated from any underlying pathology (Leyshon & Shaw, 2008; Peterson, 2005; World Health Organization, 2001). The presence of an impairment does not inevitably or automatically suggest that a medical disease or pathology is present or that a person should be viewed as sick. For example, the loss of an eye, hand or foot, would result in impairment, but does not suggest the presence of a disease process (World Health Organization, 2001) Impairment in body structure can involve an anomaly, defect, loss or significant deviation from the norm. Impairments are best characterized as manifestations of pathology rather than pathology in and of itself (World Health Organization, 2001) Th e presence of impairment is necessarily causative, but the cause may not be sufficient to fully explain the resulting impairment (World Health Organization, 2001). According to the World Health Organization (2001) impairments

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26 may be temporary or permanent; progressive, regressive or static; intermittent or continuous. Evaluation of impairment is performed by qualified medical and allied medical professionals pursuant to established professional standards of care and clinical guidelines (World Health Organization, 2001). The second major component of the ICF model is Activities and Participation. Activities and participation address the full range of domains symbolizing aspects of functioning from the perspective of the individual and society (World Health Organization, 2001). The World Health Organization (2001) defines activities as carrying out a task or action and represents a persons individual functioning, while participation is defined as a persons involvement in life situations and represents the societal perspecti ve of functioning. The ICF model describes nine domains representing the full range of life areas. The domains include learning and applying knowledge; general tasks and demands; communication; mobility; self care; domestic life; interpersonal; interactions and relationships; major life areas; and community, social and civil life (World Health Organization, 2001) Activity an d participation restrictions are determined by comparing a persons expected participation to that of a person without an impairment within a cultural context (World Health Organization, 2001). Disability then results from the interaction between a health condition (body function and structure) and the context in which the person exists (activities and participation). If the interaction results in less than the full range of participatio n or function, then the person is considered to have a disability (Schneidert, Hurst, Miller, & Ustan, 2005). Peterson (2005) describes the relations hip similarly stating disability refers to impairment, activity limitation, or participation restriction resulting from the complex interaction between a health condition,

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27 personal factors and external factors represented by the circumstances in which the person lives (p.106). Vocational Capacity Determination The ICF is a practical model that focuses on both physical structure and activities and participation of the whole person within an environmental context (Scherer & DiCowden, 2008). The ICF activities and participation domains generally consider what is referred to in the professional and legal literature as major life activities. Federal regulations use the term "major life activity" to describe functions such as walking, sitting, standing, seeing, hearing, breathing, speaking, performing manual tasks, caring for ones self, learning and working (Poitras Tucker & Milani, 2004). In a mul ti-national study on the importance of life functions, Harpaz (1999) found that work was second in importance only to family activities. Further, the importance that work plays in the lives of people has been empirically demonstrated (Brief & Nord, 1990; Mannheim, 1993). Super (1976), defines work as the systematic pursuit of an objective valued by oneself (even if only for survival) and desired by others; directed and consecutive, it requires expenditure of effort (p. 20). Work may be performed for compensation or be uncompensated such as with the case of volunteer or avocational pursuits (Super, 1976). Super (1976) found that work may be performed for any number of reasons such as the intrinsic enjoyment of the work itself; the structure given to life by participating in work activities; or the type of leisure activities able to be enjoyed as a result of performing work activities. Impairments in body functions and structure often limit a persons ability to participate in activities and limit full participation in work. According to Schneidert et al. (2005), occupational impairment can stem from any number of interactions within the ICF model.

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28 Interactions may take any of a number of forms such as problems at the body level (impairment) and no activity (person) limitations or participation (societal) restrictions; problems with functioning in all three levels impairments, activity and participation; an impairment and activity limitation but no participation restriction; no impairment, but the presence of an activity limitation and participation restriction; no impairment or activity limitations but the presence of a participation restriction (Schneidert et al., 2005). Poitras & Milani (2004) reported the determination of vocational capacity is a highly complex issue. It was in part, the complexity of evaluating an individuals work limitations within the context of the real world of work that helped bring about the field of vocational rehabi litation and evaluation in the early twentieth century (Roessler & Rubin, 2006) with the passage of the War Risk Insurance Act of 1914 (Weed & Field, 2001) and later the Smith Fess Act in 1920(Roessler & Rubin, 2006) Genesis and Evolution of Vocational Rehabilitation and Evaluation Since the genesis of vocational rehabilitation and evaluation, substantial literature contributions have been made to describe factors and issues relevant to determining a persons vocational capacity. According to Walker and Heffner (2009) vocational capacity assessment of a disability involves describing how an impairment effects or influences vocational functioning. This evaluation process is the domain of vocational experts and disability evaluators. Nadolsky (1971)described vocational evaluation as a process intended to predict work behavior and vocational potential through the application of vocational rehabilitation techniques and procedures. Dowd (1993) reported the most commonly referenced definition of vocational evaluation scope and practice was provided by the Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment Association (VEWWA), now known as the Voc ational Evaluation and Career

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29 Assessment Professionals Association (VECAP). Vocational evaluation is defined as a process that systematically uses real or simulated work as the focal point for assessment and career exploration. The evaluator synthesizes data from all team members, including if necessary, medical, psychological, economic, cultural, social and vocational information (Vocational Evaluation and Career Assessment Professionals, Retrieved 9/15/2010). As the field of vocational rehabilitation and evaluation has developed, the profession has evolved into three distinct sectors (Brodwin, 2008) Br odwin (2008) broadly described these sectors as the public sector the private nonprofit sector and the private for profit sector. Traditional vocational rehabilitation has its earliest roots in the pu blic and private nonprofit sectors serving veterans, the mentally ill and the blind (Weed & Field, 2001). In response to increasing costs for public sector rehabilitation efforts, during the early 1970s, t he insurance industry began to initiate private rehabilitation efforts aimed at cost containment and proactive rehabilitation initiatives (Weed & Field, 2001). Since the early 1970s changing workers compensation laws, reduced public rehabilitation funding, greater public awareness of the cost of injured employees, and the general social attitude toward persons with disabilities, has helped give rise to a robust private rehabilitation sector in the United Sta tes (Weed & Field, 2001). From a practical perspective, there are significant differences between private and public sector rehabilitation roles and goals. The primary focus of private sector rehabilitation effort is typically on returning a person with a disability or injury to work, earning compensation similar to what they were earning at the time of injury or in establishing vocational damages (Rasch, 1985). Private rehabilitation counselors work extensively in settings with the potential for involvement in legal proceedings. Conversely, public sector efforts are more focused on

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30 assisting clients achieve maximum vocational potential (Rasch, 1985). The focus of this study is on private sector forprofit forensic vocational earning capacity assessment. Vocational Capacity Determination Venues Private for profit vocational consultants focus much of their work on interpreting the interaction between ICF domains. In other words, given a medically described impairment in body function and / or structure, the private sector vocational consultant will evaluate how the impairment interacts with the individuals engagement in activities and in social participation, particularly with respect to work. Weiner (1986) discussed how individuals tend to attribute successes and failures to a particular event by assuming a causative relationship exists. Often, it is the case that the temporal order of events is assumed to have led to a cause and effect relationship resulting in occupational disability. In actuality, th ere is rarely a direct cause and effect relationship, but more commonly, a complex interaction of multiple factors such as preexisting medical conditions ; social issues; psychological issues; lack of transferable work skills ; and economic factors (W alker & Heffner, 2009). Further, depending upon the venue in which the assessment occurs, there is generally a regulatory, administrative or legal framework that must also be considered by the consultant conduct ing the assessment. Vocational capacity determination takes place in a broad range of venues. While private sector vocational consultants may work in consultation with public sector rehabilitation counselors, they most often work in workers compensation consultation, social security expert consultation, and civil litigation consultation (Weed & Field, 2001). According to the NOLO Legal Encyclopedia ( September 15, 2010), a venue is defined as the appropriat e location(s), according to law and court rules, for a trial. With respect to assessment of loss of earning potential in vocational capacity assessment, Field (2008), opined the venue for a matter is perhaps the first and primary consideration in conducting vocational capacity assessments.

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31 Following is a brief discussion of the various venues in which vocational capacity assessment is performed. Venue One: Workers Compensation Expert Consultation Within the workers compensation venue, statutes or regulatory frameworks can vary significantly from state to state and between the various federal workers compensation programs. Despite the variability across statutes and regulations, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce (1994), described six common objectives of most state workers compensation laws: Providing sure, prompt, reasonable income and medical benefits to injured workers or income benefits to their dependents, regardless of fault Providing a single remedy and reducing court delays, costs, and workloads arising out of personal injury litigation Relieving public and private charities of financial drains Eliminating payment of fees to lawyers and witnesses as well as time consuming trials and appeals Encouraging maximum employer interest in safety and rehabilitation through appropriate experience rating mechanisms Promoting studies of causes of accidents, rather than concealment of fault, thereby reducing preventable accidents and human suffering With the dawn of workers compensation laws in the United States in the early twentieth century, employers were relieved of liability resulting from injuries arising out of and in the cou rse of employment (Field, 2008) In return, injured workers receive necessary medical treatment, lost wages, and if allowed by the governing regulatory or administrative code within the jurisdiction of the claim, vocational rehabilitation or retraining if unable to return to his or her previous employment (Field, 2008). Multiple vocational consultants may be involved in providing services targeted at different co nstituencies involved in workers compensation. The injured worker may have a

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32 consultant providing statutory vocational rehabilitation and assessment services. Additional vocational rehabilitation consultants, representing the claimant and the defendant in the matter, may be involved by providing a combination of services focused on reemployment and / or forensic expert services in preparation for litigation. Vocational capacity assessment in workers compensation typically gives principle consideration to evaluating an injured workers post injury vocational potential and earning capacity in contrast to their pre-injury level of vocational attainment and ability to earn wages. Once the analysis is completed, statutory and regulatory frameworks determi ne how the matter is administered. Some statutes allow for the payment of ongoing wage loss payments if post-injury earning capacity does not equal the injured worker s pre -injury earning capacity (Longshore and Harbor Worker Compensation Act, 1984). Under such statutes, vocational capacity determination focuses on the comparative difference between pre and postinjury earning capacity. Other statutes use models that place greater weight on physical function and impairment versus ongoing indemnity based upon a reduced earning capacity. As an example, the standard for permanent and total disability claims in Florida, is that an injured worker be unable to perform sedentary work within a 50 mile radius of their home (Florida Administrative Code, 440.15(1)( b)). Therefore, the focus of vocational capacity determination in Florida workers compensation is based on whether the injured worker retains the post injury physical and cognitive capacity to perform at least sedentary work. Venue Two: Social Securi ty Expert Consultation The second venue where vocational capacity assessments are performed is within the Federal Social Security System. The Social Security Administration (SSA) reports the average 20 year -old worker has a 30% chance of becoming disabled prior to reaching normal retirement age (U.S. Social Security Administration, 2009). For persons who become disabled, the SSA administers two disability programs. The smaller of the two programs is Supplemental Security

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33 Income (SSI) (Field, 2008). SSI provides monthly payments to people with low income and minimal resources and who are blind or disabled (U.S. Social Security Administration, 2007). The second program is Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) which is generally considered to be the granddaddy of vocational capac ity determination (Field, 2008) SSDI is the source of a great deal of foundational data and administrative acknowledgement of the impact of various occupational impairments upon a persons ability to work (Field, 2008) SSDI pays a monthly benefit to beneficiaries who are unable to work because of a medical condition that is expected to last at least one year or result in death (U.S. Social Security Administration, 2009). Both programs use the same five step sequential evaluation process to evaluate whether a person meets the regulatory definition of disability. The Federal Code of Regulations define disability in terms of both medical and vocational elements (Trav er, 2006) The medical element of disability is defined as the inability to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expecte d to result in death or which has lasted or can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 12 months (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1505). The vocational element of the regulations read an individual shall be determined to be under a disability only if his physical or mental impairment or impairments are of such severity that he is not only unable to do his previous work but cannot, considering his age, education and work experience, engage in any other kind of substantial gainful work which exists in the national economy (U.S. Social Security Administration, 1985). Unlike workers compensation programs that were discussed in the previous section, social security vocational capacity assessment does not consider the issue of earning capacity (Field,

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34 2008). To answer the question of whether a person meets the regulatory definition of disability, a five step sequential evaluation process is utilized that are followed in mechanical order to arrive at a decision as to whether a person meets the definition of disability. Each step is analyzed in order and a conclusion drawn before the process proceeds to the next higher step. A determination that a claimant is under a disability can only be made at step three or five. At the first step, a determination is made as to whether a person is performing substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is defined in the regulations as work activity that is both substantial and gainful (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1572). Substantial work activity involves performing significant physical or mental activities (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1572). Work may be considered substantial even if it is per formed on a part time basis; is physically or mentally less demanding; results is lesser pay ; or requires a lesser degree of responsibility than work previously performed (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1572). Gainful work activity is activity that is performed for pay or profit or activity that represents the kind of work usually done for pay or profit, whether or not a profit is actually realized (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1572). If a determination is made that a person is performing substantial gainful activity, then the person will be found not disabled. If the person is not engaged in substantial gainful activity, the sequential evaluation proceeds to step two. At step two, consideration is given to the medical severity of the persons impairments. A person must have a severe medically determinable physical or mental impairment (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1520) that meets at least one of three durational criteria which include: expected to result in de ath;

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35 has lasted for a period of twelve continuous months; or it is expected to last for a period of at least 12 continuous months (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1509). This assessment generally considers an analysis of not only medical documentation, but also considerations related to the person's ability to engage in activities and participate in social venues (Traver, 2006) An individuals symptoms may cause limitations and restrictions in functioning which, when considered within the context of activities and participation will direct a finding that there is a "severe" impairment(s) (U.S. Social Security Administration, 1996) As a practical matter, Bush (2007), stated that once a persons residual functional capacity is demonstrated to be reduced, then a requirement to demonstrate a severe impairment exists has been satisfied. If the person is found not to have a severe impairment, the sequential evaluation process will be terminated and the person will be found not disabled. If the person is found to have a severe impairment, the sequential evaluation proceeds to step three. At the third step, impairments are considered within the context of the medical listings as specified in the regulations (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404, Appendix 1 of subpart P). The medical listings are best described as a set of medical criteria representing body systems and structures. The medical listings are divided into 14 sections that include musculoskeletal system; s pecial senses and speech; respiratory system; cardiovascular system; digestive system; genitourinary impairments; hematological disorders; skin disorders; endocrine system; impairments affecting multiple body systems; neurological; mental disorders; malignant neoplastic diseases ; and immune system disorders (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404, Appendix 1 of subpart P). A conclusion at step three requires medical input since conclusions at this step are entirely medically oriented. This is the first step in the five step sequential evaluation where a claimant could be found disabled in which case, the sequential evaluation

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36 would stop. In the case where a medical conclusion is drawn that a claimant does not meet or equal a medical listing, the sequential evaluation proceeds to step four. A step three determination is necessary in every case, however, unless medical input is provided, the vocational consultant must defer any opinions at this step to avoid the risk of potential ethical or legal conflict with practicing outside of ones scope of professional practice (Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, Retrieved April 12, 2011). At the fourth step, consideration of disability moves to an evaluation of the claimants impairments and how the impairments impact his or her ability to engage in activities and participation within the context of their past relevant work. Prior to this step, a medical determination must be made regarding the full scope of the claimants physic al and mental impairments which, in composite, comprise the claimants residual functional capacity profile (U.S. Social Security Administration, 1996b). The functions analyzed in arriving at a residual functional capacity include physical issues, aptitudes, temperaments, and environmental impairments. Physical considerations include exertional and non-exertional demands. Exertional demands include standing, walking, sitting, lifting, carrying and pushing, and jointly make up the strength domain of physical demands. Aptitudes are defined as capacities or specific abilities an individual must have to learn to perform a given work activity (U.S. Department of L abor, 1991b) Temperaments are defined as the worker s ability to adapt to the requirements of a particular job (U.S. Department of Labor, 1991b) Table 2-1 outlines the ratable physical, environmental, aptitude and temperament demands of work as considered in social security adjudication (U.S. Department of Labor, 1993). Once an analysis is made of the claimants function by function residual functional capacity, their work history over the previous 15 years is classified. The position of the Social

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37 Security Administration is that a gradual change is likely to occur over a period of years so that after a certain amount of time, it is no longer realistic to assume that skills learned in the remote Table 2 1. Worker traits considered in social security claim adjudication Physical Environmental Aptitude Directing Strength Exposure to Weather General Learning Ability Directing, controlling, or planning activities of others Climbing Extreme Cold Verbal Aptitude Performing repetitive or short cycle work Balancing Extreme Heat Numerical Aptitude Influencing people in their opinions, attitudes, and judgments Stooping Wet and / or Humid Form Perception Performing a variety of duties Kneeling Noise Intensity Clerical Perception Expressing personal feelings Crouching Vibration Motor Coordination Working alone or apart in physical isolation from others Crawling Atmospheric Conditions Finger Dexterity Performing effectively under stress Reaching Proximity to Moving Mechanical Parts Manual Dexterity Attaining precise set limits, tolerances, and standards Handling Exposure to Electrical Shock Eye Hand Foot Coordination Working under specific instructions Fingering Working in High, Exposed Places Color Discrimination Dealing with people Feeling Exposure to Radiation Making judgments and decisions Talking Working with Explosives Hearing Exposure to Toxic or Caustic Chemicals Tasting / Smelling Other Environmental Conditions Near Acuity Far Acuity Depth Perception Accommodation Color Vision Field of Vision

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38 past continue to apply to the present labor market (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1565). A claimants work history is classified by skill level and physical demand and compared to the residual functional capacity profile. A decision is then made whether the claimant retains the capacity to return to his or her past relevant work. A three prong test has been developed for making this assessment (U.S. Social Security Administration, 1982) : Does the claimant retain the capacity to perform a past relevant job based on a broad generic, occupational classification such as a delivery job; Does the claimant retain the capacity to perform the particular job as he or she actually performed it ; Does the claimant retain the capacity to perform the functional demands and job duties of the job as ordinarily required by employers in the national economy (this determination is made utilizing the Dictionary of Occupational Titles) (U.S. Department of Labor, 1991)? If a claimant is determined to be capable of returning to their past relevant work at step four, then the sequential evaluation process stops and the claimant is found to be not disabled. However, if the claimant is unable to return to his or her past relevant work, the sequential evaluation proceeds to the fifth and final step in the evaluation process. At this juncture the question becomes whether the claimant is capable of performing other work that exists in the national economy. Assessment at step five focuses on the claimants residual functional capacity as established in step four, in concert with the claimants age, level of education, and skills acquired from their past relevant work over the preceding 15 years (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1520). At step five, the Social Security Administration provides direct adjudicative guidance in the form of the Medical -Vocational Guidelines (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404, Appendix 2 to Subpart P). Where the particular findings of a claimants vocational factors and functional capacity perfectly coincide with a medical -vocational rule, then the rule would direct a finding of disabled or not

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39 disabled accordingly (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404, Appendix 2 to Subpart P). However, if the factors of a particular case do not precisely coincide with a particular rule, then the medical -vocational guidelines are to be applied as a framework for adjudicative decision making (U.S. Social Security Administration, 1983). The medical -vocational guidelines consider only exe rtional impairments which are defined as sitting, standing, walking, lifting, and carrying (U.S. Social Security Administration, 1983). Therefore, if an impairment is not exertional in nature, then by definition, it must be nonexertional (U.S. Social Security Administration, 1983). If the particular factors in a claim do not precisely align with a specific medical-vocational rule, then the step five evaluation proceeds to applying the known vocational factors to answer the question as to whetherthe claimant can perform other work that exists in the national economy in significant num bers. Ultimately, if a determination is made that the claimant is unable to perform other work that exists in the national economy in significant numbers, the claimant will be found disabled. If the claimant is found to be able to perform other work, the evaluation will terminate in a finding of not-disabled. In either case, the sequential evaluation process will terminate at step five. Venue T hree: Civil Litigation Forensic Consultation In the civil litigation venue, a legal action normally revo lves around the issues of whether the plaintiff has incurred an economic loss and what the extent of the loss is, and whether the defendant in the matter is responsible for the loss (Havraneck, 2007). The vocational consultant is most typically involved in the former question. According to Shahnasarian (2004), central vocational questions in this venue include determinations of pre incident (injury) earning capacity and skills;

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40 residual functional capabilities and limitations; transferable skills, and need and capacity for retraining; costs of retraining (if applicable); presence of acquired vocational handicaps; post-incident (injury) earning capacity; loss of earning capacity; mitigation efforts; future rehabilitative needs. Pre injury earning capacity and skills are essential vocational elements in forensic civil consulting. Pre-injury earning capacity is referred to most commonly as the base wage. Field (2008) describes the ba se wage as the starting point used by the forensic economist in estimating lifetime vocational loss or damages resulting from injury. Assessment of skills in the civil venue is precisely the same as the venues previously discussed. Assessment of acquired work skills is essential as a persons past relevant work is commonly viewed as a principle predictor of future employment potential (Field, 2008). Only through a thorough assessment of preinjury earning capacity and skills, can the consultant ultimately arrive at a conclusion regarding likely incurred changes in post-injury earning capacity (Shahnasarian, 2004). Residual functional capacities and limitations serve as a critical data element in being able to draw a conclusion regarding the suitability of employment post-injury. This information is crucial to making a vocational rehabilitation determination as to whether a plaintiff is able to return to work either in a past job or in other occupations consistent with his or her post-injury residual functional capacity and acquired work skills. Once a determination is made that a plaintiff is unable to return to their past work, attention is then directed toward identifying alternative employment that exists based upon their transferable work skills. According to Shahnasarian (2004) the focus of the assessment at this juncture is on analyzing the comparative differences between the plaintiffs pre-injury earning capacity (base wage) and the earning capacity associated with occupations that remain within

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41 the plaintiffs residual functional capacity profile. If a plaintiff is found not to have tr ansferable skills, assessment is then directed toward their potential and capacity for engaging in a program of vocational retraining. If retraining is required, associated costs and fees are determined (Shahnasarian, 2004). In the course of a civil li tigation action, a plaintiff has a responsibility to mitigate damages or losses attributed to the actions of the defendant. Mitigation requires that a plaintiff pursue reasonable activities to minimize career development impact or earning capacity damage (Shahnasarian, 2004). According to the NOLO Legal Encyclopedia (September 16, 2010), mitigation of damages is defined as the requirement that someone injured by another's negligence or breach of con tract must take reasonable steps to reduce the damages, injury, or cost, and to prevent them from getting worse. The vocational consultant should analyze vocational mitigation efforts the plaintiff has pursued to determine the level of due diligence dem onstrated in attempting to ameliorate vocational damages or losses. In the end, the forensic vocational consultant may be asked to render opinions of any incurred loss of earning capacity as well as future rehabilitative needs. Establishment of future rehabilitative care needs is often accomplished through the development of a life care plan. A s cited by Weed (2010), a life care plan is a dynamic document based upon published standards of practice, comprehensive assessments, data analysis and research, which provides an organized concise plan for current and future needs with associated costs for individuals who have experienced catastrophic injury or have chronic health care needs (p. 3) Standard of Ev idence The principle difference in consulting within the civil venue versus administrative venues (workers compensation and social security disability), is the standard to which opinions are subject to legal scrutiny. In essence, the opinions expressed b y vocational consultants are

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42 presented as evidence and as such, are subject to legal scrutiny under the Federal Rules of Evidence, rule 702 which read: If scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education, may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise, if (1) the testimony is based upon sufficient facts or data, ( 2) the testimony is the product of reliable principles and methods, and (3) the witness has applied the principles and methods reliably to the facts of the case (U.S. House of Representatives, 2009). According to Rule 702, reliability of expert methods is of paramount importance if deference is to be given to an experts opinions. According to Field and Choppa (2005), Rule 702 is important to vocational rehabilitation experts as it provides a basis for the admission of expert testimony on the grounds that they possess unique knowledge, skill, experience and training. Despite this, the vocational consultant must still demonstrate reliable application o f methods and protocols in reaching their conclusions. Barros -Bailey & Neulicht (2005) proposed utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data sources to describe how various factors interact and influence an individuals vocational characteristics. B arros -Bailey & Neulicht (2005) referred to this hybrid method of integrating qualitative and quantitative data in rehabilitation case conceptualization as opinion validity (p.34). Transition from purely quantitative approaches to one that combines both quantitative and qualitative data analysis, requires the application of clinical judgment that is generally learned through ones training, skills and experience. Choppa, Johnson, Fountaine, Shafer, Jayne, Grimes & Field (2004) wrote on the need for ones clinical judgment to be predicated upon an evidence based scientific foundation as is practical. The authors described a model for the application of clinical judgment that incorporates such activities as direct observation, diagnosis (vocational evaluation and assessment), dispassionate (objective) and analytical observations, discerning and comparing (evaluating and synthesizing varieties of information), in order to assert a proposition (opinion)

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43 about the client (p.135). Both processes described by Barros -Bailey & Neulicht (2005) and Choppa et al. (2004) illustrate the importance of integrating data from multiple sources to arrive at rehabilitation conclusions that are valid, reliable and would stand the test of legal scrutiny. Provided the vocational consultants methods are reliably applied and their opinions are accepted into evidence, the principle role of the vocational consultant in the civil litigation venue is complete having established an individuals degree of loss related to vocational functioning and future rehabilitative care needs. Models of Vocational Earning Capacity Assessment Much of the literature written about the various models of earning capacity assessment comes from the disciplines of vocational rehabilitation and econom ics. A detailed analysis is provided for the most published vocational rehabilitation models. Discussion is also provided on the necessary interaction of the vocational rehabilitation models with economic models. RAPEL RAPEL is an acronym th at describes the model components which include the rehabilitation plan; access to the labor market; placeability; earning capacity and labor force participation. The RAPEL model is the most widely referenced vocational rehabilitation model of earning cap acity analysis (Stokes & Maestri, 2001). While generally described in the literature as a method versus a model, it gives little guidance with respect to a methodological approach, but instead models five domains of data relevant for vocational capacity and rehabilitation analysis. Field (2008) described RAPEL as one of the most comprehensive methods (models) as it considers resources and strategies from a variety of sources. In conceptualizing RAPEL, Weed and Field (2001) described the model as a comprehensive approach which includes all elements needed to determine loss of access, loss of earnings

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44 capacity, future medical care, work life expectancy, rehabilitation plan, placeability and employabi lity factors (p. 246). The rehabilitation plan component within RAPEL considers an evaluees vocational and functional limitations, strengths, emotional functioning and cognitive capabilities (Weed & Field, 2001). This component details the plan for establishing or increasing employment potential through training or accommodation, as well as future life care needs though the development of a life care plan (Weed & Field, 2001). The access to the labor market component within RAPEL considers issues related to the evaluee's access to vocational choices or opportunities both before and following an injury (Weed & Field, 2001) Access to the labor market is determined through any number of submethodologies such as transferability of skills analysis, disability statistics and professional experience. Placeability within RAPEL represents the likelihood of an evaluee being successf ully placed into an actual job (Weed & Field, 2001). Weed and Field (2001) describes a persons placeability as the point where the rubber meets the road. Considerations for determining placeability include impairment specific employment statistics; the economic situation within a community; and the availability of jobs within a specific occupation (Weed & Field, 2001). Consideration of placeability also includes factors specific to the evaluee such as attitude and personality (Weed & Field, 2001). Earning capacity within the RAPEL model is a function of the previously discussed rehabilitation plan; access to the labor market; and a persons placeability profile (Weed & Field, 2001). Weed and Field (2001) define earning capacity within this model as being based upon earnings paid to an individual for positions they can reasonably attain and hold. Earning

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45 capacity within this model can be operationalized through a number of methods such as categorizing jobs similar to the evaluees parents and siblings (pediatric cases); ability to be educated or trained; computer generated information; assessment of an evaluees potential based upon their unique worker traits (Weed & Field, 2001). Labor force participation within RAPEL addresses the conceptual issue of work life expectancy. This component of RAPEL attempts to determine the degree of reduction in expected work participation resulting from impairment. Issues releva nt to a reduced work life expectancy include longer periods of unemployment between jobs; part time work vs. full time work; lost work opportunity as a result of medical treatment follow up or earlier retirement age (Weed & Field, 2001). In this authors literature review of earning capacity, RAPEL was the most frequently referenced model (Barros -Bailey & Neulicht, 2005; Berens & Weed, 2010; Field, Johnson, Schmidt, & Van de Bittner, 2006; Field & Weed, 2002;Weed & Field, 2001). The model has strong face and content validity within the vocational rehabilitation community, based upon its breadth of publication. The RAPEL model purports to be a comprehensive model that addresses a wide range of factors and variables. Within the domains of the RAPEL mnemonic, is tremendous flexibility for consideration of various factors and variables relevant to the topic of earning capacity assessment. However, the RAPEL model has not been adequately translated into a reliable methodology. RAPEL relies upon submet hods and protocols of the professionals choice to address the various domains within the RAPEL framework. This high level of flexibility has the potential to compromise the reliability of the model. The principle question then becomes, can multiple con sultants with the same fact pattern utilize the RAPEL

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46 model to arrive at reasonably consistent opinions. No empirical validity or reliability studies of the RAPEL model were identified in the literature review. Shahnasarian Model / Method Shahnasarian (2001, 2004, 2004c) described a method for synthesizing relevant case data and collateral source information. In sequential order, the method involves a review of existing records followed by an examination of the subject and subsequent formulation of opinions.Shahnasarian described the subject examination as involving three distinct components. First is the clinical interview and psychometric testing which focuses the examination on the following areas: Background information; Chronology of vocational activity near an event in dispute; Potential physical problems or psychological problems that may affect career development; Activities of daily living; Mental health; Education and special training; Career development; Administration of standardized tests (Sh ahnasarian, 2004). Following the clinical interview and testing, the consultant initiates labor market and associated research to address questions and hypotheses derived from the previous step (Shahnasarian, 2004). In select cases, Shahnasarian (2004) proposed consulting with collateral sources of information such as family members, caregivers, employers, case managers and other experts. The Shahnasarian method culminates in the completion of the ECAF2, which is an instrument developed by Shahnasarian (2010) and intended to facilitate the systematic analysis and appraisal of loss of earning capacity (p.3). The ECAF2 instrument details 14 factors to be considered in analyzing a persons future career development and earning capacity (Shahnasarian, 2004d; 2010b). The 14 factors are further organized into drivers and inhibitors. Driver factors are considered facilitative of higher

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47 earning capacity, while inhibitor factors tend to be detrimental to future earning capacity (Shahnasarian, 2009b; 2010b). Driver factors include stability of career development, work propensity, demonstrated earning history, career motivation and cognition (Shahnasarian, 2009b; 2010b). Inhibitor factors include pha se of career development, subject specific issues, ability to apply prior skills, future career development prospects, prognosis, need and capacity for retraining, preexisting vocational handicaps, acquired vocational handicaps and vocational adjustment is sues (Shahnasarian, 2009b; 2010b). Since introduction of the ECAF (Shahnasarian, 2004d) the instrument has been subjected to a randomized study of its efficacy (Shahnasarian, 2004b), wherein less variance was observed in the two experimental groups utilizing the ECAF, over the control group that did not. The ECAF has also been subjected to a factor analysis of its 14 factors (Shahnasarian & Leitten, 2006). Eleven of the 14 factors demonstrated loadings on one of three clusters-global factors affecting career development, disability related factors, and ability to apply prior skills. Factors that did not load on any of the three factors were subject speci fic issues, cognition and preexisting vocational handicaps. A study of the methodological reliability of the ECAF (Shahnasarian & Leitten, 2008b) found that testretest reliability coefficients rang ed from .85 to .97 (p < .01). The focus of the Shahnasarian model appears to be aimed at satisfying the evidentiary requirements set forth in the Federal Rules of Evidence, rule 702 (U.S. House of Repr esentatives, 2009). The model is flexible across venues and professional orientations as it does not rigidly define the underlying protocols to be employed by the professional in reaching a conclusion. The ECAF also includes an impairment to earning capacity rating scale (Shahnasarian, 2004d). This scale ranges from zero to 100 with qualitatively derived anchor points defined as

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48 mild (1 -20%); moderate (2150%); severe (51 80%); and extremely severe (81 99%) (Shahnasarian, 2009). An exploratory study to establish ECAF cut-off scores for the earning capacity rating scale found that simple mechanical application of a formula or rating scale for earning capacity assessment was impractical (Sha hnasarian, 2009). Although the Shahnasarian model purports to include economic considerations in the model structure, such considerations are not clearly evident when translated into the ECAF2 application framework. While the model is robust with economic supply side factors (factors attributed to the individual), there is no obvious consideration given to macroeconomic demand side factors. Macroeconomic demand side factors would include considerations such as unemployment and geographic location. The model gives consideration to future career development prospects, but this appears to limit the scope of inquiry to industry specific change and innovation from a microeconomic perspective. Deutsch / Sawyer Model One of the earliest models of earning capacity assessment was presented in the pioneering vocational rehabilitation work of Deutsch and Sawyer (1986) The early Deutsch / Sawyer model considered five domains within the earning capacity model that included work identity of vocational goal; establishment within the vocational goal; skill and ability development to achieve proficiency within the vocational goal; experience within the vocational goal; and the degree of difference between historical (earned wages) and the average earnings for most workers within the alternative vocational goal (Deutsch & Sawyer, 1986). Within the model, foundational factors were also considered such as the evalue es education, intellectual development, academic development, work history and transferable skills (Deutsch & Sawyer, 1986). Deutsch and Sawyer were among the earliest vocational theorists to differenti ate between the concept of actual earnings and earning capacity. The measurement of a persons pre-injury

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49 and postinjury earnings are not necessarily reflective of a persons maximum ability to earn moneyinstead, earning capacity is reflected as a pers ons postaccident earning capacity or the potential a person has to earn wages (Deutsch & Sawyer, 1986). Field (2008), critiqued the Deutsch / Sawyer model as being nonspecific and global in nature. One of Fields (2008) critiques of the Deutsch / Sawyer model is that it offers no methodological recommendations to evaluate the many variables considered and therefore requires significant professional judgment to arrive at an opinion of earning capacity. The critique of this model is similar to that of the RAPEL model in that it purports to addresses a wide range of factors, yet it has not been empirically translated into a reliable methodology. The Deutsch / Sawyer model relies upon sub-methods and protocols which provide significant flexibility within the model, but, like RAPEL, this has the potential to compromise the models reliability. Like RAPEL, the principle question becomes-could two consultants with the same fact pattern apply the model and arrive at two reasonably consistent opinions? The Deutsch / Sawyer model has never been subjected to empirical validation and therefore, its utility as a model rests upon its face validity. Labor Market Access Model The Labor Market Access (LMA) model was first introduced in 1981 (Weed & Field, 1994) and focuses on the importance of analyzing lost wages within the context of labor market conditions (Weed & Field, 2001). The underlying assumption in the LMA model is that it is possible to determine the extent of a persons vocational disability as a function of calculating a percentage loss of access to jobs within the geography of the person being evaluated (Field 2008). The percentage loss of the labor market is a function of comparing the pre-injury and postinjury medical-vocational profiles (Field, 2008). The LMA model is entirely dependent upon national government employment and wage statistics.

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50 The principle occupational data source used in LMA, the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) (U.S. Department of Labor, 1991), has been abandoned by the publisher and has not been updated since 1991. Accordingly, since this resource has been abandoned, government statistics are no longer tied directly to DOT specific data. Estimates of specific emp loyment numbers can only be roughly estimated through the application of imprecise crosswalks between the former DOT and the current data collection scheme that is based upon standard occupational classification (SOC) codes. Dillmans Loss of Earning Capacity Model Dillmans loss of earning capacity model was first proposed in 1987 (Hankins, 2009). This model considers earning capacity to be a mathematical function of four variables that interact. Mathematically, this model is expressed as Impairment to Earning Capacity =f(L,P,T,C) where L represents reduction in labor market access; P represents reduction in average pay for residual jobs; T represents reduction in work life or hours available for work; and C represents reduction in the ability to compete in the open labor market (Hankins, 2009). This model is best described as a mathematical model that does not usually involve assessment of specific jobs a plaintiff may be able to do post injury, but instead assigns values to each of the vari ables to arrive at a percentage of vocational earning capacity loss (Dillman, 1998). No empirical validity or reliability studies of Dillmans model were identified in the literature. McCroskey Vocational Quotient System (MVQS) The MVQS is a system of computer programs that is represented as an unparalleled approach to matching people with their best job choices (p.1) (Wattenbarger & McCroskey, 2004). The MVQS analysis output consists of a list of jobs that are reasonably available in a specific labo r market that are also consistent with an evaluees unique worker trait profile (Wattenbarger & McCroskey, 2004). The MVQS job-person matching methodology is based on

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51 the Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment described by Dawis, Lofquist & England (1964) and Dawis, Lofquist & Weiss (1968). The job-person matching process involves comparing the 24 most salient worker traits for a particular individual to the worker traits for each of 12,975 jobs in the applications database of jobs (Wattenbarger & McCroskey, 2004). With the list of jobs generated, the program can then compute labor market access, assess training and skill development needs, give counsel regarding vocational choice, estimate transferable skills, predict starting wages and future earnings, quantify disability and lost wages (p.2) (Wattenbarger & McCroskey, 2004). To make these computations, the program utilizes a feature unique to the MVQS in that each job identified is assigned a unique vocational quotient (VQ) derived primarily from sta tistical manipulation of the 24 most salient work traits for each job (Wattenbarger & McCroskey, 2004). Each job in the programs database is assigned a VQ. The larger the VQ for a particular job, the greater is the job difficulty or demand that is placed upon a worker (Wattenbarger & McCroskey, 2004). Multiple studies have demonstrated the MVQS and VQ to have good validity and reliability in job prediction and estimation of earning capacity (McCroskey, 1992; McCroskey & Dennis, 2002; McCroskey & Hahn, 1995;McCroskey and Hahn, 1998). Rehabilitation Case Analysis Method (RECAM) The Rehabilitation Case Analysis Method (RECAM) was first conceptualized by Sawyer (October, 2002) as a training tool that operationalized specific steps in vocationally analyz ing a rehabilitation case. Broadly defined, RECAM is comprised of six categories or domains of data that are sequentially analyzed to arrive at an expert vocational opinion. The six broad RECAM functions include: case referral and acceptance; initial case review;

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52 client interview and rehabilitation evaluation; case analysis and plan; report and recommendations; and case update (Sawyer, October, 2002). Barros -Bailey & Neulicht (2005), described RECAM as being in its infancy. Since introduction in 2002, no additional information was identified describing the methods validity, reliability or application. Economic Foundations of Earning Capacity Assessment The discipline of economics is an analytic one. According to Dillman (2009), economists view an individual in terms of human capital. Human capital is best described as the sum total of an individuals education, training and intrinsic abilities (Dillman, 2009). Economic models attempt to identify fundamental concepts, divide them into their constituent parts, and then determine the rules that determine their interaction (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). In evaluating a reduction in earning capacity resulting from an impairment, it is neces sary to estimate the lifetime earnings stream that is likely to have occurred in the absence of the impairment (Dillman, 1988) Dillman (1988), reported that an impairment that prevents a person from realizing the benefit of expanded employment options and opportunities granted by virtue of a persons education, may still have a significant impact on future earnings even though he or she may be ab le to perform the same job post-injury as was possible preinjury. Estimates of future lost earnings are just that-estimates, courts have found that precision in calculation is not necessarily a prerequisite for establishing damages (Dillman, 2009). The re are two generally accepted economic variables that moderate a persons earnings over time. These include general structural wage increases and the age earnings cycle (Dillman, 1988). Dillman (1988) defined general structural wage increases as those that are affected by the entire economy. Operationally, general wage increases may be viewed as inflationary wage gains

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53 (Dillman, 1988). However, it is more appropriate to view general increases as the interaction of the interrelated economic forces of long term increases in prices and long term increases in productivity of the economy in general (Dillman, 1988) The age earning cycle is an economic concept that states that ones earning s are dependent upon one's age (Dillman, 1988) The concept states that the typical wage earner will enter the labor market at a relatively low wage (Dillman, 1988). The wage earner will rapidly progress in earning over his or her younger years, only to level of f during mid life (Dillman, 1988). In some cases, wages will begin to decline as one nears the end of their work life expectancy (Dillman, 1988) A f lattening of the age -earning cycle then reflects a lessening of work opportunity over time (Dillman, 1988) Further, a flattening of the age earning cycle may also suggest the typical learning curve o f a job has peaked resulting in the realization of full wage earning potential. Theoretically, absent additional human capital investments, future earnings increases will strictly be structural in nature (Dillman, 1988). According to Horner and Slesnick (1999), one of the most fundamental concepts from the field of economics that relates to the topic of earning capacity, is the notion that a persons earnings within a given labor market is a function of economic supply and demand principles. The supply side of the equation addresses what a person is able and willing to do for a given wage rate (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). A persons physical, emotional, and cognitive abilities determine the individuals work capacities within a given labor market. What a person is willing to do for a certain rate of pay is a function of their individual preferences. Personal preference in vocational selection has the potential to confound the concept of future earning capacity when the path chosen does not maximize income potential (Horner & Slesnick, 1999) Th erefore, observations based solely upon a persons past vocational choices may not be reflective of their

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54 earning capacity given the persons unique vocational profile. Employees have the capacity to exercise individual choice based upon preferences that will subsequently impact their earning capacity (Horner & Slesnick, 1999) A persons expected earnings then are altered as the individual exercises individual choice in response to opportunities and pr eferences (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). Choices the individual makes with respect to occupational selection, will directly increase or decrease expected earnings, but has no impact on earning capacity which assumes individuals will make choices that maximize their earning potential (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). The demand side of the economic equation is concerned with the probability of a person actually obtaining a position at given wage rate. This is related directly to the question of whet her an economic projection of future earnings has a reliable foundation, or is instead, based merely upon vocational possibilities and speculation (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). The demand side characteri stics focus on the number of jobs with employers for a specified level of functional capacity at various wage levels (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). A vocational consultant that ignores the demand side characteristics is in essence not performing an earning capacity evaluation, but is instead, performing a vocational capacity evaluation (Horner & Slesnick, 1999). Economic Present Value Regardless of the model utilized in evaluating earning capacity, all models need to account for the economic issue of converting future lost earnings estimates to present value (Field, 2008). Grant (1982) described the present value rule as follows: when future payments are to be anticipated and capitalized in a verdict, the plaintiff is entitled only to present worth. The present worth represents the amount of money at the verd ict date that, when added to the amount earned on the investment of such money over the period covering future payments, would equal the plaintiff's total estimated future yearly earnings calculated at the verdict date (p.4)

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55 The present value rule attempts to take into consideration the effect of inflation over time upon the monetary award (Weed & Field, 2001). While some economists view the calculation of present value as a si mple application of present value tables to the award, others see a need to consider other factors such as race, age, sex, and other geographic considerations (Coyne, 1982). Comparison of Consensus Methods The difficulty inherent in achieving topical consensus on an issue normally rests with the inherent problems in group decision making dynamics (Jones & Hunter, 1995). What is necessary is a process of col lective human input that minimizes the inherent problems with groupthink where dominant members of the group may unduly influence the outcome of the process. This is consistent with the criteria described by Bellini and Rumrill (2010) in how scientific knowledge differs from other types of knowledge. Bellini and Rumrill (2010) describe the following three criteria (p.8): scientific knowledge is based on the agreement of many individuals rather than one persons subjective experience or intuition, hence potential personal bias is removed; it is provable by experience of others who are unrelated to the original researcher and who have no vested intere st in the veracity of the particular claim; the knowledge claim is evaluated on its own merits rather than on the authority of prestige or the person who makes the claim. A literature review o f consensus techniques revealed four distinct methods that inc lude: the Nominal Group Technique (NGT), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference (CDC), the Glaser approach and the Delphi method. Nominal Group Technique The NGT method for gaining consensus involves the use of a structured meeting to gain qualitative data from a target group familiar with a specific topic of interest ( Delbecq &Van de Ven, 1971; Fink, Kosecoff, Chassin, & Brook, 1984; Van de Ven, 1972). Each participant in the

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56 work group is asked to prepare a list of ideas regarding a specific topic. At the end of a prescribed period of time, the process, in round robin fashion, proceeds from member to member, wherei n each member verbalizes to the group their most important idea from their own list. Each participants input is charted by the group leader so the group may see the entire list as it evolves. Once each participants list is exhausted, a structured discussion of each item proceeds to clarify group ideas. Since the 1960s, NGT has been used extensively for consensus building in social services, education, government, and industry (Fink et al., 1984) Accor ding to Fink et al. (1984), nominal group success is dependent upon the facilitation skills of a highly trained group leader and the willingness of eight to 10 participants to openly share ideas and concepts within a structured environment. While the method was found to yield reliable results (Horn & Williamson, 1977), it is not thought to yield consensus as reliably as the Delphi method (Fink et al., 1984). National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference The NIH Consensus Development Conference evolved out of an agency mandate to evaluate and disseminate information on healthcare technologies and biomedical research (Kanouse, Brook, Winkler, Kosecoff, Berry & Carter, 1989). The method involves bringing together various stakeholders in a conference format to evaluate an existing technology (Fink et al., 1984). The method is used extensively in evaluating current levels of clinical and research agreement on important topics in medicine (Fink et al., 1984). Specific steps involve conducting a literature review, summarizing the current state of knowledge, presentations by experts and advocates ; and audience discussion. Conferences may last two or more days and end at such time that participants have agreed upon a written statement of consensus opinion (National Institutes of Health, 2011).

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57 Glaser Approach The Glaser approach to consensus building was referred to in the 1980s as the state of the art approach (Fink et al., 1984; Glaser, 1980). Glaser (1980) described his approach as an iterative model for reviewing and synthesizing the knowledge base of a given topic and ultimately describing "best practices" within a field of expertise. The Glaser approach is conceptualized as a series of tiers with each tier interacting with the bottom or base tier (Fink et al., 1984). The Glaser approach requires a highly skilled group facilitator. The group facilitator hand select s a small group of experts to review a position paper prepared by the facilitator in advance. This group in turn receives input from an additional tier of experts that are handpicked by the small group of experts selected by t he facilitator. This higher level tier modifies the position paper which is then reviewed by the base tier. This process then continues through successive iterations with additional tiers until each reach consensus on the topic of interest ( Glaser, 1980). Delphi Method The Delphi method is intended to capture and guide the input efforts of an expert panel of contributors toward a common goal of topic consensus (Vazquez -Ramos, 2003). Rowe and Wright (1999) characterized Delphi as the most reliable consensus method as it allows access to the positives attributes of group interaction, while controlling the negative effects of group dynamics, such as personal, social or political conflict. Delphi relies upon controlled feedback to ensure maximum interaction from all members of the expert panel, while still maintaining each panel member s anonymity (Vazquez -Ramos, 2003) Panel members participating in a Delphi study do not meet face to face. Instead, panel members receive controlled feedback which encourages panelists to express and react to ideas free of pressure or fear of rebuke from other panelists of prestige or high standing within an expert community (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993;

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58 Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000; Rowe & Wright, 1999). The structured communication model and anonymous forum inherent in the Delphi method, encourages panelist to anonymously state and revise their viewpoints based on structured and controll ed feedback from the investigator (Stone Fish & Busby, 1996). Rationale for Use of the Delphi Method Prior to undertaking a Delphi study, multiple authors (Dawson & Brucker, 2001; Fink et al., 1984; Linstone & Turoff, 2002; Ziglio, 1996) have noted that for a Delphi study to be valid, a solid understanding of why the method is to be employed, is necessary. Three questions must be answered before undertaking a study utilizing the Delphi method (Dawson & Brucker, 2001; Linstone & Turoff, 2002; Ziglio, 1996). First, the investigator must be able to identify other group communication processes, and be able to justify the use of Delphi over other methods. Second, the investigator must be aware of the experts within a given field or topic and know how to access those experts. And third, the investigator needs to define what type of results are expected to be obtained from the panel of experts through use of the Delphi method. The principle strength o f the Delphi method is that is provides a means to reach consensus by accessing the positive attributes of group interaction, while controlling the negative effects (Rowe & Wright, 1999) Panel members are not aware of the identity of other participants which prompts Delphi panelists to provide opinions without fear of rebuke from other panel participants (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993). Of the consensus methods previously discussed, Delphi is the only method that provides for anonymity of panel members. Panelists do not meet with each other which allows them to openly express and react to ideas without pressure from other panelists regardless of prestige or professional standing. It is anonymity that differentiates the Delphi method from other consensus building methods (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna,

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59 2000). Because of the scope of potential factors from which consensus may be built, an open and free flowing dialogue from panelists is essential. Delphi involves a systematic method for gathering and organizing a panel of expert opinions regarding a particular topic or issue (Vzquez Ramos, Leahy, & Estrada Hernndez, 2007). The goal of the research question for this study is to achieve consensus toward the variables considered core in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal -f orensic setting. The composition of the expert panel would be comprised of qualified experts within the professional field of vocational rehabilitation. Within the field of vocational rehabilitation, there exists two premier professional associations to which forensic vocational experts belong. Panelists would be principally recruited from the membership of the American Board of Vocational Experts (ABVE) and the Forensic Section of the International Association of Rehabilitation Professionals (IARP). One of the major advantages of the Delphi method is that it compels panelists to explicitly evaluate the composite of variables, factors or elements of a topic that are considered or evaluated in arriving at a conclusion (Jolson & Rossow, 1971). The specific aim of this study is to achieve consensus toward identification of an explicit set of variables co nsidered by the expert panel to be core variables in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. The Delphi Technique and Process In the early 1950s, the Rand Corporation set out to devise a research technique to obtain a reliable level of consensus from a group of subject matter experts (Okoli & Pawlowski, 2004). The result was the conceptualization of the Delphi method in 1953 by Norman Dalkey of the Rand Corporation and Olaf Helmer of the Institute for the Future. Dalkey (1969) provided the rationale for Delphi by using the age-old axiom, two heads are better than one" (p.6). The

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60 Delphi method was originally devised to gain expert consensus on national defense issues related to nuclear arms reduction between the United States and the former Soviet Union ( Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993; Rowe & Wright, 1999). Since introduction of Delphi, popularity of consensus methods has grown due to their ability to guide effective decision making in situations where contradictory or insufficient information is available (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000). This is certainly the case in earning capacity assessment in a legal -forensic setting. The Delphi method is intended to capture and guide the input efforts of an expert panel of contributors toward a common goal of topic consensus (Vazquez -Ramos, 2003). Rowe and Wright (1999) characterized Delphi as the most reliable consensus method as it allows access to the positives attributes of group interaction, while controlling the negative effects of group dynamics, such as personal, social or political conflict. Delphi relies upon controlled feedback to ensure maximum interaction from all members of the expert panel, while still maintaining each panel members anonymity (Vazquez -Ramos, 2003) Panel members participating in a Delphi study do not meet face to face. Instead, panel members receive controlled feedback which encourages panelists to express and react to ideas free of pressure or fear of rebuke from other panelists of prestige or high standing within an expert community (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993; Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000; Rowe & Wright, 1999). The structured communication model and anonymous forum inherent in Delphi, encourages panelist to anonymously state and revise t heir viewpoints based on structured and controlled feedback from the investigator (Stone Fish & Busby, 1996). Vazquez Ramos et al. (2007) described five phases in carrying out a Delphi study which include selection, exploration (round one), evaluation (round two), reevaluation (round three), and final consensus. In the first step, the expert panel is selected which is considered one of the

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61 most critical aspects of the Delphi process (Dawson & Brucker, 2001). Selection of the panel of experts is critical since it directly impacts the validity of the study (Vazquez -Ramos, 2003). Selection of the expert panel typically involves nonprobability sampling that is either purposive or criterion based (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000). Pa nelist commitment to participate in a Delphi study is often directly related to the interests of the individual panelists in the topic of study (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000). According to Ziglio (1996) as panel size increases, measurement error is reduced. However, too large a panel may be make data analysis cumbersome (Dawson & Brucker, 2001; Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000). Rowe and Wright (1999) reported that studies on the size of a Delphi expert panel have not shown a consistent relationship between panel size and effectiveness of the panel. Various Delphi studies have utilized an array of panel sizes examples are 62 for study of participatory ethics in rehabilitation counseling (Vazquez -Ramos, 2003); 63 for a study of depression (Morgan & Jorm, 2009); 124 for a study of cerebral palsy (McIntyre, Novak, & Cusick, 2010); 35 for a study of traumatic rehabilitation (Burns, Rivara, Johansen, & Thompson, 2003); 25 for a study of personal care attendant service is in life care planning (Pomeranz, Shaw, Sawyer, &Velozo, 2006); and 21 for a study of rehabilitation counseling supervision (Moorhouse, 2008). Okoli and Pawlowski (2004) suggest a modest Delphi panel size of 10-18 panelists. VazquezRamos (2003) reported good results could be achieved with an expert panel size of 10-15 individuals. Bu rns et al. (2003) reported typical Delphi panel sizes of 20-40 people. One of the principle Delphi limitations is panelist fatigue due to the usually lengthy participation requirements to complete iterative rounds of Delphi input (Fink et al., 1984). Therefore, panelist dropout needs to be considered in establishing the panel size.

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62 After selecting the expert panel, the next phase or Delphi round one, is begun which involves initial exploration of the subject matter being studied (Dawson & Brucker, 2001) In the initial exploration phase, panelists are typically requested to contribute ideas and opinion in response to several open-ended questions about the topic of interest (Jenkins & Smith, 1994). In the initial exploration phase, the investigator needs to carefully consider the wording and nature of q uestions asked of panelists, to avoid biasing the panel (Dawson & Brucker, 2001; Jenkins & Smith, 1994). When all data is collected, it is collated, ordered and grouped by theme to avoid overlap and repet ition (Beech, 1999). Data from Delphi round one is analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Like terms and ideas are grouped with the target of deriving one universal description an issue. In a classic Delphi, no items are added during round one analysis and language should be consistent from round one to round two (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000). In Delphi round two panelists are requested to rate the importance of items identified and categorized in round 1by utilizing a five to seven point Likert type rating scale. Beginning with round two, panelists may be allowed to comment on their response rationale, add additional items or edit existing items for clarity. This process becomes iterative and continues into subsequent rounds until consensus is reached and no additional information is obtained. Beginning with round three, quantitative feedback is introduced to the panelists in a controlled fashion. A statistical summary is provided between iterations (Rowe & Wright, 1999). Controlled feedback assures only directly relevant data is solicited from the pa nelists (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993). Items carried over from round to round require careful analysis so as to avoid clouding or biasing the consensus building process (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000)

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63 The point at which consensus is achieved is referred to as stability and convergence (Vzquez -Ramos et al., 2007) Stability is the similarity of panelist response across questionnaires in subsequent rounds (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993). Lack of stability of response across questionnaires should result in an item being removed from subsequent questionnaires (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993). Convergence is determined by the degree of consensus on a given question (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993) Increasing dispersion indicates decreasing agreement between panelists (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993). Varying authors have suggested consensus has been achieved, if a rate between 51 % and 80% agreement between panelists is achieved (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000). It is important that the procedures described in the Delphi method are carried out mechanically (Dawson & Brucker, 20 01; Helmer, 1975; Turoff & Hiltz, 1996). Failure to do so may jeopardize the validity of the Delphi study results (Helmer, 1975). Application of the Delphi Method to Rehabilitation Research Since its introduction in the 1950s, the Delphi method has gained widespread acceptance as a scientifically accepted method for consensus building. Delphi has been applied in research studies in the social sciences, business and technology, educational research, social policy, public health, environmental issues, health and medicine, transportation, psychology, and political science (Burns et al., 2003; Doughty, 2009; Graham, Regher, & Wright, 2003; Jolson & Rossow, 1971; Morgan & Jorm, 2009; Okoli & Pawlowski, 2004; Vzquez -Ramos et al., 2007). Delphis application in this study will address core variables to be considered in evaluating vocational earning capacity in forensic vocational rehabilitation. A comprehensive literature review was completed to identify studies utilizing the Delphi method within the rehabilitation counseling vocational evaluation and life care planning fields. The literature review was initiated with the electronic database PsychINFO and followed up with Google scholar. The literature review was complemented by a review of the professional journals within the scope of rehabilitation

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64 counseling, vocational evaluation and life care planning. The scope of the literature reviewed spanned the period from 1993 to present. The literature revealed one conference paper presented at the International Conference on Aging, Disability and Independence and a total of eight peer reviewed journal articles. Peer reviewed professional journals that have published articles on application of the Delphi method in rehabilitation included the International Journal of Rehabilitation Research; the Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin; the journal of Evaluation and Program Planning; the Journal of Life Care Planning; the Journal of Rehabilitation; and the journal of Rehabilitation Education. Review of Delphi Studies in the Field of R ehabilitation Hakim and Weinblatt (1993)utilized the Delphi method to evaluate the level of consensus that exists between federal legislators, federal and state policy makers and the directors and staff of rehabilitation centers. The findings of the study revealed that neither federal legislators nor executives who oversee rehabilitation programs had an a priori awareness of their goals and objectives, nor did they share similar preferences. Rubin, McMahon, Chan & Kamnetz (1998) utilized the Delphi method to obtain consensus regarding priorities for rehabilitation credentialing and certification research in the area of health care and disability policy reform. The expert panel for this study was comprised of individuals in leadership positions within the rehabilitation professional credentialing bodies. Leadership was represented from the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC), the Certi fication of Disability Management Specialists Commission (CDMSC), and the Commission for Case Manager Certification (CCMC). The study found the highest priority areas were credentialing and role differentiation, outcome research, and practice trends. Currier, Chan, Berven, Habeck & Taylor (2001) employed the Delphi method to examine the importance of job functions and knowledge domains to the practice of disability

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65 management. The Delphi panel was composed of 44 experts from the field of disability management. The results of the study identified several functions and knowledge content domains important to the practice of disability management. The study also found some other functional and knowledge areas to be of greater or lesser relevance depending upon the level of intervention at which services are focused. Thielsen & Leahy (2001) studied the supervisory knowledge and skills necessary for effective field based clinical supervision of rehabilitation counselors. This study was completed using the Rehabilitation Counseling Supervision Inventory (RCSI), which was an instrument developed through application of the Delphi method. The Delphi expert panel was composed of 18 individuals who cumulatively derived 110 discrete items, plus an additional four items derived from a literature review. Following two subsequent Delphi rounds, the RCSI was reduced to 95 discrete items. Following development of the RCSI, the instrument was subjected to principle component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Chan, Rubin, Kubota, Chronister, & Lee (2003) set out to study the opinions of rehabilitation counselors and consumers with respect to the effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation interventions. Before engaging in the Delphi method, the authors first held a focus group com prised of 10 rehabilitation supervisors, counselors and consumers. The goal of the focus group was to extract relevant qualitative information related to meaningful rehabilitation outcomes. Following completion of the focus group, the Delphi method was implemented to explicate additional consensus elements relevant to measuring rehabilitation gains resulting specifically from the provision of vocational rehabilitation services. The Delphi panel included 119 panelists comprised of both rehabilitation counselors and consumers. The focus group and

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66 Delphi round one yielded 27 items that were passed to Delphi round two The findings of the study indicated the top five items in terms of expert consensus rankings were life skill items, job seeking skills, communication, specific employability, mobility, and general employability. Pomeranz et al. (2006) utilized a classic Delphi method to determine consensus regarding activities to be considered when making recommendations for personal attendant care (PCA) in the development of a life care plan (LCP) for a person with a spinal cord injury (SCI). This study is notable since it is the only peer reviewed publication identified in the literature that applied the Delphi method specifically to issues in the forensic rehabilitation area. This study achieved an 80% response rate, with 25 subjects complet ing all three rounds of the Delphi method. The study resulted in 164 discrete items that should be considered when recommending PA C services. The results of this study yielded a comprehensive checklist of activities to consider when developing a life care plan for persons with spinal cord injury. Shaw, Leahy, Chan & Catalano (2006), used the Delphi method to evaluate consensus opinions among leaders in the rehabilitation counseling field regarding issues critical to the field of rehabilitation counseling. The study identified 41 items considered to be important i ssues in the field of rehabilitation counseling. The issues were categorized into five themes which included, professional identity and recognition; changes in service delivery systems; education and training issues; research; and professional association issues. Vzquez Ramos et al. (2007) published a general article on the application the Delphi method specifically to the field of rehabilitation counseling. Previous to this article the author (Vazquez -Ramos, 2003) completed doctoral level research work applying the Delphi method to the study of participatory ethics in rehabilitation counseling. In the published article, VzquezRamos et al. (2007) conceptualized the Delphi method specifically within the context of the

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67 rehabilitation counseling literature. The articles identified the advantages and disadvantages of using the Delphi in rehab ilitation research. Baker and Moon (February, 2008) presented the results of a Delphi study that addressed policy barriers and opportunities for workplace accommodations associated with the employment of people with disabilities and the aging. This paper was not published, however, it was presented at the 2008 International Conference on Aging, Disability and Independence. The paper did not provide specific parameters of the study, such as the Delphi panel composition or the number of rounds completed for the panel to reach expert consensus. However, the paper did discuss specific policy related findings that included, em ergency preparedness and safety in the workplace for persons with disabilities; inadequate/insufficient data on the incidence, nature, and cost of workplace accommodations; incomplete employer understanding / awareness of workplace accommodations; telework as an accommodation for persons with disabilities; and aging as an issue of increasing salience regarding the U.S. workforce and the need to address the needs of aging persons with disability and workers aging into disability. In summary, the Delphi method is a widely accepted method for gaining consensus on a wide range of issues The method is particularly well suited for extracting variables or ideas from a diverse group of experts. The method allows for expert input to be massaged and refined into a set of variables based on pure expert consensus that is untainted by social pressure or authority figures. Lastly, the Delphi method has been successfully employed in a number of studies specifically applicable to the field of rehabilitation counseling. The application of the Delphi method to study the core variables considered in an assessment of vocational earning capacity is sound and well supported by the peer reviewed literature (Robinson, Pomeranz and Moorehouse, 2011).

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68 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Despite numerous methods and protocols published in peer reviewed journals and textbooks (Andrew, 2004; Cohen & Yankowski, 1998; Drummond, 1996; Drummond & Ryan, 1995; Field, 1993; Havraneck, 2007; Havraneck, Field, & Grimes, 2001; Power, 2006; Roessler & Rubin, 2006; Rubin & Roessler, 2008; Shahnasarian, 2004; Weed & Field, 2001; Wattenbarger & McCro skey,2004; Sawyer, October, 2002), there remains considerable variability among vocational consultant final evaluation reports relative to findings and conclusions across a range of venues (Robinson et al., 2009). More specifically, Robinson et al. (2009) concluded that vocational consultants typically rely on various underlying factors when drawing conclusions about a persons vocational capacity perpetuating a low level of methodological reliability. Shahnasarian and Lassiter (2002) found attorneys have little confidence in the objectivity or consistency of methods used by vocational rehabilitation consultants in completing vocational assessments in the legal-forensic venue. Variability in opinion and methodology is particularly problematic in legal forensic settings where vocational consultants obtained by opposing parties routinely evaluate the same data and apply peer reviewed methods, yet arrive at incongruous and contradictory opinions. Gri mes (2008), suggests that a lack of consensus about the theory of earning capacity may be related to the application of rehabilitation theory in adversarial settings where parties have competing interests. In a recent literature review, Shahnasarian (2008) identified a paucity of empirically based research related to earning capacity assessment. Shahnasarian (2008) opined that a more highly evolved literature base would in essence, help to control the issue of incongruous expert opinions derived from a common fact pattern.

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69 The goal of this study was to assess a potential set of items considered core to the assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. The Delphi research method was utilized to examine this question. Research Question What are the core variables to be considered in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting? By researching this question, it is expected that the high level of variability often observed in the opinions of earning capacity opinions may be contracted. Study Design To answer the research question, practicing vocational experts were recruited to participate in a Delphi study to identify core variables for completing a vocational earning capa city assessment in a legal -forensic setting. To avoid panelist fatigue (Dawson & Brucker, 2001) a three round Delphi process was used (Fink et al., 1984; Jenkins & Smith, 1994; Ziglio,1996) to sustain stability and convergence in panelist responses (Stone Fish & Busby, 1996). The study design was submitted and approved by the University of Florida, Institutional Review Board (IRB) for Social and Behavioral Research. Expert Panelist Selection Critical to the validity of a Delphi study is the issue of selecting the expert panelists who will contribute to the study ( Dawson & Brucker, 2001; Vazquez -Ramos, 2003) It is the knowledge and expertise of each individual panelist that contributes to the power and validity of the Delphi process (Dawson & Brucker, 2001). According to Ziglio (1996), the panel size is not derived from a statistical procedure, but from the overall quality of the individual experts contributions to the Delphi process. For this reason, nonprobabilistic sampling was utilized to select the panel of experts ( Jenkins & Smith, 1994 ; Patton, 2002). Purposeful sampling schemes

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70 are based on an assumption that the researchers goal is to discover and understand a phenomena and therefore, the sample of respondents is purposely selected based upon their unique knowledge (Merriam, 1998). This sampling method is suitable to the Delphi process because the goal is to derive consens us from a diverse panel of experts on a specific topic of interest where consensus does not exist (Jenkins & Smith, 1994) Yin (1989) reported that purposeful sampling is appropriate for any qualitative research design. Purposeful sampling allows the researcher to select respondents that best fit the stated purpose of the study (Bailey, 1982; Goetz & LeCompte, 1984) and who will most likely provide high quality input to the Delphi process through all three rounds. This is important since panelist commitment to participate in a Delphi st udy is often directly related to the interests of the panelist toward the specific topic of study (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000). Within the field of vocational rehabilitation, there are two premier professional associations to which forensic vocational rehabilitation experts belong. Panel experts were recruited from the Forensic Section of the International Association of Rehabilitation Professionals (IARP) and the general membership of the American Board of Vocational Experts (ABVE). According to Ziglio (1996) as the Delphi panel size increases, measurement error is reduced, however, too large a panel may make data analysis cumbersome (Dawson & Brucker, 2001; Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000). Rowe and Wright (1999) reported that studies on the size of a Delphi expert panel have shown an inconsistent relationship between panel size and the effectiveness of the panel. Okoli and Pawlowski (2004) suggest a modest Delphi panel size of 10-18 panelists. VazquezRamos (2003) reported good results could be achieved with an expert panel size of 10 -15 individuals. Burns et al. (2003) reported typical Delphi panel sizes of 20-40 people. One of the principle Delphi limitations is panelist fatigue due to the usually

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71 lengthy participation requirements to complete iterative rounds of Delphi input (Fink et al., 1984). Therefore, panelist dropout needs to be considered in establishing the panel size. Jenkins and Smith (1994) report that while Delphi response rates are highly variable, they usually range from 53 % to 87% of the original list of potential panelists. To account for expected attrition, a panel size goal of 40 experts was established in order to obtain full participation from at least 20 panelists over all three rounds of input. A minimum panel response of at least 20 experts would exceed the panel size recommendations of Okoli and Pawlowski (2004) and Vazquez Ramos (2003) and is in line with the panel size recommendations of Burns (2003) and the expected attrition rate described by Jenkins and Smith (1994). Beyond a lack of clarity in what constitutes an appropriate panel size for a Delphi study, the debate also extends to the issue of who qualifies as a panel expert (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000) Since this study is directly related to the legal forensic setting, the legal definition of an expert was initially considered as the inclusion criterion for expert panelists. The Federal Rules of Evidence, Rule 702 (U.S. House of Representatives, 2009) describes an expert as a witness qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education, [who] may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise. While providing clear legal direction, this definition did not provide a useful operational definition for establishing inclusion criteria for this study. In the absence of clear guidance as to what constitutes a legal forensic vocational rehabilitation expert, the following minimal inclusion criteria were utilized: A panelist will hold at least one nationally recognized vocational rehabilitation credential as a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor; Certified Vocational Evaluator; or hold Diplomate or Fellow status with the American Board of Vocational Experts A panelist will have completed at least five evaluations involving the assessment of vocational earning capacity within a legal -forensic setting

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72 A Panelist will have been accepted at least one time as a qualified expert on the issue of vocational earning capacity by a trier of fact before a civil or administrative court within the United States A panelist will have been actively involved in the field of vocational rehabilitation within the preceding 12 months The executive leadership of IARP and ABVE w ere verbally contacted to request their cooperation in distributing a request for participation to their respective memberships. An invitation to participate in this study was emailed to potential expert panelists through the IARP (Appendix A) and ABVE (Appendix B) professional organizations. These two groups in composite represent several hundred potential panel candidates. Potential panelists were invited to contact the researcher to discuss the goals of the study and to familiarize them with the time demands and expectations of participatin g in the study. Through casual collegial contact, other potential panelists were invited to participate as their experience and qualifications were well known to the researcher. As each panelist candidate contacted the researcher, they were emailed a li nk to a panelist qualification questionnaire (Appendix C). Each panelist candidate self reported their eligibility for inclusion on the expert panel. Expert Panelist Incentive to Participate At each contact point from initial recruitment of potential pa nelists through distribution of the round one Delphi questionnaire, panelists were advised of the benefits of participating in the study. Panelists who completed all three rounds of data collection received two primary benefits. First, panelist completin g all three rounds received a summary of the consensus results, which include the set of variables the panel considered to be the core variables in any assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. Second, each panelist received compensation in the amount of $15. Panelists were given the option of having the compensation paid directly to them individually or of having the compensation donated to IARP or ABVE.

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73 For panelists donating their compensation, they were provided the option of donating the compensation in their own name or anonymously. Delphi Procedure Round 1 Delphi round one (Appendix D) involved initial qualitative exploration of the research question (Dawson & Brucker, 2001). The overall goal of the study was to identify core variables. To avoid confusion between the concept of a variable and of a domain of information that may contain variables, definitions were offered as was a sample diagram that showed the relati onship between domains and variables. Panelists were first asked to think of a particularly complex case in which he / she (as the vocational rehabilitation expert) had been retained to assess an evaluees vocational earning capacity. With this case in mind, the panelists w ere requested to identify and record all domains of variables believed to be essential to the evaluation of the complex case he / she had in mind. Each domain identified by the panelist in round one was then presented back to the panelists who were then asked to identify individual variables within each domain he / she considered to be a core variable in every assessment of vocational earning capacity. In addition to data on domains and variables, d emographic data was also collected to analyze the professional characteristics of the expert panel. Additionally, prior to dissemination of the round one questionnaire, it was reviewed and BETA tested by six doctoral level rehabilitation counselors involved in university based teaching and research and / or forensic private practice (Appendix E). Data from Delphi round one w as analyzed through qualitative content analysis using NVivo (Version 8). NVivo is a flexible and dynamic software tool used by qualitative researchers to assist in the data analy sis process. NVivo provided the researcher with a

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74 dynamic yet consistent method for coding individual data nodes. Each data node represented a single qualitative data element. Data nodes were then sy nthesized by combining like terms and ideas to deriv e one universal description of each domain and variable described by panelists. Using this coding technique, the researcher was able to interpret the raw qualitative data and ultimately arrive at one universal description of each variable. In analyzing round one data, care was taken to order and group variables by domain to avoid overlap and repetition (Beech, 1999). An audit record (Appendix E) of the c ontent analysis was maintained to describe data analysis decisions made by the researcher in synthesizing and compiling the data. Round 2 In Delphi round two panelists were asked to rate the importance of items identified through content analysis of round one qualitative data input. In p roviding r ound two ratings, panelists provided two different levels of data-importance and consensus. First, panelists rat ed the importance of each item along a seven point Likert type rating scale. A seven point scale was used to increase the potential range of importance ratings. By using a seven point scale, three points of differentiation were possible above the mid-point score. The second level of data was the degree of consensus or variability of panelist response along the importance rating scale. Items with higher consensus (lower variability) provide a higher level of confidence in the role an individual variable may play in an analysis of vocational earning capacity. Therefore, to be considered a core variable for the purpose of this study, the variable must meet or exceed an established threshold for both importance and variability. Figure 3 -1 sho ws the level of importance rating scale utilized for round two and three. Not important Moderately important Highly important 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure 3 1. Level of importance rating scale

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75 Round 3 In round three quantitative and qualitative feedback from round two expert input was introduced to the panelists in a controlled fashion (Rowe & Wright, 1999). Descriptive statistics were calculated for each item in round two Panelists were provided their individual response to each item in round two as well as two different measures of central tendency (median and mean) and two different measures of statistical variability or dispersion (interquartile range and standard deviation). Multiple measures were provided to panelists as the researcher believed that most practitioners are familiar with the mean and the standard deviation over other statistical measu res. Both the mean and the standard deviation are both susceptible to outliers in a set of data. Therefore, the median and interquartile range was also provided as neither of these measures are susceptible to outliers in the data set. Prior to initiating the actual survey, panelists were provided with a graphic example of all four statistical measures with interpretive guidelines. Consensus Round three is intended to move the expert panel toward consensus by reducing the variability in panelist resp onses. The point at which consensus is achieved is referred to as stability and convergence (Vzquez -Ramos et al., 2007) panelist response across questionnaires in subsequent rounds (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993). Convergence is determined by the degree of consensus on a given question (Hakim & Weinblatt, 1993). Varying authors have suggested consensus has been achieved if between 51% and 80% of panelists agree (Hasson, Keeney, & McKenna, 2000), however there are no universally accepted standards for determining when Delphi consensus has been achieved (Fink et al., 1984). In fact, some researchers employing the Delphi method may not set the consensus level prior to conducting the study, but instead, set the level post hoc (Williams & Webb, 1994) Williams and

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76 Webb (1994) stated unless a [consensus] value (or range of values) is stipulated, the notion of a high level of consensus could almost be a movable feast which is unilaterally decided upon by the researcher (p.183). For the purposes of this study, items will be considered to have high importance and a high level of consensus if three criteria are met: The M (measure of central tendency) of the item is five or greater (importance). The IQR (measure of dispersion) is less than or equal to two (convergence). The M the absolute value of one (stability). Panelists were not provided with the criteria for either importance or consensus. Since the goal of the study was to identify critical variables, the sample mean ( ) was used as the measure of central tendency. Since the research question involves measurement of the importance of a variable, the researcher believed that contracting the measure by eliminating outliers could have the effect of artificially increasing the importance of an item. Since the mean is susceptible to outliers in the response distribution, use of a less sensitive measure such as the median, would not have captured the effect of outliers. A measure of response dispersion is also important as this represents the range of ratings in the distribution. The standard range of a distribution of numbers as well as the standard deviation are particularly biased by outliers. Neither would likely provide useful feedback to panelists in round three. For this reason, the interquartile range (IQR) was utilized as the measure of response dispersion. The interquartile range excludes the extremes of the data distribution. The lowest 25% and the highest 25% of scores are excluded, leaving only the middle 50% to determine the response dispersion. The goal of this study is to identify a set of variables considered core to an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. This is important in that despite

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77 numerous methods and protocols published in peer reviewed journals and textbooks, there remains a h igh level of variability in the final evaluation product of vocational consultants. It is hoped that by identifying a core set of variables, a best practices standard or model may be developed. This is important as research has shown that in legal fore nsic settings, attorneys have little confidence in the objectivity or consistency of methods used by vocational rehabilitation consultants. By identifying key variables, progress will be made towards contracting the degree of variability in opinions, thus improving reliability and defensibility.

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78 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Panel Qualification Of the 54 potential expert panelists who contacted the researcher to participate in this study, 50 completed the panelist qualification questionnaire. All 50 potential experts self reported their eligibility for participation in the study as meeting the inclusion criterion. Panel Demographics Of the 50 experts who qualified for participation in the study, 47 completed round one qualitative input. Prior to beginning data input, expert demographic information was collected. The geographic distribution of the expert panel included experts from 18 different states and two countries (Table 4 -1). Over 50% of the sample was comprised of experts from just four states Washington (17%), California (14.9%), Florida (12.8%) and Pennsylvania (8.5%). Table 4 1. Expert panel practice location State Number Frequency (%) Washington (state) 8 17.0 California 7 14.9 Florida 6 12.8 Pennsylvania 4 8.5 Arizona 3 6.4 Colorado 2 4.3 Massachusetts 2 4.3 Minnesota 2 4.3 Ohio 2 4.3 Wisconsin 2 4.3 Indiana 1 2.1 Louisiana 1 2.1 Michigan 1 2.1 New York 1 2.1 Oklahoma 1 2.1 South Carolina 1 2.1 Virginia 1 2.1 West Virginia 1 2.1 Other (Non US) 1 2.1 N=47

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79 All 47 experts had completed at least a Masters degree (Table 4 -2). The most common credentials held by expert panelists was the Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (72.3%) and board certification by the American Board of Vocational Experts (55.3%) (Table 4-3). Table 4 2. Expert panel highest degree held Degree Number Frequency (%) Masters Degree 38 80.9 Doctoral Degree 7 14.9 Advanced Graduate Degree 2 4.3 N=47 Table 4 3. Expert panel credentials Credential Number Frequency (%) Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC) 34 72.3 American Board of Vocational Experts (D ABVE & F ABVE) 26 55.3 Certified Disability Management Specialist (CDMS ) 16 34.0 Certified Case Manager (CCM) 15 31.9 State Licensed Counselor 14 29.8 Certified Life Care Planner (CLCP) 10 21.3 Certified Vocational Evaluator (CVE) 7 14.9 National Certified Counselor (NCC) 4 8.5 American Board of Disability Analysts (D ABDA & F ABDA) 3 6.4 Certified Earnings Analyst (CEA) 2 4.3 Medicare Set Aside Consultant Certified (MSCC) 2 4.3 Table 4 4. Expert panel memberships Memberships Number Frequency (%) International Association of Rehabilitation Professionals 40 85.1 American Board of Vocational Experts 29 67.4 International Academy of Life Care Planning 10 21.3 National Rehabilitation Association 7 14.9 American Rehabilitation Economics Association 5 10.6 American Counseling Association 4 8.5 American Psychological Association 3 6.4 American Board of Disability Analysts 2 4.3 American Rehabilitation Counseling Association 2 4.3 Case Management Society of America 2 4.3 North American Brain Injury Society 2 4.3 National Association of Forensic Economics 2 4.3

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80 The most common professional associations experts belonged to where the International Association of Rehabilitation Professionals (85.1%) and the American Board of Vocational Experts (67.4%) (Table 4-4). This finding is not surprising given that recruitment for this study was conducted primarily through these two professional organizations. The mean number of years of professional practice experience reported by experts was 28.1 years, SD 7.54, with a range of 11 to 44 years of experience. Panelist e xperience was grouped (Table 4-5) for ease of interpretation and improved visualization of the distribution. Panelist experience roughly approximated a bell curve that was skewed to the right (higher degree of experience) with 65.9% of the panel having between 21 and 35 years of professional experience. Table 4 5 Expert panel years of practice Years of Practice Number Frequency (%) 0 10 years 0 0 11 15 years 3 6.4 16 20 years 6 12.8 21 25 years 9 19.1 26 30 years 8 17.0 31 35 years 14 29.8 36 40 years 6 12.8 40+ 1 2.1 N=47 Table 4 6. Expert panel areas of practice Areas of Practice Number Frequency (%) Personal Injury 45 95.7 Workers Compensation 41 87.2 Divorce and / or Family Law 40 85.1 Medical Malpractice 38 80.9 Long Term Disability 34 72.3 Employment Law 28 59.6 Social Security 24 51.1 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 23 48.9

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81 The most common area of professional practice was personal injury (95.7%), followed by workers compensation (87.2%) and divorce and / or family law (85.1%) (Table 46). The mean expert caseload percentage of litigated versus non litigated cases was 67.5%, SD 31.8. Nearly half (44.7%) of the experts reported that litigated work comprised between 81% and 100% of their professional caseload (Table 4 7). Of the litigated portion of the each experts caseload, 44.7% of the panelists reported retention by the defense between 41% and 60% of the time. This suggests that most expert panelists are retained nearly equally by the plaintiff or claimant and the defense. Of the sample, 17% reported retention by the defense in 1% to 20% of their litigated caseload, while 8.5% reported retention by defense counsel between 81% and 100% of the time (Table 4 8). The mean percentage of retention of exper ts by the defense was 49.2, SD 24.8. Table 4 7. Expert panel percent litigated vs. non litigated Percent Number Frequency (%) 1 20% 6 12.8 21 40% 7 14.9 41 60% 5 10.6 61 80% 8 17.0 81 100% 21 44.7 N=47 Table 4 8. Expert panel percent of litigated cases retained by the defense Percent Number Frequency (%) 1 20% 8 17.0 21 40% 6 12.8 41 60% 21 44.7 61 80% 8 17.0 81 100% 4 8.5 N=47 Nearly half (44.7%) of the panelists had testified as a vocational expert over 200 times, while 27.1% had testified between one and 100 times and 25.5% had testified 101 and 200 times (Table 4 9).

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82 Table 4 9. Expert panel testimony experience Testi mony Experience Number Frequency (%) 1 50 times 5 10.6 51 100 times 9 19.1 101 150 times 8 17.0 151 200 times 4 8.5 Over 200 times 21 44.7 N=47 Delphi Round 1 Expert input was based on open-ended questions. Experts were first asked to think of a particularly complex case in which he or she was retained as an expert in vocational earning capacity. With this case in mind, he or she was then asked to identify the major data domains essential in analyzing the case, and in formulating opinions of vocational earning capacity. For each data domain identified by the expert, he or she was then asked to identify individual variable(s) to be considered in every assessmen t of vocational earning capacity. Experts responded to round one qualitative input with 469 discreet variables considered to be core variables in every assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting (Table 410 and 4-11). Delphi Round 2 For Delphi round two 41 of the original 47 experts rated the importance of each of the 469 items identified from round one Item importance was measured on a seven point Likert type rating scale, containing three anchor points: 1- Not Importa nt; 4=Moderately Important; 7=Highly Important. Following round two expert ratings, 206 of the 469 items identified in round one, met the convergence and importance criteria for this study. Following round two ratings, the median, mean, interquartile range and standard deviation were calculated for each item. All four measures were presented to experts in round three to provide a descriptive picture of item ratings of the panel as a whole.

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83 Delphi Round 3 For Delphi round three, 38 of the 41 experts completing round two re -rated the 469 items. This represented an 81% overall response rate over all three rounds of data collection. Prior to re rating items, experts were provided descri ptive statistics calculated in r ound two as well as their ind ividual round two rating for each item. Recall that the convergence acceptance criteria for items in this study was an interquartile range ( IQR ) of less than or equal to two while the importance acceptance criteria was a mean ( M ) of five or greater. Rou nd three re ratings resulted in 232 of 469 items meeting both the convergence and importance criteria for the study (Table 4 -10), while 237 items failed to meet either or both of the convergence and / or importance criteria (Table 4 -11). Intraround convergence was unchanged for 289 (62%) of the items, while convergence increased for 156 (33%) and decreased for 24 (5%) items. Response stability ( M was calculated for each item which represented the change in the item mean from round two to round three. The stability criterion for this study required a M equal to one. All 469 items fell within acceptable stability criteria.

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84 Table 4 10. Variables with mean greater than 5 and interquartile range from 0 to 2 Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Medical Functional Capacity: Current Medical Opinions of Physical Functional Capacity 6.85 0 6.87 0 .02 Medical Functional Capacity: Current Medical Opinions of Cognitive Functional Capacity 6.66 0 6.82 0 .16 Labor Market Sampling Information: Physical Demands of Suitable Jobs 6.78 0 6.79 0 .01 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Evaluee Ability to Sustain or Maintain Employment 6.59 .5 6.74 0 .15 Medical Functional Capacity: Medical Opinion(s) of Tolerance for Full or Part Time Work 6.56 0 6.74 0 .18 Medical Functional Capacity: Medical Opinion(s) of Tolerance to Perform any Level of Work 6.59 0 6.74 0 .15 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Apprenticeship Training Completed by Evaluee 6.56 1 6.68 1 .12 Labor Market Sampling Information: Licenses and Certifications Required for Suitable Jobs 6.63 1 6.66 1 .03 Medical Functional Capacity: Projected Medical Opinions of Physical Functional Capacity (future) 6.51 1 6.63 .25 .12 Medical Functional Capacity: Date(s) of Cognitive Functional Capacity Opinions 6.49 1 6.63 1 .14 Education Higher Education (college): Degree(s) Completed 6.54 1 6.61 1 .07 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Physical Demands of Job 6.56 1 6.61 1 .05 Labor Market Sampling Information: Job Duties for Suitable Jobs 6.61 1 6.61 1 .00 Labor Market Sampling Information: Educational Requirements for Suitable Jobs 6.59 1 6.61 1 .02

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85 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Medical Functional Capacity: Date(s) of Physical Functional Capacity Opinions 6.49 1 6.61 1 .12 Education Compulsory (k 12): Highest Grade Completed 6.44 1 6.58 1 .14 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Job Duties 6.51 1 6.58 1 .07 Labor Market Sampling Information: Required Skills for Suitable Jobs 6.59 1 6.58 1 .01 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Rehabilitation Interview 6.51 0 6.55 0 .04 Economic: Historical Annual Earnings of the Evaluee 6.44 1 6.55 1 .11 Labor Market Sampling Information: Wages for Suitable Jobs 6.41 1 6.55 1 .14 Education Higher Education (college): Highest Year Completed 6.41 1 6.53 1 .12 Medical Functional Capacity: Projected Medical Opinions of Cognitive Functional Capacity (future) 6.34 1 6.53 1 .19 Medical Functional Capacity: Pre Injury Medical Opinions of Physical Functional Capacity 6.24 1 6.53 1 .29 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Date of Birth 6.34 1 6.50 1 .16 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Course of Study 6.29 1 6.47 1 .18 Medical History and Treatment: Date of Injury 6.24 2 6.47 1 .23 Transferable Skills: Current Licenses and Certifications 6.39 1 6.47 1 .08 Education Compulsory (k 12): Does Evaluee Have a High School Diploma or General Equivalency Diploma (GED) 6.34 1 6.42 1 .08 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Ending Wage 6.32 1 6.42 1 .10 Medical Functional Capacity: Pre Injury Medical Opinions of Cognitive Functional Capacity 6.24 1 6.42 1 .18 Medical Functional Capacity: Medical Opinions of Pain Related Limitations 6.27 1 6.42 1 .15

PAGE 86

86 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Medical Functional Capacity: Medical Opinion(s) of Limitations in Sensory System(s) 6.41 1 6.42 1 .01 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (current) 6.29 1 6.42 1 .13 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Duration of Time Since Last Employed 6.12 1 6.37 1 .25 Labor Market Statistical Information: US Department of Labor Statistics 6.00 2 6.37 1 .37 Medical Functional Capacity: Source(s) of Cognitive Functional Capacity Opinions 6.24 1 6.37 1 .13 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Rehabilitation Training Plan 6.17 1 6.37 1 .20 Transferable Skills: Strength Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 6.17 1 6.37 1 .20 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Consistency of Past Employment 6.27 1 6.34 1 .07 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Mental Demands of Job 6.2 1 6.32 1 .12 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Employer Willingness to Provide Reasonable Accommodations 5.95 2 6.32 1 .37 Financial: Does Evaluee Receive Income from Performing Paid Work 6.24 1 6.32 1 .08 Medical History and Treatment: Provider Prognosis for Improvement in Medical Condition 6.27 1 6.32 1 .05 Medical Functional Capacity: Source(s) of Physical Functional Capacity Opinions 6.20 1 6.26 1 .06 Medical History and Treatment: Current Treatment Plan 6.29 1 6.26 1 .03

PAGE 87

87 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Success or Failure in Previous Rehabilitation Services 6.20 1 6.24 1 .04 Medical History and Treatment: Provider Prognosis for Degeneration or Decline in Medical Condition 6.17 2 6.24 2 .07 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Amount Completed 6.20 1 6.21 1 .01 Medical History and Treatment: Prognosis for Pre Existing Medical Diagnosis(es) 6.00 1.5 6.21 1 .21 Medical History and Treatment: Current Treatment Diagnosis 6.15 1 6.21 1 .06 Psychometric Measurement: Cognitive Ability Assessment 6.22 1 6.21 1 .01 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Rehabilitation Services Provided to Evaluee 6.15 1 6.21 1 .06 Economic: Age of the Evaluee as of the Date of Loss 6.12 1.5 6.18 1 .06 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Skills Learned on the Job 6.05 2 6.18 1 .13 Education General Variables: Participation in Exceptional or Special Education Services 6.17 2 6.18 1.25 .01 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Evaluee Ability to Conduct Job Search Activities 6.07 1 6.16 1 .09 Medical Functional Capacity: Medical Opinion(s) of Expected Work Absences 6.05 1 6.16 1 .11 Professional Resources: Employer Job Descriptions 6.17 1 6.16 1 .01 Work Life Participation: Evaluee Consistency of Past Work as a Reflection of Future Work Participation 5.98 1.5 6.16 1 .18 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Criminal History 6.10 1 6.13 1 .03 Medical History and Treatment: Pre Existing Medical Diagnosis(es) 6.07 2 6.13 1.25 .06 Labor Market Statistical Information: Definition of Relevant Labor Market 5.93 1.5 6.11 1 .18

PAGE 88

88 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Education Higher Education (college): Course(s) of Study 6 2 6.11 2 .11 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Employment End Date 5.88 2 6.11 2 .23 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Aptitudes Required for Job 5.98 1.5 6.08 1.25 .10 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Employment Start Date 5.85 2 6.08 2 .23 Legal Jurisdiction: Deposition Transcript(s) of Parties Involved in the Action or Cause 5.78 2 6.08 2 .30 Medical History and Treatment: Current Treatment Symptoms 6.05 2 6.08 2 .03 Labor Market Sampling Information: Anticipated Hiring for Suitable Jobs 6.05 1 6.05 1 .00 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Employer Pay Structure (ie. Salary, commission, bonus) 6.00 2 6.05 1.25 .05 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Reason for Leaving Job 5.88 2 6.05 2 .17 Psychometric Measurement: Reading Comprehension Achievement 6.00 2 6.05 2 .05 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Motivation to Work 5.76 2 6.03 1.25 .27 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Obsolescence of Training 6.0 1.5 6.03 2 .03 Education General Variables: Computer Software Training the Evaluee has Attended 5.93 2 6.03 2 .10 Medical History and Treatment: Duration of Treatment for Current Treatment Plan (ie. short term or life expectancy) 6.05 2 6.03 2 -.02 Medical History and Treatment: Orthotics and Prosthetics Included in the Treatment Plan 6.05 1.5 6.03 2 .02 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Rehabilitation Training Plan Anticipated Dates of Service 5.93 2 6.03 2 .10

PAGE 89

89 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Language Skills: Expressive English Language Skills 6.05 1 6.00 1.25 .05 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Job Title per Employer 5.85 2 6.00 2 .15 Language Skills: Receptive English Language Skills 5.98 2 6.00 2 .02 Language Skills: Primary Language Spoken 5.88 2 6.00 2 .12 Medical History and Treatment: Frequency of Current Symptoms 6.02 1.5 6.00 2 .02 Professional Resources: Evidence Based Research Literature to Support Opinions 6.00 1.5 6.00 2 .00 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (pre existing) 5.88 2 6.00 2 .12 Medical History and Treatment: Evaluee Compliance with Treatment Plan 5.98 1 5.97 1 .01 Transportation: Possession of a Drivers License 5.88 2 5.97 2 .09 Medical Functional Capacity: Medical Opinions of Reduced Life Expectancy due to Impairment 5.76 2 5.95 2 .19 Medical History and Treatment: Past Medical Treatment History 5.78 2 5.95 2 .17 Work Life Participation: Evaluee Option to Engage in Part Time or Full Time Work 5.95 2 5.95 2 .00 Behavioral Health: Effectiveness of Psychotropic Medication Regimen 5.76 1.5 5.92 2 .16 Labor Market Statistical Information: US Census Bureau Labor Market Statistics 5.61 2 5.92 2 .31 Psychometric Measurement: Verbal Aptitude 5.88 2 5.92 2 .04 Activities of Daily Living: Assistive Devices or Equipment (current) 5.90 2 5.89 2 .01

PAGE 90

90 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Experience Required of Evaluee to Obtain Job 5.78 2 5.89 2 .11 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Interpersonal Demands Required for Job 5.85 2 5.89 2 .04 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Evaluee Demonstrated Job Search Activities 5.76 2 5.89 2 .13 Medical History and Treatment: Pre Injury Symptoms (only if plaintiff had symptoms prior to injury) 5.71 2 5.89 2 .18 Medical History and Treatment: Projected Future Aggressive Treatment (ie. surgical) 5.98 2 5.89 2 -.09 Psychometric Measurement: Numerical Aptitude 5.85 2 5.89 2 .04 Transportation: Cognitive Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle 5.78 2.5 5.89 2 .11 Labor Market Sampling Information: Job Title for Suitable Jobs 5.73 2 5.87 2 .14 Medical History and Treatment: Frequency of Treatment for Current Treatment Plan (ie. monthly, quarterly or annually) 5.80 2 5.87 2 .07 Medical History and Treatment: Potential Future Complications 5.78 2 5.87 2 .09 Psychometric Measurement: Math Achievement 5.71 2 5.87 2 .16 Work Life Participation: Reason for Periods of Unemployment between Jobs (over evaluees past work history) 5.85 2 5.87 2 .02 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Mental Alertness 5.88 .5 5.84 .25 .04 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Mental Concentration 5.80 1 5.84 1 .04 Medical History and Treatment: Current Medication Side Effects 5.88 2 5.84 2 -.04 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Rehabilitation Services Evaluee has Independently Pursued 5.80 2 5.84 2 .04 Transferable Skills: Numerical Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.85 2 5.84 2 .01

PAGE 91

91 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Transferable Skills: Reasoning Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.90 2 5.84 2 .06 Transferable Skills: Dictionary of Occupational Titles Strength Demand(s) for Past Work 5.76 2 5.84 2 .08 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Memory Function 5.85 2 5.82 1.25 .03 Activities of Daily Living: Activities of Daily Living Unable to Perform 5.73 2 5.82 2 .09 Activities of Daily Living: Personal Care Attendant Needs 5.71 2.5 5.82 2 .11 Education Compulsory (k 12): Course of Study (ie. academic or workforce education) 5.59 2 5.82 2 .23 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Job Progression with Employer 5.66 2 5.82 2 .16 Medical History and Treatment: Surgeries Completed in the Course of Medical Treatment 5.63 2 5.82 2 .19 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Immigration Status 5.63 2.5 5.82 2 .19 Transportation: Class of Drivers License (ie. commercial) 5.71 2 5.82 2 .11 Work Life Participation: Medical and Behavioral Health Treatment Plan Impact on Work Schedule 5.85 2 5.82 2 .03 Education General Variables: Need for Academic or Training Accommodations 5.76 2 5.79 2 .03 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Accommodations Provided by Employer 5.71 2 5.79 2 .08 Medical Functional Capacity: Evaluee Opinion(s) of Residual Functional Capacity 5.71 2.5 5.79 2 .08 Medical History and Treatment: Date of Current Treatment Diagnosis 5.63 2 5.79 2 .16 Transferable Skills: Requirements to Bring Expired Licenses and Certifications Current 5.59 2 5.79 2 .20

PAGE 92

92 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Work Life Participation: Average Duration of Unemployment Between Jobs (over evaluees past work history) 5.78 2 5.79 2 .01 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Job Promotion with Employer 5.56 2 5.76 2 .20 Professional Resources: Functional Capacity Checklist 5.71 2 5.76 2 .05 Psychometric Measurement: Reading Recognition Achievement 5.73 2 5.76 2 .03 Transferable Skills: Verbal Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.85 2 5.76 2 .09 Transportation: Physical Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle 5.68 3 5.76 2 .08 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Alignment of Educational Achievement with Actual Work History 5.44 2 5.74 1 .30 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Motivation to Participate in Rehabilitation Services 5.51 2 5.74 2 .23 Education General Variables: Records of Academic Testing Completed in School 5.68 2 5.74 2 .06 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Employer Expectations of Job Applicant 5.59 2 5.74 2 .15 Medical History and Treatment: Specialty of Medical Provider(s) Involved in Treatment Plan(s) 5.51 3 5.74 2 .23 Medical History and Treatment: Current Medication Name(s) 5.68 2 5.74 2 .06 Psychometric Measurement: Alignment of Psychometric Test Results with Vocational Skills Demonstrated 5.66 2 5.74 2 .08 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Foundation of Opinion(s) of Opposing Vocational Expert 5.49 2.5 5.74 2 .25 Transferable Skills: Fingering Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.66 2 5.74 2 .08 Transferable Skills: Handling Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.71 2 5.74 2 .03

PAGE 93

93 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Behavioral Health: Evaluee Ability to Interact with Others 5.66 1.5 5.71 1.25 .05 Transferable Skills: Motor Coordination Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.59 2 5.71 2 .12 Transferable Skills: Evaluee Clerical Skills 5.73 2 5.71 2 .02 Transferable Skills: Evaluee Computer Software Skills 5.71 2 5.71 2 .00 Transferable Skills: Expired Licenses and Certifications 5.51 2 5.71 2 .20 Behavioral Health: Effectiveness of Current Behavioral Health Treatment Plan 5.56 1 5.68 1.25 .12 Transferable Skills: Reaching Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.68 2 5.68 2 .00 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Evaluee Personal Grooming and Hygiene 5.54 2 5.66 2 .12 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Executive Functioning 5.63 1 5.63 1 .00 Military Service Experience: Military Training 5.54 2.5 5.63 2 .09 Psychometric Measurement: Alignment of Psychometric Test Results with Academic Achievement 5.59 2 5.63 2 .04 Rehabilitation Planning and Services:Functional Job Analysis 5.51 3 5.63 2 .12 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Ability to Cooperatively Work with Others 5.51 1 5.61 1 .10 Education General Variables: Computer Hardware Training the Evaluee has Attended 5.49 1.5 5.61 1 .12 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Industry of Employer 5.46 1.5 5.61 1.25 .15 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Job Title per Dictionary of Occupational Titles 5.51 2 5.61 2 .10 Military Service Experience: Type of Discharge 5.37 3 5.61 2 .24 Psychometric Measurement: Vocational Interest(s) Assessment (acted upon through work history) 5.51 2 5.61 2 .10

PAGE 94

94 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Evaluee Performance Reviews by Employer 5.56 1 5.58 1 .02 Education General Variables: Review of School Records to Corroborate Evaluees Reported Education History 5.59 2 5.58 2 .01 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Benefits Provided by the Employer 5.59 2 5.58 2 .01 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Employer Willingness to Provide On the Job Training 5.49 2.5 5.58 2 .09 Medical History and Treatment: Previous Injury(ies) or Accident(s) Evaluee Involved in 5.63 2 5.58 2 -.05 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Access to Training Providers and Opportunities 5.68 2 5.58 2 .10 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Coping Skills 5.46 1 5.55 1 .09 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Evaluee Knowledge of Job Search Strategies 5.41 1.5 5.55 1.25 .14 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Rehabilitation Training Plan Accommodation(s) and Support(s) 5.63 2 5.55 1.25 .08 Financial: Does Evaluee Receive Disability Related Income 5.54 2 5.55 2 .01 Medical History and Treatment: Dates of Surgeries Completed 5.46 2.5 5.55 2 .09 Transferable Skills: Evaluee Ability to Count Money and Make Change 5.51 2.5 5.55 2 .04 Transferable Skills: Continuing Education Requirements for Current Licenses and Certifications 5.46 2 5.55 2 .09 Behavioral Health: Behavioral Health Treatment Prognosis 5.39 1.5 5.50 1 .11 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Abuse or Dependence on Alcohol Products 5.29 2 5.50 1.25 .21 Behavioral Health: Current Behavioral Health Diagnosis 5.46 1 5.47 1 .01 Medical History and Treatment: Evaluee Understanding of Treatment Plan 5.44 2 5.47 1.25 .03

PAGE 95

95 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Education General Variables: Professional Continuing Education Attended by Evaluee 5.51 1.5 5.45 1 .06 Activities of Daily Living: Assistive Devices or Equipment (recommended) 5.32 2 5.45 1.25 .13 Household Activities: Household Activities Performed by Evaluee Post Injury 5.41 1.5 5.45 1.25 .04 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Ability to Accept Supervision 5.39 1 5.42 1 .03 Behavioral Health: Current Behavioral Health Treatment Plan 5.32 1 5.42 1 .10 Behavioral Health: Current Behavioral Health Symptoms 5.37 2 5.42 1.25 .05 Education Higher Education (college): Grade Point Average 5.24 2 5.42 2 .18 Psychometric Measurement: Vocational Interest(s) Assessment (expressed) 5.29 3 5.39 2 .10 Education Higher Education (college): Obsolescence of College Education 5.39 2 5.37 1.5 .02 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Motivation to Learn 5.20 2 5.34 1 .14 Labor Market Sampling Information: Job Turnover for Suitable Jobs 5.32 2 5.34 1.5 .02 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Ability to Work Independently 5.32 2 5.34 2 .02 Household Activities: Household Activities Performed by Evaluee Pre -Injury 5.07 2 5.34 2 .27 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Malingering 5.24 2.5 5.32 1.25 .08 Avocational Activities: Avocational Training Completed by Evaluee 5.27 2.5 5.32 1.5 .05 Transportation: Method or Means of Previous Transportation to Work and Appointments 5.20 2.5 5.32 2 .12 Work Life Participation: Evaluee Proximity to Retirement Eligibility 5.24 2 5.32 2 .08 Household Activities: Physical Demands of Evaluees Household Activities 5.29 1 5.29 1 .00

PAGE 96

96 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Transferable Skills: Evaluee Typing Skills 5.34 2 5.29 1.25 .05 Transferable Skills: Evaluee Sales Skills 5.37 1.5 5.26 2 .11 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Evaluee Satisfaction with Job 5.12 2 5.24 2 .12 Behavioral Health: Pre Existing Behavioral Health Diagnosis 5.15 2 5.21 2 .06 Psychometric Measurement: Evaluee Self Report of Computer Skills 5.34 2 5.21 2 .13 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Expectations for the Future 5.17 2 5.18 2 .01 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Job Promotion Potential with Employer 5.10 2 5.18 2 .08 Socioeconomic: Transportation Support Provided by Family 5.22 2 5.18 2 .04 Education General Variables: Employer Sponsored In Service Training the Evaluee has Received 5.17 1 5.16 1 .01 Socioeconomic: Attendant and Personal Care Support Provided by Family 5.20 1.5 5.16 1.25 -.04 Education Higher Education (college): Reason for Leaving School (only if did not complete college) 5.10 2 5.16 2 .06 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Work Interests 5.12 2 5.16 2 .04 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Alignment of Interests with Actual Work History 5.10 2 5.16 2 .06 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Driving Required for Job 5.12 2 5.13 2 .01 Labor Market Sampling Information: Commute Distance from Evaluee's Residence to Suitable Job 5.12 2 5.13 2 .01 Activities of Daily Living: Activities of Daily Living Physical Demands 4.93 2 5.11 2 .18 Education Compulsory (k 12): Grade Point Average 5.07 2 5.11 2 .04 Transportation: Availability of Public Transportation 5.20 2.5 5.11 2 .09

PAGE 97

97 Table 4 10. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Work Life Participation: Evaluee Post Incident Retirement Plans 4.98 2 5.11 2 .13 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Feelings of Catastrophe or Hopelessness 5.05 2 5.08 1.25 .03 Household Activities: Household Activities Evaluee Requires Assistance With 5.07 2 5.08 2 .01 Medical History and Treatment: Pre Existing Medication(s) 4.85 3.5 5.08 2 .23 Transferable Skills: Evaluee Computer Hardware Skills 5.20 2.5 5.08 2 .12 Transportation: Endorsements on Drivers License 4.85 2 5.08 2 .23 Work Life Participation: Evaluee Pre Incident Retirement Plans 4.90 2 5.08 2 .18 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Tolerance to General Stress 5.10 2 5.05 2 .05 Transferable Skills: Form Perception Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.00 2.5 5.05 2 .05 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Ability to Adapt to Unexpected Events or Situations 5.05 2 5.03 2 .02 Cultural: Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Medical Treatment Recommendations 4.95 2 5.03 2 .08 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Evaluee Phase of Career Development 5 2 5.03 2 .03 Medical History and Treatment: Pre Injury Diagnostic Testing 4.88 3 5.03 2 .15 Medical History and Treatment: Projected Future Diagnostic Testing 5.07 2.5 5.03 2 .04 Medical History and Treatment: Projected Future Routine Treatment 5.05 2.5 5.03 2 -.02 Socioeconomic: Financial Support Provided by Family 5.12 2.5 5.03 2 .09 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Use of Recreational Drugs 4.78 2 5.00 2 .22

PAGE 98

98 Table 4 11. Variables with mean less than 5 and / or interquartile range greater than 2 Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Psychometric Measurement: Manual Dexterity Aptitude 5.59 3 5.66 2.25 .07 Psychometric Measurement: Finger Dexterity Aptitude 5.56 3 5.63 2.25 .07 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Starting Wage 5.37 3 5.53 3 .16 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Environmental Demands for Successful Job Performance 5.46 3 5.53 3 .07 Labor Market Statistical Information: Expected Growth in Local Labor Market 5.29 3 5.53 3 .24 Psychometric Measurement: Concentration Assessment 5.54 2.5 5.53 3 .01 Psychometric Measurement: Attention Assessment 5.54 2.5 5.53 3 .01 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Rehabilitation Training Plan Anticipated Cost 5.46 2 5.53 3 .07 Transferable Skills: Vision Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.51 3 5.53 3 .02 Medical Functional Capacity:Evaluee Pain Related Complaints 5.49 3 5.50 3 .01 Psychometric Measurement: Motor Coordination Aptitude 5.41 3 5.50 3 .09 Psychometric Measurement: Vocabulary Achievement 5.54 2.5 5.47 3 .07 Psychometric Measurement: Spatial Aptitude 5.39 3 5.45 3 .06 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Dates of Previous Rehabilitation Services 5.34 3 5.45 3 .11 Transferable Skills: Eye, Hand, Foot Coordination Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.41 3 5.45 3 .04 Transferable Skills: Climbing Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.32 3 5.45 3 .13 Transferable Skills: Hearing Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.34 3 5.45 3 .11

PAGE 99

99 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Activities of Daily Living: Assistance Received with Activities of Daily Living 5.22 3 5.42 2.25 .20 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job: Temperaments Required for Job 5.49 2 5.42 2.25 .07 Psychometric Measurement: Memory Assessment 5.34 3 5.42 3 .08 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Dates of Attendance 5.24 3 5.39 3 .15 Psychometric Measurement: Clerical Perception Aptitude 5.39 3 5.39 3 .00 Psychometric Measurement: Communication Assessment 5.37 3 5.39 3 .02 Medical History and Treatment: Current Medication Dosage 5.27 3 5.34 2.25 .07 Transferable Skills: Stooping Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.32 3 5.34 3 .02 Transportation: Restrictions on Drivers License 5.20 3 5.34 3 .14 Transferable Skills: Spatial Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.24 3 5.32 2.25 .08 Transferable Skills: Dictionary of Occupational Titles Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP) Code(s) for Past Work 5.24 2.5 5.32 2.25 .08 Work Life Participation: Physical and Behavioral Demands of Occupation(s) that Allow for Work Beyond Typical Retirement Age 5.32 2.5 5.32 2.25 .00 Transferable Skills: Talking Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.39 3 5.32 3 .07 Financial: Secondary Gain Issues 5.20 3 5.29 3 .09 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Post Incident Opinion(s) of Opposing Vocational Expert 5.15 3 5.29 3 .14 Transportation: Accommodations Required for Transportation 5.27 2.5 5.29 3 .02 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Employer Willingness to Provide Trial Work Period 5.24 2 5.26 2.25 .02 Psychometric Measurement: Form Perception Aptitude 5.20 3 5.26 3 .06

PAGE 100

100 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Transferable Skills: Kneeling Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.24 3 5.26 3 .02 Medical History and Treatment: Evaluee Pre Injury Treatment History with Treating Provider(s) 5.22 3 5.24 2.25 .02 Psychometric Measurement: Writing Achievement 5.24 2.5 5.24 2.25 .00 Education Compulsory (k 12): Reason for Not Completing (only if did not complete high school) 5.05 3 5.21 3 .16 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Reason for Not Completing (if did not complete program) 5.27 3 5.21 3 -.06 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Name of Employer 5.22 3 5.21 3 .01 Military Service Experience: Military Dates of Service 5.05 3 5.21 3 .16 Psychometric Measurement: Eye, Hand, Foot Coordination Aptitude 5.17 3 5.21 3 .04 Transferable Skills: Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title(s) for Past Work 5.17 3 5.21 3 .04 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Hand Dominance 5.17 3 5.18 2.25 .01 Transferable Skills: Balancing Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.22 3 5.18 2.25 -.04 Legal Jurisdiction: Venue Legal Requirements 4.88 3 5.18 3 .30 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Limitations Placed on Work Activity Due to Benefits Being Received (ie. social security) 5.02 3 5.16 2.5 .14 Transferable Skills: Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Dust 5.10 3 5.13 2.25 .03 Cultural: Cultural Importance of Work to Evaluee 4.93 2.5 5.11 2.25 .18 Education Higher Education (college): Dates of Attendance 4.95 3 5.11 3 .16 Transferable Skills: Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Code(s) for Past Work 5.12 3 5.11 3 .01

PAGE 101

101 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Activities of Daily Living: Typical Daily Routine 4.95 3 5.05 2.25 .10 Psychometric Measurement: Spelling Achievement 5.10 3 5.05 3 .05 Transportation: Motor Vehicle Operator Record 4.95 2 5.03 2.25 .08 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction -Grade Point Average 5.02 3 5.03 3 .01 Transferable Skills: Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Vibration 4.93 2.5 5.00 2.25 .07 Education Compulsory (k 12): Difficult Subjects for Evaluee 4.85 2 4.97 1.25 .12 Behavioral Health: Consistency of Behavioral Health Symptoms Reported by Evaluee 4.93 2 4.97 2 .04 Cultural: Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Prescribed Work Schedule 4.98 2 4.97 2 .01 Education Compulsory (k 12): Dates of Attendance 4.80 2 4.97 2 .17 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Employer Bias Toward Persons with Disabilities 4.93 3 4.97 2 .04 Labor Market Sampling Information: Promotional Opportunities for Suitable Jobs 4.95 2 4.97 2 .02 Activities of Daily Living: Activities of Daily Living Performed Without Modification 4.76 2 4.95 2 .19 Cultural: Cultural Alignment Between Evaluee and Rehabilitation Plan 4.90 2 4.95 2 .05 Labor Market Statistical Information: Expected Growth in Surrounding Labor Market 4.88 2 4.95 2 .07 Labor Market Statistical Information: Unemployment Rate in Local Labor Market 5.00 2 4.95 2 -.05 Socioeconomic: Job Search Support Provided by Family 5.02 2 4.95 2 .07 Transportation: Accessibility of Public Transportation 5.02 2.5 4.95 2 .07 Transferable Skills: Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Extreme Cold 4.88 2.5 4.95 2.25 .07

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102 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Transferable Skills: Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Moving Hazards 4.93 3 4.95 2.25 .02 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Comprehension of Interactions with People and Things 4.90 2 4.92 2 .02 Financial: Is Evaluee's Income Sufficient to Cover Expenses (only if evaluee has an income source) 4.95 2 4.92 2 .03 Psychometric Measurement: Evaluee Self Report of English Writing Skills 4.93 2 4.92 2 .01 Cultural: Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Employer Requirements 4.98 3 4.92 2.25 -.06 Medical History and Treatment: Name of Medical Provider(s) Involved in Treatment Plan(s) 4.85 4 4.92 2.25 .07 Transferable Skills: Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Extreme Heat 4.85 2.5 4.92 2.25 .07 Transferable Skills: Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Fumes 4.85 2.5 4.92 2.25 .07 Household Activities: Evaluee Responsibilities for Household Activities 4.95 2 4.89 2 .06 Labor Market Statistical Information: Population of Local Labor Market 4.76 2 4.89 2 .13 Psychometric Measurement: Evaluee Self Report of English Reading Skills 4.90 2 4.89 2 .01 Transferable Skills: Evaluee Skills Related to Activities of Daily Living 4.95 2 4.89 2 .06 Legal Jurisdiction: Plaintiff Claim(s) for Damages 4.80 3 4.87 2 .07 Psychometric Measurement: Evaluee Self Report of Math Skills 4.88 2 4.87 2 .01 Work Life Participation: Evaluee Eligibility for Public Retirement Benefits (ie. social security) 4.88 2 4.87 2 .01

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103 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Transferable Skills: Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Electrical Hazards 4.83 3 4.87 2.25 .04 Education General Variables: Reason for Evaluee Pursuing Achieved Educational Level 4.98 2 4.84 2 .14 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Evaluee Physical Appearance 4.85 2 4.84 2 .01 Socioeconomic: Education and Training Support Provided by Family 4.93 2 4.84 2 .09 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Evaluee Experience in Self Employment 4.83 2.5 4.84 2.25 .01 Behavioral Health: Previous Behavioral Health Treatment 4.68 2 4.82 2 .14 Behavioral Health: Pre Existing Behavioral Health Symptoms 4.73 2 4.82 2 .09 Cultural: Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Disability 4.9 2 4.82 2 .08 Psychometric Measurement: Learning Style Assessment 4.71 2 4.82 2 .11 Transferable Skills: Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Wetness and Humidity 4.80 3 4.82 2.25 .02 Transferable Skills: Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Noise 4.78 4 4.82 2.5 .04 Rehabilitation Planning and Services:Pre Incident Opinion(s) of Opposing Vocational Expert 4.66 4.5 4.82 4 .16 Avocational Activities: Hobby Activities (present) 4.85 2 4.79 1.25 .06 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Address 4.71 3.5 4.79 2 .08 Socioeconomic: Emotional Support Provided by Family 4.88 2 4.79 2 .09 Behavioral Health: Evaluee History of Emotional Trauma 4.51 2.5 4.76 2 .25 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Location of Employer 4.54 3 4.76 2 .22 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Employer Bias toward Age of Job Applicant 4.68 3 4.76 2 .08 Language Skills: Primary Language Spoken in the Home 4.61 2 4.76 2 .15

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104 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Legal Jurisdiction: Venue Procedural Requirements 4.63 2.5 4.76 2 .13 Work Life Participation: Evaluee Eligibility for Private Retirement Benefits 4.63 2 4.76 2 .13 Psychometric Measurement: Personality Assessment 4.83 3 4.76 2.25 .07 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Difficult Subjects for Evaluee 4.68 1 4.74 1 .06 Activities of Daily Living: Activities of Daily Living Performed with Modification 4.61 2 4.74 2 .13 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Self Concept toward Physical Appearance 4.73 2 4.74 2 .01 Behavioral Health: Evaluee History of Substance Abuse Treatment 4.73 2 4.74 2 .01 Socioeconomic: Education Level of Parents 4.76 2 4.74 2 .02 Education General Variables: Educational Awards and Recognition the Evaluee has Received 4.59 2 4.71 2 .12 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: How did Evaluee Obtain Job 4.76 2.5 4.71 2 .05 Labor Market Statistical Information: Unemployment Rate in Surrounding Labor Market 4.73 2 4.71 2 .02 Education Compulsory (k 12): Easy Subjects for Evaluee 4.68 1 4.68 1 .00 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Easy Subjects for Evaluee 4.66 1.5 4.68 1 .02 Education Higher Education (college): Did Evaluee Attend Continuously or Incur Disruptions 4.63 2 4.68 2 .05 Financial: Does Evaluee Receive Income from Family Members 4.68 2 4.68 2 .00 Transportation: Ownership of Reliable Vehicle 4.73 2 4.68 2 .05 Financial: Does Evaluee Receive Public Social Welfare Benefits (ie. food stamps) 4.80 3.5 4.68 3 .12

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105 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Behavioral Health: Evaluee Feelings of Financial Stress 4.63 2 4.66 2 .03 Cultural: Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Behavioral Health Treatment Recommendations 4.63 3 4.66 2 .03 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Professional Association and Membership Networking Opportunities 4.66 2 4.66 2 .00 Military Service Experience: Branch of Military 4.59 3 4.66 3.25 .07 Behavioral Health: Daily Sleep Patterns 4.51 2.5 4.63 2 .12 Cultural: Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Medical Opinions 4.68 2 4.63 2 .05 Legal Jurisdiction: Plaintiff Complaint for Action or Cause 4.56 2.5 4.63 2 .07 Labor Market Statistical Information: Population of Surrounding Labor Markets 4.46 2.5 4.61 2 .15 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Evaluee Awards and Honors Conveyed by Employer 4.61 2 4.58 2 .03 Financial: Does Spouse of Evaluee have Earned Income (if evaluee is married) 4.73 4 4.58 3 -.15 Psychometric Measurement: Color Discrimination Aptitude 4.63 4 4.58 4 .05 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Does Evaluee have Experience with Resume Preparation 4.46 2.5 4.55 1.25 .09 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Letters of Reference from Previous Employers 4.49 3 4.55 2.25 .06 Avocational Activities: Participation in Social and Community Activities 4.56 1 4.53 1 .03 Education Compulsory (k 12): Subjects Liked by Evaluee 4.49 2 4.53 1.25 .04 Professional Resources: Household Chores Checklist 4.51 2.5 4.53 2.25 .02 Medical History and Treatment: Prescriber for Current Medication(s) 4.37 4 4.53 3 .16 Financial: Debt and Financial Support Obligations of Evaluee 4.54 2.5 4.47 1.5 .07 Activities of Daily Living: Home Maintenance Performed 4.37 3 4.47 2.25 .10 Socioeconomic: Employment Status of Spouse (if married) 4.46 2.5 4.47 2.25 .01

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106 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Legal Jurisdiction: Foundation for Plaintiff Claim(s) for Damages 4.51 3.5 4.45 3 .06 Transportation: Evaluee Experience with the Use Public Transportation 4.59 2 4.42 2 .17 Economic: Address of the Evaluee as of the Date of Loss 4.51 3 4.42 3 .09 Socioeconomic: Change in Family Roles 4.46 3 4.42 3 .04 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Is the Employer Unionized or Non Unionized 4.27 2 4.39 1.25 .12 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Name(s) of Previous Rehabilitation Service Provider(s) 4.46 1.5 4.39 1.25 -.07 Socioeconomic: Education Level of Siblings 4.44 2 4.39 2 .05 Cultural: Cultural Role of Community and Social Structure to the Evaluee 4.32 3 4.39 3 .07 Transportation: Need to Share Vehicle with other Family Members 4.39 2.5 4.37 1.5 -.02 Cultural: Cultural Role of Family Structure to the Evaluee 4.24 3 4.37 3 .13 Education Higher Education (college): Difficult Subjects for Evaluee 4.34 1 4.34 1 .00 Education Higher Education (college): Easy Subjects for Evaluee 4.39 1 4.34 1 -.05 Education General Variables: Employer Sponsored In Service Training Dates of Attendance 4.22 2 4.34 2 .12 Avocational Activities: Hours per Week Involved in Avocational Activities 4.37 2.5 4.34 2.25 .03 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Work Schedule Flexibility Provided by Employer 4.34 3 4.34 3 .00 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Employer Preference for Military Veteran 4.29 3 4.34 3 .05 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Weight 4.27 1 4.32 1 .05

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107 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Behavioral Health: Evaluee Feelings of Shame and Embarrassment 4.39 2 4.32 2 .07 Financial: Does Evaluee have Public Health care Benefits 4.29 2.5 4.32 2 .03 Financial: Does Evaluee have Private Health care Benefits 4.34 3 4.32 2.25 .02 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Family Responsibilities 4.29 1 4.29 1.25 .00 Psychometric Measurement: Values Assessment 4.41 2.5 4.29 2.25 .12 Economic: Rated Age of the Evaluee 4.54 3.5 4.29 3 .25 Education Compulsory (k 12): Subjects Disliked by Evaluee 4.22 1.5 4.26 1.25 .04 Avocational Activities: Hobby Activities (past) 4.34 2.5 4.26 2 .08 Education Compulsory (k 12): Extra circular Activities Involved In 4.20 2 4.26 2 .06 Labor Market Statistical Information: Trade Association Labor Market Statistics 4.27 3 4.26 2.25 .01 Cultural: Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Behavioral Health Opinions 4.27 2 4.24 1.25 -.03 Avocational Activities: Formal Participation in Clubs, Associations and Organizations 4.32 2 4.24 2 .10 Socioeconomic: Disability Status of Children (if evaluee has children) 4.34 3 4.24 3 .10 Psychometric Measurement: Evaluee Self Report of Writing Skills in Non English Language(s) 4.17 3 4.21 2.25 .04 Education Higher Education (college): Subjects Liked by Evaluee 4.22 2.5 4.18 2 .04 Education Higher Education (college): Full Time or Part Time Attendance 4.2 1 4.16 1.25 -.04 Socioeconomic: Age of Dependents (if evaluee has dependents) 4.24 3 4.16 2 .08 Socioeconomic: Education Level of Spouse (if married) 4.34 3 4.16 2 .18 Cultural: Cultural Identity of Evaluee 3.78 3.5 4.16 2.25 .38

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108 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Education Compulsory (k 12): Behavior Pattern (ie. skipping class) 4.05 2 4.13 2 .08 Psychometric Measurement: Evaluee Self Report of Reading Skills in Non English Language(s) 4.17 3 4.13 2.25 .04 Socioeconomic: Disability Status of Spouse (if married) 4.24 3 4.13 2.25 .11 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Subjects Liked by Evaluee 4.24 2.5 4.11 2 .13 Education Higher Education (college): Extra curricular Activities 4 2 4.11 2 .11 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Size of Employer 4.02 2 4.11 2 .09 Transferable Skills: Evaluee Teaching Skills 4.27 2.5 4.11 2 .16 Socioeconomic: Status of Family Relationships 4.10 2 4.08 2 .02 Socioeconomic: Number of Dependents 4.20 3 4.08 2.25 .12 Socioeconomic: Marital Status 4.22 2.5 4.05 2.25 .17 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Subjects Disliked by Evaluee 4.12 2 4.03 2 .09 Socioeconomic: Community and Non Family Support 4.07 2 4.03 2 .04 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Full Time or Part Time Attendance 4.10 2 4.00 2 -.10 Education Higher Education (college): Subjects Disliked by Evaluee 3.98 2 4.00 2 .02 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee: Required Commute to Job 3.90 2 4.00 2 .10 Legal Jurisdiction: Venue of Action or Cause 4.02 2.5 4.00 2 .02 Socioeconomic: Employment Status of Parents 4.07 4 4.00 3.25 .07 Education Compulsory (k 12): Electives Taken by Evaluee 4 2 3.97 2 .03 Cultural: Cultural Alignment Between Evaluee and Evaluator 3.93 3.5 3.95 2 .02 Language Skills: Receptive Skills in Secondary Language(s) 3.90 3 3.92 2 .02

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109 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Language Skills: Expressive Skills in Secondary Language(s) 3.88 3 3.89 2 .01 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Height 3.90 2 3.87 2.25 .03 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Consultation with Family Members Regarding Evaluee Rehabilitation Status and Needs 3.90 2 3.79 2 -.11 Socioeconomic: Family Social Status of Evaluee 3.83 2.5 3.79 2.25 .04 Professional Resources: Occupational Information Network (ONet) 4.05 2.5 3.76 3 .29 Education Compulsory (k 12): Class Rank at Time of Completion 3.78 2 3.71 2 -.07 Socioeconomic: Status of Social Relationships 3.80 2 3.71 2.25 .09 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Attendance Requirements of the Employer 3.80 2.5 3.71 3 .09 Education Higher Education (college): Reputation of College(s) Attended 3.61 3 3.68 3 .07 Professional Resources: American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment 3.95 4 3.66 3 .29 Behavioral Health: Evaluee Abuse or Dependence on Tobacco Products 3.56 3 3.63 1.25 .07 Education Compulsory (k 12): Location of School(s) 3.39 2 3.58 1 .19 Labor Market Statistical Information: Economic Research Institute (ERI) Labor Market Statistics 3.85 4 3.58 3.5 .27 Avocational Activities: Casual Participation in Clubs, Associations and Organizations 3.59 3 3.55 2 .04 Socioeconomic: Employment Status of Extended Family Members 3.71 3 3.55 3 .16 Professional Resources: The Dollar Value of a Day Annual Report 3.59 3 3.53 3.25 .06 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Place of Birth 3.49 3.5 3.53 3.25 .04

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110 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Cultural: Cultural Form of Dress of Evaluee 3.51 2 3.50 1.25 .01 Socioeconomic: Disability Status of Parents 3.54 1.5 3.50 1.25 .04 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Non Criminal Legal Involvement (ie. civil and administrative matters) 3.59 2 3.50 2 .09 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Employer Structure (private vs. public) 3.49 3 3.47 2.25 .02 Cultural: Cultural Holiday Observances of Evaluee 3.39 2 3.39 2 .00 Avocational Activities: Awards and Recognition for Participation in Avocational Activities 3.46 2 3.37 2 .09 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Nationality 3.41 2.5 3.37 2 .04 Socioeconomic: Home of Residence (own or rent) 3.46 2.5 3.32 2 .14 Cultural: Cultural Dietary Requirements of Evaluee 3.27 2 3.24 2 .03 Job Acquisition and Maintenance: Available Government Tax Incentives for Hiring Workers 3.56 3 3.24 2 .32 Socioeconomic: Disability Status of Siblings 3.29 2 3.21 2 .08 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Location of Training Facility 3.10 2 3.18 2 .08 Education Higher Education (college): Name of School(s) 3.15 2 3.13 2 .02 Socioeconomic: Home of Residence Type (ie. apartment, home, mobile home) 3.34 2 3.13 2 -.21 Education Vocational and Apprenticeship: Vocational Instruction Name of Training Facility 3.02 2 3.08 2 .06 Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer: Rate of Injury within the Employers Industry 3.07 2 2.97 2 .10 Socioeconomic: Age of Spouse (if married) 3.02 3 2.92 3 .10 Education Compulsory (k 12): Public or Private School 2.90 2 2.87 2 .03 Rehabilitation Planning and Services: Consultation with Friends Regarding Evaluee Rehabilitation Status and Needs 2.98 2 2.84 2 .14 Education Higher Education (college): Location of School(s) 2.80 2 2.79 2 .01

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111 Table 4 11. Continued Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Descriptive Item Mean ( 1 ) Convergence IQR Mean ( 2 ) Convergence IQR Stability ( 2 ) ( 1 ) Education Compulsory (k 12): Name of School(s) 2.76 2 2.68 2 .08 Socioeconomic: Evaluee Birth Order 2.32 2 2.24 2 .08 Education Compulsory (k 12): Size of School District 2.17 2 2.08 2 .09

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112 D omains of Accepted Variables From round one qualitative data analysis, 469 individual variables, categorized into 29 domains were extrapolated. The importance of each item was rated in round two and rerated in round three. Following round three data analysis, 23 2 individual variables met the acce ptance criteria for importance, convergence and stability. The 232 variables meeting the acceptance criteria were distributed across all 29 domains. A high level of variability was noted in the degree of support for many of the domains of variables. The domain with the highest percentage of variables meeting the criteria for importance and convergence was Medical -Functional Capacity (94%), while less than 1% of the variables in the cultural domain were accepted (Table 4-12). Table 4 12. Percentage of variables accepted for each domain Variable Domain Variables in Domain Round 2 Met Criteria Round 3 Accepted Acceptance Percentage Medical Functional Capacity 18 16 17 94% Labor Market Sampling Information 11 10 10 91% Medical History and Treatment 33 22 29 88% Household Activities 5 4 4 80% Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Job 10 9 8 80% Education General Variables 11 8 8 73% Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employee 15 11 11 73% Work Life Participation 11 6 8 73% Behavioral Health 37 24 26 70% Rehabilitation Planning & Services 19 11 12 63% Job Acquisition and Maintenance 25 14 14 56% Activities of Daily Living 10 3 5 50% Economic 4 2 2 50% Language Skills 6 3 3 50% Military Service Experience 4 0 2 50% Transportation 14 2 7 50% Transferable Skills 43 17 20 47% Professional Resources 7 3 3 43% Education Higher Education (college) 17 6 6 35% Past Work Experience Variables Specific to the Employer 12 4 4 33% Psychometric Measurement 34 10 11 32%

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113 Table 4 12. Continued Variable Domain Variables in Domain Round 2 Met Criteria Round 3 Accepted Acceptance Percentage Education Vocational and Apprenticeship 14 4 4 29% Labor Market Statistical Information 11 4 3 27% Financial 10 2 2 20% Socioeconomic 39 5 6 15% Legal Jurisdiction 7 1 1 14% Avocational Activities 8 0 1 13% Education Compulsory (k 12) 18 4 4 2% Cultural 16 0 1 .06% N=29 N=469 n=232 Socioeconomic Domain The socioeconomic domain of variables had the second highest number of variables (39) identified by panelists in round one. Despite this, only six variables (15%) met the acceptance criteria for the study (Table 4 -13). Table 4 13. Socioeconomic variabl es accepted Variable Mean IQR Evaluee Date of Birth 6.50 1 Evaluee Criminal History 6.13 1 Evaluee Immigration Status 5.82 2 Transportation Support Provided by Family 5.18 2 Attendant and Personal Care Support Provided by Family 5.16 1.25 Financial Support Provided by Family 5.03 2 It is well acknowledged in the literature that a relationship exists between a criminal record and access to employment opportunities in the greater labor market (Crutchfield & Pitchford,1997; Knollenberg & Martin, 2008; Lalonde & Cho, 2008; Pager, 2003; Tschopp, Perkins, Hart-Katuin, Born, & Holt, 2007; Wadsworth, 2002). Criminal history is also well supported in the literature as a primary consideration in employment hiring and earnings. Studies have cons istently shown that involvement with the criminal justice system is generally associated with increased levels of job instability and lower earnings (Bushway, 2004; Bushway, 1998; Freeman, 1991; Grogger, 1995; Lott, 1992; Nagin & Waldfogel, 1995;

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114 Waldfogel, 1994) and that each subsequent contact further erodes the employment and earning base for offenders (Waldfogel, 1994). Further, Kirchner, Kennedy & Draguns (1979) opined on the importance of employment to decreasing recidivism rates for persons previously incarcerated. Immigration status impacts one s employability and the ability to earn wages legally. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (PL 99-603) made it unlawful for an employer to knowingly employ a person who is not legally authorized to be in the United States. However, legalization of a workers immigration status has been shown to have a significant positive impact on future earnings (Rivera-Batiz, 1999). Transportation, attendant and financial support provided by family members were each found to be core variables. Each of these variables may serve to inhibit or facilitate a persons ability or willingness to engage in gainful work activity. Krause, Frank, Dasinger, Sullivan & Sinclair (2001) reported prolonged disability was strongly correlated with several family related socio -demographic factors, such as having dependents and having other working family members. Transportation support is a finding that did not have good literature support. However, there is good support for this variable from a practical perspective. Many persons with impairments take medication(s) that have a direct impact on his / her ability to operate a motor vehicle. This is particularly evident with chronic pain patients taking opiate based medications that influence his or her ability to safely operate a motor vehicle. Without access to transportation, the person may be precluded from work activity. Cultural Domain The cultural domain of vari ables had the lowest percentage of variables (.06%) that met the final acceptance criteria of all the domains. Fourteen unique variables were identified from round one, but only one variable met the final acceptance criteria ( T able 4-14).

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115 Table 4 14 Cultural variables accepted Variable Mean IQR Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Medical Treatment Recommendations 5.03 2 Education Domains Education is widely accepted as a primary consideration in evaluating wage earning capacity over ones work life (Dillman, 1988; Foster & Skoog, 2004; Hunt, Pickersgill, & Rutemiller, 1997; Kiker & Heath, 1987; Manton, Lowrimore, Ullian, Gu, & Tolley, 2007; Mitchell, Adkins & Kemp, 2006; Shahnasarian & Leitten, 2008; Smolarski, 1997; Stokes & Maestri, 2001).In round one data analysis, education related variables were sub -divided into four distinct domains identified by panelists Variables were categorized by the type of education being described, which is consistent with data collection schemas in other studies (Wilson, 2000; Wilson, Alston, Harley & Mitchell, 2002) The lowest percentage of education variables were accepted in the Compulsory (k-12) domain (2%) (Table 4-15); followed by the vocational and apprenticeship domain (29%) (Table 4-16) and lastly, the higher education (college) domain (35%) (Table 4-17). Table 4 15. Education compulsory (k 12) variables accepted Variable Mean IQR Highest Grade Completed 6.58 1 Does Evaluee Have a High School Diploma or General Equivalency Diploma (GED) 6.42 1 Course of Study (ie. academic or workforce education) 5.82 2 Grade Point Average 5.11 2 Table 4 16. Education vocational and apprenticeship variables accepted Variable Mean IQR Apprenticeship Training Completed by Evaluee 6.68 1 Vocational Instruction Amount Completed 6.21 1 Vocational Instruction Course of Study 6.47 1 Vocational Instruction Obsolescence of Training 6.03 2 Examination of variables at the domain level found good support across domains for the highest level of education completed and for the course of study at each level of education. This

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116 finding is not surprising given the importance that education plays in obtaining work and in advancing over ones work life (Gibbons & Waldman, 2006; Spilerman & Lunde, 1991). Table 4 17. Education higher education (college) v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Degree(s) Completed 6.61 1 Highest Year Completed 6.53 1 Course(s) of Study 6.11 2 Grade Point Average 5.42 2 Obsolescence of College Education 5.37 1.5 Reason for Leaving School (only if did not complete college) 5.16 2 The highest percentage of education related variables were accepted in the general education domain (73%) (Table 4-18). This domain included education received in various settings such as employer sponsored training; professional continuing education training; computer hardware and software training ; and s pecial education services or educational accommodations received. These variables likely represent issues that have come up in the course of the experts practice that had either a significant positive or negative effect on the evaluation or course of the case. Table 4 18. Education g eneral v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Participation in Exceptional or Special Education Services 6.18 1.25 Computer Software Training the Evaluee has Attended 6.03 2 Need for Academic or Training Accommodations 5.79 2 Records of Academic Testing Completed in School 5.74 2 Computer Hardware Training the Evaluee has Attended 5.61 1 Review of School Records to Corroborate Evaluees Reported Education History 5.58 2 Professional Continuing Education Attended by Evaluee 5.45 1 Employer Sponsored In Service Training the Evaluee has Received 5.16 1 Generally, the higher the level of education a client has achieved, the greater the consultants ability to accurately predict his / her current educational ability becomes. This is consistent with findings of this study in that the greatest number of var iables considered core variables were in the higher education domain-or the highest level of education achieved. Rubin

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117 & Roessler (2008) described the importance of understanding the relationship between a client s achieved educational level and the vocational rehabilitation and planning process. Past Work Domains Evaluating a persons past work history is a central function in vocational rehabilitation evaluation and planning (Power, 2006). It is through an evaluation of a persons work history that a consultant is able to demonstrate the occupational skill level of past work, determine acquired skills and project how a persons knowledge, skills and abilities may be applied to work in alternative settings (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1565; Field, 2007; Weed & Field, 2001). Past work variables were sub -divided into three different domains that were unique to the job (Table 4-19); the employee (Table 4-20); and the employer (Table 4-21). The highest percentage of past work variables were accepted in the job specific domain (80%). The high level of acceptance of job specific past work variables is not surprising given the importance of transferable skills analysis to the vocational rehabilitation process. Assessment of transferable skills involves analyzing a persons past relevant work experience to identify skills he / she has acquired that rem ain relevant and applicable to other positions within the labor market (Field, 2007; Weed & Field, 2001). Table 4 19. Past w ork e xperience v ariables s pecific to the j ob a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Physical Demands of Job 6.61 1 Job Duties 6.58 1 Mental Demands of Job 6.32 1 Aptitudes Required for Job 6.08 1.25 Job Title per Employer 6.00 2 Interpersonal Demands Required for Job 5.89 2 Job Title per Dictionary of Occupational Titles 5.61 2 Driving Required for Job 5.13 2

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118 Employee specific past work variables address aspects of a persons work history that are defined in large part, by the individual worker. This domain of variables addresses features of past work such as start and end dates; wages; advancement; job related performance and employee satisfaction with the job. This domain of variables provides insight into the level of vocational fit an evaluee has experienced over the course of his / her work history. Table 4 20. Past w ork e xperience v ariables s peci fic to the e mployee a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Ending Wage 6.42 1 Skills Learned on the Job 6.18 1 Employment End Date 6.11 2 Employment Start Date 6.08 2 Reason for Leaving Job 6.05 2 Experience Required of Evaluee to Obtain Job 5.89 2 Job Progression with Employer 5.82 2 Job Promotion with Employer 5.76 2 Evaluee Performance Reviews by Employer 5.58 1 Evaluee Satisfaction with Job 5.24 2 Job Promotion Potential with Employer 5.18 2 The lowest number of past work experience variables meeting acceptance criteria were related specifically to the employer (33%). These variables address the pay structure utilized by the employer, available benefits, employer industry and the willingness of the employer to offer reasonable accommodations to the worker, thus allowing them to perform the essential functions of the job. Table 4 21. Past w ork e xperience v ariables s pecific to the e mployer a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Employer Pay Structure (ie. Salary, commission, bonus) 6.05 1.25 Accommodations Provided by Employer 5.79 2 Industry of Employer 5.61 1.25 Benefits Provided by the Employer 5.58 2 Weed & Field (2001) report an assessment of necessary employment supports and accommodations is a key component to rehabilitation planning. Many people with occupational disabilities require job accommodations or work supports to allow them to perform their jobs.

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119 Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (Americans with Disabilities Act, 2008) mandates that employers provide reasonable accommodations to job applicants with disabilities who are otherwise qualified to perform the essential functions of a specific job, unless doing so would cause an undue hardship to the employer. In general, an accommodation is any change in the work environment or in the way things are customarily done that enables an individual with a disability to enjoy equal employment opportunities (Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR pt. 1630 app section 1630.2(o)) Job Acquisition and Maintenance Domain The job acquisition and maintenance domain contains variables related to a job candidates competitiveness for obtaining and maintaining work. Only 56% of the variables in this domain met the acceptance criteria for this study (Table 4-22). The variable rated highest in importance in this domain evaluee ability to sustain or maintain employment, was the fourth highest rated variable overall. Table 4 22. Job a cquisition and m aintenance v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Evaluee Ability to Sustain or Maintain Employment 6.74 0 Duration of Time Since Last Employed 6.37 1 Consistency of Past Employment 6.34 1 Employer Willingness to Provide Reasonable Accommodations 6.32 1 Evaluee Ability to Conduct Job Search Activities 6.16 1 Evaluee Demonstrated Job Search Activities 5.89 2 Alignment of Educational Achievement with Actual Work History 5.74 1 Employer Expectations of Job Applicant 5.74 2 Evaluee Personal Grooming and Hygiene 5.66 2 Employer Willingness to Provide On the Job Training 5.58 2 Evaluee Knowledge of Job Search Strategies 5.55 1.25 Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Work Interests 5.16 2 Alignment of Interests with Actual Work History 5.16 2 Evaluee Phase of Career Development 5.03 2

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120 Military Service Experience Domain Four military related variables were derived from round one data analysis, but only two met final acceptance criteria (Table 4-23). Branch of military service was rejected both on measure of importance and degree of dispersion of expert ratings. Military related training and type of military discharge met acceptance criteria. Table 4 23. Military s ervice e xperience v ariables a c cepted Variable Mean IQR Military Training 5.63 2 Type of Discharge 5.61 2 Language Skills Domain The language domain of variables described language related skills the evaluee would present to the labor market in consideration for work opportunity. Only 50% of the variables in this domain met final acceptance criteria (Table 4-24). Surprisingly, the three variables rejected in this domain addressed secondary language skills. Expressive and receptive skills in a secondary language and primary language spoken in the home were all rejected as each failed to meet the acceptance criteria. A common assumption is that a bilingual worker would have greater value to the labor market. However, studies on the relationship between bilingualism and increased wages have achieved mixed results (Carliner, 1981; Carnevale, Fry & Lowell, 2001; Fry & Lowell, 2003; McManus, W., 1990). Table 4 24. Language s kill v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Expressive English Language Skills 6.00 1.25 Primary Language Spoken 6.00 2 Receptive English Language Skills 6.00 2

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121 Medical History and Treatment Domain The medical history and treatment domain of variables is derived specifically from the evaluees past, current and future medical care and treatment. Panelists clearly placed great weight on medical history and treatment variables as 88% of the variables in this domain met acceptance criteria (Table 4-25). This percentage of accepted variables was third only to medical functional capacity opinions and labor market sampling information. Data from these Table 4 25. Medical h istory and t reatment v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Date of Injury 6.47 1 Provider Prognosis for Improvement in Medical Condition 6.32 1 Current Treatment Plan 6.26 1 Provider Prognosis for Degeneration or Decline in Medical Condition 6.24 2 Current Treatment Diagnosis 6.21 1 Prognosis for Pre Existing Medical Diagnosis(es) 6.21 1 Pre Existing Medical Diagnosis(es) 6.13 1.25 Current Treatment Symptoms 6.08 2 Duration of Treatment for Current Treatment Plan (ie. short term or life expectancy) 6.03 2 Orthotics and Prosthetics Included in the Treatment Plan 6.03 2 Frequency of Current Symptoms 6.00 2 Evaluee Compliance with Treatment Plan 5.97 1 Past Medical Treatment History 5.95 2 Pre Injury Symptoms (only if plaintiff had symptoms prior to injury) 5.89 2 Projected Future Aggressive Treatment (ie. surgical) 5.89 2 Frequency of Treatment for Current Treatment Plan (ie. monthly, quarterly or annually) 5.87 2 Potential Future Complications 5.87 2 Current Medication Side Effects 5.84 2 Surgeries Completed in the Course of Medical Treatment 5.82 2 Date of Current Treatment Diagnosis 5.79 2 Current Medication Name(s) 5.74 2 Specialty of Medical Provider(s) Involved in Treatment Plan(s) 5.74 2 Previous Injury(ies) or Accident(s) Evaluee Involved in 5.58 2 Dates of Surgeries Completed 5.55 2 Evaluee Understanding of Treatment Plan 5.47 1.25 Pre Existing Medication(s) 5.08 2 Pre Injury Diagnostic Testing 5.03 2 Projected Future Diagnostic Testing 5.03 2 Projected Future Routine Treatment 5.03 2

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122 variables may be derived from a number of sources to include medical records review, clinical interview and direct solicitation of medical input from medical providers. This domain of variables has very good support in the literature. Apart from any primary impairment a n evaluee may have, consideration should also be given to the impact of any secondary medical conditions that impact upon the persons ability to fully participate in the world of work (Roessler & Rubin, 2006; Rubin & Roessler, 2008; Walker & Heffner, 2009). In evaluating the impact of disability upon work, the Social Security administration has adopted the following policy position: When assessing the severity of multiple impairments, the adjudicator must evaluate the combined impact of those impairments on an individual's ability to function, rather than assess separately the contribution of each impairment to the restriction of function as if each impairment existed alone. When multiple impairments, considered in combination, would have more than a minimal effect on the ability to perform basic work activities, adjudication must continue through the sequential evaluation process (U.S. Social Security Administration, 1986). Shahnasarian (2004) opined that an assessment of earning capacity that does not consider permanent handicaps secondary to a disability or acquired handicaps, should be considered incomplete. Medical -Functional Capacity According to Rubin & Roessler (2008), an evaluees residual functional capacity is the keystone upon which vocational capacity assessment is evaluated. Residual functional capacity opinions are derived from medical experts following assessment of the evaluees body systems and function(Brodwin & Brodwin, 2009; Rubin & Roessler, 2008; World Health Organization, 2001). According to Shahnasarian (2004), vocational losses flow from making a comparison of demonstrated earnings prior to onset of impairment to expected earnings for occupations within the persons residual functional capacity following onset.

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123 The medical functional capacity domain was clearly given great weight by the expert panelists as 94% of the variables identified in this domain met acceptance criteria. This was the highest percentage of variables accepted in any single domain of variables. Table 4-26 shows Medical Functional Capacity variables that were accepted. Sixteen of the 17 variables accepted were in the top 50% of variables overall, while six of the top 10 variables overall were from this domain. The top two highest rated variables overall were from this domain and included current medical opinions of physical functional capacity and current medical opinions of cognitive functional capacity. The majority of the variables in this domain (88%) fell between 6.16 and 6.87 for importance. The IQR dispersion measure was less than or equal to one for 88% of the variables. Table 4 26. Medical f unctional c apacity v ariables a c cepted Variable Mean IQR Current Medical Opinions of Physical Functional Capacity 6.87 0 Current Medical Opinions of Cognitive Functional Capacity 6.82 0 Medical Opinion(s) of Tolerance for Full or Part Time Work 6.74 0 Medical Opinion(s) of Tolerance to Perform any Level of Work 6.74 0 Date(s) of Cognitive Functional Capacity Opinions 6.63 1 Projected Medical Opinions of Physical Functional Capacity (future) 6.63 .25 Date(s) of Physical Functional Capacity Opinions 6.61 1 Pre Injury Medical Opinions of Physical Functional Capacity 6.53 1 Projected Medical Opinions of Cognitive Functional Capacity (future) 6.53 1 Medical Opinion(s) of Limitations in Sensory System(s) 6.42 1 Medical Opinions of Pain Related Limitations 6.42 1 Pre Injury Medical Opinions of Cognitive Functional Capacity 6.42 1 Source(s) of Cognitive Functional Capacity Opinions 6.37 1 Source(s) of Physical Functional Capacity Opinions 6.26 1 Medical Opinion(s) of Expected Work Absences 6.16 1 Medical Opinions of Reduced Life Expectancy due to Impairment 5.95 2 Evaluee Opinion(s) of Residual Functional Capacity 5.79 2 Behavioral Health Domain The behavioral health domain of variables addresses a number of areas related to behavioral and mental health function, treatment and prognosis. Of the behavioral health

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124 variables identified in round one, 70% met the acceptance criteria (Table 4-27). The majority of the variables in this domain (96%) fell between 5.00 and 5.92 for importance. The IQR dispersion measure was less than or equal to 1.25 for 69% of the variables. Table 4 27. Behavioral h ealth v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Evaluee Motivation to Work 6.03 1.25 Effectiveness of Psychotropic Medication Regimen 5.92 2 Evaluee Mental Alertness 5.84 .25 Evaluee Mental Concentration 5.84 1 Evaluee Memory Function 5.82 1.25 Evaluee Motivation to Participate in Rehabilitation Services 5.74 2 Evaluee Ability to Interact with Others 5.71 1.25 Effectiveness of Current Behavioral Health Treatment Plan 5.68 1.25 Evaluee Executive Functioning 5.63 1 Evaluee Ability to Cooperatively Work with Others 5.61 1 Evaluee Coping Skills 5.55 1 Behavioral Health Treatment Prognosis 5.50 1 Evaluee Abuse or Dependence on Alcohol Products 5.50 1.25 Current Behavioral Health Diagnosis 5.47 1 Current Behavioral Health Symptoms 5.42 1.25 Current Behavioral Health Treatment Plan 5.42 1 Evaluee Ability to Accept Supervision 5.42 1 Evaluee Ability to Work Independently 5.34 2 Evaluee Motivation to Learn 5.34 1 Evaluee Malingering 5.32 1.25 Pre Existing Behavioral Health Diagnosis 5.21 2 Evaluee Expectations for the Future 5.18 2 Evaluee Feelings of Catastrophe or Hopelessness 5.08 1.25 Evaluee Tolerance to General Stress 5.05 2 Evaluee Ability to Adapt to Unexpected Events or Situations 5.03 2 Evaluee Use of Recreational Drugs 5.00 2 The variable rating the most important in this domain was evaluee motivation to work. Isaacson (1977) considered the issue of career motivation as being tied closely to an individuals value system or personality. In a review of the literature on motivation, Maclean & Pound (2000) were highly critical of the view that patient motivation was tied to personality. Maclean & Pound (2000) argued this position assumed a moralistic stance that blames the patient for their status. Shahnasarian (2004) reported that arguably career motivation is the most important

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125 element in future earning capacity assessment. Shahnasarian (2004) opined the crit ical question at this juncture, apart from the physical limitations or impairments, is whether the evaluee is motivated to convert l atent or residual vocational abilities into career potential. Siegert & Taylor (2004) reported that while worker motivation is viewed as an important concept in the vocational rehabilitation literature, it is difficult to objectively measure and is often relegated to a value judgment by the evaluator. Wasiak, Young, Roessler, McPherson, Van Poppel, & Anema, (2007) opined motivation for work may be viewed as both a predictor of future work as well as a measurable outcome of work. A persons motivation toward work may be moderated by his or her need for income. Individuals receiving workers compensation benefits have longer periods of disability and lost time because of a lower level of financial need (Burton, 2004). The relationship between compensation benefits and motivation to return to work is sufficiently strong that Wasiak et al. (2007) pro posed using compensation status as a proxy measure of a workers motivation to return to work. Siegert & Taylor (2004) proposed evaluating both internal and external motivators and goals in any assessment of motivation. Household Activities Domain The household activities domain contains variables that are specific to supporting a household. Of these variables, 80% met the acceptance criteria of this study (Table 4-28 ). Table 4 28. Household a ctivity v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Household Activities Performed by Evaluee Post Injury 5.45 1.25 Household Activities Performed by Evaluee Pre Injury 5.34 2 Physical Demands of Evaluees Household Activities 5.29 1 Household Activities Evaluee Requires Assistance With 5.08 2

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126 Activities of Daily Living Domain The activity of daily living domain contains variables that address self care issues and assistance required or received either through personal care services or assistive devices and equipment. Only 50% of the variables in the activities of daily living domain met the final acceptance criteria (Table 4-29). Table 4 29. Activities of d aily l iving v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Assistive Devices or Equipment (current) 5.89 2 Activities of Daily Living Unable to Perform 5.82 2 Personal Care Attendant Needs 5.82 2 Assistive Devices or Equipment (recommended) 5.45 1.25 Activities of Daily Living Physical Demands 5.11 2 Avocational Activity Domain The a vocational activity domain addresses variables related to hobbies and recreational pursuits. This domain had the third lowest level of support for acceptance of variables. Only one of the eight original variables in this domain (13%) met the final acceptance criteria (Table 4-30). Table 4 30. Avocational a ctivity v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Avocational Training Completed by Evaluee 5.32 1.5 Transportation Domain The transportation domain addresses variables related to the evaluees access to personal or public mobility and transportation resources. Only 50% of the original set of transportation related variables met f inal acceptance criteria (Table 4 -31). Turner, Sheldon, & Kristin (2006) described the relationship between being chronically disconnected and the impact upon work. The absence of a car or drivers license was a strong predictor that welfare recipients were less likely to work, less likely to live with another wage

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127 Table 4 31. Transportation v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Possession of a Drivers License 5.97 2 Cognitive Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle 5.89 2 Class of Drivers License (ie. commercial) 5.82 2 Physical Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle 5.76 2 Method or Means of Previous Transportation to Work and Appointments 5.32 2 Availability of Public Transportation 5.11 2 Endorsements on Drivers License 5.08 2 earner and more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status (Turner et al., 2006). In a study by Bishop (2004), support was provided for the importance of a drivers license in employment outcomes for people with epilepsy. An interaction between not a having drivers license or access to a car and the rate of criminal recidivism and subsequent absence from the labor market was reported by Alemagno and Dickie ( 2005). Financial Domain The financial domain of variables addressed issues related to current financial resources of the evaluee. Only two of the 10 variables (20%) identified in round one ultimately met the final acceptance criteria (Table 4-32). Table 4 32. Financia l v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Does Evaluee Receive Income from Performing Paid Work 6.32 1 Does Evaluee Receive Disability Related Income 5.55 2 Current income from paid work speaks directly to the issue of retained earning capacity so it is not surprising this variable met the final acceptance criteria. The receipt of disability related replacement income has been shown in numerous studies to contribute to prolonged work absences following a work related injury (Butler, Johnson, Baldwin, 1995; Meyer, Viscusi & Durbin, 1995; Krause et al. 2001).

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128 Economic Domain The economic domain of variables is key to describing a persons past earnings and proj ected future earning capacity. Only four variables were identified in round one and of these, only two (50%), met final acceptance (Table 4-33). Analysis of historical annual earnings is essential to describing the pre -injury earning potential and establishing a base wage. Field (2008), described the base wage as the starting point used by the forensic economist in estimating lifetime vocational loss or damages resulting from injury. Table 4 33. Economic v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Historical Annual Earnings of the Evaluee 6.55 1 Age of the Evaluee as of the Date of Loss 6.18 1 Psychometric Instrumentation The psychometric instrumentation domain describes abilities, aptitudes, or traits that can be objectively measured. Psychometric instrumentation draws from multiple fields and facilitates the objective measurement of a persons functioning across multiple domains. Measurement of individual function allows the forensic rehabilitation consultant to determine plausible vocational goals and alternatives appropriate for an evaluee (Roessler, Baker, & Williams, 2006). A total of 34 individual variables were identified in the psychometric measurement domain. However, only 11 (32%) of the variables met the final acceptance criteria (Table 4-34 ). Typical psychometric measurement in vocational rehabilitatio n settings include standardized measurement of intelligence, educational achievement, aptitude, vocational interest, personality and temperament (Weed & Field, 2001) Cognitive ability or intelligence measurement was rated the most important variable within the domain. Acceptance was also reached on reading comprehension, reading recognition, and math achievement variables. On

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129 interest assessment panelists differe ntiated between vocational interests acted upon through their work history and expressed vocational interests. Table 4 34. Psychometric m easurement v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Cognitive Ability Assessment 6.21 1 Reading Comprehension Achievement 6.05 2 Verbal Aptitude 5.92 2 Numerical Aptitude 5.89 2 Math Achievement 5.87 2 Reading Recognition Achievement 5.76 2 Alignment of Psychometric Test Results with Vocational Skills Demonstrated 5.74 2 Alignment of Psychometric Test Results with Academic Achievement 5.63 2 Vocational Interest(s) Assessment (acted upon through work history) 5.61 2 Vocational Interest(s) Assessment (expressed) 5.39 2 Evaluee Self Report of Computer Skills 5.21 2 Transferable Skills Assessment of transferable skills is generally considered an effective tool for determining skills a worker has acquired in their past relevant work that remain applicable to other positions within the labor market ( Field, 2007; Weed & Field, 2001) The Social Security Administration acknowledges the importance of considering latent skills in the evaluation of disability within the context of the labor market (Code of Federal Regulations, 20 CFR 404.1565). A total of 43 individual variables were identified in the transferable skills domain. This was the highest number of individual variables described for any of the 29 domains of variables. However, only 20 (47%) of the variables met the final acceptance criteria for the study (Table 435). The large number of variables initially identified in this domain reflect the breadth of worker traits considered when matching an evaluees unique vocational profile to suitable alternative jobs. However, given the significant reduction in the number of variables considered core by panel experts, certain variable were clearly given greater weight than were others.

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130 Experts assigned the highest importance ratings in the transferable skills domain to any current licenses and certifications held by the evaluee. Higher importance ratings were also given to strength requirements for alternative work and to worker traits closely related to psychometric Table 4 35. Transferable s kill v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Current Licenses and Certifications 6.47 1 Strength Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 6.37 1 Dictionary of Occupational Titles Strength Demand(s) for Past Work 5.84 2 Numerical Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.84 2 Reasoning Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.84 2 Requirements to Bring Expired Licenses and Certifications Current 5.79 2 Verbal Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.76 2 Fingering Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.74 2 Handling Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.74 2 Evaluee Clerical Skills 5.71 2 Evaluee Computer Software Skills 5.71 2 Expired Licenses and Certifications 5.71 2 Motor Coordination Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.71 2 Reaching Demands for Proposed Alternative Work 5.68 2 Continuing Education Requirements for Current Licenses and Certifications 5.55 2 Evaluee Ability to Count Money and Make Change 5.55 2 Evaluee Typing Skills 5.29 1.25 Evaluee Sales Skills 5.26 2 Evaluee Computer Hardware Skills 5.08 2 Form Perception Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work 5.05 2 measurement such as numerical aptitude; reasoning aptitude and verbal aptitude. High importance was also given to skills related to the manipulative demands of alternative work. The U.S. Social Security Administration provides guidance on the effect of manipulative limitations on the unskilled sedentary base of jobs (1996c). Most unskilled sedentary jobs require good use of the hands and fingers for repetitive handfinger maneuvers (U.S. Social Security Administration, 1996c). The position of the Social Security Administration (1996c) is that any significant limitation in a persons ability to handle and / or work with small objects with both hands will result in a significant erosion of the underlying occupational base of jobs.

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131 Lastly, experts also placed high importance on more practical skills that, depending upon their presence or absence, are likely to either enhance or inhibit a persons placeability in the competitive labor market. High importance was given to an evaluees computer software and computer hardware skills. The presence of clerical skills and / or typing skills was also rated as having high importance. Labor Market Statistical Information Domain The labor market statistical information domain contains variables that describe feature s of the workforce and economy. Only three of the original 11 variables from round one (27%) met the final acceptance criteria for the study (Table 4-36). Table 4 36. Labor m arket s tatistical i nformation v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR US Department of Labor Statistics 6.37 1 Definition of Relevant Labor Market 6.11 1 US Census Bureau Labor Market Statistics 5.92 2 Public labor market statistics provide insight into the state of the workforce and economy at a given point in time. In an investigation of rehabilitation counselor utilization of labor market information, Neulicht, Gann, Berg, & Taylor, (2007) proposed using multiple sources of data that should include both Bureau of Labor Statistics data sources as well as local labor market sampling. BarrosBailey & Neulicht (2005) reported utilization of multiple data sources served to enhance opinion validity with respect to the application of labor market information. The most commonly utilized employment related statistics are collected by the United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics and i nclude Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) (U.S. Department of Labor, Retrieved April 7, 2011) ; Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) (U.S. Department of Labor, Retrie ved April 7, 2011) ; Current Employment Statistics (CES) (U.S. Department of Labor, Retrieved April 7, 2011); Job

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132 Openings a nd Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) (U.S. Department of Labor, Retrieved April 7, 2011) and the American Community Survey (U.S. Bureau of the Census, Retrieved April 7, 2011) These surveys yield a great deal of information allied with earning capacity assessment. Data regarding specific job types by pay rate and metropolitan statistical area can be obtained from t he 10th to the 90th percentiles Current and historical unemployment rates and labor trends are available nationally, by state and metropolitan statistical area. Government statistical data is derived from methodologically sound survey designs based on large samples of respondent input with known sampling error rates. Labor Market Sampling Domain The labor market sampling doma in of variables describes data elements considered core to local labor market sampling activities. Only 11 variables were identified from round one data analysis and of these, 10 (91%) met the final acceptance criteria (Table 437 ). This rate of acceptance was the second highest rate of acceptance of all 29 domains of variables. Of the 10 variables accepted in this domain, 70% had an importance rating of greater than six and an IQR of less than or equal to one. This suggests that not only were these variables viewed as important, but there was a very high level of agreement between panelists as to the importance of the variables. Table 4 37. Labor m arket s ampling v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Physical Demands of Suitable Jobs 6.79 0 Licenses and Certifications Required for Suitable Jobs 6.66 1 Educational Requirements for Suitable Jobs 6.61 1 Job Duties for Suitable Jobs 6.61 1 Required Skills for Suitable Jobs 6.58 1 Wages for Suitable Jobs 6.55 1 Anticipated Hiring for Suitable Jobs 6.05 1 Job Title for Suitable Jobs 5.87 2 Job Turnover for Suitable Jobs 5.34 1.5 Commute Distance from Evaluee's Residence to Suitable Job 5.13 2

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133 Work Life Participation Variables in the work life participation domain address issues that influence the duration of time a worker will remain in the labor market. Eight of the original 11variables (73%) from round one data analysis met the final acceptance criteria for the study (Table 4-38). Table 4 38. Work l ife p articipation v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Evaluee Consistency of Past Work as a Reflection of Future Work Participation 6.16 1 Evaluee Option to Engage in Part Time or Full Time Work 5.95 2 Reason for Periods of Unemployment between Jobs (over evaluees past work history) 5.87 2 Medical and Behavioral Health Treatment Plan Impact on Work Schedule 5.82 2 Average Duration of Unemployment Between Jobs (over evaluees past work history) 5.79 2 Evaluee Proximity to Retirement Eligibility 5.32 2 Evaluee Post Incident Retirement Plans 5.11 2 Evaluee Pre Incident Retirement Plans 5.08 2 Rehabilitation Planning and Services Domain Variables in the rehabilitation planning and services domain address issues that serve to facilitate or influence the provision of rehabilitation services. Twelve of the 19 variables (63%) identified from round one data analysis met the final acceptance c riteria (Table 4-39). The variable with the highest importance rating in this domain was the rehabilitation interview which also had an IQR dispersion measure of zero indicating very high agreement. The rehabilitation interview is generally viewed as the key tool in gathering evaluee related information that ultimately helps to form the foundation of expert opinions. Power (2006), stated the interview is the beginning medium through which this evaluation is conducted (p. 303). The vocational reha bilitation training plan was the third highest rated variable in this domain. Weed & Field (2001) indicated the rehabilitation plan considers an evaluees vocational

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134 and functional limitations, strengths, emotional functioning, and cognitive capabilities. This description of the scope of considerations for the rehabilitation plan is consistent with other variables accepted such as both preexisting and current medical and behavioral health treatment and consultation records. Weed & Field (2001) described the goal of the rehabilitation plan is to detail a plan for establishing or increasing employment potential through training and / or accommodation, and potential development of a life care plan detailing future life care needs Table 4 39. Rehabilitation p lanning and s ervice v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Rehabilitation Interview 6.55 0 Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (current) 6.42 1 Rehabilitation Training Plan 6.37 1 Success or Failure in Previous Rehabilitation Services 6.24 1 Rehabilitation Services Provided to Evaluee 6.21 1 Rehabilitation Training Plan Anticipated Dates of Service 6.03 2 Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (pre existing) 6.00 2 Rehabilitation Services Evaluee has Independently Pursued 5.84 2 Foundation of Opinion(s) of Opposing Vocational Expert 5.74 2 Functional Job Analysis 5.63 2 Access to Training Providers and Opportunities 5.58 2 Rehabilitation Training Plan Accommodation(s) and Support(s) 5.55 1.25 Professional Resources Domain In describing variables core to the assessment of vocational earning capacity, panelists described several professional and employment related resources. However, only three of the seven variables (43%) met the final acceptance criteria for the study (Table 4-40). Employer job descriptions were rated highest in this domain. This is consistent with the high level of importance ratings given to variables in the labor market sampling information domain. Both employer job descriptions and consultant initiated labor market sampling provide knowledge of local labor market status which is crucial to addressing the issues of labor market access and placeability.

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135 High importance ratings were also given to the need for evidence based research literature to support wage earning capacity opinions. This is not surprising given the standard to which expert opinions are subject to legal scrutiny. Opinions expressed by vocational consultants are presented as evidence and as such, are subject to legal scrutiny under the Federal Rules of Evidence, rule 702 which reads: If scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education, may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise, if (1) the testimony is based upon sufficient facts or data, ( 2) the testimony is the product of reliable principles and methods, and (3) the witness has applied the principles and methods reliably to the facts of the case (U.S. House of Representatives, 2009). Table 4 40. Professional r esource v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Employer Job Descriptions 6.16 1 Evidence Based Research Literature to Support Opinions 6.00 2 Functional Capacity Checklist 5.76 2 Legal Jurisdiction Domain The legal jurisdiction domain included variables that are guided by and flow from the procedural and legal aspects of the particular venue within which an action or matter is at hand. Only one of the seven variables (14%) identified from r ound one data analysis met the final acceptance criteria for the study (Table 4-41). Table 4 41. Legal j urisdiction v ariables a ccepted Variable Mean IQR Deposition Transcript(s) of Parties Involved in the Action or Cause 6.08 2

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136 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Overview of Significant Findings This study utilized the Delphi method to assess a potential set of items considered core to the assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. This chapter is divided into six sections. The first section includes an overview of significant findings from the Delphi study. The second section details assumptions made by the researcher in carrying out the study and in interpreting the results. The third section describes limitations of the study. The fourth section describes implic ations of the research study for training and practice. The fifth section addresses recommendations for future research to extend the findings of this study. Finally, the sixth section will address conclusions that can be drawn from this study. Delphi Study Fifty -four experts were recruited for participation in this study. Of this group, 38 of the panelists went on to complete all three rounds of expert input. The results of this study give good support to the assumption that that the Delphi method is an effective method for generating a set of core variables to be considered in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal -forensic setting. This finding is consistent with the position of Robinson, Pomeranz and Moorhouse (2011) wherein the authors argued that the Delphi method was a suitable design for forensic oriented research. Application of the Delphi method led to consensus criteria being met for 232 individual variables to be considered by a vocational consultant when performing an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. These variables were further categorized in 29 unique data domains.

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137 Item s Unique to LegalForensic Settings This study sought to elicit variables explicit to vocational assessment in a legal forensic setting. Th e study yielded a comprehensive set of 232 core variables that were distributed across 29 construct domains. The majority of items in this set of variables are conceptually similar to variables described in the general vocational rehabilitation literature (Andrew, 2004; Cohen & Yankowski, 1998; Dillman, 1987; Drummond, 1996; Drummond & Ryan, 1995; Field, 1993; Havraneck, 2007; Havraneck, Field, & Grimes, 2001; Power, 2006; Roessler & Rubin, 2006; Rubin & Roessler, 2008; Sawyer, 2002; Shahnasarian, 2004; Weed & Field, 2001; Wattenbarger & McCroskey,2004;Williams, Dunn, Bast & Giesen, 2006). The high level of consistency between the results of this study and variables described in the general rehabilitation literature emphasize th e congruency between the fields of forensic rehabilitation counseling and nonforensic rehabilitation counseling. This high level of congruency is not surprising given the fact that forensic rehabilitation counseling has its roots in the early vocational rehabilitation movement (Owings et al., 2007). Despite the high level of consistency between variables applicable to both forensic and nonforensic settings, three of the 29 domains of variables were unique to the forensic rehabilitation assessment venue. These domains included economic variables, work life participation variables and legal jurisdiction variables. Economic variables The economic domain of variables is key to describing a persons past earnings and projected damages related to a reducti on in earning capacity. Only four variables were identified in Delphi round one and of these, only two (50%), met final acceptance criteria (Table 4 -33). The two economic variables meeting acceptance criteria included historical annual earnings of the evaluee and the age of the evaluee as of the date of loss. An evaluees historical

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138 demonstrated earnings are essential to describing the pre-injury earning potential and in establishing a base wage. Field (2008) described the base wage as the starting point used by the forensic economist in estimating lifetime vocational loss or damages resulting from injury. Age is widely accepted as an essential consideration in vocational assessment. The age earning cycle theorizes that ones earnings are in large part, dependent upon one's age (Dillman, 1988). The younger the person is, the longer they are expected to be able to remain in the labor market and the g reater the opportunity for future career promotions and earnings (Field, 2008). Age is also a critical element in evaluating a workers ability to adjust to new or other work following disability or impairment ( Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 1967). Given these considerations, the age of the evaluee as of the date of loss in a forensic setting has significant implications for valuing total damages related to diminished earning capacity over ones remaining work life expectancy. Work life participation variables Work life participation is an emerging topic in the area of forensic vocational consultation. Gamboa and Gibson (2006) defined work life as the total number of years in aggregate that an individual is likely to be alive and employed. Variables in the work li fe participation domain address issues that influence the duration of time a worker will remain active and participating in the labor market. Various authors have proposed methods for evaluating the longevity of a persons participation in the labor market (Ciecka & Skoog, 2001; Gamboa & Gibson, 2008; Richards & Solie, 1996; Smith, 1982; Spruance, Robinson, & McKay, November, 2008; Spruance, Robinson & Pomeranz, November, 2010; Robinson and Spruance, 2011). While experts in this study agreed that work life is a critical element in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting, Field & Jane (2008) opined there is generally a lack

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139 of consensus on how the concept is best evaluated. Study experts considered the following variables to be core variab les in assessing a persons wo r k life participation: evaluee consistency of past work as a reflection of future work participation; reason for periods of unemployment between jobs (over evaluees past work history); average duration of unemployment between jobs (over evaluees past work history); medical and behavioral health treatment plan impact on work schedule; evaluee option to engage in part time or full time work; evaluee proximity to retirement eligibility; evaluee post incident retirement plans; evaluee pre incident retirement plans. The literature clearly supports consideration of the consistency of an evaluees past work as a reflection of his or her probable future work participation. Related variables describing the nature and duration of periods of unemployment serve to describe the pattern by which a persons work consistency is evaluated. Research has shown a relationship between interruption in employment and the erosion of accumulated human capital while removed from the labor market (M incer & Ofek, 1982). According to the age earning cycle, the typical wage earner will enter the labor market at a relatively low wage (Dillman, 1988) The wage earner will rapidly progress in earning over his or her younger years, and subsequently level off during mid life (Dillman, 1988). Therefore, interruptions in the age earning cycle will adversely affect wage progression and likely lead to regression of wages. Mincer & Ofek (1982) found that the longer the interruption in work participation, the greater the impact on human capital erosion and subsequent wage level upon labor market reentry. Theoretically, absent additional human capital investment, or participation in activities targeted at restoration of human capital, future earnings increases will be limited to structural increases only. Heckman & Borjas (1980), found that the greater the number of previous spells of unemployment and the longer their duration, the more likely is the event that an individual will be une mployed at a point in time (p. 247). The authors propose two theories to describe this

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140 phenomenon. The first theory is that past periods of unemployment have the effect of al tering individual preferences and wage expectations for future employment. According to this theory, past experience actually alter ones behaviors toward work that leads the person to behave differently from others who have not experienced periods of unemployment. The second theory is that unemployed individuals differ from employed individuals on some unmeasured variable or variables. This variable or variables tends to influence the probability of unemployment, while not being confounded by the unemployed state of the individual. Literature support was identified for the relationship between medical treatment of a health related condition and the impact of the treatment upon a persons future work participation. Certain chronic health conditions may limit a person to less than full time work due to participation in active medical treatment for an acute or chronic healthcare condition. Multiple studies have found that chronic health conditions are a significant driver of workplace absences (Stewart, Ricci, Chee, & Morganstein, 2003; Collins et al., 2005). Multiple studies have investigated the negative effects of specific chronic health conditions on work related absence. Such studies were identified for migraine headaches (Gerth et al., 2001; Lofland & Frick, 2006; Stewart, Lipton & Simon, 1996); rheumatoid arthritis (Kessler et al., 2008); diabetes mellitus (Ng, Jacobs & Johnson, 2001; Rodbard, Fox & Grandy, 2009); allergies (Blaiss, 2000); mental health (Berndt et al., 2000; Greenberg, Stiglin, Finkelstein & Berndt, 1993; Stewart et al., 2003) and back pain (Dagenais, Caro & Haldeman, 2008; Hagan, Tambs & Bjerkedal, 2002; Maetzel & Li, 2002). Three variables related to retirement planning and eligibility met final acceptance criteria for this study. The issue of retirement is important to opinions of work life participation since in many instances, retirement is related to reduction in participation in work related activity. These

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141 findings are consistent with the literature. Key fin dings from a study by Uccello (1998), found workers with pension coverage are more likely to retire than are workers who do not have such coverage; workers who face loss of health insurance benefits after retirement, are less likely to retire ; and workers w ith chronic health conditions or who are in poor health are more likely to retire. Phillips Montalto, Yuh & Hanna (2000) found that a workers health status coupled with the physical demands of the job were principle determinants in whether a worker extends his or her work life. Legal jurisdiction variables The legal jurisdiction domain included variables that are guided by and flow from the procedural and legal aspects of the particular venue within which an action is heard Only one of the seven varia bles (14%) identified from round one data analysis met the final acceptance criteria for the study (Table 4-41). The only variable that met the acceptance criteria was deposition transcript(s) of the parties involved in the action or cause. A deposition is part of the pretrial discovery process, wherein the testimony of an expert is taken by a court reporter and converted to a testimony transcript (NOLO Legal Encyclopedia, April 14, 2011). Depositions are then used in pre-trial preparation to contradict the witness or to be read into the record in cases where the witness does not testify live. Field (2008) reported that one of the most important factors in evaluating a loss of earning capacity is the venue in which the legal action is at hand The results of this study do not support this claim as the venue of the legal action or cause received a mean importance rating of only four with an IQR dispersion measure of two Unique Domain Findings While the goal of this study was to identify a core set of variables to be considered in developing opinions of vocational earning capacity t o this end, three levels of data were

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142 collected over the course of this study. At the highest level of data collection was a discrete set of 29 construct domains within which, the 232 core variables identified in the study were distributed. The findings of two particular domains are noteworthy not for the variables that met acceptance criteria, but for the results obtained in a global sense for both the domain and the variables within the domain. Labor marketing sampling domain L abor market sampling is intended to provide insight into local labor market conditions for a specific job or classification of jobs within the geographical area most germane to the evaluee. While public labor market statistics provide good guidance on expected wages and unemployment, they provide little insight into actual market conditions within a particular geography. Neulicht et al. (2007) proposed that labor market sampling be used to obtain additional information to validate or corroborate other sources of labor market data at the local level. K nowledge of local labor market status is important since vocational consultants routinely address the issues of labor market access and placeability which are both determined at the local labor market level. Neulicht et al. (2007) reported labor market sampling contributes to the ecological validity of an opinion by providing a slice of reality for a specific job and geographical location (p.40). Despite its contribution to ecological validity, local labor market sampling is susceptible to bias as it considers the unique profile of the individual being evaluated rather than a generic survey with amalgamated data such is the case with public data sources (Neulicht et al., 2007). Despite this, local labor market sampling provides a pragmatic balance between the need for ecologically sound local data and large sample statistical data (Neulicht et al., 2007). Many authors have written on use of labor market sampling in forensic vocational rehabilitation applications (Havranek, 2007; Neulicht et al., 2007; Rubin & Roessler, 2008;

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143 Weed & Field, 2001). Despite this, no empirical research has shown individual data elements to be collected in labor market sampling or has quantified the contribution of labor market sampling to the development of vocational earning capacity opinions. This study identified 11 unique variables from round one data analysis Of the 11 variables in the domain, 10 (91%) met the final acceptance criteria for the study (Table 4-37). This rate of acceptance was the second highest rate of acceptance of all 29 domains of variables. Of the 10 variables accepted in this domain, 70% had an importance rating of greater than six and an IQR of less than or equal to one This suggests t hat not only were these variables viewed as important, but there was a very high level of agreement between panelists as to the importance of the variables. This study provides empirical support to the importance labor market sampling may play in develop ment of an opinion of vocational earning capacity in a legal -forensic setting. Cultural domain Of the participants in this study, 72.3% held the credential of Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC). The code of professional ethics ( Retrieved April 6 2011) published by the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC) describes six guiding principles of ethical professional behavior. The first ethical principle described is autonomy which is defined in the code as to respect the right s of clients to be self -governing within their soc ial and cultural framework (p. 2). In a 2010 analysis of the CRCC code of ethics, Cartwright & Fleming wrote the revised code [2010] unequivocally addresses the expectation that a certified rehabilitation counselor will respect culture and not discriminate within the counseling relationship (p.69). Bellini (2002) demonstrated the importance of multicultural training in rehabilitation counseling through a multiple regression analysis using the Multicultura l Counseling Inventory (MCI). MCI factors related to demographic variables, experiential variables and variables

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144 related to multicultural counseling competency accounted for 33% of the total variation in MCI scores. Matrone & Leahy (2005) suggested that characteristics a client brings to the vocational rehabilitation process are the principle variables that explain the range of variability in client outcomes. The traditional vocational rehabilitation literature gives good support to the importance of mul ticulturalism in the vocational rehabilitation process. Despite this ethical mandate and support in the professional literature for consideration of multicultural variables in rehabilitation counseling venues, panelists in this study did not agree that cultural variables are important in every assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal -forensic setting. The cultural domain of variables had the lowest percentage of variables (.06%) meeting the final acceptance criteria of all the domains. Fourteen unique variables were identified from r ound one, but only one variable met the final acceptance criteria (Table 4 -14). This is in stark contrast to the opinion of Garske & Havranek (1999), who wrote that an understanding of multiculturalism in the sp ecialty area of forensic rehabilitati on counseling is critical (p. 31). Over the past 1520 years, the issue of multiculturalism in rehabilitation counseling venues has taken on a greater level of importance. Minority populations continue to grow in m ost areas of the United States. Cultural issues in the rehabilitation counseling field have taken on greater importance as reflected in the code of professional ethics published by the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC) and in the accreditation standards published by the Council on Rehabilitation Counselor Education (CORE). Explanation(s) of such a discrepancy between the literature and actual practice are unclear and require additional research to further explore the relationship. Two potential hypotheses are offered to explain these results however. First, demographic characteristics of the expert panel may have skewed the results of the study. The mean number of years of professional practice

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145 experience reported by expert panelists in this study was 28.1 years, SD 7.54. Only 19.2% of the panelists had entered the forensic rehabilitation field within the past 20 years. A significant majority of the panel, or 80.8% have been in forensic rehabilitation practice for over 20 years. It may be the case that the only formal training on multiculturalism the majority of the panel had received, had been through ongoing professional continuing education versus as a key component of an integrated counseling curriculum. It is hypothesized that in general, an inverse relationship may exist between years of rehabilitation counseling experience and ones perception of the importance of multicultural variables to the rehabilitation counseling process in a legal forensic setting The second hypothesis is that the lack of support for multicultural variables is due to some systematic, yet unmeasured variable that uniquely influences forensic vocational rehabilitation experts. Such confounding variables may be related to the f orensic setting itself where experts are routinely retained by competing parties to enter into a consulting role wherein no clientcounselor relationship is formed with the evaluee. The experts principle relationship in a forensic setting is with the party retaining the expert. Despite an ethical mandate for neutrality and to remain unbiased in practice, forensic experts are susceptible to pressure from retaining parties to obtain favorable results, thus reinforcing the probability of retention in the future. Results and the ICF Model In Chapter 2, the ICF model was introduced as a bio-psychosocial model that synthesized biological, individual and social perspectives of functioning, disability and health ( Reed et al. 2005; World Health Organization, 2001). The ICF model acknowledges the multivariate and bi directional nature of disabling health conditions. The 232 core individual va riables identified in this study are distributed throughout the ICF model. Variables were identified that address aspects of body systems and structure, activities and participation, environmental and personal

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146 factors. Given the widespread distribution of core variables throughout the ICF model, empirical support is provided for the multivariate and bidirectional complexity of vocational earning capacity assessment. Given the widespread representation of variables across the model, the need for comprehensive assessment becomes visually obvious. Further, given the bi-directional nature of the ICF model, failure to assess each of the ICF domains in terms of how the domain influences the individual evaluee, is likely to over or underestimate individual function, thus increasing the probability of opinion error. Assumptions Ultimately, the reliability and validity of this study are dependent upon several underlying assumptions. The Delphi method relies upon the opinions of a panel of subject matter experts. In the absence of a clear definition or guideline as to how to qualify a legal forensic vocational rehabilitation expert for this study, four study inclusion criteria were established. It is assumed that if a panelist met the study inclusion criteria, that he / she possessed the requisite expertise to provide quality input into the research question. Second, recruitment for expert panelists to participate in this study was conducted primarily through IARP and ABVE which are the two primary professional organizations to which forensic vocational rehabilitation consultants belong. Both of these organizations have established codes of professional ethics and offer ongoing professional continuing education on evolving and current best practices in the rehabilitation profession. Accordingly, it is assumed that the opinions of the panelists are congruent w ith and representative of the best practices of the forensic rehabilitation consultant community. Third, as an incentive to promote expert panelist participation in the study panelists were offered a monetary incentive of $15 for their full participation over all three rounds of expert

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147 input. It is assumed that the monetary incentive extended to panelists had no effect upon their expert opinions in any of the three rounds of input. It is further assumed that the only effect of the incentive, was upon the expert panelists propensity to fully participate in the study through all three rounds, thus increasing the overall expert response rate for the study. Lastly, since the results of this study are dependent upon the individual opinions of a panel of qual ified subject matter experts, misleading or sub maximal effort can negatively impact the results. It is assumed that each expert panelist was motivated to fully participate in the study and did so by providing sincere, honest and full effort in rendering expert opinions. Limitations of the Study This study has several limitations that need to be considered when interpreting the results. First, the study specifically focused on the area of forensic vocational rehabilitation assessment versus the broader non forensic vocational rehabilitation community. The results and conclusions of this study are limited to the narrow practice area of vocational earning capacity assessment within a forensic vocational rehabilitation application. Caution should be exerc ised in attempting to apply the study results outside of the limited forensic focus of earning capacity assessment. Second, because of the risk of panelist attrition with successive rounds of Delphi input, the design of this study was limited in advance to only three rounds. This design could have impacted the final number of items meeting the final acceptance criteria for the study. Stability measures ( M ) were examined after round three ratings to determine the degree of change from round two to round three for each variable. Measures of M ranged from .37 to -.32 which were all well b elow the acceptance criteria of less than the absolute value of one. This indicates minimal shift in importance ratings between rounds two and three. Therefore, given the

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148 achieved stability measures, three rounds of input appears to have been sufficient for this study to achieve st ability of expert opinion. Third, the expert panel for this study was derived primarily from two professional organizations. Potential panelists that did not belong to the forensic section of IARP or that were not credentialed through ABVE, were not likely to have known of this study and therefore had no chance to volunteer for participation. The sample was limited to members of two professional associations who were assumed to be homogenous due to similar codes of ethics and practice guidelines for both organizations that reinforce best practices. Fourth, this study sought to identify a core set of variables to be considered in an assessment of vocational earning capacity. While over 200 variables met the acceptance criteria for the study, further research is necessary to validate these findings. The findings of this study provide empirical support for a proposed set of core variables, but caution should be exercised in over interpreting the findings. While the forensic rehabilitation consultan t could certainly rely upon the findings as an empirical foundation in an assessment of earning capacity, additional research is necessary to operationalize the findings into an application framework. The definition of a core variable is not meant to im ply necessity. The term core variable is instead intended to provide a common language to describe a singular element of data that, in concert with other variables, was found to be an important element in contributing to the foundation of an opinion of vocational earning capacity. The presence or absence of a variable in any particular assessment may be due to case specific or situational variations within which the evaluation is taking place.

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149 Implications of the Study Data Modeling The goal of this study was to identify a core set of variables to be considered by vocational consultants in developing opinions of vocational earning capacity in a legalforensic setting. At the highest level of data collection in this study was a discrete set of data domains. The domains identified are useful for high level data modeling of the placement and interaction of variables considered core to rehabilitation and vocational earning capacity assessment in legal forensic settings. The proposed Vocational and R ehabilitation Assessment Model (VRAM) (Figure 5 1) is an example of how the data domains may be operationalized into a framework useful for visualizing the relationship and interaction of domains within a model. Such a framework provides an operational hypothesis upon which additional research can be planned and carried out. Within the proposed model, labor supply side domains represent variables an evaluee would present to an employer in consideration for employment. Supply side variables represent the unique vocational profile the candidate would present to an employer in consideration for employment. Demand side factors are external to the evaluee and are a function of the number of jobs available with e mployers at a given wage rate and for a specific vocational capacity profile The demand side of the equation considers local demographics and geography for a particular labor market the unemployment rate and th e availability or supply of workers matching the needed vocational profile.

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150 Figure 5 -1. Proposed vocational and rehabilitation assessment model Self Assessment At the variable level of data collection, the study identified a broad set of 469 variables that represent the composite input of the group of subject matter experts prior to initiating a consensus building process. Consensus criteria was met for 232 of the 469 variables, thus 237 variables did not meet consensus criteria. Not meeting the consensus criteria does not suggest that the variables are not important, but simply not important in every assessment of vocational earning capacity. The variables not meeting the consensus criteria may be viewed as secondary

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151 or situational variables that may be important depending upon the cultural, environmental or situational framework within which the evaluation is taking place. The results of this study may be us ed by practicing forensic vocational rehabilitation experts as a form of self -study. His or her current assessment methodologies and assessment variables can be compared and contrasted to the variables identified in this study that both met and did not meet consensus. Such a self -study may allow consultants to evaluate their own perceptions of how variables he or she view as important in earning capacity assessment are viewed empirically by a n expert panel of colleagues. Training & Education Currently, there are 97 rehabilitation counseling graduate schools in the United States and its territories accredited by the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) (Council on Rehabilitation Education, 2011). CORE curriculum requirements include education and exposure to training in forensic rehabilitation and vocational expert practices (Council on Rehabilitation Education, 2011). Additionally, there is a growing need for postgraduate training specific to forensic vocational rehabilitation. In response to this growing need, post graduate forensic rehabilitation training programs have been established at the University of Florida (University of Florida, 2011) and at The George Washington University (The George Washington University, 2011). Despite a clear need for training and education in the area of forensic vocational rehabilitation, there exists a relative dearth of empirically based research. Much of the literature related to forensic rehabilitation methods and foundation are opinion pieces that are not empirically derived. This study represents a significant empirically based advancement in our understanding of core variables considered in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. As is clear from Figure 5 -1, the process of arriving at an opinion of vocational earning

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152 capacity requires significant input of data in the form of foundational variables across a number of domains. To arrive at an opinion of vocational earning capacity involves multiple professional processe s to include review, analysis and synthesis of evaluee records, clinical interview, psychometric assessment, transferable skills assessment and integration and synthesis of labor market and employment related data. The results of this study could be very useful in training either new rehabilitation counselors or rehabilitation counselors seeking advanced training in forensic vocational rehabilitation practice. The scope of variables identified, when conceptualized in a model such as th e Vocational and Rehabilitation Assessment Model ( Figure 5 -1) provide a visual reference to more clearly understand how variables and data domains interrelate and interact. Recommendations for Future Research This study identified 232 discrete variables to be considered in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal -forensic setting. These variables were distributed across 29 categorical domains. The findings of this study provide empirical support for a proposed set of core variables. Additional research is recommended to validate these findings. The study should be subjected to replication to test the reliability of the findings. The study could most effectively be replicated by repeating the Delphi methodology originally utilized in this study. However, this approach would be very labor intensive due to the extensive degree of qualitative data analysis involved with Delphi round one. An alternative methodology could involve having the complete set of 469 variables identified from round one data analysis re rated using the same seven point level of importance Likert type rating scale. The same acceptance criteria for importance and convergence would be utilized. The importance and convergence findings would then be compared to the Delphi r esults from this original study.

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153 Future research should also focus on the relationship between each of the core variables and opinions rendered in actual cases involving the assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal -forensic setting. This coul d be accomplished by having practicing experts rate the importance of each of the core variables within the context of actual cases in which he or she have rendered an earning capacity opinion. Correlation analysis could help validate the relationship between core independent variables and the dependent variable as reflected in the experts opinion of vocational earning capacity.

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154 APPENDIX A RECRUITMENT LETTER TO IARP CALL FOR RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS Identification of Core Variables to be Considered in an Assessment of Vocational Earning Capacity Assessment in a Legal Forensic Setting: A Delphi Study Goal: The goal of this doctoral research study is to assess a potential set of items considered core to the assessment of vocational earning capaci ty in a legalforensic setting. The Delphi consensus building method will be utilized to examine this question. Method: The Delphi method involves collecting opinions from a panel of subject matter experts over successive rounds of input. The Delphi method is particularly useful in evaluating topics where consensus among experts does not exist. The study design will involve a Delphi process where each expert panelist will contribute to 3 successive rounds of expert input over a period of approximately 3 months. The estimated total time commitment over 3 months is not expected to exceed 2 hours. Panelist Inclusion Criteria: To be eligible for panel inclusion, expert panelists must meet the following criteria: Panelists will hold at least one natio nally recognized vocational rehabilitation credential as a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC); Certified Vocational Evaluator (CVE); or hold Diplomate or Fellow status with the American Board of Vocational Experts (ABVE) Panelists will have complete d at least 5 evaluations involving the assessment of vocational earning capacity within a legal -forensic setting Panelists will have been accepted as a qualified vocational expert in the area of vocational earning capacity by a trier of fact before a civi l or administrative court within the United States Panelists will have been actively involved in the field of vocational rehabilitation within the preceding 12 months Incentive to Participate: Panelists who complete all 3 rounds of expert input will be compensated in the amount of $15. Each panelist will be given the option of receiving the $15 compensation benefit directly or of donating his / her $15 compensation to the International Association of Rehabilitation Providers (IARP) Gale Gibson Scholarship Award

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155 Panelists who complete all 3 rounds of the study will also receive an advance summary of the study results which will include a core set of variables to be considered in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. Contact Information : Experts who would like to participate in the study should email Rick Robinson at XXXXXXXX Please provide your full name and email address. A panelist qualification email will be sent in the coming weeks. For questions regarding the study, please contact: Rick Robinson, M.Ed., MBA, LMHC, CRC, CVE, D/ABVE, CLCP, NCC XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX

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156 APPENDIX B RECRUITMENT LETTER TO ABVE CALL FOR RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS Identification of Core Variables to be Considered in an Assessment of Vocational Earning Capacity Assessment in a Legal Forensic Setting: A Delphi Study Goal: The goal of this doctoral research study is to assess a potential set of items considered core to the assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. The Delphi consensus building method will be utilized to examine this question. Method: The Delphi method involves collecting opinions from a panel of subject matter experts over successive rounds of input. The Delphi method is particularly useful in evaluating topics where consensus among experts does not exist. The study design will involve a Delphi process where each expert panelist will contribute to 3 successive rounds of expert input over a period of approximately 3 months. The estimated total time commitment over 3 months is not expected to exceed 2 hours. Panelist Inclusion Criteria: To be eligible for panel inclusion, expert panelists must meet the following criteria: Panelists will hold at least one nationally recognized vocational rehabilitation credential as a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC); Certified Vocational Evaluator (CVE); or hold Di plomate or Fellow status with the American Board of Vocational Experts (ABVE) Panelists will have completed at least 5 evaluations involving the assessment of vocational earning capacity within a legal -forensic setting Panelists will have been accepted as a qualified vocational expert in the area of vocational earning capacity by a trier of fact before a civil or administrative court within the United States Panelists will have been actively involved in the field of vocational rehabilitation within the p receding 12 months Incentive to Participate: Panelists who complete all 3 rounds of expert input will be compensated in the amount of $15. Each panelist will be given the option of receiving the $15 compensation benefit directly or of donating his / her $15 compensation to the American Board of Vocational Experts (ABVE).

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157 Panelists who complete all 3 rounds of the study will also receive an advance summary of the study results which will include a core set of variables to be considered in an assessment of vocational earning capacity in a legal forensic setting. Contact Information : Experts who would like to participate in the study should email Rick Robinson at XXXXXXX Please provide your full name and email address. A panelist qualification ema il will be sent in the coming weeks. For questions regarding the study, please contact: Rick Robinson, M.Ed., MBA, LMHC, CRC, CVE, D/ABVE, CLCP, NCC XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX

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158 APPENDIX C PANELIST QUALIFICATION QUESTIONAIRE

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159 Panelists who responded Yes to each of the qualification questions were presented with this screen advising them they met the panelist inclusion criteria for this study. Panelists who responded No to any one of the qualification questions were pres ented with this screen advising them they did not qualify as an expert panelist for this study.

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161 APPENDIX D DELPHI ROUND 1 QUEST IONAIRE

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165 Panelists who opted to donate their $15 incentive to IARP or ABVE, were presented with this screen and given the option of donating the incentive in their name or anonymously. Panelists who opted to have the $15 incentive paid directly to them, were presented with this screen to request an address to mail the incentive.

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174 APPENDIX E BETA REVIEWER FEEDBA CK AND ACTIONS TAKEN BETA Reviewer Feedback Action Taken Should your description and definition of Domains come after the request to think about a case, or before? Re designed / re ordered the descriptions and question in the introduction. Are named vocational experts equivalent to those who are accepted as qualified vocational experts. I dont know the answerbut if youre referring to the same thing, in both places, keep the terms the same. Redesigned introduction to ensure consistent terminology was used. Im thinking that your survey w ill only go to vocational experts, as this appears to assume that the responder has actually been named as a vocational expert in at least one casei.e., No option for N/A is provided. No action necessary. The survey was intended only for vocational experts who met the inclusion criteria for the study. Remove the words for example from immediately before the in a 2009 study by and revise the statement. Revised language of question and introduction. I think having the scenario/set up and the question after the explanation is preferable. Re designed / re ordered the descriptions and question in the introduction. Underline domains, rather than not the variables. Doing this makes consistent all the importance/emphasis on what you want, rather than what you dont want. Underlined words that emphasized the positives aspects of the information being sought versus the negative. APA likes commas before the and in a series. Modified punctuation of introduction and question Watch your passive voice. Instead of the sentence that starts with Within, a more powerful sentence might be, for example, Each of these domains may contain many individual variables. Revised language of introduction and questions. Change, For example t o read, In our example model here, a few of the variables Revised language of introduction and questions. Rather than You previously stated NNN was a crucial (Id not seen the word crucial in previous pages. Essential, yes, but not crucial k eep your terms the same.) Also, Id Revised language of introduction and questions.

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175 probably lighten that phrasing up a bit and say instead, On the previous Domain question, you indicated No opportunity to return to previous page. Would like to have added more; didnt realize I should have added those variables that I agreed with that were also listed on the example, as well as those I came up with on my own. (i.e., didnt realize that the offer from the Domain listing page to put down that which was already there was still valid on the variable page or was it? Unclear about this.) Included navigation buttons at bottom of each survey page. APA style requires that numbers below 10 deserve a word, rather than a numeral. Therefore, the sentence A domain of knowledge contains 1 or more data elements or variables. Should have the word one in place of the numeral. Modified punctuation of in troduction and question Would like to have had the opportunity to return to previous pages -more variables that belonged on the previous pages came to mind as I continued to work on the survey Included navigation buttons at bottom of each survey page. Grammatical error on the consent page with signature spaces, paragraph#3: "One panelist...this reward for his/her ... Modified grammatical error of introduction and questions How many times been accepted as qualified VE: Will the choices you've provided really give you the data you want in terms of experience? I think someone who has done 45 or 50 evals is pretty experienced. Why not just ask number of evals and let the data help you determine where the appropriate dividing points are? Ranges were eliminated and the expert was asked for the number of times actually testified Punctuation error on the Expert panelist Input Screen #1, sentence #1: Modified punctuation of introduction and question 1st Variable screen: You say something to the effect of "The Employment Domain was identified as being universally addressed. This is confusing to me. You've just said that you The 3 example domains provided in the introduction, were form filled into the first 3 domain names. Experts were then provided the opportunity to change any one

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176 are wanting the participants to determine the domains, so I initially thought you'd just worded this wrong, and you meant to say something like "The Employment Domain was provided as an example of a domain that might be universally ..." but later on, you asked not only about these three, but also others that I had identified. Even if previous research has already established that these three are universal (and I doubt there's enough research to be able to make a broad statement like that), why not just give your universal domains as possible examples, and then let your participants provide their domains, generated out of their own heads. If you're right and they are universal, they'll include these and you'll still have the data you need, and you will have confirmed earlier studies. Also, this will avoid the irritating problem where I worded one of your "universal" domains slightly differently (I think it was employment), and then after I'd already listed all of the variables I felt came under YOUR employment domain, you asked me to do it again for my slightly differently worde d employment domain (at least I think that's what happened). I got annoyed at that point. or all of the example domains if they did not agree with them as being important variables in evaluating the complex case they had in mind. I don't think this will take anything like 1 1/2 hours. Granted, I wasn't putting a lot of effort into providing an exhaustive list, but I still don't think it will take anything like that long. Ask a couple of people to do it, without taking time to make notes, like your beta testers will, to get a better idea of how long it will actually take. Two people were asked to take the survey to better gauge the time estimate. The estimated 1.5 hours was reduced to 1 hour for Round 1 completion. When your successive domains are given, the example variables listed may be helpful. The 3 example domain s provided in the introduction, were form filled into the first 3 domain names. Experts were then provided the opportunity to change any one or all of the example domains if they did not agree with them as being important variables in evaluating the complex case they had in mind.

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177 When they complete Round 1, can you give them a pop up comment saying that they will need to complete all three rounds to receive the incentive After completing the survey, each expert was presented with a page that indicated he or she would need to complete all three rounds of expert input to receive the incentive.

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178 APPENDIX F QUALITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSISAUDIT TRAIL Legend: Domain / Variable December 15, 2010 Merged Aptitude into Aptitudes Merged Avocation into Avocational Activities Merged Avocational Activities -Hobbies into Avocational Activities Merged Criminal Background into Criminal History Merged Cognitive (Learning) into Cognitive Functioning Merged Financial Disincentive into Financial Merged Financial Incentive into Financial Merged Household Chores into Household Merged Household Service Activity into Household Merged I.Q. into Cognitive Functioning Merged Intelligence into Cognitive Functioning Merged EmploymentVocational into Employment Merged Geographic Location into Geographic Area Merged Highest Grade Completed into Education Merged Compensation into Earnings Merged Labor Market into Labor Market Information Merged Labor Market Conditions into Labor Market Information Merged Language into La nguage Skills Merged Languages Spoken into Language Skills Merged Cultural (Socioeconomic) into Cultural Merged Culture into Cultural Merged Criminal History into Legal Merged Legal Status into Legal Merged Location into Geographic Area Merged Medical History into Medical Merged Local Labor Market into Labor Market Information Merged Local Economy into Labor Market Information Merged Interest into Interests Merged Light Duty Labor Market into Labor Market Information Merged Sedentary Labor Market into Labor Market Information Merged Family Resources -Support into Family Merged Family Social into Family Merged Military Experience into Military Background Merged Loss of Use of Body Part into Medical Merged Non Work Injuries into Medical Merged Pers onality and Interests into Personality Merged Personality Interests into Personality Merged Personality -Motivational into Personality Merged Previous Work Injuries into Medical Merged Socio Economic into Socioeconomic Merged SES into Socioeconomic

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179 Merged Social into Socioeconomic Merged Testing Results into Vocational Test Results Merged Vocational Testing into Vocational Test Results Merged Local Economy -Labor Market into Labor Market Information Merged Immigrant Status into Legal Merged Access to Employment into Employment Merged Daily Activities into Activities of Daily Living Merged Drug Usage into Medical Merged Psychological Adaptation into Psychological Merged Psychological Functioning into Psychological Merged Recreation pre -post function into Avocational Activities Merged Functional Capacity into Medical Merged Past Relevant Drug or Alcohol Usage into Medical Merged Past Work Participation into Employment Merged Other Sources of Income into Financial Merged Pain into Medical Merged Physical Restrictions into Medical Merged Physical Capabilities into Medical Merged Relevant Work History into Employment Merged Retirement Plans into Worklife Probabilities Merged Worker Trait Levels [pre & post] into Transferable Skills Merged Training into Education Merged Professional Memberships into Employment Merged Economic Trends into Labor Market Information Merged Job Readiness into Employment Merged Job Search Activities into Employment Merged Motivation into Psychological Merged Past Work Duti es into Employment Merged Past Work Job Duties into Employment Merged Past Work Physical Requirements into Employment Merged Specific Medical Restrictions into Medical Merged Skills Transferability into Transferable Skills Merged Supportive Family into Family Merged Drivers License into Transportation Merged Results of Testing into Vocational Test Results Merged Commuting Tolerance into Transportation Merged SpouseFamily Work History into Family Merged Job Acceptance Criteria into Employment Merged Statistical into Research Merged Personality into Psychological Merged Age and Worklife Expectancy into Worklife Probabilities Merged Unemployment Rate into Labor Market Information Merged Credentials into Certifications Licensure Merged Licenses & Credential s into Certifications -Licensure Merged Literacy Skills into Education Merged Sales Aptitude into Aptitudes

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180 Merged Residual Functional Capacities into Medical Merged Secondary Medical Conditions into Medical Merged Supportive Employer into Employment Merged Age of Education into Education Merged Religion into Cultural Merged Accommodations required (incl. transportation) / this would probably be better covered under medical domain and RFC data element into Medical / Accommodations required (incl. transportation) Moved Activities of Daily Living / Attitudes and Values into Psychological / Attitudes and Values Moved Activities of Daily Living / Clubs into Avocational Activities / Clubs Moved Activities of Daily Living / Formal Activities into Avocat ional Activities / Formal Activities Moved Activities of Daily Living / Hobbies and Interests into Avocational Activities / Hobbies and Interests Moved Activities of Daily Living / Organizations into Avocational Activities / Organizations Moved Activities of Daily Living / Past and Present Hobbies into Avocational Activities / Past and Present Hobbies Moved Activities of Daily Living / Response to environment. Community and volunteer activities into Avocational Activities / Response to environment. Community and volunteer activities Split Activities of Daily Living / Description of daily activities which identifies tasks performed and methods of performance by physical capacities and potential vocational interests or skills into Activities of Daily Living / Activities of Daily Living Performed and Activities of Daily Living / Methods Used to Perform Activities of Daily Living and Activities of Daily Living / Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living and Activities of Daily Living / Interests Rel ated to Activities of Daily Living and Activities of Daily Living / Acquired Skills Related to Activities of Daily Living Moved Activities of Daily Living / Driving to Transportation / Driving Merged Activities of Daily Living / Shopping into Activities of Daily Living / Activities of Daily Living Performed Merged Activities of Daily Living / Housekeeping into Activities of Daily Living / Activities of Daily Living Performed Renamed Activities of Daily Living / Home Maintenance to Activities of Daily / Home Maintenance Performed Renamed Activities of Daily Living / Accommodations to Activities of Daily / Accommodations Implemented to Perform Activities of Daily Living Merged Appearance into Employment Renamed Activities of Daily Living / Daily Routine to Act ivities of Daily Living / Typical Daily Routine Merged Activities of Daily Living / Organization of Day into Activities of Daily Living / Typical Daily Routine Split Activities of Daily Living / Identification of daily tasks which must be completed in terms of individual or family responsibilities into Activities of Daily Living / Activities of Daily Living Performed and Activities of Daily Living / Assistance Received with Activities of Daily Living

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181 Split Activities of Daily Living / Sleep time and body rhythms which may affect work shift choice into Activities of Daily Living / Number of House of Sleep per Day and Activities of Daily Living / Daily Sleep Patterns Merged Actual Earnings into Employment Split Age / Age at the time of loss vs. current age into Age / Age at Time of Loss and Age / Current Age Moved Age / age of children and spouse to Family / Age of Children and Spouse Created Demographic Merged Age into Demographic Merged Aptitudes into Transferable Skills Renamed Avocational Activities / Hobbies and Interests into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests Merged Avocational Activities / Hobbies into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests Split Avocational Activities / Past and Present Hobbies into Avocational Activities / Hobbies Interest s (Past) and Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (Present) Merged Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (Present) Split Avocational Activities / Formal Activities into Avocational Activities / Casual Pa rticipation in Clubs, Associations and Organizations and Avocational Activities / Formal Participation in Clubs, Associations and Organizations Merged Avocational Activities / Clubs into Avocational Activities / Formal Participation in Clubs, Associations and Organizations Merged Avocational Activities / Organizations into Avocational Activities / Formal Participation in Clubs, Associations and Organizations Renamed Avocational Activities / evidence of proficiency in the avocation (contributions to an organization, awards, requests for volunteer services) into Avocational Activities / Awards and Recognition for Participation in Avocational Activities Moved Avocational Activities / How active -healthy prior to injury as compared to after to Medical / How activ e-healthy prior to injury as compared to after Renamed Avocational Activities / dates and hours per week involved in an avocation to Avocational Activities / Hours per Week Involved in Avocational Activities Merged Avocational Activities / demonstrated non-work related affiliations e.g. church groups, leadership positions not necessarily associated with work such as coaching into Avocational Activities / Hobbies Interests (Past) Merged Avocational Activities / interests, both expressed and acted upon into Interests / interests, both expressed and acted upon Renamed Avocational Activities / Response to environment. Community and volunteer activities to Avocational Activities / Participation in Social and Community Activities Renamed Avocational Activi ties / They also assist in transferable skills interest categories of the evaluation to Avocational Activities / Avocational activities assist in transferable skills interest categories of the evaluation Merged Avocational Activities / Avocational activities assist in transferable skills interest categories of the evaluation into Transferable Skills Merged Avocational Activities / vocational interests -hobbies are important to consider because they lend weight to the evaluees demonstrated abilities in activities that may be performed in a monetary gainful situation into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interes ts (Present)

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182 Merged Background (Social, Family, Criminal, Military) / Citizenship into Legal / Citizenship Merged Background (Social, Family, Criminal, Military) / Criminal History into Legal / Criminal History Merged Background (Social, Family, Criminal, Military) / Language(s) fluency into Language Skills / Language(s) fluency Merged Background (Social, Family, Criminal, Military) / Location of residence (current and at date of incident) into Demographic / Location of residence (current and at date of incident) Merged Background (Social, Family, Criminal, Military) / Marital status and children ages into Family / Marital status and children ages Merged Background (Social, Family, Criminal, Military) / Military service history into Military Background / Mil itary service history Merged Background (Social, Family, Criminal, Military) / Place of birth into Demographic / Place of Birth Deleted Background (Social, Family, Criminal, Military) (all variables merged to other domains) Merged Certifications Licensure into Transferable Skills Merged Cognitive Functioning into Vocational Test Results Merged Computer Profiling into Transferable Skills Merged Computer Skills into Transferable Skills Renamed Culture / Cultural alignment may determine predictable behavior to Culture / Cultural Alignment Between Evaluee and Rehabilitation Plan and Culture / Cultural Alignment Between Evaluee and Evaluator Renamed Culture / Different communities have different values to Culture / Values of the Community Merged Culture / Diverse cultures and languages exist within my practice and my local area in which I perform legal case analysis (100 mile radius). Hence, this focus into Language Skills / Diverse cultures and languages exist within my practice and my local area in which I perf orm legal case analysis (100 mile radius). Hence, this focus Split Cultural / Knowledge of social structure (family -clan more important than individual) and awareness of social values, core beliefs, and community are inherent constructs necessary to deter mine an individual's response to disability and ability to restore their wage into Culture / Knowledge of Family Structure within a Cultural Context and Culture / Social Value Systems within a Cultural Context and Culture / Cultural Core Belief Systems and Cultural / Cultural Attitude Toward Disability Renamed Cultural / Many different cultures fiercely defended their identity; this may influence employment decisions to Cultural / Cultural Identity Merged Cultural / Some cultures are trapped by poverty, and this may lead to the development of a victim mentality into Cultural / Cultural Core Belief Systems Deleted Cultural / This is a huge category and one in which I am presenting nationally on Multicultural Case Disability Management with Ethical & Legal Considerations. I do this work because I am bilingual, and because I am studying cultural responses and differences (this was not a variable, but panelist opinion on the importance of the cultural domain of variables) Split Cultural / Values affecting home and work roles and activities, acceptance of or understanding medical opinions, employer requirements, work schedules into Cultural / Family Role and Responsibility and Cultural / Work Role and Responsibility and Cultural / Cultural

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183 Acceptance of Medical Opinions and Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Employer Requirements and Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Prescribed Work Schedule Split Cultural /Values, schedule holidays-Sabbath, dress or dietary requirements into Cultural / Cultural Form of Dr ess and Cultural / Cultural Holiday Observances and Cultural / Cultural Dietary Requirements Renamed Cultural / Cultural Attitude Toward Disability to Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Disability Renamed Cultural / Knowledge of Family Structure within a Cultural Context to Cultural / Cultural Role of Family Structure Merged Cultural / Family Role and Responsibility into Cultural / Cultural Role of Family Structure Renamed Cultural / Cultural Identity to Cultural / Cultural Identity of Evaluee Merged Cultural / Core Belief Systems into Cultural / Cultural Identity of Evaluee Split Cultural / Work Role and Responsibility into Cultural / Cultural Importance of Work and Cultural / Cultural Role of Work Renamed Cultural / Values of the Community to Cultu ral / Cultural Role of Community and Social Structure Merged Cultural / Social Value Systems within a Cultural Context into Cultural / Cultural Role of Community and Social Structure December 20, 2010 Merged Cultural / Cultural Role of Work into Cultural / Cultural Importance of Work Created Venue Moved Demographic / age can be an employability factor, especially if considering the skilled category of work to Employment / age can be an employability factor, especially if considering the skilled category of work Created Economic Moved Demographic / Age at Time of Loss to Economic / Age at Time of Loss Moved Demographic / eligibility for retirement benefits to Worklife Probabilities / eligibility for retirement benefits Moved Demographic / how close to ret irement age is the individual to Worklife Probabilities / how close to retirement age is the individual Split Demographic / Address (current) and Demographic / Address (date of loss) Moved Demographic / Address (date of loss) to Economic / Address (date of loss) Moved Demographic / Older workers can face unstated discrimination to Employment / Older workers can face unstated discrimination Renamed Demographic / Perception in the labor market to Demographic / age and impact of it s perception in the labor market Moved Demographic / age and impact of its perception in the labor market to Employment / age and impact of its perception in the labor market Moved Demographic / the age of the evaluee can impact available vocational option s. For example a person under 25 is unlikely to qualify for professional driving jobs to Employment / the age of the evaluee can impact available vocational options. For example a person under 25 is unlikely to qualify for professional driving jobs

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184 Moved Demographic / the closer to retirement age, the less likely future employment opportunities to Employment / the closer to retirement age, the less likely future employment opportunities Split Demographic / Time out of work-school into Demographic / Duration of Time since Last Education and Demographic / Duration of Time Since last Employed Moved Demographic / Duration of Time since Last Education to Education / Duration of Time since Last Education Moved Demographic / Duration of Time Since last Employed to Employment / Duration of Time Since last Employed Moved Demographic / Younger worker with limited experience v. older worker with more experienceolder worker with outdated skills v. younger worker with current knowledgetraining. Older worker limited education with difficulty transferring -acquiring new skills to Transferable Skills / Younger worker with limited experience v. older worker with more experienceolder worker with outdated skills v. younger worker with current knowledgetraining. Older work er limited education with difficulty transferring -acquiring new skills Renamed Earnings / Anticipated Compensation to Earnings / Expected Earnings for Future Work Moved Earnings / Expected Earnings for Future Work to Economic / Expected Earnings for Future Moved Earnings / compensation associated with particular jobs in particular geographic areas to Employment / compensation associated with particular jobs in particular geographic areas Renamed Earnings / Yearly earnings to Earnings / Historical Annual Ear nings Moved Earnings / Historical Annual Earnings to Economic / Historical Annual Earnings Moved Earnings / past compensation to Employment / past compensation Moved Earnings / Tax Returns to Economic / Historical Annual Earnings Moved Earnings / salary vs. commission vs. bonuses to Employment / salary vs. commission vs. bonuses Deleted Earnings (all variables merged to other domains) Renamed Education / ABE to Education / Adult Basic Education Created Ability Measurement Moved Education / ability to read and write, make change to Ability Measurement / ability to read and write, make change Moved Education / ability to spell to Ability Measurement / ability to spell Renamed Education / Activities and Involvement in high school to Education / High School Extra circular Activities Split Education / Any certifications licenses into Education / Certifications Held and Education / Licenses Held Merged Education / Certificates into Education / Certifications Held Merged Education / ce rtifications into Education / Certifications Held Merged Education / Certification licensure into Education / Certifications Held and Education / Licenses Held Moved Education / basic achievement in English and math to Ability Measurement / basic achievement in English and math Rename Education / any IEP program necessary in school to Education / Special Education Participation

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185 Merged Education / Special education involvement into Education / Special Education Participation Split Education / subjects dislik ed into Education / High School Subjects Disliked and Education / College Subjects Disliked and Education / Vocational Subjects Disliked Split Education / subjects liked into Education / High School Subjects Liked and Education / College Subjects Liked an d Education / Vocational Subjects Liked Merged Education / subjects of interest into Education / High School Subjects Liked Merged Education / Subjects liked-disliked into Education / High School Subjects Liked and Education / High School Subjects Disliked Merged Education / interest in school into Education / High School Subjects Liked Merged Education / interests in school into Education / High School Subjects Liked Merged Education / Highest grade into Education / Highest Grade Completed Merged Education / Highest grade achieved into Education / Highest Grade Completed Renamed Education / Highest Grade Completed to Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Renamed Education / highest degree completed to Education / College Highest Degree Completed Split Education / Highest level of attainment into Education / Highest Grade Completed and Education / College Highest Year Completed Split Education / GPA. High school and college into Education / High School Grade Point Average and Education / College G rade Point Average Moved Education / Cognitive Ability to Ability Measurement / Cognitive Ability Merged Education / Adult Basic Education to Education / Highest Grade Completed Moved Education / basic skills in reading, math, writing to Ability Measurement / basic skills in reading, math, writing Moved Education / comprehend vocabulary to Ability Measurement / comprehend vocabulary Moved Education / I often administer academic testing to Ability Measurement / I often administer academic testing Moved Education / write intelligible paragraphs with subject and action clarity to Ability Measurement / write intelligible paragraphs with subject and action clarity Moved Education / Typing to Transferable Skills / Typing Moved Education / intere sts, aptitudes, competencies to Ability Measurement / interests, aptitudes, competencies Moved Education / Results of standardized tests to Ability Measurement / Results of standardized tests Moved Education / Driver's license to Transportation / Driver's license Renamed Education / actualization of achieved education with current or previous employment to Education / Comparison of Educational Level to Employment History Split Education / all education in past name of program (i.e. plumbing apprenticeship, medical assistant training, BA in Science, etc.), when each training program was completed, name of educational institution of each program completed, highest grade achieved, dates of graduation into Education / Apprenticeship Training and Education / Na me of Each Educational Program and Education / When each Educational Program was completed and Education / Highest grade achieved for each educational program and Education / Dates of graduation for each educational program Merged Education / College into Education / College Highest Year Completed

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186 Merged Education / College Classes into Education / College Highest Year Completed Renamed Education / Class Rank to Education / High School Class Rank Merged Education / Classes for Hobbies into Education / Avoc ational Classes Merged Education / Any non-vocational-hobbiesspecial areas of interest that may have added to their personal education into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (Present) Merged Education / Amount of education into Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Merged Education / Any special education classes into Education / Special Education Participation Merged Education / Special education involvement into Education / Special Education Participation Moved Education / skills learned on a job to Employment / skills learned on a job Moved Education / skills learned on the job to Employment / skills learned on the job Moved Education / Military Training to Military Background / Military Training Split Education / Sc hool Location into Education / High School Location and Education / College Location and Education / Vocational School Location Split Education / School Name into Education / High School Name and Education / College Name and Education / Vocational School N ame Merged Education / Schools into Education / High School Name Split Education / size of schooldistrict, public private into Education / High School Size of School District and Education / High School-Public or Private Moved Education / Skill Level to T ransferable Skills / Skill Level Renamed Education / College Highest Degree Completed to Education / College Degree(s) Completed Merged Education / Degrees into Education / College Degree(s) Completed Merged Education / Degrees Earned into Education / College Degree(s) Completed Renamed Education / Aside from skills learned from formal education, what education has the individual received on-the-job through from direct work experience or from attending seminars, etc into Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training Merged Education / apprenticeships into Education / Apprenticeship Training Merged Education / CEUs into Education / Continuing Education Merged Education / coursework on the job into Education / Employer Sponsored InServi ce Training Merged Education / employer provided training into Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training Merged Education / Employer Sponsored Skill Training into Education / Employer Sponsored In Service Training Merged Education / high school in to Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Merged Education / grades; SAT scores, etc into Education /High School Grade Point Average Merged Education / Grades received into Education / High School Grade Point Average Merged Education / gradesachievement into Education / High School Grade Point Average Merged Education / grades achieved into Education / High School Grade Point Average Merged Education / grades into Education / High School Grade Point Average Merged Education / grade point average into Education / High School Grade Point Average Merged Education / GPA into Education / High School Grade Point Average Merged Education / GED into Education / High School Diploma or GED

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187 Split Education / any subject areas found to be academically difficult into Education / High SchoolDifficult Subjects and Education / CollegeDifficult Subjects and Educational / Vocational Difficult Subjects Merged Education / At least a high school degree is very important into High School Diplom a or GED Split Education / best-worst subject into Education / High SchoolEasy Subjects and Education / College Easy Subjects and Educational / VocationalEasy Subjects Split Education / Attend full time or part time and if there were any disruption, the reason why into Education / CollegeFull Time or Part Time Attendance and Education / Continuous Attendance or Incurred Disruptions Merged Education / Credentials into Education / Credentials Acquired Moved Education / Job Duties to Employment / Job Dutie s Moved Education / Job Requirements to Employment / Job Requirements Moved Education / Job Titles to Employment / Job Titles Split Education / When each Educational Program was completed into Education / High SchoolCompletion Date and Education / College Completion Date and Education / VocationalCompletion Date and Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training Completion Date Merged Education / years of high school into Education / High SchoolHighest Year Completed Moved Education / Family educati onal attainment to Family / Family educational attainment December 24, 2010 Deleted Education / Capacity for retraining (this is not a variable, but a conclusion reached after analyzing the data) Renamed Education / computer training--any type to Education / Computer Training Merged Education / Computer Training into Education / Computer Skills Training Merged Education / computer training -any type, formal or informal, self-taught into Education / Computer Skills Training Moved Education / comput er usage, programming, technical skills to Transferable Skills / computer usage, programming, technical skills Merged Education / licenses into Education / Licenses Held Merged Education / licensescertifications registrations into Education / Licenses Hel d Merged Education / Licensure into Education / Licenses Held Merged Education / certifications with areas of emphasis (a degree major) into Education / Certifications Held Split Education / choice of curriculum (HS+), electives, academic testing, abilitie sdifficulties, accommodations, skills), postsecondary (college, vocational, military, apprenticeship, etc.), certificates, degrees, interests, extracurricular activities into Education / High SchoolCurriculum and Education / High School Electives and E ducation / Need for Academic Accommodations and Education / College and Education / Vocational and Education / Military and Education / Apprenticeship and Education / Certificates and Education / Degrees and Education / Interests and Education / Extracurr icular Activities Merged Education / College into Education / College Highest Year Completed Merged Education / College into Education / College Highest Year Completed Merged Education / Certificates into Education / Certifications Held Merged Education / Apprenticeship into Education / Apprenticeship Training Moved Education / Communication Barriers to Language Skills / Communication Barriers

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188 Merged Education / Completion of High School Diploma or GED into Education / High School Diploma or GED Merged Ed ucation / Application of learning -training in relevant jobs into Education / Comparison of Educational Level to Employment History Merged Education / computer into Education / Computer Skills Training Renamed Education / computer skills to include specific software utilized to Education / Computer Software Training Merged Education / Degrees into Education / College Degree(s) Completed Moved Education / Dates of Employment to Employment / Dates of Employment Merged Education / Extracurricular Activities into Education / High School Extra circular Activities Renamed Education / Continuing Education to Education / Professional Continuing Education Split Education / Dates of education into Education / High SchoolDates of Attendance and Education / College-Dates of Attendance and Education / VocationalDates of Attendance Merged Education / dates of education achieved into Education / High SchoolDates of Attendance and Education / College Dates of Attendance and Education / VocationalDates of Attendance Merged Education / Vocational into Education / Vocational Training Merged Education / Education level achieved into Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Merged Education / education level completed int o Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Merged Education / Education into Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Moved Education / Military to Military Background / Military Merged Education / Level of education into Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Merged Education / If attended college, dates into Education / College-Dates of Attendance Merged Education / Educational History into Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Moved Education / For future work capacity, understanding of educational capacity is necessary to Education / For future work capacity, understanding of educational capacity is necessary Moved Education / Test results academic, intelligence, aptitude to Vocational Test Results / Test results academic, intelligence, aptitude Moved Education / Testing in vocational interview to Vocational Test Results / Testing in vocational interview Moved Education / Test Scores to Vocational Test Results / Test Scores Moved Education / tested educational skill level to Vocational Test Results / tested educational skill level Merged Education / school grade completion to Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Moved Education / interests to Vocational Test Results / Interests Merged Education / Major into Education / major area of study Split Education / courses in high school and grades into Education / High School Coursework and Education / High School Grade Point Average Split Education / Courses of study into Education / High School Course of Study and Education / College Course of Study and Education / Vocational Course of Study Merged Education / Courses of Study into Education / College Course of Study

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189 Split Education / Curriculum (Special Education, Advanced Placement, VoTech) into Education / Special Education Participation and Education / High School Advanced Placement and Education / Vocational Course of Study Merged Education / scores in other standardized testing into Vocational Test Results / scores in other standardize d testing Merged Education / Dates of Attendance into Education / College Dates of Attendance and Education / High SchoolDates of Attendance and Education / VocationalDates of Attendance Merged Education Dates of educational participation into Education / CollegeDates of Attendance and Education / High SchoolDates of Attendance and Education / VocationalDates of Attendance Merged Education / Dates of graduation for each educational program into Education / CollegeCompletion Date and Education / High SchoolCompletion Date and Education / VocationalCompletion Date Merged Education / degrees, certificates or diplomas into Education / College Degree(s) Completed and Education / Certifications Held and Education / High School Diploma or GED Split Educatio n / Credentials Acquired into Education / Certifications Held and Education / Licenses Held Split Education / degrees, certifications, licenses (current or not current) into Education / Certifications Held and Education / Licenses Held and Education / Coll ege Degree(s) Completed and Education / Certifications Held (expired) and Education / Licenses Held (expired) Split Education / Did they graduate from college or take any college classes. Why did they drop out Into Education / College Highest Year Complet ed and Education / College-Reason for Not Completing Split Education / Did they graduate from high school or obtain a GED. Why did they drop out into Education / High School Diploma or GED and Education / High School-Reason for Not Completing Split Education / Did they use their education background in a vocational area and if not; why into Education / Comparison of Educational Level to Employment History and Education / Reason for Underutilized Vocational Capacity Merged Education / diplomas into E ducation / College Degree(s) Completed and Education / High School Diploma or GED Split Education / Early educational experience (special ed, skipping grade, tutoring) into Education / Special Education and Education / High School Behavior Patterns (ie. Skipping class) and Education / High School-Educational Supports (ie. Tutoring) Renamed Education / education achieved as compared to interests to Education / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Interests Renamed Education / education level desired to Education / Future Educational Goals Deleted Education / Educational achievement demonstrates an individual's ability to learn new skills and transfer relevant acquired skills across occupational settings (this was n ot a variable, but panelist opinion on the relationship between educational achievement and ability to learn new skills) Split Education / Earned diplomas, degrees, certificates, etc. into Education / Certifications Held and Education / Licenses Held and E ducation / College Degree(s) Completed and Education / High School Diploma or GED

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190 Split Education / extent of education in years into Education / College Highest Year Completed and Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Split Education / Educational attainment and particularly the last gradeachievement reached into Education / College Highest Year Completed and Education / High School Highest Grade Completed Split Education / failed any classes or held back a year into Education / High SchoolFail ed Grades and Education / CollegeFailed Classes and Education / VocationalFailed Courses Moved Education / For present work skills to Transferable Skills / For present work skills Split Education / Favoriteleast favorite classes into Education / College Subjects Disliked and Education / College Subjects Liked and Education / High School Subjects Disliked and Education / High School Subjects Liked December 26, 2010 Merged Education / formal training into Education / Vocational Course of Study Merged Education / Formal training past high school into Education / Vocational Course of Study Merged Education / Grades Completed and Grade Point Average into Education / High School Highest Grade Completed and Education / High School Grade Point Average Split Education /Higher education and GPA along with activities and involvement into Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed and Education / College-Grade Point Average and Education / CollegeExtra curricular Activities Split Education / Highest grade achieved for each educational program into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed Split Education / highest level of education achieved into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / College Highest Year Completed Split Education / Highest level of grade completed and the course of study into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed and Education / High School-Course of Study and Ed ucation / College -Course of Study Merged Education / High School-Curriculum into Education / High School-Course of Study Merged Education / High School-Coursework into Education / High School-Course of Study Renamed Education / History of parental education level (pediatric cases) to Education / Education Level of Parents Merged Education / How Far In College into Education / College Highest Year Completed Merged Education / how specific to occupation into Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training Merged Education / How much Education into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed Deleted Education / I profile deemed an important variable by most employers depending upon the job of course (this wa s not a variable, but panelist opinion on the relationship between education and job performance) Merged Education / if beyond High school college or university into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed Merged Education / If not a h.s. graduate, reason for leaving into Education / High SchoolReason for Not Completing Deleted Education / If the client has an education that allows for employment that falls within hisher medical limitations, the earning capacity is increased (this was not a variable, but

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191 panelist opinion on the relationship between education, residual functional capacity and earning capacity) Split Education / If the education is old, how relevant is it to today's labor market. Specifically I want to know which subjects were taken, which were liked and which were disliked, which they were good at and which they weren't into Education / CollegeObsolescence of Education and Education / VocationalObsolescence of Education and Educa tion / College -Course of Study and Education / High School-Course of Study and Education / Vocational-Course of Study and Education / High SchoolSubjects Disliked and Education / High SchoolSubjects Liked and Education / CollegeSubjects Disliked and Edu cation / College Subjects Liked and Education / High SchoolDifficult Subjects and Education / High SchoolEasy Subjects and Education / College Difficult Subjects and Education / CollegeEasy Subjects Merged Education / in high school was it a general course, academic -college prep, vocational into Education / High School-Course of Study and Education / High School-Advanced Placement and Education / Vocational-Course of Study Moved Education / vocational test scores to Vocational Test Results / Vocational Test Scores Split Education / interpersonal experience in educational institutions into Education / High SchoolExtra circular Activities and Education / CollegeExtra curricular Activities Split Education / interruptions in education into Education / High SchoolHigh School-Reason for Not Completing and Education / College-Reason for Not Completing and Education / Vocational -Reason for Not Completing Renamed Education / Special Education Participation to Education / P articipation in Exceptional or Special Education Services Merged Education / learning disabilities into Education / Participation in Exceptional or Special Education Services Merged Education / Special Education into Education / Participation in Exceptiona l or Special Education Services Merged Education / On the Job Training into Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training Merged Education / On-the-job training into Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training Split Education / learning success es or challenges and Education / High SchoolDifficult Subjects and Education / High SchoolEasy Subjects and Education / CollegeDifficult Subjects and Education / CollegeEasy Subjects Split Education / Length of attendance, with grades into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / High SchoolGrade Point Average and Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed and Education / CollegeGrade Point Average Renamed Education / Length of time to complete training to Education / Planned TrainingLength of Training Merged Education / less than high school into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed Split Education / Level completed, degree obtained or diploma, course of study or program or major, amount completed, was i t fulltime, part-time and the number of hours of school per week, dates, what was learned, has the education been used occupationally, any special education into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeHighest Year Complete d and Education / High SchoolHigh SchoolDiploma or GED and Education / CollegeDegree(s) Completed and Education / High School-Program of Study and

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192 Education / CollegeProgram of Study and Education / VocationalProgram of Study and Education / CollegeFull Time or Part Time Attendance and Education / VocationalFull Time or Part Time Attendance and Education / High SchoolDates of Attendance and Education / College Dates of Attendance and Education / VocationalDates of Attendance and Education / Colleg eObsolescence of Education and Education / Vocational-Obsolescence of Education and Education / Participation in Exceptional or Special Education Services Split Education / level of completion (HS, Community College, Vocational school) into Education / High School-Highest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed and Education / Vocational-Amount Completed Merged Education / level of continuing education i.e. required to retain credentials at what level (seminars vs. formal classroom) into Education / Professional Continuing Education December 28, 2010 Split Education / Level of education (i.e. non high school graduate-high school-vocational training etc.) into Education / High School-Highest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeH ighest Year Completed and Education / Vocational-Amount Completed Split Education / Level of Education Completed (non-Grad, HS Grad, GED, Associate's, Bachelor's, Doctoral degree) into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed and Education / Vocational-Amount Completed and Education / High SchoolDiploma or GED and Education / CollegeDegree(s) Completed Split Education / level of education in degrees of education for BA degree or MSMA degree into Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed and Education / CollegeDegree(s) Completed Merged Education / Level of educational achievement into Education / Level of education obtained Split Education / Level of education obtained) into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed and Education / VocationalAmount Completed Renamed Education / Licenses Held to Licenses and Certifications (current) Renamed Education / Licenses Held (expired) to Licenses and Ce rtifications (expired) Merged Education / Certifications Held into Education / Licenses and Certifications (current) Merged Education / Certifications Held (expired) into Education / Licenses and Certifications (expired) Split Education / licenses plus the ability to learn new tasks and jobs as identified through achievement, intelligence and aptitude testing into Education / Licenses and Certifications (current) and Vocational Test Results / ability to learn new tasks and jobs as identified through achievement, intelligence and aptitude testing Merged Education / licenses required into Education / Licenses and Certifications (current) Merged Education / Linking educational attainment with career interest into Education / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Interests Split Education / list all training into Education / High School-Course of Study and Education / College Course of Study and Education / VocationalCourse of Study Moved Educati on / Literacy into Vocational Test Results / Literacy Merged Education / Low achievement in education demonstrates limitations in this area into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed

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193 Split Education / major area of study into Education / High School-Course of Study and Education / College-Course of Study and Education / VocationalCourse of Study Merged Education / major in college into Education / College-Course of Study Moved Education / Motivation to learn to Psychological / Motivation to learn Split Education / Name of Each Educational Program into Education / High School-Course of Study and Education / College-Course of Study and Education / VocationalCourse of Study Split Education / Need for Academic Accommodations into Education / Planned TrainingNeed for Academic Accommodations and Education / High SchoolNeed for Academic Accommodations and Education / CollegeNeed for Academic Accommodations and Education / Vocational Need for Academic Accommodations Split Educatio n / other activities while in school into Education / High SchoolExtra circular Activities and Education / CollegeExtra curricular Activities Merged Education / Parental educational attainment (for cases involving children) into Education / Education Level of Parents Moved Education / Performance reviews to Employment / Performance reviews Split Education / performance through education level attainment into Education / High SchoolGrade Point Average and Education / College-Grade Point Average and Educat ion / VocationalGrade Point Average Merged Education / post high school degrees into Education / CollegeDegree(s) Completed Moved Education / tools used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) to Employment / tools used(Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Split Education / Post HS level, where, when, what studies pursued, etc into Education / College -Course of Study Split Education / quality of education achievement into Education / High SchoolGrade Point Average and Education / CollegeGrade Point Average and Education / Vocational-Grade Point Average Merged Education / reason for discontinuing education into Education / reason for leaving school before completion Merged Education / Reasons for Leaving into Education / reason for leaving school before completion Split Education / reason for leaving school before completion into Education / High SchoolReason for Not Completing and Education / College-Reason for Not Completing and Education / Vocational Reason for Not Completing Moved Education / rele vance of education -certifications, etc. to the Labor Market Demand currently to Labor Market Information / relevance of education-certifications, etc. to the Labor Market Demand currently Renamed Education / Reputation of Post Secondary Schooling (Community College v Ivy League) to Education / College-Reputation of School Merged Education / Safety Training into Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training Renamed Education / School Records when pertinent and available which show classes, grades, dates of attendance, degrees awarded, and standard to Education / School Records to Corroborate Education History Merged Education / Education schools attended and rigorousness of those schools into Education / College-Reputation of School Merged Education / secondary credentials into Education / Licenses and Certifications (current) Moved Education / Selfreport of reading skills, math skills, computer skills to Transferable

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194 Skills / Self report of reading skills, math skills, computer skills Renamed Education / siblings-family support to Education / EducationSiblings and family support Moved Education / Education-Siblings and family support to Family / Education -Siblings and family support Moved Education / skills obtained through education for task performance to Transferable Skills / skills obtained through education for task performance Renamed Education / special recognitions to Education / Educational Awards and Recognition Merged Education / Specialized Training into Education / Special Training Merged Education / Special Training into Education / VocationalProgram of Study Moved Education / specific career and or technical skills to Tra nsferable Skills / specific career and or technical skills Moved Education / Teaching Experience to Transferable Skills / Teaching Experience Merged Education / technology classes such as computer software or security training into Education / Computer Ski lls Training Moved Education / Testing in school to Vocational Test Results / Testing in school Split Education / Time since last obtained certification degree relevant training into Education / College Obsolescence of Education and Education / Vocational-Obsolescence of Education Merged Education / training programs completed into Education / training programs attempted Merged Education / type of education (vocational or academic) into Education / training programs attempted Merged Education / type and topic of training into Education / training programs attempted Merged Education / Types of coursework into Education / training programs attempted Merged Education / understanding of past education is necessary into Education / training programs attempted Merged Education / training programs attempted into Education / Vocational-Course of Study Merged Education / transcripts with grades from high school and beyond into Education / School Records to Corroborate Education History Merged Education / university training into Education / College-Course of Study Split Education / updated knowledgecompetency into Education / CollegeObsolescence of Education and Education / VocationalObsolescence of Education Moved Education / vocational preparation and specific skills trained in and to what level of proficiency to Transferable Skills / vocational preparation and specific skills trained in and to what level of proficiency Merged Education / vocational training into Education / Vocational-Course of Study Merged Education / Were they held back for any grades into Education / High SchoolFailed Grades Merged Education / Years of training into Education / Years of Education Merged Education / Years Attended into Education / Years of Education Merged Education / Where into Education / where education received e.g. via employers, online accredited schools, physical schools Split Education / What studies into Education / High School-Course of Study and Education / College -Course of Study and Educational / Vocational -Course of Study Split Education / where education received e.g. via employers, on-line accredited schools, physical schools into Education / High SchoolLocation and Education / College-Location and Education / VocationalSchool Location and Education / Employer Sponsored InService

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195 Training Split Education / Why was education stopped into Education / High School-Reason for Not Completing and Education / College-Reason for Not Completing and Education / VocationalReason for Not Completing Split Education / years of education into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed Moved Education / work in college or high school into Employment / work in college or high school Merged Education / CollegeCompletion Date into Education / College-Dates of Attendance Merged Education / High SchoolCompletion Date into Education / High SchoolDates of Attendance Merged Education / VocationalCompletion Date into Education / VocationalDates of Attendance Merged Education / Vocational-Program of Study into Education / Vocational-Course of Study Merged Education / CollegeFailed Classes into Education / CollegeDifficult Subjects Merged Education / High SchoolFailed Grades into Education / High SchoolDifficult Subjects Merged Education / VocationalFailed Courses into Education / VocationalDifficult Subjects Merged Education / Duration of Time since Last Education into Education / College Obsolescence of Education and Educatio n / Vocational-Obsolescence of Education Renamed Education / Future Educational Goals to Education / Planned TrainingGoals Renamed Education / College-Location to Education / College-Location of School Renamed Education / CollegeName to Education / Colle ge Name of School Renamed Education / Comparison of Educational Level to Employment History to Alignment of Educational Achievement with Employment History Moved Education / Education Level of Parents to Family / Education Level of Parents Moved Education / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Employment History to Psychological / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Employment History Moved Education / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Interests to Psychological / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Interests Renamed Education / College-Reason for Not Completing to Education / College-Reason for Leaving School December 29, 2010 Merged Education / High SchoolAdvanced Placement into Education / High School-Course of Study Merged Education / High School-Educational Supports (ie. Tutoring) into Education / High SchoolNeed for Academic Accommodations Renamed Education / High SchoolLocation to Education / High School-Location of School Renamed Education / High SchoolName to Education / High School-Name of School Renamed Education / High SchoolPublic or Private to Education / High School-Public or Private School Moved Education / Licenses and Certifications (current) to Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (current) Moved Education / Licenses and Certifications (expired) to Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (expired)

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196 Merged Education / Vocational, technical or other training into Education / Vocational-Course of Study Moved Employment / T ransferable Skills to Transferable Skills / Transferable Skills Merged Employment / Wage History into Employment / Verifiable earnings data Merged Employment / W2's for past 5 years into Employment / Verifiable earnings data Moved Employment / Verifiable earnings data to Economic / Historical Annual Earnings Moved Employment / Annual Earnings to Economic / Historical Annual Earnings Renamed Employment / Accommodations to Employment / Accommodations Available Merged Employment / Aptitude into Employment / Aptitudes Merged Employment / awards, etc into Employment / Awards Merged Employment / Benefits associated with employment at DOI into Employment / Benefits Available Merged Employment / Benefits of prior work into Employment / Bene fits Available Merged Employment / certifications e.g. ASE, forklift, SIGMA into Employment / Certificates Moved Employment / Cognitive Capacity to Vocational Test Results / Cognitive Capacity Moved Employment / Cognitive Demands to Vocational Test Results / Cognitive Demands Merged Employment / Past Work into Employment / Past Work and Job Duties Merged Employment / Pay to Employment into Employment / Pay (rate and type of pay) Merged Employment / performance into Employment / Performance Evaluations Merged Employment / Performance Evaluations into Employment / Performance Reviews Merged Employment / Personality into Employment / Personality Testing Moved Employment / Personality Testing to Psychological / Personality Testing Moved Employment / SVP to Trans ferable Skills / SVP Moved Employment / SVP required to Transferable Skills / SVP Required Moved Employment / transferable skills analysis using work history, testing of worker traits, consulting with evaluee and treating physician and therapist to obtain evaluation level of each worker trait; analysis and clinical judgment of pre and post results of each worker to Transferable Skills / transferable skills analysis using work history, testing of worker traits, consulting with evaluee and treating physician and therapist to obtain evaluation level of each worker trait; analysis and clinical judgment of pre and post results of each worker Merged Employment / Temperments into Employment / Temperaments Moved Employment / Temperaments to Transferable Skills / Temperaments Merged Employment / tools into Employment / Tool Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Merged Employment / Tools and Equipment Used (to clarify skills) into Employment / Tool Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Merged Employment / Tools used into Employment / Tool Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Merged Employment / Union Contract if applicable into Employment / unionized or not Merged Employment / Union into Employment / unionized or not Merged Employment / Skill Level into Employment / Skill Levels Merged Employment / skill levels into Employment / skills learned on a job Merged Employment / skills learned on a job into Employment / skills learned on the job Merged Employment / Specific tools, processes, machines, ect used on the job in the past into Employment / Tool Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Merged Employment / Supervision performed into Employment / Supervisory Responsibilities

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197 Merged Employme nt / Supervisory Duties into Employment / Supervisory Responsibilities Merged Employment / Supervisory Responsibility into Employment / Supervisory Responsibilities Merged Employment / reason for leaving into Employment / Reason for leaving a job Merged Em ployment / Reason for Leaving (Performance Issue) into Employment / Reason for leaving a job Merged Employment / reason for terminations or cessation into Employment / Reason for leaving a job Merged Employment / reasons for leaving past employments into Employment / Reason for leaving a job Merged Employment / physical capacity into Employment / Physical Requirements of Past Work Merged Employment / physical demands into Employment / Physical Requirements of Past Work Merged Employment / Physical Limitatio ns into Employment / Physical Requirements of Past Work Merged Employment / Physical Requirements into Employment / Physical Requirements of Past Work Merged Employment / physical requirements of past jobs into Employment / Physical Requirements of Past Wo rk Merged Employment / Physical requirements of the job into Employment / Physical Requirements of Past Work Merged Employment / Hobbies into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (present) Moved Employment / Acquired skills to Transferable Skills / Acq uired skills Merged Employment / Full time v part time into Employment / Full time or Part time work Merged Employment / Full time or part time (specific vocational time acquired) into Employment / Full time or Part time work Moved Employment / FCE testing to Medical / FCE testing Moved Employment / vocational interests to Vocational Test Results / vocational interests Moved Employment / typing to Transferable Skills / typing Moved Employment / Tertiary education to Education / College-Course of Study Merged Employment / Duties into Employment / Duties of past positions held Split Employment / Employer name and location into Employment / Employer Name and Employment / Employer Location Split Employment / additional learning -training and promotion into Educat ion / Employer Sponsored InService Training and Employment / Promotion Renamed Employment / affiliations with professional associations related to work e.g. NRA, IARP to Employment / Professional Association and Memberships Created Job Search Variables Moved Employment / age and impact of its perception in the labor market to Job Search Variables / age and impact of its perception in the labor market Moved Employment / age can be an employability factor, especially if considering the skilled category of work to Job Search Variables / age can be an employability factor, especially if considering the skilled category of work Moved Employment / analysis of worker traits of last 15 years of work to Transferable Skills / analysis of worker traits of last 15 ye ars of work

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198 Moved Employment / Aptitudes to Transferable Skills / Aptitudes Renamed Employment / Attendance to Employment / Employer Attendance Requirements Moved Employment / availability and ease of obtaining the employment (job search history) to Job Se arch Variables / availability and ease of obtaining the employment (job search history) Moved Employment / certificates to Transferable Skills / Certificates Moved Employment / traits to Transferable Skills / Traits Moved Employment / motivation testing to Vocational Test Results / motivation testing Merged Employment / Transportation into Employment / transportation requirements Renamed Employment / transportation requirements to Employment / Employer Transportation Requirements Renamed Employment / unionized or not to Employment / Employer Unionized or Not Moved Employment / Values to Vocational Test Results / Values Merged Employment / Fringe Benefits into Employment / Benefits Available Merged Employment / Dates into Employment / Dates of Employment Merged Employment / dates of employment into Employment / Dates of Past Employment Moved Employment / demonstrated aptitudes to Transferable Skills / demonstrated aptitudes Merged Employment / Location of Employment (City, State, etc.) into Employment / Employer Location Merged Employment / location commute into Employment / Employer Location Merged Employment / Job duties into Employment / Description of Duties of Each Job Merged Employment / job duties in each job (supervision; responsibilities) into Empl oyment / Description of Duties of Each Job Merged Employment / job duties of each job into Employment / Job Duties of Past Work Merged Employment / Job Requirements into Employment / Job Duties of Past Work Merged Employment / Job Responsibilities into Emp loyment / Job Duties of Past Work Merged Employment / Job Duties of Past Work into Employment / Description of Duties of Each Job Merged Employment / Duties of past positions held into Employment / Description of Duties of Each Job Moved Employment / curre nt physical capacity to Medical / current physical capacity Merged Employment / Wages into Employment / Wages Earned Moved Employment / Wages of past work especially the job(s) held within the past 3 years to Economic / Historical Annual Earnings Merged Employment / duration of employment into Employment / Dates of Past Employment Moved Employment / Geographic considerations (Rural v Urban and availability of specific work ( IE maple tree sappers from Maine don't get much work when they move to Florida) to Labor Market Information / Geographic considerations (Rural v Urban and availability of specific work ( IE maple tree sappers from Maine don't get much work when they move to Florida) Merged Employment / strength demands into Employment / StrengthPhysical work requirements Merged Employment / psychological status into Psychological / psychological status Merged Employment / Computer Skills into Employment / Technology Skills Moved Employment / availability of various jobs within a labor market to Labor Market Information / availability of various jobs within a labor market Split Employment / Salary data in relation to job and growth with the company into

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199 Employment / Wage Starting and Employment / Wage -Ending Merged Employment / Salary of prior work into Employment / Wage -Ending Merged Employment / Wages Earned into Employment / Wage -Ending Renamed Employment / Awards to Employment / Awards and Honors Merged Employment / Honors to Employment / Awards and Honors Merged Employment / Earnings into Employment / Wage -Ending Merged Employment / earnings history into Employment / Wage -Ending Split Employment / earnings received and any benefits into Employment / Earnings and Employment / Benefits Merge Employment / Earnings into Employment / Wage -Ending Merge Employment / Benefits into Employment / Benefits Available Moved Employment / compensation associated with particular jobs in particular geographic areas into Labor Market Information / compensation associated with particular jobs in particular geographic areas Merged Employment / training through employer into Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training Renamed Employment / Duration of unemployment gap in between jobs to Employment / Duration of Time Between Jobs Merged Employment / Earnings from each employment into Employment / Wage End Merged Employment / Employers Names into Employment / Employer Name Merged Employment / Equipment into Employment / Tool Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) December 30, 2010 Merged Employment / educational history into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed Deleted Employment / Economic Factors (this is a domain of variables, not a variable) Moved Employment / Deposition transcripts to Venue / Deposition transcripts Renamed Employment / Industry Factors to Employment / Employer Industry Moved Employment / Interests to Vocational Test Results / Interests Moved Employment / Interest Testing to Vocational Test Results / Interest Testing Moved Employment / Resume to Job Search Variables / Resume Moved Employment / RTW Options to Job Search Variables / RTW Options Moved Employment / Residual Functional Capacity to Perform Past Relevant Work to Medical / Residual Functional Capacity to Perform Past Relevant Work Merged Employment / Compensation Received for the Duties into Employment / Wages Ending Moved Employment / job seeking skills to Job Search Variables / job seeking skills Merged Employment / professional credentials e.g. diplomate, expert into Employment / Pro fessional Association and Memberships Merged Employment / Promotion into Employment / Promotions Merged Employment / Activities performed in Past Work into Employment / Activities performed in Past Work Created Employment / Each Individual Job Moved Employment / Accommodations Available to Employment / Each Individual Job / Accommodations Available

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200 Moved Employment / Awards and Honors to Employment / Each Individual Job / Awards and Honors Moved Employment / Benefits Available to Employment / Each Individua l Job / Benefits Available Split Employment / continuing education andor work related training into Education / Professional Continuing Education and Employment / Employer Sponsored InService Training Split Employment / Dates of Past Employment into Empl oyment / Each individual Job / Employment Start Date and Employment / Each individual Job / Employment End Date Moved Employment / Benefits Available to Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment End Date Moved Employment / Benefits Available to Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment Start Date Renamed Employment / Description of Duties of Each Job to Employment / Job Duties Moved Employment / Job Duties to Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties Renamed Employment / DOT title to Employment / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title Moved Employment / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title to Employment / Each Individual Job / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title Moved Employment / Employer Location to Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Location Moved Employment / Employer Name to Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Name Moved Employment / Employer Industry to Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Industry Renamed Employment / Emp loyer Transportation Requirements to Employment / Transportation Requirements Moved Employment / Transportation Requirements to Employment / Each Individual Job / Transportation Requirements Moved Employment / educational capacity to Vocational Test Results / Educational Capacity Moved Employment / Reason for leaving a job to Employment / Each Individual Job / Reason for leaving a job Merged Employment / Geographic Area into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Location Renamed Employment / Employer Unionized or Not to Employment / Union or Non-Union Moved Employment / Union or Non-Union to Employment / Each Individual Job / Union or Non -Union Renamed Employment / Method of Obtaining Each Job to Employment / Method of Obtaining Job Merged Employment / Method of finding each job into Employment / Method of Obtaining Job Merged Employment / How got the job general application or did he know someone in the company into Employment / Method of Obtaining Job Merged Employment / How job was originally obtained into Employment / Method of Obtaining Job Merged Employment / how the job was obtained into Employment / Method of Obtaining Job Merged Employment / how jobs were obtained, current (or last) into Employment / Method of Obtaining Job Moved Employment / Method of Obtaining Job to Employment / Each Individual Job / Method

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201 of Obtaining Job Merged Employment / Essential functions of the performed work into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties Moved Employment / Full time or Part time wo rk to Employment / Each Individual Job / Full time or Part time work Moved Employment / Job Title to Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title Merged Employment / Job titles into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title Renamed Employment / Tool Use d (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) to Employment / Tools Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Moved Employment / Tools Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) to Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment / Tools Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Merged Employment / past work -industry into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Industry Moved Employment / supervisory responsibilities to Employment / Each Individual Job / supervisory responsibilities Moved Employment / Wage -Ending to Employment / Each Individual Job / Wage-Ending Moved Employment / Wage Starting to Employment / Each Individual Job / WageStarting December 31, 2010 Merged Employment / Past Job Duties into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties Merged Employment / past work job duties into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties Merged Employment / past work job duties into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties Merged Employment / Past Work -Job Duties into Employment / Ea ch Individual Job / Job Duties Merged Employment / Past work performed into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties Merged Employment / specific work functions in each job into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties Moved Employment / Size of Employer to Employment / Each Individual Job / Size of Employer Renamed Employment / experience to Employment / Experience Required to Obtain Job Moved Employment / Experience Required to Obtain Job to Employment / Each Individual Job / Experience Required to Obtain Job Split Employment / job title and duties into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties and Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title Moved Employment / Employer Attendance Requirements to Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Attendance Requirements Moved Employment / I.Q. to Vocational Test Results / I.Q. Moved Employment / If the skills transfer to work within the medical limitations, that would increase earning capacity to Transferable Skills / If the ski lls transfer to work within the medical limitations, that would increase earning capacity Merged Employment / Tax records that objectively show an earning history, at least 5 years prior to Date of Injury and up to present into Economic / Historical Annual Earnings Moved Employment / Functional Job Analysis to Rehabilitation Services / Functional Job

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202 Analysis Merged Employment / Employment status (full-time, PRN, parttime, contract) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Full time or Part time work Merged Employment / Occupation into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title Merged Employment / job history into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title Moved Employment / performance reviews to Employment / Each Individual Job / Performance Reviews Merged Employment / employee's performance in those jobs (fit between worker and job duties) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Performance Reviews Moved Employment / evaluation of worker traits to Transferable Skills / evaluation of worker traits Merged Employment / qualifications into Employment / Each Individual Job / Experience Required to Obtain Job Renamed Employment / Inquire if they enjoyed doing that type of work into Employment / Did Employee Enjoy Job Moved Employment / Did Employee Enjoy Jo b to Employment / Each Individual Job / Did Employee Enjoy Job Merged Employment / Duration of Time Between Jobs into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment End Date Split Employment / Educational requirements of past work, dates of hire-end for each job in work history, SVP of each job in work history, specific job titles, job description, GED (RML),correct DOT number for each job, physical requirements of each job, all job duties in work history into Employment / Each Individual Job / Educational Requirements of Job and Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment End Date and Transferable Skills / SVP of Each Job and Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title and Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties and Transferable Skills / GED of Each Job and Transferable Skills / DOT Number and Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job Merged Employment / Length of time worked into Employment / Length of time each job was held Merged Employment / Length of time worked into Employ ment / Length of time each job was held Merged Employment / Length of Time performed work into Employment / Length of time each job was held Merged Employment / Length of employment into Employment / Length of time each job was held Merged Employment / len gth of employment experiences into Employment / Length of time each job was held Merged Employment / time in each job into Employment / Length of time each job was held Moved Employment / skills learned on the job to Employment / Each Individual Job / skil ls learned on the job Moved Employment / Career Motivation to Job Search Variables / Career Motivation Moved Employment / Career Progression to Job Search Variables / Career Progression Moved Employment / Duration of Time Since Last Employed to Job Search Variables / Duration of Time Since Last Employed Moved Employment / Employer expectations to Job Search Variables / Employer expectations Moved Employment / Employer References to Job Search Variables / Employer References

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203 Moved Employment / Unfortunately this is an important factor. Employers are not only more likely to hire attractive applicants, they are more willing to place them in positions that have direct contact with customers to Job Search Variables / Unfortunately this is an important factor. Employers are not only more likely to hire attractive applicants; they are more willing to place them in positions that have direct contact with customers Moved Employment / past work MSMPS to Transferable Skills / past work MSMPS Moved Employment / past work MTEWA to Transferable Skills / past work MTEWA Merged Employment / industry in which the job was performed (for example a forklift driver in a warehouse has some similarities and some differences from a fork lift driver on the water front) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Industry Merged Employment / Family history of work performed (pediatric cases) into Family / Family history of work performed (pediatric cases) Merged Employment / Success (employment reviews ) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Performance Reviews Merged Employment / success in employment into Employment / Each Individual Job / Performance Reviews Merged Employment / machines into Employment / Each Individual Job / Tools Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Merged Employment / Past Work Physical Requirements into Employment / past work physical requirements Merged Employment / Physical Requirements of Past Work into Employment / past work physical requirements Merged Employment / past work physical requirements into Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job Merged Employment / Length of time each job was held into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment End Date Merged Employment / like or dislike job in to Employment / Each Individual Job / Did Employee Enjoy Job Merged Employment / functional capacity checklist into Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job Renamed Employment / status of injury rate in that industry into Employment / Employer Industry Rate of Injury Moved Employment / Employer Industry Rate of Injury into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Industry Rate of Injury Merged Employment / Demonstrated Earning Capacity into Economic / Historical Annual Earnings Merged Employment / past earnings records into Economic / Historical Annual Earnings Renamed Employment / Determine if more than one job was held at each employer to Employment / Job Progression with Employer Moved Employment / Job Progression with Employer to Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Progression with Employer Merged Employment / past work rate of pay into Employment / Each Individual Job / Wage Ending Merged Employment / level of responsibility into Employment / Each Individual Job / Supervisory Responsibilities Merged Employment / Level of responsibility and ability to make decisions into Employment /

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204 Each Individual Job / Supervisory Responsibilities Merged Employment / length of tenure in past employment history into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment End Date Merged Employment / Significant work history into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties Merged Employment / Salary into Employment / Each Individual Job / Wage-Ending Merged Employment / Pay (rate and type of pay) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Wage -Ending Moved Employment / past work abilities to Transferable Skills / past work abilities Moved Employment / past work -environment to Transferable Skills / past wo rk -environment Moved Employment / Past work skills to Transferable Skills / Past work skills Moved Employment / past work temperaments to Transferable Skills / past work temperaments Renamed Employment / stress of each job to Employment / Job Stress Moved Employment / Job Stress to Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Stress Moved Employment / Consistency of Employment to Job Search Variables / Consistency of Employment Moved Employment / Dates between employment and reason for job absences to Job Search Variables / Dates between employment and reason for job absences Moved Employment / Interview information and a review of available job logs showing job search activities to Job Search Variables / Interview information and a review of available job logs s howing job search activities Moved Employment / job search activity to Job Search Variables / job search activity Moved Employment / licenses held to Job Search Variables / licenses held Moved Employment / licenses certifications to Job Search Variables / licenses certifications Moved Employment / Phase of career development to Job Search Variables / Phase of career development Moved Employment / potential for retraining to Job Search Variables / potential for retraining Moved Employment / Professional Asso ciation and Memberships to Job Search Variables / Professional Association and Memberships Merged Employment / past compensation into Employment / Each Individual Job / WageEnding Moved Employment / Technology Skills into Employment / Each Individual Job / Tools Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Moved Employment / past work employmentpart time or full time into Employment / Each Individual Job / Full time or Part time work Merged Employment / Types of industries in which the person worked (industrial, office, service) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Industry Moved Employment / relevancy of past employment domains to today's labor market into Transferable Skills / relevancy of past employment do mains to today's labor market Renamed Employment / Each Individual Job / Full time or Part time work into Employment / Each Individual Job / Work Schedule Merged Employment / work schedule ie full time or part time into Employment / Each Individual Job / Work Schedule Merged Employment / Potential for promotion into Employment / Promotions Renamed Employment / Promotions to Employment / Work Promotions Moved Employment / Work Promotions to Employment / Each Individual Job / Work

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205 Promotions Merged Employment / Work Pattern (full, part, seasonal, temporary, etc) to determine attachment to into Employment / Each Individual Job / Work Schedule Merged Employment / time allotment (part or full time) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Work Schedule Merged Empl oyment / Work history ( for older workers, work pattern and earning history) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title Merged Employment / Strength -Physical work requirements into Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job Merged Employment / Past Work Light Duties alternate duties performed into Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job Merged Employment / Years into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment End Date January 1, 2011 Moved Employ ment / Older workers can face unstated discrimination to Job Search Variables / Older workers can face unstated discrimination Moved Employment / perceptions of ability to work to Job Search Variables / perceptions of ability to work Moved Employment / Per iods of unemployment, and reasons why to Job Search Variables / Periods of unemployment, and reasons why Moved Employment / supportive employer may offer trial employment, on -the-job training, job modification to Job Search Variables / supportive employer may offer trial employment, on -thejob training, job modification Moved Employment / the age of the evaluee can impact available vocational options. For example a person under 25 is unlikely to qualify for professional driving jobs to Job Search Variables / the age of the evaluee can impact available vocational options. For example a person under 25 is unlikely to qualify for professional driving jobs Moved Employment / use of public agencies to Job Search Variables / use of public ag encies Moved Employment / was the individual under-employed pre-injury to Job Search Variables / was the individual underemployed pre-injury Moved Employment / Was the job interrupted to Job Search Variables / Was the job interrupted Moved Employment / wo rk steadiness to Job Search Variables / work steadiness Merged Employment / employer, city & state, dates of employment, job duties, job title, physical demands, environmental conditions, parttime, full-time, seasonal, temporary, reason for leaving, how the job was found and obtained, computer use requirements, compensation into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Name and Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Location and Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Start Date and Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer End Date and Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties and Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title and Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job and Employment / Each Individual Job / Environmental Demands of Job and Employment / Each Individual Job / Work Schedule and Employment / Each Individual Job / Reason for Leaving Job and Employment / Each Individual Job / Method of Obtaining Job and Employment / Each Individual Job / Tools Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) and Employment / Each Individual Job / Wage-Ending Merged Employment / Employer Dates -Position Held of past employer especially considering the past 15 years, but prior to that time can be important, also, to show progre ss or lack thereof,

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206 of jobs into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title and Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Name and Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment Start Date and Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment End Date and E mployment / Career Progression Merged Employment / Employment dates (with name of organization) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment Start Date and Employment / Each Individual Job / Employment End Date and Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Name Merged Employment / environmental factors (indoor-outdoor, hazards) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Environmental Demands of Job Split Experience in self employment as well as employment to consider level of self motivation and abil ity to market into Employment / Experience in Self Employment and Employment / Level of Work Motivation and Employment / Ability to Self Promote in Job Search Activities and Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title Split flexibility in work versus structured into Employment / Each Individual Job / Work Flexibility Moved Employability / For future work capacity, understanding of educational capacity is necessary to Vocational Test Results / For future work capacity, understanding of educational capacity is necessary Split Employment / I evaluate past employment experience and acquired skills and the physical and mental abilities required to perform tasks of past work into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title and Transferable Skills / Acquired Work Skills and Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job and Employment / Each Individual Job / Mental Demands of Job Renamed Employment / interpersonal relationships on the job into Employment / Interpersonal Demands of the Job Moved Employment / Interpersonal Demands of the Job to Employment / Each Individual Job / Interpersonal Demands of the Job Split Employment / Job Acceptance Criteria may include -wage level, work hours, benefits, prestige of job title, level of supervision, commute required, growth potential into Employment / Each Individual Job / Wage Starting and Employment / Each Individual Job / Work Schedule and Employment / Each Individual Job / Benefits Available and Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Presti ge and Employment / Each Individual Job / Required Commute and Employment / Each Individual Job / Promotion Potential Merged Employment / Lifting, standing walking sitting requirements into Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job Merged Employment / Mental Limitations and advancement potential for past work into Medical / Mental Limitations and Employment / Each Individual Job / Promotion Potential Merged Employment / method of obtaining supervisor into Employment / Each Individual Job / Supervisory Responsibilities Moved Employment / Number of persons supervised into Employment / Each Individual Job / Number of Persons Supervised Merged Employment / overall conditions of working (through ergonomic and epidemiological research as well as workers' provided information) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Environmental Demands of Job Split Employment / past work experience (skills) and earnings history into Transferable Skills / past work experience (skills) and Economic / Historical Annual Earnings

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207 Split Employment / Past work history with associated wages to Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title and Employment / Each Individual Job / Wage-Ending Split Employment / past work job duties with exact title to Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title and Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Duties Split Employment / Pertinent and or available employment records into Employment / Each Individual Job / Job Title Split Employment / Physical, educational, aptitudes associated with employment, environmental conditions into Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job and Employment / Each Individual Job / Educational Requirements of Job and Transferable Skills / aptitudes associated with employment and Employment / Each Individual Job / Environmental Demands of Job Moved Employment / Recent work is more important than work performed in the distant past because of r elevancy of skills in the labor market to Transferable Skills / Recent work is more important than work performed in the distant past because of relevancy of skills in the labor market Moved Employment / recreation checklist to Avocational Activities / Hob by Interests (Present) Moved Employment / salary vs. commission vs. bonuses to Employment / Each Individual Job / Pay Structure (ie. Salary, commission, bonus) Moved Employment / Scholastic achievement to Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed Merged Employment / staying in one industry or sector versus moving around into Employment / Each Individual Job / Employer Industry Split Employment / Structure in company municipal v. private interaction with supervisors into Employment / Each Individual Job / Company Structure (private vs. public) and Employment / Each Individual Job / Interpersonal Demands of the Job Moved Employment / Transferable Skills for alternate employment within functional capacity into Transferable Skills / Transferable Ski lls for alternate employment within functional capacity Merged Employment / type of employer (e.g., private, government, family business) into Employment / Each Individual Job / Company Structure (private vs. public) Split Employment / Work performed on a part -time, working on the side basis to include the job duties and physical requirements into Employment / Each Individual Job / Work Schedule and Employment / Each Individual Job / Physical Requirements of Job Moved Employment / Ability to Self Promote in Job Search Activities to Job Search Variables / Ability to Self Promote in Job Search Activities Moved Employment / Career Progression to Job Search Variables / Career Progression Moved Employment / Experience in Self Employment to Job Search Variables / Experience in Self Employment Moved Employment / Level of Work Motivation to Job Search Variables / Level of Work Motivation Moved Employment / Methodology review and comparison with past job searches to Job Search Variables / Methodology review and comparison with past job searches Moved Employment / patterns of employment i.e. moving up the ladder vs. making lateral moves to Job Search Variables / patterns of employment i.e. moving up the ladder vs. making lateral moves Moved Employment / reasons for inconsistent work experiences or short periods of employment to Job Search Variables / reasons for inconsistent work experiences or short periods of

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208 employment Moved Employment / Records re If Unemployment Comp was received to Job Search Variables / Records re If Unemployment Comp was received Moved Employment / the closer to retirement age, the less likely future employment opportunities to Job Search Variables / the closer to retirement age, the less likely future employment opportunities Moved Employment / turnover status to Job Search Variables / turnover status Moved Employment / work in college or high school to Job Search Variables / work in college or high school Renamed Employment to Employment-Individual Job Details Moved Employment-Individual Job Details / Each Individual Job to Employment-Individual Job Details Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Environmental Demands of Job to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Demands of Job-Environmental Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Physical Requirements of Job to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Demands of JobPhysical Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Mental Demands of Job to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Demands of JobMental Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Company Structure (private vs. public) to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employer Structure (private vs. public) Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Accommodations Available to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employer Accommodations Provided Renamed EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Benefits Available to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employer Provided Benefits Merged EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Job Stress to Employment-Individual J ob Details / Demands of JobMental Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Interpersonal Demands of the Job to Employment-Individual Job Details / Demands of Job-Interpersonal Moved EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title to Transferable Skills / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Awards and Honors to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Awards and Honors Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Did Employee Enjoy Job to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee Satisfaction with Job Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Method of Obtaining Job to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee -Method of Obtaining Job Renamed Employment-Individua l Job Details / Performance Reviews to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee Performance Reviews Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Reason for Leaving Job to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee -Reason for Leaving Job Renamed Employ ment -Individual Job Details / Union or Non-Union to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employer -Union or Non-Union Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Experience Required to Obtain Job to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee Experience Req uired to Obtain Job Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Employment End Date to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee -Employment End Date

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209 Renamed EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employment Start Date to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee Employment Start Date Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Educational Requirements of Job to Employment-Individual Job Details / JobEducational Requirements Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Job Progression with Employer to Em ploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee -Job Progression with Employer Renamed EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Promotion Potential to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Promotion Potential Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / WageEn ding to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Ending Wage Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / WageStarting to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee Starting Wage Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Number of Persons Supervised to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Job-Number of Persons Supervised Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Pay Structure (ie. Salary, commission, bonus) to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employer -Pay Structure (ie. Salary, commission, bonus) Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Required Commute to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Required Commute Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Size of Employer to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employer Size of Employer Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Skills Learned on the Job to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee -Skills Learned on the Job Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Supervisory Responsibilities to Employment Individual Job Details / Job-Supervisory Responsibilities Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Tools Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) to Employment-Individual Job Details / Job-Tools Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Transportation Requirements to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Demands of Job-Driving Renamed EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Work Flexibility to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employer Work Flexibility Ren amed Employment-Individual Job Details / Work Promotions to Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Promotions Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details / Work Schedule to Employment-Individual Job Details / Job Work Schedule Merged Experience / Avocational Pursuits into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (Present) Merged Experience / Hobbies into Avocational Activities / Hobbies Merged Experience / Volunteer activities into Avocational Activities / Casual Participation in Clubs, Associations and Organizations Merged Experience / Military into Military background / Military Deleted Experience (all variables merged to other domains) Merged Family / Age into Family / age of children and spouse Split Family / age of children and spouse into Family / Age of Children and Family / Age of Spouse Split Family / Drivers License (type and if current) into Demographic / Drivers License

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210 Status and Demographic / Drivers License Type Split Family / Education -Siblings and family support into Family / Education Le vel of Siblings and Family / Family Support Provided to Evaluee Merged Family / Family educational attainment into Family / Education Level of Parents and Family / Education Level of Siblings Renamed Family / Family history of work performed (pediatric cases) to Family / Occupation of Parents Split Family / Marital status and children ages into Family / Marital Status and Family / Age of Children Merged Family / Place of birth into Demographic / Place of Birth Split Family / family may provide assistance with travel, training, job search and encourage a return to work into Family / Family Support to Evaluee -Transportation and Family / Family Support to Evaluee-Education and Training and Family / Family Support to EvalueeJob Search Activities Rename Family / family may provide emotional support for return to work to Family / Family Support to Evaluee-Emotional Merged Family / Family Support Provided to Evaluee into Family / Family Support to Evaluee Emotional Merged Family / family support for encouragement and motivation to work toward objective into Family / Family Support to Evaluee Job Search Activities Merged Family / Hobbies and Interests into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (Present) and Vocational Test Results / Interests Split Family / if spouse and family are all on disability it becomes more of an acceptable life style, deflating motivation to return to work into Family / Disability Status of Parents and Family / Disability Status of Spouse and Family / Disability Status of Siblings and Family / Disability Status of Children Split Family / Marital status, dependents into Family / Marital Status and Family / Number of Dependents Merged Family / Some family and friends have great empl oyer connections for possible employment opportunities into Family / Family Support to Evaluee Job Search Activities Renamed Family to Family and Social Split Family and Social / Supportphysical, economic, social factors affecting vocational choices; decision making within family, changing roles into Family and Social / Family Support to EvalueeAttendant and Personal Care and Family and Social / Family Support to EvalueeFinancial and Family and Social / Family Support to Evaluee Job Search Activities and Family and Social / Change in Family Roles Split Family and Social / Type of home and location, i.e. rural ranch style home, 2-story home with steps into Demographic / Residence Type (ie. apartment, home, mobile home) and Demographic / Address (curr ent) Renamed Demographic / Address (current) to Demographic / Residence Address (current) Renamed Financial / can deflate the motivation level of client to return to work to Financial / Sources of IncomeDisability Split Financial / Basic needs, family support (or lack of), dependents, debt, union contract into Financial / Income Necessary to Cover Expenses and Family and Social / Family Support to EvalueeEmotional and Family and Social / Number of Dependents and Financial / Personal

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211 Debt and Financial / Union Benefits Merged Financial / Benefits into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employer -Provided Benefits Renamed EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employer -Provided Benefits to EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employer Benefits Provided Merged Financial / disability payments into Financial / Sources of IncomeDisability Renamed Financial / spouse income into Financial / Sources of Income-Spouse Moved Financial / financial stress can serve as a motivator for retu rn to work lack of a little stress can do the opposite to Psychological / financial stress can serve as a motivator for return to work lack of a little stress can do the opposite Renamed Financial / earnings into Financial / Sources of IncomeEarnings from Paid Work Renamed Financial / Union Benefits to Financial / Continuing Insurance or Employer Benefits (ie. health, dental) Renamed Financial / Personal Debt to Financial / Debt and Financial Support Obligations Merged Financial / financial need to support obligations of self, family, children, significant others into Financial / Debt and Financial Support Obligations Merged Financial / financial disincentive may include offset for earnings or benefits, loss of benefits with increased earnings into Financial / Sources of IncomeDisability and Financial / Continuing Insurance or Employer Benefits (ie. health, dental) Merged Financial / financial need and responsibility to pay for obligations into Financial / Debt and Financial Support Obligations Created Rehabilitation Services Training Moved Geographic Area / access to training opportunities to Rehabilitation Services Training / access to training opportunities Moved Geographic Area / commute length to Labor Market Information / commute length Moved Geographic Area / economy to Labor Market Information / economy Moved Geographic Area / Geographic area to Labor Market Information / Geographic area Moved Geographic Area / If a person lives in an isolated area there are fewer jobs pre and post injury to Labor Ma rket Information / If a person lives in an isolated area there are fewer jobs pre and post-injury Moved Geographic Area / labor market size and characteristics to Labor Market Information / labor market size and characteristics Moved Geographic Area / Loss of earning will be affected by a person's geographic area to Labor Market Information / Loss of earning will be affected by a person's geographic area Moved Geographic Area / rural, metropolitan, high density, low density, accessibility to Labor Market In formation / rural, metropolitan, high density, low density, accessibility Merged interests into Vocational Test Results Deleted Geographic Area (all variables merged to other domains) Merged Ability Measurement into Vocational Test Results Created Professi onal Resources Moved Household / house hold chore checklist (165 questions about elements of tasks around the home) to Professional Resources / house hold chore checklist (165 questions about elements of tasks around the home) Moved Household / Use Dollar Value of a Day to Professional Resources / Use Dollar Value of a Day Renamed Household to Household Activities

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212 Merged Household Activities / dependent children or adults into Family and Social / Number of Dependents Renamed Household Activities / home ownership into Demographic / Residence Own or Rent Moved Household Activities / Postincident capacity into Medical / Postincident capacity Moved Household Activities / Pre incident capacity into Medical / Pre incident capacity Moved Household Activities / use state and county variables into Household Activities / Economic Factors Merged Household Activities / size of household into Family and Social / Number of Dependents Merged Household Activities / rental agreement into Demographic / Residence Own or Rent Split Household Activities / Do not use tasks not performed before injury only tasks that were performed before injury into Household Activities / Tasks Performed Pre-Injury and Household Activities / Tasks Performed PostIn jury Moved Household Activities / Cross check with FCE results to Transferable Skills / Cross check with FCE results Moved Household Activities / Cross check with physician feedback of worker traits to Transferable Skills / Cross check with physician feedback of worker traits Moved Household Activities / Economic factors to Labor Market Information / Economic factors Renamed Household Activities / physical demands for household activities to Household Activities / Physical Demands of Household Activities Renamed Household Activities / Needs to Household Activities / Household Activities Requiring Assistance Moved Household Activities / Expectations to Psychological / Expectations Merged Family and Social into Socioeconomic Merged Demographic into Socioecon omic Moved Socioeconomic / accessibility to transportation to Transportation / accessibility to transportation Renamed Socioeconomic / Address to Socioeconomic / Evaluee Address Renamed Socioeconomic / Age to Socioeconomic / Evaluee Age Merged Socioeconomi c / Current Age into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Age Merged Socioeconomic / Children into Socioeconomic / Number of Dependents Merged Socioeconomic / Family Size into Socioeconomic / Number of Dependents Merged Socioeconomic / Household Activity into Household Activities / Household Activities Requiring Assistance Renamed Socioeconomic / Weight to Socioeconomic / Evaluee Weight Renamed Socioeconomic / Height to Socioeconomic / Evaluee Height Merged Socioeconomic / Hobbies into Socioeconomic / Hobbies and Avocat ional activities that can relate to employment Merged Socioeconomic / Hobbies and Avocational activities that can relate to employment into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (Present) Merged Socioeconomic / Family Support into Socioeconomic / Family Support to EvalueeEmotional Renamed Socioeconomic / Date of Birth to Socioeconomic / EvalueeDate of Birth Renamed Socioeconomic / Age of Children to Socioeconomic / Dependents Age Renamed Socioeconomic / Age of Spouse to Socioeconomic / SpouseAge

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213 Renamed Socioeconomic / spouse employment to Socioeconomic / Spouse-Employment Split Socioeconomic / spouse education and income to Socioeconomic / Spouse-Education and Financial / Sources of Income-Spouse Merged Socioeconomic / does the size of the family play a role into Socioeconomic / Number of Dependents Merged Socioeconomic / drivers into Socioeconomic / Drivers License Status Renamed Socioeconomic / Spouse-Education to Socioeconomic / Education Level of Spouse Renamed Socioeconomic / SpouseEmployment to Socioeconomic / Employment Status of Spouse Moved Socioeconomic / Substance Abuse to Medical / Substance Abuse Renamed Socioeconomic / family responsibility to Socioeconomic / EvalueeFamily Responsibilities Merged Socioeconomic / family education into Socioeconomic / Education Level of Spouse Merged Socioeconomic / maritalfamily status into Socioeconomic / marital status Merged Socioeconomic / Felonies into Socioeconomic / felony criminal history Renamed Socioeconomic / hand dominance to Socioeconomic / Evaluee-Hand Dominance Moved Socioeconomic / interests to Vocational Test Results / interests Moved Socioeconomic / Network in profession for support to obtain other employment to Job Search Variables / Networ k in profession for support to obtain other employment Merged Socioeconomic / Where do the claimant's live into Socioeconomic / EvalueeAddress Merged Socioeconomic / income into Socioeconomic / Financial Need to Work Merged Socioeconomic / financial situa tion into Socioeconomic / Financial Need to Work Moved Socioeconomic / Professional Affiliations to Job Search Variables / Professional Affiliations Merged Socioeconomic / Residence Address (current) into Socioeconomic / EvalueeAddress Merged Socioeconomi c / Residence into Socioeconomic / EvalueeAddress Merged Socioeconomic / sources of income into Socioeconomic / Financial Need to Work Merged Socioeconomic / financial need to work into Financial / Income Necessary to Cover Expenses Moved Socioeconomic / felony criminal history to Legal / felony criminal history Split Socioeconomic / driver's license status-access to transportation into Socioeconomic / Drivers License Status and Transportation / Access to Transportation Split Socioeconomic / Current family situation, occupations-earnings of family members, expected responsibilities to family members into Financial / Sources of IncomeFamily and Household Activities / Evaluee Responsibilities for Household Activities Renamed Socioeconomic / DependentsAge to Socioeconomic / Age of Dependents Renamed Socioeconomic / SpouseAge to Socioeconomic / Age of Spouse Merged Socioeconomic / parents income (for young clients) into Financial / Sources of IncomeFamily Renamed Socioeconomic / familial work histories and work ethic into Socioeconomic / Employment Status of Extended Family Members Merged Socioeconomic / family and community support into Socioeconomic / Family Support to Evaluee-Emotional Split Socioeconomic / Fam ily of origin background -who was in the family, position in family, occupations of family members, and current relationship with family members to determine any influences on occupational choices or resources for job search activities into Socioeconomic /

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214 EvalueeBirth Order and Socioeconomic / Employment Status of Extended Family Members and Socioeconomic / Status of Family Relationships Renamed Socioeconomic / family social status based on income into Socioeconomic / Family Social Status of Evaluee Spl it Socioeconomic / living situation (city, homeowner) into Socioeconomic / EvalueeAddress and Socioeconomic / Employment Status of Extended Family Members and Socioeconomic / Residence-Own or Rent Renamed Socioeconomic / Occupation of Parents into Socioeconomic / Employment Status of Parents Moved Socioeconomic / how accustomed have they become to violence and crime to Legal / how accustomed have they become to violence and crime Moved Socioeconomic / outside sources so can identify if work is total identi ty or if it is a part of a richer life to Job Search Variables / outside sources so can identify if work is total identity or if it is a part of a richer life Renamed Socioeconomic / Place of birth into Socioeconomic / EvalueePlace of Birth Split Socioeco nomic / preand post-injury hobbies into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (past) and Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (present) Moved Socioeconomic / Secondary Gain to Financial / Secondary Gain Issues Moved Socioeconomic / Social to Avoca tional Activities / Participation in Social and Community Activities Moved Socioeconomic / social memberships to Avocational Activities / Participation in Social and Community Activities Merged Socioeconomic / to what extent does poverty play a role in the ir lives into Socioeconomic / Family Social Status of Evaluee Moved Socioeconomic / Support system available, organizations that they are a member and positions they have held in these organizations to Avocational Activities / Formal Participation in Clubs, Associations and Organizations Merged Socioeconomic / Typical Day into Household Activities / Evaluee Responsibilities for Household Activities Moved Socioeconomic / what are the broad -spectrum of economic opportunities in their environment to Labor Market Information / what are the broad spectrum of economic opportunities in their environment January 2, 2011 Merged Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rates into Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate Merged Labor Market Information / Unemployment into Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate Merged Labor Market Information / availability of jobs into Labor Market Information / availability of various jobs in one's geographic labor market Merged Labor Mar ket Information / availability of various jobs within a labor market into Labor Market Information / availability of various jobs in one's geographic labor market Merged Labor Market Information / commutable labor market into Labor Market Information / availability of various jobs in one's geographic labor market Merged Labor Market Information / commute length into Labor Market Information / availability of various jobs in one's geographic labor market

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215 Merged Labor Market Information / Economic factors int o Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate Merged Labor Market Information / Economic trends into Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate Merged Labor Market Information / economy into Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate Merged Labor Market Information / TSA data using computer programs in order to determine job categories that the individual can perform.(I use Job Browser Pro.) into Transferable Skills / TSA data using computer programs in order to determine job categories that the individual can perform.(I use Job Browser Pro.) Merged Labor Market Information / job availability into Labor Market Information / job opportunities Merged Labor Market Information / job opportunities into Labor Market Information / Job opportunities in the geographic area Merged Labor Market Information / Job opportunities in the geographic area into Labor Market Information / availability of various jobs in one's geographic labor market Merged Labor Market Information / population into Labor Market Information / population of the area Renamed Labor Market Information / availability of various jobs in one's geographic labor market to Labor Market Information / Jobs Available within the Relevant Labor Market of Interest Split Labor Market Information / A worker living in a remoterural area is likely to have less opportunity for jobs than one in an urban setting unless he is willing to commute into Labor Market Information / Commute Distance to Significant Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Population of Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Population of Surrounding Labor Markets Merged Labor Market Information / population of the area into Labor Market Information / APopulation of Local Labor Market Renamed Labor Market Informatio n / Jobs Available within the Relevant Labor Market of Interest to Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market Created Labor Market information / Jobs Available within the Surrounding Labor Market Split Labor Market Information / prevailing wages for jobs in a given labor market into Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Surrounding Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / Actual job openings in the local labor market with and without salary information. (I use many job search engines such as CareerBuilder andor direct employer contact.) into Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Loc al Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / compensation associated with particular jobs in particular geographic areas into Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Local Labor Market Split Labor Market Information / Expected Growth in the geographic area into Labor Market Information / Expected Growth in Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Expected Growth in Surrounding Labor Market Split Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate into Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate in Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate in Surrounding Labor Market

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216 Merged Labor Market Information / Condition of local labor market into Labor Market In formation / Unemployment Rate in Local Labor Market Moved Labor Market Information / duration of unemployment into Job Search Variables / duration of unemployment Merged Labor Market Information / Geographic Area into Labor Market Information / Geographic considerations (Rural v Urban and availability of specific work ( IEmaple tree sappers from Maine don't get much work when they move to Florida) Split Labor Market Information / Geographic considerations (Rural v Urban and availability of specific work ( IE maple tree sappers from Maine don't get much work when they move to Florida) into Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Surrounding Labor Market Split Labor Market Information / Geographical area for consideration, number of people working in the proposed occupations, compensation information into Labor Market Information / Definition of Relevant Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Job Openings within t he Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Surrounding Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / If a person lives in an isolated area there are fewer jobs pre and post-injury into Labor Market Information / Job Openi ngs within the Local Labor Market Moved Labor Market Information / job tenure into Job Search Variables / job tenure Merged Labor Market Information / labor market size and characteristics into Labor Market Information / Population of Local Labor Market Re named Labor Market Information / job turnover into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling -Job Turnover for Suitable Jobs Merged Labor Market Information / Labor market research to gather information about actual job openings, hiring qualifications, job tasks, demands of jobs (potential job analysis with specific employers), future hiring expectations, promotional opportunities, programs, costs, and placement into Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling Hiring Qualifications and Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Job Duties for Suitable Jobs and Labor Market Information / Labor Market SamplingAnticipated Hiring for Suitable Jobs and Labor Market Informa tion / Labor Market Sampling-Promotional Opportunities for Suitable Jobs and Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Job Duties for Suitable Jobs and Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Plan for programs, costs, and placement Merged Labor Mar ket Information / large employers in the area into Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market Split Labor Market Information / LMI from the Department of Labor that includes DOT data, Census data, employment numbers, salaries, cross references. (I use Job Browser Pro.) into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Statistics -US Department of Labor and Labor Market Information / Labor Market Statistics -US Bureau of Census Split Labor Market Information / Local market need for occupation and wage ranges, limited number of jobs in smaller rural market Lager or national market need vs. abilitywillingness to relocate into Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Surrounding Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Local Labor Market and Job Search Variables / Willingness to Relocate to obtain Work Merged Labor Market Information / Loss of earning will be affected by a person's geographic

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217 area into Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / number of openings vs. number of job seekers --competitio n into Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate in Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / Other labor market research to include survey into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Job Duties for Suitable Jobs Merged Labor Market Information / pay potential into Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Local Labor Market Deleted Probably one of the most important factors (this was not a variable, but panelist opinion on the importance of labor market information) Split Labor M arket Information / relevance of education certifications, etc. to the Labor Market Demand currently into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Educational Requirements of Suitable Jobs and Labor Market Information / Labor Market SamplingLicens es and Certifications Required for Suitable Jobs Split Labor Market Information / required certifications or credentials associated with various jobs e.g. driver's license, forklift certification, associate degree into Labor Market Information / Labor Mark et Sampling -Educational Requirements of Suitable Jobs and Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Licenses and Certifications Required for Suitable Jobs Merged Labor Market Information / Research data consisting of actual employer surveys. (I use salaries data from Economic Research Institute.) into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Statistics Economic Research Institute Merged Labor Market Information / rural, metropolitan, high density, low density, accessibility into Labor Market Informati on / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / Sedentary Labor Market is not a domain of knowledge, it is a factual measurement of available jobs, types, wages, frequency, entry requirements, etcetera. into Labor Market I nformation / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / Statistical information from government organizations or trade association surveys which detail wages, hiring conditions, job vacancies, future employment into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Statistics -Trade Association Publications Merged Labor Market Information / Statistics on wages, industry information and employment numbers, pre and post-incident occupation(s) into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Statistics -Trade Association Publications and Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / the data element would be the rate of unemployment, geographic area for application of the rate and the time frame into Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate in Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate in Surrounding Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / work available in neighboring communities into Labor Market In formation / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / Where does the individual live into Socioeconomic / Evaluee-Address Merged Labor Market Information / what are the broad-spectrum of economic opportunities in their en vironment into Labor Market Information / Unemployment Rate in Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / Wages (entry level, median, experienced) paid in the geographic area into Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / wage rates into Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs

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218 in Local Labor Market Split Labor Market Information / types of work most prevalent in the area into Labor Market Information / Types of Jobs within the Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Types of Jobs within the Surrounding Labor Market Split Labor Market Information / types of jobs expected to increase and decrease for the area into Labor Market Information / Expected Growth in Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Expected Growth in Surrounding Labor Market Merged Labor Market Information / types of employers into Labor Market Information / Types of Jobs within the Local Labor Market Split Labor Market Information / The more jobs in the l ocal labor market within the medical limitations, and the higher paying they are, the greater earning capacity of the client into Labor Market Information / Types of Jobs within the Local Labor Market Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market SamplingHiring Qualifications of Suitable Jobs to Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Required Skills of Suitable Jobs Split Labor Market Information / types of jobs, number of jobs, skill required, wages, physical demands, growth status of market i nto Labor Market Information / Types of Jobs within the Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Required Skills of Suitable Jobs and Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling -Wages of Suitable Jobs and Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling -Physical Demands of Suitable Jobs and Labor Market Information / Expected Growth in Local Labor Market Moved Local Resources / transportation servic es available to Transportation / transportation services available Moved Local Resources / tax incentives available to Regulatory Issues ADA, etc. / tax incentives available Moved Local Resources / availability of community college training programs, or ot her readily available training programs to Rehabilitation Services Training / availability of community college training programs, or other readily available training programs Deleted Local Resources (all variables merged to other domains) Merged Loss of A ccess to Earning Capacity / OES data may be used into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Statistics -US Department of Labor Merged Loss of Access to Earning Capacity / Considering jobs to which the client still has access, consider an average wage into Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market and Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling Wages of Suitable Jobs Merged Loss of Access to Earning Capacity / Labor Market Research may be used into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Job Duties for Suitable Jobs Merged Loss of Access to Earning Capacity / Evaluate past earning capacity. In some states that is determined by the wage of injury. In other states that may be determined by an average of the past 3 to 5 years into Economic / Historical Annual Earnings Deleted Loss of Access to Earning Capacity (all variables merged to other domains) Merged Statutory Criteria for Participation into Regulatory Issues ADA, etc. Deleted Statutory Criteria for Participation (all variables merged to other domains) Merged Vocational Implications / Criminal Record into Legal / Criminal Record Merged Vocational Implications / Hobbies into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (present)

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219 Spl it Vocational Implications / Household Services into Avocational Activities / Tasks Performed Post -Injury and Avocational Activities / Tasks Performed Pre -Injury Merged Vocational Implications / Interests into Vocational Test Results / Interests Merged Voc ational Implications / Job Goals into Job Search Variables / Job Goals Merged Vocational Implications / Military History into Military Background / Military History Merged Vocational Implications / Skills Acquired into Transferable Skills / Skills Acquired Merged Vocational Implications / Sources of Incomedisability, social security, etc. into Financial / Sources of IncomeDisability Merged Vocational Implications / Transportation into Transportation / Transportation Deleted Vocational Implications (all va riables merged to other domains) Renamed Military Background to Military Service Experience Renamed Military Background to Military Service Experience Renamed Military Service Experience / Jobs while employed in military service to Military Training Deleted Military Service Experience / Many employers are impressed with workers with a military experience (this was not a variable, but panelist opinion on the importance of military service experience in placeability) Merged Military Service Experience / Military into Military Service Experience / Military service history Merged Military Service Experience / Military History into Military Service Experience / Military service history Renamed Military Service Experience / Military service history to Military Ser vice Experience / Military Dates of Service Merged Military Service Experience / Provided there was a honorable discharge into Military Service Experience / Type of Discharge Merged Military Service Experience / Years of Service into Military Service Exper ience / Military Dates of Service Moved Military Service Experience / This is a variable mostly in placeability into Job Search Variables / Military service impact on placeability Moved Predictive issues (earnings, access to labor market) data to Professional Resources Deleted Predictive issues (earnings, access to labor market) data (all variables merged to other domains) Moved Research to Professional Resources Deleted Research (all variables merged to other domains) Split Language Skills / Besides English, which Languages spokenwritten read into Language Skills / English Receptive Skills and Language Skills / English Expressive Skills and Language Skills / English Reading (self report) and Language Skills / English Writing (self report) and Language Skills / Other Language(s) Expressive Skills and Language Skills / Other Language(s) Receptive Skills and Language Skills / Other Language(s)Reading (self report) and Language Skills / Other Language(s) Writing (self report) Merged Language Skills / Communication Barriers into Language Skills / English Expressive Skills Merged Language Skills / Language(s) fluency into Language Skills / English Expressive Skills Merged Language Skills / literacy in common language, English into Language Skills / English Expressive Skills Merged Language Skills / English speaking ability listening -understanding, reading, writing,

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220 etc. Native language(s) literacy, alphabet (Roman or other). Language spoken at home. into Language Skills / Englis hExpressive Skills and Language Skills / Primary Language Spoken and Language Skills / Language Spoken in the Home Deleted Military Service Experience / Diverse cultures and languages exist within my practice and my local area in which I perform legal cas e analysis (100 mile radius). Hence, this focus. (this was not a variable, but panelist opinion on caseload characteristics) Merged Language Skills / ability to demonstrate bilingual skills for translation or interpretation into Language Skills / Other L anguage(s) Expressive Skills Moved Language Skills / comprehension demonstrated by testing to Vocational Test Results / comprehension demonstrated by testing Merged Legal / ability to use English in speaking, writing, listening, reading into Language Skills / English -Expressive Skills and Language Skills / English Reading (self report) and Language Skills / Receptive Skills and Language Skills / English Writing (self report) Moved Legal / capacity to drive and ownership of a drivers license to Transportation / capacity to drive and ownership of a drivers license Renamed Legal / Citizenship to Legal / Nationality of Citizenship Merged Legal / Legal into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / legal or illegal alien into Legal / Immigration Statu s Moved Legal / constraints on work while receiving benefits to Job Search Variables / constraints on work while receiving benefits Merged Legal / criminal history affects employability into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / criminal or other legal h istory of felonies, some misdemeanors into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / criminal or other records into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / Criminal Record into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / felony criminal history into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / That limits employability into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / Employers of sedentary and many light positions don't like to hire people with a criminal history into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / Evaluees with criminal histories are likely to be prohibited from some occupations into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / type and nature of crime, and outcomes -adjudication into Legal / Criminal History Merged Legal / how accustomed have they become to violence a nd crime into Socioeconomic / Family Social Status of Evaluee Moved Legal / cultural issues too related to disability status, work in general, medical treatment-acceptance of, understanding of, compliance to Medical / cultural issues too related to disability status, work in general, medical treatment -acceptance of, understanding of, compliance Merged Legal / participation in litigation and the time demands from this into Legal / Non Criminal Legal Involvement (ie. civil and administrative matters) Moved Legal / potential opportunities for alternative health insurance to Medical / potential opportunities for alternative health insurance Merged Legal / receipt of public or private financial benefits into Financial / Sources of IncomePublic Social Welfare B enefits (ie. food stamps) Merged Legal / receipt of public or private health insurance into Financial / Healthcare Benefits Public and Financial / Healthcare Benefits Private

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221 Merged Financial / Continuing Insurance or Employer Benefits (ie. health, dental) into Financial / Healthcare Benefits Private Renamed Medical / Assistive devices being used to Medical / Assistive Devices (currently being used) Renamed Medical / Assistive Devices Required to Medical / Assistive Devices (Recommended) Merged Medical / assistive devices into Medical / Assistive Devices (currently being used) Merged Medical / drug and alcohol history into Medical / Medical History Recreational Drug Use and Medical / Medical History -Alcohol Use Merged Medical / Drugs into Medical / Medical History Recreational Drug Use and Medical / Medical History Prescription Medication (current) Merged Medical / Effects of Medication into Medical / Medication Side Effects Merged Medical / Medication into Medical / Medical History -Prescription Medication (current) Merged Medical / Medications into Medical / Medical History -Prescription Medication (current) Renamed Medical / Medical History -Prescription Medication (current) into Medical / Medication -Prescription Medication (current) Merged Medical / Admission and Discharge Records into Medical / Records -Admission Records and Medical / Records Discharge Records Merged Medical / All prior claim or disability records into Medical / Records Treatment Records for Previous Injuries or Claims Renamed Medical / Assistive Devices (currently being used) into Medical / Accommodations Assistive Devices (current) Renamed Medical / Assistive Devices (Recommended) into Medical / Accommodatio nsAssistive Devices (Recommended) Merged Medical / ability to dependably and reliably perform those capacities into Medical / Functional Capacity Merged Medical / ability to improve functional capacity tolerances into Medical / Functional Capacity (curren t) and Medical / Functional Capacity (Future) Merged Medical / ability to work part or full time into Medical / Functional Capacity -Work Schedule (full or part time) Merged Medical / Limitations into Medical / limitations caused by the injury Merged Medical / Medical diagnosis into Medical / Medical diagnoses and treatment history through interview and record review Merged Medical / Medical treatment into Medical / Medical treatment for injury accident related to case Merged Medical / FCE Testing into Medic al / FCE Results Merged Medical / current physical capacity into Medical / Current physical capacities, treatment for current injury, current symptoms, medications being taken, what physician specialty treated the client, what the treatment history entailed, all surgeries and dates of each, any medical Merged Medical / diagnoses into Medical / diagnoses and dates Merged Medical / Diagnosis into Medical / diagnoses and dates Merged Medical / Absenteeism into Medical / Functional Capacity Expected Work Absences Merged Medical / accommodations recommended into Medical / A ccommodationsAssistive Devices (Recommended) Merged Medical / Accurate assessment of functional incapacity impairment into Medical / Functional Capacity (current)

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222 Merged Medical / accommodations required (incl. transportation) into Medical / Accommodations-Transportation Merged Medical / acute-chronic conditions into Medical / Medical Status -Acute Condition and Medical / Medical Status -Chronic Condition Merged Medical / adaptive equipment into Medical / Accommodations Assistive Devices (current) Merged Medical / adherence to treatment regimen and its difficulty into Medical / Treatment Patient Adherence to Treatment Recommendations Merged Medical / Again, looking at the totality of the individual, it is necessary to know if the job the person was doing a t the time of injury was selected in part because of an injury that was not related to the present injury into Medical / Medical History Previous Injury or Accident Merged Medical / all diagnoses by all treatment providers into Medical / Diagnoses, physical capacities, likelihood of progressive worsening of condition, other illnesses that could have occupational ramifications, active treatment ongoing. Medications taking and side effects, is the person released for employment Merged Medical / Diagnoses, phy sical capacities, likelihood of progressive worsening of condition, other illnesses that could have occupational ramifications, active treatment ongoing. Medications taking and side effects, is the person released for employment into Medical / Functional C apacity (current) and Medical / Medical Status -Probability of Progressive Worsening of Condition and Medical / Medical Status Potential Complications and Medical / Treatment -Frequency and Medical / Treatment -Duration and Medical / Medication -Prescription Medication (current) and Medical / Medication Side Effects and Medical / Functional Capacity Work Status Merged Medical / All prior independent evaluations (typically in legal or work compensation systems) into Medical / Records -Independent and Compulsory Examinations Merged Medical / anticipated future treatment into Medical / Treatment Projected Future Treatment Merged Medical / Any improvement in medical condition, treatment plan, list of physicians and specialty, or any other health care provider i.e. massage therapist, acupuncture, etc. into Medical / Treatment -Expected Improvement in Condition and Medical / Treatment Plan and Medical / Provider(s)Name and Medical / Provider(s) Specialty Merged Medical / Are subjective complaints supported by objective medical records into Medical / Medical Status Subjective Complaints Merged Medical / Body Part into Medical / Treatment Body Systems Effected Moved Medical / As previously stated I must present a profile of the individuals physical ability to perform work -related tasks to potential candidate for a particular job. This is required in Arizona Worker's compensation law into Transferable Skills / As previously stated I must present a profile of the ind ividuals physical ability to perform work related tasks to potential candidate for a particular job. This is required in Arizona Worker's compensation law Moved Medical / auto injury into Venue / auto injury Merged Medical / body parts physical restrictio ns into Medical / Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / chemical health issues into Medical / Medical History Recreational Drug Use Merged Medical / Chronicity into Medical / Medical Status -Chronic Condition Merged Medical / comparison between bot h functional capacity sets into Transferable Skills / comparison between both functional capacity sets Merged Medical / Conditions physically into Medical / Conditions (including preexisting) that

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223 might impact physicalmental emotional profile Merged Medi cal / Conditions (including preexisting) that might impact physical mental emotional profile into Medical / Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity (current) into Medical / Physical F unctional Capacity (current) Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity (future) into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (future) Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity -Expected Work Absences into Medical / Physical Functional CapacityExpected Work Absences Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity -Work Schedule (full or part time) into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity -Work Schedule (full or part time) Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity -Work Status into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity -Work Status Merged Medical / considerations and restrictions due to psychiatric or psychological impairments into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity Merged Medical / consult or in most cases compose a letter to treating physicians & therapist into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Moved Medical / consult with employer or supervisor that knew employee before and after injury, situational assessment into Transferable Skills / consult with employer or supervisor that knew employee before and after inj ury, situational assessment Merged Medical / consult with significant other or family member or close friend to address pre and post conditions for the followingsituational assessment, judgment & safety into Rehabilitation Services / consult with significant other or family member or close friend to address pre and post conditions for the followingsituational assessment, judgment & safety Merged Medical / Consultative Reports into Rehabilitation Services / Records -Independent and Compulsory Examinations Renamed Medical / Records -Independent and Compulsory Examinations into Rehabilitation Services / Records -Independent and Consultative Examinations Merged Medical / cultural issues too related to disability status, work in general, medical treatment -acceptance of, understanding of, compliance into Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Disability and Cultural / Cultural Importance of Work and Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Medical Opinions and Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Medical Treatment Recommendations Merged Medical / current functioning into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / current medical therapeutic status into Medical / Treatment Plan Renamed Medical / Treatment Plan into Medical / Treatment Plan (current) Merged Medical / Current physical capabilities as defined by treating physicians into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Current ph ysical capacities, treatment for current injury, current symptoms, medications being taken, what physician specialty treated the client, what the treatment history entailed, all surgeries and dates of each into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Treatment Plan (current) and Medical / Treatment Current Symptoms and Medical / Medication -Prescription Medication (current) and Medical / Provider(s) Specialty and Medical / Treatment Surgery(ies) and Medical / Treatment Surgery Dates Merged Medical / current status into Medical / Medical Status -Acute Condition Merged Medical / current symptoms into Medical / Treatment -Current Symptoms

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224 Merged Medical / current therapy into Medical / Treatment Plan (current) Merged Medical / current treatment into Medical / Treatment Plan (current) Merged Medical / daily activity description into Medical / Limitation in Activities of Daily Living Merged Medical / Date of incident medical situation or cause into Medical / TreatmentDate of Injury Merged Medi cal / degenerative nature of illness or limitations into Medical / Medical Status Probability of Progressive Worsening of Condition Merged Medical / diagnoses and dates into Medical / Treatment -Diagnosis and Medical / Treatment Diagnosis Date Merged Medical / Diagnoses and impact on physicalmental function into Medical / Treatment Diagnosis and Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / frequency of current treatment into Medical / Treatmen tFrequency Merged Medical / Diagnoses of medical condition into Medical / Treatment Diagnosis Merged Medical / diagnosis, symptoms, perceived limitations, medication intake and any affect (+ or ) into Medical / Treatment -Diagnosis and Medical / Treatment Symptoms and Transferable Skills / PatientSelf Report of Limitations and Medical / Medication -Prescription Medication (current) and Medical / Medication Side Effects Merged Medical / Diagnostic Testing into Medical / Treatment -Diagnost ic Testing Merged Medical / disabled person's perception of hisher residual functional capacities into Transferable Skills / disabled person's perception of hisher residual functional capacities Merged Medical / diseases into Medical / Treatment -Diagnosis Merged Medical / Dominant or non dominant upper extremity into Socioeconomic / Dominant Hand Merged Medical / Effects of Pain into Medical / Medical Status Pain Merged Medical / emotionally into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) Merged Me dical / expected prognosis into Medical / Treatment -Prognosis Merged Medical / family and community support into Socioeconomic / Family Support to EvalueeAttendant and Personal Care and Socioeconomic / Community and Non Family Support Merged Medical / FCE results into Medical / Records Functional Capacity Evaluation Merged Medical / financial access to care into Financial / Healthcare Benefits Private and Financial / Healthcare Benefits -Public Merged Medical / frequency of current treatment into Medical / Treatment Frequency Merged Medical / functional abilities limitations into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (future) Merged Medical / functional capacities as described by worker into Transferable Skills / functional capacities as described by worker Merged Medical / functional capacities as established by HCP into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Functional capacities -Lifting, Carrying, Walking, Standing, Environmental barriers, Sit -stand into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / functional capacity evaluations and per report of clientclaimant into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) and Transferable Skills / Fu nctional Capacity per Claimant

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225 Merged Medical / Functional capacity evaluations, formal or informal inventory into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Functional capacity is not a domain of knowledge; it is an ability to per form physically into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Functional capacity per MD or FCE into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Functional Limitations into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Future medical care needed into Medical / Treatment Projected Future Treatment Merged Medical / future medical prognoses into Medical / Treatment -Prognosis Merged Medical / future treatment into Medical / Treatment Projected Future Treatment Merged Medical / future treatment recommendations into Medical / Treatment Projected Future Treatment Merged Medical / health prior to DOI into Medical / Medical Status Pre Injury Health Status Merged M edical / hearing -vision issues into Medical / Sensory Vision Status and Medical / SensoryHearing Status Merged Medical / History of injury, if applicable into Medical / Treatment -Date of Injury Merged Medical / How active-healthy prior to injury as compar ed to after into Medical / Medical Status Pre Injury Health Status Merged Medical / However, if the client has an education and or significant transferrable skills that allow work within the limitations, then medical becomes less relevant into Transferable Skills / However, if the client has an education andor significant transferrable skills that allow work within the limitations, then medical becomes less relevant Deleted Medical / I have since rethought this and put this under Medical (this is not a var iable but commentary from the expert panelist) Merged Medical / I looked at FCE reports and other medical notes from other physicians into Medical / Reports Functional Capacity Evaluation and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / I need to know in totality what i'm dealing with. if there are other injuries that have forced the individual into the kind of job they were doing at injury, then it is important to know the types of jobs that were precluded before the actual injury involved into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / I need to know what kind of medications the individual is on so i can research the possible side effects and then, compare them to the effects the individual is experiencing. I als o want to know what their drug history is into Medical / Medication -Prescription Medication (current) and Medical / Medication Side Effects and Medical / Medical History Recreational Drug Use Merged Medical / If cognitive is a medical variable, understanding of cognitive capacity is rqd (I do a lot of TBI cases) into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / If there were differing opinions regarding permanent restrictions and limitations I made more than one opinion regarding loss of earning into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Impact of condition on stamina, postural functioning, reach and strength into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / in addition to the instant medical concerns into Medical / Treatment Diagnosis

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226 Merged Medical / In order to conduct a transferable skills assessment it is necessary to know exactly what the individual is able to do with regards to sitting, standing, waking, running, driving, lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, bending, stooping, reaching, gripping, into Transferable Skills / In order to conduct a transferable skills assessment it is necessary to know exactly what the individual is able to do with regards to sitting, standing, waking, running, driving, lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, bending, stooping, reaching, gripping Merged Medical / in this case neuropsych for reasoning capacity and prognosis for improvement v deterioratio n into Vocational Test Results / in this case neuropsych for reasoning capacity and prognosis for improvement v deterioration Merged Medical / independent medical exam physicians into Medical / Records -Independent and Consultative Examinations Merged Medical / Influence on ambulation for lower body into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Information about work capacity by dates and professional providing recommendations into Medical / Physical Functional Opinion Source an d Medical / Cognitive Functional Opinion Source and Medical / Physical Functional Opinion Source Date and Medical / Cognitive Functional Opinion Source Date Merged Medical / information regarding treating physicians into Medical / ProviderName and Medical / ProviderSpecialty Merged Medical / Injury into Medical / Treatment -Diagnosis Merged Medical / life expectancy based on seriousness of injury into Medical / Life Expectancy -Expected Reduction Due to Disability Merged Medical / likely duration of residua l functional capacities into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (future) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (future) Merged Medical / limitations caused by the injury into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / limitations in activities due to symptoms into Medical / Limitation in Activities of Daily Living Merged Medical / medical conditions primary and secondary identified by health care providers into Medical / Medical Status -Secondary Medical Conditions (unrelated to injury) Merged Medical / Medical diagnoses and treatment history through interview and record review into Medical / Treatment -Diagnosis Merged Medical / medical experts expressing opinions about the ir field of expertise, without expanding into areas where they do not have the recognition of being an expert in the field into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Medical history prior to the injury into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Medical Status Pre Injury Health Status Merged Medical / Medical History with IME MD length of IME eval into Medical / Records Independent and Consultative E xaminations Merged Medical / Medical History with Treating MD into Medical / Provider -History of Relationship with Treating Source Merged Medical / Medical opinion as to physical, mental and or cognitive capacity as related to incident into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current)

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227 Merged Medical / Medical permanency into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (future) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (future) Merged Medical / Medical s tatus regarding the injury into Medical / Medical Status -Chronic Condition Merged Medical / medically defined functional limitations into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / medications and physician noted side effects that might impact performance into Medical / Medication Prescription Medication (current) and Medical / Medication Side Effects Merged Medical / medications and their effects into Medical / Medication -Prescription Medication (current) and Medical / Medication Side Effects Merged Medical / medications and their effects into Medical / Medication -Prescription Medication (current) Merged Medical / Medications, dosage and side effects into Medical / Medicat ion-Prescription Medication (current) and Medical / Medication Side Effects and Medical / Medication -Dosage and Medical / Medication Prescriber Merged Medical / mental health issues into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Mental Limitations into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / mental status into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / mentally into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Names of treatment providers into Medical / Provider(s) Name Merged Medical / Narrative Reports into Medical / Reports Narrative Reports Merged Medical / need for additional sick days throughout the year into Medical / Physical Functional CapacityExpected Work Absences Merged Medical / need for assistive devices into Medical / Accommodations Assistive Devices (current) Merged Medical / need for future treatment or surgery into Medical / Treatment Projected Fu ture Treatment Merged Medical / need for future treatment, either routine or aggressive (ie surgical) into Medical / Treatment Projected Future Aggressive Treatment (ie. surgical) and Medical / Treatment -Projected Future Routine Treatment Merged Medical / need for intervention to improve function into Medical / Treatment Projected Future Aggressive Treatment (ie. surgical) and Medical / Treatment -Projected Future Routine Treatment Merged Medical / Treatment Projected Future Treatment into Medical / Treatmen tProjected Future Routine Treatment Merged Medical / medically defined functional limitations into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / need for medications into Medical / Medication Prescription Medication (current) January 3, 2011 Merged Medical / Non exertional requirements and abilities into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current)

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228 Merged Medical / non exertional limitations (pain, depression, postural limitations) into Medical / Medical Status Pain and Medical / Medical Status -Depression and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Objective assessments utilizing their medical expertise, and not excepting at face value what claimants report re their problems, and recording it in the reports in such a way that it appears to be the experts opinion into Records -Functional Capacity Evaluation and Medical / Medical Statu s-Depression and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / objective factors of disability into Records Functional Capacity Evaluation Merged Medical / objective functioning information into Records Functional Capacity Evaluation Merged Medical / On going permanent limitations into Medical / Medical Status -Depression and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / opinions of different physicianstherapists into Medical / Medical Status Depression and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / orthotics -prosthetics use into Medical / Treatment -Orthotics and Prosthetics Merged Medical / other medical history into Medical / Medical History -Previous Injury or Accident Merged Medical / pain level into Medical / Medical Status Pain Merged Medical / past functioning into Medical / Medical Status Pre Injury Health Status Merged Medical / Past Medical history to include any nonrelated issues i.e. diabetes, heart, etc into Medical / Medical Statu s-Secondary Medical Conditions (unrelated to injury) Merged Medical / Past medical history and pre -existing conditions into Medical / Medical Status Pre Injury Health Status and Medical / Medical Status -Pre Existing Conditions Merged Medical / Past Medical Issues Pre Injury into Medical / Medical Status Pre Existing Conditions Merged Medical / past psychological history into Medical / Medical History -Psychological Merged Medical / Past relevant drug or alcohol usage will tell me what kinds of jobs must be avoided when looking a potential future employment into Medical / Medical History -Alcohol Use and Medical / Medical History Recreational Drug Use Merged Medical / past significant injuries into Medical / Medical History -Previous Injury or Accident Merged Medical / past treatment into Medical / Medical History Past Medical Treatment Merged Medical / perceived residual functional capacities (lift, carry, sit, stand, walk, use of upper extremities, bend, etc.) into Medical / Evaluee Perception of Residual Functional Capacity Merged Medical / Permanency of condition into Medical / Permanency of Impairment Merged Medical / Permanent disability into Medical / Permanency of Impairment Merged Medical / permanent restrict ions arising from the medical condition that is the genesis of the claim into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / permanent restrictions arising from the medical condition that is the genesis of the claim into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (pre existing) and Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (preexisting) Merged Medical / Physical into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Physical abilities restrictions into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current)

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229 Merged Medical / Physical capacities into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Physical capacity inventory during office interview regarding traits f or jobperson matching into Transferable Skills / Physical capacity inventory during office interview regarding traits for job person matching Merged Medical / Physical capacities into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (future) Merged Medical / physical restrictions into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / physical restrictions or capabilities which are permanent in nature after an injury into Medical / Physical Functio nal Capacity (Permanent) Merged Medical / psychological restrictions into Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (Permanent) Merged Medical / prognosis into Medical / Treatment -Prognosis Merged Medical / Rated Age into Economic / Rated Age Merged Medical / residual functional capacity into Medical / Residual Functional Capacity to Perform Past Relevant Work Merged Medical / Residual Functional Capacity to Perform Past Relevant Work into Medical / residual functional capacities (physical, cognitive, behavioral health) as assessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions Merged Medical / Residual physical capacities per client and per medical from MD(s) and or FCE PCE into Medical / residual functional capacities (physic al, cognitive, behavioral health) as assessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions Merged Medical / restrictions have to be affirmed by a physician or other qualified expert into Medical / residual functional capacities (physical, cognitive, behavioral health) as assessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions Merged Medical / second opinion physicians into Medical / second opinion physicians and independent medical exams Merged Medical / side effects into Medical / Side effects of medications Merged Medical / work restrictions into Medical / residual functional capacities (physical, cognitive, behavioral health) as assessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions Merged Medical / work releaserestrictions into Medical / residual functional capacities (physical, cognitive, behavioral health) as assessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions Merged Medical / Residual functional ability is the most important variable that I consider in the evaluation of an individual into Medical / residual functional capacities (physical, cognitive, behavioral health) as assessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions Merged Medical / Prescription side effects into Medical / Side effects of medications Merged Medical / Preexisting into Medical / Preexisting medical and the implications (if any) to the past work experience is significant Merged Medical / Post injury into Medical / Postincident capacity Merged Medical / Post incident capacity into Medical / Postincident physical capacities (PT OT evaluations, FCE, Work Hardening-Conditioning) Merged Medical / Post incident physical capacities (PT -OT evaluations, FCE, Work HardeningConditioning) into Medical / residual functional capaciti es (physical, cognitive, behavioral health)as assessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions

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230 Merged Medical / secondary medical into Medical / Secondary Medical Conditions Merged Medical / Post -incident medical (diagnoses, treatments, future considerations) into Medical / Treatment -Diagnosis and Medical / Treatment Plan (current) and Medical / Treatment Projected Future Aggressive Treatment (ie. surgical) and Medical / Treatment Pr ojected Future Routine Treatment Merged Medical / Post -incident neuropsychiatric history (level of cognition) into Vocational Test Results / Post -incident neuro-psychiatric history (level of cognition) Merged Medical / Post incident psychiatric into Medical / Medical Status Psychiatric Merged Medical / Post -incident secondary complications into Medical / Treatment Potential Complications Merged Medical / postural ability into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (Current) Merged Medical / Potential complications especially with degenerative-decompensating conditions into Medical / Treatment Potential Complications and Medical / Treatment Expected Degeneration in Condition and Medical / Treatment -Expected Improvement in Condition Merged Medical / potenti al opportunities for alternative health insurance into Financial / Healthcare Benefits Private and Financial / Healthcare Benefits -Public Merged Medical / Preexisting medical and the implications (if any) to the past work experience is significant into Me dical / Medical Status -Pre Existing Conditions Changed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (preexisting) to Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (pre -injury) Merged Medical / Preincident capacity into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (pre -inj ury) Changed Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (preexisting) to Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (pre-injury) Merged Medical / Preincident medical history (diagnoses, treatments, medications, restrictions, prognoses) into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (pre -injury) into Medical / PreExisting Diagnosis and Medical / PreExisting Medical Treatment and Medical / PreExisting Medications and Medical / PreExisting Physical Restrictions and Medical / PreExisting Progn osis Merged Medical / Pre-incident neuropsychiatric history (level of cognition) into Vocational Test Results / Pre -incident neuro-psychiatric history (level of cognition) Merged Medical / Preincident physical capacities into Medical / Physical Functio nal Capacity (pre -injury) January 4, 2011 Merged Medical / Preincident psychiatric into Medical / PreInjury Psychiatric Status Merged Medical / prescriptions used into Medical / Medication -Prescription Medication (current) Merged Medical / present phy sical capabilities (functional capacities) into Medical / residual functional capacities (physical, cognitive, behavioral health)as assessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions Merged Medical / present providers in to Medical / Provider(s)Name Merged Medical / present treatment into Medical / Treatment Plan (current) Merged Medical / primary concerns regarding return to work into Medical / residual functional capacities (physical, cognitive, behavioral health) as as sessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions Merged Medical / Prior medical history into Medical / Medical History Prior Medical History

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231 Merged Medical / prognosis for improvement into Medical / Treatment -Prognosis f or Improvement and Medical / Treatment -Prognosis for Degeneration or Decline Merged Medical / progressive nature of illness into Medical / Treatment Expected Degeneration in Condition Merged Medical / psychological history (diagnosis, treatment, restrictio ns, prognoses) into Medical / Psychological -Diagnosis and Medical / Psychological Treatment and Medical / Psychological Restrictions and Medical / Psychological -Prognosis Merged Medical / Psychological influence i.e. self consciousness, scaring, embarrassment into Medical / Psychological Self Perception and Medical / Psychological Physical Appearance and Medical / Psychological -Depression and Medical / Psychological Anxiety and Medical / Psychological Embarrassment and Shame Merged Medical / psychological work function impairments into Medical / Psychological Functional Impairment Merged Medical / psychosocial landmark measurement (catastrophizing, pain levels and pain related disability) into Medical / Psychological Feelings of Catastrophe and Medical / Medical Status Pain and Medical / Medical Status Pain Related Limitations Merged Medical / recovery status into Medical / Psychological Feelings of Catastrophe and Medical / Treatment -Current R ecovery Status Merged Medical / residual functional capacities (physical, cognitive, behavioral health)as assessed by designated professionals from the medical or behavioral health professions into Medical / Psychological Feelings of Catastrophe and Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) and Medical / Behavioral Health Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / second opinion physicians and independent medical exams into Medical / Records -Independent and Consultative Examinations Merged Medical / Secondary Medical Conditions into Medical / Medical Status Secondary Medical Conditions (unrelated to injury) Merged Medical / self evaluation of impairment to work into Medical / Evaluee Perceptio n of Residual Functional Capacity Merged Medical / self perception of abilities into Medical / Evaluee Perception of Residual Functional Capacity Merged Medical / Side effects of medications into Medical / Medication Side Effects Merged Medical / sleep int o Medical / Psychological Sleep Merged Medical / stability into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / stamina into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / strength into Medical / Physical Functional Cap acity (current) Merged Medical / subjective complaints and limitations into Medical / EvalueeSubjective Complaints and Medical / Evaluee-Opinion of Limitations Merged Medical / Subjective input from client into Medical / EvalueeSubjective Complaints and Medical / EvalueeOpinion of Limitations Merged Medical / substance abuse into Medical / Medical History Recreational Drug Use and Medical / Medical History -Alcohol Use and Medical History -Tobacco Use Merged Medical / surgeries into Medical / Treatment -Sur gery(ies) Merged Medical / symptoms and their frequencyrecurrence prognosis into Medical / Treatment Symptoms and Medical / Treatment -Symptoms Frequency and Medical / Treatment Prognosis

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232 Deleted Medical / the AMA guide to permanent impairment rating can be misleading. A 10% impairment for a computer programmer, has a very different implications for a 10% impairment for someone like a dentist (this is not a variable, but expert opinion on the AMA guide) Merged Medical / The severity of the injury -illness and how impaired-disabled is a very important factor into Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / The utilization of self -report questionnaires, where the design of the questions are so obvious, that the claimant's easily can distort the final result (and once more the experts use this so -called data as some form of scientific proof supporting their opinions) into Medical / Evaluee-Opinion of Limitations Merged Medical / tho rough assessment of functional capacities in daily tasks into Medical / Limitation in Activities of Daily Living Merged Medical / time required to attend to symptoms into Medical / Treatment Time Required to Participate in Treatment Plan Merged Medical / t reating providers into Medical / Provider(s) Name Merged Medical / treatment compliance into Medical / Treatment Patient Compliance with Treatment Plan Merged Medical / Treatment History into Medical / Treatment History Merged Medical / Treatment Plan with Chart notes into Medical / Treatment Plan (current) and Medical / Records Current Treatment Notes Merged Medical / Treatment Records into Medical / Records Current Treatment Notes Merged Medical / Treatment schedules into Medical / Treatment Schedule Merged Medical / understanding of treatmentsurgeries into Medical / Evaluee-Understanding of Treatment Plan Merged Medical / unrelated medications into Medical / Medications -Non Injury Related Merged Medical / use of assistive devices into Medical / Accommodations Assistive Devices (current) Deleted Medical / While each expert should stick to the confines of their expertise, they should extrapolate their findings and opinions with regards to the impact on the claimant's ability to work. Me dical experts often express a snapshot picture of the claimant's function (This is not a variable, but expert opinion on the interaction between experts expertise and opining on evaluee ability to work) Moved Medical / Work injury into Venue / Work Injury Merged Medical / Medical Status -Acute Condition into Medical / Treatment -Current Symptoms Merged Medical / Treatment -Prognosis into Medical / Treatment -Prognosis for Improvement Merged Medical / Treatment Body Systems Effected into Medical / Treatment Diag nosis Split Medical / Treatment Diagnostic Testing into Medical / Treatment Diagnostic Testing (past) and Medical / Treatment Diagnostic Testing (Future) Renamed Medical / Treatment -Duration into Medical / Treatment Duration of Treatment (ie. short term or life expectancy) Renamed Medical / Treatment Frequency into Medical / Treatment Frequency of Treatment (ie. monthly or annually) Merged Medical / Treatment Schedule into Medical / Treatment -Frequency (ie. monthly or annually) Split Medical / Treatment -Current Symptoms into Medical / Treatment Symptoms (current) and Medical / Treatment Symptoms (past)

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233 Merged Medical / Treatment Time Required to Participate in Treatment Plan into Medical / Treatment -Frequency (ie. monthly or annually) Renamed Medical / Treatment Surgery(ies) into Medical / Treatment Surgery(ies) (past) Renamed Medical / Treatment -Prognosis for Degeneration or Decline into Medical / Treatment Prognosis for Degeneration or Decline in Condition Renamed Medical / Treatment -Prognosis for Improvement into Medical / Treatment -Prognosis for Improvement in Condition Merged Medical / Treatment -Expected Degeneration in Condition into Medical / Treatment Prognosis for Degeneration or Decline in Condition Merged Medical / Treatment -Expected Improvement in Condition into Medical / Treatment Prognosis for Improvement in Condition Merged Medical / Medical Status -Depression into Medical / Psychological Depression Merged Medical / Medical Status Psychiatric into Medical / Psychological Dia gnosis Renamed Medical / Behavioral Health Functional Capacity (current) into Medical / Psychological Functional Capacity (current) Merged Medical / Psychological Restrictions into Medical / Psychological-Functional Capacity (current) Renamed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (current) into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Renamed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (future) into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (future) Renamed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (Permanent ) into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (Permanent) Renamed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity (pre-injury) into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (pre -injury) Renamed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity Opinion Source into Medical / Func tional Capacity Physical -Source of Opinion(s) Renamed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity Opinion Source Date into Medical / Functional CapacityPhysical -Date of Opinion Renamed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity -Expected Work Absences into Medical / Functional CapacityExpected Work Absences Renamed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity -Work Schedule (full or part time) into Medical / Functional Capacity -Work Schedule (full or part time) Renamed Medical / Physical Functional Capacity -Work Status into Medical / Functional Capacity -Work Status Renamed Medical / Limitation in Activities of Daily Living into Activities of Daily Living / Activities of Daily Living Unable to Perform Renamed Medical / Accommodations Assistive Devices (current) into Activities of Daily Living / Assistive Devices (current) Renamed Medical / Accommodations Assistive Devices (Recommended) into Activities of Daily Living / Assistive Devices (recommended) Renamed Medical / Activities of Daily Living Performed into Activities of Daily Living / Activities of Daily Living Performed Without Modification Renamed Medical / Accommodations Implemented to Perform Activities of Daily Living into Activities of Daily Living / Activities of Daily Living Performed with Modification

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234 Renamed Medical / Assistive Devices (current) into Activities of Daily Living / Assistive Devices or Equipment (current) Renamed Medical / Assistive Devices (recommended) into Activities of Daily Living / Assistive Devices or Equipment (recommended) Merged Activities of Daily Living / Methods Used to Perform Activities of Daily Living into Activities of Daily Living / Activities of Daily Living Performed with Modification Merged Activities of Daily Living / Number of Hours of Sleep per Day into Activities of Daily Living / Daily Sleep Patterns Renamed Activities of Daily Living / Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living into Activities of Daily Living / Activities of Daily Living Physical Demands Merged Activities of Daily Living / Interests Related to Activities of Daily Living into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (present) Moved Medical / Accommodations-Transportation into Transportation / AccommodationsTransportation Renamed Medical / Life Expectancy -Expected Reduction Due to Disability into Medical / Life Expectancy Reduction Due to Disability Merged Medical / Medical Status Potential Complications into Medical / Treatment Potential Complications Merged Medical / Medical Status -Chronic Condition into Medical / Treatment -Duration of Treatment (ie. short term or life expectancy) Renamed Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (current) into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (current) Renamed Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (future) into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (future) Renamed Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (Permanent) into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (permanent) Renamed Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity (pre -injury) into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (pre -injury) Renamed Me dical / Cognitive Functional Capacity Opinion Source into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive -Source of Opinion(s) Renamed Medical / Cognitive Functional Capacity Opinion Source Date into Medical / Functional Capacity-Cognitive-Date of Opinion Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity -Expected Work Absences into Medical / Functional Capacity Work Absences Expected Renamed Medical / Life Expectancy Reduction Due to Disability into Medical / Life Expectancy Reduction Due to Impairment Moved Medical / Psychological Anxiety into Psychological / PsychologicalAnxiety Moved Medical / Psychological -Depression into Psychological / PsychologicalDepression Moved Medical / Psychological -Diagnosis into Psychological / Psychological-Diagnosis Moved Medical / Psychological Embarrassment and Shame into Psychological / Psychological Embarrassment and Shame Moved Medical / Psychological Feelings of Catastrophe into Psychological / PsychologicalFeelings of Catastrophe Moved Medical / Psychological Functional Capacity (current) into Psychological / Psychological Functional Capacity (current)

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235 Moved Medical / Psychological Functional Impairment into Psychological / Psychological Functional Impairment Moved Medical / Psychologica lPhysical Appearance into Psychological / PsychologicalPhysical Appearance Moved Medical / Psychological -Prognosis into Psychological / Psychological-Prognosis Moved Medical / Psychological Self Perception into Psychological / PsychologicalSelf Percepti on Moved Medical / Psychological Sleep into Psychological / PsychologicalSleep Moved Medical / Psychological Treatment into Psychological / PsychologicalTreatment Moved Medical / Medical History -Alcohol Use into Psychological / Medical History -Alcohol Us e Moved Medical / Medical History Psychological into Psychological / Medical History Psychological Moved Medical / Medical History Recreational Drug Use into Psychological / Medical History Recreational Drug Use Moved Medical / Medical History Tobacco Use into Psychological / Medical History -Tobacco Use Merged Medical / Medical Status -Probability of Progressive Worsening of Condition into Medical / Treatment -Prognosis for Degeneration or Decline in Condition Renamed Medical / Pre Existing Diagnosis into Med ical / Medical History Pre Existing Diagnosis(es) Renamed Medical / Pre Existing Medical Treatment into Medical / Medical History Pre Existing Medical Treatment Renamed Medical / Pre Existing Medications into Medical / Medical History Pre Existing Medicat ions Renamed Medical / Pre Existing Physical Restrictions into Medical / Medical History Pre Existing Physical Restrictions Renamed Medical / Pre Existing Physical Restrictions into Medical / Medical History Pre Existing Physical Restrictions Renamed Medical / Pre -Existing Prognosis into Medical / Medical History Pre Existing Prognosis Renamed Medical / Medical Status Pain Related Limitations into Medical / Functional Capacity Pain Related Limitations Renamed Medical / Medical Status Pain into Medical / EvalueePain Complaints Merged Medical / EvalueeOpinion of Limitations into Medical / Evaluee Perception of Residual Functional Capacity Renamed Medical / Evaluee Perception of Residual Functional Capacity into Medical / Evaluee-Opinion of Residual Functional Capacity Merged Medical / Medical History Pre Existing Medical Treatment into Medical / Medical History Past Medical Treatment Merged Medical / Medical History Pre -Existing Prognosis into Medical / Medical History Pre Existing Diagnosis(es) Prognosis Renamed Medical / Medical History -Previous Injury or Accident into Medical / Medical History -Previous Injury(ies) or Accident(s) Merged Medical / Medical History Prior Medical History into Medical / Medical HistoryPast Medical Treatment

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236 Merged Medical / Medical Status Pre Injury Health Status into Medical / Medical History Past Medical Treatment Merged Medical / Medical Status -Secondary Medical Conditions (unrelated to injury) into Medical / Medical History Pre Existing Diagnosis(es) Merged Medical / Medical Status Subjective Complaints into Medical / EvalueeSubjective Complaints Renamed Medical / Medication Dosage into Medical / Treatment Medication Dosage Renamed Medical / Medication Prescriber into Medical / Treatment Medication Prescriber Renamed Medical / Medication Prescription Medication (current) into Medical / Treatment Medication -Prescriptions (current) Renamed Medical / Medication Side Effects into Medical / Treatment Medication Side Effects Renamed Medical / Medications -Non Injury Related into Medical / Treatment Medications Non Injury Related Merged Medical / Permanency of Impairment into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (permanent) and Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (Permanent) Merged Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (permanent) into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (future) Merged Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (Permanent) into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (future) Renamed Medical / Provider -H istory of Relationship with Treating Source into Medical / ProviderPatient History with Provider Merged Medical / Records Prior Treatment Records into Medical / Records Prior Treatment Records for Previous Injuries or Claims Renamed Medical / Treatment Pl an (current) into Medical / Treatment Current Treatment Plan Merged Medical / Treatment Current Recovery Status into Medical / Treatment Current Treatment Plan Merged Medical / Treatment History into Medical / Medical History Past Medical Treatment Merged Medical / Treatment Medications -Non Injury Related into Medical / Treatment Medication -Prescriptions (current) Merged Medical / Medication Prescriptions (current) into Medical / Treatment Medication Name Merged Medical / Treatment Patient Adherence to Treatment Recommendations into Medical / Treatment Patient Compliance with Treatment Plan Renamed Medical / Treatment Surgery(ies) (past) into Medical / Treatment Surgery(ies) Moved Medical / PreInjury Psychiatric Status into Psychological / Pre Injury Psychiatric Status January 5, 2011 Renamed Professional Resources / AMA Guide to Professional Resources / American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment Moved Professional Resources / evidence res earch on relationship between current disability with access to those jobs to Transferable Skills / evidence research on relationship between current disability with access to those jobs Renamed Professional Resources / Opinions are often expressed by experts, but are not backed up by research to Professional Resources / Evidence Based Research Literature to Support Opinions

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237 Merged Professional Resources / credible statistics must be utilized by experts to support their opinions to Professional Resources / Evidence Based Research Literature to Support Opinions Merged Professional Resources / Opinions are often expressed by experts, but are not backed up by research to Professional Resources / Evidence Based Research Literature to Support Opinions Split Profe ssional Resources / Prescribed work description (DOT, ONET, job description) and requirements from those descriptions overview into Professional Resources / Dictionary of Occupational Titles and Professional Resources / Occupational Information Network (ON et) and Professional Resources / Employer Job Descriptions Merged Professional Resources / some research needs questioning and not just accepted at face value to Professional Resources / Evidence Based Research Literature to Support Opinions Renamed Profes sional Resources / statistical data analysis on salary history and trend in those jobs to Professional Resources / Labor Statistics Merged Professional Resources / statistical data analysis of employment trend in desired previous employment history to Professional Resources / Labor Statistics Merged Professional Resources / While certain opinions may apply in specific situations, the very same opinions may be contradicted by statistics applied to other situations to Professional Resources / Labor Statis tics Merged Professional Resources / motivation to find work to Professional Resources / Motivation to Work Merged Professional Resources / motivation to participate in the work force to Professional Resources / Motivation to Work Merged Professional Resources / motivation to Professional Resources / Motivation to Work Renamed Psychological / Medical History Alcohol Use to Psychological / Substance UseAlcohol Renamed Psychological / Medical History -Tobacco Use to Psychological / Substance UseTobacco Renamed Psychological / Medical History Recreational Drug Use to Psychological / Substance Use Recreational Drugs Renamed Psychological / Medical History Psychological to Psychological / Pre -Injury Psychological History Merged Psychological / Pre -Injury Ps ychiatric Status to Psychological / Pre -Injury Psychological History Renamed Psychological / PsychologicalAnxiety to Psychological / Diagnosis Anxiety Renamed Psychological / Psychological-Depression to Psychological / Diagnosis Depression Renamed Psychol ogical / Psychological-Diagnosis to Psychological / Diagnosis Renamed Psychological / Psychological-Embarrassment and Shame to Psychological / Emotional Status Shame Renamed Psychological / PsychologicalFunctional Impairment to Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) Merged Psychological / Psychological Functional Capacity (current) to Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) Split Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) into Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) and Functional Impairment (pre-injury) and Functional Impairment (Projected) Renamed Psychological / Psychological-Feelings of Catastrophe to Psychological / Emotional Status Feelings of Catastrophe

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238 Renamed Psychological / PsychologicalPhysical Appearance to Psych ological / Emotional Status Self Concept of Physical Appearance Renamed Psychological / Psychological-Prognosis to Psychological / Treatment -Prognosis Renamed Psychological / PsychologicalSleep to Psychological / Symptoms Sleep Merged Psychological / Psyc hological -Self Perception to Psychological / Emotional Status Self Concept of Physical Appearance Renamed Psychological / PsychologicalTreatment to Psychological / Treatment Renamed Psychological / ability to accept supervision to Psychological / Interper sonalAbility to Accept Supervision Moved Psychological / ability to conduct a job search to Job Search Variables / ability to conduct a job search Split Psychological / ability to cope and work with others into Psychological / Interpersonal Ability to Cope with Others and Psychological / Interpersonal Ability to Work with Others Merged Psychological / ability to get along with others to Psychological / InterpersonalAbility to Work with Others Moved Psychological / ability to remain employed to Job Search Variables / ability to remain employed Renamed Psychological / Ability to respond (within insurance-legal system) and adapt to new limitations to Psychological / Emotional Status Adaptability Merged Psychological / Adaptation to Psychological / Emotional Status Adaptability Renamed Psychological / Personality Functioning to Psychological / Personality Merged Psychological / personality testing to Psychological / Personality Renamed Psychological / Treatment to Psychological / Treatment Plan Renamed Psychol ogical / effectiveness of therapy to Psychological / Treatment Effectiveness Renamed Psychological / effects of medication usage to Psychological / Treatment Effectiveness of Psychotropic Medication Merged Psychological / effects of psychotropic medication s to Psychological / TreatmentEffectiveness of Psychotropic Medication Merged Psychological / cognitive to Psychological / Cognitive Functioning Merged Psychological / Psychological to Psychological / psychological condition Merged Psychological / psychol ogical status to Psychological / psychological condition Merged Psychological / treatments to Psychological / Treatment Plan Split Psychological / alertness and focus into Psychological / Symptoms Maintain Alertness and Psychological / Symptoms Maintain Fo cus Merged Psychological / appearance & grooming to Job Search Variables / appearance & grooming Renamed Psychological / ability to work independently to Psychological / Symptoms Ability to Work Independently Merged Psychological / absenteeism to Job Search Variables / Functional Capacity -Work Absences Expected Merged Psychological / communicative to Job Search Variables / English Expressive Skills Renamed Psychological / Coping resources available for the client to Psychological / Emotional-Coping Skills R enamed Psychological / Degree of secondary gain at stake to Psychological / Secondary Gain Merged Psychological / Sensory to Medical / Sensory Systems Status Merged Psychological / Sensory Hearing Status to Medical / Sensory Systems Status

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239 Merged Psychological / Sensory Vision Status to Medical / Sensory Systems Status Moved Psychological / Demonstrated good faith job search if out of work to Job Search Variables / Demonstrated good faith job search if out of work Merged Psychological / status to M edical / psychological condition Moved Psychological / Prior consistency of work history to Job Search Variables / Prior consistency of work history Moved Psychological / periods of unemployment between jobs to Job Search Variables / periods of unemployment between jobs Merged Psychological / Stated interest in working to Psychological / Motivation to Work Moved Psychological / Intellect to Vocational Test Results / Intellect Merged Psychological / Motor to Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) January 7, 2011 Merged Psychological / Areas of psychological implication, present status, treatment prognosis, and ability to function from a psychological perspective in the future into Psychological / Treatment -Prognosis and Psychological / Symptoms and Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) Merged Psychological / As per Education & Medical, obtain all prior records where a Psychological Disability pre existed, exists because of accident -injury, or is as a result of the multiple losses. This is when Affective Disorders arise, and include PTSD (childhood trauma) into Psychological / PreInjury Psychological History and Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) Merged Psychological / Assessment of the claimant's pre -and post psychological functioning is crucial, as personality evaluation influences individuals career choices, and can describe potential future behavior into Psychological / PreInjury Psychological History and Psychological / Post Injury Psychological Status and Psychological / Personality Merged Psychological / Basic comfort with people alone, social -introverted, stress tolerance, socialization, cultural issues into Psychological / Interpersonal Skills and Psychological / Stress Tolerance and Psychological / Ability to Interact with Others and Psychological / Cultural Issues Merged Psychological / behavioral symptoms into Psychological / Symptoms Merged Psychological / Attitudes and values into Psychological / EmotionalAttitudes and Psychological / EmotionalValues Merged Psych ological / Cognitive Functioning into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (current) Merged Psychological / concentration focus -memory recall, e.g. digit span or serial sevens into Medical / Symptoms -Concentration and Psychological / Symptoms Memory Merged Psychological / Determine what records exist in relation to adaptation in Employment records both preand postinjury (if available) into Medical / Symptoms -Concentration and Psychological / Symptoms -Adaptation Merged Psychological / Diagnoses, psy chological and environmental limitations, literacy, history of criminal behavior and convictions into Psychological / Treatment -Diagnosis and Vocational Test Results / Literacy and Legal History / Criminal History Merged Psychological / earnings into Emplo yment Individual Job Details / Employee -Ending Wage Merged Psychological / emotional into Psychological / Emotional Status

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240 Merged Psychological / Effort at educational advancement into Education / Reason for Acquiring Achieved Educational Level Merged Psyc hological / employment barriers related to psy conditions into Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) Merged Psychological / Estimate if the individual is under employed given education and skill level into Psychological / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Employment History Merged Psychological / Estimated level of impairment and efforts to overcome the medical into Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) Merged Psychological / executive functioning into Psychological / Symptoms Ex ecutive Functioning Merged Psychological / expectations into Psychological / Symptoms -Expectations Merged Psychological / Family support network into Socioeconomic / Family Support to Evaluee-Emotional Merged Psychological / financial stress can serve as a motivator for return to work lack of a little stress can do the opposite into Psychological / EmotionalFinancial Stress Merged Psychological / frequent co -morbidity of depression with life changes and disability into Psychological / DiagnosisDepression Merged Psychological / has client plateaued into Psychological / Emotional status Merged Psychological / Identification of psychological interventions should predict the degree of future rehabilitation into Psychological / Treatment Plan and Psychological / Treatment Prognosis Merged Psychological / Identifying any psychological problems along with mental residual functional capacity into Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) Merged Psychological / Inconsistent symptom reporting into Psychological / Inconsistent Symptom Reporting Merged Psychological / Inconsistent test results when compared with educational attainment or job skill level into Vocational Test Results / Inconsistent test results when compared with educational attainment or job skill level Merged Psychological / Length of time out of work post injury into Job Search Variables / Length of time out of work post injury Merged Psychological / level of expected improvement into Psychological / Treatment Prognosis Merged Psychological / Medical information referencing Waddel Signs or malingering into Psychological / Secondary Gain Merged Psychological / Mental Health axis & diagnosis into Psychological / TreatmentDiagnosis Merged Psychological / Mental Health Status into Psychological / Treatment -Prognosis Merged Psychological / Neuropsychological identification of factors which will influence future functioning into Vocational Test Results / Neuropsychological identification of factors which will influence future functioning Merged Psychological / Positive scores on tests of malingering into Psychological / Malingering Merged Psychological / sustained concentration and persistence into Psychological / Symptoms Concentration Merged Psychological / Work Personality into Psyc hological / Personality Merged Psychological / Trauma exposure into Psychological / Emotional Trauma Merged Psychological / psychological condition into Psychological / Symptoms

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241 Merged Psychological / Temperaments into Transferable Skills / Temperaments Merged Psychological / understanding and memory into Psychological / Symptoms Understanding and Psychological / Symptoms Memory January 9, 2011 Merged Psychological / Presenting issues into Psychological / Symptoms -Understanding and Psychological / Symptoms Merged Psychological / psychological goals in therapy related to employment into Psychological / Treatment Plan Merged Psychological / Psychological history and treatment through interview and records review into Psychological / Pre -Injury Psychological H istory and Psychological / Pre -Injury Psychological Treatment Merged Psychological / Psychological limitations as defined by professionals into Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) Merged Psychological / psychological side effects of medications for medical conditions into Medical / Treatment Medication Side Effects Merged Psychological / recognition into Psychological / Symptoms Merged Psychological / Psychological testing and reports with diagnoses and opinions into Vocational Test Results / Psychological Testing Results and Psychological / Diagnosis Merged Psychological / shift away from theoretical expositions of the effects of psychological trauma on a person in general, and be more pre cise in focusing on the claimant, their particular psychological issues, and the effects of treatment into Psychological / Symptoms and Psychological / Treatment -Prognosis Merged Psychological / Similar to the Avocational-hobbies domain, this can assist in evaluating vocational alternatives available into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (present) Merged Psychological / Social History into Socioeconomic / Status of Social Relationships Merged Psychological / social interaction into Socioeconomic / S tatus of Social Relationships Renamed Psychological / stigmatization of mental illness or disability into Psychological / Social Stigmatization toward Persons with Disabilities Renamed Psychological / Test endorsement of pathology e.g. Beck Depression Index 2 or MMPI -2 into Vocational Test Results / Psychological Test endorsement of pathology e.g. Beck Depression Index 2 or MMPI-2 Merged Psychological / Treatment history including psychiatric, psychological and substance abuse, physical sexual abuse into P sychological / Pre Injury Psychological History and Psychological / Substance Abuse Treatment History and Psychological / Psychological Trauma Renamed Psychological / Treatment needs as it relates to the work day year into Psychological / Treatment Plan Ef fect on Work Schedule Moved Psychological / Use of employment resources such as the employment service, state vocational rehabilitation, use of placement services of prior college or university, use of nonprofit organizations into Job Search Variables / Use of employment resources such as the employment service, state vocational rehabilitation, use of placement services of prior college or university, use of non-profit organizations Moved Psychological / Validity into Vocational Test Results / Validity Merged Psychological / vocational and Avocational interests into Vocational Test Results / Work Interests and Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (present)

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242 Merged Psychological / Vocational implications of psychological disability into Psychological / Functional Impairment (current) Merged Psychological / what is the maximum hours per week able to work into Worklife Probabilities / Hours able to Work Due to Behavioral Health Symptoms Merged Psychological / what range of improvement into Psychological / Treatment -Prognosis Merged Psychological / will client require services of home health aide into Medical / Personal Care Attendant Needs Merged Psychological / will limitation affect client for rest of life into Psychological / Functional Impairment (duration) Renamed Psychological / Diagnosis Anxiety to Psychological / Diagnosis Renamed Psychological to Behavioral Health Renamed Behavioral Health / Diagnosis -Depression to Behavioral Health / Diagnosis Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment Plan Eff ect on Work Schedule to Worklife Probabilities / Behavioral Health Treatment Plan Impact on Work Schedule Renamed Behavioral Health / Ability to Interact with Others to Behavioral Health / InterpersonalAbility to Interact with Others Renamed Behavioral H ealth / Cultural Issues to Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Behavioral Health Opinions and Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Behavioral Health Treatment Recommendations Renamed Behavioral Health / Cultural Issues to Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Behav ioral Health Opinions and Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Behavioral Health Treatment Recommendations Renamed Behavioral Health / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Employment History into Behavioral Health / Alignment of Educational Achievement w ith Actual Work History Renamed Behavioral Health / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Interests into Behavioral Health / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Work Interests Renamed Vocational Test Results / Intellect into B ehavioral Health / Mental Functions Intellectual Functioning Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptoms Sleep into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions Sleep Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptoms Memory into Behavioral Health / Mental FunctionsMemory Renamed Beh avioral Health / Motivation to Learn into Behavioral Health / Mental FunctionsMotivation to Learn Renamed Behavioral Health / Motivation to Work into Behavioral Health / Mental FunctionsMotivation to Work Renamed Behavioral Health / InterpersonalAbility to Accept Supervision into Behavioral Health / Interpersonal Skills Ability to Accept Supervision Renamed Behavioral Health / InterpersonalAbility to Cope with Others into Behavioral Health / Interpersonal Skills Ability to Cope with Others Merged Beh avioral Health / Interpersonal Ability to Cope with Others into Behavioral Health / Emotional-Coping Skills Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional-Coping Skills into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Coping Skills

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243 Renamed Behavioral Health / InterpersonalAbility to Interact with Others into Behavioral Health / Interpersonal Skills Ability to Interact with Others Renamed Behavioral Health / InterpersonalAbility to Work with Others into Behavioral Health / Interpersonal Ski lls Ability to Work with Others Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Adaptability into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Adaptability to Events and Situations Merged Behavioral Health / Symptoms -Adaptation into Behavioral Health / Mental Functio nsAdaptability to Events and Situations Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptoms Ability to Work Independently into Behavioral Health / Mental FunctionsAbility to Work Independently Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptoms -Concentration into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Concentration Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptoms -Executive Functioning into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Executive Functioning Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Trauma into Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Emotional Traum a History Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Shame into Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Feelings of Shame and Embarrassment Renamed Behavioral Health / EmotionalAttitudes into Behavioral Health / Belief Systems Attitude Renamed Behavioral H ealth / EmotionalFinancial Stress into Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Financial Stress Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status into Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Financial Stress Renamed Behavioral Health / EmotionalValues into Behavio ral Health / Belief Systems Values Renamed Behavioral Health / Interpersonal Skills into Behavioral Health / Interpersonal Skills Ability to Interact with Others Renamed Behavioral Health / Psychological Trauma into Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Emo tional Trauma History Renamed Behavioral Health / Functional Impairment (Projected) into Behavioral Health / Functional Impairment (projected duration) Merged Behavioral Health / Functional Impairment (duration) into Behavioral Health / Functional Impairme nt (projected duration) Renamed Behavioral Health / Inconsistent Symptom Reporting into Behavioral Health / Symptom Consistency in Reporting Moved Behavioral Health / Personality into Vocational Test Results / Personality Assessment Renamed Behavioral Heal th / Malingering into Behavioral Health / Sub maximal EffortMalingering Renamed Behavioral Health / Secondary Gain into Behavioral Health / Sub maximal EffortSecondary Gain Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptoms -Expectations into Behavioral Health / Emotio nal Status -Expectations of the Future Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptoms Maintain Alertness into Behavioral Health / Mental FunctionsAlertness

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244 Merged Behavioral Health / Symptoms Maintain Focus into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Concentration Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptoms -Understanding into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Understanding Merged Behavioral Health / Diagnosis into Behavioral Health / Treatment -Diagnosis Renamed Behavioral Health / Substance UseRecreational Drugs into B ehavioral Health / Substance AbuseRecreational Drugs Renamed Behavioral Health / Substance Use-Alcohol into Behavioral Health / Substance Abuse-Alcohol Renamed Behavioral Health / Substance UseTobacco into Behavioral Health / Substance AbuseTobacco Rena med Behavioral Health / Stress Tolerance into Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Tolerance to General Stress Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptoms into Behavioral Health / Treatment Symptoms (current) Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment Effectiveness in to Behavioral Health / Treatment Effectiveness Renamed Behavioral Health / Pre -Injury Psychological History into Behavioral Health / Treatment -Symptoms (preexisting) Merged Behavioral Health / Post Injury Psychological Status into Behavioral Health / Treatment -Symptoms (current) Merged Behavioral Health / Pre-Injury Psychological Treatment into Behavioral Health / Treatment -Symptoms (preexisting) Merged Behavioral Health / Social Stigmatization toward Persons with Disabilities into Job Search Variables / Social Stigmatization toward Persons with Disabilities Merged Behavioral Health / Treatment Plan into Behavioral Health / Treatment Current Treatment Plan and Behavioral Health / TreatmentPrevious Behavioral Health Treatment Renamed Behavioral Health / Symptom Consistency in Reporting into Behavioral Health / Treatment Symptom Consistency Reported by Evaluee Merged Behavioral Health / Treatment -Diagnosis into Behavioral Health / Treatment -Diagnosis (current) and Behavioral Health / Treatment -Diagnosis (pre existing) Moved Regulatory Issues ADA, etc. / Accommodation options into Job Search Variables / Accommodation options Moved Regulatory Issues ADA, etc. / tax incentives available into Job Search Variables / tax incentives available Moved Regulatory I ssues ADA, etc. / What could employer do to accommodate into Job Search Variables / What could employer do to accommodate Moved Regulatory Issues ADA, etc. / has the employer initiated any reviews for the interactive process into Job Search Variables / has the employer initiated any reviews for the interactive process Moved Regulatory Issues ADA, etc. / definition of the particular statutory requirements, Workers compensation in some status, including Florida, will not mandate participation; LTD benefits ma y mandate participation into Venue / definition of the particular statutory requirements, Workers compensation in some status, including Florida, will not mandate participation; LTD benefits may mandate participation Deleted Regulatory Issues ADA, etc. (Al l variables moved to other domains)

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245 Moved Medical / Records -Admission Records into Rehabilitation Services / Records -Admission Records Moved Medical / Records Current Treatment Notes into Rehabilitation Services / Records Current Treatment Notes Moved Medical / Records Discharge Records into Rehabilitation Services / Records Discharge Records Moved Medical / Records -Functional Capacity Evaluation into Rehabilitation Services / Records -Functional Capacity Evaluation Moved Medical / Records -Independent and Consultative Examinations into Rehabilitation Services / Records -Independent and Consultative Examinations Moved Medical / Records -Prior Treatment Records for Previous Injuries or Claims into Rehabilitation Services / Records Prior Treatment Records for Previous Injuries or Claims Moved Medical / Reports Narrative Reports into Rehabilitation Services / Reports Narrative Reports Renamed Rehabilitation Services / Records -Admission Records into Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (current) and Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (preexisting) Renamed Rehabilitation Services / A description of rehabilitation services thro ugh interview information and a record review into Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Interview Merged Rehabilitation Services / Records Current Treatment Notes into Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (current) Merged Rehabilitation Services / Records Discharge Records into Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (current) Merged Rehabilitation Services / Records Dis charge Records into Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (current) Merged Rehabilitation Services / Records -Independent and Consultative Examinations into Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (current) Merged Rehabilitation Services / Records Prior Treatment Records for Previous Injuries or Claims into Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (preexisting) Merged Rehabilitation Services / Reports Narrative Reports into Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (current) Merged Rehabilitation Ser vices / Records -Functional Capacity Evaluation into Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (current) Merged Rehabilitation Services / consult with significant other or family member or clos e friend to address pre and post conditions for the followingsituational assessment, judgment & safety into Rehabilitation Services / Consultation with Friends Regarding Evaluee Rehabilitation Status and Needs and Rehabilitation Services / Consultation with Family Members Regarding Evaluee Rehabilitation Status and Needs Merged Rehabilitation Services / description of rehabilitation services through interview information and a record review. Services provided. Dates of service. Service provider. Success of service and client attitude and participation with services. into Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Services Provided to Evaluee and Rehabilitation Services /

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246 Rehabilitation Services Evaluee has Independently Pursued and Rehabilitation S ervices / Dates of Previous Rehabilitation Services and Rehabilitation Services / Provider of Previous Rehabilitation Services and Rehabilitation Services / Success or Failure in Previous Rehabilitation Services and Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Mot ivation to Participate in Rehabilitation Services Moved Rehabilitation Services / Functional Job Analysis into Job Search Variables / Functional Job Analysis Renamed Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Plan for programs, costs, and placement into Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Plan and Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Plan Costs Merged Rehabilitation Services / Services provided into Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Services Provided to Evaluee Merged Rehabilitation Services Training / access to training opportunities into Rehabilitation Services / Training -Access to Training Providers and Opportunities Merged Rehabilitation Services Training / availability of community college training programs, or other readily avai lable training programs into Rehabilitation Services / Training Access to Training Providers and Opportunities Deleted Rehabilitation Services Training (All variables moved to other domains) Merged Transferable Skills / Acquired Work Skills into Transferab le Skills / Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / Any earned credentials, certificates which may be work related into Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (current) Merged Transferable Skills / Certificates into Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (current) Merged Transferable Skills / current certifications into Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (current) Merged Transferable Skills / Clerical into Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestClerical Merged Transferable Skills / typing into Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestTyping Merged Transferable Skills / CEU's required to maintain certifications into Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications -Continuing Education Requirements M erged Transferable Skills / for any expired certifications, what is required to bring it current into Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (expired) -Requirements to Bring Current Merged Transferable Skills / analysis of worker traits of last 1 5 years of work into Transferable Skills / Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / computer usage, programming, technical skills into Transferable Skills / Special Skills of Interest-Computer Hardware Merged Transferable Skills / DOT Number into Tran sferable Skills / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title Merged Transferable Skills / GED of Each Job into Employment-Individual Job Details / JobEducational Requirements Merged Transferable Skills / Knowledge of MS Office Suite, and other software, including proprietary into Transferable Skills / Special Skills of Interest-Computer Software Merged Transferable Skills / Strength level into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Strength Requirements Merged Transferable Skills / Climb into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Climbing

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247 Merged Transferable Skills / Balance into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Balancing Merged Transferable Skills / Kneel into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Kneeling Merged Transferable Skills / Reach into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Reaching Merged Transferable Skills / Handle into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands -Handling Merged Transferable Skills / Finger Manual into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands -Fingering Merged Transferable Skills / Talk into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Talking Merged Transferable Skills / Hear into Transferable S kills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Hearing Merged Transferable Skills / See into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Vision Merged Transferable Skills / verbal vs. visualspatial into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudeVerbal and Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudeSpatial Merged Transferable Skills / Aptitudes into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudeVerbal Merged Transferable Skills / Aptitude is n ot a domain of knowledge, it is an ability to comprehend concepts in math, language, etcetera into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work AptitudeNumerical and Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Verbal Merged Transferable Skills / Avocational activities assist in transferable skills interest categories of the evaluation into Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (present) Merged Transferable Skills / wetness humidity into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Environmental Demands-Exposure to Wetness and Humidity Merged Transferable Skills / Vibration into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Environmental Demands-Exposure to Vibration Merged Transferable Skills / Dust into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands -Exposure to Dust Merged Transferable Skills / Extreme Cold into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Environmental Demands-Exposure to Extreme Cold Merged Transferable Skills / Extreme Heat into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Environmental Demands-Exposure t o Extreme Heat Merged Transferable Skills / Hazards into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Environmental Demands-Exposure to Moving Hazards and Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental DemandsExposure to Electrical Hazards Merged Transfer able Skills / Certifications held in the past into Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (expired) Merged Transferable Skills / Eye-hand-foot into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work AptitudesEye -Hand Coordination and Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudesEye Foot Coordination and Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudesHand -Foot Coordination Merged Transferable Skills / Form into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudesForm Perception

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248 Merged Transferable Skills / Language into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudeVerbal Merged Transferable Skills / Math into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudeNumerical Merged Transferable Skills / Motor into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Aptitude-Motor Coordination Merged Transferable Skills / Noise into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands Noise Intensity Level Merged Transferable Skills / Reasoning into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudesReasoni ng Merged Transferable Skills / Spatial into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudeSpatial Merged Transferable Skills / Stoop into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands -Stooping Merged Transferable Skills / Identifying training options into Rehabilitation Services / Training Access to Training Providers and Opportunities Merged Transferable Skills / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title and Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title Merged Transferable Skills / aptitudes associated with employment into Employment-Individual Job Details / Job -Educational Requirements Merged Transferable Skills / Sales S kills into Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestSales January 10, 2011 Merged Transferable Skills / Acquired Skills into Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / For present work skills into Emp loyment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / past work experience (skills) into Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / past work -environment into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Demands of Job-Environmental Merged Transferable Skills / Past work history into Employment-Individual Job Details / JobTitle Merged Transferable Skills / Skill level into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee Ac quired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / Skills acquired into Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / skills obtained through education for task performance into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employ ee -Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / SVP into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP) Merged Transferable Skills / SVP of Each Job into Employment-Individual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP)

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249 Merged Transferable Skills / SVP required into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP) Merged Transferable Skills / work location into Employment-Individual Job Details / Employer -Location Merged Transferable Skills / past work abilities into Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / Transferable Skil ls into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee -Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / Current physical mental capacities into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (current) and Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / teaching experience into Transferable Skills / Special Skills of Interest Teaching Experience Merged Transferable Skills / Past work skills into Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / Check with State or National Licensing Board regarding current status of license; if not current what would it take to reactivate license into Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (current) and Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (expired) and Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (expired) Requirements to Bring Current Merged Transferable Skills / Comparing interests and values to job choices into Behavioral Health / Alignment of Interests with Actual Work History Merged Tra nsferable Skills / PatientSelf Report of Limitations into Medical / Evaluee-Opinion of Residual Functional Capacity Merged Transferable Skills / functional capacities as described by worker into Medical / Evaluee-Opinion of Residual Functional Capacity Merged Transferable Skills / Functional Capacity per Claimant into Medical / Evaluee-Opinion of Residual Functional Capacity Merged Transferable Skills / disabled person's perception of his-her residual functional capacities into Medical / Evaluee-Opinion of Residual Functional Capacity Merged Transferable Skills / Traits into Transferable Skills / evaluation of worker traits Merged Transferable Skills / So much of the economy is salesservice oriented that these skills improve employability into Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestSales Merged Transferable Skills / specific career and or technical skills into Employment-Individual Job Details / Employee -Acquired Skills Merged Transferable Skills / Good computer skills, combined with at least a high school education, means the worker can perform most sedentary work; provided the medical limitations allow mostly the full range of sedentary work into Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestComputer Hardware and Education / High School-Diplom a or GED and Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / transferability of skills in light of physical and mental residual capacities into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) and Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (current) Merged Transferable Skills / As previously stated I must present a profile of the individuals physical ability to perform work related tasks to potential candidate for a particular job. This is required in Arizona Worker's compensation law into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current)

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250 Merged Transferable Skills / Building an individual profile to understand the level of vocational-physical functioning compared to the demands of past jobs and future options into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / comparison between both functional capacity sets into Medical / Functional CapacityPhysical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / consult with employer or supervisor that knew employee before and after injury, situational assessment into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee Performance Reviews Merged EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee Acquired Skills into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee -Skills Learned on the Job Merged Transferable Skills / Cross check with FCE results into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / Cross check with physician feedback of worker traits into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / Tested or demonstrated functionally into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / Physical capacity inventory duri ng office interview regarding traits for job -person matching into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Renamed Transferable Skills / past work MTEWA into Transferable Skills / Past Work Machines, Tool, Equipment and Work Aids Renamed Transferab le Skills / past work MSMPS into Transferable Skills / Past Work Materials, Products, Subject Matter and Services Merged Transferable Skills / Temperaments into Transferable Skills / past work temperaments January 11, 2011 Merged Transferable Skills / dem onstrated aptitudes into Employment-Individual Job Details / Demands of Job-Aptitudes Merged Transferable Skills / evidence research on relationship between current disability with access to those jobs into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical D emands Strength Requirements and Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / Hobbies and special interests can be included, if a special knowledge is obtained in that area into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physic al Demands Strength Requirements and Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (present) Merged Transferable Skills / evaluation of worker traits into Employment-Individual Job Details / Demands of Job -Aptitudes Merged Transferable Skills / However, if the client has an education and or significant transferrable skills that allow work within the limitations, then medical becomes less relevant into Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed and Employment -Individual Job Details / Employee Skills Learned on the Job and Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / If the skills transfer to work within the medical limitations, that would increase earning capacity into Employment Individual Job Details / Employee Skills Learne d on the Job and Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Merged Transferable Skills / In order to conduct a transferable skills assessment it is necessary to know exactly what the individual is able to do with regards to sitting, standing, waking, running, driving, lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, bending, stooping, reaching, gripping into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current)

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251 Merged Transferable Skills / Job specific licenses or credentials which are identified by employers as vocat ional qualifications for hire. Example, computer programming expertise, CNA license, etc into Job Search Variables / Job specific licenses or credentials which are identified by employers as vocational qualifications for hire. Example, computer programmi ng expertise, CNA license, etc Merged Transferable Skills / Past Work Materials, Products, Subject Matter and Services into Employment-Individual Job Details / JobMaterials, Products, Subject Matter and Services Merged Transferable Skills / Past Work -Machines, Tool, Equipment and Work Aids into Employment-Individual Job Details / Job-Machines, Tools, Equipment and Work Aids Merged Employment-Individual Job Details / Job-Tools Used (Hand tools, computers, machinery, etc.) into Employment-Individual Job Details / Job-Machines, Tools, Equipment and Work Aids Merged Transferable Skills / past work temperaments into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Demands of JobTemperaments Merged Transferable Skills / Positions such as t elemarketer, a sedentary position that usually allows a sit-stand option and can be performed by a worker with only a high school degree, pay well and exist in substantial numbers into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) and Education / High School-Diploma or GED Merged Transferable Skills / Recent work is more important than work performed in the distant past because of relevancy of skills in the labor market into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee -Employment End Date and Job Search Variables / Skills Merged Transferable Skills / relevancy of past employment domains to today's labor market into Employment-Individual Job Details / JobDuties and Job Search Variables / Skills Merged Transferable Skills / Results in current work availabl e into Job Search Variables / Results in current work available Merged Transferable Skills / Self report of reading skills, math skills, computer skills into Vocational Test Results / Self report of reading skills, math skills, computer skills Merged Transferable Skills / transferable skills analysis using work history, testing of worker traits, consulting with evaluee and treating physician and therapist to obtain evaluation level of each worker trait; analysis and clinical judgment of pre and post results of each worker into Vocational Test Results / testing of worker traits and Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) and Employment-Individual Job Details / JobDuties Merged Transferable Skills / Transferable Skills for alternate employment w ithin functional capacity into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Skill Requirements Merged Transferable Skills / TSA data using computer programs in order to determine job categories that the individual can perform.(I use Job Browser Pro.) into Transf erable Skills / Alternative Work Skill Requirements Merged Transferable Skills / vocational preparation and specific skills trained in and to what level of proficiency into Education / High School-Highest Grade Completed and EmploymentIndividual Job Detai ls / Employee -Skills Learned on the Job Merged Transferable Skills / what would be required to obtain certification for any return to work alternatives available to the individual into Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Plan Merged Transferable Skill s / Younger worker with limited experience v. older worker with more experienceolder worker with outdated skills v. younger worker with current knowledgetraining. Older worker limited education with difficulty transferring -acquiring new skills

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252 into Socio economic / EvalueeAge and EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee Skills Learned on the Job Renamed Transportation / Accommodations-Transportation i nto Transportation / Accommodations Required for Transportation Merged Transportation / Access to Tran sportation i nto Transportation / Accessibility to Personal Transportation Merged Transportation / Access to work i nto Transportation / Access to Public Transportation Merged Transportation / do they have their own reliable vehicle i nto Transportation / Own ership of Reliable Vehicle Merged Transportation / utilize or have access to public transportation i nto Transportation / Public TransportationAvailability and Transportation / Public TransportationAccessibility and Transportation / Public TransportationEvaluee Experience with Use Merged Transportation / Transportation Access to Public Transportation i nto Transportation / Public TransportationAccessibility Merged Transportation / Transportation i nto Transportation / Transportation Services Available Renamed Transportation / Accessibility to Personal Transportation into Transportation / Personal Transportation-Ownership of Reliable Transportation Merged Transportation / Ownership of Reliable Vehicle i nto Transportation / Personal TransportationOwnership of Reliable Vehicle Merged Transportation / capacity to drive and ownership of a drivers license i nto Transportation / Personal TransportationPhysical Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle and Transportation / Personal TransportationCognitive Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle and Transportation / Personal Transportation-Possession of a Drivers License Merged Transportation / distance of tolerance for commuting in mileage; measured time available for commuting in time into Job Search Variables / distance o f tolerance for commuting in mileage; measured time available for commuting in time Merged Transportation / Does the individual have a driver's license and if so what kind (ie CDL Class A or B, regular license, etc) into Transportation / Personal Transport ation -Possession of a Drivers License and Transportation / Personal TransportationClass of Drivers License (ie. commercial) and Transportation / Personal TransportationEndorsements on Drivers License and Transportation / Personal TransportationRestrictions on Drivers License and Transportation / Personal Transportation-Motor Vehicle Operator Record Merged Transportation / Driver's license into Transportation / Personal TransportationPossession of a Drivers License Merged Transportation / driving into Transportation / Personal TransportationPhysical Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle Merged Transportation / how did they previously get to work, appointments, etc into Transportation / Method or Means of Previous Transportation to Work and Appointments Merged Transportation / medical care into Medical / Treatment Current Treatment Plan Merged Transportation / share with other family member(s) into Transportation / Personal TransportationNeed to Share Vehicle with other Family Members Merged Transportation / training into Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Plan Merged Transportation / Transportation is essential to being able to get to work. An evaluee with no driver's license is at a significant disadvantage, especially in areas with poor or no publ ic transportation available into Transportation / Personal Transportation-Possession of a Drivers License and Transportation / Public TransportationAccessibility

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253 Merged Transportation / transportation services available into Transportation / Personal Tran sportationOwnership of Reliable Vehicle Merged Venue / other expert foundation for opinion(s) into Rehabilitation Services / Opposing Expert Foundation for Opinion(s) Merged Venue / other expert post-incident opinion(s) into Rehabilitation Services / Oppo sing Expert Post Incident Opinion(s) Merged Venue / other expert pre-incident opinion(s) into Rehabilitation Services / Opposing Expert Pre Incident Opinion(s) Renamed Venue to Legal Jurisdiction Merged Legal Jurisdiction / definition of the particular statutory requirements, Workers compensation in some status, including Florida, will not mandate participation; LTD benefits may mandate participation into Legal Jurisdiction / Venue of Action or Cause and Legal Jurisdiction / Venue Procedural Requirements and Legal Jurisdiction / Venue Legal Requirements Merged Legal Jurisdiction / auto injury into Legal Jurisdiction / Venue of Action or Cause Merged Legal Jurisdiction / work injury into Legal Jurisdiction / Venue of Action or Cause Merged Legal Jurisdiction / damages claim being made into Legal Jurisdiction / Damage Claim(s) Made by Plaintiff Merged Legal Jurisdiction / foundation for claimed damages into Legal Jurisdiction / Damage Cla im(s) Foundation and Legal Jurisdiction / Plaintiff Complaint for Action or Cause Renamed Vocational Test Results to Psychometric Instrumentation Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Test Results into Psychometric Instrumentation / Test results academi c, intelligence, aptitude Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Test Scores into Psychometric Instrumentation / Test results academic, intelligence, aptitude Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / tested educational skill level into Psychometric Instrumentation / Test results academic, intelligence, aptitude Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Values into Psychometric Instrumentation / Value testing Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / motivation into Psychometric Instrumentation / motivation testing Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Interest Test into Psychometric Instrumentation / Interest testing Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / interests into Psychometric Instrumentation / Interest testing Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / interest related to working into Psychometric Instrumentation / Interest testing Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / intelligence into Psychometric Instrumentation / IQ testing Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / IQ Test into Psychometric Instrumentation / IQ testing Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Personality Test into Psychometric Instrumentation / Personality Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / I.Q. into Psychometric Instrumentation / IQ testing Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / I.Q. may b e measured in terms of average, above average, superior, below average; this would give an indication of ability to learn new occupations or exceed performance expectations into Psychometric Instrumentation / IQ testing

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254 Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / basic achievement in English and math into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementReading Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / basic achievement in English and math into Psychome tric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementReading and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Writing Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / ability to spell into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Spelling Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / vocational interests into Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Interest testing into Psychometric Instru mentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / comprehend vocabulary into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementVocabulary Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / ability to read and write, make change into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Reading and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementWriting and Transferable Skills / Special Skills of Interest -Ability to Count Money and Make Change Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Ability testing to assess reading, spelling, math, spatial perception, form perception, clerical perception, color vision, fine finger and manual dexterity into Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude General Learning Ability and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Verbal and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Numerical and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Spatial and Psychometric Instrumentation / AptitudeForm Perception and Psychometric Instrumentation / AptitudeClerical Perception and Psy chometric Instrumentation / Aptitude -Motor Coordination and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Finger Dexterity and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Manual Dexterity and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude -Eye, Hand, Foot Coordination and P sychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Color Discrimination Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / ability to learn new tasks and jobs as identified through achievement, intelligence and aptitude testing into Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude General Learning Ability and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Verbal and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Numerical and Psychometric Instrumentation / AptitudeSpatial and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude -Form Perception and Psychometric Instr umentation / AptitudeClerical Perception and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude-Motor Coordination and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Finger Dexterity and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Manual Dexterity and Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude-Eye, Hand, Foot Coordination and Psychometric Instrumentation / AptitudeColor Discrimination and Psychometric Instrumentation / IQ testing and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Acad emic Achievement Reading Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / achievement scores into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementReading

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255 Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Achievement Test into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementReading Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / All or part of the above may be given depending on the situation. The two essential ones are IQ and Achievement into Psychometric Instrumentation / IQ testing and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementReading Renamed Psychometric Instrumentation / Cognitive Ability into Psychometric Instrumentation / Cognitive Ability Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / cognitive capacity into Psychometric Instrumentation / Cognitive Ability Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / cognitive demands into Psychometric Instrumentation / Cognitive Ability Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / IQ testing into Psychometric Instrumentation / Cognitive Ability Assessment Renamed Psychometric Instrumentation / motivation testing into Psychometric Instrumentation / Motivation to Work Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / motivation to work for other reasons (economic) versus true interest into Psychometric Instrumentation / Motivation to Work Merged Psychometric In strumentation / Attention into Psychometric Instrumentation / Attention Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Communication into Psychometric Instrumentation / Communication Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Concentration into Psy chometric Instrumentation / Concentration Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / job search knowledge into Job Search Variables / job search knowledge Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Memory into Psychometric Instrumentation / Memory Assessm ent Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / learning style disabilities into Psychometric Instrumentation / Learning Style Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / comprehension demonstrated by testing into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement -Reading Comprehension Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Reading into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement-Reading Recognition Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / vocational test scores into Psychometric In strumentation / Academic Achievement-Reading Recognition Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Work Interests into Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment January 12, 2011 Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / demonstrated abilities functionallyalternative assessment into Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) Renamed Psychometric Instrumentation / demonstrated motivation into Medical / AA Motivation

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256 Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / educational capacity into Psychom etric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementReading Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / For future work capacity, understanding of educational capacity is necessary into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementMath and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Reading Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / I often administer academic testing into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementMath and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Reading Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / If an older worker requires retraining and-or wage loss determination, a psychological evaluation is needed to know if they can ever have a new earning capacity, what new occupation it would be, and what wages the occupation pays into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Motivation into Psychometric Instrumentation / Motivation to Work Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Motivation into Behavioral Health / Mental FunctionsMotivation to Work Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / in this case neuropsych for reasoning capacity and prognosis for improvement v deterioration into Psychometric Instrumentation / Cognitive Ability Assessment and Medical / Functional Capacity -Cognitive (future) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Inconsistent test results when compared with educational attainment or job skill level into Psychometric Instrumentation / Alignment of Psychometric Test Results with Academic Achievement and Psychometric Instrumentation / Alignment of Psychometric Test Results with Vocational Skills Demonstrated Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / interest in performing job search into Job Search Variables / interest in performing job search Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / interest relative to different types of jobs and job settings into Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / interests, aptitudes, competencies into Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment and Psychometric Instrumentation / AptitudeClerical Perception and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math Renamed Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment into Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s ) Assessment (expressed) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / interests, both expressed and acted upon into Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment (expressed) and Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment (acted up through work history) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Literacy into Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement -Reading Comprehension Merged Psychometric Instru mentation / Neuropsychological identification of factors which will influence future functioning into Medical / Functional Capacity -Cognitive (future) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Post-incident neuropsychiatric history (level of cognition) into M edical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (current)

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257 Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Preferred work and nonwork activities into Psychometric Instrumentation / Vocational Interest(s) Assessment (expressed) and Psychometric Instrumentation / Hobby Interes ts (present) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Pre -incident neuropsychiatric history (level of cognition) into Medical / Functional Capacity -Cognitive (pre-injury) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Psychological Test endorsement of pathology e.g. Beck Depression Index 2 or MMPI-2 into Psychometric Instrumentation / Personality Assessment and Medical / Functional Capacity -Cognitive (current) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Psychological Testing Results into Behavioral Health / Functional Impairment (current) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Request or review psychological or neuropsychological evaluation into Behavioral Health / Functional Impairment (current) and Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (current) Merged Psychometric I nstrumentation / Results of standardized tests into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementMath and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement -Reading Comprehension Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / scores in other standardized te sting into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementMath and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement -Reading Comprehension Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Self report of reading skills, math skills, computer skills into Psychom etric Instrumentation / Evaluee Self Report of Math Skills and Psychometric Instrumentation / Evaluee Self Report of Reading Skills and Psychometric Instrumentation / Evaluee Self Report of Computer Skills Merged Language / English Reading (self report) in to Psychometric Instrumentation / Evaluee Self Report of English Reading Skills Merged Language / English Writing (self report) into Psychometric Instrumentation / Evaluee Self Report of English Writing Skills Merged Language / Other Language(s) Reading (self report) into Psychometric Instrumentation / Evaluee Self Report of Reading Skills in Non English Language(s) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Other Language(s)Writing (self report) into Psychometric Instrumentation / Evaluee Self Report of Wri ting Skills in Non English Language(s) Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / write intelligible paragraphs with subject and action clarity into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementWriting Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Value testing into Behavioral Health / Beliefs Systems Values Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / validity into Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / transferable skills analysis into Transferable Skills / Alte rnative WorkSkill Requirements Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / testing of worker traits into Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude General Learning Ability Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Testing in vocational interview into Psychometric Ins trumentation / Academic Achievement-Reading Comprehension Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Testing in school into Education / School Academic Records and Education / School Testing Completed

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258 Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Testing can identify a person's general learning ability, literacy and math capabilities and help identify appropriate vocational options into Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude General Learning Ability and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement Math and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementReading Comprehension Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Test results academic, intelligence, aptitude into Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude Gen eral Learning Ability and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementMath and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement -Reading Comprehension Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / skills and abilities demonstrating potential for retraining into Psychometric Instrumentation / Aptitude General Learning Ability and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic AchievementMath and Psychometric Instrumentation / Academic Achievement -Reading Comprehension Merged Psychometric Instrumentation / Similar to Educational and Medical Records Acquisition in the event of a brainrelated injury Obtain all prior records for review and determination of facts and data into Rehabilitation Services / Review of Medical and (or) Behavioral Health Treatment and Consultation Records (preexisting) Renamed Worklife Probabilities to Worklife Participation Merged Worklife Participation / Age into Socioeconomic / EvalueeDate of Birth Merged Socioeconomic / EvalueeAge into Socioeconomi c / EvalueeDate of Birth Merged Worklife Participation / Behavioral Health Treatment Plan Impact on Work Schedule into Worklife Participation / Medical and Behavioral Health Treatment Plan Impact on Work Schedule Merged Worklife Participation / Hours able to Work Due to Behavioral Health Symptoms into Worklife Participation / Medical and Behavioral Health Treatment Plan Impact on Work Schedule Merged Worklife Participation / choice to work part time or full time into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Choice to Engage in Part Time or Full Time Work Merged Worklife Participation / how close to retirement age is the individual into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Proximity to Retirement Eligibility Merged Worklife Participation / Individual's retirement plans pre DOI into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Pre Incident Retirement Plans Merged Worklife Participation / retirement plans into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Pre Incident Retirement Plans Merged Worklife Participation / eligibility for retirement benefits into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Eligibility for Retirement Benefits Merged Worklife Participation / work after retirement plans into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Post Incident Retirement Plans Merged Worklife Participation / retirement vesting in pension program into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Eligibility for Retirement Benefits Merged Worklife Participation / Some folks have specific retirement plans, others just think about social security retirement age into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Eligibility for Private Retirement Benefits and Worklife Participation / Evaluee Eligibility for Public Retirement Benefits (ie. social security)

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259 Merged Worklife Participation / in relation to history how likely he would continue to work into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Consistency of Past Work as a Reflection of Future Work Participation Merged Worklife Participation / others (younger folks) have not thought about this into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Eligibility for Private Retirement Benefits and Worklife Participation / Evaluee Eligibility for Public Retirement Benefits (ie. social security) Merged Worklife Participation / physical demands of occupation on ability to work beyond retirement age into Worklife Participation / Physical Dema nds of Occupation that Allow for Work Beyond Typical Retirement Age Merged Worklife Participation / these factors affect the determination of future wage earning capacity had the injury not occurred into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Pre Incident Retir ement Plans Merged Worklife Participation / work life participation plans into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Pre Incident Retirement Plans Renamed Job Search Variables into Employment -Job Acquisition and Maintenance Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / ability to conduct a job search into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Ability to Conduct Job Search Activities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / ability to remain employed into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Ability to Sustain or Maintain Employment Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Ability to Self Promote in Job Search Activities into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Ability to Conduct Job Search Activities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / age and impact of its perception in the labor market into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Ability to Conduct Job Search Activities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and M aintenance / age and impact of its perception in the labor market into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Bias toward Age of Job Applicant Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / age can be an employability factor, especially if considering the skilled category of work into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Bias toward Age of Job Applicant Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / appearance & grooming into EmploymentJob Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Physical Appearance and Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Personal Grooming and Hygiene Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Accommodation options into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Willingness to Provide Reasonable Accommodations Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / interest in performing job search into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Demonstrated Job Search Ac tivities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / availability and ease of obtaining the employment (job search history) into Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / RTW options into Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market

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260 Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Resume into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / EvalueeDoes evaluee have a resume Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / periods of unemployment between jobs into Worklife Participation / Duration of Unemployment Between Jobs Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Periods of unemployment, and reasons why into Worklife Participation / Duration of UnemploymentTime Between Jobs and Worklife Participation / Duration of Unemployment-Reason for Unemployment Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Level of Work Motivation into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions -Motivation to Work Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Career Motivation into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions -Motivation to Work Renamed Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Professional Association and Memberships into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Professional Association and Membership Networking Opportunities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / job search knowledge into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Knowledge of Job Search Strategies M erged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / job seeking skills into EmploymentJob Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Knowledge of Job Search Strategies Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / job search activity into EmploymentJob Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Ability to Conduct Job Search Activities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Methodology review and comparison with past job searches into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Ability to Conduct Job Search Activities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / licensescertifications into Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (current) Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / licenses held into Transferable S kills / Licenses and Certifications (current) Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Professional Affiliations into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Professional Association and Membership Networking Opportunities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Military service impact on placeability into EmploymentJob Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Preference for Military Veteran Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Phase of career development into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Phase of Career Development Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Career Progression into EmploymentJob Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Phase of Career Development Merged Employ ment -Job Acquisition and Maintenance / duration of unemployment into Worklife Participation / Duration of Unemployment-Reason for Unemployment Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Consistency of Employment into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Consistency of Past Employment Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / constraints on work while receiving benefits into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Limitations Placed on Work Activity Due to Benefits Being Received (ie. social security) Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Dates between employment and reason for job absences into Worklife Participation / Duration of Unemployment-Reason for Unemployment and Worklife Participation / Duration of UnemploymentTime Between Jobs

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261 Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Demonstrated good faith job search if out of work into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Demonstrated Job Search Activities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / distance of tolerance for commuting in mileage; measured time available for commuting in time into Labor Market Information / Commute Distance to Significant Labor Market and Transportation / Personal TransportationPhysical Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer References into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Letters of Reference from Previous Employers Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer expectations into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Expectations of Job Applicant Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / essential job functions defined through job description by employer into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling -Job Duties for Suitable Jobs Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Functional Job Analysis into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Functional Job Analysis Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / has the e mployer initiated any reviews for the interactive process into Employment -Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Expectations of Job Applicant Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Interview information and a review of available job logs showing job search activities into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Demonstrated Job Search Activities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Job Goals into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Rehabilitation Plan M erged EmploymentJob Acquisition and Maintenance / Job specific licenses or credentials which are identified by employers as vocational qualifications for hire. Example, computer programming expertise, CNA license, etc into Labor Market Information / Labo r Market Sampling -Licenses and Certifications Required for Suitable Jobs Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / job tenure into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Consistency of Past Employment Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Length of time out of work post injury into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Duration of Time Since Last Employed Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Network in profession for support to obtain other employment int o Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Professional Association and Membership Networking Opportunities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Older workers can face unstated discrimination into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Bias toward Age of Job Applicant Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / outside sources so can identify if work is total identity or if it is a part of a richer life into Behavioral Health / Mental Functions Motivation to Work Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / patterns of employment i.e. moving up the ladder vs. making lateral moves into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Phase of Career Development Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / perceptions of ability to work into Medical / Evaluee -Opinion of Residual Functional Capacity

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262 Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / potential for retraining into Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Plan Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Prior consistency of work history into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Consistency of Past Employment Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / reasons for inconsistent work experiences or short periods of employment into Worklife Participation / Duration of Unemployment-Reason for Unemployment and Worklife Participation / Duration of UnemploymentTime Between Jobs Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Records re If Unemployment Comp was received into Worklife Participation / Duration of Unemployment-Reason for Unemployment and Worklife Participation / Duration of UnemploymentTime Between Jobs Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Results in cur rent work available into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Demonstrated Job Search Activities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Skills into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Skill Requirements Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Social Stigmatization toward Persons with Disabilities into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Bias Toward Persons with Disabilities Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / supportive employer may offer trial employment, on-the-job training, job modification into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Willingness to Provide On the Job Training and Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Willingness to Provide Trial Work Period and Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Willingness to Provide Reasonable Accommodations Merged EmploymentJob Acquisition and Maintenance / tax incentives available into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Government Tax Incentives for Hiring Workers Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / the age of the evaluee can impact available vocational options. For example a person under 25 is unlikely to qualify for professional driving jobs. into Employment-Job A cquisition and Maintenance / Employer Bias toward Age of Job Applicant Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / the closer to retirement age, the less likely future employment opportunities into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Emplo yer Bias toward Age of Job Applicant Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / turnover status into Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Job Turnover for Suitable Jobs Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Unfortunately this is an important factor. Employers are not only more likely to hire attractive applicants, they are more willing to place them in positions that have direct contact with customers. into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Physical Appearance Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Use of employment resources such as the employment service, state vocational rehabilitation, use of placement services of prior college or university, use of non-profit organizations into Rehabili tation Services / Rehabilitation Services Evaluee has Independently Pursued and Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Services Provided to Evaluee Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / use of public agencies into Rehabilitation Services / Rehabilitation Services Evaluee has Independently Pursued

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263 Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / was the individual underemployed pre -injury into Behavioral Health / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Actual Work History Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Was the job interrupted into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Evaluee Phase of Career Development Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / What could employer do to accommodate into Employ ment -Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Employer Willingness to Provide Reasonable Accommodations Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / work in college or high school into EmploymentIndividual Job Details / Employee -Employment End Date Merged Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / work steadiness into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Consistency of Past Employment Moved Medical / Personal Care Attendant Needs into Activities of Daily Living / Personal Care Attendant Needs Moved Activities of Daily Living / Daily Sleep Patterns into Behavioral Health / Daily Sleep Patterns Merged Behavioral Health / Mental Functions Sleep into Behavioral Health / Daily Sleep Patterns Merged Behavioral Health / Mental Functions Intellectual F unctioning into Psychometric Instrumentation / Cognitive Ability Assessment Renamed Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Local Labor Market into Labor Market Information / Current Job Openings within the Local Labor Market Renamed Labor Market Information / Job Openings within the Surrounding Labor Market into Labor Market Information / Current Job Openings within the Surrounding Labor Market January 15, 2011 Merged Legal History / Criminal History into Socioeconomic / LegalCriminal History Merged Legal History / Immigration Status into Socioeconomic / LegalImmigration Status Merged Legal History / Nationality of Citizenship into Socioeconomic / Legal Nationality of Citizenship Merged Legal History / Non Criminal Legal Involvement (ie. civil and administrative matters) into Socioeconomic / Legal Non Criminal Legal Involvement (ie. civil and administrative matters) Deleted Legal History (all variables transferred to other domains) Merged Professional Resources / Dictionary of Occupational Titl es into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Dictionary of Occupational Titles -Job Code Merged Activities of Daily Living / Acquired Skills Related to Activities of Daily Living into Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestSkills Related to Activities of Daily Living Renamed Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (past) into Avocational Activities / Hobby Activities (past) Renamed Avocational Activities / Hobby Interests (present) into Avocational Activities / Hobby Activities (present) Moved Behavioral Health / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Actual Work History into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Actual Work History

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264 Moved Behavioral Health / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Work Interests into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Alignment of Educational Achievement with Expressed Work Interests Moved Behavioral Health / Alignment of Interests with Actual Work History into EmploymentJob Acquisition and Maintenance / Alignment of Interests with Actual Work History Merged Behavioral Health / Belief Systems Attitude into Psychometric Instrumentation / Personality Assessment Merged Behavioral Health / Belief Systems Values into Psychometric Instrumentation / Values Assessment Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Emotional Trauma History into Behavioral Health / Evaluee History of Emotional Trauma Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status -Expectations of the Future into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Expectations for the Future Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Feelings of Catastrophe into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Feelings of Catastrophe or Hopelessness Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Feelings of Shame and Embarrassment into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Feelings of Shame and Embarrassment Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Financial Stress into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Feelings of Financial Stress Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Self Concept of Physical Appearance into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Self Concept toward Physical Appearance Renamed Behavioral Health / Emotional Status Tolerance to General Stress into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Tolerance to General Stress Merged Behavioral Health / Function al Impairment (current) into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (current) Merged Behavioral Health / Functional Impairment (pre -injury) into Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (pre -injury) Merged Behavioral Health / Functional Impairment (projected duration) into Medical / Functional Capacity-Cognitive (future) Renamed Behavioral Health / Interpersonal Skills -Ability to Accept Supervision into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Ability to Accept Supervision Renamed Behavioral Health / Interpersonal SkillsAbility to Interact with Others into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Ability to Interact with Others Renamed Behavioral Health / Interpersonal Skills Ability to Work with Others into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Ability to Cooperatively Work with Others Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Ability to Work Independently into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Ability to Work Independently Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Adaptability to Events and Situations into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Abilit y to Adapt to Unexpected Events or Situations Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental FunctionsAlertness into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Mental Alertness Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Concentration into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Mental Concentration Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Coping Skills into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Coping Skills

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265 Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Executive Functioning into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Executive Functioning Renamed Behavior al Health / Mental Functions Memory into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Memory Function Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Motivation to Learn into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Motivation to Learn Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental FunctionsMotivation to Participate in Rehabilitation Services into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Motivation to Participate in Rehabilitation Services Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Motivation to Work into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Motivation to Work Renamed Behavioral Health / Mental Functions-Understanding into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Comprehension of Interactions with People and Things Renamed Behavioral Health / Submaximal EffortMalingering into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Malingering Renamed Behavio ral Health / Sub maximal EffortSecondary Gain into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Secondary Gain Renamed Behavioral Health / Substance Abuse Treatment History into Behavioral Health / Evaluee History of Substance Abuse Treatment Renamed Behavioral Health / S ubstance Abuse-Alcohol into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Abuse or Dependence on Alcohol Products Renamed Behavioral Health / Substance AbuseRecreational Drugs into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Use of Recreational Drugs Renamed Behavioral Health / Substance AbuseTobacco into Behavioral Health / Evaluee Abuse or Dependence on Tobacco Products Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment Current Treatment Plan into Behavioral Health / Current Behavioral Health Treatment Plan Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment Diagnosis (current) into Behavioral Health / Current Behavioral Health Diagnosis Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment -Diagnosis (preexisting) into Behavioral Health / Pre Existing Behavioral Health Diagnosis Renamed Behavior al Health / TreatmentEffectiveness into Behavioral Health / Effectiveness of Current Behavioral Health Treatment Plan Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment -Effectiveness of Psychotropic Medication into Behavioral Health / Effectiveness of Psychotropic Medication Regimen Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment Previous Behavioral Health Treatment into Behavioral Health / Previous Behavioral Health Treatment Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment -Prognosis into Behavioral Health / Behavioral Health Treatment Pr ognosis Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment -Symptom Consistency Reported by Evaluee into Behavioral Health / Consistency of Behavioral Health Symptoms Reported by Evaluee Renamed Behavioral Health / Treatment Symptoms (current) into Behavioral Health / C urrent Behavioral Health Symptoms Renamed Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Behavioral Health Opinions into Cultural / Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Behavioral Health Opinions Renamed Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Behavioral Health Treatment Recommend ations into Cultural / Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Behavioral Health Treatment Recommendations

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266 Renamed Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Disability into Cultural / Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Disability Renamed Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Emplo yer Requirements into Cultural / Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Employer Requirements Renamed Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Medical Opinions into Cultural / Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Medical Opinions Renamed Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Medic al Treatment Recommendations into Cultural / Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Medical Treatment Recommendations Renamed Cultural / Cultural Acceptance of Prescribed Work Schedule into Cultural / Evaluee Cultural Acceptance of Prescribed Work Schedule Renamed Cultural / Cultural Dietary Requirements into Cultural / Cultural Dietary Requirements of Evaluee Renamed Cultural / Cultural Form of Dress into Cultural / Cultural Form of Dress of Evaluee Renamed Cultural / Cultural Holiday Observances into Cultu ral / Cultural Holiday Observances of Evaluee Renamed Cultural / Cultural Importance of Work into Cultural / Cultural Importance of Work to Evaluee Renamed Cultural / Cultural Role of Community and Social Structure into Cultural / Cultural Role of Community and Social Structure to the Evaluee Renamed Cultural / Cultural Role of Family Structure into Cultural / Cultural Role of Family Structure to the Evaluee Renamed Economic / Address (date of loss) into Economic / Address of the Evaluee as of the Date of L oss Renamed Economic / Age (at time of Loss) into Economic / Age of the Evaluee as of the Date of Loss Deleted Economic / Expected Earnings for Future Work (This is not an independent variable, but the dependent variable being measured) Renamed Economic / Historical Annual Earnings into Economic / Historical Annual Earnings of the Evaluee Renamed Economic / Rated Age into Economic / Rated Age of the Evaluee Renamed Education / Apprenticeship Training into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Apprenticeship Training Completed by Evaluee Moved Education / Avocational Classes into Avocational Activities / Avocational Training Completed by Evaluee Renamed Education / Vocational-Course of Study into EducationVocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational Instru ction -Course of Study Renamed Education / Vocational-Amount Completed into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational InstructionAmount Completed Renamed Education / VocationalDates of Attendance into EducationVocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational Instruction Dates of Attendance Renamed Education / VocationalDifficult Subjects into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational Instruction-Difficult Subjects for Evaluee Renamed Education / VocationalEasy Subjects into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational Instruction-Easy Subjects for Evaluee Renamed Education / VocationalFull Time or Part Time Attendance into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational InstructionFull Time or Part Time Attendance

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267 Renamed Education / VocationalFull Time or Part Time Attendance into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational InstructionFull Time or Part Time Attendance Renamed Education / VocationalGrade Point Average into Education -Vocational and Apprenticeshi p / Vocational Instruction -Grade Point Average Renamed Education / VocationalNeed for Academic Accommodations into Education / Need for Academic Accommodations Merged Education / High SchoolNeed for Academic Accommodations into Education / Need for Academic Accommodations Merged Education / CollegeNeed for Academic Accommodations into Education / Need for Academic Accommodations Renamed Education / Vocational-Obsolescence of Education into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational Instruc tion Obsolescence of Training Renamed Education / Vocational-Reason for Not Completing into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational Instruction-Reason for Not Completing (if did not complete program) Renamed Education / VocationalSchool Locat ion into EducationVocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational InstructionLocation of Training Facility Renamed Education / VocationalSchool Name into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational InstructionName of Training Facility Renamed Education / VocationalSubjects Disliked into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational InstructionSubjects Disliked by Evaluee Renamed Education / VocationalSubjects Liked into Education-Vocational and Apprenticeship / Vocational Instruction -Subje cts Liked by Evaluee Renamed Education / High School-Behavior Patterns (ie. Skipping class) into EducationCompulsory (k-12) / Behavior Pattern (ie. skipping class) Renamed Education / High SchoolClass Rank into EducationCompulsory (k -12) / Class Rank at Time of Completion Renamed Education / High School-Course of Study into Education-Compulsory (k-12) / Course of Study (ie. academic or workforce education) Renamed Education / High SchoolDates of Attendance into Education-Compulsory (k12) / Dates of Attendance Renamed Education / High SchoolDifficult Subjects into Education-Compulsory (k-12) / Difficult Subjects for Evaluee Renamed Education / High School-Diploma or GED into Education-Compulsory (k-12) / Does Evaluee Have a High School Diploma or General Equivalency Diploma (GED) Renamed Education / High SchoolEasy Subjects into EducationCompulsory (k-12) / Easy Subjects for Evaluee Renamed Education / High SchoolElectives into EducationCompulsory (k12) / Electives Taken by Evaluee Renamed Education / High SchoolExtra circular Activities into Education-Compulsory (k12) / Extra circular Activities Involved In Renamed Education / High SchoolGrade Point Average into Education -Compulsory (k12) / Grade Point Average Renamed Education / High SchoolHighest Grade Completed into Education-Compulsory (k12) / Highest Grade Completed

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268 Renamed Education / High School-Location of School into Education-Compulsory (k12) / Location of School(s) Renamed Education / High SchoolName of School into Educ ation -Compulsory (k12) / Name of School(s) Renamed Education / High SchoolName of School into Education-Compulsory (k-12) / Public or Private School Renamed Education / High School-Reason for Not Completing into Education-Compulsory (k12) / Reason for Not Completing (only if did not complete high school) Renamed Education / High SchoolSize of School District into Education-Compulsory (k-12) / Size of School District Renamed Education / High School-Subjects Disliked into Education-Compulsory (k-12) / Subjects Disliked by Evaluee Renamed Education / High SchoolSubjects Liked into Education-Compulsory (k-12) / Subjects Liked by Evaluee January 16, 2011 Renamed Education / College-Continuous Attendance or Incurred Disruptions into EducationHigher Education (college) / Did Evaluee Attend Continuously or Incur Disruptions Renamed Education / College-Course of Study into Education-Higher Education (college) / Course(s) of Study Renamed Education / CollegeDates of Attendance into EducationHigher Ed ucation (college) / Dates of Attendance Renamed Education / College-Degree(s) Completed into Education-Higher Education (college) / Degree(s) Completed Renamed Education / CollegeDifficult Subjects into EducationHigher Education (college) / Difficult Subjects for Evaluee Renamed Education / CollegeEasy Subjects into Education-Higher Education (college) / Easy Subjects for Evaluee Renamed Education / CollegeExtra curricular Activities into Education-Higher Education (college) / Extra curricular Acti vities Renamed Education / CollegeFull Time or Part Time Attendance into Education Higher Education (college) / Full Time or Part Time Attendance Renamed Education / CollegeGrade Point Average into Education-Higher Education (college) / Grade Point Ave rage Renamed Education / CollegeHighest Year Completed into Education-Higher Education (college) / Highest Year Completed Renamed Education / College-Location of School into Education-Higher Education (college) / Location of School(s) Renamed Education / College Name of School into Education-Higher Education (college) / Name of School(s) Renamed Education / College-Obsolescence of Education into Education-Higher Education (college) / Obsolescence of College Education Renamed Education / CollegeReason for Leaving School into Education-Higher Education (college) / Reason for Leaving School (only if did not complete college) Renamed Education / College-Reputation of School into Education-Higher Education (college) / Reputation of College(s) Attended

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269 Ren amed Education / CollegeSubjects Disliked into EducationHigher Education (college) / Subjects Disliked by Evaluee Renamed Education / CollegeSubjects Liked into Education-Higher Education (college) / Subjects Liked by Evaluee Renamed Education / Computer Skills Training into EducationGeneral Variables / Computer Hardware Training the Evaluee has Attended Renamed Education / Computer Software Training into EducationGeneral Variables / Computer Software Training the Evaluee has Attended Renamed Education / Educational Awards and Recognition into EducationGeneral Variables / Educational Awards and Recognition the Evaluee has Received Renamed Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training into EducationGeneral Variables / Employer Sponsored InService Training the Evaluee has Received Renamed Education / Employer Sponsored InService Training Completion Date into EducationGeneral Variables / Employer Sponsored In Service Training Dates of Attendance Renamed Education / Need for Academic Accommodations into EducationGeneral Variables / Need for Academic or Training Accommodations Renamed Education / Participation in Exceptional or Special Education Services into EducationGeneral Variables / Participation in Exceptional or Special Education Services Renamed Education / School Testing Completed into EducationGeneral Variables / Records of Academic Testing Completed in School Renamed Education / School Records to Corroborate Education History into EducationGeneral Variables / Review of School Records to Corroborate Evaluees Reported Education History Merged Education / School Academic Records into EducationGeneral Variables / Review of School Records to Corroborate Evaluees Reported Education History Merged Education / Reason for Underutilized Vocational Capacity into Psychometric Instrumentation / Alignment of Psychometric Test Results with Vocational Skills Demonstrated Renamed Education / Reason for Acquiring Achieved Educational Level into EducationGeneral Variables / Reason for Evaluee Pursing Achieved Educational Level Renamed Education / Professional Continuing Education into EducationGeneral Variables / Professional Continuing Education Attended by Evaluee Moved Education / Planned TrainingGoals int o Rehabilitation Services / Planned Training Goals Moved Education / Planned Training-Length of Training into Rehabilitation Services / Planned Training-Length of Training Moved Education / Planned TrainingNeed for Academic Accommodations into Rehabilitation Services / Planned Training Need for Academic Accommodations Renamed Employment-Individual Job Details into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer Name into EmploymentPast Work Indivi dual Job Details / Name of Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer -Location into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Location of Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer -Industry into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Industry of Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer Size of Employer into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Size of Employer

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270 Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Employer -Industry Rate of Injury into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Rate of Injury within the Employers Industry Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer -Union or Non-Union into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Is the Employer Unionized or Non-Unionized Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer -Structure (private vs. public) into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Employer Structure (private vs. public) Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer Attendance Requirements into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Attendance Requirements of the Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer Work Flexibility into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Work Schedule Flexibility Provided by Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer -Accommodations Provided into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Accommodations Provided by Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employer Pay Structure (ie. Salary, commission, bonus) into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Employer Pay Structure (ie. Salary, commission, bonus) Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Employer -Benefits Provided into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Benefits Provided by the Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee Employment Start Date into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Employment Start Date Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee Employment End Date into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Employment End Date Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee St arting Wage into EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Starting Wage Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee -Ending Wage into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Ending Wage Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual J ob Details / Employee -Experience Required to Obtain Job into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Experience Required of Evaluee to Obtain Job Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee -Method of Obtaining Job into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / How did Evaluee Obtain Job Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee -Required Commute into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Required Commute to Job Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee -Skills Learned on the Job into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Skills Learned on the Job Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee -Job Progression with Employer into EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Job Progression with Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee -Promotions into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job Promotion with Employer Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Det ails / Employee Promotion Potential into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job Promotion Potential with Employer

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271 Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee -Awards and Honors into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Evaluee Awards and Honors Conveyed by Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee Performance Reviews into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Evaluee Performance Reviews by Employer Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Employee Satisfaction with Job into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Evaluee Satisfaction with Job Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Employee -Reason for Leaving Job into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Reason for Leaving Job Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Demands of Job-Aptitudes into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Aptitudes Required for Job Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Demands of Job -Driving into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Driving Required for Job Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Demands of Job-Environmental into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Environmental Demands for Job Re named Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Demands of Job-Interpersonal into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Interpersonal Demands Required for Job Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Demands of JobMental into Empl oyment -Past Work Individual Job Details / Mental Demands of Job Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Demands of JobPhysical into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Physical Demands of Job Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Demands of JobTemperaments into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Temperaments Required for Job Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / JobTitle into EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Job Title per Employer Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job Title per Dictionary of Occupational Titles Renamed Education / JobDuties into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job Duties Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP) into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP) per the Dictionary of Occupational Titles Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Strength Level into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Strength Requirements per the Dictionary of Occupational Titles Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Code into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Occupational Classification Code per the Dictionary of Occupational Titles Renamed EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Code into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Occupational Classification Code per the Dictionary of Occupational Titles Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job -Educational Requirements into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Educational Requirements of Job

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272 Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job-Machines, Tools, Equipment and Work Aids into EmploymentPast Wo rk Individual Job Details / Machines, Tools, Equipment and Work Aids Utilized in Job Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job-Materials, Products, Subject Matter and Services into EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Materials, Pr oducts, Subject Matter and Services Utilized in Job Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / JobWork Schedule into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Work Schedule Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job-Supervis ory Responsibilities into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Supervisory Responsibilities of Evaluee Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job-Number of Persons Supervised into Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Number of Persons Supervised (if evaluee supervised coworkers) Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / JobPrestige into EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Prestige of Job Held Renamed Employment-Past Work Individual Job Details / Job-P restige into EmploymentPast Work Individual Job Details / Prestige of Job Held Renamed Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / EvalueeDoes evaluee have a resume into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Does Evaluee have Experience with Resume Preparation Renamed Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Government Tax Incentives for Hiring Workers into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Available Government Tax Incentives for Hiring Workers Renamed Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Government Tax Incentives for Hiring Workers into Employment-Job Acquisition and Maintenance / Available Government Tax Incentives for Hiring Workers Renamed Financial / Debt and Financial Support Obligations into Financial / Debt and Financial Support Obligations of Evaluee Renamed Financial / Healthcare Benefits Private into Financial / Does Evaluee have Private Healthcare Benefits Renamed Financial / Healthcare Benefits -Public into Financial / Does Evaluee have Public Healthcare Benefits R enamed Financial / Income Necessary to Cover Expenses into Financial / Is Evaluees Income Necessary to Cover Expenses (only if evaluee has an income source) Merged Behavioral Health / Evaluee Secondary Gain into Financial / Secondary Gain Issues Renamed Financial / Sources of IncomeDisability into Financial / Does Evaluee Received Disability Related Income Renamed Financial / Sources of Income-Earnings from Paid Work into Financial / Does Evaluee Receive Income from Performing Paid Work Renamed Financial / Sources of IncomeFamily into Financial / Does Evaluee Receive Income from Family Members Renamed Financial / Sources of IncomePublic Social Welfare Benefits (ie. food stamps) into Financial / Does Evaluee Receive Public Social Welfare Benefits (ie. fo od stamps) Renamed Financial / Sources of Income-Spouse into Financial / Does Spouse of Evaluee have Earned Income (if evaluee is married)

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273 Renamed Household Activities / Household Activities Requiring Assistance into Household Activities / Household Activities Evaluee Requires Assistance With Renamed Household Activities / Physical Demands of Household Activities into Household Activities / Physical Demands of Evaluees Household Activities Renamed Household Activities / Tasks Performed Post-Injury into Hou sehold Activities / Household Activities Performed by Evaluee Post-Injury Renamed Household Activities / Tasks Performed Pre-Injury into Household Activities / Household Activities Performed by Evaluee Pre-Injury Renamed Labor Market Information / Types of Jobs within the Local Labor Market into Labor Market Information -Labor Market Sampling / Job Title for Suitable Jobs Merged Labor Market Information / Types of Jobs within the Surrounding Labor Market into Labor Market Information -Labor Market Sampling / Job Title for Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Job Duties for Suitable Jobs into Labor Market Information -Labor Market Sampling / Job Duties for Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Educational Requirements of Suitable Jobs into Labor Market InformationLabor Market Sampling / Educational Requirements for Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market SamplingLicenses and Certifications Required for Suitable Jobs into Labor Market Information-Labor Market Sampling / Licenses and Certifications Required for Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Required Skills of Suitable Jobs into Labor Market Information -Labor Market Sampling / Required Skills for Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market SamplingPhysical Demands of Suitable Jobs into Labor Market InformationLabor Market Sampling / Physical Demands of Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling Anticipated Hiring for Suitable Jobs into Labor Market InformationLabor Market Sampling / Anticipated Hiring for Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Job Turnover for Suitable Jobs into Labor Market Information -Labor Market Sampling / Job Turnover for Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Promotional Opportunities for Suitable Jobs into Labor Market InformationLabor Market Sampling / Promotional Opportunities for Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Labor Market Sampling-Wages of Suitable Jobs into Labor Market Information -Labor Market Sampling / Wages for Suitable Jobs Renamed Labor Market Information / Commute Distance to Significant Labor Market into Labor Market Information Labor Market Sampling / Commute Distance from Evaluees Residence to Suitable Job Merged Labor Market Information / Current Job Openings within the Local Labor Market into Labor Market Information Labor Market Sampling / Job Title for Suitable J obs Merged Labor Market Information / Current Job Openings within the Surrounding Labor Market into Labor Market Information -Labor Market Sampling / Job Title for Suitable Jobs Merged Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Surrounding Labor Market into Labor Market Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Local Labor Market Merged Labor Market Labor Market Information / Wages for Jobs in Local Labor Market into Labor Market Labor Market Information / Wages for Suitable Jobs

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274 Renamed Labor Market Information Labor Market Sampling into Labor Market Sampling Information Renamed Labor Market Information into Labor Market Statistical Information Renamed Labor Market Statistical Information / Labor Market Statistics Trade Association Publications into L abor Market Statistical Information / Trade Association Labor Market Statistics Renamed Labor Market Statistical Information / Labor Market Statistics Economic Research Institute into Labor Market Statistical Information / Economic Research Institute (ERI) Labor Market Statistics Renamed Labor Market Statistical Information / Labor Market Statistics -US Bureau of Census into Labor Market Statistical Information / US Census Bureau Labor Market Statistics Renamed Labor Market Statistical Information / Labor Market Statistics US Department of Labor into Labor Market Statistical Information / US Department of Labor Statistics January 17, 2011 Renamed Language / English Expressive Skills into Language / Expressive English Language Skills Renamed Language / Englis hReceptive Skills into Language / Receptive English Language Skills Renamed Language / Other Language(s) Expressive Skills into Language / Expressive Skills in Secondary Language(s) Renamed Language / Other Language(s) Receptive Skills into Language / Receptive Skills in Secondary Language(s) Renamed Language / Language Spoken in the Home into Language / Primary Language Spoken in the Home Renamed Legal Jurisdiction / Damage Claim(s) Made by Plaintiff into Legal Jurisdiction / Plaintiff Claim(s) for Damage s Renamed Legal Jurisdiction / Damage Claim(s) Foundation into Legal Jurisdiction / Foundation for Plaintiff Claim(s) for Damages Renamed Legal Jurisdiction / Deposition Transcript(s) into Legal Jurisdiction / Deposition Transcript(s) of Parties Involved in the Action or Cause Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity -Cognitive (current) into Medical Functional Capacity / Current Medical Opinions of Cognitive Functional Capacity Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive (future) into Medical -Functional Ca pacity / Projected Medical Opinions of Cognitive Functional Capacity (future) Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity -Cognitive (pre-injury) into Medical -Functional Capacity / Pre-Injury Medical Opinions of Cognitive Functional Capacity Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive -Date of Opinion(s) into Medical -Functional Capacity / Date(s) of Cognitive Functional Capacity Opinions Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity Cognitive -Source of Opinion(s) into Medical Functional Capacity / Source(s) of Cognitive Functional Capacity Opinions Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (current) into Medical -Functional Capacity / Current Medical Opinions of Physical Functional Capacity Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (future) into Medical Functional Capacity / Projected Medical Opinions of Physical Functional Capacity (future)

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275 Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity Physical (pre -injury) into Medical Functional Capacity / Pre -Injury Medical Opinions of Physical Functional Capacity Ren amed Medical / Functional Capacity Physical -Date of Opinion(s) into Medical -Functional Capacity / Date(s) of Physical Functional Capacity Opinions Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity Physical -Source of Opinion(s) into Medical -Functional Capacity / Source(s) of Physical Functional Capacity Opinions Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity Pain Related Limitations into Medical -Functional Capacity / Medical Opinions of Pain Related Limitations Renamed Medical / Evaluee-Opinion of Residual Functional Capacity in to Medical -Functional Capacity / Evaluee Opinion(s) of Residual Functional Capacity Renamed Medical / EvalueePain Complaints into Medical Functional Capacity / Evaluee Pain Related Complaints Merged Medical / EvalueeSubjective Complaints into Medical Fun ctional Capacity / Evaluee Opinion(s) of Residual Functional Capacity Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity Work Absences Expected into Medical -Functional Capacity / Medical Opinion(s) of Expected Work Absences Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity -Work Sc hedule (full or part time) into Medical Functional Capacity / Medical Opinion(s) of Tolerance for Full or Part Time Work Renamed Medical / Functional Capacity -Work Status into Medical Functional Capacity / Medical Opinion(s) of Tolerance to Perform any Lev el of Work Renamed Medical / Sensory Systems Status into Medical Functional Capacity / Medical Opinion(s) of Limitations in Sensory System(s) Renamed Medical / Life Expectancy Reduction Due to Impairment into Medical -Functional Capacity / Medical Opinions of Reduced Life Expectancy due to Impairment Renamed Medical to Medical -History and Treatment Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Medical History Past Medical Treatment into Medical History and Treatment / Past Medical Treatment History Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Medical History Pre Existing Diagnosis(es) into Medical History and Treatment / Pre Existing Medical Diagnosis(es) Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Medical History Pre Existing Diagnosis(es) Prognosis into Medical History an d Treatment / Prognosis for PreExisting Medical Diagnosis(es) Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Medical History -Previous Injury(ies) or Accident(s) into Medical -History and Treatment / Previous Injury(ies) or Accident(s) Evaluee Involved in Renamed Medical -History and Treatment / Provider(s)Name into Medical History and Treatment / Name of Medical Provider(s) Involved in Treatment Plan(s) Renamed Medical -History and Treatment / Provider(s)Specialty into Medical -History and Treatment / Specialty of Medical Provider(s) Involved in Treatment Plan(s) Renamed Medical -History and Treatment / ProviderPatient History with Provider into Medical History and Treatment / Evaluee Pre Injury Treatment History with Treating Provider(s) January 18, 2011 Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Treatment-Date of Injury into Medical -History and Treatment / Date of Injury

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276 Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Treatment-Symptoms (current) into Medical History and Treatment / Current Treatment Symptoms Renamed MedicalHistory and Treatment / TreatmentSymptoms (past) into Medical History and Treatment / Pre -Injury Symptoms (only if plaintiff had symptoms prior to injury) Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentDiagnostic Testing (past) into Medical History and Treatment / Pre Injury Diagnostic Testing Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Treatment-Diagnosis into Medical -History and Treatment / Current Treatment Diagnosis Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentDiagnosis Date into Medical History and Treatment / Date of Current Treatment Diagnosis Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentCurrent Treatment Plan into Medical History and Treatment / Current Treatment Plan Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Treatment-Frequency of Treatment (ie. monthly or annually) into Medical History and Treatment / Frequency of Treatment for Current Treatment Plan (ie. monthly, quarterly or annually) Renamed Medical History and Treatment / T reatment -Duration of Treatment (ie. short term or life expectancy) into Medical -History and Treatment / Duration of Treatment for Current Treatment Plan (ie. short term or life expectancy) Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Evaluee -Understanding of Tr eatment Plan into Medical -History and Treatment / Evaluee Understanding of Treatment Plan Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentPatient Compliance with Treatment Plan into Medical History and Treatment / Evaluee Compliance with Treatment Plan R enamed Medical History and Treatment / Treatment-Prognosis for Improvement in Condition into Medical -History and Treatment / Provider Prognosis for Improvement in Medical Condition Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Treatment-Prognosis for Degeneration or Decline in Condition into Medical -History and Treatment / Provider Prognosis for Degeneration or Decline in Medical Condition Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentSurgery(ies) into Medical -History and Treatment / Surgeries Completed in th e Course of Medical Treatment Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentSurgery Dates into Medical -History and Treatment / Dates of Surgeries Completed Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentPotential Complications into Medical History and Treatment / Potential Future Complications Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Treatment-Symptoms Frequency into Medical History and Treatment / Frequency of Current Symptoms Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Treatment-Orthotics and Prosthetic s into Medical History and Treatment / Orthotics and Prosthetics Included in the Treatment Plan Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentDiagnostic Testing (future) into Medical History and Treatment / Projected Future Diagnostic Testing Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentProjected Future Routine Treatment into Medical History and Treatment / Projected Future Routine Treatment Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentProjected Future Aggressive Treatment (ie. surgical) into Medical History and Treatment / Projected Future Aggressive Treatment (ie. surgical) Renamed Medical History and Treatment / Medical History Pre Existing Medications into Medical History and Treatment / Pre Existing Medication(s)

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277 Renamed Medical History a nd Treatment / TreatmentMedication Name into Medical History and Treatment / Current Medication Name(s) Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentMedication Dosage into Medical History and Treatment / Current Medication Dosage Renamed Medical Hist ory and Treatment / TreatmentMedication Prescriber into Medical History and Treatment / Prescriber for Current Medication(s) Renamed Medical History and Treatment / TreatmentMedication Side Effects into Medical History and Treatment / Current Medication Side Effects Merged Professional Resources / Labor Statistics into Professional Resources / US Department of Labor Statistics Renamed Psychometric Instrumentation into Psychometric Measurement Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Aptitude Verbal into Psychom etric Measurement / Verbal Aptitude Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Aptitude Numerical into Psychometric Measurement / Numerical Aptitude Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Aptitude Spatial into Psychometric Measurement / Spatial Aptitude Renamed Psycho metric Measurement / Aptitude -Form Perception into Psychometric Measurement / Form Perception Aptitude Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Aptitude Clerical Perception into Psychometric Measurement / Clerical Perception Aptitude Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Aptitude -Motor Coordination into Psychometric Measurement / Motor Coordination Aptitude Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Aptitude Finger Dexterity into Psychometric Measurement / Finger Dexterity Aptitude Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Aptitude Manual Dexterity into Psychometric Measurement / Manual Dexterity Aptitude Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Aptitude Eye, Hand, Foot Coordination into Psychometric Measurement / Eye, Hand, Foot Coordination Aptitude Re named Psychometric Measurement / Aptitude Color Discrimination into Psychometric Measurement / Color Discrimination Aptitude Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Academic Achievement Math into Psychometric Measurement / Math Achievement Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Academic Achievement Reading Comprehension into Psychometric Measurement / Reading Comprehension Achievement Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Academic Achievement Reading Recognition into Psychometric Measurement / Reading Recognition Achievement Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Academic Achievement Spelling into Psychometric Measurement / Spelling Achievement Renamed Psychometric Measurement / Academic Achievement -Vocabulary into Psychometric Measurement / Vocabulary Achievement Rena med Psychometric Measurement / Academic Achievement Writing into Psychometric Measurement / Writing Achievement January 19, 2011

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278 Merged Psychometric Measurement / AptitudeGeneral Learning Ability into Psychometric Measurement / Cognitive Ability Assessme nt Merged Psychometric Measurement / Flexibility into Psychometric Measurement / Personality Assessment Renamed Rehabilitation Services into Rehabilitation Planning and Services Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Opposing Expert Pre Incident Opinion(s) into Psychometric Measurement / Pre-Incident Opinion(s) of Opposing Vocational Expert Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Opposing Expert Post Incident Opinion(s) into Psychometric Measurement / Post -Incident Opinion(s) of Opposing Vocational Expert Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Opposing Expert Foundation for Opinion(s) into Psychometric Measurement / Foundation of Opinion(s) of Opposing Vocational Expert Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Opposing Expert Foundation for Opinion(s) into Psychometric Measurement / Foundation of Opinion(s) of Opposing Vocational Expert Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Rehabilitation Plan into Psychometric Measurement / Rehabilitation Training Plan Merged Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Planned TrainingGoals into Psychometric Measurement / Rehabilitation Training Plan Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Planned Training-Length of Training into Psychometric Measurement / Rehabilitation Training Plan Anticipated Dates of Service Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Rehabilitation Plan Costs into Psychometric Measurement / Rehabilitation Training Plan Anticipated Cost Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / TrainingAccess to Training P roviders and Opportunities into Psychometric Measurement / Access to Training Providers and Opportunities Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Planned TrainingNeed for Academic Accommodations into Psychometric Measurement / Rehabilitation Training Plan Accommodation(s) and Support(s) Renamed Rehabilitation Planning and Services / Provider of Previous Rehabilitation Services into Psychometric Measurement / Name(s) of Previous Rehabilitation Service Provider(s) Renamed Socioeconomic / Evaluee-Addre ss into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Address Renamed Socioeconomic / EvalueeDate of Birth into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Date of Birth Renamed Socioeconomic / EvalueeDate of Birth into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Date of Birth Merged Socioeconomic / Dominant Hand into Socioeconomic / Evaluee-Hand Dominance Renamed Socioeconomic / Evaluee-Hand Dominance into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Hand Dominance Renamed Socioeconomic / EvalueePlace of Birth into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Place of Birth Renamed Socioeconomic / Evaluee Height into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Height Renamed Socioeconomic / EvalueeWeight into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Weight Renamed Socioeconomic / EvalueeBirth Order into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Birth Order Renamed Socioeconomic / Age of Spouse into So cioeconomic / Age of Spouse (if married) Renamed Socioeconomic / Age of Dependents into Socioeconomic / Age of Dependents (if evaluee has dependents) Renamed Socioeconomic / EvalueeFamily Responsibilities into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Family Responsibilities Renamed Socioeconomic / Family Support to EvalueeAttendant and Personal Care into Socioeconomic / Attendant and Personal Care Support Provided by Family

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279 Renamed Socioeconomic / Family Support to Evaluee-Education and Training into Socioeconomic / Education and Training Support Provided by Family Renamed Socioeconomic / Family Support to EvalueeEmotional into Socioeconomic / Emotional Support Provided by Family Renamed Socioeconomic / Family Support to EvalueeFinancial into Socioeconomic / Financial Support Provided by Family Renamed Socioeconomic / Family Support to EvalueeJob Search Activities into Socioeconomic / Job Search Support Provided by Family Renamed Socioeconomic / Family Support to Evaluee-Transportation into Socioeconomic / Transportation Support Provided by Family Renamed Socioeconomic / Residence Own or Rent into Socioeconomic / Home of Residence (own or rent) Renamed Socioeconomic / Residence Type (ie. apartment, home, mobile home) into Socioeconomic / Home of Residence Type (ie. apa rtment, home, mobile home) Renamed Socioeconomic / Disability Status of Spouse into Socioeconomic / Disability Status of Spouse (if married) Renamed Socioeconomic / Disability Status of Children into Socioeconomic / Disability Status of Children (if evalue e has children) Renamed Socioeconomic / Disability Status of Children into Socioeconomic / Disability Status of Children (if evaluee has children) Merged Socioeconomic / Drivers License Type into Transportation / Personal TransportationClass of Drivers Li cense (ie. commercial) Merged Socioeconomic / Drivers License Status into Transportation / Personal TransportationPossession of a Drivers License Renamed Socioeconomic / Legal Criminal History into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Criminal History Renamed Socioeconomic / Legal Immigration Status into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Immigration Status Renamed Socioeconomic / Legal Nationality of Citizenship into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Nationality of Citizenship Renamed Socioeconomic / Legal Non Criminal Legal Involvement (ie. civil and administrative matters) into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Non Criminal Legal Involvement (ie. civil and administrative matters) Renamed Socioeconomic / Education Level of Spouse into Socioeconomic / Education Level of Spouse (if married) Renamed Socioeconomic / Education Level of Spouse into Socioeconomic / Education Level of Spouse (if married) Renamed Socioeconomic / Employment Status of Spouse into Socioeconomic / Employment Status of Spouse (if married) Renamed Socioeconomic / Evaluee Nationality of Citizenship into Socioeconomic / Evaluee Nationality January 20, 2011 Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Aptitude-Motor Coordination into Transferable Skills / Motor Coordination Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work

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280 Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudeNumerical into Transferable Skills / Numerical Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work Merged Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudesEye -Foot Coordination into Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudesEye -Hand Coordination Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudesEye -Hand Coordination into Transferable Skills / Eye, Hand, Foot Coordination Aptitude for Proposed Alternative Work Ren amed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudesForm Perception into Transferable Skills / Form PerceptionAptitude for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudeSpatial into Transferable Skills / SpatialAptitud e for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Aptitudes-Reasoning into Transferable Skills / ReasoningAptitude for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -AptitudeVerbal into Transferable S kills / VerbalAptitude for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Balancing into Transferable Skills / Balancing Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physica l Demands Climbing into Transferable Skills / Climbing Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands -Fingering into Transferable Skills / Fingering Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transf erable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands -Handling into Transferable Skills / Handling Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Hearing into Transferable Skills / Hearing Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Kneeling into Transferable Skills / Kneeling Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands -Reaching into Transferable Skills / Reaching Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands -Stooping into Transferable Skills / Stooping Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Strength Requirements into Transferable Skills / Strength Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands -Talking into Transferable Skills / Talking Demands for Proposed Alternativ e Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Physical Demands Vision into Transferable Skills / Vision Demands for Proposed Alternative Work Merged Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Skill Requirements into Labor Market Sampling Information / Required Skills for Suitable Jobs Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands-Exposure to Dust into Transferable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Dust Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmenta l Demands -Exposure to Electrical Hazards into Transferable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Electrical Hazards Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands-Exposure to Extreme Cold into Transferable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Extreme Cold

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281 Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands-Exposure to Extreme Heat into Transferable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Extreme Heat Renamed Transferable S kills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands-Exposure to Fumes into Labor Transferable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Fumes Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands-Exposure to Moving Hazards into Transf erable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Moving Hazards Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands-Exposure to Vibration into Transferable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Vibration Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands-Exposure to Wetness and Humidity into Transferable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Wetness and Humidity Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental Demands Noise Intensity Level into Transferable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Noise Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work -Environmental DemandsNoise Intensity Level into Transferable Skills / Environmental Demands Related to Exposure to Noise Renamed Transferable Skills / Special Skills of Interest-Ability to Count Money and Make Change into Transferable Skills / Evaluee Ability to Count Money and Make Change Renamed Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestClerical into Transferable Skills / Evaluee Clerical Skills Renamed Transferable Skills / Special Skills of Interest-Computer Hardware into Transferable Skills / Evaluee Computer Hardware Skills Renamed Transferable Skills / Special Skills of Interest-Computer Sof tware into Transferable Skills / Evaluee Computer Software Skills Renamed Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestSales into Transferable Skills / Evaluee Sales Skills Renamed Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestSkills Related to Activities of Daily Living into Transferable Skills / Evaluee Skills Related to Activities of Daily Living Renamed Transferable Skills / Special Skills of InterestTeaching Experience into Transferable Skills / Evaluee Teaching Skills Renamed Transferable Ski lls / Special Skills of InterestTyping into Transferable Skills / Evaluee Typing Skills Renamed Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (current) into Transferable Skills / Current Licenses and Certifications Renamed Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (expired) into Transferable Skills / Expired Licenses and Certifications Renamed Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications (expired) -Requirements to Bring Current into Transferable Skills / Requirements to Bring Expired Licenses and Certifications Current Renamed Transferable Skills / Licenses and Certifications -Continuing Education Requirements into Transferable Skills / Continuing Education Requirements for Current Licenses and Certifications Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Dictionary of Occupational Titles -Job Code into Transferable Skills / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Code(s) for Past Work

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282 Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title into Transferab le Skills / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job Title(s) for Past Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Dictionary of Occupational Titles Specific Vocational Preparation (SVP) into Transferable Skills / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Spe cific Vocational Preparation (SVP) Code(s) for Past Work Renamed Transferable Skills / Alternative Work Dictionary of Occupational Titles -Strength Level into Transferable Skills / Dictionary of Occupational Titles Strength Demand(s) for Past Work Renamed Transportation / Personal TransportationPhysical Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle into Transportation / Physical Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle Renamed Transportation / Personal Transportation-Cognitive Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle into Transporta tion / Cognitive Capacity to Drive a Motor Vehicle Renamed Transportation / Personal Transportation-Possession of a Drivers License into Transportation / Possession of a Drivers License Renamed Transportation / Personal TransportationClass of Drivers License (ie. commercial) into Transportation / Class of Drivers License (ie. commercial) Renamed Transportation / Personal Transportation-Endorsements on Drivers License into Transportation / Endorsements on Drivers License Renamed Transportation / Personal Transportation-Restrictions on Drivers License into Transportation / Restrictions on Drivers License Renamed Transportation / Personal TransportationMotor Vehicle Operator Record into Transportation / Motor Vehicle Operator Record Renamed Transportation / Personal TransportationOwnership of Reliable Vehicle into Transportation / Ownership of Reliable Vehicle Renamed Transportation / Personal TransportationNeed to Share Vehicle with other Family Members into Transportation / Need to Share Vehicle with other Family Members Renamed Transportation / Public TransportationEvaluee Experience with Use into Transportation / Evaluee Experience with the Use Public Transportation Renamed Transportation / Public TransportationAccessibility into Transportation / Accessibility of Public Transportation Renamed Transportation / Public TransportationAvailability into Transportation / Availability of Public Transportation January 22, 2011 Renamed Worklife Participation / Duration of UnemploymentTime Between Jobs int o Worklife Participation / Average Duration of Unemployment Between Jobs (over evaluees past work history) Renamed Worklife Participation / Duration of Unemployment-Reason for Unemployment into Worklife Participation / Reason for Periods of Unemployment between Jobs (over evaluees past work history) Renamed Worklife Participation / Evaluee Choice to Engage in Part Time or Full Time Work into Worklife Participation / Evaluee Option to Engage in Part Time or Full Time Work Renamed Worklife Participation / P hysical Demands of Occupation that Allow for Work Beyond Typical Retirement Age into Worklife Participation / Physical and Behavioral Demands of Occupation(s) that Allow for Work Beyond Typical Retirement Age

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283 APPENDIX G DELPHI ROUND 2 QUEST IONAIRE

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322 APPENDIX H DELPHI ROUND 3 QUEST IONAIRE

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424 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Rick Robinson, M.Ed., MBA, LMHC, CRC, CVE, CLCP, NCC, D-ABVE, is a doctoral candidate in the Rehabilitation Science Doctoral program at the University of Florida College of Public Health and Health Professions (Gainesville, FL). After being discharged from the United States Navy as a service disabled veteran, Mr. Robinson completed his initial graduate work in Counselor Education with emphasis in mental health counselingat the University of North Florida (Jacksonville, FL) in 1997. In 2001, Mr. Robinson completed additional graduate work at Regis University (Denver, CO), receiving a masters degree in Business Administration with emphasi s in international business and management. Mr. Robinson is licensed in Florida as a Mental Health Counselor. He is nationally certified as a Rehabilitation Counselor, Vocational Evaluator and Life Care Planner. He is board certified as a Diplomate by the American Board of Vocational Experts and as a National Certified Counselor by the National Board for Certified Counselors. He maintains membership in several national professional associations to include the International Association of Rehabilitation Professionals; the National Rehabilitation Association; the American Rehabilitation Counseling Association; the American Rehabilitation Economics Association and the American Counseling Association. He is a former Florida chapter president and current international forensic section board member for the International Association of Rehabilitation Professionals. Mr. Robinson has held academic appointments as an adjunct faculty member at Florida Community College at Jacksonville (Jacksonville, FL) and with the University of Florida in the Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health and the Division of Continuing Education. He is the recipient of the 2011 Sam and Connie Holloway Endowed Scholarship

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425 from the University of Florida, College of Public Health and Health Professions. This scholarship is awarded to an individual who exemplifies strong professional leadership. Mr. Robinson is self-employed as a vocational and rehabilitation consultant in Jacksonville, FL. He provides consulting service s in both litigated and non litigated settings. He has been qualified as a forensic vocational expert and / or life care planner in a range of administrative and civil venues at both the state and federal levels. He is a frequent speaker and lecturer at seminars and conferences at the local, state and national levels.