Floridas K20 Education Model a Policy Analysis of Legislation Related to Post secondary Readiness and Participation of S...

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Title:
Floridas K20 Education Model a Policy Analysis of Legislation Related to Post secondary Readiness and Participation of Students of Color
Physical Description:
1 online resource (144 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Bowens-Hendley, L
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ed.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Higher Education Administration, Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education
Committee Chair:
OLIVER,BERNARD
Committee Co-Chair:
CAMPBELL,DALE FRANKLIN
Committee Members:
VILLARREAL,PEDRO
OLIVER,EILEEN

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
participation -- postsecondary -- readiness
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Higher Education Administration thesis, Ed.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
College readiness and participation for students of color is an issue across the United States. State K-12 and higher education agencies are challenged with the mandate of remediating student academic deficiencies prior to a students postsecondary college experience. The joint effort between k-12 and postsecondary education sectors to prepare students for college called for a national movement to increase both accountability and collaboration between local, state, and federal education agencies. Federal and state legislators sought to develop initiatives to address legislation to increase our nations standing in competitiveness in education with neighboring countries. Florida sought to become a national leader in education through aligning departments, education sectors, and education agencies into a systematic K-20 education system. State legislators in Florida developed college readiness legislation to adhere to federal mandates for instructional accountability to better prepare students for college who were completing high school. The intent of the legislation in Florida was to increase the number of college and to decrease student attrition in postsecondary institutions. The intent of the K-20 legislation was to establish a coherent and comprehensive education governance structure. The underlying challenges associated with remediating student learning deficiencies prior to postsecondary study were addressed through imposing mandates on both K-12 and postsecondary sectors to increase collaboration and cross-departmental planning between state education agencies.This study examined the development and re-organization of Floridas education system into a consolidated K-20 governance structure. In addition, the study evaluates implementation of college readiness legislation in Florida. In particular, the focus of the study determines the initiatives effectiveness in increasing student preparedness for postsecondary education and examines alignment of Floridas education sectors. The study includes an emphasis on student performance on Floridas high school exit examinations and college entrance assessments.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by L Bowens-Hendley.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Local:
Adviser: OLIVER,BERNARD.
Local:
Co-adviser: CAMPBELL,DALE FRANKLIN.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2014
System ID:
UFE0042906:00001


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1 K 2 0 ED U CA T ION M OD E L: A P O L ICY ANAL Y SIS OF LEGI S L A T ION REL A T ED T O PO S T S ECON D ARY READINESS AND P AR T ICIP A T ION OF S T U D E N T S OF CO L O R By L A T ASHA L. B O W E N S A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSI TY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION U N IVERS I T Y OF FL O RIDA 20 1 4

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2 2 0 14 L a t as h a L B o w e ns

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3 T o m y m o t h er I ncell Ro g er s w ho told m e I could acc o m pl i sh a n y t h ing I w ould l i ke to do in l i f e

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4 ACKN O W L E D GMENTS F i rst, I a m t h an k f u l to G o d f o r t h e g race a nd stren g th to c o m ple t e th e acco m pl i sh m ent o f t h is stud y W i t ho u t H i m t h is st u dy w ould not ha v e b e en possibl e T h er e f or e I g lor i f y Him in t h is ach ie v e m en t This st u dy is close to my h eart, be c au s e it o f f er e d m e t he op p ort u nity to s e t a n ew trend o f c o l l e g e participation f o r m y students and my f a m i l y I e x t e nd m y appreciat i o n to m y f a m i l y f or pro v iding the enc o ura g e m e nt a nd m oti v ation to achie v e m y p ost s ec on dary e ducat i on and ult i m a t ely m y d oct o ral deg r ee. I w ould part i cular l y like to t h a n k m y m o t her f o r su p p o rt i ng m y d rea m s t h ro ug h h er enc o ura g e m e n t Ea c h o f m y f a m i l y m e m bers has c o ntr i bu t ed to m y s u ccess by s e tt i ng hi g h a ca d e m ic e x pect a tions as a s t a n dard f o r our f a m i l y I d e dicate t his acc o m pl i s h m e nt to a ll o f t h em a n d I a m et e rnal l y g rat e f u l f or all w ho contr i bu t ed to t he e v ents o f m y life. Additi o nal l y I w ould l i ke to t h a nk Dr. B ernard Oli v er f or his g uid a nce to f o c us a nd co m p l ete t h is s t ud y D r Oli v er, t h ank y ou f o r shar i ng y our passion f or l ear n ing w ith m e in t h e creati o n o f t h is s t u d y This st u dy is p art i cular l y d edicat e d to a ll o f m y stude n ts a nd f e l l ow f a c ulty a nd s ta ff m e m b ers at R.J. Mur ra y M i ddle School and A l len D. N e ase Hi g h School. T hi s s t udy is e v id e nce th a t a ny stud e nt c a n a t t a in his o r h er g oals despi t e t h e chal l en g es a nd d i f f icul t y f ac e d in l i f e T he p at h to c ol l e g e a t t a i n m e nt is for e v ery studen t f am i l y and c o m m unit y I w ould also l i ke to t h a nk t h e g o v erning c o m m itt e e ; i t is w ith sinc e rest a ppreci a tion t h at I e x t e n d a w arm th ank y o u f o r y our g uid a nce a nd s up p ort f o r t h e s t ud y La s tl y I t h a nk Dr. L o uis P o n J u an and D r Lin d a Ha g ed o r n f or h elping me t o conti n ue m y p ath to d eg ree a ttai n m e nt and n ot to b e d e t e r red f r om m y path t o w ard co m p l etion o f m y g oal.

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5 T A B LE OF CON T EN T S Pa g e ACKN O W L E D GMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 IN T ROD U C T I O N ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 Federal C o l l e ge R ea d iness L egis l ation ................................ ................................ ... 13 B u sh A dministration: A ge of Academic A cc oun t abili t y ................................ ............ 13 S pelling s P erfe c t S t orm ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 Obama A dministration: A ge of C o llege a nd Career R eadin e s s .............................. 18 A Closer Look a t Flo r ida ................................ ................................ ......................... 19 F ram e w ork of the S t u d y ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 Statem e nt of the Pr o blem ................................ ................................ ....................... 21 Purpose of t h e St u d y a nd Re s earch Que s t i ons ................................ ...................... 22 Re s ea r ch Qu e stions ................................ ................................ ............................... 22 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 23 Significa n ce of t h e S t u d y ................................ ................................ ........................ 25 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 26 Org a nization of the St u d y ................................ ................................ ....................... 27 2 REVI E W OF LI T ER A T U RE ................................ ................................ .................... 30 Postsecon d a r y A ccess thro u gh t h e Lens of Soci a l C apital ................................ ..... 31 A ccess: A n I n v estment in Human Capi t al ................................ ......................... 31 M inori t y Postseconda r y Readiness & P articipation ................................ .......... 34 C hallenges w ith P o stsecondary R eadiness & A ccess ................................ ............ 35 Prepa r ation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 35 A w areness ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 36 A d dressing Soci a l C a pital Defi c its Thro u gh School Cou n selo r s ....................... 37 National K 20 Initiatives ................................ ................................ .......................... 38 History of K 20 Initiatives ................................ ................................ .................. 39 K 20 Collaboration Purpose ................................ ................................ ............. 40 K 20 Planning & Collaboration ................................ ................................ ......... 42 State Level K 16 and K 20 Initiatives ................................ ................................ ...... 44 K 16 and K 20 Education Council ................................ ................................ .... 44 Education Governance Systems ................................ ................................ ...... 44 Institutional Policies and Initiatives ................................ ................................ ......... 45 Com m uni t y C oll e ges ................................ ................................ ........................ 46

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6 A w areness of P o sts e conda r y En t rance E x pectations ................................ ...... 47 Community Colleges Redefined ................................ ................................ ....... 48 State Efforts to Address Postsecondary Readiness ................................ ............... 49 Movem ent Towards College Readiness ................................ ........................... 49 C o llege R e adin e ss a n d Participation L egi sl ation in Te x as ............................... 50 State Le v el Reforms Towards College Readiness ................................ ........... 52 K 20 A c adem i c R e m e diation ................................ ................................ ............ 54 Educ a tion a s a Com p rehensi v e S y stem ................................ ........................... 55 The K 20 Colle g e Pi p eline for D i sad v an t age P opulations ................................ 56 C u rriculum A lignme n t & C o mmon Core ................................ ............................ 57 K 20 Col l aboration a n d Pl a nning ................................ ................................ ...... 58 Federal Leg i sl a tion ................................ ................................ ........................... 58 3 M E T HODO L O GY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 61 O v e r v i e w of t h e St u dy ................................ ................................ ............................. 61 Re s ea r ch Qu e stions ................................ ................................ ............................... 63 M et h odolo g y ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 63 O v e r v i e w of t h e Met h od ................................ ................................ .................... 65 C o ncep t ual Fra m e w o rk of t h e St u d y ................................ ................................ 66 Ba c kgrou n d of t he S t u d y ................................ ................................ .................. 66 Theor e tical Fr a m e w o rk of t h e St u d y ................................ ................................ 67 Data Sourc e s ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 71 Procedur e s ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 71 Theo r y a nd Rationale ................................ ................................ ....................... 71 C o ncep t ualizations ................................ ................................ ........................... 72 Operationa l iz a tion ................................ ................................ ............................ 73 The C o llege R eadin e ss Re v olution ................................ ................................ ......... 74 Profile of Data Sour c es ................................ ................................ ........................... 74 M et h od of Data Retrie v al ................................ ................................ ........................ 75 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 76 Perm e abili t y and Transparency Fr a m e w o r k ................................ ............................ 78 Data Repor t ing Cate g ori e s ................................ ................................ ............... 78 Reporting Catego r y 1 : P erm e able L egis l at i on ................................ .................. 78 Reporting catego r y 2: Tra n sparent l egis l a t ion ................................ .................. 79 The End of the Pos t Secondary A f firmat i v e A c tion Era ................................ ........... 79 One Florida Pl a n ................................ ................................ .............................. 79 Florida E du c ation G o v ernance Reorganiz a tion A ct of 2 000 ............................. 82 Reconstru c tion P e riod HB 2 26 3 : Flo r Reorganization Le g i s la tion ..... 85 Senate Bi l l 1 16 2 : K 2 0 Educ a tion S y stem l e gisl a tion ................................ .............. 87 Florida S chool Code Re v i s ions ................................ ................................ ............... 93 A ge of A c a dem ic A ccel e ration ................................ ................................ .. 94 C o llege R e adine s s a nd Partici p ation L eg i sl a tion in Flo r ida .............................. 94 K 2 0 Init i ati v es ................................ ................................ ........................ 101 A m eri c an D i ploma P r o j ect ................................ ................................ .............. 101

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7 C o mmission of Go H i gher, Florida Ta s k F o rce ................................ ............... 102 Ra c e to t h e To p Init ia t i v e ................................ ................................ ................ 103 Posts e con d a r y Readiness M e a s u res ................................ ..................... 103 M inori t y St u den t s Postsecondary Partici p ation Higher Educ a tion C o ordinating C ouncil ( H B 71 5 1) ................................ ................................ ............................. 104 Senate Bi l l 1 0 8 : M in o ri t y or Underreprese n ted St u dent A chi e v ement ................... 105 Go v A ccess a nd D i v ersi t y C ommission ................................ ...................... 106 Post A f f irmat i v e A ct i on Imp a ct on Studen t s of C o lor ................................ ............. 107 Trends o f M inori t y A cadem i c Performa n c e in Flori d a A C T C o llege Readi n e ss Bench m ark ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 108 A CT Perfo r mance in Florida ................................ ................................ ... 109 S A T Coll e ge a nd Car e er R e adine s s Bench m ark ................................ .................. 1 10 S A T Coll e ge Suc c ess ................................ ................................ ........................... 110 ................................ ................................ .............. 111 A n a l y sis of Participa t ion and Re a di n ess L egisl a tion in Florida ............................. 113 5 SU M M ARY AND DIS C USSION ................................ ................................ ............ 123 Summa r y O v e r v i e w ................................ ................................ ............................... 123 Discus s ion and R e c o mm e ndations for K 2 0 Legis l at o rs ................................ ........ 124 Rec ommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ 125 Poli c y Recommendation # 1 : A ddress P ostsecondary A w are n e s s f o r A ll Stakehol d ers ................................ ................................ ............................... 125 Poli c y Recommendation # 2 : C o llabo r ation and Pl a nning Be t w ee n Educ a tion Sect o rs ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 126 Poli c y Recommendation # 3 : E xpand State Ef f orts to Teach Co l l e ge Kn o w l edge and Skil l s N e ce s sary f or Post s econdary S uccess ................................ ....... 127 Poli c y Recommendation #4: C o mmuni c ate Earl y Cre a te C o lleg e Going C u lture in El e men t ary Schools ................................ ................................ ................. 127 Recommendations for Future Study ................................ ................................ ..... 128 Poli c y Recommendation # 1 : E n act Policy L e v ers to Address L ea r ning Deficits among Minorities a n d St u den t s of Color. ................................ .................... 128 Recommendation #2 R e Foc u s Cer t ified C o uns e lor Prog r ams & Tr a i n ing ..... 129 Policy Recommendation #3 School Counselor Service Delivery Model ......... 130 Implications for Higher Education ................................ ................................ ......... 131 APPENDIX: LEGISLATION CITED ................................ ................................ ............. 133 L IST OF REFEREN C ES ................................ ................................ ............................. 135 BIOGRAPHIC A L S K E T CH ................................ ................................ .......................... 143

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Legislation addressing minority students ................................ .......................... 117 4 2 Six P ost A ff i r m at i v e A c t i on S t a tes ................................ ................................ ..... 117 4 3 ACT Flo r id a 5 Y e a r Perfor m a n c e of be n c h m a r k s ACT (2012) ....................... 118 4 4 F lor i da s Per f or m a n c e o n ACT by ra c e ................................ ............................. 118 4 5 A v era g e A C T Sc o res by R ac e / E th n i c it y i n F l ori d a ................................ ............ 118 4 6 F lor i da s M inority P e rfor m a n c e on ACT Nati o nal ................................ .............. 119 4 7 F lor i da s M inority P e rfor m a n c e on ACT ................................ ............................ 119 4 8 N a t i o n al SAT Data ................................ ................................ ............................ 119 4 9 N a t i o n al part i c i p at io n rat e s by r a c e/ y ear ................................ ........................... 120 4 10 Florida College System Enrollment by Race of Baccalaureate Students ..........120 4 11 Florida Related Participation and Readiness Legislation 1999 2012

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9 LIS T OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Flo r ida Depar t me n t o f E du c a t ion st ru c t ur e pr ior to re s t ru c t ur e .......................... 116 4 2 D e p art m e n t of E d u c ation I nt e grat i on F r a m ewo r k ................................ ............. 117 4 3 Pe r m ea b i l ity and T ran s par e n c y Fr a m e w ork ................................ ..................... 122

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10 Abstract o f Dissert a ti o n Pres e nt e d t o t h e Gr a dua t e S c hool o f t h e Uni v ers i ty o f Fl o r i da in P art i al Fu l f i l lm e nt o f t h e Re q ui r e m ents f or t he De g ree o f Doc t or o f E d ucati o n 20 EDUCATION MODEL: A POLICY ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATION RELATED TO POSTSECONDARY READINESS AND PARTICIPATION OF STUDENTS OF COLOR By Latasha L. Bowens May 2014 Ch a i r : Ber n ard Ol i v er M ajor: H i g her E d uc a ti o n Administration Colle g e readin e ss a n d particip a ti o n f o r stu d e n ts o f c olor is an a b u nd ant iss u e across t h e Unit e d S t a t es. S t ate K 12 a n d h i g her e d ucat i on a g enci e s a re c h al l en g ed w ith t h e m a nd a te o f r e m e diating stu d ent a c a d e m i c d e f ic i e ncies pr i or t o a stu d posts e c on d ary c o l l e g e e x per i enc e T h e joi n t e ffort b et w een K 1 2 a nd p ost s eco n dary edu c ation s ect o rs to prepare s t u d ents f or col l e g e c a l l ed f o r a nat i o n al m o v e m ent to increase bo t h a c c ou nt abi l ity a nd c o l l a borati o n b e t w een local, s t a t e, and f e d eral edu c ation a g encies. F ederal and sta t e le g is l at o r s s o u g ht to d e v el o p initiati v es to address l e g is l ation to increase our n ati o t anding in c o m petiti v e n ess in e duc a tion w ith n ei g hbor i ng c o un t r i es. F l or i da a t t e m p t ed t o b eco m e a n a tio n al le a d er i n e d ucat i on by al i gning de p art m ents, e d ucati o n s e c t ors, a n d e du c at i on a g enc i es in t o a s y s t e m a tic K 20 edu c ation s y st e m S t a t e le g is l at o rs i n Flor i da de v elo p ed c o l l e g e re a din e ss le g is l ation to ad h ere to f e deral m an dat e s f or i nst r uctio n al acco u nt a bi l ity to b et t er prepa r e hi g h sc h ool st u d e nts f o r col l e g e. The in t ent o f t h e le g is l ation in Flor id a w as to in c rease t he n u m ber

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11 o f c o l l e g e s t ud e nts a n d to decr e ase s t u d ent attr i tion in p o s ts e c o n d ary institution s. The intent o f t h e K 20 le g is l ation w as to e s t abl i sh a c o h erent a n d c o m p r eh e nsi v e e duc a tion g o v ernance structu r e. T h e u nder l y ing c h al l e ng es a ssociat e d w ith r e m ed i ating st u de n t le a rning d e f ic i e ncies p r ior to p osts e c on d ary study w ere a ddressed t h rou g h i m p o sing m a n da t es o n b oth K 1 2 a n d p osts e c on d ary s e ct o rs to increa s e c o l l a borati o n a nd cros s de p art m ent a l pla n ning bet w e en s t ate e d ucat i on a g enc i es. T his s t udy e x a m in e d t he d e v elo p m ent a n d r e or g ani z ation o f Flor i d a c ation s y st e m into a c o nsol i d at e d K 20 g o v ernance struct u re. In additi o n, t he s t udy e v alu a t e s impl e m e n t a ti o n o f col l eg e readin e ss le g is l ation in Flor i da. In p art i cu l ar, t h i s s t udy f o cuses o n t h e e ffecti v eness o f initi a ti v es in increasing st u de n t pr e p ared n ess f or posts e c on d ary e duc a tion a nd e x a m in e s t h e a l i g n m ent o f Flor i e ducat i on s e c t o rs.

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12 C H AP T ER 1 IN T ROD U C T I ON T h e Unit e d S t a t es saw a g ro w ing m o v e m ent i n instructi o nal acco u n t abi l ity a s a m e t hod f or i ncr e asing aca d e m ic achie v e m ent a nd e q uity in K 12 cl a ssroo m s. The purpo s e o f increasi ng i nstructio n al ac c ou n t a b i l i ty e x isted a s a mech a nism f o r i nduc i ng a chan g e in t h e a p proa c h t o w ard pre p ar i ng o ur n at i o n s h i g h sc h ool s t ud e nts f o r posts e c on d ary e duc a tio n N a tional e fforts to un i f y K 12 a nd hi g her edu c ation s ect o rs de v elo p ed a s a result o f o ur nat i g oals t o m ai n t a in its st a nce in le a ding c o l l e g e co m p l etion b y 2 0 2 0 ( U nited St a t es D e par t m e nt o f E d ucat i o n, 20 1 0). Furthe r, t h e g oal includ e d a n a g e n da t o b e c o m p etiti v e w i th n ei g hbor i ng c o u n tr i e s pre p are a ready w ork f orce, a nd cr e ate e q uita ble l e arning e x per i ences f o r all st u d e n t s. The basis o f t h is pol i cy study is to e v alu a te t he nat i onal and s t ate e ff orts to en h an c e t he tr a nsitio n s o f m in o r i ty stud e nts to p o sts e co n dary e du c ation b as e d u pon t h e p er m eabi l ity a nd transpa r ency f r a m e w ork. This a nal y sis is speci f ically f o cus e d o n t he c o m p r eh e nsi v e ref o rm e f f orts o f Flor id a a n d t he i m pa c t o f rele v ant le g is l a t ion o n m in o r i ty stude n t readin e ss a n d participation in po s ts e c o n d ary ed u catio n T h e incr e asing c o m pl e x i t y f or st a te e du c ation a g encies t o p r e pare st ud e nts f o r posts e c on d ary e duc a tion re q ui r ed f e d eral a n d sta t e le g is l at o rs t o r e e v alu a te t h e cur r ent a ppr o aches t o edu c ating o ur nati o st u d e nts. F ede r al le g is l at o rs de v elo p ed initiati v es w hich m an d at e d st a ndard s b as e d edu c ation a n d st a t e l e v el ac ad e m ic assess m ents in a ll cla s sroo m s i n t h e Unit e d S t a t e s (No Chil d Le f t B e hin d [ NCL B], 2002 ) Acad e m ic a c c o u nt a bi l ity m easures in st u de n t le a rning u n v ei l ed c u r r i culum dis j unc t ure bet w een K 1 2 a nd po s ts e co n dary instruction. Fra g m en t ed l e arning bet w een K 1 2 a nd f re s h m en y ears i n c ol l e g e result e d in a mass e x odus o f st u de n ts w ho w ere u n a ble t o m e e t

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13 p osts e c on d ary e ntrance e x p e ct a tions. As a re s ult o f t h e a bs e nce o f a ppropr i a t e col l e g e p re p aratio n ou g ra d uating s enior s r at i ons f o r col l e g e f ai l ed to car r y them to de g ree c o m p l etion ( R oder i ck, N a g oka, & C oc a m 2 0 09 ). St u d ents m atr i cul a t e d i nto post s eco n dary e duc a ti o n w ithout e x posure to t he r i g orous c o urse cur r icula re q ui r ed f or s uccess in post s eco n d a ry e ducation. T he ab s e nce o f v ert i cal cur r iculum a l i g n m ent b et w een s e c o n d ary a nd p os t se c on d ary instit u tions resul t ed i n a n aspi r atio n a ttai n m e nt g ap a m o ng K 12 s t u d e n t s In t h e c u r r ent st u d y t h e pol i cy m e t hods crea t ed t o f o rmula t e a st u de n t r i culation f r o m K 12 t o posts e c on d ary edu c ation are e v alu a t e d u til i z ing the Pe r m e ab i l ity and T ran s par e ncy f r a m e w ork. T he g oal o f t he s t udy is to e v alu a te p ol i cy i m pleme n t a tion w hich i m pacts a nd f aci l ita t es st u d e nt s a nsition to posts e c on d ary institut i ons. Federal C o l l e ge R ea d iness L egis l ation St a t e a p proac h e s e v ol v ed re g arding educ at ing stude n ts in bo t h K 12 a nd hi g her edu c ation. Initiall y t h e f o cuses o f s t a t e e duc a tion a g e n c i es w ere on preparing st u de n ts f o r post s ec o ndary e d u cation t h rou g h at t aini n g p ro f ic i e ncy o n st a te assess m ents p r i or to g raduatio n Ho w e v er, m isali g ned e x it a ssess m e n ts did n o t pr o per l y p redict s t ud e d e m ic pe r f o r m an c e for po s ts e c o n d ary e d u catio n a n d t he re s ulti n g m isali g ned e x it re q ui r e m ents d id not a l i g n w i th col l e g e e ntr an ce e x pect a tions f o r po sts e co n dary st u d e nts. A cr i tical n ee d e x isted in t h e United St a t e s to b o t h incr e ase the qu al i ty a nd e q uity o f K 12 edu c ati o n a n d cre a te a c o her e nt col l e g e p r epar a tion e x per i ence f o r st u d e nts in t h e Unit e d St a t e s B u sh A dministration: A ge of A cademic A cc oun t abili t y Preside n t G e or g e W a d m i nistration f o cus e d on i m pleme n t i ng d ee p er acco u nt a bi l ity for K 1 2 edu c ation ( N CLB Act, 20 0 2). Alt h ou g h t he B u sh a d mi nistrat i on

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14 w as a ble to s ucces s f u l l y i m ple m e nt ac c o u nt a bi l ity m echani s m s f o r K 12 e duc a tion, t h ere w as y et m ore to be c o m p l et e d to inc o r p ora t e a f o c us o n p ost s eco n dary e duc a tion. T h e a d m i nistration a d v ocat e d f o r e q ual i ty for all stu d ents re g ardless o f race a n d s o c i o eco n o m ic s t at u s T he f e deral le g is l ation f or K 12 e duc a tion pr o m o t ed b y the B ush ad m i nistration inclu d ed a re a ut h or i z ation o f th e El e m e nt a ry a nd Se c on d ary e ducati o n act. T h e a ct w as o r ig i n al l y p roposed by L y ndon J o hns o n a nd l at e r r eau t hor i z ed in 1 99 4 Preside n t Bu s h re a ut h or i z ed a nd r e n a m ed t h e le g is l N o Chi l d L e f t Beh i n d ( N CLB) le g is l atio n N C LB le g is l ation c al l ed f o r se v eral key a reas o f i m plem e nt a ti o n: Ann u al t e s ting Each s t ate w as re q ui r ed to t e st s t u d en t s i n all core a c a d e m ic s u bject a reas. The an n ual as s ess m ent w ould m ea s ure st u d e n t pe r f or m an c e in m a t h a nd re a ding a s t he onset o f t h e le g is l ation and c onti n ue to in c l u d e o t her s u bject areas a s time pro g ressed. Acad e m ic p r o g ress St a t e s w ere m a nd a t e d to r e m e diate stu d ent learning d e f ic i encies by the s c h o ol y ear 20 1 3 20 1 4. S t u d ents w ere re q ui r ed to b e p r o f ic i ent i n c o re ac a d e m ic sub j ect ar e a s and s c hools w ere re qu i r ed to m e et A n n ual Ye ars Pro g ress (A Y P) w i th a ll st u de n ts. I f schools w ere n o t a ble t o meet m an d at e d A Y P e x pect a ti o ns, pare n t s o f st u d e nts w ho att e n d e d t he sc h ools w ere e l i g ible to re c ei v e the o ppor t unity f or t h eir stu d ents to att e nd an o t h er s c hool o f t h eir c h oic e T e acher q u al i f icat i o n s T e achers w ere re q ui r ed to be c o m g hly q u al i f i e i n t heir s u b j ect area t au g ht. g h l y q ual i f ie d i f i cation de e m ed t he t e a cher as pr o f ic i ent in th eir respecti v e subject areas. Re a ding Fi r st I n itiati v e T h e NCLB le g is l ati o n c reat e d o p port u nities f o r fundin g i e n t i f ic r e search ba s p ro g ra m s f o r e le m e nt a ry sc h ools f o r kin d er g a rten t hrou g h t hi r d g rade st u d e nts. The f u n ding is s p ec i f ically d esi g ned f o r hi g h ne e ds sc h ool s N C LB le g is l ation m a nd at e d a cc o un t abi l ity in instructio n al ar e as n ot pre v io u sly m a n da t ed by federal l eg is l ation. The l e g is l ation w as instru m e nt a l i n e st a bl i shing a prece d ence o f i nstruct i onal acco u nt a bi l it y T h e f o un d atio n al c o nce p t o f i m pl e m e n ting hi g h stan d ards f o r K 1 2 e d ucati o n s e t t h e s t ag e for i nstructi o nal ac c oun t abi l ity a lo n g the K 20 c o ntin uu m T h e N C LB s e t s t a n dards f o r state edu c ati o n a g e n cies to t est s t u d ent

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15 aca d e m ic pe r f o r m an c e a nd measure st u de n t s n al pro g ress. The pur p ose o f t h e le g is l ation w as to p ro v ide a m e asur e m e n t t o ol f o r de t ermin i ng a s t u d e o f ic i ency a nd t h e sc h ool s p e r f o rm a nce in p r o v iding a cad e m ic pro g ress to e ach st u d e nt. Alth o u g h t h e N C LB l e g is l ation cre at ed a p la t f o rm f or d e ep er i nstructio n al acco u nt a bi l it y t h e le g is l ation did n ot a ppr o pr i at e ly a l i g n K 12 instru c tion t o h i g her edu c ation c ol l e g e e ntrance e x pect a ti o ns. A d ditio n al f e d eral a n d s ta te le g is l ation w as re q ui r ed in or d er to pr ov ide m ore a ppr o pr i ate prepar a tion f o r col l e g e a m o ng stu d ents g raduating hi g h sc h o o l Spelling s P erfe c t S t orm Unit e d S t a t es S ecreta r y o f e du c ation Mar g aret Spel l in g s f o r m e d t h e Com m iss i on on t he F u t u re o f Hi g h e r E d uc a tion to re v iew t h e pro g ress o f e duc a tion in t h e United St a t e s ( U .S. D e par t m e nt o f E d ucati o n, 20 0 6). Federal l e g is l at o rs a n aly z ed t h e conditi o ns o f e d ucat i on in t h e Unit e d S t at e s a nd d et e r m in e d t h at t he nati o d ucat i on s y st em s w ere g ross l y m isali g ned in te r m s o f col l e g e readi n ess a nd st u d e nt aca d e m ic pers i st e n c e. T h e c om m iss i on w as a 1 9 m e m ber t e am a p poin t ed to anal yz e vit a l issu e s o f a c c essibil i t y afford a bi l it y account a bi l it y and q ual i ty o f p osts e c o n dary e ducat i on. Its purpo s e w as to cre a te an o ppor t unity f or n ati o nal dial o gu e o n b ui l di n g t h e c a pacity o f t h e hi g her e d ucati o n s ect o r to e d uca t e s t ud e nts in t he U nited St a t e s. The c o m m iss i on det e r m in e d t h at hi g her edu c ation ma d e e x c e ptio n al pro g ress in t he edu c ation o f our nati o s ec o ndary stu d ents. Ho w e v s t u d ents w e r e limit e d a s a result o f i na d e q ua t e c o l l e g e p reparat i on, l ack o f i n f o rm a tion re g ardi n g col l e g e, and f i n ancial bar r iers to p o sts e co n dary e du c ation ( U.S. De p art m ent o f E ducat i on, 20 0 6 ). Furthe rm ore, t he c o m m iss i on de t ermi n ed th at o ur nat i e d u c at i on s y st e m s h o uld

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16 ha v e b e e n a ble t o v iew the hi g h sc h o ol dipl o m a a s an i n dicator t h a t s t u d e nts c o m pleting hi g h sc h ool are pr e pa r ed f o r post s ec o ndary e ducat i on. The r e port s t at e s t he f o l l o w in g : A high school diploma should signify that a student is ready for college or work. States must adopt high school curricula that prepare all students for participation in postsecondary education a nd should facilitate seamless integration between high school and college (U.S. Department of Education, 2006.) T h e r e p ort e m p h a si z ed t h at a h i g h sc h o ol d i ploma s h ould s er v e a s a n i n dicator t h at a s t ud e nt is bo t h a cad e m ically p repared t o g ain a d m it t an c e in t o col l e g e a nd a b l e to succe e d in p osts e c o nd ary e ducati o n. Al t hou g h a hi g h sc h ool dipl o m a s h o uld h a v e met col l e g e e ntr a nce e x pect a tion s st u d e nts w ere g raduating hi g h sc h o o l unpr e pared f or posts e c on d ary stud y St a t e s stru gg led w ith re m e diating s t ud e nt l ea r ning in K 12 edu c atio n w hich pos e d a c hal l en g e f o r p ost s eco n dary instit u tion s I n p art i cu l ar, co m m u nity c o l l e g es were f a c ed w ith t h e task o f r e m e diating st u de nt s in t h e ar e as o f reading a n d m a t h e m at i c s Pre p ar i ng stud e nts f o r post s ec o ndary instit u tions w a s dele g at e d to K 12 insti t utions o f l e arnin g ; h owe v e r t h e p osts e c o n da r y s e ct o r be g an t o share t he re s pons i bi l ity to c ol l a bora t e, pla n a nd h elp p r epare st u d e nts f or posts e c on d ary e ntran c e e x pect a tions. The C o m m iss i on on t he F ut u re o f Hi g her Educ a tion c onc l u ded a s fol l o w s: T he c o mm iss i o n b el i e v es h i g her educ a tion m ust ass u m e resp o ns i bi l ity f or w ork i n g w ith the K 12 s y st e m to ensu r e t h at t eac h ers are a de q u a t e l y trained, cur r icula a re a l i g ned, a nd e ntran c e s t an d ards are clea r T h e C o mm iss i o n s p eci f ically o utl in e d t he re s p onsibil i ty f or post s eco n dary instituti o ns in t he Uni t e d St a t e s to w ork j ointly w ith K 12 instit u tions t o h e l p e n s ure t hat K 12 e duc a t o rs are t ho rou g hly trained thr o u g h t h eir respecti v e e d u c ation pro g ra m s. In additi o n, t he c ourse c u r r iculum b e t w een b o th K 12 a nd post s eco n d a ry e ducation w ere char g ed to a ch i e v e s y s t e m atic a l i g n m ent bet w een t h e e d ucati o n s e c t ors. This el e m e nt

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17 o f t h e d oc u m e nt pr o p o sed f o r strate g ic ch a n g e in p l anning f o r t h e i n struction f o r o ur nati o u d ent s T his chan g e e nt a i l e d a n ew a ppr o ach to pla n ning a cross e d ucat i on sect o rs. T h e c om m iss i on d et e r m in e d t h at all e du c ation s ect o rs part i c ip a te i n v ert i cal pla n ning f o r stre a m l i n e d c u r r iculum f or o pt i m a l st u d e nt l e arning e x p e r i ences. Furthe rm ore, t he c o m m itt e e p re s u m ed t h a t t his cr i tical cur r iculum a l i g n m ent and col l aborat i on s hould b e i m p l e m en t ed across t h e Uni t ed St a t es. This m assi v e init i ati v e w as int e nd e d to c a ll to action all sta t es f or s y st e m atic a l i g n m ent o f K 20 e duc a tion f o r t h e s ole p urpo s e f or i m pro v ing c o l l e g e p reparat ion and p ers i s t enc e T h e c om m itt e e st a t e d a s f o l l o w s: T he e ffort u nder w ay i n a n u m ber o f s t at e s to a l i g n K 12 g rad u ation st a n d ards w ith c o l l e g e a nd e m p l o y er e x pect a tions s h ou l d b e i m p l e m en t ed in a l l 50 s t at e s. St a t e s s h o uld pro v ide incenti v es f or hi g her e d ucati o n instit u tions to m ake lon g t e rm c o m m i t m e n ts to w ork i n g a cti v e l y a nd c ol l aborati v ely w ith K 12 sc h o ols a n d s y st em s to help u n de r ser v ed stud e nts i m pr ov e c o l l e g e p reparat i on and pers i st e n c e ( U.S. De p art m e nt o f E duc a tion, 20 0 6.) T h e p urpose o f t h e c o l l aborat i on bet w een K 1 2 a n d h i g her edu c ation inclu d e d a n en d ea v or to h elp pre p are st u de n ts f or post se con d ary e du c ati o n. T h e p r i m ary g oal of t h e co m m itt e o m m e ndat i on w as to inc r ea s e st u de n t p ers i st e nce w ith posts e co n dary edu c ation a f t er e n tran c e into p o s ts e c o ndary instit u ti o ns o f le a rn i n g T h e lack o f prepar a tion cr e at e s n e ed a m o ng a p l et h ora o f s t u d ents f or a c a d e m i c re m e diati o n o r an increased n u m b er o f s t ud e nts u nab l e to a t t ain s u ccess w ithin t h e f i r s t y ear o f c o l l e g e. St u d ent attr i ti o n p o s ed a cr i tic al chal l e n g e f or posts e c on d ary instit u t i ons a cross t h e Unit e d S t a t es. T h e g o a l o f t h e c om m itt e v alu a ti o n w as to s e t f or t h a prece d en c e o f our n a tion to incr e ase t he n u m ber o f col l e g e g radua t es in our c o untry w ith e ndea v ors to m ain t ain t he s t a n c e w ith c o m p e ting c o u ntr i es in t e rms o f e d ucati o n. T h e Unit e d S t a t es re g ressed in its p r o g ress in e d ucating t he nat i y outh in c o m p ar i son t o c o m p eting

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18 countr i es (Da v ies, 2 0 0 6 ). The U nited St a t e s f a i l ed t o rank a m ong t h e t o p f i v e c o u ntr i es in t h e n u m b er o f st u de n ts w ho a t t ain a h i g h s chool dipl o m a ( W a g n e r, 20 0 6). In a d ditio n t h e Uni t ed St a t es ran k ed 2 7 th i n t h e n u m ber o f st u d e nts w ho a t t a in a c o l l e g e d e g ree o r cert i f ic a t e D e v iation f r om t h e g o al o f cr e ating a re a dy w ork f orce led to a new m o v e m ent o f f o c using o n p re p ar in g g raduating h i g h sc h o ol st u d ents f or col l e g e Obama A dministration: A ge of C o llege a nd Career R eadin e s s Preside n t Barack O ba m a ai m ed t o in t ens i f y the p re v io u s e f f orts o f t he B ush ad m i nistration to m an d ate in s tructio n al ac c o u nt a bi l ity in g rades K 1 2 O b a m objecti v es w ere to inc l ude post s eco n dary e d ucati o n in a n a tio n al e ffort to crea t e col l aborat i on w ith K 12 a nd p o s ts e c o ndary e d ucati o n s e c t ors. Colle g e p re p arati o n w as not only a re q ui r e m e nt f o r K 12 e d ucati o n; it w as a lso a joint e ffort o f posts e c on d ary edu c ation, e m plo y ers, and s t a k e hol d ers on a l l le v els. C r itical to this m o v e m ent w as t h e id e olo g y o f a n entire g enerat i on o f col l e g e r e ady stud e nts e q uip p e d w ith the a c ad e m ic ski l ls to a t t ain col l e g e s uccess a nd c o m pleti on This g ener a tion w ou l d b e p re p ared by t h e y ear 2 020 thr o u g h en d ea v ors o f p ro g r a m s such as T RIO a nd G ear U P w hich f o c us on cre a ting a l e g e g oing c u g in n i n g in m id d le sc h o ol t h r o u g h the st u aca d e m ic e x per i ence i n c o l l e g e. E v e r y c h i l d in A m er i ca d eser v es a w or l d cl ass edu c atio n T o da y m ore t h an e v er, a w or l d class educat i o n is a prere q uis i te f or s uccess. A m er i ca w as o nce t he best edu c at e d n a tion i n t h e w or l d. A g eneration a g o, w e led a ll n ati o ns in col l e g e co m p l etio n b ut t oda y 10 c o untr i es ha v e p a s sed u s It is n ot t h at th eir stud e nts are s m arter t h a n o urs. It is t h at t h e s e c o untr i es are b e i ng s m arter a b out how to edu c a te t h eir s t ud e nts. And t h e c o u ntr i es t hat o u t e duc a te us t o day w i ll o u t co m p ete u s to m or r o w W e m ust d o b e ( U nited St a t es D e par t m e nt o f Educ a tion, 2 0 10 ) Preside n t Barack O ba m a T h e p res i dent d e f i n e d t he n ac a d e m ic ag enda t o re t ain o ur st a ndi n g in tak i ng the le a d in pos s essing the hi g hest n u m ber o f col l e g e d e g ree c o m pleters in c o m par i s o n to

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19 ot h er nati o ns. Presid e nt O b a m a o utlin e d t hat o ur n ation is slip p ing in its c o m p etiti v e st a nce w ith o t h er nati o ns in t erms o f citi z ens g raduating w ith a col l eg e d e g ree. T o g et h er, w e m u s t a c hie v e a n ew g oal, t h at by 2 020, t h e Unit e d S t at e s w i l l once a g ain le a d t h e w or l d in c o l l e g e c o m pleti o n. W e must raise t h e e x pe c t a tions f or o ur st u d e nts, f o r o ur sch oo ls, a nd f or o ursel v es t h is m ust b e a n a tio n al pr i or i t y W e m ust en s ure t hat e v ery stu d ent g ra d ua t es f r o m h i g h sc h ool w ell p r e pared f o r col l e g e a nd a c aree r ( U nited S t a t es De p art m ent o f E duc a tion, 2 0 1 0 ) I n creasing t h e n u m ber o f c o l l e g e g rad u at e s in the U nited St a t e s is a nati o nal pr i or i t y ; t h us i t i n v ol v es all stak e hol d ers to i nclu d e all e d ucati o n s e c t o rs and s up p ort or g ani z ations. The O b a m a a d m inistr a tion w orked to or g ani z e a ll e d ucati o n s e c t ors a n d s t a ke h old e rs i n t h e p r o cess to i ncrease t h e n u m b er o f col l e g e g rad u at e s in o ur nati o n. Additi o nal l y t h ere w ere b ar r iers to th i s g oal w hich are spec i f ic t o t h e areas a s f o l l o w s: a f f or d abi l it y access, c ol l e g e readi n ess, a w areness, a n d c u r r icul u m m isali g n m e n t bet w een e du c ation s e c t o rs. A w or l d class educati o n is a lso a m oral i m pe r ati v e t h e k e y to s ec u r i ng a m o re e q ual, f ai r and just s o ciet y W e w i l l not remain true to our hi g hest i d eals u nless w e d o a f a r be t t e r j o b o f e d ucat i ng e ach one o f our s o n s a nd d a u g ht e rs. W e w i l l not b e a b l e to keep t h e A m er i can pr o m ise o f e q ual o p port un ity if w e f ail t o p ro v ide a w o r l d class edu c ation to e v ery c h i l d ( U .S. D e par t m e n t o f Educ a tion, 2 0 10). A Closer Look a t Flo r ida F l or i da le g is l at o rs r es p on d ed t o t he n ati o nal c all to incr e ase acco u n t abi l ity f or t he st a t e edu c ation o f s t u dents in g rades k i nde r g arten thr o u g h t w el f t h by impleme n ting a ser i es o f r e f o rm meas u res t a r g et e d a t s t u d ent le a rning ( FD OE, 2 00 2 ). T h ese m e asure s m a n da t ed s t u d ent p e r f o rm a nce re g ardless o f race o r e t h nic i t y Rat h er, t h e mea s ures f o cus e d sc h ools in ar e as o f assessing g ro w th m o dels t o p r o m o te g ro w th o f a ll s t ud e nts but cr i tical l y f o c us e d o l o w er q uart i s tu dents p e r f o rming in c ore s u b j ects o f m a t h e m atics and re a din g The un d erpinn i n g s o f Flor i g is l ati v e m ea s ures w as

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20 chal l en g ed by the c ont i nu e d g ap in ac a d e m ic pe r f or m an c e o f m i n or it y students. In order to f r a m e t h e b asis o f t his research, w e class i f i ed Flor i d a s pol i cies o n the basis o f per m eabi l ity a nd tran s parenc y d e t e rm i ning h ow p ol i ci es sha p e st ud ents e x per i ences t o w ard the pa t h to po s t seco n dary readin e ss ( St e p han & Ro s en b a u m 20 0 9 ) In consid e r i ng h ow p ol i cies sh a pe a s t ud e e x per i ences in t he c on t e x t of po s ts e c o ndary part i cip a ti o n w e e v alu a te p ol i cies on t w o m ea sures o f t h e e a s e o f m an e u v er i ng t h rou g h F l or i d a s K 20 s y st e m and t h e e a s e o f pl a nn i ng a p a th t o w ards col l e g e a ccess. Fram e w ork of t he S t u d y O u r nat i t ud e nts e x ited h i g h sc h o ol u nd e r prepared f or t he r i g ors o f posts e c on d ary e duc a tion. T his tre n d o f ac a d e m ic u n der p e r f o r m ance w as e x acerbat e d f o r m i n or i ty stude n ts, p art i cular l y students o f c olor in g aining a d m iss i on in t o 4 y ear instituti o ns ( C ou t ur i er, 20 0 6). A C T (2 0 12) d e t ermin e d 1 9% o f st u d e nts t e s t t a k ers o f t h e ACT c ol l e g e e nt r ance e x am w ere p repar e d f o r col l e g e le v el cours e w ork. T his score is represe n t a ti v e o f t he 7 0 p erc e nt o f s t ud e nts c o m p l eting h i g h sc h o ol i n Flor i da in 2 0 13. A clos e r a n al y sis of t he m etr i cs o f t h e e x a m t h ere w as a si g ni f ic a nt g ap in pe r f o r m a nce bet w een A f r i c a n A m er i can s t ud e nts and W h i t e st u de n ts in m e a s ur in g three o f four e x am areas o f t h e t est. F or e x a m p l e, 8 perc e nt o f A f r i c a n A m er i c a n st u d e nts m et three o r m ore ben c h m arks o f pr o f ic i e ncy f or p osts e c o n dary readin e ss w hi l e 4 6 p ercent o f W h ite st u d e nts m et p r o f ic i en cy b ench m arks in three o r m ore a reas. T here w as a si g n i f ic a nt g ap in pe r f or m an c e in t erms o f m in o r i ty stud e nt p e r f o rm a nce on c o l l e g e e n trance e x a m s in F l or i da. T his t r end cr i tical l y a f f e cts st u d ent a spi r at i ons, stu d ent ac a d e m ic su c cess, a nd ultima t ely d e g ree c om pletio n T he c h al l e n g e o f e x iting h i g h sc h ool u n derpr e par e d is a g r o w ing p hen o m e n on especially a m on g st m i nor i ty stude n ts. Os t en s ibl y t h e g oal o f

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21 attain i ng a h i g h sc h ool diplo m a is p r e dict e d to p repa r e st u de n ts f or t he a c ad e m ic r ig ors o f p osts e c on d ary e du c ation. Ho w e v er, m ore t han 60 perc e nt col l e g e st u d ents i n t h e Unit e d S t a t es re q ui r e re m e diati o n d ur i ng their f i r st y ear o f p os t sec o ndary study (SREB, 20 1 0). T he lack o f a pp ropr i ate c ol l e g e p re p aration, cros s s y st e m p l a nnin g a n d p ol i cy re v is i ons f or al i gn m ent o f e du c atio n al s y st e m s h as s er v ed a s a detr i m e n t a l d et e r re nt t o col l e g e a ccess f o r m i n or i ty students ( Ki r st & Vene z i a 2 0 0 6 ) T h e f r a m e w ork util i z ed for this s t u dy c h ara c t e ri z es the rel a tion s hip b et w een edu c ation pol i cy a nd minority postsecondary participation. H a m i l t o n (1 9 94) d iscus s ed t he rel a tion s hip b e t w een the edu c ati o n s y st e m a n d t h e w ork f o r ce b as e d o n t w o k e y a reas o f p erm e abi l ity a nd tr a nspar e nc y T h e b asis o f H a m i l t o n s research s t e m m ed f r om his pr i or w ork i n a n aly z ing the labor m arket in G erm a n y T h e f r a m e w ork focuses o n t w o e leme n ts o f pe r m e a bi l ity a nd transpa r ency o f t h e w ork f orce a n d h i g her ed u cation s y st e m f or s t u d ents tr a nsitio n i ng f r o m hi g h sc h ool i nto e m plo y m e nt or post s e c on d ary e ducati o n. Statem e nt of t he Pr o blem Gro w ing c h al l en g es e xisted f o r sta t e e duc a ti o n a g e ncies to cr e ate a nd a l i g n le g is l at i v e p ol i cies to p repare s t ud e nts f o r po sts e co n dary e du c ation (B u esc h el & Vene z ia, 2 0 0 6). Ch a l l e n g es w ere a ttr i but e d t o d is j oint e d c u r r icul u m a l i g n m ent bet w een K 12 a nd hi g her e d uc a tion s e c t o rs, w hich cr e at e d a n inco h ere n t ac a de m ic l earning e x per i ence f o r our nat i s pi r ing c o l l e g e stud e n ts ( C onle y 2 007). K 12 in s tit u ti o ns histor i cal l y e x per i enced d i f f icult i es w ith re m e diating stu d ent learni n g d e f ic i encies pr i or to st u d e nts en t er i ng c o l l e g e (AC T 2 0 1 0). In p ar t icular, et h nic m i nor i ty a nd s t ud e nts o f color stru gg led to r e a c h p r o f ic i e ncy in core a c ad e m ic s u bject areas. T h e lag in aca d e m ic

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22 pe r f o r m an c e in m i n or i ty stude n ts r e sulted i n a n a c a d e m ic achie v e m e nt g ap bet w een w hite st u d e n t s a nd st u de n ts o f color in st u de n ts in t he Uni t ed S t at e s ( C oo p er, 20 0 9). Purpose of t h e St u d y a nd Re s earch Q ue s t i ons T h e p urposes o f t h is s t udy w ere to a nal yz e F l or i g is l ation re ga rding posts e c on d ary p art i cip a tion and re a din e ss f o r m in o r i ty stu d ent s S pe ci f ically the s t udy w as d esi g ned to a n a ly z e Flor i g is l at i v e m ea s ures a nd r ele v ant research r e l at e d to posts e c on d ary participation and re a din e ss o f m in o r i ty stud e nts. In v ie w ing the relationsh i ps t h at e x ist b et w een p ubl i c e du c at i on p ol i cies a n d c o l l e g e g oing b eha v iors o f st u d e nts o f c o l or, t h e r esearc h er sou g ht to u n dersta n d t he rel a tion b et w een e d ucat i on pol i cy a nd t h e p ath to posts e c on d ary a ccess. In u n d ersta n ding this conc e pt, the researcher r e sorted to a ppl y ing the p ol i cy f r a m e w ork o f T r a nspa r e ncy a nd P erm e abi l ity w hich d e f ine pol i cies in t e rms o f t h e f luid tr a nsition bet w een ki n de r g arten thr o u g h p o s ts e c on d a ry stud y T he researcher e v alu a t e d b oth f e d eral a n d s t ate i n itiati v es w hich m oti v at e d le g is l at o rs i n F l or i da to i m pl e m e nt m easures to c onsol i d ate a ll e d ucati o n s e c t ors i nto a s y st em a t ic K 20 e duc a tion g o v erna n ce structu r e. I n a dditi o n, F l or i p ol i cies w ere e v alu a t e d in t e rms o f t he s t ate le g is l ation i n t e nt to p re p are st u d e nts f o r po s ts e c on dary stud y : Re s ea r ch Qu e stions T his s t udy w as d esi g ned t o a nal yz e the f ol l o w i n g q uestions: 1. W ha t st a te le g is l ation and i nitiati v es d id F l or i da e nact to i ncrease p osts e c o ndary part i cip a ti o n a nd r e ad i ness f o r stu d ents o f co lor? 2. W ha t e x t e nt w as Flor i d ucati o n p ol i cies T ran s par e nt a nd Per m eable in te r m s o f col l e g e readi n ess a nd part i cip a ti o n f o r m i n or i ty student s ? 3. W ha t tre n ds in c ol l e g e part i cip a ti o n a nd r e ad i ness w ere e x istent f o r stud e nts o f c o l or in F l or i da?

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23 For this st u d y t h e g o al o f t he re s earch w as to v i e w the relati o nship b et w een p u bl i c edu c ation pol i cy a nd t h e a ttr ib ut e s o f part i cip a tion a n d r e adi n ess o f s t u d e nts o f c o l o r In anal yz i n g the q uesti on s for this s t u d y t h e re s earcher c onsid e r e d s e v eral q ual i t a ti v e research m e t h o ds to i n clu d e: m e t a a n al y sis, c ase st u d y and a p ol i cy study. T he researcher c onsid e r ed se v eral t y pes o f m et h o dolo g ical a p p roac h es t o a ns w er the research q uest i ons. F i r st, w e c o nsid e r e d u ti l iz i ng a m e t a a n al y sis to research t he f i n din g s o f re s earch on the t o pic. This m ea s ure re q ui r ed a n a nal y sis o f rela t ed re s earch and w ould ha v e resul t ed in c o m par i ng t h e e f f ect si z es a cro ss m ulti p le da t a s e ts o f research s t udies. Ho w e v er, t h e g oal o f res ea r c h w as to u n derst a nd the re l ation s hips t h at e x ist b et w een e d u cation pol i cy a nd a st u pa t h t o w ards d eg ree a ttai n m e nt f o r t h e s t ate o f Flor id a. T h e resear c h u til i z ed f or t he s y nt h esi s w ould h a v e to b e uni q ue t o t h e s t ate o f Flor id a. I n co m p ar i son, t h e case st u dy w as c o nsid e red f o r this st u dy a s a m e a ns t o u nders t and w h y students o f c olor p art i cip a te at lo w er r ate t h an w h i te st u d e nts. H o w e v er, as a result o f t he re s earc h ers g oal to lin king p ubl i c p ol i cy to p ractice t h e edu c ation p ol i cy study s e r v ed a s t h e mo s t suit a ble m ea s ur e m e n t f or t his st u d y T h e o v erall g oal of t h e res e arch w as to tra c e le g is l ati v e e f f orts o f Flor i da and r e port s pec i f ic st e ps t he s t a t e h as c o m ple t ed to bui l d appr o a ches to incr e asing st u dent p e r f o rm a nce, prepar a tion, a n d p art i cip a ti o n f or hi g her e d uc a tion s t ud y Limitations T h e p ol i cy study e v alu a t e d sta t e e fforts t o a d dress le a rning g aps, p osts e c o ndary readin e s s a nd part i ci p ation a m on g st F l or i da s m ost cr i tical st u dent s The re s earch m e t hod s e lec t ed f o r th i s study w as s e lected t o u n derst a nd how sta t e e d ucati o n p ol i cies f r a m e a m in o r i ty stu de t ory f r o m e ar l y e ducation thr o u g h g rad u ate s t u d y T he research outlin e s p ol i c y m easures t h e sta t e u sed t o p r o m o te in cr e a s ed a c ad e m ic

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24 pe r f or m an c e a nd pro v i de r i g orous o ppor t unit i es f or s tru gg l i ng learn e rs, n a m ely A f r i c a n A m er i c a n st u d e nts a n op p ortunity to incr e ase in p re p arati o n a nd at t ain a d m iss i o n f or hi g her edu c atio n In o r d er to f o r m ulate p ubl i c e d ucati o n p ol i cy, t h e re s e archer situat e d t he s t ate o f F l or i d ucat i on p ol i cies relat e d t o p art i cip a t i on a nd r e adi n ess into t he P er m eabi l ity a nd T ran s par e ncy Fra m e w ork. T his f r a m e w ork w as b ased on anal yz i n g trends o f le g is l ation in terms o f how w ell p ol i cies m ake t h e path to pos t seco n dary study a n e a sier f low o f t r ansition a nd cre a te m e asures to co m m u nicate neces s ary in f o r m ati o n f o r stu d ents to m ake i n f o rm e d d ecis i ons ab ou t post s ec o ndary aspi r ation s In p lacing F l or i v e le g is l ation in t o t h e P er me abi l ity a nd T ran s par e ncy f r a m e w ork, t h e out c o m e o f t h e e v alu a tion o f t his pol i c y is g eneral i z able to t h e Uni t ed St a t es. Ho w e v er, so m e sta t es may p ossess m o r e p e r m e able le g is l ation th a n o t h ers. The c om par i son to ot h er stat e s w as n ot c o m plet e d in t he s c ope and na t ure o f t h is s t u d y respecti v e l y Althou g h w e ref e rence c o m p arati v e stat e s s uch as T e x as, G eor g ia, a n d C al i f o rnia, t here m ay e x i st st a t es w hich ha v e o pt e d to pro g ress t o w ards g o v ernance s t ructures w hich c o m m u nicate t h e messa g e o f col l e g e readi n ess and part i cip a tion abo v e t h e st a te s elect e d f o r this st u d y Ho w e v er, St e p h an a n d Rose n ba u m ( 2 009) n o t e d t hat t h e a c ad e m ic pol i cies re g arding p art i cip a tion are c o nc l ud e d t o b e h i g hly p ermeable a n d l o w in transparency in t h e Uni t ed St a t es in g e neral. Ho w e v er, t h is c o nclusion s hou l d le a d t o further s t u dy in st a te c o m par i s on o f p o l i cies w hich f orm st u d e nts e x per i en c es b ased o n c onc e pt u al i z ing st a te pol i cy for ot h er s t at e s bas e d o n a s t u de e x per i ence f r o m e ar l y e ducation t h rou g h g rad u ate s t u d y In terms of this st u d y the l i m itati o n o f t h e s t udy is a s f o l l o w s:

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25 St a t e s a re c ur r ently d e v elo p ing initiati v es to re m e dia t e h is t or i cal di s ad v ant a g ed po p ulatio n s in t erms o f edu c ation a n d p r epa r ation f o r p osts e c on d ary stud y T he st u dy is limited to t he e fforts f o r the sta t e o f F l or i da. F ur t her s t udy may b e c o n duc t ed to a nal yz e e f f orts o f o t her sta t es. This study analyzes policies from the time period beginning in 1999 through 2012. The issue of education reform in the state of Florida has resulted in new more current policies which may no t be included in this study. T his s t udy e v alu a t e s t h e le g is l ati v e e fforts f o r the s t ate o f Flor id a o nl y T he re s earch is l i m ited t o Flor i e fforts to a d dress a c hie v e m e nt g aps in s t ud e n t s o f c o l or a n d does not inclu d e a n e q ual c o m p ar i son o f p ol i cies o f o t h er s t a t es. Fur t her st u dy wi l l ne e d to b e c o n duc t ed t o d e t e rm i ne a dditi o nal e f f orts o f s t at e s w ithin t h e Uni t ed St a t e s T re n ds o f st u d e nt re ad in e ss p erfor m ance w as limited to re v ie w ing t r ends o f A C T and S A T sc o r es. T h us, p e r f o r m an c e tr e nds are li m it e d to st u de n t po pulati o ns w hich par t ici p a ted in c o l l e g e assess m ent test i ng a n d may n ot b e r e prese n t a ti v e o f a ll st u d e nts in Flor i da. F l or i da h as be g un t h e e f f ort to e m bed c o l l e g e readi n ess indi c at o rs i n the hi g h sc h o ol cur r iculu m Ho w e v er, Florida h as y et to a l i g n h i g h school e x it re q uire m e nts t o col l e g e e ntr a nce e x pect a tion s As a d i r ect r e sult, t h e i m pact o f r es u lts o f a n a l i g ned s y st e m w i l l not be incl u ded i n this s t u d y Furt h er study w i l l need to be c o n d uct e d t o m ea s ure t he s t a te le g is l m pact a f t er a l i g n m en t F l or i m easures to be g in t h e p ro c ess o f r e q ui r ing students t o g radua t e c o l l e g e r e ady w ere e nco m pass e d w ith st u de n ts m eet i ng c o l l e g e readi n ess indi c at o rs det e r m in e d b y st u d e nt s c ores o n A C T and S A T s c ores. T h e st u dy is limited to ana l y z ing F lor i i nitial m ea s ures t o i m pl e m e n ting a f ul l y a l i g ned c o l l e g e ready K 20 s y st e m b ased o n e v alu a ting e du c ati o n p ol i cies and tre n ds f r o m 1 9 9 9 2 0 12 F urther s t udy w i ll n eed t o b e e x plored a s Flor i da i m pleme n ts a n d a l i g ns c o l l e g e readin e ss a sses s m e n ts to c o l l e g e entran c e re q ui r e m ent s Significa n ce of t h e S t u d y T his re s earch is us e f u l for K 20 a d m inistr a t o r s, pol i cy m akers, p ol i c y researchers and c onsti t ue n ts in t er e st e d in u n derst a nding how e ducat i on pol i cies i m pa c t st u d e nt op p ortunity f or p osts e c on d ary a ccess. Part i c u lar l y t h e study i n f o r m s p ubl i c edu c ation

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26 pol i cy a nd p ro v id e d sugg estions for r esear c h ers i n p res e nting rec o m m e n dati o ns f or f u t u re practic e T he st u dy e v alu a t e d K 1 2 a nd h i g her e d ucati o n p ol i cies in F l or i da to create an appr o ach to edu c ation pla n nin g f or both P 12 a n d p osts e c on d ary instit u tions.. In a dditio n t his st u dy w i ll b e o f in t erest to e d ucat o rs o f a ll le v els w ith int e re s t in col l e g e p re p aration a t t he insti t utio n al le v el a n d a t t h e sta t e le v el in p ol i cy m akin g T his research is u s e f ul f o r K 1 6 a d m inistr a t o rs, p ol i cy m akers, a nd c onsti t uents research i ng and anal yz ing m easu r es to cr e ate stra t e g ies f o r pla n ning p u pil s u c c ess f or posts e c on d ary e duc a tion. I n a dditi o n, t his st u dy s h ould b e o f in t ere s t to edu c at o rs in v o l v ed in t e acher pr e parati o n ins ti t u t io n s a n d p ol i cy m a k ers at t h e st a te l e v el. T his research is in t e n ded to i n f orm K 20 le g is l at o rs concern i ng the history o f le g is l ation re g arding m in o r i ty p art i cip a tion a n d re a din e ss in the state of Florida T he following terms were important to this r esearch and define d specific terminology in relation to the study. The focus of this rese arch wa s to analyze how policies impact college readiness and participation experiences for students of color. Specifically, the study refers to African American stude nts interchangeably throughout the research. This reference is posed as minorities, students of color, or African American Students which in terms of this study refers to African American students. Throughout this research reference to this population of s tudents is utilized interchangeably Definition of Terms A CCESS A v ai l abi l ity o f h i g h q ual i t y e ducati o nal op p ortunities f or all s tu dents re g ardless o f ra c e. C OLLE G E R EADI N ES S L e v el of prepar a tion a s tu dent n e eds in o r d er to enroll a n d succe e d in c o l l e g e w it hout re m ediat i on in a c redit b e ar i ng g eneral e ducat i on c o urse at a post s ec o n dary instit u tion.

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27 S E A M LESS Describes a s y st e m in w hich e x p ect a ti o ns f o r stu d ent k no w le d g e Educ a tion a n d skil l s a re a l i g ned at t he pr e school, el e m e n t a r y sec o ndar y and posts e c on d ar y P 16 E DUC A TION E du c ation s y st e m t h at i n t e g rat e s a s t u d e d u c ation be g in n ing in presch o ol a n d e nds w ith a f o u r y ear col l e g e d e g ree. P 20 E DUC A TION E du c ation s y st e m t h at i n t e g rat e s a s t u d e d u c ation be g in n ing in presch o ol a n d e nds w ith a g rad u ate sc h o ol d eg ree. K 16 E DUC A TION E du c ation s y st e m t h at i n t e g rat e s a s t u d e d u c ation f r om kin d er g arten t hrou g h a fou r y ear col l e g e d e g ree. K 20 E DUC A TION E du c ation s y st e m t h at i n t e g rat e s a s t u d e d u c ation f r om kin d er g arten t hrou g h g radua t e sc h ool U NI F I E D E DUC A TIO N I nt e g rat e d g o v ernance o f all e du c ation s y st em s as a hol i stic f u ncti o ning e d ucati o nal u nit. E X PECT A TION G A P The l ack o f e x pect a t i on f o r seco n dary stud e nts t o co m p l ete hi g h school c ol l e g e read y A CHIE V E M E NT G A P D i spar i ty o f s t u d ent a c a d e m ic ach i e v e m e n t b et w een g ro u ps o f st u d e nts, es p ecially g r oups d e f i n ed b y g end e r, rac e a bi l it y and s o c i oec o n o m ic st a t u s. N E X T G E NERATI O N Ac ad e m ic l e arning sta n dar d s a l i g ned w ith p ost s e c on d ary e ntrance e x pect a tion s A SPI R ATION S D i fference b et w een s t u d en t a spi r ations and a c a d e m ic a bi l it y P OL I CY G A P The d i f f er e nce b et w een c ur re nt l eg is l at i v e e f f orts and le g is l ation n ee d ed to i m pact a c h an g e t o cur r ent pra c tice. M IN O R I TY STUDENT S I n t e rms o f t h is s t ud y t h e r e f eren c e is a l l u ding to pr i m ar i ly A f r i can A m er i c a n st u d e nts. Colle g e Kno w le d g e S t ud e nts c o nt e x t u al ski l l s a nd a w aren e ss o f c o l le g e op p ortunities relating t o c o l l e g e a d m iss i o n, t y pes o f col l e g es, c ol l e g e c u ltur e a nd aspects o f c ol l e g e e x per i enc e Org a nization of the St u d y T h e res e archer se l ect e d t h e Pe r m e abi l ity a nd T ran s par e ncy f r a m e w ork based o n t h e g oal o f un d erstanding h ow p ol i cy i m pacts st u d e nt aca d e m ic r e a d in e ss a nd prepar a tion f o r p osts e c on d ary stud y

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28 Ch a p t er 1 p ro v id e s i nf ormat i on re g arding t h e si g ni f ica n c e a nd pur p ose o f t h e st u d y Spec i f i c al l y t h e st u dy is p urpo s ed to a nal yz e a nd report tre n ds o f part i cip a t i on rat e s o f st u de n ts in F l o r i da. In a d ditio n t h e s t udy reported e fforts o f select s t at e s e fforts to increa s e p osts e c o n dary readin e ss and p a r ticip a tion a m on g st m i n or i ties a n d st u d e nts o f c o lor. C ol l ecti v el y s t ate and f e deral p ol i cies w ere reported to pr o v ide the f o u n dati o n o f t h e b asis f or t he s t u d y Res e arch q uest i o n s for t h e st u dy w ere p ro v id e d in c h ap t er 1. Ch a p t er 2 p re s ents re l e v ant l i t e rat u re rela t ed to st u d e nt p osts e c on d ary part i ci p a ti o n a nd hi g h e r educ a tion s uccess. Chap t er t w o o f t his st u d y p rov i des the f o u n dati o nal back g ro u nd o f pre v ai l ing research a n d t heor i es o f pos t seco n dary prepar a tion and c o l l e g e p art i ci p atio n T he l i t e rat u re re v iew provided an o v er v i e w o f pre v ale n t p art i cip a ti o n and r e adi n ess o f m i no r ity students. Ch a p t er 3 p ro v id e d a d et a i l ed s u m m ary o f t h e m e t h o dolo g y u sed t o or g ani z e the t h eor i es o f t he s t u d y I n c h a pt e r 3 o f t h is s t u d y t h e st u dy is classi f i e d in t w o p r i m ary cat e g or i es o f pe r m e ab i l i ty a nd trans p arenc y T h e p ol i cies w ere di v i d ed w ithin t h e cat e g or i es o f t h e res ea rch f ra m e w ork to c o ns t ruct meaning o f s p ec i f ic pol i cies in t o t w o aspects o f t h e f r a m e w ork o f p osts e c o n dary a nd p art i cip a ti o n. T h e p ol i cies are class i f i e d into t w o f a c ets w hich f o rm b oth st u de n ts ea s e o f transiti o n in t o p os t seco n dary e duc a tion and t h e f e asibil i ty o f m i nor i ty stude n ts to e n t e r p repa r ed f o r t h e r ig ors o f p osts e c o n dary st u dy a nd g ain access to 4 y ear i nsti t uti o n s Ch a p t er 4 outli n es th e results o f t h e p ol i cy st u dy w hich r e f lects an a nal y sis o f pol i cy m easures in F l or i da w ith t h e int e nt o f incr e asing s t u dent r e adi n ess a n d part i cip a ti o n. T h e c ha pt e r s u m m ar i z ed pol i c y m easures and situ at es t h e pol i cies w ithin per m eabi l ity a nd tran s parency f rame w ork.

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29 Ch a p t er 5 e l abor a t e s o n s u gg estions f o r p ol i c y m akers a n d i m pl i cat i on f o r K 20 edu c ation pol i cy re g arding s u gg estions f or s t ate le g is l at o rs. T he r e co m m e ndat i ons and impl i cati o n f or K 20 e d ucati o n are discuss e d w ithin t h is chap t er.

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30 C H AP T ER 2 REVI E W OF LI T ER A T U RE T h e litera t ure re v iew was c o m po s ed o f s e v eral secti o ns w hich anal yz ed v ar i ous aspects o f m in o r i ty c o l l e g e readiness and p art i cip a ti o n. R i d l ey (2012) det e r m in e d t h at t h e li t e rat u re re v iew is a n e x t e nsi v e ref e ren c e to re l at e d research in t he dissertati o n st u d y Further, t h e liter a t u re re v i ew e nco m p asses c on ne ctions w hich assists t h e res e archer g aining a n u n derst a nd i ng o f t h e iss u es o f a s pec i f ic t o pic a n d poses t h e g uiding q uestions f o r the c o urse o f t h e s t u d y Ba s ed on R idle y f init i on o f t h e liter a t u re re v ie w t h e structu r e o f t h is s t u d y initiates w ith v ar i ous research a spects o f issu e s w hich relate to posts e c on d ary p art i cip a tion. S p ec i f icall y our study b e g an w ith a n o v e r v i e w o f s t a t e a nd f e deral le g is l ati v e initia t i v es w hich ser v ed a s a n i m p et u s f or F l or i m e asure to prepare an a p p roach to addressing re a din e ss and p a rt i cip a tion o f A f r i can A m er i c a n st ud ent s The st ud y e nco m p ass e d F l o r i d i cy le v ers which were desi g ned t o i n duce r e f o rm t o its e du c ation g o v ernance s y st e m Ba s ed o n t he pra g m ati s m o f imp l e m enting a K 20 s y st e m t o cr ea t e a m ore c o he r ent l e arning e x per i ence f o r stu d en t s, this study e x plored F lor i g is l ation re g arding p osts e c on d ary part i cip a ti o n a nd r e ad i ness. T his s t udy is a p ol i cy a nal y sis of t h e le g is l ation w h ich sha p es academic transition f r om h i g h s c hool t o p osts e c on d ary e du c ation. For t he p u r pose o f art i culating both t h e e ase o f tr a nsi t ion f r o m K 1 2 e duc a ti o n to post s ec o ndary e d ucati o n a n d t he st u d e nt s a bi l ity to v is u al i z e a clear p a th t o p o sts e co n dary edu c ation a tta i n m ent, o ur st u dy is b as e d o n a f r a m e w ork w hich constit u t e s a f o cus o n t h e traj e ct o ry o f r e adi n ess, access, and u lti m at e ly a ttai n m e nt. The s t u dy is sit u a t ed w ithin t h e P erm e abi l ity a nd T ran s par e ncy Fra m e w or k w hich e x plores a c onc e pt u al f r a m e w ork t h at predis p oses t h at

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31 pe r m e a bi l ity is the e ase o f transiti o n f r o m o ne p oi n t in edu c ati o n to a no t her ( S y kes, Schne i der, & Pla n k 20 09). Furt h e r m ore, t he s t u dy e x plores trans p a r ency in terms o f st u d e nt s a bi l ity to p lan a p ath o f bo t h e nt e r in g c o l l e g e a nd atta i ning their g oal o f d e g ree co m p l etio n T h e re v iew o f t he liter a t u re is m ult i f ac e t e d in that it f o c uses on t h r e e tiers o f edu c ation pol i cy a s it r elates to t he K 20 ed u cation pip e l i n e. T h e lit e rat u re re v iew address es s e v eral area s to incl u de postsecondary r e adi n ess a nd a c c es s I n p art i cul a r, t h e lite r at u re re v i e w e x a m in e d p ost s eco n dary readin e ss i n K 12 e duc a tion i n te r m s o f p r e par i ng st u d e nts f o r po s ts e c on dary e ntrance e x pect a t io n s thr o u g h a l i g n m ent o f p ol i cies, res o urces, and p l a nni n g e fforts in bo t h K 1 2 a nd p osts e c on d ary e d u catio n al sect o rs The re v iew discuss e d t h e f e asibil i ty o f access t o p osts e c on d ary instit u tions f o r m i n or i ty stude n ts particularly the ability to tract a clear path of college acceptance in postsecondary study. Postsecon d a r y A ccess thro u gh t h e Lens of Soci a l C apital A cce ss: A n I n v estment in Human C api t al St e p han a n d Ro s en ba um ( 2 0 0 9) de t ermi n ed st u d e nt aspi r a t i o ns f or posts e c on d ary study were u n de r m in e d b y a b s ence o f c oun s el i ng resources The resources to provide students with necessary information related to postsecondary access include information such as financial aid, test scores, and critical course work necessary to prepare for the rigors of postsecondary study. This information, often provided by high school counselors are required for students to be able to maneuver through th e college application process. School counselors a ssist st u d e nts w ith matr i cul a ting throu g h t he post se con d ary e nrol l m ent p r o cess through providing detailed information concerning high school exit requirements and postsecondary entrance

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32 requireme nts Bell, Kenyon, & Perna (2014) furthered the idea of students struggling through postsecondary access process as a result of a lack of information regarding postsecondary opportunities. The research determined that students with lower levels of informat ion about college are less likely to attend college due to the absence of information about the requirements of postsecondary study. This ca s e in point is pre d o m i n ate in lo w inc om e, m in o r i t y firs t g eneration, and o t her v uln e u d e nts w ho a re less l ikely to a tt e nd posts e c on d ary institutions (S i m m ons, 2011). generation, or minority students who experienced difficulty which hindered from postsecondary aspirations. Instr umental to minority students experiencing difficulty were social relationships built within the confines of the school culture. Specifically, Simmons discussed that relationships of teachers, guidance counselors, and administrators assisted with recreating the cultural bond to help further students aspirations for postsecondary study. Thus, school personnel create students to gain required information to matriculate into postsecondary institutions of learning. Conversely, Sim mons (2011) determined impro p er training o r m i ssing p rof e ssio n al de v elo p m e n t p ol i cies re g arding postsecondary entrance for school further l imi t s a st u d e a bi l ity to k n ow a nd u n d ersta n d r e q ui r e m e n ts or processes re q ui r ed to attain p o s ts e c o nda ry a d m iss i o n The research concluded that further training and education policies must be developed to increase opportunities for students to receive necessary counseling to sheppard students through the process of gaining college admission.

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33 Pe r na ( 2 00 6 ) discuss e d t w o us e f ul t h e oretical per s pecti v es in g uiding research o n c o l l e g e acce s s to incl u de a hu m an c api t al in v estme n t and s o ciolo g ical mo d el o f s t at u s o f atta i n m e n t. The de m a n ds f or hi g her e d ucati o n increa s es t he dif f i c ulty o f m i nor i ty s t u dents of g ain ing access t o h i g h in t erest slots f or t he in s tit u ti o n. Perna ( 2 0 0 6) no t ed t h at t h is i m p act h as t h e g rea t est i m pact o n st u d e inc om e m in o r i ty stud e nts. Du n can (2 0 10) f u rther e d t h is theory by c o nclu d i n g that col l e g e access c onditi o ns a re w o rsening p ar t i cular l y f or lo w inc om e f a m i l ies. These conditions are a direct result of the absence of information concerning postsecondary opportunities, process for gaining admission into postsecondary education, and financial aid. In re v ie w ing m odel o f st u d e nt c ol l e g e c h oic e four l a y ers o f i n f lu e n c e e x ist w hen det e r m ining a s t u d ent s d ecis i on to g ain a d m i ssion in t o p o s ts e c o n da ry e ducation to include: Habitus ( l a y er 1), Sc h ool a nd c o m m u nity c o nt e x t ( l a y er 2), H i g her e ducat i on cont e x t ( l a y er 3) and s oci al/ e c o n o m ic / pol i cy c o nt e x t ( l a y er 4) ( Perna, 2 0 0 6). T h e f o urth la y er depicts a c on c ep t ual i z ation t h at col l e g e choice is i n f l uen c ed by o t h er con t e x t u al la y ers to inclu d e d e m og raphics, e c o n o m ic c o nditio n s a n d p ubl i c p o l ic i es. In t his cont e x t, w e f ocus o n t h e i m pl i c a tion t h a t p ubl i c p ol i cies i n f l u en c e st u dent a spi r at i ons f o r posts e c on d ary e duc a tion. Perna (20 0 6) d e t e rm i ned t h a t a s pects o f t he sc h ool c on t e x t l i m it p o sts e co n dary choice f o r l o w inc om e st u d e nts and racial m i nor i ties. Fur t her, t he i n stit u tio n al a g ents such a s t e achers, c o u nselors, a nd p e ers m a ke a ccess resources a nd o p p or t unities a v ai l able to s t u d ents. Ho w e v er, t h e insti t uti o nal struc t ures o f t h ese or g ani z ations limit t h e abi l ity o f st u dents t o d e v elop r elatio n s hips w ith st u de n ts a nd cr e ate m e anin g f ul relationsh i ps w ith stu d ents w hich f o s t e r d e v elo p m en t T h e multiple t ask s p ro v id e d t o

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34 g uid a nce c o un s elors h i nder t he abi l ity o f t h e c oun s elors to w ork w ith stud e nts t o b ui l d t h e net w ork o f s u p p ort and g ui d ance to at t ain ski l ls and in t eractio n s neces s ary f or posts e c on d ary a ttai n m ent ( P erna, 2 0 06). C on se q ue n tl y st u d ents a r e limit e d to t h e short t e rm int e ra c tions w hich v a g uely p r o v ide inf o r m ation i n a n a de q uate man n er to m ake a n i n f o r m e d d ecis i on a bout o n h oices in ac c ess a nd s ele c tion o f posts e c on d ary instit u t i ons o f le a rn i n g Th i s is a cr i tical issue f o r st ud ents w ho w ould n ot ordinar i ly h a v e the o p p ortunity to a tt e nd c ol l eg e. H istor i cal l y disa d v ant a ge d st u d e nts are less i n f o r m ed a b out t h e p ro c ess o f p r e par i ng f or post s eco n dary study (I H EP, 2 0 12). Aca d e m i c a nd s o cial s u p p orts a re ina d e q uate f or p r o p er l y s er v ic i n g st u d e nts t o cre a te t he struct u ral s u pport f or s t ud e nts need t o b e s u cces s f u l w ith a ttaining col l e g e a d m iss i on. M inori t y Postseconda r y Readiness & P articipation Co u rt i er ( 20 0 6) d e t e r m in e d t hat st u dents f r o m traditio n al l y u nderser v ed po p ulatio n s w ere less likely to g ain a d m iss i on to f o ur y ear i nstit u tio n s a nd s e lecti v e instituti o ns. T h e p atte r ns o f c har a c t er i stics o f st u d e nts w ho w ere likely to e x per i ence so m e d i f f iculty w ith m a neu v er i ng throu g h t he col l e g e a d m iss i on pro c ess were both low and high performing minority students. T h e tr e nd e x isted b as e d o n t w o c r i tical areas o f po s ts e c on d ary a ccess d isp a r it ies u ni q ue to A f r i c a n A m er i c a ns w ithin t w o p ro f i l es to i n clu d e: low a c h ie v in g /l o w inco m e a nd hi g h a chie v ing low inc o m e st u d e nts o f co l or in selecting college placement ( Sim m ons, 2 0 11). Sim m ons ( 2 0 1 1) al l u d ed to t w o a reas o f disco n n ect w ith stu d e n ts m a tr i culating thr o u g h t h e Ki n der g arten t h r o u g h p ost s eco n dary pip e l i ne, w here b o t h p r o f i l es o f s t u de n ts result is m i s plac e m e nt and lost p osts e c on d ary op p ortunitie s

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35 Du n can (20 1 0) d e t e rm i ned t h a t g aps f o r e t hn i c m in o r i ties in c o l l e g e part i cip a ti o n ha v e g ro w n w id e r c r eating a n e ed f o r st a t e s t o a d dress t heir c u r r ent p ol i cies. T his disp a r i ty k n o w n a s t h e part i cip a ti o n g ap in m i nor i ties, f i r st g e n erati o n st u de n ts, a nd low inc o m e st u d e nts in o p portunit i es h i n ders s t u dents f r o m t h e s e le c ti o n o f pr e m ier instituti o ns a n d in so m e c a ses h in d ers f r o m four y ear i nstit u tion s M et h ods s t ate pol i cy m akers util i z ed t o e ns u r e stu d ent m atr i culati o n into p o s ts e c o ndary instit u ti o ns h a v e g eneral l y b een u nsuc c es s f ul as a di r ect result o f t he types of st r at e g ies u s ed to a ddress t he s e issu e s ( Si m m o ns, 2 0 1 1). T h e e m p hasis o n c o l l eg e readin e ss e v ol v ed into cr e ation o f bo t h s ta te a nd f e deral l e g is l ation a s a m e t hod a t t h e f or e f r ont o f p ol i cy m a g e n da. A C T ( 2 0 1 2) d e f i n ed col l e g e r e adi n ess a s t he ac q uis i tion o f k n o w le d g e a nd skil l s a st u d e nt n eeds to enroll a n d s u c c eed in c redit bear i ng f i r st y ear courses a t p osts e c on d ary instit u tio n s w ithout re m e diati o n. R ecent f e deral m ea s ur e s w ithin our nat i p l ans t o cre a t e m ore prepar e d st u d e nts inc l ud e d t h e e s t a bl i s h m en t o f le g is l ation to e n c o u ra g e stat e s to t ake m ea s ures t o r e f i n e e d u catio n al practices in s c h o ol s S pec i f i c al l y t h e st a t e s e n act e d le g is l ation to address c ol l e g e a nd c a reer r e ad i ness. C hallenges w ith P o stsecondary R eadiness & A ccess Prepa r ation Ki r st and Bracco ( 20 04 ) det e r m in e d t h at t he b r i d g e b et w een K 1 2 e d ucati o n a n d h i g her edu c ation d o es n ot e x ist in te r m s o f c o ursework p re p ar a tion f or i n c o m ing st u d e nts. T h e lack o f c ur r iculum c ont i nuity h as cre a t e d e x ceptio n al di l e m m as f or b oth K 12 and posts e c on d ary s e ct o rs o f e du c ation ( Pitre, 2 0 07). I m p ortant to t h e p r ocess o f pro v iding st u d e nts a t o t a l e x per i ence o f g aining a d m is s ion in t o o ur nat i ons lo c al a n d st a te col l e g es is t h e pro v i sion o f t h e n e c essary instit u tio n al su p port w ith a ppropr i a t e

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36 aca d e m ic s er v ice s Co n ley (2007) de f i n ed col l e g e readi n ess is as the l e v el o f p r e parati o n o ur st u d e nts ne e d to e n r oll in c o l l e g e a nd ultim a t e ly s u cceed in t heir a c a de m ic e n dea v o r s. Unfortu n at e l y st u de nt s e n t er col l e g e w ith d e ficie n cies t h at h i nder t h em f r om g ain i ng ad m i t t a n c e in t o c o l l e g e a nd c o m plet i ng their f i rst g oal o f c om pleting t he c o l l e g e pro g ram A w areness Ki r st (2004) asserts th at st u d e nts, pare n ts, a nd e duc a t o rs are n o t r ecei v ing clear and di r ect i n f o r m ation concerning t he skil l s s t ud e nts n eed to en t er a nd s u c c eed a s posts e c on d ary stud e n t s. The lack o f diss e m i n ation o f i n f o r m ation is causing stu d ents to bl i ndly a tte n d c o l l e g e w ithout t h e u n derst a n d ing o r the abi l ity to m e et p osts e c on d ary reading e x pect a tions. T h e m iss i ng link o f i n f o rmati o n c o n c erning c o l le g e s u ccess re q ui r e m ents is s e r i o u sly d e v ast a ting the f u t u re o f s t u d e nts. The s t u dents most a ffec t ed are lo w inc om e and m i nor i ty st ude n ts w ho o f t en s t art g rade sc h ool a t a d i s ad v ant a g e (Venezia, 2006) Educ a t o rs as s u m e s tu dents w i l l rece i v e t h e i nstruction t h ey a re m i s sing in c o l l e g e t h rou g h r e m e diation measures a n d indi v id u al det e r m in a t ion o f t he s t ud e n t Ho w e v er, t h is e x tra task o f r e m e diation lo w ers a st u d e n t s c h an c es o f c o m pl e ting c o l l e g e w ith the t w o y ear or four y ear de g ree the st u de n t e n d ea v ors to recei v e (Kir s t, 2 0 04). T h e p ressing iss u e is t he a bsen c e o f diss e m i nati o n o f i n f o r m a ti o n regarding postsecondary access in instit u ti o ns o f learn i n g Ki r st (20 04 ) discuss e s t hat t e a c h e rs are t h e most e f f e c tive i n pro v iding st u d e nts w ith a c a d e m i c resources f o r p osts e con d ary e ducati o n. H o w e v er, t h e re q ui r e m ents f or p os t seco n dary e duc a tion a re rarely p ro v id e d to t h em to p r o v ide st u d e nts a nd p ar e nts w ith this inform a tion. I n f o rm a tion is m ore likely to b e g i v en to st u d e nts w ho c o m p l ete c o l l e g e p re p arati o n c o urse w ork i n h i g h sc h o o l,

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37 lea v ing their lo w er per f o r m ing c o u n t erparts w ithout k no w le d g e o f entr a nce re q ui r e m e nts, re q ui r e m ents f or col l e g e s u cces s or c o urses neces s ary to close t he reading achie v e m e nt g aps t h at the s t u d ent d e m o nstr a t e s (Ki r st, 2 004). A d dressing Soci a l C a pital Defi c its T hro u gh School Cou n selo r s T h e a pproa c h o f p ol i cy m a k ers to a d dress t h e a ca d e m ic achie v e m e n t g ap w as to imp l e m e n t K 1 2 r e f o rm m e asures, p r o m o t e c o l le g e d isc r etion for di v ers i ty ad m iss i ons decis i ons, a n d increa s e n e ed bas e d a i d f or l o w inco m e st u d e nts (S i m m ons, 2 0 11). Ho w e v er, Sim m ons ( 2 011) n ot e d t hat t h is ap proach to address i ng st u d e a c ad e m ic pe r f or m an c e h as y ielded m ini m al results be c ause it n e g lect e d t o ad dress t h e s o cial aspects o f n e eds o f di s ad v ant a g ed s t u d ent s Further, s t ud e nts w ho m e e t t h e p r o f i l e o f v uln e rable st u d ent s o r stud e nts w ho h a v e s u f f er e d o ne or m ore r e specti v e disa d v ant a g es ha v e a n ar r ay o f n eeds th a t m ust be a d dressed to r en d er the d esi re d result o f i ncreasing p art i cip a tio n W e d e f i n e t he r isk f ac t ors o f v uln e r able st u d e nts by depicting t h e n e e ds a s fol l o w s: lo w er socio e con o m ic st a t u s, histor i c al dise n f r a nchis e m e n t g eo g raphic isol a tio n, m i nor i ty stat u s/ e t h nic i t y and l i m ited p ar e nt edu c atio n al at t ai n m e n t (Sim m ons, 2 0 11). Alt h ou g h t h ese f a ct o rs are not all inclusi v e, w e re f er e nce t hese n e eds a s Social C apital De f ic i ts. Social C apital is d e f i n ed a s t h e abi l ity o f i ndi v id u als to secure b e ne f its t hrou g h f a m i l ial n e t w orks St e p han & Ro s en b a u m (2 0 13) e l abor a t e d o n t h e b ar r iers m in o r i ty stud e nts f a ce in terms o f s e v eral ar e as to i nclu d e : social su pport f o r col l e g e, c ol l eg e kno w le d g e, and lack o f pare n t a l s u p p ort in t h e p ro c ess o f ac c essing p os ts e c o n dary stud y Furt h er, st u d e nts f a ce s ocial a n d p ers o nal r i sks i n pu r suing c o l l e g e th a t are uni q ue to disa d v ant a g ed st u de nt s. In c o m par i so n m i d d le class p arents w ere m ore o f t en in v o l v ed in pro v iding a ssistance w ith their stu d ents i n p rocess o f pre p ar i ng st u de n ts f or t asks

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38 ne e ded f o r p osts e c on d ary study (Steph a n & Ros e n b a u m 20 1 3). S i m m ons ( 2 0 1 1) not e d t hat t h ere is n ee ded c han g e i n t h e sc h ool c o unselor f u n c tion i n sc h o ols. S t e p h a n and R ose n ba u m ( 2 0 13 ) propo s e a n a lte r nati v e f u nction o f c ol l e g e c o a c h es i n sch o ols. T h e role o f t he c ol l e g e coach pro v id e s p roa c ti v e o utreac h m en t orsh i p, a nd g uid a nce i n t h e c ol l e g e selecti o n p r ocess. A dditi o nal l y t h i s f u nct i on o f sc h ools p r o v id e s a cti v e reach out and e n g a ge m ent t o st u de n ts to p art i ci p a t e in p osts e c on d ary st u dy a nd f a ci l itat e s st u d e nt pro g ress t o w ards col l e g e a c c ess. T h e A m er i can As s ociati o n o f sc h ool coun s elors (20 1 3) re p orted t he a p propr i a t e ratio o f st u d e nt t o c o u n selor is 1: 2 50 st u d e nts per c o unse l or. Ho w e v er, in m any st a t e s t h at n u m ber i s as h i g h 1: 10 0 0 rat i o per p u pil to c o u nselor ( ASCA, 2 0 1 1) National K 20 Initiatives The essential role of state education agencies was to better prepare students for the rigors of postsecondary study and the workforce. Although the high school diploma was considered a n accolade of academic completion, the credibility of the high school has wavered in terms of equivalency to college entrance expectations. Federal and state reform efforts clearly identified the role of school districts to remediate student learning defic iencies prior to students transitioning into postsecondary study. Increased accountability mechanisms of student learning created a necessity to develop more streamlined approaches for academic planning between education sectors. In order to achieve this m easure of continuity between education sectors, state legislators developed initiatives to create conjoined planning between state education agencies. crease student preparedness, some states sought to increase studen t preparedness through streamlining resources and creating platforms to plan with education stakeholders. Specifically, states began to select

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39 several measures for migrating towards cross system planning. Further, two strategies for increasing the presence of K 20 planning began with states migrating into education governance structures which combined education sectors or states created K 16 or K 20 e ducation councils. Most states elected to create education councils to inform their education governance sec tors with perspectives of stakeholders in terms of needs for the workforce and increased rigor in their current education delivery systems. History of K 20 Initiatives Historical practices of improper col laboration between agencies created a nation wide cl imate of state and local agency isolation and disconnect. Periods of separation between elementary, secondary, and post secondary schools evolve back as early as sector gravitated towards focusing on curriculum st andards within its own instructional educational level and strayed from collaborative measures of planning. Therefore, agencies progressed to practices of isolated planning and governance, which soon became problematic in terms of instructional accountabil ity of student learning at each agency level (Van de Water & Rainwater, 2001). As a direct result of this concern, a period of national renewed interest has developed in collaboration between k 12 and postsecondary sectors. Efforts to unite higher educatio n and k 12 sectors have existed as early as the standard of learning for rising graduates of the local high school. The same debate is currently exacerbated as a result of init iatives to close academic achievement gaps and increase student postsecondary education degree attainment. Various issues surround challenges to collaboration between K 12 and post secondary sectors t o include:

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40 governance, p olitics, c urriculum, proximity i ss ues, organizational structure, culture, and finance. The barriers to unification serve as a deterrent to remediating student learning. K 20 Collaboration Purpose The absence of streamlined course standards between institutions of learning and state polic y issues caused students to lag behind their counterparts in instructional advancement (Venezia, 2006). These inadequacies from institutions of learning and policy makers continue to cause difficulty for students throughout their studies in grade school an d ultimately continue to their performance in college. It sends a false message of hope concerning the college dream to children who in many cases have suffered 12 education is the strongest predictor of academic success (Caboni & Abisu, 2004). Rigor At Risk (2007) developed by ACT discussed the mis alignment between the expectations of post secondary and K 12 institutions of learning. The national Curriculum Survey suggests that there is vast difference in the perc eptions of how the over 20,000 educators showed a range of differences of opinions between secondary perceptions of preparation. Educators are mis informed concerning the requirements for student ations (Kirst, 2004). There were significant challenges with student preparation for college. There must be a n alignment of academic standards for P 16 institutions to ensure students meet postsecondary requirements for text difficulty in higher education coursework (ECS, 2006). Venezia (2003) discusses in most cases, there is no alignment of curriculum reading r equirements amongst K 16 institutions.

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41 Exacerbating the challenge of collaboration are the communication barriers between local and state education agencies. The communication barriers between agencies consist of an absence of a longitudinal data system, w hich to link critical state agency data systems (D ata Q uality C ampaign 2009). The combination of curriculum, policy planning, and data analysis between educational institutions, parents, and students contributes to studen t retention and college success. T the goal of academic mastery level of student performance measured a gainst postsecondary entrance and success requirements. Requiring students to meet postsecondary academic expect ations has been inhibited by continual isolation in planning for student academic performance. Substandard expectations produced below college performance in students in all subject areas. Communication between education agencies was nearly non existent in terms of vertical planning between grade levels K 20. The lack of communication between educational agencies, an absence of curriculum alignment, and a lack of communication of expectations for entrance requirements for postsecondary study neglected to m anifest a reality of college to students in Florida. Communication barriers of academic performance expectations inhibit students from properly preparing for academic expectations for postsecondary education. Student academic preparation for post secondary education mandates for students to complete high school with skills necessary for the academic rigor required for higher education. Movement towards integrating educational agencies involved developing collaborative planning and state legislation to conne ct educational agencies

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42 in terms of curriculum, planning, and communication which governs educational agencies. Florida began to make progression towards a unified education model through developing legislation to include pre school, elementary, middle, hi gh, and postsecondary schools into centralized planning and collaboration. Critical measures were placed into action to bring all of the educational departments and agencies together to collaborate and develop educational policies that coincide between age ncies. To achieve unification, legislative initiatives must guide the process of transforming the previous disjointed system into a new unified K 20 system of learning. K 20 Planning & Collaboration Vert i cal pl a nning b e t w een K 12 and p o s ts e c on d ary s e ct o r s f or st ud ent s uccess w as a cr i tical co m p on e nt o f c o m m unic a ting e x pect a tions f o r p osts e c on d ary e ntrance re q ui r e m ent s Alt h ou g h c o m m unicat i on o f e x pect a tions w as a di r e re q ui r e m e n t f or st u d e nts and f a m i l ies t o u n derst a nd p o st s ec o ndary e x pect a ti o ns, C h ait & V e n e z ia ( 2009) not e d t hat s t u d ents rarely recei v ed i n f o rmat i on re g arding o p t io n s f or c ol l e g e in order to make an i n f o r m ed d ecis i o n re g ardi n g p osts e c o ndary study ( Vene z ia, Ki r st, & Ant o nio, 20 0 8 ). Ki r st and Usdan (2 0 0 9 ) d e t e r m in e d t h at K 12 and post s eco n dar y instit u tions pla n n ed in si l os, n e g lecting to a ddress cr i tical issu e s b et w een t he e d ucati o nal di v ide o f both K 12 a n d p osts e c on d ary e ducati o n T h e sect o r di v ide a nd t he s eparat i on and isolation bet w een K 12 a nd p o s ts e c o n dary i n stit u tions in a r e as o f c u r r i culum a l i g n m e nt and pol i cy ha v e pos e d eno r m ous c h al l e n g es f o r pre p ar i ng m in o r i ty stud e nts f o r posts e c on d ary e duc a tion. S pec i f icall y t h e d i s con n ect e d learning e x per i ences in K 1 2 edu c ation ha v e cre a t e d a g ap b e t w een st u d e nt p erfor m ance u p on c o m p l etion o f h i g h

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43 school and c ol l e g e e n t rance e x pec t ati o ns (V e ne z ia, 20 0 6). I n e s s e n ce, st u d e nts co m p l et e d h i g h sc h ool w ithout t h e ski l ls and k no w le d g e re q ui r ed f or de g ree a t t a i n m e n t T h e result o f t h e incre a se o f f r es h m a n st u de nt s e n t er i ng c o m m u nity c o l l e g e in ne e d o f de v elo p m e nt w as traced to t h e n u m ber o f s t u d ents e x iting h i g h sc h ool w ithout t h e m as t ery o f ski l ls n e cessary f or post s eco n dary e ducat i on. Ve n e z ia (20 0 6) a t tr i but e d t h e lack o f pre p aration f o r post s ec o ndary stu d y to s e v er a l probl e m at i c a reas rel a t e d to t h e f o l l o w in g : absence o f i n f o rm a tion c once r ning p osts e c on d ary e ntrance e x pect a ti o ns f o r stu d ents a n d f am i l i es a n d d iss e m i n ation o f i n f o r m ati o n t o f a m i l i e s c o ncern i ng e x istence o f f in a ncial a id. B u eschal ( 2 0 0 9) d e t e rmi n ed t h a t t h e n u m ber o f s t u d ents ent e r i ng c om m unity c o l l e g e u nde r prepar e d h as st e adi l y increased i n rece n t y ears. Ki r st & Usd a n (2 0 09) n ot e d t h at t he in s tit u ti on s h a v e histor i cal l y p la n ned f o r edu c ation w ithin t he con f in e s o f t he i nstit u ti on s e du c ation s e c t or. E x t e nsi v e p la n n i ng a t t h e K 12 le v el w i l l place g reat e r ac c ou n t a bi l i t y o n e du c at o rs, s t u d e n ts, a n d p arents i f t h e issu e s a re not car e f u l l y addres s ed at t he l ocal a nd sta t e le v els. T he process f o r achie v ing the d esi r ed outc o m e o f acc o un t ab i l i ty a cross t h e b o a rd w ould l i kely be edu c atio n al a n d s e l f r e f le c ti v e to pro v ide o ur nati o n a picture o f w h e re w e a re in te r m s o f st u d e nt re a din e ss (AC T 2 0 09). T h e n ati o nal m o v e m e nt t o w ards aca d e m ic acco u nt a bi l ity pol i cies promot e d st u de n t p e r f o rm a nce util i z ing the m ea s ur i n g stick o f col l e g e readi n ess. T h e d i s j unc t ure b et w een posts e c on d ary e d uc a tion a nd K 12 s y st em s crea t ed a d i f f i cult p rocess f or edu c a t ing e t h nic m in o r i ties a n d st u de n ts o f color (Vene z ia et al., 20 0 3). T h e lack o f p l ann i ng b et w een a g encies in c u r r i culu m l e g is l atio n and da t a c o l l ect i on s er v e d a s a bar r ier to pr e par i ng stu d ents f o r t h e r ig ors of posts e c on d ary e duc a tio n

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44 St ate Level K 16 and K 20 Initiatives K 16 and K 20 Education Council There are 30 states at some stage of movement towards an integrated education system through establishment of a K 16 or K 20 education council The states are implementing measures of integration in various forms in order to influence planning and preparation of state agencies and resources for alignment between education sectors. Regardless of the system each state chooses, each system serves a common goal of integrating to systems of learning and increasing access to postsecondary education (ECS, 2006).Critical methods to prepare students for college are conceptualized through implementation of college readin ess standards in K 12 curriculum. Implementing curriculum measures to align K 12 standards and higher education entrance expectations provides students with the necessary academic tools for rigorous postsecondary education curricula. College readiness is d eveloped in students through implementation of four required sets of skills to include: content knowledge, core academic skills, behavioral skills, and college knowledge. Education Governance Systems State goals to create a s treamlined governance structu re resulted in states erecting a full or partial consolidation of education governance structures (Zinth, 2011). K 16 or K 20 governance structure. Several states elected to create a combined governance structure which allowed for states to combine early l earning, K 12 and postsecondary education in a single entity. Four states have transitioned to a full P 20 governance structure. Florida, New York, Idaho, and Pennsylvania have created a joint P 20 governance structure which includes early child s P 20 governance structure was implemented by constitutional amendment and solidified with the Florida

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45 Education Governance Reorganization Act of 2000. 20 education system was implemented by state statute charging the governa nce of the public schools to the state education department. In comparison, Idaho convened a K 20 governance structure excluding primary learning. Pennsylvania created a P 20 governance structure implemented by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education. Th e four states created this approach to better articulate student learning through curriculum, collaboration, and planning. Institutional Policies and Initiatives Evolving changes in legislative purposes for college acceleration initiatives required innova tive approaches to providing services for incoming freshman students. Collegial relationships with K 12 and community college institutions were required to provide a closer collaboration to accomplish requirements of Senate Bill 1908 initiatives. As a resu lt, student affairs professionals extended outreach efforts to recruit and 12 institutions. As students in need of remediation matriculated into community college programs, there was an increas ed need for developing incoming freshman students. Incoming freshman students require development and mentorship as they acclimate to instruction in the higher education setting. Serving underrepresented populations requires higher education professionals who understand the dynamics of the populations whom they serve. Students transitioning from secondary education require personal development and direction for their aspirations and goals. The changing needs of servicing underrepresented populations created a greater need for student professionals in community colleges to facilitate the transition of secondary students into the higher education learning setting. Community colleges in Florida

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46 developed various initiatives to impact the transition from learnin g in a secondary institution to transitioning to newly admitted freshman student. Com m uni t y C oll e ges H istor i cal l y t h e m iss i o n o f t h e c o m m unity c o l l e g e w as to s e r v e a s a pla t f o r m o f re m e diation f or s t u d en t s u n d erpre p ared f o r t h e r i g or of po s ts e c o nda r y e duc atio n T h e op e n door pol i cy o f c o m m unity c o l l e g es incr e ased op p ort u nities f o r stud e nts in n e ed o f re m e diation to co m ple t e a n d tr a n s f er t o u ni v ers i ties a nd at t ain a b a c helor s d e g ree. T he e v olution o f c o m m unity c o l l e g es h as e x pan de d b e y ond re m edi a tion t o o p port u nities f o r st u d e nts t o recei v e f ou r y ear de g rees (Floyd & Walker, 2009). C o mm unity c o l l e g es h a v e tr a n s f or m ed t h eir instituti o ns into b ac c a l aurea t e d e g re e g ranti n g instit u tions. Alt h ou g h s o m e insti t utions ha v e increas e d t heir c apacity to address t h e in creasing d e m a nd f o r edu c ation i n o ur nati o n thr o u g h b ec o m ing f o u r y ea r de g re e g r anting instit u tions, t h e co m m u nity c o l l e g e has a s p ec i f ic place i n K 20 e duc a tion. S p ec i fical l y co mm u nity c o l l e g es p ro v ide accelera t ed l e arni n g o ptions f o r st u d e nts in h i g h sc h ool a nd t he i nst i t u tions e x pan d ed t h e v is i on o f our nati o n in p ro v iding e q ual ac c ess f or al l per 1008.30(4)(a), Florida Statut es, and Rule 6A 10.0315, F.A.C., The f o cus o f c o mm unity col l e g es h as c han ge d o v er ti m e, isol a ting the instit u ti o ns f r o m t he in i t ial pur p ose o f re m e dial e d ucat i on b e y ond g rade 1 2. T h e incr e ased n e ed f o r t h e r e m e dial e duc a ti o n o f s t u d ents e n t e r i ng c o l l e g e presen t ed a s e r io us n e ed f o r t h e r e e v alu a ti o n o f t h e e x odus o f g ra d uating h i g h sc h ool st u d e nts. The g ro w ing ph e n o m e n on o f s t ud en t s e x iting h i g h sc h ool w ithout t h e aca d e m ic resi l ie n c e t o succe e d a n d a ttain a d e g ree creat e d a n e pi d e m ic in n e ed o f re v ersal. Co m m unity c o l l e g es s e r v e a lar g e p ercent a g e o f lo w inc om e, e t h nic m i n or i t y and f i r st g ene r ation c o l le g e stud e nts. A d dres s ing issu es o f r e m e diat i on p r i or t o h i g h

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47 school c o m pletion inc r eases t h e c a p acity o f m in o r i ty g roups to g ain t h e cr i tical ski l ls neces s ary f or p osts e c on d ary e ducati o n. Senate Bill 2682 (2009) revised the primary mission of the community colleges to include upper le vel instruction and included awarding baccalaureate degrees as authorized by state law E x acerb a ti n g t h e cur r ent tr e nd f o r g rad u ating stu d ents u n derp r epar e d f or post s eco nd ary e ducati o n is t h e eno r m ous a c a d e m ic a chie v e m e n t g ap in m i n or i ty students. B o th h a v e been attr i b u t e d to st u d e nt attr i tion i n m i n or i ty students. A w areness of P o sts e conda r y En t rance E x pectations Educ a t o rs are m is i n f o r m ed c o n c erning t h e l e v el of r e ading a bi l ity r e q ui r ed for st u d e nts t o c o ntin u e th eir studies i n c o l l e g e. The lack o f i n f o r m at ion concerning t he impor t ance o f s t u d ent r eading m as t ery a nd c o l l e g e le v el reading e x p ect a ti o ns s e r v es a s a m i s f o rtu n e f o r stu d e n ts. Co x F r ie n sner, and Kha y um (20 0 3) discu s s lon g itudin a l st u dy f i ndin g s t h at u n d e r prepared st u de n ts a re g reatly a d v erse l y a f fect e d b y the l ack o f appr o pr i ate prepa r ati o n in re a din g Furt h e r m ore, st u d e nts w ho a re l acking in read i ng ski l ls are the m o s t a ff e ct e d C hi l dren w ho w ere in r e m e dial read i ng c o urses w ere o v er 60 p ercent more likely a lso to ha v e a d e f ic i en cy in m at h W h er e as s t ud e nts w ho w ere d e f ic i e n t in m a t h w ere 4 2 p ercent more likely to h a v e a d e f ic i ency in readin g t h e st u d e nts w ho w ere d e f i cie n t in r e ading h ad a hi g her l ikelih o od to ha v e d e f ic i encies in ot h er areas. The lin k a g e to u n derpe r f o rming r ea d ers a n d p oor a c a d e m ic p e r f o r m an c e in additi o nal a r eas o f s tu dy is cr i tical l y h i g h f or m a t h ( C o x F r ie n sner, & K h a y u m 2 0 0 3). T h e incr e asing n u m be r s o f s t ud e nts en t er i ng c o l l e g e w ith d e f ic i enci e s is c a using h i g her instituti o ns to d e v elop additi o nal col l e g e r e m edial c o urses in r e adi n g a nd o t h er s ubject

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48 areas t hat r e q ui r e rea d ing o f d i f f icult te x t f or p osts e c o ndary stu d en t s ( C o x F r ie n sner, & Kha y u m 2 0 03). Community Colleges Redefined Historically, the mission of the community college was to serve as a platform of remediation for students underprepared for the rigor of postsecondary education. The open door policy of community colleges increased opportunities for students in need of evolut ion of community colleges has expanded beyond remediation to opportunities for students to receive four year degrees. Community colleges have by transforming their institutions into baccalaureate degree granting institutions. Although some institutions ha ve increased their capacity to address the increasing demand for education in our nation through becoming 4 year degree granting institutions, the community college has a specific place in K 20 education. Specifically, community colleges provide accelerate d learning options for students in high school and the institutions expanded the vision of our nation in providing equal access for all. The focus of community colleges has changed over time, isolating the institutions from the initial purpose of remedial education beyond grade 12. The increased need for remedial education of students entering college posed a serious need for re evaluation of the exodus of graduating high school students. The growing phenomenon of students exiting high school without the academic resilience to succeed and attain a degree created an epidemic in need of reversal (Gulley & Mullendore, 2014). Community colleges serve a large percentage of low income, ethnic minority, and first generation college students. Addressing issues of remediation prior to high school completion increases the capacity of minority groups to gain critical

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49 skills necessary for postsecondary education. Florida, has encountered over 60 percent of graduating high school seniors in need of remediation during t he freshman year in college. Exacerbating the current trend to graduating students underprepared for postsecondary education is the enormous academic achievement gap in minority students. Both have attributed to student attrition in minority students. Stat e Efforts to Address Postsecondary Readiness Movement Towards College R eadiness College readiness initiatives require d K 12 school districts to collaborate with postsecondary sectors to create aligned curriculum measures in preparation for postsecondary s tudy. This collaboration is based on the necessity for K 12 and higher education leaders to have vertical planning for student access through the K 20 education pipeline. College readiness benchmarks for ACT testing for students tested in 2009 consisted of academic proficiency in college curriculum areas of English composition, college algebra, social sciences, and biology (ACT 2009 ). There was a mismatch between high school exit requirements and testing requirements for college admission. The curriculum d isconnect hinders students from entering higher education opportunities as a result of low performance on college admission testing requirements and the inability to progress through degree completion. As a direct result of the disjuncture between K 12 exi t assessments and college entrance assessments, students completed high school without necessary academic proficiency for college level coursework. Critical barriers to student success were the disconnection between secondary and postsecondary education s ystems. The educational systems must be conducive to operations that support student academic success. Aligning these systems

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5 0 require a multifaceted approach of systematic collaboration between educational sectors and curriculum alignment. C o llege R e adin e s s a n d P articipation L egi sl ation in Te x as T e x as h as cre a t e d l e g is l ation w hich spec i f i c al l y tar g ets f our areas o f pe r f or m an c e f or post s eco n dary e duc a tion. E ach o f t h e str a nds o f l eg is l ation w as desi g ned t o incr e ase c o m p l etion o f hi g h sc h o ol a n d crea t e a n a w a r e ness o f posts e c on d ary o ppor t u nities a nd p r epa r a tion f or col l e g e s u cces s T e x as le g is l at u re creat e d a jo i nt le g is l at u re f u n ded b y the Bi l l & M el i nda G at e s F ou n d a tion t ar g e t ing the r e desi g n o f t he hi g h sc h ool c o m pleti o n mo d el. T he i nitiati v e w as d esi g ned to increa s e hi g h sc h ool c o m pleti o n a m on g st st u d e nts in Te x as. T h e initial l e g is l ati v e m easures creat e d in T e x as w ere t h e cr e ation o f t h e P 1 6 c o u nci l T he c o u ncil w as d e v elo p ed t o create c onti n uity in p l a nning f or e du c ation b e t w een e du c ation s y st em s in t he Te x as edu c ation s y st e m A n additi o nal m e asure e n act e d b y T e x as in 2 00 3 w hich ser v ed a s a joint p ubl i c a n d p r i v ate v ent u re a i m ed at inc r e asing g raduation rat e s and pre p ar i ng st u d e nts f o r col l e g e a n d c a reer s ucces s w as the T e x as Gr a du a tion Project. Colleg e Readiness and Participation Legislation in Kentucky Kentucky legislators enacted several legislative actions under state senate bill 1. For example, Senate Bill 1 section (2) and (13) (2009) designated a process to change state content standards in all core academic subject areas to create increased preparedness in K 12 students for postsecondary education. This legislation was implemented to develop academic standards which increased depth and masterly learning needed for college success. Additionally, the legislation was designed to increase collaboration between elementary, secondary, and post secondary faculty. A

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51 critical component of the legislation is aimed at a plan to disseminate the standards to all stakeholders, the legislation reads as follows : During the revision process the department shall consider standards that have been adopted by national content advisory groups and professional education consortia. Using a variety of strategies and technologies, the proposed revisions to the academic co ntent standards shall be widely disseminated throughout the state to elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education faculty and administrators, parents, citizens, private professionals in the content areas, and others for comment and recommendations. T he results of the revision process shall ensure that the specifications in paragraph (b) of this subsection are met. (Senate Bill 1, 2009) Kentucky legislation outlined the plan to create a stream of legislation designed to better prepare students in Kentu cky for postsecondary Critical to the purpose of Senate Bill 1 legislation is the plan to disseminate information to stakeholders to provide an awareness of the curriculum changes in the new legislation. College Readiness and Participation Legislation in Illinois Several areas of legislation were enacted in Chicago to increase participation in postsecondary institutions. Senate Bill 1883, Collaborative Baccalaureate Degree Program was implemented to create more opportunities for upper division course wo rk and bachelor degree programs. The purpose of the legislation is to provide more geographic locations for degree programs. Illinois legislators enacted Senate Bill 858 (2007), which created the College and Career Readiness Pilot Program. This programs w as intended to provide remedial coursework in during the senior year in high school. In addition to providing remedial coursework to students during the 12 th grade year in high school, the intent of the legislation was to align high school and po stsecondary curriculum Further, the program served as a means to identify postsecondary readiness and placement for advanced courses.

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52 College Readiness and Participation in Colorado Colorado enacted House Bill 1057 (2005) which focused on communicating the college readiness opportunities available for students in Colorado. The legislation required communication to all parents of eighth grade public school students concerning postsecondary requirements, opportunities, and needed remediation for students i nterested in attending postsecondary institutions of learning. The parent notification higher education admission guidelines. Additionally, the notification required to parents focu ses on four areas to include: (1) completion of the listed courses are necessary but does not guarantee admission to state university; (2) a student may need remediation prior to admission to a respective institution; (3) student who fails a course may com plete a remedial course to satisfy the higher education admission requirement; (4) availability of financial aid (4) Tuition cost and similar cost associated with tuition of state institutions. islation provides communication regarding the states availability of college readiness opportunities. This legislation communicates to financial aid opportunities available. State Le v el Reforms Towards College R eadiness Ro d er i ck, Na g oka, a n d Coca (2 0 09) d et e r m i n ed t hat pol i cy m akers m ust impl e m e n t e duc a tio n al pol i cies t hat pre p are s t u d e nts f o r po s ts e c o n d ary e ducati o n. C r itical m et h ods t o p r e pare s t ud e nts f o r col l eg e a re c o n c ep t ual i z ed t h rou g h t he impl e m e n t a ti o n o f col l eg e readin e ss st a ndar d s in t h e K 1 2 c u r r icul u m C o nley (2007) det e r m in e d t h at i m pl e m e n ting c u r r iculum m e asures t o a l i g n K 1 2 s t an d ards a nd hi g her edu c ation ent r ance e x pect a tions pr o v id e s st u dents clear e x pec t ati o ns f or ad m itt a nce f o r posts e c on d ary stud y T h e a ppropr ia te m e a s ures o f c o l l e g e re a din e ss is d e v elo p e d in

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53 st u d e nts t hrou g h i m pl e m e n t a ti o n o f f o ur r e q ui r ed s e ts o f skil l s : c o nt e nt k n o w le d g e, core aca d e m ic ski l ls, b eha v ioral sk i l l s, and c o l l e g e kno w le d g e ( C onle y 2 0 0 7 ). T h e co m p osite o f t he f o ur s ki l ls bui l ds stu d f o un d atio n a l, a nal y tic thinkin g readin g and un d ersta n ding o f post s eco n dary re q ui r e m ents re q ui r ed f or a c a d e m ic success. T h e Nati o nal C e nt e r f o r P u bl i c Pol i cy a nd Hig h er E d ucati o n c o n d uc t ed a st u dy w hich conclu d e d t h at a l i g ned state p ol i cy increases r e adi n ess f o r p o s ts e co n dary edu c ation ( S R EB, 20 1 0). Furthe r m or e lack o f r eadi n ess c o ntr i bu t es to lo w er col l e g e g raduation rat e s as a d i r ect result o f t h e a bs e nce o f p osts e c on d ary r eadi n ess. Al t h o u g h st u d e nts are a ble t o g a in a d m iss i on i nto c ol l eg e, t h e y are n ot s ucc e ssf u l in t heir posts e c on d ary c o urs ew ork. T he c entral t h e m e o f t h e st u dy w as b ased o n t he noti o n t h at s t a t es must m o v e f o r w ard to a c o m preh e nsi v e c o l l e g e readin e s s focus i n o r d er to bet t er pre p are s t ud e n t s for po s ts e c o n d ary e ducati o n. T h e c o m p on e nts o f t h e Col l e g e Re a din e ss Mo d el are as f ol l o w s: readi n ess s t a n d ards, asses s m e nt s, cur r iculu m t e ac h er de v elo p m e nt, col l e g e p lac e m e nt, a n d st a t e le v el acco u nt a bi l it y T he pr i m ary instrume n ts o f c han g e o f t h e s t ate a g en d a a r e c o m pr e hensi v e sta t e initiati v es a nd pol i cies desi g n e d t o mold t h e s t ud e nt s x pe r ie n ces t hrou g h hi g h sc h ool and ulti m at e ly to c o l l e g e. F i rs t g eneration c o l l e g e st u de n ts a nd lo w inc om e st u de n ts h a v e stru gg led to g ain access t o p osts e c o n da ry instit u tions d u e t o a l ack o f e d ucati o nal e x p ect a ti o ns, aca d e m ic prepar a tion, par e n t al s u pport, a n d f i nancial s up p ort ( R eid & Moore, 2 0 08). D i f f er e nt c hal l en g es e x ist for st u de n ts w ho p a rents a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e and f o r f i r s t g eneration c o l l e g e st u dent s S t ud e nts w ho a r e f i r st in t heir f a m i l ies t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e w ere the c e n tral i n f o r m ati o n s ources f o r d et e r m ining re q ui r e m e nts f o r entran c e in t o

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54 posts e c on d ary instit u t i ons. I n m ost c ases, t h e st u de n p ar e nts did n ot ha v e k n o w le d g e o f t h e p ro c ess a s a re s ult o f not a t t e n ding c o l l e g e. The m iss i ng e l e m ent o f a col l e g e g oing c u r eat e d i n f a m i l ies is d ue t o t he abs e nce o f col l e g e co m plet i on as a n e x pect a tion f or lo w inc om e st u de n ts a nd s t u d ents o f c o l or. As a d i re ct result o f t h e abs e nce o f t he e x pec t ation f o r a t t e n ding c o l l e g e, K 12 instit u tions a re c h ar g ed w ith th e responsibil i ty o f cr e a ti n g a l e g e g oing c u o ols b e g in n ing w ith a stud e aca d e m ic l e arning e x per i ence as e ar l y e le m e nt a ry e duc a tion. In f am i l y structures in w hich col l e g e a tte n d an ce is a n e x pect a tion, t h e d re a m o f posts e c o nd ary e ducati o n is est a bl i s h ed as a n e x p e ct a tion, a nd c onti n ual prepar a tion f o r t h e a s p i r ation is e n g rained in t h e st u de n t s x pec t ations. K 20 A c adem i c R e m e diation The l e arning e x per i e n ces in K 1 2 e duc a tion ha v e h istor i cal l y n e g lected t o re m e diate stu d ent lea r ning d e f i c i enc i es p r i or t o e n t e r i ng c o l l e g e (AC T 20 0 9). Al t hou g h our n a g rad u ating s e nior s s pi r ations f o r posts e c on d ary e duc a tion h a v e increase d t h e i r aspi r a t io n s fo r c ol l e g e f ai l ed t o transl a te i n to hi g her r at e s o f d e g ree co m p l etion ( R oder i ck, Na g oka, & Co c a, 20 09 ). St u d ents a spi r e to a t t a in a c o l l e g e de g ree, y et c o m pl e te h i g h sc h ool w ithout t he neces s ary skil l s f or col l e g e s u ccess and de g ree a t t a i n m e nt. T h e measu r e b e t w een a s pi r ation and a t t ai n m e nt n a m e d t h e aspi r atio n a ttai n m e nt g a p is t he d i f f er e nce t h at e x ists bet w een s t u d ent aspi r ati o ns f or posts e c on d ary e duc a tion a nd t h e d isp a r i ties in c o l l e g e re a din e ss f o r K 12 s t u d ents. The disp a r i ties in c ol l e g e r e adin e ss a n d st u d e nt a ccess h a v e h is t or i cal l y ser v ed a s a bar r ier f o r f i r st y ear col l e g e stud e nts ( A C T 2 0 0 9).

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55 Educ a tion a s a C om p rehensi v e S y stem A major c o m p o n e nt o f edu c ation r e f o r m is a v iew of e duc a tion i n t h e Unit e d St a t e s a s a c o m pr e h e nsi v e e ducat i on s y st e m T h e c o m p r eh e nsi v e e du c ation s y st e m appr o aches e d ucati o n as a hol i stic u ni t ra t h e r than s e p arate p arts. Colle g e readin e ss is impl e m e n t e d d ur i ng a st u d e K 1 2 y ears o f aca d e m ic i nstructi o n. A s u b s et o f t h e po p ulatio n s t h at re c eive read i ness in s truction is un a ble t o p ro g ress t hrou g h t h e s y st e m proper l y ( R anis & S t ein, 2 008). St u de n ts in t he p i pel i ne ha v e d i f f i c u lty a t certain s t a g es o f le a rn i ng w ith m ast e r ing g rad e le v el cur r icu l um e x pect a ti o ns d ur in g K 12 instructi o n. ACT ( 2 0 0 9) discuss e d t h e strat e g ies f or i m pro v ing c o l l e g e readin e ss i n hi g h sc h ool s t u d ents a s to i m pl e m e n t six pol i cies: es s en tial s t a n dards i m pl e m e nt a ti o n, co m m o n e x pect a tions, clear pe r f o rm a nce st a n d ards, r i g orous hi g h sc h o ol cour s es, e ar l y m o nitor i ng a n d p re v e n tion, and d a t a dr i v en d ecis i on m akin g The c o m posi t e o f t h e se a reas p ro v id e s st ud ents w ith f o c used aca d e m ic s t a n dards c ol l e g e le v el course w o r k, al i g ned c u r r icul u m and asses s m e nts t h at e x pose areas o f a cad e m ic de f ic i encies p r i or to c o l l e g e e nrol l m e nt. T h ere w as a m is m atch bet w een hi g h sc h o ol e x it re q ui r e m ents and test i ng re q uire m e nts f o r col l e g e ad m iss i o n w hich cau s es a c a d e m ic stru g g le w ith a ccl i m ation i nto r i g orous posts e c on d ary stud y In c o m p ar i son, Baker, C l a y and Gra t a m a (2 0 05) d e t e rm i ned t h at co l le g e readin e ss c o nsis t s o f c ol l e g e a w areness, col l e g e e l i g ibil i t y and c ol l e g e p re p aratio n T h e t h ree areas o f c ol l e g e r eadi n ess a re d e v elo p e d o v er the c ourse o f t h e st u de n aca d e m ic e x per i ence be g in n ing in m id d le s c hool and proc e eding t h rou g h the h i g h school y ears. C o m m u n ication c oncern i ng c o l l e g e o p p ort u nities, f i n a ncial a id, a n d t h e entire f a cet o f c ol l e g e life s h ould be art i cula te d to par e nts a nd s t u de nts o f col l e g e b o und st u d e nts.

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56 The K 20 Colle g e Pi p eline for D i sad v an t age P opulations T h e e x per i en c e f or di s ad v ant a g ed, lo w econo m ic, and m i n or i ty student po p ulatio n s is a pa t hway w ith additi o nal b ar r iers to d e g ree c o m p l e t i on. T h e s o c i al sup p ort s y st e m f o r di s ad v ant a g ed s t u d ents is cr i tical to t h e s u c c e s s o f t he s t u d ent. Risk f a ct o rs f o r st u de n t a c a de m ic pe r f o r m a nce in c lu d e low s o ci o ec o n o m ic st a t u s, d ro p ping out, part i cip a tion i n v iole n t acti v ities, n e g lect, and po v ert y T h e se r i s k fact o rs e x acerbate t h e s t u d ent s c hal l en ge s in t h e m ast e ry o f skil l s n eces s ary f or posts e con d ary e ducati o n and s er v es a s p rob l e m atic f or s t ud e nt aspi r at i ons (B u r l ey e t a l ., 2 0 1 0). T he c hal l en g e o f proper l y p r e par i ng d is a d v ant a g ed s t ud e nts c a n b e e a s ed by pro v iding stude n ts le a rn i ng op p ortunities t h at e q u a l t h y ing f i f or st u d e nts w ith e q uitab l e instructio n al resources (Sc h ott Fo u ndat i on, 20 1 0). S pec i f i cal l y t h e b asis o f t he t heory o f e q ual i z ed instructio n al resources is b as e d o n t he re s ea r ch o f t h e Sc h ott F ou nd atio n w hich not e d f o ur ar e as cr i tical to s t ud e nt suc c ess: hi g h qual i ty e ar l y c h i l dhood e ducat i on, hi g hly q ual i f ied instruc t ors i n a K 12 s e tt i n g col l e g e prepar a t o ry c u r r icula f o r col l e g e a n d w o rk, and e q uitable instruct i onal re s o urces. The f o ur areas o f e m phasis m ea s ured t h e op p ortunity to l e arn o f disa d v ant a g ed p o pul at io n s. A m ajor co n tr i but i ng fact o r t o t h e un d e r prepar e dness o f disa d v ant a ge d p opu l a tions is q ua n t i f ied by t h e O p port u nity to Learn I n d e x Se v eral f a ct o rs help to su bst a ntia t e t he r i sk f a ct o rs a n d c h al l en g es o f s t u d ents a s t he y tra v el t h rou g h t h e edu c atio n al pi p el i n e i n clu d ing sup p ort f r o m f a m i l y f r i e n ds, t e ac h ers, a nd c o m m un it y T his su p port s y st e m a ssists s t u d ents w i t h increa s ed aca d e m ic pe r f o r m an c e a nd s e r v es a s a m o tivat o r f or ac a d e m ic suc c ess. Co n l ey det e r m in e d t h at t h e m ost cr i tical el e m e nt t o c ol l e g e p re p aration f or m in o r i ty stud e nts and s t u d ents o f c olor i s creating a n e x pect a tion o f suc c ess in p ost s eco n dary e duc a tion.

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57 T his e x pect a ti o n f o r s u ccess b e g ins w ith the st u d e nt s u pport stru c t u re. I n p art i cular, paren t al a nd f am i l y s u pport s er v es a s a b as i s for diss e m in a tion o f c r i tical inform a tion concerning c o l l e g e en t rance re q ui r e m ents a n d a v ai l abi l ity o f f i nanc i al aid Fur t he r m ore, s t u d ents f r o m f a m i l ies w ith h i g her i nco m es g e neral l y h a v e a h i g her r ate o f c o m p l etion t h an st u d e nts w ho c o m e f r o m h o m es w ith lo w er i nco m es. O p e n ac c ess insti t uti o ns s u ch a s c o m m u nity c o l l e g es a l l ow d isa d v ant a g ed po p ulatio n s to g ain a d m iss i on i n to post s eco n dary instit u tions. Ho w e v er, t h e p a t h w ay to de g ree c o m pl e tion is d if f icult f or lo w inc om e a nd m in o r i ty stud e nts. N ear l y 45 p erc e nt o f st u d e nts en t er i ng c o m m unity c o l l e g e f a il to c o m p l ete t h e d e g ree w ithin six y ears of be g in n ing the d e g ree p ro g ram (Kur l ae n der & Lon g 2 009). C u rriculum A l ignme n t & C o mmon Core A major r e f o r m e ffort i n duc e d b y f e d eral le g is l ation w as t h e C o m m on Core I n itiati v e. This r e f o rm m e t hod w as a s a t ool t o e n c our a g e s t at e s to ad o pt m ore ri g orous st a n d ards o f le a rn i ng for k i nder g arten thr o u g h t w el f t h g rades s t u de nts in an e f f ort to bet t er p re p are s t ud e n t s for t h e a c ad e m ic r ig or r e q ui r ed for po s ts e c o ndary study ( M at h is, 20 1 0). T he g oal o f t h e le g is l ation is to promo t e e v ery student g ra d u a ting f r o m hi g h school, col l e g e and c a reer r ead m e aning s t u d e nts w i l l be a ble to co m p l ete posts e c on d ary cours ew ork w ith a chie v able success. P orter, Mc M a k en, H w an g & Y ang (2011) n ot e d t h at there w ere c u r r icul u m shifts in c ore s u bject areas o f En g l i sh, M ath, a nd L a n g ua g e A rts w hich w ere w id el y ad o pt e d in s t ate pol i c y The s h i fts w ere f o cus e d o n re g ulating t he c o nt e nt t au g ht and not t he part i cular st r at e g ies util i z ed to the cur r icula. The s e c o nt e nt sh i f ts w ere e x pl i cit i n d e t a il a i m ed a t al i g n m e n t o f cour s e w ork to c o l l e g e e ntr a nce e x pect a tions in te r m s o f st u d e nt ski l ls a n d u n de rstanding o f t h e cont e nt. In

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58 c o m par i so n de t ermi n ed t h a t t h ere is n o e v id e nce t hat C o m m on C ore St a n dards w i l l re m edi a te a nd clo s e t he a c a de m ic ach i e v e m e n t g ap f o r stu d ents ( Z h ao, 20 0 9 ) K 20 C ol l aboration a n d P l a nning I n itially K 12 a n d p ost s eco n dary instit u tions p l an n ed in silo s n e g l e cting to address cr i tical iss u es bet w een t he edu c ati on al di v ide o f b oth s e c t ors ( Ki r st & Usd a n, 20 0 7). Colla b oration a nd p l anning b et w een s t a te e d ucati o nal a ge n c ies w ere n o n e x istent, creat i ng e du c atio n al pol i cies t hat s y st e m atical l y f ai l e d t o c on n ect t o c ol l e g e readin e ss st a ndards ( C onle y 20 0 7). C ol l a bo ration b ar r iers bet w een state e d ucat i on a g encies w ere e x acerbat e d b y t h e a b s en c e o f a l on g itudi n al d a ta s y st em w hich l i nked cr i tical st a te a g ency d a ta s y st em s ( D a t a Q ual i ty Ca m pai g n, 2 0 0 8). S t ate edu c ation a g encies a nd pol i cy m akers h e arke n ed t o n a t io n al g oals t o p r o duce hi g her perce n t a g e s o f c o l l e g e g rad u at e s a nd re a dy w ork f orce by transitio n ing t o a n in teg rat e d s y st e m o f le a rning (AASC U 2 0 1 0). St a te edu c ation a g encies i m pl e m e nt e d p o l i cies ai m ed at r e al i g ning c u r r iculum a n d creating a closer col l aborat i on w ith p o s ts e c on d ary instit u tions o f le a rnin g T he i nt e g rat e d g o v ernance s y st e m al l o w ed for c l oser w ork i ng relatio n ships bet w een e du c atio n al d epar t m e nts, s ect o rs, a nd a g enc i es a t b o t h K 12 a nd hi g her edu c a tion l e v els. Federal L eg i sl a tion Re g ardless o f t he s y s t em each sta t e c h oo s e s, ea c h s y st e m s er v es a c o m m on g oal o f in t e g rating to s y st em s o f l e arning a n d increasing a ccess to p osts e c o ndary edu c ation (E C S, 2 0 0 6). C r itical m e t hods to p r epare s t u d ents f or co l l e g e a re conc e pt u al i z ed t hrou g h t h e i m pleme n t ati o n o f c ol l e g e re a din e ss s t a ndards i n t h e K 1 2 cur r iculu m I m p l e m ent i ng c u r r iculum m ea s ur e s to a l i g n K 1 2 st a n d ards a n d h i g her edu c ation ent r ance e x pect a tions pro v ide st u dents w ith the ne ces s a ry a cade m ic t ools f o r

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59 r ig orous p osts e c on d ary e ducation c u r r icula. Colle g e readin e ss is d e v elo p ed in st u de n ts t h rou g h t he i m pl e m e n t ation o f f o ur r e q ui r ed s ets o f ski l l s inclu d ing c ont e nt k no w le d g e, core a c a d e m ic ski l ls, b eha v ioral ski l ls, a nd co l l e g e k n o w le d g e. T h e c o m p os i te o f t he f o ur sk i l l s b ui l ds s t u de f o un d atio n al, a nal y tic thinkin g re a din g a nd u nders t a n ding o f posts e c on d ary re q ui r e m e n ts re q ui r ed f o r ac a de m ic s uccess. Strat e g ies f o r i m pro v i n g c o l l e g e readin e ss i n hi g h sc h ool s t u d ents i n v o l v e the impl e m e n t ati o n o f six p ol i cies to incl u de ess e ntial st a nda r ds i m pleme n t a tion, c o m m on e x pect a tion s cle a r pe r f o rm a nce s t a n dards, r i g orous h i g h sc h o ol c o urses, e ar l y m oni t or i ng a nd p re v en t io n a nd da t a dr i v en d e cis i on making ( C on g er & Tel l 2 007). The c o m p osite o f t he s e a r e as p ro v id e s st u d e nts w ith f o c used a c a d e m ic s t a n d ards, c ol l e g e le v el course w ork, al i g n ed c u r r icul u m and a s s ess m e nts t hat e x pose areas o f a c ad e m ic d e f ic i encies p r i or to c o l le g e e nrol lm ent. Col l e g e read i ness c onsists o f col l e g e a w arenes s, col l e g e e l i g ibil i t y and c o l l e g e pr e parati o n. T h e t hree ar e as o f c ol l e g e readin e ss a re de v elo p ed o v er t h e c o urse o f t he s t ud e a c ad e m ic e x per i ence be g in n ing in m id d le s c hool and proc e eding t h rou g h the h i g h sc h ool y ears. Com m unic a tion c on c erning c o l l e g e o p port u ni t ies, f in a ncial a i d a nd t h e e ntire f a cet o f col l e g e li f e s h o uld be a rt i culated to pare n ts an d st u de n ts o f col l e g e b ou n d st u de n ts. Impac t of Politics on P 20 Education Marginson (2010) determined that the political sphere of influence on educat ion is largely impacted by national government. In evaluating the United States and the current movement towards deeper educational accountability, consideration must be given to these factors of influence. Further, Marginson (2010) determined this press t owards globalization, which refers to internalization of goods, services, money, people, and ideas has developed an impact creating limits through the politics in education. In

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60 reflecting on issues relative to increasing participation, consideration must be given to issues the invisibly impact the progress of decisions which directly impact the decisions which control levers of influence in terms of college attainment.

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61 C H AP T ER 3 M E T HODO L O GY O v e r v i e w of t h e St u dy T h e p urpose o f t h is s tu dy w as to e v alu a t e le g is l ati v e p ol i cies w hich impa c t e d posts e c on d ary readin e ss a nd part i ci p ation f or stu d ents o f c olor in F l or i d a T h e s t udy e v alu a t e d e d ucati o n p ol i cies pro p osed b y st a te le g is l at o rs to m ake posts e c on d ary edu c ation m o re a c c e s sible a n d a t t a i n able f o r m in o r i ty stu d ent s S pe ci f icall y t h is st u dy e v alu a t e d a n d re p ort e d le g is l ati v e lan g ua g e u til i z ed in e du c ati o n p o l i cy as it relat e d t o col l e g e readi n ess a nd part i cip a ti o n f o r m i n or i ty students. L e g is l at o rs enac t ed edu c ati o n pol i cies t h at incr e ased v ert i cal art i culation b e t w een e du c ation d e par t m e n ts, K 2 0 edu c ation c ur r icula, an d col l a b orati o n b e t w een e d ucati o n s e c t o rs. The res e archer util i z ed this i n f o r m ati o n to d et e r m ine w hat m e asures F l or i da e n act e d to i m pact A f r i can A m er i c a n p osts e c on da ry readin e ss a n d p art i cip a tion o p port u nities in h i g her e d ucati o n. F l or i m easures to create an a r ticulat e d s y st e m o f g o v ernan c e w ere purpo s ed t o cre a te pol i cy l e v ers to r e f o r m st u dent a c a d e m ic p erfor m ance i n K 20 edu c atio n A f r i ca n A m er i ca n st u d e nts u n d er p erform e d in areas o f m at h e m a tics a n d reading in c o m p ar i son to w hite st u de n t s resu l ting in a n aca de m ic a c hie v e m e n t g ap. T h e c o nsiste n t u nder p erform a nce i n a c ad e m i c areas f o r m i nor i ty students po s ed a chal l en g e t o p ol i cy m akers to cr e ate l e g is l ation to a d dress issu e s related to ac a d e m ic success f o r disa d v an tag ed stu d e nt s T his s tu dy a nal yz ed a nd c a t e g or i z ed le g is l ation w hich impact e d m in o r it y e x per i enc e s a nd transiti o ns in t h e K 20 edu c ation pip e l i ne i n Flor i da. Ba s ed o n t he P er m ea bi l ity a nd T r a nspa r ency F ra m e w ork, our s t udy is cent e r e d in r e port i ng Flor i d g is l ati v e efforts to cr e ate po s ts e c o ndary o p p ortunities f o r m i n or i ty stude n ts in the K 20 e d ucati o n p i pel i ne.

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62 In o r d er to f r a m e t he s t u d y t h e researc h er s i t uat e d t he edu c ati on p o l i cies e v alu a t e d i n this s t u dy in t h e Pe r m e a bi l ity a nd T r a nspar e ncy F ra m e w or k T his f r a m e w ork w as s e lect e d a s an e f f e c ti v e m ea s ure to r eport a n d class i f y p ol i cies w hich sha p e m i nor i ty stud e a rning e x per i ences in t h e K 2 0 e ducat i on pip e l i ne i n t h e s t ate o f Flor i da. The r ese a r c h met h od util i z ed for t h is st u dy w as a pol i cy stud y T h e s t udy e v alu a t e d e d ucati o n p ol i cy enact e d dur i ng t h e 13 y ear ti m e p er io d o f 1 9 99 t hrou g h 20 1 2 T h e res e archer cat e g or i z ed le g is l ation bas e d o n a n a n al y sis of t h e le g is l a ti v e la n g ua g e a n d in t ent o f t h e edu c ation p ol i c y S t e p h an & Ros e n b a u m (200 9 ) det e r m in e d t h at t h e c o n s tructs o f t he p osts e c on d ary e d u cation s y st e m c o uld b e c h arac t er i z ed b y how e ducat i onal pol i c i es s h a pe t h e p a t h w a y s o f s t ud e nts i n to and t h rou g h h i g her edu c ation ba s ed on t w o a s p ects, n a m ely p e r m e a bi l ity a nd tr a nspa r enc y ( S y kes, Snid e r, & Pla n k 2 009). T ran s par e ncy a nd P e r m e a bi l ity f r a m e w ork i s d er i v ed f r om t h e sch oo l t o w ork transition i n w hich Ha m i l t o n a n aly z ed the relatio n s hip t h at e x ists b e t w een h i g her edu c ati o n s ect o r a n d t he l a bor m arket. Furt h e r m or e H a m i l t o n c ha r act e r i z es this relationsh i p i d ent i f y ing t w o k e y a reas o f per m eabi l ity a nd t r ans p are n c y Ha m i l t o n d e f i n es tran s par e ncy a s the ea s e o f transiti o n to m o v e b e t w een t h e edu c ation s y st e m and t h e labo r m a r k et. Co n v ersel y permeabi l i ty d escr i bes h ow w ell s t u d e nts c an plot a course f r o m w here t h e y a re to t h eir f u t ure g o als. St e p h an and Ros e nb a um ( 20 0 9) e x t e nded H a m i l t o n m odel by d epicting t h at t his f rame w ork could a l so b e a p pl i ed as it relat e s t o h i g he r e d u c a tion p ol i cies w hich im p act a s t u d decis i o n f or p osts e c o n dary part i cip a ti o n a nd m ak i ng d ecis i ons c oncern i n g the f u t u re aspi r ati o n s

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63 T h e st u dy initiat e d a n o v e r v i e w o f F l or id e constructi o n f r o m t h e pre v io u s separa t ed s truct u re o f K 12 a nd hi g her e d uc a tion s y st e m s to an i n t e g rat e d K 20 edu c ation g o v ernan c e struct u re. F urthe r m ore, the re s earc h er a n al y zed a c ad e m ic pol i cy w hich re f lec t ed Flor i da s e f f orts to cr e ate le g is l ation w hich a i m ed to i ncrease s t u d en t aca d e m ic pe r f o r m an c e The transiti o n f r o m K 12 t o p osts e c on d ary e ducat i on is k n o w n as t h e e duc a tional pi p el i ne a nd is d e f i n ed as a st u de n p ro g ressi o n thr o u g h g rade le v els into p ost s ec o n d ary e ducati o n. U l ti m at e l y t h e g oal o f t h e tran s ition is st u de n t attai n m e nt o f a po s ts e con d ary d e g ree. The research f o cu s ed on sp eci f ic pol i cies w hich sha p e t h e s t ud e nt s a nsition f r o m hi g h sc h o ol to c ol l e g e. Re s ea r ch Qu e stions T his s t udy w as d esi g ned t o a nal yz e the f ol l o w i n g q ues t io n s: 1. W ha t st a te le g is l ation and i nitiati v es d id F l or i da e nact to i ncrease p osts e c o ndary part i cip a ti o n a nd r e ad i ness f o r stu d ents o f co lor? 2. W ha t e x t e nt w as Flor i d ucati o n p ol i cies T ran s par e nt a nd Per m eable in te r m s o f col l e g e readi n ess a nd part i cip a t i o n f o r m i n or i ty student s ? 3. W ha t tre n ds in c ol l e g e part i cip a ti o n a nd r e ad i nes s w ere e x istent f o r stud e nts o f c o l or in F l or i da? M et h odolo g y Glesne ( 2 0 0 6) de t erm i ned t h a t q ual i t a ti v e re s earch m e t hods a re de s i g ned to un d ersta n d a s ocial p h en o m e no n Bl o o m berg (200 8 ) de t ermi n ed t h a t t h e m et h odo l o g y ref e rs to an a p proach t o lo g istical, r elatio n al, et h ical, and credibil i ty issues. S pec i f icall y t h e m e t h o ds r e f e r to a spec i f ic set o f t e c h ni q ues, pro c edure s or t oo l s u sed b y r esearchers t o p r e pare a nd a n aly z e d at a T h e study c o nsis t ed o f a p ol i cy a nal y sis of edu c ation pol i cy relat e d to c ol l e g e re a din e ss and part i cip a tion f o r s t ud e nts o f color in F l or i da. T he resear c h e r retrie v ed rele v ant le g is l ation f r o m 19 9 9 2 0 1 2 f r om t h e Fl o r i da

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64 De p ar t m ent o f E d ucat i on d epa r t m e nt o f g o v ern m e nt a l rel a tions onl i ne le g is l ation w ebsite and t h e E d uc a tion C o m m iss i on o f t h e St a t E d ucat i on P ol i cy d at a ba s e. I n additi o n, t he re s earc h e r util i z ed int e rnet s ear c hes t o retr i e v e o r ig in a l le g is l at i v e b i l ls to re v i e w le g i s lati v e langua g e in t he re s pecti v e bi l l propo s ed and / or en act e d f or l e g is l ation included in t his do c u m ent. The re s earc h er s e lected re s earch r elat e d to a ll aspe c ts o f K 20 e duc a tion l e g is l ation a i m ed at incr e asing pe r f or m an c e, re a d i ne s s, a n d p art i cip a ti o n f o r m i n or i ty stude n t s Rele v ant le g is l ation w as cat e g or i z ed into t w o c a t e g or i es b ased o n t h e P er m eabi l ity a nd Tra n spar e ncy F ra m e w ork. Le g is l ation w hich s ou g ht t o crea t e a cle a r pa t h t o w ards po s ts e co n dary a ttai n m e nt w ere classi f ied as tr a n sparent le g is l ation. Alternati v el y le g is l ation w hich co m m u nicat e d a cle a r pa t h to w ards p osts e c o ndary edu c ation at t ai n m e n t w ere classi f ied as p erme a ble le g is l atio n In a nal yz i n g the sc o p e and t h e g uiding q uestions l e ading t h e res e arch st u d y it w as d et e rmi n ed t hat a m ult i tiered resear c h t h eoretical appr o ach w o uld b est f r a m e the research s t ud y For t h e b asis o f t his st u d y we v iew p ol i cies in t e r m s o f t hree pre v ai l ing id e as o f p erm e abi l it y transpar e nc y and s oc i al capi t al. W e u til i z e the pe r m e abi l ity and transpa r ency f r a m e w ork to sit u ate p ol i cies al o ng these d i m ensi o ns. Ha d d a d ( 1 9 95) d e f i n ed a pol i cy a s a n e x pl i cit o r i m pl i cit sin g le decis i o n o r a g roup o f decis i o ns w hich m ay s e t o ur di r ecti v es f o r g uiding fut u re d eci s io n s. For t he pur p ose o f this s t u d y t h e e v alu a tion c onsist e d o f a ser i es o f p ol i cies de si g ned in Flor i da to i m pro v e the posts e c on d ary readin e ss o f s t ud e nts. T he s tu dy f o c uses on t he i m p act o f t h e p ol i cies on m in o r i ty stud e nts a nd s t ud e nts o f c o lor i n t h eir transiti o n f r o m hi g h sc h o ol to col l e g e. T h e st u dy w as sit u at e d w ithin t h e P erm e abi l i t y a nd T r ans p arency F ra m e w ork, w hich pro v id e d a n o v er v i e w o f c u r r e n t le g i s l ati v e man d at e s and initiati v es w hich dictat e d t h e

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65 ease o f tr a nsition b e tween edu c ati o n s e c t ors f o r stu d ents o f c olor an d u n der r epre s en t ed st u d e nts. F l or id a e nac t ed v ar i ous le g is l ation d esi g ned to f o r m a co m preh e nsi v e K 20 edu c ation s y st e m w hich ai m ed to bet t er pr e p are st u de n ts f or post se con d ary e ducati o n t h rou g h c u r r icul u m a l i g n m e nt, pla n nin g a nd c ol l aborat i on bet w een e ducat i on s e c t o rs, a g encies, a nd d e par t m en t s. The m e asure to c reate t his al i g n m ent w as i m p l e m en t ed t h rou g h v ar i ous le g is l ation a nd pre p ar i ng initiati v es a im e d a t p ro v iding a d e eper col l ab o rat i on bet w een edu c ation s ect o rs. A dd itio n al l y t h is w ork is a p ol i cy study w hich e x a m in e s m e asures d esi g ned to a d dress p o sts e co n dary readin e s s access, a n d st u d e nt s uccess o f s tu dents in Flor i da. O v e r v i e w of t h e M et h od T h e m e t ho d olo g y u til i zed t o c o ndu c t t h is s t u d y is a p ol i cy a nal y sis of pert i n e nt doc u m e nts, legislation and c o r r esp o n d ence re v i e w o f re l e v ant le g is l ation o f m in o r i ty access a nd part i cip a ti o n in p osts e c on d ary e d ucati o n. P at t on ( 1 993) d e t ermi n ed t hat a pol i cy study is a ttain e d throu g h a si x st e p p r o cess to i nclu d e : Pr o bl e m I dent i f i c atio n Est a bl i s h m e nt o f E v al u ation Cr i t e r i a, I d e nt i f ic a tion a nd E v alu a tion o f alternati v e p ol i cies, D ispla y ing alternati v e p ol i cies a n d S elec t ing t he p r e f e r r ed pol i cy a nd i m pl e m e nt t he pr e f er r ed pol i c y Pat to n d e t e rm i ned t h a t t h is process w as a w ay to p e r f orm a basic a nd practical a nal y sis of a g i v en p ol i cy issue. T h e d ata utili z ed in this study c o nsisted o f a rele v ant re v iew o f p ol i cies w hich attr i bu t e d i r ectly a nd i n di r ectly to the part i cip a tion a nd r e adi n ess o f m in o r i ty stud e nts. T h e res e archer se l ect e d p ol i cies f o r this re s e a rch f rom 13 y ears o f l eg is l ation used a m e t hod to a d dress st u dent a c a d e m ic p erfor m ance i n p r e parati o n f o r col l e g e a d m iss i on and access to pos ts e c on d ary instit u tions. This co m pi l ation o f do c u m ent s l e g is l ation, m e m or a nd u m s, a n d s i m i l ar i n f o r m ati o n p erta i ning m e asures ena c t e d b y the s t a t e o f

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66 F l or i da to i m p act s t ud e nts o f color w ere u s e d to a nal yz e trends o f a co m p r eh e nsi v e edu c ation s y st e m f o r t h e p urpo s e o f increas i ng c o l l e g e readi n ess, access, and st u dent success a m o ng st u d e n ts in F l or i da. Pro g ression is d et e r m in e d by l eg is l at i v e initiati v es and t h e la n g ua g e o f e x isting p ol i cies inc o rpo r ating g rade le v els o f e ducat i onal attai n m e nt o f a ll le v els o f learn i n g to inc l ude ear l y learning (pr e kin d er g arten), eleme n t ary sc h ool, m id d le s c hool, hi g h sc h o ol, a n d p osts e c on d ary edu c ation. T he g uid e l i nes o f t h is s t udy a re b ased o n Majchr z ak g uid e l i nes f o r p ol i cy research ( M ajchrak, 1 9 84). Maj c hr z ak d e f in e s a f o cus e d s y nt h esis as a p ol i cy research m e t h o d in v o l v ing the s e lecti v e re v i e w a nd int e g rati o n o f i n f o rm a tion re l e v ant to p a r ticular research q uest i ons. T h e f o c used s y nt h esis is a selecti v e re v iew o f a v ar i e t y o f w r i tten m a t er i als w hich pertain to a n e s s ent i al resea r ch q uestio n T h e res ea rch q uestion g ui d es t h e s t ud y ; in p art i cular, t h e re s earch q uestion o f this s t u dy d e t e rmi ne s t h e m o v e m e n t o f F l or i o n o f a K 20 g o v ernance stru c t u re. C o ncep t ual Fra m e w o rk of t h e St u d y Ha m i l t o n (19 9 4) discu s sed t he r el a tion s hip be t w een the e d ucati o n s y st e m a n d t h e w orkforce b ased o n t w o k e y a reas o f pe r m e a bi l ity a nd tr a nspa r enc y T h e b a s is o f Ha m i l t o s earch s t e m m e d f r o m h is pr i or w ork i n a naly z ing the labor m arket in G e rm a n y T h e f r a m e w ork f ocu s es o n t w o e l e m e n ts o f pe r m e abi l ity a nd trans p arency o f t h e w orkforce a nd hi g her edu c ati o n s y st e m f o r stud e nts tr a nsitio n ing f r om hi g h sc h o ol into e m p l o y m ent or po sts e co n dary e du c atio n Ba c kgrou n d of t he S t u d y T h e le g is l ati v e initiatives f or t he i m pl e m e nt a tion o f cros s sec t o r e du cation pla n ning b e g an in 1 99 9 a n d s y st e m atical l y c o nti n ued until t he f u ll i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f t he K 20 struc t ure. R est r u ct u re o f st a t e a ge ncies o f a ll edu c atio n al sec t ors i nclu d e d

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67 eleme n t ar y m id d le s c hool, hi g h sc h o ol, a nd posts e c on d ary instit u t i ons. F l or i pro g ression to w ards o ne s y st e m atic e duc a ti o n g o v ernance stru c t u re re a f f i r m ed t he r ole o f t h e 2 8 c om m unity c ol l e g e s w ith h i g h sc h o ols by recon n ecting t h e c o m m unity cur r iculum in t o s e c on d ary study b e g in n ing with t h e 1 1 th g rade sc h o ol y ear. St u d ents w ho e x press t h e in t ent to p ursue post s ec o n d ary e ducati o n a re pro v id e d r e m ediati o n dur i ng the 12 th g rade s chool y ear. T h e es s en t ial g uiding f o c us o f t h is study is t h e anal y sis o f t h e f o rmat i on o f a K 20 m o del o f edu c ation f o r t he i n t e n t o f pr o ducing m ore co l l e g e prepared st u d e nts. T h e cros s sec t or p la n ning a n d c o l l a borat i on a ppr o ach t o st u d e nt l e arning h el pe d to i m pro v e s t ud e n t a cad e m ic a c hie v e m e nt. M ultiple a p proa c hes ha v e b e e n cr e at e d f or st a t e s to de v elop initi at i v es f or c r e a ting c o l l a b oration bet w een K 12 a nd post s eco n dary edu c ation; ho w e v er, a f u l l y int e g rat e d e duc a tional s y st e m cont a i ns t h e b est o pti o ns f or s t ud e nts t o r e c ei v e c o l l aborati v e e du c a t io n al ser v ices f rom ear l y learning to g rad u ate s t ud y This m o d el includes a s e a m less r e port i ng s y st e m f o r s t u d e nts w hich al l o w s bet t er tracking o f s t u de nt pro g ress o v er ti m e ultima t ely creating easy a ccess f o r i n f o r m ation c once r n ing stu de n t a d e m ic g ro w th a nd p e r f or m an c e. F l or i da has pro g ressed throu g h t h e s e p hases as i t c o m pl e t e d le g is l ati v e initiati v es t a r g et e d t o t he re s truc t ur i ng o f cur r ent e d ucat i on s e c t o rs, in c orporat i ng sc h ool c o de m od i f i c atio n a nd str e a m l i ned d a ta s y s t e m s i n t e g rat e d w ith a ll e duc a tion s e c t o rs. T h e a f or e m e ntio n ed le g is l a ti v e initiati v es a ssisted F l or i da w ith e st a bl i shi n g a ful l y int e g rat e d K 20 e duc a tion s y st em Theor e tical Fr a m e w o rk of t h e St u d y Se v eral res e arch m e t h ods w ere a n aly z ed to det e r m ine the a p propr i ate f r a m e w ork f or t he s t u d y T he m o s t a pprop r ia t e met h od f o r t h e s t udy w as b ased o n a m ulti tiered f r a m e w ork as an a p proa c h to e x plor i ng h ow K 20 e d ucat i on p ol i cy s h ap e s

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68 m in o r i ty stud e nt s p at h w a y s throu g h p ost s ec o ndary e du c atio n T he g oal o f t h e s t u dy is to u nders t and h ow K 2 0 p ol i cy i m pa c ts m i nor i ty st u dent s post s eco n dary e x per i ences. T h e f r a m e w ork o f t he s t u dy fol l o w s t h e t w o d i m ens i ons o f p er m eabi l ity a nd transpa r enc y The el e m e n t o f pe r m e abi l ity ref e rs to t h e ea s e o f m o v e m e nt f r om o n e point to t he ne x t in t he K 20 c o ntin uu m (St e p h an & R ose n b a u m 2 00 9). In c o m par i so n transpa r ency is the e x t e nt t o w hich st u dents c an s e e a n a tt ai n able g oal t h r o u g h t h e edu c atio n al s y st e m a n d p l a n a pa t h to t h eir f u t u re g oals a nd aspi r at i ons. T h e f r a m e w as util i z ed to d e t e rm i ne th e i m p act o f K 2 0 p ol i cy o n m in o r i ty st u d ent s edu c atio n al e x per i ences in t h e sta t e o f Flor id a. T h e f r a m e w ork w as u sed t o c o nsid e r t hree areas o f K 2 0 e ducat i on pol i cy: col l e g e readi n ess, col l e g e a ccess, a n d p ost s eco n dary s u ccess. Po sts e co n d a ry s u ccess is det e r m in e d b y a s tu dent a t t aining t h e p os t seco n dary d e g ree o f st ud y T h e s t udy is a co m b i nati o n o f a l e g is l ati v e p ol i cy study a nd case s t udy for t h e st at e o f Flor id a. Re v is i ti n g the p urpose and s c ope o f t h e res ea rch, the g oal o f t h e st u dy w as to a nal yz e publ i c p ol i cy a s it rela t ed t o p osts e c on d ary readin e s s acces s a nd s uccess f o r m i n or i ty st u d e nts in t h e st a te o f F l or i da. T h e p urpose o f t h e s t udy w as to e v alu a te l e g is l ation enac t ed to incr e ase st ud e n t s ts e c o n d ary de g ree c o m p l etio n St o k e y a n d Ze c hau s er (1978) de t ermi n ed t h a t t h e initial s t ep in poli c y a nal y sis is to det e r m ine a p l a n of attack or a f r ame w ork for policy a nal y sis. T h e plan o f attack m u s t articulate t h e c o n t e st o f t h e p rob l em of t h e st u d y Spec i f icall y t h e f r a m e w ork m ust struct u re t he s t u dy to e st a blish t he c on t e x t o f t he under l y ing issues of t h e re s earch t o pic.

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69 T h e st u dy is a p ol i cy study situat e d w ithin t h e Perm e abi l ity and T r a n sparency F r a m e w ork. The k ey c om p o n ents o f t he f r a m e w ork e v o l v ed f r o m th e w ork of St e p h en Ha m i l t o n a nal yz i n g the e x per i ences o f s t u de nts transit i oning f r o m h i g h school to t h e w ork f orce. A dditi o nal l y, t h e f r a m e w ork d e f i ne d t w o e leme n t s o ne o f w hich is per m eabi l it y w hich expos e d b loc k a g es o f t h e p a t h w ay t o w ard attaining g ainful e m p l o y m ent. S p ec i f ic a l l y t h e study a i m ed t o d e f i n e t h e p at h w ay o f st u d e nts f r o m co m p l eting h i g h sc h o ol a nd t h e c h al l en g es s t ud e nts f a ced in a t t a in i ng em p l o y m ent a f t er co m p l eting p o s ts e c o n d ary e ducati o n T his s c hool t o w ork f r a m e w ork anal yz ed the f e asibil i ty of t h e st u d en ts i n b oth c o m pleting s eco n dary e duc a tion a n d at t aining g ai n f ul e m p l o y m ent a f t er hi g h school c o m plet i o n St e p hen a n d Ro s en ba um ( 2 0 0 9) f urt h er ed t h e f r a m e w ork to c o nce p t u al i z e a m ore g e neral i z ed a p proach to re s earching t h e e x per i ences o f s t u de nts as t h ey transition bet w een e du cation s ect o rs t o p ost s eco n dary e duc a tion. In a ddit i on, t h ey conclu d ed t hat t h e f r a m e w ork could be util i zed in f l e x ible t erms to m ea s ure t he edu c atio n al transiti o n o f st u d e nts t o p osts e c on d ary e ducati o n. T h e st u dy c h arac t er i z ed t h e rel a tion s hip o f hi gh er edu c ati o n in t he U nited S t a t es a s a c om preh e nsi v e u nit as op p osed to v ie w ing e du c ati o n in s e par a te se ct o rs. A c o m pre h ensi v e v iew o f e d ucati o n w as the b asis o f t he a p proach to t he s t u dy, t h us al l o w ing the resear c her to f r a m e t he conc e pt u al f r a m e w ork un d er the v iew o f e d u c ation as a h ol i stic u nit. T h e p re v ai l ing conc e pt t hrou g h o ut t he s t udy w as d er i v ed f r o m H a m i l t o s earch o f p at h w a y s that st u d e nts m i g rate th r o ug h d ur i ng a st u d e a cad e m ic e x per i en c es. Per m eabi l ity is d e f i ne d as t he ea s e o f m o v e m e n t f r o m o ne poi n t in edu c ation to ano t her ( S t ep h en & R o sen b a u m 2 0 0 9 ) T ra n sparency is d e f i ned a s t h e f e asibil i ty for

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70 st u d e nts t o p ro g ress th rou g h the e d ucat i on s y st e m a n d t h e a ttai n m e nt o f t h e st u d e nt s aspi r ations o r g oals. I n this st u d y per m eabi l i t y is the e a s e o f transit i on o f m i nor i ty st u d e nts f r o m hi g h sc h ool to c o l l e g e. T h e s tu dy a n al yz es e nact e d c ol l e g e readi n ess, access, and s u ccess l e g is l ation a n d t he le g i s lati v e i m pact on m i n or i ty students e m b ark i ng o n post s e c on d ary e ducati o n. T r a nspar e ncy is d et e r m i n ed t o b e t h e co m m u nication o f t h e a v ai l abi l ity o f p o s ts e c o n d ary o p p ortunitie s M ultiple t h eoretical a p proac h es w ere anal y z ed t o d et e r m ine t h e m ost a ppropr i a t e f r a m e w ork f or t he K 2 0 e du c ation p ol i cy stud y T he s t u dy c o m bin e s port i ons o f t w o m ajor f r a m e w orks to f o rm a c o m preh e nsi v e a pproa c h to e v alu a ting edu c ation pol i cy w hich f o r m s a s t u d ent s e x per i ence in t h e K 2 0 e d ucati o n p i pel i n e The c o nce p t u al f r a m e w ork f or t his res e arch in K 2 0 e du c ation c o m bin e s bo t h t he pe r m e a bi l ity and transpa r ency f r a m e w ork and t h e st u de n t suc c ess f r a m e w ork. The c o m bi n ation o f t h e t w o m odels pro v id e s a co m p r eh e nsi v e a ppr o a ch to e v alu a ting K 20 e duc at i on p ol i c y T h e st u dy e x a m in e s th e p a t h w ay to c o l l e g e w hich includes t w o key e leme n t s : posts e c on d ary readin e ss and a ccess f or s t u d ents o f c o l o r T his s t u d y p rovi d es a f r a m e w ork th a t f o c us e s o n a c o m pr e hensi v e appr o ach t o e du c ation. Spec i f icall y t h e cor nerst o ne o f t he m o del is b ased on t h e p r e m ise t hat a s t ud e a cad e m ic e x per i en c e is co m p r eh e nsi v e a nd i s a c o ntin u um o f e x per i ences t hat lead to c ol l e g e d e g ree at t ai n m e nt. F e d eral a n d sta t e p o l icy i m pacts and f o rms t h e e x per i e n ces o f s t u d ents w ithin t h e e d ucat i on s y st e m pip e l i n e ; t hus t h e study is b a s ed on t he f o l l o w ing c o ncept s : Pol i cies w hich sha p ed st u d e nt s x per i en c es i n t h e e duc a tional pip e l i ne in F l or i da. St a te a n d f e deral pol i c i es w hich sha p e t h e e x per i ences o f m i n or i ty stud e nts in F l or i da.

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71 Data S ourc e s For the pur p ose o f t his st u d y t h e res e archer util i z ed the E du c ation Com m iss i on o f t h e S t a t e s Pol i cy Dat a ba s e w hich pro v id e d i n f or m ation c o n c erni n g s p eci f ic pol i cy m ea s ures f o r all 5 0 o f st a t e s i n t h e Unit e d St at e s. The re s earc h er u til i z ed the p ol i cy dat a base to research p ol i cy m easures f o r v ar i ous t opics o f K 20 e du cation pol i c y Additi o nal l y t h e re s ea r cher c r os s r e f er e nced i n f or m ati o n w ith the Fl o r i da Depar t m e nt o f Educ a tion g o v ernme n t relatio n s pol i cy resources. T h e p ol i cy d ocu m ent a tion w as g at h ered f o r l e g is l ati v e y ears spann i ng 19 9 9 t hrou g h 2 0 1 2 A d ditio n al l y t h e researc h er access e d d i g ital cop i e s o f p r o po s ed and e na ct e d le g is l ation w ithin t h e c o nt e x t o f part i cip a ti o n a nd r e ad i ness f o r stu d ents o f co lor. Procedur e s T h e p ro c edu r es u s ed t o c o n d uct this re s ear c h a re der i v ed f rom M a j chr z ak (1984) as t h ey relate to this s t udy spec i f ic p ol i cies re l at e d to part i cip a tion a n d p o s ts e c o ndary readin e ss in F l or i d a This research i nclu d es a p ol i cy study w hich analy z ed Flor i le g is l ation w hich pro p o sed a n e x t e nsi v e e d u c ation r e f o r m Colle g e r eadi n ess w as w ere d e f i n ed b y t h e m ini m u m scores o n t h e A C T a nd S AT col l e g e e ntra n ce e x a m s. T r e nds o f S A T a n d A C T s c ores o f F l or i u de n ts w ere a nal yz ed u til i z ing u s ing the Col l e g e and AC T c ol l e g e p re p ared n ess e q u iv ale n cy sc o res. F l or i e f f orts f o r un i f icati o n a re a n aly z ed thr o u g h o f f ic i al pla n n ing a nd o r g ani z ing d o c u m e nts, F l or i da Sen a te Bi l ls, Florida S chool C o des, a n d le g is l ati v e initiati v es s e t f or t h to cr e ate a un i f i e d K 20 g o v ernance stru c t u re. The o r y a nd Rationale M ajchr z ak (1984) d e t e rmin e d t h at t he essent i al g uiding focus o f a p ol i cy study is to d et e r m ine t h e k e y p ol i cy issues o f t h e st ud y a nd to trace t he pro g ress o f c h an g e

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72 e f f orts o f t he s t u d y U n i f i e d e ducat i on has e v ol v ed f r o m a v ar i ety o f d i sp o sitio n s w hich in so m e c a s es i n cl u d e s e ar l y learning w ith K 12 e duc a tion to in c or p orating c o mm unity col l e g e w hich m arks t h e b e g in n ing o f c o nsid e rations f o r i ncor p orati n g d oct o ral s t udy in P 20 l e arning f or m at. There a r e six p re v ai l ing m o d els o f un i f i ed edu c ation, w hich re f le c ts t h e in c orporat i on o f s o m e e d ucati o n a l le v els of l e arning o r i n clusion o f all le v els f o r a c om pletely int e g rat e d learning m o d el. C o ncep t ualizations T h e b asis o f t h is s t udy is e st a bl i s h ed up o n t he v i e w of edu c ation a s a co m p r eh e nsi v e struct u re. W i t h i n t h e c o n f i n es o f t h e struc t ure, hi g her edu c ation pol i cy e f f orts i m p act s t ud e nt achie v e m e nt. The s t u d y is d esi g ned to e x plore h ow h i g her edu c ation pol i cies assist m i n or i ty stude n ts a n d u n derser v ed p opu l at i pro g ress t h rou g h t he edu c ati on pip e l i ne a n d m atr i cula t e into p o s ts e c o ndary e ducat i on. M ore impor t antl y t h e ideo l o gy is b ased on a c o m p rehensi v e model o f c ol l e g e readi n ess, access, and s u ccess o f t h e Pe r m e a bi l ity a nd T ran s par e ncy Fra m e w or k V e ne z ia (20 0 5) det e r m in e d t h at t h e g r eat e s t e m p hasis is in c or r ectly i m posed o n p o sts e co n dary ad m iss i o n, ne g lecting t o a d dress iss u es o f r e adin e ss a n d p osts e c o n dary s u ccess. T h e p urpose o f co n ne c ting e duc a tio n al dis j u n ct u re is to p ro v ide st ud ents w ith a n en h anc e d m e a nin g f u l l earning e x per i enc e w hic h al l o w s for ea c h o r g ani z ational part to recei v e c o m m uni c ation c o ncern i ng learning e x pect a tions f o r st u d e n t s. F l or i creat i on o f t h e K 2 0 s y st e m o f l earning p ro g ressed f r o m r e or g ani z ation o f e ducat i on de p art m ents and creat i on o f a plan f or al i g n m ent o f t he est a bl i shed K 12 a nd hi g her edu c ation c ur r iculu m T h e o nset o f t his initiat iv e b e g an w ith t h e d e f i nition o f t he str a t e g ic initiati v es s e t f or t h b y Flor i g ic pl a ns to crea t e a s e a m less K 20 learning s y st em T he p l a n e v o lved in t o a c tion t h rou g h t he cre a tion o f Se n ate Bi l l 1908 to

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73 det e r m ine Flor i e f f ecti v eness in g rad u ati n g col l e g e ready stude n ts a n d meet i ng posts e c on d ary e ntran c e e x pect a tions. St u d ent ac a d e m ic pr e parati o n f or pos t se c o n dary e ducat i on m a nd at es f or st u d e nts t o c o m p l ete h i g h s c h ool w ith t h e ski l l s n eces s ary f or t he a c ad e m ic r ig or re q ui r ed f or hi g her e d u cation. Mo v e m e n t t o w ards inte g rating e duc at io n al a g enc i es in v o l v ed d e v elo p ing c o l l aborati v e p la n ning a n d sta t e le g is l ation to co nnect e d ucati o nal a g encies in t erms o f c ur r i culu m pla n nin g a n d c o m m unicat i on w hich g o v erns edu c atio n al a g encie s F l or i da b e g an to pro g ress t o w ards a un i f i e d e ducat i on m o del t h rou g h d e v elo p ing le g is l ation t o inclu d e p r e s chool, el e m e n t a r y m i d dle, h i g h, and posts e c on d ary sc h ools into c entral i z ed p l a nn i ng a nd c ol l abor a tion. C r itical m easu r es w ere p lac e d in t o a c tion to b r i ng a ll o f t h e e du c atio n al d e par t m e n ts an d a g encies t o g et h er t o c o l l a bora t e and de v elop edu c ati on al pol i cies t hat c oinci d e b e t w een a g encies. T o a ch i e v e u n i f icati o n, le g is l ati v e initi a ti v es m ust g uide th e p rocess o f tran s f o r m ing the p re v io u s d is j oin t ed s y st e m i n to a new u n i f ied K 20 s y st e m o f l e arnin g F l or i da made p ro g ress t o w ards un i f icat i on t hrou g h e n acting la w s a n d initiati v es, w hich address areas o f aca d e m ic p r epar a tion, c o u r se cr e dit al i g n m e n t, a n d inclusion o f p r e school pro g ra m s in ea r ly p reparation. Operationa l iz a tion T h e m ea s urem e nt o f c onc e pts f o r this s t udy w as der i v ed f r o m b oth t h e liter a t u re re v i e w a nd st a t e d ata sets o f st u de n t p erfor m ance on c ol l e g e e n tra n ce e x a m i n ations as ou tlin e d in Flor id a S t a t e St a t u e T h e e l e m e n t s o f t he s t udy o utli n ed st a te l e g is l ati v e e f f orts to restru c t u re e ducat i on g o v ernanc e i ncrease or g ani z ational c o l l abor a tion, a n d al i g n K 20 c u r r icul u m f o r opt i m u m s t ud e nt l ea rnin g T h e K 2 0 g o v ernance s truc t ure w as

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74 select e d b y Flor i da a s a mech a nism to inc r e a se t h e n u m ber o f st u d e nts w ho c o m ple t e hi g h sc h ool and g rad u ate prepar e d f o r po s t s eco n dary e duc a tion or t h e w orkforce. The C o llege R eadin e ss Re v olution ACT de t ermin e d t hat o v er 70 p erce n t o f hi g h school g rad u a t e s tes te d in 2 010 w ere u nderpr e pared f o r posts e c on d ary e duc a tion m ea s ured by c o l l e g e readin e ss ben c h m arks ( AC T 2 0 10). Al t hou g h t h e per c ent o f s t ud e nts m e eti n g a ll f o ur b e nc h m arks impro v ed by 1 p erce nt a g e p oint in 2 0 0 9, t he r e w as a c o nsi d erable p erc e nt a g e o f st u d e nts g rad u ating w i t h o u t t h e ski l ls ne c es s ary to s u cce e d in post s eco n dary edu c ation. Fe d eral le g is l at o rs e n act e d m a n d a t e s w hich re q ui r ed sta t e a cc o un t abi l ity f or edu c ation s t a n dards in the K 12 s y st e m T his m o v e m ent t o w ards st a ndards b ased edu c atio n s er v ed a s a precursor f or edu c ati o n o v erhaul init i ati v es. The recur r ing ph e n o m e n on o f s t ud en ts g raduating f r o m s e c on d ary instit u tions un d erpre p ar e d f o r r ig orous p osts e c on d ary study resulted in an e x pansion o f initial s t a ndards b ased edu c ation. S t ate l e g i s l at o rs b e g an t o e v alu a t e v ar i ous m e t h o ds o f c on n ecting e d ucati o n sect o rs. L e g is l at o rs p r opo s ed initi a ti v es that i ncrease c o h erency b e t w een g rad e le v el transitio n s f o r se c on da ry a nd p ost s eco n dary stud e nts ( S pen c e, 2 0 0 9). As a result, s t a t e edu c ation agenci es b eg an to r e e v alu a t e a nd m o d i f y K 12 c u r r icul u m t o make transitio n s t o w ard a l i g ning instructional s t a n d a rds w ith p os t seco n da r y e ntrance re q ui r e m ent s Profile of Data Sour c es T h e d ata f o r t his st u dy w as p ro v id e d b y the Flor i da De p art m ent o f E ducat i on an d the Education Commission of the States database. The research was retrieved from the and participation of students of color. F l or i da w as s e lec t ed for this s t u dy f or i ts not o r i ety

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75 f or i ts K 12 a nd h i g her edu c ation s r e f orm e fforts a nd its s t ance as a n a tional m o d el f or c ol l e g e read i ness. T h e i n f o r m ation w as g at h ered by util i z i ng the Flor i da De p ar t m ent o f E d ucat i analysis of state policy f or t he 1999 t h rou g h 20 12 sc hool y ears. T h e i n f o rmati o n re g arding sc h o ol distr i ct st u de n t re a din e ss is a v ai l able through access of their online resources on t he d e par t m website M et h od of Data Retrie v al T h e p r i m ary s o urces o f i n f or m ation f or t his st u d y w ere d er i v ed f r om t he Flor i da De p ar t m ent o f E d ucat i on G o v ern m e n t Relat i ons a nd t h e E d ucati o n Com m iss i on o f t h e St a t e s d a t a b ase. T he dat a base stores le g is l ati v e d ocu m en t ati o n f or all 5 0 s t at e s re g arding le g is l ation, rules/re g ulati o n, a nd e x ecuti v e o rders f o r ea c h respecti v e sta t e in t h e Uni t ed St a t es. The researcher util i z ed the dat a base to retr i e v e i n f o rmat i on rel a t e d to enac t ed le g is l ati o n b y d at e st a t e, a n d t o pic, searching f r o m 1 999 to 2 0 1 2 I n a dditi o n to util i z i n g the d at a bas e t he res e archer retrie v e d t h e res p ecti v e le g is l ati v e la w s, orders, and rul i n g s f r o m t he F l or i da Hou s e o f Re p re s ent a ti v es le g is l at u re a n d T he F l or i da S t a te Sen a te da t aba s e. F i rs t it w as v ital to e nsure t hat t he i n f o r m ati o n f r o m t he n ati o nal dat a base re p ort i ng f r o m E duc a tion C o mm iss i on o f t h e s t at e s i nclu d ed t he c ur r ent le g is l ation f or t he s t ate o f Flor i d a T he resea r cher v er i f ied t h a t t h e l eg is l ation w as cor r ect t h r o u g h d a ta r e tr i e v al of t he bo t h t he Sen a te and Ho u s e o f Re p rese n t a ti v es report i ng da t a b ases. This i n f o r m ati o n f r o m th e n a tional da t a b ase f r o m t he E du c ation Com m iss i on o f t h e S t a t e s w as al l inclusi v e f o r the 1 9 9 9 th r ou g h 2 0 1 2 sch o ol y ears, pro v iding s p eci f ic p ol i cy in f or m ation c o n c ern i ng e ach s t a t e b y y ear, t o pic, and sta t e.

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76 C H AP T ER 4 RESULTS T h e f i n din g s o f t his c h apt e r r e port e d a h isto r y o f le g is l ation pro p os e d in F l or i da to increase t he post s ec o ndary p art i cip a ti o n a nd readi n ess o f st u de n ts o f c o lor. F l or i da le g is l at o rs addres s ed i ssues o f col l e g e a c c e s s a nd p re p are d ness th rou g h t h e impl e m e n t a ti o n o f legis l ation w hich recon s tru c t e d all e du c at i o n s e c to rs into a K 20 g o v ernance structu r e. T h e in t enti o n o f t h e le g is l ation w as to incr e a s e t h e q ual i ty o f instruction a n d c o nsol i date F l or i e duc a ti o n d e par t m e n ts in t o a s t rea m l i n e d edu c ation g o v ernan c e struct u re. F l or id o pos e d c e n tral i z ed g ove rnan c e struc t ure aim e d a t c o n s ol i dating resources, pla n nin g a nd p urpo s es to e l i m i na te un d erpe r f o r m an c e o f s t u d e nt l e arnin g F l or i d a u d e nts w ere u n de r prepar e d f or t h e r ig ors of p osts e c on d a r y st u d y and t here w as a n aca d e m ic achie ve m e n t g ap bet w een A f r i can A m er i c a n st ud ents and W h i te s t ud e n t s. T he p ur p ose o f t he new educat i on s y st e m w as to a d dress b o t h u nder p e r f or m an c e in a ll ra c es o f st u de n ts in F l or i da and address u n derpe r f o r m ance f o r st u d e nts o f c o lor. T h e new s y st e m p roclaim e d t o pro v ide a c o h erent learning e x per i ence f or s t ud e nts i n Flor i da, part i cular l y m in o r i ty stud e nts. T h us, t he le g is l ati o n w as imp l e m en t e d t o se r v e a s a n altern a ti v e to F l or i i or q u o ta bas e d p o s ts e c o n d ary a d m iss i o n p ra c tice, a n d rat h er ser v e a s c a t a ly st to inc o rpor a te a hi g h stan d ard o f l e arning a v ai l able to all stu d ents re g ardless o f ra c e T h e f o c us o f t h e re s e a rch w as to e v alu a te F l or i d ucat i on p ol i cies al o ng t w o dim e nsio n s o f t he Pe r m e a bi l ity a nd T ran s pa r ency Fra m e w ork. Pe r m e a bil i ty re f ers t o a st u d e e ase o f p r o g res s ion t hrou g h t he K 1 2 s y st e m i n t o p osts e c o ndary e du c atio n T ran s par e ncy re f ers to h ow clear l y students c an s e e t he i m pl i cati o ns o f t heir e ar l y edu c ation c hoices o n f u t u re post s eco n dary c h oices. Addit i onal l y trans p arency ref e rs to

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77 pol i cy m easures d esi g ned to incr e ase c o mm unicati o n to sta k eho l d e rs concerning t h e ski l ls necessar y op p ortunities, a n d res o urces a v ai l able f or s t u d ents to m atr i cula t e in t o posts e c on d ary e duc a tion a nd t h e w ork f orce. T h e m o d el e x plains h o w w ell y outh c a n plot a c o urse f r o m w here they a re c ur r ently to a d is t ant f u t ure g oal ( Ha m i l t o n 1 994) The f r a m e w ork is ba s ed on Ha m i l t o (19 9 4) pr e m ise t hat s t u d ents f ol l o w a traject o ry o f posts e c on d ary study o r ent e r t he w orkforce a f t er t h e c o m p l etion o f h i g h sc h oo l T h e researcher e x a m in e d e ducat i onal pol i cies w hich im p act m in o r i ty stu d ent s d ecis i on t o ent e r c ol l e g e a f t er hi g h sc h ool (S y kes, S c h n eid e r, & Pla n k, 2 0 0 9 ) In part i cular, t his st u dy a nal yz es p ol i cy m ea s ures w hich incre a se st u de n t m obi l ity into post s eco n dary edu c ation. T h e res e arch er sor t ed F l or i c ati o n le g is l ation rel a t e d to part i c ip a tion a n d readin e ss into t w o c a t e g or i e s Cate g ory o ne r e v i e w ed rele v ant pe r m eable le g is l ation w hich impact e d t he e a se o f transiti o n in t o p o sts e co n dary stud y L eg is l ation t h at f ell w ithin t h is cat e g ory w e re p ol i cies w hich f ocu s ed o n c u r r icul u m a l i gn m e n t, e ar l y c o l l e g e initiati v es, pol i cy a l i g n m e n t, a nd s i m i l ar p ol i cies w hich assist st u de n ts w ith m atr i culating t h rou g h p r e ki n der g arten t o t w el f t h g rade i nto c o lle g e. T he f in d i n g s o f p ol i cies in F l or i d a w hich pro v id e d a p e r m eable trajec t ory to p os t seco n dary e duc a tion t hrou g h es t abl i shing spec i f ic le g is l at u re t o b ui l d a K 20 s y st e m o f g o v ernance w ere situ at ed w ithin t h is cat e g or y Based o n t h e Pe r m e a bi l ity a nd T r a n s par e ncy F r a m e w ork, t h is s u b g roup o f edu c ation pol i cies por t ray Flor i to cre a te pol i cies w hich al l ow stud e nts t o pro g ress t h rou g h t he K 20 e d ucat i onal pip e l i n e w ith t h e ease o f tra n sition thr o u g h t h e edu c atio n al sec t ors.

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78 Perm e abili t y and Transparency Fr a m e w o r k Data Repor t ing Cate g ori e s T h e p ol i cies w hich w e r e i m p l e m en t ed t o cr e a t e a str e a m l i ned acc ou nt a bi l ity s y st e m f or K 2 0 e duc a tion a nd pol i ces w hich co m m u nicat e d t h e in te ntion o f t he le g is l ation w ere classi f i ed w ithin t w o c a t e g or ie s w ithin t h e P erm e abi l ity a nd T ran s par e ncy F ra m e w ork ( S y kes, Sch n eid e r, & Pl a nk, 2 0 0 9 ) T he i n itial c a t e g or y per m eabi l it y r e f lect e d le g is l at i v e e f f orts e n ac t ed t o f o r m Flor i c o m bi n ed g o v ernan c e struct u re. Le g islation c at e g or i z ed w ithin t h e t r ans p arency classi f ic a tion incl u ded le g is l at i v e m a nda t es w hich repre s en t ed Flor id m e asures to inc r e a se c o m m unicat i on le v ers bet w een sta k e h old e rs a nd a g encies t o increase t h e m obi l ity o f s t u d ents into posts e c on d ary e duc a tion. T h e re s earcher c l a ssi f i e d t h e res p ecti v e le g islation b y anal yz i n g the le g is l ative lan g ua g e o f t he pol i c y a nd c a t e g or i z i n g the pol i cies ba s ed on t h e i n t e n tion o f t he le g i slatio n Reporting Catego r y 1 : P erm e able L egis l at i on Re p ort i ng c a t e g ory 1 inclu d es p ol i cies w hich w ere classi f ied as le g is l atio n t hu s creating a p er m eable s y st e m o f edu c at i o n a c c oun t abi l it y Le g is l ation classi f i e d in t his cat e g ory included pol i c ies e n act e d to crea t e a n a cc o un t abi l ity s y st e m w hich is co h erent and al i g ned f o r col l e g e e ntr a nce e x pect a ti o n s The f i r st tier ca p t u r e d le g is l a tion desi g ned t o e s t a bl i sh t he al i g n m en t o f re s ou r ces, d epar t m e nts, and cur r iculum t o bec o m e m o r e s u i t able to c o l l e g e e ntr a nce e x pect a tions. This in t ent o f this l e g is l ation w as to c o n n ect re s ou r ces to pro v ide a m ore coher e nt l e arning e x p e r i ence b et w een edu c ation s ect o rs w ithin t h e K 2 0 c o ntin u u m T h e d e v elo p m ent o f p o l i cies w i th the con n ect e d ness o f all a spects o f t he edu c ati o n c o n tinu u m al l o w ed f o r continuity b e t w een de p art m ents to cr e ate a c o h erent e d ucat i on e x per i ence f or s t ud e nts w ithin t h e

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79 edu c ation p i pel i n e. T h e le g is l ation e s t a bl i s he d a c oher e nt g o v erna n ce structu r e w hich con n ect e d e a c h e du c a tional s ect o r, de p art m e nts, a nd a g encies. Reporting catego r y 2: Tra n sparent l egis l a t ion Le g is l ation class i f i e d w ithin t h e tr a nspar e ncy fra m e w ork includ e d le g is l a tion w hich pro v id e d c o m m u nication a n d a w arene s s c o ncern i ng re q ui r e m ents f o r posts e c on d ary access to s t a k e h old e rs. S pec i fical l y le g is l ation t h at f e ll w ithin t h e classi f ic a tion o f tr a ns p arent le g is l ati o n r e f er re d to pol i cies w hich ass i st st u d ents w ith seeing a p ath to w ards edu c ation at t ai n m e n t ( S y kes, Sch n eid e r, & P l ank, 20 0 9). T h e intent o f t h e le g is l ation w hich f ell in t o this c at e g o r y w as to pro v ide c ol l e g e k n o w le d g e to st u d e nts, cr e ate a w areness to s t ak e hol d ers concern i ng p ost s ec o ndary re q ui r e m ents and op p ort u nities, and in d uce c o m m unicat i on bet w een e du c ation s e c t o rs con c erning col l e g e readi n ess o r a t t a inme nt P ol i cies cla s si f i e d w ithin t h e tran s p are n cy c o nt e x t o f t h e f r a m e w ork art i culate t h m essa g o f c ol l e g e readi n ess, access, a nd s u ccess bet w een p r e kin d er g arten t o t w elfth g rade in t o p o s ts e c o ndary e d u c ation. The End of the Pos t Secondary A f firmat i v e A c tion Era One Florida Pl a n T h e b e g in n in g s o f a b r an d n ew educati o n g o v ernance struc t ure c a m e as a r esult o f t h e e nd o f t he A f f i r m ati v e Action Era f or F l o r i da. T he i m p l e m en t at i on o f E x ecuti v e Order 9 9 2 81 ( 1 9 9 9) d e v elo p ed as a r esult o f G o v ernor Jeb Bu s di r ecti v e to e n d a f f i r m a ti v e a ction in st a te sc h ools a d m iss i o n p ol i cies, g o v ern m en t a nd s t ate contractin g The initi a ti v e p ro g ressed a s a re s ult o f G o v ernor B u s intent i ons t o cre a te an a l t ernati v e to rac e b ased pr e f er e nce s kn o w n a s T he O n e Flor id a Pla n ( F DOE, 20 0 2 ) T his le g is l ation w ould result in a n e w ly f o r m ed initi a ti v e to u nite Flor i d a edu c ation s y st e m in t e rms o f an e d ucati o n r e f o rm t hat w ould cr e ate e q ual o p port u nity f o r all

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80 s t u de n ts. I m pl e m e n t a ti o n o f t h e p l an r e q ui r ed racial p r e f e re n ce in a d m iss i o n pol i cies to d im i nish (E x ecuti v e o rder 9 9 2 8 1, 19 9 9). T he n ew r e f or m s that w ere e x pect e d to f o l l ow i m ple m e nt a tion o f t he O n e F l or i da Plan c r ea t ed eq ual access op p ortunities f or all s tu dents in Flor i da. T he i n t e nti o n o f t h e le g is l ati o n w as to crea t e pol i cies w hich w ould al i g n instruction in Flor i da to pre p are a ll s t ud e n t s re g ardless o f race or s t at u s. Furt h er m or e this plan addit i o nal l y increa s ed ne e d b ased assistan c e. T h e u pd a te t o t he O ne Flor i da Pl a n st a t e d a s f o l l o w s: O n e F l or i d a i s a n al t e rnative t o rac e ba s ed pref e r e nces a n d q uo ta s not an al t ernative t o a f fi r m ative action. O ne F l or i da i s u nd e r t h e u m b r el l a of af fi r m ative acti o n, but i t i s f a ir a nd e quit a ble. G o v ernor Bush s o ug h t to rec o g n i z e t h e disp a r i ty of e du catio n a l of f er i ngs acr o ss t h e K 12 syst e m Previou s ly, schools were al l o wed to ig n o r e t h e poor prepa r a t i o n o f und er r e p r e s e n te d st u de n ts. In 19 9 9, t h e G overnor sa i ha v e f a i l e d t oo m any chi l w e h a ve s w e pt t h em u n d er t H e said, divers i ty diver s ity t h a t ig n ores h ard work a n d perfor m anc e m asks our f a i l u r e to p r e pare s t u d ents f o r s uccess in hig h er e d ucati o n. Chi l dren i n F l or i d a s p u b li c ed u c a t i o n sy s t e m p ar t i c u l ar l y from poor and m in o r i ty co m m unities, d o n ot have e qu al edu c atio n al o ppor t unit i es f o r s T he O n e F l or i d a P l a n a d d r e s s es t h e h i s t or i c a l i n e q u i t i es i n t h e e du cati o n sys te m O n e F l or i da offers an infrastructure of c o ord i nat e d pr o gra m s to provi d e h i gh q u al i ty e du c a tional offer i ngs for all stu d en t s ( F DOE, 20 0 2 ) T h e u pd a te on t he pr o g ress to the O n e Flor id a Plan o u tlin e d t h at t he p lan had achie v ed a l e v el o f s u c cess p r i m ar i ly d ue to i n creases in m i n or i ty e nrol l m e n t b et w een 19 9 9 a n d 2 0 0 2. For e x a m ple, t he doc u m e nt s t a t e d t h at t here w as a r ela ti v e 3 6 p erce n t increase in f ull t i m e c ol l e g e e nrol lm ent f o r m i n or i ty students i n t h e t hre e y ear span o f t h e le g is l i nce p tion (F D OE, 20 0 2 p .1). T h e d oc u m e n t as s ert e d t h at t he le g is l ation w as a n a lter n ati v e sp e ci f ically to rac e b ased pr e f er e nces a nd qu ot a s and n o t a n alternati v e to A f f i r m ati v e Acti o n its e l f G o v er n or B u sh p r o f e ssed t h at the e d ucati o nal conditi o n in Flor id a w as g i v en to a st a t e w ide cl i m ate o f s c hools w hich i g nored t he p o or col l e g e p re p aration o f un d er r epres e nt e d st ud ents ( B ush, 2 0 1 3 ). A ffi r m ing the g o v ernor s

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81 st a t e m e nt, t he ACT ( 2 012) p r ojects t hat 18 p ercent o f s t ud e nts c o m pleting the A C T e x am w ere p repar e d f o r post s eco n dary e du c ation i n a ll f o ur ar e as o f m at h e m atic s En g l i sh, scie n c e a nd r eading. Fur t her m ore, G o v ernor B u sh d iscu s sed in an i n t e r v iew w ith NBC s Education Nation 20 1 3 a s f o l l o w s: Yeah, I w o uld say t h a t the s t a t es t h at have e m braced robust acco u nt a bi l ity and h a v e f u nd e d e duc a tion, f u nd e d t h e t hin g s t hat a r e o n t h e f orefr o nt o f r ef o r m have s een i m prove m e nts. T h at w e' v e s e e n le a rning ga m es in s o m e p arts of t h e c o u ntry. But t he gaps a re hu g e. And t h ere's a lo n g w ay t o g o. The r e's no q u esti o n t h at t h ere's b e en s o m e progress. But it's n o t e no u gh t o p ause a n d c e le b rat e This is a lon g t erm struggl e (B u sh, 20 1 3 ) G o v ernor B u sh (2 0 1 3) e x pressed c o ncerns th a t al t h o u g h the r e h as be e n pro g ress in s o m e aca d e m ic a r eas, t h e g aps i n p e r f o rm a nce o f Flor i u de n ts are eno r m ou s A d ditio n al l y, t h e g aps b et w een m i nor i ties a nd w hite s t u d ents are consid e r a bly lar g e a nd a p p ear t o r e m ain c on s istent. ACT p ro d uc e d t he f i v e y ear tre n ds o f st u d e o m p osite aca d e m ic pe r f o r m an c e sc o res f or s t u d ents o f color. A f r i ca n A m er i c a n st u d e c ores ha v e ran k ed c on s isten t l y lo w est a m o ng all races. A C T (201 2 ) r e port e d t h at th e A f r i ca n A m er i c a n f i v e y ear tre n d o f p osts e c on d ary readin e ss in all 4 c o re asses s m e nt areas r e m ai n ed at an a v era g e o f sl i g htly o v e r 16 p ercent (AC T 20 1 2). In co m par i s o n, w hite stude n ts scor e d at n ear l y 2 2 p erc e nt f o r the f i v e y ear per i o d (A C T 20 1 2). T h e O n e Flor i da plan w a s a lo n g ran g e s o l u tion to a ddress t h e lar g er i ssue o f Flor i da s n e e d f o r acc o un t abi l ity m ech a nisms to dr i v e t h e i nstructi o nal ne e ds o f all st u de n ts in Flor i da. O n e Flor i da p l a n e x p a nd e d f u nding f or s t u de nts in F l or i d a thr o u g h t he impl e m e n t a ti o n o f t h e T al e nt e d 2 0 p ro g r a m g uaran t e e d to p ro v ide a d m iss i on to t h e t o p 20 p ercent o f s t u d ents att e nding po s ts e c o n da ry instit u tions in Flor i d a The pro g ram w as impl e m e n t e d u n der t he One Flor id a le g is l ation to e nc o ura g e st u de n ts t o a c hie v e ranking

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82 in t h e 2 0 p erc e nt o f t h eir cla sses. I n t urn, st u d e nts recei v ed pr i or i ty consid e r a tion f o r st a te uni v ers i ties a nd ne e d bas e d f in a ncial a i d. T h e le g is l ati v e la n g ua g e s p el l e d o ut r e q ui r e m e n ts f or t h e p r o g ram in E x ecuti v e O r der 9 9 281 ( 19 9 9) as f o l l o w s: It is t h e p ol i cy o f m y Ad m inistratio n to s u p p ort e q ual e duc a tio n al op p ortunities for all q u al i fied Flor i dia n s to p r ohibit disc r i m in a tion in edu c ation be c ause o f r ace, ge n der, cr e ed, c o l or or n a tional or i gin, a n d to pro m ote the full real i z a ti o n o f e qual edu c ati on al o p port u nities t hrou g hout t h e S t a t e. I h er e by re q uest t hat t h e B o a r d of Re g e n ts i m pl e m ent a pol i cy, prohibiti n g t h e u s e o f racial or g en d er se t as i des, pref e r e nces or q u ot a s in ad m iss i ons to a ll Flor id a instit u tions of H i g h er Educ a ti o n, e f f ective i m m ediately .T h e Offi c e o f Pol i cy a n d Bu d get is h ereby o rde r ed t o d evelop an i m ple m ent a tion str a t e gy f or all o t her a s pe c ts of m y Equity i n Educ a tion Plan by De c e m ber 31, 1 99 9 (Executive Or d er 9 9 2 81, 1 999) E x ecuti v e Order 9 9 2 8 1 s p ec i f i c ally identi f i es t h at t h e re q ui r e m e nts o f t h e e qu al op p ortunities a re f o r q ual i f ie d l or i dia n s T h e le g is l ati v e int e nt o f th e p ol i cy w as to create addit i onal op p o r t u nities f o r m in o r i ty st u dents a n d e ncou r a g e stud e nts o f c o l or to conti n ue h i g h pe r f o r m a nce in t h eir a c a d e m ic pro g ra m s. For lo w pe r f o rming stu d ent s t h e re q ui re m e n ts to meet t he c o n ditio n s o f th e p ro g ra m s w ould po s e a c hal l en g e. In t e rms o f m in o r i ty st u d e nts, t his t e r m r e f er re d t o st u de n ts w ith the ac a de m ic abi l ity to g raduate w ith a c ad e m i c sta n ding o f pe r f o r m a nce in t h e t o p 2 0 p er c e nt o f g raduat i ng st u d e nts. The i n t e n t o f t h e le g is l ation w as to i m pl e m e nt e qu al o p por t unities f o r all in d i v id u als in t e r m s o f posts e c on d ary e duc a tion o ppor t unities to all st u d e nts re g ardless o f race or g en d er. In i m pl e m e n t a t i on o f t he b an o n A f f i r m ati v e Acti o n, pr o po n ents o f t h e le g is l ation p ro p ose t h a t m i n or i ty stude n ts ha v e b e n e f i t ed f r om incre a sed o ppor t unities f o r a d m iss i on i nto pos t seco n dary i nstit u tion s Florida Edu c ation G o v ernance Reorganiz a tion A ct of 2 000 T h e p assa g e o f F l or i da Edu c ation Reor g ani z ation Act e m p o w e red t h e secre t ary o f e duc a tion as t h e Ch i e f T ransiti o n O f f i c er to ensure a s m o o th t r ans i tion t o t h e

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83 f o rm a tion o f t he new Board o f E duc a tion G o vernor C har l ie C r ist a nd the Flor id a B oard o f E d ucat i on cr e at e d a p art n ership t o p r e pare the transiti o n to t h e n e w K 20 structure. T h e n ew p artnershi p c al l ed, T h e Par t nership for S u c c w as for m ed t o a ssist w ith t h e new transition to th e n ew K 20 s y st e m (F l or i da De p art m ent o f E ducat i on, 20 0 1). T h e partner s hip c o nsisted o f a g re e m e n ts t o c o m p lete joi n t decis i o ns o n perso n nel, cr e ate a ti m el i ne f or i m pl e m e n t ation, c o m m unicat i on, bud g et pla n nin g col l a borati o n o n operat i onal decision s and c oordi n ation o f p u bl i c a p p ear a nces re g a r ding e du c atio n F lor i da h as un d ertak e n a m onu m ent a l t ask i n reor g an i z ing what m ay b e t h e l argest s e g m ent of go v ern m ent. W ork i ng w ith Com m iss i oner C r i st, I k n o w w e w i l l successf u l l y a c c o m pl i s h t h e transit i on t o a n e w w ay of doing b us i n e ss for F l or i d a s students. Se c ret a ry J i m Horne (F D OE, 2 0 01 ) T h e n ew w ay o f d oing b usin e ss in v ol v ed c o l l aborati o n to meet the g oals o f t h e Educ a tion G o v ernan c e Reor g ani z ation I m pl e m e n t a ti o n A c t. T h e m iss i on w as to cre a te a s e a m less s t u d en t c e nt e red K 20 structu r e, plan a u n i f i ed K 20 e d ucati o n b u d g et, and re w r ite the Flor id a S c h ool Co d e. T h e r e w r i tten c o d e w as m a n d at e d to r e f lect t h e f o c us o f t h e n ew K 20 struc t ure. F l or i da St a t u e 1 00 8. 3 1 (b) d e f i ned t h e r eq ui r e m ents o f t h e State B o ard o f E duc a tion t o crea t e a K 20 a c coun t abi l ity s y st e m a s f o l l o w s: T he St a te Board o f E d ucati o n is st a t u t or i ly requi r ed t o e s t a bl i sh a s i ngle K 20 Educ a tion Acco u nt a bi l ity Syst e m that is a uni f ied system w ith m ultiple co m ponents i nclu d i n g, but not l i m ited to, m easures of y ear l y a de q u a te p r o gress, in d iv i dual s t u d ent l ear n ing g ains in publ i c s ch ools, sc h ool g r ade s a nd re t urn o n inv e st m ent T h e L e gis l at u re r e t a ins au t hor i ty t o a p prove an acc o unt a bi l ity system and est a bl i sh p erfor m ance f undi n g t hro u gh s u bst a n tive legis l a tion a n d appr o pr i ations. ( F lor i da De p art m ent of E du c ation, 2 0 01). T h e n ew a ccoun t abi l ity structure c o m bin e d d e part m en t al de cis i o ns, c reat e d joint co m m u nicatio n s b e t w een D e part m ent o f E du cation de p art m ent s jo i nt b ud g et pla n n i n g per i o d ic dis c ussio n s o f oper a tio n al decis i o ns, and i nt e g rat e d p l a nni n g m easu r es f or instructio n al acc o un t a b i l it y G o v ernor C r i st pr o pos e d a new task f or c e w hich promot e d

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84 col l aborat i on w ith maj o r l eaders t o d iscuss issues o f t h e n ew o r g anizatio n al struct u r e T h e t a sk f orce made a ser i es o f re c o m m e n d a t io n s w hich resulted in new le g is l ation to address t h e c o n c erns o f t h e t ask f orc e T h e n ew le g i s lation cre a t ed a s e r i es o f act i ons t h at assist e d w ith tran s itio n ing into t he new g o v ernance struc t ure. T h e measu r es t h at the le g is l ation p r o m o te d w ere a s f ol l o w s: cre a ted a S t ate B o ard o f E ducat i on f o r K 2 0 est a bl i s h ed a K 2 0 b u dg et, est a bl i shed s e p a r ate boards o f trust e es, ad d ed t he positi o n o f s e cre t ary o f e d ucat i on, and reor g ani z ed t h e o r g ani z ational stru c t ure. T h e Re o r g a ni z ation I m pl e m e n t a ti o n A c t ser v ed a s a le g is l ati v e tool to e x pedite t h e p ro c ess o f reor g ani z ation and e st a bl i s h m e n t o f t h e Fl o r i da B o ard o f E d u cati o n. In a d ditio n t h e le g is l ation crea t ed u ni v ers i ty b oards. A s er i es o f le g is l ation be g in n ing in 1 9 98 cr e at e d t h e be g in n in g s o f K 20 restruct u r i ng (OPP AG A, 2 0 09). In 1 99 9 t h e c om m iss i oner c o n v ened a B l ue R i bbon t a sk f o rce d es i g ned to p ro v ide insi g ht i nto t he init i ati v es to r e or g ani z e the n e w structure into a c o l l a borati v e K 20 s y st em M ajor rec omm en d ations o f t h e Blue R i bbon C o m m itt e e w ere to i m pl e m e nt o v ers ig ht of f u ll s u p er v i sion o f all s e c t ors o f p u bl i c e du c atio n T his m e asure w ould g rant le a dersh i p o f t h e n ew state b o ard, lo c al sch o ol distr i cts, c o l l e g es, a nd u ni v ers i ties. T h e reco m m e nd a tions o f th e Blue R i bb o n T ask f o r ce led to t he i m pl e m en t a tion o f The F l or i da E d ucati o n G o v ernan c e Reor g ani z ati o n Act. The l e g is l ation i m po s ed a n ew F l or i da B o ard o f E d uc a tion a ppo i nt e d b y the g o v ernor. In t urn, t he g o v ernor appoi n t e d t h e nin e m e m ber uni v ers i ty b oards o f tru s t ee s The Act a bol i sh e d t he Board o f R e g ents and t h e St a te Board o f Com m u nity Col l e g es, tran s f er r ing a ll p o w ers to t h e Flor i da B o ard o f E d ucat i on. In addit i o n, t h e le g is l ation outli n ed t hat t h e F l or i da B o a rd o f E du c ation w ould appo i nt t he c o m m iss i oner o f e du c atio n

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85 Reconstru c tion P e riod HB 2 26 3 : Flo r Reorganization Le g i s la tion F l or i m e asures to address t h e s u b par pe r f o r m an c e o f K 1 2 st ud ents in te r m s o f m eet i ng state stan d ards f or post s eco n dary study w as initiat e d w ith t h e creat i on o f le g is l ation w hich cal l ed for d e e p er acc o un t abi l ity f or sch o ols to a d dr e ss Florid a st a n d ards o f e duc a tio n Alth o u g h Flor i da e na ct e d m e asures w hich c al l ed f o r sta t e w ide pe r f or m an c e a c c ou n t a b i l it y t h is pol i cy m eas u re h ad m i x ed p ol i cy i m pl i cations f o r st u d e nts o f c o l or ( Borman & Dor n 2 007). T h e p ol i cy m e asure en de d A f f i r m ati v e Acti o n in st a t e u ni v ers i ties. Althou g h Flor i m i n or i ties w ere a tte n ding p o s ts e co n dary sc h ools at a c onsi d erable l o w er r ate t h an t h eir w hite c oun t erparts, Flor i da sti l l lack e d si g n i f ica n t le g is l at i v e m e asures w hich a ddress e d d is p ar i ties in a r e as o f p osts e c on d ary a ccess a n d readin e s s F l or i ge neral m ea s ures t o a d d ress issu e s o f re a din e s s a re b r o ad in spectr u m addr e ss i ng the e ntire l e arning s y st em For e x a m pl e C h art 4 1 r e f l ects t he le g is l at i v e b i l ls w hich address F l or i c onst r uction o a m less g o v ernance struct u K 20 g o v ernance s truct u re s T his o r g ani z ational st ruc t ure c o m bi n es de p art m ents and res o urc e s f or all e du c ati o n sect o rs. T h e b e g in n in g s o f Flor i o nstructi o n b eg an w ith t h e i m pl e m e n t a tion o f Ho u se Bi l l 2 2 6 3, d esi g ned to R e or g ani z e Flor i d ucati o n S y st e m T his bi l l impl e m e n t e d F l or i Educ a tion G o v ernan c e Reor g ani z ation Act o f 20 0 0. Al t hou g h F l or i A Plus p l an e nd e d p r i or i ty f or m i n or i ty students i n g aining a d m iss i on into posts e c on d ary instit u t i ons, t his le g is l ation inc l ud e d more inclusi v e l a n g ua g e o f e q ual i ty in e d ucati o n p ra c tices. Spec i f ica ll y t h e l e g is l ation c a l l e d f or t w o p r i m ary s y st em ic chan g es t o b oth e d uc a tion g o v ernance a n d p r actice. T h e d oc u m e nt outlin e d t h at t h e purpo s e o f t h e le g is l ation w as to cr e ate true s y st em ic chan g e t h rou g h t h e impl e m e n t a ti o n o s ea m l ess a c ad e m ic e d u catio n al s y st e m T his s y st e m w as

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86 desi g ned t o de m on s tr a te a hi g her l e v el o f a c a de m ic i nstructi o n f or all stu d ents re g ardless o f ra c e. F l ori d a Ed u cati o n Go v e r n a nce R e o r g a n i z ati o n Act o f 2 0 0 0 D ec l arat i on o f p o li cy a n d g u i d i ng p r i nc i p l es It i s the p o li cy o f the L e g i s l ature: To a chie v e w ithin e xis t i ng res o urces tr u e sys t e m ic change in e d ucat i on gover n ance b y est a bl i shing a s e a m less ac a d e m ic educat i onal sy s t e m that f o st e rs a n in t egra t ed c onti n uum o f kin d ergar t en t hrou g h g r a d u ate s chool edu c ation f o r F l or i d a s cit i z ens. To p ro m ote e nh a nced ac a de m ic su c cess a n d f u nd i ng e ffic i ency by c entral i z ing the g o v ern a nce o f e duc a tional del i very syste m s and al i gni n g res p onsib i l i ty w ith acco u nt a bi l ity (H ouse B il l 2 2 6 3, 2 000 ) T h e le g is l ation s t a t es t hat t his v is i on o f t he n e w g o v ernance structu r e w ould inclu d e a st ud e nt ce n t e red a p p r oach to edu c ation d el i v er y T he u n der l y ing p urpose o f t h e le g is l ation is to cr e ate a g o v ernance stru c t u re w hich w ould not n eed a f f i r m a ti v e a ction le g is l ation f or s t ud e nts o f c o lor. The l e g is l ation w as int e n d ed to be a ll inclusi v e f or all st u d e nts t o a c hie v e t h eir h i g hest p ot e ntial r e g ardless o f t heir c u r r e n t pe r f o r m a nce le v el. T h e p ol i cy o utlin e s t he purpo s es o f t h e le g is l ation re g arding c u r r icul u m a nd co m m u nicatio n s For e x a m ple, it str i v es f or t h e f ol l o w in g : To p rovide c onsis t ent edu c at i on pol i cy v e rt i c al l y a nd h ori z ont a l l y a cross all edu c atio n al del i very s y st e m s, f o cusing on t h e n e e ds o f t h ose re c eiv i ng edu c ation, n o t t h ose p r oviding edu c ati o n. To provide s ubs t antial l y i m proved vert i cal a n d h ori z ont a l art i culation a cross all e ducat i onal del i very sy s t e m s w hi l e ensur i ng t h at n o n publ i c e du c ation instit u tions a nd h o m e e d ucat i on p rogra m s m aintain t h eir in d e p e n den c e, a ut o no m y, and no n govern m ent a l s t a tu s (H ouse B il l 226 3 2 000). T h e c e ntral f o cus o f c r eating v ert i cal art i culat i on b et w een a ll del i v ery s y st em s is a s y st em ic c h an g e f r o m Flor i pre v io u s system o f s epa r ate edu c atio n al a g encies. T h e la n gu a g e u til i z ed in t h e le g is l ati v e d oc u m ent de n ot e d t h at t h is n ew g o v ernance struct u re w ould m a x imi z e e ducati o n a c c ess th rou g h a ll g rade le v els in t h e n ew K 20 g o v ernance

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87 s y st em Thus, t he l e g is l ation o ut l in e d t hat a ny stu d ent w ould ha v e e q ual access t o a n o pti m um edu c ation a n d recei v e instruction t h a t w ould a ppropr i a t ely prepare th e m f o r suc c ess in b oth K 12 a n d p os ts e c o ndary e d ucati o n. Ho u s e Bi l l 2 263 not e s t h e f ol l o w ing: The g uiding p r i nciples f o r F l or i d a s n ew e d u c ation gove r nan c e a r e : A coordin a t e d s e a m less system for k i nder g art e n thr o ugh g ra d ua t e s c hool edu c ation. A sys t em that is st u d e n t cen t ered i n e very f ace t A sy s t e m that m ax i m i z es e duca t ion a ccess a n d a c ade m ic success f or all Flor i dia n s. A sys t em t h at s af e g u ards e quity. A system that ref u s es to c o m pro m ise acad e m ic excel l ence (H ou s e B il l 22 6 3, 2 000). Senate Bi l l 1 16 2 : K 2 0 Educ a tion S y stem l e gisl a tion The v is i on o f F l or i n ew K 20 struc t ure w as b as e d o n t hree pr i m a ry g oals f o r st u d e nt aca d e m ic pe r f o rm a nce. The new structure w as m a nd a t e d to u n i f y int e r a g ency operat i ons, pro v ide a d ee p er col l a b oration b et w een instit u ti o nal se c t ors, a n d p ro v ide shared decis i o n maki n g b et w een c o n s tit u e nt s The pur p ose o f e re c ting a n ew g o v ernance structu r e w as to create a c o l l a b o rati v e a pproa c h to d ec i sion making f or F l or i p osed K 2 0 e d ucati o n s y st e m The n ew w a y o f d oing e ducat i onal busi n ess in F l or i da d e v elo p ed a s a result o f new fede r al le g is l ati o n u r g ing st a t e s to a n al yz e the edu c ation pip e l i n e in t e rms o f c ol l e g e re a din e ss. The g oal o f f e d eral le g is l at o rs aim e d a t prepar i ng st u de n ts f or col l e g e a s e ar l y a s kinder g arten. This new met h o d f o r pre p ar i ng st u d e nts f o r po s ts e c on dary e ducat i on f o cu s e d o n pro v iding r i g orous c o urse w ork pr i or to t h e s t u d ent s 12 th g rade y ear i n c o l l e g e t o a l l o w students e x posure t o a d v anc e d course w ork alo n g the aca d e m ic c onti n u u m T h e inc e pti o n o f a s e a m less e du c ation s y st e m w as creat e d w ith t he s u p p ort o f F l or i da v ot e rs t h rou g h i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f c o n s tit u tio n al a m e n d m e n t i n 1 9 98 ( F lor i da Co n stit u t i on Art i cle, I X § 1 A ). T h e restru c t u r i ng o f Flor i edu c ati o n s y st e m w as impl e m e n t e d a s a m e a sure to tran s f o rm f r om t h e pre v io u s d isco n ne c t e d s y st e m to a

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88 ne w l y g o v erned e d uc a tion s y st e m w hich incl u ded t h e k n o w le d g e b a se o f t h e p re v io u s s y st e m w ith a c o l l a b oration o f all s e ct o rs. T h e u n i f o rm app r oach s y st e m atical l y c h an g ed F l or i g ani z ation a l struct u re t o a n in t e g rat e d K 20 acco u nt a bi l ity s y st e m ( F lor i da Co n stit u t i on Art i cle, I X § 1 A ). T h e p r ocess f o r t ransitio n ing to a K 20 s y st e m re q ui r ed e x t e nsi v e c o l l aborati o n a nd p la n ning to i nclu d e a ll in t ernal a nd e x t e rnal st a k eho l ders t o ensure s uccess. T his m ea s ure f o cus e d o n c o m b i ning o v ers ig ht of K 12 in sti t ution s co m m u nity c o l l e g es, and s t ate uni v ers i ties (E d ucat i on W e e k 2 002). Flor i da ma d e a cr i tical m o v e m e nt t o w ards a sin g le g o v ernan c e structu r e w hich con s ol i dat e d responsibil i ty for pl a nn i ng a nd m a na ge m e n t o f e d ucati o n (F l or i da D e part m ent o f Educ a tio n, 2 0 0 2 ). Flor i da S t at u e 1 0 0 0. 0 2 ( 1 ) a stat e s T he p ol i cy o f t he L e g is l at u re is t o a c hie v e w i t h in e x isting resources a s e a m less edu c atio n al s y st e m t h a t f os t ers an i nt e g rat e d conti n u u m o f kin d er g arten t hrou g h g raduate s c h o ol e d uc a tion f o r F l or i u d e nts T h e K 2 0 e duc a tion co ntin u um t a r g et e d a r e a s o f le g is l ation, c u r r iculu m a n d col l aborati v e p l a nning bet w een a ge ncies. T h e measu r e to reor g an iz e Flor i g o v ernance structu r e e st a bl i sh e d struc t ure a n d c u r r iculum a l i g n m e nt b et w een a g encies. T h e n ew struct ure inc l ud e d o r g ani z ational m a n a ge m e n t o f all s e c to rs under t h e auspices o f a K 2 0 um brel l a o f l ea d ership a n d s u p port. F l or i da S t a t ue 1 00 0 0 2 (1) est a bl i s h ed a g ency restruct u r i ng a nd i m plem e nt e d a l i g n m e nt o f a ll e ducat i on a ge ncies un d er the d i r ecti o n o f t h e F l or i da St a te B oard o f E duc a t io n V e ne z ia (2005) discuss e d t h e tr a nsition a s f o l l o w s: Althou g h restru c t u r i ng p os e d m any p r o m is i n g a d v ant a g es, a n a d m i nistrator det e r m in e d, T he r e w as treme n d ous t u rno v er; a lot o f i nstit u t i onal m e m ory w alked o ut o f t he d oo r (Ve n e z ia et al., 2 0 05). T h e restruc t ur i ng o f d e part m ents crea t ed c h a n g e re g arding t h e posi t io n s a nd responsibil i ties o f m ult i ple d epar t m e nts. As w i th a ny le v el of a g ency c h an g e, t h e

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89 de p art m ent o f edu c ati o n e x per i enc e d a loss o f s o m e em plo y ees t h at d i r ect ly i m pact e d t h e stru c t u ral c han g es o f t h e r e or g ani z ation process. Alth o u g h t h ere w ere s om e disa d v ant a g es t o t he r estruct u r i ng o f d e par t m e n ts, t here w as a tr e m e n d o us b en e f i t in stren g t h en i ng the c ol l a borati v e d ecis i o n mak i ng o f t h e d epar t m e nts a s part o f t h e or g ani z ational restruc t u r ing p rocess. In 1 99 9 S e na t e Bi l l 11 62 w as p ass e d a s a l eg is l at i v e m ea s ure t o i n duce c han g e to t h e c u r re nt s y st e m a nd t o b e g in m a tr i culat i on in t o a n ew e du c ati o n structu r e w hich w ould include bo t h K 1 2 a n d p osts e c on d ary o v ersi g ht. Se n ate Bi l l 1 1 62 o utlin e d f o ur g oals t a r g et e d f o r t h e hi g hest st u de n t a c hie v e m e nt, s e a m less art i culation w ith m a x im u m a c c ess f or s t ud e nts, de v elo p m e n t o f a skil l ed w orkforce an d e c o n o m ic de v elo p m en t a nd del i v e r y o f q ual i ty e f f ic i e n t ser v ices ( F DOE, 20 02 ) The c entral f o cus o f S e na t e Bi l l 1 162 w as to p ro v ide a K 2 0 em phasis f o r areas o f s t u dent a chie ve m e n t, art i culation a n d a c c es s a n d d e v elo p m ent o f a skil l ed w ork f orce and eco n o m ic de v elo p m en t a nd it a i m ed to pro v ide q ual i ty e f f ic i ent s e r v ices to st u d ents (F l or i da De p ar t m ent o f E d ucat i on, 20 0 2). T h e p u r po s e o f Se n ate Bi l l 1 1 62 w as a ch i e v ed th o u g h t h e de v elo p m e n t o f a s trat e g ic pla n w hich a d dressed ei g ht i m perat iv es that f o rm e d t he w ork pla n s for t h e Flor i da D e part m ent o f E du cation. S e na t e Bi l l 1 16 2 c a l l ed f or a N ew De p ar t m ent of E d ucat i w hich addres s ed e ducat i on g o v ernance w ith a s e a m l ess K 20 e duc a tion a p proac h C r itical m e asures t o c reate t his s e a m less c o l la b orati v e f u nction f o r sta t e a nd lo c al e d u cation a g encies hin g ed o n t he abi l ity o f t h e F l o r i da De p art m ent o f Educ a tion to al i g n inte r a g ency d epar t m e n ts, K 12 insti t ution s a nd h i g her educ a tion instituti o ns o f le a rnin g

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90 Assistant Secre t ary J o hn W i nn descr i b e d t he New Board o f Edu c ati o n a n d le g is l at i v e e f f orts to f r a m e t h e K 20 r estruct u r i ng ini tiati v es. W i nn di s cussed t h a t t h e w ork be g an w ith the B l ue Rib b on C o m m iss i o n a n d c o ntin u ed w ith t he w ork o f t h e T ransit i on T ask Force i n 2 0 0 0 S e na t e Bi l l 1 1 62 b r o u g ht a b o ut a n e ducat i on m e t hod t h at w ould b e sea m l ess a nd s t u d ent cent e r e d. M r. T a l m a g e Fai r Ch a i r m an o f t h e S t a t e B oard o f E d u catio n d escr ib ed t he transition a s f o l l o w s: In ter m s o f a s e a m less syst e m t h is was m ore t h an ju s t in t er l ocking t h e piec e s. T he board wo u ld be ble n ding t h e res p onsibil i ties o f thr e e d is t inct and s epa r ate del i very syst e m s and t he Boa r d would take t h e b est f rom each del i very sys t e m ( F lor i da Board o f Edu c ation, 2 0 01). T h e m o v e m e nt t o w ards t h e cr e ati o n o f t h e N ew De p art m e nt o f E d u cation c al l ed f o r a tr u e s y st e m atic p l anning b et w een a ge n c ies a n d a n a l i g n m e nt o f r esources w ith in each de p art m en t T h e i nitiati v e w as a n o v erhaul o f t h e e x isting structure to a s y st e m t h at pro p osed n ew m e asures w hi l e m a i nt a in i ng the e x isting k n o w l e d g e b ase o f t h e e x isting structure. S en ate Bi l l 1 1 6 2 s e r v ed a s a g uiding d o c u m ent o f chan g e to cr e ate a s y st em atic o v erhaul o f t he pre v io u s d is j oint e d appr o ach o f re g ulating edu c ation i n F l or i da to a m o v e m e nt o f a c ol l abo r ati v e a pp r oach to l e ad c han g e i n terms o f t he K 20 s y st e m d e v elo p m e nt. Co m pl e ting the r e or g ani z ation w as d et e r m in e d to be a t ask t h at w o uld call for assist an ce f r o m o utside s o urc e s to e nsure t h e h i g hest le v el of impl e m e n t a ti o n w ith Flor i da st a t u t es c o ncern i ng the r e or g ani z ation. T h e S t ate B o ard o f Educ a tion o p erat e d w ith t h e le a dership o f el e ct e d o f f ic i als a nd s er v ed a s t he c hi e f pol i c y m a king a ut h or i ty f o r e d uc a t i on in Flor id a. T he g o v ernor ser v ed a s t he c hair o f t h e board a n d t h e c om m i s sio n er ser v ed a s t h e s ecretary o f e ducat i on. 19 9 8 le g is l ation cal l ed f o r a c h an g e i n t he c u r re nt s y st e m o f th e elec t ed boa r d o f e du cation o f f ic i als t o t h e ap p oint e d b oard l e aders h ip ( F l or i da L e g is l at u re O f f i c er o f Pro g ram P oli c y Analy s is &

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91 Go v ernme n t, 2 0 09 ) T h e le g is l ation s pec i f i c al l y o utlin e d t he c han g e to proc e dures f o r selecting b o ard le a de r ship in t he Flor id a Co n stit u tion a s f o l l o w s: SEC T ION 2. State b oard of educ a tion T he s t ate b o ard o f e d u c ation shall b e a b ody c orpo r ate and h a v e s u c h s u p erv i sion o f t h e system o f free publ i c e duc a tion as is provided b y l a w The s t a te b o ard o f e d ucat i on s h all consist o f se v en m e m b ers ap p oin t ed by t h e g overnor t o s t a g g ered 4 year t e r m s, subject to c o n fir m ation b y t h e s e na t e. The st a te boa r d o f e du cation shall a p point t h e c o m m iss i oner of e du c ation (OPPA G A, 2 009). T h e c o nstit u t i onal a m e nd m ent d e l e g at e d a u th or i ty to the St a t e B oard o f Educ a tion f o r o v ers ig ht o f a ll s t ate e d ucati o n s y st em s. Alt h ou g h t he e x isting structure pro v id e d le a dership t h r ou g h t h e e le c tion pro c ess, t h e m ea s ure t o a p point t h e St a te Board o f E du c ation m e m bers a n d c o mm iss i o ner o f e d ucati o n a ssis t ed w ith m a i nt a ining t h e f o cus o f t he b o ard on iss u es o f e d ucati o n (Vene z ia & F in n e y 2 0 06). A ppoi n t m ent o f board m e m bers pre s e nt e d t h e o ppor t unity f o r m e m bers to be s elec t ed b ased o n t h eir e x per i ence w ith issu e s o f e du c ation rat h er t h an t heir rep u t a ti o n. Pr i or to t he r eor g ani z ation m a n d a t ed b y t h e 1 998 l e g is l atio n, t he g o v ernor a nd C abin e t de v elo p ed all p ol i cies f or publ i c e ducat i on. The g o v ern o r assu m ed t h e role as chair on t h e b o ar d and t h e c o mm iss i o ner opera t ed as t he s ecre t ary a nd e x ecuti v e o f f i c er. In addit i on, t h e C o m m iss i on o f E duc a role is t he h e ad o f t h e D epar t m e nt o f Ed ucati o n. Ch a i r m a n F. Phi i l i p Handy d iscuss e d t h at th e p r i or i ty o f t h e B o ard o f E d ucat i on w as to create a n ew b oard t hrou g h r e or g anizatio n d e v elop a str a t e g ic pla n a n d re w r i te t h e s c hool c od e Ch a i r m an Ha n dy d et e r m in e d t h at t he pro ject w as e x t e nsi v e a nd t hat it w as p lac e d u nder ord e rs to b e c o m pl e te in a r elati v ely s h ort per i od o f ti m e (F l or i da Board o f E du c atio n 20 01). In a d ditio n M r. H a ndy p ropo s ed t hat t h e De p ar t m ent o f Educ a tion pre p are a p r opo s al f or a c o n s ult a nt to a ssist w i th the r e or g ani z ati o n a nd strat e g ic pla n T he or g ani z ation t h at w as a pp ro v ed to a ssist w ith i m pleme n t ation e fforts

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92 is A v ent u re (F l or i da Bo ard o f E d ucati o n, 2 0 01 ). The A v ent u re t e a m m et w ith st a ke h old e rs, a n aly z ed the e x isting d el i v e r y s y st em s o f t h e D epar t m ent o f E duc a tion, and s har e d t h e results w ith t h e pla n ning t e am m e m b ers. G o v ernor Jeb Bush a n d le g is l at o rs i n Flor i da sou g ht d ee p er ac c oun t abi l ity m e t hods to i ncrease s t ud e nt a c ad e m ic pe r f o r m an c e a nd m e asures t o d e v elop an inclusi v e a pproa c h to g o v erning e ducati o n in F l or i d a. As t he acc o un t abi l ity e ra e v ol v ed, pol i cy m akers i n Flor id a s o u g ht to i ncrease t h e m in i m u m e x pect a ti o ns o f m e eting h i g h school e x it re q ui r e m e n ts f or t he purpo s e o f i n creasing the n u m b er g radua t es p r e par e d f o r post s ec o ndary e d u cation. The l e g is l ati v e a g e nda w as to p ro g re s s b e y ond m in i m u m st a n d ards a nd m i g rate t o w ards prepar i ng st ud ents f o r po s ts e c o n d ary edu c atio n Achie v ing the g oal o f g raduat i ng m ore st u de n ts in F l or i da de e m ed a s col l e g e r ead y q ui r ed a stra t e g ic al i g n m ent o f s ect o r s, d ep art m e nts, a n d res o urces. Or g ani z ing a ll edu c ation s ect o rs to c on d uct a ppr o pr i ate pl a nning f or b oth K 12 a n d p o s ts e c o ndary edu c ation w as cr i tical t o t h e s u c c ess o f t h e c o l l e g e readin e ss initiati v e. T he b e g in n i n g s o f i m pl e m ent i ng p la n s f o r bo t h K 1 2 a n d hi g her edu c ati o n sec t ors b e g an w ith the creation o f Se n ate Bi l l 11 6 2 w hich cal l ed f o r a sin g le inte g rat e d g o v ernan c e struc t ure f o r e d ucati o n in Flor ida The le g is l ati o n s e r v ed f o ur m ajor pur p oses: i ncreasing of st u d e nt achie v e m ent, sea m l ess a rt i cul a tion a nd m a x im u m c o l l e g e a ccess, d e v elo p m ent o f a skil l e d w ork f orce, and pro d uction o f q ual i ty a nd e f f ic i ent edu c at i onal s er v ices ( F lor i da St a t ue, 1 0 08 30). T h e creat i on o f th e n ew le g is l ation w as p urpo s ed t o cre a te a K 20 s y st e m f o r e duc a tion, c ol l abor a tion w ith schools and c o l l e g es, and a c om m it m ent to i m pl e m ent i ng resea r c h bas e d p racti c es.

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93 Florida S chool Code Re v i s ions In 2 00 1 im pleme n t ati o n o f t h e Flor i da E du c a t ion Go v ern a nce A c t i m pos e d additi o nal le g is l ation to c o nti n ue e fforts to e x pedite e fforts to r eo r g a n i z e the c u r r ent f o r m o f g o v ernance to t he n ew P 20 structure (O P PAGA, 2 0 09). T h e m a j or steps o f t he le g is l ation in 2 001 led t o t h e r e w r i te o f t h e e d ucati o n c o d e in 2 0 02. S y st em atical l y t h e F l or i da sch o ol co d es w ere a m e nd e d o r e x clu d ed f r o m t he s c hool c o d e to r e f l ect t he objecti v es o f t h e n ew K 20 s y st em T h e K 2 0 o v erhaul c r e at e d a ne e d f or e x t e ns iv e m od i f icat i ons t o t he school c ode. Althou g h t h e sc h o ol c o de h as b een c h a n g ed o v er the c o urse o f its e x istence since 19 3 9, t here w as n e ed f or m a j or r e m o d i f icati o n to al i gn the le g is l ative lan g ua g e o f t he codes w ith t h e n ew K 20 s y st e m o f l e arning (F l or i da L a w Sect i on 1 060 C hap t er 2 00 2 387). This m od i f icat i on w as i m pleme n t ed t hr o u g h the 1 9 98 c onsti t ut i onal le g is l atio n F l or i da Reor g ani z ation Act o f 2 00 0 As a d i re ct result o f t h e le g is l at i on, s e v eral sections o f t h e Flor i da Sc h ool C ode w ere re p eal e d in 2 003. Creati o n o f t h e Flor i da Re o r g ani z ation Act pr e sent e d t he op p ortunity f o r l e g is l at o rs to m a k e reco m m e nd a tions concerning n ecessary c h an g es f o r ea c h o f t h e sc h o ol co d es. Ho w e v er, i m pleme n t ation t h at w as initia t ed by the 2 0 01 le g is l ati o n resu l t e d in t h e Flor i da Edu c ation G o v ernan c e Re o r g ani z ation Act. T h e le g is l ation e x p e dited impl e m e n t a ti o n o f t h e r eco mm en d ations f r o m s elect e d K 1 2, h i g her edu c atio n a nd c o m m unity o r g ani z a tion m e m b ers to restructure t he pre v io u s s y st e m o f g o v ernance. R e cod i ng o f t he s c hool c ode c al l ed f o r reor g ani z ation o f t he l a n g ua g e o f each c o d e, deleti o n o f co d es w hich no lon g er f it t he new o r g ani z ational struct u re, a n d es t abl i s h m ent o f t he g oals o f t h e new K 20 s y st em A co m m itt e e w as o r g anized o f m e m bers f r om all e du c ation s e c t ors a n d o r g ani z ation to

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94 d e f i n e t h e n ew c o de s y st em Ea c h o f t h e m e m bers o f t he c o m m it te e w as a ssi g ned codes using f our pr i nciples id e nt i f ied b y The F l or i da S e na t e Re p ort as f ol l o w s: T he g uiding p r i nciples w ere to (1) l imit t he r e v i e w to technical c or re ctions, (2) l i m it the re v iew to iden t i f y a ny u nin t en d ed r e s ults f r o m c h an g es to s ubst a nti v e la w (3) ensure t h a t o t her l e g is l ation pass e d in t h e 2 0 02 re g ular sessi o n a nd s p ecial s essio n s a m e nding t he pre v io u s sc h ool c od e a nd (4) a v oid m aking a ny major pol i cy c h an g es t h rou g h t his bi l l. T he Flor i da B oard o f E duc a tion cre a t e d a re v is i on d ocu m ent w hich outlin e s e a c h o f t h e a m e n d e d sc h ool c o des and de t ai l ed descr i pti o ns o f t h e c h a n g es appl i ed to ea c h o f t h e school c odes. T he d o c u m e nt outli n es t h e a p p l i cation o f t h e cur r ent P 2 0 s y st e m at i c c h an g es appl i c a ble t o e a c h o f t h e c o des. For e x a m ple, Flor i da School C ode 2 2 9. 0 03 0 0 is r e f er e nced in t he r e v is i on c h art as a m e n ding the Flor id a Educ a t ion G o v ernan c e Reor g ani z ation. T h e n ew Flor i da School C od e a m e n ds t he pre v io u s d isco n nect e d K 12 a nd hi g her e d uc a tion struc t ure t o a stre a m l i ned K 20 struct u re. Impl e m e n t a t i on o f t h e r e c o ding le g is l ation c onsol i d at e d a n d mod i f i e d t h e code. A ge of A c a demic A ccel e ration C o llege R e adine s s a nd Partici p ation L eg i sl a tion in Flo r ida F l or i e f f orts to i m p r o v e the q ual i ty o f e du c ation be g an w ith t h e impl e m e n t a ti o n o f S e n ate Bi l l 1 9 0 8 k n o w n a s the c ol l e g e r e a din e ss l e g is l ation. T his le g i s l ation c a l l ed f o r t h e r e est a bl i sh m ent o f c ol l aborat i on bet w een t he K 1 2 s e c t o rs a nd post sec o n d ary s e ct o rs, spec i f ically w ith the 28 c om m unity c o l l e g es e st a bl i shed i n F l or i da. S e na t e Bi l l 19 08, est a bl i shed on J u n e 3 0 2 00 8 w hich assisted w ith det e r m inin g i f st u d e nts w ere p repared f or t he aca d e m ic r ig ors o f po s ts e co n dary edu c atio n util i z ing c o l l e g e e ntr a nce t e sting a s a d et e r m in a n t f or r ea din e ss f o r hi g h school s t ud e nts and c o urse pla c e m ent f o r i n c o m ing c om m unity c o l l eg e stud e nts. Sen a te Bi l l 19 0 8 c a l l e d for col l a b ora t i o n b et w een K 12 and p o s ts e c on d ary s e ct o rs to

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95 al i g n the s e c t o rs i n t e r m s o f t e s ting stu d ents pr i or to t he 1 2 th g rade y ear of hi g h sc h o ol to d et e r m ine i f st u d en t s w ere c om plet i ng h i g h sc h ool being col l e g e r ead y t o id e nt i f y a ca de m ic w eak nesses pr i or to g ra du atio n The g o al o f t h e le g is l ation w as to re al i g n the h i g h s c hool c ur r iculum t o p r o per l y p repare s t ud e nts f o r t h e transition into t h e aca d e m ic r ig ors o f po s ts e co n dary e du c atio n T h e le g is l ation re q ui re d sc h o ols to ide n t i f y st u d e nts w ho h a v e int e rest in p ursuing o p por t unities in p ost s ec o nda r y e ducatio n I d e n t i f ied s t u d ents are re q ui r ed b y stat u t e to t ake r e m e dial c o urse w ork dur i ng t h e 1 2 th g rade y ear i n c o l l e g e. T h e le g is l ation i m pl e m ent e d p ol i cies desi g n e d f or s t ud e nts t o m ake u se o f c ourse u n de r takin g s f or t he 1 1 th and 1 2 th g rade sc h o ol y ears a f t er co m p l eting t h e FC A T a ssess m e nt ( H olc o m b e, 2 0 0 8). C o m m unity Col l e g e Chancel l or W i l H olcombe discus s ed t he i m pa c t o f S e na t e B il l 1 9 08 as a n a d v ant a g eous mo v e m e nt t o w ards col l e g e readi n ess. H olc o m b e d iscus s ed t he bi l l s f o c us o f r e m ed i ation p r i or to st u d e f re s h m an ye ar i n c o l l e g e a nd how the b i l l e nsures t h a t st u dents w i l l not be re q ui r ed to c om plete p osts e c o ndary re m edia t io n Fur t he r m ore, Hol c o m b e e l abor a t e d o n t h e si g n i f ica n c e o f t h e e x p and e d te s ting i m p l e m e nt a tion pr i or to 1 2 t h g rade a s f o l l o w s: It a lso p r ovid e s a h i g h sc h ool diplo m a d esi gn ation f o r st u d e nts w h o have co m pleted f o ur acce l eration m ech a nism inclu d ing A dv a nced Plac e m ent, I n t e r n atio n al Bac c ala u r eat e d ual e nrol l m ent, a nd R ead y to W ork t hose w e t h ink are i m portant inc e ntives for s t ud e nts. It also cle a ns u p a litt l e problem w e have w i t h grade assig n m ents. T h e c o l l e g e re a din e ss is an op p ortunity f o r us h o p e f u l l y to have st u dents t o m ake b et t er use o f t h eir ju n ior a n d s e nior y e ar after t hey ha v e p as s ed FCAT to prepare t h em for col l ege. So we are go i ng t o w ork h ard o n t h a t W e h a v e a s p ecific appr o pr i ation f o r e x p a nd e d te s ting w hi c h is CPT (Col l ege Pla c e m ent Testing) t esting o f s t u d ents be f ore t h eir 1 2 th g rade. And t h en t he op p ortun ity f o r t hem t o take part in what we wo u ld c ol l ege l evel re m edial w ork, but it is n o t so i n t h e high s c hool it s just w ork t o p r epare st u d e nts so t h ey w i l l not h a v e t o f a ce re m ediation w h en t hey c o m e to c o m m unity col l ege. ( H olco m be 20 0 8)

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96 T h e Flor i da l e g is l ation cal l ed f o r e x t e nsi v e r estruct u r i ng o f t he use o f t h e 1 1 th a n d 12 th g ra d e y ea r s. T he course se qu ence o f t h e 11 th a nd 1 2 th g rade y ears has intro d uc e d si g ni f ica n t s e t b acks in t e rms o f s t ud e a s pi r ations f o r po s ts e c o n d ary e ducati o n ( C onle y 2007). Th e r e f o rm e f f orts f ocu s ed on p roduc i ng col l e g e ready stude n ts f r o m F l or i K 12 in s tit u ti o n, cle a r art i culati o n o f posts e c on d ary o ppor t u nities to p ar e nts and s t u d ent s a n d p r o m o t e st u d e nt re t enti o n and c ol l e g e c o m plet i o n The le g is l ati v e m a n da t e re q ui r ed c o m m on p la c e m ent t e sting in c on j uncti o n w ith c o m m unity c o l l e g es to st u d e nts e x pressing a n e x pl i cit int e rest i n p o sts e co n dary e du c ation (F l or i da St a t u e 10 0 8. 3 0). T he b i l l est a bl i shed c o m m o n p l ac e m e n t t e s ting to be util i zed a s c o l l e g e readin e ss indic a t o rs f o r stud e nts pr i or t o t he 1 2 th g ra d e. T h e Col l e g e Plac em ent Test ( CP T ) ser v ed a s an i n dicator f o r i de n t i f y ing s t u d e nt aca d e m ic d e f ic i encies a m ong 1 2 th g rade stu d ent s C o m m unity c o l l e g es a d m inis t er the t e st in c o l l a bora t ion w ith Flor i K 12 insti t ution s In a d ditio n t h e b i l l impl e m e nt e d a re q ui re m e n t f or schools t o a dhe r e to t h e re g ular sc h ool in s tructio n al pro g ra m T h e p urpose o f t h e st a t u te is to address a c ad e m ic de f ic i enc i es p r i or to g raduation a n d t o incr e ase t he n u m ber o f s t u d ents c o m pleting h i g h s ch ool prepar e d f o r col l e g e. The s t a t u te e s t a bl i sh e d c o l l a borati o n bet w een K 1 2 a nd hi g her e d ucat i on t h rou g h u til i z ing c omm unity c o l l e g e a p l at f o r m f o r o ffer i ng a ca d e m i c c o urses pr i or to g raduatio n Colle g e l e v el course w ork w as o ffered t hrou g h d ual enr o l l m ent e ar l y col l e g e, a n d c o l l e g e preparat i on pro g ra m s d e si g ned to e x pose h i g h school s t ud e nts to t h e r ig orous c o urse w ork r e q ui r ed f or p osts e c o ndary e du c atio n T he o bjecti v e o f S en a te Bi l l 1908 is n o t e d a s f o l l o w s:

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97 T o i m prove the c o l l eg e a n d c a r e er r e a din e ss ra te o f hi g h sc h ools st u d e nts and redu c e th e p erc e nt ne e ding p os t seco n dary r e m ediation in readin g w r i ting, and mat h e m atics (Se n ate B i l l 1908,) T h e m ajor e m p hasis o f t h e l e g is l ation is to r e m ed i ate d e f ic i e ncies a m ong st u d e nts pr i or to g rad u ation by a l i g ning c o urse u n dertak i n g s d ur i ng t he s t ud e nt s 1 1 th and 1 2 th g rade y ea r s. I n o rder to r e m e diate s t ud e nts pr i or t o g rad u a t io n a s u b s t a n tial o v erhaul in t he s eco nd ary c u r r iculum w as c om ple t ed to al i g n t h e m w ith the posts e c on d ary c u r r icu l u m The o v erhaul incl u ded i m pl e m e nt a tion o f st a n d ards w hich w ere better al i g ned w i t h c o l l e g e e ntran c e e x p ect a ti o ns. Ne x t G e ner a tion S unsh i ne S t a t e St a n dards w ere p l a n n ed a nd de v elo p e d b y K 12 a n d p osts e c o n dary stak e hold e rs to al i g n instruction f o r b o t h s e c o ndary a n d p ost s eco n dary e duc a tion se ct o rs i n a ll c o re aca d e m ic s ubject are a s. The s tre a m l i ned c u r r iculum w as i m p l e m en t ed in pha s es b as e d on a c ad e m ic in s tructi o nal ar e as. D r Er i c J. S m ith, C o m m iss i o n er o f Educ a tio n addres s ed c o m m u nity c o l l e g e p resid e nts a nd d istr i ct su p er i nt e n d e n t s in t h e f ol l o w ing m e m or a nd u m c oncern i ng Se n a te Bi l l 19 0 8: Sen a te Bi l l 19 0 8, p as s ed b y t h e 2 008 F l or i da Legis l a t ure a nd si g n e d into l a w by t h e G over n or on J u n e 30, 20 0 8, is a c o m pre h ensive edu c ation ref o r m initiative w hich e n c o m passes s everal s e para t e, b ut re l at e d a cti o ns t hat r e qui r e y o ur att e ntio n Ch a pt e r N u m ber 200 8 2 3 5, G e n eral L a w s of F l or i da, inc l udes revis i o ns to s e ct i on 10 0 8. 3 0, F l o r i da St a t u t es, relat i ng t o c o m m on p lac e m ent t esting f o r posts e c on d ary e duc a tion a nd ext e ndi n g o pp o rtunities f or r e m e diati o n to high school s eniors. S pecif i cal l y, t h is le g is l a tion t h at re q ui r es cros s sect o r ( secon d ar y posts e c on d ary) c o o pe r ative e fforts c al l s for e x pa n ded c ol l e g e/c a r e er readin e ss t e sting o f 11 t h g r a de st ud e nts w ho e xp r ess p osts e c o ndary i nt e nt, a nd f urthe r col l aborati v e e f f o rts t o m ake p osts e c o n d ary r e m ediation a v ai l able to 1 2 t h g r a de st u d e nts w h o d e m onstrate a n e ed f or a n d in t erest in addit i onal pre p aration (Sena t e Bi l l 1 90 8 2 0 0 8 ) T h e c o m pr e h e nsi v e c o l l e g e readin e ss le g is l ation c a l l ed f or c r os s se c t o r c ol l a b oration and pla n ning f or as s e s sing hi g h sc h ool s t ud e nts to id e nt i f y a cad e m i c w eaknesses p r i or to g radu a tion. T he pr i m ary g oal o f t he le g is l ation is to v aca t e t h e p re v io u s p ractices o f

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98 st a t e s, w aiting u ntil st u dents e n t e r p osts e c o n dary e ducat i on and c o m ple t e r e m e diation dur i ng the f r es h m a n c o l l e g e y ear. Rather, a c a de m ic w eak n ess w ould be re m edia t ed pr i or to t he s t u d ent at t ending t h e f i r st y ear i n col l e g e. Thus, t h e le g is l ation w ould promote s t u d ent p ost s eco n dary readin e ss, c ontr i bu t e t o st u d e nt s u ccess, a nd s up p ort st u d e nt re t ent i on in c o l le g e. Addit i onal l y t h is m ea s ure decrea s ed t h e f in a ncial c o st re q ui r ed f or r e m edi a ti n g stude n ts f or post s e c on d ary e ducati o n t hro ug h a ddressing aca d e m ic d e f ic i enc i es pr i or to g rad u atio n T h e le g is l ation is f o cu s ed o n s t u d e nts w ho s h ow int e nt t o p ursue p o sts e c o n dary edu c ation, t h us incr ea sing t h e n u m ber o f st u dents o n track f o r g raduati o n a n d p r epar e d f o r post s ec o ndary e d u cation. The g o als o f t h e le g is l ation w ere d is c ussed as f o l l o w s in t h e S e n ate Bi l l 19 0 8 m e m o r an d u m : I m p ortant g oals of this law are t o : 1) i ncr e ase t h e nu m ber and p er c e nt a g e o f st u d e nts w h o g r a d u ate from h igh sc h o ol c ol l ege and c a r e er r ead y "; 2 ) be t t e r co m m unicate w i t h 1 1th g rade st u de n ts a nd th eir p are n ts t h e re q ui re m ents and op p ortunities for e nrol l m ent in col l eg e credit courses w it h out a n e e d for re m ediatio n a nd; 3) to p rovide s t u d ent s w h o se test sc o res in Re a din g W r i t i ng and / or M at h e m atics indicate any gap s a n op portunity to at t ain n e ed ed co m pet e ncies i n 12 t h g rade p r i or t o h i gh s c h o ol gra d uati o n ( S e na t e Bi l l 190 8 20 0 8 ) T h e le g is l ation ai m ed t o a d dress t he ne e d f o r co m m u nicati o n w ith p arents c oncern i ng t h e re q ui re m e n ts f or p osts e c o ndary e d ucati o n. Co n l ey d et e rm i ned t hat t he l ack o f co m m u nication re g arding the aca d e m ic pre pa ration, f i nanc i al aid, a n d o p port u nities a v ai l able in p o sts e c o n dary e ducat i on disco u r a g es the d re a m s o f a s pi r ing m in o r i ty st u d e nts and their f am i l i es. U l t i m at e ly, this l e gis l ation w i l l help us t o g r a d u ate bet t er pr e pared st u dent s increase access t o p o s ts e co n dary o p p ortunit i es, e nh a nce c areer s u ccess, a nd pro m o te stu d ent ret e n t ion a nd c o m pletion in c ol l ege. My ex p ect a t i on is t h at 12 t h grade s t u d ents w i l l h a v e a ccess to t h e s a m e c o urse cur r iculum a nd b e e va l uat e d and plac e d u si n g t he s a m e standards which are u s e d f or eval u ati n g a nd p laci n g "regular l y" a d m itt e d c o l l ege

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99 s t ud e nts in p o s ts e con d ary cours e w ork. I strongly urge clo s e c o l l a borati o n b e tween h i g h sc h oo l s a nd c o l l e g es n ot o nly o n ad m inistration o f plac e m ent assess m ents, b u t also in fa c ult y to f a cu l ty co m m unicatio n w her e by c o l l e g e fa c ulty w ith exper i en c e in s uccess f ul del i very o f re m edial c o urses can share c u r r iculum inf o r m ation w ith t h eir s e c o n dary col l eag u es. ( S en a te Bi l l 19 0 8, 2 008 ) T h e f i r st s t ep t ak e n b y Flor i da le g is l at o rs w as to d e f ine c o l l e g e re a din e ss a nd to select a n a s s ess m ent t hat w i l l al i g n w ith post s eco n dary e ntran c e e x p ect a ti o ns (F l or i da Re a ding Co u nci l 2 0 0 9 ). Determi n ati o n o f col l e g e readi n ess w as b a s ed o n t he hi g h school s t ud e nt s a bi l ity to m e e t m ini m um sc o r ing re q ui r e m ents o f t he Col l e g e Plac e m e n t T est, A C T o r S A T c o l l e g e entr a n c e tes t T his le g is l ation recreat e d a nd rein v ent e d Flor i i nitial e fforts o f t h e Acce l eration Pro g ram t o a b road e ned c o l l e g e readin e ss p ro g ram w ith increa s ed a w arene s s o f t he pro g ram t o a ll st u d e nts. The Com m on Plac e m e nt A ssess m e nt r e q ui r ed close c o l l a borat i on b et w een s eco n dary instituti o ns a n d c om m u nity c o l l e g es. D r Er i c S m ith n o t e d : It is incu m bent u p on e ach c o mm unity c o l l ege a nd t h eir fe e der hi g h s chools t o begin taki n g t h e n ece s sary steps to m ove f orward w i t h c o m pl i ance. Per St a t e Board R ule 6 A 10 03 1 5(11), ... t he ad m inistration of t he plac e m ent t e st w i l l be un d er the c o n trol a n d s uperv i sion of t he c o m m unity c o l l ege." T h e i m pl i cation o f Dr. Er i c S m m e m o r a n dum is t h at c o m m u nity c o l l e g es w ould le a d in t h e e ffort to a s s ess s e c o n d ary stud e nts. Alth o u g h b oth K 12 and h i g her edu c ation s ect o rs m u s t w ork col l aborati v ely t o a ch i e v e this c o m m on p urpo s e, t he co m m u nity c o l l e g e s a re resp o nsible f o r a d m i nistration o f t he plac e m e n t t e s t. I n a dditi o n, t h is e ffort pro v id e d i ncreas e d o p por t uni ty for c o m m u nity c o l l e g es to r ecruit hi g h sc h ool st ud e nts t o p art i cip a t e in v ar i ous p ro g ra m s a n d a cce l eration p ro g rams includ e d u nder its a uspi c es. T h e v ent u re to c o n n ect c o m m u nity c o l l e g es w ith seco n dary sc h ools is a paradi g m t h at e n c our a g ed c o l l e g e ret e n tio n St u d ents w ho part i cip a te in dual enrol lm ent pro g ra m s w ere n ear l y 1 2 p ercent more likely to c o m pl e te t heir f i r st a nd s e c ond y ear o f

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100 col l e g e th a n st u d e nts w ho d o n o t p art i cip a t e in t h e d u al en r ol l m e nt pro g ram ( N ASS P 20 1 0). Florida has pr o pos e d v ar i ous initiati v es to b r i d g e t he g a p b e t w een s e co n dary and post s eco n dary e d ucati o n to inclu d e c o l l eg e s u ccess a c ad e m y op e n to a ll sc h o ol distr i cts in F l or i da. The initiati v e creat e s a n e e d f or t he s c hool distr i ct to w ork c l osely w ith local co m m unity c ol l e g es f o r st u d e nts cit i ng int e rest in p o s ts e c o ndary study to g raduate f r om h i g h sc h ool o n ti m e w ith t w o d u al enrol lm ent credits ( F lor i da De p art m ent o f E d ucat i on, 2 0 11). N ear l y h alf o f t he s t u d e n ts en t er i ng Flor i o sts e co n dary edu c ation n e ed e d r e m ediati o n (OP P G A, 20 0 7). O v er 95 p ercent o f t h e s t u d ents i n n e ed o f r e m ed i ation at t en de d c o m m unity c o l l e g es in Flor i da. Ensur i ng cl o se c o l l a b orati o n w ith K 12 a nd c o m m u n ity c o l l e g es is of cr i tical i m por t ance to the a c a de m ic s uccess o f seco n dary stud e nts a s pi r ing to a t t en d c o l l e ge T h e g oal o f t h e le g is l a t ion is to d e v elop a p a t h o f l e g is l ation t h at pr e pares 1 00 percent o f s t u d ents f or posts e c on d ary e duc a tion a nd t h e w ork f orce. U l ti m at e l y a h i g h school dipl o m a w i l l be e v id e nce o f st u de n t a c ad e m ic pr o f ic i e nc y T h e De p art m e nt o f Educ a tion desi g na t ed t hat s c hool distr i cts are responsib l e f or de v el o ping p ol i cies f or det e r m ining st u de n t in t erest in post s eco n dary e du c atio n T h e st a t u t e i m pl e m e nt e d m a n da t es t o r e m ed i ate stu d ents w ho desi g na t e int e re s t in post s eco n dary e ducat i on a nd st u d e nts w ho p e r f orm below the c u t score o n the F lor i d a C o m pr e h e nsi v e Assess m e nt T e s t. Flor i da St a t u e 1 0 08. 3 0 re q ui r es t h at s c h ools id e nt i f y stud e nts w ho d o n o t m e e t col l e g e readi n ess re qu i r e m e n ts a n d re v iew the st u de n p e r f o rm a n c e o n t h e te s ting to d et e r m ine in w hich ar e a t h e st u d e nt n eeds a d ditio n al in s tructio n A f t er r e v i e w ing the st u d e nt s t est p e r f or ma nce, t he s c h o ol is re q ui r ed to discuss t he are a s o f a c a d e m ic d e f ic i encies w ith the s t ud e nt a nd pro v ide the st u d e nt w ith t h e a p pr o pr i ate r e m e dial

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101 ins truction pr i or to en te r i ng p osts e c o ndary e d ucati o n. T h e in t ent o f t he le g is l ation w as to increase t he n u m b er o f st u d ents w ho g rad u a t e a c a d e m ically p ro f ic i e nt a nd decrea s e the n u m ber o f in c o m i n g stude n ts w ho n e ed r e m e diati o n p r i or t o b e g in n ing their posts e c on d ary stud y K 2 0 Init i ati v es A m eri c an D i ploma P r o j ect In 2 00 8 G o v ernor C hr i s a n n oun c ed F l or i part i cip a ti o n w ith the A m er i can D i plo m a Project N et w ork. ACT and Ach i e v e d e v elo p ed t he A m er i can Diplo m a Project to con v ene g o v ernors, s t ate edu c a tion le g is l at o rs, posts e c o n dary e d u cation l ea d ers, a n d busin e ss lea d ers to mo v e for w ard in i m pro v ing the prepar a tion o f h i g h sc h ool s e niors f o r post s ec o ndary e d u cation. In a d ditio n Ac h ie v e h as w orked to al i g n h i g h sc h o ol st a n d ards a nd g ra d uat i on re q ui r e m e nts w ith p osts e c o ndary e ntr a nce e x pect a ti o ns. T h e A me r i can Diplo m a Project w as initiat e d t o o r g ani z e e f f orts f o r a l l 50 o f t h e Uni t ed St a t e s to make m o v e m ent t o w ards creating a col l e g e a nd w ork f orce ready p o p ulation o f st u d e nts. Achie v e h as succes s f ul l y a s sisted o v er 35 stat e s in d e v elo p ing stan d ards f o r le a rnin g F l or i da joi n ed e f f orts w ith the A m er i c an Dipl o m a Project to i ncrease t h e nu m ber o f h i g h sc h ool st u d e nts prepar e d f o r col l e g e a nd t h e w ork f o rce. Dr. Judi t h Bilsky d iscuss e d t h e g oals o f t h e st a t e p art i cip a tion in t h e A m er i c a n Diplo m a Pro j ect Colle g e Readi n ess Init i ati v e. D r Bi l sky stat e d: If stu d ents do not m eet t h e a p propr i a t e c u t s c ores on t h e CPT t o e n t er i nto col l eg e lev e l c ours e w o rk, distr i cts are r e qui re d to provide re m ediati o n p r i or to hig h s c hool grad u ati on The plan i nclu d es d r i ving c o mm u nity c o l l ege p rep courses in m ath and E ngl i sh d own in t o t he high sc h ools so t h at h i gh sc h ool st u d e nts have the o pp ortunity t o g r ad u ate m eeti n l e g e re a exit st a ndard s The g oal is t o signifi c a ntly d rop t h e re m ediat i on ra t e for r e c ent h i g h school grad u at e s en t er i ng po s ts e co n dary e du c ation i m m ediately f o l l o w i n g h igh sc h ool grad u atio n

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102 T h e p urpose o f t h e init i ati v e w as to increase t he n u m ber o f s t ud e nts ready for posts e c on d ary e duc a tion. T his i nitiati v e ai me d to decr e ase t he n u m ber o f s t u d ents ent e r i n g p osts e c on d ary instit u tions w ho n e ed re m e diati o n in t he f i r st y ear of col l e g e. C o mmission of Go H i gher, Florida Ta s k F o rce T h e Go Hi g her E d u c at i on T ask F orce w as a p poin t ed f o r t h e p urpo s e o f de v elo p ing a n d a ssist i ng w ith the i m p l e m en t ation o f Flor i c ol l e g e read i ness initiati v es. T h e Flor i da St a te B o ard o f E duc a tion d e f in e d c o l l e g e a n d c a reer r e a din e ss as f ol l o w s: St u d e nts are c o nsid e r ed c o l l e g e and c a reer r eady w hen they h a v e t he kno w le d g e, ski l ls, a nd aca d e m ic prepar a tion ne e ded to enroll a nd s ucc e e d in introduc t ory c o l l e g e credi t b e ar i ng c o urses w ithin a n a ssoc i ate or b accala u r e ate de g ree p ro g ram w ithout t h e n e e d f or r e m e d i ation. T h e c o l l e g e and c a reer readi n ess d e f inition was rec o m m e n ded b y t h e task f o rce in 2 0 08 a nd co m ple t ed for r ec o m m e n dati o n in February 2 0 1 1. T h e d e v elo pm e nt o f t he co m m o n d e f i nition w as d e t ermi n ed b y a c ol l a borati o n o f a g encies to a l l ow f or col l aborat i on bet w een a g encies in t he de v el o p m e nt o f t he c o m m o n d e f initi o n. A col l aborati v e cros s se c t o r te a m c o m po s ed o f t he Flor i da Di v is i on o f Publ i c S c hools, D i vis i on o f Car e er a n d Adult Edu c atio n a nd t he B oard o f G o v ernor s O f f ice s y st em atical l y d e v elo p ed a c o m m on d e f init i o n o f c ol l e g e a n d c a r eer readi n ess (F l or i da St a te B o ard o f E duc a tion 20 1 1). T his d e f init i on d et a i l s t he c o m p on en t s o f c o l l e g e readin e ss to i nclu d e a t tr i but e s o f t he t ermi n o l o g y o f st u d e nt ski l ls, a cad e m ic prepar a tion, a n d c om m on c o re s t a n dards s t ud e nts m ust achie v e f o r post s eco n dary edu c ation. F l or i e f f ort inclu d ed tr a nsitio n i ng to c o l l e g e a nd c ar e er sta n dards w h ich w ere better al i g ned w i t h po s ts e c o ndary e ntr a nce e x pec t ations f or g rad u ating stu d ent s

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103 Ra c e to t h e To p Init ia t i v e T h e m ost c o m pre h ens iv e c h an g e to Flor i edu c ation s y st e m w as creat e d un d er F l or i a n s t o e n t e r t h e Ra c e to t h e Top c om petiti o n. T his en d ea v or pursu e d by the st a te o f Flor i da in 2 0 10 re s ult e d in t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on o f cr i ti c al r e f orm e fforts t o bet t er pre p are s t ud e n t s for po s ts e c o n d ary e ducati o n ( U .S. D e par t m ent o f E duc a tion, 20 1 3 ) T he f i r st initiati v e inclu d ed a c o m pr e h e nsi v e e v alu a tion s y st e m w hich m easur e d st u d e nt l e arning a s an eleme n t o f t ea c her a nd a d m inistrator e v alu a t i on (Bo s er, 2 012 ) T h e e v alu a t i on s y st e m link e d s t ud e nt l e arni n g to tea c her a nd pr i ncip a l e v alu a ti o n, t hus cal l ing f o r de e per ac c o unt a bi l ity f or e du c at o rs w ith r e g ard to stu d ent aca d e m ic pe r f or m an c e A dditi on al l y t h e Race to t he Top initi a ti v e c a l l ed f or n ew m easures to al i g n the c u r re nt K 1 2 cur r iculum t o p osts e c o ndary e ntran c e e x pec t ations. This m ea s ure w as e n act e d t h rou g h t he i m pl e m e n t ation o f t he C o m m o n Core S t a te St a n dard s w hich F l or i da a do p t e d in 2 0 1 0. F l or i f ull a d o ption o f t h e s t a n dards occur r ed in 2 0 1 3 1 4 Posts e con d a r y Readiness M e a s u res T h e e nac t m e nt o f Col l e g e Readi n ess le g is l a t ion re q ui r ed sc h ool distr i cts to m o v e d e f ic i e n t st u de n ts to c o l l e g e e ntran c e p r o f ic i e nc y Althou g h s t ate a c coun t abi l ity under t h e A plus le g is l ation r e q ui r ed sc h o ols to p r ov ide stude n ts w ith a t l e ast o ne y ear s g r o w th dur i ng each s c hool y ear, col l e g e r e a d in e ss le g is l ation re q ui r ed sc h ool distr i cts to e x t e nd its pur p o s e t o p repar i ng stu d ents f o r p osts e c o ndary e d ucati o n. As a result o f t h e st a t e g oals to incr e a s e st u de n t pr e pare d ne s s for po s ts e c o n d ary e ducati o n, all edu c ation s ect o rs w ere re q ui r ed to p art i ci p a t e in t he pla n n i ng p roc e ss for i ncreasing t he q ual i ty o f t he e x per i e n ces o f s t u d ents w ho transition thr o u g h t h e K 20 e duc a tion pip e l i ne.

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104 F l or i l e g e read i ness initi a ti v es re q ui r e K 12 sc h ool distr i cts to c o l l abor a te w ith local co m m unity c ol l e g es throu g h s t u d e n t p art i cip a tion w ith c om m unity c o l l e g es t h rou g h pr o f e ssi o nal c ol l aborat i on, ear l y c o l l e g e p ro g ra m s, a nd c o m pleting c o l l e g e assess m ent p r i or to s t ud e nts c o m p l eting h i g h sc h o ol. T his c ol l abo r ation is bas e d o n t he necessity f or K 1 2 a nd hi g her edu c ation le a d e rs to h a v e v ert i cal pla n ning for st u de n t access t hrou g h t he K 20 e duc a tion pip e l i n e. M inori t y St u den t s Postsecondary Partici p ation Higher Educ a tion C o ordinating C ouncil ( H B 71 5 1) In 2 01 1 t h e Hi g her E d ucati o n Coord i nating C ouncil w as i m pl a nt e d b y state le g is l at u re to incr e ase st u d e nt access and p r epar e dness f or all s t u d ents. Alth o u g h Ho u se Bi l l 7 1 5 1 d o es not s pec i f ically a ddre s s t h e l e g is l ation to f o c u s o n m in o r i ty st u d e nts, t h e le g is l ation w as creat e d to i nclu d e m i n or i ties a nd disa d v ant a g ed st u de n ts. Based o n t h e p urpos e s s e t f o rth in t h e O n e F lor i da Plan le g is l ation, t h e le g is l ati v e a g enda w as to crea t e an o v erh a ul to t h e e du c a tion s y st e m in Flor id a. T he p u r pose o f t h e le g is l ation s u m m ar i z ed in the e x cerpt f r o m House Bi l l 71 5 1 a s f ol l o w s: Perfor m ance o u t p u ts and out c o m es d esig n e d to m eet an n ual and lon g t e rm state g o als, incl u din g but n o t l i m ited to, increas e d st u d e nt ac c es s prepar e dnes s re t enti o n, tran s f e r, and c o m pletio n P erfor m ance m easures m ust be c o nsis t ent across sec t ors a n d a l l o w f or a c o m par i son o f t he st a t e s p erfor m ance to t h at of ot h er sta t es ( H B 7 1 5 1 2 0 1 1 ). T h e Hi g her E d ucati o n Co o rdinat i ng Council c on v ened as a m ea s ure to o v ersee st u d e nt access, c ol l e g e read i ness, r e t e n tion, and s t u d ent p ost s ec on dary c om plet i on. T h e le g is l ati v e int e nt o f HB 7 1 1 st a t e d t h at t he p urpo s e o f t h e le g is l a t ion w as to bui l d relat i onships a n d col l abora t e. T h e le g is l ation outli n ed t hat t h e purpo s e o f t h e bi l l w as to further f a ci l itate the bui l ding o f t h e K 2 0 e d ucati o n s y st e m b y stren g t h e n i ng

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105 relationsh i ps. Fur t her m or e t h e c om m itt e e w ould a d v ise concerning t he art i cu l ation o f transition f r om o n e s e c t o r to t h e n e x t in t erms o f e ntran c e a nd e x it re q ui r e m ents. It is the int e nt o f t h e L egis l at u re to f a ci l ita t e a rt i culation and s e a m less integrat i on of t he K 20 edu c ation sy s t e m b y b ui l din g and s u s t ainin g a nd streng t hen i ng rel a tion s hips a m ong K 20 publ i c o rgan i z ations, b e t w e en publ i c a nd pr i va t e org a n i z ations, and b e t w e en the e d ucati o n system a s a w h ole a nd Flor id a s c o m m unities. The p ur p o s e o f bui l di n g, a nd s us t aining, and s tren g t h e ning the s e relati o nships is to provide f or t h e e f ficie n t a nd effecti v e p r o gression a nd tr a nsf e r of s t ud e nts w ithin t h e e d ucat i on s y st e m and to al l ow s t u d ents t o p roc e ed t o w ard t h eir edu c atio n al ob j ectives as rapidly a s t heir ci r cu m s t a nces p er m i t ( H B 7 151, 20 1 1 ). T h e le g is l ati v e lan g ua g e o f pol i cy Ho u se Bi l l 7 151 s t a t es t h at t he co mm i t t e e w ould bui l d relati o nsh i ps to f o s t e r a d e e per a l i g n m ent bet w een s e c t ors. The t e a m w i l l re v i e w stat e w ide d ata t o p ro v ide insi g ht re g arding n e e ds f or be t t e r a rt i culati on and al i g n m ent o f t h e sta te w ide s y st em The le g is l ation s pec i f ically stat e s that t h e c om m itt e e w ould purpo s e to crea t e a n d f ost e r r el a tionsh i ps to bui l d t h e K 20 s y st em O n e o f t h e pr i m ary a reas t h at t h e council w i l l address is t he in t e g ration o f c o mm uni cati o ns w ithin t h e a g encies o f t h e s y st e m T he lan g ua g e o f t he le g is l ation d o es n ot discuss h ow co m m u nication re g arding p aren t s o r s t ud e nts w i ll b e a dd r essed. Alt h ou g h t h e co m m itt e e is o r g ani z ed to i ncrease c o m m un i cations, t h ere is n o la ng ua g e in the le g is l ation re g arding measures to discuss re q ui r e m e nts or e x pect a t i ons f o r l earning o f each s ect o r. F or e x a m ple, p arents a n d s t ud e n ts o f u n der r epre s en te d st u de n ts n eed to en g a g e in e ar l y c om m unicati o n to p r e pare th eir fa m i l ies f o r col l e g e entran c e e x pect a tion s T h e le g is l ation addres s es h ow the c om m itt e e w i l l assi s t t h e sta t e in pro v iding c om m unicat i ons w ithin t h e s y st e m Senate Bi l l 1 0 8 : M in o ri t y or Underreprese n ted St u dent A chi e v ement Sen a te Bi l l 108 s t a t es w ithin t h e le g is l ation th at t h e p artner s hip incl u ded i n this le g is l ation w ould help t o s e lect m i n or i ty stud e nts f or r i g orous c ourse w ork. T his

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106 partner s hip w ould w ork i n c o n j uncti o n w ith sc h ool distr i cts to s elect st u d e nts t o part i cip a t e in m ore r i g orous c o urses to inclu d e Ad v anc e d Pla ce m e n t courses or s i m i l a r t y pes o f a d v anced c o u rses. In addit i on, t h e p artnership w ould co m m uni c ate op p ortunities w ith re g ard to a d v anced c o urs e s to s t ake h old e rs: An a ct re l ating to t h e F l or i da Part n ership f o r M in o r i ty and Un d er r epre s en t ed S t u dent Achie v e m ent; a m endi n g s. 10 0 7. 3 5 F S .; specifying th a t t he p ar t nership m ust co o per a t e w i t h sc h ool distr i cts t o id e ntify m in o r i ty a n d u nder r epre s en t ed s t u d e nts f o r part i cip a tion in AP o r ot h er adv a nc e d c o urs e s; specifyi n g t hat t h e p artnership m ust coo p erate w ith s c h o ol distr i cts to provi de i n f o r m ation to parents rega r ding AP and ot h er adv a nc e d c o urs e s; specifyi n g t hat t h e p artnership m ust provi d e infor m ation regard i ng Prel im in a ry SAT/Nati o nal M er i t Sc h olarship Q u al i fying Test ( P SAT / N M SQT)or Prel i m in a ry ACT (PLAN) a d m inist r ation ( Sena t e Bi l l 1 0 8 2 0 07) In a ddition to s e lecti o n o f q ual i f ied c a n did a t es f o r r i g orous c o urse w ork, t h e p ol i cy is di r ect e d to t r ain tea c hers i n a r eas o f c o nt e n t kno w le d g e to e q uip s t ud e nts f o r m ast e ry o f c o l l e g e le v el cours ew ork. T he additi o nal m easure i nclu d ed w ithin t h e S e n ate Bi l l 108 (2007) w as to pro v ide t eac h ers w ith p rof e ssi o nal d e v elo p m ent f o r r i g orous c o urses. W r i t t e n w ithin legis l ati o n w as s p ec i f ic le g is l ati v e lan g ua g e for a par t nership w ith t h e Colle g e Board to cr e a t e pr o f e ssio n al de v elo p m e n t f or t e a c hers t o p r epare t h e m t h rou g h co n f er e nces, w orkshops, a nd tra i nin g s to a c cl i m ate to c ol l e g e le v el c o urses. Go v A ccess a nd D i v ersi t y C ommission T h e cre a tion o f t he co mm iss i o n c a l l e d f or a d i v erse co mm it t ee w ith m e m b ers f r o m m ultip l e a g encies w ithin t h e K 2 0 e duc at ion s y st e m t o r e prese n t a n d p ro v ide ad v ice on iss u es o f u n der represe n t e d a n d e con o m ically d isa d v an t a g ed st u de n ts. T h e g o v ernor s order c r ea t ed m ultiple stre a m s o f sup p ort f or m in o r i ty st u dent s For e x a m ple, a measu r e to p ro v ide p rof e ssio n al de v elo p m e nt w as i m pl e m e nt e d t h rou g h a p ro v is i on o f f u nding f o r a p artne r ship w ith t h e Col l e g e B oard. The part n ership w ould include

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107 pr o f essi o nal d e v elo p m ent s up p ort f or t e a c he r s a nd t u t or i ng p ro g rams f o r st u de n ts. A n additi o nal m e asure i m pla n t ed by t h e le g is l ation w as t h e pro v is i on o f f u n ding f or a t r i sk, lo w inc om e s t u d ents t h rou g h the ( S T ARS) S t a nley T a te Scholar s hip Tuition f o r At Risk St u d ents pro g ra m In a dditio n t h e f u nding e x t en d ed t o p ro v is i on f o r t he Col l e g e R e ach O u t Pro g r a m ( C ROP) f o r a f t e r sc h ool c o un s e l i ng a nd t ut o r i al s er v ic e s. The le g is l ati o n consist e ntly re f er e nc e d st u de n ts w ho f ell w ithin t h e class i f icat i on o f f i r st g ener a tion, at r i sk, and lo w inc o m e s t ud e nts as a re q ui re m e nt f or re c ei v ing a ssistance o utlin e d in t he le g is l at u re. A n ot a ble g rant f u n d ed f r om t h e l eg is l ation w as the Fi r st G e ner a tion m a tch g rant. Post A f f irmat i v e A ct i on Imp a ct on Studen t s of C o lor F l or i da e n act e d le g is l ation t o re d esi g n its a pp roach t o e duc a ting st u dents in F l or i da. T his rec o nstr u ction o f F l or i g o v ernan c e struc t ure cur r i c ulum al i g n m e nt, and t e sting w as u sed as a m ec h ani s m f or a d dre s sing learning d e f ic i enc i es in s t u d e nts o f color. A lt h ou g h Flor i da s e nd to a f f i r m ati v e a c t ion in t en d ed t o s e arch f o r consis t ent w id el y a ccept e d f o r m s o f f air p r actice in the p osts e c o ndar y a d m iss i o ns p roces s F l or i n e F l or i da P lan resul t ed in a decl i n e in a c c ep t ance o f m i n or i ty students i n posts e c on d ary instit u t i ons (Bl u m e & L on g 20 14). Bl u m e & Long (2 0 14) conc l ud e d t hat t h ere w as a si g n i f ica n t decl i ne in a cc e pt a nce o f m in o r i ty stud e nts in t h e six p os t a f f i r m a ti v e action st a t e s (one o f w hich is F l or i d a ) w here the p r a cti c e is ba n ned ( s ee F i g ure 4 1 ) Card & Krue g er ( 20 0 5) d e t e rmi n ed t hat t w o o f t h e six post a f f i r m ati v e action s t a t es m i nor i ty e nrol l m e n t f ell f r om 3 0 5 0 p erc e nt f o r Bla ck a n d Hisp a nic st u d e nts. F or this s t u d y w e a nal yz e the tre n ds o f m i n or i ty a ccept a nce a nd aca de m ic pe r f or m an c e

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108 Trends o f M inori t y A cadem i c P erforma n c e in Flori d a A C T C o llege Readi n e ss Bench m ark ACT de v elo p e d c o l l e g e read i ness ben c h m ark scores to p ro v ide a c ut score e q ui v ale n t to cr e dit b e ar i ng c o urse w ork bas e d o n t h e e q ui v ale n t p erform a nce o f st u d e nts in c o l l e g e. T h e c o l l e g e re a din e ss b e nch m ark scores pro v id e d a p e r f o rm a nce score f or t he c ore s u b j ect ar e as o f En g l i sh, m at h e m a tics, social sc i e nces, and bio lo g y (AC T 2 0 1 2). T he col l eg e readin e ss b e nc h m a rk score is d e t e rmi n ed as t h e m i nim u m scores ne e ded to ob t ain a 5 0 percent c h a nce o f c o m pleting a col l e g e le v el course w ith a g rade o f B o r hi g her. A dditio n al l y t h e sc o re was t h e e q ui v ale n t t o a 75 p ercent c h a nce o f o bt a ining a g rade o f C or hi g her. A C T (2 01 2) de t ermi n ed t hat 18 percent o f t h e 2 0 12 g raduating c o h ort o f 2 012 i n Flor i da w ere p r e pared f o r p ost s e c on da ry study in a ll f o ur ACT ben c h m ark ar e a s 57 perc e nt o f st u d e n t s in Flor i da p e r f o r m ed at t h e m ini m um c u t score o f 18 on t h e A C T E n g l i sh s u bject a r e a t e st, ju s t b elow the n at i onal a v era g e c u t score o f 67 perc e nt. In c o m p ar i son, 22 per c ent o f s t ud e nts in Flor i da m et t h e b e nc h m ark score in scie n c e The s t ate p e r f o rm a nce in m at h e m at i cs in F l or i da w as 9 p e r centile points below t h e nati o nal p e r f o r m a n ce in m a t h e m atics o f a 4 6 perce n t o f st u de n ts in o ur nati o n de e m e d a C ol l e g e R ead y i n m a t h e m atics. In s u bject areas o f re a ding a nd sc i enc e F l or i da sli g htly lag g ed b ehi n d t h e n ati o nal p ercent a g e o f s t ud e nt c ol l e g e readi n e ss pr o f ic i enc y Re a ding p erform a nce ba s ed on t he c o l l e g e r e adi n ess i n dicators prescr i b ed by ACT r e f lec t ed 6 p ercentile points l o w er th a n t h e st a te perce n t a g e o f 5 2 p ercent o f st u d e nts prepar e d f o r col l e g e le v el course w o rk i n s o cial scien c e col l e g e le v el c o urses. Subject a rea te s t s in r e ading w ere p ai r ed w ith e q ui v ale n cy f or social scie n ce m as t ery in posts e c on d ary c o urs ew ork.

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109 A CT P erfo r mance in Florida St u d ents i n Flor i da i ncreas e d p e r f o r m ance in areas o f m a t h e m atics, readin g a nd scie n c e as r e f lec t ed i n t h eir a v era g e ACT sc o res. Alt h ou g h s t ud e nts in F l or i da re g ressed in 2 008 to 2 009 f r om an a v era g e A CT sc o re o f 19 8 t o 1 9 5 dr o pping n ear l y 2 p erc e nt in o n e y ea r t he s u bse q u e nt y ear s st u d e nts g ain e d a 2 p e rcent increa s e in a v era g e ACT s c o re p e r f o r m an c e. M in o r i ty st u dent p e r f o rm a nce i n Flor i da increa s ed o v er a p er i od o f f i v e y ears. In part i cular, all m i nor i ty stude n ts saw a n increase in a v era g e ACT sc o re s w ith t h e e x ception o f a percen t a g e p oint re g r e ssion in A m er i c a n I n di a n a n d Nati v e A la s kan s t ud e nts. A f r i ca n A m er i c a n st u d e nts inc r eas e d in pe r f or m an c e since 2 00 9. T he o v erall pe r f o r m ance o f all stu d ents t e s t e d in A C T s u bject areas. The s t ate p e r f o rman c e sc o re f or each subject area is r e f l ect e d in C h art 2. In co m p ar i son t o t he s t a t e a v era g e sc o res o f pe r f o r m an c e f o r ea c h s u bject a r e a, A f r i ca n A m er i c a n st u d e nt s c ores r e f lec t ed a si g ni f i c ant g ap in a c ad e m ic p erform a nce i n t h e core s u b j ect ar e as o f E n g l i sh, m a t h e m atics, r eadin g a nd sc i enc e The a c hie v e m e nt g ap in te s ting p e r f o r m a nce d e m on str a t e s 3 pe rcent a g e p oints d i f f er e nce in t h e g ap in pe r f or m an c e across A C T t e s t ed s ubject a re a s b et w een w h i te s t ud e nts a nd m in o r i ty st u d e nts. The nati o nal ACT s c ores by r ace a n d e t hnic i ty a re d e pict e d in F i g ure 3. Scores ran g e w ithin 2 0 to 2 1 p ercent a cro ss e ach A C T t e s t ed s ubje c t areas as m e n tio n ed abo v e F l or i da f a red below t h e nat i onal perce n t a g es. S t u dents scored a t 18.9 p erc e nt in En g l i sh in c o m par i s o n to t h e s t a te a v era g e o f 2 0.5 p ercent. Alt h ou g h st u d e nts in Flor i da sc o red sli g htly b elow the n atio n a l a v era g e p e r f o r m an c e o n t he AC T A f r i ca n A m er i can s t u d ent s w ere c o n s istent w ith t h e n atio n al a v era g e in t h e areas o f m a t h e m atics and r e adin g

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110 S A T C oll e ge a nd C ar e er R e adine s s B ench m ark S A T ( 2 0 12) d esi g ned a b e nc h m ark sco r e to m ea s ure s t ud e nt r e ad i ness f o r col l e g e a nd c a reer to p ro v ide p osts e c on d ary i nstit u ti o ns w ith a sc o re w hich predicted st u d e nt r e adi n ess a nd success f o r post s eco n dary e ducat i on and the w ork f orce. T h e score s e t by S A T w as a n a c t u al s c ore o f 1 5 5 0 w hich projec t ed a 6 5 perc e nt e x pe ct a ncy f or t h e s tu dents to achie v e p ost s eco n dary s u ccess in th e st u de n ts f i r st y ear o f c o l l e g e t hrou g h o ut t he s t ud e nt s f o urth y e a r o f p o s ts e c o n d ary st u d y SAT (2 0 1 2) det e r m in e d t h at c ol l e g e read i ne s s is d e f i n ed as t h e p oint in w hich a st u d e nt posses s es t h e k no w le d g e, ski l ls, a nd be h a v iors to s u c c es s f ul l y c om pl e te a c o l le g e c o urse o f s t ud y Additi o nal l y col l e g e readin e ss is de t ermi n ed by b oth aca d e m ic a n d no n a c ad e m ic f a ct o rs t hat a ffect a st u e adi n ess f o r p o sts e co n dary e du c atio n St u de n ts w ho f all below the c u t score o f 15 5 0 f or de t ermi n ation a l e g e re a d y l l h a v e the op p ortunity a n d p ot e n tial to s ucce e d in post se con d ary study a nd t he w ork f orce. T h e Colle g e Board c oncl ud ed t hat t h e S A T s c ore should n ot b e u til i z ed in isolati o n, b ut should ra t h er be us e d w ith a n u m ber o f o t her predictors o f suc c es s such a s g rades or ot h er s i m i l ar f ac t ors t h at c a n i m pact a s t ud en a ca d e m ic s uccess. S A T Coll e ge Suc c ess S A T t ors o f c ol l e g e success w ere d et e rmin e d b y stud e nt ach i e v e m ent o f a m in i m u m o f 1 5 5 0 o n t h e SA T e x a m S t ud en ts achie v ing w ithin t h e est a bl i s h ed c ut sco r e f or r e adi n ess ra ng e w ere p redicated to ha v e a 6 5 p ercent c h a nce o f a c hie v ing a g rade o f a B or hi g her dur i ng the f i r st y ear o f col l e g e. Thus, t h e st ud ent achie v ed a hi g her r ate o f s uc c ess t h an t h e st u de n ts p e r f o rming b elow this ran ge T h e 2 012 c o h ort o f g raduat i ng s e niors w ho t o ok t h e S A T i n Flor i da e x per i enced nu m erous g ains o v er t he n atio n al a v era g e o f pe r f or m an c e o n t h e e x a m Se v eral areas

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111 o f n ot a bi l ity inclu d e t h e p e r f o r m an c e o f A m er i can I ndian st u de n ts in subject areas o f readin g m at h e m atics, and w r i tin g A m er i can I ndian stu d ents in F l or i da sc o r e d 1 4 p oints hi g her i n read i ng t h a n A m er i c a n I n dian st u d e nts in t he nat i on. A f r i c a n A m er i c a n and H i spanic st u de n ts p e r f o rm e d a t o r a bo v e t h e nati o nal a v era g e in r ea din g m a t h e m a tics, and w r i tin g As r e f lect e d in both Table 4 7 and Table 4 8 A m er i c a n I n dian s t u d ents i n F l or i da scor e d 1 4 points hi g her t h an t he nati o nal a v era g e sc o re o f A m er i c a n I n dian st u dents in t he Uni t ed St a t e s te s t e d on t h e S AT e x a m M i n or i ties at t ain e d si m i l ar suc c ess scor i ng a bo v e t h e st a te a v era g e in read i n g a nd w r i ting o n the S A T A d ditio n al l y A f r i c a n A m er i c a n st u d e nts in Flor i da sc o red a t t h e s a m e le v el o f pe r f o r m a nce as t h e n atio n al a v era g e f or A f r i ca n A m er i can s t u d ents in t h e Unit e d S t a t es in m a t h e m atics. M i nor i ty students in F l or i da f ai re d e x cep t io n al l y w ell in c om p ar i son w ith stu d ents o f t h e s a m e rac e Ho w e v er, in c o m par i s o n to W h i t e s t ud e nt s m i nor i ties sc o r e d c o nsid e rably l o w er i n t h e areas o f r e a din g m at h e m a tics, a nd w r i tin g The e x cepti o n o f m in o r it y students is t h e pe r f or m an c e o f Asian st u d e nts v ersus W h ite st u d e nts. R e f lecting t h e d a ta depic t ed in T a ble 4 7 Asi a n s t ud e nts scor e d c o nsid e r a bly h i g her i n t h e s u bject area o f m a t h e m atics. A d ditio n al l y Asian s tu d ents e x per i enc e d o nly a 2 po i nt d i fferen c e in t heir pe r f or m an c e sc o re i n r eading in c o m par i son t o w hite stu d ent s Reviewing le g is l ation e n act e d in F lor i da d ur i ng 1999 2 0 1 2 T ab l e 4 11 r e f lects F l or i i cies and class i f ies the p ol i cies b ased on t h e in t e nt o f t h e respe c ti v e le g is l ation. F l or i da pred o m in a t e ly p ropo s e d a n d e nac t ed le g is l at i on w hich class i f ies as per m eable le g is l ation. O n e c o uld propo s e t h at F l or id a h as crea t ed m o s tly p erme a ble le g is l ation due to s t ate p la n s to r e f o rm its c ur r ent g o v er n ance and instruct i onal q ual i ty to stud e nts in F l or i da. Ho w e v er, based on t h e Pe r m e a bi l ity a n d T ran s parency F ra m e w ork,

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112 w e anal yz e Flor i i cies a n d p la c e t he pol i cies into t h e f r a m e w ork o f h i g h p erm e abi l ity and l ow transp arenc y W e n otic e d a g ap in l eg is l a tion w hich di r ectly art i culates hi g h sc h ool e x it re q uire m e nts and po s ts e c o n dary e ntrance re q ui r e m e n ts. Al t h o u g h F l or i da e n act e d p ol i cies w hich di r ectly i m pact sc h ool pe r f o r m a nce, p ol i cies w hich co m m u nicat e d h i g h s c hool e x it re q ui r e m ents, p ost s eco n dary s u c c e s s, col l e g e kno w le d g e, and o t her ski l ls necessary for col l e g e p la n ning w ere n ot m e n tio n ed in t h e le g is l ation. In r e v i e w ing Flor i i cies rel a t e d t o p art i cip a ti o n a nd readi n ess, t here is no si g n i f ica n t l e g is l ation w h ich al i g ned w ith sc h ool cert i f ied c o u nsel o r pro g ra ms Analyzing the a ca d e m ic p e r f o r m an c e o f s t ud e nts in F l or id a, t here w ere trends o f low p e r f or m an c e w ith A f r i ca n A m er i c a n st u dents in a ll c o r e a c ad e m ic ar e as o f col l e g e readi n ess indi c at o rs. A dditi o nal l y r e f l ecting on t h e d a t a in Table 4 7, t he re are g aps in p artici p ation in school and being u np r epar e d f or t h e r ig ors of post s eco n dary st u d y A re v iew o f Flor i g is l ation re g ard i ng t h e f a ct t hat cur r iculum m e asures, art i culatio n c o m m uni c ation, a n d c o l l a b orati o n o f t h e n ew K 20 s y s t em inc l ud e d le g is l at i v e lan g u a g e w hich pr i m ar i ly a ddressed s t ud e nts in a g e n eral m a n n e r d e not i ng t h at t h e int e ntion o f t h e p ol i cies w as f o r all s tu dents in t he s t ate o f F l or i da. T h ere w as a g r o w ing trend for i ncr e ased at t en d anc e f or Af r i can A m er i can s t u d en t s a tt e nding sc h ools w ithin t h e Flor i da Col l eg e S y st em Ho w e v er, t h e g aps in col l e g e a tt e nd a nce a r e consid e r a bly lar g e in c om p ar i son t o W h ite st u dent s A f r i c a n A m er i can st u de n ts att e nd e d p osts e c on d ary instit u tio n s a t hi g her rat e s t h an did H i s p anic stu d ents. Alt h ou g h t h e i n t e n tion o f F l or i da s w as to increase t h e a tte n dan c e o f m i nor i ty stud e nts at posts e c on d ary instit u t i ons in Flor id a, t here w as a tr e nd f o r m in o r i ti e s to incr e ase part i cip a ti o n a t F l or i da instituti o ns b u t n ot a t t he s a m e rate o f t h eir c oun t erparts.

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113 A n a l y sis of Participa t ion and Re a di n ess L egisl a tion in Florida An a nal y sis of b o th t he c o l l e g e read i ness a nd p art i cip a t i on le g is l ati o n f or m in o r i ty st u d e nts re v eal e d Flor i g is l ation as p r i m ar i ly permeable in n at u re As a result, w e character i z e Flor i edu c ation l e g is l ation a s hi g hly p ermeab l e b ut low in transpar e nc y In a g re e m e n t w ith F i g ure 4 12, w e classi f y Flor i c ati o n le g is l ati v e s y st e m a s a s y st e m w ith m any o pp ortunities but t h at p os s esses le g is l ati v e m ec h anisms i n p la c e t o promote ti m ely i n f o r m a tion f o r stu d ents a n d p arents t o m a k e a n i n f o r m ed d ecis i o n conce r ning t heir a c a d e m ic f u t ure. The basis o f F l or i r f o r m ance a s a hi g hly per m eable e d ucat i on s truct u re is bas e d o n t h e f in d i n g s o f Flor i r e specti v e e d ucat i on pol i cies pr o pos e d b et w een 1999 t o 2 01 2 w hich f o c us o n a r e as o f c ur r iculu m m ultip l e opti o ns f or hi g h sc h o ol g raduati o n, v i r t u al e du cation, a n d a w ide ra ng e o f like p ol i cies w hich al i g n c u r r iculu m de p art m en t al res o urces, a nd hi g h sc h ool c o m plet i on opti o ns in t o an a r r ay o f opti o ns a v a i l able to a ll st u de n ts r e g ardless o f rac e For e x a m ple, T able 4 11 Le g is l ation f r om 1 9 99 t hrou g h 2 0 0 2 f o cu s ed o n cre a ting F l or i K 20 g o v ern a nce struc t ure but did n ot incl u de le g is l ation which c o m m unic a t e d t h e pla n s o f t he edu c a t ion d epar t m e nts or t h e g oal o f post s eco n dary a ccess or part i cip a ti o n f o r F l or i d a s t u d e nts. There w ere s e v eral pol i cy le v ers included d ur i ng this per i od o f restru c t u r e i nclu d ing HB 2 263 Re o r g ani z ation Plan (2 0 0 0 ), HB 1 6 3 3 S c hool Pe r f or m ance (2 0 01), a nd S B 1 162 K 20 E d u c ation Pe r f o r m an c e Ac c oun t abi l ity (2001 ) w hich solely f ocus e d o n cre a ting a smo o t her path to w ards hi g h sc h ool c o m pl e tion and ultima t ely c o l l e g e a cc e ss. Le g is l at o rs f o cus e d o n de v elo p ing Flor i da as a per m eab l e entity b ut m in i m al l y c om m unic a t e d to s t u d en t s a nd f a m i l ies t h e pro c edures m o v ing t o w ards access a nd d eg ree a ttai n m e n t. There w as m ini m al le g is l ati v e lan g ua g e w ithin t h e s t at u t e s w hich pro v id e d s t at u t o ry d i r ecti v e s to c om m u nicate the re q ui r e m e n ts f or

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114 hi g h sc h ool c o m pleti on post s ec o ndary o p p or t unities, and t h e a v ai l a b i l ity o f f in a ncial a i d Althou g h t h e s e p ol i cies re q ui r ed t h e col l a b oration o f de p art m ents to b et t er pr e pare st u d e nts f o r t h e r i g or of post s ec o ndary e du c a tion, t he pol i cies w ere distincti v ely desi g ned t o cr e ate a s m o o t h er transiti o n f or s t u d e nts in t h e K 20 e d ucati o n p i p el i ne. F l or i da is d istin g uish e d a s h i g h l y p erm e able, m e a ning it p ossesses an e duc a tion s y st e m w ith m any o rs o f o p por t unit y re g a r ding hi g h sc h ool c o m p l etion i nto posts e c on d ary stud y F l or i da e n act e d a s er ie s o f le g is l ation w hich o ffered s t u d ents m ultiple modal i ties o f i nstruction to en c oura g e st u de n p ro g ress i n to h i g h sc h ool co m p l etio n as d e pict e d in T a ble 4 1 1. Analyzing F igure 4 3, w e f u rt h er chara c t e r i ze Flor i K 2 0 e duc a tion g o v ernance s y st e m a s l ow in transpa r enc y W e f u rt h er c l assi f y Flor i p ol i cies as low in trans p arency d ue to F l or i i cy m akers in Flor i da h a v e c e n t e r ed t heir legislative f o c us o n incr e asing per m eable factors which include governance structure, curri culum continuity, and similar governance structural issues T h e le g is l ati v e a g enda in Flor i da re g arding e ducat i on w as d i r ect e d t o e s t abl i sh a K 20 g o v ernance structu r e w hich w ould pro v ide q ual i ty e ducat i on f o r all st u d e nts in Flor i d a T his purpose of the streamlined s y st e m was to provide ad v an c ed l e arning o p p ort u nities re g ardless o f race o r e t h nic i t y However, the measures to increase the transparency of the system was absent in the legislature. The communication of the policies to stakeholders was not suf ficiently articulated within the context of education policy in Florida. Based o n S t ep h an & R ose n ba u m 0 09) c o nstructs o f low transp a renc y F l or i c ati o n le g is l ation lac k ed c o m m un ication re g arding p ost s eco n dary op p ortunities f or s t ud e nts a nd f am i l ies. W e a nal yz ed Flor i i cies f o c using o n

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115 relat e d areas o f c ol l e g e read i ness and p art i c i pati o n w ith re g ard to m in o r i ty student s Based o n t h ese t w o a r eas, the researcher a n aly z e d relat e d a reas w hich di r ectly i m pa c t tr a nspar e ncy f o r stu d ents o f c olor. L e g is l ation re g arding sc h ool c oun s elor e d ucat i on, c o m m u nicati o n w ith st a keh o l d ers r e g arding posts e c on d ary o pport u nities, a n d a c a d e m ic r e m e diati o n are a r e as w hich di r ectly i m pact F l or i an sparency b ut w ere n ot addres s ed in t h e le g is l at u re. S p ec i f icall y, w e f o c us o n t he i m p a ct o f s uch pol i cies o n s t u d e nts w ho w ould ordinar i ly n ot ha v e t he op p ortunity to att e nd c ol l e g e. Alt h ou g h Flor id a crea t ed pol i cies t o assist w ith m atr i culat i n g stude n ts in t o p o s ts e c on d ary stud y t h ere a r e m in i m al pol i cies w hich addre ss c o m m u nication re g arding hi g h sc h ool g ra d uati o n, p o sts e co n dary a ccess, and ulti m at e ly d e g ree attai n m e nt.

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116 Fig ur e 4 1 Flo r ida Depar t me n t o f E du c a t ion st ru c t ur e pr ior to re s t ru c t ur e

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117 F i g u re 4 2 D e p art m e n t of E d u c ation I nt e grat i on F r a m ewo r k T a b l e 4 1 L e g i s l ati o n a d dress i ng m i n o r i ty stu d e n t s Y e a r P ol i c y B i l l T i t l e C l as s i f i c ation of L e g i s l a t i on 1999 E x ecuti v e O rd er 99 2 81 One Fl o r i da P l an P er m e a b l e L e g i s l a t i o n 2004 S B 2 1 8 4 S tu d e n t A ch i e v e m e n t T ra n s p a re n t L e g i sl ation 2006 E x ecuti v e O rd er 06 0 5 A cc ess a n d D i v er s i t y Co mm i s s i on P er m e a b l e L e g i s l a t i o n 007 S B 1 0 8 M i n ori t y or u n d er r e p rese n t ed stu d e n t achieve m e n t Permeable L e g i sl ation 2011 HB 7 1 5 1 H i g h er E d u c a t i on Coor d i na t i ng Co u nc i l P er m e a b l e L e g i s l a t i o n Table 4 2 Six P ost A ff i r m at i v e A c t i on S t a tes Year St a te Ban on Affir m ative Action 19 9 8 W a s h i n g t o n I n itiati v e 2 00 19 9 7 Cali f orn i a Propositi o n 2 09 20 0 0 F l or i da O n e Flor i da Initi a ti v e 20 0 6 M ichi g an Propo s al 2 20 0 8 Ne b raska I n itiati v e 4 24 20 1 1 New Ha m pshi r e I m pl e m ent e d b y le g is l ati v e v ote

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118 T able 4 3 ACT Flo r id a 5 Y e a r Perfor m a n c e of be n c h m a r k s ACT (2012) Y ear State Nation a l State State State State 2008 9 3 8 84 1, 4 2 1, 9 4 1 58 68 35 43 45 53 19 28 2009 1 0 5 2 9 7 1, 4 8 0, 4 6 9 55 67 33 42 43 53 19 28 2010 1 1 3 4 8 0 1, 5 6 8, 8 3 5 54 66 34 43 43 52 20 29 2011 1 1 7 5 7 5 1, 6 2 3, 1 1 2 55 66 36 45 44 52 20 30 2012 1 1 8 4 2 0 1, 6 6 6, 0 1 7 57 67 37 46 46 52 22 31 #stude n ts E n g li sh M ath R e a d i ng S c i e n ce T able 4 4 F lor i da s Per f or m a n c e o n ACT by ra c e 20 0 8 % 20 0 9 % 20 1 0 % 20 1 1 % 20 1 2 % Al l St u d ents 19.8 19.5 19.5 19.6 19.8 Black/ A f r i can A m er i c a n 16.4 16.2 16.2 16.4 16.5 A m er i c a n/I n dia n /Alas k a n 20.3 20.3 19.5 19.4 19.0 W h i te 21.6 21.6 21.7 21.8 21.9 H i spanic/L a tino 18.8 18.5 18.5 18.7 19.0 Asian 21.9 22 22 22.2 22.2 Ha w ai i an 0 0 0 17. 8 18.8 T w o o r m ore races 20.2 20 20.1 20.7 20.8 T a b l e 4 5 A v era g e A C T Sc o res by R ac e / E th n i c it y i n F l ori d a Race Engl i sh M ath Re a ding Scie n ce Co m posite All stud e nts 18.9 20.0 20.5 19.3 19.8 Black 15.1 17.1 17.4 16.1 16.5 A m er i c a n I n dian 17.7 19.3 19 .9 18.5 19.0 W h i te 21.4 21.7 22.6 21.3 21.9 H i spanic 17.9 19.3 19.6 18.5 19.0 Asian 21.1 23.6 22.1 21.5 22.2 Pac i f ic Isla n der 17.5 19.5 19.4 18.3 18.4 2 o r m ore ra c es 18.9 20.0 20.5 19.2 19.8

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119 T able 4 6 F lor i da s M inority P e rfor m a n c e on ACT Nati o nal Race En g l i sh M ath Re a ding Scie n ce Co m p osite All stud e nts 20.5 21.1 21.3 20.9 19.8 Black 16.0 17.3 17.2 17.2 17.0 A m er i c a n I n dian 17.1 18.5 18.7 18.7 18.4 W h i te 22.1 22.1 22.7 22.1 22.4 H i spanic 17.7 19.4 19.0 18.9 18.9 Asian 22.7 25.2 22 .9 23.2 23.6 Pac i f ic Isla n der 18.9 20.4 19.8 19.7 19.8 2 o r m ore ra c es 21.0 21.1 21.8 21.2 21.4 T able 4 7 F lor i da s M inority P e rfor m a n c e on ACT #Test t akers % o f t ot a l Re a ding M ath W r iting T o t a l 92, 2 81 100 0 489 490 472 A m e r I n d i an 325 .4 493 486 4 69 Asian 4, 3 4 3 4.7 518 548 502 Black 16, 5 27 17.9 431 425 415 H i spanic 24, 1 21 26.1 472 471 457 M e x ican 2, 0 4 1 2.2 451 459 436 Puerto Rican 4, 3 3 8 4.7 461 454 445 W h i te 42, 0 85 45.6 520 523 501 Other 3, 2 1 5 3.5 491 484 472 T able 4 8 N a t i o n al SAT Data #Test t akers % o f t ot a l Re a ding M ath W r i ti n g T o t a l 1, 2 8 4, 4 59 100 491 505 481 A m e r I n d i an 7, 8 9 5 .6 479 485 458 Asian 123 583 9.6 519 573 522 Black 185 915 14.5 424 425 412 H i spanic 229 726 17.9 443 458 437 M e x ican 95, 5 30 7.4 445 464 440 H i spanic 21, 1 63 1.6 448 451 437 W h i te 673 080 52.4 523 533 508 Other 39, 2 02 3.1 495 500 485

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120 T able 4 9 N a t i o n al P art i c i p at io n R at e s by R a c e/ Y ear As i a n / P aci f ic A m eric a n I n dia n / A l a s k a Sex a n d y ear T o tal 1 W h ite B lack Hi s p a n ic I s la n d er Nati v e T o tal 1 980 26 .1 27 .7 19 .7 16 .3 1985 27 .9 30 .1 19 .8 17 .0 1990 32 .1 35 .1 25 .2 15 .9 56 .9 15.8 1995 34 .3 37 .9 27 .5 20 .7 54 .6 27.6 2000 35 .5 38 .7 30 .5 21 .7 55 .9 15.9 2005 38 .9 42 .8 33 .1 24 .8 60 .5 27.8 2006 37 .3 41 .0 32 .6 23 .6 57 .0 26.2 2007 38 .8 42 .6 33 .1 26 .6 56 .1 24.7 2008 39 .6 44 .2 32 .1 25 .8 57 .6 21.9 Male 1980 26 .9 28 .9 17 .7 16 .3 1985 28 .4 30 .8 20 .3 15 .1 1990 32 .4 35 .6 25 .8 15 .4 59 .2 8.4 1995 33 .1 37 .0 26 .0 18 .7 55 .7 27.4 2000 32 .6 36 .2 25 .1 18 .5 59 .0 12.8 2005 3 5 .3 39 .4 28 .2 20 .7 62 .0 25.7 2006 34 .1 37 .9 28 .1 20 .0 58 .2 18.1 2007 35 .5 39 .6 32 .2 20 .7 56 .5 11.8 2008 37 .0 41 .7 29 .7 23 .0 53 .8 18.7 F e m ale 1980 25 .4 26 .7 21 .3 16 .4 1985 27 .4 29 .3 19 .3 19 .0 1990 31 .8 34 .7 24 .7 16 .4 54 .9 21.7 1995 35 .5 38 .8 28 .7 23 .0 53 .7 27.8 2000 38 .4 41 .3 35 .2 25 .4 52 .8 20.5 2005 42 .5 46 .1 37 .6 29 .5 59 .0 29.5 2006 40 .6 44 .1 36 .9 27 .6 55 .8 35.9 2007 42 .1 45 .7 34 .0 33 .0 55 .7 34.5 2008 42 .3 46 .9 34 .2 28 .9 61 .1 24.3 T able 4 1 0 F l orida Col l ege S y s tem E n r ol l m ent by R a c e of B a cc a laur e ate S t u den t s 20 0 8 09 20 0 9 10 20 1 0 11 20 1 1 12 20 1 2 13 W h i te 62. 0 % 59. 4 % 55. 7 % 53. 7 % 53. 4 % Black 16. 4 % 18. 2 % 19. 4 % 19. 9 % 19. 4 % H i spanic 15. 2 % 15. 4 % 16. 6 % 17. 5 % 18. 2 % Other 2. 2 % 2. 3 % 2. 9 % 3. 1 % 3. 4 %

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121 Ta b le 4 1 1 F lo r ida Re lat e d P ar t i c i pa tion an d Read in e s s Leg i s l a tion 199 9 2012 Y ea r Po l i c y # Ti t l e C lass i f i c a tion 1999 EO99 281 O n e Flo r ida Plan P e r m eab le 2000 HB 2263 Reorgan i z ing Flo r id a du c a tion S y st e m P e r m eab le 2001 HB 1633 Sc hoo l P er f o r m a n ce G r ade s P e r m eab le 2001 SB 116 2 Flo r id a K 2 0 E du c a tion P er f o r m a n ce A c c oun t ab il i ty S y st e m P e r m eab le 2002 SB 20 E E du c a t ion Cod e R e W r ite P e r m eab le 2003 HB 915 K 2 0 E d u c a tion Ac c oun t ab il i ty Permeable 2004 SB 218 4 Partnership for M inority and Underrepresented Per m eable 20 04 SB 218 4 St uden t A c h ie v e m en t Per m eable 2004 HB 769 Caree r E du c a tion Per m eable 2004 SB 36 4 A c c e le r a t e d H igh S c hoo l G r adua t i on H igh St a k e s T e stin g Read ing Per m eable De fi c ie n ci e s 2005 FAC 6 A A r t i c u lation A mo n g Un i ver s i tie s C o mm un ity Co l le ge s an d S c hoo l Per m eable 10.024 D i s t r i c t s 2006 HB 7087 E du c a t ion A ++ I n iti a ti v e Transparent 2006 HB 7087 K 2 0 Q ua l i ty Da ta I m pro v e m en t s Listed 2006 HB 7087 I n t er v en tion an d M on it or ing Pla n s f o r Lo w P er f o r m ing St uden t s Listed 2006 HB 7087 Flo r ida S e c ondar y S c hoo l Rede s i g n A ct Listed 2006 HB 7087 Dual Enrol l m e n t Progr a m s Listed 2006 HB 7087 H igh S c hoo l G r adua tion Requ ir e me n ts Listed 2006 HB 7087 A c c e le r a t e d H igh S c hoo l G r adua t i o n O p tio n s Listed 2006 HB 7087 Readiness for Po s ts e condary Ed u cation and W or k force Progr a m Listed 2006 HB 7087 Re v i s ion to K 2 0 S ys t e m Languag e Listed 2006 HB 7087 K20 Pe r fo r m ance S tandards Listed 2006 HB 7087 St a te S t andard s Re v iew Listed 2007 SB 123 2 W o r k force and Career Prepara t io n Per m eable 2007 SB 10 8 M inority or Underrepresented Stu d ent A chie v e m ent Per m eable 2008 SB 171 6 P o s ts e c ondar y E du c a tion Per m eable 2008 SB 190 6 High S chool Programs Career/T e c h V o c Schoo l s Per m eable 2008 SB 190 8 E du c a t ion Per m eable 2010 SB 4 A c c e le r a t e d G r adua tion O p tio n s Per m eable 2011 HB 7197 D igit a l Learn ing No w A c t Per m eable 2011 SB 40 4 Co ll eg e B oard ing Ac ad e m y Pil o t P rogra m Per m eable 2011 HB 1255 D igit a l Curr i c u l u m / M id d le S c hoo l Caree r & P ro f e s sio na l Ac ad e m y Per m eable 2011 SB 212 0 M id d le Sc hoo l Caree r an d P ro f e ss io na l A c ad e m y Per m eable 2012 HB 7135 G enera l E du c a tion Cor e Transparent 2012 HB 7135 T ran sf e r f r o m A ss o ciate to B a cc a l aurea te P rogr a m Listed 2012 HB 7059 A CC EL Per m eable 2012 HB 7135 K 2 0 S t e m E d u c a tion Plan Per m eable 2012 HB 520 1 Degree Co m pl e tion Pilot progr a m Per m eable 2012 HB 7129 St a te Un i ver si t ies o f A c ad e m i c a n d Re s ear ch E x c e ll en ce an d Per m eable Na tio na l P re e mi nen ce A ct 2012 HB 7059 Ac ad e mic an d Caree r Pla nn ing in M id d le G r ade s Per m eable 2012 HB 7059 Career Th e m ed Co urse s Career Acad e mie s & W o r kforce Ali g n m e n t Per m eable 2012 HB 7059 Dua l E nro l l m e n t, E ar ly A d m i s sion Per m eable 2012 HB 7059 E ar ly G r adua tion Per m eable 2012 HB 7059 A c c e le r a tio n s O p tion in P ub l ic E d u c a tion Per m eable 2012 HB 7063 D igit a l Learn ing Per m e able

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122 F igu r e 4 3. Pe r m ea b i l ity and T ran s par e n c y Fr a m e w ork (S y k e s S c h n eid e r, & P l an k 2 009)

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123 C H AP T ER 5 SU M M ARY AND DIS C USSION Summa r y O v e r v i e w T h e f i n din g s o f t his st u dy w ere b as e d o n a n a nal y sis of c ol l e g e read i ness a nd part i cip a ti o n le g is l ation in Flor i da rel a t e d to h i st o r i cal l y disa d v ant a g ed st u de n t s primarily students of color T h e purpo s e o f t h is s t udy was to ans w er the pr i m a ry research q uestion: W ha t p ol i cies did F l or i da e n act t o a ddre s s p ost s eco n dary p art i cip a ti o n a n d r e adin e ss f o r stu d ents o f color? Reflecting on the results of our study, increase the quality of education for all stude nts. T h e st u dy w as f ocus e d o n t h e st a t e l e v el pol i cies in F l or i da w hich shape t he m in o r i ty stud e nt s e du c atio n al e x per i ence i n t he K 2 0 p i p el i ne. T he st u dy w as sit u at e d w ithin t h e Pe r m e abi l ity a nd T r ans p arency F r a m e w ork in e fforts to c o ncep t ual i z e h ow ed u c ation pol i cies s h a pe s t ud e a c ad e m ic le a rning e x per i ences. I n c l ass i f y ing F l or i i cies b as e d o n t h e T ran s parency a nd Pe r m e a bi l ity F ra m e w ork, Flor i pol i cies w ere h i g hly p erme a ble b ut w ere low i n tran s parenc y B ased o n our r es e arch f i n din g s, s t a t u t ory s y st em s w hich f all w ithin t h ese p er i m e t ers s u bst a ntial l y limit st u d e abi l ity to p lot a p ath o f entry into p osts e c on da ry stud y Althou g h Flor id f o c u s w as to create a K 20 s y st e m p re p ared to a p propr i at e ly prepare stu d ents f or t h e r i g or of po s ts e c o nda r y e ducatio n t he s y st e m w as d esi g ned to create op p ortunit i es f or m ore r i g orous c o urs ew ork. T his m easure to create t his s y st e m w as d esi g ned to i nclu d e st u de n ts o f colo r ; h o w e v er, g raduat e s o f F l or i da sc h ools w ere un d erpre p a r ed f o r po s t seco n dary stu d y

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124 Discus s ion and R e c o mm e ndations for K 2 0 Legis l at o rs T h e g oal o f t h is s t u dy w as to e v alu a te Flor id i cies re g arding t he p ath o f posts e c on d ary study in terms o f le g is l ation f or stu d ents o f c olor. Fr o m t he a nal y sis o f rele v ant le g is l atio n the study u n v ei l ed a tre n d o f Flor id a e nacting l eg is l ation w hich spec i f ically a ddress e d per m eabl e t y pe pol i cy issues. For e x a m ple, Flor i da e n act e d le g is l ation w hich addr e ssed primarily K 2 0 g o v ernance a nd measures to overhaul K 12 curriculum in an effort to prepare students for postsecondary entrance expectations Utilizing the Permeability and Transparency framework respective policies which address areas related to participation and readiness. The nance structure fell within the categories of high permeability and low transparency in terms of the legislation which impacts on policy systems which fell within this categ ory assist students with movement towards postsecondary study, however poor communication regarding measures to plan a path towards graduation hinder student aspirations. A second ar w e observed an absence of policies which address areas of social capital in terms of providing students with skills and guidance to maneuver through the college application chan ges to its governance structure curriculum, graduation requirements and a number of additional areas of legislative chan ge which neglected to include school guidance counselors. Additionally t h ere w ere g aps in t h e le g is l ati v e e fforts to incr e ase pro g res s in areas o f co m m unica t ion to sta k ehol d ers. In t h is re s earc h t h ere w as a n a bs e nce o f le g i slation t o c om m uni c ate p ost s eco n dary re q ui r e m ents to s t a k eh old e rs. Flor i

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125 l e g is l ati v e e fforts w ere f ocu s ed o n incr e asing pe r f or m an c e f or all st u dents in Flor i da. recommendations concluded in this chapter. Recommendations s a vast number of education policies whi ch addressed areas of curriculum, governance, and instructional program. However, based on the Permeability and Transparency framework, there were policy gaps critical to th e success of students of color in the state of Florida Based on the application of the framework and literature review there are several suggestions for creating policies which focus on gaps in politics as follows: Create education policies and initiati ves which c ommunicate the K 20 vision to all stakeholders Create policy streams designed to spur planning between education sectors Create policies and initiatives to communicate college readiness Create policies and programs which increase college and car eer readiness Based on the aforementioned recommendations, further elaboration is provided for the policies as follows: Poli c y Recommendation # 1 : A ddress P ostsecondary A w are n e s s f o r A ll S takehol d ers Since t he in c ept i on o f t he A p l us le g is l ation, F lor i da h a s crea t ed le g i slation w hich addres s ed areas o f c u r r i culum g aps f r om hi g h sc h ool to c ol l e g e. H o w e v e r t h ere w ere g aps in t h e le g is l ation desi g ned t o c om m u nicate post s eco n dary o p p ortunities to st u d e nts, par e nts, and st a ke h old e rs. A s u gg estion t o st a te le g is l at o r s is to c re a te

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126 le g is l ation d esi g n e d to increase a w areness o f post s eco n dary o p p ortunities t o a ll st a ke h old e rs. A re v iew o f le g is l ati v e lan g ua g e in Flor i a t u t es r ev ealed th a t le g is l ation d esi g n e d to address t h e a w arene s s o f p osts e c o n dary o p portunit i es w ere m ini m a l T h e a bsen c e o f le g is l ation re g arding c o m m u nicati o n to sta k ehol d ers r e g arding postse c on d ary o ppor t u nities l e f t st u de n ts in a position to ha p ha z ardly f ind out a b out col l e g e o p p ortunit i es. Poli c y Recommendation # 2 : C o llabo r ation and P l a nning B e t w ee n E duc a tion S ect o rs In a nal yz i n g Flor i i cip a tion a n d re a di n ess le g is l ation, le g is l a t i on rela t ed to col l aborat i on bet w een edu c ation s ect o rs a n d pla n ning b et w een lo c al a g ency s e ct o rs w ere n one x istent. The r e w ere trends w ithin F l or i s ts e c o ndary p ol i cies w hich re f le c t a f o cus o n t h e c reation o f t he s truct u ral c o m po n ents o f t h e K 20 s y st e m a n d less f o cus on t he w raparo u nd s u pports t h at assist w ith the transit i ons o f st u d e nts i n to posts e c on d ary stud y For e x a m ple, a cr i tical position w ithin t h e K 2 0 n e t w ork is t h at o f t h e c ert i f i ed s c hool c o u nselors. Al t hou g h c ert i fied sc h ool c o unse l ors a re instr u m e nt a l in t h e art i culati o n o f g raduati o n re q ui r e m ents a n d p o s ts e c o ndary e ntr a nce re q ui r e m ent s t h ere are n o p ol i cies which a ddress pr o f essi o nal d e v el o p m ent ne ed s a nd p la n ning f or t h e role t h at sc h ool c o unselor s p l ay within t h e c a reer and a c a d e m ic pla n ning for st u d e nt s c ess. T hu s, it is rec o m m e n ded t hat c ol l abor a tion bet w een s t a t e a nd lo c al a g encies b e cre a t e d. There w as a tr e m e n d o u s n e e d f o r d e par t m e nt s to p l an f o r st u de n t success a s t h ey transition f r o m o ne s ect o r t o t he n e x t. There w as li m i t ed l a n g ua g e w ithin t h e le g is l ation w hich a ddress e d c o l l a b o ration w ithin po s ts e c on dary s e ct o rs a n d de p art m ents to plan f o r stud e nt suc c ess. Cu r rent m ea s ures in K 20 edu c ation r esults in Poli c y

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127 Poli c y Recommendation # 3 : E xpand S tate E f f orts to T each C o l l e ge K n o w l edge and S kil l s N e ce s sary f or P ost s econdary S uccess C r eate c u r r icul u m m e a sures to a d dress col l eg e and c areer k n o w le d g e St a k e hol d ers n e ed t he o p p ortunit y to be i n f o r m ed a b out re q ui r e m en ts f or posts e c on d ary e duc a tion p r i or t o h i g h sc h ool. Lo w inc om e po p ulati o n s m i nor i ties, and st u d e nts o f c o l or n e ed m ore ti m e a n d res o ur c es to pre p are f o r post s eco n dary stud y T h e c u r r e n t st a n d ard f o r t h e K 12 s t u dy f or t h e sta t e o f F l or i da does not address t h e cur r iculum n e e ds f or t e aching l e g e k n o w le d g w le d g e n e c essary f or s t u d ents to m atr i cula t e in t o p os t seco n dary study w ith s uccess. M in o r i ties a n d st u d e nts o f c o l or ne e d this i n f o r m ati o n e ar l y in their a ca d e m i c e x per i ence in order t o bui l d t he ski l ls neces s ary f or p osts e c on d ary s u ccess. T he c ur r ent s t at u t es in t h e s t ate o f Flor i da d o n ot address t h e n e eds f o r bui l ding a col l e g e g oi n g c u lture f or s t ud e nts o f c olor, m in o r i tie s or f i r st g eneration c ol l eg e stud e nt s. Poli c y Recommendation #4 : C o mmuni c ate Earl y Cre a te C o lleg e Going C u lture in El e men t ary Schools T h e m essa g e o f p ost s eco n dary e duc a tion is rarely c omm u nicat e d t o t h e st u d e nts w ho n eed t h e c o m m u n ication t he m o s t stru gg l i ng learners. Le g is l ation s h ould be creat e d w hich di r ects s chools t o b e g in c o m m unicati o n e fforts w ith p osts e c o ndary pla n ning in el e m e n t a ry sc h ools w ith st u de n ts and f a m i l ie s In e v alu a t ing Flor i le g is l at i v e e f f orts to d e crease s t ud e nt aca de m ic ach i e v e m e n t g aps and i ncrease posts e c on d ary readin e ss, t h ere w as l i m ited l eg is l ation o r l e g is l ati v e l an g ua g e w hich art i culat e d mea s ures t o i n f o r m p arents a n d s t ud e nts a bo u t p osts e c o n dary o p p ortunitie s Pol i cy le v ers w i ll n eed to b e e nac t ed w hich c o m m unic a te t he v is i on o f c ol l e g e to st u d e nts in Flor i d a s p eci f i c al l y pol i cies w hi c h a re t r ans p arent in n a t u re w hich co m m u nicate to s t u de nts a nd f am i l ies how to p lot a p ath i nto post se con d a ry stud y Lo w

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128 inc o m e a nd m in o r i ty s t ud e nts n eed more t i m e to p r e pare f or t he r i g or and c o st associated w ith c o l l e g e a t t e nd a nce. Furthe rm o re, st u d ents w i l l need t o u n derst a nd a n d f o rm c ol l e g e e x pect a t i on p r i or t o h i g h sc h ool. Com m u nication re g arding p osts e c o n dary re q ui r e m ents must b e co m m u nicat e d to a ll s t ake h old e rs a nd de p ar t m e n ts to b e tter al i g n resources f o r ulti m ate st u d e nt aca d e m ic pe r f o rm a nce Recommendations for Future S tudy Several recommendations evolved from this study which serve as recommendations for future study. There are a number of recommendations which are proposed and discussed through this research. C orrelations of topics in relation to postsecondary readiness were found with recurring trends in the research. However these specific correlations was not evaluated beyond the extent of research for this study. Therefore, this group of recommendations are recommended for further study as follows: Poli c y Recommendation # 1 : E n act P olicy L e v ers to A ddress L ea r ning Deficits among M inorities a n d S t u den t s of C olor. E x pand p ol i cies to a dd ress le a rning d e f ic i ts f o r stud e nts o f colo r Th i s research e x plored p ol i cy a reas w hich di r ectly i m pact a reas o f bo t h p osts e c o n dary p art i cip a tion and c ol l e g e read i ness f o r m i n or i ty stude n ts. There w ere s e v eral g aps in p ol i cy to address t h e learning d e f ic i ts a m ong s t ud e n t s o f c o lor. In t he a n al y sis o f Flor i pol i cies, w e n otic e d th at t h ere w ere c o nsis t e nt p ol i cies t h a t a ddres s ed Flor i d a le g is l at i v e e f f orts to in c rease a l i g n m ent mea s ures f or all stu d ents a n d crea t e a dditi o nal op p ortunities f or all s tu dent s Ho w e v er, t h ere w ere n o p ol i cies w hich spec i f ically address s t u d ents a t t a i ning these r i g orous c o urse o p port u nities w hich ha v e a c ad e m ic

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129 pe r f or m an c e g aps. T h ere a re pol i cies t o a dd r ess h ow Flor i da w i l l r e m ed i ate l earning f or st u d e nts o f c o l or a n d a rt i culate t his int e nt i o n t o sta k ehol d ers. Recommendation #2 R e Foc u s Cer t ified C o un s e lor Prog r ams & Tr a i n ing C r eate le g is l ation to re purpose c e rt i f ied c o un selor e d ucati o n p ro g r a m s to crea t e a model o f best practi c e d el i v ery f or c o m m un i ty col l e g e. School c o u nselors are in u n d at e d w ith m ultip l e tasks w hich l i m it t heir ti m e w ith st u de n ts to d i scuss c a reer and posts e c on d ary o ption s Co u nselors w i l l need training to a ssist w ith c om m unic a tion re g arding re q ui r e m ents f or p ost s eco n dary a ttai n m e nt a nd s u c c ess. T h ere w ere n o p ol i cies enac t ed dur i ng o ur a n al y sis per i od w hich di r ectly a ddress e d a ppr o p r i ate tra i ning for school c oun s elors to f a ci l itate c om m unic a tion w ith st u dent s p arents, o r stak e hol d ers concerning t he post se con d ary a w areness, readin e s s or col l e g e k n o w le d g r e q ui r ed to m a n eu v er t h rou g h h i g h sc h ool e x it a n d p o s ts e co n dary e ntran c e r eq u i r e m ents. O n e o f t h e t r e nds ob s er v ed in t h e s t ate o f Flor id a w as that c o nsis t ent c h a n g es in le g is l ation occur r ed o v er ti m e t o p ro g ress t o w ards t h e n e w v is i on o f K 20 edu c a tion p ro g r a m Althou g h c h a n g es o c c ur r ed, t here w as n o le g is l ation t hat s pec i f ically a ddres s ed coun s elor e d u cati o n a nd t eac h er e d ucat i on p ro g ra m s re g arding t h e co m m u nication o f col l e g e k n o w le d g e n e c essary f or aca d e m ic s uccess. I m p l e m en t ati o n o f C o m m o n Core st a n d ards a ddres s es t he ski l ls a n d k n o w le d ge n e c essary for col l e g e e n trance e x pect a ti on s Ho w e v e r t h e n ew st a n dards do n ot i ncorpor a te t h e kn o w le d g e o f posts e c on d ary o ppor t u nities n ee d ed f o r f a m i l ies to cr e ate a col l e g e g oing c u t h eir f a m i l ies. S c h o ol sy st em s w i l l need to al i g n t h eir resour c es to e nsure t hat c ert i f ied school c ou n s elors re a c h st u de n ts a nd p r o v ide a de q u a te i n f o r m ati o n re g arding h i g h

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130 school e x it re q ui r e m e n ts a n d p osts e c on d ary e ntran c e re q ui r e m ents to a ll s t u d ents pr i or to g radu a tion Policy Recommendation #3 School Counselor Service Delivery Model Based on a summary and current literature concerning research applicable to postsecondary participation and readiness we recommend a reform in areas of the current school counseling model. We suggest a refined model based on the research to include a delivery service model which includes the following suggestions for providing quality guidance service to all students as follows: Implement a mandated c ounselor to student ratio of 1:250 as suggested by Americ an School Counselor Association (ASCA, 2013) Incorporate p rofessional development and tra ining in areas related to current social capital deficits (Simmons, 2011) College Matching Case management (Grades, GPA & Attendance) Outreach Student tracking (Graduation requirements/college know ledge) Stakeholder communication and engagement Mentorship/student development Curriculum in areas of college knowledge college selection, and admissions process of high profile institutions Provide a statewide service model which requires student conta ct 3 to 5 times at a minimum per year. Require outreach efforts to students and families regarding graduation requirements, college selection, and career counseling. In proposing this model, legislation guiding the implementation and regulation of these me asures would need to be communicated and enacted to ensure proper implementation.

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131 Implications for Higher Education Higher education is faced with issues of participation and success for students arriving on postsecondary education campuses across the nat ion. The national challenge of increasing college completers by 2020 posed by our national leaders has placed charge of implementing best practice approaches to student participation at our forefront. In this quest, postsecondary educators and le aders are posed with several critical actions in terms of readiness and postsecondary participation. The initial focus is college readiness for students entering postsecondary education. Through the institutional reach of postsecondary education, readin ess efforts hinge on early collaborative measures with K 12 education leaders, teachers, and students. This measure is manifested by a focus on professional development, college transition initiatives, mentorship, and student engagement through initiatives by higher education student affairs. Kuh, Kinzie, Schuh, & Whitt (2009) determined two crucial areas to student success to be based on a time with activities on campus and institutional allocations of resources and learning opportunities These learning opportunities are required for students whose immediate background does not lend itself to one from the way of previous college completers within the context of their respective families. Evaluating through the lenses of postsecondary outreach, t he focus of higher education institutions is geared to redefining the way we traditionally approach readiness through K 12 reform efforts which neglect to completely address the needs of postsecondary students aspiring to become degree completers. Rather, this approach extends the opportunity of mentorship, personal development, and academic

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132 refining to the reach of respective faculty mentorship opportunities, college immersion programs, and college participation outreach. In this study evaluated the conne ctions of three levels of policy which includes federal, state, and institutional policy as a catalyst of influenc e in the experiences of all students but in particular African American students. In reviewing the trends that exist in disparities in public education policies to mold the experience of students to better articulate college requirements, the message of college readiness, preparedness, and success has to be delivered at every policy level in order to communicate to families who are underprepared for the rigors of postsecondary study. Analyzing trends of student minority student participation and access, postsecondary education professionals will need to increase measures to provide transition and reach out initiatives to students prior to enterin g postsecondary study. Although, K 12 reform has focused curriculum alignment through common core initiatives higher education still plays a critical role in the education reform of K 20 education in the United States. In particular, not only does higher education play a critical, higher education leads the effort to reform, raising t he bar for education performance in the nation.

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133 APPENDIX LEGISLATION CITED H o u se B ill 7 2 3 7 H igh Scho o l D i ploma S tu dy H o u se B ill 7 1 9 7 Digi t al Lear n i ng Now A c t S ena t e B ill 4 04 C oll e ge B oar d i ng Ac a d e my P ilot P r ogram H o u se B ill 1 2 5 5 Digi t al C urricu l um / Mi d d l e Scho o l C areer & P r o f e s sio n al Ac a demy Sena t e B ill 2 1 2 0 Mi d d le Sc h o o l C ar e er a n d P r o f essi o nal Academy H o u se B ill 7 1 3 5 Ge n eral E d u c a t i o n C ore H o u se B ill 7 1 3 5 Tra n s f er from Associa t e t o B ac c ala u rea t e P rogram H o u se B ill 7 0 5 9 AC C EL H o u se B ill 7 1 3 5 K 20 S tem E d u c a t i o n Pl a n H o u se B ill 5 2 0 1 Degr e e C ompl e ti o n P i lot program H o u se B ill 7 1 2 9 S t a t e Univers i ties of Academic & Resear c h Ex c el l e n c e a nd Na t io n al Preem i ne n c e Act H o u se B ill 7 0 5 9 Academic a n d C ar e er Pl a nni n g in M i ddle Gra d es H o u se B ill 7 0 5 9 C areer T hem e d C ourses, C areer Aca d emi e s, & W o r k for c e Ali g nment H o u se B ill 7 0 5 9 Dual E n r o llment, E arly A dmission H o u se B ill 7 0 5 9 Early Gr a d ua t i on H o u se B ill 7 0 5 9 Ac c el e ra t i o ns o pt i o n i n p ublic e du c a tion H o u se B ill 7 0 6 3 Digi t al Lear n i ng Sena t e B ill 1 0 7 6 K 20 E d u c a t i o n H o u se B ill 7 0 0 9 Assignment o f T ea c hers B ased on Qual i ty Sena t e B ill 1 0 7 6 C areer & T echni c al E d u c a t ion Sena t e B ill 1 0 7 6 K 12 C a r eer a nd E d u c a t i on P l a n ni n g Sena t e B il l 1 0 7 6 Ac c el e ra t e d H igh S c ho o l Gra d u a tion O p tio n s

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134 Sena t e B ill 1 0 7 6 Mi d d le Gr a des Prom o ti o n a n d Re m e d i a tion Sena t e B ill 1 0 7 6 Next G e ner a ti o n S unsh i n e S t a te S t a nda r ds E.O 1 2 104 B l u e Rib b on Task Force p m S t a te H ig h er E du c a ti o n H o u se B ill 1 1 2 7 Scho o l I m pro vem e nt a n d E d u c a ti o n Ac c oun t a bili t y

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135 L IST OF REFEREN C ES Ade l m a n C. (2 0 07). D o W e Real l y Ha v e a Col l e g e Access P r obl e m ?. Ch a ng e : T h e M ag a z ine o f H i gher Le arnin g 39 (4), 4 8 5 1. American School Counselor Association. (2012). Student/scho ol counselor ratio by state, 2008 2009 Retrieved 1/26/12 from: http://www. schoolcounselor. org/content. asp. Aud, S., Hussar, W., Planty, M., Snyder, T., Bianco, K., Fox, M. A., ... & Drake, L. (2010). The Condition of Education 2010. NCES 2010 028. Nati onal Center for Education Statistics Azinger, A. (2000). A K 12 Perspective on Partnerships with Community Colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges 2000 (111), 17 21. Baker D ., Cla y J & Grat a m a, C. (2 0 05). T h e Essence o f C ol l e g e R e a din e s s : I m pl i ca t i ons f o r S t ud en ts, Par e nts, Sch o ols, a nd Re s earchers. T he Berc Gro u p. Bell, A. D., Rowan Kenyon, H. T., & Perna, L. W. (2009). College knowledge of 9th and 11th grade students: Variation by school and state context. The Journal of Higher Education 80 (6), 663 685. Board, S. R. E. ( 2 010). Be y ond t he r het o r i c: i m pro v ing c o l l e g e read i ness t hrou g h coher e nt s t ate pol i c y Blume, G. H., & Long, M. C. (2013). Changes in Levels of Affirmative Action in College Admissions in Response to Statewide Bans and Judicial Ru lings. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 0162373713508810. Borman, K. M., & Dorn, S. (Eds.). (2007). Education reform in Florida: Diversity and equity in public policy SUNY Press. Boser, U. ( 2 0 1 2). Race to t he Top: W ha t Ha v e W e L earn e d f r o m t he S t a t es S o Far? A St a t e b y St a te E v alu a t i on o f Race to t h e Top Pe r f or m anc e Ce n t e r f o r Americ a n Pro g ress. Retr i e v ed f rom htt p :// w w w am er i canpro g ress.or g / w p cont e nt / uplo a ds/iss u e s / 2 0 1 2/ 0 3/ p d f /rt t _st a t es p df Br y an, J., Moor e T ho m as, C., Da y Vin e s, N. L ., & Holc o m b M cCo y C. (2011). Sc h ool coun s elors as s ocial c apital: The e f f e c ts o f h i g h sc h ool col l e g e c o un sel i ng o n col l e g e a ppl i c a tion r a t e s. Jour n al of C oun s el i n g & De v elo p m en t 89 ( 2 ), 19 0 1 99. Buesc h el, A D., & V en e z ia, A. (2 0 06). L ocal pat h w a y s a nd s t ate po l ic i es a l i g ning st a n d ards a nd c ur r icula. In D. Bra g g & E. Ba r nett ( E d s .), A c a d e m ic Pat h w a y s T o and Fr o m t he C o m m u nity Col l e g e (pp. 2 9 38 ), No. 1 3 5. New Di r ections f o r Com m unity Col l e g es. San Fr a ncisco: J osse y Bass. Buesch el, A.C., & Venezia, A. (2009). Policies and practices to improve student preparation and success. New Directions for Community Colleges 145 San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

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141 Unit e d S t a t es. D e par t m e n t o f E d ucat i on. ( 2 0 10). A blu e pr i nt f or r ef o r m : The reaut h ori z ation o f t h e Ele m ent a ry a n d Se c o n dary E d ucati o n A c t U S Depar t m e nt o f E d ucat i on, O f f ice o f Pla n nin g E v alu a tion a nd P ol i cy De v elo pm en t Unit e d S t a t e s De p art m ent o f E duc a tion ( 2 0 13 ). F l or i da, Race to t he Top, Y ear 2: S c hool Y ear 201 1 20 1 2. R e tr i e v ed f rom http : //w w w 2. e d. g o v / p ro g ra m s/racet o t h e t o p / p e r f o r m an c e / f lor i d a y ea r 2. p d U.S. De p art m ent o f E d ucati o n. (2 0 06). H i g hl i g hts o f t he Fi n al Re p ort o f t he Secre t ary o f Educ a tion's C o m m is i o n o n t h e Fu t ure o f H i g her E d u c atio n A T est of L e a dershi p Ch a rt i ng t he F urture of U.S. H i g h er E d ucati o n Unit e d S t at e s: U S. De p ar t m ent o f E d ucat i on. U.S. De p art m ent o f E d ucati o n, P ubl i c L aw 1 0 7 110 Van de Water, G., & Rainwater, T. (2001). What Is P 16 Education? A Primer for Legislators. A P ractical Introduction to the Concept, Language and Policy Issues of an Integrated System of Public Education. Vene z ia, A (2 0 06). Le v ers f or C h a n g e: S t eps St a t es Can T ake to Impro v e Col l e g e Re a din e s s Co n nect i o n: The J o u r nal o f t h e N ew Eng l and B o ard o f H i gher Educ a tio n 20 (4), 16 1 8. Vene z ia, A ., Brac c o, K R., & N odin e T ( 2 0 1 0). O n e sh o t d eal? St u perc e ptions o f a s s ess m ent a n d c o urse pla c e m ent i n Cal i f o o m m unity c o l l e g es. S a n F r ancisco, CA: W e s t E d Vene z ia, A ., Cal l a n P. M., F i nne y J. E., Ki r s t M W & Us d an, M. D (20 0 5). T he G o v ernance Di v id e : A Re p ort o n a Fou r S t ate St u dy o n I m pro v ing Col l e g e Re a din e ss a n d S ucce s s. Natio n al Ce n t er R e p ort# 0 5 3. N a tional C e nt e r for Publ i c P ol i cy a nd Hig h er E d u c atio n Vene z ia, A ., Ki r st, M., & An t oni o A. ( 20 0 3). B etra y ing the c o l l e g e d r ea m T h e Br i d g e Project S t an f ord I nstit u te for H i g her E duc a tio n 2 12. Vene z ia, A ., Ki r st, M., & An t oni o A. ( 20 0 3). B etra y ing the c o l l e g e d r ea m : How disco n n ect e d K 1 2 a nd p os t se c on d ary e duc a tion s y st em s u n derm i n e st u de n t aspi r ation s Pa l o Al t o, CA: The Br i d g e Projec t St a n f ord Insti t ute f or H i g her Educ a tion R esearch. Vene z ia, A ., Ki r st, M. W & A n t o n i o, A L. ( 2 008). Betra y ing the c ol l e g e d re a m : How disco n n ect e d K 1 2 a nd p ost s eco n dary e du c a t ion s y st em s un d ermi n e st u de n t aspi r ation s Vene z ia, A ., & Ki r st, M W ( 20 0 5). I n e q uitab l e o p port u nities: H ow c u r r ent e duc a tion s y st em s a n d p ol i cies u nde r m ine t h e c h a n ces f o r stu d ent p ers i st e nce a nd success in c ol l e g e. Ed ucati o nal P ol i c y 19 (2), 2 8 3 3 07.

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142 W a g ner, A. (2 0 06). M e asur i ng U p In t ernat i o n al l y : De v elo p ing Ski l ls and Kno w le d g e f or t h e G l obal Kno w le d g e Econ o m y Natio n al C e nt e r R e p ort# 0 6 7. N at i onal C e nt e r f o r P u bl i c Pol i cy a nd H ig h er E ducat i o n Zh a o, Y ( 2 0 0 9). Co m m e n ts on t h e co m m on core s ta n d a rds i n i t i a t i v e. A A S A Jo u r n a l of S c h o l ar s h i p & P ract i c e 6 (3), 4 6 54 Zinth, J. D. (2011). Dual/Concurrent Enrollment.

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143 BIOGRAPHIC A L S K E T CH D r Lat a s ha L. B o w ens is a n edu c at o r w ho h a s w or k ed in t h e f ield o f edu c ation f o r m ore t h a n 1 5 y ears. H er edu c ati o nal b ack g rou n d i nclu d es e x per i en c e in e l e m en t ar y m id d l e hi g h sc h ool, a n d p o s ts e c o ndary e d u c ation sectors M s. Bo w ens a tt e nd e d t h e Uni v ers i ty o f North F l or i da, c o m pleting her B ache l or o f A rts in E d ucati o n. Dur i n g this ti m e, s h e ac q ui r ed a position a s a h i g h sc h o ol S ocial S ci e n ce t eac h er at Ma n dar i n Hi g h Sch o ol in Du v al Co u nt y w here s he t au g ht in the Soc i al St u dies d e par t m e nt f o r 5 y ears. During her t e aching car e e r s h e as pi re d to b e c o m e a n a d m inistra t or. I n f u l f i l l i ng h er ho p es o f bec o m ing a pr i ncip a l, s he b e g an h er st u dy a t t he Uni v ers i ty o f North F l or i d a c o m pl e ting her M ast e rs o f E duc a tion L ea d ership. Ms. B o w ens f ur t hered h er s t u dies by at t aining h er Specialist o f E duc a tion a t t he Uni v ers i ty o f N e braska a t K earne y As M s. Bo w ens co m p l et e d h er stud y s he w as a ble to atta i n a p ositi o n a s Assista n t Pr i ncip a l at Sal l y e B. M at h is El e m e nt a ry School. D ur i ng the c our s e o f t h is e x per i en c e, M s. Bo w ens s e r v ed o n a t e am w hich i m pro v ed t h e sc h oo l s g rade o C T h e p r i m ary f o c us o f M s. Bo w en s s e x per i en c es e v ol v ed f r o m her p r o f essi o nal g oal f o r st u de n t le a rn i n g w hich is to cre a te pr o f ic i ent l earners and to p repa r e st u de n ts f o r post s ec o ndary e d u cation. S h e w orked in t w o sc h o ol distr i cts i n b oth Du v al a n d S t. Johns C ount i es. Dur i ng Ms. Bo w en s s e x per i ence a s a distr i c t le v el ad m i nistr a t o r, s he w orked in st u d e nt aca d e m ic en g a g e m e nt a nd post s ec o ndary readin e s s T h e resp o nsibil i ty s h e held incl u d e d o r g ani z ing a nd e s t a bl i shing a t e am to a ddress issues o f c h r o nic abs e nt e ei s m f o r o v er 1 72 sc h ools in D u v al Co u nt y ser v ic i ng o v er 123, 0 0 0 s t ud e nts. She s er v ed a s a s u p er v isor of A t t e n d a nce a n d Sc h ool S up p ort S er v i ces to m o nitor st u d e n t d ai l y a tten da nce a nd pro v ide b e ha v ioral sup p ort fo r s t u d e n ts a n d f a m i l ies in

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144 ne e d o f social s e r v ices. As a result o f t he e f f o rts o f h er d e dicat e d t e a m s t ud e nt abs e nt e ei s m decrea s e d by o v er 11 p ercent. Additi o nal l y her le a de r ship e x per i en c e inclu d e d o v ers ig ht o f a $ 2.4 m i l l i on f e deral g ran t T h e Ga i ning Ear l y A w areness a nd R eadi n ess f o r U n d er g raduate Pro g ra m s (GEAR UP) project g rant is a f e de r al l y f u n ded pro g ram d e si g ned to s pre a d col l e g e a w areness to e t h nic i ties and i nc o m e g roups tr a ditio n al l y u n d er r eprese n t e d in posts e c on d ary e duc a tion p ro g r a m s. Dur i ng t h e c o urse o f t h is o p p ortunit y Bo w ens a n d her t e am pre p ared a c ohort g roup o f st u d en t s for po s ts e c o n d ary e ducati o n b e g in n i ng w ith 7 th g rade u ntil g raduat i on. Cur r e ntl y M s. Bo w ens ser v es a s a v ice pr i ncip a l / LEA w ith St. J o hns Co u nty Publ i c sc h ools in a d e d icated Sch o ol o f t h e A r ts a n d G i f t ed M id d le Sc h ool. This s c hool o f f ers m ultip l e p r o g ra mm atic di m ensi o ns s u ch as a dedic a t e d s c h o ol o f t h e a rts p r o g ra m g i f t e d and a se v ere e m o tio na l be h a v ior ESE pro g ra m