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Effect of Pulsed Ultraviolet Light, High Hydrostatic Pressure and Nonthermal Plasma on the Antigenicity of Almond

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043018/00001

Material Information

Title: Effect of Pulsed Ultraviolet Light, High Hydrostatic Pressure and Nonthermal Plasma on the Antigenicity of Almond
Physical Description: 1 online resource (86 p.)
Language: english
Creator: LI,YIQIAO
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ALLERGEN -- ALMOND -- HIGH -- IGE -- NON -- PULSED
Agricultural and Biological Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural and Biological Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Although there have been a number of studies showing the effect of various thermal and non-thermal treatments on the antigenicity of almond proteins, they have been proven to be ineffective due to the heat resistance and stability of almond allergen. In this study, the efficacy of pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and non-thermal plasma (NTP) on reducing IgE-binding to almond allergen was studied. Almond extract was subjected to PUV, HHP and NTP at preset intensities and durations, and allergen levels and its IgE binding were analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Crude almond protein extracts (10 ml) were treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from lamp) for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 10 min. The HHP was conducted at 600 MPa for 5, 15 and 30 min at three initial sample temperatures of 4, 21 and 70?C. The NTP treatment was performed at voltage 30 kV and frequency 60 Hz for 1, 3, and 5 min The PUV treatment of almond resulted in reduction in protein solubility as illustrated by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting demonstrated reduced IgE binding in PUV treated samples, which may be attributed to the masking of allergens due to aggregation by cross-linking that increased the molecular weight of the protein aggregates. Indirect ELISA indicated that IgE binding was reduced by 76% following PUV treatment for 7 min compared to raw samples. Further testing with the whole almond kernels, instead of the protein extracts, subjected to PUV radiation also showed a decrease in IgE binding, as indicated by ELISA. This shows that PUV technology might be suitable for treating ground or whole almonds for allergen reduction. Unlike the PUV treatment, HHP and NTP treatments did not affect allergen levels or IgE binding at any of the conditions tested in this study. In conclusion, PUV treatment of whole almond or almond extracts diminished in vitro immunoreactivity of almond allergens. If verified by further in vivo testing and experimentation, PUV treatment may provide a method for creating almond products with much reduced immunoreactivity.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by YIQIAO LI.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Yang, Weihua.
Local: Co-adviser: Teixeira, Arthur A.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-10-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043018:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043018/00001

Material Information

Title: Effect of Pulsed Ultraviolet Light, High Hydrostatic Pressure and Nonthermal Plasma on the Antigenicity of Almond
Physical Description: 1 online resource (86 p.)
Language: english
Creator: LI,YIQIAO
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ALLERGEN -- ALMOND -- HIGH -- IGE -- NON -- PULSED
Agricultural and Biological Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural and Biological Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Although there have been a number of studies showing the effect of various thermal and non-thermal treatments on the antigenicity of almond proteins, they have been proven to be ineffective due to the heat resistance and stability of almond allergen. In this study, the efficacy of pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and non-thermal plasma (NTP) on reducing IgE-binding to almond allergen was studied. Almond extract was subjected to PUV, HHP and NTP at preset intensities and durations, and allergen levels and its IgE binding were analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Crude almond protein extracts (10 ml) were treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from lamp) for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 10 min. The HHP was conducted at 600 MPa for 5, 15 and 30 min at three initial sample temperatures of 4, 21 and 70?C. The NTP treatment was performed at voltage 30 kV and frequency 60 Hz for 1, 3, and 5 min The PUV treatment of almond resulted in reduction in protein solubility as illustrated by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting demonstrated reduced IgE binding in PUV treated samples, which may be attributed to the masking of allergens due to aggregation by cross-linking that increased the molecular weight of the protein aggregates. Indirect ELISA indicated that IgE binding was reduced by 76% following PUV treatment for 7 min compared to raw samples. Further testing with the whole almond kernels, instead of the protein extracts, subjected to PUV radiation also showed a decrease in IgE binding, as indicated by ELISA. This shows that PUV technology might be suitable for treating ground or whole almonds for allergen reduction. Unlike the PUV treatment, HHP and NTP treatments did not affect allergen levels or IgE binding at any of the conditions tested in this study. In conclusion, PUV treatment of whole almond or almond extracts diminished in vitro immunoreactivity of almond allergens. If verified by further in vivo testing and experimentation, PUV treatment may provide a method for creating almond products with much reduced immunoreactivity.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by YIQIAO LI.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Yang, Weihua.
Local: Co-adviser: Teixeira, Arthur A.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-10-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0043018:00001


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1 EFFECT OF PULSED ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE AND NON THERMAL PLASMA ON THE ANTIGENICITY OF ALMOND By YIQIAO LI A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Yiqiao Li

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3 To my lovely family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my major advisor, Dr. Wade Yang for giving me the opportunity to be a member of his research group and his patient instruction over the past two years I would like to thank Sandi Shriver, for her continuous guidance and patient advice in laboratory skills related to my research. I would also like to thank co advisor Dr. Teixeira who ha s always motivated me to keep going to be successful in all my endeavors. In addition, I would like to thank my other committee members, Dr. Jesse F. Gregory and Dr. Bruce A. Welt, for their assistance and time dedicated to my project. I thank Dr. Ch ung for his endless advice in helping me solve the problems I encountered in research. I also would like to thank Alberto and Cheryl for their help with the data analysis I thank Jyotsna, Akshay and Bhaskar for being so helpful all the time. A special th anks to Dr. Ken Roux and LeAnna Willison at Florida State University for taking extra time and going out of her way to help me with my research Finally, I would like to thank my parents, Libo Li and Meijuan Zhang, for their unconditional love and support throughout my life. Also, I would like to give my thanks to my friend s Yang Qi, Shunchang Yang, Congrong Yu, Ayman, Shelton, Wen Ji, Zhe Chen for encouraging me and for the happiness they have brought into my life.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 17 Food Allergy Overview ................................ ................................ ............................ 17 Detection Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 18 Almond Allergen Overview ................................ ................................ ...................... 18 Treatments for Food Allergy ................................ ................................ ................... 19 Pulsed Ultraviolet Light ................................ ................................ ........................... 19 Methods for Reducing Allergen Reactivities of Food ................................ .............. 21 Methods for Minimizing Antigenicity of Almond ................................ ................ 22 Method for Mitigating Allergen Potencies of Other Foods ................................ 23 Thermal processing ................................ ................................ ................... 23 Enzymatic methods ................................ ................................ .................... 25 Fermentation ................................ ................................ .............................. 26 Genetic engineering ................................ ................................ ................... 26 Chemical methods ................................ ................................ ..................... 27 Physical methods ................................ ................................ ....................... 28 irradiation ................................ ................................ ................................ 28 High intensity u ltrasound ................................ ................................ ............ 29 High hydrostatic pressure ................................ ................................ .......... 29 Pulsed ultraviolet light ................................ ................................ ................ 30 Statement of Problem ................................ ................................ ............................. 31 Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 32 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................ ................................ ................ 33 Overview of Methods ................................ ................................ .............................. 33 Primary Antibody ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 33 A lmond Protein Extract and Nut Flour Preparation ................................ ................. 33 Protein Determination ................................ ................................ ............................. 34 ELISA, SDS PAGE and Western Blot ting Reagents ................................ ............... 35 Equipment ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 35 Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Treatment of Almond Extracts ................................ ........... 35

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6 High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment of Almond Extracts ................................ ...... 36 Non Thermal Plasma Treatment of Almond Extracts ................................ .............. 36 Electrophoresis of Treated Almond Extract s ................................ ........................... 37 Determination of IgE Binding to Almond Extracts with Western Blotting ................ 37 Deter mination of IgE Binding to Almond Extract s with Indirect ELISA .................... 38 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 39 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ............... 44 Water Loss and Temperature Change after PUV Treatment ................................ .. 44 Braford Protein Determination Assay for PUV Treated Almond Extracts ................ 45 SDS PAGE and Western blot Results ................................ ................................ .... 46 SDS PAGE and Western Blot for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV for 30 S And 1 Min ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 46 SDS PAGE and Western Blot for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV for 7 and 10 Min ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 46 SDS PAGE for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV for 6 and 7 Min ................. 48 Western Blot for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV for 6 and 7 Min ............... 49 SDS P AGE and Western Blot for HHP Treated Almond Extrac ts .................... 51 SDS PAGE and Western Blot for NTP Treated Almond Extracts (Test 1) ........ 51 Western Blot for NTP Treated Almond Extracts (Test 2 ) ................................ .. 52 Indirect ELISA Results ................................ ................................ ............................ 52 Indirect ELISA for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV for 1, 2, 3 and 4 Min .... 52 Indirect ELISA for PUV Treated First Group of Almond Extracts ...................... 52 Indirect ELISA for PUV Treated Second Group of Almond Extracts ................. 53 Indirect ELISA for Almond Extracts from PUV Treated Whole Almond ............ 53 Indirect ELISA for HHP Treated Almond Extracts ................................ ............ 54 Indirect ELISA for NTP Treated Almond Extracts ................................ ............. 54 Whole Almond Treated with PUV for 4 Min and Almond Flours Treated with PUV for 7min ................................ ................................ ................................ 54 Overall Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 55 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ................................ ............................ 68 Concluding Remarks ................................ ................................ .............................. 68 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 70 APPENDIX : STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ......... 72 LIST OF REFERENCE S ................................ ................................ ............................... 79 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 86

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Effect of PUV on water loss and temperature of almond extracts ...................... 57 A 1 Statistical analysis of ELISA result for first group of almond extracts treated with PUV. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 72 A 2 Statistical analysis of ELISA result for second group of almond extracts treated with PUV. ................................ ................................ ................................ 73 A 3 Statistical analysis of ELISA result for almond extracts treated with HHP. ......... 74 A 4 Statistical analysis of ELISA result f or almond extracts treated with NTP. ......... 75 A 5 Statistical analysis of ELISA result for almond extracts from raw and PUV trea ted whole almond. ................................ ................................ ........................ 76 A 6 Statistical analysis of ELISA result for almond extracts treated with PUV for 1 min, 2 min, 3 min and 4 min. ................................ ................................ ............... 77

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 Flow chart (1) ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 40 3 2 Flow chart (2) ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 40 3 3 Infrared thermometer (Photo courtesy of Dr.Wade Yang). ................................ 41 3 4 XENON XL 3000 PUV unit (Photo courtesy of Dr.Wade Yang). ....................... 41 3 5 PUV equipment developed by Xeno n Corp (Photo courtesy of Dr.Wade Yang). ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 42 3 6 Laboratory scale high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) unit (model Avure PT 1; Avure Technologies, Kent, WA) monitored with DASY Lab 7.0 software (DASYTEC USA, Bedford, NH) ( Photo courtesy of Dr.Haiqiang Chen). ............. 42 3 7 Laboratory scale high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) vessel ................................ .. 43 3 8 The schematic diagram of the experimental non thermal plasma (NTP) system ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 43 4 1 Braford assay of raw almond extracts ................................ ................................ 58 4 2 SDS PAGE and Western blot of raw almond extracts treated with PUV for a short duration ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 58 4 3 Western blot and SDS PAGE profile of almond extract s treated with PUV ........ 59 4 4 SDS PAGE profile of almond extract s ................................ ............................... 60 4 5 Western blots of almond extracts probed with human IgE (HA) and anti AMP rabbit antibody (PA). ................................ ................................ ........................... 60 4 6 SDS and Weste rn blots of HHP treated almond extracts probed with human IgE (HA). ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 61 4 7 SDS PAGE and Western blots of NTP treated almon d extracts probed with human IgE (HA). ................................ ................................ ................................ 62 4 8 Western blots of NTP treated almond extracts probed with human IgE (HA). .... 62 4 9 Indirect E LISA for almond extract s treated with PUV for 1, 2, 3 and 4min .......... 63 4 10 Indirect E LISA for raw boiled and PUV treated first group of almond extracts ... 64

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9 4 11 Indirect E LISA for raw boiled and PUV treated second group of almond extract s ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 64 4 12 Indirect E LISA for raw whole almond extract s and extract s from whole almond treated with PUV for 4 min ................................ ................................ ..... 65 4 13 Whole almond treated with PUV for 4 min and almond flours treated with PUV for 7min. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 65 4 14 Indirect ELISA for raw and HHP treated almond extracts using human plasma containing IgE antibodies against almond. The bar chart shows the mean of triplicates with Standard Error Mean error bar. Ba rs are labeled with letters. Values with different letters are significant different. ............................... 66 4 15 Indirect ELISA for raw and N TP treated almond extract s using human plasma containing IgE antibodies against almond. Results are relative values compare to the control. ................................ ................................ ....................... 66 4 1 6 SDS PAGE of raw almond extracts treated with boiling for 4 min and PUV for 1 2 3 and 4 m in. ................................ ................................ ................................ 67

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EFFECT OF PULSED ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE AND NON THERMAL PLASMA ON THE ANTIGENICITY OF ALMOND By Y iqiao Li May 2011 Chair: Wade Yang Co chair: Authur A. Teixeira Major: Agricultural and Biological Engineering Although there have been a number of studies showing the effect o f various thermal and non thermal treatments on the antigenicity of almond proteins, they have been proven to be ineffective due to the heat resistance and stability of almond allergen. In this study, the efficacy of p ulsed ultraviolet light ( PUV ), h igh hy drostatic pressure (HHP) and n on thermal plasma (NTP) on reducing IgE binding to almond allergen was studied. Almond extract was subjected to PUV, HHP and NTP at preset intensities and durations, and allergen levels and its IgE binding were analyzed with s odium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), immunoblot, and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Crude almond protein extract s (10 ml) w ere treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from lamp ) for 0.5 1, 2 3, 4 6 7 and 10 min The HHP was conducted at 600 MPa for 5, 15 and 30 min at three initial sample temperatures of 4, 21 and 70C The NTP treatment was performed at v oltage 30 kV and f requency 60 Hz for 1, 3, and 5 min. IgE binding to almond allergen was analyzed via Western blot and indirect ELISA, probed

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11 by human plasma containing IgE antibodies to almond and /or a rabbit anti almond major protein (AMP) antibody. The PUV treatment of almond resulted in reduction in protein solubility as illustrated by SDS PAGE. Western blott ing demonstrated reduced IgE binding in PUV treated samples, which may be attributed to the masking of allergens due to aggregation by cross linking that increased the molecular weight of the protein aggregates. I ndirect ELISA indicated that IgE binding wa s reduced by 76% following PUV treatment for 7 min compared to raw samples. Further testing with the whole almond kernels, instead of the protein extracts, subjected to PUV radiation also showed a decrease in IgE binding, as indicated by ELISA. This shows that PUV technology might be suitable for treating ground or whole almonds for allergen reduction. Unlike the PUV treatment, HHP and NTP treatments did not affect allergen levels or IgE binding at any of the conditions tested in this study. In conclusion, PUV treatment of whole almond or almond extracts diminished in vitro immunoreactivity of almond allergens. If verified by further in vivo testing and experimentation, PUV treatment may provide a method for creating almond products with much reduced immunor eactivity.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO 2011), global production of almonds is around 1.7 million metric tons at an average growth of 5% annually from 1993 to date, with a low throughput of 1 million tons in 1995 and a peak of around 1.9 million tons in 2002. In 2009, the top 6 almond production countries, i.e., United States, Spain, Syria, Turkey, Algeria and China, harvested 1.7 million tons. The U.S. production, which is concentrated in California, cons titutes 30 In 1999, the U.S. produced 360,000 metric tons of almonds, of which 210,000 tons were exported. However, in 2009, 10 years later, the U.S. production increased to 734,000 ton s, of which 631,000 tons were exported, accordi ng to the 2009 statistics of California Almond Board (2009). Almonds are globally popular and are often used as a snack food and ingredients in food products, such as bakery and confectionary products (Venkatachalam and others 2002) Although almond ranks third behind cashew nuts and walnut in the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network (Sicherer and others 2001) its consumption is actually more than that of walnuts and cashew nuts (Albillos and others 2009) In tree nut production, almonds rank first in the world, and the U.S. has over 33% of the global almond production over the past 10 years. Almond is a highly nutritious food and is a natura l source of various nutrients. The high level nutrients in almonds, including fiber, minerals, and vitamins are essential for human health. Because of these health benefits, almond is popular worldwide (Sathe and Sze 1997) Every 100 gram of almonds contains 21.26 gram protein, 50.64 gram fat and 19.74 gram carbohy drate (Chen and others 2006) Sucrose and raffinose were the

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13 main soluble sugars found in almond kernels (Nanos and others 2002) In spite of their popularity and health benefits, tree nuts like almond can induce acute generalized allergy symptoms and even anaphylactic shock. Unlike some food allergies that are tempo rary and only affect young children, allergies to tree nuts are often lifelong and can be life threatening (Roux and others 2001) Unlike other food allergies which can develop tolerance as children get older, only less than 10% of tree nut aller gic people can outgrow tree nut allergy (Skripak and Wood 2008) Tree nuts affect 0.5% of the population (Roux and others 2001) There is currently no treatment for Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated food allergy, and avoidance is not always possible, because allergens may be present in processed food due to cross contamination by shared equipment or a consumer may unexpectedly consume a food which contains an allergen due to ingredient mislabeling. Hence, finding different approaches, including the post harvest ways to eliminate or mi tigate food allergen, is of great importance. In almond, its major protein, AMP or amandin, is the major allergen as recognized by almond allergic patients (Roux and others 2001) Almond allergens have molecular weights at 20, 22, 25, 48, and 65 kDa (Scheibe and others 2001) Human plasma containing IgE antibodies specific to almond bind the same peptides probed by rabbit anti AMP polyclonal antibodies (Roux and others 2001). There have been several technologies utilized so far for inactivation of almond allergens, including microwave heating, thermal processing (Venkatachala m and others 2002) chemical processing (Acosta and others 1999) and gamma irradiation (Su and others 2004) Those methods either partially remove or did not effectively alter the

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14 allergens in almonds. However, no study is known about the inactivation of almond allergen by pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV) high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and non thermal plasma (NTP) In this study, the effects of PUV, H HP and NTP treatments on almond antigenicity were investigated. The PUV treatments were applied to both the extracts from almond powder and the whole almond kernels. The HHP and NTP were used to treat the extracts from almond powder. SDS PAGE, Western Blot and Indirect E LISA were conducted to evaluate the treated and untreated almond allergens. The goals of this study are to determine the effectiveness of PUV, HHP and NTP in inactivating almond allergen and the optimal treatment time for the sample to reduc e IgE binding reactivity. Statistical analysis was used to determine the IgE bindings after treatments and to determine which one is most effective in achieving the highest IgE binding reduction. The benefit of finding an effective technique in modifying a llergen and reducing the antigenicity of the allergen is countless. The individuals suffering from almond allergies will worry less about the presence of almond protein in various food products. The food industry will benefit from the new technique by prod ucing almond with less allergen or without allergen while reducing the heating or sterilization procedures. In PUV technology, the electrical energy is stored in a capacitor for a short period of time (few milliseconds) and is released as short period (sev eral nanoseconds) intermittent pulses. Inert gas in a lamp is ionized by the electrical energy, which produces broad spectrums of light contain wave lengths from near infrared to ultraviolet. Pulse rate is 1 20 pulses per second and the pulse width is 300 ns 1ms. Although the total energy is comparable with conventional UV light, the short duration energy is

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15 multiplied by many folds, and thus inactivation of microorganisms and alteration of allergen potency can occur. Studies have shown that pulses can b e approximately 90,000 times more intense than the sunlight at the sea level (Chung and others 2008a) The UV fraction contributes to inactivate microorganisms by forming thymine dimmers, and the infrared region contribu tes to the heating as well as other possible photothermal effects. The PUV light penetrates deeper than conventional UV light (Krishnamurthy and others 2008) Groups of proteins may be disturbed by the high intensity pulses in the form of heat or photons. This energy increase can excite electrons of the groups to a higher energy level and subsequently return to ground state, which induces chemical changes and cross linking reaction of proteins. Chung and othe rs (2008) found IgE binding of the raw peanut extract was approximately 7 fold higher than the PUV treated peanut extract This reduction of allergen reactivity by PUV is reported due to the change of structure and conformation of molecule. IgE binding sit es may be blocked after proteins undergo modification, causing a decrease in protein immunoreactivity. High hydrostatic p ressure treatment (HHP) has a pressure from 100 to over 800 MPa. Food placed in a pressure vessel which is filled with transmitting flu id before pressurization. The transmitting liquid will then be pressed by a pump or pressure intensifier. The pressure is uniformly distributed in all directions of the food (Spilimbergo and others 2002) The killing mechanism is that high pressure br eaks non covalent bonds (hydrogen, ionic, and hydrophobic bonds) tha t are present in polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acid, and lipids. Those broken non covalent bond s will inactivate enzymes that are responsible for DNA replication and transcription, thus stopping

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16 microorganisms from reproduction. The disruption of non covalent bond s will also damage cell membrane of the bacteria (Hoover and others 1989) Non thermal plasma (NTP) is electrically energized and highly energetic gaseous matter which can be generated by electrical dischar ge across an electrical field T he hypotheses of bacterial killing mechanism are oxidation of membrane lipids of bacteria cells by reactive oxygen species (Montie and others 2002) destruction of DNA by UV irradiation, erosion of spore surface by free radicals, and volatilization of compounds of spore by UV (Philip and others 2003) These mechanisms may also be applicable to allergen reduction of NTP in foods. The NTP species including electrically neutral gas molecules, free radicals, p hotons, negative or positive ions and electrons oxidize and decompose the inorganic and organic compounds. The inactivation effects of NTP may differ with the change of treatment time, frequency and voltage (Deng and others 2007) Non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has been used to inactivate pathogens on bacon and sterilization of Listeria monocytogenes on various materials (Kim and others 2011) Deng and others (2007) reported that NTP reduced E.c oli on almond by approximately 5 log after 30 s at 30 kV and 2000 Hz.

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17 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Food Allergy Overview Food allerg ies are an abnormal immunological reaction to a food or food component most of which are IgE mediated hypersensitivity di seases (Poms and Anklam 2004) Food allergens can be defined as those substances in foods th at induce the immunological reactions (Poms and Anklam 2004) There are more than 160 allerg enic food materials, of which eight food materials lead to more than 90% of food allergies (P oms and Anklam 2004) Food allergic individuals can produce specific antibodies, when in contact with these antigens. Immunoglobin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that interacts with specif ic allergens in food (NIAID 20 1 0 ). The mechanism in IgE mediated foo d allergies is well known. When the immune system is expose d to a specific food allergen, the antibodies are produced in response to stimulus of B cells. The IgE antibodies bind to the mast cells or basophils in the blood, which is a process called sensiti zation. Sensitization is symptomless. The next time the sensitized immune system is exposed to the same food allergen, it will cause an allergic reaction. The chemical mediators like histamine will release from the granules in the mast cells and basophils. The histamine can cause inflammation, pruritis, and contraction of muscles in the blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract (Taylor 2006). Food allergy symptoms may include swelling of the tongue, lips, and throat; hives; difficulty bre athing; abdominal cramping; a drop in blood pressure; vomiting or diarrhea. A small number of sensitive sufferers may experience severe anaphylactic shock. Although anaphylaxis is rare, it can be fatal if not treated immediately (Taylor and Hefle

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18 2002 ) Till now, there has been no effective treatment to prevent food allerg ies M ost food allerg ies can be a voided with awareness, education, and proper management. Tree nut allergy is one of the "big eight" food allergies. A ccording to a recent epidemiologic survey 0.5% of the population is affected by tree nuts. Unlike some food allergies that are temporary and only affect young children, allergies to tree nuts are often lifelong and can be life threatening (Roux and others 2001). Detection Methods Shriver and Yang (2011) has recently published a comprehensive review on thermal and non thermal methods to con trol food allergy, which includes a section reviewing on different detection methods. Briefly, the methods for detecting allergens in food are enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST), radio allergosobent test (RAST), immunoblotting, rocket immune electrophoresis (RIE), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA is quantitative, accurate and relatively simple to conduct (Pom and others 2004). Indirect ELISA, Competitive ELISAs and Sandwich ELISAs are three commonly used t ypes of ELISA, and the Indirect ELISA has been used in this study. The alteration of protein configuration and immunoreactivity can e ffect on the allergen detection. Almond Allergen Overview Almond s contain as many as 188 different proteins (Li and He 2004) including an albumi n, a globulin (amandin) and emulsin (Wolf and Sathe 1998) The major allergen in almond s is defined as AMP or amandin (Roux and others 2001), which is an oligomeric protein containing prunin monomers. It is a legumin seed storage prot ein belonging to 11 S globulin families which belong to cupin superfamily. Cupins are generally very heat stable, because the double helix in cupins is a very

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19 stable structural motif (Dunwell and others 2004) The molecular weight s of peptide bands of amandin are 22, 28, 39, 41, 42 and 44 kDa (Sathe 1993) The major and water soluble storage protein in almonds (amandin or AMP) is composed of at least two types of polypeptides (38 41 and 20 22 KDa) (Acosta and others 1999) Almond allergen proteins are located in the 2 0, 22, 25, 48, 65 and 70 kDa regions (Scheibe and others 2001; Bargman and others 1992b) Secondary structure of hexameric amandin did not alter immensely at 90 C The native amandin has higher thermal stability than the reduced amandin (Albillos and others 2009) The structure and conformation of the molecule play a critical role in shaping the allergenicity of a protein (Lee 1992) The allergenicity of various almond cultiv ars has been determined (Sathe and Sze 1997) Treatments fo r Food Allergy Many treatments for food allergy involve reducing the overall immune response of patients with food allergies. These include avoidance, oral and sublingual immunotheraphy, early allergen introduction, engineered recombinant and Chinese herba l medicine (Skripak and Wood 2008) Pulsed Ultraviolet Light PUV is an intense broad spectrum which is rich in UV C light. UV C light is effective in extend ing shelf life of fresh processed fruits, vegetables, and bread s by reducing the microorganisms (Allende and Arts 2003; Butz and Tauscher 2002) and accumulation of antifungal compounds induced by UV (Erkan and others 2001) Light source, dosage, exposure time, transmissivity and distance o f the treated samples should be considered prior to PUV treatment. UV radiation loses 30% of its intensity 40 cm below the surface of distilled water (Bintsis and others 2000) The less distance from the sample to the light source, the more effective the PUV light treatment.

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20 Food with low transmissivity has low penetration of PUV light (Guerrero Beltran and Barbosa Cnovas 2004) Color, solid content and thickness are factors t hat may affect the transmissivity of food. Thus, thin transparent liquid will make the PUV light more effective, which is the reason why almond extract s were used initially for PUV treatment in this study. Prolonged UV light treatment causes formation of i nsoluble complex in food, depolymerization of starch, peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid, carbohydrate crosslinking, protein crosslinking, and protein fragmentation (Fiedorowicz and others 2001) Carbohydrate crosslinking is due to the formation of superoxide radicals during PUV illumination. Prolonged PUV can change the bioactivity and quality of food components and nutrients. Proteins absorb light at 280 nm wavelength (G mez L pez and others 2005) Light with s hort er wavelength is more effective in changing protein molecule. The PUV treatment could not easily break the peptide bonds in protein. Photons absorbed by cystine had a higher chance of inactivating a protein than photons absorbed in the aromatic amino acids The absorbed photons ionize the protein (Set low 2002) Aromatic amino acids (e.g. tyrosine and phenylalanine) can absorb UV radiation and recombine to form covalent cross links in proteins (Gennadios and others 1998) Almonds h ave amino acid compositions such as tyrosine, phenylalanine and cystine (Ahrens and others 2003) Therefore, UV photons from the PUV radiation ha ve great potential to be absorbed by almond amino acids and inactivate proteins in almon d. The UV portion of PUV forms oxygen radicals, superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide and super oxide radicals. Oxygen radicals lead to generation of ozone. Super

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21 oxide radicals can induce protein cross linking and protein fragmentation. Water molecules a bsorb UV photons and produces hydroxyl and hydrogen radicals (OH and H + ) which are powerful protein modifying agents (Krishnamurthy and others 2008; Davies and others 1987) Hydroxyl radical were shown to induce alteration to th e primary structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Oxygen radicals significantly alter the effects of hydroxyl radicals on protein primary structure. Protein aggregation by hydroxyl radical may involve intermolecular bityrosine formation (Dav ies and others 1987) However, there may be other covalent modification s involved in the process of PUV treatment s Methods for Reducing Allergen Reactivities of Food F ood antigenicity can decrease, increase or remain unchanged in various food processing operations. The changes in antigenicity, if any, are due to the destruction of epitopes, generation of new epitopes or exposure of hidden epitopes (Besler and others 2001) Epitope is pa rt of an allergen which is recognized by the immune system, including conformational epitope and linear epitope. Post harvest techniques can directly reduce the allergen potency of foods by masking or inactivating epitopes or altering the protein structure s and conformations of the allergens. The techniques that have been researched on their effects on the reactivity of food allergen s include thermal processing and non thermal processing methods. Non thermal processing includes, but is not limited to, e nzym atic methods, fermentation, germination genetic modification, chemical processing, physical method, gamma radiation, high intensity ultrasound, high pressure processing, and pulsed ultraviolet light (Sathe and others 2005)

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22 Methods for Minimizing Antigenicity of Almond For the thermal processing on almond like blanching and roasting, some reduction in reactivity was found for major allergenic protein (AMP) of almonds, however, there was still 60% of the reactivity retained. I n other words, b lanching, roasting and autoclaving of almonds did not markedly decrease the detectability of AMP (Roux and others 2001). P atients are still allergenic to thermal processed almond because of the heat stability of immunoreactive peptides (Roux and others 2001) Bargman and others (1992) described heat processing reduced major almond allergen with molecular weight of 70 kDa, while the almond allergen with molecular weight of 45 50 kDa was not affected (Bargman and others 1992) Non amandin polypeptides are als o heat stable (Venkatachalam and others 2002) Thermal processing stability of almond allergen was also investigated by Acosta and others (1999) who described that antigenic stability of commercial processed almond samples (blanched, roasted and moist heat treatment) were respectively reduced by 50% ,56.6% and 87%. Although commercial almonds are often subjected to harsh heat processi ng, it was demonstrated that commercial processing (roasting, autoclaving, microwave heating and blanching) did not abrogate amandin immunoreactivity (Venkatachalam and others 2002) Chemical processing includes the exposure to pH extremes. Acosta and others (1999) described that AMP dissolved in borate saline buffer ( p H=12.5 and 1.5 2.5) caused a 53% and 57% antigenic decrease. This method has not been determined a desirable m ethod for allergen reduction. Albillos and others (2009) studied AMP stability by the addition of urea at several concentrations. The concentration of urea needed to

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23 achieve 50% denaturation of amandin was 2.59M (Albillos and others 2009) However, this study did not indicate if it has affected the allerginicity of amandin. irradiation has been reported to reduce the allergenicity of egg and shrimp. However, when the whole almond was treated with irradiation immunoreactivity of almonds was irradiation together with thermal processing (blanching, frying, autoclaving, microwaving and roasting) (Su and others 2004) which indicates that the almond protein is fairly stable and resistant to i rradiation treatment. Due to the disadvantage of these treatments, there is a need to look at novel food processing technologies to examine their capabilities for allergen reduction. Previous study has shown reduction of peanut protein allergens (Chung and others 2008b) and soybean allergens (Yang and others 2010) by PUV treatment s Until today there has been no published data on inactivation of almond allergens by PUV treatment Method for Mitigating Allergen Potencies of Other Foods Thermal pr ocessing Thermal processing is often applied in food processing to obtain better flavor and texture or to pasteurize or sterilize foods. Thermal processing has been studied extensively and has been shown to both decrease and increase allergen reactivity of nut s Boiling decrease d the allergens in the peanut, because the allergens move d into the cooking water, thus reduc ing the overall antigenicity of peanut. Roasting increased IgE binding capacity of Ara h1 and Ara h2 compared to raw and boiled peanut. Howe ver, there was no change in IgE immunoreactivity between whole protein extract from raw and roasted peanuts (Mondoulet and others 2005) Maleki and others (2000) describe d roasted peanuts

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24 bound IgE from peanut allergic patients at higher levels than raw peanut. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 were more resistant to digestion after undergoing M aillard reaction. In contrast, roasted hazelnuts triggered fewer allergic reactions than raw hazelnuts, indicating that hazelnut allergen is heat liable (Hansen and others 2003) Roasting reduced the antigenicity of hazelnuts. Native hazelnuts need ed less amounts of allergen extract concentration than the roasted hazelnuts to induce the same weal reaction and basophil activation (Worm and others 2009; Messens and others 1997) Extrusion process, which is heating in combination with pressure, was used to treat soy proteins. Extrusion did not alter the antigenicity of two allergens located in 38 and 50 kDa region s while the IgE reactivity of soybean protein at 31 to 34 kDa was not observed. Thus, the react ivity of total major soybean allergen was decreased (Wilson and others 2005) Fish major allergen, parvalbumin, has been reported unchanged in antigenicity after undergoing high temperature (90C) or proteolytic digestion in the gastro intestine (Arif and Hasnain 2010). However, c anned tuna and salmon have significantly less protein content than the raw tuna and salmon, thus the antigenicity of canned tuna and salmon was drastically decreased, as demonstrated by ELISA and oral challenges (Bernhisel Broadbent and others 1992) After boiling treatment, the IgE binding to overall shrimp extract was decreased despite that the anti genicity of tropomyosin is enhanced, as indicated by in vitro analyses (Liu and others 2010) Taheri Kafrani and others (20 lactoglobulin a major milk allergen has lost most of its antigenicity under the heating temperature at 85 95C (Taheri Kafrani and others 2009) Heat treatment considerably reduce d the

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25 antigenicity of whey protein s, but it did not reduce the antigenicity of casein (Lee 1992) Skin prick tests showed that boiled milk induced weaker immunoreactions of the children. Most of children allergic to milk showed tolerance to extensively heated milk (Nowak Wegrzyn and others 2008) Boiling at 100C for 20 min could not eliminate the immunoactivity of ovalbumin and ovomucoid in eggs (Hoffman 1983) However, children allergic to egg have more tolerance to heated eg g than unheated form (Nowak Wegrzyn and others 2008) Baking increased the wheat allergen reactivity because M aillard reaction increased the resistance of allergens to proteolytic digestion, which allowed them to reach gastrointestinal system without changing the e pitopes and induce immune reaction (Simonato and others 2001) T hermal processing does not eliminate the allergen potency of the food significantly to prevent a food allergy. Besides, it sometimes ca uses the undesirable flavors, qualities and properties of food. Enzymatic methods Proteolysis did not change IgE binding to peanut allergen, Ara h 2, despite the changes of secondary structure and reduction of disulfide bonds, because the linear epitopes o f Ara h 2 were unaltered even when subjected to proteolysis (Sen and others 2002) For the roasted peanuts and hazelnuts treated with pancreatic enzymes, the antigenicity of peanut proteins was persistent during gastric digestion, as shown in EAST and rat basophil leukaemia ( RBL) cell mediator release assays, while the IgE reactivity of digested hazelnuts was reduced to les s than 10% (Vieths and others 1999)

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26 Enzymatic hydrolysis w as found to significantly reduc e the potency of soy allergen P34, but other proteins were also decomposed dur ing this process. Protein hydrolysates h ad significantly lower antigenicity compared to the original proteins but protein fragments or native proteins remaining in the hydrolyzed formulas could still trigger a severe allergenic reaction (Wilson and others 2005) T he mechanism of enymatic polyphenol oxidation was that p olyphenoloxidase (PPO), as an enzyme, helped oxidize phenols to produce o quinones derivative O quinones reacted with amino group, tryptophan residues or sulfh ydryl groups in another protein, thus generating cross linking of proteins Researchers found PPO with phenolic compounds, such as caffeic acid and epicatechin reduce d antigenicity of cherries major allergen Pru av 1 (Gruber and others 2004) PP O/caffeic acid effectively reduced IgE binding and allergen of peanut by cross linking induced by PPO and/or caffeic acid (Chung and others 2005a) Enzymatic digestion may fragment lin ear protein epitopes, making the antibodies unable to bind to the altered epitopes. Fermentation Fermentation hydrolyze d the soy protein into peptides by protease from the microorganisms, which le d to the reduction in allergen reactivity. However, the flav or wa s altered and bec a me unacceptable because of fermentation. The effect of fermentation on the reduction of allergen relies on the type of microorganism used and the level of hydrolysis (Wilson and others 2005) Genetic en gineering Genetic e ngineering has been used to reduce the levels of allergens or allergenic epitopes. This technique prevents translation of chosen allergens by antisense gene

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27 silencing or co suppression (Shewry and othe rs 2001) Herman and others (2003) reported the IgE binding to major soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30 K, was eliminated by transgene induced gene silencing. RNA interference method was used to silence the peanut allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remarkably reduced IgE binding to the Ara h2 and Ara h6. However, expression of other peanut allergens Ara h1 and Ara h3 was not altered (Chu and others 2008) Stability of the hypoallerginicity of genetically modified foods has not been determined. It is potentially risky to eat genetically modified foods if the suppression is incomplete or if the silencing does not exist any more. For many plant foods, lots of transgenes would be required to remove the allergens with no sequence homology. Also, removing the allergenic proteins from foods may alter f unctional and physical properties of the foods (Shewry and others 2001) It is also beneficial for this type of food allergen reduction technique to remove allergenic epitopes instead of allergen proteins. However, g ene tic modification has gone through serious scrutiny, as it may introduce new proteins which have the potential to be allergen (Wilson and others 2005) Chemical methods Chemical method in removing allergen involves cross link ing or formation of larger complex. Because of formation of cross links, copper sulfate (CuSO4) significantly reduced allergen and IgE binding in peanut extract, while peanut extract incubated with ferric chloride did not reduce them b ecause peanut allerg ens induce d the cross linking of tyrosine residues with copper sulfate instead of ferric chloride (Chung and others 2005b) The Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 trea ted peanut extracts showed reduced amount of allergens and allergenic potency due to the conversion of allergens into large polymers (Chung

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28 and Champagne 2007) Phytic acid reduce d peanut allergen antigenicity by 6 fold measured by competitive ELISA (ci ELISA ) The reason was that p hytic acid generated insoluble complexes with peanut allergens through which their bioavailability was reduced (Chung and Champagne 2007) Chung and others ( 2009) found that phenolics irreversibly form ed insoluble complexes with major peanut allergens due to the formation of hydrop hobic coating on the protein by phenolics or cross linking between free phenol groups and amino/tryptophan groups. The precipitations of the peanut allergen by phenolics cause d a 10 to 16 fold reduction in IgE binding (Chung and Champagne 2009) Physical methods Four magnetic bead systems (Ca2+, Fe3+, caffeic acid, hydrophobic) were found to effectively remove major peanut allergens and reduce IgE bindings. They separate the peanut allergens from other protein s, however, non allergenic protein was significantly lost as well (Chung and Champagne; Chung and Champagne 2010) Magnetic beads attached with chlorog enic acid (a phenolic compound ) were found to significantly reduce major peanut allergen and slightly reduce other proteins. Peanut allergens complexed with f erric irons were captured by magnetic beads attached with chlorogenic acid which caused reduced l evels of allergens and IgE binding as well (Chung and Champagne 2009) irradiation irradiation led to the protein cross linking, formation of disulfide bonds, protein fragmentation and aggregation, thus it has been reported to reduce the egg allergen ovalbumin at the dose of 100 kGy (Seo and others 2007) irradiation led to

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29 agglomeration and alteration of antigen reactivity of milk, as observed in ELISA and SDS PAGE (Lee and others 2001) irradiation treatment on the heat stable shrimp protein decreased the IgE activity of the shrimp allergen (Byun and others 2000) In another study, irradiation together reduced IgE binding of shrimp allergen when the dose of the irradiation wa s above 10 kGy, while irradiation below 5 kGy showed an increase in the allergen potency of the shrimp allergen (Zhenxing and others 2007) irradiation alone or together with heat under different pH. Regardless of pH condition, the result showed irradiation or heat alone (Lee and others 2002) High intensity u ltrasound High intensity ultrasound has been found to alter the protei n structure. High intensity ultrasound reduced IgE binding of shrimp and purified shrimp allergen when treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30 to 180 min, as measured with ELISA, Gel filtration HPLC and immunoblot assays (Li and others 2006) High hydrostatic pressure High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was reported to reduce the antigenicity and nutritional value of soy protein. Sprout seeds treated with HHP gr e w sprouts with a signi ficant reduction in antigenicity, while no reduction in nutrition value (Peas and others 2011) HHP combined with enzymatic hydrolysis could be useful in reducing or mitigating the antigenicity of residual soy whey proteins (Penas and others 2006a) HHP applied du ring or prior to different enzymatic hydrolysis improved whey protein hydrolysis, thus help ed reduce the antigenicity of hydrolysates from bovine whey protein

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30 (Penas and others 2006b) HHP at 600 MPa effectively change d the antigenicity of the (Hajs and others 2004) The allergen s of rice grains were squeezed out of the matrix and extracted into the buffer when applied with HHP, therefore, the overall antigenicity of rice grain s was reduced (Kato and others 2000) fold reduction in the antigenicity of egg was found, as illustrated by EAST inhibition. When HHP (600MPa) treated egg afte r heat treatment (70 C ), the allergen reactivity of the egg reduced 8.9 fold because of the heat labile allergens in the egg (Hildebrandt and others 2010) Conversely, HHP ranging from 200 to 600 MPa, or together with heat treatment was reported to increase the reactivity of ma jor milk allergen ( lactoglobulin) (Kleber and others 2007) possibly because HHP induced the secondary and tertiary structure changes of meat and milk protein (Messens and others 1997) which made hidden epitopes assessable to antibodies. Pulsed ultraviolet light Pulsed ultraviolet lig ht (PUV) has been reported to significantly reduce peanut, soybean, milk shrimp, egg and wheat allergens. PUV has been found to markedly reduce some soybeen proteins, such as glycinin conglycinin, while slightly reduce the soybeen proteins in 45kDa and 68 75kDa regions. Indirect ELISA show ed that there were 50% reductions in IgE bindings of soybean protein after 6 min PUV treatement (Yang and others 2010) Shrimp pr otein, tropomysin, has reduced antigenicity after PUV treatment for 4 min ELISA shows that the overall shrimp antigenicity has reduced 30%. However,

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31 when the shrimp protein was heated before PUV treatment the reduction of the antigenicity of shrimp was l ess than PUV treatment alone (Shriver and others 2010). PUV treatment together with boiling completely eliminated wheat allergens, whereas PUV treatment alone only slightly reduced the allergenicity of wheat allergen ( Nooji and others 2010) After 150 s of PUV treatment, the milk allergens do not appear in SDS PAGE (Anugu and others 2009). E LISA show ed that PUV treatment reduced antigenicity of isolated egg proteins (Anugu and others 2010). F or more information about different effects of various food proces sing on food allergens, the treatise by (Sathe and others 2005) can be referred to Statement of Problem Food allergens elicit adverse allergic reactions of food allergic individuals Food allergy represent s a serious problem in th e food industry. Allergic reactions to nuts have increased over the past few decades. Plant seeds are good source s of health y and relatively inexpensive protein; however, 65% of main storage protein s in almond is allergen. Tree nuts like almond can induce acute generalized symptoms and even anaphylactic shock. Unlike milk and egg allergens, nut allergen is permanent and life threatening. There is currently no treatment for Immunoglobulin E mediated food allergy. Avoidance is not always possible because alle rgen may be present unintentionally in processed food due to cross contamination in food processing equipment s or consumers may unexpectedly take food with allergen due to mislabeling of the food product s Hence, there is a need to develop a technique to a ttenuate the allergen potency or eliminate the reactivity of food allergen to mitigate the health risk of

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32 allergic individuals. If PUV is able to diminish almond allergens to a safe level, those allergic to almond can enjoy the benefits of almond, includin g taste and nutrition, without suffering from adverse reactions. It has been speculated that PUV reduces allergen reactivity by inducing protein aggregation or protein conformational changes that lead to the masking or changing of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) bi nding sites Objective s The purpose of this study is to show IgE binding activity and expression of almond allergen protein after PUV HHP, NTP treatment s For PUV treatment, almond extracts from blanched almond powder and whole almond kernel are used to c ompare the allergen removal differences. The first objective is t o evaluate and compare the effect of boiling, PUV HHP and NTP on reduction IgE binding activity of almond allergen s The second objective is t o determine optimal exposure time s for PUV HHP and NTP treatment to achieve the best reduction in almond allergen potency. The third objective is to discuss the mechanism why IgE could be inhibited after those treatment s The overall goal of t his study is to determine how protein allergens in almond respond to PUV HHP, NTP treatment s at different conditions and determine which treatment is the most effective one in achieving the reduction of IgE binding activity.

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33 CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHOD S Overview of Methods In order to have an overview of the experiment procedures of this study, two flow charts (Figure 3 1 and Figure 3 2) were made. Preparation of almond extracts included two steps: (1) finely grounded almond flour (meal) was defatted ; (2) p rotein s from the defatted samples w ere extracted Protein determination and normalization : (1) almond extracts were subjected to Branford assay to determine the protein concentrations, (2) a ccording to Branford assay the protein concentrations were normalized before treatments. Almond extracts were trea ted with boiling, PUV, HHP and NTP. The treated almond extracts were tested using SDS PAGE, Western blot and Indirect ELISA. SDS PAGE was to study the allergen level of the sample Western blot was to study allergen reactivity of the sample Indirect ELISA was to study the whole IgE binding activity of the sample Primary A ntibody The specific IgE antibodies to almond from a pool of single donor allergic human plasma and rabbit anti AMP antisera were utilized for e mzyme l inked Immunosorbant assay and immun obloting. The almond protein specific human IgE concentration of 13.9kU/L was determined using an ImmunoCAP test (PlasmaLab International, Everett, USA). The control serum was non allergic human plasma. A lmond Protein Extract and Nut Flour P reparation Fine Mill, USA) was purchased from local market. It contains 6 grams of protein per 28

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34 grams of flour. It was defatted by multiple extractions with cold acetone (meal to acetone ratio of 1:5 w/v) with constant magnetic stirring. After each extraction, the slurry was filtered through whatman filter paper #4 and the residue was used for the next extraction. Residue from final extraction and filtration step was dried in a fume hood. After the re sidue was dry in the fume hood, p rotein from the defatted samples was extracted with 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (flour: buffer 1:20 w/v) for 30 min at 25C with gentle shaking provided. After whole almond kernels were treated with PUV, they were powdered manually using a mortar and pestle and the flours were defatted and extracted the same way as mentioned above. The samples were then centrifuged at 15000g for 20 min and stored at 20 C until further use. The supernatant was collected for prote in analysis. Protein Determination The concentration s of sample s were measured by Branford assay. Protein Reagent in a 96 well plate at room temperature. The plate was read at 595 nm with a plate reader; diluted albumin (BSA) was used as standard. Take 10 ml out of the untreated sample respectively for boiling and PUV treatment. After treatment, some water was lost due to the increased temperature during PUV treatment. The volume in PUV treated sample was brought up by adding the water to the same volume o f the untreated and boiled sample. So t he total protein concentration including soluble and insoluble protein was unchanged. Then, samples were subjected to SDS PAGE, Western blot and E LISA tests

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35 ELISA, SDS PAGE and Western Blotting Reagents Tris buffere d saline (TBS), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), o phenylendiamine dihydrochloride, StartingBlock TBS/T 20 blocking buffer, Gelcode Blue stain reagent, bicinochoninic (BCA) protein assay kit, beta mercaptoethanol and Tween 20 were obtained from Pierce Chem ical company (Rockford,IL). Precast trisglycine minigels (4 20%) and reagents for sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) was obtained from BioRad Laboratories (Hercules,CA). Costar 96 well plate produced by Corning Incorporate d (Corning, NY) was used for ELISA, Immobilon P was obtained from Millipore Corporation (Bedford, MA). Horseradish peroxidase labeled goat anti rabbit or goat anti human antibody was purchased from Invitrogen (Carlsbad,CA). SuperSignal West Pico Chemilumin escent Substrate (Pierce) was purchased from Thermo Scientific. Equipment A non contact infrared thermometer (OMEGA, USA) was used for monitoring the temperatures of the samples immediately after PUV treatment. A Steripulse XL 3000 manufactured by the Xeno n Corporation (Woburn, MA) was used for PUV treatment. BioRad equipment was utilized for SDS PAGE and Western blotting. A Spectramax 340 was used to analyze the 96 well plates. Laboratory scale high pressure unit (model Avure PT 1; Avure Technologies, Kent WA) monitored with DASY Lab 7.0 software (DASYTEC USA, Bedford, NH) was used for HHP treatment T he experimental non thermal plasma (NTP) system was used for NTP treatment Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Treatment of Almond Extract s The Xenon Steripulse XL 3 000 was used for carrying out PUV treatments. The distance between the sample and the PUV lamp in this unit can be changed by moving

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36 the sample rack up and down. As in previous studies, the total energy at 14.6 cm was determined to be 0.92 J/cm 2 /s (Krishna murthy 2006). T he distance 10 cm from the sample to q uartz window was used The distance from quartz window to lamp is 10.5 cm. So the total distance from lamp to sample is 20.5 cm. Almond extract, 10mL each in an aluminum dish with a diameter of 7cm, was treated with PUV light at a preset time For boiling treatment, vials containing the same amount of almond extracts as the PUV treated sample s were placed in a boiling water bath (100C) for 0.5, 1, 4, 6, and 7min High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment of Almond Extracts Each sample (1.5 ml) was transferred to a sterile polypropylene pouch (Fisher Scientific, Fair Lawn, NJ), heat sealed, and sealed in a secondary pouch. Pressure treatment was carried out using a laboratory scale high pressure unit (model Av ure PT 1; Avure Technologies, Kent, WA) monitored with DASY Lab 7.0 software (DASYTEC USA, Bedford, NH). The experiments were conducted at 600 MPa for 5, 15 and 30 min at three initial sample temperatures of 4, 21and 70C using water as a hydrostatic medi um. The pressure increasing rate was approximately 22 MPa/s, and pressure release was almost immediate. Pressurization time reported in this study did not include the pressure come up or release times. Three independent trials were conducted. N on Thermal P lasma Treatment of Almond Extracts The schematic diagram of the experimental non thermal plasma (NTP) system used in this study is shown in Figure 3 8 It consists two major components, NTP reactor chamber and high voltage power supply, in addition to the electrical parameter measurement and control devices. The non thermal plasma reactor was the planar configuration of the dielectric barrier discharge reactor with two dielectric layers. The electrodes in the NTP chamber were covered with dielectric plates (epoxy resin board).

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37 The dielectric layer thickness was 0.16 cm (0.062 inch). The discharge chamber was a column with radius of 1 inches and height of 0.64 cm (0.25 inch). The prepare d samples were placed in the discharge chamber and treated at following c onditions: Voltage 30 kV, Frequency 60 Hz, and each sample has three treatment times: 1, 3, and 5 min. The sample depth is around 0.1 inch. The sample volume is 5 ml. The immunological tests were conducted after NTP treatment. Electrophoresis of Treated A lmond Extract s The SDS PAGE was run to show the profile of the protein of different molecular weight s The PUV treated samples were homogenized and the mixtures were then subjected to SDS PAGE. The same a mounts of proteins were loaded to each well o n the same SDS PAGE. The protein quantitie s loaded in the SDS PAGE depended on the capacity of the lanes of SDS PAGE. E ach sample was combined with 2X laemlli sample buffer with 0.05% 2 mercaptoethanol to a concentration of 1X. Samples were boiled fo r 10 min and briefly centrifuged. Samples diluted in sample buffer was loaded onto a precast tris glycine minigel (4 20%) positioned in a BioRad Mini Protean tank apparatus and subjected to electrophoresis for 1.5 h at 190 volts. The gel was removed from the cassette and washed 3 times in Nanopure water. Twenty milliliters of Gel Code Blue reagent was added to the gel and incubated with gentle shaking at room temperature followed by distaining in distilled water Determination of IgE Binding to Almond E xtracts with Wes tern Blotting Western b lotting is a technique for detecting a specific protein based on the ability of the protein to bind antibodies. The samples underwent electrophoresis as described above. The gel was removed from the cassette, equilibrated in transfer buffer for 1 h and transferred onto Immobilon P blotting membrane (Millipore Corporation, Bedford,

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38 MA) using a semi dry transfer apparatus at 15 volts for 30 min. The unbound sites on the membrane were blocked using Starting Block Tween for 15 30 min at r oom temperature with gentle rocking .The membrane were then incubated with patient antiserum (1:80) at 37 C while rocking for 50 min. The membrane was washed twice with TBS T, washed with rocking for 20 min each time. The blots were incubated at room temp erature for 1 h with mouse anti human IgE HRP (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) diluted in PBS at 1:1000. After secondary incubation, the blot was washed twice for 30 minutes each time with gentle shaking. All washes were with 1X TBS/0.05% Tween 20. Finally, Supe rSignal West Pico Chemiluminescent Substrate (Pierce) was used for detection. Determination of IgE Binding to Almond Extract s with Indirect ELISA E LISA is an immunological technique used to detect the allergen in the samples. Costar Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA ) Polystyrene 96 well plates (Corning, NY) were coated for 2 h at 37 C with raw, boiled, treated almond extract diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PB C for 1.5 h Human plasma containing IgE antibody specific for almond allergens diluted in PBS was added in equal amounts to each well ( C for 1 h. Pooled human plasma from one patient with no known allergies was used as control. After primary incubation, the plate was washed 3 times with TBST and patted dry. Each well was then incubated with secondary antibody, monoclonal mouse anti human IgE conjugated to HRP (1:1000), at 37 3 times and patted dry, o phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD, Pierce) dissolved in Stable

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39 Peroxide Substrate Bu The reaction was stopped at 15 Absorbance was read on Spectramax 340 384 Spectrophotometer (Molecular Devices, Inc. Sunnyvale, CA) at 490 n m, or absorbance was read without stopping with sulfuric acid at 450 nm. Statistic al Analysis Data was entered into Excel and sorted by treatment type, treatment time and absorbance reading. The data were then transferred onto SAS 9.0 ( Cary, NC ) s oftware f or analysis and comparison between treatments time within the same treatment type. Treatment s are the independent variable s Results are the dependent variable s In addition, a separation of means was conducted on treatment AOV results to see if there were any differences between the treatment time and treatment type. Least Significant Difference (LSD) Test was performed aft er AOV.

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40 Figure 3 1. Flow chart (1) Figure 3 2 Flow chart (2) A lmond extract preparation W hole IgE binding activity ( Allergen reactivity ( A llergen level ( Indirect ELISA SDS PAGE ( Western blo t P rotein determination and normalization B oiling, PUV, HHP, NTP treatments W hole IgE binding activity ( Allergen reactivity ( A llergen level ( Indirect ELISA SDS PAGE ( Western blot PUV treatments of whole almond kernel A lmond extract preparation P rotein determination and normalization

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41 Figure 3 3 Infrared thermometer (Photo courtesy of Dr.Wade Yang). Figure 3 4 XENON XL 3000 PUV unit ( Photo courtes y of Dr.Wade Yang ).

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42 Figure 3 5 PUV equipment developed by Xenon Corp (Photo courtesy of Dr.Wade Yang). Figure 3 6 Laboratory scale high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) unit (model Avure PT 1; Avure Technologies, Kent, WA) monitored with DASY Lab 7.0 software (DASYTEC USA, Bedford, NH) ( Ph oto courtesy of Dr.Haiqiang Chen).

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43 Figure 3 7 Laboratory scale high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) vessel in which samples were placed ( Photo courtesy of Dr.Haiqiang Chen ). Figure 3 8 The schematic diagram of the experimental non thermal plasma (NTP) system Electrodes Dielectric materials Discharge Chamber Treatment Samples Power Supply: ~30kV, 60 Hz

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44 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSI ON Water Loss and Temperature Change after PUV Treatment Before and after PUV treatments, the sample weight was checked by a digital balance. After PUV treatment s the temperature s of the sample s w ere measured using an infrared thermometer. The results for temperature and water loss after PUV treatments are shown in Table 4 1 Temperatures read 56C, 77C, 80C and 80 C, respectively, after 1, 2, 3 a nd 4 min PUV treatment. After PUV treatment s all almond samples exhibited change s in volume. As a result of water evaporation, t he volume s w ere reduced by 6.6%, 11.6%, 20.6%, and 25.6%, respectively, after 1, 2, 3 and 4 min PUV treatment. It is noted the re was a slight time lag (around 5 10 s), between the completion of the PUV treatment and onset of temperature measurement, as it also takes a little time to take the samples out of the treatment chamber before temperature measurement with the infrared the rmometer, otherwise the PUV treated samples should have a higher temperature if they were measured immediately after the treatments were completed. The temperatures after PUV treatment for 3 min and 4 min ap peared to be similar due to the longer time lag in sample treated with PUV for 4 min than 3 min As mentioned earlier, the actual temperature might be higher than what is shown in the table. A wood stick was accidentally left in the PUV chamber and treated for 8 min in the equipment, and the wood stick was ignited. The distance and pulse rate were the same as in the conditions for the almond extracts. The wood stick incident seemed to indicate that the instantaneous temperature of the sample during the PUV treatment for the 8

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45 min duration could be very h igh. In this PUV unit, t he e nergy intensity is about 0.12 J/cm 2 per pulse when the distance from lamp to the sample is 20.5 cm, according to the earlier study by (Krishnamurthy 2006) A Google search for a typical wood ignition temperature (burning point) returned with a temperature range of 160C to over 200C, which seemed to suggest that the localized, instantaneous temperature of food during an p rolonged PUV treatment could go as high as 160C to 200C. If this was indeed so, PUV could no longer be categorized as a non thermal technology when the treatment time is long, say, in minutes. For a short duration, say, in seconds, PUV will not cause mu ch temperature rise of the treated sample, so it can still be called non thermal. In one measurement, the water loss of the sample treated with PUV for 7 min was about 32%, while in another measurement it was 50%. The phenomenon of water losses occurred in most of our samples treated for a longer time (i.e., in minutes). This can be explained by the foregoing significant localized, instantaneous temperature rise during prolonged PUV treatment. In addition, it was also observed that the energy under the PUV lamp wa s quite uneven at different locations. As can be seen later, one sample slightly off from the center of the lamp vs. directly underneath the lamp, the percent allergen reduction was remarkably different. So, it is very important to treat the sample at the same location right below the center of the lamp every time as precisely as possible. Braford Protein Determination Assay for PUV Treated Almond Extract s Figure 4 1 shows that almond soluble protein concentration decreased with boiling and PUV treat ments. PUV treatment appeared to have more effect on the change of soluble protein concentration than boiling treatment.

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46 Although w a ter content s decreased during PUV treatment, soluble protein concentrations actually decreased rather than becoming more con centrated, because large amount of protein s aggregated and precipitated. The extent of aggregation depended on the severity of treatment condition s To compensate for reduced volume for PUV treated samples all protein extracts were normalized before ELISA and SDS PAGE assays. SDS PAGE and Western blot Results SDS PAGE and Western Blot for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV for 30 S And 1 Min As can be seen in Figure 4 2, SDS PAGE shows raw sample has strong bands between 37 50 kDa regions and has no bands in the region where the molecular weight is lower than 20 kDa, whereas PUV and boiling treated samples have bands lower than 20 kDa and have no band in 37 50 kDa regions. The fact that SDS PAGE profile has been changed indicates a change of the molecular wei ght and configuration of proteins in these two PUV exposure times (i.e., 30 s and 1 min). However, PUV treatments under these mild conditions did not qualitatively alter the profile in Western blot, demonstrating that short time PUV treatment was not able to reduce the immunoreactivity of almond allergen. Comparing with egg or milk allergens, almond allergens appeared to be more antigenically stable under PUV treatment which is consistent with results from other researchers on studies about antigenic stabi lity of almond proteins under various food processing treatments SDS PAGE and Western Blot for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV for 7 and 10 Min The boiling sample increased the intensity of the 20 kDa band, meaning that boiling unfolded and linearized th e protein, which enabled the protein to migrate further

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47 to bottom of the SDS PAGE gel .The pattern of the boiled sample profile in SDS PAGE was almost the same as that of the raw sample Almond protein was remarkably aggregated when treated with PUV for 7 min. The insoluble protein appeared as smear appearance in PUV treated samples (Figure 4 3) Band with molecular weight of 20 kDa was mostly noticeable in raw and boiled samples. This band signified one type of polypeptides of the almond major allergen. It s decrease in intensity was accompanied by appearance of high molecular weight smears. The smears were possibly because of cross linking between almond proteins by oxidation of PUV. Intrachain cross linking cause s change of structure which leads to differe nt mobility on SDS PAGE. From Figure 4 3A, it can be seen that I gE bound to the cross links in PUV treated samples in Western Blot ( lane 1, 3, 4, 6 ). This seems to indicate that smeared bands (cross links) have IgE binding activity detected with human IgE In this case, c ross linking did not seem to affect the antigenicity of almond allergen. If so, then the overall IgE binding of the PUV treated almond extracts may not be reduced because IgE binding to cross links may compensate for the decrease in IgE bi nding to almond allergen. It is also possible that the overall IgE binding to PUV treated samples was reduced if the cross links were not as immunoreactive as original allergens. However, we could not affirm that the IgE binding was reduced from Figure 4 3 A lane 3 and 4. On the other hand, lane 6 (also 7 min PUV treatment) showed a much lighter band than lane 3 and 4. The difference between the experimental procedure of lane 3 and lane 6 is that lane 3 was treated with larger volume (20 ml) while lane 6 w as treated with less volume (10 ml) S ample volume is critical for PUV treatments because the thicker the sample, the less PUV light will penetrate into the sample Lane 2 (also 7 min boiling

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48 treatment) is lighter than lane 7. The difference of the sample for lane 2 and lane 7 is that the sample for lane 2 was prepared earlier than lane 7. After being stored for a period of time, protein los t its activity because of microbial or proteolytic degradation. More experiments need to be conducted in the future t o probe further whether the cross links are still active in IgE binding. protein cross links in PUV treated sample retained on the high molecular region of the SDS PAGE, which might be the reason why the 20 KDa bands in PUV treated samples w ere lighter than the untreated. Part of the allergen might turn in t o cross links, resulting in lighter band in 20 kDa region. Western blot shows 20 kDa band intensity was reduced with PUV treatment and appear ed to be most reduced at 7 min. Thus, 7 min was chosen for further study in ELISA SDS PAGE for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV for 6 and 7 Min Figure 4 4 shows the typical SDS PAGE profile of the boiling treated almond extract compared to the PUV treated. Despite the formation of aggregates, the boil ing treated extract displayed few missing bands compared to the PUV treated extract. Instead, it was similar to the control profile. The SDS PAGE shows a loss of protein bands, demonstrating PUV treatment progressively reduce d the solubility of almond pro teins. The PUV treated protein bands were less intense and had a stronger smear, compar ed to boil ed and raw sample s presumably due to the reason that some protein s were broken down into smaller peptides or fragments and some protein s become larger aggrega tion due to the PUV treatment This suggests that almond protein s were affected by PUV treatment It was speculated that some PUV treated protein s c ould not run through the gel, because PUV render ed the protein s insoluble by cross linking. Longer PUV treat ment times resulted in

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49 more reduced protein solubility and less intense protein bands. Intermolecular interactions are implicated in the formation of aggregates. Boiling did not reduce the protein solubility in a similar way as PUV as shown in SDS PAGE Fu rthermore, t he PUV treat ment changed the color of almond extracts from transparent white to light yellow and showed much more aggregation than the boiling treated sample. The reagents odium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and mercaptoethanol solubilized the boiling treated protein aggregation but did not solubilize the PUV treated protein aggregation indicating that the aggregation was not due to the disulfide bonds. It is clearly evident that almond allergen protein s were n ot able to preserve their structural properties after PUV treatment ; otherwise they would not change their characteristic molecular weight. We wanted to determine if thermal treatment affected almond allergens in the same way as PUV treatment in order to e liminate the possibility that the reduction of allergen resulted from an increase in temperature during PUV treatment. However, the instantaneous temperature of the sample during PUV treatment was unknown, and thus difficult to simulate the sa me temperatur e as the PUV treatment s As mentioned before, the temperature during the PUV treatments may be higher than the measured temperature, because the instantaneous temperature rises Western Blot for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV f or 6 and 7 Min Western blot (Figure 4 5 ) illustrates that IgE binding to almond extract probed by human IgE and anti AMP rabbit antibody was reduced after PUV treatment and appeared to be more reduced at 7 min than 6 min. Figure 4 5 also demonstrate s that epitopes relevant to human IgE recognition of the major amandin polypeptides ( 20 kDa to 25 kDa ) were changed. Figure 4 5 show s the 20 kDa band in boiled samples was

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50 almost the same as the band in raw sample in Figure 4 5 A and marginally weaker than the 20 kDa band in raw sample in Figure 4 5 B. This indicate d that the effect of boiling treatment on IgE reactivity of almond allergen was not notable in Western Blot P rotein level s in PUV treated samples seen in SDS PAGE were reduced yet not completely missing ; however, there were no apparent bands in the PUV treated samples in 14 kDa region. The reduction of the IgE activity of almond allergen was indicated in the loss of the intensity of the bands in Western blot. T herefore, t here was a larger decrease in IgE binding than the decreas e in protein expression in PUV treated samples. This may be due to the fact that the allergen had undergone conformational changes following PUV treatment, which caused the IgE binding sites to become unavailable E ven though the molecular weight of some a llergens did not change the IgE binding sites of those allergens were no longer recognizable by antibody. Photo thermal photo chemical and photo physical energy produced by PUV might have cause d modification of the allergen including protein fragmentati on or cross linking. The reactivity of 70 kDa proteins with the human IgE in our investigations was consistent with the results of Bargman and others (1992), who reported that blanching essentially eliminated 70 kDa proteins. Figure 4 5 does not show the h eat liable 70 kDa protein most likely because blanched almond powder was used in this experiment. This group also reported that the proteins from 45 50 kDa were stable and reactive after heat treatment Conversely, in our study, the activity of the protein s from 45 50 kDa was reduced by PUV as shown in Figure 4 5, indicating that the reduction of the 45 50 kDa may not be due to the high temperature accumulated during PUV treatment.

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51 The drawback of the Western blot assay is that it has to be transferred from the SDS PAGE gel. The resolution of the gel is between approximately 10 250 kDa. P art of large insoluble protein aggregation cannot run into the gel. The pores of the gel are small and the current will not be able to push the whole sample into the gel. Be cause the aggregates are probably not entering the gel, the reactivity of the allergen that remains on the top of the SDS PAGE gel cannot be tested by Western Blot E LISA can address the issue by test ing the entire almond sample SDS P AGE and Western Blot for HHP Treated Almond Extracts Figure 4 6 show s that u nlike soybean whey and bovine whey protein hydrolysates, which were reduced in allergen reactivity following HHP, no reduction in allergen protein band intensity was noted following HHP treatment as ob served in SDS PAGE and Western blotting profiles. Figure 4 6 demonstrate d that HHP was not able to reduce the immunoreactivity of almond protein under the conditions tested in this study SDS PAGE and Western Blot for NTP Treated Almond Extracts (Test 1) T he final temperatures after 1, 3, 5 min treatment were 20, 22, and 24 C respectively SDS PAGE and Western blots of NTP treated samples are presented in Figure 4 7, which show that NTP treated samples did not show reduction in allergen protein or antigen icity. Allergens from 10 kDa to 15 kDa region shows in SDS PAGE, while they did not show the band in western blot. This might be due to the possibility that NTP eliminated the IgE reactivity of 10 15 kDa proteins or it might be due to the fact that 10 15 k Da proteins somehow were not successfully transferred to the Western blot membrane

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52 Western Blot for NTP Treated Almond Extracts (Test 2 ) As can be seen in Figure 4 8, the Western blot of NTP treated samples show that NTP treatment did not qualitatively al ter the protein profile compared with the untreated raw sample. The raw sample d id not show a protein band from 10 15 kDa, which indicated that the disappearance of the 10 15 kDa band in Figure 4 7 was not due to NTP treatment. As mentioned before free ra dical is a strong protein modifying agent. Although NTP creates free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals, it did not alter the antigenicity of almond protein. Indirect ELISA Results Indirect E LISA for Almond Extracts Treated with PUV for 1, 2, 3 and 4 Min I ndirect ELISA was performed to determine the overall reduction in IgE binding to the PUV treated samples. Figure 4 9 present the indirect E LISA for almond extract treated with PUV for 1, 2, 3 and 4 min probed by human plasma containing IgE antibodies agai nst almond. Results are expressed as absorbance reading s from a spectrometer Bars are labeled with l etters. Values with the same letters are not significantly different. It is discernible that there were progressively increasing reductions in IgE binding activity as the PUV treatment time increase d from 1 min to 4 min, but the reduction wa s not significant indicating the immunological stability of almond allergen. Consistently, the protein bands become progressively weaker from 1 min to 4 min in SDS PAGE ( F igure 4 15). Indirect ELISA for PUV Treated First Group of Almond Extracts Figure 4 10 show Indirect E LISA for raw, boiled and PUV treated almond extract s using human plasma containing IgE antibodies against almond. Figure 4 10 suggest that PUV for 7 min was more effective than boiling in regard to reducing the IgE binding

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53 reactivity to almond. The boil ed and PUV treated samples had reduction in IgE binding of 40% and 76% of IgE binding to the almond allergen, respectively, compared with raw, as shown in the Figure 4 10 Acosta and others (1999) described that commercial blanched almond samples incurred 50% reduction in allergen level, compared with the untreated almond sample Boiling and PUV treatment may change the almond protein to induce masking of al lergenic epitopes, which reduce d recognizable and assessable epitopes Indirect E LISA for PUV Treated Second Group of Almond Extracts Figure 4 1 1 presents i ndirect E LISA for raw boiled and PUV treated almond extract s using human plasma containing IgE anti bodies against almond. Figure 4 11 illustrate s that PUV reduced IgE binding, however, not as much as the previous result. It was because the sample was not placed directly under the lamp due to human error, so it may not have receive d the maximum exposure to PUV light. It can be inferred that the dose of the PUV light relative to the placement under the lamp. Furthermore, t he water los s was inconsistent, because the energy under the PUV lamp was unevenly distributed at different locations. Thus it is impor tant to treat the sample at the exact same location every time, a little movement would make a great difference in the results. If samples were treated at exactly the same location, the result in W estern blot and ELISA would have been more consistent. Indi rect E LISA for Almond Extracts from PUV Treated Whole Almond Figure 4 12 presents Indirect E LISA of raw whole almond extract and the extract from whole almond treated with PUV for 4 min Indirect ELISA was probed with human plasma containing IgE antibodies against almond. Figure 4 12 indicate s that there was a significant qualitative reduction in IgE activity of protein extracts from PUV treated

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54 whole almond. The PUV treated almond shows the same appearance and flavor as roasted almond PUV can potentially be utilized for roasting and inactivation of allergen and pathogen of almond. Indirect E LISA for HHP Treated Almond Extracts Figure 4 14 illustrates Indirect E LISA of raw and HHP treated almond extract using human plasma containing IgE antibodies against a lmond. HHP has been demonstrated to alter allergen reactivity by modifying the structure of some food allergens. However, Figure 4 14 shows that HHP treatment alone did not significantly change the IgE binding compared with control, indicating the resistan ce of almond protein to HHP treatment. Th is ELISA result was consistent with the Western blot result. Indirect E LISA for NTP Treated Almond Extracts Figure 4 15 shows Indirect E LISA of raw and NTP treated almond extract using human plasma containing IgE an tibodies against almond. The figure 4 15 shows the almond IgE reactivity was not significantly changed, which means the epitopes were still recognizable by human allergic sera after NTP treatment at the conditions tested in this study. The indirect E LISA r esult was consistent with SDS PAGE and Western blotting results. Whole Almond Treated with PUV for 4 Min and Almond Flours Treated with PUV for 7min The whole almond treated with PUV for 4 min had a desirable and pleasurable roasted almond flavor The meas ured temperature of the almond after PUV treatment was 87 C while the temperature of the aluminum tray was 112 C The instantaneous temperature during the PUV treatment was expected to be much higher than this. The results indicate that PUV may give us a potential way to roast the almond and reduce its

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55 allergen. The almond flours treated with PUV for 7min had very strong burning smell and the sample was completely burnt because of the high temperature during the PUV treatment. This indicates that a shorter duration may be desirable for PUV treatment of the quantity of almond flour used. The picture of PUV treated whole almond for 4 min and the PUV treated almond powder for 7 min is shown in Figure 4 13. Prolonged PUV exposure le d to temperature build up and change d the color due to non enzymatic browning. The protein extracted from PUV treated almond kernel s developed dark yellowish color. Peroxides that generated by PUV and Maillard reaction may have led to the discoloration. Overall Results The SDS PAGE re sult indicate s that almond exhibited a reduced solubility and almond allergen expression after PUV treatments. The I ndirect ELISA results show that PUV reduce d the almond antigenicity, even though almond allergen has been reported fairly stable and resista nt to various food processing treatments. I ndirect ELISA demonstrated that IgE binding to almond extract was reduced by 76% following PUV treatment for 7 min compared to raw samples Western blot for almond extract treated with PUV for 7 min showed conside rably reduced allergen bands. The loss of band intensity in Western blot was more notable than that in ELISA which was associated with the insoluble allergen protein complex not being able to migrate through the SDS PAGE gel and thus not being able to be detected by Western blot. There was more reduction in IgE reactivity of almond extract s, when PUV treat ed on almond extract directly than on the whole almond and then prepared the extract which was possibly due to the penetration of the PUV.

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56 The results of this study suggest that the antigenicity of almond remained stable towards both HHP and NTP. There were no significant differences between raw almond extract and the HHP and NTP treated almond extracts in the ELISA and Western blot. The PUV technology was more effective in reducing the antigenicity of almond allergen when compared with HHP and NTP

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57 Table 4 1. Effect of PUV on water loss and temperature of almond extracts PUV treatment time PUV PUV PUV PUV PUV PUV PUV PUV 30sec 1min 2min 3m in 4min 6min 7min 8 min water loss 3% 6.60% 11.60% 20.60% 25.60% 30% 50% Some area dried out Temperature 50 C 56 C 77 C 80 C 8 0 C 113 C 115 C ignited a wood stick after treatment

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58 Figure 4 1 Braford assay of raw almond extracts treated with boiling for 4 min, PUV1 for 1 min, PUV2 for 2 min, PUV3 for 3 min, and PUV4 for 4 min Figure 4 2. SDS PAGE and Western blot of raw almond extracts treated with PUV for a short duration PUV for 1min, boiling for 30 s and boiling for 1 min.

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59 Figure 4 3 Western blot and SDS PAGE profile of almond extract s treated with PUV for 7 min and 10 min. Lane 1 and 2 are from one sample, lane 3 and 4 are from another sample, and lane 5 and 6 are from the third sample.

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60 Figure 4 4. SDS PAGE profile of almon d extract s 1, untreated supernatant; 2, PUV treated for 6 min; 3, PUV treated for 7 min; 4, Boil ing treated for 6 min. Figure 4 5. Western blots of almond extracts probed with human IgE (HA) and anti AMP rabbit antibody (PA). 1, untreated supernatant; 2, PUV treated for 6 min; 3, PUV treated for 7 min; 4, Boil treated for 6 min; 5, PUV treated for 7 min. human IgE (HA) dilution (1:80), CAP 13.9KU/I. secondary dilution(1:1000). anti AMP rabbit antibody (PA) dilution (1:40) anti rabbit IGG dilution(1:2500 )

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61 Figure 4 6. SDS and Western blots of HHP treated almond extracts probed with human IgE (HA). 1, untreated supernatant; 2, HHP treated at 4 C for 5min; 3, HHP treated at 70 C for 5 min; 4, HHP treated at 21 C for 5 min; 5, HHP treated at 21 C for 15 min; 6, HHP treated at 21 C for 30 min. human IgE (HA) dilution (1:80), CAP 13.9KU/I. secondary dilution (1:1000).

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62 Figure 4 7. SDS PAGE and Western blots of NTP treated almond extracts probed with human IgE (HA). 1, NTP treated for 1min; 2, NTP t reated for 3 min; 3, NTP treated for 5 min. human IgE (HA) dilution (1:80), CAP 13.9KU/I. secondary dilution (1:1000). Figure 4 8. Western blots of NTP treated almond extracts probed with human IgE (HA). 1, untreated supernatant; 2, NTP treated for 1 m in; 3, NTP treated for 3 min; 4, NTP treated for 5 min. human IgE (HA) dilution (1:80), CAP 13.9KU/I. secondary dilution (1:1000).

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63 Figure 4 9. Indirect E LISA for almond extract s treated with PUV for 1, 2, 3 and 4min probed by human plasma containing IgE antibodies against almond. Results are absorbance reading from spectrometer The bar chart shows the mean of triplicates with Standard Error Mean error bar. Bars are labeled with letters. Values with different letters are significant different.

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64 Fi gure 4 10. Indirect E LISA for raw boiled and PUV treated first group of almond extracts using human plasma containing IgE antibodies against almond. Results are absorbance reading from spectrometer The bar chart shows the mean of triplicates with Standar d Error Mean error bar. Bars are labeled with letters. Values with different letters are significant different. Figure 4 11. Indirect E LISA for raw boiled and PUV treated second group of almond extract s using human plasma containing IgE antibodies ag ainst almond. Results are absorbance reading from spectrometer The bar chart shows the mean of triplicates with Standard Error Mean error bar. Bars are labeled with letters. Values with different letters are significant different.

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65 Figure 4 12. Indire ct E LISA for raw whole almond extract s and extract s from whole almond treated with PUV for 4 min probed with human plasma containing IgE antibodies against almond. Results are absorbance reading from spectrometer The bar chart shows the mean of triplicate s with Standard Error Mean error bar. Bars are labeled with letters. Values with different letters are significant different. Figure 4 13 W hole almond treated with PUV for 4 min and almond flours treated with PUV for 7min.

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66 Figure 4 14. Indirect E LI SA for raw and HHP treated almond extract s using human plasma containing IgE antibodies against almond. The bar chart shows the mean of triplicates with Standard Error Mean error bar. Bars are labeled with letters. Values with different letters are signifi cant different. Figure 4 15. Indirect E LISA for raw and NTP treated almond extract s using human plasma containing IgE antibodies against almond. Results are relative values compare to the control. The bar chart shows the mean of triplicates with Stand ard Error Mean error bar. Bars are labeled with letters. Values with different letters are significant different.

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67 Figure 4 1 6 SDS PAGE of raw almond extracts treated with boiling for 4 min and PUV for 1 2 3 and 4 m in.

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68 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECO MMENDATION Conclu ding Remarks Tree nut is one of the 8 major allergenic foods that are responsible for approximately 90% of all allergic reactions. Almond, as a kind of tree nut and a source of allergen, has been a concern for a proportion of consumers. Al mond aller gies have been proven to be severe in nature, lifelong, and can even cause f a tal reaction. Since avoidance is not always possible, it would be ideal if allergens could be eliminated or minimized in the processing steps before the products reach c onsumers. This study compared three novel food processing technologies (PUV, HHP and NTP) in reducing almond allergen s and IgE binding activity. PUV was more effective than HHP and NTP in almond allergen reduction Short time PUV treatment was not effective in allergen reduction Long er PUV treatment performed better in allergen reduction ( e.g., 76% reduction after 7 min PUV treatment) The w hole almonds treated with PUV show ed significant reduction in allergen The m echanism of PUV treatment was likely to be t hat PUV changed the structure based epitopes or hid epitopes due to its photo thermal, photo chemical or photo physical effect, with photo thermal effect being more prominent Short time PUV treatment (e.g. 30 and 60 s ) is not effective and shows no signifi cant change in almond allergen. Longer PUV exposure ( e.g. 7 min) performed better in reducing the IgE activity in extracts from almond powder, resulting in around 76% reduction in IgE activity. L ong time PUV treatment s incurred much instantaneous heat gene reduction of the extracts and the burning of the almond powder. However, N on thermal plasma treatment (NTP) and high hydrostatic presure (HHP) treatment (600 Mpa) were

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69 not effecti ve in reducing the IgE activity of almond allergen s at all conditions tested in this study. Neither Western blot nor ELISA h as showed significant change s in the case of NTP and HHP. The results on the extract s from whole almond kernel s treated with PUV ha v e shown a significant reduction in allergen potency, compared with extract s from untreated whole almond s This finding may lead to a new horizon of PUV applications to almond product s i.e., to achieve roasting and allergen reduction in unison. In addition the extract s from whole almond s treated with PUV for 4 min has significantly lower protein concentration than the extract s from whole raw almond s even though they are extracted at the same condition. Based on this study, t he main mechanism of reduction of IgE activity to almond extracts by PUV treatment is that PUV induced the cross linking, fragmentation denaturalization and aggregation which changed the structure based epitopes or masking of epitopes. Aggregation masked epitopes which rendered epitop es u naccessible Denaturalization changed the conformational based epitopes, and fragmentation changed linear epitopes which caused epitopes to be unrecognizable There are three possible mechanism s for cross linking : (1) Maillard reaction and denaturation due to photo thermal effect of PUV led to the formation of cross links (2) PUV photons absorbed by water led to generation of free radical s which triggered crosslinking, (3) PUV photons absorbed by protein amino acids caused crosslinking. The benefit of an effective allergen modification and reduction technique is countless, which can lead to safer product s and the wellbeing of food allergic consumer s Although PUV did not eliminate the allergen s in almond s it has showed a

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70 great potential for significant ly reducing the almond allergen s which may lead to the production of hypoallergenic almond products. Recommendation s M ol ecular information of the cross links caused by PUV treatments needs to be studied in the future. The beta mercaptoethanol was used be fore running the SDS PAGE, so the cross linking was not a disulfide bond. T h e high instantaneous heat generated during PUV treatment s might be one effect of changing the allergen, and the thermal energy might be utilized to process the food. PUV treatment for 7 min was the most effective in reducing the allergenic potencies of almond allergens. However, the temperature after PUV treatment for 7 min was high, which rendered PUV thermal in this case. If new PUV equipment could prevent sample s from increasing the temperature, then the temperature of the sample would not have to be considered as a factor of changing the allergen. The PUV equipment may be put in a cool chamber to maintain the temperature of the sample and reduce the water evaporation. However, t he heat generated by PUV may be used to preheat food during preparation, thus reduc ing the energy required in the thermal treatment of foods. It is a beneficial idea to reduce the antigenicity and inactivate the pathogens of foods while sav ing the energy. Further research on PUV and PUV treated almond s need s to be conducted in the future. It is suggested that PUV treated almond extract s need to go through the sensory test and ingredient analysis to insure the retention of nutrients, quality and flavor. As a kind of electromagnetic radiation, PUV may face the issue of consumer acceptance. The Food and Drug Administration has issued approval in the use of PUV in food processing, however, food should be treated with P UV of minimum dose reasonably

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71 required to re duce the acceptable antigenicity level. Further research might be conducted on the effect s of the HHP together with enzyme on the IgE reactivity of almond. However, it is possible that protein hydrolysis may cause changes in food flavor and sensory attribu te s Which wavelength region of PUV is playing an important role in altering almond protein structure s can be investigated in future studies Answers to these questions need to be confirmed. The almond IgE b inding e pitope structure and its biological activ ity can be determined in future stud ies Furthermore, more studies could be done in PUV treatment on whole nut kernels. It has been reported that insoluble protein can be soluble at acidic pH or by glycolytic enzymes (Kopper and others 2005) So, allergen may be released in acidic stomach es or intestine s T he insoluble protein containing allergen may retain antigenicity after being resolubilized and digested in to smaller peptide s, and s ome almond allergen epitopes may stay intact after gastric digestion, resulting in allergic reaction s Thus, in vivo stud ies are needed after in vitro studies in assessing the antigenicity of allergen in gastrointestinal environment and in assessing the antigenicity of almond allergen

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72 APPENDIX STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A 1. Statistical analysis of E LISA result for first group of almond extract s treated with PUV. A) ANOVA. B) Means by treatment A) The ANOVA Procedure Dependent Variable: result result Sum of Source DF Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Mo del 2 0.08741303 0.04370652 23.11 <.0001 Error 15 0.02836556 0.00189104 Corrected Total 17 0.11577859 R Square Coeff Var Root MSE result Mean 0.755002 31.58913 0.043 486 0.137661 Source DF Anova SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F treatment 2 0.08741303 0.04370652 23.11 <.0001 14:53 Wednesday, January 27, 2011 3 The ANOVA Procedure B) t Tests (LSD) for result NOTE: This test controls the Type I comparisonwise error rate, not the experimentwise error rate. Alpha 0.05 Error Degrees of Freedom 15 Error Mean Square 0.001891 Critical Value of t 2.13145 Least Significant Difference 0.0535 Means with the same letter are not significantly different. t Grouping Mean N treatment A 0.22415 6 raw B 0.13533 6 Boil C 0.05350 6 PUV Means and Descriptive Statistics 1 14:53 Wednesday, January 27, 201 1 Mean of Std. Dev. Std. Error Variance treatment RESULT of RESULT of RESULT of RESULT

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73 Boil 0.13533 0.047266 0.019296 .002234063 PUV 0.05350 0.026720 0.010908 .000713963 raw 0.22415 0.052202 0.021312 .0027250 86 15:01 Wednesday, January 27, 2011 1 The ANOVA Procedure Class Level Information Class Levels Values treatment 3 Boil PUV raw Table A 2 Statistical analysis of E LISA result for second group of almond extract s treated with PUV. A) ANOVA. B) Means by treatment A) Th e ANOVA Procedure Dependent Variable: res ult result Sum of Source DF Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Model 2 0.00751161 0.00375581 9.91 0.0018 Error 15 0.00568351 0.00037890 Corrected Total 17 0.01319513 R Square Coeff Var Root MSE result Mean 0.569272 12.09408 0.019465 0.160950 Source DF Anova SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F treatment 2 0.00751161 0.00375581 9.91 0.0018 15:01 Wednesday, January 27, 2011 3 B) The ANOVA Procedure t Tests (LSD) for result NOTE: This test controls the Type I comparisonwise error rate, not the experimentwise error rate. Alpha 0.05 Error Degrees of Freedom 15 Error Mean Square 0.000379 Critical Value of t 2.13145 Least Significant Difference 0.024 Means with the same letter are not significantly different. t Grouping Mean N trea tment A 0.18 942 6 raw B 0.15098 6 PUV

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74 B 0.14245 6 Boil Means and Descriptive Statistics 1 15:01 Wednesday, January 27, 2011 Mean of Std. Dev. Std. Error Variance treatment RESULT of RESULT of RESULT of RESULT Boil 0.14245 0.022714 .009272807 .000515910 PUV 0.15098 0.011997 .004897670 .000143923 raw 0.18942 0.021837 .008915059 .000476870 Table A 3 Statistical analysis of E LISA result for almond extract s treated with HHP. A) ANO VA. B) Means by treatment A) The ANOVA Procedure Class Level Information Class Levels Values Treatment_ 5 HHP(21?,15min) HHP(21?,30min) HHP(70?,15min) HHP(70?,5min) raw Number of observations 45 The ANOVA Procedure Dependent Variable: Result Result Sum of Source DF Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Model 4 0.01385029 0.00346257 1.21 0.3213 Error 40 0.11437462 0.00285937 Corrected Total 44 0.12822491 R Square Coeff Var Root MSE Result Mean 0.108016 20.14337 0.053473 0.265462 Source DF Anova SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F Treatment_ 4 0.01385029 0.00346257 1.21 0.3213 B) The ANOVA Procedure t Tests (LSD) for Result NOTE: This test controls the Type I comparisonwise error rate, not the experimentwise error rate. Alpha 0.05 Error Degrees of Freedom 40 Error Mean Square 0.002859 Critical Value of t 2.02108 Least Significant Difference 0.0509

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75 Means with the same letter are not significantly different. t Grouping Mean N Treatment_ A 0.28847 9 raw A 0.28374 9 HHP(70?,5min) A 0.25689 9 HHP(70?,15min) A 0.25489 9 HHP(21?,30min) A 0.24332 9 HHP(21?,15min) Means and Descriptive Statistics Mean of Std. Dev. Std. Error Variance Treatment RESULT of RESULT of RESULT of RESULT HHP(21?,15min) 0.24332 0.050854 0.016951 .002586097 HHP(21?,30min) 0.25489 0.052208 0.017403 .002725651 HHP(70?,15min) 0.25689 0.053480 0.017827 .002860091 HHP(70?,5min) raw 0.28847 0.053943 0.017981 .002909807 Table A 4 Statistical analysis of E LISA result for almond extract s treated with NTP A) ANOVA. B) Means by treatment A) The ANOVA Procedure Class Level Information Class Levels Values treatment 3 Plasma 1min Plasma 3min Plasma 5min Number of observations 27 The ANOVA Procedure Dependent Variable: result result Sum of Source DF Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Model 2 0.00143279 0.00071640 0.12 0.8863 Error 24 0.14174753 0.00590615 Corrected Total 26 0.14318033 R Square Coeff Var Root MSE result Mean

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76 0.010007 27.95013 0.076851 0.274959 Source DF Anova SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F treatment 2 0.00143279 0.00071640 0.12 0.8863 B) The ANOVA Procedure t Tests (LSD) for result NOTE: This test controls the Type I comparisonwise error rate, not the experimentwise error rate. Alpha 0.05 Error Degrees of Freedom 24 Error Mean Square 0.005906 Critical Value of t 2.06390 Least Significant Differen ce 0.0748 Means with the same letter are not significantly different. t Grouping Mean N treatment A 0.28503 9 Plasma 5min A 0.27179 9 Plasma 1min A 0.26806 9 Plasma 3min Means and Descriptive Statistics 1 02:33 Wednesday, February 24, 2011 Mean of Std. Dev. Std. Error Variance treatment RESULT of RESULT of RESULT of RESULT Plasma 1min 0.27179 0.082206 0.027402 .006757756 Plasma 3min 0.26806 0.096090 0.032030 .009233375 Plasma 5min 0.28503 0.041561 0.013854 .001727310 Table A 5 Statistical analysis of E LISA resul t for almond extract s from raw and PUV treated whole almond. A) ANOVA. B) Means by treatment A) The ANOVA Procedure Class Level Informat ion Class Levels Values treatment 2 PUV Whole Raw Whole Number of observations 24 NOTE: Due to missing values, only 18 observations can be used in this analysis. 10:55 Monday, February 8, 2011 2

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77 The ANOVA Procedure Dependent Variable: result result Sum of Source DF Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Model 1 0.02686562 0.02686562 18.47 0.0006 Error 16 0.02327012 0.00145438 Corrected Total 17 0.05013574 R Square Coeff Var Root MSE result Mean 0.535858 12.51741 0.038136 0.304667 Source DF Anova SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F treatment 1 0.02686562 0.02686562 18.47 0.0006 B) The ANOVA Procedure t Tests (LSD) for result NOT E: This test controls the Type I comparisonwise error rate, not the experimentwise error rate. Alpha 0.05 Error Degrees of Freedom 16 Error Mean Square 0.001454 Critical Value of t 2.11991 Least Significant Difference 0.0381 Means with the same letter are not significantly different. t Grouping Mean N treatment A 0.34330 9 Raw Whole B 0.26603 9 PUV Whole Table A 6 Statistical analysis of E LISA result for almond extract s treated with PUV for 1 min, 2 min, 3 min and 4 min. A) ANOVA. B) Means by treatment A) The ANOVA Procedure Class Level Information Class Levels Values treatment 4 PUV1min PUV2min PUV3min PUV4min Number of observations 24 10:55 Monday, February 8, 2011 2

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78 The ANOVA Procedure Dependent Variable: result result Sum of Source DF Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Model 3 0.0023482 9 0.00078276 0.25 0.8574 Error 20 0.06159665 0.00307983 Corrected Total 23 0.06394493 R Square Coeff Var Root MSE result Mean 0.036724 15.54226 0.055496 0.357067 Source DF Anova SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F treatment 3 0.00234829 0.00078276 0.25 0.8574 10:55 Monday, February 8, 2011 3 B) The ANOVA Procedure t Tests (LSD) for result NOTE: This test controls the Type I comparisonwise error rate, not the experimentwise error rate. Alpha 0.05 Error Degrees of Freedom 20 Error Mean Square 0.00308 Critical Value of t 2.08596 Least Significant Difference 0.0668 Means with the same letter are not significantly different. t Grouping Mean N treatment A 0.36588 6 PUV1min A A 0.36328 6 PUV2min A A 0.35855 6 PUV3min A A 0.34055 6 PUV4min

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83 Messens W, Van Camp J, Huyghebaert A. 1997. The use of high pressure to modify the functionality of food proteins. Trends Food Sci Technol 8(4):107 12. Mondoulet L, Paty E, Drumare M, Ah Leung S, Scheinmann P, Willemot R, Wal J, Bernard H. 2005. Influence of thermal processing on the allergenicity of peanut proteins. J Agric Food Chem 53(11):4547 53. Montie TC, Kelly Wintenberg K, Roth JR. 2002. An overview of research using the one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) for ster ilization of surfaces and materials. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 28(1):41 50. National Institute of Allergy and I nfectious Diseases (NIAID). 20 10 Food a llergy a n overview http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/foodAllergy/Documents/foodallergy.pdf Accessed on August 26 th 20 08. Nooji J Yang W Shriver SK Anugu A Chung S 2010. Pulsed ultraviolet light reduces the al lergenicity of wheat gluten. [abstract]. In: IFT annual meeting; 2010 July 17 20; Chicago, IL Nanos GD, Kazantzis I, Kefalas P, Petrakis C, Stavroulakis GG. 20 02. Irrigation and harvest time affect almond kernel quality and composition. Scientia horticulturae 96(1 4):249 56. Nowak Wegrzyn A, Bloom K, Sicherer S. 2008. Tolerance to extensively heated milk in children with cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immuno l 122(2):342 7. Peas E, Gomez R, Frias J, Baeza ML, Vidal Valverde C. 2011. High hydrostatic pressure effects on immunoreactivity and nutritional quality of soybean products. Food Chem 124(2):423 9. Penas E, Restani P, Ballabio C, Prestamo G, Fiocchi A, G omez R. 2006a. Assessment of the residual immunoreactivity of soybean whey hydrolysates obtained by combined enzymatic proteolysis and high pressure. Eur Food Res Technol EUR 222(3 4):286 90. Penas E, Snel H, Floris R, Prestamo G, Gomez R. 2006b. High pres sure can reduce the antigenicity of bovine whey protein hydrolysates. Int Dairy J 16(9):969 75. Philip N, Saoudi B, Crevier MC, Moisan M, Barbeau J, Pelletier J. 2003. The respective roles of UV photons and oxygen atoms in plasma sterilization at reduced g as pressure: the case of N 2 O 2 mixtures. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 30(4):1429 36. Poms RE, Anklam E. 2004. Effects of chemical, physical, and technological processes on the nature of food allergens. J Aoac Int 87(6):1466 74. Roux KH, Teuber SS, Robotham JM, Sathe SK. 2001. Detection and stability of the major almond allergen in foods. J Agric Food Chem 49(5):2131 6.

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85 Su M, Venkatachalam M, Teuber SS, Roux KH, Sathe SK. 2004. irradiation and thermal processing on the antigenicity of almond, cashew nut and walnut proteins. J Sci Food Agri 84(10):1119 25. Taheri Kafrani A, Gaudin J, Rabesona H, Nioi C, Agarwal D, Drouet M, Chobert J, Bordbar A, Haertle T. 2009. Effect s of heating and glycation of Lactoglobulin on Its recognition by IgE of sera from wow milk allergy patients. J Agri Food Chem 57(11):4974 82. Taylor SL, Hefle SF. 2002. Allergic reactions and food intolerances. In: Kotsonis FN, Maekey MA, editors. Nutrit ional t oxicology 2 nd ed. Boca Ration FL. p 91 118. Taylor S. 2006. The nature of food allergy. In: Koppelman SJ, Hefle SL, editors. Detecting allergens in f ood: The nature of food allergy Woodhead Publishing Ltd : Cambridge, England. p 3 20. Venkatachalam M, Teuber SS, Roux KH, Sathe SK. 2002. Effects of roasting, blanching, autoclaving, and microwave heating on antigenicity of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) proteins. J Agric Food Chem 50(12):3544 8. Vieths S, Reindl J, Mller U, Hoffmann A, Haustein D. 1999. D igestibility of peanut and hazelnut allergens investigated by a simple in vitro procedure. Eur Food Res Technol 209(6):379 88. Wilson S, Blaschek K, Gonzalez de Mejia E. 2005. Allergenic proteins in soybean: processing and reduction of P34 allergenicity. N utr Rev 63(2):47 58. Wolf WJ, Sathe SK. 1998. Ultracentrifugal and polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic studies of extractability and stability of almond meal proteins. J Sci Food Agri 78(4):511 21. Worm M, Hompes S, Fiedler E, Illner A, Zuberbier T, Vieths S. 2009. Impact of native, heat processed and encapsulated hazelnuts on the allergic response in hazelnut allergic patients. Clin Exp Allergy 39(1):159 66. Yang W, Chung SY, Ajayi O, Krishnamurthy K, Konan K, Goodrich Schneider R. 2010. Use of pulsed ultra violet light to reduce the allergenic potency of soybean extracts. Int J Food Eng 6(3):1 2. Zhenxing L, Hong L, Limin C, Jamil K. 2007. The influence of gamma irradiation on the allergenicity of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). J Food Eng 79(3):945 9.

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86 BIOGRAP HICAL SKETCH Yiqiao Li was born in 1988 in China. She graduated from Zhejiang Sci Tech University with B.S. in packaging engineering. She attended the University of Florida from 2009 2011 and graduated with her M.S. in agricultural and biological engineeri ng. She also received minor s in packaging science and food science. Yiqiao Li was offered a research assistantship at the University of Florida to supervision of Dr.Wade Yang. She did her resear ch in Department of Food and Human Nutrition where she gained invaluable experience about the research. She has also been an active member in organizations in her field, such as the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT).