Intercollegiate Basketball Coaches' Perceptions of Their Leadership Style on Recruiting


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Intercollegiate Basketball Coaches' Perceptions of Their Leadership Style on Recruiting
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Niland,Zachary W
University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
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University of Florida
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Higher Education Administration, Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education
Committee Chair:
Campbell, Dale F
Committee Members:
Oliver, Bernard
Honeyman, David S
Sagas, Michael B.


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basketball -- coaches -- intercollegiate -- leadership -- perceptions -- recruiting -- style
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Higher Education Administration thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
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This study is an exploration into intercollegiate Division I Men?s basketball coaches? experiences in recruiting top student-athletes. Its contributions are manifold. The profession is dominated by practitioners who don?t spend time researching and writing about their trade. Therefore, this study enhances an area where little has been done. Likewise, it bridges a gap between higher education academic administration and intercollegiate sports management. While previous studies have individual areas and outcomes in coaching leadership style, this study links together major themes, establishing it as a foundational contribution to the body of research. The results of this study have established my framework for successful recruitment of student-athletes and they are: creating a family dynamic among a dynamic group of individuals, harboring a relentless work ethic, establishing and working towards long-term oriented goals, looking at each potential candidate on a case by case basis, and that recruitment is the life blood of a program.
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by Zachary W Niland.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Adviser: Campbell, Dale F.
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2 2011 Zachary W. Niland


3 Dedicated to Mom Mick and Pop Pop my loving grandparents as well as my devoted mother and father Mr. and Mrs. John W. Niland. Pop is the cornerstone of our family for whom without, none of us would be where we are today. Mom Mick without hesitation or reservation, told me early and often, I could be and do anything I set my mind to and my parents have been there the whole way through supporting me in every endeavor.


4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the men who took time out of their busy schedules, during their competitive season, to help me with this project and adva nce my academic and professional objectives as well as the academic content and understanding of their field. Without their compassion and generosity of both time and resources none of this would be possible. Also, Dr. Dale Campbell, my committee chair and primary advisor who has guided me through this process


5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 12 Significance of Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 13 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 16 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 17 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 18 Leadership of Intercollegiate Head Coaches ................................ .......................... 18 Selection and Recruitment ................................ ................................ ...................... 33 Indivi dual Styles of Head Coaches ................................ ................................ ......... 41 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 48 The Setting ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 51 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 52 Coaching Profile ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 53 Research Design: Narrative Research ................................ ................................ .... 54 Subjectivity Statement ................................ ................................ ............................ 57 Data Collection: Narrative Interviews ................................ ................................ ...... 59 Data Analysis: Narrative ................................ ................................ ......................... 61 Validity: Trustworthiness ................................ ................................ ......................... 64 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 66 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 66 Perceptions of Recruitment Experiences ................................ ................................ 67 Family ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 67 Work Ethic ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 71 Long Term Oriented Goals ................................ ................................ ............... 74 Case by Case Evaluation of Student Athletes ................................ .................. 76 Recruitment Being the Life Blood of the Program ................................ ............ 79 Perceptions on Student Athlete Acquisition ................................ ............................ 83 Implications on Recruitment ................................ ................................ .................... 88 Outcomes Pertaining to Coaches Leadership ................................ ......................... 91 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 92


6 5 DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ....... 94 Leadership Without Win s Might Not Yield Success ................................ ................ 94 Acquisition and Retention Paramount to Success ................................ .................. 98 Institutional Factors Dictate Successes ................................ ................................ 102 Implications and Recommendations ................................ ................................ ..... 105 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 107 APPENDIX A IRB Approval Form ................................ ................................ ............................... 109 B Informed Consent ................................ ................................ ................................ 112 C Interview Protocol ................................ ................................ ................................ 114 D Secondary Interview Protocol ................................ ................................ ............... 115 E Supplemental Interview Protocol ................................ ................................ ........... 117 F Protocol Responses F rom R esearch P articipant ................................ .................. 118 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 147 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 151


7 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosoph y INTERCOLLEGIATE BASKETBALL COACHES PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR LEADERSHIP STYLE ON RECRUITING By Zachary W. Niland August 2011 Chair: Dale Campbell Major: H igher Education Administration and Policy This coaches experiences in recruiting top student athletes. Its contributions are manifol d. The profession is dominated b writing about their trade. Therefore, this study enhances an area where little has been done. Likewise, it bridges a g ap between higher education academic administration and intercollegiat e sports management While previous studies have individual areas and outcomes in coaching leadership style this study links together major themes, establishing it as a foundational con tribution to the body of research. The results of this study have established my framework for successful recruitment of student athletes and they are: creating a family dynamic among a dynamic group of individuals, harboring a relentless work ethic, estab lishing and working towards long term oriented goals, looking at each potential candidate on a case by case basis, and that recruitment is the life blood of a program


8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Intercollegiate athletic coaches are often compensated with vast salaries for their roles in their respectiv e academic institutions. Within the scope of duties they are given a number of responsibilities such as the athletic development of their student athletes, athletic leadership development for their players and s taff, service as a representative of the institution, representation as a leader to the local community and the role of a spokesperson for the advancement of their institution to the broader sports and education communities nationally Their primary role is in line with the objectives of the athletic department, most directly, winning intercollegiate competitions. In order to meet the objectives of their athletic department and to promote the reputation of their institutions, these coaches must travel to r ecruit the best student athletes available to maintain the greatest level of competitiveness within their respective sport and conference. The capacity of athletic programs to build capacity for higher education institutions through resource development, d onor relationship building, and economic development for the broader community places a high level of emphasis on the position of head coach, and as a result top talent in the coaching world is accompanied by high salaries. Recently, (John) Calipari agreed to an eight year, $31.65 million deal, which would make him the highest paid coach in college basketball (Thamel, 2009). Intercollegiate coaches and their student athletes make contributions to their scholastic institutions. They bring recognition to their schools and elevate the visibility of the institution through the venue of sport. Often times, they are involved in a wi de variety of community service activities like outreach programs, camps, clinics, and read aloud sessions at schools. They are perceived to engender school spirit across the


9 campus by promoting the student body around a common mission celebrating and che ering for the team. They also generate vast amounts of revenue to support a wide array of activities, such as recruitment, scholarships, and academic endeavors. With respect to their specific sport, coaches and their student athletes are believed to improv e the revenue stream and reputation of their school building on its in dividual brand, shown by Dawes and Brown, 2004; Lawlor, 1998; Judson et al., 2006 (Johnson, Jubenville & Goss, 2009). However, it is not entirely clear what leadership styles among coach es draw their student athletes into their institutional community. This study differ s from previous work in that the site s selected for the study focus on courting and acquiring the highest caliber student athletes available. Previous work has looked at re cruitment, selection, and the coaches themselves but has not explored the strategies or leadership styles of the head coach. ( Becker & Solomon, 2005 ; Becker & Solomon, 2009 ; Johnson, Jubenville & Goss, 2009; Letawsky, Schreider, Pedersen, & Palmer, 2003; S ullivan & Kent, 2003). Three areas of research pertain to this study, leadership, institutional selection, and coaches. Leadership is comprised of goals, behaviors, relationship building, and the theories that support and promote particular leadership sty les such as transactional and transformational leadership Work by Martin, Rocca, Cayanus, and Weber, 2009; Jackson, Knapp, and Beauchamp, 2009; Lorimer, 2009, among others address these different aspects of leadership among intercollegiate coaches. Some o f these qualities are highlighted by behavioral alteration techniques like verbal aggression towards players. Techniques also included ; immediate reward from behavior and self estee m as well as positive messaging, s atisfacti on with work, relationships, coa


10 in their work as well as extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of coaches. Also, influencing behavior, taking ownership, and coaching interaction are core qualities of leadership among intercollegiate coaches. Armstrong, 1993; Bird, 1977; Br anch, 1990; Buckiewicz, 1975; Chelladurai & Carron, 1983; Cusak & Schraibman, 1986; Kent & Chelladurai, 2001; McKay, 1986; Quarterman, 1998; Scott, 1999; Snyder, 1990, and Watkins, 1983 have addressed 3). Jowett (2008), Amorose and Horn (2000) as well as Beam, Serwatka, and Wilson (2004) have studied the individual behaviors and traits in the context of leadership theories. Studies have shown that success is predicted on more than just knowledge alone ( Miller, 2003). Selection of post secondary institution is another relevant area of interest for this study because it addresses the interests of the athletes, the general student body, as well as the recruitment and fundraising efforts used to attract ind ividuals. Letawsky Schneider and Pedersen (2003) addressed the selection process of both non student athletes and student athletes finding that even with additional athletic considerations, academic factors showed equal importance in school selection San der, 2008 and Kostoff, 2008 have explored recruitment and fundraising for student athletes Several researchers have studied the experiences, knowledge, efficacy, and accountability among individual coaches in terms of their abilities and responsibilities However, no one has explored the specific leadership styles among individuals or a group of coaches and how their leadership style impacts recruitment of student athletes. The results of this research add s to the existing body of knowledge as well as adva nce an understanding of the educational ph enomenon concerning how student


11 athletes are recruited and the role that t contribute s to this process This study provide s an understanding of the styles at different research site s that makes student athletes inclined to select one school over another as well as what properties allow these to maintain the athletes, thereby promoting and elevating the athletic program a nd institution. Research concludes that w hether a coach has the ability to garner the best available athletes is likely to dictate the success or lack thereof for the institution on a particular field of play (Armstrong, 2001; Schroeder, 2010 ) Examples of higher education institutions that recruit the best available student athletes include Duke University the University of North Carolina, University of Connecticut, and the University of Kentucky Some student athletes opt out of college and/or were unab le to meet eligibility requirements i n addition to the student positions t hat are filled. Research also shows that i who among th e pool of potential successful student athl etes best fits their team Also, how they will be able to use their individual leadership style to convince a prospective student athlete that their school is the best choice in higher education academics and athletics (Armstrong, 2001; Schroeder, 2010 ) A dditional research shows that w ithout the appropriate application of coaching leadership style necessary to acquire the best student athletes, intercollegiate head coaches will be unable to fulfill the expectations of their individual program, the athletic department, and the school at large ( Cunningham, Dixon, 2003; Gurney, Weber, 2008; Letawsky, Sc hneiter, Pedersen, Palmer, 2003 )


12 Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to explore the leadership styles of intercollegiate athl etic coaches and their effectiveness in acquiring the highest caliber student athletes the program. The method of inquiry is a narrative approach, focusing on specific programs, using individual interviews in order to discover data and better understand the role that leadership style plays in recruiting student athletes. The unit of analysis is the coaching experiences and this study is entirely qualitative in nature. The research design is narrative. Findings from the interviews are used for the purpose of focusing on th e macro analytical picture of head coaches as opposed to a broader lens of cultural norms in the field. Research Quest ions By concentrating on individual coaches of an intercollegiate athletic program at specific sites, this study provide s insight into what head coaches perceive to be the best way to recruit the best talent available to their program, by exploring success ful intercollegiate athletics programs. Another purpose is to expand the knowledge base of information regarding how head coaches utilize their leadership style to garner the highest caliber of student talent accessible to their program: 1. How does Coach X d escribe his experiences in selecting potential recruits for the program? 2. How does Coach X describe leadership strategies and/or practices that enable him to acq uire the best available talent f o r the specific athl etic program with respect to personal values and beliefs ?


13 Significance of Study Recruitment of the most talented athletes is the heart of an intercollegiate program, however, to this point; previous studies have not explored the practices and uence on stud ent athlete acquisition. Generally, s tudies have delved into the leadership of intercollegiate head coaches exploring the impact of behavioral techniques ( Mannie, 2005; Martin, Rocca, Cayanus, Weber, 2009), relationships qualities between coaches and their players (Lorimer, 2009), intrinsic and extrinsic motives of coaches ( Drury, 2009; Jowett, 2008 ; Ryska, 2009 ), perceived coaching behavior by student athletes (Amorose, Horn, 2000), and student athlete preference for leadership behavior for coaches (Beam, Serwatka, Wilson, 2004). T he s election and recruitment of student athletes is another area where research has been conducted, including research into factors that influence college choice from the student athlete perspective and sources of information used to determine athlete ability, but student athlete selection has not been explored from the coaches perspective ( Becker & Solomon, 2005; Goss, Jubenville, Orejan, 2006; Johnson, Jubenville, Goss, 2009; Letawsky, Schneider, P edersen, Palmer, 2003 ) Most specific to the nature of this study is the research done regarding individual styles of head coaches. These studies have explored perceptions of great coaching from the student athlete perspective (Becker, Solomon, 2009), perf ormance appraisals of intercollegiate coaches (Cunningham, Dixon, 2003), coaching accountability (Gurney, Weber, 2008), individual efficacy (Jackson, Knapp, Beauchamp, 2009; Sullivan, Kent, 2003), factors affecting team unity ( Aghazadeh, Kyei, 2009) as we ll as the development and acquisition of coaching knowledge (Carter, Bloom, 2009).


14 The results of this research adds to the existing body of knowledge as well as advance an understanding of the educational ph enomenon concerning how student athletes are recruited and the role that t contribute s to this process provide s an understanding of the styles at different research site s that makes student athletes inclined to select one school ove r another as well as what properties allow these to maintain the athletes, thereby promoting and elevating the athletic program and institution. The relevance for this research to theory and practice is manifold. This s tudy advances the knowledge base in leadership throughout intercollegiate athletics by providing insight into those styles that allow head coaches to obtain the greatest potential student athletes. This study also sheds light onto an area of higher educati on that is dominated by practitioners who studied or published in academic journals about their profession. Additionally, current and future practitioners in the coaching profession may greatly benefit from the perceptions garnered throu gh recruiting athletes who were perhaps previously uninterested in their programs. The practice of player acquisition is paramount to the success of a head coach (Sander, 2008; Schroeder, 2010 ) Given the benefits of revenue generating sports like basketb all and football, it is in the interest of all members of the institutional community to advance the knowledge base of the leadership styles top athletes. Implementation of these stylistic cues allows head coaches to bring in the highly talented student athletes as well as respond to their educational and sports


15 field of play. Outside of their teammates, these young men will spend the majorit y of their collegiate experience involved and interacting with their research has lent itself to the further development and identification of positive and productive leadership style of coaches, not only for their own benefit but also t he benefit of the young men they serve as leader. Given the wide range of activities and systems that intercollegiate coaches and their athletes promote and support, this study offers gr eat value for learning how a coach utilizes leadership style to draw t he greatest talent to their institutions. This study is valuable to academic and athletic administrators as well as prospective and current coaches because it advances the general knowledge base regarding the relationship between leadership style and recruitment of top athletes. Current and potential coaches, athletic administrators, as well as the academic community benefit from the study of this problem because identification of the necessary s tyles can lead to advancement and excellence in the areas surrounding the athletic program and potentially extending out into the academic community The positive outcomes include facility enhancements, scholarship opportunities, notoriety and branding, as well as direct financial benefits. Further reasons of significance for this study are the enduring practice of recruitment of intercollegiate athletes. So long as there is sport in higher education, there will be competitive recruitment of athletes. Throu gh the extension of understanding that is derived from this study leadership practices can be honed and improved, leading toward the advancement of intercollegiate student athlete recruitment phenomenon


16 Limitations This study was bounded by the s pecific threats of the types of data that was limited to the individual interviews done only with the coaches, thus restricting a variety of data sources. Also, this study sought to identify leadership styles for success and it behooved the researcher to select pa rticipants with substantial qualifications and/or credentials. Subjectivity of the participants based on their individual experiences came as a limitation of the study because each participant had a unique set of experiences that came with their individual positions at their given institutions as well as through their years of experience. Different schools have different cultures and expectations of their coaches and this was reflected through the participants. Likewise, the individual perceptions of both the researcher and the research participants are individualized personal perceptions that are not transferrable from one person to another. Interview authenticity was a possible limitation. Participants are highly polished public speakers who at time may have utilizing their skills to side step questions or mask their intent, possibly over generalizing responses in order to avoid a firm position. Sampling limitations include using only three of the possible three hundred sixty five Division I basketball institutions The researcher was fortunate to get the time and effo rts of three programs at the highest level of intercollegiate competition; Analysis limitations include exclusion of other possible analytical tools in favor of the one chosen for this study as well as selection of the specific episodes and/or stories that are used to describe the experiences of the participants. Geographic location was not a limitation of the study directly as the researcher was able to accommodate all participants at their individual institutions across the country.


17 The findings are not transferable beyond the scope of this study. Limitations for interpreting the findings are the lens with which the researcher views the data. Potential threats to the study came with an inability to conduct the desired research with pa rticipants who are outside of the resources for this study. Recruitment of participants was done through known channels while using purposeful sampling of Division I coaches at state institutions. Those coaches who were outside of this sample and/or unable to participate over certain periods of time given their stature and commitments to their program were not pursued. Definition of Terms For the purposes of this study, the following terms were used: Leadership is the way in which intercollegiate coaches guide their teams, using their individual style to advance both their individual players and the overall program. Mid Major Conference is representative of a Division I conference including Atlantic Ten, Big Sky, Colonial Athletic Association, Conference USA, Horizion League, Mid American, Missouri Valley, Mountain West, Sun Belt, West Coast, and Western Athletic Conference. This term is also interchangeable with non power conference. Power Conference is identifiable with any of the six major power confer ences including the Atlantic Coast (ACC), Big Twelve, Big East, Big Ten, Pacific ten (Pac ten), and Southeastern (SEC). T his term is also interchangeable with major six conferences, and/or elite power conferences. Recruitment is the pursuit and acquisitio n of student athletes for positions to be filled on an intercollegiate team roster for the purposes of bolstering the team. Team Culture to achieve success because it creates an env ironment in which all members think alike, talk alike, and act alike so they can support and reinforce the best in one another. Top Student Athlete is determined by any student athlete deemed worthy of an intercollegiate athletic scholarship by the granti ng institution at the Division I level.


18 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE In order to develop the conceptual framework and better understand its contribution to the literature, this chapter will delve into the peripheral areas surrounding the specifi twofold, first addressing the current body of knowledge and second showing a gap in the literature that will be addressed throughout this dissertation. This review of literature is divided into three sections that are critical to the development and understanding of the leadership attributes that allow head coaches to draw top student athletes. Each section; Leadership Goals, Selection, and Coaches will discuss the relevant attri butes of importance to the head coaching position. Leadership of Intercollegiate Head Coaches hes vary throughout the while still maintaining consistency in their pursuit of victory The behavior of the head coach, the relationships they build, and the theories they employ to reach their goals are can try to recruit future student athletes in the promotion of their goals and the expectations of the institution. of behavior alteration techniques, verbal aggression as the affect for the coaches. B as overall motivation for the sport and the appreciation for their coach, student athletes reported that positive behavior alteration techniques were positively related to


19 motivation and affect whereas negative behavior alteration techniques were negatively related to motivation and affect (Martin et al., 2009). Numerous positive behavior alteration techniques were found to be beneficial to commonly immediate reward from beh avior and self esteem (Martin et al., 2009). Internal rewards showed to be more effective for player motivation than external them with a sense of internal reward leading t o higher self esteem. Additionally, there was no evidence that verbally aggressive messages are effective in motivating others (Martin et al., 2009). This literature builds on previous work as well as provides insights into styles that may prove beneficial in the recruitment of top student athletes. While the study focused on experienced player coach interactions, applying these values to prospective student athletes could help in the recruitment process. When going into the school or home of a prospective student athlete, coaches must be able to articulate why they should come to their institution and what they have to gain from the experience. Some researchers such as Haselwood et al. (2005) have suggested that communication skills are the most important s kills for coaches to possess (Martin et al., 2009). Intercollegiate head coaches spend a great deal of time fostering relationships with their student athletes. Building a strong relationship with the young men that work so closely with these coaches is pa ramount for both parties. Lorimer (2009) studies the


20 athletes using a second questionnai re measuring the coach athlete relationship. The results of these analytical tools showed that relationship quality was a significant predictor of variance in coach satisfaction. ith what as satisfaction with work, relationships, or other personal experiences such as encompasses their work, many of their relationships as well as their personal effectiveness of one (coach/athlete) are likely dependent on the success and effectiveness of the other. Therefore, not only is coach satisfaction a potential indicator n play a large role in successful recruitment of top student athletes. If a head coach is dissatisfied at some level it can have a negative impact on the current program adding to the dissatisfaction and making the program a less desirable location for pot ential student athletes. motivation can be strongly influenced by t he fostering of relationships Different individuals are fueled by different ly leading to their level of satisfaction and the degree to which they are able to perform their jobs Jowett (2008) investigated the influences of intrinsic and extrinsic motives that initiate coach related behavior The work showed facets of coach satisfaction, extrinsic motiv ation was only related to coach satisfaction


21 with the coach preeminent force motivating both player and coach, Jowett (2008) found that there was a significant interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations This presented a potential issue of undermining the benefits of intrinsic motivation at times where morale and self confidence may be low. The motivation of a head coach is an important characteristic in their capacit y I t can establish different attributes of coaching behavior that are carried out in their position such as the intensity, form, direction, and duration of their behaviors (Jowett, 2008). A lso, low intrinsic motivati onal attitude were distant, tense and private in their approach with their athletes, while coaches who endorsed a low extrinsic high intrinsic motivational attitude were more autonomous, yet more closely connected with their athletes ( also suggested that intrinsic motives provide for affiliation while extrinsic embodied dominance, each lending itself to an impact on student relationsh ips through their actions towards their current and potential student athletes. This intrinsic motivation can yield both self satisfaction and external rewards such as victory, showing we ll being causing a coach to experience satisfaction, happiness, and a sense of emotions that provide for better performance and well being, they are likely to enhance their abilities in recruitment endeavors and elevate on court performance with respect to how they act and how they are perceived. The individual coaching


22 behavior has a greate r impact on the p erception and performance of student athletes that play for these head coaches. Amorose and Horn (2000) have explored the perceptions of the number of their te ammates receiving scholarships, and the ic motivation perceived their coaches to exhibit a leadership style that emphasized training and instruction and was high in democratic behavior and low in autocratic behavior. Additionally, athletes with higher levels perceived that their coaches provided high frequencies of positive and informational feedback and low frequencies of punishment orientated and ignoring behaviors their actions beca use these attributes can prove pivotal in the recruitment of future student athletes. Coaches risk dissension among players if unwilling to promote positive values and intrinsically motivate. This can manifest into players taking out their fr ustrations whi le recruits are visiting campus. Current student athletes play a role in the recruitment process If t hey are not on the same page as the head coach and/or do not feel appreciated potential incoming athletes may view the program negatively Amorose and Hor n (2000) show that athletes who perceived their coaches to exhibit the democratic style, responding to their performances with high levels of encouragement promote these va


23 and a sense of self behavior has on Beam, Serwatka, and Wilson (2004) explore differences of student preferred leadership behavior for their coaches based on competition level, task dependence, task variability and gender. Their findings suggest that student athletes preferences for leadership behaviors are affected by task dependence and task variability of their sport. Interdependent sports athletes such as basketball and football players had a significantly higher preference for positive feedback leader beh aviors. student noted that the performance and satisfaction of student tions of the preferred by the student athletes and their preferred means of leadership, there are also individual e lements to each player that is not representative of all student athletes. Even with the emphasis appears the amount of research devoted to sport leadership does not c orrespond with student athletes can be delineated by competition level, gender, player needs and/or many other variables but none of the research shows preference for negativity or false pretenses, something head coaches should be mindful of in their pursuit of future student athletes.


24 Deference is needed to fully understand the time and effort that goes into the leadership of an intercollegiate athletic program. Relati onships between leadership styles, program goals, and individual burnout are important considerations for head relationship between these factors from a multivariate perspective fi nding that head coaches: who emphasized the pursuit of prestige and public relations program goals through means of a high strategic low collaborative style experienced high emotional exhaustion and low personal accomplishment. In contrast, lower depersona lization and greater personal accomplishment were related to the pursuit of athlete development goals by means of low bureaucratic high collaborative leadership. (p. 476) Simply put, individuals whose personal attributes are inadequate to meet the high dem ands of the head coaching position are increasingly prone to perceive their view the at tainment of public relations and prestige goals as incompatible with satisfying the needs of athletes and other personnel, and thus pursue these goals at the expense of team member input, positive task based relationships and resolution of program conflict confidence and competence of a head coach. In the preservation of confidence and exhibition of competence, head coaches pursuit of achieving athlete personal growth and excellenc e can be fostered through the development of deeper personal connection with others in the program, personal investment in others success, and deriving greater personal satisfaction from coaching their student athletes (Ryska, 2009). Drury (2009)


25 notes think clearly, make ethical decisions and act decisively in competitions and dynamic c an promote their program and provide for a solid foundation for each incoming class of student athletes to build upon. There are different ways to look at leadership of head coaches and how to implement its traits. Mannie (2005) cites influencing behavior, uniting players for a common cause, delegating responsibility, working with a purpose, and taking ownership of the program as the essence of leadership. Drury (2009) points to interaction as a a foundational coaching element of interactions Drury (2009) emphasizes the need for interactions to build relationships and the need for quality relationships to strengthen the the homes and/or schools of prospective student athlete s. Each interaction is an opportunity to build the relationship between the two parties. It is an opportunity to strengthen the bond between the player and the coach, and can lead to solidifying the on. Schroeder (2010) investigated the organizational cultural perspective to explore the degree to which team improvement featured change in team culture. It sought to identify the leadership behaviors used by coaches to change team culture. While team cul ture is common lexicon in the coaching profession, outside of the field there is not a


26 high level of comprehension surrounding this concept. Using qualitative analysis, the findings indicated that turnarounds in team culture created changes, changes that w ere initiated by the coaches through a process of core sets of values specific to the individual teams. Several tactics were employed to ingrain the values including recruitment of athletes who would embrace team values as well as punishment and rewards co essence of coaching is developing a team culture or a social and psychological environment in w hich all members think alike, talk alike, and act alike so they can This study points out three phases that leaders must take their organizations nfreezing, cognitive restructuring problems within the organization or unfreezing, establishing a vision for change or cognitive restructuring and providing a common purpose and sense of importance to the work that is being completed or refreezing (2010). Through these steps a head coach can present issues to his players, create buy in by the players and work to achieving the goals set out through his intended vision for futur e success. While on the recruitment trail coaches can enhance their teams by courting players who want to be vested in the extending offers to players who fit their vi sion for the future and can have a positive role in the team.


27 teams through modified cul tural change processes. Second, coaches spent considerable time developing and using a variety of tactics to facilitate this change process. Third, culture change seemed to be accelerated by the unique nature of the intercollegiate athletic environment (p. recruiting profiles and scouting techniques were developed by coaches to recruit discovered that the recruitment process is key to the promotion of cultural change and organizational success of a program showing that specific criteria was established by every coach in the study for desired recruits. This process proves to be arduous for coaches, so detailed scouting procedures are implemented as well as scrutiny from the current members of the team to develop a picture of who the head coach wants on his squad. While rating systems such as top 150 recruit list provide on court assessments of players, talent is not the sole criteria for s election of a potential recruit. L ooking at athletes who are going to buy into the program show attributes consistent with being "passionate," "high self esteem," "intelligence," "maturity," "character," "low ego," "coachable," "team orien t ed," and "into winning (p. 76) as highly valued qualities in recruits. Also of great value from this study, Schroeder (2010) identifies that location and acquisition of recruits capable of enhancing a team culture is often done through the establishment staffs contacted "people on the periphery around a player," talking not just to parents


28 and coaches, but to opposing coaches, officials, and teachers. Several coaches also paid special att ention to body language and the way recruits dealt with their parents (p. were adamant about waiting for the players who are the correct fit for the program sharing tha t early commitments are no good if it is not the right player for the team. apt to buy into the values and teachings of a particular coach. Coaches also felt that as play ers began to embrace the program's values that those values would begin to Cultural change can often be brought on through leadership style or the theoretical perspective of the head coach. One of the most dominant and effective form s of leadership is the transformational leadership model. Armstrong (2001) points out that hletic and non effectiveness in choosing the best leadership style for a respective sport as well as the individual leads to improvements in athlete performance, team cohesion, and team a nd coach different organizational structures or programs. That is to say, what works with one team may need to be altered for another and/or how a coach behaves with one player


29 performance that is seen when leaders broaden and elevate the interests of their followers, w hen they generate awareness and acceptance among their followers of the purposes and mission of the group, and when they move their followers to transcend their own self the greatest meaning for the team and head coach while showing that winning is no less ion of the group tends to raise not only the effectiveness of the subordinates, but that of the vision for indicates that self confident, charismatic coaches who show self determinatio n are generally held with high regard by their players and staff because they lead by example of the expectation and trust (Choi, 2006). Such coaching greats like Phil Jackson are cited as


30 ulation of his by player and their abilities, ultimately leading to wholesale buy in to the coaches plan (Armstrong, 2001). While results and attributes may vary, Arm strong (2001) states that unparalleled performance as well as the edification of both coaches and athletes. (p. Choi (2006) investigated the relationship between the transformational leadership and service quality as perceived by the student athletes via the organizational outcomes including organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. His research revealed c harismatic leadership as well as responsiveness and empathy as prominent dimensions of transformational leadership and service quality concluding that transformational leadership was correlated to all organizational outcomes. As part of his research, Choi (2006) addresses transactional and transformational leaders identify the step s their players need to take in order to achieve the desired needs as well as clarify how they can be satisfied providing the necessary efforts are made. The transactional leadership style is represented by the two primary behaviors of management by exception and contingent reward. This leadership style is also part of the transformational leadership style which extends beyond the initial tenets of


31 transactional leadership. Building on previous research Choi (2006) shows that transformational leadership he transactional behaviors that focus on exchange of reward. Also, these transformational and moral values such as liberty, justice, equality, peace, and humanitarianism, not to his study, Choi discovered that transformational leadership positively impacted organizational citizen behavior, commitment and job satisfaction as well as the generalized compliance by the student athletes, enhancing their perceptions of the service quality they were receiving. Through the implementation of the leadership style and the potential benefits that can be garnered as a result of its execution, head c steps needed in order for that vision to come to fruition. This plays into recruitment because part of the recruitment process for a head coach is identifying restrictio ns that may be placed on his search such as budgetary and/or geographical issues. Also, organization as athletes but also as students proves to be an important consideration of head coaches. Additionally, drawing the greatest level of commitment and effort from the players while meeting internal and external goals are variables that can be addressed through a transformational leadership style.


32 Another study focusing on transf ormational leadership in intercollegiate athletics pays attention to the perceived leader member exchange quality and its association with perceived transformational leadership behaviors. In this study, Kent and Chelladurai (2001), using correlation and re gression analysis indicated that transformational leadership was significantly correlated with leader member exchange quality. Their study also echoes others like Armstrong (2001) and Choi (2006) in its assessment of transformational leadership defining t of influencing major changes in attitudes and assumptions of organizational members work with leader member exchange revealed that a high quality of interpersonal exchange between a coach and their student athlete enhances mutual respect and support whereas the opposite will reduce the trust between a coach and his player(s) lessening the support given by either party. They further stat transformational leadership has been linked to several attitudinal and perceptual outcomes, such a link has been quite strong in the case of organizational commitment tion. individual visions for advancing their program, but also that of their athletic department they work for and the student athletes that work for them. A significant part of a head players they coach along with balancing the demands of the position. In order to go beyond simple maintenance of a program and excel competitively, a head coach ne eds to employ a theoretical perspective that will promote the wants and needs of his players


33 while advancing their development in order to achieve the vision set forth for the enhancement of the program. The above research shows instances and insights into these areas providing a base line to move forward from. Selection and Recruitment Selection of an institution of higher education is something that is done by prospective athletes and general student body alike. For the student athletes, there is a signif icant level of recruitment and fundraising for the promotion of this recruitment. This process is much more in depth and involved for student athlete recruitment It entails home visit, contacting family, relatives, and friends of the prospective recruit, and making a high level of communication throughout the recruitment process via telephone, internet, and physical face to face visits at a recruits school or home. Given the importance of this process in acquiring top student athletes, the following sectio n will detail research in this area as well as touch on selection criteria for the general student body. In defining top student athletes for the purposes of this study, it was established that student athletes determined by the program to be worthy of an athletic scholarship were to be considered top student athletes. Letawsky, Schneider, Pedersen, and Palmer (2003) investigated factors that influence the college choice of top student athletes and potential difference s with non athlete selection of schools Their findings indicated that while student athletes have additional factors to school selection beyond that of non athletes, school selection based on non athletic factors showed to be just as important for student athletes as the athletic factors drawi ng them to an institution of higher education. Still, athletic departments and head coaches go to great lengths to recruit and acquire top student


34 billion dollar, inter nationally re cognized business has changed the focus of It now shows that ultimately lead to higher numbe Student athletes take a number of things into consideration when selecting a school to important in the student athlete reputation, an opportunity to play as a freshman, and receiving scholarships all are very important considerations for student athletes (Letawsky et al., 2003). Additionally, Letawsky et al. discovered th at the most influential factors for student athlete selection are degree program options, the head coach, academic support services accessible to traditions. These findings indicate that academic accomplishments are of equal importance to athletic accomplishments, showing academic reputation to be of great importance for recruits with degree options surfacing as the highest rated factor in the decision process for recruits (L etawsky et al., 2003). With respect to the athletic expectations and factors for selection, the head coach, institutional sports traditions, facilities, and the official on campus visit topped the selection criteria for recruits (Letawsky et al., 2003). Ex actly what a head coach looks for in a prospective recruit will vary coach by coach team by team. Becker and Solomon (2005) explore sources of information coaches use to develop expectations for athlete ability. In their results, it is revealed that Divisi on I head basketball coaches rely predominately on psychological attributes when


35 assessing athletes. They also found that the student team s point out that expectancy theory is a way head coaches determine potential coach athlete re lations. This theory is a four step model whereby in the first step, the head coach develops his expectations for athletic performance rating personal, performance, and psychological factors like body size, speed, agility, confidence, and anxiety. Then, ba sed on these expectations, the coach moulds their behavior and treatment toward the which provides then with information regarding their own level of competence, fu rther fulfilling prophecy. Through the analysis of this model and the results generated from the head coach ic sources of information primarily relied on Lear n, Love of the Sport, and Willingness to listen Physical sources of information, such as Athleticism and Coordination, were not in the top one third of items reported (p. sful coaches and less successful coaches with the information they used to evaluate athletic ms.


36 Active recruitment is a necessity in the competitive world of intercollegiate athletics. The pursuit of this venture requires resources that are often generated through fund raising. If not for funds generated through these means head coaches would be less effective in their recruitment of athletes and unable to compete with other schools vying for the same athletes. This process lends itself to an adage in the field that Del isio & hand and hand with recruitment of student athletes because both endeavors share similar attributes. In both fund raising and recruiting Delisio and Fleming show head coaches must identify the pool of prospects, qualify this pool, identify their abilities and/or fit with the program, create contact with the prospects, research these contacts, interact with them on a personal level and maintain personal connections. Skilled recruiters are often skilled fund raisers and through these steps head coaches will be able to enhance and promote their program and their vision for the future success of the program. Recruitment and fundraising can take different forms at different institutions throughout the Division I level as well as between the different levels of competition. R esources or lack thereof can dictate how a program markets potential student athletes. Johnson, Jubenville and Goss (2009) identified important college choice factors for entering freshman student athletes at small, private schools. Their research showed that playing opportunities and relationships with the head coaches were top rated factor s. Also, that for major and minor sport athletes, different strategies should be used in order to draw them to these small institutions. According to Johnson et al.,


37 (2009) part of the recruitment process for head coaches is recruiting players that meet in stitutional goals as well as the athletic goals of the head coach. This entails attracting players who will be successful both academically and athletically with special attention to these details at smaller institutions because of potential budgetary rest rictions. Awareness of selection considerations on the part of the head coach will prove beneficial in attracting recruits because it will allow them to potentially market their institution in a way that is appealing to the student athlete. A three stage p rocess is discussed by Johnson, Jubenville and Goss (2009) whereby students take in vast quantities of information about schools. They then distill this information down to more detailed information about schools tailored to their specific wants and needs. Finally, in the third stage, students apply to a select group of schools that are very similar based positive elicitation from their peers approving their decision. Wh ile both student athletes and non has to offer for a specific recruit. In the case o f small private institutions used in this study, Johnson et al. ( 2009) found that these schools prioritize a distinctive image in the marketplace as well as making sure their coaching staff is on the same page in this branding effort. These efforts lend th emselves to the notion that head coaches need to be a part of the institutional community and not on an athletic island focused solely on their program. In order to draw in top student athletes to their school, head coaches need to be in tuned with what th e school is all about, what it offers socially, academically, and athletically.


38 These coaches are not just selling themselves or the team but also the institutional community and all it has to offer these student athletes. In line with previous studies, o pportunity to play, head coach relationship and athletic facilities were the top three considerations of recruits (Johnson, Jubenville & Goss, 2009). Another study by Goss, Jubenville and Orejan (2006) explores institutional selection factors that prove mo st influential for small college student athletes finding that recruiters would best be able to attract student Recruitment of student athletes is not an exact science. W hile there is quantifiable statistical data, there is still a level of subjectivity that comes along with selection of recruits. There are two primary considerations for head coaches in recruitment. There are quantifiable evaluations and subjective evalua tions that are comprised of the subjective attributes that a recruit may possess ( Coaches Plan, 2008) It is the responsibility of the head coach and his staff to evaluate these attributes in addition to the quantifiable characteristics of the player to determine how beneficial an addition to the program they will be and/or if they are worth investing the time and effort. in the morning, late at night, on weekends and days off and spare moments in between, college coaches work to lure the next gen loss records, sacrifice all semblance of a personal life to do battle with their peers and


39 woo those young athletes (The C coaches can recruit, when and where they can contact athletes, and what can be discussed but with the competition for the most talented student athletes lines can get It is not uncommon for a coach to offer an athlete a scholarship and give the teenager just a day or two to decide. Yet as the rules become more restrictive, many coaches say they are scrambling to develop relationships with a widening circle of club coac hes who exert influence over for them to communicate via e mail during the athlete's j unior year, and athletes may contact a coach unrestrictedly (Sander, 2008). For head coaches, there is a moral and ethical balancing act they must perform in the recruitment process. There are a number of stakeholders involved in this process and a lack of adherence to rules and credit and the institutions that employ them, the majority of student athletes surveyed on or many athletes the process The benefits of student athletes recruitment extends beyond the playin g fields into the classrooms and across the campus. Enrollment often goes up with investments in athletic facilities and athletic programs. These investments lead to elevated recruiting classes which in turn lead to elevated classes of student bodies. Sand er (2008c) points


40 ent of its 4,200 applicants whereas three years ago the school accepted 93 percent of the 1,200 students who While it can be a great benefit to school and its athletic programs, keeping up with competing schools, maintaining facilities and recruitment budgets and staying ahead of the curve requires vast sums of revenue. Across the NCAA, it is clear that staying competitive means programs have doubled or tripled their recruitment spending over the past decade, as their pursuit of elite athletes intensifies and becomes more national in scope. Forty eight percent o f NCAA Division I athletic departments at least doubled their recruiting budgets which data were available, 21 each spent more than $1 million chasing talented player s themselves exerting to stay competitive in conference and nationally (Sander, 2008c). The highest individual spender was the University of Tennessee, shelling out $2 millio n dollars on recruitment in 2007 followed by Notre Dame, the University of Florida, Auburn With the escalating expenditures, the largest programs competing with each other and smaller ones trying not to get left in the dust, head coaches are left to try and figure


41 out what kind of return they a re going to get on their investments with respect to years of attendance by student athletes. In the cases of the elite programs there is an almost continual turnover of talent leading players to professional athletics and coaches having to reload rosters after an unfulfilled commitment for whatever the reason. Kostoff (2008) points out that the academic past and future academic aspirations of student athletes are pivotal to the decision for recruitment. He adds that many student understand that becoming a college recruit is a four year process approximately 740 transcripts. Student tabul ate every one of these days a student number can often be no lack of effort for these student athletes, Kostoff shows statistically, they will experience more professional opportunities upon graduation then non athlete students. Individual Styles of Head Coaches Intercollegiate head coaches are viewed through a multitude of different lenses with a wide array of tasks and responsibilities for which they are accountable. Their individual experiences and the experiences th ey create for others, namely their players, are part of the foundation for their profession. In addition to the experiences derived through and from coaching, the knowledge base that goes into the position along with the efficacy of the coach all play into the accountability of intercollegiate head coaches (Gurney, Weber, 2008)


42 Student athletes are the primary stakeholders for head coaches As such, tactical abilities, and i n addition to all of these responsibilities, they are also expected to great coaching through the lens of the student athletes Their study led to the development of a final thematic structure providing six major dimensions of great coaching that include the influences and coaching actions, coach attributes, the environment, relationships, and the system in which they play and operate. From the perspective of the stude nt athletes Becker and Solomon yielded results showing that a stable consistent coach who maintained strong relationships with their athletes and managed a positive team environment within the set system or vision set forth by the coach were found to be of greatest quality. Also, those coaches who avoid breakdowns between themselves and their players were perceived to be more than just a head coach but rather someone to look up to often embodying the role of a parental figure to the athletes (Becker & Solom on, 2009). Becker and Solomon (2009) show that veteran coaches who were highly being well known with a positive reputation. This emphasis on reputation would prove important when recruiting student athletes because if a level of credibility is granted by the recruit it could help facilitate the recruitment process according to student athletes in the study Cunningham and Dixon (2003) look at performance appr aisals of intercollegiate coaches and propose an updated system that addresses and measures team athletic


43 and academic outcomes, fiscal responsibility, ethical behavior, athlete satisfaction, and quality in student athlete recruitment. Their proposed team appraisal instrument addresses administrative issues such as pay raises and contract renewals as opposed to developmental issues such as improvements in weak areas of performance. Through the team appraisal instrument the researchers build on previous rese arch measuring performance on the field, ethical behavior and academic progress. However Cunningham and Dixon work also evaluates the effectiveness of the coaching staff in blending skill sets and knowledge with those other attributes to identify and crea te a high quality team product, encompassing not just the head coach but the various stakeholders involved in the program. Gurney and Weber (2008) suggested as a means of accountability that head coaches be responsible for graduation rates of their student athletes because of their elevated role in the recruitment progression of their student the ones who gauge their institutions' priorities and academic demands, select recruits, and convince those athletes of the fit between the ir academic preparedness and the W ith respect to their program, student to engage fully in the institution and seek a deg ree, or whether that team will judge a student athlete based only on his or her athletics contribution (Why Focus on letters of intent, often without input from faculty m embers or administrators (Why Focus


44 If only informally, head coaches do maintain efforts to keep their athletes eligible and graduating. In addition to on the court wins and losses, coaches are tasked with the development of their player s into capable men, ready to move on after their athletic experience in college. This is evident in the relationships coaches build but also the level of efficacy that is fostered individually and through the players. Jackson, Knapp and Beauchamp (2009) ex d with self efficacy, other efficacy, and relation inferred self coaches and their athletes. The results of their study indicates both coaches and student athletes believed that the efficacy beliefs originated from oneself and that the efficacy constructs were interrelated as well as independently associated with positive consequences pertaining to relationship orientated and task related consequences. The efficacy constructs add ressed in Jackson, Knapp and Beauchamp (2009) fundamental role in the healthy development and sustenance of mutually beneficial tion of relationships between head coaches capabilities are present. Additionally, student athletes were willing to maintain relationships with those coaches for whom they held a high level of other efficacy and demonstrated high levels of self efficacy (Jackson, Knapp & Beauchamp, 2009). tion to coach feedback and feel close athlete promotes improved performance and motivation solidifying the importance of


45 Beauchamp, 2009). An intercollegiate head coach typically has a leadership style that is comfortable leadership style they choose for their program based on the value they place on themselves and those around them. Sullivan and Kent (2003) investigated coaching efficacy as a predictor of leadership style in intercollegiate athletics, examining the relationship between the efficacy of th ese coaches and their leadership style They found that coaching efficacy accounts for a large portion of variance in leadership style with motivation and technique efficacy serving as significant predictors. Sullivan and Kent (2003) determined that there are sources of coaching efficacy, coaching efficacy dimensions, and outcomes of the coaching efficacy. Sources of the efficacy comes from coaching experience and preparation, prior success, perceived skill of student athletes, as well as school and communi ty support. The different dimensions they address are game strategy, motivation, technique, and character building which ultimately builds into the outcomes for the coaching efficacy, identified as the coaching behavior, player and team satisfaction as wel l performance and confidence. The coaches displayed a greater frequency of praise and enco uragement and less With higher coaching efficacy, come higher levels of player satisfaction. However, in the pursuit of excellence and the attainment of top student athletes in each recruiting


46 class, head coaches must find ways to promote unity and provide for positive team chemistry in the pursuit of integrating new talent as well as maintaining a level of excellence in competition. Head coaches must provide players with all necessities needed to maintain an attitude of cohesion and unity. Aghazadeh and Kyei (2009) have investigated factors affecting team unity and found that variables such as academic policy, team record, class standing, funding, travel accommodations, and coaching staff are considered by the student accommodations, coaching staff and academic policies are the most important factors of most important factors that can contribute to unity among athletes in college sports, Aghazadeh and Kyei conclude that coaching staff is the most important factor due to the influence and power over the student athletes. For head coaches to have the abilities to identify and assess the needs of their team they have to employ the knowledge and skills that they have learned through their experiences. Some head coaches were previously student athletes in the sport they coach; others have not had the sam e athletic backgrounds but have shown success in their sport. Carter and Bloom (2009) explored the development and acquisition of coaching knowledge, revealing that successful coaches have shown commonalities between their personal characteristics and curr ent coaching knowledge. Through their research, countless meaning units were distilled down to three categories that represent the knowledge and expertise gained by head coaches. These categories are career path, coaching knowledge, and personal factors of the head coaches. All research participants played sports as a youth leading to their ultimate profession as athletic


47 coaches. The leading personal factor for the research participants was communication skills and knowledge acquisition came from observing other coaches, participation in sport, studying physical education and kinesiology in college. Another attribute that was discovered to be important was teaching skills. Coaches identified teaching skills as s, coaches chose to work harder on improving their teaching skills than their sport coaches will have specific experiences and backgrounds that provide them the knowledge base to coach and lead their program to succ ess. While not all intercollegiate head coaches played elite college sport or college sport at all, there are commonalities between those coaches who did and those who did not, showi ng that personal factors and developed coaching knowledge can lead to succ esses for their program.


48 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study is to explore the leadership styles of intercollegiate athletic coaches and their effectiveness in acquiring the highest caliber student athletes available to their program. The method of inquiry is a narrative approach, focusing on specific programs, using individual interviews in order to discover data and better understand the role that leadership style plays in recruiting student athletes. This research was guided by the following research questions: 1. How does Coach X describe his experiences in selecting potential recruits for the progra m? 2. How does Coach X describe leadership strategies and/or practices that enable him to acquire the best available talent to the specific athletic program with respect to the values and beliefs of the coach? Answers to the presented research questions were pur sued through the analysis of individual intervie ws, grounded in the constructivis t epistemology, using a constructivist theoretical perspective. This epistemology can take a variety of forms as indicated by Hatch, 2002 and Grbich, 2007. For example, a researcher can create contrasting stories between two research participants to create the interpretation of content as noted in Grbich. (p132).For the purposes of this study a positioning of the actor and the research are utilized to create the interpretat ions of the data.(p.132) The subsequent findings bring forward an understanding of the educational phenomenon concerning how students are recruited and the role that a style contributed to this process.


49 Leadership transcends the field of play for intercollegiate coaches. From individuals in the athletic department outwards to the academic community and the community at large, Leadership permeates a wide range of areas and activities. Armstrong, 2001; Choi, 2006 ; Kent and Chelladurai, 2001 are among those researchers model impacts organizational outcomes, commitment, behavior and service quality throughout intercollegiate athletics. Kent and Chelladurai, 20 01 utilize whereby there are three primary dimensions tha t comprise the leadership model: leadership concerns "the faith and respect in the leader and the inspiration and encouragement provided by his or her presence" (p. 209). Intellectual stimulation is defined as "the arousal and change in followers of problem awareness and problem solving, of thought and imagination, and of be liefs and values, rather than arousal and change in immediate action" (p. 99). Indi vidualiz ed consideration refers to the leader treating each subordinate "differently according to each subordinate's needs and capabilities" (p. 82). Research has shown that these dimensions of transfo rm ational leadership have positive effects on other organiza tionally relevant variables such as satisfaction. Commitment and motiva tion, and that these effects go beyond those of transactional leadership beh aviors (e.g., Basu & Green, 1997; Doherty & Danylchuk, 1996; Hater & Bass, 1988 ; Howell & Avolio. 1993; K oh, Steers, & Terborg, J995; Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, J990). Hatch (2002) shows that in constructivism, research paradigms have multiple realities that are constructed, with knowledge as a human construction where the


50 researcher and parti cipant build the understandings of this knowledge. He cites Guba absolute realities are unknowable, and the objects of inquiry are individual perspectives unique because they are constructed by individuals who experience the wor ld from their own vantage point p. 15) Hatch (2002) also ca that researchers take time interacting with and observing the participants in their natural environment in order to better reconstruct the constructions the research participants use to make meaning of their world ( p.15 ) These constructivist interviews performed by the researcher work with the participants to co construct the understandings that are reported as narratives (p. 23) works while it can be used elsewhere as noted by Polkinghorne (1995).(p. 28) Constructivism shaped this study by providing the cues to follow when collecting and analyzing data. In this study, multiple realities were constructed with the knowledge of the participant guiding the researc her to develop a co constructed understanding of the knowledge. Furthermore, constructivism shaped this study in the time and interaction that took place between the researcher and the participants. The researcher spent anywhere from a day to a full week in obse rvation and interaction with the participants in their natural environments to develop a rapport as well as to better reconstruct the constructions that the participants use to make meaning of their world. The researcher and the participant collectively co constructed the knowledge generated from the interview process with the participant leading in that construction and the researcher filling out the full understanding of the content. The participant s w ere


51 given a very active role in the process. E dit ing c ontent such as questions and elaboration on their answers as well as who else and what additional artifacts might be involved to enhance the study such as assistant coaches or colleagues along with personal artifacts such as news paper clippings, champions hip rings or trophies. They had a hand in the final product through member conclude. The Setting The coaching climates at these institutions are ones with expectations of performance on and off the field of play for a ll those within the program T he day to day operations of the program s are highly compartmentalized with each stakeholder having specific tasks and expectations. Responsibilities are delegated to and from the head coach to assistant coaches, strength and c onditioning coaches, academic advisors, and support staff who comprise the program in order to make things run smoothly and efficiently. Challenges that come along with this position are both internal and external w ith expectations from senior administrato rs and boosters as well as the general public Each program was chosen for; the level of i ntercollegiate competition subsequently conference member ship as well as a representation of a state institution Program selection first entailed differentiating be tween different division levels, Division III, Division II, and Division I. After determining Division I, the highest intercollegiate competitive level, would best suit the study, the researcher set out to find programs that embodied the different conferen ces throughout the Division I competition level. This included selection of programs that represented both Mid Major Division I programs as well as programs representative of major conferences such as the Big East, Big Ten, SEC, ACC, PAC Ten, or the Big Tw elve defined by the NCAA Once the participant


52 pool was narrowed down to viable candidates the solicitation process began. The individual programs in this study represent both mid m ajor conferences and major power conferences achieving the intended goals of participant selection. Individually, the settings ranged from fully dedicated and independent facilities to accommodations where the given program shared court time and facilities with a host of other teams as well as the student body. Individual charac teristics between any given schools will vary depending on the prerogative of that institution and its emphasis on athletic endeavors. Participants Participation in this study was first determined by a willingness to take part in the research followed by the timeliness of responses to the request for participation in this study. Access to the individual coaches was gained first through written communication followed by telephone and/or e mail communication. Participation was finally secured through a face to face meeting where details of participation and intent of the study were discussed. Permission to attract the participant s was first approved through the supervisory committee and cleared through the IRB. Then, the ultimate approval from the research p articipant was received. There were three coaches included in the study, selected through their position as a Division I coach at a public institution Informed consent was obtained in person through a face to face meeting with the research participants wh o are male, in their mid forties to early sixties. The research participants have had many years of experience coaching and leading student athletes through different programs as low as the high school level and as high as Division I Each of the coaches has served at a variety of different programs.


53 experience of participants ranged from 14 to 35 years of coaching service with an average of over 20 years head coaching ex perience. Additionally, over the past ten seasons, 41 recruits representing the top 150 recruits in their class have been garnere d by two of the three coaches, w hile the third, a m id m ajor has secured none based on top 150 rankings. Coaching Pro file A coaching profile for one of the research participants includes; over 30 years of head coaching experience starting at the community college level for four years before moving up to the Division II ranks for 15 years where he led three different sch ools. After his time in Division II, he made the jump to Division I where he has currently been for the past 14 years. He has over 500 wins in his career while only taking nearly 400 losses. This coach has had a number of former players go on to play profe ssionally overseas as well as in the NBA. This coach is a former intercollegiate athlete himself playing basketball in college. He has complied a winning record in multiple Divisions for a number of different schools and has a career winning percentage of roughly .600. His staffing resources include three full time assistant coaches, two programs and sport specific strength and conditioning coaches, as well as a support staff of four that includes an administrative assistant, director of basketball operatio ns, video coordinator, and a graduate assistant, as well as numerous members of the student body who attend and work at practices. Coaches noted that it can be an exhausting process consuming anywhere from 70 to 90 percent of their time and effort by their own estimations. Recruitment is a year long process that involves countless hours of travel, communication, preparation, and evaluation of the program as well as the potential student athletes that are under consideration to be brought in and offered athl etic


54 scholarships. Coaches interviewed did a large portion of the regional recruiting with one season. In other instances assistant coaches took the lead on recruitment efforts leaving the head coach free for other duties as well as to seal the deal if and when needed. The leadership styles of the coaches interviewed were such that their coaching s tyle and leadership style were one in the same. Coaches interviewed expressed transparency as a high priority. Therefore, they maintained their identity on and off of the court as well as from player to player. The u niversities selected were all four year public institutions with enrollment ranging from thirty to fifty thousand students. All have a majority of students enrolled as undergraduate s who are primarily residential. Programmatically, the selected participants all maintain winning percentages above .500 and in recent years have made post season appearances in tournament play. All three schools compete at the Division I level athletically, are located in urban/city environments and are research intensive. Two of the three schools have student faculty ratios of 16:1 while a third has 20:1 ratio. Each school is in excess of 1300 acres with representation in the Big Ten, SEC, and MAC conference respectively. Research Design: Narrative Research stories told by there is an assumption that a great deal of ences,


55 interpretations and priorities p. 124) The elicitation of personal narratives is perceived as a more natural means of communication with two main versions of analysis with socio linguistic and socio cultural focusing on plots and how they convey meaning and a broader interpretive framework looking at how people make sense of incidents in their lives respectively ( p. 124) Historically, narrative analysis covers a wide range of contextual mediums with the key defining features of a story or narration of events that have developed sequentially over time ( p. 125) Specific definitions have shifted over time with a structuralist approach dominating the middle of the twentieth century and evolving through the work of Russian form alists and French structuralists who introduced different terminology but groups like the Personal Narratives interpretation derived from the stori dichotomy of plot and story dominating this form of analysis. (p. 125) Grbich (2007) points out that other researchers such as Reismann (2003) and Beech (2000) have identified varying styles such as hypo thetical and topic centered narratives as well as heroic director and romantic ward manager style, specific to managers and workers of different organizations. Many different scholars and researchers advocate that personal ( Lieblich, Tuval individuals through the ir verbal accounts and stories (p. 7)


56 The research design for this study is narrative because of the desire to delve into and e xplore the leadership styles of intercollegia te athletic coaches and their effectiveness in acquiring the highest caliber student athletes available to their program form used in this study is narrative interview f or its flexibility in allowing the participant to share freely any information they feel worthwhile while also making sure to address the intended questions posed in the interview in order to address the research questions of the study. This research desig n was implemented to explore a phenomenon in higher education that showed a gap in the knowledge base, creating a problem with the available literature. The coaches in this study were purposefully selected by their position as a Division I coach representi ng a mid major or power conference as well as a willingness to take time away from their duties to address this educational phenomenon. Once participation was agreed upon, their stories about their thoughts, beliefs, and values were collected and questions pertaining to this educational phenomenon were dealt with The information was then reviewed and recounted to create the most accurate interpretation of the material. Then, once this was put together the participant collaborated with the researcher as a m eans of checking for accuracy and intent of the interviews and expressed statements. After the research participant was comfortable with the data the material was put together and ultimately validated by participant one last time before completion of the s tudy. Interviews provided insights into the participants ways of making meaning in their lives and have the potential to create different outcomes, of which Hatch (2002) points


57 c onstructions participant explanations of events, activities, feelings, motivations, concerns; reconstructions explanations of past events and experiences; projections explanations of anticipated experiences; triangulation verification of extension of inf ormation from other sources; member checking verification or extension of researche r to try and figure out wh at the participant is thinking (p. 92) The interviews were conducted in the individual offices of each coach which is where they felt most comfortable a nd promoting a level of convenience in maintaining their day to day operation s as well as upholding their other responsibilities for the program. Each interview ranged from a half hour to an hour depending on down time or interruptions that arose from stakeholders needing the attention of the coach. Conversations throughout the vis its were commonplace within the scope of the study and beyond the scope of the study facilitating the ease in communication throughout the interviews. Notes were taken at practices, in meetings, and around the program to supplement the study as well as for review of interviews and preparation of future discussions. study on understanding racism through the eyes of African American male student athletes. Subjectivity Statement The researcher has a background in athletics from early childhood through been interconnected throughout this community of basketball professionals and hope at some point to be involv ed with intercollegiate athletics directly as a coach or in an


58 indirect capacity as an athletic advisor or compliance officer. Specifically, there have been a great number of experiences as a player with coaching leadership ranging from poor to excellent a ttributes of a coach guiding my view and interpretations as well as existing research These experiences have shaped and molded my perspective on leadership and the attributes that help make productive successful leaders. Examples that stand out and have m ade a great impression with respect to poor leadership in coaching are those coaches who do not lead by example, those who divide the team as opposed to uniting them under one cause, and those who express little communication, delegating their thoughts ind irectly through assistant coaches. Inversely, Examples of great leadership in coaching has been exhibited through those who clearly articulate the expectations and goals of the team and promote those goals through the development of the team through execut ion of training and development. Directly related to the recruitment of student athletes, there has been experience in this process from the perspective of a potential recruit. This experience came from recruitment as a prospective football player out of h igh school as well as some interest from local schools for basketball. The process proved to be very educational and informative because there are many avenues that must be traveled throughout the process on the part of the student athlete as well as the r ecruiter and had it not been for this experience I might not have as great an insight into the recruitment of potential student athletes or leadership attributes of intercollegiate coaches. Likewise, interaction with intercollegiate teammates who were much more heavily recruited for their services provided what might have been the greatest insights into the process as their experiences ran through


59 the whole gambit of the recruitment process down to a few schools vying for their services and one ultimately w inning out over the others. Data Collection: Narrative Interviews The study was conducted at three different Division I institutions across the country. The research participants chose the location for the interviews selecting their place of work where the y spend the majority of their time when available on campus. This location is their main office selected because it is both of greatest convenience and comfort to their participation in this study. The criteria for s election of the participant was coaching at the Division I level and representing a state institution. The participant was selected based on this purposeful sampling. Specifically, theory or concept sampling was employed because the participant is helping to discover specific concepts th at lead to a greater understanding of leadership styles recruit top student athletes. Once the role was accepted as a research participant they were advised on the process that ensued and given instructions The narrative interv iew differed from a standardized formal interview in that the participant will have the flexibility of co construction of knowledge. Participants were informed that they should speak freely and were able to discuss anything they wanted pertaining to their progression as a coach and the development of their recruitment process. Their office allowed them to be relaxed and in their natural environment, enhancing the interview process as recommended by Hatch (2002). Also, this setting allowed the research parti cipant to be mobile and reactive to their professional obligations to the program. In this sense, mobility, reactivity, convenience and comfort all aim at achieving what s The selection of this site was left to the research


60 participant This action also helped the research participant take power and ownership of their participation in the study in an effort to facilitate their cooperation. As Hatc h says responsibility for questions and answers is shared with the research participants (p.95). It also lent itself to a seamless transition between the interview process and the daily functions that the head coach needs to perform. Within the participant s office there is a desk which they use as their primary station for their work activities. There is also a table off to the side where they can hold additional meetings or interactions as well as other seating for more casual interactions. Narrative inter views were conducted face to face and recorded with an audio recording device in an open ended format. The the given day due to the high demands for their time and ef forts. Ea ch interview was at least thirty minutes in length and never exceeded two hours. There was a total of three interview sessions, the last of whic h was used for member checking. Throughout the interviews, open ended questions were asked to allow the research participant to voice their experiences in the best context and format for their individual comfort and style. Probes were implemented into the interviews to elicit additional information on topics that are especially valuable to the study. The pe rsonal and professional background of the participant was evaluated to determine if there were any items that would be stimulating to the interview process and provide for elaboration throughout the story telling process (See Coaching Profile on Page 53) Also, any available artifacts that were present were called on to facilitate the interviews Specifically, each interview went according to plan with each participant constructing their individual meaning of each question and how it pertained to their


61 expe riences. There were instances in each interview where the participant was momentarily distracted or called away from the interview. However, this allowed the researcher to review, think about answers, and plan ahead for upcoming questions as well as allowi ng the participant to better wrap their thoughts around a question in order to better understand its intention. After questioning was concluded and parting thoughts shared each session was wrapped up with an explanation of what would take place next in ter ms of the next interview or the analysis as well as scheduling and availability in order to give the participant greater ownership of the process, elevating their confidence in participation. The collection process followed Hatch (2002) and his recommendat ions to use open ended questions; to have questions that use familiar language to the coach; to have questions that are clear, concise, and neutral; to have questions that respect the coach and the value of their knowledge; and questions that generate answ ers related to the research questions. As for the actual interview process there are a number of attributes that it embodied. Maintaining a polite conversation; interviewing in a comfortable place such as their office; careful planning before the interview starts such as prepared questions; being an attentive listener to the participant; delving into the participants understandings of the questions and feedback; invitation extended to the participant to improve researchers skills in interviewing; and finall y transcription of interviews as soon as possible created additional strength in the research project. Data Analysis: Narrative in oral versions of personal experiences: not the products of expert storytellers that have been retold many times, but the original production of a representative sample of


62 patterns and this study therefore focuses on t he narrative itself (Paulston & Tucker, 2003). Likewise, narrative is considered as a verbal technique for recapitulating experience, s pecifically, constructing narrative units that match the sequence of the given experience while also servicing personal interest that has been determined by a stimulus in the context of that narrative (p. 75) For the purposes of this study, narrative anal ysis will provide access to the coa and personality (p. 7) total rather a constructio individuality and creativity in selection, addition to, emphasis on, and interpretation of Grbich (2007 ) provides the analytical process for this study where by the researcher: identified the boundaries of the narrative segments in the interview transcripts specific to the experiences, explored the content and context of the story while considering how the coaches were making sense of e xperiences they w ere discussing. Also, what emotions and feelings are displayed by the coaches and the impact it has on their interpretation of their experiences, comparison of the different stories and experiences between coaches, linkage between the told stories to the r elevant structures and locations for this study, and then interpreted the stories remaining conscious of my own positions and reactions and how these shape the final


63 text. These processes along with the socio cultural approach guided the analysis for this study. Data was analyzed by multiple researchers in order to promote reliability. These researchers are members of the supervisory committee These researchers have extensive experience through coursework, individual projects and their experiences working with departmental professors and the academic community. Also, the process for generating and interpreting the data has been documented utilizing an inquiry audit. Throughout the analysis the research participant s w ere consulted as a means for respondent validation and member checking of the materials. Also, peer de briefing took place to enhance dependability. Through narrative analysis the researcher gathered the individual context of the participants and shared the basic actions that have enabled the re search participant to elevate to their current level of success. Hatch (2002) presents steps to the interpretive analysis process that were followed throughout the study and distinguishing as such which are: reading the data for a sense of the whole; revie wing impressions previously recorded in research; reading the data and recording the identified impressions; study of notes for important points; review of data and coding accordingly; creating a draft summary; reviewing understandings with the research pa rticipants; and creating a revised summary identifying portions that support the created understandings. Analysis of this study employed interpretive analysis because there are constant in different ways allows meaning to be assigned to the data in order to make sense of the social


64 situations that were presented by the research participant. (p. 180) Further more, the significance, refining understandings, drawing conclusions, and extrapolating lessons, ) Validity: Trustworthiness Hatch (2002) who, in general terms, provides guiding questions that help determine validity and promote greater trustworthiness. He points out that studies should have a qualified interview described and justified; procedural description and justification; predetermined guiding questions that are open ended, clear, and neutral, ref lecting the research questions (p. 145) Also, this study utilized peer de briefing to enhance the dependability further adding to the trustworthines s of the study, measures that are corroborate d by Hatch. Specifically, this study provided adequate trustworthiness through the process for generating and interpreting the data because it has been documented utilizing an inquiry audit. Each day notes were taken regarding the happenings of the day, interactions between coaches and players, between researcher and participant, in reference to the interviews, and in reflection of the interviews in order to promote greater dependability and confirmability. This study provided a point of triangulation through interactions with assistant coaches within the program. While not directly interviewed, t his interaction included courtside and locker room discussions during practices and meetings. Also, there were many ins tances where these coaches made themselves available beyond the parameters of the individual interviews sharing their time over a meal or during a practice session. Likewise, triangulation occurred with the integration of artifacts into the interview proce


65 facilities provided a number of different artifacts to speak on and helped to further develop the understandings of the experiences. These artifacts ranged from banners, to posters, pictures, rings and trophies, and/o r adjectives painted on the walls of the offices and/or locker rooms that each program holds close and values highly. The study was analyzed by multiple researchers on the supervisory committee in order to promote reliability. These researchers have extens ive experience through coursework, individual projects and their experiences working with departmental professors and the academic community. Throughout the analysis the research participants were consulted as a means for respondent validation and member c hecking of the materials. Before and after each direct interview, the participant was consulted about what had or was about to take place and the nature of the questioning. Also, previous studies have utilized small sample groups such as Singer, (2005) who used four research participants for his qualitative study on i ntercollegiate football players, looking at their individual perceptions to determine their take on racism as African American males.


66 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This study explored intercollegi ate coaches individual leadership style and their implications on their recruitment efforts of top student athletes to their individual program. In defining top student athletes for the purposes of this study, it was established that student athletes dete rmined by the program to be worthy of an athletic scholarship were to be considered top student athletes. Baring this definition in mind, the objective of this study was to examine how intercollegiate coaches describe their experiences in selecting potenti al recruits for the program as well as how they describe leadership strategies and/or practices that enable them to acquire the best available talent to the specific athletic program with respect to the values and beliefs of the coach? In order to maintain anonymity for the participants, identifying characteristics of the individuals and their specific institutions were removed opting for reference as Coach 1, Coach 2, and Coach 3 in transcription and any particulars regarding the participants will not be p resented. The findings will be presented in a narrative format drawing on the individual participant responses where they directly lend themselves. This chapter is composed of four sections: (a) participants, (b) perceptions of leadership experiences, (c) implications on recruitment, and (d) Results. Participants Three NCAA Division I basketball programs selected from around the country participated in this study representing Midwestern, Northeast, and Southeastern regions Selected programs represented mid major conferences as well as major conferences individual coaching experience of participants ranged from 14 to 35 years of coaching


67 service with an average of over 20 years head coach ing experience, showing a proven track record of leadership and recruitment abilities. Throughout the chapter, quotes are used from the participants in no specific order or assignment but rather by richness of content supporting each area discussed in the chapter. Perceptions of Recruitment Experiences The initial research question addressed in this study was how a coach describes his experiences in selecting potential recruits for his program. Different themes emerged including: family, work ethic, long t erm oriented goals, case by case evaluation of student athletes, and recruitment being the life blood of the program. Each of these themes is discussed in the following section. Family Participating coaches indicated and/or alluded to the nature of their program being much like a family. For the coaches, staff, and players there is a close network of individuals who work and live with each other throughout the year. These individuals spend the greatest number of hours in such a close proximity to one anoth er that over the course of their tenure they can develop relationships that go unmatched outside of their team family. Bringing players into the family as new recruits is a critical component of both the recruitment process and success of the team. Players come from a wide array of backgrounds with varying skill sets and degrees of aptitude for both the athletic and academic endeavors they are about to embark on. Coaches expressed their thoughts on this by saying: if you can make a difference, not just in basketball but in the whole picture and try to have a positiv e effect on people in general, in this case basketball players. They are the most


68 diverse group of individuals in locker rooms across the country with an challenge. . going to bring into your family and who you are going to pass on and just going to worry a lot about char acter than you are going to play against a lot Another coach adds that : come in from a background as man, so the first thing is the whole growth, maturing, development, that part of it. Being dependable. There are a lot of guys with ab ility, but not as many just basketball but everything. Most of them are from a background where sure if t embrace this As such, deciding to bring players into the family then makes it a necessity to create b uy in to the ideals of the program, the objectives of the coaching staff, and to develop a level of cohesion with the existing members of the team. These concepts, if not expressed up front can create disconnect between the new recruit and the existing pro gram. Al so, if a divide does develop the n clarity of the initial message as well as character flaws in the recruits can be exposed. In order to prevent potential issues from arising extensive measures are taken to identify and address potential areas for c oncern. One coach noted that: different phases of the recruitment we do a lot of calling, background assistant pri ncipal, another student there, just to try to get a feel for who he


69 Creating acceptance and adherence to the family values of a program can take different forms throughout different programs. Each program puts emphasis on diffe rent areas that they feel is of greatest importance. One coach noted that he emphasizes: t mind being family, and within our family we value character so we lo ok for that, we value stability get everyone to see the values that you are looking for so that they can see and appreciate value in education, helping Another coach said: child and if this were m y kid would I want them to be dealt with this way, I treat players as I want to be treated, asking nothing of them that I Through those values, and other s coaches provide ope n, direct, and productive atmospheres in their different programs. It is critical to the success of the program that the conveyance and execution of their expectations resonate throughout the team and are exemplified through their leadership. One of the co aches supports this by saying: enough. You have to have leadership within your assistant coaches an d leadership within your team, have a tre mendous level of leader on the team but if your next rounds of seniors or juniors are not love rs of leadership, ok to be that we all have ownership in this thing, lea ds to leadership concept that is great and creates unity an for particular behind the scenes, the leadership is trying to create this culture and when you create this culture the team has an identity that they not only use now, they use forever such as integrity, diligence and passion and if we use these things every day that becomes our identity and embodies who we


70 Another coach puts it in different terms saying: ectations that we hav e, our players are going to be successful on the court but they are going to be successful p the rest of the team and you are held accountable to yourself, your teammates, and the program. We understand that the meal of choice for a college student is teeth and go to class skipping breakfast and with lifting all these weights, and practice it would come to an individual detriment as well as the program so we hold the guys accountable to one another and themselves. easier to just go to breakfast at 7:30 than to have to run at 6:00 a.m. where Building on the established values and creating buy in to the ideals of the program is supported with the mentorship by the coaches for the student athletes. One coach s your legacy going to be like as a college student athlete, not as a high school student, a lot of times the biggest things kids do is select a school and you never hear from them again, so we look at what is your time here going to be like and what do you want to get out of the experience and how can we promote Another coach relates their mentorship to both on and off the court successes stating: bene fited from our coaching staffs leadership teaching them they can be champions on the court, as a husband, as a father and in the workforce and having heard from previous players I am very confident that they have been successful and that those who are curr These findings support previous research by Lormier 2009 that showed that relationship quality was a significant predictor for coaching satisfaction, lending itself to the notion of family and as an indicator of not only effort but success and effectiveness in strengthening the relationships in the program as a family unit.


71 Many different establishments use the family analogy to describe the environment for which they operate. However, few other institutions match that of intercollegiate be one of the most closely knit because of the limited number of members, adding evidence to the extensive interaction and impact coaches have on their p layers. Work Ethic One of the most highly regarded aspects of the recruitment process for the coaches interviewed is work ethic Coaches noted that it can be an exhausting process consuming anywhere from 70 to 90 percent of their time and effort by their o wn estimations. Recruitment is a year long process that involves countless hours of travel, communication, preparation, and evaluation of the program as well as the potential student athletes that are under consideration to be brought in and offered athlet ic scholarships. Different parts of this process lend themselves to the work ethic of the program with recruiting on a clear conscious while gaining trust from stakeholders and e coaches interviewed said: o operate with precision so we e work hard enough to get good players, and in practice, and all the rest to out work o ther teams, we just outw ork people, as a staff, as a team, there is a belief that if you work har d enough in recruiting players we will out recruit other teams. If you work hard enoug h good things have a chance to happen. . Everything I do, I do with a very clear conscious, w e treat everyone as we would treat our treat you treat everyone the same, obviously you earn but we are always looking to our program short term, because when you make decisions for their best interest, even if it hurts short term, that particular student athlete and their family and their coaches will appreciate what you are doing for them and they will sell your program as much as you will because they know t hey were treated the right way. . When you are true to who you are, because


72 are not, when you try to be something e not players see through that. . It's all about caring and fairness, Another Coach shares these sentiments sa ying: atile enough to do whatever is asked of me. I try to be a role model to the players and provide These remarks are at the core of what intercollegiate coaches are as mentors and as leaders. It is through their dedication to their program and the advancement of their student athletes that they work exhaustively and diligently to find the best student athletes and then pres ent themselves to these athletes as clearly and effectively as possible, maintaining their individual characteristics as well as their core values that comprise who each individual coach is as a person and as a leader. The role of recruitment goes beyond o dynamic, school profile, and cultural standards that have been established by each program that is recruiting a given player. Finding the students who meet all of these criteria lends itself to the c onsumption of time and effort that goes into recruitment. In many cases, athletic programs are recruiting with a model player in mind, one that fits a wide range of criteria that cannot be evaluated by simply reviewing statistical game data of potential re cruits. One coach interviewed stated that: looking to see if they have a chance to be successful. You would like to have a majority of your students who are low maintenance, not from the stand point of being trouble makers but if a kid is studying 6 8 hours every day just to be here at have no life or it just wears on you. I do think though that if you have a couple of


73 team. So we have always tried to get as many people that are similar to the normal admit and then give the opportunity to some young men that may not be the normal admit but they have the potential but they are goi ng to be Sometimes, institutional characteristics create barriers to the recruitment process of some student athletes because they are not a match for the profile of the school and i n other instances the higher academic standards of an institution are actually a draw with one coach noting: you might think, so sometimes we might go see a kid and we like him and h can go to a kid who is pretty good academically and we can present to him here are out academic peers and sometim es those academic peers are really good academically and also good athletically and he might not be on their radar to recruit he might be a B list player for them so we can tell him Pr evious research supports these notions through the motives of coaches and the perceptions of the players, pointing out that intrinsic motives are related to all facets of coaching proving to be the dominant force with extrinsic motives only relating to coa ching satisfaction with the relationships between them and the players. Furthermore, work ethic and motivation are important characteristics because it establishes the different attributes of the coaching behavior such as the duration of their behaviors. T hose coaches directed intrinsically have shown to foster greater performance, thus enhancing their work ethic (Jowett, 2008; Amorose, Horn, 2000) Whatever the prerogative of the coaching staff, whether it be to bring in students they are going to have to keep a watchful eye on over the course of their tenure or to find students who best match the characteristics of a normal admit to the institution the


74 objective has shown to remain the same, focusing on long term oriented goals over short term gains. Long Term Oriented Goals objectives by what is in the best interest of the basketball program from a long term perspective as opposed to short term gains that might be yielded for the team. Some of the short term gains passed on in favor of long term objectives were instant impact in games by players both early in a season and in their career as well as passing on recruits who may be highly talented but not a good fit for the progr am. Some of the long term objectives included building a complete unit from a group of individuals and maximizing the potential of recruits both on and off the court throughout their time on campus. One coach said: term gains outweigh short term gains . program and as mentors of these student athletes over the course of their careers, with emphasis on maximizing their potential and out put o ver their Another coach echoed these sentiments sharing the importance of long term objectives and the impact they have had in his experience when looking at taking short cuts to achieve those objectives saying: ant and I have been lu cky as heck even though I have you are not going to have as good of t A great deal of what is garnered through these leadership experiences involves learning from your mistakes as a coach as well as taking educated chances based on


75 past experiences, both good and bad, as well as the most accurate information that can be gathered. One coach likened the experience to the number of scholarships available each year and the number of recruits whose potential comes to fruition saying: 13 guys on scholarship, if you can be right on two a Part of the process of acquiring recruits who will reach their potential is first based in recruiting players who have potential f or growth. These players may possess physical or mental at tributes that are not fully polished. This may also include players who have not had a background of highly competitive sports and simply do not realize how or what to do in order to further develop their skills. In assessing players potential for growth a nd whether or not that player could be a fit for their program, one coach stated: looking for on and off the court and looking for their potential for change and growth. If they a re not the textbook great student, great passer, great exceptional athlete but have not been in the academic environment but you see potential there. Or maybe they can shoot or they don looking for those three areas are they going to fit the teammate and academic profile I have, are they going to fit the skill set that we have and all but is there room f Providing an atmosphere of how to be successful and building relationships is essential to the recruitment of student athletes as well as the maintenance of their progression and development. One coach spo ke to the need for building relationships with different coaches when discussing where they acquire the majority of their players saying: athletes. And nationally or internationally there is no bounda ries, we are trying to get the


76 Another coach, when speaking to the success and development of his recruits and trying to mentor and develop these young men said: basketball player. If you rob a bank they will say a university basketball player robed the bank and then they will say yo ur name. You have lost your our development and growth as a team. They have to completely buy into These sentiments are consist ent with work done by Schroed er ( 2010 ), who points out that coaches can achieve their goals by extending offers to players who fit their vision for the future and can have a positive role on the team. Also showing that players who embodied the team values and fit a very specific profile were ab le to provide what coaches were looking for. Providing a clear understanding of these principles and beliefs lends to the long interest trump immediate gratification of taking advantage of someth ing or someone. Case by Case Evaluation of Student Athletes Consistently, across the coaches interviewed there was an understanding that there were no generalizations about players and nothing taken for granted when it came to the assessment of potential specific details that interested recruits saying: l case that is motivating that kid rather that saying we have this location or that clima te. That may not be their buzz. important thing to them or their AAU coach or their street agent or in some cases their parent but what is it they are looking for? Is it immediate playing time, the fastest road to the NBA, is it geography, but exactly what is it that this particular kid wants and what is it that he wants now? . your candidate, I would liken it to a life insurance salesman whe got about an hour to figure out where can I find that one thing that they


77 Another added that even with all the time, effort and resources that go into the recruitment endeavors: th it. Never take anything for granted and once they grad uate you know whether they were a h igh school and four while they are on campus to recruit him to be a really good player and s enough, were dealin g with 15, 16, and 17 year old kids who all of a sudden they get to be 18 and we to try to be a good father, a Since these programs invest so much of their time and effo rt into recruitment they want to have the best idea about who they are bringing into the program. Staying within NCAA guidelines and their own individual budgets and availability, coaches try to evaluate players as much as possible as often as possible. On e coach interviewed said: we try to get to know them and get them to know us through unofficial visits. We try not to pressure through the whole thing because we want the young men to run through the door s to come here rather than because we were the better Another coach interviewed referenced the NCAA guidelines stating: them so you are consta ntly trying to put that together, get the game plan The third coach spoke to the changes in communication from how it used to be in years past. They feel that in addition to the challenges o f acquiring recruits technology has made things even more difficult because there is: mouth to mouth u, a completely different mechanism than it once was. Less personal. You try t get a chance to read you and I think it has come to a detriment of the recruiting process because there is nothing more


78 This coach went on to say that recruitment was not just about the athlete and the school but the man who w ill be leading these players and how the coach is perceived explaining: he time because you have to be mindful of what the consumer is thinking and how can you r elate and be attractive to the consumer w ithout compromising your values. Continue to te ll the truth. It will hurt you much as the alternative of over promisin g. If you lose not nearly as detrimental as whe r to replace him. good, now your two years away the ones As part of the case by case evaluation of the individual recruits, coa identify not only what the athletes want but also if they are comfortable with the program, the institution, and the overall experience that they will be a part of during their tenure. What makes one athlete comfortable with the coaching staf f; program and institution may not be held is such high regard by another. Additionally, what might draw one recruit could inhibit another in terms of academics and/or athletic opportunities such as playing time. One of the coaches refers to this, saying: stop over for one or two years experience the university and they are just h ere to be basketball players probably not the right choice, guys that even might grad just a waypoint. Their destination is the they are here they it can be an exceptional springboard to the NBA or professio nal ba sketball if you treat it more as a destination. You can get everything out of it. You get Another adds: feel c omfortable. Are they engaged? If the recruits not engaged, I want them to feel like were engaging them and have them interested and there should be some of that where they feel


79 comfortable and after a few days if they leave an d they miss it than that tells A third coach points out that: th 8 th 9 th 10 th graders they have been taken to different venues and with a kid to who is no longer just looking at a school and a coach and dormitory. Those are meaningless criteria, and the criteria many times are who can get me to the next stop the fastest, who can get me to the NBA the fastest? Whoever that is, that is where A large part of what the research participants spoke to is reflected in previous research that shows Division I head basketball coaches rely predominately on psychological attributes when assessing a thletes (Becker, Solom on, 2005). Likewise, Johnson, Jubenville and Goss, 2009 showed that these athletes take in this vast amount of information about programs, distill that information down and then make a selection based on how well the student feels that fit, resources avail able, and positive feedback about their decision. They also reaffirmed the research participants in this study showing again that different students are going to respond to different messages in different ways, so tailoring that message is critical. While different schools attract different types of players with different prerogatives as to what school might be best for them, all of the schools are trying to identify what it is that each athletes is looking for and what they as a program can do to make them feel the most comfortable with their individual culture at their specific institution. Recruitment Being the Life Blood of the Program Invariably, all coaches interviewed indicated that recruitment is the most quintessential component of their program as well as the foundation of their leadership and successes derived from efforts. They were all in agreement that without adequate recruitment there is little for coaches to hang their hat on and given the nature of


80 intercollegiate sports, without on court su ccesses public and institutional expectations could render those unemployed, adding the emphasis on recruitment. There are clearly understood roles for the coaches and in most cases they are rated on their winning percentages, and to some degrees at the hi ghest levels how many championships they are winning. One coach put it in terms of academic performance of student athletes vs. athletic performance of a team saying: well academicall fired that won a lot. There is one striking criteria that stands out, winning. of better than los st what we do . . If you win and They went on to say that: told is important we fooli sh, if were at the highest levels, we are here and were here to win, were paid handsomely, and if we win and win big there are a lot of dollars for the whole program so years ago when the this type of money to be made and it was doing the best with what you have and competing was Another coach added to this emphasis on recruitment saying: ome of the best coaches in the country with some of the least amounts of talent are not going to win and some of the weakest coaches with the most amount of The third of the coaches who referenced the t ime and effort that goes into recruitment explained: drop e as possible. We get out all every place they can be and it helps when you have a budget that can


81 As evident by the above beliefs coaches, and their programs, often li ve and die by their wins and losses. Institutions, especially those in the national spot light, ones with historical high athletic performance, and/or those who simply have high performance standards for their programs, hold coaches to the fire when it com es to job security, revenue generated, public perception, and expectations to be athletically successful and thereby represent the institution as winners, judging successes by post season victories on the court. One of the coaches spoke to this focus and t he pressures of achieving these goals by saying: nning consistently and winning with quality people in my estimation deserve the highest level ted the most are t he people who win the most and thing, but as a father, a sun, a leader, a mentor, they are in bed with the people tha They went on to later say: s/loss record, your boss is going to judge you by; the people who care the most about you are never going to judge you on that, they are going to judge you they type of per son, the type of value system you have. Is it worth being fired over? Is it worth losing your job? Is it worth losing your a days bec A different coach interviewed focused on getting the r ight players and enhancements in facilities that can be garnered through winning as well as positive outcomes that are reaped from winning basketball games saying: percent right in y our recruiting the two or three years they are here and they


82 from here, each year trying to elevate our level or recruiting a little hire each year and then eventually hope that it will take off. Winning solves a lot of things. We have to win more to meet our goals. The institution understands Look at teams that are in the conference championships or final all hours and mindful of salaries and budgets coaches go to battle with their colleagues in order to woo these young men to their campus. While recruitment is a constant process that covers a great deal of ground in terms assessment and evaluation of players, it is critical to evaluate as effectively as possible to promote on court success. Due to the nature of the profession, intercollegiate coaches must identify and evaluate to the best of their abilities potential recruits for their program if they are going to meet their individual needs and desires as well as those set forth by their institutions. Unfortunately, not all top student athletes go on to play professional athletics with an even greater number of those athletes who may not even finish their degree program. One of the coaches spoke to this stating that: young person is going to react once they get into your culture, are you going to be able to get the most out of them. Some progress and grow and get to a point where they are tremendous players and we reaped the harvest, inversely, there are a lot of kids that you misread and you saw the talent and you were hoping you would be able to provide the discipline and Could be emotional, substance abuse, plagiarism problem, which happens more often than the Summary Overall, how a coach describes his experiences in selecting potential recruits for his program has remained consistent with individualized variations explained by each coaches leadership and expectations both they and their stakeholders place on the


83 progra m. Different themes emerged including: family, work ethic, long term oriented goals, case by case evaluation of student athletes, and recruitment being the life blood of the program. Though the individual experiences vary from coach to coach the common thr eads of creating and maintaining a family environment, working towards excellence in acquisition of recruits and in the advancement of the program, focusing on objectives that will create a strong foundation and consistent successes over a period of many y ears as opposed to instant rewards and gratification are among the common themes garnered through the coaching experiences. Additionally, insights were gained in the individualized evaluation of each player under consideration for membership in the program as well as the emphasis that is placed on the wins vs. the losses for the teams and the implications that it has programmatically. Perceptions on Student Athlete Acquisition The second research question addressed in this study was how a coach describes his leadership strategies and/or practices that enable him to acquire the best available talent to the specific athletic program with respect to the values and beliefs of the coach? Different themes emerged including: Always be truthful about oneself and t he the program, try to acquire the most highly talented athletes with a balance of character and stability, operate on a case by case basis when recruiting, and to ma intain perseverance. Part of what a coach is selling in their program is their leaderships and how they are going to conduct themselves while a recruit is under their tutelage. Therefore, it is critical that they always be truthful about themselves and the program. False advertisement and/or inaccuracies will lead to disconnect between recruits and the


84 program and can cause attrition from the program. The balance between transparency t of a coaches leadership because when the two are out of balance it can be cause for self destruction internally as a coach and leader as well as externally as a program and institution. One Coach interviewed explained: are going to observ e more than anything. They are a different person in front of them and a chameleon. And expect them to develop those skills. Whoever you are the way you treat other people, th e way you speak to them, the way you work and your work ethic is being evaluated all the time. Our athletes are impressionable. They know. They The biggest input is 4, 8, 12 years la ter have they inherited any of the traits Going on to say that: want to do or what you know in your heart is right or wrong and you follow that lead, that winning championships is the only thing that counts, so everybody is tempted to do whatever it takes, just like in any other profession to get Adding: with that if it fits them but I think you have to please yourself and the people th anybody young or old having that type of mentality because A second coach shares that in his program how he tries to approach his recruits: off to some people. They want you to tell them everything they want to he


85 While attempting to maintain balance within oneself and their program, coaches indicated that they always try to find the right fit for the program. This is to say that they have taken into consideration their leadership and personality as well as tho se players currently on the roster. They then attempt to gel the existing unit with incoming recruits with one coach explaining: is not something that is foreign to them. Allowing them to understand this university, this coaching staff, the way we play. You try to look for similarities there and eliminate any culture shock when they come here or all you nee d to do though because the biggest issue you deal with in recruiting is recruiting hard and finishing second. You would rather be out early and finish tenth and move on. We finish second on a lot of young men Once recruits have been identified as possible matches for the program and culture therein coaches try to build on that compatibility by thinning the pool What remains are those recruits who are in tune to the cultural norms of the program and possess th e greatest level of athletic talent while maintaining a balance of character and stability that translates on and off of the court into the academic and local community. In trying to acquire the most highly talented athletes with a balance of character and stability coaches said: and the money that they are making, they style of play and program we have that will be conducive for you to develop and move on to the next level very soon way we show them were good people and we are going to build character Another coach referencing how they react to bad impressions said: ly changes and we try to end that on a very positive note and we say if yo u change your mind let us know because we would still love to have you if


86 you can come with both feet in b ut you have to focus you energies on other While some recruits may flock to a program others may require more coaxing and coddling. Part of the strategies for coaches is to identify the characteristics of these recruits and speak to those attrib utes to garner the services of the student athletes. Individualized attention is given to each prospective recruit and coaches operate on a case by case basis when recruiting in order to offer each player what they may need and/or want out of the experienc e. One way coaches try to approach and appeal to recruits is: They added: ere may be an exception or two but very few people can tear a person down and simply motivate them through fear. You have to find different ways to motivate, even when you know what worked for you as a child is not the world we live t how your 18,19, and 20 year olds can get that edge so you constantly try to change and that exciting. You learn what their buzz words are, what motivates them, what stimulates them, and trying to find that common denominator so you can make them the best Whatever the individual strategies employed, coaches consistently indicated that in order to be successful in their efforts they had to maintain perseverance in their recruitment. For an endeavor that their livelihood, and coaching success h inges upon, it is critical that they be as sure as possible about potential recruits and make the most educated decision they can about these student athletes. One coach explains: they tell us no be fore we tell them no because you never know. They may have grown four inches you may have an injury you can have anything happen, you just try


87 They feel this way because: ppen, sometime s you will get a young man who you have put in very little on and he just falls in your lap hem. Another coach added to this by sharing the lengths and depth they he has to go to in order to maintain contact with and hopefully acquire a future recruit saying: y 9 th or 10 th grade who their top five schools are because it has become that sophisticated and your trying to be one of those five and if you can be one of those five you know who the other four and you know who the enemy is, these days a commitment only means who we or they have to go after and degrade because if he committed to school X maybe we can all change his mind and he will come here. It used to be a Adding that: they find out who you are looking at, they are going to Intercollegiate coaches described their leadership strategies and/or practices in different ways through their own individual experiences. What may have enabled one coach to acquire a recruit at their school could have shown to be ineffective for another coach at a different school. What enables a coach to acquire the best available talent to their specific athletic program with respect to their values and beliefs hinges on the different themes that emerged. These themes included; a lways being truthful about find the right fit for their program, trying to acquire the most highly talented athletes with a balance of character and stability, operating on a case by case basis when recruiting, and maintaining perseverance in recruitment efforts.


88 Implications on Recruitment Implications on recruitment are manifold. From the experiences of the coaches interviewed there are clear components of the recruitment efforts. Competition level and programmatic exposure are two areas that coaches work within in order to achieve their recruitment goals. Student athletes want to play at t he highest level possible. It is a part of their competitive nature to want to be the best and play against the best. Increased exposure through media coverage of games and team functions via TV, internet, radio, and all other outlets are important functio ns of player exposure and something that many recruits are looking for in a program. These attributes are supported through the quality of players teams are recruiting. Over the past ten seasons, 41 recruits representing the top 150 recruits in their class have been garnered by two of the three c oaches, w hile the third, a mid m ajor has secured none based on top 150 rankings. This supports the notion that players are looking for the above attributes and outlets in a program and those programs tha t cannot offer these things are much less likely to attract top recruits. Institutional factors that provide for competitive level and exposure also have significant implications on recruitment efforts. Student athletes seldom, if ever, turn down a major c onference school in order to go to a mid major sc hool. Likewise, recruits are more inclined to attend an institution where they will have the majority or even all of their games covered by national and/or local broadcasts. Other institutional factors are t he facilities that a school and program can offer recruits to enhance their abilities athletically and academically. Players with potential to play professionally will be looking for state of the art facilities and athletic resources while others less like ly to make a sudden jump to the NBA may take into greater consideration the degree program and


89 academic resources to supplement what resources they will have athletically. Two of the three research locations currently or soon will have fully dedicated athl etic and academic facilities for their players. Those same two programs have subsequently sent numerous players into the NBA, exceeding ten players over the same ten year period. Financial resources for coaches to go out and achieve recruiting excellence h as critical implications because a recruitment budget could range from fifty thousand dollars per year to well over one million for a given school. This vast discrepancy lends ting an expansive divide between the top ten percent of I A basketball programs and the other ninety percent. All of which are hypothetically trying to attain the same prize at the end of the year which is a national championship. Additionally, financial r esources can simply equate to recruitment success through the facilitation of athletic and academic resources i.e. f acilities, travel, accommodations, equipment and team gear, as well as individual tutors who may travel with teams. F or these coaches, one o f the primary means for appropriation of funding and resources is based on the success of on the court wins and losses. Therefore, coaches have to work with what they have in order to build and develop a successful program through the development of a cult ure in the program. This culture or family has to promote work ethic in order to see as many players as possible, to study as much film, to develop as strong a relationship as possible in order to make the team stronger. Also, long term oriented goals prom oting the growth and development of student athletes across four years academically and athletically, using a case by case evaluation of student athletes to determine if they will be a good fit for the team and school


90 Additionally, whether or not they may reach the envisioned potential or if the program should pass on the athlete. Additionally, recruitment being the life blood of the program because those who are unable to successfully recruit solid student athletes may lose their jobs through their inabil ity to accrue adequate win percentages. Performance appraisals and additional means of accountability like that discussed by Cunningham and Dixon, 2003 as well as Gurney and Weber, 2008 may prove to be the benefit of the coaching profession The recommende d measures would assign value to team outcomes, athletic and academic, ethical behavior and quality in recruitment as well as assigning greater responsibility of these characteristics to the head coach. Additional implications derived from the first rese arch question entail having to decide between working towards excellence in acquisition of recruits and in the advancement of the program this focused on objectives that will create a strong foundation and consistent successes over a period of many years a s opposed to instant rewards and gratification This means that while coaches may have the opportunity to cut corners and gain potential short term successes that they will need to decide internally if that violates their moral and ethical value system as well as whether they are willing to pay the consequences of their actions. Previous research by Jackson, Knapp and Beauchamp, 2009 stated that coaches efficacy beliefs originated from one self where the constructs were interrelated and independently asso ciated with positive consequences for both relationship orientated and task related consequences. In essence the more confident coaches feel about their efficacy the more elevated their performance and interactions are going to be supporting the moral and ethical decisions coaches are faced with daily


91 Outcomes Pertaining to Coaches Leadership The outcomes that are derived from coaching leadership are addressed through the second research question through the leadership strategies and/or practices. What ma y have enabled one coach to acquire a recruit at their school could have shown to be ineffective for another coach at a different school. What allows a coach to acquire the best available talent to their specific athletic program with respect to their valu es and beliefs hinges on the different themes that emerged. These themes included: Always ethical code, trying to find the right fit for their program, trying to acquire the most highly talented athletes with a balance of character and stability, operating on a case by case basis when recruiting, and maintaining perseverance in recruitment efforts. Specifically, coaches use their individual characteristics to attract and acq uire young men who they believe will be a valued addition to their program. Optimally, when coaches are clear about who they are as a leader and their expectations of recruits as well as providing a transparent view of what the student athletes experience could be like they have the opportunity to sign these student athletes and develop them. Often times, there is a fine line between what prompts a recruit to go to one school over another and part of the coaching leadership is making that recruit feel comfo rtable with the coaches and what the program has to offer as well as what the institution has to offer. Coaches cannot directly change their institutions with regard to geographic location, climate, degrees offered, or admission standards. However, through professional diligence they can attempt to build or redefine a program and enhance what an institution has to offer by way of new facilities and resources available to their athletes. This however, takes great time and effort and leans heavily on their ab ility to


92 manufacture wins with what they initially have using their leadership abilities to draw the greatest level of talent and performance that they can from their players. If these outcomes are realized, it can set into motion a positive chain of event s that can lead to acquisition of greater talent, more wins, more championships, better resources, and greater job security directly and indirectly for those within the program, and development of consistent success within the program Also, association of the institution with the success of the program brings benefits Inversely, if coaches are unable to harness their leadership abilities or simply lack adequate abilities and/or institutional support the challenges are much greater and success is much less likely for those individuals. Previous research speaks to this though individual efficacy and the sources such as coaching experience, prior success, and support from thos e around them. Also, relevant were outcomes such as game strategy, motivation, techn ique and performance with the highest efficacy coaches having significantly higher winning percentages (Sullivan, Kent, 2003). The research participants for this study all have extensive coaching experience and prior success as well as the support of those around them creating a high level of success in their endeavors. Results T hrough the intercollegiate coaching experiences in recruitment of top student athletes, coaches interviewed showed that through a combination of individual factors, namely their leadership, and institutional factors, they are able to acquire the most highl y talented student athletes available to their program. This is important because an athlete for one reason or another may not be available to a given program. However, all things considered the experiences of the coaches showed that there are commonalitie s


93 between schools of varying conference, competition level, institutional profile, and available resources that include: creating a family dynamic among a dynamic group of individuals, harboring a relentless work ethic, establishing and working towards lon g term oriented goals, looking at each potential candidate on a case by case basis while evaluating student athletes individually, and recruitment being the life blood of the program indiscriminately across all coaches and programs interviewed Additionall y, ethical code, attempting to find the right fit for the program, attempting to acquire the most highly talented athletes with a balance of character and stability, operating on an individual basis when recruiting treating each recruit as a unique case, and maintain perseverance in the recruitment and leadership efforts.


94 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS This qualitative study was beneficial to the conc eptualization of intercollegiate explore s how a coach described his experiences in selecting potential recruits for his program. Also, how a coach describes his leadershi p strategies and/or practices that enable him to acquire the best available talent to the specific athletic program with respect to the values and beliefs of the coach were investigated. This study also established a foundational framework for success in r ecruitment. Significant concepts regarding intercollegiate recruitment resulted from this study. These concepts are discussed in this chapter and include (a) excellent leadership without winning does not necessarily yield what is widely considered coachin g success (b) acquisition and retention of top student athletes being paramount to the success of an intercollegiate Division I basketball program (c) institutional factors can and will le to achieve those successes and/or fail to meet expectations. Additionally, implications for higher education administration, recommendations and areas for additional research, as well as conclusions are included in this chapter. Leadership Without Wins Might Not Yield Success The responses to the interview questions align with previous research in a number of ways. For example this study produced similar findings to previous studies in the coaching profession ( Amorose, Horn, 2000; Martin, Rocca, Cayanus, and Weber, 2009 ; Ryska, 2009). It also differed from previous studies in that it showed to differentiate


95 what is widely held to be important in wins and losses, and what the individual coaches consider to be successes in their leadership style. Ex cellent leadership without statistical substance, wins vs. losses, does not necessarily yield what is widely considered coaching success. Coaches are mentors, leaders, father figures, and big brothers, to the young men who play for them. These coaches mold and develop these student athletes for as long as they are in the program and sometimes for many years afterwards. In some cases, student at hletes maintain the bond with their coach for countless years after graduation because the coach was so impactful i n their mentorship. Due to the quantity of time coaches spend with their student athletes, players can often look to them as a father figure, in part because they may have never had one, or simply because of the dynamic between the older more mature coach and the younger player. These findings are supported directly by the research participants where they say: and a great many have has benefited from our coaching staffs leadership teaching them they can be champions on the court, as a husband, as a father and in the workforce and having heard from previous players I am very confident that they have been As a researcher, this quote indicated that the participant was fully dedicated to the themes established by my framework. Family dynamic, relentless work ethic, long term goals, and case by case evaluation all showed through in these comments. It became clear that there was a level of nurturing and gui dance as well as determination to make the student athletes the best people they could be not just the best players possible. Those coaches closer in age to the players may share more of a big brother dynamic with their student athletes and/or those coache s assisting the head coach may hold this role. Given the quantity of time spent between coach and player, especially on


96 peripheral activities it is easy to see how these relationships can be fostered. However, it is worth mentioning that not all coaches an d players share these experiences. it is a function of the job and how their performance is rated. However they are in a business dominated by performance on the court and deemed successful or unsuccessful by how their peers are doing inside and out of their competitive conference as well as nationally. In many cases coaches are compensated great sums of money not consummate with national averages for income. As such, they a re expected to perform to a level that brings positive attention to the team, athletic program and institution. Most of all, they are expected to win in order to generate revenue for the team, athletic program, and institution. In some cases poor leadershi p with exceptional talent can achieve success while undermining coaching principles and values. This is reflected in responses when asked; Do you believe success and leadership can be taught to existing or future coaches and if so, what tech niques would you recommend to accomplish these goals as they pertain to a program and its recruitment of student athletes? re told is important we at the highest levels, we are here and here to win, paid handsomely, and if we win and win big there are a lot of dollars for the whole program so years ago when the this type of money to be made and it wa s doing the best with what you have and competing was These comments indicate that there is disconnect with what is expected of the coaches and where they place their values. Conventional assessments such as wins and losses dominate coaches and how they operate. Maintaining revenue streams through booster and donor relations as well as through media contracts, sponsorships,


97 and post season appearances are an unwanted but no less critical component of how coaches op erate. Inversely, incredibly high principles and values with excellent successes in grade point average, graduation, job placement, or other non competitive criteria may not translate into coaching leadership retention. When asked what characteristics of y our institution contributes to the success of your recruitment and inversely what characteristics create challenges to your recruitment of potential student athletes? How do you overcome/accentuate these characteristics? One coach stated: of anybody that was kept because his kids were doing so fired that won a lot. There is one striking criteria that stands out, winning. yes that would be thought As a researcher, these comments are very inter esting and could warrant future research. The perception of this coach was such that he was in a win at all costs situation. This can lend itself to NCAA infractions and ultimate sanctions for schools because their coaches feel as though they are backed in to a corner where they need to recruit the players at all costs in order to maintain their competitiveness and appease their stakeholders. Coaches have to answer to themselves, their families, their employer, and their other stakeholders with regard to how they conduct themselves in order to achieve their successes. Of the coaches interviewed it was critical that they make their family and themselves proud before ever compromising their moral and ethical values which is supported by previous research in coa ching efficacy ( Jackson, Knapp Beauchamp, 2009; Sullivan, Kent, 2003) Although, there was acknowledgement that if they were in


98 different shoes and had to trade places with an up and coming coach, they might think differently because when asked How do you define leadership and success as they pertain to your recruitment efforts and/or in general terms? One coach said: nning consistently and winning with quality people in my estimation deserve the highes t level t he people who win the most and ded thing, but as a fat her, a so n, a leader, a mentor, they are in bed with the Adding: the most about you are never going to judge you on that, they are going to judge you they type of person, the type of value system you have. Is it worth being fired over? Is it worth losing your job? Is it worth losing your young and old coach has to decide now a While many of the responses align with previous research there was differentiation found in this study regarding how the individual coaches viewed their leadership style and what i t meant to their success professionally and programmatically. Acquisition and Retention Paramount to Success The responses to the interview questions align with previous research in a number of ways. For example this study produced similar findings to research done regarding leadership style as well as selection and recruitment (S chroeder, 2010; Drury 2009, Letwawsky, Schneider, Pedersen, Palmer, 2003, Becker, Solomon, 2005; Johnson, Jubenville, Goss, 2009). Where this study differs is in the individual perspectives on the sophistication, circumstance, and extent to which coaches go in the promotion of these programmatic goals.


99 Acquisition and retention of top student athletes is paramount to the success of an intercollegiate Division I basketball program, specifically the coaches. As such, you must obtain the best talent with the greatest potential for success. Coaches must utilize their experiences and leadership abilities to identify players who are going to be a benefit to the program and not a detriment. This is directly supp orted by respondent answers to h ow they overcome or a ccentuate the institutional characteristics they work within? One research participant stated: is not something that is foreign to them. Allowing them to understand this university this coaching staff, the way we play. You try to look for similarities there and eliminate any culture shock when they come here or all you need to do though because the biggest issue you deal with in recruiting is recruiting hard and finishing second. You would rather be out early and finish tenth and move on. We finish second on a lot of young men They also pointed out that: looking to see if they have a chance to be successful. You would like to have a majority of your students who are low maintenance, not from the stand point of being trouble makers but if a kid is stu dying 6 8 hours every day just to be here at have no life or it just wears on you. I do think though that if you have a couple of men that need more attention you should go after team. S o we have always tried to get as many people that are similar to the normal admit and then give the opportunity to some young men that may not be the normal admit but they have the potential but they are going to be a typical graduate by the time they are I t is of no value to a coach to recruit and sign players who will come in and flunk out in their first year, or to get players who are subject to poor decisions and negatively impact their own standing on the team as well as the image and reputation of the

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100 program and/or school. While it is savvy to take on one or two players who may need more academic and social attention, to be successful those instances must be kept to a minimum, sticking to players who adhere more to th e standard admits of the institution to promote both the athletic and academic success of the student athlete. In answering the research question, w hich programmatic and institutional factors are essential to ensure the future success of your program and t he recruitment of top student athletes in your experience and as you move forward? One coach stated: percent right in your recruiting the two or three years they are here and they from here, each year trying to elevate our level or recruiting a little hire each year and then eventually hope that it will take off. Winning solves a lot of things. We have to win more to meet our goals. The institution understands erence foes and for Look at teams that are in the conference championships or final Adding: w is how a young person is going to react once they get into your culture, are you going to be able to get the most out of them. Some progress and grow and get to a point where they are tremendous players and we reaped the harvest, inversely, there are a lot of kids that you misread and you saw the talent and you were hoping you would be able to provide the discipline and Could be emotional, substance abuse, plagiarism problem, which happens more often than the Part of the coaching leadership is working within the parameters of the institution, utilizing the resources that are available as well as working against deficits that arise along the way. A coach has to maximize his product and attempt to draw recruits to a place they may be unfamiliar with, know little about, or are just uninterested in attending. Addressing any deficits is necessary and correcting them would be optimal

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101 but often times, coaches are left with simply emphasizing what they can offer and putting off what they cannot because for the time there is little they can do. In the cases of the two coaches whose programs are in major conferences and maintain all the bells and whistles that players are looking for, it is much less difficult to attract the greatest talent. Whereas a coach with none of the same resources or outlets is going to have to emphasize what he can directly do for the players for their development and progression as student athletes. Determining where stu dent athletes are going to fit and how they are going to contribute within the program and in the classroom is a necessary function of coaching leadership. Coaches have to predetermine all of these characteristics to properly plan and implement each recrui t into the program while catering their needs and wants. Additionally, coaches must constantly evaluate the players coming into the program even after they have arrived to maintain pulse of what is going on their development and comfort in the new environm ent. Answering h ow significant is the role of recruiting in order for your program to be successful? One coach said: ome of the best coaches in the country with some of the least amounts of talent are not going to win and some of the weakest coaches with the most amount of Where this study has shown to differ from previous studies is where it has shed light on the sophistication, circumstances, a nd extent to which coaches go in the promotion of these programmatic goals. Two different coaches spoke to this saying: s you will get a young man who you have put in very little on and he just falls in your lap

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102 Another coach added to this by sharing the lengths and depth he has to go to in order to maintain contact with and hopefully acquire a future recruit saying: th or 10 th grade who their top five schools are because it has become that sophisticated and your trying to be one of those five and if you can be one of those five you know who the other four and you know who the enemy is, these days a commitment only means who we or they have to go after and degrade because if he committed to school X maybe we can all change his mind and he will come here. It used to be a Adding that: who you are looking at, they are going to shoulders, their ability to implement their leadership style to recruit players proves to be paramount in their efforts as a leader. Institutional Factors Dictate Successes The responses to the interview questions align with previous research in a number of ways. For example this study produced similar findings from selection and recruitment s tudies ( Delisio, Fleming, 2005; Letwawsky et al., 2003; Johnson, Jubenville, Orejan, 2006; Johnson et al., 2009 ; Sander, 2008) which they are able to achieve those succes ses and/or fail to meet expectations. Academic support and buy in towards the athletic program is not something that is achieved across all institutions. At some schools there is a culture of sport that many if not all parts of the institution embrace. One coach spoke to this when answering what characteristics of your institution contribute to the success of your recruitment and

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103 inversely what characteristics create challenges to your recruitment of potential student athletes? He said: y the standards are pretty high here, much more than you might think, so sometimes we might go see a kid and we like him and is that you can go to a kid who is pretty good academically and we can present to him here are out academic peers and sometimes those academic peers are really good academically and also good athletically and he might not be on their radar to recruit he m ight be a B list player for them so we can tell him At other institutions this is not the case and coaches struggle to develop rapport with academic officials and faculty leading to di sconnect between the two primary venues for the student athletes while in attendance at a school. Without academic support, programs must work much harder to meet the academic standards for their players, taking time and effort away from their other endeav ors such as recruitment, practices, and game preparation. One coach speaks to this referring to attractiveness of the institution for the recruits saying: ther to just stop over for one or two year s experience the university and they are just h ere to be basketball players probably not the right choice, guys that even might grad waypoint. Their destination is the t hey are here they it can be an exceptional springboard to the NBA or professio nal basketball if you treat it more as a destination. You can get everything out of it. You get your degre This support and buy in is layered on institutional support, namely through the funding from institutional boards or athletic departments depending on how the institution is structured. If the institution is one where it is part of the institutional mission and/or objective of the athletic department to become or stay as one of the best, a coach can rely more heavily on his leadership attributes in recruitment and mentorship

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104 of his players, ther eby developing and enhancing his end of the arrangement. Facilities and equipment are another essential institutional factor t hat dictates success of coaches as indicated by once research participant saying that: ve in the NBA that we developed and the money that they are making, they style of play and program we have that will be conducive for you to develop and move on to the next level way we show them were good people and we are going to build character The nature of the sport and recruitment of athletes has clearly changed. These comments speak to the landscape of recruitment as well as the divide between those who have and have not. Schools with expansive budgets that can fund dedicated facilities and the resources to attract top players are going to continually come out on top of those who do not have the means to support their recruitment. At the beginning of the competitive season, all Division I schools are competing for the same prize, a national championship. However, it is not realistic to think that a school without equal means can consistently compete with a program that has a wide array of resources at their disposal. to share a venue with three other sports as opposed to having an exclusive dedicated facility that accommodates not only athletic activitie s but academic as well, they could maximize their time and effort as a leader and use those resources to better enhance their program as a recruitment tool and for day to day operations. Financial resources are the most direct and efficient means for success in coaching leadership. They facilitate a cademic and athletic resources. They provide for all accommodations that a program does or does not have. They are often dictated by

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105 the institutional prerogative and its focus on athletic advancement. They are as close to a fix all as once can come withou t factoring in the leadership abilities and skills of the coach that is guiding his team. Often times, monetary support comes with expectations such as a time line for success in terms or a .500 winning percentage or a conference championship or perhaps a national championship. It can come in the form of institutional support or boosters who feel a strong enough connection to the school and/or program that they are willing to donate large sums of money to see that the program becomes or remains successful. The greater the success on the court the greater the potential for TV deals, licensi Inversely, misconduct by the coaches or the players academically, socially or professionally, can bring shame to a program and tarnish its good name. This misbehavior can generate negative impressions of the program internally and externally and thereby expedite a decisions to bring in particular players an d/or make a given coaching decision. Implications and Recommendations A gap exists in the vast literature on leadership style and recruitment regarding the individual experiences of coaches in those areas. The findings of this study indicate an alignment with previous research. Also, this study has proven to differentiate it self from previous research where it sheds light onto what is widely held to be important in wins and losses, and what the individual coaches consider to be successes in their leadership style. Likewise, individual perspectives on the sophistication, circu mstance, and extent to which coaches go in the promotion of their programmatic goals are areas that have not adequately been delved into. Greater understanding of coaching leadership in recruitment could be beneficial to future, and current practitioners, as well

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106 as the academic community because it is an area of higher education that is dominated by practitioners who are not regularly publishing content on the field. This study implies that additional research in this field would benefit both the academic community and the athletic community, broadening the body of work done in one of the most highly visible and easily recognizable units of an institution and thereby creating potential to better understand the profession. Therefore, more research on coachin g leadership and its impact on recruitment of top student athletes is needed in order to further develop the understanding of the role these men play in bringing young men into an institution and developing them as student athletes and preparing them for l ife after school. Implications for higher education administration are numerous. Administrators need to first determine the emphasis they place on intercollegiate athletics and subseq uently determine any desire to advance their athletics or allow them to remain as they are currently. In order to fill the gap presented through this research, administrators can work with their coaches to discuss pathways to filling the existing gaps in research. Coaches offered a wide variety of experiences that support exi sting research while providing new insights With the individual coaches experiences out of line with standard conventions of successes in leadership as well as their thoughts on the sophistication, circumstance, and extent to which they go in the promotio n of their programmatic goals, higher education administrators need to provide an opportunity for coaches to operate on a consistent level of understanding. Addit ional areas for research based on the findings from this study could include the following stu dies:

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107 1. Investigation of family, work ethic, long term oriented goals, case by case evaluation of student athletes, and recruitment being the life blood of the program as the foundation of the study. 2. Further exploration into the sophistication, circumstance, and extent to which coaches go in the promotion of their programmatic goals utilizing qualitative methodologies. 3. In an effort to utilize the findings of this study, a divisional shift from Division I to Division II or Division III could be implemented and then cross referenced for comparison purposes. 4. Isolation of stakeholders such as assistant coaches or student athletes looking at their perceptions of the recruitment process and/or their perceptions of family, work ethic, long term oriented goals, case b y case evaluation of student athletes, and recruitment being the life blood of the program 5. Coaching retention based on wins and losses vs. graduation rates Conclusion positi vely affect the lives of the young men that commit to their programs. They are able to enhance their lives providing athletic and academic opportunities that even many other college students will not have access. However, the state of college athletics, es pecially at the highest levels, Division I, and within that, major conferences and BCS schools, is such that coaches have to identify, establish, and rethink their leadership on a constant basis trying to balance what is in the best long term interest of t heir players, their program, and their position as a coach. They may be commended for their

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108 graduation rates or team grade point average but they are compensated handsomely to win basketball games. Winning brings prestige to a school, it helps brand and tr ademark an institution and its mascot. Winning has been shown to increase enrollment and thereby elevating revenue for the institution. While coaching leadership encompasses so much more than winning, it is their leadership on the court and abilities to ac quire the best recruits, accrue more wins than losses more championships than runner up trophies, that keeps them employed and dictates how they are able to lead, often putting into question the means and lengths by which a coach will go or feels are requi red of him to obtain those competitive successes. While some coaches are in win at all costs environments others are not but despite that, all are expected to lead their teams to victory.

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109 APPENDIX A IRB APPROVAL FORM UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the supporting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about completing this form, call 352 392 0433. Title of Protocol: Leadership Attributes of Intercollegiate Coaches Drawing Top Student Athletes Principal Investigator: Zachary Niland UFID #: 8999 8024 Degree / Title: Ph.D. Email : Department: Higher Education Administration & Policy Telephone #: Co Investigator(s): UFID#: Email: Supervisor (If PI is student) : Dr. Dale Campbell UFID# : Degree / Title: Mailing Address: ( If on campus include PO Box address ): Email : Department: Educational Administration and Policy Telephone #: (352) 273 4300 Date of Proposed Research: October 8, 2010 October 8, 2011 Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with this protocol if funding is involved): N/A Scientific Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study is to explore the leadership attributes of intercollegiate athletic coaches and their effectiveness in acquiring the highest caliber student athletes available to their program. The method of inquiry will be a case study of a spec ific program, using individual interviews in order to discover data and better the role that leadership attributes plays in recruiting student athletes. The unit of analysis will be the head coach of the program and this study will be entirely qualitative in nature. The intended research design is narrative. Findings from the interviews will be used for the purpose of

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110 focusing on the macro analytical picture of an individual head coach as opposed to a broader lens of cultural norms in the field. Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language : The study will be facilitated by three sessions of data collection. Research participant will be interviewed in a face to face style at a location of their choosing at their respective institutio n. They will be interviewed at their earliest convenience some time after they have decided to participate in the study and have become available. In the first session, the research participant will be interviewed for a duration of 30 minutes to an hour. T he second session will follow the same format. Based on the previous two sessions the third session will provide for member checking on the part of the participant and to clarify any points of interest or conflict. The interview protocols will include ques tions pertaining to the research experiences, thoughts and beliefs surrounding their leadership in their intercollegiate athletic program. Research participants will be recruited via e mail, telephone, and/or by letter directly by the researc her. All interviews will be audio recorded and all digital files will be kept confidential through storage on the primary open and axial cod ing. The results of the research will be presented in a dissertation research format after which the data files will be destroyed. Describe Potential Benefits: This study will advance the knowledge base in leadership throughout intercollegiate athletics. Shines light onto an area of higher education that is dominated by practitioners. Potential use as a foundation to develop an instrument that might be used to predict what leadership qualities lead to the acquisition of the greatest student tale nt. Coaching will greatly benefit from insights garnered about recruiting athletes who were previously uninterested in their programs. Given the benefits of revenue generating sports like basketball and football, the institutional community can be advanced Identification of these qualities will allow head coaches to bring in the highly talented student athletes as well as respond to their educational and sports related training needs. Describe Potential Risks: There are no more than minimal risks involve d with this study. Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited : Participants will be recruited through personal communications via face to face, telephone, e mail, and/or written communication. Maximum Number of Participants (to be approached with consent) 3 Age Range of Participants: 22 80 Amount of Compensation/ course credit: None Describe the Informed Consent Process. (Attach a Copy of the Informed Consent Document See for examples of consent.)

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111 (SIGNATURE SECTION) Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date: Co Investigator(s) Signature(s): Date: Date: Department Chair Signature: Date:

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112 APPENDIX B INFORMED CONSENT Protocol Title: Leadership Attributes of Intercollegiate Coaches Drawing Top Student Athletes Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to explore the leadership attributes of intercollegiate athletic coaches and their effectiveness in acquiring the highest caliber student athletes available to their program. The method of inquiry will be a nar rative approach of a specific program, using individual interviews in order to discover data and better the role that leadership attributes plays in recruiting student athletes. The unit of analysis will be the head coach of the program and this study will be entirely qualitative in nature. The intended research design is narrative. Findings from the interviews will be used for the purpose of focusing on the general picture of an individual head coach as opposed to the larger landscape of the profession. W hat you will be asked to do in the study: Time required: Time required will vary with research participant availability. An interview can be as short as 15 20 minutes in instances of limited availability. Typically, interviews last 45 minutes to 1 hour f or a session. It is not expected that more than 3 sessions of this duration will be needed. However, the more time that can be given to this study, the greater the potential for rich data. Risks and Benefits: There are no more than minimal risks associated with this study that may include personal identification as a member of this study. This can be addressed through anonymity and/or omission of identifiable characteristics of participant(s) should they wish t o remain anonymous. Benefits of the study include advancing the knowledge base in leadership throughout intercollegiate athletics by shining light onto an area of higher education that is dominated by practitioners as opposed to researchers. Also, the resu lts of this study will directly benefit the research participants program allowing them to potentially garner highly talented student athletes as well as respond to their educational and sports related training needs. Compensation:

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113 There is no monetary compensation for this study. However, intellectual components will be provided to research participants in the form of an executive summary of research findings. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked file in my faculty supervisor's office. No later than six weeks after the interviews have taken place the recordings will be transcribed and erased at that point. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, the list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report unless you have otherwise indicated an interest in being named. Voluntary participation: Your particip ation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study : Zack Niland, Graduate Student, Department of Higher Education Administration & Policy, 1163 Paradise Drive, Lady Lake, FL 32159, phone (860) 857 6709, E mail Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Part icipant: _____________________________________ Date: ________________ Principal Investigator: ____________________________ Date: ________________

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114 APPENDIX C INTERVIEW PROTOCOL This interview protocol is designed to address the foundations and developm ent of involvement with intercollegiate athletics, leadership style, and individual impact of coaching efforts. 1. How did you become involved with intercollegiate coaching? 2. What motivated you to become an intercollegiate coach? 3. Will you share some insights i nto your experiences as an intercollegiate coach such as how you progressed professionally? 4. What and/or who has influenced you in your progression as a leader and a coach? 5. How would you describe your leadership style and its development over the years? 6. Do you believe there is a relationship between leadership and success in recruitment and/or programmatic advancement? 7. How do you define leadership and success as they pertain to your recruitment efforts and/or in general terms? 8. What impact do you believe your leadership has on your student athletes and can you share any life events or stories that support this? 9. Do you believe success and leadership can be taught to existing or future coaches and if so, what techniques would you recommend to accomplish these go als as they pertain to a program and its recruitment of student athletes? 10. How significant is the role of recruiting in order for your program to be successful and do you have any examples?

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115 APPENDIX D SECONDARY INTERVIEW PROTOCOL This interview protocol is designed to build on the previous interview protocol by exploring the practices and advancement of leadership attributes through communication, individual characteristics, institutional characteristics, as well as programmatic factors essential in the min d of the coach to their leadership. 1. Please provide some of the most essential communication tactics and strategies that you employ in order to persuade potential student athletes to choose your st as well as currently? 2. How important is message repetition to the overall persuasive efforts in your recruiting process? 3. Please share a description of your recruiting strategy and if it has evolved through your progression or remained consistent? 4. What wo uld you say are the top reasons student athletes choose your program? 5. What do you believe are the top recruiting methods employed to influence prospective student athletes to join your program? 6. Which characteristics of your leadership contribute to the suc cess of your program and its recruitment efforts and can you share some examples from your experiences? 7. What characteristics of your institution contribute to the success of your recruitment and inversely what characteristics create challenges to your

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116 recr uitment of potential student athletes? How do you overcome/accentuate these characteristics? 8. Do you believe your leadership attributes to be successful in your recruitment processes and what makes you feel that way? 9. Do you have a sense of others (general public, coaches, players, institutional administrators) view of your leadership attributes and its success in the recruitment process and advancement of your program and what are your thoughts on that? 10. Which programmatic and institutional factors are essen tial to ensure the future success of your program and the recruitment of top student athletes in your experience and as you move forward?

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117 APPENDIX E SUPPLEMENTAL INTERVI EW PROTOCOL This session will be used to facilitate corroboration of the research part data and the researchers understanding and interpretation of that data. Also, this session will be used to discuss the previous meetings and the thoughts about those sessions. 1. Can you tell me more about X? 2. You previously mentioned X, can you tell me more about this? 3. On one hand you discussed X but in another instance you spoke about X, can you clarify?

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118 APPENDIX F PROTOCOL RESPONSES F ROM RESEARCH PARTICIPANT Researcher : How did you become involved in inter collegia te coaching ? Coach: I started off at the junior college level. I started off coaching Erie Community College and prior to that, I coached high school and I coached at Erie Community College for a little over two years and those great experience. It was an experien ce that was different from this because there were several other jobs that combined with full time position but I was the head coach of the junior college and from there I got a call to try to finish up the year here at the University of Buffalo Researche r : How did you find the transition from high school to college? Coach : The transition was good for me. I mean I think my experience as a student athlete helped that so you know the transition from coaching High School to college I major one for me. Researcher : As far as intercollegiate coaches you mentioned your experience at the high school level, what motivated you to become an intercollegiate coach? Coach : I think again my experience is being around college athletics student athletes, having play for coach Beline and Coach I think was a good experience for me. I had three different college coaches seeing the different way so they could express their leadership and the leadership style I think that helped me out a lot. Researcher : Can you share some of your insights into how you progressed professionally and how those leadership queues have kind of guided along the way? Coach : I think you know some of that leadership style some of it is what you are born in a way of p ersonality. For me my mother is a very aggressive personality and my father is a very laid back personality and I think also is affected by you know the people that you play for and how their leadership styles were you know may have perfected you. Researc her : And so in the grand scheme how would you rate the influence of your coaches as compared to your parents and their influence as you were coming up in terms of where do you draw the greatest sense of your leadership from? Coach else, you had parents. Researcher : Right. Coach t I think then it becomes you know the people that you play for.

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119 Coach : And I think they had tremendous influence on me and I think having a mixture, a mixture of three college coaches and so I got a chance to see a blend of different styles of leadership and they totally impacted me. Researcher : Now were they all at the same institution had they gone through or were these at varying schools had they all? Coach : No they were different school actually played at Erie Community College where I coached and I play there for John Leely for two years. Coach : And then I went to what was in Wheeling College and it is now known as Wheeling Jesuit University and I had different coaches there. Ones in college it was there just for year and then the second coach I h ad there was who is now the head coach of the Indiana Pacers Researcher : With regard to you know the influence of your progression as a leader and as a coach drawing on the coaches that you have played for but also drawing on your experiences from your parents do you find that some of the things you do come in conflict with player preference? Coach : In other words come in conflict with what I preferred as a player or what the players preferred that I am coaching now? Researcher : Right yes in both regards. Coach was important when I was going to but Mark Twain said it best when I was 14 my dad believe how much he had grown in seven short years and I think you go through that re you are trying to figure out what it is that they prefer then you are not helping. Researcher : Right. Coach Researcher Coach Researcher : Define you know your leadership style or prefer ence and how its developed over the years throughout your experiences. Coach : I tell people all the time you know again my mom was a more aggressive personality and my dad is more laid back, I tell them I try to give them my dad first and if work they get more of my mom and I think that goes with the Chinese

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120 the perso leadership style is what I am trying to certainly power both the assistants and the young men that we are coaching. Researcher : So in other words so they will be able to t ake queues from you and how you are kind of directing them throughout their activities. Coach : Absolutely. Researcher leadership and your success in recruitment or any other programmatic a dvancement with the Buffalo ? Coach Researcher d the successing in your recruitment and/or you know your programmatic advancement. Coach : I do. I think the message is that you and the terminology that you use is going to kind of render itself to your attraction to certain young men then for us we val ue family, we value characteristic that we look for that. We value stability. Obviously we looking at them but we certainly value that. Researcher : Moving forward y ou know the advancement of your program how are you not necessarily assigning a value or a statistic but how are you rating these characteristics and kind of categorizing in terms of who you are pursing in your recruitment? I guess you mentioned you know achievement and willingness to be pushed obviously along with family values and good character are those the dominating factors that you are looking at in your potential student athletes? Coach : Absolutely, you know again everyone is looking for talent an d we want them to be as talented as possible but we are going to check their background. Coach : We want people to be able to certain stability level so that we could push them. Researcher lue chip perhaps one in done over somebody who can sustain academic integrity over the course of four years and their experience with you. Coach : Well I think if it works itself out that we have a kid who you know is one in done or two in done it does and you can have kids with high character and you could have great students and they just are so good that they are in a profession to earn a lot of money playing basketball and that can happen. We are not typically in a position to attract those kinds of ki ds but what we do want and we want people to aspire to that

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121 level of achievement athletically but what we do want is someone who feels comfortable in a family type environment where we are going to care about them on and off the court. Coach : And not ever y kid feels comfortable with that. Researcher : Right. So it sounds like you are expressing that as a program you provide both on and off the court support and resources. Coach : Absolutely. Coach : And we are going to check to see if they are in class you know if they are in study hall they kept their appointment with their tutor, you know these are things that are going to be important in life. Researcher : Absolutely and so in other words the recruitment of these student athletes is in fact both for t heir academic and athletic abilities. Coach : Absolutely. Researcher : Okay. So if you could, can you define in your words leadership and success and as they pertain to your recruitment efforts or in general terms? Coach : I think a big part of that is le adership as it pertains to recruiting is getting everybody who understands the value that you are looking for so that they see it, they recognize it and they appreciate it. Researcher : And perhaps success as you would define it towards those efforts. Coach : Success is when you have a continuation of that and you have some of your former players coming back in to be a part of your current players and your current players valuing that and embracing that leadership from former players and so then you hav e a program opposed to a team and when you have a continuation of that and you Researcher : Can you call on any personal experiences of that for me I mean is there anyth ing that stands out in your head is a past player or past member of the program that has exemplified what you are talking about? Coach : Absolutely you know for instance when I asked you to hold on I was holding a son of one our player, some of our former player who is recently married or recently have a family so he is in my office at this hour and with his son and his wife is downstairs working out and neither one of them are native of New York They moved here and they have a family here. We have forme r players that are playing professionally in other countries. I think those are things that are very meaningful. Coach : Because they exemplify family.

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122 Researcher instilling from get go. Coach : Absolutely. Researcher : It carries past. What type of values are you referring to when you say values? Coach : Just family values, you know value and education. Researcher : Right. Coach : Just valuing helping each other. Value being cared a bout, value coming back and lending to the program. Researcher : These family values you know you have had in instilling these values you had serious impact on these student athletes. What impact do you believe that your leadership has had on them and bey ond you know just may be this one or two instances and any additional life events or stories that would kind of further corroborate that? Coach : Well I think when you have again when you have guys that come back or call back or email back from other count ries, I think they are the best storyteller really of that impact. Researcher : Right. Coach back from someone and you say he is off the phone at their hour someone will tell me wow he is really matured and the types of things that he discusses and talks about and you begin to see his value take shape and his maturity develop and we had that on a number of occasions and those were the best people to be able to mentor and lead the lasting stability. Researcher : So this success these family values and your individual leadership do you so what would you recommend as it means to these goals as far as an athletic program and its recruitment of student athletes? Coach it definitely can be taught. You could teach it all day but until someone embraces it they Researcher type of techniques do you employ to accomplish your goals in recruitment of these student athletes?

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123 Coach : I think finding out what kind of family they came from. I think is big finding out the bi g one is just finding out what have been their background, is it something that they d that has may be not come from a broken home, he may appreciate it more than a kid find out what you can learn about someone that you are recruiting you try to find that out first. Researcher : Its as much a personal and a psychological kind of evaluation at some level as much as it is kind of an athletic competency, an athletic ability. Coach : Well I think you have to assess that initially. That have to be your initial assessment would be to find someone who will function very well in the family atmosphere if he is a great hockey player and you are recruiting for basketball. Researcher : Yeah. Coach : So your initial assessment of his athletic ability is paramount but t hen beyond that I think you have to go other areas and it may help you in terms of recruiting the young man just because you have familiarized yourself with his family situation and he becomes more comfortable but it also goes beyond that and you can see h ow he may fit in with your program and why he will be successful. Researcher : Do you find that you have to or is there a willingness to cater to the you know the multitude of different people, personalities and ability levels of people that you are recrui ting and courting for your program? Coach : I think you need to find out as much as you can. Researcher : Right. Coach : You know when you are recruiting someone. I think you just have to. You much as you can about that person and I think that helps you. Researcher : Now what types of avenues do you travel in order to kind of acquire the holistic picture of the student athletes? Coach : I think you find out how he is functioning in his high school. I think you find out or junior college whatever it may be that you find out how is functioning in his home. I think you find out how is functioning in his community because even if we are getting someone on the edge, you want to know that. Resear cher : Right. How significant is the role of recruiting for your program to be successful?

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1 24 Coach Researcher : Right. Can you offer any examples of instances where you have been successful but also where you may have had diff iculties in recruiting. Coach : Yeah when we first came here, a lot of our recruitment efforts were late. We was difficult for them to function in an environment wher e there was always someone you know looking to help every aspect of their life. They just want to play basketball. There was difficulty when they got here and when we first came here we checked the study hall and checked the class time and checking times when they had meetings with tutors. Researcher : So initially then it sounds like you had to be just a little more proactive and I guess policing their activities and what they are being involved with. Coach : Yeah they may not have liked that you know th e kid who understands that he wants you to push him that he wants you to be there in turn for him academically. I Researcher : Now have you had instances where a recruiting effort has f allen through you know an instance where you are very actively pursuing and recruit and for some signing with your program. Coach ted for a long time then he came on it and he did everything but come and I think after was over it, he wished he came but Researcher : have done in that instance then or was there that you felt? Coach : No I think we had done what we could with him. We just reached a wall in terms of our impact with him becaus e his parents are always going to be his parents. Researcher : Right. Coach style we try to do. Researcher : Going back to your upbringing with your parents is that something was instilled in you coming through? Coach Researcher : Yeah so I guess that kind of speaks to your foundation development as a leader.

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125 Coach : Absolutely. Coach : When we came it was a mess. It was confus ion, no unity, we walked right into the eye of a storm and we had couple of days and then we had this game here and it was really, it was a mess all the way around. It was players not talking to each with other half of the team was about you know it woul d divide half of them felt one way and the other half felt the other way but assistant coach that were from previous staff, he had his feelings and we walk in saying okay we got to try to stabilize this. The biggest thing lacking was totally unstable, com pletely and first thing we wanted to do is you know stabilize it but we also had to play North Carolina and Indiana our first two games guys felt one way on one half, the guys felt the other way on the other half and I said well we will get them to ag get through the season, we can get through the season and that will be success and I through season and I s know they got to ag Coach : And so they did and I think for a while and they started talking to each other little bit and if we play well in a row, we have chance to lose about 20 or 25 points no matter who the opponent was. At home we had a chance, giving us a better opponents in our conference even against you know I mean we had a chance so at the end of that I think there was a lot of them that just felt like well we are riding this thing out until next year when we g et a coach which was good because if they showed us longer at the end of the season and when they found out we were but a good portion of them just sitting them out, they were absent, you never heard from them again. Some in which we had for a longer, could have coached for a longer periods of time, a few of them came back and we started that whole process of trying to establish a program, stabilize a program and it took a lot but then we had a probation you know so it was really difficult, difficult process to build it from nothing and you know we go in places and league and it was bad. Researc her : Right. Coach : You know it was a tough thing to deal with. Researcher : So you only had one way to go.

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126 Coach : Only one way to go is up and it was harder getting up but we just had to persevere. Try and bring some guys who had some character that was st able, guys from stable backgrounds that we can start developing and we were able to do that. Researcher : and what you are trying to the impact that you are trying to have but movi ng forward you try to have strategically I mean like I have seen in the film session there was this strategic impact that you are trying to impart but also beyond that, beyo Coach : You know I always tell our guys you know they come in from a be the man witho ut being a man so the first thing is this whole growth maturity development just you know that part of it being dependable. I always say other guys with ability but not as many with dependability and so can they depend on themselves things you know most of them are from a background where they are usually only called on to do thing s that they like so they are not sure if they can really depend on but I got to do it and I am going to get it done. Now we got ourselves somewhere okay I am going t can get them through those little channels, they are going to be successful, of course they are going to be successful period. Researcher : Right. Coach : Researcher : And does that feed into you know you are really speaking to individual their teammates. Coach : Absolutely. Researcher : To their staff to their community. Coa ch : yourself then other people can depend on you. If you cannot depend on yourself then no Researcher : It can be something as simple as breakfast club.

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127 Coach : Absolutely who wants to get up you know the meal of choice for a college student is sleep for breakfast. Researcher : Coach : tryin hopefully I have time to brush my teeth and wake myself up on my way to class you I can and you skipping breakfast and you lift down these weights and doing all this and of with are you going to be accountable to your teammates but if you are not, I always nd we catch you, you go to breakfast club. Coach : At 7:15 you know than it is to run sprints at 6. Researcher : Coach : No so you know they start to realize that even going to class you know I do that than run sprints that I hate at 6 in morning. Researcher : Right and then he comes back with accountability for the rest of the Coach : And they come in here and someone says you kno know but he is kind of wondering why he is in and I am and t okay, everything is going good at home, yeah oh good, good, good, and he will say en, oh well yesterday, somebody checked, when did you come by, what class at 4 so I think I might have been t see you, you are not there so even if you come to class and you just decided to do one of these because you you are not there sprints at six for the whole team so we was there though. If you want to go along thinking that, it is fine. Researcher : picked a story and stuck to it. Coach : Yeah they try to stick to it and this is how it usually goes and I say well we o you know then they try to I might have been I think I got there

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128 late, oh what time is your class, four it does start at 4:15 no, it does start at 5 no then no, no they u nderstand, listen they understand, they knew before you skip this class all down there, they got music on, TV on, they are waiting there for me, go down there, take the light switch couple of times get their attention, say guys I got an announcement, we are going to run sprints at six, go ahead hey tell them and then they go coac before he goes to class and you know what so did you. Researcher : Yeah. Coach : about it just go for it and th bring some accountability, some unity and they understand so the next time what it also brings is peer pressure. Coach : Which could be bad peer pressure and good peer pressure. Researcher : Rig ht. Coach : and Researcher : Coach : nd my brother is a chaplain and he talked about that losing your identity when you come in, your identity is you be a basketball player because if something goes wrong out there, you rob a bank or something, a basketball player rob the bank then they will say who he is. Researcher : Right. Coach : So you lost your identity and your whole identity is what we are all doing. Researcher : Right or wrong place the wrong time, who is going to get picked out. Coach : lked about that and these guys complete, they have to completely binding that up. Researcher : Well I mean honestly communication is a huge part from what you are doin g as a staff as a head coach with your players, I saw on your film sessions and you are communicating important points but you are also making enjoyable for the players. For you what are some of your most essential communication tactics and strategies tha t

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129 you are employing beginning of their exposure and their recruiting? So at the onset of their experience here at Buffalo how are you communicating, what are your strategies, what are you trying to present to them, how are you doing it? Coach : When they come in, first thing is communicate them on the phone and present a vision for their career as a college student athlete you know what this can be like, what is your legacy going to be like as a college student athlete not as and lot of times kid s get wrapped up in you know sometimes if they are not careful the biggest college what are you going to do for the four years because it goes quick. Researcher : Sure does. Coach : So present that vision, that image, that possibility, that legacy, to get them on campus. Now they are on campus. Now when a kid makes a usually he either feels e doing to make him feel comfortable, I would say are they engaged, are we engaging them you know I got this thing, not engaged, I am enraged. I want him to feel like they are so we will talk about what some of the things that interest him, if he is a qui et kid we got to get him talking some kind of way. There should be some of that where they feel comfortable, when they leave after a few days they kind of miss it what they just left even though they have only been here for 48 hours and then when that hap pens they are comfortable and if they are comfortable and see what we have here and they still people want to be where they are comfortable. Researcher : Right. Coach : So that Researcher : probably fair to say if they are looking at Buffalo they are looking at other max schools as well and so how do you as a head coach how do you comm unicate what Buffalo has to offer over another max school or over no school period? And perhaps it might be even easier to express it in some of the success you had in the past or that you currently had with them. Coach : I think what makes us different in a lot of universities is that we first of all where we are located, we are in a major metropolitan area as opposed to just a college town but we are not in the heart of the city, we are removed from it a little bit, we are in suburb, we are in a nice camp us enclosed so we have got a little bit of everything. Researcher : Yeah.

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130 Coach : r the kid is not a good student anyway so we begin to go in that direction as well and then I think that we are still a new program. and high school kid a lot of time name on and all of his friends accepted and they become impressed with it and you got that no matter what but the other side of it is you know if he comes here and he does well everybody on the campus goi ng to know who he is, everybody in community is going to know who he is. Researcher : Right. Coach : He is going to be able to come back in 20 years bring his kids and people y great Researcher : and kind of get what they are looking for by coming here and be successful athletically, academically. Coach : Researcher : So then you know I see there are rules regulating I guess contact and so forth how important to your mission to your leadership is message repetition in terms of communicating to these student athletes? Coach : The ones that we have now or the perspective student athletes? R esearcher : Perspective and perhaps the current as well. Coach : communicate with each other, we need to know terminology and I think once everybody has certain terminology then they being on the same page so one person speaks they understand the language. Now as you saw in the film sessions sometimes I will use different terminologies that will be striking to them so that th ey understand and they talk about it when they leave. At most times if something that makes them smile or laugh but I know when they go out in the locker room, they are going to say he said this and laugh but they are going to remember why you said it you know when the opportunity comes up like I use the terminology today they had not used to them they all laughed. Researcher : Then they are still talking about that after that. Coach : a that unless we keep saying same thing and just goes in one ear and out the other which

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131 ids you know where it just goes in one ear and out the other. Researcher : So with that message and with the repetition there obviously has to be substance behind it. Coach : Right. Researcher : So having been able to spend time with the other coaches falls o ff to Oklahoma I think Coach B he is looking to go to Georgia what is your strategy for recruiting? I mean your current roster you got a kid from Oklahoma you are hitting all the spots you know you are going all over the place so for you what is your str ategy and how is it evolved through progression of your program? Coach : You know we had to go all over the place you know all over the world really. I got these flags up here from these different countries, we got a player and we have gone all over the pl on is character. We want a kid who is going to be able to stay and persevere to some difficulty so I would say like if we are looking at a kid and he is not talent then we really ourselves to an area because the area that we are in would restrict us heavily if we just said we are going to get kids in this area even regionally because we are in our conferenc e we are the only school in New York State so six of the schools are in Ohio and three are Michigan when we go in those areas to recruit we have done successfully in advance but we have to also exist recruiting lives outside of the footprint and we have ha d some success doing that you know and I just think once we get them on campus we have done pretty well. Researcher : And I think Coach Kwitch to go all these places and you are obviously been able to acquire the student athletes you know they mentioned earlier that Erin is from and the Ok lahoma player of the year. Coach : Yeah. Researcher : year got to be something behind him. Coach : Right. Researcher : He is going to be substance. Coach : image of himself and he has had some success that will help him form that image so that when he comes in and he is challenged he persevere for no other reason he believes that he can be pretty good, he has had some successes at prior level. I mean

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132 the kid to start the question h because he has not had it, he gets in and he looks around and everybody has been player of the year except him and he starts to question himself so having some success at high school level is obvious ly very important both individually and from a team standpoint. Researcher : Vick #12 and he is pretty raw pretty athletic I mean and during his sprint he gets up and down as fast as anybody. Coach : Yeah. Researcher : And it was mentioned that had he gone to prep school perhaps he might have slipped out of the hands of Buffalo Coach : Yeah. Researcher : you go off to Buffalo we will develop you, or sta y out of that all together. Coach : Will he go down the road and possibly going to prep school you just present an opportunity to him and what this opportunity allows for and in the way of his legacy and he had a lot of success in high school player of the year, he just has not and process for him and as soon as he can become accusto m to having to exert himself at that level then sky is a limit. Researcher : I have seen actually kind of a trend and the research that I have done, I have met a number of players who are essentially a car under a cover and when they take off the cover and Coach : Right. Researcher : to uncover this potential. Coach : Absolutely. Researcher : Has there been a progression as y ou elevated in your strategy of recruitment or has it kind of remained consistent from the program? Researcher : first came in we called the kids on the phone they will be answering que stions like we will be answering questions like are you division one you know what conference are you in because they never heard of us and we are still in that fight a little bit because we are etter than it used to be we can get in with few more kids than we used to.

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133 Researcher : And so from even direct feedback where you are just your own personal profession and perspective what do you feel like or what do you find out of the top reasons that th ey are ultimately committing to the program? Coach : players, you got bad kids, they are going to track bad kids and if you got good kids, I t good kids they can help you get good kids so I a connection there is and so I think that has helped us out a lot and I think you know a lot of people say they are on a program like a family so everybody kind of says that but we really do genuinely do it you know our families are around, we are family people and is a lot to get comfo rtable with. Researcher : So for a player aspect hypnotically scenario of a player what do you believe that are the top recruiting methods that you try to employ to kind of influence them to select the University of Buffalo to join your program? You know f rom start to finish, from discovery from even selecting where to go look or the resources you are using to seek a player out kind of walk me through the methodology of start of finish. Coach : Well the first thing is we go to few events you know there some events that to be certified in July and we go to those events and you know some of them are the same you know Vegas some events out there Orlando is AAU nationals, Nike super and we go in and we evaluate a lot of kids you know we can see kids played against each other that are on our radar screen and sometimes they get on our radar screen because we subscribe to scouting services and so we go see them play and we evaluate them but everybody is evaluating them. The kids kind of selling where is he, where is he, what level can he play to be successful and so we sit there and watch them amongst the number of other coaches and sometimes we know that the kid plays too well, he is p laying himself at a level where he may not want be at this level and sometimes if he can be a delicate balance there and typically you know through that July period y ou know we recall the kid up from a, begin to talk to him about his grades, try to get transcripts, talk to him about a visit, talk to him about whether we are offering a scholarship, try to get him on a visit, try to line up a visit he has 5 visits that h e can take, we want to one of his 5, he chose to take 5. We then try to line up a time to get him on and in a way if he has an area that he thinks he wants to study, we talk about that. We talk about what may be his favorite food is or you know just things that are appealing to him and we see it that we have those things that he can see while he is on a campus and we show him our campus, we show him the city, we show him Niagara Falls we show him what this area has to offer and he meets the guys on the team. Sometimes he plays with the guys on the team. We are not allowed to evaluate the kids when they come in and play with our guys. Our guys will typically his ow n feedback not only about how he may have played with our guys but also just how he interacts with him. You

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134 in, out by here where you are sitting in here with family we like for it to be with family, we restaurants, if his favorite food is you know seafood, we go to seafood restaurant. Usually we are going to have a meal with multiple m embers of family be it my family these guys family our current players and then when we come in we talk about what he is seeing and we usually try to talk to him on the phone prior to him coming you know if he likes what he sees and he sees what he likes t hat he you know then we will make that commitment and usually they visit us in September, late August maybe October between that he may commit and the time he came so we go through that whole thing and you know in between those phases we are doing a lot of calling, background checking you know we will check with anybody at his high school you know it could be a janitor, it could be an assistant principal could be some other k id who goes to school Researcher : It seems like you have been having some pretty success getting them in. Coach : We have, I think they are probably surprised when the them you know, 25,000 kids on campus but until you see see it, it surprises them, the size of the arena, the facilities you know usually will surprise them a little bit too so I like that. They are usually not visiting in the winter and Coach : A lot of snow and they also think depending on what area they are coming from but if we say Buffalo New York they think New York City and so those things they 7 hour drive from New York City at many people you know in this to be 20 degrees and they get here in September work. Coach : In talking to Coach Kwitchof it was nice to hear that Buffalo is one of the safest cities in the country and I have in fact read an article where it was rated as the second top city to live in metropolit an area to live in so. Researcher : That something you tell the guys. Coach : We do yeah we do that especially with families. Coach : Yeah families want to hear that. Coach : their kids

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135 middle of Oklahoma when you say Buffalo New York they think New York City and when they turn off, they see anything you know probably something that went wrong, among the 10 millio n people who live in New York City in Buffalo New York and I just saw this in New York so we have to give them that information so they can say okay wait a minute and that question come how far are you from New York City and then we can at least tell them you know that we are significantly closer to Cleveland and Pittsburg and Detroit than we are to New York City Researcher : you have to do. Coa ch : Absolutely. Researcher : And so in fact what part how much of your recruitment involves kind of educating the recruits and their family? Researcher : Oh a lot. Coach : On the process. Researcher : University of Buffalo before they got here so we tell them you know this is where we are, this is what goes on and the weather issue, is it really, really cold, you know we have charts 30 or average temperature for each the 12 months and it has certain cities in Flint Michigan or Chicago or Detroit Pitts burg and Cleveland because [inaudible][0;31:33.9] then they also see little hotter in summer so we do have to educate them and say this is where we are, this is how it works because we do have you know guys from Arizona Florida some warm weather places. Coach : And I bet that even the actual process of well you know this is when we can talk to, this is when we can. Researcher : Absolutely. Researcher : This is what we can Coach : Right. Coach : because they are so far and the legislation has changed so often. Researcher : Sure. Coach : either because if you go back even 10 years the legislation has changed. So if you go back to when they

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136 Researcher : Well Coach [inaudible][ showed me the book from last year and he said well this is last year, h Coach : Oh yeah. Researcher : So in our original discussion you kind of touched on how you define leadership as a head coach and the characteristics of your leadership but specifically which characteristics of your leadership are contributing or do you feel contribute to the success of the program and obviously specific to your recruitment efforts? Coach : You know the thing I like to do is empower guys. Assistant coaches, players like to you know really give them some freedom but also give them some what he wants to do. Obviously I have input, final inp ut but I want people to take hen I am going to be here and then have to work and I think that helps rather than just keep people grounded and certain biggest pieces to get guys who feel like they are empowered and to feel as though they have ownership of the program. A lot of want that. Researcher : So for staff it ki nd of speaks to coaches, recruits a particular player then to help them, I am going to guide him through the program. Coach : Well one thing that we have been able to do here is you know you are assistant coach you are calling the guy and he is your guy but then it comes time for us is just connected to one guy, he is not going to feel as comfortable but he is connected to everybody, he is going to feel the kid comes in he feel like he can turn to anybody and get some help and the other part of that is empowering your young guys so when they are seeing they can be a part of that process too and they feel like they want to be a part of that process, when they see, they want to help the guys that are freshmen or sophomore. Researcher : if he came in and he had an opportunity to go elsewhere but you know being part of that family environment, being part of that team and that unity, I can stick around and see that class act and I thought that was a really incredible lot of people Coach : Right. We had that happen couple of times, we had a couple of guys leave and I know that they would like to come back and they left for a job so they made a lot more money. I heard from that and I k now that they felt really good about, their

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137 families felt really good about and they were just be with us, their families felt really on the staff who played here. Researcher : Yeah. Coach : And guys can see him and see he is a light at the end of the tunnel for lot of them. Researcher : And Coach [inaudible] Coach : Right. Researcher : You can do it. Coach : Yes and th ey respect that and he has this position where he is not just Researcher : And it has been interesting to see him when interacts with players or even one on one, I would watch him you know we were going through it, he thinks really I mean he was keyed in, he was keyed in offense, defense and he was almost calling things out before they were happening. You know we ev er sit down first time watching him and he is telling me watch here, this is going to happen and sure enough boom, boom, boom you know he has got that high, he has got that experience, I asked him where do you draw from, I said is that from playing I mean where you getting that, he obviously paying dividends here but also for him as well. Coach : Absolutely. Researcher : So institutionally though at here at Buffalo what are the characteristics that have kind of contributed to the success of your recruitment? I mean you said you know Arizona Oklahoma Florida what have been successful for your recruitment efforts institutionally speaking and then second part would be what have been a hindrance to recruitment? Coach : I think sometimes they are the same, you look a guy, his greatest strength is greatest weakness for us but we academically the standards are pretty high here much higher than what you would think from a state school so sometimes we go on and sometimes we can go to a kid who is pretty good acad emically and we can present to him here are our academic peers and sometimes those academic peers are really good academically and they are also good athletically and then he might not be on there without screen for them to recruit. He might be a B list p layer for them so we can tell him, this is where you are academically and you should be here athletically and we

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138 edge sward but we got to try to use it and you know get the kid and the family as much as we can so understanding academic opportunities that they have. A lot of times kids who stay academically are really important to me and they may not be but we got to try to do what we can. Researcher : And do you feel like academically, institutionally that you have importance of buy in of that side of the house I mean if you divide the house academically and athletic do you feel is there or? Coach : academically successful for so many more years than they were athletically and they Researcher : Right. Coach : to them that will cause them to an hide our kids in, might as well things that I might discussed to other people that there has been so many other have that. Researcher : Because Coach [inaudible] shared wit h me a list of the rated program that Coach : Right no and they are all, all of the areas of study, all of the degree majors, they are all competing with each other to be on that national list. Researcher : Right. Coach : as much of that as an advantage we possibly can. Researcher : So d o you find that location is what it is but do you find your geography is proximity of talent that there could be a benefit or hindrance. Coach : Or I could be at hindran ce sometimes scheduling but you know what I mean for us again we try to look at all those areas and say how can we turn this hindrance is when we are going to play a game whe n we are getting back on Thursday when we get into January and February and all our games are going to be really long n that bus three or four times you know down and back and down and back in six days period of time. Last year when we

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139 are located becomes big challenge. Researcher : And so also another aspect is some of the institution is the facilities and I think its incredible asset that you have what need in one house. Coach : Yeah. Researcher : Coach : Right. Researcher : So pros and cons of that you know how does that play out for you as the head coach in terms of institutional facilities? Coach : I think again has been a surprise to our perspective student athlete when they get in And they see but for us it has been reall y good because you have to way in I went down to study hall, easy enough to do that, I can get up go to bathroom, I am on my way to the bathroom which is one area is that close but if I keep going around the corner, I just go down and I can look down from a window, I can look down, stay on this level and see one of the quietest study hall areas. Researcher : Okay. Coach : Researcher : Sure efficiency. Coach : Yes and for the staff as well as for the the and even you know right across from football stadium so on a Saturday if we have a workout in the morning and recruit in you know we can just do what we got to do come upstairs, may be watch or get something to eat or grab a meeting and then go across the street, go see a football game so that part has been good. Researcher : So speaking about pros and cons how do you for recruits, how do you overcome but also how do you extenuate the attributes of the institution? C oach : delivery so the biggest thing we got to get over is to get over whatever stumbling blocks there are to getting them here. We get them here I think then they will come. Researcher : t in fact getting them here and allowing them to see to experience the whole thing. Coach : Yes, if they see I think they will come.

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140 Researcher : So to what degree do you continue to recruit a student athlete who is tentitive, who is hesitant, who says, may issue or something that can be easily be overcome to what degree. Coach : the kid to the obviously give it him on the phone but if we can get him here I think then he starts to see you know he looks at it, it will look better than may be he thought it was even in the this would be gone in a week but anywhere he looks and h e sees the campus and even just how quick it is to get around and then that usually separates him from what he thought prior to coming and that kind of helps itself. The other thing is just meeting people and seeing guys and seeing guys around depending u pon when he comes, if the comes in August or September we might have three or four guys who are playing always great experience too. Researcher : So with respect to your leadership as a team do you find it to be most successful in the recruiting process and/or in the actual coaching aspect once they have already arrived? Coach : spend so much time with th ese kids on buses and the airports but specifically mostly on the buses and talking about academics or a girlfriend, we are just around them all the time you know particularly for the months of the season, we are around them more than we are on our own kid s. Researcher : Right. Coach : Researcher : Right. Coach : r they are not but I think by the time they are junior, senior there has been something they come in here that has been very important and they talk about that something and its impact on their life and I think they realize that. For us we realize it too you know we me, may be its Turner Richard Researcher : So how would you personally rate your success in your leadership of the student athletes and all the other elements that you are involved with?

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141 Coach : coming back, are they visiting you, do they stay in contact and they do, most of them do. In one ca is fighting, I mean he thinks he can still come back but his five year passed but he still conside ones they call and they come back all the time, send emails and pictures and that have been at weddings and things like that so the outside thing the biggest thing and so metimes that takes five, six, seven years for a kid to go through that whole process they are not from here. Researcher : So allowing them to go through cycle and a life cy cle where they will gain experience. Coach : They have gone away and then gotten away they say you know they had years that thought about most of them they just left couple of days ago and he is leaving for C hek Republic on the 10 th of January but he just finished playing last year so most of them you know they are pretty well, as soon as the season over there they are back and those are exactly they are back, they are emailing, texting, they are sending photo s, really know that much anyway. Researcher : Right. Coach : But after they have gon e through some things and they still claim to build relationships that means they have been impactful. Researcher : You know you talk about like the pros and cons of the institution but as far as and institutionally what factors have been and what factors d o you see as essential as far as the advancement and success in program with recruiting and beyond and in general terms as well? Coach : relationship as you do that I think you are building you r program. Again a lot of that former players a lot of that comes with the first thing we talked about, we are stabilizing the program because if you are unstable, you are all over the place I mean people have uild relationship if you are unstable. Now if you can stabilize a program people know here people can depend on you being there and now that helps with everything, recruiting and everything. The only thing that definitely gets to be harder is scheduling program, stability and relationship the biggest thing, the stability being first.

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142 Researcher : So and moving for the advancement o f the program going forward do you feel that though you just want to maintain what you have or what do you try to do to enhance? Coach : We are trying enhance everything we have, every single time to look at we can do it better, we are trying to find that every morning who wake up, we are thinking how can we make it better, how can we improve this, how can we get this better from the plays we run to the way we travel to a game, the way we travel and when we a re recruiting, the pictures that are on wall everything, you know how can we get better, everything that we do. Researcher : forward what needs to take place to kick off that advancem ent, to kick off that? Coach : starts with recruiting you know, the guys that you are bringing in but we want to take our development of our guys place and have it here at a high l evel and recruiting right underneath against it so that you are not, you know where we are we have to be able to American unless he is your son you know to come to play at a p lace where he is on national TV a lot so we have to get the kid and keep developing him so that at some point he can compete against McDonald All American having said that the kids that we are bringing in they need to be at a higher level as possible to ch allenge that development and both challenging each other, the kid we bring in also gets developed and so if we can kind of keep that as high level as possible then it helps us to build a Researcher : And something I was wondering may be you can share some, the McDonalds All American, the guys that are one done, the guys that are may be two in done having that in back of their head knowing perfectly well I see people in their ear but personally as well why is it that t that they are going to have the opportunity to go on anyway, why not. Coach : Researcher : Why not take advantage of all the school has to offer for that year or for that two years inst ead of just revolving door? Coach : I ask that question all the time. Researcher : Yeah, so what are your thoughts on that? Coach : I think what happens is there are people in there, McDonalds all American and you are sitting there with McDonalds All American thing that you are going to go to. Researcher : Right.

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143 Coach : And so they sit around with each other and they talk about where you going to school and you know as talented as they are, they also want to impress their peers an d so they want to say a name that is on national TV all the time that and once you start with that, the thing, what the institution is selling, what the brand name is selling is we just had a McDonalds we just have a guy one in done. We just had ten one i n done. Researcher : Right. Coach : They are telling to them, we are the reason those guys are one and done, that kid who is one and done and is secure enough in himself that he is saying, listen I R esearcher : Right. Coach : Curry at Davidson. He has to be really, he has to have a level of self esteem, he has to be really secure in himself that he can sit in a room with a bunch of sidewalk a nd say, you going here, okay fine this is where I am going. Researcher : Right. Coach : And he has to be sure enough in himself that when they go, man you going where, you said okay. Researcher : It is just amazing even within that dialogue, I am going to be one and done to man, we are going to be playing together in the league next year anyway. Coach : Yeah, usually he only feels it is a security blanket. Researcher : Coach : It is absolutely, it is ego thing, it is a security blanke t, I can say I went to fill in the blanks. Researcher : take a number, take a number, you are one of a thousand, you are one of a couple hundred that have done this before you, that w ill do this after you and just to me it seems like go to a buffalo go to a school where you can actually in that one year and you will be remembered and so. Coach : And the people who are with him to, who are also saying wait a minute I saw that school on TV man, this school is calling you now, and they equate that with him as stock rising when he is really good, he is really good, you know, I have to have a security blan University of, no one will admit that, but I think that happens.

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144 Researcher : Yeah, I believe more than that happens, because if they were coming to the different school, a les ser known school that will be the media blast right then and there, well as a head coach, you know where are you spending, what endeavors are you spending the greatest amount of your time on, what do you find yourself doing, in season, out of season, you k now January 1 December 31 st what are you doing? Coach : Empowering our assistants, and powering our players, you know the energy that I am feeling is really a family environment around here, some of it is keeping certain energies away you know try to keep the guys locked in with each other and because it is a high profile sport so everybody is paying attention and really the only guy I know on the team, I am only going to talk to you about what you did, how many rebounding points you got and trying to keep that element out of it is sometimes energy going to put so much pressure on himself, again, loose your identity, just lock in, and I tell them the more you give to the t eam, the more of that will come back, but that is a difficult process, the parents, they been the stars of the team in high school and why Researcher : They say those things. Coach : Y es, they begin to apply pressure to the kid because he knows, the kid knows, he is in practice everyday, he is looking at film, you know, he sees our opponents, he knows why he is not doing the same things he did in high school but nowadays with cell phone s and texts and all that, he got a lot of stake holders that are in his ear and trying to keep them at a distance is energy consuming. Researcher : I bet. Coach : So that couple with recruiting and scheduling you know, just scouting and all that, it is just obvious to people I think. Researcher : Coach : It is life learning what you do, you got to do it everyday, I say yeah, someone told me recruiting is like shaving, you got to do it everyday o r you look bad, so you can never say oh we are all set, you just got to keep doing it and you got to keep doing it, and you got to keep doing it, the scheduling getting to a point to but recruiting definitely there. Coach : Always here about guys, we are al ways talking about guys. Researcher : So when we are talking about these guys and we talk about geographically where they come from but where do you draw the greatest number of uys, kind

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145 Coach : Well to me college, we coached community college prior to coming here but the thing about ju nior college guys is usually there is a year of adjustment and then after that, they only got one year left and you hope it is only a one year adjustment, sometimes it can be more than that and the four year guys also hard academically, he comes in as a ju nior college kid, he is trying to find a major, he is trying to this, he is trying to find that, you know for us it is good like in our situation right now we have five freshman, we have only two seniors but we have a nucleus of guys, we have two seniors, one of which is a fifth year senior, we have four juniors, two of which are in their fourth year, so we have six guys who have been here either their third year, fourth year, or the fifth year to help nurture and develop those five freshman who a re looking around like timing tourist and need some leadership, not only from coaches but teammates. impossible, but hard. Researcher : And is that because of you r system, is that because what you guys are doing here? Coach : I think both, academically it takes them a little while to catch up on some things that we want to be instinctive with the way we play offensively, it takes a little while, it takes a little wh ile, he is just about learning, and we learned it too, our first recruiting class with seven junior college kids and high school kid. Researcher : Out of necessity probably. Coach : doing it this way. Researcher : When starting the recruiting process when going to bigger local, you go to back to their high schools and re visit? Coach : Only yeah if th ey have a kid that is at our level, absolutely, a lot of times we would get a call from that high school coach who saw his kid come back as a man when he was a boy and you might say there is another kid here. Researcher : So it is about building relationships as well. Coach : We kind of lead to the areas where there is a kid that we are really interested in and then we go in there. Researcher : So what measures are you taking to kind of indentify these potential players? Coach : Oh we start out with the scouting instructions, that everyone else does and then eventually we get to you the crust of it is, is there a kid that is talented enough first of all for us to begin looking at and then we dig behind the scenes, does he have all the other elements c haracterized at which we continue recruiting then we get him on campus. Where he is from comes kind of secondary.

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146 Researcher : Yeah, geography is not an issue for you, obviously you got players from all Coach : If the kid says there is a hindrance, then we can, we can recruit, if it is not a hindra nce to him, it is not a hindra nce to us.

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147 REFERENCES Aghazadeh, S., & Kyei, K. (2009). A quantitative assessment of factors affecting college sports' team unity. College Student Journal Amorose, A. J., & Horn, T. S. (2000). Intrinsic motivation: Relationships with collegiate athlete's gender, scholarship status, and.. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 22 (1), 63. Armstrong, S. (2001). Are you a 'transformational' coach? JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 72 (3), 44. Beam, J. W., Serwatka, T. S., & Wilson, W. J. (2004). Preferred leadership of NCAA div ision I and II intercollegiate student athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27 (1), 3 17. Becker, A., & Solomon, G. (2005). Expectancy information and coach effectiveness in intercollegiate basketball. Sport Psychologist, 19 (3), 251. Becker, A. J., & Solomon, G. (2009). It's not what they do, it's how they do it: Athlete experiences of great coaching. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4 (1), 93 119. Breitbach, A. P. (2009). The effect of student athlete recruitment, admissions and services in the success of intercollegiate men's basketball programs. ProQuest Information & Learning). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 69 (7 ) Carter, A. D., & Bloom, G. A. (2009). Coaching knowledge and success: Going beyond athletic experiences. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32 (4), 419 437. Choi, J. H. (2007). The relationship among transformational leadership, organizational outcomes, and service quality in the five major NCAA conferences. ProQuest Information & Learning). Dissertation Abstracts International Se ction A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 68 (6 ) Cunningham, G. B., & Dixon, M. A. (2003). New perspectives concerning performance appraisals of intercollegiate coaches. Quest (Champaign, I ll.), 55 (2), 177 192. Croft, C.. Factors influencing Big 12 Conference college bas ketball male student athletes' selection of a university. Ed.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at El Paso, United States -Texas. Retrieved February 1, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3313419). Dealing with S ubjectivity in S election C riteria .(2008). Coaches Plan/Plan Du Coach, 15 (3), 52 54.

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148 Delisio, C., & Fleming, S. (2005). Recruiting & Fund Raising Coach and Athletic Director 75 (1), 50, 52, 54. Retrieved March 17, 2010, from Education Full Text database. Drury, L. (2009). Interacting with relationship building. Coaches Plan/Plan Du Coach, 16 (2), 50 52. Goss, B. D., Jubenville, C. B., & Orejan, J. (2006). An examination o f influences and factors on the institutional selection processes of freshmen student athletes at small colleges and universities. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 16 (2), 105 134. Gurney, G. S., & Weber, J. C. (2008). A better way to measure coaches' wins and losses. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (9), A34. Grbich, C. (2007). Qualitative data analysis: an introduction London: Sage Publications. Hatch, J. A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in education settings Albany NY : State University of New York Press. Jackson, B., Knapp, P., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2009). The coach athlete relationship: A tripartite efficacy perspective. Sport Psychologist, 23 (2), 203 232. J ohnson G. R., J ubenville C., & G oss B. (2009). Using institutiona l selection factors to develop recruiting profiles: Marketing small, private colleges and universities to prospective student athletes. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 19 (1), 1 25. Jowett, S. (2008). What makes coaches tick? the impact of coaches' intrinsic and extrinsic motives on their own satisfaction and that of their athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18 (5), 664 673. Kent, A., & Chelladurai, P. (2001). Perceived transformational leadership, or ganizational commitment, and citizenship behavior: A case study in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Management, 15 (2), 135. Kostoff, M. (2008). Student athletes: The 740 club. Coach & Athletic Director, 77 (10), 28 30. Laird, M. Recruiting as persuasion: Assessing the role of persuasive communication in college basketball recruiting. M.A. dissertation, Hawaii Pacific University, United States -Hawaii. Retrieved February 1, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publica tion No. AAT 1461094). Letawsky N., Schneider, R., & Pedersen, P. (2003). Factors Influencing the College Selection Process of Student Athletes: Are Their Factors Similar to Non At hletes? College Student Journal 37 (4), 604 6 10.

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149 Lieblich, A., Tuval Ma shiach, R., & Zilber, T. (1998). Narrative research: Reading, analysis and interpretation Applied social research methods series, 47. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage Publications. Lorimer, R. (2009). Coaches' satisfaction with their athletic partnerships. International Journal of Coaching Science, 3 (2), 57 66. Mannie, K. (2005). "Tough love is in effect here!": Perspectives on coaching and leadership. Coach and Athletic Director, 74 (10), 68 70. Martin, M. M., Rocca, K. A., Cayanus, J. L., & Weber, K. (2009). Relationship between coaches' use of behavor alteration techniques and verbal aggression on athletes' motivation and affect. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32 ( 2), 227 241. Miller, Lisa M. (2003). Qualitative investigation of intercoll eg iate coaches' perceptions of altruistic leadership. Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University, United States -Ohio. Retrieved February 1, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3124373). Paulston, C. B., & Tucker, G. R. (2003). Sociolinguistics : The essential readings Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. Riessman, C. K. (1994). Narrative analysis Qualitative resea rch methods, 30. Newbury Park, Calif. [u.a.: Sage Publ. Ryska, T. A. (2009). Multivariate analysis of program g oals, leadership style, and occupational burnout among intercollegiate sport coaches. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32 (4), 476 488. Sander, L. (2008). For Coaches, a Race With No Finish Line. Chronicle of Higher Education, 5 5 (17), A1 A17. Sander, L. (2008b). For college athletes, recruiting is a fair (but flawed) game. (cover story). Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (17), D1 D19. Sander, L. (2008c). Athletics Raises a College From the Ground Up. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (4), S19. Schroeder P. J. (2010). Changing team culture: The perspectives of ten successful head coaches. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33 (1), 63 88. Singer, J. N. (2005). Understanding racism through the eyes of African American male student athletes Race Ethnicity and Education 8(4) 365 386. Sullivan, P. J. & Kent, A. (2003). Coaching Efficacy as a Predictor of Leadership Style in Intercollegiate Athletics. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 15 (1), 1 11. doi:10.1080/10413200305404

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151 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Zachary W Niland was born to John an d Tonya Niland in 1985, in Montour Falls, New York. Zachary subsequently moved to West Virginia where he spent his fundamental years before moving to Connecticut where he ultimately graduated high school at Norwich Free Academy in 2003. Upon completion of his high school diploma he science in education and graduating with honors in December o f 2007, Zachary continued his academic studies at Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) purs uing and completing his Master of Science s in e ducation in May of 2008 After completion of his MS in education, Zachary began his studies at the University o f Florida in the fall of 2008, pursuing his Ph.D. in higher education administration and p olicy. After studies had begun he was offered an opportunity to work as an Academic and Career Advisor at a local community college which he accepted and continued t o balance his studies with working full time. In 2010, Zachary returned to his primary focus of achieving his Ph.D. After achieving candidacy in the spring of 2010 Zachary set forth with his data collection and subsequent analysis of that data. The results of those efforts are the contents of this document. After a summer 2011 graduation Zachary is looking forward to the next challenges he will face, both academic and professional.