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1 URBAN DESIGN AND MARKETING: HOW CITIES CAN USE SPATIAL QUALITIES TO ATTRACT BABY BOOMERS By LINDSAY RIZZO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011
2 2011 Lindsay Rizzo
3 To my family and friends
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I have come to realize that this thesis would not have been possible without the enduring support of my family and friends. To my family thank you for the endless love and encouragement you have given me T o my mother thank you for teaching me to find my inner strength and determination To my father thank you for teaching me to always do one step better than my best Lastly, to my big brother, thank you for giving me the confidence to persevere. T hank you to my committee for constructive critique and steady guidance. My deepest gratitude goes to Dr. Joseli Macedo for her grac iousness and willingness to see me through to the end. Many thanks to Dr. Paul Zwick for his constructive observations and life lessons. Lastly, a special thanks to Dr. Wayne Archer for his time and patience in teaching me the fundamentals of real estate To my friends, thank you for making sure I never stopped smiling So many of you were instrumental in designing methodologies, conducting research, and analyzing data. Thanks to JP Weesner for showing me the real world of planning and especially for t he many lunches spent discussing countless thesis topics. Finally, a special thanks to my best gal pals Melanie Brang, Angela Coullias, Brittan y Giel, Priya Patel, LaTeresa Shearill, and last but not least my writing buddy Endira Sharma. Yo u have made my years in the College of Design, Construction, and Planning truly amazing!
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 2 URBAN DESIGN AND MARKETING ................................ ................................ ...... 16 Baby Boomers in Retirement ................................ ................................ .................. 17 Place Making Utilizing Concept Marketing and Smart Growth ................................ 21 Concept Marketing ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 23 The Parall els of Concept Marketing and Smart Growth ................................ .......... 25 Smart Growth as a Marketing Tool Attracting Baby Boomers ................................ 29 Concept Marketing as a Place Making Tool to Attract Boomers ............................. 32 Best Practices of Urban Design ................................ ................................ .............. 35 Perception of Space ................................ ................................ ......................... 36 Street D esign ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 37 Imageability ................................ ................................ ................................ 37 Enclosure ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 38 Human scale ................................ ................................ .............................. 39 Transparency ................................ ................................ ............................. 40 Complexity ................................ ................................ ................................ 40 Urban Fabric ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 41 The importance of a strong private/public partnership ............................... 42 Develop a vision/plan for downtown ................................ ........................... 44 Downtown should be multifunctional ................................ .......................... 45 heritage ................................ .................... 45 Link downtown to the waterfront ................................ ................................ 48 Downtown should be pedestrian friendly ................................ ................... 49 Establish design guidelines ................................ ................................ ........ 49 Do not overemphasize the importance of parking ................................ ...... 50 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 51 3 MEASURING THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT ................................ ........................... 53 Case Study City Selection ................................ ................................ ...................... 55 The Street Manual ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 57 Indicator #1 Imageability ................................ ................................ ................. 58
6 Indicator #2 Enclosure ................................ ................................ ..................... 59 Indicator #3 Human Scale ................................ ................................ ............... 59 Indicator #4 Transparency ................................ ................................ ............... 60 In dicator #5 Complexity ................................ ................................ ................... 60 The Urban Fabric Indicators ................................ ................................ ................... 61 Indicator 1 Land Use Diversity ................................ ................................ ........ 61 Indicator 2 Permeability ................................ ................................ ................... 61 Indicator 3 Accessibility ................................ ................................ ................... 62 4 FINDINGS: SPATIAL QUA LITIES THAT ATTRACT BABY BOOMER S ................. 94 Part 1 The Street Manual Indicators ................................ ................................ ...... 95 Preview of Results ................................ ................................ ............................ 96 Indicator #1 Imageability ................................ ................................ ................. 96 Indicator #2 Enclosure ................................ ................................ ..................... 99 Indicator #3 Human Scale ................................ ................................ ............. 100 Indicator # 4 Transparency ................................ ................................ ............ 102 Indicator #5 Complexity ................................ ................................ ................. 103 Part 2 Urban Fabric Indicators ................................ ................................ ............. 105 Preview of Results ................................ ................................ .......................... 105 Indicator #1 Land Use Diversity ................................ ................................ .... 106 Indicator #2 Permeability ................................ ................................ ............... 108 Indicator #3 Accessibility ................................ ................................ ............... 109 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 110 5 WHAT A CITY CAN LEARN FROM A SUBURB AND VICE VERSA ................... 112 The Market for Smart Growth ................................ ................................ ............... 114 Effect of Concept Marketing on Urban Form ................................ ......................... 116 Findings Applied Street Indicators ................................ ................................ .... 118 Findings Applied Urban Form Indicators ................................ ............................ 120 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 122 Future Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 123 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 126 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ........................ 130 0
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 T he Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street Block A Old Camp Road to Pedestrian Alley ................................ ................................ .............................. 63 3 2 T he Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street. Block B Pedestrian Alley to Parking Lot Road ................................ ................................ ............................ 64 3 3 T he Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street Block C Parking Lot Road to Pedestrian Alley ................................ ................................ .............................. 66 3 4 T he Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street Block D Pedestrian Alley to Lake Sumter Landing Road ................................ ................................ ............ 68 3 5 T he Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street Block E Lake Sumter Landing Road to Lake Shore Drive ................................ ................................ ..... 70 3 6 New Smyrna Beach Canal Street Block A Dixie Highway to Orange Street .... 72 3 7 New Smyrna Beach Canal Street Block B Orange Street to Palmetto Street .. 74 3 8 New Smyrna Beach Canal Street Block C Palmetto Street to Live Oak Street ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 76 3 9 New Smyrna Beach Canal StreetBlock D Live Oak Street to Magnolia Street ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 78 3 10 New Smyrna Beach Canal Street Block E Magnolia Street to Riverside Drive ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 80 3 11 Street Indicator totals by indicator and b lock ................................ ...................... 82 3 12 Intersection t ype ................................ ................................ ................................ 82 3 13 Street and sidewalk t ype ................................ ................................ .................... 83
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 Indicator Totals ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 83 3 2 The Villages Block ................................ ................................ .............................. 84 3 3 New Smyrna Beach Block ................................ ................................ .................. 84 3 4 The Villages, Block A, West ................................ ................................ ............... 85 3 5 The Villages, Block A, East ................................ ................................ ................ 85 3 6 The Villages, Block B, West ................................ ................................ ............... 85 3 7 The Villages, Block B, East ................................ ................................ ................ 85 3 8 The Villages, Block C, West ................................ ................................ ............... 85 3 9 The Villages, Block C, East ................................ ................................ ................ 85 3 10 The Villages, Block D, West ................................ ................................ ............... 8 5 3 11 The Villages, Block D, East ................................ ................................ ................ 86 3 12 The Villages, Block E, West ................................ ................................ ............... 86 3 13 New Smyrna Beach, Block A, North ................................ ................................ ... 86 3 14 New Smyrna Beach, Block A, South ................................ ................................ .. 86 3 15 New Smyrna Beach, Block B, North ................................ ................................ ... 86 3 16 New Smyrna Beach, Block B, South ................................ ................................ .. 86 3 17 New Smyrna Beach, Block C, North ................................ ................................ ... 87 3 18 New Smyrna Beach, Block C, South ................................ ................................ .. 87 3 19 New Smyrna Beach, Block D, North ................................ ................................ ... 87 3 20 New Smyrna Beach, Block D, South ................................ ................................ .. 87 3 21 New Smyrna Beach, Block E, North ................................ ................................ ... 87 3 23 New Smyrna Beach, Block E, South ................................ ................................ .. 88 3 24 Figure g ro und The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing, Fl ................................ ... 89
9 3 25 Figure g round New Smynra Beach ................................ ................................ ... 89 3 26 Land use d iversity The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing, FL ............................ 90 3 27 Land use d iversity New Smyrna Beach, FL ................................ ....................... 90 3 28 Street and sidewalk n etwork The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing, FL ............ 91 3 29 Street and sidewalk n etwork New Smyrna Beach, FL ................................ ....... 91 3 30 Building diversity by quantity and p ercent The Villages ................................ ..... 92 3 31 Building diversity by quantity and p ercent New Smyrn a Beach ......................... 92 3 32 S treet & s idewal k network by quantity and p ercentage The Villages ................ 93 3 33 S treet & sidewalk network by quantity and p ercentage New Smyrna Beach .... 93
10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for t he Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning URBAN DESIGN AND MARKETING: HOW CITIES CAN USE SPATIAL QUALITIES TO ATTRACT BABY BOOMERS By Lindsay Rizzo May 2011 Chair: Joseli Macedo Cochair: Paul Zwick Major: Urban and Regional Planning The intent of this thesis is to underst and the urban design qualities preferred by baby boomers and how those qualities can be market ed to attract that demographic Two Florida cities, The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing a nd New Smyrna Beach established over a century apart a re analyzed using two methodologies for measuring and comparing street design and urban form. The methodologies are used to determine what urban design qualities of streets and their surrounding contextual urban form are aesthetically pleasing and functionally effective. T his thes is argues that small cities seeking to attract new residents need to develop a market ing campaign based on amenities associated with its urban design qualities Based on the findings from this study and the supportive literature, it is un derstood that a higher number of people engage with the built environments the y live in as a response to street design aesthetics. According to the literature concept ma rketing requires use of a cohesive vision This research suggests that establish ed communitie s use the smart growth concept as a tool for sustainable future development In addition, smart growth is method to attract baby boomers with urban design
11 strategies conducive to the elderly population seeking a unique environment to age through retiremen t.
12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The intent of this thesis is to understand the urban design qualities of streets and their surrounding contextual urban form that are aesthetically pleasing and functionally effective. In addition, this thesis contends that cities can use urban design qualities as a tool to attract particular demographics; specifically, smart growth is a development tool that can be utilized as a concept to market communities to the baby boom generation. For the purposes of this thesis smart growth is discussed according to literature from the real estate and planning professions. Two Florida cities, The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing and New Smyrna Beach are utilized as cas e studies to discuss application of urban design strategies that promote concept marketing strategies. This thesis focuses on the preferences of the baby boom generation as they will soon comprise the largest demographic in the United States. This segme nt of the population was chosen for analysis due to their financial state and stage of life preparing them for retirement with the highest level of disposable income. This study will focus on the strategies cities can implement to attract this segment as they seek locations for permanent residence in an environment suitable for aging in place through retirement. Thus far Florida has maintained its popularity as a retirement state, however, recent studies project that baby boomers will require more engaging environments than presently offered in Florida and as such they will relocate in cities with amenities conducive to their desired lifestyle. This study suggests that small Florida cities attempting to attract permanent migrants initiate a campaign using concept marketing of smart growth development as a tool to entice retirees.
13 Attracting a specific cohort through the sale of experiences such as lifestyle, amenities, and services is often marketed to consumers based on some predetermined concept and thu s is referred to as concept marketing. In the case of community concept marketing, effort is focused on building an identity to the external environment with the intention of capitalizing on underutilized resources to generate growth and development (Phil lips, 2002 ). Concept markets are only limited to the resources and time a community is willing to put forth and thus creative solutions are often success ful. This thesis will discuss smart growth in relation to established concept marketing themes. It is not suggesting that smart growth is one of these themes rather it is pointing out that themed concepts have been successful and therefore if a community chooses to market themselves with a smart growth campaign it may look to aspects of these concept mark ets that are similar and have been successful. Concept marketing will be detailed in Chapter 2. This thesis will discuss the parallels between the principles of smart growth development and the principles of concept marketing. The principles detailed pre sent similarities to smart growth regarding methods to develop future projects for the betterment of the community. S mart growth is a planned initiative to create fully functioning places with a sustainable plan for the economy and ecological factors. Si milarly, concept markets encourage sustaining the economy by attracting individuals and thus revenue. Smart growth development a s a concept has potential to be marketed to seniors looking to relocate to an environment conducive to aging in place through re tirement. Smart growth offers a lifestyle of sustainable living with frequent opportunities for social
14 interaction, ease of accessibility to services, and a general sense of place. A detailed explanation of smart growth principles is included in Chapter 2. The real estate market for smart growth development has been on the incline with an interest from those over age 60 and under age 40. Smart growth requires urban design strategies regarding the appearance and function of the urban form, which is defi ned according to multiple indicators. This thesis will use the framework of two studies to discuss indicators of street design and indicators of urban form. A study by Clemente et al., (2005) Identifying and Measuring Urban Design Qualities: An Illustra ted Field Manual operationalizes street design into five indicators: imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity. These indicators explain the perception of human space according to measurable characteristics seen in the urban desi gn. A study by Robertson (2001) Downtown Development Principles for Small Cities operationalizes urban form into eight principles for downtowns including strong private/public partnership s vision/plan s multiple functions heritage, waterfront, pedestr ian friendliness design guideline s and less parking These principles express strategies to develop an overall healthy city core. Of the two frameworks that s upplied the theoretical basis for this thesis, the Clemente et al., study will also be used in the methodology. Robertson presented eight principles; however, the methodology uses a Porta and Renne study to measure aspects of urba n form including land use diversity, permeability, and accessibility. For the purposes of analyzing the case study cit ies, this thesis utilizes two methods to measure street design and urban form. The first method of observation was conducted to measure design within a street segment according to instruction from
15 Measuring Urban Design Qualities: An Illustrated Field Manual. The goal of this tool is to provide empirical evidence linking the propensity to walk to the qualities deemed impor tant for an active street life according to imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity. The second method of observation was conducted using a study by Porta and Renne (2005) Linking urban design to sustainability: formal indicators of social urban sustainability field research in Perth, Western Australia The goal of this tool is to provi de quantitative data regarding land use diversity, permeability, and accessibility. Findings determine that street design in The Villages outperforms New Smyrna Beach in all five indicators. Conversely, urban form in New Smyrna Beach outperforms The Villa ges in all three indicators. This thesis concluded that people are inclined to prefer architectural attributes of street design and functional aspects of urban form. This research suggests that establish ed communities use the smart growth concept as a to ol for sustainable future development as well as a strategy to attract baby boomers with urban design strategies conducive to the elderly population seeking a unique environment to age through retirement.
16 CHAPTER 2 URBAN DESIGN AND MARKETING Understan ding the relationship between urban features and their ability to attract and acti vely engage aging citizens requires discussion of the elderly demographic as well as attributes of urban design and urban fabric that compose the built environment. To discu ss such preferences and attributes this thesis will refer to smart growth development patterns that are deemed effective in attracting particular demographics. The term smart growth spans multiple professions thereby providing a means to link literature f rom planning and real estate; smart growth has multiple applications views smart growth on a regional level versus the real estate profession with interest in specific de velopments. For the purposes of this thesis, smart growth will be discussed from the real estate point of view and defined according to principles associated with small scale development as compared to issues of regional scale. The first section of the l examines studies concerned with the migratory patterns of elderly Americans. The discussion includes data from the US Census Bureau and the University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Rese arch (BEBR) concerning the growing population of Americans migrating to Florida after retirement age. Section two, Place Making Utilizing Concept Marketing and Smart Growth, discusses the numerous marketing strategies used by cities to attract revenue Th is section will discuss research concerning tendencies of elderly to prefer smart growth development patterns. Further, it will discuss these documented preferences for
17 communities with age friendly qualities as these are integral to the real estate marke t that is striving to attract new residents requiring a change in housing needs. Section s three and four, Street Design and Urban Fabric address common planning initiatives implemented to analyze communities and coordinate progressive actions to ensure s ustainable economic and population growth. Street Design discusses the measurable features of a built environment such as imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity. These qualities associate highly rated design with incr eased use r desirability resulting in enhanced daily experiences. Section four Urban Fabric reviews techniques associated with elevated success for small towns seeking to attract new revenue. Baby Boomers in Retirement R apidly changing demographic shift s of Americans transitioning to retirement will nction, and constituents The shift in lifestyle and daily necessities will affect cities due to increased need for services such as healthcare, recre ation, and daily services. This section will discuss the population shift presently occurring as baby boomers reach retirement age and have the ability to choose a new place of residence based on their preferences. Florida (2008) argues the baby boom gen eration should be discussed in two groups; empty nesters age 45 64 and retirees age 65 and above Individuals in the retiree category are more apt to make decisions based upon preferences for recreation, social interaction, and health care It is likely that retirees will travel long distance s to satisfy their needs. Approximately 37 % the retiree category is willing to move more than 500 miles to be in a city of their choosing as compared to only 25 % of empty nesters who may still be employed (Florida, 2008 ).
18 According to the US Census the population of Americans aged 65 and over accounted for approximately 39 million people or 13% of the population in 2008. Further, the census estimates that segment of the population to account for 72 million peopl e, representing nearly 20% of the population by 2030 ( US Census, 2008 ). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2007 the calculated life expectancy of a man and woman aged 65 respectiv ely are 17.2 and 19.9 years. These retirem ent years will change the structure of the American lifestyle as the majority of the population shifts out of the full time workforce. Floridian cities have an opportunity to capitalize on the migratory patterns of the Baby Boom generation as shown by re search that snowbirds are motivated to change their primary place of residence (Sm ith & House, 2006 ) Research shows that as the American demographic shift occurs cities will see an influx of elderly returning to the city core seeking community and service s (Florida, 2008; Stafford,2009) Cities that have prepared for this demographic shift will be in a place to receive baby boomers seeking a new location for primary residence ; a t the very least they will receive an increase in tourism. Both permanent res idents and tourists will increase the stream of revenue from the generation with traditionally higher rates of dis cretionary spending In conjunction with Richard Florida, Kevin Stolarick has developed an analysis of US Census data in coordination with f our indicators expressed in an index of the best cities to live according to life stage ( as cited in Florida, 2008). The indicators for the retirement category of the baby boom include: first, the number of baby boomers currently living in a city; second, the condition of the economy; third, amenities and quality of life factors such as physical safety, weather, and access to health care based
19 on measures of crime rates, quantity of doctors, and average temperature shifts and; fourth, cost of living based on an index of health care costs. The final results reveal several cities in Florida rank among the best places for retirees over 65 years of age classified by large, medium, and small regions; large regions include Miami and Tampa, medium regions include Palm Bay, Sarasota, and Cape Coral, and small regions include Port St. Lucie, Naples, and Pensacola (Flo rida, 2008, p 281). According to a recent AARP study, Sarasota, FL ranked fourth and Gainesville, FL ranked eleventh among the best places to reinven American Association of Retired Person [ AARP ] affordable housing, culture and entertainment options, access to outdoor recreation, safety, proximity to universities and educational institutions and 2008, p. 278). Richard Florida argues the state of Florida is losing its appeal to the aging demographic H owever study it could be argued that Florida still has mass appeal. The study also presents several cities in states not traditionally considered for retirement ; however, the index determined by Stolarick in conjunction with the BEBR study discussed in the foll owing paragraph, expresses sustained growth in the aging demographic for Florida. A 2006 study from the BEBR discuss es Sunbirds, and Stayers: Seasonal Migration of Elderly Adults in Florida Although the study is desig ned to focus on the number of temporary residents in Florida, data from the study also shows the potential for temporary residents to become permanent residents over the next one to two decades. Logistic regression analysis of survey data was used in the BEBR study to determine differences in characteristics of in migrants,
20 out migrants, and non migrants. The data expressed the timing, duration, and origins of elderly migrating to Florida. Further, the study revealed socioeconomic demographics data such as annual income, age, and education status of each group furth er statistically significant, snowbirds generally had higher incomes, high proportions married, lower proportio ns employed, b etter health, and longer stays at their temporary resi S235). The methodology of migratory estimates businesses, service pr oviders, and public officials plan for the impact of fluctuations in the size of elderly po House, 2006 p S232 ). This thesis will not focus on recreating this methodology, rather, it will take into account results from BEBR as well as the US Census Bureau to dis cu ss changes in migration that will affect urban form and economic development in Florida. Prior to the publication of Snowbirds, Sunbirds, and Stayers literature has shown that Florida receives the most snowbirds compared to oth er states that also receive an influx of temporary seasonal residents (Rose and Kingm a 1989). Texas and Arizona are two highly infiltrated states experiencing peak s snowbird season s; in 2005 Florida entertained approximately 818,000 temporary residents ( Smith, House 2006); as compared to 300,000 in Texas (Martin et al., 1987) and 273,000 in Arizona (Happel and Hogan, 2002). More recent estimates from those states compared with Florida would likely show an increase in temporary residents adjusting for the notable time difference retirement since the survey conducted in Texas in 1987. Regardless of determining
21 differences between states with above normal seasonal migration, the fac t remains that Florida has an opportunity to capitalize upon that growth. Literature demonstrates F lorida has been a leader among states as a destination for elderly seeking permanent migratory status ( Longino and Bradey 2003 ; Smith & House, 2006 ). Flori da now has the opportunity to embrace temporary in migrants seeking to change their place of primary residency. According to Smith and House (2006), 33% of snowbirds have been coming to Florida for at least 15 years Data shows that temporary migration t or older who moved permanently to Florida between 2000 and 2003, 23% reported that they had lived part of the year in the state prior to moving permanently. Furthermore, 30% of snowbirds reported that it was likely that they would move to the state permanently at some time in the near faced with the question of how to attract migrants to their city. The next section will review concept marke ting, which is one method used by communities to attract individuals and thus revenue by capitalizing on underutilized resources. Place Making Utilizing Concept Marketing and Smart Growth The c reation of desirable places occurs most successfully with an insightful plan The plan is often precluded by some conceptual schematic design and planning process residents and businesses Concept marketing is loosely defined as any solution that requires special attention to a particular element of the community with pursuit to use that element as a marketing tool to attract businesses and patrons. Concept marketing is limitless to the imagination of its creators although funding i s far less than limitless and requires appropriate planning from both the private and public sectors. This
22 discussion will focus in part on smar t growth as a marketing concept that has proven successful in the past, as a method of attracting temporary and permanent migrants, with expectation of increased desirability to baby boomers and young families alike Smart growth defines a method to de velop good urban form from the point of view of multiple curricula including real estate, urban design, and plann ing policy. Reviewing literature from each realm offers comprehensive re search conveying differing interests of young families, middle agers, and empty nesters as related to urban form. This section will discuss community concept marketing as an economic development tool with a range of examples from cities throughout Florida and the United States. Richard Florida (2008) kind of job opportunities they offer and amenities they provide, most have also come to specialize in the stag 218). Many cities are suited towards a specific demographic due to factors such as the current age of citizens, climate range, economic conditions, and development patterns locating services and residences within walking proximity (Stafford, 2009; Florida 2008). Research in the real estate field links preferences of aging populations to increased interests in smart growth patterns of development Preferences regarding small scale development projects such as downtown rehabilitation are linked to increase d quality of life factors. (Kannan, Logan, Siejk n.d.) Census research quantifying permanent migratory patterns of baby boomers will not be available for several years, nor will information quantifying the desires of baby boomers considering relocation. Recent ascension of this generation to retirement status has not permitted necessary time to produce such statistics.
23 Therefore, this section relies upon insightful real estate research concerning trends towards smart growth. In theory, it could be arg ued that smart growth is merely a concept designed to lure unknowledgeable people to a development pattern utilized since the beginning of civilized settlement. Technically, smart growth does not present new development concepts; rather it could be argued that smart growth is a marketing scheme. This section argues smart growth is an interfusion of tested marketing concepts (discussed in the following paragraphs) and thus offers a means of discussing real estate factors in coordination with the effects of urban form and design. Application of smart growth principles lays a foundation to Gilmore and Pine (1999) is considered to be the future of economic develo pment strategies Concept Marketing As define d by Rhonda Phillips (2002) intentional, goal p 1). In addition to attracting patrons, local governments should invest in marketing campaigns anovetz, Dolan, & Swain, 2000, p .25). Attracting businesses and patrons requires that cities first conduct a are, what they want today, what they will want tomorrow and provid (Palma, 2004, p. 159). Specifically, c oncept marketing encourages communities to develop an iden tity based on an underlying feature or to simply create a new identity. Rather th an trying to outdo malls, strip centers, and discounters, downtowns need to
24 niches in exist with other com 159). This is often referred to as branding, external investment, tourism, and other revenue generatin 1). Adler discusses concept marketing as the theming of cities and argues that it is ns that have become associated with tourist traps such as The Hard Rock Caf. In this instance tourists are seeking the familiar entertainment experience strategically placed in a new city (Adler, 1995). Adler presents an argument on a situational basis regarding sites specifically designed to engage individuals in generic one size fits all entertainment. Rather, s uccessful concept marketing develops a holistic approach to integrate planning and design as well as public/private partnerships that go beyo nd a single revenue booster such as the popularized, albeit successful, method of development to attract tourism dollars. The most common approaches have been operationalized by Phillips into five categories and defined as popular culture, corporate cult ure, retail, tradition, and surrealistic (Phillips, 2002). Phillips draws insight from authors concerning concept marketing; however, she does not directly site anyone in the framework development of the five principles. For the purposes of this thesis, the c oncept markets for popular culture and corporate culture will not be discussed as they do not relate specifi c principles to urban form unlike the other three approaches. Smart growth combines
25 features of three categories that relate specific aspects of concept marketing to urban form and street design; for the purposes of this paper retail, tradition and even surrealistic marketing concepts will be discussed in parallel with smart growth concepts to distinguish similarities Retail Appealing to the enthusiastic shopper, some communities build their concepts around shopping opportunities. The venue may be offered in conjunction with revitalization of a historic downtown district, it might focus on themed shopping, such as antiquing, or it can concen trate on outlet shopping. Tradition Heritage and cultural aspects of a community are increasingly utilized to serve as the foundation for developing marketing concepts. This marketing approach focuses on applications using historic preservation and ethn icity. Surrealistic The category runs the gamut from creating the atmosphere of completely surreal to recapturing the historical ambia nce of a community. Concept marketing approaches based on surrealism require boldness and a high level of creativity and generally go beyond what is normally anticipated in a community economic development effort. The Parallels of Concept Marketing and Smart Growth Smart growth offers politicians, designers, and community members a system to develop aspects of oncept markets as each market has several attributes that correlate to smart growth principles. This section will discuss smart growth in relation to concept marketing themes ; however, i t is not suggesting that smart growth is one of themes R ather it is pointing out that these themes have been successful and therefore if a community chooses to market themselves with a smart growth campaign it may look to aspect s of these concept markets bearing similarities as a guideline to success. The Smar t Growth Network is an organization formed by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency as well as non profits partners including environmental groups,
26 historic preservation organizations, developers, and real estate interests. The organization was formed nd enhance defines 10 principles to achieve a smart growth community that are as follows: 1) com pact building design, 2) a range of housing opportunitie s and choices, 3) walk able neighborhoods, 4) community and stake holder collaboration, 5) distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place, 6) predic t able, fair, and cost effective development 7) mix land uses, 8) preserve open space, farmla nd, natural beauty and critica l environmental area, 9) a variety of transportation choices and 10) strengthen and direct development towards existing communities (Smart Grow th Net work, n.d. ). Several of the principles are more appropriately discussed on a regional level, however, guidelines such as developing walkable neighborhoods, mixing land uses, creating a sense of place, and compact building design can be applied to small scale development over several city blocks. Smart growth is a planned initiati ve to create fully functioning places with a sustainable plan for the economy and ecological factors. Similarly, concept markets of retail, tradition, and surrealism also seek to encourage development i n a specific direction. Several characteristics of s uch markets are inherent within a holistic smart comparison to smart growth principles. Retail concept marketing is a tool used to for downtown revitalization, often in accorda Creation of a retail district could enhance principles of smart growth such as compact building design, community and stakeholder collaboration, sense of place, and directing
27 dev elopment towards existing communities. Ybor City in Tampa, Florida is a prime example of retail revitalization themed within its historic roots as the Cigar Capital. With the addition of retail, mixed use, office, entertainment, and high density resident ial, the infrastructure ( Phillips, 2002). In addition, the Ybor City Development Corporation created a 30 c 9, p 15). Such development has encouraged smart growth principles such as preservation of hi storic structures, enhan ced public transportation with trolley and bus services increased residential densities safe walking zones, and created a strong sense of place. Traditional concept marketing is a tool used to reignite the history of a community architecturally and/or culturally often considered heritage tourism for economic development purposes. This type of marketing requires strategic coordination and cooperation between public and private parties to incentivize investments (Phillips, 2002; St ipe, 2000). Such a marketing scheme enhances principles of smart growth such as encouraging community and stakeholder collaboration as well as maintaining existing infrastructure and creating a cohesive sense of place. Cape May, New Jersey presents an ex amp le of a community redeveloping based on its historical roots as a seaside resort of Victorian era architecture. Upon revitalization, instigated by the nonprofit Mid Atlantic Center for the Arts in the 1970s, Cape May has seen a 30 % increase in summert ime visitors from 23,800 to 31,000 with a small increase in
28 permanent residents from 4,668 to 5,000 as of 2000. Overall the city has seen a sevenfold increase in yearly visitation and a 50 % increase in bed and breakfasts. Eighty percent of concept marke ting and development is funded with ticket sales to sites and events (Phillips, 2002). Surrealistic concept marketing is a tool used to push the envelope of imagination and take a theme beyond what is expected in order to produce a dreamlike atmosphe re. create, a new application, sell itself as thi 126). This marketing sch eme departs from most smart growth principles although it aggressively seeks to create a strong sense of place. Extreme examples include Las Vegas, Nevada and although not permanently inhabited, Walt Disney World and Walt Disney Land. According to Philli ps, surrealism requires shock value, scale, and scope to incorporate appropriate activities and venues. Calistoga, Florida has developed an economy based on physic services and venues to feed and board customers. Mount Dora, Florida exhibits a New Englan d architectural style unlike any other in Florida thus causing visitors to experience the difference in shock value and scale. This concept was enhanced from the original architecture developed in the late 1800s. In the 1990s, the city developed a histori c preservation ordinance to protect the structures In addition, nine parks host events ranging from lawn bowling to nature education with the private sponsorship of the Village Merchants Association. From 1980 to 1990 the population increased 11 % with a further 25 % increase from 1990 to 2000; a considerable portion of the population
29 increase is attributed to retirees. The small city with a population of 10,000 attracts approximately 300,000 visitors yearly (Phillips, 2002). Smart Growth as a Marketin g Tool Attracting Baby Boomers Smart growth presents basic principles of traditional growth patterns seen across America as development occurred prior to automobile traffic. Providing residents with highly walkable and easily accessible environments is not a novel idea although it has not been a common practice for several decades Research demonstrates a rising interest in smart growth development patterns in conjunction with aging citizens as such development models encourage aging in place and typically bolster aesthetics around cohesive pa tterns (Stafford, 2009; Logan n.d. ). Marketing smart growth as a concept (1999) whereby it is explained that the experience economy is a fou rth level from that of three basic economic offerings: commodity, good, or service. The three basic offerings escalate in value from commodity to good to service with experience far surpassing the value of services. Marketing of place thrives on the high value placed on experiences. Smart growth becomes a foundation for the experience economy as it produces a mixture of the concept markets described by Phillips to fulfill the criteria set forth by Gilmore and Pine to ensure an optimal experience. Gold a lace marketing is defined as a process whereby local activities are related as closely as possible to the demands of the targeted of the area con cerned, in accordance with whatever wider goals have be (1994, p. 41 ). One method of place marketing as is described by Dover is smart is about making places, not just developments there is a premium
30 associated with placemaki ng that homebuilders can leverage to speed up sales and command better prices per square foot p. 1). Gilmore and Pine (1999) discuss the difference between an economy of commodities versus an economy of experiences with regards to the latte r having potential to harness power over the future eco nomy. E xperience s are provided in development patt erns that offer daily services and lifestyle services as c ompared to c onventional suburbs exhibiting sprawl and cookie cutter houses which are void o f any sense of place Successful new development and rehabilitation focus on the sale of an experience as is expressed by Benson (2007) in the following excerpt. The market is ready for smart growth, so how can we market it effectively? First, understan street and playing Frisbee on a Sunday afternoon. The job of branding and marketing is to communicate at ever a smart growth community will enhance his or her quality of life Buyers choose a community and a home based on the experiences they believe they will have the positioning for smart growth communities must be about delivering thos e experiences. (p 1) Research shows a growing interest in smart growth communities from all segments of the population with approximately one third of the consumer real estate market preferring such de velopment (Logan, n.d.) According to the 2004 National Community Preference Survey conducted for Smart Growth America and National Association of Realtors, approximately 55 % of respondents would prefer a smart growth community. F indings of the report state the priorities of individuals determining where to live ; selected priorities are shown as ranked in the following progression from highest level of importance: 75 % eas y access to the highway; 72 % sidewalks and places to take walks; 60 % ll; 5 1 % being within walking distance to stores and restaurants; 46 % being within walking distance of public
31 transportation; 40 % being within walking distance of a place of worship; 26 % living in a place that is at the center of it all. Findings detailing the level importance of community diversity express 65 % of the population desiring to live in a community with people at all stages of life with 47 % racial diversity, 45 % income mix, and 38 % housing mix. Fi ndings detailing lacking features in communities states public transportation within walking distance is the second largest deficiency, with places to bike in third, shops or restaurants within walking distance in fourth, places to walk or exercise for fun in fifth. Findings detailing state government priorities express that 44 % of respondents would prefer to see states revitalize cities compared to 24 % for creating new development outside cities. Reviewing preferences based on age expresses that those aged 59 and up are more interested than younger generations in developing communities where one does not need to drive. Logan et al., (n.d.) support t he survey findings and express that ommunity centers will need to evolve in sophistication to capture t center amenity that can be conveniently accessed by foot, rather than only by car, enhances its fit with the desired lifest (Logan n.d. p 7) As the American demographic shifts, empty nesters express the highest level of interest in smart growth development. According to Logan et al., (n.d.), he aging of the baby boomers is likely to influence the size of the market, as their impending change in life stage drives them to make different housing choices than in 5). Elderly looking to make a permanent lifestyle change are typically seeking amenities and services such as those presented in a smart growth development pattern. This is r epresent ed by 46 % of elderly migrants which is the largest catego ry of migratory
32 elders as compared to only 28 % of migratory elders seeking assistance (Walters, 2002). It is not expected that baby boomers will approach aging like their predecessors, however it is likely that aging citizens will continue to prefer lo w maintenance properties allowing them time to enjoy the amenities of smart growth communities such as shopping and recreation within walking distance as social interactions are essential to the retirement lifestyle. Despite a lack of age restriction, Ame lia Park on Amelia Island, Florida is attracting retirees with its mixed use development patterns and co location of services including medical, retail, and entertainment. Approximately 40 % of the population is fully or partially retired and 80 % of resi dents are age 50 and above. Research speculates that smart growth development will continue to occur in the form of urban infill projects rather than greenfield developments as baby boomers seek urban amenities (Logan, n.d.). Concept M arketing as a Place Making Tool to Attract Boomers Concept marketing for the purpose of place making requires similar methods of operation as the tourism industry; due to a lack of information specifically relating concept marketing with baby boomer preferences for permanent relocation this section will review literature from the tourism industry. Research regarding the connection between attracting to urists as temporary migrants will be used to prove the importance of creating a sense of place to entice permanent migrants As stated in Sunbirds, Snowbirds, and Stayers ( BEBR, 2006) approximately 23 % of residents age 50 and above were once temporary visitors to Florida and 30 % of visitors plan to become permanent residents in the near future Concept marketing is one strate gy for cities seeking to attract some portion of that 30 % who plan s to become permanent residents.
33 In some cases, cities may have the potential resources and infrastructure to market smart growth as their concept. Tourism products such as heritage touri sm enhance preservation efforts inherent in smart growth principles and are desirable features within Concept marketing has the potential to develop a site into a theme park o f sorts as seen in surrealism, however, smart growth development lays groundwork for a sustainable growth pattern concerning economics, sociability, and ecologies. Literature reviewing the implications of development with intent to attract residents will be discussed a s these actions have the potential to disrupt host communities. The creation of place, as discussed by Phillips, is often dependent upon an un established concept; as such, the host community is open to the potential adverse effects Although development based on some authentic aspect of the community might be less offensive or disconcerting to current residents, its potential to attract new residents may be l ess successful The value of products no longer takes precedence; rather, success lies within consumer driven desire for experiences (Apostolakis, 2003 ; Gilmore & Pine, 1999 ). Staged authenticity is the product developed by hosts; it may alter the origi nal activity and thus, over time, the alteration could eventually become the norm even for the host (Chabra, Healy & Sills, 2003) According to Gilmore and Pine (1999), staged products will drive the future economy as consumers are willing to pay a premiu m for experiences they deem to have high value. Heritage sites are one example of a city containing unique and usually authentic experiences based on a prefabricated stock of cultural resources.
34 consume diverse past and present cultural landscapes, performances, food, handicrafts, and participatory Ch habra, et al., 2003, p. 703). Apostolakis (2003) suggests that authenticity is the link between the demand and supply of products as means of marketing to bo th motivate and attract individuals Scholars debate the meaning of authenticity and more impor tantly whether true authenticity is necessary in order for people to have a satisfying experience. Chabra et al., (2003) at depends not on its authenticity in the literal sense of whether or not it is an accurate re creation of som e past condition, but rather on its even satisfactory) so long as the combination of elements generates the required nostalgic feel 705). If history repeats itself, the baby boom generation will dominate the leisure travel industry, as did the retirement population of the 1990s (Hoseason et al., 2001) This widely trave entertainment to fulfill their experience (Hoseason et al., 2001, p.227). It could be argued that future generations will continue to require a higher quality of experience and thus a cyclic pattern of maintaining more satisfying experiences to avoid places becoming commodities will further continue the degradation Smart growth principles seek to preserve structures and encourage community and
35 stakehold er collaboration to develop distinctive communities with a strong sense of place. Best Practices of Urban Design both physical and sociocultural and the making of places for people to enj et al., 2006, p. 3). The perception of space is typically enhanced through implementation of well designed urban streets and forms. Successful urban designs require expertise from diverse disciplines dedicated to collaboration of kno wledge and compromise of opinions in both the public and private realms. Many successful citie s have applied planning and design processes that have been developed into best practice s. Although innumerable resources have constructed best practices checkli sts, this section will use the guidance of two studies and thus be discussed in two parts: Street Design and Urban Form. These studies have been selected because each reviews comprehensive research and literature from their respective studies as well as r esearch from experts in the fields of economi c development, walkability, and revitalization Part one, Street Design will use a 2006 study from the Active Living Research Program authored by Ewing, Hand y, Brownson, Clemente, Winston, Identifying and Mea suring Urban Design Qualities Related to Walkability to discuss the qualitative imageability, enclosure, human scal e, transparency, and complexity Part two, Principle s of Downtown Revitalization downtown development in small cities as a foundation to discuss the most common best practices of urban design used to enhance economic development. The eight principles are as f ollows: the importance of a strong private/public partnership, develop a
36 vision/plan for downtown, downtown should be multifunctional, take advantage of friendly, establish design guideline, do not overemphas ize the importance of parking. The next section will briefly d iscuss the perception of space as it is fundamental to informing researchers of personal preference s and individual responses to aspects of the built environ ment. Perception of Space Carmona et al., (2003) isual appreciation of urban environments is also a product of perception and cognition that is, what stimuli we perceive, how we perceive them, how we process, interpret and judge the information gathered, and how it appeals to our mind and emoti 130). This thesis is concerned with the urban design qualities of streets and their surrounding contextual urban form that are aesthetically pleasing and functionally effective. Comp rehensive research expresses the connection between environmental attributes and the perception of users who respond to such features (Bell et al., 1990; Carmona et al., 2003) Ittle son (as cited in Bell, 1990, p. 29) explains that perception is divided i nto four realms: cognitive, affective, interpretative, and evaluative. The first three realms concern the ability to make sense of an environment, feelings about the space, and interpretation to compare a new environment with prior experiences. The final realm of perception, e valuative processing is the point at which a person determines whether something is good or bad and hence makes a determination of personal preference. Understanding personal preference is the key to developing spaces that will at tract and appease multiple people requiring various stimuli. Research has confirmed that
37 commonalities exist between forms that are significantly more preferred among majorities no tes favorable emotional appraisals or evaluations of the environment (Ulrich, 1983). Street Design Research measuring the quality of urban design generally reviews in depth initiatives requiring street connectivity, neighborhood density and distance to se rvices, however it has been discovered that subtler qualities of street design enc ourage active urban lifestyles (Ewing et al., 2006). According to Ewing et al., measuring these factors leads to empirical evidence to substantiate previously untested urban design presumptions. Each of the qualities relates the inclination for an individual to prefer a type of built environment in accordance to human perception of space and aesthetics. The qualities discussed in the next five sections are as follows: image ability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity. Imageability Lynch (1960) that quality in a physical object which gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in any 9). Southworth (1985) suggests that may be achieved by image making. Image making is based on the history of a place, or it can express the current social cultural scene. Sometimes it is appropriate to give form to the fantasies or aspirations of a pla 54). According to Lynch (1960) five elements are the basis of an imageable city: paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks. Imageability according to Ewing et al., (2006) can be defined by architecture, well placed views, historic structu res, and other identifying features. Times Square in New York City exemplifies imageability with the iconic landmark of One Times Square, neon signs,
38 advertisements, elaborate architectural styles, and countless bustling people. These distinguishing elem ents make this space highly imageable and therefore highly memorable. Enclosure Enclosure refers to the degree to which streets are defined by such objects as buildings, walls, trees, and other vertical elements that create a room like quality (Ewing et a l., 2006 ). The urban room provides orientation and directionality due to vertical enclosures typically formed by walls, the urban floor, and often structural objects placed at either end of the street segment (Jacobs, 1993). Enclosure expresses the heig ht to width ratio between the street floor and any vertical objects such as buildings, walls, trees, and art that develop a street into a three dimen sional room (Ewing et al., 2006; Carmona et al., 2006). According to Carmona et al., a ratio between 1:2 a nd 1:2.5 is most suitable for creating a good sense of street enclosure. A ratio of 1:4 provides a high proportion of sky allowing the eye to move beyond the space as outward views are not contained. A ratio of 1:1 is highly restrictive and can cause a s ense of claustrophobia as the street wall equals the width of the street floor and thus is the minimum considered comfortable (Carmona et al., 2006; Hedman et al., 1984). Conversely, Jacobs (1993) argues that comfort levels are likely determined by street level occurrences such as sun light, temperature, and wind ra ther than building height Building heights extending beyond the street width create extreme enclosure as building tops are not entirely visible without looking into the sky. In addition to height to width ratio, enclosure is determined upon the proportion of street wall within a street segment. Buildings displaced from the sidewalk by parking lots or extensive lawns are deterrents to enclosure. According to Ewing et al. (2006),
39 buildings do not create a sense of enclosure if set back from the sidewalk more than 10 feet. Street design should take into account temperature controls provided by trees, varying building heights, and reliefs in the faade to enable access to sun during cold mont hs and protection during hot months (Carmona et al., 2006 ; Jacobs, 1993 ). Human s cale Human scale refers to a size, texture and articulation of physical elements that match the size and proportions of humans and, equally important, correspond to the spee d at which humans walk (Ewing et al., 2006 ). Scale is related to small scale objects such as street trees, street furniture, pedestrian scale lighting, architectural details, and pavement patterns that bring a sense of proportion to inhabitants (Ewing et a l., 2006 ; Jacobs, 1993; Hedman, 1984) According to Jacobs (1993) relying upon research by Blumenfeld and Maertens, a person standing still and facing a structu re at a 27 degree angle, can comfortably view the height and width of a building at three stori es h igh with a width of 36 feet and a street width of 72 feet Two story structures represent a more inti mate scale at a width of 24 feet with a street width of 48 feet However, a person does not experience a street from a stationary point and therefore it is more important to consider perspective views through motion with the viewer scanning both directions at approximately 30 degrees (Jacobs, 1993). According to Ewing et al., (2006), a high proportion of active windows on a building faade enhances w alkability as it adds a higher level of human s cale However, Hedman (1984) argues that an endlessly repeated window module is useless such that
40 thrust of the t all building, and to forcefully conclude facades at a height appropriate to the creation of a gracious 63). Transparency Transparency refers to ones perception of human activity beyond the street edge; the happenings that can be seen thro ugh midblock openings, storefront windows, fences and landscaping provide the user with a better understanding of the space (Ewing et al., 2006). he best streets have about them a quality of transparency at their edges, where the public realm of the street and the less public, often private realm of property and b 285). The transparency of edges often occurs through surfaces, which Curran (1983) explains can tell us about the uses of a building and how they link with the access system 126). Windows and doors create a sense of what is happening beyond the walls, despite interior domain out and beyond the c ontaining surfaces of buildings, while also expressing, within the public domain, the nature o 126). Clear visibility, while not necessary for residential structures, is a necessity in commercial districts; windows an d doors covered by draperies, blinds, or dark tinting Transparency can be achieved visually without windows or doors such as tree branches extending beyond a wall, denoting a possible garden or open space (Jacobs, 1993). Complexity Complexity refers to physical elements utilized to enhance visual richness; it is dependent upon a high occurrence of architectural features, street furniture, signage, landscape, and human activ ity (Ewing et al.
41 with a richness of detail that is larger than our immediate abilit 2000, p. 7). Although visual stimulation increases interests, preference for complexity decreases after a ce rtain po int (Nasar, 1998, p. 75). Designs that are overly controlled lack a sense unpredictability that can decrease complexity (Ewing et al., 2006). Jacobs (1993) explains that an orderly arrangement of elements such as building heights and setbacks cre ates a level of coherence Structures compose a large proportion of the street wall and thus are significant contributors to the level of complexity on a street. Multiple structures in one block add to complexity more than standalone buildings. Experim entation to determine human preferences of design techniques related to surface detail, silhouette complexity, and faade articulation have concluded surface detail has the largest impact on human perception, followed by silhouette complexity and faade ar ticulation (Groat 1989; Stamps, 2000). The indicators discussed in this section relate personal preference based on human perception of the built environment. The level of quality in each indicator directly affects human response acting as a stimulant inclination to prefer a particular built environment. The following sect ion will discuss indicators of the urban fabric concerned with holistically maintaining a community. Urban Fabric Research regarding the best method s to develop successful communities has been provided by numerous authors; this section will use guidance from Downtown Development Principles for Small Cities as integral to their overall heritage, tax base, sense of community, identity, economic development appeal, 9). According to Robertson,
42 most literature concerning downtown development is focused on large cities, however, the planning process for large and small cities var ies and thus his principles are derived from surveys and literature regarding populations of 50,000 or less. in small cities as a foundation to discuss the most common best practices of urban design used to enhance economic development. The eight principles are as follows: the importance of a strong private/public partnership, develop a vision/plan for s heritage, link downtown to the waterfront, downtown should be pedestrian friendly, establish design guideline, do not overemphasize the importance of parking. This section will use the principles as a fra mework to discuss the contentions of Robertson an d several other authors and organizations such as the National Main Street Center. The i mportan ce of a strong private/public p artnership Forming a direct line of communication between public agencies and private citizens enables succinct prioritization an d strategic planning to benefit businesses and the community. According to Robertson (1997) successful downtowns are often etween public and private A downtown development man ager and devoted volunteers are Successful reinvesting and reinventing in downtown sustains th e most beneficial growth with partnerships between public sector, business sector, a nd civic sector (Palma, 2001, p. 158) It is critical that their efforts are supported by city and state governments.
43 The local government is not lacking in control over private development although it could be argued that initiating sustainable growth is not the top priority. The federal government operates on a derivative regulatory system which can only exercise powers given to it by the states; Amendments 9 and 10 to the U.S. Constitution allow states to retain the power to regulate citizens in their personal conduct and use of p roperty known as police power. This includes the power to regulate historic properties key to smart growth principles Although the federal government lacks direct control, it maintains power through control of funds from personal and corporate income tax that can be returned to states in the form of grants and loans. Money is given on a conditional basis to states for federal programs provi ding states adhere to feder al regulations (Stipe, 2003). The city can demonstrate its commitment by granting downtown high priority in the comprehensive plan and budgeting process, by investing in public improvements such as sidewalks, streets lights and infrastructure, and by providing incentives for building faade improvements and business expansions (Robertson, 2001). According to the National Trust for Historic Preservatio success is determined by the use of the Main Street F our Point Approach This approach is guided by eight principles principles and will be discussed throughout this section. Two principles s pecifically discuss the integration of public and private enterprises for the greater good. Organization is the first goal of the Four Point Approach with an emphasis on Self Help and Partnerships from the guiding principles. Principle 3, Self Help, promotes the importance of local leaders to mobilize business owners and reside nts to invest time
44 and money into their downtown with the premise that nobody else will put in the importance of both public and private agencies to understand the l imitations and rely on their strengths to develop an efficient partnership. The Four Point Approach governing board and standing committees make up the fundamental organizational structure of the volunteer driven program. Volunteers are coordinated and supported by a paid program director as well. This structure not only divides the workload and clearly delineates responsibilities, but also builds consensus National Trust for Historic Pre servation [NTHP], n.d. ). Develop a vision/plan for d owntown A fitting revitalization method is often discovered in a vision plan intended to arm the city with a flexible goal (Robertson, 2001) Carmona et al., (2006) define visioning solutions through an iterative process of imaging and presenting, usually informed by personal experience an d design 56). ctives, and priorities for downtown development, transportation dimensions, design elements, specific locations for various types of desired projects, and linkages between primary p. 14 ). Flexibility is inherent in the regulate rather than mandate land use and design; in this way the private sector is exposed to the choices of their counterparts. Due to the open endedness of development a visioning plan is key to a cohesive product (Paumier, 2004). A vision plan is often executed with a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats)
45 analysis to determine the most appropriate steps regarding advancing towards a goal (Carmona et al., 2006; Robertson, 20 01) The SWOT analysis is used to evaluate flaws the urban form and develop potential solutions. According to Principle One of the Street Prog ram, a comprehensive plan is necessary f or successful, sustaina ble, long term revitaliza tion and must include activity in each of the Main Street's Four Points regarding organization, promotion, design, and economic restructuring. The vision plan is not complete without all four components (NTHP, n.d. ). Downtown sho uld be m ultifunctional The function of downtown has experienced several shifts since its origination; initially developed with residential and employment within in close proximity until the advent of automobiles when residential became separated. A new sh ift encouraging residential incorporation into the downtown urban fabric is noted as a strategy by two thirds of cities in the Survey of Small City Downtowns (Robertson, 1999). Cities seek methods to create active street life by increasing the co location of services, types of services at different hours, and a mix of visitors and residents (Carmona et. al., 2006; Paumier, 2004; Robertson, 2001). Location of civic buildings (police office, city hall, court house, post office) as well as churches, nightlif e, convention centers, sports facilities, theaters, professional offices bring peop le in from outside of downtown. The mixture of services, institutions, and residences ensures stability in the economy; the possible loss of any element will not entirely depreciate the economy (Paumier, 2004). eritage The downtown district of many cities is a composition of historic streets, buildings, homes, parks, and civic buildings. According to the National Trust for Historic
46 Preservati Existing Assets, it is imperative that all aspects of downtown revitalization are contingent upon the unique historical characteristics inherent in the downtown (NTHP, n.d. ) Histor ic preservation as an economic development tool requires discussion from viewpoints of the private investor as well as the benefiting public. Randall Mason (2005) explains that historic preservation produces economic benefits for both the public and priva progress with equal participation from both the public and private. In 1966 the National Historic Preservation Act defined historic preservation as a tool of community planning and thus developed methods to encourage private investment including tax policies such as tax incentives, rehabilitation credits or deductions against state income tax es and local property taxes, and revolving loan funds. The latter has been successful in large scale preservation plans such as the Historic Charleston Foundation, Historic Savannah Foundation, and the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of derelict structures have been revived by private purchasers, returning millions of dollars to local tax bases and 337). According to Robertson (1999) in a Survey of Sm all City Downtowns, preservation, architecture, and heritage are the mo st frequently noted assets. S mall cities with a population of 25,000 to 50,000 residents in freestanding municipalities symbolize the typical American downtown outside of mega cities. H istoric preservation ranks highest as a development strategy and is the number one method actually utilized as a strategy
47 for economic development Further it is the number seven strategy to be utilized by cities for future planning. Evidence shows histor ic preservation is a successful tactic to enhance economic stability and local governments have the power to protect such sites (Robertson, 1999; Robertson, 2001; Stipe, 2003) According to Donovan Rypkema (as cit ed in Tyler et al., 2009 ) in a speech on s visitors stay longer, visit twice as many places, and on a per trip basis spend two and a half times Essentially, heritage touris ts have a greater per trip economic impact. Strategic marketing would enhance the service sector to capture both the local and tourist market in development of a successful business market. Tyler (2009) explains that t heaters exemplify specific preserva tion projects that go beyond the basic commodity of movies or the basic service of displaying the movie. Theaters provide a regular series of experiences from the sights, sounds, smells, and interactions. This is particularly true in reference to histori c theaters with their unique lighting, fantasy landscapes, organs, and live bands. Downtown theaters, new or old, promote pedestrian activity beyond normal operating hours, thus providing businesses with incentive to keep their doors open and opportunity to capitalize on late night shoppers. A case study of City Opera House in Traverse City, Michigan, indicates renovation of a historic structure as part of the downtown redevelopment plan that profitably benefited the theater as well as local businesses. T raverse City cultivated a plan to market itself as a destination resort and proceeded to promote the renovation to
48 graphics. Estimated economic benefits generated from renovation of the Opera House Link downtown to the w aterfront Historically, downtowns were located near accessible ports on waterfronts that dictated the character and development of main street activities including manufacturing, trade, and lodging. The increase of interstate highway shipping led to the inevitable demis e of many port city economies. Waterfronts maintaining daily shipping services create active viewpoints and act as an educational tool relaying information about the cities manufacturing and economy (Torre, 1989). According to Breen and Rigby (1994) n downtown attraction despi te physical deterioration The waterfront should be clearly defined both visually and physically for increase visual understanding of th e space and increase the likelihood o f use (Paumier, 2004; Robertson, 2001). Waterfronts were considered the second most attractive asset according to the survey of small cities conducted by Robertson (1999). Waterfronts located on rivers provide increased accessibility to the city such as small waterway communities that combine both residential and industrial vessels a s seen in Stockholm, Sweden (Torre, 1989). Waterfronts located on small scale lakes or cre eks have potential to provide recreational activities such as swimming, rowing, water skiing. In conjunction with land amenities including parks, public restrooms, and boat ramps the waterfront is geared to create a balance of activities, which Torre argu es is the number one goal of waterfront development (1989).
49 Downtown should be pedestrian f riendly Downtowns are inherently pedestrian friendly; founded on principles of walking and high density not often established in suburbs or commercial/industrial p arks. Despite an aesthetically pleasing environment, a vibrant downtown is likely unattainable without pedestrian activity to enliven sidewalks and store fronts. Therefore, vibrancy relies heavily on pedestrian friendly streets uninhibited by torn down bu ildings, surface parking lots, and blank walls that are enjoyable, practical, and an efficient mode of the more storefronts he/she will encounter, thereby increasing the pool of potential activity include light fixtures, street trees, flowers, benches, ground treatments, widened sidewalks, road diets, reduced traffic speeds, parking sig nage, crosswalks and crossing signals, and bicycle racks. Downtowns should strive to link activity centers such as retail, dining, event centers, plazas, employment and residences to increase foot traffic. Emphasis should be placed on attractive building facades, awnings, and interesting store windows to increase the level on interest for slow speed passersby (Robertson, 2001). Establish design g uidelines Downtowns have typically developed a distinctive character during their growth, potentially providin g distinguishing environments worthy of being visited and revisited. Acknowledging heritage as the number one asset according to the Survey of Small Cities by Robertson, it is important to maintain the integrity of these structures. Preservation is often u pheld through strict or lax design guidelines as determined by the city. This ensures that preservation of aged structures and new construction considers
50 buildings old and new, technical guidance is needed for matters concerning setbacks, windows, signage, awnings, rooflines, doorways, materials, color, and massing, and p. 14 ). message about the commercial district and ). In addition activities also include instilling good maintenance practices in the commercial district, enhancing the physical appearance of the commercial district by rehabilitating historic buildings, encouraging appro priate new construction, developing sensitive design management systems, an d long ). Do not overemphasize the importance of p arking The number of parking spaces in downtown settings is often a controversial issue for both patrons and retail/service operators desiring upfront parking. Patrons are accustomed to big box parking lots with never ending spaces and have been deceived into thinking massive surface parking embodies convenience. However, patrons often experience difficulty in the search for proximate parking due to usage by store operators land, add less to the tax base than most alternate uses, reduce downtown densities, and usually serve to 2001). also presents the benefits of parking noting that it is a necessity in most cities to entice
51 people to the d owntown (Dorsette, 2000). The city and businesses should implement parking policies such as validation to promote short term parking within the downtown while placing employee parking within a four five block radius or near a transit shuttle (Paumier, 200 6). downtown, and therefore should con stitute a supporting role, not be the centerpiece of Summary The first of the Baby Boom genera tion reached retirement age in 2008 and will continue until 2026. Research shows that retirees of this generation are more likely to move long distances based on personal preferences in the decision to permanently change their place of residence. Project ions of migratory patterns suggest that Baby Boomers will be relocating to Florida in search of a community offering an environment to age in place through their retirement years Smart growth development patterns associated with small scale development of downtowns and neighborhoods reflect principles enabling aging in place such as co location of services including residential, retail, civic, and healthcare in communities created with character and a sense of place. Studies expressing the interests of elderly show they prefer to have walkable communities with access to public transit, recreation, and shopping. The majority also prefers communities offering impromptu social interactions as well as mixed demographics of age, race, and religion. Despite personal preferences, many people do not choose to live in such communities for reasons beyond the scope of this study. However, this literature review does discuss potential strategies for cities seeking to attract residents through a marketing campaign b ased on the concept of smart growth principles.
52 Research expresses the connection between environmental attributes and the perception of users whom respond to such features Street design indicators have been measured to prove that common architectural pr eferences exist thereby creating a template for appeasing preferences. The perception of space is measured through observation of imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity. Further research expresses the level interconnectedness through urban form as expressed in land use diversity and accessibility. Smart growth development encourages aesthetically pleasing designs that enable walkability and use friendliness.
53 CHAPTER 3 ME ASURING THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT A multiple case design i s a common methodology used to compare multiple variables and/or places and is often considered a more robust study compared to single case designs (Yin, 2003). For the purposes of this thesis the multiple case methodology was selected for its ability to compare two sites with the expectation of contrasting results; whereby, each site is an individual case although the study as a whole contains several sights and so according to Yin, in this way it is a multiple case study design (Yin, 2003, p 53). Furth er, Yin recommends using a replication method when using a multiple case study design; therefore this thesis requires each of the following observations to be conducted with identical procedure in each city. Comparison of the multiple case studies requir es two systems for observation; one based purely on observation and the second based on diagrammatic mapping. The first method of observation was conducted to measure design within a street segment according to instruction from Measuring Urban Design Qualities: An Illustrated Field Manual developed by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation authored by Clemente, Ewing, Handy, and Brownson (2005). Through repeated observation the manual measures imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and comple xity. Prior to this study, the authors believe that urban designers presumed these qualities were important for active street life, but had little empirical evidence to back the claim. Until urban design could be measured, and the propensity to walk coul d be related empirically to these measures, this presumption remained untested (Clemente et al., 2005). This thesis will follow the instructions from the manual to determine the level of quality related to urban design features in the selected case study cities.
54 The second method of observation was conducted using Linking urban design to sustainability: formal indicators of social urban sustainability field research in Perth, Western Australia by Porta and Renne as a template to develop diagrammatic maps used for analysis. Diagrammatic mapping is common in the planning practice to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of an urban form. Analyzing the strengths and weaknesses are often part of a comprehensive study to determine the strength, weaknesses, opp ortunities, and threats known as a SWOT analysis which is most appropriate at the site specific scale (Carmona et al., 2006). Porta and Renne argue that recent planning initiatives concerned with sustainability cannot be measured without determining indic p 52). Further, they explain that these indicators were developed with the intention that n centers or suburbs are more sustainable in respect to social equity, economic stability, and the protection/enhancement of the environment, compared to conventionally designed pla 52).This thesis will use the indicators fro m the Porta and Renne study that have been adapted from a measurement tool developed by the Western Australia Department for Planning and Infrastructure and the Public Transport Authority of Western Australia concerning travel behavior, local economy, natu ral environment, built environment, social environment, and policy context. This study used the adapted version as it is has selected only those indicators related to measuring the urban fabric. The manual and indicators discussed will be referred to resp ectively as the Street Manual and the Urban Fabric Indicators as these names provide less complex wording
55 and represent the key measurement functions of each composition. Both The Villages and New Smyrna Beach were tested with each of these tool sets. Th e following sections will review the process of selecting each case study city and define study boundaries within each city. A discussion of the observation methods will preclude data discovered during the field work and mapping process. Finally, the dat a will be charted to highlight critical information. Case Study City Selection The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing, FL and New Smyrna Beach, FL were selected for the purposes of this research as each city contains qualities of either street design or urban form typically considered successful in relation to downtown main street corridors. The cities were selected in expectation of contrasting results with foresight of the differences in the level of quality that would be found in each city regarding street design and urban form. Both cities contain a town center and main street; The Villages town center is part of a master plan as opposed to the traditional progression of city center development in New Smyrna Beach, however, each serv es a similar purpose as a hub for commerce. In each city the indicator tool sets described in the following sections were replicated to ensure each site received equal assessment of both the urban and street variables. T he Villages at Lake Sumter Landing, Florida was established from a green field beginning in the 1970s as a city solely for those curre ntly in or nearing retirement. The Villages are located in three counties including Sumter, Marion, and Lake. Presently, the population is comprised of appro ximately 75,000 people aged 50 and a b ove Community rules require that if a couple purchases a home, at least one person must be 55 or older. Additionally, people be low the age of 19 are only allowed to visit
56 someone in the community for 30 days; however 19 and older may stay on a yearly basis. The city lacks a history or context from which to develop future planning initiatives. Rather, the story told through the city has been invented by developers and creators of Universal Studios Theme Park. The V illages is home to two downtown corridors: Spanish Springs Town Square and Lake Sumter Landing Market Square. This research focuses on one of the squares. The benefit of using The Villages lies within its highly progressive marketing of down town to a spe cific demographic. The Villages were selected due to the expectation that it w ould have significantly higher scores per the indicat ors rating street design The concept and development of the community were void of any prior framework, infrastructure, o r buildings to inhibit the design process thus allowing creation of a modern exciting built envir onment. The town center offers optimal high end retail space as the closest mall, Lake Square M all is located 12 miles away in Leesburg. New Smyrna Beach, Fl orida was first inhabited by non Native Americans in 1767 and incorporated in 1887 establishing this town with distinct development patterns including a historic central business district as well as two other commercial districts. This thesis will focus o n Canal Street in the historic district where there is a broad range of demographics and land uses. The benefit of using Downtown New Smyrna Beach for this research lies within its lack of progress Compared to other Floridian cities, New Smyrna Beach ha s not maintained it presence as a viable location fo r businesses to locate or for residents and tourists to visit. The downtown is situated for increased retail as the nearest shopping mall is the Volusia Mall located 18 miles away in Daytona Beach, FL. Presently, the demographic aged 65 and above is 8,952 people which,
57 accounts for 57 % of the New Smyrna Beach population. The demographic aged 35 64 accounts for 36 % of the population, while those aged 15 34 accounts for only 7 % This research will use New Smyrna Beach as a case study to determine what qualities of its urban fabric and street design are or are not successful according to documented indicator tool sets. This site was selected with expectation of sig nificantly highe r scores per the indicators rating urban fabric as the downtown was developed prior t o development of the automobile, thereby increasing pedestrian friendliness. The Street Manual The Street Manual is intended to determine the level of walkability beyond issues of general urban fabric such as Urban Fabric Indicators. The goal of this tool is to provide empirical evidence linking the propensity to walk to the qualities deemed important for an act ive street life (Ewing et al., 2006 ). This manual offers rese archers a qualitative guide to produce objective measurements of the following indicators: imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity. Several of the indicators for this manual are time sensitive so the measurements were taken at t he same time of day for each city. It is assumed that these streets are most active around standard meal times although many of the businesses in New study parameters are the most similar, lunchtime was selected as the most appropriate option. Measurement began at 11:00 and was completed at 2:30. Time sensitive indicators such as how many people were on the street and presence of outdoor dining furniture were observed first to ensure similar results. Str eet Manual instructions require the observer to perform a series of tasks as follows: Step one record measurements on the score card
58 Step two multiply each measurement by its corresponding multiplier Step three add a constant unique value to each indicator Step four compute totals Step one, recording measurements, is detailed by the Street Manual into several criterion for each indicator. The following paragraphs will discuss the process of measur ing each criterion and will be discussed in the order of the indicators measured. Each criterion begins by requiring the observer to walk the entire length of the study area. For the purposes of this thesis the street segment has been divided by block so that each city contains five study areas. Indicator #1 Imageability Criterion One Record the number of courtyards, plazas, and park on both sides of the street include plazas between buildings, courtyards with tables and chairs, small gathering areas Criterion Two Record the number of major landscape features on both sides of the street include only natural landscape features. Criterion Three Record the proportion of historic building frontage for buildings fronting the sidewalk on both sides of the street include only structures built prior to 1961. Criterion Four Record the number of buildings with identifiers on both sides of the street include buildings with unique architecture, storefront signs, and business signs. Criterion Five Reco rd the number of buildings with non rectangular shapes on both sides of the street include buildings with pitched roofs, ornamental trim, and chimneys. Criterion Six Record the presence of outdoor dining on both sides of the street. Criterion Seven Reco rd the number of people within 50 feet of the observation point include people walking, standing or sitting. Exclude people sitting at outdoor dining locations. Conduct this observation a total of four times and average the values before applying the mult iplier. Criterion Eight Record the noise level on both sides of the street rate noise on a level of 1 5 from 1) very quiet, 2) quiet, 3) normal, 4) loud, 5) very loud. Conduct
59 this observation a total of four times and average the values before apply ing the multiplier. Indicator #2 Enclosure Criterion One Record the number of long sight lines rate on a scale of 0 1 from 0) cannot see far to left or right or within 1000 feet ahead, 1) can see far to the left or right or beyond 1000 feet ahead. Excl ude views down cross streets or pedestrian paths. Criterion Two Record the proportion of street wall on one side include building facades set back no more than ten feet from the sidewalk. Record as a decimal in increments of tenths. Criterion Three Re cord the proportion of street wall on the opposite side of criterion two include building facades set back no more than ten feet from the sidewalk. Record as a decimal in increments of tenths. Criterion Four Record the proportion of sky ahead include t he field of vision straight ahead. Record as a decimal in increments of twentieths. Criterion Five Record the proportion of sky across the street. Record as a decimal in increments of twentieths. Repeat observation for the opposite side of the street. A verage the values before applying the multiplier. Indicator #3 Human Scale Criterion One Record the number of long sight lines rate on a scale of 0 1from 0) cannot see far to left or right or within 1000 feet ahead, 1) can see far to the left or right or beyond 1000 feet ahead. Exclude views down cross streets or pedestrian paths. Criterion Two Record the proportion of windows at street level include windows from the first floor of buildings that front the sidewalk. Record as a decimal in increments of twentieths. Repeat observation for the opposite side of the street. Average the values before applying the multiplier. Criterion Three Record average building heights average the heights of multiple buildings for a value before applying the multipl ier. Criterion Four Record the number of small planters include planters beneath street trees, flowerbeds, flowerboxes, and large urns. Exclude small pots that are easily moved indoors. Criterion Five Record the number of pieces of street furniture or other street items include tables, chairs, benches, parking meters, trash cans, newspaper boxes, mail boxes, bike racks, bollards, hydrants, flags, banners, merchandise
60 stands, street vendors, pedestrian scale street lights, lanterns attached to building s, balloons, groupings of small flower pots, and ATMs. Indicator #4 Transparency Criterion One Record the proportion of windows at street level include windows from the first floor of buildings that front the sidewalk. Record as a decimal in increments of twentieths. Repeat observation for the opposite side of the street. Average the values before applying the multiplier. Criterion Two Record the prop ortion of street wall include building facades set back no more than ten feet from the sidewalk. Repeat observation for the opposite side of. Record as a decimal in increments of tenths. Average the values before applying the multiplier. Criterion Three Record the proportion of active uses from buildings fronting the sidewalk include shops, restaurants, and other uses that generate significant pedestrian traffic. Exclude blank walls, parking lots, vacant lots, abandoned buildings, and offices. Indica tor #5 Complexity Criterion One Record the number of buildings on both sides of the street. Criterion Two Record the number of basic building colors include the basic building colors. Exclude several shades of the same basic color. Criterion Three Re cord the number of basic accent colors include building trim, street furniture, awnings, and signs. Criterion Four Record the presence of outdoor dining on both sides of the street. Criterion Five Record the number of pieces of public art on both sides of the street include monuments, sculptures, murals and any artistic display that has free access. Criterion Six Record the number of walking pedestrians within 50 feet of the observation point. Conduct this observation a total of four times and averag e the values before applying the multiplier. Upon completing observations and recording of values into the score card, each value is applied to its unique multiplier. Totaling final indicator scores requires taking the sum of each value and adding a uniqu e constant.
61 The Urban Fabric Indicators The Urban Fabric Indicators found in Linking urban design to sustainability: formal indicators of social urban sustainability field research in Perth, Western Australia by Porta and Renne will be used as a template to create diagrammatic maps for comparison of city patterns related to land use diversity, perme ability, and accessibility. The following paragraphs will review each pattern. Indicator 1 Land Use Diversity Land use diversity measures the variety of land uses within the one quarter mile radius. Diversity is shown in figure ground mapping with color coded buildings to show the type and quantity of each structure including residential from single to multi family, public, recreational, commercial, and light industry. The maps follow traditional color coding per American Planning Association guidelines. The bar graphs are labeled according to the quantity of buildings per type of use and then by the percentage of each type of building within the mile radiu s. Indicator 2 Permeability Permeability, known also as street connectivity, measures the type and number of intersections within the one quarter mile radius. Determining the number and types of intersections requires mapping of the following intersectio ns: four ways, t junctions, and cul de sacs. Each intersection type is given a score according to the scoring guide developed by Porta and Renne (2005). Each four way intersection is allocated two points. For the purposes of this study, a round about wi ll be considered a four way intersection. Each t junction is allocated one point. Each cul de sac is allocated negative one point.
62 Indicator 3 Accessibility Accessibility measures the number of pedestrian connections such as sidewalks and pedestrian a lleys. The level of accessibility is measured within the one quarter mile radius from the main street segment for each of the following street types: roads with no sidewalks allocated negative one point, pedestrian alleys including golf cart paths allocate d half of a point roads with sidewalks on one side allocated one point, and roads with sidewalks on two sides allocated two points.
63 Table 3 1. The Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street Block A Old Camp Road to Pedestrian Alley Imageability Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 1 0.41 0.41 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 0 0.72 0 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 0 0.97 0 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 2 0.11 0.22 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both sides) 2 0.08 0.16 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 2 0.64 1.28 Number of people Walk through 1 14 0 Walk through 2 10 0 Walk through 3 18 0 Walk through 4 17 0 Total 59 0 Total divided by 4 14.75 0.02 0.295 Noise level Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 3 0 Total 12 0 Total divided by 4 3 0.18 0.54 2.44 Imageability Score 4.265 Enclosure Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 1 0.72 0.72 Proportion street wall across (single side) 1 0.94 0.94 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.3 1.42 0.426 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.125 2.19 0.27375 Add constant 2.57 Enclosure Score 3.53025 Human Scale Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.6 1.1 0.66 Average building heights (each side) 17.5 0.003 0.0525 Number of small planters (both sides) 6 0.05 0.3 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both) 15 0.04 0.6 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 4.1175 Transparency Value Multiplier Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.6 1.22 0.732 Proportion street wall (each side) 1 0.67 0.67 Proportion active uses (each side) 1 0.53 0.53 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 3.642
64 Table 3 1 Continued Complexity Value Multiplier Number of buildings (both sides) 2 0.05 0.1 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 5 0.23 1.15 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 4 0.12 0.48 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 2 0.42 0.84 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 0 0.29 0 Number of walking pedestrians Walk through 1 7 0 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 8 0 Walk through 4 5 0 Total 23 0 Total divided by 4 5.75 0.03 0.1725 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 5.3525 Final Block Score 20.90275 Table 3 2. The Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street Block B Pedestrian Alley to Parking Lot Road Imageability Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 4 0.41 1.64 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 0 0.72 0 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 0 0.97 0 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 4 0.11 0.44 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both sides) 4 0.08 0.32 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 1 0.64 0.64 Number of people 18 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 19 0 Walk through 3 10 0 Walk through 4 16 0 Total 63 0 Total divided by 4 15.75 0.02 0.315 Noise level 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 3 0 Total 3 0 Total divided by 4 12 0 2.44 Imageability Score 5.795
65 Table 3 2 Continued Enclosure Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 1 0.72 0.72 Proportion street wall across (single side) 1 0.94 0.94 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.2 1.42 0.284 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.1 2.19 0.219 Add constant 2.57 Enclosure Score 3.727 Human Scale Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.9 1.1 0.99 Average building heights (each side) 20 0.003 0.06 Number of small planters (both sides) 20 0.05 1 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both) 15 0.04 0.6 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 5.14 Transparency Value Multiplier Total Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.9 1.22 1.098 Proportion street wall (each side) 1 0.67 0.67 Proportion active uses (each side) 1 0.53 0.53 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 4.008 Complexity Value Multiplier Total Number of buildings (both sides) 4 0.05 0.2 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 7 0.23 1.61 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 6 0.12 0.72 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 1 0.42 0.42 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 0 0.29 0 Number of walking pedestrians 10 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 17 0 Walk through 3 8 0 Walk through 4 5 0 Total 40 0 Total divided by 4 10 0.03 0.3 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 5.86 Final Block Score 24.53
66 Table 3 3. The Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street Blo ck C Parking Lot Road to Pedestrian Alley Imageability Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 3 0.41 1.23 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 0 0.72 0 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 0 0.97 0 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 3 0.11 0.33 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both sides) 3 0.08 0.24 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.64 0 Number of people walk through 1 10 0 Walk through 2 17 0 Walk through 3 9 0 Walk through 4 21 0 Total 57 0 Total divided by 4 14.25 0.02 0.285 Noise level 2 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 2 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 3 0 Total 12 0 Total divided by 4 2.5 0 2.44 Imageability Score 4.525 Enclosure Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 1 0.72 0.72 Proportion street wall across (single side) 1 0.94 0.94 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.2 1.42 0.284 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.1 2.19 0.219 Add constant 2.57 Enclsure Score 3.727
67 Table 3 3 Continued Human Scale Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.925 1.1 1.0175 Average building heights (each side) 20 0.003 0.06 Number of small planters (both sides) 17 0.05 0.85 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both) 26 0.04 1.04 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 5.4575 Transparency Value Multiplier Total Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.925 1.22 1.1285 Proportion street wall (each side) 1 0.67 0.67 Proportion active uses (each side) 1 0.53 0.53 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 4.0385 Complexity Value Multiplier Total Number of buildings (both sides) 3 0.05 0.15 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 8 0.23 1.84 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 4 0.12 0.48 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.42 0 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 0 0.29 0 Number of walking pedestrians 4 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 7 0 Walk through 3 8 0 Walk through 4 9 0 Total 28 0 Total divided by 4 7 0.03 0.21 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 5.29 Final Block Score 23.038
68 Table 3 4. The Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street Block D Pedestrian Alley to Lake Sumter Landing Road Imageability Recorded Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 1 0.41 0.41 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 0 0.72 0 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 0 0.97 0 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 2 0.11 0.22 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both sides) 2 0.08 0.16 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 1 0.64 0.64 Number of people 18 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 16 0 Walk through 3 13 0 Walk through 4 19 0 Total 66 0 Total divided by 4 16.5 0.02 0.33 Noise level 3 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 3 0 Total 12 0 Total divided by 4 3 0 Add constant 2.44 Imageability Score 4.2 Enclosure Recorded Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 1 0.72 0.72 Proportion street wall across (single side) 1 0.94 0.94 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.1 1.42 0.142 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.05 2.19 0.1095 Add constant 2.57 Enclosure Score 3.9785
69 Table 3 4 Continued Human Scale Recorded Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.8 1.1 0.88 Average building heights (each side) 25 0.003 0.075 Number of small planters (both sides) 18 0.05 0.9 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both) 25 0.04 1 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 5.315 Transparency Recorded Value Multiplier Total Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.8 1.22 0.976 Proportion street wall (each side) 1 0.67 0.67 Proportion active uses (each side) 1 0.53 0.53 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 3.886 Complexity Recorded Value Multiplier Total Number of buildings (both sides) 2 0.05 0.1 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 9 0.23 2.07 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 11 0.12 1.32 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 1 0.42 0.42 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 0 0.29 0 Number of walking pedestrians 9 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 10 0 Walk through 3 8 0 Walk through 4 11 0 Total 38 0 Total divided by 4 9.5 0.03 0.285 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 6.805 Final Block D Score 24.1845
70 Table 3 5. The Villages Lake Sumter Landing Canal Street Block E Lake Sumter Landing Road to Lake Shore Drive Imageability Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 3 0.41 1.23 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 1 0.72 0.72 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 0 0.97 0 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 6 0.11 0.66 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both sides) 6 0.08 0.48 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 6 0.64 3.84 Number of people 35 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 42 0 Walk through 3 29 0 Walk through 4 31 0 Total 137 0 Total divided by 4 34.25 0.02 0.685 Noise level 4 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 4 0 Total 14 0 Total divided by 4 3.5 0 Add constant 2.44 Imageability Score 10.055 Enclosure Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 1 0.72 0.72 Proportion street wall across (single side) 0 0.94 0 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.2 1.42 0.284 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.15 2.19 0.3285 Add constant 2.57 Enclosure Score 2.6775
71 Table 3 5 Continued Human Scale Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.9 1.1 0.99 Average building heights (each side) 12.5 0.003 0.0375 Number of small planters (both sides) 27 0.05 1.35 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both) 24 0.04 0.96 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 5.8725 Transparency Value Multiplier Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.9 1.22 1.098 Proportion street wall (each side) 0.5 0.67 0.335 Proportion active uses (each side) 1 0.53 0.53 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 3.673 Complexity Value Multiplier Number of buildings (both sides) 6 0.05 0.3 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 10 0.23 2.3 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 8 0.12 0.96 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 6 0.42 2.52 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 0 0.29 0 Number of walking pedestrians 15 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 20 0 Walk through 3 18 0 Walk through 4 21 0 Total 25 0 Total divided by 4 6.25 0.03 0.1875 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 8.8775 Final Block E Score 31.1555
72 Table 3 6. New Smyrna Beach Canal Street Block A Dixie Highway to Orange Street Imageability Recorded Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 0 0.41 0 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 0 0.72 0 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 0.9 0.97 0.873 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 4 0.11 0.44 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both sides) 3 0.08 0.24 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.64 0 Number of people Walk through 1 2 0 Walk through 2 0 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 0 0 Total 5 0 Total divided by 4 1.25 0.02 0.025 Noise level Walk through 1 4 0 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 4 0 Total 14 0 Total divided by 4 3.5 0 Add constant 2.44 Imageability Score 4.018 Enclosure Recorded Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 0.9 0.72 0.648 Proportion street wall across (single side) 0.9 0.94 0.846 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.2 1.42 0.284 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.1 2.19 0.219 Add constant 2.57 Enclosure Score 3.561
73 Table 3 6 Continued Human Scale Recorded Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.875 1.1 0.9625 Average building heights (each side) 20 0.003 0.06 Number of small planters (both sides) 6 0.05 0.3 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both sides) 7 0.04 0.28 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 4.0925 Transparency Recorded Value Multiplier Total Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.875 1.22 1.0675 Proportion street wall (each side) 0.9 0.67 0.603 Proportion active uses (each side) 0.525 0.53 0.27825 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 3.65875 Complexity Recorded Value Multiplier Total Number of buildings (both sides) 5 0.05 0.25 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 2 0.23 0.46 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 4 0.12 0.48 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.42 0 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 0 0.29 0 Number of walking pedestrians Walk through 1 2 0 Walk through 2 0 0 Walk through 3 1 0 Walk through 4 0 0 Total 3 0 Total divided by 4 0.75 0.03 0.0225 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 3.8225 Final Block A Score 19.15275
74 Table 3 7. New Smyrna Beach Canal Street Block B Orange Street to Palmetto Street Imageability Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 1 0.41 0.41 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 0 0.72 0 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 0 0.97 0 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 5 0.11 0.55 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both) 4 0.08 0.32 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.64 0 Number of people 3 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 2 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 0 0 Total 8 0 Total divided by 4 2 0.02 0.04 Noise level 3 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 3 0 Total 12 0 Total divided by 4 3 0 Add constant 2.44 Total 3.76 Enclosure Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 0.9 0.72 0.648 Proportion street wall across (single side) 0.9 0.94 0.846 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.2 1.42 0.284 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.125 2.19 0.27375 Add constant 2.57 Human Scale Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.85 1.1 0.935 Average building heights (each side) 17.5 0.003 0.0525 Number of small planters (both sides) 9 0.05 0.45 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both) 8 0.04 0.32 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 4.2625
75 Table 3 7 Continued Transparency Value Multiplier Total Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.85 1.22 1.037 Proportion street wall (each side) 0.9 0.67 0.603 Proportion active uses (each side) 0.525 0.53 0.27825 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 3.62825 Complexity Value Multiplier Total Number of buildings (both sides) 6 0.05 0.3 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 4 0.23 0.92 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 4 0.12 0.48 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.42 0 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 1 0.29 0.29 Number of walking pedestrians 2 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 2 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 0 0 Total 7 0 Total divided by 4 1.75 0.03 0.0525 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 4.6525 Final Block B Score 19.8095
76 Table 3 8. New Smyrna Beach Canal Street Block C Palmetto Street to Live Oak Street Imageability Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 0 0.41 0 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 0 0.72 0 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 0.9 0.97 0.873 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 4 0.11 0.44 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both) 2 0.08 0.16 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.64 0 Number of people Walk through 1 1 0 Walk through 2 2 0 Walk through 3 4 0 Walk through 4 1 0 Total 8 0 Total divided by 4 2 0.02 0.04 Noise level 3 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 3 0 Total 12 0 Total divided by 4 3 0 Add constant 2.44 Imageability Score 3.953 Enclosure Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 0.5 0.72 0.36 Proportion street wall across (single side) 1 0.94 0.94 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.2 1.42 0.284 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.125 2.19 0.27375 Add constant 2.57 Enclosure Score 3.31225
77 Table 3 8 Continued Human Scale Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.625 1.1 0.6875 Average building heights (each side) 17.5 0.003 0.0525 Number of small planters (both sides) 7 0.05 0.35 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both sides) 10 0.04 0.4 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 3.995 Transparency Value Multiplier Total Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.625 1.22 0.7625 Proportion street wall (each side) 0.75 0.67 0.5025 Proportion active uses (each side) 0.575 0.53 0.30475 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 3.27975 Complexity Value Multiplier Total Number of buildings (both sides) 4 0.05 0.2 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 2 0.23 0.46 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 3 0.12 0.36 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.42 0 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 0 0.29 0 Number of walking pedestrians 1 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 0 0 Walk through 3 0 0 Walk through 4 2 0 Total 3 0 Total divided by 4 0.75 0.03 0.0225 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 3.6525 Final Block C Score 18.1925
78 Table 3 9. New Smyrna Beach Canal Street Block D Live Oak Street to Magnolia Street Imageability Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 1 0.41 0.41 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 0 0.72 0 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 0.6 0.97 0.582 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 4 0.11 0.44 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both) 4 0.08 0.32 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 1 0.64 0.64 Number of people 5 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 6 0 Total 17 0 Total divided by 4 4.25 0.02 0.085 Noise level 3 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 3 0 Total 12 0 Total divided by 4 3 0 Add constant 2.44 Total 4.917 Enclosure Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 0.8 0.72 0.576 Proportion street wall across (single side) 0.5 0.94 0.47 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.2 1.42 0.284 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.1 2.19 0.219 Add constant 2.57 Enclosure Score 3.113 Human Scale Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.75 1.1 0.825 Average building heights (each side) 22.5 0.003 0.0675 Number of small planters (both sides) 7 0.05 0.35 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both) 6 0.04 0.24 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 3.9575
79 Table 3 9 Continued Transparency Value Multiplier Total Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.75 1.22 0.915 Proportion street wall (each side) 0.65 0.67 0.4355 Proportion active uses (each side) 0.5 0.53 0.265 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 3.3255 Complexity Value Multiplier Total Number of buildings (both sides) 4 0.05 0.2 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 3 0.23 0.69 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 4 0.12 0.48 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 1 0.42 0.42 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 0 0.29 0 Number of walking pedestrians 4 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 2 0 Walk through 4 0 0 Total 9 0 Total divided by 4 2.25 0.03 0.0675 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 4.4675 Final Block D Score 19.7805
80 Table 3 10 New Smyrna Beach Canal Street Block E Magnolia Street to Riverside Drive Imageability Value Multiplier Total Number of courtyards, plazas, and parks (both sides) 2 0.41 0.82 Number of major landscape features (both sides) 1 0.72 0.72 Proportion historic building frontage (both sides) 1 0.97 0.97 Number of buildings with identifiers (both sides) 0.75 0.11 0.0825 Number of buildings w/ non rectangular shapes (both sides) 4 0.08 0.32 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.64 0 Number of people 4 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 2 0 Walk through 3 5 0 Walk through 4 3 0 Total 14 0 Total divided by 4 3.5 0.02 0.07 Noise level 3 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 3 0 Walk through 3 3 0 Walk through 4 3 0 Total 12 0 Total divided by 4 3 0 Add constant 2.44 Imageability Score 5.4225 Enclosure Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.31 0 Proportion street wall (single side) 0.6 0.72 0.432 Proportion street wall across (single side) 0.8 0.94 0.752 Proportion sky ahead (both sides) 0.2 1.42 0.284 Proportion sky across (each side) 0.125 2.19 0.27375 Add constant 2.57 Enclosure Score 3.19625
81 Table 3 10 Continued Human Scale Value Multiplier Total Number of long sight lines (both sides) 0 0.74 0 Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.325 1.1 0.3575 Average building heights (each side) 17.5 0.003 0.0525 Number of small planters (both sides) 10 0.05 0.5 Number of pieces of street furniture/street items(both) 8 0.04 0.32 Add constant 2.61 Human Scale Score 3.735 Transparency Value Multiplier Total Proportion windows at street level (each side) 0.325 1.22 0.3965 Proportion street wall (each side) 0.7 0.67 0.469 Proportion active uses (each side) 0.2 0.53 0.106 Add constant 1.71 Transparency Score 2.6815 Complexity Value Multiplier Total Number of buildings (both sides) 4 0.05 0.2 Number of basic building colors (both sides) 2 0.23 0.46 Number of basic accent colors (both sides) 4 0.12 0.48 Presence of outdoor dining (both sides) 0 0.42 0 Number of pieces of public art (both sides) 1 0.29 0.29 Number of walking pedestrians 2 0 Walk through 1 Walk through 2 1 0 Walk through 3 2 0 Walk through 4 2 0 Total 7 0 Total divided by 4 1.75 0.03 0.0525 Add constant 2.61 Complexity Score 4.0925 Final Block E Score 19.12775
82 Table 3 11. Street indicator totals by indicator and b lock Indicator Block A Block B Block C Block D Block E Totals Imageability VIL 4.27 5.80 4.53 4.20 10.06 28.84 Imageability NSB 4.02 3.76 3.95 4.92 5.42 22.07 Enclosure VIL 3.53 3.73 3.73 3.98 2.68 17.64 Enclosure NSB 3.56 3.51 3.31 3.11 3.20 16.69 Human Scale VIL 4.12 5.14 5.46 5.32 5.87 25.90 Human Scale NSB 4.09 4.26 4.00 3.96 3.74 20.04 Transparency VIL 3.64 4.01 4.04 3.89 3.67 19.25 Transparency NSB 3.66 3.63 3.28 3.33 2.68 16.57 Complexity VIL 5.35 5.86 5.29 6.81 8.88 32.19 Complexity NSB 3.82 4.65 3.65 4.47 4.09 20.69 VIL Block Total 20.91 24.53 23.04 24.18 31.16 123.82 NSB Block Total 19.15 19.81 18.19 19.78 19.13 96.06 Table 3 12. Intersection t ype Intersection Type Number Points Allocated Score Four Ways The Villages 4 2 8 New Smyrna Beach 32 2 68 T Junction The Villages 5 1 5 New Smyrna Beach 18 1 18 Cul de sac The Villages 0 2 0 New Smyrna Beach 0 2 0 Total The Villages 9 13 New Smyrna Beach 50 86
83 Table 3 13. Street and sidewalk t ype Street Type Number Points Allocated Score Streets with no sidewalk The Villages 4 1 4 New Smyrna Beach 0 1 0 Pedestrian Alleys The Villages 11 .5 5.5 New Smyrna Beach 5 .5 2.5 Streets single sidewalk The Villages 1 1 1 New Smyrna Beach 0 1 Streets double sidewalks The Villages 6 2 12 New Smyrna Beach 18 2 36 Total The Villages 14.5 New Smyrna Beach 39.5 Figure 3 1 Indicator t otals 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 The Villages New Smyrna Beach
84 Figure 3 2 The Villa g es Block Figure 3 3 New Smyrna Beach Block
85 Figure 3 4 Th e Villages, Block A, West Figure 3 5 The Villages, Block A, East Figure 3 6 The Villages, Block B, West Figure 3 7 The Villages, Block B, East Figure 3 8 The Villages, Block C, West Figure 3 9 The Villages, Block C, East Figure 3 10 The Villages, Block D, West
86 Figure 3 11 The Villages, Block D, East Figure 3 12 The Villages, Block E, West Figure 3 13 New Smyrna Beach, Block A, North Figure 3 14 New Smyrna Beach, Block A, South Figure 3 15 New Smyrna Beach, Block B, North Figure 3 1 6 New Smyrna Beach, Block B South
87 Figure 3 17 New Smyrna Beach, Block C, North Figure 3 1 8 New Smyrna Beach, Block C, South Figure 3 19 New Smyrna Beach, Block D, North Figure 3 2 0 New Smyrna Beach, Block D, South Figure 3 2 1 New Smyrna Beach, Block E, North
88 Figure 3 23 New Smyrna Beach, Block E, South
89 F igure 3 2 4. Figure g round The Villages at Lake Sumtet Landing, Fl Figure 3 25. Figure g round New Smynra Beach
90 Figure 3 26. Land use d iversity The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing, FL Figure 3 27. Land use d iversity New Smyrna Beach FL
91 Figure 3 28. Street and sidewalk n etwork The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing, FL Figure 3 29. Street and sidewalk n etwork New Smyrna Beach, FL
92 Figure 3 30 Building diversity by q uantity and p ercent The Villages Figure 3 31 Building d iversity by q uantity and p ercent New Smyrna Beach 38, 54% 29, 42% 2, 3% 1, 1% Commerce Residential Single Family Public Hotel 100, 46% 82, 38% 11, 5% 5, 2% 1, 1% 10, 5% 2, 1% 5, 2% Commerce Residential Single Family Residential Multi Family Public B&B Institution Recreation Industrial
93 Figure 3 32 Street & sidewalk network by quantity and p ercentage The Villages Figure 3 33 Street & s i dewalk network by quantity and p ercentage New Smyrna Beach 4, 44% 5, 56% Four-Ways T-Junctions 32, 86% 5, 14% Four-Ways T-Junction
94 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS : SPATIAL QUA LITIES THAT ATTRACT BABY BOOMER S In this chapter, findings from each case study are presented based upon the method ology described in Chapter 3 This chapter is divided into two parts based upon the observational data from the Street Manual and Urban Fabric Indicators. Part one was directe d by the manual Measuring Urban Design Qualities: an Illustrated Field Manual prepared by the Active Living Research Program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to determine the success of street design. Part two uses diagrammatic mapping guided by the study Linking urban design to sustainability: formal indicators of social urban sustainability field research in Perth, Western Australia by Porta and R enne (2005). This study is used to determine contextual quality of the urban fabric. The information will indicate the presence of design qualities and the associated human use patterns inherent within the main streets of two downtown street segments. Part one, The Street Manual, presents findings from case studies of New Smyrna Beach and The Villages in five sections. The sections are categorized by each indicator: imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity. Each indicator will first be discussed with a brief introduction of the indicator, second with an analysis of The Villages and third with an analysis of New Smyrna Beach including comparison s to The Villages. Part two, Urban Fabric Indicators, presents findings from the case studies in three sections. These sections are categorized by each indicator: permeability, accessibility, and land use diversity. Each indicator will first be discussed with a brief introduction of the indicator, second with an analysis of The Villa ges, and third with an analysis of New Smyrna Beach including comparison s to The Villages.
95 Part 1 The Street Manual Indicators This section will discuss the data collected using Measuring Urban Design Qualities: an Illustrated Field Manual. Data collec tions are separated by block and labeled as A, B, C, D, and E for both street segments. This section will discuss unique complexity to compare figures and distinguish notab le differences between each of the blocks and street segments. Individual block data from each str eet is organized in Table s 3 1 through 3 10 with to tal scores from each block orga nized in Table 3 11 and Figure 3 1. Table 3 11 r ead horizontally, compares each block within its street segment; read vertically, each block can be compared to its counterpart from the opposing street segment with one caveat. It is not intended for direct comparisons to be made between blocks from opposing street segments such as block A from the Villages and block A from New Smyrna beach, as each block contains different qualities that skew th e indicators. For example, if a block contains a plaza or park, the block may score higher for imageability while scoring lower for encl osure due to less street wall frontage. It is however, intended for each street segment and indicator to be compared overall so that each street is given equal opportunity to collectively display successful urban design qualities. This is most e vident in the column of totals in Figure 3 1. Each indicator is given a value based on a set of pre determined criteria as shown in each of the score sheets. The criteria and thus the differences revealed in the data from block to block and more generally between the two street segments will be discussed in the following paragraphs to expose the strengths and weaknesses of each
9 6 within each criteria set that created significant differences between street segments. The differences discussed can be seen in photographs in Figures 3 4 through 3 23 Preview of Results The overall street segment totals shown in Table 3 11 and Figure 3 1 reveal differences in the level of quality as measured per each of the five indicators. Rea ding Table 3 11 horizontally reveals the totals from The Villages as more successful than New Smyrna Beach in each indicator although some do not display significant disparities. E nclosure in New Smyrna Beach is only marginally less than The V i llages with an interval of 0.92 causing this indicator to be the most closely related The second most similar indicator value is transpa r ency with an interval of 2.67 Third is human scale with an interval of 5.86 and fourth is imageability with an interval of 6.77 Complexity presents the largest interval of difference with The Villages ranking 11. 5 above New Smyrna Beach. Criteria for each indicator will be discussed in relation to the full length of the street segment, however, significant findings from specific blocks may be included to explain why New Smyrna Beach scored beneath The Villages or vice versa. This discussion will include an analysis of the specific urban design attributes associated to causing h igher scores according to measurable human perception. Indicator #1 Imageability Imageability is defined by Clemente et al., (2005) as the quality of a place that makes it distinct, recognizable, and memorable. A place has high imageability when specific physical elements and their arrangement capture attention, evoke feelings, and
97 create a lasting impr p. 6). The manual required eight distinct observations to determine the level of imageability and were as follows: The first criterion of imageability requires observation of the number of courtyards, plazas, and parks on both sides of the street; within the study area, 12 such spaces existed including one large civic square, a boardwalk a t the terminus of the street, two small plazas such as the cinema focal point, and 9 small courtyards including small gathering areas ( including a mix of benches and movable chairs ) at retail entries not intended for dining purposes. The second criterion requires observat ion of major landscape features on both sides of the street ; within the study area only one major landscape feature existed as this criterion requires only natural features to be counted. A waterfront, including a boardwalk feature, is located at the term inus of the street. The third criterion requires observation of historic building frontage; although The Villages Lake Sumter Landing was developed to portray historic ambiance, none of the structures are dated prior to the 1990 s. Therefore, the street r ates poorly for this criterion. The fourth criterion requires observation of the number of buildings with identifiers on both sides of the street; within the study area all buildings contained identifiers including unique signs, banners, and architectural styles. The fifth criterion requires observation of the number of buildings with non rectangular shapes on both sides of the street; within the study area all buildings were styled with non rectangular features including various pitched roofs, chimneys, and decorative cornices. The sixth criterion requires observation of the presence of outdoor di ning; within the study area ten outdoor dining areas exist including chain restaurants such as Johnny Rockets, l mom n pop restaurants such as
98 Red Sauce and Tea Plantation. The seventh criterion requires observation of the number of people walking, sitting, or standing within 50 feet of the observation point. After repeating this step four times, the highest amou nt recorded w as 42 located near the park in B lock E and the lowest number recorded was 9 l ocated in B lock C in the center of the street segment near gift shops; accordingly, the highest and lowest averages were recorded on these same blocks ranging from 14 .25 to 34.25 people. The eighth and final criterion for imageability requires observation of the noise level on both side of the street; noise levels were recorded at outdoor dining spaces, plazas where people gathered to enter the cinema, and street inte rsections heavily traversed by pedestrians and automobiles. Imageability in New Smyrna Beach was less successful than the cohesive image developed in The Villages. In general the street segment scored lower as each block lacked the level of detail and intensity of uses present in New Smyrna Beach. The first criterion for courtyards, plazas and parks totaled 4 compared to 1 2 in The Villages. These included a waterfront park with boardwalk, a small picnic area, and the front lawn of a Queen Anne home r epurposed into an antique shop. Unlike The Villages, there is a lack of designated small public courtyards aside from solitary benches. The second criterion for major landscape features scores equal to The Villages with one waterfront feature. The third criterion is allocated the largest multiplier; historic building frontage scores vastly higher than The Villages structures were built in the early to mid 1900s. According to the Volusia County Property Ap praiser ( n.d. ), the earliest standing structure was built in 1906, although, the building is marked with 1905. The fourth criterion for buildings with identifiers scored
99 similarly to New Smyrna Beach as a majority of structures contain retail or office an d thus portray signage. The fifth criterion for non rectangular buildings also scores similarly to The Villages on most blocks as it was common practice in the early 1900s to use ornate cornices, although some of these elements have disappeared during mai ntenance and renovation Most recent structures are void of details that distinguish them as imageable. The sixth criterion for outdoor dining lacks significantly as there is one restaurant with two tables in front of the e stablishment as compared to ten in The Villages. The seventh criterion for number of people reflects the lack of design attractors as the highest recorded number of people was eight and the lowest was zero with an average range of 1.25 to 4.25 people. The final imageability criterion for noise levels scores similarly to The Villages, with the loudest noise levels recorded next to a highway in Block A. Indicator #2 Enclosure Enclosure is defined by Clemente et al., (2005) the degree to which streets and other public spaces are vis ually defined by buildings, walls, trees, and other elements. Spaces where the height of vertical elements is proportionally related to the width of the space between them have a room p. 14). The manual required five distinct observations to determine the level of enclosure and were as follows: The first criterion of enclosure requires observation of the number of long sight lines; within the street segment long sight lines were not recorded as each street is enclosed by buildings fronting the street and the regular spacing of mature trees. The second and third criterion require observation of the proportion of street wall on each si de of the street; excepting where the civic park is located on Block E every block is
100 fronted 100 % with bui ldings. The fourth and fifth criterion requires observation of the proportion of sky looking down the street as well as looking across the street. The quantity of sky seen between landscape and structures in The Villages is relatively low as it ranges fr om approximately 30 % visible sky in Block A to 10 % visible sky in Block D. Enclosure in New Smyrna Beach maintains the lowest disparity as i t scored only 0.95 less than The Villages with the main cause for disparity apportioned to the number of shorter structures thereby increasing the proportion of sky and decreasing the block score The regular spacing of street trees enhanced the level of enclosure and was observed to be nearly identical to The Villages in both spacing and tree t ype. For the first criterion, long sight lines were not recorded within the street segment. The second and third criterion for the proportion of street wall scored lower as the streets are not fronted entirely by buildings; the highest recording accounted for 90 % street frontage and lowest recording was 50 % on Block C due to a repair shop located approximately 40 feet from the sidewalk and Block D with a small pocket park and adjacent parking lot. The fourth and fifth criterion for proportion of sky dif fers the most significantly from The Villages due to a higher ratio of shorter structures. New Smyrna Beach has several one story buildings allowing for a higher proportion of sky. Indicator #3 Human Scale Human scale is defined by Clemente et al., (20 05) the size, texture, and articulation of physical elements that match the size and proportions of humans and, equally important, correspond to the speed at which humans walk. Building details, pavement texture, street trees, and street furniture are all physical elements contributing
101 to human sc 18). The manual required five distinct observations to determine the level of human scale and were as follows: The first criterion for hum an scale is long sight lines, which is also the first criteri on for enclosure discussed prior to this indicator; within this street segment a score of zero was applied to each block. The second criterion requires observation of the proportion of windows at street level on each side of the street; within the street segment most blocks were scored with 90 % window coverage with the lowest being 30 % window coverage on the Toojays restaurant located in Block A. The third criterion required observation of average building heights; within the street segment most buildin gs ranged between 15 to 20 feet with the tallest structure being two stories. The fourth criterion required observation of the number of small planters; the street segment scored very high as palm trees were located approximately every 10 steps and the si dewalk was decorated with flower boxes and urns. The highest number of small planters was recorded at 20 with the lowest number at 6 planters. The final criterion for human scale required observation of the number of pieces of street furniture and other street items; several items contributed to the high score such as tables, chairs, benches, trash cans, pedestrian lighting, banners, and small flower pots. Street furniture scores ranged from 15 to 26 items. New Smyrna Beach sco red 5.86 less than The Vi llages a s an indicator of human scale with the most s ignificant disparities in criterion four and five recording the number of small planters and number of street furniture items. As stated in criterion one of the enclosure indicator, long sight lines we re not recorded; therefore, this criterion did not contribute to the overall score difference. Criterion two, proportion of windows at street
102 level, scored only slightly less than The Villages, as a majority of buildings were originally constructed for re tail purposes. Block E scored the lowest at approximately 32.5 % due to a Southern Bell facility almost entirely void of windows. Aside from Block E, all other blocks contain approximately 85 % window coverage, which is close to the average of 90 % windo w coverage in The Villages. Criterion three, building heights, decreases the score as more building heights were reco rded at 15 feet compared to majority of heights recorded at 20 feet in The Villages. Despite frequent street tree placement, criterion fo ur, number of small planters, lacked in comparison to The Villages due to a lower quantity of small planters such as flower boxes and urns. Criterion five, number of street furniture items, created the largest disparity as ten was the highest recorded num ber of items and six was the lowest compared to a high of 26 and a low of 15. Indicator # 4 Transparency Transparency is defined by Clemente et al., (2005) the degree to which people can see or perceive what lies beyond the edge of a street or othe r public space and more specifically, the degree to which people can see or perceive human activity beyond the edge of a street or other public space. Physical elements that influence transparency include walls, windows, doors, fences, landscaping, and openings into midblock p 24). The manual required three distinct observations to determine the level of transparency and were as follows: The first criterion of transparency, proportion of wind ows at street level, which is the same as the seco nd criterion of indicator three of human scale recorded approximately 90 % window coverage on most blocks. Criterion two, proportion of street wall on each side scored 100 % as every block is fronted with buildings. This is
103 void of any pedestrian paths th at cross between buildings. Criterion three, required observation of the proportion of active uses within the buildings and also scored 100 % as every building was occupied by a retailer. New Smyrna Beach scored 2.67 less than The Villages due to the hi gh proportion of inactive uses. As stated in criterion two of human scale, the proportion of windows in New Smyrna Beach is only marginally less than The Villages. Criterion two, proportion of street wall, is also similar to The Villages, although New Sm yrna Beach has one vacant lot and two parking areas adjacent to the street. Blocks averaged between 65 % to 85 % street frontage although several blocks were at the higher end of the spectrum. Criterion three, proportion of active uses, created the large st disparity as several buildings were either vacant or occupied by inactive uses such as offices. Most blocks averaged around 50 % occupied with active uses with the exception of Block E, which houses the Southern Bell Facility on the south side and several county offices on the north side. Indicator #5 Complexity Complexity is defined by Clemente et al., (2005) the visual richness of a place. The complexity of a place depends on the variety of the physical environment, s pecifically the numbers and kinds of buildings, architectural diversity and ornamentation, landscape elements, street furniture, signage, and huma p 28). The manual required six distinct observations to determine the level of complexity and w ere as follows: The first criterion of complexity required observation of the number of buildings on both sides of the street. Most blocks contained one to two large buildings on each side of the street with each building typically containing architectura l features to create an
104 appearance of several buildings. Criterion two and three required observation of the basic and accent colors on both sides of the street. Not including multiple shades of the same color, Block D scored the highest with nine basic colors and eleven accent colors. Block A contained the least amount of color variation with five basic colors and four accent colors. Criterion four required observation of the presence of outdoor dining ; within the street segment ten outdoor dining loca tions exist. The fifth criterion requires recording the number of pieces of public art; within the street segment, no public art exists. The final criterion of complexity requires observation of the number of walking pedestrians which differs from criter ion seven of the imageability indicator which allowed for any person walking, standing, or sitting within 50 feet. Within the street segment the highest score for pedestrians was located near in Block D at the busiest intersection for both pedestrians and automobiles recorded an average of 9.5. The lowest score was located farthest from the park and nearest to regional automobile roads in Block A with an average of 5.75 pedestrians. New Smyrna Beach scored the largest difference of 11. 5 lower than The Vi llages for the complexity indicator. The largest disparity is due to the lack of outdoor dining spaces as the difference in number is ten fold and is allocated the largest multiplier for this criterion Criterion one, number of buildings, scores similarly to The Villages as several of the block s are created with continuous facades along full block strucutres Criterion two and three for basic and accent colors scores significantly beneath The Villages with the high score being less than The Villages low s core. The highest score was recorded on Block B at four basic and four accent colors. The lowest score was recorded on Block C with two basic colors and three accent colors. Criterion four,
105 outdoor dining only scored one in Block D although this locatio n was limited to two small tables and severely lacking curb appeal. Compared to The Villages where outdoor dining was distinguished by umbrellas, organized tables and chairs, canopies, and lighting Criterion five, public art, is the only criterion to su rpass The Villages with the placement of one piece of public art in the form of a wall mural located on Block B. The final criterion of complexity requires observation of the number of walking pedestrians; w ithin the street segment the highest average rec ord of pedestrians is located on Block D at 2.25 and the lowest on Blocks A and C .75 pedestrians compared to a high of 9.5 pedestrians in The Villages. Part 2 Urban Fabric Indicators This section will discuss the data collected using Linking urban desig n to sustainability: formal indicators of social urban sustainability field research in Perth, Western Australia Findings from the urban indicators will discuss land use diversity, permeability and accessibility associated with development patterns and human use. Each indicator is accessed quantitatively according to the diagrammatic maps in Figures 3 24 through 3 29 showing figure ground, land use diversity, and lastly street and sidewalk network. Each image is then expressed quantitatively through a coordinating table of values and a graph representing both values and percentages. Discussion will provide an explanation of the unique design features displayed in each diagram that are responsible for significant numerical differences represented in the corresponding tables and graphs. Preview of Results The urban fabric i ndicators shown in Tables 3 12 and 3 13 as well as Figure s 3 24 through 3 33 reveal differences in the contextual formation of blocks surrounding the
106 main streets as measured per each o f the three indicators. The data reveals New Smyrna Beach outperforms The Villages in each indicator. The most significant differ ences are noted in Figure 3 24 through 3 27 showing figure ground and land use diversity maps. These show the contrast betwe en traditional and suburban development patterns that were both developed around a town center and main street concept. New Smyrna Beach shows a higher density of buildings and increased mix of uses. The diagrams are reinforced with Figures 3 30 and 3 31 expressing the quantity and percentage of each type of land use with notable differences in the number of commercial and residential structures and the lack of multi family residential, industrial, and institutional in The Villages. Results for each indi cator will be discussed in relation to the one quarter mile radius surrounding the street segment. Significant findings from each diagrammatic map s pecific blocks may be included to explain why New Smyrna Beach scored beneath The Villages or vice versa. This discussion will include an analysis of the specific urban design attributes associated to causing higher scores according to measurable human perception. Indicator #1 Land Use Diversity walkable catchment area. A high value of diversity may increase consumer choice to a greater degree for maintaining an urban lifestyle without increasing the need for motorized movem 52) The Villages dev elopment plan, sho wn in Figure3 26 separates uses so that residential, both single and multi family, are distanced from any commercial development. The plan utilizes a town center theme entirely void of any residential uses
107 and limited in office spaces, public facilities and i nstitutions. As seen in Figure 3 30 commerce accounts for 54 % of structures and residential accounts for 42 % however public and hotel space is extremely limited. If the values of each land use type were shown numerically in square footage, the results would show significantly higher percentages of commercial over residen tial or any other use. Table s 3 26 and 3 30 show that zero structures exist for multi family residential, industrial, or recreational purposes. The majority of buildings house retail such as clothing and restaurants with a mix of chains and mom n pop stores. A majority of retailers and restaurants within the one quarter mile radius are chain stores. Included in the minority of non chain stores are businesses operated by The Vi llages such as The Villages Insurance, Citizens First Wholesale Mortgage Co., and The Villages Sales and Information Center. Figure 3 26 represents The Villages Sales and Information Center as well as the clinic in blue denoting public buildings; The Vill ages have several governing entities operated on the premise therefore, this building is deemed public. Other uses include o ffice s, banks and investment companies such as Charles Schwab and Morgan Stanley Smith Barney. New Smyrna Beach presents a devel opment pattern similar to most early American downtown main streets with a mix of residential, both single and multifamily, as well as a mix of services and employment includ ing retail, office, medical, and industrial. In this way, it is entirely differen t i n comparison to The Villages. The main street segments serve a similar purpose with a majority of structures housing retail and restaurants, however, New Smyrna Beach has an increased mix of office space and municipal services. According to Figure 3 3 1 38 % of structures are commerce related and 43 % are single and multi family Converse to The Villages, the main street of New
108 Smyrna Beach is encompassed by residential within the walkable catchment of a one quarter mile radius. Also, an increased mi x of institutional facilities exists, mostly comprised of churches and some hospital uses. A limited number of light industrial uses and recreational facilities are also present which are non existent in The Villages. Indicator #2 Permeability Permeabi 2005, p 53 ) The Villages utilizes an organically developed master plan with limited street network designed to mobilize automobiles. Figure 3 28 shows that within a one quarter mile radius a total of nine intersections exist. Permeability is decreased inherently d ue to the limited number of streets and further degraded by excessive T Jun ctions. According to Figure 3 32 more than fifty % of the intersections are T Junctions, thereby, reducing the level of permeability and creating superblocks intended to disguise large lots of surface parking. New Smyrna Beach utilizes an orthogonal grid of blocks ranging between 200 feet to 300 feet in length and width. As shown in Figure 3 29 the small scale street network enhances mobility for both automobiles and pedestrians Within a one quarter mile radius exists a total of fifty intersections, a five fold increase over The Villages. Inversely to The Villages, four way intersections account for over fifty % of intersections with a total 32 four ways as compared to four in The Villages. According to Figure 3 33 86 % of intersection s are four ways as compared to 44 % in the Villages, thereby
109 increasing the interconnectedness of the street network and enhancing legibility and user friendliness Indicator #3 Accessibility Renne, 2005, p 52). Figure 3 28 shows The Villages does not have a pedestrian friendly pla n for individuals accessing the town center, however, the main streets of the town center exhibit highly efficient pedestrian friendliness with wide sidewalks on both sides of the street and traffic calmed intersections. Entering the town center from the suburban residential development requires lengthy, undesirable walking conditions past large surface parking lots prior to entering the pedestrian zone. In addition, the street surrounding and l eading into the town center has no s idewalks on either side. Despite a lack of sidewalks on the auto oriented streets surrounding the town center several of these streets are lined with golf cart paths frequently used by pedestrians. The town center is intended to be accessed by automobile or golf cart Regardless of the town center streets possessing sidewalks, the level of connectedness beyond the structures is low, thereby, creating undesirable walking conditions. Comparison of Figures 3 28 and 3 29 shows New Smyrna Beach exhibits significantly inc reased quality of accessibility compared to The Villages due to a small scale street patter n and high percentage of sidewalks within the one quarter mile radius. Several blocks are divided by alleys thereby increasing walkability due to low volumes of tra ffic and highly interconnected block patterns. Within the southern portion of the
110 one quarter mile radius, every block is divided by an alley. These alleys do not contain sidewalks although; the traffic volume is generally limited to residents of those b locks. Summary The findings discuss ed data in two parts according to the Street Manual Indicators and Urban Fabric Indicators. The data collected through observation and diagramming clarifies the difference in development patterns bet ween The Villages a nd New Smyrna Beach to highlight disparities in street design and urban form. Generally, The Villages outperforms New Smyrna Beach regarding stree t design however the opposite is true of urban form. Traditional patterns of street development oriented tow ards pedestrian movement are evident in Figures 3 28 and 3 29 showing the permeability and accessi bility that allows for legibility and connectivity. Traditional development in The Villages is restricted to the town center where utilization of street desi gn techniques implement user friendly zones for both the pedestrian and automobile. Results from the Street Manual were categorized by each indicator: imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity. The indicators express that score s for The Villages are more successful in every category. Additionally, The Villages rated higher in almost every criterion per block with the exception of blocks such as the one containing a park in Block E where multipliers for proportion of street wall frontage and window frontage cause the block score to decrease. However, the park is an asset to the community and in that way increases the overall value of the street and urban fabric. Results from the diagrams produced a graphic understanding of the development pattern as well as empirical evidence expressing the difference in the level of efficiency for walkability and access to services. The findings indicate that The Villages are
111 outperformed by New Smyrna Beach which contains significantly mo re streets in a small scale network with a majority of four way intersections thereby increasing legibility and interconnectedness. Further, the increased street network also enhances the level of walkability with a majority of streets having sidewalks on both sides. Overall, a combination of empirical ev idence and diagramming shows that each city has strengths and weaknesses. The Villages are strong in urban design concerning the main street corridor where the pedestrian is provided a user friendly e nvironment for walking and shopping. However, there is a lack of services aside from retail and a severe lack in pedestrian connections leading to the main street. Conversely, New Smyrna Beach performs well regarding the urban fabric where streets and si dewalks provide a high level of interconnectedness and services are distributed throughout the blocks.
112 CHAPTER 5 WHAT A CITY CAN LEARN FROM A SUBURB AND VICE VERSA The final chapter will provide a discussion of how the literature review and research conducted in this study supports the question of the means by which urban design qualities can be marketed to attract aging baby boomers. This study utilizes two methods for measuring and comparing street design and urban form in the selected communities of The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing, Florida and New Smyrna Beach, FL. Based on the findings from this study and the supportive literature, it is assumed that there is a higher frequency of people engaging in built environments based upon their aesthet ic preferences rather than functional needs. The findings show that The Villages do not provide the necessary functional needs such as co location of services in an accessible manner; it does, however, score highly in aesthetic appeal. Conversely, New Sm yrna Beach provides a highly functional urban form although it severely lacks aesthetic appeal. 55 and above with focused advertising of golf courses including golf cart frien dly transportation that was the impetus of its urban form. It is not the intention of this thesis to recommend New Smyrna Beach replicate amenities such as golfing. It should, however, reflect upon the highly successful marketing campaign and apply techn iques to draw attention to underutilized resources such as the walkable urban form, impromptu sociability, co location of services, beach lifestyle, and the arts overlay district. Further, it is hypothesized that New Smyrna Beach could benefit from using the popular buzz wo rd, smart growth, to package it s innate qualities as a unique destination for relocation. The intent of this study was to:
113 Provide insight on the link between concept marketing and smart growth as a targeted marketing strategy. Provide insight into the interests of aging baby boomers and their lifestyle preferences in selecting a community to age in place. Provide a comparison of two communities; New Smyrna Beach, a community established in the 1800s developed as a traditional town and The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing established in the 1990s as an age restricted community developed in the conventional suburban form. Suggest that if the street design qualities seen in The Villages are preferred by aging citizens as is proven accordin g to the Street Manual Indicators as well as literature linking design features to human response and urban form qualities of New Smyrna Beach are preferred as is proven according to the Urban Form Indicators and literature linking preferences for smart gr owth development, then applying successful street design qualities to an established urban form should result in increased attraction. Provide suggestions for each community based on the successes and failures measured in this study. The first b aby boomer s reached retirement age in 2008 ; the over 65 population will eventually climax to approximately 72 million, nearly double the current statistics. Presently, Florida is one of seven states comprised of at least 15 % of the population aged 65 and above (MetLife 2010). In 2010 the population of Florida aged 65 and above was estimated at 3,418,697 with a projected increase to 7,769,452 by 2030 (US Census Bureau, 2010). These statistics include residents of Florida wh o will soon become part of the over 65 category, however, a large percentage will include migrants from northern states. Many small Floridian communities seek to increase their revenues and create sustainable economic growth for the future; using their ass ets to attract the elderly population with the most discretionary income may be one solution to reviving Florida Main Streets and filling the overflow of construction boom housing. In addition to projections estimating increased elderly populations is th e
114 this study as it is concerned primarily with design qualities and conducted with the understanding that several factors determine permanent relocation, it is presume d that due to a high frequency of relocation to The Villages, baby boomers are attracted to the urban design qualities exhibited in addition to the amenities offered. However, contrary to population growth in The Villages, an examination of real estate pre ferences expresses an interest by baby boomers in smart growth development, which exhibits not only urban design qualities as measured per the field manual, but also urban form which allows for accessibility via walking and public transport from home to se rvices. The Villages do not exhibit the urban form of a smart growth development as the form, aside from the town center, is considered conventional suburban sprawl. The following sections will discuss the real estate market for smart growth among the el derly population and how it can be implemented with clever marketing and street design as seen in The Villages. The Market for Smart Growth This section will focus on the market for smart growth as a means to attract various age ranges, thereby, creating a sustainable population to support the baby boom generation. The intention is to prove that with the proper concept marketing campaign and application of urban design techniques, New Smyrna Beach could compete with The Villages to attract baby boomers se eking to permanently relocate for aging in place. Smart growth communities are most attractive to people aged below 40 and above 60 (Logan et al., n.d. ). New Smyrna Beach has an opportunity to capitalize upon the boomers seeking to relocate for retireme nt in an environment that will allow aging in place and sustainable growth. Congruently, an increase in the aged population will
115 require an increase in desired services with emphasis on healthcare. It has been proven that smart growth communities attract the under 40 population and thus will likely attract healthcare professionals and health and life style service providers such as meal delivery, transportation, house cleaning. Recent discussion between the city and hospital has encouraged growth in medi cal services that has been initiated with architectural drawings of medical structures including multi story parking with retail facades located adjacent to the Bert Fish Medical Center (AECOM, 2010). An increase in the under 40 demographic will also increase the population of young families thus requiring an increase in employment sectors such as school teachers and other child friendly services. Increasing the population of all ages is a tool to incr ease quality of life for the elderly population (Stafford, 2009; The AdvantAge Initiative, 2004). Access to social situations has been shown to increase the happiness of elders and increase the learning environment of children. Older adults are an import ant social and economic resource as they contain a wealth of information that requires an outlet to volunteer and remain socially active and intellectually stimulated (Oberlink and Simantov, 2004). Being an age restricted community, The Villages does not create opportunity for older adults to mentor or volunteer their services in the same manner as New Smyrna Beach. Further, co location of demographics, age ranges in particular, increases the learning of social skills from elderly to young (Stafford 2009 ). co location of services, and access to public transit The Villages were designed with a minimal degree of such patterning and have still been highly successful. One could assume this is due the concentrated marketing campaign attracting a specific demographic seeking a
116 specific lifestyle. Essentially, by marketing New Smyrna Beach as a smart growth community by following the lead of other cities with focused community marketing campai gns, the city has potential to attract permanent relocaters. New Smyrna Beach has an opportunity to enhance the population of various ages and thus develop a sustainable life cycle of the population. The following section will discuss the marketing stra tegy applied in The Villages and analyze the pros and cons of that strategy to extract beneficial aspects that can be implemented in New Smyrna Beach. Effect of Concept Marketing on Urban Form Concept marketing in The Villages and New Smyrna Beach cannot be discussed without considering the amenities offered that are part of the concept as they indirectly affect the urban form. It should be understood that amenities have the ability to help or hinder the urban fabric. As part of the marketing concept, The Villages offers several amenities including clubs and organized activities, some of which are basic within any town and some which are enabled by the masses of people with free time such as The Scrappers Crop Club, The Goldwing Motorcycle Association, and The Villages Twirlers and Drum Corp. The Villages promotes organized activity in every arena including education. One of many advertising slogans gains audience attention with reference to ing your retirement dreams come to life! For many that includes activities designed to help you grow in mind body and spirit. You can find classes year round to help you do just this at the Lifelong o various clubs, The Villages is home to several golf courses; as such it is one of the main attractions for baby boomers. 486 holes of golf here. Up to 9,000 tee times pe r day. And last year, there were 2
117 million rounds of golf. In The Villages, when you speak about being convenient, that means golf The multitude of golf courses offer residents ample opportunity for recreation and views to green space, however, expanses of golf courses separate residential a reas from services such as the Town Center As mentioned by Don Hahnfeldt, the golf cart is a necessity. The development has travel lanes for automobiles with separate lanes for golf cart travel, thereby, creating a street system where cars move quickly through the community. The benefit of golf cart usage is that Lake Sumter Town Center encourages golf cart parking with large swaths along the street that are reserved for golf carts, which would typically be reserved for conventional automobiles. Golf cart parking allows for more parking per the same amount of space as an automobile. Where typical on street parking would allow for one parallel car, golf cart parking allows for three carts parked head on in the same amount of space. Additionally, golf carts use the same path of travel as automobiles through the Town Center, thereby reducing traffic speed and fossil fuel emissions into the most pedestrian friendly area of The Villages New Smyrna Beach offers limited organized activities compared to the vast array presented in The Villages. However, there are several recreation and leisure opportunities such as water sports, shuffleboard, and group fitness geared towards the elderly demographic. Shuffleboard courts are located on the north side of a Main Street block, the Brannon Center at the east end of Canal Street offers a place for organized activities including adult yoga, and the park also located at the east end of Canal Stre et offers a boardwalk, a large playground, and gazebo. The location of these amen i ties encourages walking from home to recreation. New Smyrna Beach is not entirely lacking
118 in activity although it is not at the forefront as an attractor to new residents. Most importantly, these recreation locations are within the walkable urban fabric and within the scope of public transit. Additionally, New Smyrna Beach is looking at the potential to incorporate golf carts into the transportation plan to enhance mobility in this district as well as connections to other comme rcial districts and the beach (AECOM 2010 ). Conversely to The Villages, these golf carts would integrate into the current road pattern, thereby, effectively acting as a traffic calming device througho ut the downtown rather than only the Town Center Finding s Applied Street Indicators According t o the observations conducted in Measuring Urban Design Qualities: an Illustrated Field Manual, The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing scored considerably hi gher than New Smyrna Beach concerning aspects of perception and aesthetics of street design. As such, New Smyrna Beach would benefit in gaining perspective from The Villages concerning future con struction and remodeling of Canal S treet with the understand ing that environmental attributes such as aesthetics and perception affect the preferences and satisfaction levels of the user. The New Smyrna Beach Community Redevelopment Agency Master Plan Update states that the city is looking to purchase and redevelo p several sites thru public/private collaboration. This would provide an opportunity to implement aspect of imageability and complexity into the street design. In addition, the city is looking towards a system of form based codes or design standards (AEC OM, 2010). These are aspects of smart growth development and exhibited with excellence in The Villages Town Center New Smyrna Beach should not seek to emulate the design of The Villages. However, the city should take note of the urban design qualities measured in this study
119 that express higher scores such as indicator number 5, complexity, where The Villages scored approximately 11. 5 above New Smyrna Beach with the largest interval of difference from all five indicators. Implementing a series of coord inated colors, beyond the present redundancy of beiges, would significantly raise the complexity score. The Villages exhibit a coordinated scheme of pastel colors giving it a coastal Florida ambiance. In addition, the buildings are designed with similar roof materials and most buildings are trimmed in white around windows/doors and on support columns to form a cohesive appearance. A dditional colors seen in signage and other features distinguish each retail establishment This gives the street a coherent appearance while still allowing each business to stand apart. The presence of outdoor dining is another feature of complexity that created a si a comparison of ten outdoor dining spaces in The Villages as compared to one in New Smyrna Beach. The lack of outdoor dining also leads to the lack of people meandering through the streets, which further increased the score differentials. Implementing similar strategies in New Smyrna Beach would not require exorb itant costs as several structures would require minimal remodeling. In addition, there are currently several dining establishments on Canal Street ; however, the establishments are lacking o utdoor dining and facades displaying qualities of imageability and complexity The indicator for human scale expressed the second largest disparity and similarly to the complexity indicator, can be designed with low cost initiatives such as increasing the quantity of street furniture. The Villages Town Center is scatte red with movable tables and chair, trashcans, banners, and multiple pedestrian street lights as ground poles and building accents New Smyrna Beach is well lit with street poles however,
120 lighting accentuating architectural features or doorways is almost non existent. Another significant feature in The Villages is the use of small planters at entries, decorating steps, and hanging from poles tha t give the street a human scale. New Smyrna Beach has palm trees with small planter s strategically spaced however the trees are large and do not represent a physical object with human scale. In addition, there is a lack of flowering urns and window boxes that might bring a sense of delicacy to the expanse of brick and concrete walls. The indicator for ima geability scored approximately 6.8 points higher in The Villages. The main factor in the discrepancy is associated with the presence of outdoor plazas, courtyards, and parks. The Villages incorporates several public gathering spaces along the street spac e and in niches between buildings. All of the spaces include seating in the form of benches or movable tables and chairs. These areas are separate from outdoor dining counts. Several buildings within the Town Center incorporate colonnades with seating a reas along retail facades. Although New Smyrna Beach has stati onary benches located along Canal Street the city could easily implement similar movable seating areas to encourage impromptu gatherings. Overall, The Villages implements successful design pat terns in all five indicators of street design and as such New Smyrna Beach would benefit from applying strategies of imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity as part of any future development. Finding s Applied Urban Form Indica tors According to th e observations conducted in Linking urban design to sustainability: formal indicators of social urban sustainability field research in Perth, Western Australia New Smyrna Beach considerably higher than The Villages at Lake Sumter Land ing
121 concerning aspects land use diversity, permeability and accessibility. Unlike the infrastructure alterations necessary in The Villages would be extremely costly. The suburban fo rm of The Villages prevents co location of services and thus prevents walkability. Reversing the development pattern to enhance a sustainable form would require construction of increased densities and small scale street patterns. The land use diversity in dicator expresses that New Smyrna Beach has a significantly higher number of structures within the one quarter mile radius with a commercial building ratio of 100:38 and a single family residential ratio of 82:29. Theoretically, the mix of land uses activ ates main streets in the downtown corridor and encourages exercise in the form of walking and biking to retail within close proximity to housing. To achieve this type of built form, The Villages should look to develop multi story structures containing par king, retail, and multifamily in area currently maintained as surface parking lots. Indicators regarding permeability and accessibility are related to the street and sidewalk network that coordinates pedestrians and automobiles to increase legibility and connectivity of the built environment. The findings show that New Smyrna Beach has successfully connected the blocks with in the one quarter mile radius through a series of small scale block that reduce traffic speeds, alleys intended mainly for private u se and pedestrian passage, as well as streets with sidewalks on both sides. The Villages would benefit from implementing an orthogonal street network based on small scale blocks to increase pedestrian friendliness. New Smyrna Beach exhibits 32 four way i ntersection compared to only four in The Villages. This highlights the lack of street
122 quantity and quality of intersection types present. Overall, New Smyrna Beach implements successful smart growth development patterns through all three indicators of ur ban form and as such The Villages would benefit from applying strategies of increased density and street network as part of any future development. Summary The thesis reviewed literature and conducted research in pursuit of understanding the means by whic h urban design qualities can be marketed to attract aging baby boomers. This study utilized two methods for measuring and comparing street design and urban form in the selected communities of The Villages at Lake Sumter Landing, Florida and New Smyrna Bea ch, FL. Based on the findings from this study and the supp ortive literature, it was determined that people are attracted to built environments based upon their aesthetic preferences as seen in The Villages rather than functionality as seen in New Smyrna B each However, contrary to population growth in The Villages, an examination of pertinent literature reveals real estate preferences expresses an interest by baby boomers in smart growth development which applies multiple principles regarding highly conn ected urban forms and co location of services. The findings show that The Villages do not provide the necessary functional needs such as co location of services in an accessible manner; it does, however, score highly in aesthetic appeal. Conversely, New Smyrna Beach provides a highly functional urban form although it s everely lacks aesthetic appeal. This study suggests that if the street design qualities seen in The Villages are preferred by aging citizens and urban form qualities of New Smyrna Beach ar e preferred then implementing street design qualities into a community characterizing good urban form and vice versa will essentially create a built environment offering the best experience.
123 The literature discussed generations seeking progressively more stimulating environments and the need for an economy of experiences to appease those desires. Further, the literature reviews cities implementing concept marketing strategies striving to attract individuals with the lure of providing an experience. This thesis suggests that smart growth could be marketed as a concept to the baby boom generation as a means for cities to package innate qualities as a unique destination for relocation. This thesis concludes that people are inclined to prefer architectural a ttributes of street design and functional aspects of urban form. As such, cities seeking to increase residential population should conduct analyses to determine strengths and weaknesses in the urban design with intention to revitalize according to measura ble preferences. Despite the fact that smart growth typically relates to new development outside of downtown boundaries, cities should strive to implement smart growth initiatives as amenities in a marketing campaign to attract new residents. The key is t atmosphere as an experience. In the case of New Smyrna Beach, marketing would include amen ities such as a beach town ambi ance arts overlay district, healthcare, marinas, and boutiques. The amenities are distinctly different compared to The Villages, however, not everyone is in search of golf style retirement. The city needs to capitalize upon its innate underutilized resources and develop a focused marketing campaign to construct a sustainable growth pattern both physically and demograp hically. Future Studies T his thesis focuses primarily on methods to implement urban design qualities concerned with attract ing baby boomers to New Smyrna Beach; however the same methodology could be used to determine the potential for any small Floridia n city to
124 attract any demographic. Each city requires an analysis of the current built environment regarding street design and urban form to determine presently underutilized resources. Completing the analysis will reveal weaknesses that can be remedied according to the success of other communities. In addition to using the measurement tools used in this study, f uture studies concerning preferences of ba by boomers could interview the demographic aged 60 and above. It would be most beneficial to request each participant to conduct the observations per the Measuring Urban Design Qualities: an Illustrated Field Manual. It was no t within the means of this research to conduc t interviews as the process of conducting the field manual observ ations is lengthy and complex. Selecting participants would be limited due to the time required for conducting the measurement as well as the physical strength needed to repeatedly walk the corridor. It could be argued that due to literature stating that commonalities exist in design features that would be viewed similarly regardless of demographic differences then specifically requiring baby boomers to conduct the study is unnecessary. This thesis measured urban design according to two manuals. The manuals cover most aspects concerning spatial qualities that affect human response to actively engage in the built environment. Future studies would benefit from additional indicators to enhance both the street manual and the urban form manual. The urban form manual would improve from a measurement of recreational spaces. This would enhance the current indicators concerned with the level of user friendliness measured according to the co locatio n of land uses and level of access according to street and sidewalk networks. The first indicator for land use diversity does include recreation. However,
125 an additional recreation measurement with a similar point based scale to that of permeability and a ccessibility would enhance the manual regarding opportunities within the urban form for physical activity and access to open space. The street design manual would benefit from an indicator to measure way finding systems such as street signs for direction ality, parking structures, and districting. Additionally, the street manual would benefit from a climate gauge and measurement of design features such as awnings and tree canopies intended to protect from sun, rain, and snow. The street manual stresses t he importance of restaurants with outdoor dining space; however, the multipliers do not account for hours of operation and do not include small scale street vendors that would increase pedestrian activity. Finally, the street manual does not include the m easurement of public restrooms, which are integral to indoor shopping malls and should be of concern in outdoor retail districts. This thesis reviewed marketing lifestyles to Baby Boomers to show that communities can use their urban design qualities to at tract a certain demographic. Future studies and cities starting community visioning projects could use this methodology to critique a buil t environment and understand its strengths and weaknesses. The realization of underutilized resources could develop into revitalization based upon concept marketing plan.
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130 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lindsay Rizzo, the daughter of Frank and Susan Rizzo, was born in upstate New York Her family moved to Florida where she has been active in her community. Her education began at the University of Florida where she received a Bachelor of Design in interior d esign. Her interests in architecture and the built form led her to study abroad at the Vicenza Institute of Architecture. Finally, she applied her understanding of human scale to graduate studies in the built environment with a Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning. D uring this time she acquired a minor of real estate, a certificate of h i storic p reservation, and became a LEED Acc redited Professional. She hopes to design livable, sustainable environments with an understanding of public policies, social interactions, and economics.