This item is only available as the following downloads:
1 INTO THE WOODS : TEXTS By CARI JO KEEBAUGH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FO R THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011
2 2011 Cari Jo Keebaugh
3 To Aunt Vickie, with love
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS each of them. First, I w ould like to thank my committee, and specifically Dr. Kidd, my dissertation chair, for his constant support and calm advice. I always came out of meetings with him feeling better than when I went in. Also, I would like to thank Dr. Leverenz for all of his thoughtful and thorough feedback on my chapter drafts. I also thank Dr. Cech and Dr. Kawashima for their pointers and advice I also wish to thank the staff of the Smathers Library, particularly Rita Smith, retired curator of the Baldwin Library of Histori her help locating and making available to me many of the more obscure texts with which I worked, as well as for finding and purchasing a copy of Girvin Round Fairyland with Alice and the White Rabbit for the Baldwin I would like to thank my parents, Duane and Jo, for their unwavering love and support. I thank them for always believing in me and being there for me. And last but not least, I wish to thank my husband, Aaron for all the love and patience he showed me as I was researching and writing. He provided a shoulder to cry on, a second set of eyes to proofread, and a hand to hold.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 7 CHAPTER 1 INTERTEXTUALITY AND META COMMENTARY IN NINETEENTH CENTURY ................................ ........ 9 Epig raph ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 9 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 9 Crossover Intertextuality in the Victorian Era ................................ .......................... 17 Concluding Thoughts ................................ ................................ .............................. 40 2 PICTURE BOOKS: INTERTEXTUAL TALES IN A POSTMODERN WORLD ........ 51 Epigraph ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 51 Crossover Intertextual Picture Books ................................ ................................ ...... 51 Definitions: The Postmodern Picture Books versus the Crossover Intertextual Picture Book ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 52 Pre Intertextual Picture Books: Maurice Sendak, Allan & Janet Ahlberg, and Alma Flor Ada ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 58 Category 1: The Main Character Changes or Acts as a Catalyst for Other ................................ ................................ .............................. 63 Category 2: Crossover Intertextual Picture Books that Focus on Expanding ............... 72 ................................ ....... 77 Concluding Thoughts ................................ ................................ .............................. 81 3 PERILS OF THE PROFESSION: RED CAPES, GLASS COFFINS, AND THE READERS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 85 Epigraph ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 85 Crossover Intertexts for Older Readers ................................ ................................ .. 85 ................................ .................. 89 ................................ ..... 93 ................................ ........................ 99 Education ................................ .................... 110 By Way of Conclusion ................................ ................................ ........................... 117 4 HISTORY WITH DIGITIAL INTERTEXTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 122
6 Crossover Intertextual Video Games, Disney, and Cultural Literacy .................... 122 Landmark Crossover Inte rtextual Video Games: A Brief History .......................... 124 Disney: Remediating and Repainting the Past ................................ ...................... 131 ................................ ................................ 152 5 MINDING THE FUTURE: A CODA ................................ ................................ ....... 157 Epigraph ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 157 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 157 APPENDIX LIST OF CROSSOVER INTERTEXTS ................................ ................................ ........ 165 Nineteenth Century Crossover Intertexts ................................ .............................. 165 Picture Book Crossover Intertexts ................................ ................................ ........ 166 Young Adult Crossover Intertexts ................................ ................................ ......... 170 Theatrical / Filmic Crossover Intert exts ................................ ................................ 172 Video Game Crossover Intertexts ................................ ................................ ......... 175 Adult Crossover Intertexts ................................ ................................ ..................... 178 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 181 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 193
7 ABSTRACT OF DISSERTA TION PRESENTED TO TH E GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLME NT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY FANTASY TEXTS By Cari Jo Keebaugh August 2011 Chair: Kenneth Kidd Major: English This dissertation expl which incorporate pre existing characters into a new narrative. Crossover intertextuality both promotes and s ubverts the discourses from which it borrows and in which it resides. This dichotomous function renders it a potent tool, but also one that is double edged and, at times, unpredictable. they alter expectat ions of cultural literacy, how they critique contemporary culture, and how they teach children to understand the way narratives work on the most fundamental level. culture u p to the most recent video game releases, including such texts as Jane G. Moonfolk Enchanted Forest picture book series, Michael Sisters Grimm young adult series, as well as anticipated Wii game Epic Mickey My project recasts the current conversation about intertextuality in
8 of source materials than any study thus far and by demonstrating that intertexts and crossover in tertexts, more specifically function more effectively and subversively than has previously been suggeste d. V enturing into an intertext evokes all manner of questions regarding cultural literacy, (cultural) memory, commentary on structure and genre, and, above all, questions regarding the nature of narrative itself in all forms and guises. In this dissertation, I hope to offer some answers to these provocative matters by guiding the reader through the metaphorical and ideological woods of crossover interte
9 CHAPTER 1 INTERTEXTUALITY AND META COMMENTARY IN NINETE ENTH CENTURY ENGLISH AND AMERICAN E Epigraph benign a ccording to their natures. And all the other travelers you had heard of were in the wood too, at this very moment: kings and knights, youngest sons and third daughters, simpletons and outlaws; a small girl whose bright hood flickered between the pine trees like a scarlet beacon, and a wolf moving on a different vector to intercept her at the cottage . . These people, these dangers were not far away, but you would never meet them. -Spufford, The Child that Books Built woods -Sondheim, Into the Woods Introduction In his engaging memoir The Child that Books Built Francis Spufford characterizes tale has its own glen, its own path, and so no story ever crosses into another. Contrary d glens have long since converged. Contemporary intertextual stories, such as the popular book series The Sisters Grimm by Michael Buckley, the movie Shrek and the Kingdom Hearts video game series and this is only a very abbreviated list 1 all indicate a growing awareness of the presence and usefulness of intertextuality. Intertextuality has come to critical attention relatively recently, but the meta discourses surrounding intertextual stories have been prowling the proverbial forest since at least the mid nineteenth century. 1 For a full list of the crossover intertexts I encountered while researching this project, please see the A ppendix.
10 ts in fantasy literature from nineteenth century books through contemporary texts, including books, movies, and video games. These analyses will inform discussions of four main topics regarding l literacy. Crossover intertexts determining what information a person needs or which books ought to be read in order for a person to be culturally literate. I will also exa mine the meta commentary crossover may very well promote a specific aspect of cultural literacy while simultaneously (and often ironically) offering a critique of that very same aspect. 2 Third, I will explore some of texts, themselves. For my conclusion, I hope to use the material provided by the above three analyses to examine how crossover and young adult fantasy texts, I believe the implications of the unique functions of crossover intertextuality ar e generalizable and far reaching. my discussion with a brief overview of the term. Ori 2 This chapter seeks to explore this v ery notion; while nineteenth century texts promoted a specific canon of fairy tales, these texts almost invariably offered critiques of the very tales they were invoking. See below.
11 Julia Kristeva in her work during the late 1960s to unite the semiotic theories of scholars Ferdinand de Saussure and Mikhail Bakhtin, and it referred to every possible semiotic connection a work had within a synchronic s ystem of language (per Saussure) or and arbitrary signs derive meaning from surrounding signs (how they a re different and thus meaningful), while Bak gism focused more on heteroglossia, or the multiple meanings available within a text, and how cult ure and other texts influence which meanings c an 3 s/he still or her novel, but s/he does not enter into it as a guiding in this case, specific characters from pre conscious use of the pre tex tual materials, including both his/her reasons for and ramifications of those choices, instead of on the numerous possible abstract relations the work has to language/signs. The author is a motivating force behind the text and its characters, and s/he cann ot be ignored or dismissed so readily. is important to define terms in relation to h ow they inform specific texts rather than the 3
12 ralist inspired focus on the . closed, or at least semi autonomous, fie another: intertext (direct allusion or quotation), paratext (prefaces, illustrations, footnotes), metatext (text surrounding the text, including reviews, summaries, and commentary the text produces about itself), architext (genre patterns, tropes, and/or conventions), and hypotext (parody, satire, and in some cases pastiche), 4 but this chapter will limit itsel f to issues of intertext and metatext, or what I refer to more messages embedded in the to examine the conscious use of intertextual material instead of remaining in abstract conjecture about wheth er or not an author intended to allude to a pre text. In fact, many definition, 5 to dismiss those definitions, I 4 Genette addre sses these transtextualities in his work Palimpsests 5 Although Nikolajeva does not mention Genette by name, she does emphasize the importance of both obviously and intentionally.
13 that identifies the particular body of works that exists between the cracks of these describe the pheno textual characters in new narrative structures, and I believe a more specific term is necessary in order to discuss this particular body of works. This term will describe that body of li terature that utilizes previously written characters not just generic conventions or unconscious allusions in new settings to create new stories. While his defin ition still falls short, as it accounts more for passing quotations/allusions and less on texts that sustain this borrowed material and, in fact, center on it. focus on pre existing characters, either as protagonists or primary supporting established stories and traits to develop the new context and storyline in which the author is incorporating them. The purpose or theme of the crossover intertext is, at least in part, developed and supported by the pre existing characters and the cultural literacy associated with them. These texts are cu lturally associated with the specific characters, but they are not abstract or unconsciously implied (by author or reader). Crossover intertexts rely on the conscious decision of the author to include certain pre textual characters and not others: a phenom texts that include sustained invocations of pre textual characters.
14 cently employed in popular culture 6 to describe comic books or video games that feature appearances by characters from different new one for a brief time (usually one comic book or one level in a game). In this sense, in the texts but also helps to serve as a suture between scholarly and popular discourses on the phenomena, so mething that the texts, themselves, do. 7 The term also 8 I pre textual characters roots. The term refers both to the manifest behavior of the characters, the surface level trait of the literature that defines it and delineates it from other texts in which characters rem ain in their own stories, and to the ideological implications the texts have on potential readers. These ideological implications inform how readers make meaning from intertextual texts and how these crossovers influence cultural reactions to the pre textu al characters and plots on an individual basis. While traditional scholarship on intertextuality maintains that the individuality of storylines and characters is an illusion, crossover intertexts go one step further, suggesting that, while the characters a nd plots are not entirely discrete, bringing them together does something unique to the lyze. 6 This term Heroes and Monsters: The Unofficial Companion to the League of Extraordinary Gentlemen The Simpsons Futurama Crossover Crisis 7 See C hapter 3. 8 See C hapt er 4.
15 literature that include crossover intertextuality and to determine what the function of crossover intertextuality in such literature is in relation to the four goals I set forth earlier. The body of literature in this chapter consists chiefly of stories that revolve around fairy and Robinson Crusoe and will focus speci fically on those works that the pre textual stories invoked in the tales. My second chapter will move chronologically from the first, working forward from the early 1900s to the 1950s and the rise of the picture book in Europe and America. on picture books, these studies often conflate intertextuality with Postmodernity. The first part of my second chapter explores the differences between postmodern and crossover intertextual books; the two categories do not overlap as much as recent scholarship sometimes suggests. I also explore in this chapter how crossover intertexts can impact Although postmodern picture books, like more to consciously undermine the pre texts rather than to gently and subtly work with, expand, or skills than do crossover intertexts. Chapter 3 investigates crossover intertexts for older re aders, exploring how these
16 s hare goals similar to those in C hapters one and two, but with a slightly different focus; crossover intertexts for older readers offer meta co mmentary on the critical discussions surrounding the pre texts they invoke rather than on the use of the pre texts or the pre texts, themselves. The crossover characterization in these texts serves to reflect and refract critical ideologies commonly held r crossovers themselves support, refute, or offer critiques of the scholarship. In Chapter 4 I explore digital intertexts and remediations. While I focus primarily on those produced by Disney, I also examine a few oth er cornerstone texts in crossover shifting ideologies. Specifically mployed to accomplish this makeover are reflected in crossover intertexts from as early as the 1990s Disney uses their crossover intertexts to manipulate how viewers and players perceive the company, and they have found an ingenious way accomplish this ov erwriting of their own history: they have gamers do it for them. Unfortunately, there are far too many crossover intertexts in existence to permit a study of them all. Therefore, this study focuses on crossover intertexts for children and young adult reade rs, although a truncated list of crossover intertexts for adults will be offered in the A ppendix for further reading. In addition, this project deals only with pre textual characters from fiction; alternate history and/or historical fantasy that employs fi and other genre conventions of historical fiction that do not apply to fictional literature
17 and games. 9 This study will also forego lengthy discussions of crossovers i n comics, as many crossovers in comics are not sustained but are instead guest appearances or cameos. 10 haracters. In addition, such a study would constitute a dissertation in its own right, as characters same company. Also, those books that include intertextual characters wh o are Heck: Where the Bad Kids Go and Seven Day Magic for example) will not be included in this study, as there are far too many to be included practically in such a study. Crossover Intertextua lity in the Victorian Era Crossover intertextuality is not a new concept; in fact, it predates postmodernity by roughly eighteen centuries. The Greek writer Lucian was one of the first authors to pair historical figures anachronistically together in the af terlife in his book The Dialogues of the Dead 11 Kendrick Bangs. 12 Crossover intertexts popped up continuously throughout the 9 The Character of Truth: Historical Figures in Contemporary Fiction Southern Illinois University Press (1990), and Joanne Brown & Nancy St Cla The Distant Mirror: Reflections on Young Adult Historical Fiction Scarecrow Press Inc. (2006). Beyond literature, painter Chris Consani is known for his paintings of various historical figures (chiefly celebrities) all gathered in the same locale. 10 The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen graphic novel series (1999 present). 11 Dialogue has most recently been translated by Baudelaire Jones in 2007. Jones replaced several ancient characters with more modern counterparts, including Jack the Ripper, Anna Nichole Smith, Sigmund Freud, and Michael Moore. 12 Bangs is the author of the famous book A House Boat on the Styx (1895).
18 centuries, 13 but none specifically targeted children, and m any were, in fact, too erudite for younger readers. The pre texts invoked in these intertexts were often mythological and/or historical in nature, and the dialogue often focused on satirizing complex cultural issues. The first crossover intertexts featuri ng pre textual materials that younger audiences could recognize and relate to appeared in the Victorian era in both theater and literature. Pantomimes were extremely popular in this age, and one of the most successful was Harlequin and Mother Goose; or, th e Golden Egg in 1805. According to Disher: opened on December 28  and was the most triumphant pantomime of all time. Most of the the Harlequinade, but the simple fable [pg] was not altogether negligible. Melancholy magicians and captive princesses had not a fiftieth part of the attraction of the jog tr 288) Although documen tation on this type of theatrical performance is scarce due to the transient nature of the performances 14 musicologists agree that such fairy tale burlesques were abundant in Victorian culture. These performances more usually operettas were often based on fairy tales and often contained from other Such operettas included Lizette E. Mother Goose Jubilee (1901) 15 and, perhaps most famously, 13 Nevins offers a nice overview of adult intertexts in the introductio n to her book Heroes and Monsters (2003). 14 Documents such as librettos are scarce because the musical numbers were often published individually as well as 15 Sixty Songs from Mother Goose The tunes were meant to aid piano playing, I have fou nd it a great help to give with a melody some familiar words in the same rhythm.
19 Babes in Toyla nd (1903). Babes is arguably the work that made Herbert famous (Ledbetter), and his crossover intertext would lay the foundation for future lyricists such as Stephen Sondheim, who wrote the popular musical Into the Woods (1986). In addition to the theatric al performances, literary crossover intertexts for children primarily utilizing fairy tale pre textual materials began to proliferate during the last half of the nineteenth century and while source materials of the performances are limited, examples o f literary crossover intertexts are abundant In Twice Upon a Time: Women Writers and the History of the Fairy Tale Elizabeth Harries draws attention to the complex and often underestimated history of fairy tales and the politics of their transmission in the nineteenth century and earlier. In our many Victorian women writers told were meant to covertly subvert the established ideological structures to which fairy tales themselves, were subject. Many contemporary writers have taken a leaf out of nineteenth speak, by incorporating subversive meta history of the written, literary tale, from its ver y beginnings in Italy and France, insistent internal voices and narrative strategies have called the shapes and patterns we now such as Nancy Canepa, have argued that even the oldest of recorded tales such as, No words are so dear to the child as the nursery rhymes. As versions of Mother Goose vary, I have set down the words the rhythm of which the music follows exactly. This identi ty of rhythm as well as similarity of spirit will help beginners in music, find response in the home circle, and be of use in the Kindergarten where the words can be repeated aloud while the music goes on. What happier way to awaken the musical instinct th an to associate with the nursery rhyme a little melody that expresses the spirit of the
20 specifically Giambattista 16 ever Harries 16). In other words, using fairy tale pre texts to challenge preconceived notions of the form and content of fairy tales is not a concept unique to nor conceived by contemporary, postmodern works such as Shrek Nineteenth century texts that utilize crossover intertextual sto rylines and characters, though not generally included in the canon of nineteenth literature, are important nonetheless. While the authors in question were divided in their goals, they all had one thing in common; they utilized intertextu ality to achieve access to the very discourse they hoped to influence. The authors studied in this chapter sought transmission, and they used fairy tales to achieve their ai ms. For instance, Jane G. Moonfolk: A True Account of the Home of the Fairy Tales published in 1874 spoke to concerns with the simplification of the tales that occurred during their transmission, while in 1883 Alice Corkran published The Adventu res of Mrs. Wishing To Be to comment on the employment of fairy tales as didactic tools. Maggie Browne, too, in her Wanted, a King: or, How Merle Set the Nursery Rhymes to Rights (1890) was concerned with issues of education and learning, while Ray M. Stew ard ( Edgar Stratemeyer ) wrote The Surprising Adventures of the Man in the Moon (1903) as a didactic tool, simultaneously linking the use of fairy tales to the enculturation of the child reader. Although each author included slightly different meta discours es in his/her text, each effectively utilized crossover intertextuality both to achieve the authority to make 16 Basile was an Italian fairy tale collector whose collections were later adapted and expanded upon by Charles Perrault and the Brothers Grimm.
21 their claims and to enter their claims into the contemporary dialogue surrounding fairy tales and their transmission. Their invocation of this aut hority had lasting ramifications on the canon and structure of the tales they told. (18 49 ), for example, featured The Tempest ), who Kit says were Shakespeare 17 himself. The book also features characters like Scylla and Charybdis from Greek mythology. A lso, in Lew i Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There (1871) Alice encounter s Humpty Dumpty. Both Ki t Bam and Through the Looking Glass while they offer cameo appearances of well known characters and thus demonstrate that intertextu ality was alive and well during the Victorian era, do not rely on these characters for the plot. One of the first Golden Age 18 books to rely on pre textual characters as a central element to the plot and thus one of the first crossover intertext s is Moonfolk: A True Account of the Home of the Fairy Tales ( 1874 ) Austin was an American author who was well known for her works addressing the Pilgrim lifestyle. She wrote a total of twenty four books during her lifetime, most if not all meant for children. Some sources claim that her mother, the poet Elizabeth Hammatt Goodwin, authored a well known translation of German fairy tales (Fox para. 2). If this wer e the 17 18 While this term is often contended, for the purposes of thi 1926 (from to the publication of Winnie the Pooh flour ished in England and America.
22 case, 19 pre textual fairy tale characters, which I w ill discuss below, would be all the more interesting. Moonfolk in Bo ots, and she meets several of the characters, including Cinderella, King Arthur, and the Fairy Godmother. The reader is told that the due to the fact that moonbeams on which the s tories are transported to Earth are both finicky and fragile beings that do their job to the best of their ability most often resulting in minor changes or omissions in the tales. I counted well over sixty nursery rhymes and fairy tales, m any of which were unfamiliar to me, sugg esting that they no longer circulate in contemporary fairy tale compendiums Robinson Crusoe and Sinbad the Sailor are the only two literary characters that appear; the rest are from nursery rhymes or fairy tales. Unfortunately, much of the text reads like a recitation of nursery rhymes and fairy tales; the first half contains most of the intertextual characters, but they are only given brief and passing notice precluding any productive close readings For example, in C hapter 5 61), th e Chimney Elf tells Rhonda the stories of Trinculo, the Egg Woman, the span of a page and a half (53 54). The second half of the book focuses primarily on the Fairy Godmoth er, Cinderella, Rumpelstiltskin, and King Arthur This half of the book 19
23 provides the most interesting content, as each character is given more time to interact and develop. T he Fairy Godm other is arguably the most intriguing character invoked as she orche Cinderella from both the evil stepmother and Rumpelstiltskin but she also watches over Dorma (Sleeping Beauty ) and her prince, as well. She i s, in fact, the same fairy who cas t a spell over the castle causing its inhabitants to sleep for a hundred years, primarily becaus e she wanted to marry the king, with the Golden The Fairy Godmother seems to be the linchpin binding the rest of the tales together, and so I will begin my investigation of nineteenth century crossover i ntertext uality with her. As mentioned, the Fairy Godmother acts as a force of both good and evil in tin plays with the boundaries of the loving mother/evil stepmother characters commonly found in fairy tales 20 by having the Fairy Godmother embody both. This duality promotes a meta commentary on the simplicity of most fairy tale characters that is sustaine d throughout the text. According to Brian Attebery, early fairy tales were told orally by peasants 21 in authority and property are challenged by benevolent forces of nature ancient wisdom, The Fantasy Tradition 4). These stories are structurally 20 The Uses of Enchantment 21 Attebery is speaking of a specific study performed by Linda Dgh i n Hungary, though he generalizes her results to include all receivers of oral tales ( The Fantasy Tradition study, see her book Folktales and Society: Story Telling in a Hungarian Peasant Community translated by Emily Schos sberger (Indiana Univ. Press, 1969).
24 identical to fantasy tales, to which he assigned five necessary criteria. Of the five, one of ( The Fantasy Tradition 13). Bettelheim, too, notes the importance of the clear divide between good and evil characters in fairy tales: The figures in fairy tales are not ambivalent not good and bad at the same tim e, as we all are in reality. . Pres enting the polarities of character permits the child to comprehend easily the difference between the two, which he could not do as readily were the figures drawn more true to life. (Bettelheim 9) Bettelheim argues that the split between good mothers/evil stepmothers and good/evil fairy godmothers is a literary device that allows children to comprehend the complexities of human nature that are currently beyond their capacity to truly understand (67, 230). 22 But Austin muddies these proverbial waters by havi ng her good and evil godmothers wrapped up into one character. Harries also notes this polarization of good and evil mentioned by both Attebery and Bettelheim, and she discusses how many feminist authors in the Golden Age used this polarization to their ad vantage in (100) rather than offer a revised ideological system. Austin offers no such easy distinction for her young readers, and thus does not merely offer a redistribution of guilt or power. more complex character. She is that simple, polarized charac ter of whom both Bettelheim and Attebery speak, and yet she is both the polarized good and the 22 He refers specifically to a case where a little girl decides that the woman yelling at her in the supermarket is not her mother, but rather a Martian imposter who only looks like her mother, in order to secure her vi sion of her mother as an omni benevolent being (67).
25 invokes, and so when we find that the Fairy Godmother is both the evil fairy w ho prince rescue them (116 the princess and the evil fairy who gives her a magical spinning wheel that wounds h er Austin thus uses the Fairy Godmother to comment on the simplistic views of good t he scorned lover is still a woman in power Fairy Godmother simply warns the vain queen and unfaithful king to never allow the ir about it was to tell them to keep the child out of my turret of the pa lace; and another thing I told them was never to let her learn to spin, for as surely as she did she would 115). Austin, then, is trying to mediate between the older/lesser e tales like those of depiction of good and evil female characters. One of the biggest reasons this polarization became popular has to do with issues of literacy and print c ulture. The
26 partly due to issues with their transcription from oral to print culture, another issue that Austin subtly pursues in her work. s journey, the Man in the Moon explains to her, and subsequently the reader, how fairy tales and nursery rhymes come to exist on earth: All fancies, and a great many ideas, come from the moon. The moonbeams go when people are asleep, and put them into the ir heads, and when they wake up they write them do wn, and call them their own. . The moonbeams know whom to carry them to. Sometimes, however, they make a mistake, and stuff too many fancies into the brain of somebody who can't write them, or tell them and so get rid of them, and he keeps them stored away until the y turn his brains upsid e down. . Sometimes the moonbeams pour in ideas faster than the brain can arrange or pat them together, even if the person does write them down, and then they make queer work enough of it for a while, but finally join the lunatics (27 28) ha ve, and other times their Moonfolk as a critique of the fairy tales that assumptions and nineteenth brothers (Harries 13) Austin seems particularly put off by the patriarchal motifs that find their way into 19 th century retellings of oral tales ; h er complex Fairy Godmother is proof could no In order to repair the damage, Austin invokes the characters and structures of the fairy tales with which children of her time were most familiar I nstead of trying to rediscover the old versions of the tales, Austin tips her hat to the famous Perrault and Grimm versions, but not without subtly inserting her own argument into the fray. The
27 Fairy Godmother includes a fascinating observation about her own powers : know whether they wear fairy spectacles or not; and it is one of the best jokes I know, to hear people praise their own clear sightedness, and boast how far into a mill stone it will 201). I believe Austin is here using the Fairy Godm other as a mouthpiece to throw one last jab at Perrault and the Grimms : that even though the men have made the fairy tale popular, they have done so only because of the power inherent to the fairy tale 23 By using pre textual characters in an intertextual c ontext, Austin comment s effectively both on the transmission of fairy tales and the resulting loss of female power due to an obsession with the simplification of good and evil for the child audience. Austin would not be the last to make such meta textual c omments. In 1883, Alice Corkran published The Adventures of Mrs. Wishing To Be Corkran published several Down the Snow Stairs: Or, From Goodnight to Goodmorning and Bairn's Annual of Old Fashioned Fairy Tales 24 In Mrs. Wishing To Be Corkran presents a slightly different case from Moonfolk W hereas Rhonda discover s tales, D orothea/Dolly/Dodo just wants to meet her favorite characters. Rhonda i s pre sented as a bit neglected, but Dodo is simply an only child. Puss in Boots who shows Dodo the way to the land of the fairy tales and assures that reader that it is real upon her return to Earth insinuates that Dodo is worthy of learning about the land of the fairy tales because she maintains an innocence and a sense of wonder in the world. 23 declaration regarding her rose colored glasses seems to be a statement of ownership and value: fairy tales do something for their readers independently, regardless of how they are (mis)transcribed or (mis)translated. 24 Unfortunately, not much more information is available about her.
28 an accomplish her goal without having to work for it: she hopes to gain a mirror like the one lessons without having to study, thus giving her more time to play and read fairy tales. wondering what it would be like to be anything other than what she is, and during one of her bouts (she wishes she could try being a pigeon), her father dubs To Interspersed throughout Mrs. Wishing To Be are twenty eight nursery rhyme and fairy tale characters, most of which would be familiar to a modern reader. A short list and Robinson Crusoe Jack is there, as well: he is portrayed as being the same Jack in s after Puss leaves her. Jack, in concerned with their own affairs and living their lives beyond the stories that humans tell about them. textual characters creates a not to play out
29 the pun too far a dodo. She is not at all concerned with learning her arithmetic and geography lessons, but instead would prefer to know everything all at once by an easy 41). While some of the characters such as Jack express their dissatisfaction with hers such as Puss in Boots and Mother Goose not to value book learning. When she delivers the m ail to the wrong people on delivers the letters, as no one in the land of fairy tales can read 25 (79). Corkran makes her subtext clear when Dodo meets Goody Two Shoes and her schoolchildren; they all look and act practically identical (43), a fate which Dodo hopes to avoid. Rather than being indoctrinated into a system which seems threatening (because of its forced conformity) and difficult, Dodo hopes to avoid school and i several of the characters from Bluebeard : dong, Ding dong cannot tell / where the secret hides / Jack must learn that / Bluebeard means to kill his 98). In other words, Dodo must somehow express to Jack that Bl uebeard has murdered his other wives. Jack must the n find the key to 25 The Jolly Postman might be seen as an interesting if subtle response to M as The Jolly Postman delivers letters to different fairy tale and nursery rhyme characters. As a book that plays with binding conventions, The Jolly Postman of their envel opes to read for themselves. For more on The Jolly Postman please see chapter two.
30 t he other fairy tale characters can Dodo save the bride. The transmissio n and value of fairy tales come into question. Whereas Austin made the statement that fairy tales are passed on by third party mediators (moonbeams) and that sometimes the stories go a wry for various reasons, Corkran illustrates the importance of passionate readers passing on the fairy tales in order to preserve (save) them. Only Dodo can save the fairy tale characters from Bluebeard by transmitting his story his murderous desire to the other fairy tale characters. Again, on power balances, Corkran focuses more on the Victorian concern with didacticism and the acquisition of knowledge. In an age where fairy tales are gaining popularity over The History of Little Goody Two Shoes (1765), 26 Corkran seems to be trying to promote the importance of maintaining cultural literacy of the popular tales of the time. Indeed, many authors shared her view that fairy tales and G. K Chesterton agreed in his famous articl wherein he stressed that fairy tales are essential to children decades before Bettelheim would make a similar argument 27 : The whole human race that we see walking about anywhere is a race mentally fed on fairy tales as c ertainly as it is a race physically fed on milk. If you abolish seven headed dragons you would simply abolish babies. 26 Little Goody Two Shoes published by John Newberry in 1765, champions literacy and illustrates how literacy can lead to financial success and a high quality of life, amon g other such didactic lessons. 27 For more on Bettelheim, please see C hapter 3.
31 Some swollen headed, dehumanized little tadpoles might be remain behind, making a ludicrous pretence of infancy; but they would probably d ie young, especially if they were brought up on the life of Julius Caesar. (9) Chesterton here supports Corkran on two very important fronts: first, that fairy tales are necessary to education; and second, that to be a healthy child, you must be properly Wanted, a King Didacticism was in fact, a common theme with which nineteenth century authors were concerned. 28 But whereas many authors such as Chesterton and Corkran agreed that fa iry tales and nursery rhymes could be used to educate, others such as Martha Mary Sherwood 29 and Sarah Trimmer publications of a far more interesting kind, in which instruction and entertainment are (Trimmer qtd in Harries 90). Corkran brilliantly shows just how education and pleasure can both be readily found in fairy tales, and she is able to make her arguments about didacticism and transmission by using characters in an intertextual environment. Us ing these characters allows Corkran the freedom to explore the perhaps or didactic, herself. After Moonfolk and Mrs. Wishing To Be Wanted, a King: or, How Merle Set the Nursery Rhymes to Rights Maggie Browne authored eight books, ( The Surprising Adventures of Tuppy and Tue  and The Book of Betty Barber ) 28 Harries notes two individuals, in particular, who were fond of employing the fairy tale as a didactic tool: Sarah Fielding and Jeanne Marie Le Prince de Beaumont (81 89). 29 A tale The Governess her own, as well as a lot of evangelical Christian
32 and only one of which was published under a pseudonym. 30 Wanted, a King which (2). M erle is invited by a dying leaf to enter the kingdom of Endom, the realm of fairy tales and nursery rhymes. Upon entering, Merle discovers that something is terribly wrong. Because the land has no king, an evil wizard named Grunter Grim has infiltrated the to do things they would otherwise not do. For example, the Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe does not want to beat her children, but cannot help doing so, as Grunter Grim rew rote her rhyme to force her to beat any children she sees. This text is ambitious because, unlike Moonfolk and Mrs. Wishing To Be Browne suggests that the tales, as we know them, are completely wrong. Beyond that, the Rhyme Fairy, the m ost important fair y in the land after the Fairy of Contentment does not wish to continue in her current position: Down with Grunter This odd statement, coupled with That would do no good, Uncle . 30 Browne is an elusive character; on the cover page of my copy of Wanted, a King an annotation was about her other than the other books s he published under her real name (if, indeed, Margaret Andrewes is her name).
33 being manipulated and, ultimately, are disappearing due to the ignorance 31 of adults. Grunter Grim causes much vexation and anxiety in Endom, as none of the fairy tales are right because of him. When Merle mee ts the rhymes and tries to express her knowledge and fondness of them, many become cross with her because she knows Grimm sentiment so strong as in lity, Browne is able to express her always knew exactly what to do with all her beat any child she saw. Little Bo Peep, one of Grunter Grim: Are you Bo saw the girl look very angry, and then run away from the window. (38) The other nursery rhymes including Jack and Jill, Simple Simon, Tommy Green, and all the rest are unable to resist Grunter Grim. As Harries not es, although scholars still maintained a belief that fairy tales should be abolished. In 1803, for 31 do for children. In this particular case the stories make Merle well agai n, so obviously at least one of the benefits of fairy tales according to Browne is physical well being.
34 ales because they and not in Hunt & Lenz 16). In one of her own texts, Fabulous Histories (1786), Trimmer set out to teach children to be kind to animals via a beast fable, replete with talking birds. In her introduction she sternl y warns that her book containing the real conversations of birds (for that is impossible we should ever underst and), but as a series of FABLES she relied on the basic structure of fairy tales in her own writings, Trimmer still distrusted fairy tales preferring t a name implying didactic or moral goals in each of the tales to make her use of fantasy elements m ore acceptable This division of didacticism and pleasurable reading was a cornerstone sentiment Mrs. Wishing To Be and can also be seen in Wanted, a King Browne parodies figures like Trimmer in her cantankerous Uncle Crossiter character because she obviously believes a little fantasy is necessary for children both physically and mentally. The fairy tales do help Merle get better, as the reader is to assume at the end of the tale. Browne pushes this message one step further; although she sees fairy tales as beneficial to 32 32 Into the Woods cautions audience members that the stories they tell like the story performed in the musical and, by proxy, the fairy tales they read to their children you say, / Children will listen. / Careful the things you do, / Children will see / And
35 Perhaps ironically, much like Trimmer Browne sees the necessity of the fairy tale form, but does n do not 33 Harries makes the point that one of the reasons people tend to (erroneously) ascribe fairy tales to iterature is the (again erroneous) belief that many of the tales turn out well. Browne seems to disagree, instead arguing that fairy tales are, in fact, for children, an d (Trimmer) content. By positing that the characters, themselves, are discontent with their transcriptions and translations, Browne is able to act as both a proponent fo r fairy tales 34 and Browne effectively uses her text to argue a gainst such editorial whitewashing. spell you cast, / Not just on children. / Sometimes the spell may last / Past what you can see / And turn That 136). This messa er 3. 33 Many of the characters remind Merle throughout the story that their land is supposed to be the land of end well, and the characters are therefore not content. The Spirit of Contentment comes to Endom again 34 Harries points out that Andrew Lang used these terms copiously in the preface to his Blue Fa iry Book suggesting that he and others were aware that their editorial choices were, in fact, changing the stories (98). Nathanie l Hawthorne, too, makes similar points in the introduction to his Tanglewood Tales in 1853;
36 My final example of nineteenth century crossover intertextuality comes from the popular tale The Surprising Adventures of the Man in the Moon published in 1903 by Ray M. Steward. actually a loose ana gram and pseudonym of Edgar Stratemeyer (Keeline 3), founder of Stratemeyer Syndicate, who wrote the story for his young daughters. Interestingly, whereas in the other texts the protagonist is a in the Moon is the main character According to Stratemeyer the Man in the Moon had been human once, but was turned into the Man in the Moon as punishment for chopping wood on a Sunday and for losing his brother and sister in the woods He gets swept up into the adventures of Santa Claus and his friends who are storybook and nursery rhyme characters in a quest to save his brother and sister from the evil Bluebeard while his other friends including Robinson Crusoe, Little Red Riding Hood, Cinderella, Mother Hubbard and search for buried treasure S eventeen fairy tale, nursery rhyme, and storybook characters are used in this text, and because there are fewer characters, each is allowed the opportunity to develop and interact with the other pre textual characters. This text caught my attention because the characters, though thrown together in a seemingly random fashion, all behave as expected : that is, a ccording to standardized versions of Grimm and Perrault, specifically Cinderella clings to her prince and pours sand out of her glass slipper, Jack the Giant Killer kills a giant, and Jack Horner sticks his thumb into a crab hole: I saw a hole in th e le characteristics seem to be a parasitical growth, having no essential tale (regardless of the fact that doing so altered the tales themselves).
37 crab caught m m pulled out no p In this text more than any other, each character seems to be included for a parti cular reason. Jack the Giant Killer protects the group, Mother Hubbard cooks for them all, Cinderella and Little Red Riding Hood entertain the groups with songs, poems, and rhymes, while Santa Claus prov ides magical transportation But all of these predica ble character traits add up to one very interesting meta textual observation; Stratemeyer seems to be commenting on the very act of reading and how reading can civilize a child. The plot gets underway when the Man in the Moon, bored from years of solitude asks his servant Lollypop to find him some amusement. Lollypop finds many old, dusty books in closet and brings them to his master. The Man in the Moon is fascinated with the texts, but each has a flaw: a missing page, a torn corner, or even a missing ch apter. The Man in the Moon tries to read The True Life of Robinson Crusoe (13), Cinderella (14), Jack the Giant Killer (17), Mother Goose (19), Little Red Riding Hood (20), and many other short tales. But each story serves only to whet his appetite for mor e: The Man in the Moon was still hungry for something to read, and he picked up one book after another, reading a page here and a page there. But not another book was complete, and so he could not satisfy his curiosity concerning the people he had read abo ut. It was a dreadful state to be in. (22) Lollypop eventually calls to Santa Claus, whose existence he knows about because of a book he reads after his master goes to bed, to help his master, and Santa Claus appears in the chimney to take them on their j ourney. Stratemeyer being able to finish a story. By learning the ending of the stories straight from Little Red Riding Hood, Cinderella, Jack, and Robinson Crusoe, themselves the Man in the
38 Moon is able to finally put his curiosity to rest and move on to his ultimate goal: saving his brother and sister, atoning for his misbehavior all those years ago. Whereas the other intertextual narratives in this study tended to stay away from o r directly comment didacticism and morals, Stratemeyer seizes the opportunity to do what many translators and editors did before him; he uses his book as a didactic tool to teach children about responsibility and manners. The Man i n the Moon ended up on the moon because he disobeyed his parents, losing his brother and sister and condemning words from his master and the other characters. Each chara cter receives his/her fortune from the fairies, and each is given a warning about how he/she ought to behave. 35 Only the other fairy tale and nursery rhyme characters are able to help the Man in the Moon outbursts, and then only when the Man in the Moon has learned their full stories. Likewise, the characters can only act on their fairy fortunes when the story The Surprising Adventures of the Man in the Moon comes to a close. Stratemeyer seems to be li nking the act of reading to enculturation and socialization, an unsurprising connection given the Victorian consciousness regarding education. Stratemeyer tales and nursery rhymes though perhaps not 35 ut if you do bad things, bad things will happen to you.
39 were good for teaching children etiquette, subservience, and other general attributes, much as Sarah Fielding 36 did. Whether concerned with the transmission of fairy tales, e ducation, or balances of power, each autho r chose to use crossover i ntertextuality to make his/her claim The only downside to using pre textual characters to enter into a meta narrative is the uncertainty of longevity. Crossover intertexts necessarily have shelf lives almost entirely dependent on that of their pre Moonfolk scure, Stratemeyer The Surprising Adventures of the Man in the Moon became an artifact for rare booksellers, no longer for children. Part of the message these authors were sending was that fairy tales need to be kept alive; transmission was a prime conce rn. Many of the tales these authors incorporated have survived the test of time thus far by being included in classroom curriculum and popular media. 37 Some excellent examples of fairy tales that were mainstreamed into educational content are the late nin eteenth century alphabet primers, many of which invoked fairy tales and nursery rhymes. For example, the 1890 Fairy ABC used popular characters to LAD DIN, whose wonderful lamp / Made him a princ e, though a very great scamp . . B Was the BEAU TY, be loved by the Beast, / Who was not a fraid of the Brute in the least" (2). This text should not be confused with 36 See Harries, pages 81 87. 37 length animated films. F or more on Disney, please see C hapter 4.
40 Fairyland ABC (c.1890) Our B (1898) interspersed tales and verses throughout the alphabet. These tales included (71). After the nineteenth century, the trad ition of interlacing fairy tales with educational materials continued. F or example, the 1948 picture book Fairy Folks Picture A.B.C. follows the nineteenth The Beanstalk and Beyond: Developing Critical Th inking Through Fairy Tales (1997) for grades 4 8 instruct s teachers on how to make the best possible use of fairy tales in their classroom learning. This book shows educ ators how to use popular fairy tales and fairy tale characters to help students develop problem solving abilities, critical thinking skills, and M any such guides touting similar claims exist. Concluding Thoughts Several generalization s can be inferred from the patterns that become apparent not concerned so much about to say such verges on an anachronistic imposition of critical jargon but they did emphasize the importance of transmission and preservation of specific tales. Their choices of pre textual characters influenced which stories and, in so me cases, specific versions of stories would remain popular. In m uch the same way that parody functions, a crossover intertext borrows authority from its pre text as much as it lends authority back to the pre text. As Stephens and McCallum assert:
41 Reversio ns [retellings ] disclose the ideologies and metanarratives driving those classic texts because they both legitimize and open to question their same time entering into a dialogue and calling into question the ideologies informing both the texts and, by implication, the ideological ba sis of the canonical enterprise. (8) crossover intertexts, as well. Wh ile simultaneously relying on and calling into question their pre canon or body of popular literature at a given time. In addition, as Lorna Sage has noted ffer a perspective on the present and the past which allows ( qtd in Makinen 147 ). Crossover intertexts, too, allow this critical distance, since both parodic texts crossover intertextuality both relies on and calls into question a pre while allowing room for the new text to comment on the pre text, the author must carefu lly choose which aspects of the pre text to mimic/borrow/parody in order for the audience to understand both the story and its meta commentary. Although Austin, Corkran, Browne, and Stratemeyer all attributed different meta discourses to their characters, each used crossover intertextuality to his/her advantage; the pre textual characters spoke about fairy tales with the specific authority of a fairy tale. By using wittingly or not promoting a specific gro up of fairy tales to be continued in popular literature. correctly, as evinced by their meta included in their own intertexts are quite telling. Each intertext serves as a milestone by
42 such as Robinson Crusoe were taking at the time of publication. By the time Stratemeyer ublished, several tales and characters, such as the woman who sweeps cobwebs from the sky, were already being left behind. Many of the pre texts Stratemeyer stories and fairy tale s. In earlier books by authors such as Austin, however, the reader encounters more unfamiliar tales. Austin included several tales that time has forgotten, especially in the first portion of her book, which rather reads as a recitation of all the nursery r recognizable though some arcane characters; Browne contains more easily recognizable. Likewise, Stratemeyer texts are entirely recognizable (Jack Spratt, Jack the Giant Killer, Cinderella, Red Riding Hood). There is a clear progression in the number of reco gnizable pre textual characters incorporated into the crossover intertexts, ranging from many unrecognizable tales in earlier texts to all well known stories in later texts. Another generalization that c an be made concerns the alterations the characters u ndergo when they are borrowed and abridged to serve in the new crossover intertext. Intertexts rely on their pre existing authority, but the intertext also simultaneously alters our perception of the pre text even as it relies on it, oftentimes with the ultimate outcome of modifying the shape of the canon. 38 Many of the texts 38
43 examined in this chapter incorporated such characters as Gulliver and Robinson Crusoe, but neither by Jonathan Swift nor Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe w a s meant for children. Both characters were adapted, transposed, and abridged to suit the growing child audience of the nineteenth century. These abridgements are reflected clearly in the depiction of these characters in several of the stories discussed thr oughout this chapter. As Linda Hutcheon has phrased it, adaptive organization, in this case, of narratives. Like living things, stories that adapt better than others ( through mutation ) to an environment surv ive: those of Carmen, Don new form may be equal to that of its pre text as both Hu tcheon and Stephens & McCallum note of adaptations and reversions, respectively but it is still a new text with new, changed characters, events, and/or settings. In the case of the crossover intertexts I examine in this chapter, the alterations the dep ictions for children of characters originally from adult texts are based on censorship for the purposes of making them more appropriate for younger audiences. 39 By incorporating characters from books that were not meant for children, Austin, Corkran, and Stratemeyer 40 effectively reinforced this popular nineteenth century cul turally literature. I am not necessarily referring to any inherent value system, but rather am using largely driven by ideologies McCallum 8). 39 Hutcheon briefly mentions such censorship; see page 118. 40
44 impulse to abridge stories and characters so they would be suitable for children. 41 As a Robinson Crusoe literature reading the original adult version only in college classrooms. A search on Amazon.com for Robinson Crusoe the Norton, Penguin, and Modern Library Classics publications but well over three hundred v ersions of the story for young readers including an edition illustrated by Avi and another starring the dog in three hundred and eighty different books, two hundred and ninety eight of which are attributed to Defoe. The nineteenth century authors of this study, then, contributed even if only in a small way to the practice of abridging adult texts and/or cha racters for younger readers. 41 ecific thorough examination of exactly how each character is adapted would constituent a study in its own right and is, unfortunately, outside the scope of this project. Many scholarly examinations of adult books in his book tter Seth Lerer discusses how various adaptations of Robinson Crusoe for children focused on different didactic messages (see Robinson Crusoe Crossover Fiction In this chapter, Beckett discusses several instances of famous books and characters being rewritten for younger audiences. She uses case studies of rewritten texts like Ma rguerite How Wang Fo Was Saved Ballet Shoes among others, to discuss general trends in adapting adult works for children. She notes that retellings often exclude issues such as dea adult tales, obviously cannot discuss every adult story that has been adapted for child audiences, she does offer a thorough overview of several case studies In a slightly different vein, Maria Tatar discusses the alterations many folk and fairy tales underwent when they were written down and revised for children in her book Off With Their Heads! She notes in her first chapter that many tales were rewritten as
45 The more often a text is rewritten for younger readers, the more likely it is that a population will remember and thus perpetuate their childhood impressions of a character. This nineteenth century practice of abridging text s for children has impacted cultural literacy today, as the versions of characters passed down from generation to generation have changed to simplified, whitewashed versions of their predecessors. For example, audiences arguably no longer automatically thi but instead of Mickey Mouse in Lilliput 42 originally adult classic. The Golden Age characters that were adapted for children thus influence the perception s that modern readers have o f storybook characters 43 like Crusoe, Gulliver, and Sinbad not only by perpetuating certain texts, but also certain Beyond altering percept ion s of specific pre texts, the storie s in this study have ramifications According to some sc always already fundamentally about ideological transmission nder the guise of offering children access to strange and exciting worlds removed from everyday experiences, [retold stories, such as folk and fairy tales] serve to initiate children into assumptions a nd a body of shared allusions 3). Fantasy, too, is generally accepted to perform this function, as Attebery states that fairy tale characters 42 Disney Animation Collection 1: Mickey and the Beanstalk DVD released in 2009. 43 These perceptions are informed by the adaptations of these texts that readers encounter in childhood, whether they are formed by D isney versions, picture book renditions, or books along the lines of the Great Illustrated Classics series.
46 ( Strategies 71). In pass on socially accepted values and ideologies. The perpetuation of specific stories young re aders, and standardization of those stories acts as a way of preserving that worth exactly as the society wants it. The goal of reversions, as Stephens & McCallum see it, is to either wholeheartedly support or completely deny and revise the values a story propagates. 44 But intertexts, as the texts in this chapter have suggested, twist that function of ideological transmission to new ends. Any specific fairy tale character may be a product of social consensus and cultural dissemination, but in the context of a new, usually intertextual tale, characters are removed from their original setting and placed in a new environment, allowing them to suggest new, and not necessarily culturally shared, ideologies. The nineteenth century authors examined here used the st andardized elements of their pre textual characters to their advantage both relying on the inherent authority such long sustained texts have, and also twisting those standardizations to promote their own beliefs. Using characters in situations beyond the bounds of their original context allows authors to show their readers the vehicle of audiences will have about spec ific characters. godmother character complicates and draws attention to the dichotomous functions of may not have noticed before. 44 or Roald Revolting Rhymes
47 A s Hutcheon has pointed out, p art of this ongoing dialogue with the past, for that is what adaptation means for audiences, creates the doubled pleasure of the Not only is more than one text experienced in a crossover intertext but more than one meaning can be inferred from each pre textual character, as well. B oth the original and culturally allow for the characters to eac h function as a micro palimpsest within the larger palimpsest, the intertext These nineteenth commentary on the subject and by their use of the average characteristics of their intertextual characters, Many scholars define intertextuality as a feature of postmodernism; but as this chapter has shown, interte xtual tales were being told long before postmodernism was ostmodernism justifies the practice of fantasists [my emphasis] ( Strategies 50). Obviously, writers of fairy tales ttebery does concede later that : Even the simplest of fantasies sets up an initial paradox on the order of deconstructs the text before it begins potential for reinvigorating narrative forms. ( Strategies 53). attention to the v ery constructs which that fantasy relies on to function: what Attebery
48 Strategies 67) of fantasy. These constructs character motivation and narrative time, for example help readers to make sense of reading. Introducing pre textual characters to a story forces readers to simultaneously rely on their pre existing knowledge of the character and to revise their understanding of that character, allowing the construct to make itself apparent and to be cha nineteenth century crossover intertexts, the characters in question are mainly nursery comp accept her as a force of good in the text, someone Rhonda can trust. And indeed, the Fairy Godmother does help Rhonda in several circumstances. But as the dialogue at castle to sleep in the first place. By using the Fairy Godmother as both a good and evil character, Austin is able to draw attention to the typical construct of a fairy tale fairy godmother and complicate it. Good and evil are no longer polarized as they usually are in fairy tales but now are embodied within one character. The fairy godmother is imbued with characteristics of the stereo typical, simplified good fairy godmother, but she to be a bad fairy, as well. This layering of traditional fairy tale figures allows the Fairy Godmother to be something ne w, a creation of both traditional all good or all evil fairy tale archetypal characters and something more complex: a thoughtful grandmother who was once a scorned lover, but who has presumably matured and moved on. Her
49 complexity allows readers the chance to examine what it is they believe a fairy tale Fairy Godmother does not fit that role. Although ye popularity. During the stretch of time between the late 1930s 1950s, as picture book suffe texts exceptional Seven Simeons creative energies turned elsewhere. In the Forties there did n ot exist single (314). and thus a lack of intertexts drawing from fairy tales in the period from the 1930s to the 1940s, sh e does remind us that there was light at the end of the proverbial tunnel. In the late 1950s the popularity of picture books and the demand for a large market of picture books encouraged authors to seek far and wide to find new stories to publish in pictur e book format. These fairy tales, so long neglected and found to be trite at best or dangerous at worst, made a major comeback. Likewise, stories that relied on several fairy tales at one time came back into favor. As previously discussed, crossover inter texts make use of the standardization of well known characters to help form and authorize their meta commentary and narrative structure. As Anna E. Altmann has noted, many archetypal characters were standardized permanently when they became illustrations i n picture books: he picture
50 book format necessarily presents the young reader with images that make St. George a particular man rather than an archetype. There is little in our popular culture that encourages an understanding of the essential meaning of Although Altmann argues that picture books necessarily make gender neutral archetypes male, as her essay is focused on the female hero in fantasy novels, her statement does bear a relation to the topic at hand. When a picture book il lustrator concretizes the image of a particular character for child readers, that image becomes will question the representation of the character unless presen ted with unusual circumstances: an intertext, for instance. In fact, picture books from the 1960s through fairy tale and nursery rhyme characters in picture books su ggest. I will now turn my attention to such crossover intertexts picture books that simultaneously concretize characters and utilize crossover intertextuality in C hapter 2
51 CHAPTER 2 PICTURE BOOKS: INTER TEXTUAL TALES IN A P OSTMODERN WORLD Epigraph -John Prater, Once Upon a Picnic Crossover Intertextual Picture Books Crossover i literature. With the rising popu larity of t he picture book came many more and varied opport unities for authors to engage with storylines featuring several well known characters combined in the same tale Some picture books do such a good job of conveying multiple storylines and allowing children to create their own interpretations of the story and its pictures that many scholars have suggested a category for this new category conducive to the study of crossov er intertexts. The crossover i ntertextua l picture books I deal with in this chapter should not be lumped under the umbrella 1 for two main reasons F irst, they do not share all (or even many ) of the attributes generally found in postmoder n picture books, 2 and second, because doing so causes them to be overlooked in many 1 While most scho lars do not distinguish meta fiction or intertextuality from postmodernity instead calling these attributes by products of postmodern literature three scholars do note that such a distinction referentiality occur, of course, prior to devices are essen tial to the postmodern enterprise, with its sustained attack on all manifestations of authoritative order and unity, but we should not make the mistake of assuming that the two concepts are isidentifying (inter)texts in their arguments. 2 See my discussion below.
52 studies. 3 While these books are not necessarily postmodern by definition, they do function in very important ways similar to tho se of postmodern picture books, helping to teach children about literacy and canonicity. T both anachronistic as the texts in the previous chapter suggest, and potentially dismissive. 4 Crossover i emplo y a range of genre classification It just so happened that because picture books provide a versa tile medium for the crossover intertextual tales, intertextual stories began to proliferate at the same rate as the genre of the picture book. In addition, these crossover i ntertexts even contemporary intertextual picture books contrive to teach reader s the same reading strategies that postmodern picture books ostensibly teach, and they do so without Definitions: The Postmodern Picture Books versus the Crossover Inter textual Picture Book Although scholars agree on several different elements present in postmodern picture books and therefore agree on those elements that define what a postmodern picture book is they often use different terms 5 and place greater emphas is on different elements in their various definitions and discussion That said, a number of shared 3 Most studies of postmodern picture books take one or two books as a representative example (usually Three Pigs Black and White and/or Scieszka Th e Stinky Cheese Man ) and generalizing the results to all other texts. 4 See the previous chapter on nineteenth century crossover intertexts. 5 The terms used below to describe the various aspects of postmodern picture books are my own. Although many of sch olars of postmodern picture books agree on these aspects, they call them by different names; to avoid confusion, I have used my own terms. The terms and/or phrases originally used by each authors have been noted in the following footnotes.
53 features can be identified in order to offer a working definition of bo declare that postmodern picture books share many if not all of the attributes of postmodern (adult) works. Specifically, the elements that scholars most often invoke to define postmodern picture books are: interrupted reader expectations of conventiona l plot devices (Anstey; Nelson) 6 ; subversion of those plot devices/parodies of traditional narrative forms (Sipe & McGuire; Stevenson; Lewis; Pantaleo) 7 ; intertextuality traditionally in the Kristevan sense (Anstey; Sipe & McGuire; Nikolajeva) 8 ; non linea rity of plot (Sipe & McGuire; Goldstone) 9 ; plot indeterminacy requiring the reader to construct large amounts if not all of the text him or herself (Sipe & McGuire; Anstey; Goldstone; Nikolajeva) 10 ; contradiction between the text and image, within an i mage or images, or in the text, or any sort of arbitrariness or excess of meaning (Goldstone; Lewis; Stevenson; Nikolajeva; Anstey) 11 ; playfulness or an invitation to view the text as 6 According to A 7 e princess always marrying the handsome prince. Sipe and McGuire call 8 metaphor of the multi 228). 9 Sipe & McGuire 281) are stories that cannot easily be read front to back because of th (Goldstone 197 ). 10 Scholars often stress the importance of the reader to meaning making in postmodern picture books. (281) a re ader can choose from, or what (197), stating that the reader has as much if not more authority th an the author, as it is the reader who makes meaning from a text. Nikolajeva, too, is more 11 contes ting discourses literary
54 a type of game (Coles & Hall; Sipe & McGuire; Goldstone; Stevenson; Lew is; Anstey) 12 ; metafiction specifically in the form of attention to the physicality of the picture book (Sipe & McGuire; Nikolajeva; Pantaleo; Anstey) 13 ; dependence on culture for meaning or reflective of contemporary beliefs/concerns (Nikolajeva; Lewis; St evenson; Malarte Feldman) 14 ; and the ability to reach larger audiences than traditional picture books and specifically, an ability to interest older readers because of potential multiple meanings (Anstey; Malarte Fel dman; Stevenson) 15 These ten features are the most often cited elements used to distinguish postmodern picture meaning gathered over the years to the what ounterpointing 12 uire (283) Goldstone (197), and Stevenson (32). Many other authors invoke the term casually without defining exactly what they meant, so for the purposes of clarity I will not be invoking those scholars. Playfulness of text has also been described as postm pastiche of styles 13 the postmodern text constantly interrupts or punctuates the illusion of the secondar y world of the story by drawing attention to itself as books also frequently puncture the story world by emphasizing the sheer physicality of the book that intertextuality is the cause of this reality blurring, she does note that intertext has other functions. (Anstey 447). 14 ost, if not all, postmodernism requires some level of cultural literacy in order for the meaning making process to occur. than responding to the tenor of t he times and either consciously or unconsciously importing the 87 ). Stevenson agrees but sees the need to emphasize the organic nature of this inclusion of postmodern elements; pos tmodern 32). Or, more simply put, readers depend on a with the author (Malarte Feldman 210) 15 The cross audience Feldman 210) associated with postmodern picture books come from the of the young, inexperienced reader. However, th e postmodern picture book appeals to a much wider age some texts, which may appear popular only to older viewers, do in fact interest younger viewers; Stevenson notes that postmodern texts, specifically the fractured fairy tales in Rocky & Bullwinkle weary preteens
55 ted the time and effort to identify and label these shared traits all argue for the categorization of postmodern picture books as a subgenre in its own right. P icture book s that are crossover intertext s do not necessarily or even usually share these traits. They do not always interrupt reader expectations 16 ; they generally fo llow familiar narrative patterns, most often linear ones, 17 and many of them do offer definitive rather than ambiguous or open ended endings. Contradictions between images and text, while they do occur occasionally, are usually easily interpreted as day are therefore not subject to uncertainty. 18 In addition, although the texts are playful in their invocation of storybook characters, they g (Sipe & McGuire 283), since the text and images are straight forward and descriptive. Crossover i ntertextual picture books do draw attention to the boundaries between stories in their suggestion that such boundaries do not exist, but rarely do the y encourage child readers to examine the picture book as an object in and of itself. These picture book crossover i ntertexts do also rely on cultural norms ; however this attribute is not unique to postmodern picture books (nor is it unique to any type of bo ok, really). And of course, whether or not specific titles are reaching larger audiences and wider age groups is next to impossible to determ ine. The only trait that crossover i ntertextual 16 In fact, crossover intertexts often rely relative ly heavily on reader expectations by their invocation of pre textual characters. 17 Previously they are still linear. 18 An excellent example of this type of crossover intertex Once Upon a Picnic wherein the little boy protagonist does not discuss the fairy tale characters depicted in the images more than once or twice his lack of commentary does not make the actions in the image contradictory or ambiguous i n any way, however.
56 picture books consis tently have in common is their i ntertextuality and, occasionally, some subversion 19 Some scholarship on postmodern picture books also overemphasizes the images contained within the text. Although illustrations are obviously essential to any successful picture book and are, in part, what define the contemporary picture book as a picture book in the first place some scholars spend so much time analyzing the pictures that they lose the thread of the narrative. Because picture books rely equally on pictures and text to make meaning, the text of a pict ure book should not be forgotten in an analysis simply because the pictures are doing interesting things, too. In the case of crossover intertextual picture books, most of the images simply support the narrative. The largest exceptions to the rule are the Each Peach Once Upon books, and For example, Each Peach requires children to find and name specific fairy tale characters in a like situation; the characters are hidden in the setti ng of the pictures, and generally only a hand or leg can be seen. The character then appears in full on the next page, where the child reader is asked to locate another character hidden in the picture. Similarly, the Once Upon books depict fairy tale chara cters playing out their tales, while the text barely acknowledges the characters frolicking around the main character. The pictures do not contradict the text, but they do inform it. is a toy book that allows children to pull mini in ways that most traditional picture books are not. Even these texts, which are 19 postmodern elements in picture books is or is not a conscious enterprise; most authors simply skim over this problem in a sent ence or two if they mention it at all. The crossover intertexts I discuss in this project are all undoubtedly consciously made to be so, as the characters from disparate texts are overtly, deliberately invoked.
57 excep tions to the general rule that crossover i ntertextual picture books have more traditional images, do not have the drastic impact on the story that many scholars of postmodern picture books suggest the images should do. The frame of the book is not call ed into question, Three Pigs nor are the images contra dictory to the tale bein g told, The Stinky Cheese Man Although the images support the stories the illustrations in crossover i ntertextual picture books generally do not have the radical function that scholars claim for postmodern p icture books. I found over sixty crossover intertextual picture books to discuss in this chapter, and for the sake of ease and accessibility I have organized these books into three categories 20 based on the reading skills discussed above: those in which the main literary characters/plots. Although many of the crossover intertextual picture books fall into more than one category, I have divided them in order to make the body of literature easier to examine. While I will be using only a few sample texts from each ca tegory, an appendix of each crossover intertext I found including those from other chapters can be found at the end of this project. Before I discuss the categories and texts, a brief sketch of the origins of the crossover intertextual picture book wil l help to contextualize the subject matter and goals of the picture books in the three categories delineated above. 20 Although all of the crossover intertextua l picture books I discovered easily belong to more than one category and are by no means mutually exclusive, it is best to examine the books in context with other, similar works in order to discern their similar methods of instructing children in literacy skills.
58 Pre Intertextual Picture Books: Maurice Sendak, Allan & Janet Ahlberg, and Alma Flor Ada Because of their pictorial and textual intertextua lity, books such as those by they began teaching the reading strategies listed above b efore postmodernism became fashionable. They were also some of the first authors and illustrators to employ crossover intertextuality. Intertextual allusions and external pictorial references arguably did not occur in picture books with much frequency or c onscious forethought until Maurice Sendak hit the literary scene. His illustrations often offer pictorial allusions to other books and movies. For example, as biographer Selma Lane has noted, a two page spread from Where the Wild Things Are (1963) invokes a visual reference to the 1930s production of King Kong, 21 In the Night Kitchen (1970) features a trio of Hardys Nothing But Trouble (Lane 179) as well as impressions from his childhood in Brooklyn. There are even depictions o composer, playing the piano in a log cabin in Outside Over There (1981) and conducting a choir of little children in Dear Mili (1988). According to Nikolajeva, The Thinker in Where the Wil d Things Are has 22 Part of the purpose of these visual allusions is verisimilitude. As Sendak quo must be 21 decided debt to King Kong a movie he saw as a child and never forgot. In fact, long after the book was published, an old friend who collects sti ll pictures from films of the thirties pointed out that one of the compositions from Wild Things was all but identical to one of the frames from King Kong On her next as amazed at (Lane 88). 22
59 hieved by use of these intertextual references. A whole new type of readership is expected of the child reader when such allusions are in either the text of their picture books, the images in their picture books, or both. While the visual intertextual refe Sendak did, indeed, help to lay the foundation in America for crossover intertextual later. Sendak is not alone in pioneering crossover intertextuality in picture books. Popular British writer Allan Ahlberg and his illustrator (and wife) Janet Ahlberg are well known for their use of storybook characters. Irritated and feeling somewhat sti fled by their jobs, Janet one day asked Allan to write a book for her to illustrate specifically, a having always wanted to write but being unable to find his niche, suddenly felt 'as though [he] was a clockwork toy and she had t par. 2). Thus the dynamic writer illustrator duo was born. They began publishing together in 1975 with their first text The Old Joke Book (1976), eventually going on to write and illustrate over 100 books 23 together until Ja 1994 ( picture books, and he works with many various artists. The Ahlbergs produced several of the first truly crossover intertextual picture books f or children. Their book Each Peach Pear Plum and the Jolly Postman series inspired a generation of writers and illustrators. Janet won the Kate Greenaway Medal for Each Peach in 1978, and their work has only become more popular since that time. 23 For a nice list of some of the most popular Ahlberg books, please see http://www.booksellerworld.com/janetallan ahlberg.htm.
60 The Jolly P ostman was also an award winner, bringing the Ahlbergs an Emil/Kurt Maschler Award and another Kate Greenaway Medal in 1986. The Jolly Postman successors, The Jolly Christmas Postman and The Jolly Pocket Postman were also successful. In fact, it was the se award winners Each Peach and the Jolly Postman books as well as Previously venture into intertextuality. In Each Peach Pear Plum the child reader is asked to identify the fairy tale or nursery rh yme character hidden in each picture. While the Ahlbergs were known for often drawing inspiration from folklore and fairy tales, Each Peach goes one step further and actually suggests to the child audience that fairy tale and nursery rhyme characters can b 24 The Jolly Postman books, too, suggest that fairy tale characters live near enough one another that one man can deliver their mail to the m. 25 In fact, the first book of the Postman series, The Jolly Postman has been noted only on a familiarity with traditional stories and characters, but also on appreciat ion of 24 This border breaking between stories was present in nineteenth century crossover intertexts but did not appear in picture books until the Ahlbergs. Although the theme was not new, the use of the medium picture books to depict the theme was, up to this point, unheard of. 25 In fact, one of the elements that made the Postman books so popular was its layout; the books contained many envelopes address ed to various fairy tale characters, and children could pull the on epistolary form became quite popular and was replicated often in such texts as Pirate Treasure Map and to a lesser extent, the Dear Peter Rabbit books, discussed below.
61 26 Previously takes a slightly different stance. Although the text suggests that all of the characters live in the same space, the story also suggests that the characters can affect one another. For example, before his mother asked him to sell his cow, Jack had fallen down the hill with his sister, Jill, because they were arguing over who should carry the bucket. And before that, while eating their cornflakes, Jack and Jill saw a green frog with a crown on his head. The reader is told that, before being a frog, he had been a prince who drove around in a white Mercedes. This particular prince had been in love with Cinderella and on the story goes, spiraling ever backwards through several differen t tales, until the narrator closes the tale by saying: And previously Goldilocks herself and Jack and Jill and all the others, even the little old man and the little old woman, had all been tiny the frogs were tadpoles. / And all the buckets and chairs / and ballroom floors / were planks of wood. / And all the wood was tress in the dark woods. / In the sun (Ahlberg n/p) This cyclical story while keeping with the Postman books and Each Peach in its suggestion that fairy tales live in the same space offers a unique new concept to the child reader: that stories can actually impact one another. I will be discussing several mo re books that offer the reader this same concept later in this chapter, since this type of text makes up a significant portion of crossover intertextual picture books. Alma Flor Ada, like Sendak and the Ahlbergs, became well known for her crossover interte xtual picture books. She is most famous for her Hidden Forest series, beginning with Dear Peter Rabbit 27 (1994) quartet. The series also includes Yours Truly, 26 Previously worked with illustrators other than his wife as he produced stories faster than she c ould illustrate them 27 Dear Peter Rabbit
62 Goldilocks (1998), With Love, Little Red Hen (2001), and Extra! Extra! (2007). Born in Cuba, Ada h as written over 200 books, many of them bilingual (Parker Rock 35), and she has authored books for educators about the use of Latino literature in the classroom setting. 28 She suggests that diversity was one of the motivating factors behind her popular seri es. Her last book in the series, Extra! Extra! deals directly with this theme when an overly large and suspicious other tow n citizens (other storybook characters) are threatened by its sudden appearance and what it might mean for the town. folklore began at an early age and is displayed in many of her b ooks, even those beyond the Hidden Forest series. Her grandmother told her Spanish fairy tales as a little girl, and Ada often returned to the themes in her works, most specifically in Po Peep! Mam Goose Tales Our Abuelitas Told and the Hidden Forest books. The Hidden Forest books, however, were born not from a deep, abiding passion for folklore, nor primarily from her concerns with diversity; instead, the books were the product of a long cisco (Parker Rock 38). 29 According to an interview with biographer Michelle Parker Rock, Ada was driving home one night while dictating notes to her students into her tape recorder. Tiring of a pig, a rabbit, and a wol f . . With the tape recorder running, I made up imaginary letters that these fairy tale characters were sending to one another. I always loved letters, and I had a lot of fun with these . 28 See, for example, her book A Magical Encounter: Latino Literature in the Classroom 29 According to her website, Ada still teaches at USF as a
63 [When Alma listened to the tape later,] I was surprised to f in Parker Dear Peter Rabbit fondness for the epistolary form, and a quiet drive home from work one night. Category 1: The Main Character C hanges or Acts as a C atalyst for Other tories The crossover intertextual picture books I encountered ostensibly teach child readers about important and well known characters. At the same t ime these texts rely these texts, characters (which are usually fairy tale characters themselves) interact with Dorothy in Dreamland Eency Weency Spider Come Back, Jack! Looking for Cinderella Bad Book? The Giant and the Beanstalk (2004 Pirate Treasure Map Previously (2007) all present their main characters as catalysts for, or instruments of change in, well known fairy tales and nursery rhymes. Because these eight texts function in roughly the same way, I will be using the most opaque of them, Pirate Treasure Map and Dorothy in Dreamland to explore this category of crossover intertextual picture books. Pirate Treasure Map is a delightful book which I wish I had read as a child; it would certainly have be en one of my favorite books. The map itself which can be found in a is a 12.5x17 double
64 30 lead the stout hearted through numerous fairy tales and to a treasure. The map itself includes numerous references to literary places and people, including Sleepy Hollow, the Robin Hood Wood, the Crooked Mile, The Gingerbread Forest, Banburry Cross, Cockleshell Beach, and Ring around the Roses Roundabout. The map is populated by such characters as Little Boy Blue, Robin Hood, the Crooked Man, the Gingerbread Witch, Mary Mary, the Gingerbr ead Man, and even the Owl and the Pussycat depicted in a boat in the ocean, of course among others. Although some of the rhymes portrayed on the map may not be familiar to younger audiences, they will certainly delight parents reading the story to their children. The story follows Jack of the beanstalk persuasion, son of Mother Hubbard. 31 After Goose y Gander comes to the inn and tells the Hubbards about a treasure map he has found. Jack is invited to be cabin boy and weathers the rough voyage to an island. During a botched mutiny led by Wicked Ed his hat containing the map flies overboard. Jack jumps in to retrieve it and is ferried to land by the Owl and the Pussycat. Jack decides to seek the treasure for himself, but stumbles across two well known tales in the process. 30 These are generally variations on well meeny miny mo, / n/p). 31 It is a common occurrence in these picture books that characters such as Jack, the Wolf, and the Wicked Witch from various stories are conflated into one Jack, Wolf, or Witch character. Jack be Nimble is often also Jack of the beanstalk variety, t wolf who terrorized Little Red Riding Hood, etc.
65 First, he meets up with Hansel and Gretel in the forest after nibbling on the gingerbread cottage He sends the two on the cottage because They are caught by the witch and t he story progresses as usual: Gretel scrubs, Hansel eats, the ks out a bone instead of his finger. But when Gretel pushes ; Gretel simply latches the heavy door shut so the witch cannot escape. She releases her brother, and they follow the Straight and Narrow Path home. Meanwhile, Ja ck has passed Baby Bunting at Rock a Bye Tower, Little Boy Blue asleep on a haystack, the Crooked Man, and the Three Billy Goats Gruff along the path on Rumplestiltskin Mountain. Jack is heading in the same direction as the goats past Greener Pastures so he accompanies them. The tale continues when the y reach a bridge with a troll under it The story of the Three Billy Goats Gruff progresses as usual, and Jack follows Big Billy, the eldest goat, across the bridge once it is safe. J ack has no more encou nters with any specific characters; he enters the dark and scary forest, makes it out the other side near a castle, continues down into the dungeon, and finds the treasure. According to the bats in the dungeon if you want to know what happened to his uncl e you have to read a different book, bec (n/p). I nteresting ly, this book implies that, had Jack not c ome along, the tales of Hansel and Gretel and the Three Billy Goats Gruff would never have been told. Jack was the one who pointed out the Gingerbread Cottage to the hungry children, although all turned out well without Jack having to offer a rescue. In addition, the goats may never have encountered the bridge in the first place, nor triumphed over the troll, had Jack not come along and aided them.
66 In a similar vein, in Dorothy in Dreamland The Wonderful Wizard of Oz encounter her favorite fairy tale characters, and Dorothy helps them each to fix their stories. The tale is told within a dream frame much like the 1939 MGM adaptation of the book in that Dorothy closes her eyes one night and, as she opens them, finds herself somewhere new: in a forest looking at a trail of breadcrumbs rather than a yellow brick road. As one would guess, the tr ai l leads Dorothy and Toto to Hansel and Gretel. When they come upon the Gingerbread House, have you for my with rhetoric that again recalls the MGM movie. Remembering her own the three of them, and they leave. Dorothy is left to walk along further into the woods, and she sees Little Red Riding Hood giving the wolf orothy two of them, they manage to trap the wolf in the closet. Little Red shows up with a ranger who takes the wolf away to a zoo. After this adventure, Goldilocks runs p who all apologize for startling Goldilocks. Dorothy and baby bear walk to find Goldilocks and apologize. As Goldilocks goes back with baby bear to have tea, Dorothy continues along the path to try to get home and e ventually comes across the three little pigs. They tell her that the wolf escaped from the zoo and wants to eat them, so they want to build good houses to keep their children safe. She aids them so the straw house cannot be blown down (it s woven to o tight either (the sticks interlock), and of course the brick house stands anyway. Having tried his usual huff and puff routine,
67 the wolf, exhausted, slinks away. Walking on, Dorothy sees her bed in the road and lies upon it. When she w fantasy. Without Jack, Hansel and Gretel would not have had their adventure, but without Dorothy they would not have survived. Jack acts as a catalyst in Pirate Treasure Map whereas Dorothy acts as an intermediary in Dorothy in Dreamland Though it is implied that Jack has no foreknowledge of the tales, Dorothy does and so is put in a position of responsibility; for example, she knows what will happen to Hansel and Gretel, so she does what she can, using knowledge acquired in a previous adventure to help. Although Jack does think he is helping Hansel and Gretel by pointing them to the Gingerbread House, he is, in fact, beginning a chain of events that c an only lead to Hansel and Gretel being captured by the witch. While these stories address their theme from different angles, their function is essentially the same: they both comment on the strange relationship that intertexts have to cultural literacy. These particular texts teach cultural literacy at the same time that they rely on cultural literacy to be understood in the first place. These stories rely on cultural literacy because the reader must be familiar with the pre textual protagonist (Jack and Dorothy) in order to understand the story, but they also teach cultural literacy because they do not assume that the reader is that familiar with the pre textual tales the protagonists encounter. For example, i n Pirate Treasure Map the reader must already s ince their stories are played out fully in the book. Similarly, in Dorothy in
68 Dreamland the reader follows Hansel & Gretel being tempted by the witch but must such as fetching a bucket of water when the witch captures Hansel & Gretel. While Doroth y is pro active and willing to change the stories and Jack is a more passive though still interesting addition to these tales, both protagonists require the child reader to be familiar with some aspects of the texts. In other words, children need to be at least slightly culturally literate in order to understand and meaningfully engage with this type of intertextual picture book. The cultural literacy that a child brings to the text acts as a catalyst for teaching the rest of the cultural literacy inclu ded in the story that the child might not have known previously and that is included in the text. More generally, s everal scholars have noted the role that cultural literacy plays in picture books. Some b elieve that the cultural literacy children approach these texts with is more important than what the text teaches, 32 while others contend that the cultural literacy transmitted by the texts is more important than what the child already knows. 33 Either way, cultural literacy undeniably plays a large role in p icture books, both in the way children approach texts and how they learn from reading them. In both cases, crossover i ntertextual picture books concretize images of characters and settings, in some cases requiring the child to draw on previous knowledge to recognize a character I Once Upon a Picnic Little Red Riding Hood is inferred by image only and no t mentioned by name in the text. Other cases require the child to revise previous notions 32 For example, Malarte understanding picture book content. 33 Goldst one lists a number of scholars including Bader and Darton who have discussed the picture ata concerning cultural assumptions, conflict, and s 87).
69 about character s with which the child is already famili ar. T Goldilocks is changed when reading the Dear Peter Rabbit books by Alda, for instance, s ince as a tomboyish though kind character in this set ting, whereas in both Fea r Mr. Wolf and the Three Bears she is depicted as a spoiled brat. Th e and inclusion of new information about ersonality have odd consequences for readers and this concretization and inclusion of new information are two of the attributes that makes crossover i ntertextual picture books so important (and interesting). The flexibility and, ironically, the rigidity of this combination make crossover i cy even more complex than usual. portrayed. Characterizing a fig ure such as Goldilocks as a tomboy, for example, removes the potential for readers to imagine her as anything but a tomboy, at least in whatever characters it want s/needs in whatever way those characters will be best suited to the plot. To establish these familiar characters in new plots, authors are forced to determine specific traits and details about these characters that are not delineated in their original pre texts. The cultural literacy of a character is called upon the general knowledge that the common reader has is invoked but then the author makes artistic decisions to change, adapt, or reconstitute the character for his/her own purposes. The flexibilit
70 whatever type of character the author needs, but once the author makes that choice the new tra always be term effects of this concretization can perhaps be seen more clearly in books for older readers in that characters often 34 ltural beliefs to their readers; they also teach good reading practices narrative devices S ipe and McG uire put it nicely when they wri [postmodern picture] books prepares children . for the active role they must learn to state that c hildren can, in fact, grasp complex postmodern texts and use the information they glean to learn reading practices (286). 35 Many scholars have cited postmodern evel oping an understanding of metafictive devices can enric h the development of Some, such as Nelson, even argue that postmodernist texts are inherently educational because of the tools postmodernism utilizes, such as met a is typically viewed as both postmodern and didactic, inasmuch as it seeks to engage its reader with particular philosophical and literary 34 Please see C hapter 3 for more on texts for older readers 35 Concern has been expressed over whether or not children can actually grasp the metafictive and intertextual elements of postmodern picture books (and make meaning despite these confusing aspects of the story), but this concern has been proven unfounded. Many picture book scholars point to case studies suggesting that children do understand complex metafictional, intertextual, and postmodern texts. In fact, Coles & Hall mention that in som e cases children actually make meaning of these texts better than adults do (114).
71 books are didactic because they use the same tools as adult postmodernism. Unfortunately, while most scholars like Pantaleo and Nelson recognize the potential postmodern picture books can do so 36 Anstey and Coles & Hall are among the few who offer such information. For picture books with those aspects of literacy that can be learned from encountering such el pastiche of illustrative styles requires the reader to employ a range of knowledge and gramm argues that, while reading postmodern picture books, the child reader actively engages wit h the text in ways that traditional texts do not necessarily encourage. Readers must and employ knowledge from other areas of literature/experience that they would not normally need to draw upon in order to understand a text. By stretching their reading skills in this way, students can learn to engage more meaningfully with any other text they may encounter in the future. This active engagement with a text and the subseq uent process of learning from a text 36 and construct an array of (35); however, Pantaleo does not explore this notion any further.
72 employment of previously known characters are the subjects of the next subcategory of crossover intertextual picture books. Category 2: Crossover Intertextual Picture Books that Focus on Expanding tories While crossover intertextual picture books like Dorothy in Dreamland and Pirate Treasure Map function as instructors of cultural literacy, there is a subset of pict ure books which make no qualms about being blatantly didactic. Aside from teaching children Spanish words (like Elya Fairy Trails ) or how to deal with catching Goldie Locks has Chicken Pox ), these specific intertexts also stories. The didactic nature of the tales ultimately removes pre textual characters from the confines of their traditional stories and places them in unique situations, allowing for temperaments/development. Whereas the stories discussed above that both rely on and teach cultural literacy keep characters in more or less familiar contexts and plots, didactic crossover perceptions of the characters included. Such books include Scieszka and Smith The Frog Prince Continued ( 1991 ) 37 ; The Story Cloud (1991) 38 Dear Peter 37 The Frog Prince Continued offers a very clear moral re garding being happy with oneself as is. After several failed attempts to get witches from various stories to change him back into a frog, the Frog Prince returns home to find that he was truly happy with himself and his princess all along. The fact th at the princess then changes into a frog does not seem to belie this moral, as the story focused primarily on the 38 At the Back of the North Wind focused more on living a satisfying life: a message that may not make sense to younger readers. The second to magining invites Jungian analysis for its fairly overt reference to the collective unconscious, its sentiments will
73 Rabbit (1994), Yours Truly, Goldilocks (1998), and With Love, Little Red Hen (2001); 39 The Girl Who Hated Books (1999) 40 (1999) 41 Goldie Locks has Chicken Pox (2002) a nd (2005) 42 Fairy Trails: A Story Told in English and Spanish (2005) 43 Claire and the Unicorn Happy Ever After (2006) 44 Mind Your Manners, B.B. Wolf (2007). 45 i s one of the more delightful of the didactic picture books. It is a beautiful primer for using libraries, and its relian ce on fairy tale characters enhances the fun this text offers. The story goes that Bo Peep lost her sheep and, while looking for them, f inds Little Boy Blue reading in the field. He tells her to go to the probably not resonate with children. It is, however, a crossover intertextual picture book, and so I have mentioned it in this chapter and included it in the appendix at the end of this work. 39 These texts introduce children to the epistolary form of literature while simultaneously teaching them thank you letters, for example). 40 The Girl Who Hated Books books falls, all of the characters are thrown out of their stories. They all bother her until she reads them their stories. As each character recognizes his/her own story, the character hops back into the book. he realizes that she can be with her new friends any time by reading their stories. This book is an obvious attempt to show children how much fun reading can be and how they can learn about the new characters if they read. 41 is a retell snippedly smackety. That was the end of his unhelpful neighbors. And then with his bulging tummy not quite full, Mr. Wolf sat 42 l alternately with surviving chicken pox and telling the truth, respectively. 43 This text approaches language learning in a unique way: by inserting Spanish words in fairy tales, such as via then serve the children quesadillas 44 Claire & Unicorn after her father reads her some fairy tales. By asking several popular and archetypal characters what are and what you need in life. This lesson essentially that everyone is different is made fairly obvious throughout the tale. 45 See below for a summary.
74 the Big Bad Wolf in t he cooking section reading Monsieur Loup 46 boo Cookery which is a mini you can physically pull this mini book out of a pouch in the text and read separately. It i ncludes recipes for Riding Hoo d Sandwich, Mary Mary la Mer, Muffet & Blackbird Pie you need 4 & 20 blackbi rds, of course Petite Fille av ec Curl, and Vegetarian Hotpot for when catch a little girl. Bo Peep then finds the Queen of Hearts in the Crime section Stole . This title is another self contained mini book prints to Jack Horner ; then to Tom, Tom, very well on his overindulgence section of the library. This mini book simply contains a version of the original Bo Peep B ehind them (n/p). reads it, and her sheep return safe and sound. One of the many interesting things about t his book is its use of mini books that readers can literally pull off the illustrated shelves and r ead. These mini books all require background knowledge of various rhymes and stories in order to be enjoyed, and it is likely that several of the allusions m ay be a bit above child such Even though such tidbits may not be obvious to child readers, t he message of the story is clear; using a library can be both fun and helpful. 46
75 Like the relatively recent publication Mind Your Manners, B.B. Wolf teaches children lesson about manners and social etiquette wrapped in stories that they have already mastered, making new information less threatening and boring lessons more interesting. In fact, the front cover is very candid Mind Your Manners, B.B. Wolf might just be a (now going by B B Wolf), is retired and living in the Villain Villa Senior Citizens Center (along with Frankenstein and the Loch Ness monster). One day he receives an him of g invited to the tea are nervous when he arrives, BB Wolf proves that his manners are much upset the Gingerbread Man. BB Wolf promises the librarian that he will come back soon and tell her the true versions of the Gingerbread Man, Little Red Riding Hood, and the Three Little Pigs, who were the other characters at the tea. The book obviously has an un abashedly didactic agenda regarding manners, but the pictures are well done and the story is cute. The characters all react as though their stories have already happened, and they are merely worried that history may repeat itself. They need not be concerned though, as B B interestingly points out on the last
76 library? the jail?), the latent message is clear: past behavioral patterns d o not preclude learning new behavio rs and one must be polite while one is out and about in society While and Mind Your Manners, B.B. Wolf offer children a comfortable way of learning something new, both stories also rely on removing classic characters from th eir original environments. By placing familiar characters into an unfamiliar context, the stories invite readers to explore potentially scary 47 situation s with safe, comfortable, and familiar characters. As Malarte Feldman hen young readers rec ognize the pattern of the old familiar tale beneath In the case of didactic literature, child readers can also gain a mastery over the material the text is introducing. B eyond learning about libraries or manners, the child reader is also learning a little bit more about his/her favorite character. The fact that the pre textual character has been removed from the context most readers are familiar with forces the character i nto new behaviors and reactions outside though often related to those actions from the original story. For example, Little Bo Peep does not utilize a library in the original nursery rhyme, but in the intertext she is still searching for her sheep. Her actions are familiar enough for us to be comfortable with her identity, and thus with her actions in the story, yet different enough to support a new tale about using the funny references to familiar stories, enough pre textual material is invoked in these stories that at least some of the characters ought to be familiar to most readers. In 47 For a child, such events as entering a large, dark, silent building full of books they may not understand, or perhaps being in a new social situation without anyone being around to tell them how to behave, would be construed as scary situations.
77 short, textual characters are expanded because t hey are in new context s and we see them learning and growing in this new environment lots The third subset of crossover intertextu al picture books that merits closer inspection is made up of tales that expose the canon by letting children know which books they need to have read in order to be culturally literate. This subset does overlap the first subset of texts I discussed those stories that focus on one fairy tale or nursery teach cultural literacy. However, it differs from the first subset because these books offer adult readers a very obviou s map of which stories are still in vogue for young readers and which stories have gone the way of the dodo. 48 Texts such as Pirate Treasure Map allude to tales with which children may or may not be familiar, such as Seesaw Margery Daw or the Crooked Man. I intertext; they only appear on the map, not in the story. Stories that reflect the canon focus on a smaller number of tales t hat children definitely ought to know. These tales are often presented in playful structures, such as detective stories, 49 newspapers, 50 or texts that invoke pictorially but never mention by name those pre textual characters 48 Tiny Toon Adventures which featured e dodo in the 1939 Looney Tunes episode Porky in Wackyland Gogo Dodo commented in one episode Tiny Toon Adventures has been off the air since 1993, and Gogo Dodo fading from cultural memory. 49 Missing Tarts The Top Secret Files o f Mother Goose! and What Really Happened to Humpty? 50 The Mother Goose News Fairytale News Extra! Extra!
78 involved in the tale. 51 I will be focusing on one story of each type in this section: The Top Secret Files of Mother Goose! (2004) The Mother Goose News ( 2000 ) and Seven Stories ( 2005 ) respectively. The Top Secret Files of Mother Goose! the Queen of Hearts has lo Goose, who find crumbs, a dish and spoon, and an embroidered handkerchief at the scene of the crime. Knowing her rhymes well, Mother Goose approaches the Knave of Hearts, who w as missing from the castle. But the Knave was in Hawaii on vacation at the time; he suggests calling Mary Contrary. Mother Goose follows clues dropped in interviews by Mary Contrary, Miss Muffet, Bo Diddle, 52 Little Boy Blue, Bo Peep, Patty Cake the baker m an, Peter Peter Pumpkin Eater, and Humpty Dumpty. Finally, Mother Goose approaches the k tarts, while my pies are all full of four and twenty blackbirds. They taste terrible! I just With every other page looking like a case file and Mother Goose following clues appropriate to each suspect, The Top Secret Files of Mother Goose! is a charming way to discover which texts children need to know. Without having a solid underst anding of who each of the characters are in this story, a child would not be able to understand much of the humor 53 The book does not offer enough background on each character to 51 Each Peach The Enormous Watermelon Pr Once Upon a Time and 1996 Once Upon a Picnic Seven Stories Dragon Pizzeria 52 name may serve as a Kristevan intertextual reference for adults familiar with the music stylings of Bo Diddley. 53 ith the entire rat population and
79 successfully teach the child about the character; the context out of which ea ch character comes must be known prior to reading the text. Thus, the book does not teach cultural textual characters invoked throughout the story. I n the copy of the book that I was able to procure, there is a curious message left in the front matter by the previous owner, a p ublic library system in Florida. A stamp on that this text would be considered o utdated already when the book was only published book is in good condition; no rip s, marginalia, etc) or if they consider the subject matter the characters discusse d in the sto ry to be outdated. This second possibility is interesting given the ease with which crossover i ntertextual stories track the canon and the rapid rate at which such stories do become outdated. 54 In addition to detective stories, newspaper replica or episto lary stories also plot the canon in a relatively obvious way. For example, in The Mother Goose News reader s are only given short snippets of the stories. In the case of Little Red Riding Hood, reader s are told only rhyme or fairy tale incorporated in the book is given one couplet and one corresponding picture from which the audience can make meaning In the example above, Little Red Riding Hood and her grandmother are shown standing in a cabin that is furnished with a way of making meaning of this statement, and no further explanation is offered in the text. 54 exts I discussed in the previous chapter, for instance, invoke the Woman who Sweeps Cobwebs from the Sky. This story is not as common today as it was in the late 1800s, as evinced by the fact that none of the crossover intertextual picture books I discover ed mentioned this character.
80 wolf skin rug. The s par se text and the uninformative images assume that the reader has more than just a passing acquaintance with the stories mentioned and, as the series is designed for children who are just learning to r ead, one can assume that these are the stories with which the majority of pre literat e children would be familiar suggesting that these are the tales most likely told t o the children by their parents According to the book jacket, The Mother Goose News is the familiar fairy tale characters also will help your child feel more comfortable with the text Mother Goose News ). Therefore auth familiar pre textual characters helps to ensure that the new information reading skills come more easily to the child. Tales such as Seven Stories present the reader with reading environments that differ from both the detective stories and newspaper replica picture books. W hereas do not divulge much more information, crossover i ntertexts like Seven Stories present the reader with what ought to be a familiar situation and the reader is left to infer the characters For example, Seven Stories is about a young girl living in a seven story apartment who is suffering from insomnia She wakes up roughly once every hour When she wakes a t midnight, she witnesses the following: Just before midnight I heard loud music coming from apartment one. The most beautiful girl I had ever seen was racing out of the building. [The image shows Cinderella as she dropped her shoe on the front steps and be gan running toward the street. The prince is standing on the porch calling turned over twice, and tried to go to sleep. The clock struck one. (n/p)
81 Although Cinderella is never menti oned by name anywhere in the story, the reader has no doubt whom the character must represent due to her actions and timing. This pattern recurs with Rapunzel and her prince 55 Then come Hansel and Gretel, Jack and the Beanstalk, Goldilocks, and the Three Pigs. The last time her neighbors wake her, she discovers a pea under her mattress. She removes it and is able to go to sleep. S he herself to in Seven Stories The protagonist though she occasionally betrays frustration at not being able to sle ep, is never angry or surprised. F urthermore she seems to know exactly who or what is making the noises in her apartment complex. The story reads like a game show: guess the fairytale c haracter. Although the book is fun to read and is well written, there is no mistaking the fact that the author assumes his readers will be familiar with the canonical texts he invokes. In fact, the only character that might be difficult for younger readers to identify is the protagonist since recent popular culture as much as her counterparts. Concluding Thoughts Re gardless of the method, many if not all crossover intertextual picture book s betray the autho r s own understanding of the current canon Several pre textual characters always find their way into these tales, while others float in and out as the canon textual characters make an a ssumption about which works the child will already be familiar and comfortable. The use of intertextual chara cters is a conscious choice in crossover 55 the illustration that of hair.
82 intertexts, and this choice informs us about which texts the author believes children will be knowledgeabl e. Many of the newspaper like stories include the same characters Jack, Humpty Dumpty, Hansel & Gretel, and Cinderella. Some characters like the Three Billy Goats Gruff 56 and Pinocchio appear only once or twice. It is therefore easy to see that child intertextual picture books serve as a fairly straightforward map of the canon and assumptions about cultural literacy in our society. They are able to accurately describe the canon at one specific moment in time, and they are simultaneously contributing to the canon by promoting some Cinderella, Hansel & Gretel, and Little Red Riding Hood appear often in contemporary picture books, while characters like the Thr ee Billy Goats Gruff do not, both reinforces the contemporary canon and builds the foundation for the canon in the future. As leaves behind such as the woman who swe eps cobwebs from the sky, for example will not likely be revisited in the future. This specific character, though popular in Golden Age crossover intertexts, was dropped from the canon as fewer and fewer tales and anthologies referred back to her, and sh e eventually disappeared from the canon. including or excluding a specific character in a crossover intertext, an author takes part whether intentionally or not i n the process of canon making. After a ll, those 56 Pirate Treasure Map and Fairytale News ), and in their own book, The Three Silly Billies by Pala tini (2005), but they do not appear as main characters beyond these three texts.
83 characters who are cited again and again will retain cultural currency, and so are more likely to be included in future works. 57 As I hope this chapter made obvious, crossover i ntertextual picture books should Although most crossover intertexts do not contain the majority of elements that make postmodern picture books what they are, these texts still teach the same lessons. The combined functions of cultural literacy instruction, simultaneous reliance on the same cultural literacy, encouragement of critical thinking, and instruction of reading skills make crossover int ertextual literature particularly potent educational tools every bit as educational as postmodern picture books. While scholars concerned with postmodernism in picture Missi ng Tarts and Seven Stories are making similar and arguably more nuanced meta arguments. 58 P ostmodern picture book scholars most often cite one or two key texts most often Three Pigs Black and White and/or Scieszka and Th e Stinky Cheese Man and they are apprehensive about generalizing these 57 because of the 1950 adaptation, no idea that m inventions. More on Disney will follow in a later chapter. 58 I maintain that crossover intertexts make more nuanced arguments because, for example, they both rely on the rea however, is an unassuming faade of familiar tales. Conversely, postmodern picture books such as The Stinky Cheese Man are overtly subverting the texts they parody. While they, like crossover intertexts, undermine the pre knowledge. In short, pos tmodern picture books are more overt and call for less imagination and critical
84 59 Yet a study of crossover intertextual picture books is more likely to produce generalizable results and inform many different aspects of m etafictive concerns, such as the shape of the canon, cultural literacy, and assumptions about pre textual characters. Whereas postmodern picture books seem to focus on challenging canonicity or at least pre textual authority, crossover intertextual pictur e books recognize this pre existing authority and use it to their advantage. Pre textual characters included in these texts tend to remain in circulation, and each time the character is used (s)he gains new attributes or personality traits: Little Bo Peep becomes a conscientious library user, the Big Bad Wolf learns to get along with his fellow fairy tale characters, and the princess who sleeps on a pea removes the pea on her own and manages to get a few hours of sleep in her New York apartment. While tradi tional characters and plot devices are being relied upon and reinforced, they are simultaneously being added to and commented upon. This process of relying on pre textual materials, and its consequences on the canon, are not contained to the picture book genre. T his same phenomenon appears in an even more complex formulation in young adult texts, which I will explore in my next shrouding popular characters, but they offer meta commentary upon the cultural and academic issues surrounding these charact ers as well. 59 A key feature of a postmodern picture book, mentioned above, is a use of any kind of unique style and/or l The Three Pigs in which the pigs break out of their storybook and break into others. It follows tha t studies of postmodern picture books are difficult to generalize and remain isolated because the postmodern picture books themselves are all so vastly different.
85 CHAPTER 3 PERILS OF THE PROFES SION: RED CAPES, GLA SS COFFINS, AND THE DEBATE RIES IN LITERATURE F OR OLDER READERS Epigraph d / turn off her soaps, take a peek at a newspaper, ke: . sign around your neck: / Get over here and bite my legs off! / Cover me wit mustid -Tim Seibles, Crossover Intertexts for Older Reader s So far, my discussion in C hapters 1 and 2 has demonstrated that one major function of a crossover inte rtext is to comment on cultural literacy S pecifically, crossover intertexts teach expand and comment on chara cters and their plots. T his chapter deals with matters of cultural literacy as well, but contemporary crossove r intertexts for older readers tend to revolve around issues of criticism surrounding pre textual character s rather than on the characters themselves. The texts in this chapter s hare goals similar to those in C hapters 1 and 2 but with a slightly different focus Golden Age books often promote meta commentary regarding proper use of fairy tales (transmission and didacticism), while picture books focus on knowledge of the pre textual fairy tale characters. However, contemporary intertexts for older readers offer meta commentary on the critical discussions surrounding the pre texts they invoke rather than on the use of the pre texts or the pre methods of transmitting or te Snow White throughout The Sisters Grimm series as a cipher through which to
86 comment on the ambiguity of and difficulties with feminist stances/theories found in recent retellings for younger readers an T his chapter will discuss how crossover intertexts for older readers criticize support or comment on current popular trends in / terature scholarship M and sometimes even erased entirely by these crossover intertexts. Scholarly theories and jargon often leak into popular culture, and the accepted ideologies and axioms become enmeshed in the very literature about which scholars are theorizing. Relying on the authority of pre established storylines and characters, the authors of such crossover intertexts are not commenting on the pre t extual stories. R ather they are usi ng this borrowed authority to comment on popular of fairy tales and chi Crossover intertexts suture academic and popular by reflect ing reveal ing, refusing and/or rely ing upon the scholarly discussions surrounding the literature to various degrees. As already mentioned, the divide between text and scholarship may be a false o r at least a weak dichotomy. 1 A concise summary of the major issues that scholars often have will give this study a sample of tropes of which to be mindful while examining crossover intertexts. According to scholars, some of the most important issues affecting are: Moral messages/didactic themes (Trimmer, Locke, Chesterton) Examples of how to mature ( Bettelheim, psychoanalytic schools of thought ) 1 While I will focus this discussion around the materials in this chapter, I believe the argu ment is applicable to most, if not all, of the other intertexts contained in this project.
87 Socializing Messages (Zipes Tatar, sociological and feminist paradigms) contemporary series The Sisters Grimm Snow White is portrayed as a martial arts expert; she states that she never again wanted to feel as helpless as she did after the run in wit h her mother and the poisoned apple. Buckley apparently positions Snow White as a contemporary princess defined by feminist ideologies in his popular books. But in the sixth book, Snow White is abducted by Bluebeard and must be saved by the same man who wo ke her from her poisoned slumber hundreds of years before ( Tales from the Hood and The Everafter War ). Rather than suggesting that plotlines and tropes can be adapted for current readers which wou ld be a comment on transmission this event causes readers to question whether these stories fairy tales and famous characters that have been updated for modern readers actually do have anything to say to contemporary audiences D oes Snow White, the poster princess for passive women, have anything to say to to generation of empowered women, even when she is po rtrayed as ostensibly empowered ? Buckley seems to think so, at least later in his series, as I will discuss in more depth below. O Out of the Wild suggest that s uch ideological changes are possible if readers transform the text and promote it as a shared experience On the other hand many texts that examine these biases actually support the biases they intend to deconstruct. These texts either willingly play on p re existing biases towards specific characters or fail to comment in any significant way on the state of such biases Crossover i ntertexts attempt to draw out, play on, or change our preconceived notions about common schools of thought associated with and
88 young adult literature via the elements in fairy tales that are considered to be common knowledge. Fairy tales, specifically, are both popular and pervasive, making them ideal subject matter for authors to use when commenting upon the contemporary academic establishment within an intertext. As feminist scholar Cathy Lynne Preston notes of slipper, commodity relations in a marriage market) in th e nebulous realm that we might granted are twisted, made strange, so that they can be easily brought to conscious attention. Almost withou t fail, these commentaries address the encoding) potential or lack thereof (read: subversion) (or lack thereof) of the criticism a nd scholarship surrounding this body of literature. the goal of these i ntertexts is not to teach or test this knowledge as we saw picture books do in chapter two, but rather t o question the assumptions, biases, stereotypes, tropes, and subsequent scholarship that arise from these texts For example, they encourage scrutiny of as the poem of the epigraph su ggests or that all princesses are passive powder puffs who need a prince to save them. serves as a double entendre referring first to the perils princesses find in their profession: like red cloaks that make them stand out like a beacon and The title also addresses s literature
89 scholars, such as on e the (mis) application of popular critical schools of thought to the texts. In this way, the and the subsequent effect s on the characters, either limiting or liberating reveal and complicate the cultural literacy of and stereotypes in the texts and the corresponding scholarship. Didacticism and Practi cal Education and young adult literature are well known including writings by Locke, Trimmer, and Chesterton and generally terature, By the late 1700s, critics of (Locke 103 and 117, respectively) content. Fantastic elements were not necessarily deemed inappropriate her famous Fabulous Histories (1786) or the fantasy inherent to 2 but thes e tales needed to contain some didactic function in order to be considered appropriate for child audiences. Several contemporary authors of crossover intertexts still maintain this belief; Eric The Great Fairytale Robbery Mystery of the Several Sevens (1994), for example, are both unashamedly didactic texts with only a thin veil of plot to hide the educational messages. The Great Fairytale Robbery is a shameless plug for education: in this case, the importance of reading. While these crossover 2 delight and entertain a child, [these tales] may yet afford usefu 17).
90 deep ure: concerns that, for some, First produced as a stage play in 1993 3 and subsequently published as a The Great Fairytale Robbery tells the story of two young female protagonists who must overcome the evil, witch like Studio Head in order to save their favorite storybook characters from literally fading away. Studio Head transported all of the literary fairy tale and nursery rhyme characters from their storybooks to th e world of television, and the two girls must walk through their television screen much like Alice Through the Looking Glass to save them. Vaguely American Gods the Studio Head wants to captivate my wo mutually exclusive categories of children (45) and suggests that children who only watch television are less intelligent than those who read. Because the on Brit Mystery of the Several Sevens as it is not merely didactic, but it offers a perfect example of the types of didactic authorship to promote a specific moral or didactic lesson that sprang from Locke an views of c hild readers. 3 The play debuted in Brisbane, Australia at the Arts Theater (1993).
91 In The Mystery of the Several Sevens Merlin the wizard appears to fifth graders Simon and Becky as their substitute teacher. In a previous text ( The Wizards and the Monster 1994), Merlin transported Simon and Becky to medieval Europe to de al with Simon and Becky had complained in the first few pages that both math and fai ry tales 4 The witch gives Simon a clue sevenfold / The seven seas come next, be told. / Then seven times to end this rhyme. / Jame s Hill is discovered by means of Becky spending sixteen pages (60 76) to solve the word puzzle. The crossover intertext of this book is gratuitous; Simon is the only character to t of the book describes how Becky solves the puzzle as Simon looks on, scratching his head. Brittain 4 Walpurgisnacht the eve of April 30/morning of May 1 celebrated in Germany as the day that witches gather on the Brocken Mountains. This celebration of witches is the explanation given for the Brocken Spectre phenomenon, which was supposedly first Faust Parts I and II (1808, 1832) include references to Walpurgisnacht Whether or not readers will catch this reference is questionable, but it is unlikely that fifth grade readers would have working knowledge of Faust
92 employs pre need to spend much time developing the setting, Merlin, Walpurgia, characters, as they come pre packaged, so to speak. In other words, he relies on the pre stories. 5 The majority of the intertextual exchange occurs between pages 17 21, as Merlin, Becky, and Simon tower (18), and see s again, however. The pre ehind the novel. Instead, the contrived math problem takes center stage. In addition, neither original character Becky nor Simon is well developed. Becky is the brains, as she figures out the word problem, transcribes it to roman numerals, and uses he r calculator to solve it. Simon is the brawn, as he braved Walpurgia to get the word problem in the first place, and even Merlin simply serves to transport the two children with no dynamic growth from any of the characters. In other words, the characters a re flat, the use of intertextual exchange is minimal and is the overly and overtly didactic word problem. Brittain is making a poorly concealed argument for the impo rtance of both reading and math skills, and no child I know would 5 known appearances rather than their original sto on, he spends minimal time developing the characters, with the characters.
93 be convinced by his lesson masquerading behind intertextuality. This text obviously falls make s no qualms about making his text as math oriented as possible, even at the expense of character development and plot, both of which rely on his acceptance of and complacence with the pre established roles of the seven dwarves, witches, and the character o f Merlin. While many scholars still focus on the didactic potential of texts, many others claim that there are already important messages inherent to the fairy tales, if only one knows how to find them These latter scholars therefore believe that authors do not need to insert morals artificially or forcefully. This same sentiment that fairy tales can aid a child in his/her understanding of the world his/her own self would be famously expanded upon by Bruno Bettelheim in his 1976 The Uses of Enchantment. Bettelheim s work, while often criticized by folklorists for analyzing and interpreting the fairy tales out of their cultural context, has gained much support over the years. In fact, some relatively recent scholarship The Witch Must Die (1999) takes cues directly from Bettelheim and Freudian psychoanalysis. Several authors, too, have recently taken their cues from such scholars. Susan The Search for Happily Ever After (1995), for example, b with matters of coming of age (signified by the Boy earning his name at the end of the
94 story) and learning about decision making 6 via the talking signpost and the pre textual rossover intertext, on the other hand, deals with psychological maturation, but instead of focusing on coming of age, The Search for Happily Ever After cutter story that a experience. The Search for Happily Ever After is the tale of a young girl a middle child who must learn to fit in with her siblings. Feeling much like a modern day Cinderella, Ketti Watson suffers at the hands of her older and baby sisters. She sees her older sister as y on the topic of attractiveness to children: tribulations and degradations may seem And there are moments often long time periods when for inner reasons a child feels this way even when his position among his siblings may seem to give him no cause for it. (237) This quote describes perfectly what Ketti deals with throughout the first portion of the text, and it should come as no surprise to savvy readers that Cinderella features 6 In Freudian terms, decision making is important because the child must learn to repress id driven impulses and allow the super ego to mediate the id and the ego, resulting in more soci ally acceptable actions.
95 always compare yourself with yo 25). Although her parents have given her no cause to feel neglected or mistreated, Kett i perceives herself as inferior to her sisters. She sees her older sister being invited that perhaps the following year Ketti will be invited and able to go falls on dea f ears: Bettelheim notes that perceived rejection by parental figures is a strong motivator for child feels that, in contrast, he is thought little of by his parents, or feels rejected by situation to be in the beginning of the book. The story follows Ketti as she meets a magic rat coachmen who ever of midnight, he turned back into a rat instead of finding his fortune as a human. But when he sought out the fairy godmother to complain, she was dying and asked him to complete her last spell (30), which requires Ketti and the rat to make sure a prince is available the moment Sleeping Beauty awakes (33). This turn of events also echoes
96 this device of splitting him into two figures: the parent who thinks little of the child, and another figure a wise old man, or an animal the youngster encounters, who giv es him sound advice on how to win out, not over the parent, which would be too scary, but over to deal with her position as middle child in a family of three siste rs. He teaches her that she is unique, and this lesson ultimately allows Ketti to find her place in her family. that an evil fairy cursed Sleeping Beauty to prick her finger (33) that everything sticks to the golden goose (37), the secret of the twelve dancing princesses (69), and who the frog 4 Gretel allows Hansel to think that it was his doing that freed them from the witch nor why she spends all of her time taking care of him. She is also surprised at the ending of invisibility lent to him by Ketti is stolen, and he suspects his bride to be is the culprit. Ketti begins to understand that the story may reflect her own poor treatment of her hought only of their beauty. . Now, vaguely ashamed, Ketti saw that the sisters cared only for their own
97 story from a spoiled child into a more socially aware girl. She also realizes that, in order to be happy, people m ust make their own happiness: it will not fall into her lap, but she must actively treat her sisters well in order for them to treat her well in return. This destined to w (132). Ketti also realizes at last, when it seems she has no hope of travelling home, that her paren ts love her : she stopped acting like one of the twelve dancing princesses, thinking only about her noted Cinderella receives, the child understands that essentially it is through her own efforts, and because of the person she is, that Cinderella is able to transcend magnific ently her that she is capable of handling herself, and that she will be able, through her own efforts, to make peace with her sisters and be happy in her family (and be ha ppy with herself as a unique individual). This same sentiment is repeated in the story as, when the rat turned human prince gets stuck to the golden goose, her laugh releases him. the goose lose its magic. The rat you. You are a princess. .
98 e is special, and she is able to see that she has a place with her sisters. In fact, when she returns home, her older sister praises her imagination and Ketti finally feels comfortable as the middle child. sibling rivalry motif are absolute or beyond reproach. Rather, I am pointing out that, ly internal, and by the end of the story she has psychologically matured enough to get along with her family. The crossover are notorious for getting along, namely Han sel and Gretel, those who she only thinks and she even meets the queen of sibling rivalry herself, Cinderella. The intertextuality places Ketti in a position to show off h er knowledge, and it also positions her as a fairy tale princess of sorts. In addition, the pre textual characters are taken out of their original context though not necessarily out of their prescribed roles as a way of entertaining readers during what could be an otherwise tedious lesson about getting philosophical musings about sibling rivalry are less than subtle . children who have enjoyed fairy tales in t he past might possibly enjoy seeing favorite characters in The Mystery of the Several Sevens the intertext characters are a bit more tho roughly developed. This text maintains the tropes
99 established by the original fairy tales (Hansel and Gretel get along, Cinderella is sweet the child reader deal wi th some psychological issue or other. Feminism and Social Education While psychoanalysis is still a favored method of negotiating fairy tales and performing analyses, 7 other paradigms, such as feminism 8 and anthropological/sociological parad igms, 9 have become equally invested in fairy tale studies if not more so Because many sources offer comprehensive bibliographies of critical scholarship on fairy tales 10 I will not endeavor to offer a full bibliography of such works here. Suffice it to s ay that, while many critics still apply psychoanalysis to ned the psychoanalytic perspective in favor of social issues. For example, Jack Zipes notes that 7 Essays in Applied Psychoanalysis The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child (1953), Erich The Forgotten Langu age The Uses of Enchantment (1976), Sheldon The Witch Must Die The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1968), Marie Interpretation of Fairy Tales T he Hero With a Thousand Faces Once Upon a Time Once Upon a Midlife (1992). 8 Of course, some of the more popular critical examinations of fairy tales utilizing a feminist perspective are: Rusch The Port rayal of the Maturation Process of Girl Figures in Selected Tales of the Brothers Grimm From the Beast to the Blonde (1996), Marie Problems of the Feminine in Fairy Tales Women Who Run with Wolves (1992), The Madwoman in the Attic (1979). 9 cornerstone text The Golden Bough (1907) is also sociological, and the idea of ritual in fairy tales served The Ritual Process (1977). In addition, scholars such as David Hart discuss the religious implication of fairy tales in his The Wat er of Life: Spiritual Renewal in the Fairy Tale literature, more generally, as evinced by the proliferation of religious studies concerning the Harry Potter series 10 The Fairy Tale
100 the Locke an way of thinking about morals: the tales are not necessarily good for dealing with abstract psycho logical problems, nor are they overtly didactic, but they are, instead, socializing agents. Of course, one cannot address crossover i addressing movements in feminist criticism. Feminist critiques have often taken as their specifically, fairy tales. A Lurie and [Marcia] Lieberman during the early 1970s, we witness simultaneous ly the inchoate discourse of early feminist fairy tale research and the advent of modern fairy (2). Feminist approaches to fairy tale tropes have varied greatly. A s Preston notes, tale heroines through the catalog of various traits requisite for being chosen for such connubial bliss: gentility, grace, selflessness; beautiful, sweet, patient submissive, an excellent house keeper . ; and pat ience, sacrifice, dependency . 11 But while many feminists disapprove of fairy tales for th e submissive (or dismissive) portrait they paint of women, other scholars such as Alison Lurie, Heather Lyons, Karen Rowe, and Colette Dowling, to name a few celebrate the potential fairy tales have to 11 Womenfolk and Fairy Tales (Houghton, 1975), Kay F. edited by Rosan A. Jordan and Susan J. Kalcik, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985, pages 125 volume 6, published in 1979, pages 237 57).
101 Haase 7) and the strong, positive heroines that many though generally lesser known tales offer readers. In the introductory chapter to his edited collection Fairy Tales & Feminism: New Approaches Donald Haase offers an overview of the back and forth debate in feminist scholarship surrounding fairy tales and the use of fairy tales in contemporary writing. He traces the discussion from the 1970s in articles by Lurie and Lieberman to other 1970s and 1980s scholars Andrea Dworkin, Susan Brownmiller, Mary Daly, Karen Rowe, Carolyn Heilbrun, Madonna Kolbenschlag, Linda Chervin and Mary Neill, through more contemporary writers like Marian Woodman, Marina Warner, Maria Tatar, Jack Zipes, and U.C. Knoepflma ch er (to name just a few). Throughout this quick but very informative authors, in particular, mediate negative stereotypes of women by incorporating and rewriting fairy tales: I n the wake of Gilbert and Gubar The Madwoman in the Attic (1979)], other feminist scholars continued to investigate the intertextual role of class ic tales in the works of nineteenth cen tury English women novelists . . In general, such studies confirmed that these novelists used fairy tale intertexts in particular the well known story of Cinderella as subversive strategies 12 to contest the ide alized outcomes of fairy tales and their representations of gender and female identity. (20) As Chapter 1 has demonstrated and this quote supports, e ven as early as the nineteenth century fairy tale 12 Transforming the Cinderella Dream notes that intertextual dialogue is complex and we cannot assume to know how a woman will react to a story that is itself, ambiguous (20).
102 r etellings, more specifically to debunk or deconstruct negative tropes. Similarly, frame and, in doing so, variously work to maintain, reproduce, transgress, or shift t he boundaries of gender associated with the older fairy According to her, the boundaries include authority derived from tradition 13 and genre slippage. And while some fairy tale crossover i ntertexts The Sister s Grimm Into and Out of the Wild discussed below do move beyond these boundaries, as recently as 2004 some i ntertexts have been unable to break out of the constraints of certain genre frames and fairy tale tropes. The Princess School series by Jane Mason the first book of which was published in 2004 is a nice example of a crossover i ntertextual series that do es not move tales. The series traces princesses Rose (Sleeping Beauty), Snow (Snow White), Ella (Cinderella), and Rapunzel as they progress through Princess School, wherein they take classes such as Frog Identification (so they can distinguish between frogs simply trying to get free kisses a nd enchanted princes who will transform into humans and she pricks her finger ),and Self defense (defense techniques for when they find Although the four pre textual princesses never meet in their own stories, the i ntertextual environment they find themselves in w ithin Princess School does not serve ntertextuality simply reinforces the 13
103 gender stereotypes so many early feminists like Lieberman 14 accused fairy tales of promoting. For instance, although Rose is determi ned to prove she is more than just a pretty face and can hold her own, when she pricks her finger in stitchery class she dozes off and is not awakened fully until a prince kisses her at the Coronation Ball (135). In another example, during Looking Glass cl ass a princess accidentally sits on a robbing them of sleep, making it impossible for them to sit or lie down for days some pea victims had even needed medical attention. Needless to say, most princ examples demonstrate, the princesses are portrayed as passive characters, victims of the tropes that surround and plague them. Although the princesses can and do learn from each other as demonstrated when, for example, Rose decides to quit feeling sorry for herself because of overprotective parents once she sees how Snow White and thus demonstrate the ability to grow, this potential is not developed. They girls simply eak away from the most important controlling aspects of their stories: the fairy tale eleme nts that typify the genre like glass slippers, frog princes poisoned spinning wheels, etc and she refuses to take a stand aga inst them, promoting the traditional pass a pea still dooms a young girl to a life of sleeping disorders again suggesting and reinforcing the notion that princesses are fragile, always in danger, and must b e saved from thes e 14 a close examination of the treatment of girls and women in fairy tales reveals certain patterns which are keenly interesting not only in themselves, but al so as material which has undoubtedly played a major contribution in forming the sexual role concept of children, and in suggesting to them the of many e contest is a constant and primary device in many of the stories. Where there are several daughters in a family, or several unrelated girls in a story, the prettiest is invariably singled out and desig nated for reward, or first for punishment and later for
104 fates/tropes; and despite the ostensibly feminist stance, the prince still has to wake and thereby rescue the sleeping princess at the b all 15 While the characters might be slightly more complex and interact more than in their original stories, t such as the passivity inherent to all female fairy tale characters are more important in happe ns to surround them all in a single narrative multiverse rather than being limited to one or two narrative worlds In an i ntertextual environment these princesses are even more prone to danger and situation s from which they need to be rescued as a pea can apparently affect any princess rather than just the princess not j ust Little Red Riding Hood, etc Therefor e, in this particular text the crossover i ntertextuality of the tale serves, unfor tunately, to enhance and draw attention to those fairy tale elements that feminists find so disdainful Princess School books claim to offer a feminist perspective of several well known fairy tale princesses, but they f all short of their goal. I n fact, the stories reinforce and add to the miasma of negative stereotypes surrounding the original fairy tales rather than dismantling them. M ost contemporary feminism demands that female readers move away from passive stances, but this series supports that notion that women cannot move away from passivity. This crossover i ntertext thus seems to function as a very fatalistic view of modern feminism, suggesting that feminism is a nice idea (the characters believe they are strong 15
105 traditional fairy tale elements, still ultimately rule their lives). For a modern reader, this text appears to suggest that women should consider themselves to be liberated but n ot necessarily be liberated; one can go to school, one can even stand up to bullies, but having a boy kiss you at a dance is the only way you can truly be alive. On the other hand, Jon Summer Reading Is Killing Me! (1998) subtly suggests an ant i feminist sentiment in order to attempt to dismantle it however awkwardly by the end of the tale. Part seven of the books turned television series The Time Warp Trio 16 Summer Reading Is Killing Me! is the tale of three young men who own a rar e and magical book that transports them into different time periods, geographical locations, and even fictional stories, in order to teach them something the Old West, prehistoric history, space and technology, and ancient Egypt. By the seventh book, characters Joe, Sam, and Fred find themselves accidentally sucked into their summer reading list, which on e of the boys unwittingly tucks into the magical book that acts as their transportation to each escapade. The book also transports each of the characters from the stories on the reading list into the same fictional space, providing a crossover i ntertextual adventure that is at times as overloaded with pre textual characte Moonfolk 17 While the story is sometimes overwhelming in its invocation of many and disparate pre can always flip to the back of the book, where, in the paratext, Scieszka provides the 16 The Time Warp Trio series was recen Time Warp Trio homepage). Although Summer Reading Is Killing Me! http://www.timewarptrio.com/show/ for more information. 17 See C hapter 1
106 summ er reading list the three boys put into the magic book (70 73). The boys actually read over some of the list on pages 9 10, effect ively preparing readers for the i ntertextuality to come. racters and events in this book are fictitious. Any similarity to real characters or real events is very ets up his i ntertextual adventure by subtly telling the reader to keep in mind t hat (s)he ought to be able to recognize the characters and events that follow. Throughout the text, Scieszka also often employs hints at the pre are at first disoriented when they are transported into this world of stories, but they see where we were. The chicken thundered toward us, its deadly sharp beak pointed directly at us. I stepped in front of Sam and Fred with my In this way, t he author gives the reader the clues (s)he needs to figure out what book is being referenced: in this case, The Hoboken Chicken Emergency by Daniel Manus Pinkwater To make identification of such pre textual materials easier, the title is also listed on page 71 on Summer Reading Is Killing Me! is thus peppered with clues to help the reader navigate the volu me and frequency of pre textual characters. Interestingly, this crossover i are in huge trouble. If this means what I think it means, all of the characters from every book on the summer reading list are mixed up here in Hoboken. And none of them are
107 wh very articulate about what the problem is, they describe several scenarios in which books are destroyed: the Red Queen from Alice might try Ram ona the Pest Wayside School, or the Horned King (from The Book of Three ) might try to eat Peter Rabbit (21). According to this book, then, i ntertextuality can be dangerous Its consequences would be antithetical to the b and would retard or completely ruin the stories by making them impossible In order to try to stop the dangerous mixing of stories, the boys head to the town library, where all of the storybook villains seem to be congregating (27 28) so they can when they try to get in the library door. They lie to the guards, telling them that they are actually heroes from a series of books call Time Warp Trio (32) which, of course, they playfully self conscious moment in th e text, the boys enter the library to see villains from stories ranging from first to eighth grade reading levels, including a few dubious choices Where the Wild Things Are (37 ). They are taken e teddy bear 18 huggable and stupid have the villains from numerous 18 N ursery Crime series, the Gingerbread Man.
108 stories take over all Books would be rewritten with such Horseman the boys determined earlier in the story, such a mixing of characters and abolishment of the Teddy Bear to stop the boys are captured. The truly interesting crossover i ntertextuality occurs at this point in the novella. The boys are saved when all of the characters are put to sleep by a female character. She begins to tell the villains about the time she a nd her family crossed the river, t might come in handy when I have a several more scenarios. The boys try to guess at her identity with each new story Anne of Green Gables one of the Little Women Nancy Drew a member of the a Sweet Valley High girl, a character from American Girls before they realize who she really is in a moment of We never read any of those books. So we or the cult ural literacy they brought with them rather than suggesting that all characters are real O therwise, the female charac ters would be separate entities
109 Girl In Every Book Ever Written character, as they are transported home shortly after she rescues them. The books are un mixed ( de intertextual ized ?) and life returns to normal. T his truncated encounter with the girl and the storybook villains offers more questions than answers: w hy are all the villains separate characters, even when the boys can a specific name to them but the girl is every female character rolled into one? Is their experience with the characters determined b y their own interpretation and understanding of those c haracters, or do the characters exist independently of the 19 immediately. As far as the reader of Summer Reading Is Killing Me! is concerned, then, the a means by which to save all other storybook characters. Whether or not Scieszka intentionally meant to denigrat e such literature, the fact remains that his emphasis on the boring and interchangeable nature of female character supports a decidedly chauvinistic and anti feminist stance despite the fact that the female character(s) saves Readers appr oaching the text with a prior disdain for female characters and books those readers who identify with Sam, Joe, and Fred will find their bias supported and played upon as a plot device. The female character(s) are not explored in any greater depth, nor are they even given the benefit of being portrayed individually. S till, the Every Girl In Every Book Ever Written character does save the day; the boys 19 On page 16, the boys suggest that the characters exist outside their own knowledge of the characters and, by proxy, their books, but the arrival of the Every Girl In Every Book Ever Written character suggests oth erwise.
110 would not have escaped if not for her intervention. It is, strangely, her boring dialogue that allows e scape. Perhaps Scieszka is here acknowledging the necessity of such characters and dialogue, but this admission is very back handed and border s on being too subtle or ironic to be effective. Whereas The Princess School f the characters, at least in some small way, Summer Reading Is Killing Me! does not engage with f emale characters at all. B oth books rely on pre existing tropes regarding female characters, and the Princess School books at least try to develop the charact ers beyond their original context. Although often the characters remain tethered to traditional, passive roles and weaknesses, they are at least able to interact and grow. The female character(s) in Summer Reading Is Killing Me! however, merely serves as a cipher for subtly suggesting that perhaps the feminist theories have it all wrong; if you perceive a character to be boring and interchangeable, she will be She may serve a very important r ole and even save your life but she is still a bland, dull character. Mixed Messages: the Education M ost of the contemporary crossover intertextual literature takes as its subject one of these tropes : Mystery of the Several Sevens is expl icitly didactic, the Princess School books reinforce societal and gender roles, to cite a few specific examples But the truly deal with them in as direct and commit ted a way. These books, the Sisters Grimm series and Into the Wild and Out of the Wild by Sarah Beth Durst, are more instructive to study because they do not address one specific trope, nor do they completely endorse nor fully oppose the tropes that they d o include. Instead, they offer more
111 nuanced discussions of the aforementioned common fairy tale tropes and demonstrate how scholarship has seeped into and influenced how we think about and construct stories for young readers Wild books deal primar ily with matters of community Sisters Grimm books offer a unique perspective about sexism (feminist criticism of fairy tales). The Sisters Grimm series follows the lives of two descendents of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Sabrina and Daphne, as they learn what it means to belong to the Grimm family. As protectors and chroniclers of Everafter 20 history, the Grimm girls learn to negotiate the internal politics of the Everafter community who are York. They live with their grandmother and the unusual Mr. Canis as they try to save their parents from the evi deal with many issues, including fitting into a family, coming of age, and liking boys, these issues tend to center around Sabrina Grimm, one of the few non pre textual characters in the series. A lthough these issues are important to the overall narrative arch, for the purposes of this study I will be focusing on the pre textual characters and how their interactions suggest commentary about feminist critiques, primarily through the character of Sno w White. The Sisters Grimm books posit that fairy tales are a series of historical events chronicled by Andrew Lang, Lewis Carroll, Hans Christian Anderson, Jonathan Swift, The Fair y 20 origin.
112 Tale Detectives 69). In this text, the fairy tale attributes should not be able to hold power over particular characters simply because they engaged with them once upon a time. over Ferryport Landing and turning it into his own kingdom as he reveals in The Fairy Tale Detectives and subsequent abandonment of such motives, suggests that characters are merely conditioned by these elements and their old roles, not controlled by them as are explained as memory problems or are attributed to items that are difficult to (206 7). This description satisfies both the original book where the shoes are silver and the MGM movie wherein the shoes are bright, Technicolor red. One of the most interesting subplots throughout the series concerns Snow White and her love a of feminist thoughts are clearest in this subplot, and it is one of the more engaging subplots that is intertwined with the main plot points in the overall narrative arch. In the fi rst book, readers learn that Snow White left Charming at the altar 400 years ago but princesses including Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, and Rapunzel ( The Fairy Tale Detectives 2 24). 21 The Everafter War, the seventh in the series, that 21 Woods, the two charming pri nces express that they are creatures of tropes, stuck in repetitive patterns Wild books, though in Into the Woods the princes freely choose to repeat these patterns. They chase fair maidens such as Snow White and Sleeping Beauty, who appear onstage at the end of the play the intertexts in this chapter; it questions the common tropes present in the texts and seeks to expose them by allowing pre textual characters to journey into the woods together (literally, in this case).
113 readers learn why Snow White left him in the first place and why she refuses his most recent proposal in The Everafter War As she herself admits to Sabrina Grimm: a time when I was well, I was pretty nave. . In a ucate women back in my time. . some handsome prince to come and take care of me. And then there was epiphany while I was sleeping, but when I woke up I was mad. Not only had I let myself get into a bad situation, my own mother had a hand in it! And 178) Here, Snow White is describing the very stereotypes that critics like Rosemary w White questions the legitimacy of tradition fairy tale princess roles, specifically the issue of passivity. Snow White tries to counter her history by starting a self defense class, the Bad Apples (see The Unusual Suspects 253 254 for the first mention of the Bad Apples). Snow admits to Sabrina in the quote above that what bothered her most about her The Everafter War 177). Snow decided that she would not marry until she no The Everafter War 178). She concludes this monologue by The Everafter War 179). feminist stereotype that wome n cannot Interesting ly elementary school performances), the second act and the questioning of common tropes associated is completely excised. The sexual innuendos present in the first act, particularly
114 self doubt. Throughout the series, Prince Charming constantly refers to Snow White as so meone who needs to be saved, even when she proves over and over that she can fend for herself. She begins her own self defense class, she voluntarily goes with army training instructor. In fact, even when Snow White is cornered by Bluebeard, the author insinuates that the episode is not her fault. Buckley foregrounds the scene by obviou s that even a trained self defense teacher like Snow White could be seriously Tales from the Hood 259). Therefore, while Buckley couches Snow White in terms traditionally accepted for princesses/women teacher, she bab ysits the Grimm children in The Unusual Suspects and according to Charming she has a knack for getting into trouble ( The Unusual Suspects 88) she is fairy tale tropes by seeking to redeem herself and rectify previous character flaws, such as passivity. Buckley offers readers the chance to decide if Snow White has anything to say to contemporary audiences. Her ambiguous position throughout most of the series empowered reflects the characteristics common of fairy tale princesses, while her later behavior suggests that she and contemporary readers may have the opportunity to break out of traditional princess roles, even if the y fall back into these roles on occasion. Whereas Snow White is able to learn from her past and to learn to defend herself, and therefore ultimately potentially break out of the stereotypes that surround her even
115 novels have a different problem to face. In Into the Wild and most of Out of the Wild all seek to stay free of the bonds that kept the m in the Wild. When the Wild escapes, readers see firsthand daughter, must venture into the Wild when it escapes and grows in order to rescue her mother and the other fairy tale characters the Wild has recaptured. En route, Julie faces a woman who has taken the place of Little Red Riding Hood. hysterics. Leaving the unlucky woman to her fate, Julie finally manages to find her ge power: that you forget who Sisters Grimm the fairy tale (119) and traps its victims within a never ending cycle of repetitions. Slight variations in the repetitions produced by the Wild account for va riations of fairy tales in different cultures. The horror of the Wild is, then, permanence. Characters are locked into
116 preconceived roles and actions that they are unable to alter. In fact, altering the unalterable is what the second book, Out of the Wild is all about. Whereas Into the Wild focuses on introducing the characters and the concept of and for all. Her quest to defeat the Wild culminates, ironically, in Disn eyland, California. By this point in the novel, the entire world is being consumed by the Wild and turned into mindless characters forced into eternal servitude and repetition. As people begin to panic, residents of California head to Disneyland to fight t he only manifestation of the Wild they can control: the falsified images they themselves created. 22 Julie steps up to a ild had tried to spread several months before. She tells them the story of Into the Wild how she changed the Wild by using its own rules against it rules that she barely began to understand in the first he Wild: we change it. Tell this story and demonstrate s the power of transmission, reminiscent of the nineteenth century texts examined in chapter one. But whereas the nineteenth century repetition has on an audience. Rather than expressing the importance of transmitting a Wild books adventures teach her that, in essence, Little Red Riding Hood continually gets eaten by the wolf because generations of readers and storytellers complete the story that way. 22 This novel obviously also offers some interesting meta commentary on Disney and the commodi fication of fairy tales. Unfortunately, this discussion falls beyond the scope of this project.
117 Her message and the messa ge of the Wild books is that of personal responsibility. We cannot blame the stories for their outdated treatment of princesses and their retell the story. Durst se to be repeated or known. The implications for scholarship here are quite interesting: eve feminism, etc, the stories are not hopeless, they simply need to be adjusted for the readers need posit that the possibility is quite strong, granted that audiences are willing to shape and transmit their new values/stories themselves. Each author thus places the onus of responsibilit y on the reader in one way or another, either as an individual or as a member of a society with shared values. By Way of Conclusion While some crossover i ntertexts simply act as mirrors reflecting theories of and c, psychological, feminist), simultaneously serving to reinforce the pre established tropes, biases, and stereotypes present in those structures to offer criticism or comment on the current ways readers approach the field on their i ntertextuality accomplish this commentary most effective ly while the texts that involve crossover i ntertext uality for convenience do not a lter pre existing theories but simply reflect them
118 or, in worst case scenarios, support them. Other, more complex texts , rely on the pre textual characters to their advantage I nstead of simply relying on pre established c haracterizations and plotlines, these authors play upon the cultural literacy readers bring to the text and question basic assumptions previously passive princesses into warrior women T to comment on the cultural literacy that is expected of savvy contemporary read ers. In other words, the author s uses of fairy tales demonstrate an awaren ess of and response to specific cultural/literary movements, a cultural literacy of the issues surrounding the study of literature in popular contexts. Even if the authors are not aware of specific scholars, they are still able to say something general abo ut the current popularity, practicality, and usefulness of, for example, making Snow White a fighter. T he authors do not need to be scholars themselves in order to comment on the popular trends They are instead relying upon general a surrounding these elements and the characters associated with them These crossover intertexts literacy about the cultural literacy, so to speak T s This mor e complex type of cultural literacy assumes that the reader is already familiar with b oth the pre textual characters and their plots as well as the major
119 Preston reminds acquired through any or all . stories, scholarly articles, commercials, news, etc. (210). This statement is reminiscent of John S tephen s point that a scholar cannot always know which version of a fairy tale (original, adaptation, or crossover intertext ) a child encountered first and to what version the child is comparing to the current version. But even if scholars cannot be sure which version(s) of a pre textual character a reader has come in contact with before or ev en what medium the story was in we can make an educated guess regarding what the author was trying to impart to the reader, regardless of his/her prior experience w ith the pre textual characters. It would be impractical to try to determine which versions of a character a child reader is more/most/first familiar with I n these texts, many different versions are invoked, 23 thereby removing the necessity for a reader to be familiar with one version over another. These crossover i ntertexts assume some level of prior familiarity, but they generally do not champion one version over another I nstead, they use the various versions to their advantage, allowing the characters a range of motion otherwise unavailable to them. In this way, the texts are able to focus on critiquing cultural literacy surrounding the tales rather than on cultural literacy readers are expected to have about commentary on Snow White is developed 23 For example, as mentioned above, The Sisters Grimm series explains fairy tale variations by of their histories correctly or that the details were difficult to describe accurately in the first place.
120 (Snow White as gentle and passive) and more contemporary (Snow White as angry at her perceived passiveness and a willingness t o train as a martial artist) T he chan ges in these versions represent a slightly ambiguous or problematic representation of her The focus is not on cultural literacy of who Snow White is and what she does in the various version s of her story; rather, the ntertextual use of the character is to deconstr uct and examine the usefulness, or lack thereof of what we think we know about her examine their preconceived notion s their cultural literacy of issues surrounding her story, including feminist ideologies and feminist retellings of such fairy tales. While some crossover intertexts function as sutures between academic and popular discourses and examine the ensuing cultural literacy arising from the union, other intertexts attempt to rescind established cultural literacy entirely and replace it with new knowledge. Digital crossover intertexts, often featuring remediations of pre textual characters as well as intertex tuality, often seek to completely overwrite the cultural literacy associated with a particular iconic character. In my next and final chapter, I will examine various types of crossover intertextual video games and offer a brief overview of several landmark specifically the cartoon series House of Mouse the Kingdom Hearts series and the newly released Epic Mickey for Wii and yet simultaneously ignore, cultural literacy of the Disney company as they expunge effectively rewriting cultural memories of
121 Disney by play
122 CHAPTER 4 G HISTORY WITH DIGIT IAL INTERTEXTS Crossover Intertextual Video Games, Disney, and Cultural Literacy Cross over intertexts abound in literature, but they are every bit as numerous if not more so in new media. Since the release of in 1984, video games that rely on pre explode d on the market in every genre and for every console. There are two types of crossover video games. First party crossover games feature characters from one game in another when both games are owned by the same company. For example, Final Fantasy Dissidia f eatures popular characters from many of Square Final Fantasy games (the characters are pre textual, but they are all owned by the same company). Conversely, third party crossover games incorporate characters from various companies, such as the games in the Kingdom Hearts ( KH ) series, which pairs and pits Disney characters with and against Final Fantasy cha racters. Because of their often complex plots and intertwined histories, crossover intertextual third party RPGs have some very interesting ramific ations for cultura l literacy. The Disney company has used both first and third party crossover intertextuality to their advantage, particularly in their cartoons and recent video games. Crossover intertextuality in video games has developed since the ear ly 1980s, and much of what has come before informs current video game intertexts. Game designers used to spend large amounts of time and effort to make their characters and plots engaging for audiences, and the context of the world within the video game ha d to be developed slowly in order for the player to become familiar with it. But once game designers started relying on pre
123 pre existing cultural literacy, the games became more about the development of the plot and interactions between the characters rather than on setting the stage, so to speak. Game plots became more complex and exchanges between the characters became s with the characters, are new and thus offer a potential space for companies to interject their own understanding of the characters based on contemporary ideologies held by that company. The contrast between the characterization of pre textual characters in their original environments and in new stories afforded by crossover intertextuality highlights the ideological changes the Disney company has gone through since the 1930s. Implications for cultural memory of these famous characters are profound. Crosso ver intertextuality in contemporary video games expunges and overwrites the very cultural literacy required to understand the game in the first place. characters are relatively yo ung, and thus tracing their changes is a relatively easy if not always an entirely linear 1 task. In essence, Disney rewrites their own history (their 2 ) by having the players effectively revise it for them as video g ame avatars. The game series Kingdom Hearts and the recent Epic Mickey are particularly good examples of this, as the Disney company is currently 1 As will be noted shortly, Disney has produced a wide variety of cartoons, comics, games, and other types of media (including the Disney theme park s). While many of the characters changed over a period a time, their changes took place throughout and in some cases, arguably because of the various media they were remediated into. Thus, while characters did not change entirely linearly through one specific form of media, the characters did change chronologically. 2 wish His life would could control as he could not control reality. From Mickey Mouse through Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs through Disneyland through EPCOT, he kept attempting to remake the world in the image of his (xvi).
124 Epic Mickey more specifically). The chang his interaction with other pre textual characters) in this game and, as I will argue, the House of the Mouse cartoon series and the KH games, demonstrate the profound impact that intertextuality can have on cultural memory. Such intertexts are best understood in light of the history and development of other such texts, and so I will begin my discussion with several important crossover intertextual video games. Landmark Crossover Intertextual Video Games: A Brief History Many crossover intertextual games preceded the release of Epic Mickey and KH but it would not be practical to offer a complete history here. 3 Instead, I would like to point out some landmark games that helped to influence and shap e contemporary crossover intertextual video games. Of course, any such discussion will begin with series, the first games to incorporate pre existing characters: in this case, fairytale and mythological characters. In 1984, eager game rs around the new IBM PC juniors. What appeared on the screen was like nothing that had ever come before. Sierra On featured a text parser interfac e that understood more complex commands than previous games, and the avatar an animated figure rather than a static image was able to walk behind objects like trees and houses in a pseudo 3D setting. Besides the advances in gaming technology, the plot of did what no video game had ever done before: it interlaced fairy 3 A thorough study of crossover intertextual games could easily become a dissertation in its own right. While a full history is outside the scope of this project, Wikipedia offers a fairly comprehensive list (see the
125 tale characters into a master narrative that the player had to work through and complete in order to finish the game. In most of the games, players must use th eir familiarity with fairy tales and mythology to help them solve puzzles. These puzzles generally relate to another fairy tale or myth, which players must then solve to move on. For example, when the player encounters a little man with a spinning wheel in I who asks to be named before he will give up a key item, the player needs to know that some players who are unfamiliar with a broad assortment of fairy ta les will feel at a loss, even with game guides, 4 as these games particularly the first several in the series require at least a passing knowledge of fairy tales in order to make progress. includes seven titles and boasts a number of book s pin offs 5 and has even inspired a theatrical parody titled Adventure Quest 6 4 This comes from personal experience; in a media course that I once taught, I asked all of my students to play through a free, online, VGA version of to help us discuss the use of cultural literacy in video games. Many of them got stuck within the first few minutes, and two failed to complete the game at all, even w ith the assistance of game hints and walk throughs. The two students who had the most example, leading a goat up to a troll guarding a bridge that the player needs to cross, even when the walk through suggested they do just that. 5 has spawned both non fiction and fiction. The non fiction works include guidebooks like Guidebook to the Green Isles by Jane Jenson for and Robe V VI and VII Several editions of a book chronicling the development of the series were written Donald B Tivette and all begin with the title Peter Spear also published two player and Guide Fictional books include The Floating Castle by Craig Mills (1995) and The Kingdom of Sorrow and See No Weevil by Kenyon Morr (pseudonym for authors Mark Sumner and Marella Sands, both published in 1996). 6 uncomfortably in your seat as the narrative gradually implodes! Glance around nervously as characters are brutally murdered for no particular reason! Despair as your faith in a meaningful, ordered universe is shaken! Evoking the Golden Age of home computer gaming, Adventure Quest is both a nostalgic treat
126 The next landmark in crossover games would arguably 7 Super Smash Bros. released in 1999 for th e Nintendo 64 This game is a first party crossover that includes Nintendo characters from the Mario Kirby and Legend of Zelda series. offer an alternative to the two dim ensional fighting games that were crowding out the market. [He] also wanted to see if it was possible to make an interesting 4 player game development of the game, Saku available to him. He asked the president of Nintendo Co., Ltd, Satoru Iwata, if he could incorporate pre textual game characters in order to help make the game and the characters stand out. He reasoned fighting game, and when you line up character 1, character 2, character 3 and so on, the main characte rs end up blurring together. . With a fightin g game for the home console, . you have to set up th e general image or the atmosphere of the gaming Thus, Super Smash Bros. part of the 7 While C X Men vs. Street Fighter may have beaten Nintendo to the Presumably, the same general assumptions that Nintendo had about cross overs and their usefulness
127 Nowadays, we take it for granted, bu t at the time, people had reservations about mobilizing an all star cast of characters. . I guess fans were upset by the prospect of pitting characters like Mario, Link and Pikachu against one another. We had a hard time convincing them the fun and dep th that were so obviously present in the Smash Bros. trademark fighting style would offer. (par. 11 12) Super Smash Bros. became a huge commercial success. In fact, the game was only slated to be released in Japan, but its enormous success prompted releases in Europe and the U.S. As of 2007, Super Smash Bros. and Super Smash Bros. Melee had sold 7.5 million copies in the U.S. Super S mash Bros. Brawl astest selling video game in . week of its release. The unquestionable success of the Super Smash Bros series makes i t noteworthy among cross player without any cultural literacy of the Nintendo characters would not be satisfied with this g ame This strategy for establishing characters quickly and effectively makes an president Iwata predicted, part of what makes the game so enticing is its depth: its in vocation of cultural literacy about the characters involved. Although Super Smash Bros. was the first intertextual battle royale game, it was Captain N: The Game Mast er predated the first Super Smash Bros. game by a full
128 decade, airing from 1989 1991. 8 Based on the adventures of a young man who gets Captain N was a show made to feature all of the most popular Nint endo games and characters of the late 1980s (minus Mario 9 ). But Captain N Jay Bolter and Richard Grusin as the reworking or representation of one medium within or b y another: for example, making a cartoon series of popular video game characters would be remediation, as elements from one medium the video game characters are represented by/in another cartoons, in this case. Remediation functions on the principles of immediacy and hypermediacy : It is the notion that a medium could erase itself and leave the viewer in the presence of the objects represented, so that he could know the hypermediacy is the creation of a space in forgetting a medium is between the viewer/player and what it repre sents and hypermediacy the interplay of forms recombined in a new context come together to support remediation. Remediations do not acknowledge that they are adaptations, but rather consider has been borrowed, but the 8 A new parodic comic series has been released recently on the GameSpy website, titled The New Adventures of Captain N Although it is a satire of the original (and of some recent Ni ntendo games and accessories), it takes place 20 years after the final episode of the cartoon series and features an entirely different cast, including original and remediated, intertextual characters. 9 Because Captain N aired at the same time as the Supe r Mario Bros. Super Show there was little to no crossover with the Mario
129 remediation . ensures that the older medium cannot be e ntirely effaced; the new medium remains dependent on the older one in acknowledged or unacknowledged to overwrite or outdo the previous medium being represented, much as crossover intertexts do with pre textual characters and plotlines. An intertext borrows authority from its pre text as much as it lends authority back to the pre text. As Stephens and ch classic texts, while at the same time entering into a dialogue and calling into question the ideologies informing both the texts and, by implication, the ideological basis of the canonical his chapter have all been borrowed from the same medium, remediations call for an examination not only of how the pre textual characters are treated in the new plotline, but also to how the characters are portrayed in the new medium. Authors now not only h pre existing cultural literacy of pre textual characters, but also must be aware of media tropes and expectations Nintendo Power 10 the Capt. N series was a marketing p loy that pitted Kevin Keene (an original character, the Castlevania series, beginning in 1986), Megaman (from the Megaman series, beginning a year later in 1987), and Kid Icarus (from Kid Icarus also from 1987) against Mother Brain (from the original Metroid game, 1986), King Hippo (from 1987), 10 January/February 1989 issues of Nintendo Power The story was six pages long and offered an origin story for the cartoon series, but the story is, unfortunately and somewhat confusingly, completely different from that offered in the actual series.
130 Eggplant Wizard (from Kid Icarus 1987), and Dr. Wily (from Megaman 1987). The characters frequent familiar places, like D 11 and Final Fantasy, 12 and are visited by other familiar characters, like Link and Zelda, 13 as well. While production was often not top notch an early episode was aired with several scenes missing backgrounds, for example 14 the series s till functioned as a showcase for sellers. Already the Nintendo company was relying on its (quite successfully, as demonstrated above) in future projects. Eventually, Nintendo would branch out and begin entertaining the notion of utilizing a third party crossover intertext, but it would not be for nearly two decades after their initial foray into intertextuality in Captain N first third party crossover would take the shape of a sports game and be dubbed Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Games released in 2007. Although not a quickly and easily engage with pre for its inclusion of pre textual characters so much as for who those included characters are: the game is the first third party crossover containing characters from both Sega and Nintendo series. Although the companies merged before the game was released, making this game technically a first party crossover, it involves characters that evolved 11 12 13 14 According to the episode guide available on W of an unfinished version which included some shots missing their backgrounds. This was corrected in reruns, but oddly, the unfinished version is the version featured on the DVD releases and Hulu.com 3). In fact, the missing background is one of the elements of the series at which the Nostalgia Critic pokes the most fun in his review of the Captain N series (see the Nostalgia http://thatguywiththeglasses.com).
131 in their own microcosms and on parallel tracts by rival companies. The characters were pre established an d belonged to different companies before they were intertextually joined, so I contend that this game counts as the first major third party crossover intertextual game. (Fitch p ar. 1), fans were rewarded with the 24 event, 4 player game featuring characters from Mario and Sonic games. Interestingly, the game received mixed reviews from players. While many gamers were happy to finally see Sonic and Mario together in a game, others were frustrated that the characters were placed in a game that departed from the platform genre, which made both characters famous, instead featuring them in a sports game (Gibson par. 14). Although some fans have reservations about the game, it was award release estimate by over a million (Sinclair par. 2 3). Disney: Remediating and Repainting the Past The Disney company is, of course, not new to the notions of remediation and crossover intertextuality. Indeed, Walt Disney was ahead of his time, imagining remediated texts and spaces long before anyone else. One of his earliest ideas for a feature length film included an animat Babes in Toyland (Robinson par. 8), demonstrating his early tendencies towards intertextuality. Bolter and remediation oriented prowess: [Disney] understood better than anyone else how to make the theme park remediate other media. Disney had already pioneered another form of remediation, when he refashioned live action film in the animated cartoon.
132 Snow White (1937) was the first full length cartoo n with a sustained narrative and therefore constituted a significant remedi ation of the Hollywood film. . Although he continued to make animated and eventually live action films, he came up with his most ingenious and elaborate scheme for remediation i n the 1950s, when he conceived of a theme park that would simultaneously refashion and be refashioned by television as well as film. (171) qtd in Bolter & Grusin 171). This quote suggests that he was very aware of the fact that he was experimenting with a new media form, a hybrid, with making the parcosm of his imagination a reality both for himself and consumers of his products. His 1933 sho rhyme and fairy tale characters jumping out of their respective books for a party at settings and stories. The Disney comp better remediations that seek to top whatever came before. 15 It is arguably true that much if not all s cartoons, comics, video games, and alongside each other and characters from all the other animated films in the theme parks). But the Disney company has created several cartoons and games that feature crossover intertextuality as a key component that audiences are meant to recognize and respond to rather than simply accepting the intertextuality and/or remediated nature of the characters, as when guests meet both Cinderella and Goofy walking side by side in the parks. The first of 15 While Disney is definitely targeting more and more specific audiences with their films (though not in their games Warren Spector intimates that his game Epic Mickey is attempting to make Mickey relevant to older audiences; see below), their use of intertextuality has become more frequent, more pre textual characters are being invoked, and the texts themselves are sustained for longer durations, including longer video games, longer int ertextual encounters in films, etc.
133 to crossover intertextuality 16 took place within a multi franchise campaign against substance abuse, produced by then vice chairman Roy Disney and The final product, on All Disney Channel, USA Network, Black Entertainment Network, and Nickelodeon in April of 1990 (Bernstein par. 3) and featured characters from ten different franchises ranging from Alvin and the Chi pmunks to Winnie the Pooh. straightforward: to discourage children from using drugs by invoking all of their favorite Saturday morning cartoon characters. In this case, the function of the intertextuality was apparent; the characters and the companies united in a common goal to promote an anti drug campaign. Cartoon All Stars Disney bega n a bold new program titled (2001 2003). Unlike Cartoon All Stars, this intertext draws entirely from Disney films, shorts, and characters, making it the first of a string of popular Disney first party crossover intertexts. The Hous e of Mouse series took up the concept started by Walt Disney himself: instead of walking around Disneyland or Disney World to see all of your favorite characters in one place, you could simply turn on House of Mouse 16 attempt at crossover intertext, as several of the characters make guest appearances beyond just the usual crossover cas t of Mickey, Donald, and Goofy. However, this is not so much an intertext as an adaptation ; the characters are included to perform a pre A Christmas Carol ), so we do not get to explore their characters in a new, original context, ma king this an adaptation first and an The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad  plays the role of Mr. Fezziwig, several characters from Robin Hood  are featured as extras, Jiminy Cricket from P inocchio Fun and Fancy Free 1947] is the Ghost of Christmas Present, etc.
134 Each episode is structured as a frame story lending context to several classical and/or Mickey Mouse Works Disney cartoons per episode. The frame stories contain dubs it in the first episode), House of Mouse and they serve both popular and lesser known Disney characters alike. The patrons often interact with each other and always do so in ways appropriate to their pre textual contexts. For example, in the introductory sequence the Mad Hatter and March Hare ( Alice in Wonderland 1951) pour tea out of Mrs. Potts ( Beauty and the Beast 1991) on the next table over from Pooh and Tigger ( The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh 1977). Throughout the episodes, characters meet and interact in humorous and al ways character appropriate ways. In the pilot guests not eating other guests. After hearing this, Timon ( The Lion King 1994) spits out what he was chewing, and a very wet Jiminy Cricket ( Pinocchio 1940) rolls across the table. Similar sight gags, one liners, and character appropriate behavior abound, and thrown out of the club in the first episode, for example, he ( Beauty and the Beast Winnie the Pooh ), tries to masquerade as Doc at the seven Snow White 1937), he dresses up as one of the 101 Dalmatians until Cruella spies him and decides that this enormous pup would make a great coat ( 101 Dalmatians ( Pepper Ann 1997 2000
135 known characters, such as Clarabelle Cow and Horace Horsecollar, were given a glimpse of the limelight before bei ng shunted back into obscurity until 2010 17 Such a narrative strategy also allo wed the show to seamlessly incorporate a number of special cameo appearances. Indeed, most of the character cameos are accompanied by their original voice actors, such as Tony Jay as Jafar (pilot) and Gilbert Gottfried as Iago ( House of Villains, 2002). He rbie the Love Bug makes a cameo in Disney himself. As Suggs suggests, House of Mouse imators a chance to characters all interact as viewers/Disney fans would expect them to, often resulting in humorous situations (such as Timon, the bug eating meercat, trying to eat Jiminy, a cricket). The intertext of the series even though these interactions are often brief allow audiences a glimpse of how the characters would interact if they truly did all exist in the same multiverse. House of Mouse was popular e nough with audience to generate two feature length cartoons: Mouse (2001) and (2002) before its final season in 2003, suggesting that audiences appreciated the crossover inter textuality the Disney company experimented with in this series. While Suggs applauds the extensive crossover intertextuality of the show, he notes that House of Mouse back in Mickey's character. I think this has made him more interesting than he has been 17 Epic Mickey game for the Wii consol e. For more on Epic Mickey please see below.
136 (Suggs par. 1 2). Fortunately, Suggs was correct; this more nuanced Mickey has a little more personality in these cartoons, stamping Pete on the foot (pilot episode), getting flustered with Jiminy Cricke ). This trend giving Mickey back some of the spunk he had when he first went into show business may not have been on House of Mouse agenda at the time, but the show did nevertheless promote a mild refashioning of the famous Mouse. More than just a tre intertexts and remediations to accomplish their goal: to take Mickey off the shelf as a one of the most durable characters in pop culture history to induce new generations of texting, tech savvy children to embrace Very few people would disagree that Mickey Mouse is a veteran of video games. featured in multiple games for every platform available. 18 Arguably, the most interesting Kingdom Hearts and Epic Mickey have reinvented and reinvig roots as a slightly naughty and definitely more lively character; this is accomplished by remediating Mickey and his co characters and placing them in crossover intertextual 18 well as contemp orary, games ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Disney_video_games_by_genre), and a selected bibliography of games (along with brief reviews) is also available in the Epic Mickey issue of GameInformer Magazine (Nov 2009), pages 118 119.
137 environments. Perhaps part Super Smash Bros and the third party Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Games games, Kingdom Hearts is a sequence of seven games that places Disney and Square Enix ( Final Fantasy ) characters in the same multiverse. T he games follow the adventures of Sora (a Square Enix character created specifically for the series), Donald, and Goofy, as they try to save the multiverse 19 from the mysterious Organization XIII, as well as to locate their friends, including King Mickey, w ho is off fighting the darkness threatening the multiverse. protecting them from the encroaching darkness and simultaneously cutting them off from one another and removin g the possibility of future intertextuality. In the second game, he is required to perform various tasks in the many worlds in order to clean up after the darkness that again threaten the multiverse, often by unlocking the same keyholes he locked in the fi rst game. In both games, the characters must try to help the inhabitants of each world by following the actions of the films fairly closely and as unobtrusively as they can. As Goofy mentions in the dialogue of KH1 the other worlds, we can KH1 The Nightmare Before Christmas the people here are scary lo KH1 19 The KH multive rse consists of many different Disney worlds, including locations from popular animated films, including the Coliseum and Hades from Hercules Agrabah from Aladdin Atlantica from The Little Mermaid and Hollow Bastian, where most of the Final Fantasy char acters can be found, along with many other familiar worlds.
138 need to preserve the borders between the fictional universes and to blend in offers some unique ideological im plications about the necessity of the separation of these Summer Reading is Killing Me! 20 In the second KH game, one particular world that Sora must again save from th e darkness is Disney Castle, which is somehow being consumed from the past. Merlin (from The Sword in the Stone 1963) sends the party back in time to the level titled Steamboat Willie (1928) This level is unique in the Kingdom Hearts series as it is the only world that draws on animated shorts and on pre color cartoons; the next oldest material drawn KHI Pi nocchio which, of course, was a feature players must succeed in four mini 21 22 Each Kingdom Hearts game features over a hundred Disney characters (Yamashita & Bouldin 20 Summer Reading is Killing Me! posits that crossover intertextuality can be dangerous, as the Horned King (from The Book of Three ) would try to eat Pet er Rabbit, thus destroying the story of Peter Rabbit children have come to know and love. Similarly, in the KH series the characters must be particularly careful who they inform about their world hopping. No repercussions are discussed; it is simply made c lear in the dialogue that they characters must, as quoted 21 that case each mini year later than the previous: 1933, 1934, and 22 House mini level. It is quite
139 and Mickey and their now famous battle on the steamboat. The focus tends to be to abscond with a talisman that will keep Dis ney Castle from being swallowed by darkness. What this means for the player is that she must use her knowledge of the re of this particular fictional microcosm. The game therefore remediates previous Disney cartoons and characters, who were already remediated into comic books and video games prior to the KH series, in order to create a level that imposes a feeling of nost algia (or at least vague familiarity) on the whirring of a film adopted visage of 1930s cartoon char acters effectively position the player in an already nostalgic 23 relationship to the action in the game, regardless of how familiar players contribute to a vague sense that the player ought to, like Donald and Goofy, be experiencing a sense of dj vu 24 while playing through the level. While the player is put in a position to feel as though she ought to have some cultural literacy about the scene, storyline discrepancies or abound throughout the level, more so than in any other level in the game series. In every other level, players must try to complete the level by following 23 Or already and thus, a al literacy of the characters and plot utilized throughout the level. 24 For more on dj v,
140 25 storyline deviates drastically from the original. The first obvious rupture is Goofy and d out of hand; Donald and Goofy agr ee KH2 ). If the player happens to know Disney history, she will realize that it would be impossible for either Donald or Goofy to be experiencing dj vu; in fact, Goofy did not a years after 26 He could not be having dj vu in the cause, for all intents and purposes, he did not exist in the Silly Symphony players are expected to either not recognize or to consciously overlook the rupture. This is odd c onsidering that the designers included the scene to be recognizable, as all the worlds are. Consequently, the player is to recognize the level while at the same time ignoring what she knows about the original cartoon upon which the level is explicitly base d. 25 ( KH1 gender, defeat Shan KH2 ), etc. In every world, players must closely follow the script of the original movie, helping the main character of each respective world to achieve the goal he/she achieved in the original film, in order to complete the world and move on. 26 He did not even achieve his now
141 Even if one does ignore the obvious anachronism of having Donald and Goofy admit feelings of dj vu as simply an excusable side effect from the crossover intertext, and 27 Although the Disney Archives website judiciously describes the scene as rather innocuous, in truth cartoon including the one shown in Disneyland's Main Street Cinema contain the c ensored version ( FoxxFur ). The censoring was instituted by the Hays office firm censorship board in 1935, and many believe that Disney was not even aware of the cuts initially ( FoxxFur ). These cuts have been reinstated in several collections, including the DVD set Walt Disney Treasures: Mickey Mouse in Black and White but many viewers may not even realize that the version of Steamboat Willie they grew up with on Disney Channel was the shortened, censored version. The animal cruelty is conveniently and enti KHII They rewrite the script by having the player as Sora, Donald, and Goofy play through and effectively revise the scene as the player works to complete the level. Animal cruelty is completely excised level True to the original cartoon Mickey does 27 or even merely content to allow Mickey to play them as instruments during the cartoon. Interesting, too, is that the cow is the only animal portrayed on the Disney Archive website.
142 steer the steamboat. Players see surprisingly little of Mickey in this level; the only time ormer rambunctious nature is as he saves Sora from an ambush in the first mini KH2 behavior or retro rendering is offered. Throughout the KH games, Mickey often helps Sora, Donald, and Goofy, and even wields a Keyblade 28 of his own. Even though players see little of him, Mickey does appear to be a bit more active and engaging than he has been in the recent past in car toons and other video games. KH while subtle, may inadvertently have been paving more hands roughout the KH series, gambles: remaking Mickey Mouse. Concerned that Mickey has become more of a corporate symbol than a beloved character for recent generations of young pe ople, Disney is taking the risky step of re imagining him for the future. The first glimmer of this will be the introducti on . of a new video game, Epic Mickey, in which the formerly squeaky clean character can be cantankerous and cunning, as well as h eroic, as he traverses a forbidding wastleland. And at the same time, in a parallel but separate effort, Disney has quietly embarked on an Mickey walks and talks to the way he appears on the Disney Channel and how children interact with him on the Web even what he looks like at 28 KH games.
143 Although other sources 29 suggest that this effort is not, in fact, separate from the Epic Mickey game, the goal is the same. Mic key has become an artifact, an icon, rather than a sympathetic character. As Warren Spector, head of Junction Point Studios, irrelevant to anybody over the age of eight over t an internationally renowned video game designer, was approached by Disney representatives asking him to make a new Mickey game. Spector initially declined, 30 But this lack o f engaging qualities was precisely what Disney wants to change, and, given the go been in the works as early as 2004 (Barnes par. 11), but it was n ot officially announced until early October 2009. It was released for the Nintendo Wii platform on November 30, Warren Spector hopes he and his team can do the same f Epic Mickey image, it is also a strange and wonderful exploration of his very real past. In the game, Sorcerer Yen Sid, a stand in for Walt Disney ( Disney himself, who was notorious for not being able to throw away anything that 29 GameInformer suggests that these efforts are one and the same. Miller introduces the game as the first step in a series of events designed to how audiences interact with or respond to him. 30 evenge and gave it to Donald. They took his nave simplicity and gave it to Goofy. They took his loyalty and infinite affection and of straight
144 crossed his drawing desk. 31 Thus, he created a world for these forgotten c haracters 32 such as once popular Horace Horsecollar and Clarabelle Cow to live and thrive in, and based on the world they once knew (Disneyland). But Mickey, in a scene directly 33 (1936), journeys from his bedroom into workshop and accidentally spills paint thinner on the model world, causing terrible damage. Years later, Mickey has gained world wide popularity while Oswald the Lucky Rabbit has been slowly forgotten. 34 Mickey is sleeping contently one night when a mysterious force pulls him back through the mirror and into the world on which he spilled thinner. Once inside this world, Mickey has the power to save or entirely destroy the Wasteland, and using this premise, Disne y repaints their own history by having players literally repaint it for them in the game. Armed with a paintbrush and barrels of paint and thinner, Mickey must rediscover old friends, old enemies, old cartoon sequences: everything that the contemporary, un empathetic Mickey has lost in a Wasteland of old, forgotten characters and Mickey paraphernalia. half brother, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. The true story of the Disney company aga in sets 31 bear to see 11). 32 In the game, Gus Gremlin tells Mickey the world w diff 33 Alice in Wonderland in bed. When he falls asleep, he dreams that he travels through his bedroom mirror into an alternate world where his furniture is alive, eating a wal nut causes him to grow, and he experiences several events reminiscent of and inspired by 34 The characters are very aware of their own fame and popularity, and they are also aware of their existence as cartoon ch aracters. This is demonstrated in the game as Gus explain how to travel between dimensional
145 had a contract with Universal Studios. By 1928 Oswald had starred in 26 cartoons, drawn by Disney, and was already popular with theater going crowds. Disney asked producer Charles Mintz for a bigger budget for the series, but Mintz refused, instead stating that Disney would accept a budget cut or be taken off the project. Disney walked away from both Universal and Oswald, choosing instead to begin his own studio from scratch with Ub Iwerks. Mickey was born in this new studio, and he would quickly eclipse Os fame. By the early 1940s, Oswald was out of cartoons and relegated to appearing in comics alongside Chilly Willy and Andy Panda (P.A.S.). Mickey, meanwhile, was becoming a star. The two never met in the 1930s at the height of their respective heyday s, so they come face to face for literally the first time in Epic Mickey 35 The plot of Epic Mickey revolves around this sibling rivalry. Oswald is jealous of lucky rabbit is loathe to accept Mick his, and a statue in the middle of downtown Wasteland betrays his deepest longing: to be loved by Walt Disney as Mickey was. The statue is a recreation of the famous statue on M ain Street in the Disney parks of Mickey and Walt Disney holding hands and 35 There is a unique sketch housed in the Disney Archives containing both Mickey and Oswald. It is a mere slip of paper, a note dated Oct 6, 1935, from Disney to the head of Universal Studios. Mickey is walking up to Oswal d, smiling and waving, while Oswald glares at him with hands on his hips. The note In memory of the days when I produced Oswald for Universal Best wishes ic Mickey issue of the
146 looking to the future, but in the statue in Wasteland, Oswald has inserted himself in Of course, there was one major problem with this storyline as Spector and his team were developing it: Universal still held the rights to Oswald. Fans were utterly confused when, in 2006, Disney traded sportscaster Al Michaels to Universal for an Olympic highlights spot, four Ryder Cup golf tournaments, and a rabbit nobody recognize d (Siemaszko). In fact, NBC/Universal Sports and Olympics chairman Dick Daily Variety while Sie maszko stated that cable rights were the main event and that Universal unclear in 2006, 36 but time told the tale, and the release of Epic Mickey makes it clear why Disney needed must Epic Mickey Epic Mickey character s from his past, including the Phantom Blot, who features as Epic Mickey 36 Siemaszko also quoted Disney spokeswoman Michelle Bergman, who stated that Oswald may be re released as a Disney DVD (in fact, several Oswald cartoons were released on DVD as a Walt Disney The first opport unity was obviously Epic Mickey and the second a release on DVD, but whether Oswald will begin to surface in the Disney theme parks or in cartoons (or perhaps even other video games) has yet to be determined.
147 primary antagonist. The Phantom Blot, otherwise known simply as the Blot, was created as a black cloaked character in 1939 for the comic Mickey Mouse Outwits the Phantom Blot by Flo yd Gottfredson. The Blott was popular in the Italian Disney comic Topolino, drawn by Romano Scarpa, during the 1950s and then again in America in the mid 1970s in Mark Super Goof comics that he would be drawn with a mouth, suggesting more of a phantom or shadowy figure than a man in a dark cloak. Convention held that, while he was almost always caught, the Blot was never, ever unmasked. The only exception to t before any conventions about his character had been established. Fascinatingly, particularly in Epic Mickey was drawn as an eerily accurate d epiction of Walt Disney (Pestalozza and Markstein ). 37 This coincidence is so important to Epic Mickey because of the history underlying and being painted over by the entire project. Players are offered a kaleidoscopic account (colorful, sometimes confusing, and definitely jumbled) of the history behind the story. Players must play through this kaleidoscope of fact and fiction, blurring the boundaries between the truth recorded in history and the truth as the player must accept and work within the world of th e Wasteland. Walt Disney was historically a man ego Yen Sid represents this aspect of him quite clearly in the game. A less often considered version of Disney, however, is that of a creator who willingly abandoned his creation, a person who wanted to see his 37 Sotto il lenzuolo c curiosamente ispirato a quello di Walt Disney identity of the criminal actually hides a face curiously inspired by that of Walt Disney.) This translation was performed on www.freetranslation.com and powered by the Google search engine. Also, per Markstein,
148 competition (Universal) struggle because of his doing by creating a character better than his competitors, even when he, himself, had created the very character he must now outdo. This aspect of Walt Disney appears in the game in the form of the Blot: an uncaring creator who would destroy that which Oswald had worked so hard for. In this story, then, Disney is both the benevolent creator and malicious destroyer. The story has been rewritten in the cont creator and destroyer. 38 In this game, Disney is represented both in his historically accepted role and as the Blot, a m insecurity, and loss. 39 Disney himself becomes a remediated character, 40 and the game offers players a chance to choose which Disney they feel is the correct representation. By using paint more heavily in the ga me and behaving in a beneficial way towards non part with his creations. If a player strives to play using thinner, however, the characters including Oswald react i n a much more negative manner, and the player accepts the burden of casting Disney as a fame hungry, fickle creator willing to destroy whatever he 38 y Godmother character (see chapter 1). 39 Although many fair weather Disney fans may not know the explicit connection that exists between Disney and the Phantom Blot, it is likely that game designer Warren Spector is aware of the connection. Spector has bee n cited as a world class Disney fan in several interviews, and between his pre existing knowledge of the Disney company and the research he and his team did for the game, it is unlikely that he did not come across this information. 40 Disney has been concei ved of as a fictional character or at least a corporate symbol before now. study of Disney, The Disney Version (1968). Recent scholars such as Sa mmond (in his book Babes in Tomorrowland Disney as a split figure: on one hand a cultural icon, on the other a real man. Disney biographer Neal Gabler believes that D as a man the very sort of diffident, genial, plainspoken, unprepossessing, and childishly enthusiastic character who would have produced Walt Disney movies. Essentially, he ha d become his own parcosm. .
149 symptoms, not the goal. The primary objective of this video game revision and remediation is a remake of Mickey Mouse. Unlike the li near storylines in the KH games, Epic Mickey is a non linear game set up so that the player can decide what actions Mickey should take. For example, several gremlins 41 have been captured, and you can choose to free them, which takes a little extra time and effort, or to ignore them. You can also choose to utilize paint or thinner throughout the game; relying on paint more and choosing which way to play slightly alters t he ending of the game. which history they believe. This choice simultaneously functions as a way for players to express how they see the main Mouse himself. Mickey has returne d to his roots in looks, deeds, and setting. He is not only surrounded by characters who knew him when he was just getting his start (such as Horace Horsecollar and Clarabelle Cow, whom Mickey professes to not remember 42 ) but also rendered in a retro fashio n. In addition to rounded arms and legs and hopes that will tap into an existing fashion for vintage as a 3 D 41 The gremlins originated in 1943 in The Gremlins: A Roy al Airforce Story a picture book written by none Horse Comics (it was originally published by Random House). 42 Epic Mickey ).
150 younger (1930s) self; Mickey is also behaving more like he did back in the days of Steamboat Willie As Spector notes, Mickey has recently become untouchab le, a veritable straight man 11 12). behaved rascal, or a selfless hero who sacrifices all for his friends? Epic Mickey incl udes a metasystem that monitors your activity in the game world and responds in The importance of this metasystem and the choice that players have in making ckey of 43 cartoon episodes they were in together. Mickey has returned to his roots, but he does not remember them. He does not seem to remember how to be a hero: unless, of c ourse, the player helps him to remember by guiding his actions. Conversely, players choose a neutral path, using thinner when necessary and paint when beneficial. 25). Disney and 43 When Mickey first encoun ters Horace Horsecollar in the Wasteland, for example, Horace remembers key sadly shakes his head, unable to remember his old friend and colleague.
151 Spector may be the ones asking the question, but it is players who must ultimately answer. Thus, the importance of the intertext in this case is that Mickey himself is once again remediated, and the characters remediated alongside him represent parts of himself that were lost as he evolved throughout the years. How Mickey responds to these memo ries whether he pursues his naughty side or his heroic side is up to the player and is played out by how the player makes Mickey interact with the world of the Wasteland and its inhabitants. This ideal plasticity making Mickey a character to whom di fferent generations can relate Disneyland gone horribly wrong through the dark machinations of the Pha ntom Blot, but still grounded in the humor a nd charm of Disney cartoons. . this feeling of recognition and familiarity, and then I want to yank the rug out from under ing around under the inner viewers are treated to an unusual soundtrack the iconic tune playing backwards. The opular rides Haunted Mansion based level contains the same portraits as those contained in the Disney parks. But the world is off just enough to keep players guessing. The Wasteland unheimlich familiar and yet strange. 44 44
152 More than just being familiar, the setting of the game is not static players must paint, thin, and re paint their way through the world. The game is both literally and metaphorically a palimpsest, a layered papyrus of gameplay and history. Allowing players to interact with the environment and other characters using both p aint and thinner will: offer incredible flexibility, letting gamers play through levels in a different way every time, shaping the game geometry and environment as they feeling re ally constrained by the fact that game designers we build sets. We build things where if you scratch an inch below the surfa nothing there . I wanted to create a world that was more than a movie set, where you could scratch beneath the sur face and there was more going on there. This whole paint and thinner mechanic really plays into that 62) d the es. What Mickey does in these places influences how the characters and the player perceives s Quest series, intertextuality served to set up without some pre existing cultural literacy about the fairy tale characters and creatures invoked throughout the games, p articularly in the first few games in the series. Intertextuality also ensures that audiences will engage more quickly, and arguably more
153 meaningfully, with characters with which they are already familiar and comfortable, such Super Sm ash Bros / Cartoon All Stars to the Rescue offers a perfect example of an intertext in which the pre me measure of authority, as the hope is that children will listen to their favorite Saturday morning cartoons characters when these same characters admonish them not to do drugs. These texts rely on cultural literacy to function, but they invariably push t he limits of this literacy by asking audiences to accept the pre textual characters saying and doing things that they did not in their original contexts. Players are thus asked to read the text on a variety of levels. They are expected to draw upon pre exi sting knowledge of the characters but also to accept these characters in new contexts and situations. Kingdom Hearts II and Epic Mickey offer excellent examples of this type of palimpsestuous cultural literacy. The game layers cultural literacy of characters that exist prior to the game in both animated and digitized media (in the original Disney cartoons and in the previous KH prior knowledge of these characters in an intertextual environment acts as a double edge d sword, as stated in my introduction. Gamers are required to draw upon certain elements of cultural literacy in order to engage with the game and its characters in the first place. But the games simultaneously require players to revise or completely aband on some of this cultural literacy via ruptures, storyline departures, and gameplay choices in order to progress through the game, which usually does not follow the original story to the letter, e existing storylines in order to
154 complete the various levels. Interestingly, these changes in the characters and storylines reflect ideological stances taken by the company producing the game. The companies invoke pre textual characters and their narrativ es in order to engage players, declare or rewrite their own principles as a company. Companies are therefore able to overwrite the cultural literacy required to pla y their game with a new literacy a literacy that reflects the values of their company. When these values are different from those the company promoted in previous games or in other products, the intertextuality allows companies to rewrite or reprogram their own histories. Thus, intertextuality in contemporary crossover video games functions as a way to expunge and overwrite the very cultural literacy required to understand the game in the first place, particularly when the cultural literacy involved r evolves around a narrative or ideology a company previously produced. In Epic Mickey specifically, t he masterful amalgamation of history and fantasy lends itself well to a re inscription of Disney history. The game is a re imagining of ascension, and connection with other characters in his and parallel players to determine the specific shape this reinvention takes. Oswald and the Blot, as well as Disney hi mself, are important pre textually because of their embodiment of the historical tale underlying the plot. Mickey must rediscover old friends, old enemies, old cartoon sequences: everything that the contemporary, un empathetic Mickey has lost. But this dis covery is necessarily colored (no pun intended) by changes in ideology.
155 option of abusing animals in Epic Mickey, even though Mickey was guilty of this crime in Steamboa t Willie. The picture that Disney paints of Mickey in Epic Mickey can be altered based on Mickey whose personality was split between his co stars, and while they want to return Mickey to his roots as a more human character subject to passion, fear, playfulness, etc they do not necessarily want to realign him entirely with his former jejune self. Doing so would mean a return to a character who would be just as unsy mpathetic as a cold, iconic symbol A udiences would be every bit as inclined to reject a character who abuses animals and forces Minnie into amorous situations as they would a character who is distant and difficult to relate to. Disney walks a fine line in Epic Mickey ; players are allowed to reinscribe, or more literally repaint, history, but only within the boundaries within which the company is comfortable. Naughtiness and heroics are one thing, evilness and saccharine sweetness are quite another. Disney wants their players to remember the Mickey of old playful and mischievous but they (wisely) do not wish to invoke old controversies. The plot of Epic Mickey offers players a revised version of which players get to choose based on how they play but these choices are surprisingly limited by the boundaries within which Disney wants Mickey to be perceived. The game therefore alters cultural literacy of Mickey by offering several alternative choices, none of which inc lude elements that Disney would Disney biographer Neil
156 that become identifiable enough to be called xiii). The Disney company continues to do the same today, but their focus has turned to their own history. The world of Disney that players, audiences, and fans get to see the history that Disney wants us to remember is a very small world, indeed. It is a world driven by the remediation and intertextua l employment of characters we have come to know and love, and it is this cultural literacy upon which the company builds. Intertextuality has become a tool by which Disney can repaint their own past. Ironically, the tool was handed down to t hem by Walt Dis ney himself, who has become yet another pre textual and remediated character.
157 CHAPTER 5 MINDING THE FUTURE: A CODA Epigraph Into the woods you go again, / You have to every now and then. / Into the woods, no telling when, / Be ready for the journey. / . Into the woods, but mind the past. / Into the woods, but mind the future. -Sondheim, Into the Woods Conclusion young adult culture, relying on, changing the shape of, and overwriting previous versions of pre established characters, storylines, and tropes. This process is recursive, impacting past, present, and future literary landscape s by its constant appropriation and abridgement of pre textual characters. Crosso ver intertextuality both influences how readers respond to these pre textual elements as they read and determines how quote in my epigraph points to crossover intertextu past and present, and it also captures the pervasive nature of intertextuality. As Kristeva experience, intertextuality] every no In the nineteenth century, authors relied on this recursive power in order to enter into the discourses they were hoping to influence, including debates about didacticism eading. A similar phenomenon can be found in contemporary young adult novels, but now that the theories and studies surrounding the literature have matured and become more complex, so too have the metadiscourses contained within the intertexts. A comparabl e
158 movement can be seen in picture books, wherein authors rely on pre textual characters esent texts, appropriating and often remediating characters in order to de and re W hile intertextuality draws on the past, the process has implications for future audiences. Crossover intertextualit y both promotes and subverts the discourses from which it borrows and in which it resides. This dichotomous function renders it a potent but double edged tool, one that is often unpredictable. For example, as demonstrated in chapter two, picture books that textual characters also play the dual function of re or even maligne d/represented in a way completely antithetical to their original role (such as Gothel, the witch from Rapunzel characte many and sometimes seemingly contradicting functions beg questions about these the y critique contemporary culture, how they revise our understanding of past texts, as well as how they challenge our understanding of the way narratives work on the most fundamental level. These four topics, which I raised in my introduction, can be answere d by an examination of the case studies I offered in this dissertation.
159 First, these texts influence the body of knowledge necessary for cultural literacy by re inscribing, re circulating, and sometimes updating the characters and using the characters to comment on contemporary issues. Throughout this project, I have been inextricably linked to the cultural literacy of the reader/viewer/gamer. As defined by E.D. Hirsch, c Cultural Literacy Cultural Literacy 2). For Hirsch, this background knowledge ought to be a universal pool, containi ng information that all literate American adults can decode and understand. 1 Cultural literacy, then, is a term that identifies the broad, yet necessarily shallow, body of knowledge necessary for consumers of texts to make meaning from the words on the pag e, the dialogue being spoken, the costumes being worn, the setting and props, etc. reading and writing. The comprehending reader must bring to the text appropriate backg round information that includes knowledge not only about the topic but also the Cultural Literacy 13 14). Rather than being limited to a description of cultural literacy, this q uotation also brings to mind the definition of intertextuality Intertextuality, as defined in my introduction, refers to every possible semiotic connection a work has within a synchronic system of language and/or culture. Theories of intertextuality are d ependent 1 As Hirsch himself identifies it, one of the p rimary problems with his Cultural Literacy project is that the of white Anglo Deficit 6). Although I do not wish to enter the debate a bout whether or not this universal body of literature is or ought to be multicultural, I do acknowledge the importance of this aspect in the academic dialogue about cultural literacy.
160 upon cultural literacy because the semiotic connections readers make are determined by their cultural literacy. This universal pool of knowledge that readers must rely on to make meaning from any given text is, as stated above, necessarily shallo Cultural Literacy 14 15). Cultural literacy suggests an overarching understanding of the co ntext a text relies upon, but it is up to the individual to make that text relevant by his or her own particular knowledge and cultural context. For example, one can read about the history of fairy tales without Le Conte de la Mere Grand above the everyday levels of knowledge that everyone possesses and below Cultural Literacy 19). 2 Cultural literacy the refore resides in a gray area, comprising a body of common knowledge that is neither too specific nor too concrete to change. Cultural crossover intertexts are explicit abo ut what pre textual material is being relied upon, readers must draw upon their cultural literacy of the characters invoked in order to understand the story. They must also then have the capacity to adjust their understanding of the character as (s)he is b eing used in the new intertextual context, reflect cultural literacy and then critique it, and it is, at least partially, the flexibility provided by the cultural lit eracy invoked in the tales that allow them this critical distance. 2 He refers back to this definition of cultural literacy being somewhere between daily knowledge and field specific knowledge in The Knowledge Deficit (71, 73).
161 For example, nineteenth century authors of crossover intertexts used pre textual purposes, and more con temporary authors of young adult books have used crossover literature. In both cases, the authors engaged with popular content in order to comment upon contemporary issues surrounding that content. Readers are either indoctrinated into these meta issues by reading the text or are already engaging with the text on a meta level. Either way, the texts represent and reflect changes in the body of culturally shared knowle dge about these texts. For example, Snow White as a character has evolved, and readers are now expected to know her not only as passive princess, but as a passive princess who has developed into a vehicle for feminist retellings and reversions of princess and his implicit assumption that readers will respond to this character as a reflection of a contemporary trend, suggest that the cultural literacy surrounding Snow White is changing. Of cou ; they sometimes alter the existing body of cultural knowledge about the pre perceptions of the origin al texts can be influenced by the way authors layer characters with multiple meanings. In some cases, authors seek not to rely upon previous versions of a character but to completely overwrite them. While Hirsch admits that cultural literacy is about bread th over depth, he does not seem to recognize the dynamic nature
162 ( Cultural Literacy 7). But cultural literacy is necessary not a static body. Hirsch overlooks the importance of popular culture and generation specific information. The shape of cultural literacy is always in flux; a reference to a popular sitcom may not resonate with an older audience but may be profound for a younger one. Because new texts are always being written, designed, and/or aired, the body of knowledge that is cultural literacy is constantly changing. Crossover intertexts rely on the authority of previous texts to make their points; they rely on the cultural literacy that readers bring to by introducing new character traits, scenarios, and tropes. These change s are then incorporated into the contemporary discourse of cultural knowledge, what counts as cultural literacy in any given moment. Sometimes the changes are added to the body of cultural literacy, other times they may reinscribe or overwrite tidbits of i nformation. Disney offers an excellent illustration of the changing shape of cultural literacy, as look and personality as discussed in chapter four. This example also o ffers ramifications for the artificiality of cultural literacy. Disney creates their own canon, then offers their own adaptations of this canon. They create their own history, expect their fans to accept it, then alter that history and expect their audienc es to go along with the change. Once hard 3 but those who are culturally literate those who know e nough but not too much will respond favorably to the intertext. 3 KHII
163 All of these issues add up to one larger issue: crossover intertexts pose questions about the very nature of narrative. They suggest, of course, that reading is a recursive process. Beyond that, however, crossover intertexts consciously use the authority of their pre textual elements in a recursive way. The cultural literacy associated with the characters lends them credibility, but the cultural literacy associated with the characters necess arily changes when the characters are used in new contexts and storylines to promote or rewrite contemporary ideologies. The crystallized authority and linear nature of narrative are cracked and thwarted within these texts, which simultaneously rely on and revise the story tropes and character traits they draw upon and from which they borrow authority. The cultural literacy associated with the characters and tropes is changed or overwritten, and so the expectations with which readers approach other texts is necessarily changed, as well. Many studies of intertextuality focus on a) adult works, b) postmodernist works (relegating intertextuality as a symptom of postmodernism), or c) picture books T his study clearly demonstrates however, that crossover interte xtuality does occur regularly postmodernism; and that while intertextuality does, indeed, occur in picture books, it is also prevalent in other genres and media for young readers. These intertexts are more subtle and subversive than has been suggested previously. The texts rely on authority even as they question it, and they borrow from the past and from cultural literacy even as they change and overwrite them. They reveal the recur sive and strange temporal properties of literary history, and often call into question the legitimacy of this history, even as they teach beginning readers how to read. Rather than suggesting that texts
164 exist in isolation, they encourage readers to develop draw upon, then even change and question the cultural literacy that the reader is bringing to the text in the first place. Although Stephens and McCallum are right to point out that an author cannot be sure what level of cultural literacy a child will br ing to a text, I contend that with crossover intertexts this is a moot point. Crossover intertexts suture the past with the future: they teach child readers what the canon is, then suggest to old readers that they question this same canon. They rely on cul tural literacy even as they revise it, and so no a cultural literacy of the stories, which is itself a constantly changing body of knowledge. Sondheim sound advice for reading te xts which ultimately already do, and have always done both.
165 APPENDIX LIST OF CRO SSOVER INTERTEXTS This appendix lists the various crossover intertexts that I discovered while researching this project. Though this is not an exhaustive list, I hope it at least demonstrates the pervasiveness and popularity of such texts. The works have b een divided by genre, bu t some may arguably belong in more than one category. In such cases, I tried to place the work under the category which best describes it Within categories, works are listed by publication date, beginning with the oldest. The only exception is series, which are listed together. Nineteenth Century Crossover Intertexts within and just following the nineteenth century. literature is often considered to have begun with the publication of Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (1865) and to end either before the first World War (1914) or with the publication of Winnie the Pooh by A.A. Milne (1926), the exact end date is often contested. I have chosen to fix the cut off p oint for this category as 1926 in order to include in this category several books published just before the end date. Cowden Clarke Mary Kit Bam's A dventures or, T he Y arns of an O ld M ariner Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1849 Austin, Jane. Moonfolk: A True Account of the Home of the Fairy Tales. New York c1874. Corkran, Alice. The Adventures of Mrs. Wishing To Be Glasgow: Blackie and Son, c1883. Carryl, Charles. Davy & the Goblin N ew York: Houghton Mifflin, c1885. Browne, Maggie. Wanted, a King, or How Merle Set the Nursery Rhymes to Rights London 1890.
166 Steward, Ray M. The Surprising Adventures of the Man in the Moon Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1903. Girvin, Brenda. Round Fair yland with Alice and the White Rabbit London: Wells, Gardner, Darton, 1916. Hudson, Alma. Pet er Rabbit in Mother Goose Land New York: Cupples & Leon, 1921. Addington, Sarah. The Boy Who Lived in Pudding Lane: Being a True Account, If Only You Believ e It, of the Life and Ways of Santa, Oldest Son of Mr. and Mrs. Claus. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, c1922. Colum, Padraic The Children Who Followed the Piper New York: Macmillan C o, 1922. Hardy, Alice. The Flyaways and Cinderella. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, c1925. --. The Flyaways and Goldilocks. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, c1925 --. The Flyaways and Little Red Riding Hood. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, c1925. Picture Book Crossover Intertexts Ahlberg, Allan Each Peach Pear Plum Illus. Janet Ahlberg. New York: Viking Press, 1979. Decker, Marjorie. Humpty Dumpty's together tales: A Faith Adventure Book from Christian Mother Goose Beggs: Christian Mother Goose World, 1985. Ahlberg, Allan. Il lus. Janet Ahlberg. London: Egmont Books Ltd, 198 6 --. The Jolly Pocket Postman Illus. Janet Ahlberg. New York: Little, Brown Books for Young Readers, 1995. --. The Jolly Christmas Postman Illus. Janet Ahlberg. New York: Little, Brown Books for Young Readers, 2001. Parkes, Brenda. The Enormous Watermelon Illus. Mary Davy. Illinois: Rigby Education, 1986. Hennessy, B.G. Missing Tarts Illus. Tracey Campbell Pearson. New York: Viking Ahlberg, Allan The Old Joke Bo ok Illus. Janet Ahlberg. New York: Puffin, 1987. Print.
167 Goffe, Toni. Joe Giant's M issing B oot: A Mothergooseville S tory London: Walker Books Ltd 1990 Wignell, Edel. Nursery Rhyme Picnic Boston: Rigby 1990. Edens, Cooper. The Story Cloud Illus. Kenneth LeRoy Grant. Washington: Green Tiger Press/Laughing Elephant, 1991. Oppenheimer, Joanne. Eency Weency Spider New York: Bantam Books for Young Readers, 1991. Scieszka, Jon. The Frog Prince Continued Illus. Steve Smith. New York: Penguin Grou p, 1991. Tigerman, Stanley. Dorothy in Dreamland New York: Rizzoli, 1991. Scieszka, Jon. The Stinky Cheese Man Illus. Lane Smith. New York: Penguin Group, 1992. Prater, John. Somerville: Candlewick Press, 1992. --. Once Upon a Tim e London: Walker Books Ltd, 1993. --. Once Upon a Picnic Somerville : Candlewick Press, 1996. Ada, Alma Flor. Dear Peter Rabbit (Book One of the Hidden Forest Series) Illus. Leslie Tryon. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 1994. --. Yours Truly, Goldilocks (Book Two of the Hidden Forest Series) Illus. Leslie Tryon. New York: Aladdin, 1998. --. With Love, Little Red Hen (Book Three of the Hidden Forest Series) Illus. Leslie Tryon. New York: Aladdin, 2001. --. Extra! Extra! (Book F our of the Hidden Forest Series) Illus. Leslie Tryon. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2007. Anholt, Catherine and Laurence. Come Back, Jack! Somerville : Candlewick Press, 1994. Little, Jean. Once Upon a Golden Apple New York: Puffin, 19 94. Dematons, Charlotte. Looking for Cinderella Trans. and Illus. Leigh Sauerwein. Honesdale : Front Street, 1996. Parkes, Brenda. Goodnight, Goodnight Boston: Rigby, 1996.
168 Scieszka, John. The Book that Jack Wrote Illus. Daniel Adel. New York: Puffi n Books, 1997. Cowell, Cressida. Ne w York: Scholastic, 1999. Fea rnley, Jan. London: Egmont Books Ltd, 1999. Oram, Hiawyn. Where Are you Hiding, Little Lamb? Illus. Jonathan Langley Hauppauge: Barro n's Educational Series 1999. Pawagi, Manjusha. The Girl Who Hated Books Illus. Leanne Franson. Oregon: Beyond Words Publishing, 1999. Stevens, Janet. Shoe T own llus. Susan Stevens Crummel. San Diego: Green Light Readers, 1999 Griffin, Claire. The Mother Goose N ews I ll us. Tim Foley Grand Rapids: McGraw Hill Child, Lauren. Beware of the Storybook Wolves New York: Arthur A. Levine Books, 2001 Fea rnley, Jan. Mr. Wolf and the Three Bears London: Egmont Books Ltd, 2001 Jackson, Alison. If the S hoe F its I llus. Karla Firehammer. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2001 Humpty Dumpty Egg splodes New York: Walker & Company, 2001. Ward, Nick. A Wolf at the D oor! New York: Scholastic, 2001 --. Who's B een E ating MY P orridge? New York: Scholastic, 2003 Wiesner, David. The Three Pigs Boston: Clarion Books, 2001. Collins, Ross. Busy Night Dealey, Erin. Goldie Locks has Chicken Pox Illus. Hanako Wikiyama New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2002. --. Illus. Hanako Wikiyama. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2005 Child, Lauren. Hawkins, Colin. Fairytale News Illus. Jacqui Hawkins. London : Walker Books Ltd, 2004.
169 Gosling, Gabby. The Top Secret Files of Mother Goose! New York: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2004. Stanley, Diane. The Giant and the Beanstalk New York: HarperCollin s, 2004. Zalben, Jane Breskin. Hey, Mama Goose Illus. Emilie Chollat. New York: Dutton Juvenile, 2004. Briant, Ed Seven Stories Connecticut: Roaring Brook Press, 2005. Donaldson, Julia. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers, 2005. Elya, Susan Middleton. Fairy Trails: A Story Told in English and Spanish Illus. Hennessy, B.G. Claire and the Unicorn Happy Ever After Illus. Susan Mitchell. New York: Kloske, Geoffrey, and Barry Blitt. Once Upon a Time, the End: Asleep in 60 Seconds New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2005. Palatini, Margie. The Three Silly Billies Illus. Barry Moser. New York : Simon & Schuster Sperring, Mark. The Fairytale Cake Illus. Jonathan Langley. New York: Scholastic Inc., 2005. Hawkins, Colin. Pirate Treasure Map: A Fairytale Adventure Illus. Jacqui Hawkins. Massachusetts: Candlewick Press, 2006. Ahlberg, Al l an. Previously Somerville: Candlewick Press, 2007. Fitzgerald, Joanne. Yum! Yum!! Delicious Nursery Rhymes Brighton: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 2007 Sierra, Judy. Mind Your Manners, B.B. Wolf Illus. J. Otto Seibold. New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 2007. Evans, Nate, and Paul Hindman. Humpty Dumpty, Jr., H ardboiled D etective, in the C ase of the F iendish F lapjack F lop Illus. Vince Evans. Naperville: Sourcebooks Jabberwocky, 2008 --. Humpty Dumpty, Jr., H ardboiled D et ective, in th e Mystery of Merlin and the G ruesome G host Illus. Vince Evans. Naperville: Sourcebooks Jabberwocky, 2008
170 Hale, D ean and Shannon Hale Rap Illus. Nathan Hale. New York: Bloomsbury USA Children's Books 2008 --. Calami ty Jack Illus. Nathan Hale. New York: Bloomsbury USA Children's Books, 2010. Morgan, Mary. Dragon Pizzeria New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 2008. Ransom, Jeanie Franz. What Really Happened to Humpty? (from the files of a hard boiled detective) Ill us. Stephen Axelsen. Massachusetts: Charlesbridge Publishing, 2009. Machado, Ana Maria. Wolf Wanted Illus. Laurent Cardon. Toronto: Groundwood Books 2010 Young Adult Crossover Intertexts Hall, James Norman. Mother Goose L and Illus. HI Bacharach an d Pat Hall. Kamuela: Pacific Greetings, 1930/2001. Leach, Christopher. The Great Book Raid New York: Warne Publishers/Penguin, 1979. Wood, Marcia. The Secret life of Hilary Thorne New York: Atheneum Books, 1988. A h l berg, Allan. Ten in a Bed. New Yo rk: Viking Juvenile/Penguin, 1989 Roberts, Richard. The Wind & the Wizard San Anselmo: Vernal Equinox Press, 1990. Brittain, Bill. The Mystery of the Several Sevens New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1994. Scott, Eric. The Great Fairytale Robbery Australia: Univ. of Queensland Press, 1994. Baehr Patricia. The Search for Happily Ever After New Jersey: Bridgewater Books, 1995. Scieszka, Jon. Summer Reading Is Killing Me! ( Time Warp Trio #7 ) New York: Puffin Books, 1998. Ahlberg, Allan. Jer emiah in the Dark Woods Illus. Janet Ahlberg. New York: Puffin Books, 1999. Guzman, Lila. Green S lime and J am Illus. Jenny Guzman New York: Eakin Press, 2001. Mason, Jane. If the Shoe Fits: Princess School Book 1 New York: Scholastic, 2004.
171 --. : Princess School Book 2 New York: Scholastic, 2004. --. Let Down your Hair : Princess School Book 3 New York: Scholastic, 2004. --. Beauty is a Beast : Princess School Book 4 New York: Scholastic, 2005. --. Princess Charming: Princess School Book 5 New York: Scholastic, 2005. --. Apple Y Ever After : Princess School Book 6 New York: Scholastic, 2005. Buckley Michael. The Sisters Grimm #1: The Fairy Tale Detectives New York: Amulet Books, 2005. --. The Sisters Grimm # 2: The Unusual Suspects New York: Amulet Books, 2005. --. The Sisters Grimm #3: The Problem Child New York: Amulet Books, 2006. --. The Sisters Grimm #4: Once Upon A Crime New Yo rk: Amulet Books, 2007. --. The Sisters Grimm #5: Magic and Other Misdemeanors New York: Amulet Books, 2007. --. The Sisters Grimm #6: Tales From the Hood New Yo rk: Amulet Books, 2008. --. The Sisters Grimm #7: The Everafter War New Yo rk: Amulet Books, 2009. --. The Sisters Grimm #8: The Inside Story New Y ork: Amulet Books, 20 10. Cooper, Susan. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books, 2005. Pearson, Ridley. Kingdom Keepers: Disney After Dark New York: Hyperion 2005. --. Kingdom Keepers 2: Disney At Dawn New York: Hyperion 2008. -. Kingdom Keepers 3: Disney in Shadow New York: Hyperion, 2010. --. Kingdom Keepers 4: Power Play New York: Hyperion. 2011. Owen, James A. Here, There Be Dragons ( Book 1 of The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica) New York : Simon & Schuster C hildren's Publishing, 2006. --. The Search for the Red Dragon ( Book 2 of The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica) New York: Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing, 2008.
172 --. The Indigo King ( Book 3 of The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geograph ica ) New York: Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing, 2008. --. The Shadow Dragons ( Book 4 of The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica) New York: Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing, 2009. --. ( Book 5 of The Chroni cles of the Imaginarium Geographica) New York: Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing, 2010. Durst Sarah Beth. Into the Wild New York: Razorbill/Penguin Group, 2007. --. Out of the Wild New York: Razorbill/Penguin Group, 2008. Scott, Michael. Th e Alchemyst : The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, Book 1 New York: Random House, 2007. --. The Magician : The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, Book 2 New York: Random House, 2008. --. The Sorceress : The Secrets of the Immortal Nichol as Flamel, Book 3 New York: Random House, 2009. --. The Necromancer: The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, Book 4 New York: Random House, 2010 --. The Warlock: The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, Book 5 New York: Random House, 2 011. --. The Enchantress : The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, Book 6 New York: Random House, 2012 (forthcoming). Carpenter, Stephen. The Grimm Curse (Once Upon a Time Is Now) Seattle: Amazon Digital Services, 2010. Kindle E book. Mantchev Lisa. Eyes Like Stars: Theatre Illuminata, Act I New York: Feiwel & Friends/Macmillan, 2009. --. Perchance to Dream: Theatre Illuminata, Act II New York: Feiwel & Friends/Macmillan, 2010. Theatrical / Filmic Crossover Intertexts Where possible, I have cited recorded performances (videos/DVDs); however, for those theatrical performances that have not been recorded, I have listed print copies of librettos.
173 Dibdin, Thomas. Harlequin and Mother Goose; or, the Golden Egg London: T.H. Tracy, 1805 Mother Goose Jubilee Oliver Ditson Company, Boston 1901/1906. Internet Archive The New York Public Library. n.d. Web. 10 Feb 2011. < http://www.archive.org/details/sixtysongsfrommo00orth >. Herbert, Victor. Ba bes in Toyland (Piano/Vocal Score) New York: M. Witmark, 1903. Betty Boop Fleischer Studios. 1933. Television. The New Casper Cartoon Show ABC. 1963. Television. Star La ugh A Lympics, Vol 1 & 2 Dir. Charles Nichols, Ray Patterson, and Carl Urbano. Perf. Julie Bennett, Joe Besser, and Mel Blanc. Warner Home Video, 1977/2010. DVD. The Jetsons Meet the Flintstones McWhirter, H enry Cordon, Don Messick, and Penny Singleton. Hanna Barbara Productions, 1987.VHS. Who Framed Roger Rabbit? Dir. Robert Zemeckis. Perf. Bob Hoskins, Christopher Lloyd, Joanna Cassidy, and Charles Fleischer. Amblin Entertainment, 1988. Captain N: The Game Master The Complete Series Written by Phil Harnage. Perf. Matt Hill, Alessandro Juliani, and Andrew Kavadas. DiC Entertainment, 1989/2007. DVD. Cartoon All Stars to the Rescue Dir. Milton Gray, Marsh Lamore, Bob Shellhorn, Mike Svayko, and Kare n Peterson. Perf. Ross Bagdasarian, Jr. Jeff Bergman Clint Howard Jim Cummings Aaron Lohr Jason Marsden Don Messick Lorenzo Music Russi Taylor Frank Welker Ralph Wright John Fiedler Janice Karman George C. Scott Lindsay Parker Sofie Zamchick Teala Dunn, and Danica Lee. Buena Vista Home Entertainment and McDonald's Video Collection 1990. DVD. Into the Woods By Stephen Sondheim. Dir. James Lapine. Perf. Bernadette Peters, Joanna Gleason, Chip Zien, Tom Aldredge, and Robert Westenberg. Imag e Entertainment, 1990. DVD. The Pagemaster Dir Joe Johnson, Maurice Hunt, and Glenn Chaika. Perf. Macaulay Culkin, Christopher Lloyd, Patrick Stewart, Whoopi Goldberg, Frank Welker, and Leonard Nimoy. Turner Pictures. 1994. DVD.
174 House of Mouse Perf. Wayne Allwine, Bill Farmer, Russi Taylor, Tress MacNeille, Tony Anselmo, and Rod Roddy. Walt Disney Television Animation, 2001 2003. Dir. Tony Craig. Perf. Wayne Allwine, Bill Farmer, Russi T aylor, Tress MacNeille, Tony Anselmo, Rod Roddy and John Cleese. Walt Disney Home Video, 2001. DVD. Dir. Jamie Mitchell. Perf. Wayne Allwine, Bill Farmer, Russi Taylor, Tress MacNeille, Tony Anselmo, and Rod Roddy. Walt Disne y Home Entertainment, 2002. DVD. Shrek Dir. Andrew Adamson and Vicky Jenson. Perf. Mike Myers, Cameron Diaz, Edd ie Murphey, and John Lithgow. DreamsWorks Animation, 2001. DVD. Shrek 3D Dir. Simon Smith. Perf. Mike Myers, Cameron Diaz, Edd ie Murphey, John Lithgow, Antonio Banderas, Conrad Vernon, Christopher Knights, Cody Cameron. DreamsWorks Animation, 2003 DVD. Shrek 2 Dir. Andrew Adamson, Kelly Asbury, and Conrad Vernon Perf. Mike Myers, Cameron Diaz, Eddie Murphey, John Lith gow, Antonio Bander as, Julie Andrews, and John Cleese. DreamsWorks Animation, 2004 DVD. Shrek the Halls Dir. Gary Trousdale. Perf. Mike Myers, Eddie Murphey, Cameron Diaz, Antonio Banderas. ABC, 28 Nov. 2007. Television. Shrek the Third Dir. Chris Miller and Raman Hui Perf. Mike Myers, Cameron Diaz, Eddie Murphey, Antonio Banderas, Julie Andrews, John Cleese, and Eric Idle. DreamsWorks Animation, 2007 DVD. Shrek the Musical By David Lindsay Foster, Christopher Sieber, JohnT artaglia, and Daniel Breaker. The Broadway Theater, New York. 8 Nov. 2008.Peformance. Shrek Forever After: The Final Chapter Dir. Mike Mitc hell. Perf. Mike Myers, Cameron Diaz, Eddie Murphey, Antonio Banderas, Walt Dohrn, Conrad Vernon, Aron Warner, Ch ristopher Knights, Cody Cameron. DreamsWorks Animation, 2010 DVD. Scared Shrekless Dir. Gary Trousdale. Perf. Mike Myers, Dean Edwards, Cameron Diaz, Antonio Banderas. NBC, 28 Oct 2010. Television. Puss in Boots : The Story of an Ogre Killer Dir. Ch ris Miller. Perf. Antonio Banderas, Salma Hayek, Zach Galifianakis, Walt Dohrn, Zeus Mendoza. DreamsWorks Animation, 2011 Film.
175 The Rugrats Go Wild. Dir. John Eng and Norton Virgien. Perf. Jodi Carlisle, Lacy Chabert, Tim Curry, Elizabeth Daily, and Na ncy Cartwright. Paramount, 2003. DVD. The Jimmy Timmy Power Hour. Dir. Keith Alcorn and Butch Hartman. Perf. Debi Derryberry and Tara Strong DNA Productions, 2004. DVD. The Jimmy Timmy Power Hour 2: When Nerds Collide Dir. Wincat Alcala, Keith Alco rn, Sarah Frost, Mike Gasaway, and Butch Hartman. Perf. Debi Derryberry and Tara Strong DNA Productions, 2006. DVD. The Jimmy Timmy Power Hour 3: Jerkinators! Dir. Wincat Alcala, Keith Alcorn, Mike Gasaway, and Butch Hartman. Perf. Debi Derryberry and Tara Strong DNA Productions, 2006. DVD. Dir. Yvett Kaplan and Paul J. Bolger. Perf. Sarah Michelle Gellar Freddie Prinze, Jr. Andy Dick Wallace Shawn Patrick Warburton George Carlin and Sigourney Weaver Vanguard Animation, 2 007. DVD. H appily N'Ever After 2: Snow White Another Bite @ the Apple Dir. Steven Gordon and Boyd Kirkland. Perf. Helen Niedwick, Kelly Brewster, Jim Sullivan, Kirk Thorton, Cindy Robinson, David Lodge, and Catherine Lavin. Ki ckstart Productions, 2009. DVD. The Superhero Squad Show Perf. Tom Kenny David Boat and Steve Blum Film Roman Production s / Marvel Animation, 2009 current. DVD TV Hoodwinked, Too! Dir. Mike Disa. Perf. Hayden Panettiere, Patrick Warburton, Glenn Close Martin Short, David Ogden Stiers, Cheech Marin, and Tommy Chong Kanbar Entertainment 2011. DVD. Video Game Crossove r Intertexts Roanoke : V ivendi Jeux PC 1984/ 2006. PC Marvel Super Heroes. Los Angeles: Capcom, 1995/1997. Arcade, PlayStation. X Men vs Street Fighter Los Angeles: Capcom, 1996/1998. Arcade, PlayStation. Marvel Super Heroes vs Street Fighter Los Angeles: Capcom, 1997/1999. Arcade, PlayStation. Marvel vs Capcom: Clash of Superheroes Los Angeles: Capcom, 1998/2000. Arcade, PlayStation.
176 Marvel vs Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes Los Angeles: Capcom, 2000. Arcade, Dreamcast, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Network, Xbox, Xbox Live Arcade. Tatsunoko vs Capcom: Ultimate All Stars Los Angeles: Capcom, 2008/2010. Arcade, Wii. Marvel vs Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds Los Angeles: Capcom, 2011. PlayStation 3, Xbox 360. Super Smash Bros. Washington: Nintendo, 1999. Nintendo 64. Super Smash Bros Melee Washington: Nintendo 2001. Game C ube. Super Smash Bros Brawl Washington: Nintendo 2008 Wii Kingdom Hearts Japan: Square Enix, 2002. PlayStation2. Kingdom Hearts: Chain of M emories Japan: Square Enix, 2004/2008. Gameboy Advance. Kingdom Hearts II Japan: Square Enix, 2006. PlayStation 2. Kingdom Hearts coded Japan: Square Enix, 2008. Mobile Phones. Kingdom Hearts Mobile Japan: Square Enix, 2008. Mobile Phones. Kingdo m Hearts 358/2 Days Japan: Square Enix, 2009. Nintendo DS. Kingdom Hearts Birth By Sleep Japan: Square Enix, 2010. PlayStation Portable. Kingdom Hearts Re:coded Japan: Square Enix, 2011. Mobile Phones. Nicktoons Unite! Agoura Hills: THQ, 2005. Game Cube, PlayStation 2, Gameboy Advance, Nintendo DS. Nicktoons: Battle for Volcano Island Agoura Hills: THQ, 2006. GameCube, Nintendo DS, PlayStation 2, Gameb oy Advance Nicktoons: Attack of the Toybots Agoura Hills: THQ, 2007. PlayStation 2, Nintend o DS, Gameboy Advance, Wii. Nicktoons: Globs of Doom Agoura Hills: THQ. 2008. PlayStation 2, Nintendo DS, Wii.
177 Marvel: Ultimate Alliance. Santa Moni c a: Activision, 2006. Gameboy Advance, PC, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Portable, Xbox Xbox 360, Wii 2006. Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2. Santa Moni c a: Activision, 2009. Nintendo DS, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Portable, Xbox 360 Wii. Hans Christian Anderson: The Ugly Prince Duckling Toronto: The Adventure Company / Dream Catcher Interactive Inc., 2007. PC. Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Games Washington: Nintendo, 2007. Wii. Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games Washington: Nintendo, 2009 Wii. Minneapolis: Destineer Games, 31 Oct. 2008. Nintendo DS. Cartoon Network Universe: FusionFall Atlanta: Cartoon Network, 2009. MMORPG. Fairytale Fights Amsterdam: Playlogic Entertainment, 2009. PC PlayStation 3, Xbox 360. Final Fantasy: Dissidia Japan: Square Enix, 2009. PlayS tation Portable. Disney Epic Mickey Digicomics ver 2.0. Disney Interactive Studios. App developed by Mutado. 2010. IPod Application. --Di sney Epic Mickey Digicomics ver 2.0. Disney Interactive Studios. App developed by Mutado. 2010. IPod Application. --Disney Epic Mickey Digicomics ver 2.0. Disney Interactive Studios. App developed by Mu tado. 2010. IPod Application. --Disney Epic Mickey Digicomics ver 2.0. Disney Interactive Studios. App developed by Mutado. 2010. IPod Application. --Disney Epic Mickey Digicomics ver 2.0. Disney Interactive Studios. App developed by Mutado. 2010. IPod Application. --Disney Epic Mickey Digicomics ver 2.0. Disney Interactive Studios. App d eveloped by Mutado. 2010. IPod Application.
178 Epic Mickey Austin: Junction Point, 30 Nov 2010. Wii. Adult Crossover Intertexts Perhaps the largest and most popular adult crossover universe is encapsulated by ons among literary characters created by Crossovers: A Secret Chronology of the World (volumes 1 and 2) offer a compre hensive history of the connections in the Wold Newton Universe, as the expanded version is called, tracing connections has been listed ng reference tool for those pursing Lucian, and Baudelaire Jones Dialogues of the Dead Black Box Press c150/2007. Raspe, Rudolph Erich. The Surprising Adventures of the Baron Munchausen 1785/1895. Project Gutenberg Web. 22 February 2011. Bangs, John Kendrick. A House B oat on the Styx New York: Harper & Brothers 1895 --. Pursuit of the House Boat New York: Harper & Brothers 1897. Myers, John Myers Silverlock Boston: E.P. Dutton, 1949. Farmer, Phillip Jos. To Your Scattered Bodies Go ( Riverworld Book 1) New York: Putnam Publishing 1971. --. The Fabulous Riverboat ( Riverworld Book 2) New York: Putnam Publishing, 1971. --. The Dark Design ( Riverworld Book 3) New York: Putnam Publishing, 1977. --. The Magic Labyrinth ( Riverworld Book 4) New York: Putnam Publishing, 1980.
179 --. The Gods of Riverworld ( Riverworld Book 5) New York: Putnam Publishing, 1983. --. Tarzan Alive: A Definitive Biography of Lord Greystroke. New York: Doubleday, 1972. --. Doc Savage: His Apocalyptic Life New York: Doubleday, 1973. See also Eckert, Win Scott. Crossovers: A Secret Chronology of the World, Vol 1 & II Encino: Black Coat Press, 2010. Anderson Poul. New York: Doubleday, 1974. Nichols, Robert. Arrival: His Daily Lives in Nghsi Altai, Book 1 New Y ork: New Directions Publishing Corporation, 1977. --. Garh City : His Daily Lives in Nghsi Altai, Book 2 New York: New Directions Publishing Corporation, 197 8 --. The Hraditts in Sawna : His Daily Lives in Nghsi Altai, Book 3 New York: New Directi ons Publishing Corporation, 197 9 --. Exile : His Daily Lives in Nghsi Altai, Book 4 New York: New Directions Publishing Corporation, 197 9 Abbott, Keith. Rhino Ritz: An American Mystery Berkeley: Blue Wind Press, 1979. Gaiman, Neil. The Sandman New 1996. Moore, Alan, and Melinda Gebbie. Lost Girls Marietta: Top Shelf Productions, 1991/2006. Acker, Kathy. Portraits of an Eye: 3 Novels [ The Childlike Life of the Black Tarantula, I Dreamt I Was a Nymphomaniac, The A dult Life of Toulouse Lautrec ] New York: Grove Press, 1997. The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen Vol 1 3 New York: DC Comics, 1999 2007. Marietta: Top Shelf Productions, 2009 present. Piumini, Roberto. The Last Resort Minnesota: Creative Editions, 2001. Gaiman, Neil. American Gods New York: Morrow/HarperCollins, 2001. --. Anansi Boys New York: Morrow/HarperCollins, 2005. Willingham, Bill. Fables present.
180 --. Jack of Fables 2006 current --. 1001 Nights of Snowfall 2006 --. Peter and Max: A Fables Novel Roberson, Chris, and Shawn McManus. Cinderella: From Fabletown with Lo ve 2010. Fforde, Jasper. The Big Over Easy ( Nursery Crimes B ook 1). London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd ., 2005 --. The Fourth Bear ( Nursery Crimes Book 2 ) London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd., 2006. Peterson, Eric, and E than Nicolle. Jesus Christ: In the Name of the Gun Dagg Comics! 2008. Web. 22 Feb. 2011.
181 LIST OF REFERENCES Alma Flor Ada 2011. Web. 18 Feb. 2011.
182 Altmann B rass T its on the Armor: An E xamination of the Q uest M etaphor in Robin McKinley's The Hero and the Crown Education 23:3 (1992). 143 156. Print. Anholt, Cather ine and Laurence. Come Back, Jack! Massachusetts: Candlewick Press, 1994. Print. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 45.6 (March 2002): 444 457. Academic Search Premier Web. 25 Aug 2009. The Brick Theater Emily Owens PR. Web. 26 Oct.2010.
183 Bolter, Jay and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999. Print. Bradburn, Frances. "The Search for Happily Ever A fter." Booklist 15 Feb. 1996: 1019 1020 Academic OneFile Web. 17 Jan. 2011. Briant, Ed Seven Stories Connecticut: Roaring Brook Press, 2005. Print. Brittain, Bill. The Mystery of the Several Sevens New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1994. Print. Browne, Maggie. Wanted, a King, or How Merle Set the Nursery Rhymes to Rights London 1890. Internet Archive Web 17 Jan 2011. < http://www.archive.org/ details/wantedakingorhow00brow >. Buckley Michael. The Sisters Grimm #1: The Fairy Tale Detectives New York: Amulet Books, 2005. Print. --. The Sisters Grimm #2: The Unusual Suspects New York: Amulet Books, 2005. Print. --. The Sisters Grimm #3: The Problem Child New York: Amulet Books, 2006. Print. --. The Sisters Grimm #4: Once Upon A Crime New Yo rk: Amulet Books, 2007. P rint. --. The Sisters Grimm #5: Magic and Other Misdemeanors New York: Amulet Books, 2007. Print. --. The Sisters Grimm #6: Tales From the Hood New Y ork: Amulet Books, 2008. Print. --. The Sisters Grimm #7: T he Everafter War New Y ork: Amulet Books, 2009. Print. --. The Sisters Grimm #8: The Inside Story New Yo rk: Amulet Books, 2010. P rint. Captain N: The Game Master The Complete Series Written by Phil Harnage. Perf. Matt Hill, Alessandro Juliani, and Andrew Kavadas. DiC Entertainment, 1989/2007. DVD. ( Review #96 ). That Guy with the Glasses n.p., 4 Aug. 2009. Web. 8 Feb 2011. Wikipedia Wikipedia, 4 Feb. 2011. Web. 8 Feb. 2011. < http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Captain_N >. Nintendo Power November /December 1988: 82 84. Print. Nintendo Power January/February 1989: 12 14. Print.
184 Cartoon All Stars to the Rescue Dir. Milton Gray, Marsh Lamore, Bob S hellhorn, Mike Svayko, and Karen Peterson. Perf. Ross Bagdasarian, Jr., Jeff Bergman, Clint Howard, Jim Cummings, Aaron Lohr, Jason Marsden, Don Messick, Lorenzo Music, Russi Taylor, Frank Welker, Ralph Wright, John Fiedler, Janice Karman, George C. Scott Lindsay Parker, Sofie Zamchick, Teala Dunn, and Danica Lee. Buena Vista Home Entertainment and McDonald'sVideo Collection, 1990. DVD. Internet Movie Database Amazon, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. Chesterton, G.K. The Chesterton Review 28:1 2 (2002): 7 10. Web. 3 Dec 2008
185 Dempsey Daily Variety 10 Feb. 2006. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. Dibdin, Thomas. Harlequin and Mother Goose; or, the Golden Egg London: T.H. Tracy, 1800. Disher, M. Willson. Clowns & Pantomimes N ew Y ork : Houghton Mifflin C o., 1925. Print. Disney Archives Disney. 20 Oct 2010. Web. 1 Nov. 2010. < http://disney.go.com/vault/archives/characterstandard/donald/donald.html >. Durst Sarah Beth. Into the Wild New York: Razorbill/Penguin Group, 2007. Print. --. Out of the Wild New York: Razorbill/Penguin Group, 2008. Print. Edens, Cooper. The Story Cloud Illus. Kenneth LeRoy Grant. Washington: Green Tiger Press/Laughing Elephant, 1991. Print. Elya, Susan Middleton. Fairy Trails: A Story Told in English and Spanish Illus. Print. Epic Mickey Austin: Junction Point, 30 Nov 2010. Wii. Fairy A.B.C. N ew Y ork, 1880. University of Florida Digital Collection Web. 7 Dec. 2008 < http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/ ?b=UF00023476&v=00001 >. Fairy Folks Picture A.B.C London: Juvenile Productions, c.1948. Print. Fea rnley, Jan. Mr. Wolf and the Three Bears London: Egmont Books Ltd, 2001. Print. --. London: Egmont Books Ltd, 1999. Print. Fitch, 1Up.com 1Up. Web. 12 Oct. 2010.< http://www.1up.com/do/reviewPage?cId=3164214 >. Floyd, Grace. Fairyland ABC New York, c1890. University of Florida Digital Collection Web. 7 Dec. 2008 < http://www.uflib.uf l.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00080484&v=00001 >. Jane Goodwin Austin 1996. Simmons College Graduate School of Library and Information Science Web. 8 Dec. 2008 < http://web.simmons.edu/~fox/JGA/jgabiography.html >. --. om Ulrich Graeter: Jane Goodwin Austin and Elizabeth H. Goodwin. Message to the author. 8 Dec. 2008. E mail. Passport to Dreams Old and New Blogger, 14 March 2007. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. < http://passport2drea ms.blogspot. com/2007/03/steamboat willie cultural contexts.html >.
186 Gabler, Neal. Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination New York: Alfred Knopf, 2008. Print. GameSpot.com CBS Interactive Inc., 2002 W eb. 9 Feb. 2011.
187 --. Claire and the Unicorn Happy Ever After Illus. Susan Mitchell. New York: Simon & Hirsch, E.D. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know Boston: Hough ton Mifflin, 1987. Print. --. The Knowledge Deficit: Closing the Shocking Education Gap for American Children Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. Print. House of Mouse ABC, New York. 2001. Television. Hughes ELH 45.3 (1978): 542 561. JSTOR Web. 17 January 2011. Hunt, Peter & Lenz, Millicent. Alternative Worlds in Fantasy Fiction New York: Continuum, 2001. Print. Hutcheo n Linda. A Theory of Adaptati on New York: Routledge, 2006. Print. Wii.com Nintendo, n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2010. < http://us.wii.com/iwata_asks/ssbb/vol7_page1.jsp >. Keeline the 2001 PCA/ACA Conference : Puebla, MX, 2001. 14 Nov. 2008. Web. 9 Feb 2009 < http://keeline.com/articles/PCA2001 Syndicate_Artists.pdf >. Roanoke: V ivendi Jeux PC, 1 984/ 2006. Windows XP Kingdom Hearts Japan: Square Enix, 2002. PlayStation2. Kingdom Hearts II Japan: Square Enix, 2006. PlayStation 2. Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories Japan: Square Enix, 2004/2008. Gameboy Advance. Lane, Selma. The Art of Mauric e Sendak New York: Abrams, 1980. Print. Ledbetter, Steven. Grove Music Online Web. 17 Jan 2011. Lerer, Seth. C hicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2008. Print. Lewis, Reading Contemporary Picturebooks: Picturing Texts NY: Routledge, 2001. 87 101. Print.
188 Locke John. Some Thoughts Concerning Education and Of the Conduct of Understanding Ed. Ruth W. Grant and Nathan Tarcov Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Co., Inc, 1996. Print. MacDonald, George. At the Back of the North Wind 1871. Project Gutenberg 28 Oct. 2009 < http://www.gutenberg.org/files/225/225 h/225 h.htm >. Macaulay, David. Black and White Boston: Houghton Miffl in Books for Children, 1990. Print. GameSpot.com CBS Interactive Inc., 27 Aug. 2007. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. < http:// www.gamespot.com/ pc/action/crysis/news.html?sid=6177717 >. Makinen Fairy Contemporary Fiction and the Fairy Tale Ed. Stephen Benson. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2008. 144 177. Print. Malarte Visions, and Narrative Images: The 28.4 (2003 2004): 210 218. Project Muse Web. 20 Aug 2009. Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Games Washington: Nintendo, 2007. Wii. Don Mar Donald D Markstein, 2010. Web. 25 Jan. 2011. < http://www.toonopedia.com/ phanblot.htm >. Mason, Jane. If the Shoe Fits: Princess School Book 1 New York: Scholastic, 2004. Print. Mathews, Richard. Fantasy: The Liberation of Imaginat ion New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997. Print. GameInformer Magazine 199 (Nov 2009): 58 67. Print. Morgan, Mary. Dragon Pizzeria New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 2008. Print. Literature Association Quarterly 31.3 (Fall 2006): 222 236. Project Muse Web. 20 Aug 2009. Nikolajeva Aspects and Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1995. 39 48. Print. Nikolajeva Maria How Picturebooks Work NY: Garland Publishing, 2001. 211 240. Print
189 --Age: Toward a New Aesthetic New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. 153 187. Print. Oppenheimer, Joanne. Eency Weency Spider New York: Bantam Books for Young R eaders, 1991. Print. Mother Goose Jubilee Oliver Ditson Company, Boston 1901/1906. Internet Archive The New York Public Library. n.d. Web. 10 Feb 2011. < http://www.archive.org/details/ sixtysongsfrommo00orth >. Palatini, Margie. The Three Silly Billies Illus. Barry Moser. New York: Simon & Schuster Print. 3.1 ( March 2006): 26 39. Print. Parker Rock, Michelle. Alma Flor Ada: An Author Kids Love New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, 2009. Print. Parkes, Brenda. The Enormous Watermelon Illus. Mary Davy. Illinois: Rigby Education, 1986. Print. Pawagi, Manjusha. The Girl Who Hated Books Illus. Leanne Franson. Oregon: Beyond Words Publishing, 1999. Print. DeAgostini Edicola DeAgostini, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2011. < http:// www.deagostiniedicola.it/frontend/content.asp?artcat=11&artID=698>. 9.2 (Summer 1984): 73 75. Project Muse Web. 20 Aug 2009. Prater, John. Once Upon a Picnic Massac husetts: Candlewick Press, 1996. Print. --. Once Upon a Time London: Walker Books Ltd, 1993. Print. Fairy Tales & Feminism: New Approaches Ed. Don ald Haase. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 2004. 1 97 212 Print. Ransom, Jeanie Franz. What Really Happened to Humpty? (from the files of a hard boiled detective) Illus. Stephen Axelsen. Massachusetts: Charlesbridge Publishing, 2009. Print. Robinso n The Times 2 July 1994: n.p. LexisNexis. Web. 31 Oct. 2010. Tiny Toon Adventures Syndication. 5 Nov. 1990. Television.
190 Scieszka, Jon. The Frog Prince Continued Illus. Steve Smith. New York: Penguin Group, 1991. Print. --. The Stinky Cheese Man Illus. Lane Smith. New York: Penguin Group, 1992. Print. --. Summer Reading Is Killing Me! Time Warp Trio #7 Illus. Lane Smith. New York: Puffin Books, 1998. Print. Scott, Eric. The Great Fairytale Robbery S t. Lucia : Univ. of Queensland Press, 1994. Print. Sendak, Maurice. Dear Mili New York: Farrar Straus, & Giroux, 1988. Print. --. In the Night Kitchen New York: Harper & Row, 1970. Print. --. Outside Over There New York: HarperCollins, 1981. Print --. Where the Wild Things Are New York: Harper & Row, 1963. Print. Shrek Dir. Andrew Adamson and Vicky Jenson. Perf. Mike Myers, Cameron Diaz, Edd ie Murph y, and John Lithgow. DreamsWorks Animation, 2001. DVD. Folk & Fairy Tales. Ed. Martin Hallett and Barbara Karasek. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2009. 61 62. Print. New York Daily News 10 Feb 2006: 15. Web. 31 Oct. 2010. Sierra, Judy. Mind Your Manners, B.B. Wolf Illus. J. Otto Seibold. New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 2007. Print. GameSpot.com CBS Interactive Inc., 2 March 2002 Web. 26 Oct. 2010. < http://www.gam espot.com/wii/sports/mariosonicattheolympicgames/news.html?si d=6187218&mode=news >. Shattering the Looking Glass: Challenge, Risk, and Ed. Susan Stewart Lehr. Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon Publishers, 2008. 273 288. Print. Smith, Kevin Paul The Postmodern Fairytale: Folkloric Intertexts in C ontemporary Fiction New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. 9 56. Print. Sondheim, Stephen, and James Lapine. Into the Woods New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1987. Print.
191 Stanley, Diane. The Giant and the Beanstalk New York: HarperCollins, 2004. P rint. Disney Archives Disney. n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. < http://disney.go.com/vault/archives/movies/steamboat/steamboat.html >. rature in Education 21.3 (1990): 165 177. Print. Language New York: Longman, 1992. 84 119. Print. Stephens, John, & McCallum, Robyn Retelling Stories, Framing Culture: Traditional New York: Garland Publishing, 1998. Print. Postmodernism, Self Referentiality, a nd The Stinky Cheese Man Literature Association Quarterly 19.1 (Spring 1994): 32 34. Project Muse Web. 20 S ept 2009. Steward, Ray M. The Surprising Adventures of the Man in the Moon Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1903. Print. of Mouse Season 1 Episode 1 The Stolen Cartoons The Encyclopedia of Disney Animated Shorts n.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Super Smash Bros. Washington: Nintendo, 1999. Nintendo 64. Swann J ones Stephen. The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Im agination N ew Y ork: Twayne Publishers 1995. Print. Tatar, Maria. Off with Their Heads!: Fairy Tales and the Culture of Violence New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1992. Print. Tigerman, Stanley. Dorothy in Dreamland New York: Rizzoli, 1991. Pr int. The Time Warp Trio. WGBH Educational, 2005. Web. 19 Jan 2011.
192 Super Smash Bros. Brawl Smashes Nintendo Sales Records Nintendo.com Nintendo, 17 March 2008. Web. 9 Feb 2011. < http://www.nintendo.com/whatsnew/detail/AU8xLess7wISKbSMpYCj_HThii8UiBz G.> Wi esner, David. The Three Pigs Boston: Clarion Books, 2001. Print. Wolf, Joan M. The Beanstalk and Beyond: Developing Critical Thinking Through Fairy Tales Colorado: Teacher Ideas Press, 1997. Print. Yamashita, Kyoto and Monica Bouldin quare an the PlayStation2 Computer Entertainment System ships to Retail on Sept. 17, 2002.
193 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Cari Keebaugh (maid en name Crumrine) was bor n and grew up in Martinsburg, Pennsylvania a small town in the central part of the state. Her parents often read to her growing up, so much so that she used to recite the text to her favorite picture books long before she could ac tually read. She graduated from a high school that was bordered by corn fields on three sides and a cow pasture on the fourth before mo ving to in psychology with an English minor It was during this time tha t she came to acknowledge her abiding love of young adult lit erature, and so she earned her m aster s d egree in the University of epartment in 2005 In May 2006, she married musicologis t Aaron Keebaugh. Upon completing her PhD, Cari has teaching the subject at the college level