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1 JULIUS CHAJES (1910 1985): DEFINING HIS POST 1930 STYLE By DAVID NATHAN GOLDBLATT A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 David Nathan Goldblatt
3 To Abby, Dr. Harold A. Laynor, and the memory of Julius Chajes
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Gary Galvan for delivering several valuable items concerning Chajes from the Fleischer Collection at the Free Library of Philadelphia. I would also like to thank Dr. Jeffrey H. Chajes and Mr. David Loring for their generous donation of several items from the personal collection of Julius Chajes, Dr. Irit Schoenhorn for providing me with items from the Beit Leviim archives at the Blumenthal Music Center in Tel Aviv, Israel and Mr. Sy Manello of the Detroit Jewish News for sending me m ultiple non circulating articles from that particular publication In addition to these individuals, I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. Norman Dee, Dr. Paul Schoenfield, and Dr. Rita Sloan for allowing me to conduct electronic and telephone inter views with them. I am also appreciative for the support of my doctoral committee, Drs. David Kushner, Kevin Orr, Paul Richards, Larry Crook, and Sharon Difino. Besides these individuals, I would like to thank Drs. Falko Steinbach, Suzanne Knosp, and Estibaliz Gastesi Bezerra for all of their support in helping me reach this stage in my academic career. Finally, I would like to thank my wife Abby for her patience, kindness, generosity, and inspiration.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 6 LIST OF FIGURE S ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 LIST OF EXAMPLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 17 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 19 Project Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 19 Need for the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 21 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 23 2 STRING QUARTET NO. 2 ................................ ................................ ...................... 42 3 ISRAELI DANCE (FOR PIANO) ................................ ................................ ............. 88 4 SONATA IN A MINOR (FOR VIOLIN AND PIANO) ................................ .............. 123 5 SONATA IN D MINOR (FOR PIANO) ................................ ................................ ... 260 6 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 359 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 363 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 366
6 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 List of scales in bars 87 131 ................................ ................................ ............... 71
7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Program of the Chajes farewell concert from the Wiener Konzerthaus Archives ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 43 2 2 gram of the harmonic series in Entwurf ................................ .......... 45 2 3 Entwurf ................................ 45 2 4 Entwurf ................................ ................ 46 3 1 Letter from Ernest Bloch to Julius Chajes ................................ ......................... 107 3 2 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B flat, C, and E .............................. 111 3 3 Discussion of the combinatory potential of G, A, and C ................................ .... 1 15 3 4 Discussion of the combinatory potential of G, A, B, and D ............................... 118 3 5 Discussion of the combinatory potential of F, G, and B flat .............................. 121 4 1 Discussion of the combinatory potential of A, C, and D ................................ .... 131 4 2 Discussion of the combinat ory potential of C, D, and F ................................ .... 132 4 3 Discussion of the combinatory potential of E, G, A, and B ............................... 136 4 4 Discussion of the combinatory potential of E, F sharp, G and B ....................... 145 4 5 Diagram of the Thirt een tone B double scale ................................ ................... 147 4 6 Discussion of the combinatory potential of C, D, E, and G ............................... 148 4 7 Progression of descending implied tetrachords in bars 69(2) 75(2) ................. 155 4 8 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B, D, and E ................................ .... 157 4 9 Discussion of the combinatory potential of G, B, and C ................................ .... 159 4 10 Ascending cycle of fourths from F sharp ................................ .......................... 160 4 11 Discussion of the combinatory potential of C, E, and F ................................ .... 161 4 12 Discussion of the combinatory potential of D, E, F sharp and A ....................... 163 4 13 Discussion of the com binatory potential of B flat, A, and D .............................. 165
8 4 14 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B, D, E, and F sharp ...................... 187 4 15 Discussion of the combinatory potential of A, C, D, and E ............................... 193 4 16 Discussion of the combinatory potential of D, F, G, and A ............................... 195 4 17 Discussion of the combinatory potential of D sharp, F sharp, and G sharp ..... 202 4 18 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B flat, F, and A .............................. 205 4 19 Diagram of the central position of the Mixed Scale on A between the E falling and D neutra l scales ................................ ................................ .............. 210 4 20 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B, D, E and F ................................ 217 4 21 Combinatory analysis of the second quarter note of bar 41(3) ......................... 224 4 22 Discussion of the combinatory potential of C sharp, E, and F sharp ................ 229 4 23 Descending cycle from the G C dyad ................................ ............................... 243 4 24 Ascending cycle from a D G dyad to an A D dyad ................................ ........... 244 4 25 The implied A D pentachord and its equivalent sonorities ................................ 252 4 26 The implied E A pentachord and its equivalent sonorities ................................ 253 4 27 neutral pentatonic scale ................................ ........ 257 5 1 Incomplete cycle of fourths fr om an E A dyad to a C F dyad ........................... 271 5 2 Descending cycle of fourths from D ................................ ................................ .. 275 5 3 Model of interconnected D G, A D, and A flat D tetrachords ............................ 287 5 4 Descending cycle of thirds from A ................................ ................................ .... 295 5 5 Descending cycle of fourths from G ................................ ................................ .. 296
9 LIST OF EXAMPLES Example page 2 1 First Theme (Bars 1 16) and Second Theme Bars 17 25) from the first ................................ .............. 49 2 2 Bars 26 44 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 51 2 3 Third Theme (Bars 45 49) ................................ ................................ .................. 52 2 4 Bars 50 61 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 53 2 5 Bars 62 73 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 54 2 6 Bars 74 82 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 55 2 7 Bars 83 87 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 56 2 8 Bars 88 96 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 57 2 9 Bars 97 100 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 58 2 10 Bars 101 104 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 61 2 11 Bars 105 108 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 61 2 12 Bars 109 116 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 64 2 13 Bars 117 119 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 66 2 14 Bars 120 128 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 67 2 15 Bars 129 137 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 70 2 16 Bars 193 198 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 72 2 17 Bars 1 ............................ 73 2 18 Bars 13 24 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 76 2 19 Bars 1 .......................... 78 2 20 Bars 19 26 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 79 2 21 Second Theme (fragment Bars 41 47) ................................ ............................... 80 2 22 Bars 78 80 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 80
10 2 23 Bars 81 93 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 81 2 24 First T heme of Allegro (Bars 1 ..... 83 2 25 First Theme (Bars 14 25) ................................ ................................ ................... 84 2 26 Second Theme (Bars 38 51) ................................ ................................ .............. 85 2 27 Second Theme (Bars 52 59) ................................ ................................ .............. 85 3 1 Bars 1 5 of the First Prelude from Hugo Kauder's Five Preludes, Passagaglias, and Fugues ................................ ................................ ................. 89 3 2 Bars 1 nderers Nachtlied ................................ ............... 90 3 3 Bars 1 ................................ ................................ ... 90 3 4 Bars 1 ................................ ............................. 91 3 5 Bars 1 ................................ ......................... 108 3 6 Bars 11 15 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 110 3 7 Bars 20 30 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 112 3 8 Bars 31 38 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 114 3 9 Bars 52 59 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 115 3 10 Bars 60 70 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 116 3 11 Bars 71 82 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 119 3 12 Bars 91 103 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 120 3 13 Bars 144 148 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 122 4 1 ................................ ....................... 124 4 2 Bars 1 11 of Allegro appassionato from Julius minor ....... 126 4 3 Bars 12 15 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 134 4 4 Bars 16 24 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 134 4 5 Bars 20 30 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 138 4 6 Bars 31 33 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 139 4 7 Bars 34 35 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 143
11 4 8 Bars 36 41 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 143 4 9 Bars 41 49 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 144 4 10 Bars 48 52 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 149 4 11 Bars 53 54 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 149 4 12 Bars 53 56 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 152 4 13 Bars 57 64 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 153 4 14 Bars 65 70 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 153 4 15 Bars 76 81 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 156 4 16 Bars 87 95 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 162 4 17 Bars 96 101 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 165 4 18 Bars 112 121 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 167 4 19 Bars 122 129 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 168 4 20 Bars 140 144 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 169 4 21 Bars 145 150 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 170 4 22 Bars 177 187 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 172 4 23 7 ................................ ................................ ........ 176 4 24 Bars 1 minor ............ 178 4 25 Bars 5 17 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 180 4 26 Bars 18 21 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 180 4 27 Bars 22 34 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 181 4 28 Bars 1 minor ............................. 189 4 29 Bars 1 18 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 190 4 30 Bars 23 28 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 196 4 31 Bars 29 36 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 197 4 32 Bars 37 42 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 199
12 4 33 Bars 43 56 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 200 4 34 Bars 57 63 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 204 4 35 Bars 67 69 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 205 4 36 Bars 70 78 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 206 4 37 Bars 79 85 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 207 4 38 Bars 1 minor .............................. 209 4 39 Bars 19 22 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 213 4 40 Bars 23 26 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 213 4 41 Bars 27 36 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 214 4 42 Bars 35 38 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 221 4 43 Bars 39 41 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 222 4 44 Bars 42 50 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 226 4 45 Bars 51 53 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 226 4 46 Bars 54 59 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 232 4 47 Bars 66 69 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 233 4 48 Bars 76 78 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 234 4 49 Bars 79 85 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 235 4 50 Bars 86 87 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 236 4 51 Bars 86 91 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 237 4 52 Bars 92 96 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 237 4 53 Bars 103 105 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 238 4 54 Bars 113 115 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 239 4 55 Bars 113 119 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 240 4 56 Bars 120 131 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 242 4 57 Bars 132 133 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 242
13 4 58 Bars 132 143 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 246 4 59 Bars 144 145 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 246 4 60 Bars 144 147 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 248 4 61 Bars 160 162 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 249 4 62 Bars 163 171 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 250 4 63 Bars 178 183 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 251 4 64 Bars 187 196 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 254 4 65 Bars 197 202 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 255 4 66 Bars 213 223 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 256 5 1 Bars 1 minor (por tion of beat 1) ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 261 5 2 Bars 5 9 (portion of beat 1) ................................ ................................ ............... 262 5 3 Bars 9 12 ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 264 5 4 Bars 13 16 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 265 5 5 Bars 17 21 (first sixteenth note) ................................ ................................ ........ 265 5 6 allein ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 268 5 7 Excerpt 1 from Hugo Klavierbchlein I ................................ ................................ ............................... 268 5 8 Klavierbchlein I ................................ ................................ ............................... 269 5 9 Bars 21 25 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 269 5 10 Bars 21 32 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 270 5 11 Bars 33 41(first eighth note) ................................ ................................ ............. 272 5 12 Bars 45 49 (first quarter note) ................................ ................................ ........... 276 5 13 Bars 49 59 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 277 5 14 Bars 60 62 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 279
14 5 15 Bars 63 67 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 279 5 16 Bars 68 78 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 282 5 17 Bars 79 82 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 284 5 18 Bars 83 93 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 285 5 19 Bars 95 96 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 288 5 20 Bars 97 99 (beat 2) ................................ ................................ ........................... 288 5 21 Bars 101 104 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 289 5 22 Bars 105 106 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 289 5 23 Bars 107 113 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 290 5 24 Bars 113 114 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 291 5 25 Bars 115 116 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 291 5 26 Bars 139 149 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 292 5 27 Bars 150 156 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 293 5 28 Bars 165 170 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 293 5 29 Bars 171 174 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 294 5 30 Bars 179 182 (beat 1) ................................ ................................ ....................... 297 5 31 Bars 182 185 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 298 5 32 Bars 186 192 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 299 5 33 First Theme of Andante (Bars 1 minor ...... 301 5 34 First Theme of Andante (Bars 6 15) ................................ ................................ 302 5 35 Bars 16 26 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 306 5 36 Bars 27 34 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 309 5 37 Bars 35 40 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 310 5 38 Bars 41 49 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 311 5 39 Bars 53 58 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 315
15 5 40 Bars 73 77 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 316 5 41 Bars 96 104 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 3 17 5 42 Bars 105 113 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 318 5 43 Bars 1 minor ................... 319 5 44 Bars 25 32 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 322 5 45 Bars 33 40 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 322 5 46 Bars 41 45 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 324 5 47 Bars 46 50 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 325 5 48 Bars 51 56 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 326 5 49 Bars 57 62 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 328 5 50 Bars 63 71 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 329 5 51 Bars 72 74 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 330 5 52 Bars 75 86 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 331 5 53 Bars 93 101 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 334 5 54 Bars 102 104 (first eighth note) ................................ ................................ ........ 334 5 55 Bars 104 108 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 335 5 56 Bars 109 112 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 336 5 57 Bars 112 113 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 337 5 58 Bars 112 117 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 338 5 59 Bars 118 119 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 338 5 60 Bars 120 122 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 339 5 61 Bars 123 125 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 340 5 62 Bars 126 128 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 341 5 63 Bars 126 130 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 342 5 64 Bars 130 131 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 343
16 5 65 Bar 132 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 343 5 66 Bars 132 137 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 344 5 67 Bars 138 145 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 346 5 68 Bars 150 161 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 348 5 69 Bars 162 167 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 349 5 70 Bars 183 185 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 350 5 71 Bars 198 200 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 351 5 72 Bars 207 210 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 351 5 73 Bars 211 214 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 352 5 74 Bars 215 218 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 353 5 75 Bars 219 222 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 354 5 76 Bars 223 228 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 354 5 77 Bars 229 238 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 356
17 Abstract of Dissertation Presented t o the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy JULIUS CHAJES (1910 1985) : DEFINING HIS POST 1930 STYLE By David N athan G oldblatt August 2012 Chair: David Z. Kushner Major: Music In this study, I hope to fill a significant lacuna in scholarship concerning the composer, conductor, pianist, writer, and piano professor Julius Chajes (1910 1985). Despite having earned a formidable reputation as a compose r of Jewish Art Music, very little scholarly material exists concerning his compositions. Through detailed analysis of Sonata in D Minor for p iano and String Quartet No. 2, I shall expose the aesthetic principles that governed 1 930 works, as well as a hitherto undiscovered school of composition. While his colleagues, detractors, and admirers alike often indiscriminately attributed his works with Jewish titles to a Jewish style or his Jewish heritage, they neglected to take into account his studies with the Viennese Jewish music theorist Hugo Kauder (1888 1972). Chajes studied w ith Kauder for over fifty years, and his personal diaries reveal that he showed his mentor a great deal of personal and artis tic loyalty to the extent tha t he delayed publication of his works until counterpoint textbook, Counterpoint: An Introduction to Polyphonic Composition (1960), to embody exemplary principles. Chajes often incorporated polyphonic devices into his works, as well as
18 s everal of the musical scales that his teacher sanctified because he believed their origin was within the Universe itself via the harmonic series rather than emerging as human designed artifices. H is employment of harmonic fourths and fifths echoes sonorities in works. This analysis obscures many of the distinctions between oriented and secular works by rendering them subjective and titular as opposed to stylistic. Examination of these materials further suggests that Chajes possibly sought to create or re capture a universal style despite earning the majority of his income from composing Jewish works and conducting a Jewish ensemble (the Detroit Jewish Community Center Orchestra).
19 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Project Overview In 1932, the moderately well known Viennese Jewish composer, music theorist and writer Hugo Kauder (1888 1972) published Entwurf einer n euen Melodie u nd Harmonielehre (Toward a New Concept of Harmony and Melody). This brief treatise, which he summarized in English in his counterpoint textbook Counterpoint: An Introduction to Polyphonic Composition advised composers to use p articular scales that he derived from the harmonic series. Each of these scales corresponded to the modes associated with Ancient Greece and Gregorian Chant, although he warned against these historic and religious associations. 1 Instead, he assigned scal es names based on their allegedly natural tendencies: In this work teachings based on basic facts are shown which were completely possessed in antiquity, remained half understood in the middle ages, and have now been lost for centuries T he Greeks designated the scales after [their] different races, the Christian medieval theory confounded the Greek names and brought confusion into the teachings instead [we have] tried here to deduce the design ations of the scales directly from their natu re. 2 major s cale, the Phrygian m ode, and the Dorian m ode. He named the major s cale the Rising Scale after the rising frequencies of the harmonic series the Phrygian m ode the Falling Scale after the inversion of the harmonic series, and the Dorian m ode the Neutral Scale 1 Kauder exhibited no overt bias toward any particular religion or culture. His principal point of contention concerned the way in which both ancient and modern scalar conceptions contradicted his view that a scales must ascend while the scale that equates to the Phrygian mode must descend. He expressed dissatisfaction with Ancient Greeks for situating all scales in the descending direction, while he criticized modern performers and composers for rendering all scales bi directional. 2 Kauder, Entwurf ein er n euen Melodie u nd Harmonielehre 5.
20 because it contained notes that lay between the two other scales and had a bi directional nature. He deemed these scales fundamental due to the fact that they encompassed t wo equal tetrachords. He described scales with unequal tetrachords as Mixed Julius Chajes (1910 1985) studied composition with Kauder in Vienna and in the United States for a period of fifty years and arguably represented one of his most loyal students, as he notes in one of his personal diaries that Kauder exerted a great deal of influence on him. 3 In 1931 Chajes composed String Quartet No. 2 which marked a significant departure from his previous late romantic works to a fifty year exploration of modal scales. He also freely admitted in an unpublished, hand written draft of program notes for a 1961 chamber music concert that he changed his style at the age of 20. 4 I Strin g Quartet No. 2 and Sonata in D Minor for piano S tandard harmonic analyses prove inadequate for these works, moreover, as each of them uses modal scales and abundant organum like sonorities. I conclude that, since Chajes utilizes similar techniques in h is Jewish and secular works, the differences between them exist only due to programmatic and titular variations. I also argue that such analysis affords music scholars a unique opportunity to evaluate Chajes on his own artistic merits (as the scant extant literature regarding his compositions excludes this important aspect of them), and I further suggest that composers, performers, musicologists, and ethnomusicologists 3 For a concise biography of Chajes and a partial list of his works, see the seventh edition of Biographical Dictionary of Musicians The American Jewish Archives in Cincinnati possess a complete works list, (see http://americanjewisharchives.org/aja/FindingAids/juliuschajes.htm ) 4 David Loring, e mail to the author, 20 November 2009. Mr. Loring provided me with electronic cop ies of
21 investigate Chajes and Kauder because they represent an esoteric Twentieth Century Vienn ese stream that coexisted with the Second Viennese School. Furthermore, since Kauder studied composition independently by perusing scores from various historical periods at the Gesellschaft Der Musikfreunde instructive exa mples for musicians with interests in divergent styles. Need for the Study Despite the fact that Chajes achieved moderate acclaim as a composer of Jewish Art Music, only two individuals have published scholarly works concerning his compositions, and they focus exclusively on his pieces with Jewish programmatic elements. 5 Hebrew Union College, Rabbi Geoffrey Goldberg lamented the lack of available information on Chajes even as he approv ed her document: Sandra Sherry has written an adequate survey of the pianist, composer, and conductor Julius Chajes. Although lucidly written, the project suffers from a number of weaknesses. It is too anecdotal and there are too many quotations More ser iously, the project lacks any musical examples to We really do not obtain any sense of the nature of his music. I shall accept this project towards the degree of MSM, but a more analytical study of the m usic of Julius Chajes deserves to be written. 6 I believe that several factors have contributed to this lacuna. One of the principal musical issues includes his post 1930 stylistic choices. His omission of extensive explanation of his motivation for using esoteric modal scales in combination with contrapuntal devices often rendered assessment difficult even among musicians with 5 Sandra Sherry received approval for Julius Chajes: Man and Music in 1990 and Cantor Marnie Alyse Stolzenberg (now Camhi) received approval for Jewish American Art Songs: The Music of David Diamond and Julius Chajes in 2006. 6 Goldberg, Report on the Master of Sacred Music Written Project Submitted by Sandra Sherry in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Investiture 1. This report precedes the project.
22 extensive theoretical backgrounds. Chajes likely contributed to the problem himself by limiting discussions of his application of since authors of the extant documents (including Chajes in his personal diaries) The absence o f more detail regarding his own commentary on his harmonic and melodic style subsequently created severe limitations for individuals interested in theoretically analyzing his pieces, as I will demonstrate in the forthcoming literature review. Another sign ificant barrier that potentially prevented greater dissemination and appreciation of his secular works concerns the reputation he established as a Jewish composer by allowing a Jewish publishing company, Transcontinental Music Publications, to publish the majority of his works in th e United States. The two above strengthen the assertion that they make little m ention of his absolute works. The othe r publicly available written sources of information regarding Chajes include concert reviews in newspapers, brief entries in biographical dictionaries on music, and descriptive discussions in books pertaining to Jewish Music. These books often contain bri contemporaries, who limit their evaluations of Chajes to praise of his ability to employ contrapuntal devices or enthusiasm for his expansion of the available corpus of Jewish Art Music. Dr. Karin Wagner has done valuable arc colleague and friend, the composer Eric Zeisl, and her books expose photographs of Chajes and concert programs featuring his p erformances and compositions. Chaj son, Dr. Jeffrey (Yossi) H. Chajes and his step son, Mr. Davi d Loring have also recently
23 invaluable in furnishing musicians with opportunities to re merits. I shall include and analyze several of them wi thin this dissertation in order to publicize them a nd encourage future research. Literature Review y, although her thesis lacks analytical perspective also applies to the decidedly pro Chajes viewpoint she assumes in addition to her omission of musical civilization is dependent upon men of 7 Additional evidence of bias stems from her quotation of a 1946 New York Times review of Chaj compositions by Noel Straus She replaces non complimentary prose with ellipses and thus diminishes the degree of objectivity within her document. The inclusion of this of critical reception: W i the various works were too similar in their general character to avoid monotony of effect when massed together on one program. Their constant use of melodies based o n Jewish originals more or less freely, tended to p all in the long run, And all the more so since most of this music was not remarkable for originality or power. 8 In an additional evaluation of Chajes, she offers a laudatory remark without h, so well, he 7 Sherry, Julius Chajes 2. 8
24 undoubtedly is allowed to feel self 9 She rry also uses minimal contextual commentary to accompany quotations. Her citation of an interview with Chajes in a 1984 Detroit Jewish News article exemplifies the problematic nature of such a practice. She misses an opportunity to expose a degree of self in modern day Israel constituted the creation of a scale and represent ed a compositional necessity: I discovered that the only Jewish Music that existed, aside from synagogue music, was popular music, which seen from the cultural standpoint of European music, was low class music! A new idiom had to be created, what we call I took it upon myself to become a pioneer of this type of music. I consider this my major contribution and a fulfillment of my ambition of 50 years ago. 10 The latter half of the quote requires contextual explanation due to the fact that the composer made the statement to a newspaper published by the Jewish community that enabled him to obtain citizenship in the United States and ensured his financial stability. The reader could benefit from a discussion of the exten t to which Chajes wished to escape his legacy as a Jewish composer, even if it necessarily assumes a speculative nature. Cantor Marnie Stolzenberg eoretical analyses of two accompanied vocal works by the composer O ne of t he pieces she elects to examine, however, 9 Sherry, Julius Chajes 25. 10 Ibid, 9 The Detroit Jewish News within the article.
25 works, as it features augmented seconds. Despite the fact that Old Jerusalem represents one of the few works in oe u vre that utilizes these intervals, Camhi presented a blend of Eastern European Jewish with Palestinian m usical elements, like 11 One problem associated with too close of an association of Chajes to Easter n Europe includes the fact that he consciously strove to avoid the augmented second, an interval commonly associated with Eastern European Jewish Music Along with many other composers seeking to create an incipient Israeli national style he linked this interval to Jews who mourned for their lost homeland while living in Diaspora. 12 In developing an Israeli/Palestinian/Mediterranean style, they overtly substituted Western modal scales for the Ahava Rabah mode (the Jewish prayer mode that contains augmented seconds). Furthermore, one of the pieces in which he include s augmented seco nds bears the title The Chassid While the piece embodies as similated Eastern European Jews, it represents an exception to his typical tendency to omit augmented seconds from his works. Cam Jewish music without considering such factors as the urgency with which he required political asylum and financial security or the fact that Jews managed and served two of his signific cannot be separated. They are so intertwined that, they must be combined 13 11 Stolzenberg, Jewish American Art Songs 8. 12 See Chapter 3. 13 Ibid, 41.
26 Her discussion of use of the Dorian mode gives the reader a far greater sense of the specific stylistic elements of his s he bypasses any extensive inquiry pertaining to Kauder despite the fact that String Quartet No.2 utilizes the Neutral Scale. This scale contains the sa me intervals as the Dorian m o de : H is accompaniment evokes a feelin g of the indigenous Arab modes t hrough his use of the Dorian mode. use the Dorian mode in their songs so they would not sound too Western or Eastern European (too Jewish). 14 She makes a similar genera metric flexibility while neglecting the fact that String Quartet No. 2 also encompasses multiple metric changes: 15 Chajes moreover, likely learned to incorporate metric variety into his works from Kauder, who rarely used bar lines after the late 1920s and encouraged his students to follow suit: Abstention from the use of bar lines, as is exemplified throughout this book, continuity and coherence. If, in the more complex examples, it becomes necessary or desirable to mark the metric accents, this can be done best by drawing small vertical dashes above the notes. These will serve as bar lines without cutting through the musical context. 16 themed works might have Jewish likely led her to the 14 Ibid, 46. 15 Ibid, 47. 16 Kauder, Counterpoint 16
27 17 Although Sherry and Camhi both present information from books and newspapers for the reasons I have previously cited. Israel Rabinovitch, in Of Jewish Music, Ancient and Modern gr ants Chajes the highest honor among authors of books on Jewish music in his commentary concerning his cantata, Zion, Rise and Shine on contra puntal and structural grounds. He causes the reader to question his judgment, however, by suggesting (even poetica lly) that Chajes received divine inspiration when composing the work: The themes for this work are all borrowed from Israeli melos, and here the composer so completely finds himself at home that no sooner does he touch one of these melodies but the Shechin ah is already upon him. Its choral song is heard in a most fluent and masterly harmony in fugal form, sometimes in double counterpoint. The thing as a whole is made up of logical sequences and thus is achieved an effect of fulfillment, of felicitous cons ummation. 18 Rabinovitch utilizes similarly dramatic language in his favorable estimation of programmatic qualities as opposed to formal considerations, but in either e xcerpt a difficulty presents itself with regard to reaching an objective estimation of the musical substance of these works: Of quite a different character are his songs of Israel. Here he employs, after the fashion of oriental music, but without undue ex oticism, a style of melodic and harmonic ornamentation. His Adarim is a gem of its kind. Composed upon a beautiful melody by S. Weisfish, Chajes has made of it a 17 the same work. 18 Rabinovitch, Of Jewish Music 267 268. Shechinah Jewish People.
28 thing apart a thing brilliant with idyllic sunshine, odorous of field and pasture, evocative of shepherds peaceful midst their flocks. Of the same genre are his Palestinian Nights, Gamal, Gamali (Song of the Camel Driver), Palestinian Melodies, for Piano, and Palestine Dance. These are exemplars of Israeli Song in its most artistic and exalted manifestations, and I have the impression that these very songs have done more to implant throughout the Diaspora a love for Israel than the most extended efforts of Zionist propaganda. 19 The flattering rhetoric notwithstanding, Rabinovitch seems to have co ngratulated Chajes for his elevation of folk material to the level of Art song, his arranging skills, and for using music to accomplish the extra musical goal of conjuring up aural images of Israeli landscapes. While he later notes that Chajes composed sy mphonic and chamber works, the only two pieces he believes deserve particular attention include Tefilah and The Chassid works with overt Jewish programmatic elements. 20 By electing not to address the caliber Rabinovitch lea ves his readers with an important evaluative lacuna. This dearth of commentary proves Cello Concerto in A M inor, written in 1929 (when Chajes was nineteen years old) received complimentary remarks from famous cellist Pablo Casals. 21 Binder, commit similar sins of omission, albeit to varying degrees. Holde mentions that his 142 nd Psalm for choi r, Shabbat Shalom (a scared service) for choir and organ, Palestinian Suite for Orchestra and the cantata The Promised Land as well as chamber 19 Ibid, 268. 20 Chajes composed both pieces for violin or cello with piano accompaniment. 21 Casals, letter to Julius Chajes, 20 January 1936. One should note, though, th 1931 works utilized a Romantic harmonic language that would have been more familiar to early 20th century critics.
29 compositional ability, but avoids any c omprehensive assessment that includes any of his specifically non Jewish works. Holde only vagu e gained a more independent tonal language by contact with Jewish stylistic elements. 22 A.W. Binder provides far less insight, composers upon whom he bestowed honor for contributing Jewish sacred services. 23 The Music of the Jews; an historical appreciation albeit in a less sentimental manner: Generally speaking, his compositional technique is distinctive and he has a pronounced feeling for the Jewish melos. His formal construction reveals good, solid training. He is particularly success ful in employing or arranging Palestinian folk songs or religious melodie s. In this connection we must several psalms for soli and chorus. 24 ng representatives of what he deemed the third phase in the development of Jewish music, wherein composers have surpassed the collection of folksongs to reach a level in which they can create that shall be artistically unobjectionable, both i n the form of arrangements and in the composer's own freely invented composition 25 Rothmller values the act contributions to some extent, but he also omits any discourse directly original composition. His affinity with Chajes is also somewhat a product of his belief 22 Holde, Jews in M usic 127. 23 24 Rothmller The M usic of the Jews 196. 25 Ibid, 142. As th inquiry.
30 that both m his group has as its characteristics a recognition of the primacy of the form of musical per ception found in Israel, and above all, a positive striving to create music of the highest quality, which will stand the test even in a non Jewish environment. 26 Aptitude for the use or manipulation of Palestinian canti firmi or scales that evoke true universal esteem, and yet Jewish composer and author Judith Kaplan Eisenstein ls by focusing on his abilities as arranger, Palestinian exoticist, and contributor to Jewish Music: Mr. Chajes' music is expertly contrived, and I am happy to say that it is performed with polish and elegance While most of his music is still folkloristic in character, drawing heavily upon the melos of the Yemenite Jews, nevertheless he treats this material with all the skill of an accomplished composer and musician. This is not pioneering music. It is not blazing any trail, nor is it deeply moving at any time, but it does definitely enrich our literature and provides many delightful hours for Jewish audiences as well as audiences of a general character. 27 This excerpt appears perplexing in the sense that Eisenstein only mentions the melodic elements in Cha between artistic products that are capable of deeply moving audiences and those that provide delightful hours of entertainment. If his music represents banal divertissements the reader mus t question the ways in which it enhances Jewish musical literature. The possibility exists that Eisenstein simply appreciates the notion that Chajes drew attention to Jewish music and equipped audiences with aural images of Palestinian environs (perhaps c reating a Jewish Gebrauchmusik ), but that his modal and 26 Ibid, 143. 27
31 contrapuntal tendencies might have somehow seemed incongruous with the further development of Jewish music. Regardless o somewhat vague feedback is surprising upon consi deration of the fact that her comments concerned an all The program featured a wide range of works, including his Choral 142 nd Psalm the Cantata Zion, Rise and Shine the Sonata in A Minor (for violin and piano) his Palestinian Dance and four pieces for voice a nd piano set to Hebrew texts. Certainly such a degree of variety could have provided enough aesthetic grounds for more extensive commentary. 28 Lazare Saminsky helps matters slightly in Living Music of the Americas by offering as well as his specific preoccupation with modal scales and harmonies, although h e creates confus ion concerning the latte r issue. He hints that a commitment to these stylistic tendencies suggests that Chajes applied an over abundance of austere musical calculations: A musician of virile gifts, remarkable in each capacity, as pianist, composer, organist, conductor, Chajes h as already an opulent list of works. He is still too much taken with the Jewish folk chant, the style and mode of which he follows too rigidly. But in some of his choruses and in his vocal Psalm By the Waters of Babylon for voice, organ, and cello, one finds the emotional i nsight of spontaneous creation. 29 Given the ubiquity of common practice harmonic emotional associations, a completely modal style may have indicated a lack of emotional content. Chajes 28 The Reconstructionist might have possessed neither the spa ce nor the audience for expansive music reviews. Critics responded to the quality of works featured on the Town Hall program in a variety of ways, but their common ambiguous assessments will receive further elaboration. 29 Saminsky, Living Music of the A mericas 142 143.
32 however, frequently employed harmonic fourths and fifths in his Jewish works to promote the musical portrayal of the post exilic Jew, who no longer lamented his or her plight (which provides a context for his almost complete neglect of augmented seconds), and expr essed the spiritual and physical strength necessary for rebuilding the land of Israel. Saminsky was intimately familiar with Chajes (as he participated in events organized by Chajes for Hashofar the Society for Advancement of Jewish Music), although h e m ay have ignored ( or lacked awareness of) the fundamental fact that Chajes had already crystallized elements of his allegedly Jewish style before it became a fashionable manifestation of Jewish music or was even associated with it. His charge of rigidity m ay have simply have emerged from a preference for major and minor tonalities. The notion that Chajes lacks spontaneity might imply distaste for extended contrapuntal passages, as they often carry the negative stigma of representing scholarly or learned mu sical practices associated with compositional exercises rather than inspired works. Eisenstein possibly hints at a similar observation treating material. Jewish composer and author Herbert Fromm made similar observations regarding Shabbat Shalom a musical setting of a Jewish Friday has not given much to the Synagogue, but his one slim volume has the merit of a clearly defined style. It is a stubborn diatonicism delivered with the conviction of a fir mly rooted musical 30 In an additional description of Shabbat Shalom in On Jewish Music 30 Fromm, On Jewish Music 35.
33 harmonic vocabulary the quality o 31 He appears to have made genuine attempts toward achieving objectivity, but in focusing exclusively on a singular to exhibit a penchant for har musical philosophy stems from his personal connection with him, although it was by no means something he wished to emulate. 32 In a personal letter to Chajes, Fromm also accused him of excessive applicati on of contrapuntal devices and even utilized a 33 generation Kurt List, a former Webern an d Berg disciple, offered exclusively negative criticism of his works in Commentary a The sentimental vulgarity of Julius Chajes' songs Where the Tigris Flows and Song of Love are not surprising in a com poser whose gifts are limited. 34 stemmed from significant aesthetic differences between Chajes and himself. Chajes ne ver engaged in serial or atonal composition. Considering his musical heritage, this stylistic divide may have alienated List, who believed that avant garde styles could save Jewish Music and help it to fulfill the role of progressive compositional force: 31 Ibid, p. 78 32 Fromm was himself a proponent of avant garde styles. 33 Fromm, letter to Julius Chajes, 15 March 1945. 34
34 It seems to me that Jewish music has available three feasible and hopeful solutions: (1) it can re create genuine tradition as Vinaver has done, with a minimum of modernization; (2) it can give up all traditional material as Fromm has done, and evolve a contemporary expression based upon freely invented emulation of the modal tradition; (3) it can give up its historical identity by accepting the greatest achievements of 20th century Western music. By approaching the style of Schoenberg, it can p lay a legitimate role i n Western musi c which would certainly be the highest form of cultural contribution. 35 Since Chajes himself used modes to form his expression, it is likely that List refers only to the utilization of Jewish modes. A high probability a lso exists that List found any contemporary eleme nts severely lacking in Chajes works due to the preponderance of diatonic melodies, organum like harmonies, contrapuntal devices and classical forms List may have viewed such materials as affectations of Neo classicism, a style he Through sensitive and prophetic thinking the radical atonalism of Schoenberg emerges. But beside it stands neo classicism, retrogressive, swaddled in specious tradition and cherished for its confectionary te 36 In addition to purely Western compositional debates over the notion of progress, List staunchly disapproved of the composition of Palestinian music by composers with Western training because he disliked musical nationalism: Twentieth Century music has a notorious penchant for national idioms. This is a special disaster in America, where neo Americanism is populist in texture, shady in theory, and opportunist in its search for success. Unfortunately, the Jewish nat ional idiom is characterized by a nalogous qualities. 37 List might have taken issue with Chajes in this case on account of his multiple Hebrew Art songs, which often espouse Israeli nationalist values, such as the use of physical 35 Ibid, 534. 36 Ibid, 529. 37 Ibid, 529 530.
35 labor in nation building or love of the Israeli landscape. Less overt nationalistic measures include evocation of Palestinian peoples and geographical images. List additionally objected to Palestinian themed compositions because he believed that Western and Middle Eastern elements seemed wholly incompatible and compromised authenticity: musical offerings to American Jewish composers have been thin and of unequal value. The Yemenite, Arabic, and Slavic strains inherent in Palestinian music are unrelated to the Western musical line, and when utilized here have led to the same salon exoticism that produced superficiality in Debussy, Puccini, and Ibert. Most composers are able to preserve any sort of Palestinian authenticity only by accepting Palestinian material in its original form, without Western m odification. 38 List raises the interesting question of the extent to which inter cultural hybridity is possible within the context of Jewish music supporters often praised him for his efforts to meld Yemenite inspired melodies with Wes tern forms, List found no merit in the practice and instead chastised him for it. He held the same convictions concerning the inherent problems he saw in attempts to resurrect Jewish biblical chants in contemporary settings of sacred services, arguing tha t harmonization based on the pentatonic scale constituted an ill informed solution: Dr. [Jacob] Weinberg himself has not come very close to the art of David and Solomon. His Sabbath Eve Service is little more than a recapitulation of the exoticism of Pu ccini. The Three Responses of Julius Chaje s reflect the same theories and achieve the same un sound results. 39 sole detractor in literature concerning Jewish Music, he shares culpability with his contemporaries in the sense that he avoids elaboration upon his commentary and limits his criticism to only a few s elect works. 38 Ibid, 533. 39 Ibid, 532.
36 compositions in newspapers and journals featured similarly enigmatic discourse. The aforementioned Town Hall concert on 17 February 1946 const itutes a particularly noteworthy example of this phenomenon, as Noel Straus circumvents discussion of a style via familiar topics such as his contrapuntal dexterity, thorough understanding of musical forms, and strong associ ation with Jewish music: In these works Mr. Chajes proved himself a skilled, composer with unerring taste and refinement of style. There was masterly counterpoint in the choruses of the cantatas, and knowing writing in all the compositions performed. But with the the various works were too similar in their general character to avoid monotony of effect when massed together on one program. Their constant use of melodies based on Jewish originals more or less freely, tende d to pall in the long run, and all the more so, since most of this music was not remarkable for originality or power. The two cantatas possessed the most strength of all the offerings. They were logically constructed, finely developed with decided economy of thematic material, led to impressive final climaxes, and the more complex of the two, the novelty "Zion, Rise and Shine," had an especially fine fugal opening chorus. The slow move ment and finale of the Sonata for violin and piano were particularly effective parts of this rather post Franckian opus, which received its first hearing, and there were interesting sonorit ies in the "Palestinian Suite," also presented for the first time. "Adarim," a sprightly Jewish shepherd song was the most attractive of the lyrics sung, and like several of the other contributions, bore repetition. 40 St stylistic constancy might make more sense had he articulated it using a g reater degree of specificity. A brief discussion of the strong modal presence in each work would have provided valuable insight, as critics could easily apply the same judgment to any program in which the pieces performed shared multiple common musical fe atures. Had Straus anticipated strong climaxes and a sense of musical power within the context of common practice harmonic language, abundant use of the Dorian and Phrygian modes could have led to some sense of 40
37 disappointme music lacked originality would have also benefitted from amplification, as few Twentieth Century composers likely shared such a strong pre occupation with combining modal melodies with quartal and quintal harmonies while incorporating polyphonic devices. The notion that the music tended to pall in the long run but bore repetition appears contradictory and also invites speculation. Words such as effective and interesting likewise necessitate expansion. Lou Harrison off relat ive level of originality in a review of the same concert in the New York Herald Tribun e He suggests that while Chajes articulated a unique stylistic voice, his application of it in the same manner in various works had the potential to render him formulai c and somewhat unoriginal: Mr. Chajes is a composer both tasteful and skillful. He is definitely a member of the new Hebrew School, which is displacing the more mystically inclined, but more internationally inclined school led by Bloch. This new group ha s adopted the esthetic of Spain and Russia in its use of objective musical materials taken directly from the anonymous work of folk creation. In its highest form the method produces by its unreserved intensity and special colorations new additions to stan dard practice, but also (and more important nowadays) a sense of scale purity and integration of resources quite unknown to academic Western doctrine. At his best, as in the Palestinian Suite and the songs on Palestinian subjects, Mr. Chajes comes close t o fully realizing the true formal implications of the idiom of his choice. But there remain in places impurities such as harmony and occasional figurations out of style. Though the workmanship is generally on a high level in form and instrumentation, and there is spirit and taste, one feels Mr. Chajes to be moving in a direction which he has not clearly yet seen the end of. He is, however, an interesting practitioner of the Middle Eastern style, the style of which Alan Hovhaness is indisputably the maste r. Indeed, more than once last night one had the feeling of hearing little glimpses and Eastern Arabesque. 41 While Harrison's description of the music presented on the Town Hall concert c omes considerabl y closer to identifying Chajes' melodic and harmonic tendencies than 41
38 Straus both accounts contain inaccuracies. While many of the pieces discussed in these reviews contained Jewish themed titles, not all of them consisted of arrangements of pre existing Palestinian melodies. The Sonata in A Minor (for violin and piano) largely a work of absolute music, contains complete ly original themes despite the s econd m ovement's title, "Mourner's Prayer". While Chajes dedicated the movement to the victims of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, its Jewish elements are purely titular and subjective. Its canonic writing and frequent melodic traversals of perfect fourths figure prominently in many of his Jewish and secular works. More importantly, Harrison o mits any explicit reference to Chajes' interest in the Dorian and Phrygian modes and how their use might represent a Middle Eastern style. Without clarifying such stylistic boundaries, his statement that Chajes included uncharacteristic figures lacks a ce rtain degree of validity, as does the idea that Chajes is s omehow inferior to Hovhaness. One of the few overt reference s to Chajes' modal leanings appears in Hilda Pinson's review of the same concert in the Menorah Journal wherein she notes that his son ata for violin and p aled subtle modal influences". Excepting this comment, polyphonic gifts and other non idiosyncratic musical elements, such as the formal de sign of his cantatas: A graceful orientalism pervades much of his writing. There is not merely self conscious quoting of folk material. Mr. Chajes's art seems to have passed beyond that stage in its identification with the national melos. He has absorbed the Palestinian idiom, its rhythms and melodic inflections, and this assimilation now reveals itself in an unselfconscious and artistic way. Clear light texture and refinement of taste mark his style. This program would indicate a leanin g towards smaller forms of composition, in which these qualities stand to advantage. The two cantatas boast the sturdiest construction. The cantata Zion, Ri received its first performance at this concert. The fugued section revealed contrapu ntal
39 dexterity, and the work as a whole is well integrated The final section combines this theme with the subject heard earlier, resulting in a double fugue that achieves a satisfying climax 42 es the level of difficulty in disce style with regard to melody and scalar preferences. When she does discuss his melodic material, she only devotes specific commentary to the Palestinian Suite for string quartet, clarinet, and pia no. This work represents a stylistic exception due to the fact that it contains augmented intervals, w Semitic in coloring, with an abundance of augmented intervals, the [Palestinian Suite] is charming in i ts delicate balancing of sonorities. Chajes plays up t he haunting, expressive qu ality of the clarinet 43 Detroit music critics, like their national counterparts, als o tended to report on stylistic traits with a marked degree of ambiguity. While t heir discussions of his works frequently included remarks about his formal and contrapuntal skills, topics such as his own pianistic abilities received ample commentary in reviews of the Concerto in E ( for p iano and o rchestra ) Reviewers usually devoted m ore space to the merits and liabilities of his virtuosic writing than to melodic or harmonic considerations: [The Piano Concerto] was obviously composed by a mature and scholarly musician who comprehends the architecture of major music and is able to adorn it with the fruits of a singularly free imagination [Chajes] has set himself some taxing tasks in this concerto. Few and far between are the moments when the piano surrenders to the orchestra. It needs a hard driving artist at the keys ; a set of finger s capable of much technical scope. 44 42 79. 43 Ibid, 79. 44
40 Some critics even accused Chajes of composing difficult passages simply because they provided a vehicle to showcase his own performance skills, despite their ubiqui ty in their particular genre. While Detroit Free Press critic J. Dorsey Callaghan character, and seems designed more for technical display than for sensuous enjoyment 45 Collins George likewise reiterated the preoccupation of his Free Press predecessor in analyzing a performance of the work twelve years after its premiere. The critic curiously uti lizes the article to espouse a populist notion that admonishes composers t o write concerti for moderately skilled performers: If there is one criticism of the work, it is that it is too pianistic. (Conductor, composer Chajes is also a pianist and a teacher of piano.) The difficult technical requirements which must be resolved before the concerto can be played would stop an average pianist in his tracks before he tackled it. 46 use of modes and their unique emotional associations, as well as his harmonic foundation consisting of fourths and fifths had some eff ect upon reviewers. W ithout imparting these details, though critics left their readers with highly subjective, unclear stylistic impressions. While some reviewers referred to the presence of an oriental quality in C works, they provided little det ail concerning the specific compositional elements that contributed to this aural image. Reviews of works for strings fare only slightly better with regard to clarity despite the absence of such confounding variables as pianistic prowess. In one review o f the Sonata for Violin and Piano in A Minor 45 46 B.
41 amalgam of three contrasting styles without mentioning specific excerpts that reminded him of any of them or any compositional methods used to co mbine them: Blandly unperturbed by the nervous, self conscious ultra modernists in music, Julius Chajes composes comfortably and gracefully in the style which comes naturally to him a sort of mixture of late German romanticism, French impressionism and an occasional hint of Hebraic harmony and thematic material. He was at his best when he composed the violin sonata in A minor 47 Norman Weisman contributed an equally musically erudite review of the same sonata in The Detroit Jewish Chronicle but evades clea r communicatio n of his style in like fashion by noting that the work shared the imprints of two composers who lived in entirely different eras: Of a somewhat different character was the Sonata in A Minor by Julius Chajes. It was a sustained piece of excellent composition which seemed to have affinities with the Franck Sonata and even with the Bach of the violin and piano sonatas. It held the attention throughout because of its melodic content, the variety and contrast of its four m ovements, and its skillful and bold development sections. 48 Hence, reviews within and outside of Detroit received incomplete information r egarding his unique style that melds European counterpoint and formal designs, modal scales, and Jew ish and Israeli subject matter. In order to provide the necessary context for more comprehensive aesthetic evaluations, music scholars must assume responsibility for the investigation and analysis o matu re (post 19 30) works in a more systematic a nd thorough manner. 47 48 Hashofar Presents 2 Ar tists in Conc harpsichord as opposed to the piano.
42 CHAPTER 2 STRING QUARTET NO. 2 Julius Chajes composed his second string quartet in 1931. The Rose Quartet performed the piece in the Vienna Konzerthaus on 13 March 1934. 1 Dr. Kurt Roger, a critic for the Neue Freie Presse reviewed the work on 11 April 1934 and noted the age: The final concert of the composer Julius Chajes, wh o was appointed to Palestine, demonstrated his remarkable giftedness. There is a great seriousness within this slender young man who seeks after expression. Two of the string quartets, ideally interpreted by the Rose Quartet (one of them in the form of a fugue) verified him to be a theoretically well trained musician who had to aspire with a great deal of effort to shape the themes and rhythms in order to ward off the danger of monotony. 2 Roger likely intended to apply his observation concerning the compo foundation in composition to both string quartets, as Op. 14 (No. 2) also contains considerably long passages that feature polyphonic devices such as imitation and inversion. The work also ostensibly satisfied or exceeded Viennese formal st andards as each movement c onforms to sonata form and the f ourth m ovement utilizes cyclicis m by recalling themes from both the f irst and s econd m ovements. Chajes also widely varied the character of his themes and used diverse meters, and these tendencies l ikely his efforts to avoid homogeneity. 1 Erwin Barta, e mail to the author, 23 February 2009. A record of the date, titles, and performers in this concert also appears in the online database of the Wiener Konzerthaus Archives. 2 The review is signed by Dr. K.R., who most likely represents Dr. Kurt Roger, the only critic whose name includes these initials.
43 Figure 2 1 Pr ogram of the Chajes farewell concert from the Wiener Konzerthaus Archives
44 monotony and his search for a uniquely personal voice involved his reaction to the unusually limited range of harmonies Chajes employe d in the Q uartet. He selected sonorities from a palate of seven basic chords, each generated by a particular note in a pa rticular scale. I believe t hat harmonic vocabulary is not emblematic of a lack of inventiveness. On the contrary, I propose that there is overwhelming evidence to support the notion that these few chords represent the sonic results of a c onscious effort to apply the theories of his composition teacher Hugo Kauder (1888 1972). Kauder was an avowed contrapuntalist who had been undergoing the process of formalizing his rational, Neo Pythagorean views of music as an equally scientific and art istic endeavor. Kauder published these ideas in a brief treatise in 1932 entitled Entwurf einer n euen Melodie Und Harmonielehre (Toward a New Design of Harmony and Melody) and re printed them in English in 1960 in the first chapter of his book Counterpoin t: An Introduction to Polyphonic Composition ideas and th quartet in greater detail, it is first necessary to emphasize the influence the teacher exerted upon his student. The two men had an unu sually long mentor/student relationship that spanned [Kauder] was of greatest influence in molding my charact Kauder used to help me with all my compositions, my father used to tease compose. Kauder and you can co not till 1934 (in Palestine) that I wrote the first composition without his help.
45 However, to this day I always send him my finished compositions for approval and value and accept his suggestions. 3 have e xamined String Quartet No. 2 and provided his student some measure of deeply held musical convictions in the Q uartet and that they provide context for the wor harmonic style. The reader sho uld therefore find the brief explanation (particularly the scales he deemed fundamental (or natural) instructive in examining the Q uartet. 4 Each fundamental scale contained two equal tetra chords, and the tetrachord that best represented the direction of the scale also contained its dominant 5 Figure 2 Entwurf Figure 2 Entwurf 3 Jeffrey H. Chajes, e mail to the author, 7 June 2009. This memoir pre date Chajes mentions him in the present tense. Chajes also commented that his father would frequently 4 tonic pitches of scales embodied orbital centers constitutes a conservative counterpart to atonality by contemporary standards of the extent to which compositional techniques may be considered avant Neue Freie Presse d eemed him a moderately modern composer in Vienna during the 1920s. 5 See Figures 2 2, 2 3, and 2 4.
46 Figure 2 4 Entwurf Because C m ajor is a rising scale, the tetrachord from G to C includes the dominant note, C. The opposite is true of the falling scale, and the dominant note is A as it holds membership in t he falling tetrachord from A to E. The neutral scale contains only upper and lower dominants on G and A, while the rising and falling scales contain counter dominants notes that begin the tetrachord that moves in the opposite direction of the scale. In the rising scale, the counter dominant is F, and i n the falling scale, it is B. The title page of Op. 14 coincidentally delineates its key as simply in G without any distinction between major or minor. Although Transcontinental Music Publications, Chajes parentheses in its database entry for the work, I believe it i G neutral scale. 6 Chajes also exhibits a penchant for movement within tetrachords or by p erfect fourths throughout the Q uartet. Kauder subscribed to similar ideas regarding harmony in that the gravitational force of the harmonic series also applied to triads. While he acknowledged that any note had the capability of generating either rising or falling chords (for example, the note 6 Both Kauder and Chajes used notes not contained in the three fundamental scales, and Kauder seemed primarily concerned with the distribution of whole and half steps. He never formally forbade beginning the scales on notes other than C, D, or E. He mentions that he composed the work in the Dorian mode in an un dated draft of program notes for a concert that occurred on 1 May 1961, although I attribute this designation to the fact that a concept such as the Neutral Scale would have seemed far too esoteric for most general audience members. He also takes pride in his unusual scalar choice, as he comments that o wrote a String Quartet in the Dorian mode, is the Italian
47 G could form the source of a C m ajor chord i n the falling direction and a G major chord in the rising direction), he preferred the terms over chord and under chord to major and minor chords. He formed this opinion based on the idea that the harmonic series can naturally produce a rising triad. He believed nature could not form an under chord 7 sounding music that would require just the sort of careful application of contrast Roger discussed in his rev began to apply his own theor ies in earnest in 1927 It is a nearly completely modal work that also employs a scherzo in the t hird m ovement. Jameson Cooper, one of the violinists in the Euclid Quartet, describes both the t hird and f ourth m ovements as brief inte rmezzi in the liner notes to the first four quartets 8 Brevity is a quality Chajes also exhibits in the s econd m ovement of String Quartet No.2 which lasts for twenty four measures. Since Kauder must have provided considerable guidance to Chajes in Op. 1 4, I believe that it is necessary to re emphasize that my analysis necessarily demands a thorough guidelines. While I have previously mentioned that formal elements do deserve so me attention, I suggest that a n analysis that only includes an abundance of roman numerals 7 Kauder, Counterpoint 17. 8 Cooper, liner notes for Hugo Kauder: String Quartets 1 4 Both men exhibit a curiously similar chronological pattern in their ea rly quartets, as Kauder and Chajes both attempted to compose in the 1923. Kauder composed his second quartet in 1924.
48 The f irst m ovement of the Q uartet be gins with a plaintive eight bar theme tha t establishes the note G as a tonal center. 9 The harmonies revolve around a perfect fifth in the c ello that acts as a pedal point. The melody contributes to the aural effect of a ninth chord bui lt on G, but in the context of quart al movement I view the m elodic A as simply a suspension that can reinforce the G tonality as it falls. It also allows for the first descending quartal leap from G to D in the first violin in bar 1 and the first ascending quartal leap from G to C in bar 2. As the first two bar i dea repeats in bars 3 4 the Cello features the first melodic gesture that descends from C to G (through A) and the first ascending leap between the boundary defining members of the D G tetrachord occurs in bar 5 in a two note exchange between the cello and the v iola. These two instruments also collectively contain a G C tetrachord in bar 2 (2 4) The w ay in which Chajes situates A in the first violin before the melodic quartal leaps in both directions from the tonic in bars 1 and 2 eneral ideas concerning melody articulated in Counterpoint : easily and by too obvious and symmetrical alternation between ascending and descending interplay a few types of melodi leaps counterbalanced by stepwise movement or vice versa. 10 The first violin part in bars 13 1 5 serve as a poignant example of this type of embedded quartal motion that achieves a fairly simple musical goal via esoteric means despite its monophonic nature. Despite the intervallic variety, Chajes travels between the 9 See Example 2 1. 10 Kauder, Counterpoint 12 13.
49 boundary defining m embers of the D G tetrachord via the most indirect route, a descending incomplete cycle of fourths from D. 11 Example 2 1. First Theme ( B ars 1 16) and Second The me B ars 17 25) from the first 11 See Figure 5 2. I use the term cycle of fourths to connote the diatonic circle of fifths while highlighting works.
50 The D minor and C minor sonorities in bar s 5 6 reinforce the dominant notes of the G neutral scale. The harmony in bars 7 8 serves the dual purpose of creating a half cadence via altered chords and emphasizing D, the lower dominant. 12 The Second T heme, which begins in the viola in bar 17, measures slightly over eight bars in duration. 13 It contains faster rhythmic values and a more heroic character. The melody in bars 17 20 primarily highlights the dominant tones and secondarily emphasizes the relationship b etween D and G via the perfect fifths in bars 18 19(1). In bars 21 25, it feature s a complete traversal of the G neutral scale (albeit with several interruptions reflect Chajes emphasizes the tonic note by sustaining it in the violin before traversing a D G tetrachord and G C pentachord in bars 20 23(1). He further accentuates G as a tonic pitch in bars 23 25 via step wise motion toward A and F. Along with the melodic G C tetrachords in the second viol in in bars 23 and 2 4, t he ascending quartal leaps between the boundary defining members of the G C tetrachords in the cello in bars 17 and 19 complement the D G tetrachords in bars 20 21 and 22 23 in the first violin and the viola in rendering G a central pitch. The way in which Chajes juxtaposes these tetrachords aligns him with Kauder, who advocated placing the tonic pitch in the middle of each seven tone scale to render it an orbital center around which other notes revolve in imitation of planets within the Universe. The vacillations between G minor and C major chords in bars 17, 19, 23, and 24 also illustrate G as a gravitational center in the sense 12 Kauder notes in Counterpoint force of the rising or falling some degree of drama. 13 Kauder was a talented violist who had performed in the Gottesman Quartet and provided this timbre with a generous amount of solo passages in his works.
51 that these sonorities embody chords that form when G rises and falls by thirds, respectively. 14 The theme appears in the first violin at bar 28 and continues to increase tension through unexpected leaps that do not allow the tetrachords to complete their full descent. 15 Example 2 2 Bars 26 44 14 I discount the neighboring tones that occur within these vacillations in bars 19, 23, and 24 due to their brief durations. 15 See Example 2 2.
52 The texture becomes homophonic at bar 32, and this creates a Debussy like planning eff ect as the chords ascend from G minor to A minor before falling back to G minor, F major, and E diminished. In bars 38 40 the D G pentachord is harmonized by longer note values in the second violin and viola while the f irst violin accentuates the fall from A to G prevalent in the first theme. The passage is also polyrhythmic as the violin contains three quarter notes in the time of two quarter notes in the other voices and one bar of four first violin notes against thre e in the other instruments. This rhythmic gesture also acts as a transitional passage as it features a modulation to an area with two flats as the Third T heme enter s. Th e notes of the T hird T heme C neutral scale. G and C serve as boundary defining member s of tetrachords common to both scales and C as the upper dominant of G might serve as a harbinger of movement toward a key area that descends thro ugh the circle of fifths. The C F tetrachord conf irms the new scale in bars 44 45 as the cello enters with the new theme. 16 Example 2 3 Third Theme (Bars 45 49) 16 See Example 2 3.
53 The Third T heme lasts for six bars. It uses a suspension like gesture from D to C, a device already familiar from both earlier motives. The theme appears in the second violin in bar 4 8 (4) as the cello settles into considerably long periods of pedal point. It also appears a fifth higher in the first violin in bar 49 (4) while the viola imitates a fragment of the gesture a whole step above its original pitch. 17 Example 2 4 Bars 50 61 The theme transforms into an imitative exploration of the two tetrachords that are occasionally interrupted by leaps by thirds or fourths. The quartal imitation creates the effect of several extended C and F oriented tonalities as well as planing over pedal 17 See Examples 2 3 and 2 4.
54 points. The secon 58. It continues until bar 64 when each voice presents a descending gesture at different times that ultimately leads to complete affirmation of the scale in bar 68. 18 At this point a fragment of the theme returns in the viola within the G C tetrachord and in the second viol in two beats later within the C F tetrachord. C, G, and F, the most prominent members of the C neutral scale, all receive critical roles during the passage. 19 Exa mple 2 5 Bars 62 73 18 See Example 2 5. 19 The D in the quartal ending situates a G C dyad in the center of the complex that encompasses the pitches D, G, C, and F.
55 Bar 7 5(4) begins a quasi development section. 20 A fragment of the First T hem e set in the C neutral scale continues until bar 80 21 Example 2 6 Bars 74 82 Chajes molds the brief gesture into a long passage. He derive s his generative material for the development section from the tripl et figure from bars 1 and 3. I n its new, less ornamental context, this motive undergoes larger leaps over longer durations. The time signature also fluctuates frequently between 4/4, 5/4 and 6/4. At bar 80, the gesture constitutes a variation on the introductory four measures, as it contains the notes A, G, C, and D over the original harmonies. After a monophonic presentation containing a ritardando that incorporates the notes D, C, and G, the most significant pitches of the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G, the scale modulates to E flat neutral The meter also 20 Chajes contends that he replaces a development section with a fugue in bars 87 131, although I suggest that bar 76 begins a development like section in the sense that bars 76 80 demonstrate development of previous material. 21 See Example 2 6.
56 changes to 9/4, and the tempo increases. This transitional passage also ends monophonically. A fugue begins in bar 87. 22 Exa mple 2 7 Bars 83 8 7 Such polyphonic passages however, was not a strictly academic dogmatist (he never held a full time a cademic appointment) and did not simply advocate the use of contrapuntal elements because he felt that they created learned composers. He thoroughly believed they had an intrinsic power to help composers escape the limitations of triadic harmony: Chordal harmony, as it represents the material side of harmony, is not only subject to the universal law of polarity, but is bound also to the terrestrial forces of gravity and organic life, both irreversible, one tending toward the earth, the other growing up fro m the earth toward the light. Only the art of counterpoint overcomes this contradiction and dissolves the material chord 22 See Example 2 7.
57 overcomes gravity by making bass and top voice intercha ngeable, thus elevating music from the terrestrial to an intellectual space. 23 The subject initially enters in the cello in bar 87. A real answer that l ays a perfect fourth above it begins in the viola in bar 90, where the cello part contains the first cou nter subject. 24 Example 2 8 Bars 88 96 23 Kauder, Counterpoint 17. 24 See Examples 2 7 and 2 8.
58 Example 2 9 Bars 97 100 The subject recurs in the second violin at bar 93 an octave higher than its initial pitch level, and the answer also repeats an octave higher than its initial pitch level in bar 96. T he composer sets measures 87 99 in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B flat. I base this assertion on the idea that the subject primarily accentuates B flat E flat dyads while the answer draws attention to F B flat dyads. The pitches that constitute t he initial melodic peaks, G flat and D flat, respectively, are also the pitches to which each of these dyads exhibits the potential to gravitate. 25 Chajes renders these dyads particularly prominent by employing the largest leaps between their constituent pi tches. An investigation of the dyads that result from the intersections of the voices also suggests that the composer places emphasis on the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B flat. The first two distinct pitches that align while the fugue assumes a two voice texture, F and E flat, consist of the two Pseudo dominant pitches in the scale. When B flat first appears in the answer i n bar 90(1), it implies a B flat minor triad in combination with the D flat and F that accompany it in the counter subject. When it returns two beats later in the 25 T he G flats in the subject in bars 87(2) and 88(2) represent potential gravitation toward B flat E flat dyads while the D flats in the answer in measures 90(2) and 91(2) represent potential movement toward F B flat dyads.
59 same voice, it forms a B flat E flat tetrachord with the C E flat dyad that precedes it and the D flat that accompanies it. This progression from an F B flat dyad to a B flat E flat dyad highlights the principal scale of the passage. The F, A flat, C, and E flat in the second eighth note of measure 91(3) allude to the Pseudo tonic pitch despite the fact that they exclude it in the sense that the A flat C and F E flat dyads each symbolize potential motion toward B flat. Chajes subsequently renders this potential musical energy kinetic by placing two implied Mixed (sixth degree) Scales on B flat in bar 92(1 2). These scales contain adjacent F B flat and B flat E flat harmonic dyads. Measures 92(2) 93(1) also feature a progression from a B flat E flat tetrachord to the F B flat dyad that begins the second entry of the subject itself Chajes util izes several of the triads in bars 93 99(1) to highlight the Pseudo tonic pitch. In measure 93( 2 3 ), the first three chords collectively situate B flat in a central position. This practice conforms to tonic pitches embody tonal ce nters. The C diminished chord binds E flat to a G flat C dyad that possesses the potential to converge on it The G flat major chord contains B flat as well as a D flat G flat dyad to which it exhibits the potential to gravitate, and the D flat major chord includes an F that sounds synchronously with the A flat D flat dyad that represents it via kinetic musical energy The chords thus place B flat between its two Pseudo dominant pitches, E flat and F, respectively. In bars 93(3) 94(2), th e composer conveys the idea that B flat constitutes a significant pitch through chords that render it a point of arrival via descent from its upper neighbor. I derive the symbolic C from the F minor chord in measure 93(3) and the C diminished chord that f ollows it in bar 94(1), as these sonorities form when this pitch ascends and descends by thirds. I locate the B flat in the E flat minor
60 triad in bar 94(2), a sonority that consequently forms when the Pseudo tonic pitch descends by thirds. This triad beg ins a progression to the B flat minor chord in bar 95(3). It accentuates the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B flat through the chords that result when the Pseudo tonic pitch falls and rises by thirds. The recurrence of the answer begins with the familiar sonority that stresses B flat through F, A flat, C, and E flat. Chajes reinforces the notion that the Pseudo tonic pitch represents a central tone in bars 96(3) 97(1), as the first violin and cello converge on it from its respective upper and lower neighb ors. The primary scale of bars 87 99(1) manifests itself harmonically in bar 98(1) through a B flat minor triad that precedes a B flat E flat dyad. The triads in measure 98 similarly allude to the scale through intersecting B flat E flat and F B flat dya ds in the sense that the B flat minor chord in beat 1 begins a progression toward an E flat minor triad in beat 3. The two subsequent four note sonorities in this measure mirror the melodic fluctuation between A flat and C. They also foreshadow the melod ic B flat that concludes the exposition in the first eighth note of bar 99(1). The chord that contains the pitches A flat, C, E flat, and G flat represents potential gravitation toward F B flat dyad s through its A flat G flat and C E flat dyads, and the c hord that includes D flat, F, A flat, and C symboli zes potential movement toward B flat E flat dyad s through its D flat C and F A flat dyads. The second eighth note of bar 99(1) begins an episode that continues until measure 106(2 ). 26 T he composer also sets bars 99(1) 103 in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B flat. 26 See Examples 2 9, 2 10, and 2 11.
61 Example 2 1 0 Bars 101 104 Example 2 1 1 Bars 105 108 Melodic evidence for this conclusion manifests itself in a comparison of the pitch range in particular segments of the haup t stimme in the first violin. These ranges collectively hint at emphasis on B flat via oscillation between A flat and C. The pitches from the second eighth note of bar 99(1) to the first eighth note of bar 100(1) span a G flat B flat hexachord. This colle ction of pitches embodies potential movement toward A flat. The range from the subsequent eighth note to the first eighth note of measure 101(1) spans a B flat D flat hex achord. Its boundaries form a dyad to which C exhibits the potential to
62 gravitate. The E flat A flat pentachord that occupies the remainder of bar 101 also represents potential motion toward C, and the G flat B flat hexa chord returns in bars 102 103. In measures 99 100(1), harmonic indications of emphasis on the Pseudo tonic pitch includ e the G flat major chord in measure 99(1) as well as the fact that the introductory and concluding chords in bars 99(2) 100(1) consist of B flat minor and E flat minor triads, respectively. Measures 100( 3 ) 103 also accentuate B flat through G flat major t riads as well as fluctuation between E flat and F in the sense that the C diminished chords contain a G flat C dyad that embodies potential gravitation toward E flat while the D flat major triads in bar 100(4) include D flat A flat dyad s that represent potential movement toward F. The E flat minor triads in measures 102 103 draw attention to the Pseudo tonic pitch through the chord that results from its descent by thirds. Another signifier of stress on B flat include s the pitches Chajes utilizes betwe en the second eighth note of bar 102 (2) and the first eighth note of bar 102(3). He exclusively employs notes that lie within D flat G flat tetrachords. These groups of pitches exhibit the potential to gravitate toward the Pseudo tonic note The same si tuation occurs in bars 103(2 3). The sonorities in the second eighth notes of bars 102 and 103 highlight B flat through vacillation between its Pseudo dominant tones, as the C diminished chords represent the expansion of E flat toward a G flat C dyad whil e the subsequent E flat G flat dyads symbolize potential movement toward F. The sustained G flat in the viola in measures 101(3) 103 serves dual functions. It represents a rhythmically augmented form of the first melodic peak in the cel lo from bar 87(2 ). It simultaneously recalls the pseudo tonic pitch of the quartet via chromatic alteration.
63 I argue that the composer sets bars 104 105 in an unidentified mixed scale on F sharp 27 I base this assertion on the triad and implied harmonic scale in measure 1 04(1). The D augmented triad symbolizes gravitation toward the Pseudo tonic pitch from an A sharp D dyad, while the intersecting F sharp B and C sharp F sharp dyads allude to an F sharp based scale. I locate another sign of oscillation between these dyad s in the collective implications of the pitches in each quarter note in measures 104( 2 3) and 105(2 3). Bars 104(2) and 105(2) include D, F sharp, A sharp, C sharp, and E. These beats signify the gravitation of A sharp and D sharp E sharp dyads toward C sharp F sharp dyads. The subsequent beats consist of notes t hat form F sharp B pentachords. Measures 104 106(2) also convey the notion of a G based pitch falling toward F sharp in the sense that their pitches lie within an F sharp A sharp hexachord that symbolizes potential movement toward G and G sharp in an excerpt that concludes with an implied F sharp falling scale in bar 106(2). A variation on the exposition begins in measure 106(1). The thicker texture reinforces the idea that Chajes sets it in F sharp based scales. The chords in the second eighth note of measure 106(3) hint at E rising toward F sharp. The first sixteenth note includes A, C sharp, E, G sharp, and B. Its pitches emblematize the expansion of E toward C sharp G sharp and A B dyads It precedes a chord that accentuates F sharp through C sharp B and E G sharp dyads, as these sonorities represent potential gravitation toward F sharp. The same phenomeno n occurs in measures 107(3), although the disappearance of the G natural in bar 10 7(1) suggests 27 I assign the scale an unidentified nature due to its incompatible tetrachords, although the possibility exists that bars 104 106(1) lie within the B melodic minor scale, as Kauder contends that this type of scale constitutes an incomplete double sc ale that consists of an F sharp falling scale mixed with one ascending tetrachord that utilizes F sharp as its true tonic.
64 that F sharp constitutes the Pseudo tonic of the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on F sharp as opposed to the tonic of the F sharp falling scale. The composer employs the B minor triads in bars 107(1) and 108(1) to add emphasis to the melodic F s harp B dyads He also utilizes them in order to highlight the Pseudo tonic pitch through harmonic manifestation s of its descent by thirds. The F sharp minor chords in measures 109 111 similarly reflect the melodic C sharp F sharp dyads and accentuate F s harp through the sonority that results when it ascends by thirds. 28 Example 2 1 2 Bars 109 11 6 28 See Example 2 12.
65 Measures 112 116(1) emphasize F sharp in the same manner that bars 93 99(1) accentuate B flat despite the fact that the reduction of the temporal distance between the subject and the answer causes the final entry of the answer to begin in stretto in bar 112(3) The most overt harmonic sign s of stress on the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on F sharp appear measur e s 113(3) and 116(1). In bar 113(3), F sharp minor triads surround an F sharp B dyad. In measure 116(1), an F sharp minor triad precedes an F sharp B tetrachord. The first three sonorities in Bar 113(1) esoterically accentuate F sharp through symbolic v acillation between its Pseudo dominant pitches The chord that includes the pitches G sharp, B, D, and F sharp represents potential motion toward C sharp via its G sharp F sharp and B D dyads. The subsequent G sharp diminished triad connects B to a D G s harp dyad that exhibits the potential to gravitate toward it This chord precedes a D major triad, which features the Pseudo tonic pitch within an A D that posses ses the potential to converge on it. The first two chords in measure 114(1) highlight the Ps eudo tonic pitch via moderately transparent means, as the B minor triad alludes to an F sharp B dyad while the chord that includes the pitches E, G sharp, B, and D symbolizes potential motion toward C sharp F sharp dyad s through its G sharp B and E D dyads A second episode begins in the second eighth note of bar 116(1). It continues until measure 119(2). 29 I argue that b ars 116 117 remain in the Mixed (sixth degree) scale on F sharp. I draw the most direct evidence for this conclusion from the adjacent B minor and F sharp m inor triads in measure 116(3). Measure 117(1 2) also features symbolic fluctuation between F sharp B and C sharp F sharp dyads. 29 See Examples 2 12 and 2 13.
66 Example 2 1 3 Bars 117 119 Measure 117(1) contains the pitches B, A, G sharp, F sharp, and D. These notes include an F sharp B dyad and represent potential gravitation toward it via D and an A G sharp dyad. The subsequent beat includes every pitch that lies within a G sharp B hexacho rd. Its boundary defini ng members exhibit the potential to converge on a C sharp F sharp dyad. Bar 117(3) similarly highlights oscillation between the Pseudo dominant pitches in the sense that a B D dyad and an A major triad surround a C sharp A dyad. The outer sonorities symb olize potential gravitation toward C sharp while the C sharp A dyad possesses the potential to move toward B. Bar 118 suggests emphasis on E. The fact that this pitch lies at an equidistant point from A and B melodically hints at a Kauder inspired seven tone scale, and this note also concludes the gestures in the viola in bar 118(3) and the first violin in bar 118(6). The pitches in the first two beats collectively allude to intersecting E A and B E dyads, as the notes in measure 118(1) lie wit hin an E A pentachord while bar 118(2) contains pitches that occupy a B E pentachord. The same phenomenon occurs in measure 118(3 4). The notes in bar 118(3) imply gravitation toward an E A dyad through the boundaries of a D B hexahord, and the pitches in measure 118(4) lie within a B E pentachord. Measure
67 118(6) delineates an E based scale through a B E tetrachord in its first eighth note that precedes an A major chord, as the triad includes an E A dyad. The subject recurs in inverted form in bar 119 in the fir st violin. The D minor and G major triads suggest t hat Chajes sets measures 119 121 in the D neutral scale, as these chords form when D rises and falls by thirds, respectively. 30 Example 2 1 4 Bars 120 128 30 See Examples 2 13 and 2 14.
68 Measures 122 124 similarly suggest emphasis o n the A neutral scale through D major and A minor chords. Bar 125(1 3 ) accentuates the D neutral scale through convergence on the Pseudo tonic pitch in measure 125(1 ), the intersecting A F and B G dyads in bar 125(2 3), and the A G dyad in measure125(3). Bar 125 begins the r ecapitulation of the fugue in the sense that passages in D based scales precede a passage in a C based scale. The tonic and Pseudo tonic pitches of these scales collectively allu de to G through a D C dyad. This pitch constitutes the tonic of the primary scales of the first, third, and fourth movements of the quartet The composer utilizes the same scale in the first eighth note of bar 125(4), although he sets the material from the second eighth note of this beat to ba r 127 in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D. The most obvious manifestations of the scale consist of the adjacent D minor and G minor chords in measure 126(1 2), the A G dyad in bar 127(2), and the B flat majo r triads in measure 127(3). Bar 125(4 5) cal ls attentio n to D through its triads. This excerpt features a progression from an F major chord to an E diminished triad. The F major triad in measure 125(4) emphasizes A through a C F dyad that exhibits the potential to gravitate toward it The E dimin ishe d chord in the subsequent beat represents the potential G possesses to move toward a B flat E dyad. The B flat major triad embodies the idea of the convergence of an F B flat dyad on D. Chajes vertically and horizontally renders the Pseudo tonic pitc h a central tone in the sense that h e situates it in the middle most position within the triad while allowing the chord to form the fourth member in a series of seven harmonic sonorities. Measures 126(3) 127(1) similarly accentuate D through symbolic inte rsecting A D and D G dyads. The adjacent B flat major chord in bar 126(3) highlights D, while the E diminished chord that follows it
69 stresses G. The subsequent E C dyad symbolizes a return to emphasis on D, as it possesses the potential to gravitate towa rd this pitch. It holds membership in an implied D G dyad in combination with the two previous sonorities. It also belongs to the subsequent implied A D dyad in the sense that it precedes sonorities that highlight F and A, respectively. The D minor tria d in bar 127(1) depicts the potential that an A D dyad exhibits to converge on F, while the sonority that follows it constitutes an implied A falling scale through the pitches E, A, and D. Measures 128 (1 2) emphasize G C dyads as opposed to any particula r pitch. The notes in bar 128(1) lie within a G C pentachord, and the following beat alludes to a G C dyad through an A D G C F B flat complex in which it occupies the most central position. The initial F D dyad implies motion toward a G C dyad, and the subsequent F B flat dyad is apparent. The same dyad appears in an implied form, as the E flat C dyad that follows it exhibits the potential to gravitate toward it, and the E flat G dyad symbolizes potential movement toward an A D dyad. I argue that the c omposer sets bars 128(3) 129(2) in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on C. 31 I locate harmonic evidence for this assertion in the implied harmonic forms of the scale that occupy the first eighth note of measure 128(3), the second sixteenth note of bar 129(1), and the first eighth note of measure 129(2) as well as the A diminished triads in bars 129(1 2). Chajes uses a greater amount of stretto in this excerpt than in earlier portions of the fugue. He also employs the original form of the subject in the cello in bar 129(2). In combination, t hese two facts suggest that bars 129(2) 131 constitute a coda. Measures 129(3) 131 emphasize G C dyads. 31 See Examples 2 14 and 2 15.
70 Example 2 15 Bars 129 137 The two forms of the subject collectively situate it at the center of a D G C F complex, and this symbolic sonority manifests itself harmonically in bars 129(3), 13 0(1), and 130(3). The G C dyad also receives a prominent melodic role in bar 131 and concludes the fugue in bar 131(5). Other sonorities that accentuate it include the C minor chords in bars 129(3 4 ) and 130(2) as well as the chords that include the pitches B flat, D, F, and A. These sonorities imply potential gravitation toward G C dyads through B f lat A and D F dyads. They appear in bar 129(4 5). I conten d that the fugue as a whole alludes to large scale emphasis on G despite the fact that the composer avoids set ting any portion of it in a G based scale. The tonic
71 and pseudo tonic pitches of the scales he employs collectively form a symbolic A F sharp hexachord. 32 Table 2 1 List of scales in bars 87 131 Measures Scale/Primary Pitch 87 103 Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B flat 104 117 Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on F sharp and F sharp falling scale 118 E (unidentified mixed Scale with incompatible tetrachords 119 121 D neutral scale 122 124 A neutral scale 125 127 D neutral scale and Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D 128(1 2) E flat (via G C dyads) 128(3) 129(2) Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on C 129(3) 131 E flat (via G C dyads) This group of pitches implies potential gravitation toward G through its A F sharp, D C, and B flat E dyads. In combination, the introductory pitch and concluding harmonic sonority also suggest that Chajes accentuates G throughout the fugue. The B flat in bar 87(1) exhibits the potential to gravitate toward a D G dyad while the fugue ends with a G C dyad. When all four voices ultimately re unite at the e nd of bar 131, there is a final mo dulation back to G neutral. This indication marks the beginning of the recapitulation of the movement as the third theme n ow occurs in the original key. Bars 132 160 consist of a passage identical to bars 45 73 excepting a new key area and variation in v oice distribution. The theme first appears in the first violin, followed by the cello and ultimately the viola. This contrasts with its first presentation, where the motive moves from the cello to the second violin and from there to the first violin. Ba rs 160 184 repeat the second theme in the original key and closely resemble bars 17 41, although in the recapitulation the end of the third theme continues in the first violin from bars 160 164. 32 See Table 2 1.
72 The first theme beg ins in bar 188 in G neutral, and at bars 197 198 it expands slightly to include a development of the gesture from bars 5 6 and 13 14 wherein the first violin traverses perfect fourth s while the other voices provide harmonic support: Example 2 16 Bars 193 198 An excerpt of the fugal theme returns in bars 199 200 in the first violin while the other voices feature a fragment of the second theme. The passage displ gift for thematic juxtaposition throughout the recapitulation. The first theme re appears in the second violin and vio la in bar 202 to the last m easure of the movement, bar 209. It assumes its dev elopment section guise, which confirms desire to adhere to sonata form in its strictest manifestation despite his unique exploration of neutral scales. The last chord in the movement consists of the same implied G minor ni nth chord with which it began, although the last sonority consists of the pitches F, G, and A. These notes underscore the central position of the tonic pitch
73 The s econd m ovement, cast in th e unusual meter of 4/4 3/4, consists of a five bar theme in the cello on an A followed by its approximate inversion in the viola on B. 33 Example 2 17 Bars 1 12 of Adagio It then repeats a whole step higher in th e viola on G in bar 11. The two note figure that appears in the cello in bar 6 occurs in all other voices following their thematic passages. The inversion is repeated on the note A in the first violin in bar 16 while bars 21 24 feature the two note oscil lating figure in all four voices. While the passage follows an expected contrapuntal pattern with regard to inversion, it is aurally enigmatic in the sense that intentions are not made readily apparent. Interpreted vertically, the harmonies creat ed by the two note gesture offer no indication of a progression as they 33 The directions are reversed but the inversion features a half step and a tri tone as opposed to a whole step and perfect fourth, respectively. See Examples 2 17 and 2 18.
74 simply fluctuate between extended D minor and C major cho rds in bars 11 15 and extended E minor and F major chords in bars 16 22. T his moveme nt superficially defies the composer s logical instincts that pervaded the f irst m ovement in the sense that it provides little variety and even creates redundancy. It is therefore likely that an alternative explanation exists for use of the same polyphonic device at a relatively close temporal interval. As in the f irst m ovement, a detailed examination of Although the movement features no accidentals, it begins and ends on A. The chords d o not suggest movem ent toward A minor despite the closing sonority. The themes also do not emphasize the tone in a clear manner of ten enough to make a case for A mixed (sixth degree) scale on A While Kauder notes that th is scale is not fundamental, he does offer commentary that explains its hybrid nature as a combination of tetrachords from two different scales: The scales on F, G, A, and B are mixed scales, each consisting of two dissimilar tetrachords. Accordingly, the ir tonality is ambiguous; the tone on which they begin and end is not the generator tone of the scale, but a pseudo tonic, functioning as a tonic without, however, having its full of each of these scales has to be ascertained by investig 34 This particular musical context suggests t hat the First Theme establishes the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A in bars 1 6 Chajes places A in the central position appropriate for Pseudo tonic pitches. The asce nding leap from A to D in bar 1 (3) alludes to the A D tetrachord, while the implied mel odic E A tetrachord unfolds gradually. The composer assigns each of its members the longest rhythmic durations 34 Kauder, Counterpoint 6.
75 and places them at the beginning of each measure. The two note oscillating figure in the cello at bar 6 then emphasizes undulation on a larger scale, as the notes D an d E are the tonic notes of the Neutral and F alling scales, respectively. These n otes also represent the pseudo dominants of the Mixed Scale on A. Chajes reinforces the predominance of the scale by alternating between harmonic A D and E A dyads in bars 7 8 (2) Bar 10 signifies a type of scalar shift, as the pitches include C, D, and E T he composer utilizes D (which lies equidistantly between C and E) for the scalar alteration by transforming its function from the upper Pseudo dominant of the Mixed Scale on A to the lower dominant of the Mixed Scale on G due to the fact that the oscillating gesture encompasses the pitches C and D in bar 11 : The scale on G consists of the rising tetrachord g a b C and the neutral tetrachor d D e f g. It can be coordinated with the rising scale, with the real tonic C and the pseudo tonic G. It can be coordinated with the neutral scale, having D as the real tonic 35 Thus, the descent of the oscillating figure to these particular notes in bar 11 firmly plants the G centered melody in the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on G Kauder also notes that the scales on A and G are inversions of one another. decision to emphasize t his key highlights his creativity in the sense that he discovered multiple applications for inversion. It serves as a principal design feature (as he returns to the Mixed Scale on A scale before ending the movement) as well as a thematic element. In bar 15, the second violin sustains the D, which reverts from a pseudo dominant of the Mixed Scale on G scale to a pseudo dominant of the Mixed Scale on A scale in bar 16 36 The oscillating gesture between D and E in this measure indicates a return to the 35 Ibid, p. 7. 36 See Example 2 18.
76 init ial scale of the movement. Chajes, therefore, sets the movement in a scale based ternary form by rendering bars 11 15 a B section Example 2 18 Bars 1 3 24 The melody in the first violin further reinforces the Mixed Scale on A in bars 16 (3) 1 8 through its traversal of the E A tetrachord. When C appears in bar 18 (4) and 19 (3), the melodic range spans a perfect fifth that allows the composer to place A in the middlemost position. The undulating gesture between B and A tha t follows in bars 21 23 serves dual purpose s I t accentuates the E falling scale due to the fact that A and B represent the dominant pitches of this scale to which the Mixed Scale on A relates through the E A tetrachord. It also fac ilitates the convergence on the Pseudo tonic pitch in the sense that B, the upper neighbor, aligns with G, the upper neighbor in bar 22 (3)
77 before both voices arrive at A in bar 23. The cello also highlights the Mixed Scale on A through its gradually ascending E A tetrachord in bars 21 24 While the E falli ng scale exclusively situates the E A tetrachord in the descending direction, Kauder designated Mixed Scales as bi directional. Several of the harmonic sonorities in bars 16 24 complement the melody in emphasizing significant elements of the Mixed Scale on A. Collections of pitches that include B, E, A, and D oc cur in bars 16, 17, 19, and 21. 37 T hey accentuat e an E A dyad by situating it equidistantly from B E and A D dyads 38 Chords that encompass the pitches E, G, B, and D occur in bar s 17( 1) and 18 ( beats 2 and 4). They underscore the Pseudo tonic pitch of the Mixed Scale on A through the combination of G with B. They also draw attention to A via the combination of E with D in the sense that arranging the two pitches a major second apart represents potential expansion toward the Pseudo tonic pitch (resulting in a harmonic octave). A rranging them a major seventh apart likewise embodies potential contraction by perfect fourths toward the same note (resulting in a harmonic unison). The chord that inco rporates the p itches C, E, G, and B in bar 22 (3) similarly implies A D dyads through the merging of E with G and C with B. 39 The A minor triad in bars 23 24 encapsulates a harmonic manifestation of the ascent of A by thirds as well as the descent of E by thirds. 37 The spe cific beats in which the sonorities appear include bar 16 (beats 1 and 3), bar 17(3), bar 19(2), and bar 21 (beats 2 and 4). 38 B E A D furnishes a convenient spelling of the complex. 39 An arrangement of E and G that sets them a minor third apart represen ts potential expansion toward a perfect fifth, while an arrangement that places them a major sixth apart symbolizes potential contraction toward a perfect fourth). An arrangement of C and B as a major second embodies expansion toward the boundary defining members of an A D tetrachord, while the inversion of this interval signifies potential contraction toward the boundary defining members of an A D pentachord.
78 The S cherzo which occupies its standard third movement position within four movement works, exhibits a curious developmental tendency that I believe is best characterized as elided development or development by accumulation, as Chajes retains previous thematic fragments while presenting new material. This practice allows for the smooth transition from s cherzo to trio and back to the s reprise while creating a sens e of balance between familiar and unfamiliar motives. The movement opens with an energetic phrase consisting of two nearly identical parts that each last thirteen bars. The harmonies establ ish the G n eutral tonality as they predominantly consist of G min or, C m aj or, D minor, and D major chords. Example 2 19 Bars 1 18 of Scherzo
79 Example 2 2 0 Bars 19 26 A metrical change to 3/4 and key change to an area with three flats occurs at bar 27. This passage posse sses a transitional nature and does not include enough new thematic material to constitute a second theme. 40 The key of the transition is difficult to discern in any Kauderian sense, as the harmoni c cycle of fourths and E flat m ajor sounding sonorities provide few clues as to the identity of the scale despite the fact that there are more incidents of an A flat falling to G than a D rising to an E flat. The falling A flat half step might indicate the presence of the G falling sca le, but Chajes does not truly reveal the nature of the scale until bars 39 45 when a nu mber of fluctuations between G major and A flat (or F minor chords that place the A flat in the lowest v oice) lead to a G falling scale that later re emphasizes the fall ing A flat gesture via another series of chords. The half step receives a prominent role in the new theme that begins in bar 45. It is not an entirely new motive in that it uses some earlier material (the dotted rhythmic gesture from the first theme and a syncopated variation of the rhythmic 40 Although it is not a particularly contrapuntal movement, some noteworthy imitation occurs during the transition in bars 35 38 between the first violin and the viola at the distance of one beat.
80 gesture at bar 29), but in this case the composer transforms the dotted rhythmic motive into a leaping figure: Example 2 2 1 Second Theme (fragment B ars 41 47) At bar 65 the key modulates to an area with three shar ps that best matches the A rising scale while the meter changes to 9/8. The principal motive is varied through rhythmic augmentation The new sentimental motive in bars 69 79 in the viola assumes primary thematic significance in the violin in bar 80 whil e the rhythmic values become considerably longer. This lyrical passage contrasts sharply with the bombast of previous material in both character and key area. Its location between a large A section and its return makes it an ideal candidate for a trio se ction: Example 2 2 2 Bars 78 80
81 Example 2 2 3 Bars 81 93 The transitional passage in bars 94 109 features extremely thin textures as c hords alternate between D major, G major and G minor sonorit i es before returning to a key with three flats in bar 102. This measure begins with B flat E flat dyads b ut four bars later the C F dyads indicate a possible return t o either the E flat rising or F neutral scale. The re statement of the transitional theme at bar 110 confirms the idea of a recapitulation, a lthough its reprise still occurs in primarily in t he G falling scale. Bars 110 127 are identical to bars 27 44. The eighth note fragment from this theme is
82 extended over bars 128 133 in two bar segments in every voice except the viola. The first theme r eturns in bar 134 and bars 134 160 are nearly identical to bars 1 26. The difference in the two presentations involves voice distribution, as the cello features the melody rather than the first violin (a device familiar from the f irst m ovement), and the c ello and first violin share a canon at the quarter note in bars 142 148. The melody returns exclusively to the first violin in bar 149 accompanied by thicker textures before concluding in bar 160. The f ourth m passage featuring triplets It begins in the familiar key of G neutral, as its primary chords include G m inor, D m inor, and open harmonic fifths that include G and C. Its structure is similar to the opening theme of the t hird m ovement, as it lasts for t wenty bars and consists of two parts. Bars 1 4 emph asize the D related elements of the G neutral scale, as bars 3 4 feature pitches that lie within a collective D G pentachord. Bar 5 for eshadows the G C tetrachord that occupies bars 6 7 in the second vio lin and viola (a C related element of the scale) with the pit ches D, E, F, G, A, and B flat. These notes imply potential gravitation toward C via the combination of D with B flat, E with A, and F with G. Bars 7 8 allude to oscillation between D G and G C tetrachords via alternati ng G minor and C major chords, and the antecedent portion of the phrase ends with the D minor triad in bars 10 11. This chord results when D, the lower dominant, rises by thirds. The consequent portion of the phrase constitutes a slight variation on the antecedent, although the composer implies that a resolution occurs via his combination of the pitches D, F, A, and C. These notes emphasize the tonic note, G, via the mer ging of D with C and F with A. The way in which he conclud es the phrase with a collection of
83 viewed tonic pitches as gravitational centers) as well as his own appreciation both small scale and large scale symmetry. Example 2 2 4 First Theme of Allegro (Bars 1 13) No. 2
84 Example 2 25 First Theme (Bars 14 25 ) The theme is repeated with slight variations, incl uding thicker textures, greater distance s between the voices as the passage is r aised one octave in each violin part, and the addition of a two note concluding figure that highlights the stepwise descent from A to G. The G facilitates a shift the F rising scale in bar 40 and the two note figure then descends from G to F. The transit ion is rather fluid, as it requires no change in accidentals and simply alters the meaning of the same set of notes. The new eight bar theme possesses a pastoral, folk like quality and contrasts sharply with its predece ssor. The theme repeats on a D m ajo r sonority in bars 50 57 before returning to the F rising scale in bar 59. Although D and C comprise the two note falling punctuating figure,
85 Chajes re abandons the G neutral scale and elects to re emphasize the multiple contexts available to any particul ar tetrachord or scale: Example 2 26 Second Theme (Bars 38 51 ) Example 2 27 Second Theme (Bars 52 59)
86 The theme continues until bar 90, when a key change to F neutral occurs as the principal theme of the s econd m o vement returns in the viola. F m inor and B flat m ajor chords support it in its new context and remove the harmonic ambiguity. 41 It also includes an extended ending in bars 99 100 that consists of a fragment of the First T heme of the f ourth m ovement. While the motive does not undergo a radical enough penchant for innovation via thematic re combination. The First T heme of the f irst m ovement re turns in bars 109 112, and the Second T heme of the f ourth m ove ment reappears in a mor e ornamented guise in bar 113. An exact repetition of the D m ajor excursion from bars 50 57 follows in bars 123 130. Bars 132 162 feature a transposition of the second theme to the G use of this key area to r eturn to G neutral demonstrates his large scale sense of symmetry, as his earlier foray to F rising added one flat while the present modulation adds one sharp. The retention of the G neutral key signature underscores the scalar flexibility of the movement The first theme of the f ourth m ovement recurs in bars 163 196 in G neutral. A four bar concluding gesture in bars 197 200 utilizes a condensed version of material from bar 196. This motive appears in all four voices in descending order in bars 199 200 The movement ends cyclically, as the second theme of the f irst m ovement re surfaces in the cello in bars 201 204 before a strong cadence in bars 205 206. No commercial recording of Op. 14 exists, although I believe such an endeavor would produce highly fruitful results. The work is aesthetically accessible to lay 41 over chords and falling chords as under chords due to the fact that they require further contextual explanation as to their specific identity as diminished, major, or minor chords.
87 audiences but also represents a little known twentieth century musical school that deserves more attention. It also demonstrates commendable application of polyphonic devices and sonata form i n a fairly modern context. Its neglect probably originates in the fact that the work is a secular string quartet by a composer most known for Jewish oeuvre however, the work merits ser ious study, as its modal themes and metric variety reflect would soon become a desired Palestinian (and later Israeli) s ound. 42 42 See Chapter 3.
88 CHAPTER 3 ISRAELI DANCE (FOR P IANO) The Edward B. Marks Music C ompany first published Palestinian Dance ( for violin and piano or cello and piano ) in 1944. The same company published an arrangement of the piece for solo piano in 1946. Transcontinental Music Publications published the work in 1958 and changed its title to Israeli Dance 1 Although Chajes lived in British c ontrolled Palestine from 1934 1936, tracing the origin of his stylistic development as a composer of Israeli/Palestinian music proves highly evasive due to the contradictory statements he makes concerning the topic in various documents. While he notes in one undated memoir that he altered his compositional style at the age of twenty three and became known as an Israeli composer, an undated draft of program notes for a chamber music concert contain s a statement in which he claims to have pursued a particul ar musical direction at the age of twenty. This three year discrepancy presents a significant problem in the sense that it obscures the extent to which living in present day Israel facilitated his development of an Israeli style. His nearly life long stu dies with Hugo Kauder further complicate the process of teasing out what specific musical elements he deems to be fundamentally Israeli, since the elder composer advocates the use of particular musical elements in Entwurf that Jewish composers tended to ap propriate for incipient Israeli nationalist music. These stylistic preferences generally include hollow harmonic sonorities, 1 The author received a generous donation of several scores by Chajes from the Fleisher Collection at the Free Library of Philadelphia. Several copies of Israeli Dance for Piano feature tape that covers the original title. The compos er performed frequently in 1958 for various celebrations of the tenth anniversary of Israeli statehood, and the titular change likely reflects a desire to distinguish a Jewish, Israeli character in the work from an association with Non Jews who lived in th e State of Israel.
89 rhythmic flexibility and modal melodies. Kauder incorporates these features into works that lack Jewish programmatic elements and do es so in Vienna during the 1920 s. 2 Example 3 1. Bars 1 5 of the First Prelude from Hugo Kauder's Five Preludes, Passagaglias, and Fugues 2 See Examples 3 1, 3 2, and 3 3. Kauder composed Five Preludes, Passacaglias, and Fugues as well as His Fourth Quartet (for strings) in 1927. He wrote Wanderers Nachtlied in 1922.
90 Example 3 2. Bars 1 Example 3 3. Bars 1 Quartet
91 142 nd Psalm underscores the confusing nature of this issue. 3 This 1932 work incorporates modal scales and organum like harmonies, features that Jewish composers valued for their potential to evoke Israeli/Palestinian musical landscape s as well as physically strong Jews whose connection to Israel partially concerned their ability to perform agric ultural labor. Kauder, who was only Jewish in the literal genetic sense felt compelled to use them simply because he believed they adhered to the principles that govern the h armonic s eries, which in turn mirrored the musical laws dictated by the Universe. 1932 was also the year in which Universal Edition published Entwurf and it is highly improbable that Chajes was unaware of its principles given the fact that he admits to having sent all of his compositions to Kauder before deeming them suitab le for publication. H e states moreover, in an unpublished memoir that he Example 3 4 Bars 1 9 of 142nd Psalm 3 See Example 3 4.
9 2 Zvi Keren notes that the type of semiotic duality Chajes embeds in Israeli Dance extends to Israeli composers generally, as modes and open harmonic sonorities can represent manifestations of modernity to the same extent that they might symbolize Israeli musical elements: In the attempt to distinguish European influences from Oriental influences in the music of Israeli composers, a number of ambiguous phenomena present themselves. This ambiguity is partly due to the pursuit of nov el tonal effects by contemporary composers, and their consequent adoption of unconventional devices for the purpose. Th us, such phenomena as modality result of European modernist inclinations. O n the other hand, they can signify Oriental leanings. It seems fairly certain that, in the case of Israeli musical works, they result from the simultaneous presence of both these tendencies in proportions which vary from composer to composer and from comp osition to composition. The fact that modern European music is striving to adopt various features which are ordinarily associated with non European music, is a happy coincidence for the Israeli composer. His desire to utilize Oriental techniques is leadi ng him in the same general direction as his European colleagues; the main difference being that the Europeans have arrived at these techniques either by expansion of the old classical system, or by setting out in hitherto un trodden paths, whereas the Isra eli composer arrives at them in addition through the aural stimuli of his environment. It can be seen, therefore, that the Israeli composer's use of Oriental techniques creates, in certain respects, a bond between himself and twentieth century European mu sic, and vice versa, his sympathy for European music of the modern school stimulates his craving to absorb the novel devices offered by the music of the Orient. 4 The stylistic vagueness Keren addresses applies of his com positional legacy. Despite providing numerous first hand accounts of his identity as a Jewish composer, a draft of program notes for his Piano Concerto in E indicates that he maintained a degree of flexibility that he believed to best suit a particular st yle or genre. In the case of the concerto, an absolute work with no Jewish programmatic references, he situates himself as a moderate ly modern composer on a 4 Keren, Contemporary Israeli Music 59.
93 theoretical spectrum of avant As a composer Mr. Chajes can be major minor. 5 Malcolm Miller further reinforces the same concept by attributing the harmonic and melodic language Chajes uses in Israeli Dance to Impressionism, an early source of Western musical modernism: Amongst the different styles of the pioneer generation, one eventually came to dominate which attempted a radical new aesthetic based on an east west synthesis. These composers rejected the Austro German heritage in favour of French post Impressionist methods: their melodies reflected the modality of prevailing folk idiom, harmonic style relied on a good deal of parallel motion of perfect int 6 title of Israeli Dance requires a partially essentialist investigation of the extent to which the work conforms to musical expectations associated with its regiona l and national implications. 7 This necessity becomes especially apparent upon examining the unpublished document from 1945 as well as his claim in a 1984 Detroit Jewish News 5 Undated program notes for Concerto in E David Loring, e mail to the author, 20 November 2009. 6 Malcolm Miller, Paul Ben Haim and the Mediterranean School : A Re ISCM Online Journal (2005) http://www.jmi.org.uk/suppressedmusic/newsletter/articles/003.html This journal omits volume information and instead simply lists the dates on which its editors posted its articles. Miller makes Clair de Lune and Arabesque No. 2 utilize several harmonies that contain imperfect intervals. 7 Chaje s makes no distinction between the Mediterranean, Palestinian, or Israeli styles, as he notes in a lly that the Israeli/Mediterranean Style consists only of general tendencies that some Israeli composers incorporated into their works from the 1930s through the 1950s. Jehoash Hirshberg emphasizes that its natur e is multi faceted in Music in the Jewish community of Palestine 1880 1948 : A Social History
94 article that Israeli Dance an invented art music genre that he claims to have helped to develop: I discovered that the only Jewish music that existed, aside from synagogue music, was popular music, which seen from the cultural standpoint of European music, was low class music! A new scale, a new idiom had to be created, what we call today the The only great Jewish composer who devoted a few years to writing Jewish music was Ernest Bloch. I knew that all the great Jewish composers such as Mendelssohn, Offenbach, Mahler and Schoenberg were baptized and deserted Judaism and the few who were not such as Meyerbeer, Goldmark, Milhaud and others were not interested in their own background I took it upon myself to become a pioneer of this type of music. I consider this my major contribution and a fulfillment of my ambition of 50 years ago the middle or slow part of this song is like the chanting of a prayer while the first and last part New Mediterranean Style. 8 Max Brod provides one of the earliest discussions of musical elements that comprise the Mediterranean Style in his 1951 book, titled While somewhat ambiguous, he specifically mentions the absen ce of augmented seconds and an emphasis on modality as primary features: What have the works, written in [the Med iterranean] style, in common? Their rhythm is the harsh ir regular beat, the obstinate rep etition, but also the manifold, ceaseless variation which enchants by its apparent freedom from rule and impulsiveness. The structure of the movement is sometimes linear, unisonal, or at least not polyphonically over burdened. The influence exerted by the melodies of the Yemenite Jews, the neutralization of the boundaries between major and minor keys, the return to ancient modes, the neglect of the augmented second, so characteristic of the Diaspora in all these respects, lines of connection can be drawn with Arabic music and even with the particular cons onantal structure of the Semitic languages. play their part. Accompaniment 8 15. This quote contains some exaggerated claims, as several biographical sources on Offenbach omit any mention of a baptism. Milhaud also composed several Jewish oriented pieces, including a setting of a Sabbath worship service and The Seven Branched Candelabra I believe Chajes compose d the Sonata for Violin and Piano in A Minor during the previous year. Dr. Jeffrey Chajes provided me the document via e mail on 8 June 2009.
95 by tympani or tambourine, real, only hinted at, or imaginary add to some of a strangely monotonous, hypnotic character. 9 Robert Jay Fleisher, in sharp contrast, succinctly lists several facets of the Mediterranean Style in his 1997 book, Twenty Israeli Composers: Voices of a Culture : Many characteristics of musical impressionism modality and diatonicism, quartal harmony, asymmetr y of phrase and meter, intervallic and chordal parallelism became defining traits in the music of Ben Haim and other Eastern Mediterranean composers 10 Chajes comports with the Mediterranean stylistic admonition to avoid augmented seconds in Israeli Dance n eutral and D n eutral s cales. 11 Although these scales equate to the Dorian m ode, a group of pitches that bears a strong association with music of the Catholic Church until the Seventeenth Century, the seminal musicologist interested in Jewish Music, A.Z. Idelsohn (1882 1938), appropriated it as a Jewish s cale in his 1929 book, Jewish Music in its Historical Development Robert Fleisher also remarks that several European composers first discovered Middle Thesaurus of Hebrew Oriental Melodies research with Kauder THE MODE O F THE PROPHETS, like the mode of the Pentateuch, is based upon a tetrachordal system, on the scale d e f g plus a b c d. This scale is the same as the ancient Greek Phrygian, or the first Gregorian 9 Brod, 57. Peter Gradenwitz mentions the style two years earlier in his 1949 book, The Music of Israel, although his description of it is far vaguer Haim belongs to the group tending to incorporate something of the Oriental pastoral Mediterranean spirit in their music 10 Fleisher, Twenty Israeli Composers: Voices of a Culture 52. 11 One transitional Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D appears in the transition between the second and third sections.
96 mode or scale I and it is identical with the scale of the Arabic mode Bayati In some instances it is scale of the plagal of the first Gregorian mode called the second mode (Hyp odorian). This is the standard scale in Jewish music, not only in Synagogue song but also in folk song. Nearly eighty per cent of all Jewish folk song is based upon it. This scale expresses what in Hebrew is called hisht apchuth hannefesh the outpouring of the soul, and it is, therefore, used for the exhortation of the Prophets as well as for Lamentations and for a part of the Psalms, that is, for those emotional texts the contents of which are pleading or fervent. It seems that the Prophetic mode is one of the chief strains in Semitic music, and was even more at home among the Hebrew people in ancient times than later, for the Yemenite and Persian Jews use the Prophetic mode for the Pentateuch also. Although the mode has the character of minor, it is, n evertheless not melancholy because it has a note of hope of promise. It expresses a fine and tender Sentiment, and turns frequently to a bright and even joyous mood. Of course, according to West European and especially Anglo Saxon feeling, the mode sound s sad, for these peoples prefer the major; and to them any minor tune is melancholy. 12 s connection of the scale to the Maquam Bayati further renders the Neutral Scale an ideal musical representative of the Mediterranean Style due to the fact that it one of its tetrachords permeates Arabic song and thus incorporates local materials. 13 Ahava Rabah mode, the Jewish scale that contains the augmented second, also benefitted Chajes in his goal of musically portraying the abstract notion of a Jewish homeland via the Western modal scales to which he committed on account of Kauder. Idelsohn accentuates the idea that the Ahava Rabah mode originates in Diaspora to such an extent that he communicates the point via capital l etters: 12 Idelsohn, Jewish Music in its Historical Development, 50. The Pentateuch refers to the Five Books of Moses in the Original (Old) Testament. 13 The reader should bear in mind that scholars concerned with Arab Musics often notate Bayati as a tetrachord containing the pitches D E half flat F G, and that they li kely derive a parallel to Western modes or scales by adding it to its transposition a perfect fifth higher. The inexact measurement of the microtones likely accounts for its comparison to both the Dorian and Aeolian modes. My spelling differs from Idelso Ashkenazic or European transliteration of Hebrew into English. Following Israeli statehood in 1948, Sephardic transliteration became standard, as the o vowel was Piyutim are sung H Sixteenth Century is a popular example of the genre.
97 At the same time, one particular mode or Steiger, the so called Ahavoh Rabboh must be especially considered. It is not to be met with in the Biblical modes. The mode is ba sed on the tetrachords e f g# a +bcde or their equivalent steps in other notes. The augmented second step of this scale does NOT exist in the scales of the Biblical modes and of their derivations in the prayer modes. The fact that this mode is not used for the Bible and the ancient prayers nor in the ancient communities in the Near East for the prayers or for the old piyyut, created in the period 800 1000 C.E. leads us to the opinion that this mode was originally unknown to the Jewish people, and that only later was it adopted as a result of the flux of the Mongolian and Tartarian tribes into Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, as well as on the Balkan, beginning with the thirteenth century. With the expansion of t he Tartars in Southern Russia reaching as far west as Hungary, their song was carried with them and nestled itself in the fertile soil of the receptive Jewish soul. 14 time and place the augmented second belonging to the Jewish music of the historic Dias pora as opposed to diatonic scales that link pre and post exilic Jewish Music by moment of the second Jewish period of exile: European Jewish music was based on a "gypsy scale" with its augmented several years of my stay in Jerusalem, I found out that most of our chanting of prayers are based on [diatonic] scales. This and other reasons brought me to the c onclusion that all nomadic peoples use augmented seconds, like Hungarian and Spanish gypsies, nomadic Arabic tribes, etc. 2000 years ago, when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans, the Jews were expelled from Palestine and became a wandering people, the a ugmented second found its way into Jewish music. But what a miracle! It is only years since the Jewish people have started to settle again in Palestine, and the new Palestinian songs don't show that characteristic of the gypsy scale. All melodies are ba sed on a strictly diatonic scale, as in ancient days. A new spirit of hope and gaiety is prevalent. 15 14 Ibid,87. The first period of Jewish exile occurred in 586 B.C.E., when Jews were forced into captivity in ancient Babylon (modern day Iraq). Curiou sly, Chajes knew of this exile, but excluded it from most of his commentary pertinent to Jewish Music. I attribute its omission to the fact that Jews returned to modern day Israel following their imprisonment and to the significantly shorter duration of t he second exile. 15 Jeffrey Chajes, e mail to the author, 8 June 2009.
98 symbols of freedom and homeland indicate that Chajes reiterates a popular philosophy concerning Jewish Music that notion of Jewish m odes: It was in the decade following 1930 that Israeli composers both Eastern European and Central European began to regard the interval of the augmented seconds as the symbol of the wailing of the oppressed Jews in the Diaspora, and of their yearning for the coming of the Messiah who would deliv er them. Composers of both Israeli art music and Israeli folk music, therefore, began to avoid this interval because of its inappropriateness in a land where the Jew was "at home". In place of the scale containing the augmented second, they began to emph asize the dorian, phrygian, mixolydian, aeolian and pentatonic scales. 16 aesthetic val ue judgment that works with augmented seconds prove inferior to diatonic works via references to Chasidic Jews (Jews of Eastern European origin who commonly incorporate augmented seconds in the chanting of their prayers) specifically and all Jews living ou tside of Israel generally. He carefully distinguishes between Chasidic Music and Cha sidic life : For two thousand years the Jews did not create new original Jewish melodies. Through Chassidism the Slavic melodies started dominating Jewish m usic, it seems that Diaspora did not inspire the great creative ability of our peop le. Another great idea was born in the eastern Slavic country besides Chassidism. It was Zionism the idea of making Palestine the Eretz Yisrael, the Land of Israel. See, it is only fif ty years since we started to settle again in Palestine. What miracles happen Not only a barren waste land starts to give wonderful fruit, but we can notice already a beginning of a new cultured life developing in Palestine. A new type of music wit h oriental influence [is] predom inant. A new scale is becoming the basis for many melodies. The tunes are not any more full of sadness and wailing spi r it, but illustrate the joy and h appiness of the Chalutzim, pioneers, 16 Keren, Contemporary Israeli Music, 71.
99 and builders of o ur own new land. T hey also illustrate the gay country life A specia l type of Palestinian music are the many shepherd songs full of liveliness a n d gayety. 17 specific use of the Neutral Scale and the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale (with which it shares a common tetrachord) to represent Israeli Music parallels multiple other composers with the same aesthetic aim. Jehoash Hirshberg accentuates the extent to which the Neutral Scale musically evokes early Isr aeli musical nationalism by explaining its formulaic role in accompanying the Hora an invented popular Israeli/Palestinian Dance s k ovitch came to Palestine the Hora was established as a hallmark of local style, characterized by the romantic image of a Dorian mode and constant 18 Philip Bohlman similarly notes in The Land Where Two Streams Flow : Music in the German Jewish Community in Israel that these scales pervaded Jewish song books during the early Twentieth A canon of J ewish melodic characteristics also emerged during the fifty years prior to the Holocaust. As a primary principle in this canon, Jewish folk songs should usually be in a minor key, or the 19 Hirshberg further highlights the tetracho rd based connection between these two modes in his explanation of the way in which Jacob Weinberg (1879 1956) juxtaposes the natural minor scale against music that 17 David Loring, e mail to the author, 19 November 2009. Although the un published document (titled themed works with augmented seconds suggests that he wrote it in or after 1945. He founded Hashofar, the Society for Advancement of Jewish Music during this year, and one of the explicit goal s he includes in development of Jewish music to gather at monthly meetings to hear, discuss, and perform the better type 18 19 Bohlman, The Land Where Two Streams Flow 51.
100 undoubtedly contains augmented seconds (Eastern European Jewish Music) in his opera, The Pio neers The notion that the Neutral Scale and its derivative mixed sixth degree scale constitute like diatonic materials that separate the Jewish Diaspora from Weinberg explicitly stated that he 'took special care to emphasize the contrast between the elements of Palestine and those of the Diaspora'. In this respect he was one of the first promoters of a generally accepted set of semiotically meaningful musical patterns and types, which permeated much of the music of Palestine in the following two decades. The Diaspora is represented in the opera by East European cantillation formulas and by a full quote of an Hassidic Sabbath song. The leading motive of the opera depicts the pion eers through the Romantic version of the Dorian mode, that 20 The open harmonic sonorities Chajes employs in Israeli Dance complement his use of the Neutral Scale in illustrating the Mediterranean Style. Keren explains th at s uch intervals typified the p astoral aspect of Israeli life to which Gradenwitz alludes in The Music of Israel by suggesting that dissonant intervals possess the potential to interrupt idyllic scenes of sheep herding and farm labor: Neutral chords are those in whi ch there occur no minor seconds, minor ninths or major sevenths. Composer s of the Eastern Mediterranean School in Israel are partial to chords of the neutral class. This partiality may be due in part to the Eastern Mediterranean melos in which per fect fourths are fifths and major seconds are conspicuous intervals, and it may also be in part due to the serene pastoral spirit which is one of the characteristics of Eastern Mediterraneanism, and which would tend to be destroyed by the sounds of the mor e acutely dissonant intervals "Listen, O Isles to Me" for voice a nd piano by Paul Ben features neutral harmonies. Another illustration of neutral groupings is shown in The Story of the Spies by Ben Zion Orgad, who studied with Ben Haim 21 20 Hirshberg, Music in the Jewish community of Palestine 1880 1948 257. Weinberg composed the opera in 1931. 21 Keren, Contemporary Israeli Music 65. Many sources on Jewish and Israeli Music designate Paul Ben Haim (1897 1984) the most significant figure who composed in the Mediterranean Style.
101 Although Cha jes omits any references to a specific harmonic formula appropriate for Israeli, Palestinian, or Mediterranean music, his criticism of two significant Nineteenth Century composers of liturgical music for Reform worship for using hymn like textures practice period sonorities: Among the Jews who tried to improve the standard of liturgical music were our Sulzer and Lewandowsky. But in spite of their great talents, their efforts brought only limited s uccess. The oriental, ancient hebrew melodies and chants did not gain by a merely outside dressing in four part harmonization. Most of the time, the opposite was reached. 22 Further support for his frequent use of bare harmonic perfect fourths and fifths s tem Detroit Jewish News (on 27 March 1942): The new Palestinian songs are strongly influenced by the Bedouin and Yemenite melodies. The oriental influence dominates, and as a result it is a difficult problem to give them a fitting harmony. Most of the composers who are at present working with these themes are influenced by European music and are falsely using European harmonic background with a simple monodic, Oriental melody. It is extremely important that the same scale is used as a basis for both harmony and melody. Only in this way is complete unity achieved. 23 Hirshberg, in his commentary regarding in Marc Lavri's opera, Dan the Guard, renders the perfect harmonic intervals Chaj es incorporates throughout Israeli Dance icons of pioneer life. He notes that Lavri (1903 1967) utilizes organum like sonorities in order to aurally distinguish Eastern European Jews from their idealized new Israeli counterparts: The fallacy of the concep t of a Mediterranean style is demonstrated most clearly in those works which were deliberately loaded with semiotic patterns, such as in Marc Lavri's Dan the Guard, the first locally composed 22 Jeffrey Chajes, e mail to the author, 13 July 2009. This un published do cument appears in paraphrased form in the 7 September 1945 issue of the Detroit Jewish News. 23
102 ope Lavri has made use of the entire paraphernalia of semiotically loaded patterns and types in order to represent the different collective groups, such as the augmented s econd for a horra dance in parallel fifths for the festive event of the communal laundry 24 Whil e Chajes thickens the harmonic texture of the reprise of the theme in order to delineate it from its initial appearance, his variation technique lies within his abstract notion of non European harmony due to the fact that each of the sonorities results whe n the principal melodic pi tch rises or falls by thirds. These chords, moreover, each sound for an eighth note as opposed to the longer durations for which he frequently sustains in his other works. The shorter amount of musical time he devotes to the thi cker so norities is consistent with Bosk ovitch's penchant for minimal harmony to aurally establish an incipient Israeli musical language: In terms of the emer ging Israeli style, Boskovitch recommended the avoidance of vertical harmony the most Western of m usical elements in favor of melody and rhythm as elaborated through linear polyphonic techniques. These could range from Middle Eastern heterophony to polyphony in the ma nner of Bela Bart k, lgor Stravinsky, or Paul Hindemith, depending on the specific musical composition. 25 The shorter rhythmic durations for which he sustain the chords in the concluding section of Israeli Dance also constitute a symbolic alignment of Kauder's belief in obeying universal musical laws with an im ag ined indigenous Mediter r anean culture and landscape. Chajes juxtaposes this philosophy against his somewhat ambiguous conception of European artificiality despite the fact that his training with Kauder initially occurred in Europe and entailed a great deal of counterpoint, an a rguably quintessential European musical feature. Nevertheless, the way in which he alternates the chords 24 Hirshberg, M usic in the Jewish community of Palestine 1880 1948, 269. Lavri composed the opera in 1944, the same year in which Chajes composed Palestinian Dance. 25 Hirshberg, Alexander U. Boskovitch and the Quest for an Israeli National Musical Style 100.
103 with harmonic octaves after bar 90 constitutes a technique that lies within the framework of acceptable Mediterranean stylistic devices in order to br ing the European piano regionally closer to the Middle Eastern qanun : One Arabian plucked instrument in particular namely, the qanun, has had a considerable influence on the piano the qanun, when featured in the popular reci tative like prelude called Taksim displays a virtuoso style which may be likened to that of a Baroque keyboard toccata, This [quanun] style which, of course, is bereft of all harmony, has stimulated Israeli composers to remove the piano from its traditiona l Western role as the purveyor of harmony par excellence, and to assign it functions of a more percussive and exclusively melodic nature. 26 In addition to melodically and harmonically placing Israeli Dance within the boundaries of the Mediterranean Style, t he abundant metric flexibility Chajes employs in the first and third large sections of the piece rhythmically align the piece with other musical evocations of the same region: Not only the melodic characteristics, but also the rhythmic features of Orient al music have left their mark on the music of the Israeli composer. The rhythms of the Middle and Near East are governed principally by the additive principle, while the typical Western rhythm is divisive. That is to say, a Western rhythm can generally b e aurally divided into equal divisions such as halves, thirds, quarters, etc Oriental additive rhythmic e into usual mode of notation among Israeli composers is t o write the rhythmic pattern so that it extends over two or more measures, which are unequal in length, and which serve the purpose of indicating the main divisions of the pattern. 27 Although bars 56 90, the second large section of the piece, remains in one meter, Chajes attributes its triplets and quintuplets to the chanting of ancient Jewish prayers : Not until our days was it rec ognized that the ancient Hebrew melodies are based on a different scale and their rhythm is irregular, thus much freer, than the rhythm of E which are coming from our old new homeland Palestine, are revitalizing the entire 26 Keren, Contemporary Israeli Music 20 21. 27 Ibid, 24.
104 style. Every outstanding Jewish compose r of our day is devoting his talent to the ne w type of synagogue music, which w as neglected for so many centuries, a nd which in the near future may again become our pride. Achron, Bind er, Bloch, Castelnuovo Tedesco, Freed, Fromm, Helfman, Saminsky, Schali t, Weinberg, and many others have recently published their n ew Sabbath Services which show thorough musical knowledge and true Hebrew spirit. Althoug h these Jewish composers came to this country from various parts of the globe, and had a different schooling, they all have the following in common: 1) employment of ancient Hebrew cha nts (trops) 2) a peculiar rhythm (triplets and fiftoles) 3) a harmonic background, deriving from the scale of the melody, and last but not l east, a sincere devotion to new art together with a strong belief i n a better type of Jewish music in general. 28 Kere the triplet as a rhythmic signifier of Jewish prayer chants in modern day Israel in an interview with the composer Shlomo Yaffe (1909 1995) who associates the device with Oriental dialects of the Hebrew langu age: Another composer, Shlomo Ya ffe, told the author that after having listened on numerous occasions to Hebrew as spoken by members of the Oriental Jewish communities, he has arrived at the conclusion that one of the prominent natural rhythmic elements o f the Hebrew language is the triplet. 29 on of rhythmic elements of the Mediterranean style (musical time) as emblematic of timeless ness through his use of the word old new homeland thus unites ancient and modern evocations of Israeli Me diterranean life in Israeli Dance I argue that he does so in order to depict (albeit abstractly) the notion of Jewish religious, and cultural, and historical unity to counter act two millennia of wandering despite the reality that post exilic Jews hail from various other countries and only arrived in modern 28 Jeffrey Chajes, e mail to the author, 13 July 2009. This un published document appears in paraphrased form in the 7 September 1945 issue of the Detroit Jewish News. 29 Keren, Contemporary Israeli Music 50.
105 day Israel in large numbers after 1880. 30 Chajes, moreover, remarks that a distinction exists between his liturgical and cultural Jewish styles. The delineation fur ther emphasizes the concept of a unified, idealized Jewish people through the way in which he merges multiple Mediterranean styles in Israeli Dance : Music has been the governing factor of my whole li fe, particularly Hebrew I have always wanted to cr eate a new kind of music. There is a renaissance in Jewish music now with a complete school of musical artists. This school consists of two branches. The first is the modern style coming out of Palestine with all its gaiety and the hope of the pioneers. The second is the liturgical chanting as a basis following the school of Ernest Bloch who is recognized today as the greatest Jewish composer alive and one of the writing. 31 In spite of the rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic attempts Chajes makes to ally himself with other composers of the Mediterranean Style, he derives its form a Ternary approximation of Theme and Variations from a decidedly Western source. Hirshberg cites such non Med iterranean elements in an effort to accentuate the constructed nature of the Mediterranean Style in a discussion of the Pastorale from Paul Ben Five Pieces for Piano and the s econd m Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra The comme ntary is significant, as Keren Brod, and Gradenwitz point to these works as high achievements within the style for their incorporation of allegedly authentic Middle Eastern techniques: Moreover, none of the works in which the so called 'Mediterranean' de vices prevailed was completely cut off from the European heritage. Not only were 30 1880 comprises the year that began the f irst of several periods in which Jews left their countries of origin en masse and made aliyah 31 of the Detroit Jewish Chronicle a competitor to the Detroit Jewish News until 1951, when the latter newspaper absorbed the former. Bloch praised two works by Chajes (which he did not identify) in a personal letter to him provided to the author by Dr. Jeffrey Chajes. Bloch notes that the compositions 5.
106 all of them scored for European instruments and ensembles, but they also retained tonal traits, such as an implicit tonic dominant polarity in Ben Haim's 'Pastorale'. Moreov er, the penchant for European music to closed forms showed even in works based on continuous, non directional Arabic models, such as the second movement of Boskovitch's Oboe Concerto. The oboe solo unfolds in a gradual expansion of the modal range, closel y emulating the technique of the introductory section of the Arabic taqsim, moving above a monotonous ostinato pattern in the strings. Yet, upon the arrival at the highest notes of the range the ostinato stops for a few measures, articulating a motivic an d a registral recapitulatio 32 represents a form by which composers that developed and wrote in the Mediterranean Style deliberately attempted to elevate popular music in order t o prepare the first Israeli audiences for higher forms of Art Music: The variation that thematic development permitted was essential to the Central European composer. Many chose, therefore, to turn rather quickly after immigration to the technique of theme and variations, thinking that through this approach those less accustomed to the complicated treatment of thematic material would understand how it might lead to the evolution of larger forms. 33 In Israeli Dance form, timbre, and the level of techni cal difficulty Chajes designates on the back page represent Western musical elements. Although the piece contains no indication of the required level of proficiency, the composer includes it in a list of other works for piano, some of which include such d The lack of specificity suggests that Israeli Dance is appropriate for advanced students, although its inclusion in a list that contains some graded works reflects a Euro American predilection for indicating various phases th rough which students must pass in order to play particular pieces. 32 Hirshberg, Music in the Jewish community of Palestine 1880 1948 268 269. 33 Bohlman, The Land Where Two Streams Flow 194
107 Figure 3 1 Letter from Ernest Bloch to Julius Chajes Constructed notions of Mediterranean and Western musical elements notwithstanding, Israeli Dance unequivocal ly demonstrates Chajes application of the techniques Kauder
108 champions in Entwurf and Counterpoint in spite of his stylistic shift from String Quartet No. 2. T he work begins in the G n eutral s cale, as measures 1 2 exclusively feature the tonic pitch, G, and its upper and lower dominants, D, and C, respectively. 34 Example 3 5 Bars 1 10 Following the fluctuation between the dominant pitches in bar 3, the melody descends through a n implied D G pentachord that excludes A. This pentachord includes an embedded G C tetrachord. The melodic B flat in bar 4 reflects the note to which the boundary defining members of a D G pentachord exhibit the potential to contract. Bars 5 8 constitute an exact repetition of bars 1 4. The imitation in bars 1 3 pays homage to Kauder in the sense that piece likely reflects his desire to avoid the potentially negative stigma of European 34 See Example 3 5
109 inte llectualism through deviation his or her new homeland The accompaniment emphasizes the notion that G constitutes the tonal center in various ways. The eighth notes in bar 4(2 3) form a collective D G tetrachord with the melodic G above them that acts as a response to the previous melodic implied G C tetrachord from bar s 3 (2) 4 The melodic G in bar 4 (2) thus sits equidistantly between G C and D G tetrachords. The movement between the voic es in t he left hand in bars 5 6 (1) also reinforces the same concept through parallel quartal leaps that imply D G and G C tetrachords. T he tonic pitch likewise functions as a point of convergence in bar 6(3), where it appears in two voices following the contract ion of a G C dya d to a D G dya d. The triads similarly underscore the scale. In bars 5 6, the G m inor and C m ajor chords represent harmonic manifestations of D G and G C pentachords Due to the bi directional nature of the G n eutral s cale, the G minor triad constitutes both the rising tonic pitch and the falling upper dominant. Similarly, the C m ajor triad in bar 5(2) signifies the falling tonic pitch as well as the rising lower dominant. In bar 3, the composer utilizes an A f alling s cale to accentuat e oscillation between the tonic pitch and its upper neighbor The scale forms as the C in beat 1 merges with the E, A, D, and G that follow it due to the fact that C (in an octaval guise) represents potential contraction to ward the boundary defining membe rs of an E A tetrachord and the E A D G complex situates an A D dya d in its center. E A D forms a symmetrical A f alling s cale according to Kauder. The G n eutral s cale returns as the C in the bass clef enters, as D G C places the tonic pitch between the t wo dominant notes.
110 While bars 1 10 primarily highlight descent from D to G via an implied D G pentachord, measures 11 13 melodically accentuate a D G tetrachord 35 Example 3 6 Bars 11 15 ity to emphasize any particular sonority through esoteric methods One of his principal means of accomplishing this goal enigmatically involves exploiting an element I consider combinatory potential musical energy. The concept involves the idea that any number of sonorities can function in combination with one another to imply pitches even when composers elect and shaping force. B ar 12 (3) exemplifies this concept by accentuating the melodic pitches through the combination of the vertical sonorities with their predecessors and successors. The first eighth note contains a n implied harmonic C F tetrachord that precedes an E C dyad. The dyad represents potential expans ion toward the boundary defining members of an F B flat pentachord as well a s potential contraction (from the 35 See Example 3 6
111 inverted form of the stated sonority) to ward the boundary defining members of an F B flat tetrachord. Either F B flat dyad forms an F r ising s cal e in conjunction with a C F dyad Bar 14(2) demonstrates a more abstract case in which G appears through implication despite the fact that it is absent (in its material form) in the beat. In the first eighth not e, B flat, C, and E combine to imply an F B flat dyad 36 Figure 3 2 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B flat, C, and E The subsequent eighth note features an A m inor triad, which implies an E A pentachord A quartal combination of the pitches F, B flat E, and A creates a bi scalar co mplex (F B flat E A) that situates a B flat E dyad in its center. The boundary defining members of the B flat E tetrachord symbolize potential expansion toward G (in a harmonic octave) the tonic pitch of the G n eutral s cale. Bars 15 22 constitute a repe tition of bars 3 10. 36 See Figure 3 2 The pitches include B flat, C, and E. The B flat E dyad is apparent. B flat and C represent potential movement toward an A D dyad. C and E represent potential movement toward an F B flat dyad. Intersecting F B flat and B flat E dyads stress B flat and the Mixed Scale on B flat. The A D dyad also represents potential movement toward F. B flat combined with the A D dyad implies an F B flat dyad.
112 Bars 23 30 encompass a variation on from bars 3 10. Chajes imbues the material with a lyrical character and utilizes directional inversion to propel the melodic B flats a minor third upward toward D as opposed to their typical desc ent toward G. 37 Example 3 7 Bars 20 30 The G in bar 22(2 3) facilitates the harmonic shift through its potentia l to expand to ward the boundary defining members of the B flat E pent achord. In this sense, the B flat 37 See Example 3 7.
113 m ajor chord that follows in bar 23(1) comprises the rising tonic in the Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on B flat. S however, and therefore accurate analysis requires the analysis of groups of sonorities rather than individual pitches or pitch collections. Despite the new context in which he sets the theme, his arrangements belie a desire to maintain emphasis (albeit in a more subtle manner) on the G n eutral s cale. I believe this aspect of the variation explains the largely step wise motion he utilizes, as C and D, the dominant pitches of the previous scale, often intersect one another. It also allows G to frequently occupy a central position between A and F. The fact that the composer de emphasizes fluctuation between A and G reinforces the idea that G must represent a central entity. Bar 30 secretive musical messages considering that it embodies interaction bet ween alternative forms of primary sonorities. Each time B flat appears in octaves, it represents potential diatonic contraction toward the boundary defining members of the D G tetrachord When it sounds against an A, it similarly represents potential exp ansion to ward the boundary defining members of the G C tetrachord and contraction toward the borders of the G C pentachord I argue that this cryptic quality of the passage explains the harmonic minor seconds that, while not completely jarring, somewhat o bscure the Dorian and Phrygian melos often associated with early Israeli Music. Bars 31 54 constitute a new variation on introductory material in the G neutral scale. 38 38 See Example 3 8
114 Example 3 8 Bars 31 38 The primary feature that distinguishes it from its previo us guise concerns the way in which Chajes creates quasi pedal point by surrounding each melodic pitch with its upper and lower leading tone. This renders the melody more discernible as it he juxtaposes it against a more static background. Kauder held J.S Bach in extremely sentiments. The syncopated rhythmic gestures evoke a dance like quality that reflects the title of the piece. In bar 31, the pedal point accentuates the pitches that sound in octaves in the bass clef, as combinatory analysis of bar 31(1) indicates that the D, G, and C in the second eighth note imply a G n eutral s cale and thus reinforce the primary tonal area of the piece. The same scenario occurs in b ar 33(2), where the second eighth note consists of the pitches G, A, and C. These notes collectively imply a D G
115 dyad that combines with the previous G C dyads to imply the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on G. 39 Figure 3 3 Discussion of the combinatory potential of G, A, and C Following a four bar presentation of material from measure 32 in diminution and a A D dyads that sound for two measures a contrasting section in a new key signature occupies bars 56 90. 40 Example 3 9 Bars 52 59 39 See Figure 3 3 I derive th is conclusion based on an arrangement of the pitches that condenses them into the space of the perfect fourth between G and C. 40 See Examples 3 9 and 3 10 The pitches include G, A, and C. The G C dyad is apparent. A and C represent potential movement toward a D G dyad. G and A represent potential movement toward an F B flat dyad. Intersecting D G and G C dyads stress G and the G neutral Scale. The F B flat dyad also represents potential movement toward D. G combined with the F B flat dyad implies a D G dyad.
116 Example 3 1 0 Bars 60 70 In addition to its lyrical character, the new theme features ascending fifths as opposed to the descending fifths that occur in bars 3 10. It also features a textural reduction in the treble clef that allows C hajes to imitate the melodic flourishes he associates with Middle Eastern Music. The way in which he utilizes the A D tetrachord concretely and symbolically as a melodic generator and an inter scalar mediator recalls the s econd and t hird m ovements in the Sonata in A Minor 41 This is due to the function he assigns the tetrachord to connect diverse scales. In the previous key signature, the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D shares the tetrachord with the A f alling s cale. In the new tonal area, the scale on A becomes the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A, while the D based scale becomes the D n eutral s cale. The composer utilizes it in almost minimalist fashion by contrasting its two forms and directions, although I believe this reflects his 41 See Chapter 4.
117 desire to create an improvisatory feeling by proceeding from simple to complex rhythmic gestures. His initial melodic economy of means manifests itself harmonically in multi scalar complex in bars 57(2) and 58(2) 59(2). In bar 57, a fairly obvious E A D G complex illustrate s equal emphasis on the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A and the D n eutral s cale. The latter example merges three different sonorities that collectively emphasize the melodic pitch. In 58(2), the first sonority, which encompasses the pitches D, F, A, and C, represents potential contraction to the boundary defining members of a B E pentachord through the embedded D C dyad as well as potential expansion toward the same pitches through the F A dyad In bar 59(1), a chord containing the pitches G, A, B, and D appears. This sonority implies an A D tetrachord. 42 A G m ajor triad follows in bar 59(2). The whole complex, B E A D G, situates A in the center of the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A and positions the scale between its two generator scales, the E f alli ng s cale and the D n eutral s cale. The complex also forms around the melodic A in bar 59(1) as if to place the melodic pitch in the center of both the vertical and horizontal musical planes. Because the G major chord forms after an implied A D tetrachord, the D neutral scale determines its function. It therefore represents the falling tonic pitch or the rising lower dominant. While the Neutral Scale lacks a strongly discernible character due to its bi directional nature (as Kauder considers gravitational matters paramount), Chajes uses its component scales 42 See Figure 3 4.
118 Figure 3 4 Discussion of the combinatory potential of G, A, B, and D A comparison of the scales in bars 61 62 with 63 64 exemplify the way in which the student conforms to his teacher in order to lend the N eutral S cale a stronger sense 62, A D dyads intersect with E A dyads to for m the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A. This scale derives half of its identity from the A f alling s cale. Chajes, accordingly, utilizes descending melodic motion. The tonal area in m easures 63 64 the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on G contrasts with the Mi xed Scale on A due to the fact that it derive s its non neutral direction based personalities from the C r ising s cale. The composer temporarily re introduces B flat in bar 72. 43 43 See Example 3 11. The pitches include G, A, B, and D. G, A, and B emphasize A G, B, and D stress B. Intersecting A D and D G dyads stress D and the D neutral Scale A, B, and D requires further analysis The A D dyad is apparent B and D represent potential movement toward an E A dyad. A and B represent potential movement toward a G C dyad Intersecting E A and A D dyads stress A. The G C dyad also represents potential movement toward E. A and the G C dyad imply an E A dyad as well as C. The sonority implies an A D tetrachord
119 Example 3 1 1 Bars 71 82 In Bars 72 75, Chajes appropriately uses the Mixed (fourth de gree) Scale on B flat with the F r ising s cale. Kauder mentions in Counterpoint that scales that contain tri tones require combination with fundamental scales that encompass equal tetrachords. He exclusively permits the mixing of fourth degree scales and rising scales due to their common rising tetrachord. Bars 80 90 feature a repr ise of material from bars 56 62 as well as new material that leads to the conclusion the middle section of the piece in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A. Such scales prove suitable for cadences due to the fact that they share a tet rachord with their re lated (generator) falling scale s as the word cadence encapsulates descent. Bars 91 93 feature a primarily monophonic Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D that facilitates the return to the G Neutral for a new variation
120 on bars 3 10. 44 Its incorporation of the pedal point signifies development via accumulation. Example 3 1 2 B ars 91 103 Bars 94 119 feature a reprise of material from measures 31 54. The stronger portions of each beat contain chords that precede single pitches. Each of these sonorities relat es to D, G, or C, although the chord that encompasses the pitches F, G, and B flat in bar 103(3) exemplifies the notion that the potential musical energy stored 44 See Example 3 12
121 by triads and non triadic harmonies alike can play a prominent role in implying absent sonoriti es. This particular collection of pitches implies a C F dyad 45 Figure 3 5 Discussion of the combinator y potential of F, G, and B flat When this dyad merges with the E that follows it, the resultant emphasis lies wi thin C due to the fact that E repre sents potential expansion to ward the boundary defining members of a G C pentachord and intersecting C F and G C dyads imply emphasis on C. When it merges with its predecessor, the aggregate sonority consists of a D G dyad as C represents potential expansion to ward the boundary defining members of an E A pentachord and the composite chord contains the pitches F, A, C, and E. The sonority implies motion toward the boundary defining members of a D G pentachord through the potent ial expansion of the third between A and C and the 45 See Figure 3 5. The pitches include F, G, and B flat The F B flat dyad is apparent. G and B flat represent potential movement toward a C F dyad. Intersecting C F and F B flat dyads form F based scales. G and F represent potential movement toward an E A dyad, which in turn represents potential movement toward C. F, G, and B flat imply a C F dyad.
122 contraction of the seventh between E and F. Bars 120 138 also closely resemble bars 31 54. Measures 139 145 echo bars 51 53, where a repeated melodic G C tetrachord occupies the treble clef. 46 Example 3 1 3 Bars 144 148 Bar 146 features this tetrachord in augmentation, as eac h pitch resonates for at least one quar ter note. The A D dyad in bar 147 (3) recall s the middle section of the work. The piece concludes as it descends to a D G dyad in bar 148(1). 46 See Example 3 13.
123 CHAPTER 4 SONATA IN A MINOR (F OR VIOLIN AND PIANO) Julius Chajes published the Sonata in A Minor in 1944. 1 It contains multiple like sonorities, melodic flourishes, and metric shifts. The s econd m ovement, Prayer also pays tribute to the Jews who died in the War saw Ghetto during the Holocaust, although t he work bears an assimilationist stamp in the sense that the f irst and f ourth m ovements feature tempo and character indications as titles 2 The s cherzo (third movement) raises profound questions about the Jewish qual ity of the work in that a movement that pays homage to Holocaust victims precedes a movement associated with the word joke, although it likely demonstrates his belief in the supremacy of Sonata Form above extra musical elements. Hugo Kauder the (compose long teacher), moreover, was a non Zionist who had used frequently changing meters as well as open fourths and fifths generou sly in secular works in the1920 s. 3 the work as post Franckian relates to the four note motive that begins each movement, as cyclic elemen Symphony in D Minor. This perceived kinship between the composers pertains to their mutual admiration for J.S. Bach, as d with him a double fugue he 1 The author possesses a copy of Mourner rayer the work until he relinquished it to Transcontinental Music Publications in 1955. 2 The titles originated in Western Europe and traditionally accompany works associated with absolute music. Intended to represent musical objectivity, such pieces allegedly convey no religious messages. 3 See Examples 3 1, 3 2, and 3 3.
124 had written at the approximate age of eighteen in which he juxtaposed subjects that spelled his own name as well as C H R I S T O S. 4 Chajes omits any discussions in his memoirs or program notes about th e source of the unifying motive, although I believe that it simply reflects the nature of the instrument for which he writes the Sonata in the sense that its first four distinct melodic pitches, E, A, D, and G, correspond to the open strings of the violin. He transposes the motive a perfect fifth lower in the inner movements. I contend that these portions of the piece honor his teacher, Hugo Kauder, as the elder composer had played the viola with the Gottesman Quartet in Vienna. Concrete evidence of this theory rests i n the fact that the first three pitches of the outer movements, E, D, and G figure prominently in Improvisation (1935), a piece for violin and piano Kauder dedicated to Chajes and his first wife, the violinist Shulamit Silber. 5 Example 4 1. Fragment of 4 Jeffrey Chajes, e affinity for esoteric contrapuntal exercises may bear some connection to his association a mystic society while living in Palestine. The organization sought to promot e the publication of The Bible in the Hands of Its Creators an account of the origins of Judaism and Christianity as well as prophecies for future of humanity as revealed by Moses Guibbory an eccentric Jerusalem cave dweller, in 1927. 5 See Example 4 1
125 oeuvre began as violin sonatas. 6 o compose the sonata for the violin in itself embodies his The most significant proof of the high esteem in which Chajes held his teacher ional principles within the piece. The most prominent Kauder like feature in Sonata in A Minor consists of the technique by which the composer conveys its principal tonal area. Although the title suggests that its tonic key likely encompasses A natural m inor, A harmonic minor, or A m elodic m inor, I argue that the compose r utilizes the scale that his teacher designates the Mixed Scale on A. While the two scales contain identical t it possesses a hybrid identity based on its unequal tetrachords and dual connections to the D n eutral (Dorian) and E f alling (Phrygian) s cales. The f irst and f ourth m ovements feature constant fluctuation between these two pitches, as they represent the two as stated in Entwurf and Counterpoin t by situating the Pseudo tonic pitch in the center of the scale between E A and A D tetrachords more often than he assigns it the more conventional position of vertical scalar boundary. The imitative polyphony that pervades pass ages reflect the elder comp as Kauder advocates 6 Norman Dee. Personal Interview. 13 February 2009
126 rhythmic flexibility through his admonition to use bar lines sparingly due to their potential to disrupt a term he broadly designates as the musical context. 7 Chajes sets the f irst theme in the Pseudo tonic key of the piece. The first two notes of the violin delineate the scale monophonically via oscillation between the two Pseudo dominant pitches, D, and E. 8 Example 4 2. Bars 1 11 of Allegro appassionato from Julius Chaje minor 7 Kauder, Counterpoint 16 8 See Example 4 2.
127 A highly contrapuntal context featuring three independent (non imitative) voices in the piano follows in the remainder of its twenty bars, and this textural shift likely written draft of program notes. 9 In the first phrase, Chajes constructs a melodic Mixed tonic pitches to occupy central positions within the scales they establish. He designate s the E in bars 1 and 8 as the lower scalar boundary, situates the A in measures 2 7 in the middlemost position, and utilizes the D in bar 3(3) as the upper boundary. The composer also utilizes the accompanying voices to demarcate the scale. In bars 1 3( 2), he vacillates between the Pseudo tonic pitch and the B G dyad in the soprano and bass voices in the piano part to render A a point of origin that expands by equidistant intervals to its leading tones. This expansion culminates in their traversal of an A D tetrachord and implied A D pentachord in contrary motion in bar 3 The F in each voice reinforces both forms of the A D dyad as it represents the same musico gravitational force. 10 It also allows Chajes to heed maintain a balance between rising and falling 9 These were p rovided via e mail to the author on 19 November 2009. The program featured works performed on a concert for which Detroit Free Pres s critic Collins George wrote a review that the paper printed on 2 May 1961. The concert likely occurred on 1 May 1961, as the reviewer made reference to the event having taken place on a Monday evening. 1 May 1961 constitutes the most recent Monday prio passed before the publication of the review. George omits any judgment of the Sonata and simply the fact that he relates that the Fantasy for Violin Alone was the least rewarding work indicates that the critic tacitly approved it. 10 combinations of notes can expand or contract toward the same sonority. Thus, the B C and G E dyads also imply potential gr avitation toward F and an A D dyad. Kauder himself stresses the significance of the potential energy within any sonority to imply its successor by introducing Counterpoint with a mony is stronger than the
128 melodic motion by means that are too easily detectable. 11 Both voices subsequently arrive at E in bar 4, transforming A D dyads in to E A dyads in the process. The composer follows this lower scalar border with a descending A D tetrachord in the soprano in bars 5 7. He contrasts this overt undulation between the two primary dyads (A D and E A tetrachords and pentachords) with more complicated m ovement in the bass in bars 5 8 that stresses the Pseudo tonic pitch through fluctuation between the Pseudo dominant tones. He employs the descending minor third between the F and D in measure 5 to surround E, and the descending major third in bar 6 to su rround D. These leaps form a composite C F tetrachord, which highlights A via its equivalent musico gravitational force as it represents potential expansion from each boundary defining pitch toward the tonic (in its octaval form), as well as contraction toward the Pseudo dominant pitches The subsequent descending minor third to B in bar 7(3) creates an aggregate F B pentachord that implies D by placing it in the centermost position between its boundaries Therefore, the ascending leap to E that follows constitutes an attempt to maintain equal emphasis on each Pseudo dominant note. The arpeggiated triads in the tenor voice serve dual indicative functions. They encapsulate the potential directional trends in each melodic pitch while also acting as navig ational points of reference in relation to the Pseudo tonic note. For example, the A minor chords in bars 1(1 2) and 2(1 2) sound when the A in the bass rises by thirds, but it also forms when E, the melodic pitch descends by thirds. The E minor chords i n measures 1(3) and 2(3) similarly symbolize the rising melodic E as well the harmonic manifestation of B, the upper leading tone in the Mixed Scale on A, descending by 11 Kauder, Counterpoint, 12 13.
129 thirds. 12 Due to the bi directional nature of Mixed Scales, quasi cadential passages in works conclude with chords that embody both ascending and descending motion from the Pseudo tonic pitch. In this flexible harmonic context, the D m inor triad in measure 3(3) serves the same function as the A m inor chord in bar 3(1) desp ite the fact that the latter chord sounds when the Pseudo tonic pitch falls by thirds. The composer utilizes the four note chords in the tenor voice in bars 5(2 3) and 6(2 3) to foreshadow the chords that follow them, since D, F, A, and C imply the B E pe ntachord in measure 6(2) via the combination of F with A and D with C. 13 Likewise, the chord containing the pitches C, E, G, and B implies the subsequent A D pentachord in measure 7(2). These sonorities also reflect the melody above them since Chajes clos ely aligns the moments in which the chords span major sevenths with the melodic notes to which they equate. Th e four note chord in bar 5(2 3) implies the G in the violin part via the same intra chordal combinations that allude to gravitation toward the bo undary defining members of a B E pentachord and the symbolic chord in bar 6(2 3) reflects the melodic F in the violin part through its C B and E G dyads (sonorities that also possess the equivalent musico gravitational force of A D dyads) Analysis of the gestalt in the bars 1 8(2) might appear tedious given the various rhythmic durations, but the composer facilitates the process through a key statement in undated program notes for his 1949 Concerto in E in which he takes pride in admitting that his melodi es (the horizontal musical plane) determine the way in which he 12 Kauder accepted the notion that leading tones in diatonic scales consist of whole steps in certain cases. 13 I prefer to avoid the conventional terms for four note sonorities such as D m inor seventh chord in works Chajes composed after String Quartet No. 2 due to the fact that Kauder makes no mention of sonorities containing more than three distinct pitches in either Entwurf or Counterpoint The implication requires a theoretical arrange ment of the pitches by thirds.
130 constructs his harmonies (the vertical musical plane) and that this aligns him with unnamed highly acclaimed predecessors: background, which he derives fr om the scale which is used in the melody, following the 14 Bars 1(3) and 2(3) exemplify this concept fairly overtly through triadic harmonies that accentuate the melodic pitches. While I previously noted that the E m inor chord in the first eighth note of these measures reflects the chord that results when the E in the violin part rises and the B, the upper leading tone of the Mixed Scale on A Falls, I omitted commentary on the brief G m ajor chords that follow them. These chords sound when the melodic D in the second eighth notes of these measures descends by thirds. Combining the E m inor and G m ajor sonorities produces a chord that includes the pitches E G, B, and D It implies potential gravitation toward A via the mer ging of B with G and E with D. Combining the melodic D a nd E produces the same result. Bar 3(4) comprises an example in which the harmonic background principally emphasizes the interaction between two melodic notes as opposed to a singular pitch, althoug the vertical musical plane to its horizontal counterpart. It proves somewhat more complicated than the previous example in that it requires further combinatory analysis. Th is necessity stems from the fact that it includes three note, non triadic pitch collections. The D and C in the first eighth note represent potential contraction toward the boundary defining members of a B E pentachord as well as G. This harmonic arrange ment mirrors the melody, as D precedes the C in the violin part. The 14 Undated program notes for Concerto in E David Loring, e mail to the author, 20 November 2009. Although Chajes neglects to mention that he incorporates a belief in melodic superiority into the Sonata for Violin and Pian o I believe he had already demonstrated the conviction in practice.
131 subsequent sonority encompasses the pitches A, C, and D, which collectively imply a D G dyad 15 This dyad indirectly addresses the melody since it generally traces the melodic progressio n from D toward C, a pi tch with which it implies G. T he strongest evidence for a vertical rendering of horizontal activity in this excerpt however, becomes apparent upon examining all three harmonic sonorities. The last of them, a chord that consists of the notes C, D, and F, implies a G C dyad 16 Combining the B E, D G, and G C dyads produces a composite chord consisting of the notes C, E, G, B, an d D. G lies in the center between B and E and symbolizes equidistant expansion toward C and D in imitation of the melody. Substituting notes for dyads yields the same collective musico gravitational force. Figure 4 1 Discussion of the combinatory pot ential of A, C, and D 15 See Figure 4 1. 16 See Figure 4 2.
132 Figure 4 2 Discussion of the combi natory potential of C, D, and F Substituting notes for dyads yields the same collective musico gravitational force. The boundary defining members of the B E pentachord represent potential contraction toward G, the D G pentachord to B, and the G C pentachord to E, respectively. This symbolic E m inor triad signifies D mixing with C, as the dyad possesses the same combinatory potential as the boundary defining members of the B E pe ntachord and G. Bar 7(2 3) contrasts with this passage in terms of its complexity, as it necessitates only a cursory comparison of the melody to the accompaniment. In this excerpt, the B and A in the violin part correspond to the D and F in the piano par t. Both sonorities imply E as well as G C dyads 17 Likewise, in the following beat, amalgamating all of the pitches into one symbolic chord produces a sonority that includes G, B, D, F, and A. D occupies the middlemost position and expands outwardly towa rd G and A, the two melodic pitches in the violin part. Despite the fact that the Mixed Scale on A constitutes 17 An A also appears in the piano. The pitches include C, D, and F. The C F dyad is apparent. D and F represent potential movement toward a G C dyad. C and D represent potential movement toward a B E dyad. Intersecting C F and G C dyads imply the C Rising Scale and emphasize C. The B E dyad also represents potentialmovement toward G. C mixes with the B E dyad to imply a G C dyad.
133 the Pseudo tonic tonal area of the theme (and the movement), Chajes incorporates other scales in their harmonic forms to reinforce their corresp onding melodic pitches. These scales primarily consist of the generator scales of the Mixed Scale on A, D n eutral and E f alling, although he includes a brief Mixed Scale on G in bar 5(3). The E f alling s cale occupies bar 2(2 3), and exhibits both melodic and harmonic features through an E A dyads that precede an E m inor chord. 18 It re appears in measure 4(3) in a completely harmonic guise that supports a melodic E. Bar 5(3) contains a Mixed Scale on D. It consists of a harmonic A D dyad that precedes an implied D G dyad through the mixture of A, C, and D. 19 Bars 8(3) 16(2) consist of a variation on the First Theme. The composer chiefly differentiates it from measures 1 8(2) by placing the melody in the treble clef of the piano part, slightly embellishin g it, and writing a new counter melody in the violin part. 20 The counter melody reinforces the idea that the primary tonal area remains the same until bar 12, where the F that descends to E offers a hint that the E f alling s cale gains a more prominent posi tion later in the piece. Kauder notes in Counterpoint that the carefully avoids drawing attention to it in bars 1 8 to render it more prominent in the variation and to ma intain emphasis on A as the most significant pitch. 21 18 The chord, which encompasses a B E dyad, alludes to the B E tetrachord and B E pentachord via its boundary defining members, although the interaction between any type of B E and E A dyad constitutes the most prominent implication of the E falling scale 19 See Figure 4 1 20 See Examples 4 2, 4 3, and 4 4. He also reduces t he level of rhythmic complexity. 21 On the two occasions when F descends to E (in bars 3 4 and 5 6, respectively), he places the notes in different octaves and voices. He omits it, moreover, from the melody in the violin.
134 Example 4 3 Bars 12 15 Example 4 4 Bars 16 24 Further evidence of this theory rests in the fact that the composer accentuates melodic B in bar 12(1) with the Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on B as opposed to the E m inor triad he employs in bar 4(1 2). The difference in the ways in which he accompanies the pitch is significant due to the fact that the Kauder deemed the Mixed Scale on B exclusively compatible for combination with the E f alling s ca of this scale as supportive harmonic material also indicates that the haup t stimme
135 remains the melody that initially appears in the violin despite its move to the piano. Other passages suggest this notion as well. The last sonority in Bar 8 presents a clear manifestation of this idea through an E D dyad as the melody moves to the piano. It precedes a caesura and a crescendo in the piano part as if clarifying the significance of the relationship between the Pseudo dominant and Pseudo tonic pitches. The E in measure 11(1) constitutes a moderately complicated example of the way in which Chajes and Kauder call attention to pitches by placing them in the center of a series of notes Chajes manages to emphasize the melodic E in the treble clef of the piano as both a pitch and scale by surrounding it with the pitches B, D, F, and A. Arranging all of the notes within the beat yields a complex that spells F B E A D and situates E in the center of the E f alling s cale. It also situates the scale s quarely between the Mixed Scale on B and the Mixed Scale on A, its component scales. The G in bar 9(2) exemplifies a case in which the composer utilizes the accompanying voices to support the melody in an esoteric manner. The beat begins with the pitches G, A, and C, which imply a D G dyad as well as B. 22 A, C, E, and G follow, and these notes collectively imply gravitation toward an F B pentachord and D. These notes precede E, G, A, and B, a group of notes that implies an E A tetrachord as well as C. 23 T he beat concludes with an actual G C tetrachord. 24 His mixture of a G C tetrachord with an implied D G dyad and sonorities that allude to D and C form a symbolic Mixed Scale on G Thus, the accompaniment in this beat thus corroborates the notion that the melody remains the most significant voice regardless of its timbre. 22 See Figure 3 3 23 See Figu re 4 3. 24 See Example 4 2
136 Figure 4 3 Discussion of the combinat ory potential of E, G, A, and B Bars 16(2) 20 consist of a second variation on the First Theme. Chajes constructs it by setting melodic material from the beginning of the piece to measure 2(2) in diminution. He accentuates the fluctuating D and E from the initial three eighth notes of the movement through imitation in bars 16(2 4) and 17(2 4) to highlight the Pseudo tonic pitch of the movement. I contend that his desire to re affirm the Mixed Scale on A also accounts for his exclusive use of the pitches that lie within an A D pentachor d (which alludes to the A D tetrachord via its boundary defining members) I attribute this restriction to the fact that the penta chord counter balances the effect of the descending The pitches include E, G, A and B. E, G, and B stress G. B E A stresses E. G, A, and B stress A. E, G, and A require further analysis. The E A dyad is apparent. G and A represent potential movement toward an F B dyad as well as D. E and G represent potential movement toward an A D dyad. Intersecting E A and A D dyads stress the Mixed Scale on A. A combined with the F B dyad implies an A D dyad as well as F. E, G, A, and B imply an E A tetrachord.
137 melodic half step from F to E, which implies the E f alling s cale. The co penchant for equal stress on each primary dyad within the Mixed Scale on A also provides context for the D m inor triads that appear frequ ently throughout the excerpt. A problem arises in maintaining complete emphasis on A in the passage due to th e fact that the A D pentachord also contains E A and D G tetrachords. Chajes solves it by introducing and concluding the passages with B E dyads in bars 16(1) and 21(1), respectively. 25 Contrasting the multi scalar complexes th at include and exclude the B E dyads illustrate the way in which he achieves a symmetrical balance between the dual hybrid elements of the Mixed Scale on A. Wi thin bars 16(2) 20(3), the E A tetrachords, D G tetrachords, and A D pentachords establish E A D G, a complex that equally e mphasizes the Mixed Scale on A and the D n eutral s cale. It appears in various guises. In bar 17(1 3), it assumes the ascending form noted in the complex in the sense that the E A tetrachord descends to the A D pentachord before the D G tetrachord appears in 17(3) In measure 19(1 2), the composer presents the tetrachor ds in descending order. In bar 20 (beat 1 to the first eighth note of beat 2), he follows a D G tetrachord with E A dyads This descending motion draws focus toward an A D dyad which he also alludes to in the subsequent eighth note via a D minor triad Adding B E to the full theoretical E A D G complex yields B E A D G. In the composite complex, A lies in the center of the Mixed Scale on A. The scale also lies in the center of its two generator scales, the E f alling s cale and the D n eutral s cale, respectively. 25 See Example 4 4. The F B E A complex in the second eighth note of bar 16(2) equates to a B E dyad in the sense that it situates this sonority in its center. Chajes represents it on a scalar level by depicting both the Mixed Scale on B and the E f alling s cale.
138 The Transitional Theme occupies bars 21 48. I suggest that the passage requires this description due to the fact that it features a new key signature that it shares wit h the Se cond Theme. I ts frequent accidentals also imbue it with a somewhat tonally unstable quality. 26 I n this instance he sets the theme in ternary form by separating bars 21 33 from measure s 36 48 with a two bar interlude. Example 4 5 Bars 20 30 26 See Examples 4 5 and 4 6. piece in the aforementioned program notes, as he relat
139 Example 4 6 Bars 31 33 The theme incorporates several stylistic elements from Israeli Dance (for p iano ) including the relatively longer rhythmic durations, ornamental melodies, and hollow harmonies, although t he composer makes no overt mention of any Jewish programmatic content in connection to the f irst, t hird, or f ourth m ovement of the Sonata. The initial B E dyad s allude to a composite E A dyad in association with t he previous A D dyad in the sense that the major sixth between B and D represents potential contraction toward the quartal form of the sonority although the change in key signatu re hinders such combinations. Nevertheless, the treble clef contains an E in octaves that crosses the bar line which signifies that the E f alling s cale connects the themes. E also facilitates the journey from a passage that accentuates the Mixed Scale on A through the E f alling s cale to two the Mixed Scales on B in the second ei ghth note of measure 21(1). B constitutes the primary tonal center of the theme despite the various tonal contexts into which Chajes places it. Rhythmic analysis attests to this fact simply by virtue of the long durations he assigns to the pitch. Melodi c analysis produces the same result. The D in the violin part in bar 21(3) symbolizes potential expan s ion to ward the boundary defining members of an F B pentachord and foreshadows the true melodic F B tetrachord that appears in bar 22(3). It also stresse s
140 B by virtue of the tetrachords and pentachords through which it passes. The first such group of pitches consists of an implied an A D tetrachord Its borders represent potential expansion toward F (in an octaval form) which constitutes a Pseudo dominant of the Mixed Scale on B. 27 B similarly comprises a Pseudo dominant in the Mixed Scale on F. The second, the implied D G pentachord symbolizes potential contraction to ward B. The final sonority that encompasses the entire melodic range consists of a D F dyad. This sonority exhibits the potential to converge on E, a note which functions as a Pseudo dominant in the Mixed Scale on B. Likewise, B functions as the upper dominant in the E f alling s cale. In Bar 23, the composer emphasizes B as a central melodic pitch by surrounding it with its lower and upper neighbors A, and C. The implied C G tetrachord in measures 23(3) 24(3) embodies potential expan s ion to ward E (in the form of a harmonic octave) while the implied C F pentachord repres ents a complementary sonority to the F B tetrachord in the Mixed Scale on F. The implied B E tetrachord in measures 25(3) 26(1) stresses the B falling scale as its tonic pitch initially appears against E and F sharp, its dominant notes When F sharp for ms the new melodic peak in the last eighth note of measure 29(3), the violin part features fluctuati on between implied F sharp B pentachords and B E tetrachords These sonorities combine to allude to the B f alling s cale. Chajes continues to add higher me lodic pitches in bars 31 33, and this ascent culminates in bar 33 with a B that lays an octave above its counterpart in bar 21(1). The melody also concludes with the three primary pitches of the B f alling s cale, preceding the concluding pitch with E and F sharp. 27 Tetrachords symbolize expansion toward harmonic octaves.
141 Like the First Theme (and the entire movement), Chajes reinforces the melodic pitches with the harmonic background. He extends this policy further in the Transitional theme by emphasizing B on occ asions where he omits it from the melody. In this sense, he uses the musico gravitational force of the pitch to exploit the power of its invisible harmony. Bar 22(3) exemplifies this phenomenon in a clear fashion. The second fifth of this beat implies a n E f alling s cale. In spite of the fact that the sonority represents the combined musico gravitational force that A and B collectively exert, B is absent from the melody but nevertheless joins A as a dominant member of the E f alling s cale. The third fift h of the beat constitutes an E m inor chord. Although the chord signifies the expansion of G toward the B E pentachord the triad still embodies the harmonic manifestation of B descending by thirds. The fourth fifth of the beat contains a n implied Mixed ( seventh degree) Scale on B despite the fact that F occupies the melodic position. The last fifth of the beat consists of another E m inor triad that emphasizes G while perhaps placing equal or greater emphasis on B in the sense that, because it follows a M ixed Scale on B, it necessitates analysis in the same scale. Thus, it truly represents the chord that forms when the tonic of the Mixed Scale on B descends by thirds. The harmonic sonority from the second quarter note of 23(1) to the first fifth of measu re 24(3) serves the same purpose. Its pitches encompass F, A, C, and E, which collectively implies B through the contraction of the F E and A C dyads (in a pitch arrangement that spans a major seventh) The fact that B never appears in these passages exe mplifies its power as an abstract force. This is especially true given that the A only intersects with C two beats after the harmonic sonority begins. When B re appears in bar 25(1), the composer places it in a central position between C, F, E, and
142 A, fo rming C F B E A. This complex, which includes the previous harmonic sonority, situates B in the center of the Mixed Scale on B. The s cale also lies in the middlemost point between the Mixed Scale on F and the E f alling s cale. The F sharp that follows in measure 25 further exemplifies the growth of the power Chajes relegates to B, as it forms the tonic pitch of the B f alling s cale. This scale represents one of only three sca les Kauder deems fundamental. The accidental also secondarily stresses the princ ipal pitch of the movement, as the key signature containing one sharp also renders the scale on A the A n eutral s cale. Chajes elevates B to its highest status in the last quarter n ote of the theme in bar 33(3) via the Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on F sha rp, since Kauder advises mixing seventh degree scales with f alling s cales. In this sense, Chajes designates the B f alling s cale a necessity in order to justify writing the Mixed Scale on F sharp. He fulfills this duty in bars 34 3 5 with a two bar interlu de that heavily stresses the B f alling s cale. 28 He overtly expresses the F sha rp B tetrachord in measures 34(2 3 ) and 35(2 3 ) in the right hand of the piano part although the alternating A m inor and F sharp diminished chords in bars 34( 4 ), 35( 4 ), and 35( 6 ) demonstrate his equally strong penchant for sending c oded musical messages due to the fact that the composite chord incorporates the notes F sharp, A, C, and E, which implies B through the combination of A with C and F sharp with E. This sonority also represents a chromatically altered version of the chord in the Transitional Theme that uses F natural as opposed to F sharp. The most discernible difference between the Second Theme and the variation on it includes the recurring four note motive in the vi olin part. 28 See Example 4 7
143 Example 4 7 Bars 34 35 It consists of the pitches E, F sharp, G, and A. 29 F sharp often intersects with the F natural in the piano part. Thus, one particularly noteworthy consequence of the new motive in the violin part involves a considerably higher level of dissonance. Example 4 8 Bars 36 41 29 See Examples 4 8 and 4 9.
144 Example 4 9 Bars 41 49 Despite the fact that this tetrachord assumes necessary functions in both E and A based scales the order in which the composer a rranges the pitches reflects an emphasis on B. This is due to the fact that E always precedes F sh arp. T he F sharp A dyads m oreover, imply potential expansion toward the boundary defining members of B E pent achords. This new motive in the violin reflects larger trends in the harmonic
145 background, as Chajes continues to use harmonies that reflect the melodic pitches as well as a particular scalar hierarchy in spite of the shifting tonal contexts. Bars 37(3) and 41(3) represent subtle cases in which B proves to be more significant than E in the melody despit e the oscillation bet ween F sharp and F natural. The first half of these beats contain F sharp B E A complex es that mer ge with the notes E, F sharp, G, and B which collectively imply an F sharp B tetrachord. 30 Figure 4 4 Discussion of the combinatory potential of E, F sharp, G and B 30 See Figure 4 4
146 The beat lacks an E f alling s cale, and this omission suggests that the composer intentionally grants B more prominence by associating it with a fundamental scale rather than a hybrid scale. It also allows him to emphasize the melodic pitch symb olically as well as literally. Measure 38(2) provides further evidence of the technique by which he highlights B by utilizing it as an invisible source of musical energy irrespective of the fact that it includes an F sharp that soun ds against an F natural. In the first third of the beat, he follows an A in octaves with an A G dyad. Because A implies gravitation to ward a C F sharp dya d and an A G dyad suggests potential motion toward an F sharp B dyad this portion of the beat implies a Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on F sharp, which is only compatible with the B f alling s cale. The third sixth of the beat consists of the familiar chord containing the pitches F natural, A, C, and E which implies B as the tonal center of the Mixed Scale on B. Although this sonority necessitates combination with the E f alling s cale, Chajes immediately follows it with an additional F sharp. Coalescing the entire second third of the beat, a sonority forms that encompasses F natural, F sharp, A, C, a nd E. This chord simultaneously emphasizes two forms of the Mixed Scale on B. It renders B an essential tone that unites both F and F sharp. In this tone Double Scale. 31 Kauder derives this scale by assigning each tri tone different names and to distinguish himself from Arnold Schoenberg and the Twelve Tone System, which he disliked but believed constituted an 31 Kauder first mentions this scale in a letter that precedes his 1933 Sonata for Flute and Piano He omits discussion of it in Entwurf although he includes such commentary in Counterpoint
147 inevitable reality. In the present case, this requires assuming that an absent E sharp coexists with F nat ural as a distinct tone. 32 Figure 4 5 Diagram of the Thirteen tone B d ouble s cale The F natural disappears in the last third of this beat, and the pitches imply potential expansion toward the boundary defining members of a B E pent achord. Because the F sharp remains, the sonority encapsulates the relationship between the B f alling s cale and the Mixed Scale on E. The same technique affirms B via its power as a unifying force wherever F and F sharp intersect. In bar 39(3), the composer reinforces the idea through a double scale on C, the upper leading tone, as the second third of the beat contains a synchronous F natural, F sharp, G, and C. He also 32 See Figure 4 5. Norman Dee relates that Kauder believed Schoenberg represented an apocalyptic horseman in the sense that he predicted tha t the tonal system used during the common practice period would achieve permanent superiority. His opposition to the system relates only to the fact that the tonic pitch cannot occupy a central position or exert a musico gravitational force, and thus it cannot make met Alban Berg on at least one occasi Verklrte Nacht a work that pre dates the Twelve Tone System.
148 highlights B by preceding this scale with a long melodic A. The emphasis on B remains intact throughout the remainder of the variation, as Chajes concludes it with a sonority that encompasses the pitches C, D, E, and G. These notes collectively imply a D G tetrachord as well as B 33 Figure 4 6 Discussion of the combinatory potential of C, D, E, and G 33 See Figure 4 6.
149 H e subsequently uses the muisco graviational force B exerts to produce the G m ajor chord that constitutes the first triad of the Second Theme, which begins in bar 49. He adheres to his pattern of following each theme with a variation, as the new theme occupies bars 49 52 and the variation follows it in bars 53 68(2). 34 Example 4 10 Bars 48 52 Example 4 1 1 Bars 53 54 34 See Examples 4 10 and 4 11.
150 I believe the Second Theme exemplifies thematic transformation. The melody in the violin part mirrors its counterpart from bars 1 4 of the First Theme as D, E, and G constitute the initial three pitches. The melodic implied B E pent achord in bar 50(5) also highlights G via its equivalent musico gravitational force. An A follows it in bar 51(1 2), and its relatively long rhythmic duration recalls the way in which the composer emphasizes it in measure 2(2) after he introduces G in bar 1(2). The subsequent E A tetrachord and B E pentachord also bear a likeness to bars 3 4(2). He alters the character of the theme by setting portion s of it in the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on D, which shares the D G tetrachord with the G r ising s cale. I contend that this tonal deviation reflects his effort to distinguish it from its previously somber, austere guise that alludes to the E f alling s cal e by traversing B E dyads T he melody however, broadly reflects A, the principal pitch of the movement in the sense that he utilizes the A n eutral s cale to unite the Mixed Scale on D with the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E. Thus, he incorporates the familiar B E A D G complex in a new context in which the A n eutral s cale lies equidistantly between its two component scales, the Mixed Scale on E and the Mixed Scale on D. This complex also permeates the harmonic background, as Chajes sets portions of th e theme in the B f alling s cale and the G r ising s cale. The composer also draws inspiration for the Second Theme from the A D pent achords in bars 16 20. These sonorities, which often assume the form of E A D G complexes, comprise much of the harmonic bac kground in bars 49 52. The first such complex functions as connective tissue between the Transitional Theme and the Second Theme. The implied D G tetrachord stems from the last sonority of bar 48(3). 35 35 See Example 4 10.
151 It precedes a B D dyad, a sonority that represents po tential expan s ion to ward the boundary defining members of an E A pent achord, in bar 49(1) The two sonorities combine to form an E A D G complex. This multi scalar entity also recurs in bars 49(2), 49(4), 50(2), 50(4), and 50(5). 36 It occasionally impacts the triads that intersect with it by pairing them with sonorities other than their intra scalar complementary opposites. In this way, Chajes transforms chords into microcosms of the hybridity associated with m ixed s cales, as they serve equally significan t functions in two scales. The G m ajor chord in bar 49(1) and the A m inor chord in bar 51(1) exemplify this concept. The G m ajor chord f orms the complex in combination with the B D dyad it follows, as this sonority symbolizes potential expansion toward t he boundary defining members of an E A pent achord. Its role in the A n eutral s cale consists of the rising lower leading tone. In the Mixed Scale on D, it comprises falling Pseudo tonic. The A m inor chord constructs the complex in combination with the A C dyad that precedes it as this sonority signifies potential gravitation toward a D G dya d. In the A n eutral s cale, it represents the chord that forms when the tonic pitch rises by thirds and when the upper dominant falls by thirds. In the Mixed Scal e on D, it symbolizes the descending upper leading tone. The variation in bars 53 56 consists of a solo piano passage that amalgamates accompanying material from the theme into one clef. 37 The composer omits many of the tetrachords and pentachords in the bass clef of the theme, which consequentially forms several Mixed Scales on E and B f alling s cales. 36 Bar 50(1 4) repeats bar 49(1 4). 37 See Example 4 12
152 Example 4 12 Bars 53 56 The Mixed Scales on E and the B f alling s cales often appear in close proximity, and measures 53(3) and 54(5) further emphasiz e the B E dyads they share via F sharp B E A complexes. Bar 55(2 3) also accentuates a B E dyad through an aggregate C F sharp B E A D complex. The G A dyad in bar 55(2) represents potential expan s ion to ward the boundary defining members of a n F sharp B tetrachord, and the subsequent F sharp A dyad signifies potential contraction to ward the boundary defining members of a B E tetrachord. The E D dyad in bar 55(3) symbolizes potential expan s ion to ward the boundary defining members of a C F sharp tetrachord, and the A D dyad that follows it implies a n A D tetrachord The E D dyad and A D dyads also imply an A n eutral s cale via their combined pitches. Although these scales appear in the theme, Chajes adds several Mixed Scales on F sharp in the va riation while using the Mixed Scale on D and the G r ising s cale only within the three E A D G complexes. The primary scalar emphasis, therefore, rests in the B f alling s cale and the Mixed Scale on E. The Mixed Scale on F Sharp and the A n eutral s cale pla y supportive roles by situating the primary scales at equ idistant points between them. This emphasis figures prominently in bars 57 68(2), as the composer uses the musico gravitational force of the B E pentachord to construct a quasi pointillist passage t hat lies primarily in the G r ising s cale. He derives
153 a new melodic motive from thematic transformation via directional inversion, as its primary rhythmic pattern consists of two eighth notes that precede two quarter notes. 38 This gesture recalls bars the First Theme. The counter melody from the Second Theme and its variation occupy the treble clef of the piano part until bar 61, when a voice exchange occurs between it and the new melody from the violin. The bass clef primarily features D G and G C dyads that reinforce the idea that the passage firmly establishes the G r ising s cale. Example 4 1 3 Bars 57 64 Example 4 1 4 Bars 65 70 38 See Examples 4 13 and 4 14
154 He uses the E A D G complex to exit the Second Theme and begin the development in the same manner he employs it to ent er it, as the C A dyad in bar 68 (2) represents potential expansion toward the boundary defining members of a D G pentachord that precedes a B D dyad, a sonority that represents potential expansion to ward the boundary defining members of an E A pentachord This intra thematic complex provides the listener a constant reminder of the initial four melodic pitches and embeds the notion of large scale unity into the movement despite its changes in thematic character. He also broadly emphasizes A throughout bars 21 68(2) by rendering B and G, the leading tones, complementary opposites in the sense that multiple scales on B strongly influence the Tr ansitional Theme and begin the d evelopment, while the G r ising s cale plays a significant role in the Second Theme. I suggest that Chajes continues to utilize this oscillation be tween B and G to construct the development s ection, which begins in bar 68(3). Its melody consists of material from the First Theme, while the treble clef of the piano part recalls the variatio n on the Transitional Theme from bars 36 46. It traverses the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B from bars 68(3) 72(2). This hybrid scale contains elements of the E n eutral s cale and the F sharp falling s cale. The composer demonstrates his penchant for contrapuntal devices throughout the section, although the canons at the quarter note in bars 68(3) 88(2) last for ten beats due to thematic deviations between the voices. In measures 72(3) 76(2), he sets the sam e passage in the Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on C. The first three eighth notes of bar 76 consist of a melodic G. The note represents a quasi
155 cadential point in the sense that it temporarily concludes a progression of descending implied tetrachords betwe en E and G. 39 Figure 4 7 P rogression of descending implied tetrachords in bars 69(2) 75(2) This progression illustrates the B G fluctuation directly in the sense that a melody that begins on B concludes with G, although the symbolic E m inor triad reveal s a high degree of obscurity, as each pitch assumes an equally important function in its creation. B forms the sonority when it falls by thirds, while G creates it by expanding to it. Regardless of his penchant for exploiting this ambiguity, though it s erves a clearer purpose in surrounding A when it represents G. Chajes temporarily ends the vacillation by ascending to A in the melody in the last eighth note of bar 76(2). 40 He resumes it in 39 See Figure 4 7 40 See Example 4 15.
156 bars 76(3) 80, a passage that heavily emphasizes B via the scal es through which it passes. Example 4 15 Bars 76 81 The first eighth note of bar 76(3) features a Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B. Although a Mixed (fifth degree) scale on A appears in bar 77(3), an E A pentachord follow s it until the second eighth note of measure 78(2), when an F sharp d iminis hed chord appears. B ar 77(3) alludes to an E A tetrachord via a complex (B E A D) and bar 78(1) contain s
157 the pitches B, D, and E which also imply an E A dyad 41 Figure 4 8 Discus sion of the combinatory potential of B, D, and E 41 See Figure 4 8. D and E also suggest potential expansion toward the boundary defining members of a C sharp F sharp tetrachord. The pitches include B, D, and E. The B E dyad is apparent. B and D imply potential movement toward an E A dyad. D and E collectively signify potential movement toward a C F sharp dyad and A. Intersecting B E and E A dyads stress the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E as well as the E neutral Scale. Combining E with a C F sharp dyad implies an E A dyad.
158 These dyads embody potential gravitation toward C. Combined with the Pseudo tonic pitch of the Mixed Scale on A they emphasize B. The potential musical energy assumes a kinetic form in bar 78(2) 78(3). I n measure 78(2), the adjacent A minor and F sharp d iminished chords collectively stress B through the combination of A with C and F sharp with E. In measure 78(3), a Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on C reinforces the previous E A dyads via the equivalent mus ico gravitational force. A G m ajor triad follows in the first eighth note of bar 79(1), and this chord also places emphasis on B due to its equivalent potential musical energy. The subsequent sonority also implies a D G dyad through the pitches A, C, and D. 42 Bar 79(2) stresses C via implied E A dyads A Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on F sharp follows it in bar 79(3), which temporarily renders A as a point of balance, although t he scale also suggests emphasis on B by virtue of the fact that this tone constitutes one of its dominant members. The subsequent B G dyad also accentuates A. In b ar 80(1), the composer restores B to its prominent role via an A C dyad in the first eighth note. The two subsequent sonorities emphasize A. 43 He was likely fully cognizant of the fact that resolving the passage without descending to G precludes A from truly occupying its most central position, since such a conclusion leaves B at the middlemost point between A and C. He solves this problem in bar 80(2) with an F sharp d iminished chord that precedes a D m ajor chord. Their combined pitches, which include D, F sharp, A, and C, imply G and potential gravitation toward the boundary defining members of a B E pentachord in the sense that F sharp intersects A and D merges with C. 42 See Figure 4 1. 43 See Figure 4 9 for the sonority containing the pitches G, B, and C. The F sharp diminished chord in the first eighth note of bar 80(2) accentuates the potential that C F sharp dyads possess to converge on A.
159 Figure 4 9 Discussion of the combi natory potential of G, B, and C This descent facilitates the true resolution on the A n eutral s cale in bar 80(3), although this beat also represents an elided entrance into subsequent material. The melody reflects the considerable attention Chajes devotes to B before the descent to G and resoluti on on A, although an analysis that utilizes a cycle o f fourths depicts it more clearly than a discussion of a linear sequence. I base this conclusion on the idea that B bonds with both F sharp and E in B related scales, although the B E dyad that links the The pitches include G, B, and C. The G C dyad is apparent. G and B imply potential movement toward a C F sharp dyad. B and C imply potential movement toward an A D dyad and F sharp. Intersecting C F sharp and G C dyads stress the Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on C. C combined with an A D dyad implies a C F sharp dyad.
160 introductory and concluding pitches emphasizes G. This dyad also links the two notes that precede and follow the ascending cycle, which begins and ends on F sharp. 44 Figure 4 10 Ascending cycle of f ourths from F sharp Bars 81 88 feature a voice exchang e between each clef of the piano part from bars 68(3) 80(2). Bars 80(3) 88(2) constitute a repetition of bars 68(3) 76(2), although Chajes transposes the material a perfect fourth higher. Bars 80(3) 84(2) broadly emphasize the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E, which appears in bar 83(2) as B E dyads precede a sonority containing the pitches B, D, and E. 45 The scales to which the Mixed Scale on E owes its origin, the A n eutral and B f alling s cale s each appear in bars 82(2) and 84(1), respectively. 46 These f our bars also accentuate A via implied vacillation between B and G, since a D G tetrachord introduces them and an E m inor triad concludes them. Bars 84(3) 88(2) accentuate the Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on 44 See Figure 4 10 45 See Figure 4 8. 46 Chajes presents these scales in recogniza ble guises and therefore no further commentary is necessary F sharp B E A D G C
161 F, whi ch appears in bar 87(2) as C F dyads prece de the notes C, E, and F, which imply an F B dyad 47 Figure 4 11 Discussion of the combinatory potential of C, E, and F Chajes also incorporates its generator scale, the C r ising s cale in measure 88(1) and the Mixed Scale on B, the scale with which the Mixed Scale on F shares the F B tetrachord, in bar 86(2). He utilizes these particular scales in bars 85 88(2) to counter balance the musico gravitational force of the E m inor triad in bar 84(3) in the sense that B constitutes a dominant pitch of F relate d scales, while E is a leading tone. D esignating A as a central pitch however, requires constant flux between B and G, and the E m inor chord returns in bar 88(3) in a passage that begins in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E. Bars 88(3) 97(2) consist of an extended imitative passage the composer sets the melody in the violin part in canon with itself in the treble clef of the piano part at the duration of a quarter note and at the interval of an octave. Measures 88(3) 92(2) 47 See Figure 4 11.
162 feature multiple scalar cha nges, although he combines the Pseudo tonic pitches of each scale to derive the tonal area in which he sets bars 93 96. 48 48 See Example 4 16 Example 4 16. Bars 87 95
163 Bar 89(1) contains B E dyads that precede a sonority with that encompass the pitches D, E, F sharp, and A. It implies an E A tetrachord In combination with the previous B E dyads, it also forms an implied Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E. 49 Figure 4 12 Discussion of the combinatory potential of D, E, F sharp and A The s cale in bar 90 is less apparent, although the fact that the Pseudo tonic pitch of the previous scale corresponds to the initial melodic eighth note suggests that Chajes sets the measure in the original Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A. I t features a D minor triad that intersects an aggregate E A tetrachord. Bar 91(1) contains a Mixed (fourth degree) S cale on F. In this beat, an F major chord (which spans a C F pentachord) merges with 49 See Figure 4 12
164 a sonority that contains the pitches E, F, G, and B. 50 It implies an F B tetrachord. A B flat appe ars in bar 91(3), which transforms the Mixed Scale on F into the F r ising s cale until bar 92(1). This new key signature also renders the scale on A a fundamental scale, as the principal note of the movement functions as the tonic of the A f alling s cale. The way in which the composer juxtaposes the Mixed Scales on F and A reinforces the B E pent achord on a representational level, as the F A dyad expands to it. Furthermore E, F, and A also collectively imply a B E dyad 51 The B flat produces no effect upon its potential musical energy, as the B flat E dyad also implies expansion toward G (in a n octaval form) Chajes capitalizes on this cumulative musico gravitational force in measures 93 96, a passage that clearly traverses the G n eutral s cale. H e borrows its melody from the Second Theme. I base this conclusion on the similarities in the melodic contour of each presentation, as the Second Theme also contains an initial ascending perfect fourth that returns to the tonic before ascending a perfect fifth. T he composer withholds drastic changes in its character and thus furnishes insufficient evidence of a thematic transformation, as both versions of it accentuate n eutral s cales. Measures 97 99 comprise material from the Transitional Theme. 52 The primary tr iads include D m inor and A m inor chords. The way in which Chajes juxtaposes these chords indicates that he sets the excerpt in the A f alling s cale, as they feature adj acent E A and A D dyads although h e places E A D G complexes in bars 97(2) and 98(3). In both cases, C A dyads merge with sonorities that encompass the pitches A B flat, and 50 See Figure 4 4 E, F, G, and B imply the same tetrachord as E, F sharp, G, and B. 51 See Figure 4 12 E, F, and A imply the same tetrachord as E, F sharp, and A. 52 See Example 4 17.
165 D. These sonorities imply E A dyads 53 These poly scalar sonorities recall the all three themes as well as the first three pitches of the piece. The familiar materia l and tonic pit ch reinforce the idea that the r ecapitulation lies in close proximity to the quotation. Twenty three measures separate the passage from the large scale section. Example 4 17 Bars 96 101 Figure 4 13 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B flat, A, and D 53 See Figure 4 13. The pitches include B flat, A, and D. The A D dyad is apparent. B flat and A imply potential movement toward a G C dyad. B flat and D represent potential movement to an E A dyad. Intersecting A D and E A dyads stress A and the A Falling Scale. A combined with the G C dyad implies an E A dyad.
166 Bars 100 121 resemble measures 68(2) 97. Both passages share the progression in which material from the anacrusis chromatically ascends before the initial rhythmic gesture (consisting of two eighth notes that precede two quar ter notes) appears alongside its directional inversion. In the latter excerpt the composer employs one of his standard variation techniques in which he utilizes particular pitches as pedal point to create Bach like textures. I believe his predilection f or this device stems from Kauder, as it allows composers to imply polyphony without directly utilizing multiple musical voices. He exploits the pedal point in bars 108(3) 115(1) to render the gradually a scending E A and A D dyads more prominent agai nst a more static background. Chajes sustains the E in the violin part for the entire passage. This pitch functions as a large scale bonding agent in the same way it connects the First Theme to the Transitional Theme in bars 20 21. In the latter passage, he u ses it to connect scales that contain B flat and B natural in a manner that recalls the implied B d ouble s cale from the Transitional T heme. The strategic value in designating this pitch as a mediator between disparate tonal worlds lies in the fact that it creates a gradual functional exchange using a large scale symbolic E A dyad : In bars 100 114(2), the B flat in the key signature dictates that the E based scale consists of the Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on E, while the A based scale consists of the fu ndamental A f alling s cale. As B natural emerges, the E based scale becomes the fundamental E f alling s cale while A assumes its initial role as the Pseudo tonic of the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A. The composer emphasizes this scalar transformation by concurrently altering the context of the familiar F B E A complex in bars 118 121. 54 Despite its former function as a symbol 54 See Example 4 18.
167 of the potential musical energy associated with G, its new purpose concerns asserting the notion that the B E tetrachord complements the E A tetrachord within the E f alling s cale. 55 Example 4 18 Bars 112 121 This musical message ( which constitutes the climax of the development section) acts as a unifying element in the sense that E facili tates the large scale sojourn away from the Mixed Scale on A as well the journey back to it. Bar 121(3) 129(2) constitute slightly varied version of bars 1 8 in the Mixed Scale on A. The deviation lies in the way in which Chajes reduces the level of rhy thmic complexity in 121(3) 129(2). 56 He retains the majority of the triads he uses in the first half of the First Theme, although the E m inor chord in bar 127(3) and the G m ajor triad in bar 128(1) constitute notable exceptions due to the fact that they re call the oscillation 55 This complex assumes a quartal pitch arrangement. 56 See Examples 4 18 and 4 19
168 between B and G that figures prominently in the d evelopment s ection. Both triads contain the B G dyad. Example 4 19 Bars 122 129 In combination, they also form an aggregate chord that features the pitches E, G, B, and D. This chord implies A through the D E dyad as well as the B G dyad. Bars 129(3) 140 consist of a literal reprise of the variation on the First Theme from bars 8(2) 19. The composer distinguishes bar 141 from bar 20 by extending the range of pitches beyond five notes that lie within the A D pent achord. 57 He also borrows the melodic minor sixth from bars 78 and 80 in the treble clef of the piano part, although h e in ve rts it 57 See Example 4 20
169 by setting its pitches between G and B to recollect the period of B G vacillation in the development s ection. Although he constructs the E A D G complex in the first two quarter notes by comb ining a D G tetrachord with an E A pent ac hord, the third quarter note consists of a composite B E tetrachord. Intersecting B E and E A dyads imply the E f alling s cale. The entire measure consists of a B E A D G complex, which situates the Mixed Scale on A in its original position between the E f alling s cale an d the D n eutral s cale. Example 4 20 Bars 1 40 14 4 The last quarter note itself also implies an F B E A complex. 58 It also features the same E in the piano that connects the First Theme to the Transitional Theme. Both the complex and the pitch signal that E acts as a thematic and scalar mediator by connecting the reprise of the First Theme to the repetition of the T ransitional Theme, which beings in the E f alling s cale. Chajes omits the variation on the Transitional Theme as well as the interlude from bars 34 35 in its repetition, which occupies bars 141 152. He also alters particular harmonic sonorities in order t o place equal emphasis on A and E. The harmonic Mixed 58 Ibid.
170 Scales on A in bars 143(1 2) the musico gravitational force E exerts with A related elements. In both of these instances, a harmonic manifestatio n of the Mixed Scale on A accompanies a melodic E. 59 Two E A D G complexes also demonstrate the way in which Chajes utilizes a symbolic E A tetrachord to portray each pitch as equally significant in this excerpt. Example 4 21 Bars 145 150 In bar 14 7( 1 2), he exclusively incorporates these pitches despite the fact that an E appears in the melody. In this context, he continues to emphasize E as a generator of the harmonic background, although he utilizes it as the lower boundary of a complex tha t conta ins the Mixed Scale on A and the D n eutral s cale. In bar 149(1 2 ), the composer attaches the complex to a chord that implies a B E pentachord through the 59 See Examples 4 20 and 4 21
171 pitches D, F, A, and C. The aggregate complex, B E A D G, emphasizes A. This example cons titutes a departure from bar 144 (1 2 ), where the melodic D lies within a chord that accentuates E through the pitches B flat, D, F, and A. Measures 154 161 consist of a repetition of the Second Theme and its variation in the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on E. The a bstract E A tetrachord thus functions as a thematic mediator, as the transition from the E f alling s cale to the Mixed Scale on E creates another functional exchange due to the fact that the character of the E based scale changes from fundamental to hybrid while the nature of the A based scale shifts from mixed to fundamental. In measures 162 173 Chajes transposes material from bars 57 68 to the A r ising s cale. The fact that he sets passages in the A n eutral, A f alling, and A r ising s cales creates a musical universe according to Kau of tonal centers as orbital centers, as he notes in Counterpoint that gravity in non contrapuntal music dictates that sonorities have the potential to rise toward light or sink toward the Earth. 60 In Chajes A occupies both earth and sky. Norman Dee also notes that Kauder mentioned to him that the Rising Scale represents the material world while the Falling Scale symbolizes the spiritual realm. 61 logic, then, A occupi es T he Coda, which occupies bars 174 187 encapsulates a return to the center of this A based musical world due to the fact that the composer sets it in the Mixed (six th degree) Scale on A. Bars 174 177 comprise an exact tr anspositi on of material from measures 170 173. Measures 178 181 (2) recall bars 100 121 through their common 60 Counterpoint 17 18. 61 Norman Dee. Personal Interview. 13 February 2009
172 use of pedal point. These four bars concretely display the oscillation between B and G. 62 The canon at the interval of an octave and at the distan ce of the quarter note between the violin and the piano in bars 181(3) 185 initially appears in bars 80(2) 97(1). Chajes necessarily varies the material in the bass clef of the piano to maintain emphasis on the Mixed Scale on A through its internal elemen ts as opposed to its related scales. Example 4 22 Bars 177 187 This necessity expla ins the E G dyad in the bass clef in bar 183 (2). It represents potential contraction to ward the boundary defining members of an A D tetra chord. The F m aj or chord in bar 184 (2) similarly depicts the potential that A possesses to expand toward the boundary defining members of a C F pentachord This brief contrapuntal 62 See Example 4 22.
173 passage contains several elements that re flect earlier material. Bars 18 0 (2) 18 2(1) recall the vacilla ting gesture, as they feature a B G dyad that converges on A. Measure 1 83 (2) contains a harmonic E A D G complex that adds a sense of closure through a repetition of the first four distinct melodic pitches of the piece. The violin part also contains a me lodic manifest ation of the complex in bars 184 185 The Mixed Scale on A simultaneously appears in its purest form (according to Kauder) in the treble cl ef of the piano part in bars 184(2) 185 (2) It reflects bars 1 8(2) while affirming the principal ton al area. The adjoining E m inor triad and E A dyads in bars 185 (3) 1 86(1) imply an E f alling s cale, although the movement between sonorities also implies that B, the upper leading tone to A, falls by thirds toward an A related sonority. Their juxtapositio n represents adherence to musical gravity in the sense that the E f alling s cale engenders the meaning of the word cadence, which derives its origin from the Latin term cado cadere 63 The two beats of silence in bar 187 give the movement a co mplete sense of resolution to the movement, since the anacrusis figures prominently in the First Theme, the Transitional Theme, and the d evelopment s ection. The abundant examples of instances in both the sonata and Israeli Dance in which Chajes utilizes m odal scales in the contexts Kauder delineates in Entwurf and Counterpoint suggests that he remained steadfast in his desire to satisf y his teacher during t he thirteen years that separate these works from String Quartet No. 2 The s econd m ovement of the Sonata, recalls the s econd m ovement of String Quartet No. 2 due to its brief duration of thirty four measures. It features a curious blend of disparate stylist ic and programmatic elements. Given the 63 Norman Dee relates that Kauder was proficient in several ancient and modern languages, including several forms of Ancient Greek, Latin, and Hebrew.
174 fact that the Holoca ust was still in progress at the time the composer self published the movement, the inscription that precedes the 1944 version places it in a post modern death in Alban utter helplessness pervades. From the distance: Church bells are ringing monotonously 64 Chajes indicates in an undated draft of program notes for a chamber music concert that the sustained D in octaves in the b ass clef of the piano part symbolizes the church bells. I believe he underscores the notion that only time and place (Warsaw) unite the Holocaust victims to the bells by concluding the movement in the A n eutral s cale despite the pervasive D. 65 The distanc e betw een the victims and the church (a perceived popular so urce of salvation) assumes a more metaphorical meaning in light of the composer s overt dissatisfaction with specifically Christian Anti Semitism In spite of his membership in the Detroit Roundt able for Catholics, Protestants, and Jews, he publicly criticized the Catholic Church for what he believed constituted its unwillingness Anti Semitism spreads like cancer, and unfort unately the cancer lies in the doctrine of the Christian Church (Catholic, Protestant, Lutheran, etc.). Only if the Christian Church will recognize the existence and validity of Judaism, will anti Semitism diminish and perhaps one day disappear. Every po grom during the past 2000 years had its slogan: "Christ killers must die!" Almost every Jewish child who attends the first grade in Poland or Austria is called a "Christ killer" and I personally suffered from the experience. Herzl, being obsessed with th e idea of a "land for the Jews no matter where" did not realize what it meant when Pope Pius X told him: "The Hebrews have not recognized Christ, therefore, we cannot recognize the Jews!" Or, when 64 Chajes, personal collection of the author Transcontinental omitted the inscription from its 1955 version, and a strong possibility exists that its removal reflects a desire to reflect mourning generally. 65 While the A
175 Cardinal Merry de Val, the Papal Secretary said: "As long as the Jews deny the divinity of Christ, we cannot declare ourselves in their favor!" In these two statements lies the quintessence of Anti Semitism. The six million Jews would not have been killed during Hitler's regime, were it not for the fact that Po pe Pius XII did not raise any objection to the extermination of the Jews. The French have burned at the stake Joan of Arc, but no one hates the French The Greeks gave poison to Socrates, yet no one blames the Greeks for it The Italians accused Galileo and almost murdered him, but no one blames the Italians. The Jews had the right to accuse Jesus because he was their subject. They did not and could not know that one day his disciple Saul, (later Paul) would be the founder of a new religion and would As long as the church will not recognize our right to bel ieve in our own religion, Anti Semitism will not diminish. 66 His use of a canon in a movement that bears features of his Israeli/Palestinian style however, also portray s him as a musico historical and cultural mediator in the sense that counterpoint bears a considerably stronger association to European intellectual elitism than the incipient Israeli nationalist ideology ( that glorifies settling the Land of Israel throug h manual labor), although he likely anticipated receiving little criticism for deviating from Zionist Zeitgeist by virtue of the fact that a prayer constitutes a universal yet subjec tive and personal experience. H e had merged these elements before moreov er, in his Op. 24, No. 1, Tefilah (Pr ayer), which he composed in 1935 The earlier work resembles in the sense that Chajes sets it for violin and piano, uses an implied A D tetrachord as its first harmonic sonority, emphasizes a melodic A, and embeds imitative polyphony. 67 Although both works share the key signature associated with the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D and the A f alling s cale, the composer utilizes it for d rastically different purposes. 66 67 See Example 4 23
176 Example 4 23 Tefil ah, Bars 1 7 In Tefil ah I contend that he attempts to depict prayers he heard while living in British controlled Palestine from 1934 1936, as he associated the most authentic Israeli/Palestinian music with Yemenite and Bedouin Jews who allegedly sang prayers and secular songs in the Dorian and Phrygian m odes. Thus, the Mixed (sixth degree Scale) afforded him the opportunity to merge objective elements of t wo generator scales with subjective Jewish programmatic elements I ts context in yer contrasts with the earlier work, since it reflects a purely subjectively Jewish application of f alling scales embody the spiritual world. The second concept concerns the alte rnative nomenclature Kauder uses for the N eutral S cale. In addition to labeling this scale as such, he also designates it in Counterpoint as the Ambivalent Scale. His commentary concerning the harmonic implications related to the scale indicate that it a ssumes a neutral or ambivalent character because it defies the logic associated with the laws of musical gravity:
177 According to the ambiguity and bi polarity of the neutral scale, almost everything in its chord system function s in a contradictory sense; the tonic yields an under chord in rising direction, an over chord in falling direction, the upper dominant under chords and the lower dominant over chords in both directions. Owing to the lack of a leading tone, th e neutral cadence lacks the closing force of the rising or falling cadence, but this, too, is in full accordance with the character of this scale. 68 In therefore, Chajes addresses the need for spiritual comfort various atrocities. This aspect of seeking to know why reason fails to prevent tragedy mirrors the way in which the narrator questions Go d in Leonard B ( Kaddish ) Symphony. Chajes also asks these difficult questions overtly in a hand te 6,000,000 Jews. Where was th e Red Cross? Where were the newsp aper reporters? Why did they take so long to find out what was going on in the Concentration camps? If dogs would have been exterminated, the societ ies for prevention of cruelty to animals would have reacted, but whe n Jews were exterminated the entire world kept silent! 69 Similar questions pervade another hand written document in which the composer asks about Go gins with the questions about Go toward Jews in Babylon, Ancient Rome, Medieval Europe, Nineteenth Century Russia, and early Twentieth Century Po (sic) when the Warsaw Ghetto 68 Kauder, Counterpoint, 17 69 Hand written letter David Loring, e mail to the author, 20 November 2009. The letter post dates 1973, as Chajes later extends his frustration with Anti Semitism to a include disapproval of a 1973 United Natio ns vote to condemn Israel.
178 went up in flames in spite of a superhuman effort and heroism of the Jewish 70 Perhaps the tragically illogical events that took place in the Warsaw Ghetto leave the mourner speechless in the f irst bar, where the notes in the bass clef of the piano part toll the church bell with a D in octaves. This pitch choice creates cyclcism in the sense that the f irst m ovement ends with E A dyads that combine with it in order to allude to a symbolic, trans movement A based s cale. 71 In bar 2, the violin enters with the initial melodic gesture from the f irst m ovement consisting of a descending melodic whole step that precedes a return to the previous pitch. 72 Example 4 24 Bars 1 4 minor style generally, the harmonic background melody in the s econd m ovem ent mirrors the melody and thus renders a discussion of the horizontal musical plane par amount. 70 Ibid. 71 The difference in key signatures prevents the derivation of a true A based scale that links the movements. 72 See Example 4 24.
179 This particular melody recalls bars 68(3) 76(2) from the d evelopment s ection of the f irst m ovement in the sense that its initial pitch, A, figures most prominently. This hierarchy contrasts w ith the e xposition of the f irst m ovement, where combin ations of two pitches determined Pseudo tonic or tonic notes. Evidence for this claim rests in the fact that the movement ends in the A n eutral s cale as opposed to the Mixed Scale on D in which it begins. T he melody also reveals a binary form in which D s cales occupy the first half of the movement while E based scales assume a more dominant role in its second half. This large scale representational E D dyad symbolizes A. It also consequently mirrors the oscill ation between B and G from the development s ection of the f irst m ovement, as the first, D oriented section derives from A intersecting G, while the second, E oriented section stems from A merging with B. Following the initial A G dyad in bars 2 3, a n implied C F pent achord unfolds from bar s 4 6(1 ). 73 The melodic A in bar 2 generates this sonority through bi directional expansion. The F B flat tetrachord and implied D G tetrachord in bars 6(2) 11(2) highlight D related sonorities, alth ough the E A and A D dyads that follow in measure 11(2) 17(1) le nd more emphasis to A based elements. The E that sounds for five quarter notes in bars 13 14(1) also underscores this principle. Despite the fact that the A D pentachord in bar s 13 17(1) contracts to a D G tetrachord in measures 17(2) 18(1), the A that follows the ascending leap from G to C in bar 18(1) asserts its influence as a trans sectional (as well as trans tonal) bridge in a manner that recollects various transitions withi n the f irst m ovement. In bars 19 31(2), the composer transposes material from m easures 1 18 a major second higher. 73 See Examples 4 24 and 4 25. The pitches in the violin in bars 2 10 lie within a tr ue C F pentachord,
1 80 Example 4 25 Bars 5 17 Example 4 26 Bars 18 21 The initial implied D G pent achord in bars 19 21 represents contested territory between A and D to some extent, as B, an A related tone generates i t while D falls toward it An implied B f alling scale occupies bars 26 30, however, and the E from its implied B E
181 tetrachord connects to an implied E A tetrachord that concludes the movem ent in the A n eutral s cale. 74 Example 4 27 Bars 22 34 74 See Example 4 27.
182 Although Chajes utilizes the harmonic background in to accompany the melody in the same manner he employs in the other movements, the s econd m ovement represents a unique case due to its canon at the interval of a fifth and octave. The canon, which he sets at the durational distance of two beats until the last quarter note of bar 4, causes the harmonies to occasionally accompany pitches that no longer sound. 75 This musical reminiscence literally encapsulates the popular slogan associated with Holocaust commemorations that directs survivors and future quarter note of bar 4(1) 5(1) and their corresponding harmonies that sound one beat later in bars 4(2) 5(2) exemplify this aspect of the movement. The A in the violin part in the second quarter note of bar 4(1) precedes A D dyads two beats later. This sonority represen ts descent from A. The first chord in bar 5 accompanies the C in bar 4(2). Its pitches, include D, F, A and C, and it represents the chord that forms when C descends by thirds. The two subsequent beats in which A sounds in the melody in bars 4(2) 5(1) precede two D m inor chords in measure 5(1 2) that depict the sonorities that occur when A falls by thirds. In bar 6(3), the pitches include G, B flat, D, and F, which imply C through intersecting B flat D and G F dyads This sonority recollects the seco nd quarter note of bar 6(2), where a melodic G appears with an F in the accompaniment In measures 13 15(1), the melodic D and E mix to suggest gravitation toward A, and the accompaniment reflects the combination of the two pitches through two A D dya ds i n bars 13(2) 14(1) and harmonic A f alling s cales in bar 14 15(1). 76 Bar 5(2 3) echoes the 75 The change in canonic distance is due to the fact that the A in the violin part in bars 3 4 sounds for five quarter notes while its counterpart in the treble clef of the piano sounds for three. 76 See Figure 4 6, as the notes D, E, and G imply the dyad.
183 f irst m o vement of String Quartet No. 2 through the way in which the four note chords contains a chord that encapsulates descent by thirds from the melodic note at which the composer arrives through ascent. He reaches the subsequent melodic G by descent, and the harmony embodies G ascending by thirds through B flat, D, and F. The A D dya d s constitute significant sonorities in the movement, as they ultimately propel the gradual sojourn from the Mixed Scale on D to the concluding A n eutral s cale before returning to the Mixed Scale on D via the same vehicle in the t hird m ovement. The way in which Chajes uses these implied tetrachords and pentachords as means of facilitating tonal shifts also recalls the f irst m ovement. Bar 5 illustrates the way in which he also utilizes them to bond se emingly unrelated sonorities. In bar 5(1), a sonority co ntaining the pitches D, F, A, and C symbolizes potential movement to ward the boundary defining members of a B flat E pent achord via D C and F A dyads In bar 5(2), the chord encompassing the pitches B flat, D, F, and A signifies potential motion to ward th e boundary defining members of a G C pent achord through F A and B flat D dyads Together, they form a chord that incorporates C, E, G, and B flat, which represents potential motion to ward the boundary defining members of a n A D pentachord through E G and C B flat dyads Both the quartal and quintal forms of this dyad subsequently occup y a central position in the Mixed Scale on D that returns in bar 5(3). The G n eutral s cale predominantly occupies bars 6 7. As a scale that generates half of the Mixed Scale on D, it maintains large scale emphasis on D as opposed to A. In bar 8, the composer adds an E flat. This slight tonal shift produces the C n eutral s cale and D f all ing s cale, effectively implying the same character through the
184 generator scales. Ambivalence firsts manifests itself through the combination of the chords in bar 8(1). The first of these contains the pitches E flat, G, B flat, and D. It symbolizes poten tial movement to ward the boundary defining members of a C F pent achord through G B flat and E flat D dyads The subsequent quarter note features a chord that encompasses a D G C F complex that situates a G C dyad in its center. The spiritual world lies i n the intersection of this complex with the following chord, which includes the pitches G, B flat, D, and F. It represents potential movement to ward the boundary defining members of an E flat A pent achord via B flat D and G F dyads The composite chord i ncorporates A, C, E flat, and G which symbolizes potential convergence on D vi a the contraction of the A G dyad and expansion of the C E flat dyad It implies the D f alling s cale. Thus, the disappearance of the E flat in bar 9 produces no effect on the character of the movement, since the initial Mixed Scale on D returns in beat 2. The A f alling s cale first appears in bar 12(1). It initially counter balances the time spent in G n eutral by symbolically situating the Mixed Scale on D between ambivalent a nd prayerful musical environs within a broad A D G complex. The E A D G complex appears in bars 13 15(1). These pitches act as trans movement bonding agents, as they initiate the f irst m ovement and facilitate the scalar shift in the s econd m ovement. In a sense, they represent expanded manifestations of the implied A D tetrachords Chajes He capitalizes on the potential energy this sonority contains in bar 15(2). In this beat, an A f alling s cale precedes a B Flat m ajor triad. The chord represents the rising lower leading tone, although its arrangement in the ascending direction contradicts its descending character according to Kauder. A, however ( the tonic pitch of the A f alling s cale ) also signifies
185 pote ntial expan s ion to ward the boundary defining members of a C F pent achord. When the dyad that implies this implied pent achord merges with the B flat m ajor triad, the chord represents the rising tonic in the F r ising s cale. F represents potential expansion to ward the boundary defining members of an A D pent achord while the melodic E A pent achord contracts to an A D tetrachord It assumes its visible form within an E A D G complex in bar 16(1) and a more enigmatic guise in measure 16(2), where a D, E, F, an d A imply an E A dyad in the first quarter note that connects with the pitches C, D, E, and G, which collectively imply a D G dyad 77 The B flat m ajor chord that follows in 17(1) also relates to the complex, as the D G and F B flat dyads form a chord conta ining the pitches G, B flat, D, and F. This sonority signifies potential movement to ward the boundary defining members of an E A pent achord via B flat D and G F dyads Despite the fact that this chord represents the sonority to which C expands, its new context requires its analysis in either the Mixed Scale on E, the A f alling s cale, or the Mixed Scale on C, since the boundary defining members of E A penta chord represent potential contraction to ward C. Due to the fact that B flat m ajor performs a contradictory function in the A f alling s cale, its anal ysis seems most logical within the Mixed Scale on E (an A related s cale) or the Mixed Scale on C. In this scale, B flat m ajor represents the falling upper leading tone. In the Mixed Scale on C, it constitutes the rising lower leading tone. The remainder of bar 17 features A based elements that utilize the complex to rise to a n implied C F tetrachord in measure 18(1). This sonority implies A, and in this case, it also anticipates it. The first section concludes with A D d yads Although it apparently represents both A and D equally, I argue that the 77 See Figures 4 12 and 4 6, respectively.
186 composer somewhat foreshadows the large scale emphasis on A due to the fact that a n implied B flat E dyad precedes it. The composite complex B flat E A D, implies an E A dyad The A D d yads that begin the secon d section of the movement merge with an implied E A tetrachord in bar 19(1), as B, A, and D imply an E A dya d. 78 These dyads collectively imply the A n eutral s cale that follows an A f alling s cale, which causes little impact on the character of the movement due to the mixture of ambivalence and spirituality embedded in mixed sixth degree scales. The E A D G complex re appears in bar 21 as a G m ajor triad intersects an implied E A dya d that forms through the combination of B, D, and E. The A based scale becomes the A n eutral s cale as opposed to the A f alling s cale, and the D based scale shifts from the mixed sixth degree to the mixed fifth degree scale. The new key signature allows the mourner a ray of light via the G r ising s cale and Mixed Scale on D in bars 21 22, although the D n eutral s cale in interrupts it in bar 24. The E A D G complex returns in measure 25(1). Chajes arranges it in a descending order by constructing the D G dya d from an A D G C complex. He derives the E A dyad from the B, A, and D that follow. This order reflects his intent to allow the mourner to literally sink back into more spiritual realms after the brief period in the physical, material world. This desce nt begins with a return to the A n eutral s cale in bar 27(2). It subsequently proceeds through the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E in bar 28(1 2). The composer constructs this scale by mixing B, D, E, and F sharp ( a sonority that implies a B E tetrachord ) with B, D, and E ( a group of pitches 78 See Figure 3 4.
187 that implies an E A dyad ) 79 After a period of vacillation between these two scales, he descends to the B f alling s cale in bar 31(1). This scale combines the B m inor triad in the first quarter note with the subsequent sonority which also includes the pitches B, D, E, and F sharp. Figure 4 14 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B, D, E, and F sharp The implied B E tetrachord precedes a harmonic A n eutral s cale in bars 31(2) 32(1) before a series of A D dya ds conclude the movement. Chajes emphasizes the A D tetrachord via its implied harmonic form by assigning it a central position in the right hand of the piano part in bars 32(1 34). This tetrachord holds membership in the A neutral scale as well as the M ixed (fifth degree) Scale on D, which relates to the G r ising s cale though the introductory gesture in the t hird m ovement quickly destroys the distant hint of hope that the implied sonority might suggest. The t hird m ovement complements due to the fact that the A D tetrachord acts as a symbolic scalar link between scales that feature these pitches as tonic or Pseudo tonic notes. In this case, the scales consist of the A f alling s cale and 79 See F igure 4 14 See Figure 4 8 for the full analysis of the combinatory potential of B, D, and E.
188 the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D. While begins in this scale and ends in the A n eutral s cale, the s cherzo concludes with a monophonic D after a great deal of oscillation between the two principal tones. The t hird m ovement also complements the s econd m ovement programmatically, as its introduction functions as a musical response to the initial melodic gesture in T he fact that the s econd m ovement begins on a D and the t hird m ovement concludes with the same pitch furthermore, indica tes cyclicism on a large sca le. I draw this conclusion from the fact that the outer movements begin on E, the complementary pitch with which D combines to establish a broad symbolic Mixed Scale on A. I suggest that the t hird m ovement also constitutes a complementary opposite to the f irst m ovement. I base this assertion on the fact that, in the f irst m ovement, the composer devotes a considerable amount of musical time to evading the laws of musical gravity (as Kauder interprets them) with regard to falling scales. While he uses such scales as thematic connective tissue and allows bars 100 121 to accentuate the A f alling s cale to some extent, multiple modulations to new key signatures enable him to delay the ultimate surrender to descent until the last bar. He embeds the opposite tre nd in the s cherzo by frequently permitting the Mixed Scale on D to descend and mix with the A f alling s cale in a quasi interruptive manner. The movement also concludes in a mixed sixth degree scale as opposed to the falling scale with which it shares a co mmon tetrachord. The first three bars form an introduction to the movement. Chajes uses the same pitches for the first melodic oscillating gesture he employs in the
189 Bars 2 3 address the f irst and s econd m ovements by incorporating the same gesture with the notes he utilizes in the f irst m ovement. 80 Example 4 28 Bars 1 3 of Scherzo minor H e chromatically alters these pitches by transposing E and D a half step lower to E fl at and D flat. While this E A D G complex typically functions as a symbol of unity in the sense that it begins the piece and often re appears in various guises, I believe its dissonant form encapsulates the devastation connected to the Holocaust and the w ay in dissonant utterance reflects the title of the move ment in the sense that the Nazi s made a mockery of the idea that people deserve to live. Despite the fact that this gesture re surfaces in bars 73 77, the melody unites elements of both the f irst and s econd m ovements after the introduction. Initially, it echoes the melody of the s econd m ovement by generally using the same pitches until bar 7(1). Bars 7(2) 8(1) featur e a new gesture that connects with bars 8(2) 12(1), a passage that features a transposed version of material from bars 1 4(2) of the f irst m ovement. 81 80 See Example 4 28 81 See Example 4 29.
190 Example 4 29 Bars 1 18 Bars 12(2) 16 also consist of new material that concludes the first phrase. W hile the accompaniment indicates that the composer reveals the primary tonal area in bars 4 7(1) through the initial oscillating gesture from bar 4 between the melodic A and G, bars 8(2) 12(1) expose it by rendering D a quasi pedal point until its tetracho rds appear. In measures 12(2) 16, Chajes suggests that the Mixed Scale on D constitutes the
191 principal tonal area by incorporating the combining the other six diatonic pitches available to him without chromatic alteration. This notion relates of invisible harmony, since the note exerts a discernible force while absent. In combination, the six other pitches imply D regardless of whether their arrangement is linear, cyclical, or triadic. In a linear arrangement the notes appear as an E F G A B flat C complex, which represents D through the combination of C and E, F with B flat, and G with A. As a triadic complex, F A C E G B flat situates F and B flat at each of the outer boundaries. A cycle yields the same result, alth ough G and A occupy the outer boundaries through a G C F B flat E A complex. The sustained E in bars 13(2 6) and 15(2) 16(2) foreshadows the gravitation toward the A f alling s cale and its related scales that exclude D as a primary tone, as D only re appea rs as a point of resolution at the end of the movement. The two independent polyphonic voices in the accompaniment recall the texture the composer incorporates in the f irst m ovement. They also accentuate the melodic pitches in the same fashion that voices other than the haup t stimme do so in the other movements. The lower voice, though sustains an A D dyad as a reminder of its divisive ability to pit scales in conflict as well as its unifying potential as manifested through a reduced E A D G complex in ba rs 4 10. It also alludes to the canon from the s econd m ovement in bars 11 12. The upper voice, though, clearly delineates the Mixed Scale on D. In bars 4 7 it traverses an F B flat pent achord, a group of pitches that symbolizes potential contraction to w ard D. In bars 8 11, fluctuation between the Pseudo tonic and its upper and lower leading tones reinforces the principal scale. The
192 sustained D in bar 12 and ascending Mixed Scale on D in the bass clef of the piano part in bars 14 15 fulfill the same pur pose. The sustained A D dyads in bars 1 9 exclusively imply scales that lie within the larger E A D G complex. This feature presents an abstract dichotomy between the elements of unity and conflict in the sense that, whil e Chajes binds them through vari ous implications of A D tetrachord s and the complex to which they expand they also vie for the dominant role later in the movement. This duality presents itself clearly in a comparison of the D m inor triad s in bars 5(1) and 6(2), as these implied harmoni c A D pentachords represent neutral yet contested territory. In the first case, the chord accompanies a melodic A and follows a harmonic A f alling s cale. I t functions therefore, as the falling tonic in the A f alling s cale. The latter triad follows a ha rmonic Mixed Scale on D. The sonority thus embodies the rising tonic in the Mixed Scale on D. Of course, the s econd m ovement attests to the fact that the composer uses all accompaniment oriented sonorities he composes to offer melodic support, and this passage is no exception. The melodic F natural in bars 6(4) 7(1) typifies the way in which he exploits potential musical energy via chordal combination. The D, F, A, and C in measure 6(4) collectively represent potential gravitation to ward the boundary defining members of a B flat E pent achord via its D C and F A dyad s The subsequent sonority, consisting of the pitches B flat, D, F, and A, signifies potential moti on toward the boundary defining members of a G C pent achord through the B flat A and D F dyads, respectively The composite chord, which encompasses the pitches C, E, G, and B flat, implies F as well as the potential contraction of the C B flat dyad and e xpansion of the E G dyad toward the boundary defining members of an A D pentachor d A similar aggregate related
193 scenario occurs in bar 9(3). While Chajes omits any overt emphasis of the melodic C itself, he provides clear commentary on its relationship t o the note that precedes it. The C follows an A f alling s cale The tonic pitch of this scale also represents potential expansion toward the boundary defining members of a C F pent achord. The C itself sounds with an A, D, and E. These pitches collective ly imply an A D tetrachord. 82 Figure 4 15 Discussion of the combinatory potential of A, C, D, and E Bars 11 16 throw the conflict into bolder relief as the A D tetrachord dissipates. The composer devotes much more musical time to A than to D, and elects to withhold any abstract musico gravitational force associated with D. This lack of attention toward D reflects the melodic B flat and A, which combine to impl y E. In bar 12, the sustained D overpowers A simply by virtue of duration, although the initial eighth note produces an implied E A dyad that supports the melodic A. Duration continues to determine the 82 See Figure 4 15 For a discussion of A, C, and D, see Figure 4 1. The pitches include A, C, D, and E. A, C, and E stress C. A, C, and D imply a D G dyad and B flat. E A D stresses A. C, D, and E stress D. The pitches imply an A D tetrachord.
194 more prevalent tone until the phrase concludes in the violin part in bar 16(5), although a variation on the melody begins in the piano in an elided entrance in bar 16(2). The variation generally mirrors bars 4 16, although it lacks the sustained A D dyads Triads also replace singular pitches in some instance s These sonorities offer commentary on the way in which Chajes conceives the conte xt of the melodic notes they accompany. A comparison of the notes treble clef in bar 17(4 6) with their counterparts in bar 5(4 6) demonstrates the way in which he expresses the same musico gravitational force via alternative sonorities. The first harmon ic complex, which encompass es the pitches B flat, E A and D, stresses an E A dya d. The second, which includes B flat, A, and D, implies the same sonority. The subsequent G m inor chord alludes to a D G pentachord through its boundary defining members. T h e concluding sonority, which encompasses the pitches G, A, B flat and D, implies an A D tetrachord In bar 5(4 6), an A f alling s cale precedes an E A D G complex. Both measures accentuate the same sonorities via different pitches. Contrasting bar 19(1 3 ) with its counterpart in bar 7(1 3) produces a similar result despite the addition of B natural in the latter excerpt. In bar 7, a sonority encompassing the pitches B flat, D, F, and A symbolizes potential motion toward the boundary defining members of a G C pentachord through D F and B flat A dyads The subsequent collection of pitches encompasses B flat, A, and D, a sonority that implies an E A dyad The composite chord, which includes the pitches A, C, E, and G, represents potential movement toward an F B flat dyad via A G and C E dyads The first dotted sixteenth note of bar 19(1) includes the pitches B, D, F, and A. While this constitutes the expected result from one different accidental, the last dotted sixteenth note features a sonority consis ting of the
195 pitches D, F, G, and A It implies a D G tetrachor d and mirrors the melody bar 7 in combination with its predecessor in the sense that intersecting D G and G C dyads emphasize G, the note that lies between the melodic F in measure 7(1 2) and A in bar 7(3). 83 Figure 4 16 Discussion of the combinatory potential of D, F, G, and A Contrasting the last dotted sixteenth note of bar 14 with its counterpart in bar 26 (the last dotted sixteenth note) exposes a significant difference between material from the theme and the variation on it. 84 83 See Figure 4 16. 84 See Example 4 30.
196 Example 4 30 B ars 23 28 In bar 14, A, C, and D constitute a collection of pitches that imply a D G dya d. This sonority binds the G n eutral s cale to the Mixed Scale on D. In bar 26, D B flat dyads represent pot ential movement toward E A dyads These sonorities connect the A f alling s cale to the Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on E. I believe this deviation relates to the fact that the latter sonority functions as a harbinger of the pervasive A related elements that end the first variation and only subside at the end of the movement. Th e B flat E tetrachords and E A pentachords that replace the previous D G dyad emphasize this concept. Bars 29 44 consist of a second variation on bars 4 12. The composer re introduces the violin and recalls the f irst m ovement by reducing the level of rh ythmic complexity and utilizing quasi pedal point to emphasize the theme. Measures 37 44 repeat bars 29 36, although a voice exchange occurs between the violin part and the
197 treble clef of the piano. Chajes also alters the principal rhythmic gesture to mi rror the first three beats of the piece, which consists of two eighth notes that precede two quarter notes. In bars 29 44 he places the accent on the first beat of the measure on account of the fact that he omits the anacrusis from the t hird m ovement. 85 Example 4 31 Bars 29 36 The new variation begins in the A f alling s cale, as the E A dyad that concludes measure 28 intersects the A D dyad that begins bar 29 The composer extends the melodic range to the D above the initial A and consequently forms a melodic Mixe d Scale on D in bars 29 31(1), although the fluctuation between A and D based scales continues throughout the variation. Bar 29 exclusively contains the A f alling s cale and the two scales to which it relates through E, t he Mixed (seventh deg ree) Scale on E and the Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on B flat. The Mixed Scale on E appears in the 85 See Example 4 31.
198 fif th beat, where an A F dyad that symbolizes potential expan s ion to ward the boundary defining members of a B flat E pent achord precedes a G F dyad that represents potential expan s ion to ward the boundary defining members of an E A tetrachord. The Mixed Scale on B flat occurs in the third beat, as a C E dyad that signifies potential contraction to ward the boundary defining members of an F B flat tetr achord precedes a B flat E dyad Although Chajes situates the Mixed Scale on E equidistantly between the Mixed Scale on B flat and the A f alling s cale, D related scales assume the dominant role in bar 30. The E A D G complex causes this shift in emphasis as bar 30 begins with a D m inor triad that represents the falling tonic in the A f alling s cale. A D G dya d follows in the second sixteenth note of bar 30(1), and it implies the D n eutral s cale as it merges with the D m inor chord. The G n eutral s cale fo llows in the third beat, where an A C dyad that signifies potential contraction to ward the boundary defining members of a D G tetrachord intersects a G C dya d. The ascending scalar progression from the A f alling s cale through the Mixed Scale on D to the G n eutral s cale situates the Mixed Scale on D in the center of its two generator scales and temporarily grants it a more influential role. The composer renders this abstract notion of competition between A and D more prominent in bars 33 36, where absent p itches provide each faction with an overwhelming majority of the necessary sonorities to appear more prevalent. Bar 33, for example, lacks an E, and facilitates the juxtaposition of the Mixed Scale on D and the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on C in beats 4 a nd 5, respectively. As component scales of the G n eutral s cale, D clearly exerts more power than A, and Ch ajes underscores this concept through overt forms of D G, A D, G C, and C F dyads Bar 34, in contrast, lacks G, and necessarily emphasizes A. Beat s 4 6 of this measure
199 accentuate A by situating it in the center of the A f alling s cale, which in turn lies equidistantly between the Mixed Scales on E and D. The familiar B flat E A D G complex illustrates its central position. While the B flat E and E A dyad s are apparent, the implied D G tetrachord stems from the potential expansion of the E F dyad in the second sixt eenth note of the fifth beat. Thus, the composer imbues the symbolic embedded A D tetrachord with a high degree of versatility in that it exhibits the ability to provoke conflict as well as to med iate it. H e counter balances the notion of the A D tetrachord as an abstract, invisible energy source by restoring it to its obvious form in the piano in bar 37 (1 5) Chajes reinforces it with harmonic A D dyads in bars 37 40. He also utilizes it in a pervasive manner reminiscent of bars 1 9. 86 Example 4 32 Bars 37 42 The thicker textures heighten the tension in bars 41 44, although bars 37 44 reflect the same gene ral principal that permeates the s cherzo : the symbolic A D tetrachord fluctuates in its role as quartal diplomat and sonority fractured by internal conflict. Perhaps this is the musical message the composer intends to convey in the 86 See Example 4 32.
200 dissonant form of the c omplex in the introduction to the movement, possibly to communicate that the Holocaust reveals a fractured human race. This aspect of the work also propels the change in key signature to a scale with three sharps from bars 45 56. I argue that this change along with the melodic consequences it inflicts, permits designating the passage a trio section. 87 Example 4 33 B ars 43 56 The contradictory trend manifests itself in the trio section in the sense that, while A overshadows D by expanding to the F shar p m inor triad on which it begins, the A D tetrachord (manifested through an A D dyad) expands to the octave F sharps that constitute the Pseudo tonic pitch of the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on F sharp. I base 87 See Example 4 33.
201 the conclusion that the composer sets the sect ion in this scale due to the activity in the higher accompanying voice. Although it descends to G sharp as opposed to F sharp, in bar 48, it spends a significant amount of musical time oscillating between B and C sharp in bars 49 51 before descending to F sharp in bar 52. Kauder designates such diatonic scales as seven tone scales, and in this context, the seven tones constitute a C sharp f alling s cale that implies the Mixed Scale on F sharp by approaching B. These notes comprise the tonic pitches of the B n eutral s cale and the C sharp f alling s cale, respectively. Evidence for the notion that Chajes alters the character of the melody rests in its melodic tri tone, which he de emphasizes in previous guises of the theme. T he melody furthermore traver ses C sharp F sharp tetrachord s and pentachords In bars 45 48(2), it traverses the quintal form of the dyad In bars 48(4) 50(1), it spans a C sharp F sharp tetrachord, and from bar 50(1) 56(1) it generally lies within a perfect fifth. Far from incongr uous, the D that lays a minor third below it signifies the pitch that represents potential expan s ion to ward the boundary defining members of the F sharp B pent achord. Bar 49(5) depicts the Mixed Scale on F sharp via B minor and F sharp m inor triads, which constitute the respective sonorities that form when the Pseudo Tonic pitch rises and falls, respectively. Measure 55(3 5) depicts the scale in a similarly clear fashion, as a B n eutral s cale ascends and becomes a C sharp f alling s cale. Bar 48 represents a particularly noteworthy excerpt in which the composer presents A D dyads with F sharp (the pitch to which they exhibit the potential to contract and expand) as well as a n E A D G sharp complex The first two beats feature a sonority that encompasses th e pitches D, F sharp, and G sharp, which imply a G sharp C sharp
202 dyad that represents potential contraction and expansion toward E. 88 A Mixed Scale on D follows in the third beat. Subsequently, a D m ajor triad appears. Due to the fact that it follows the Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on D, its function in this scale constitutes the rising tonic or the falling upper dominant. Figure 4 17 Discussion of the combinatory potential o f D sharp, F sharp, and G sharp The A D dyad functions as a scalar mediator between the Mixed ( fourth degree) Scale on D and the A r ising s cale that concludes the measure. These scales share exclusive compatibility according to Kauder. Other examples of the complex that re call 88 See Figure 4 17. The pitches include D, F sharp and G sharp The D sharp G sharp dyad is apparent. D and F sharp represent potential movement toward a G sharp C sharp dyad. F sharp and G sharp represent potential movement toward an E A dyad. F sharp and G sharp also represent potential movementtoward C sharp. Intersecting D G sharp and G sharp C sharp dyads stress G sharp. G sharp combined with the E A dyad implies a G sharp C sharp dyad.
203 bars 29 44 in the sense that emphasis on A D dyads results through E A D G sharp complexes when disparate sonorities collide include bar 51(1 2), where a G sharp diminished chord merges with a B D dyad that symbolizes potential expansion toward the bo undary defining members of an E A pentachord, and bar 52(6) 53(1), where A C sharp dyad s that represent potential expansion and contraction to ward D G sharp dyads intersect an implied E A dya d. Chajes sets the A D tetrachord in a supra tonal context in th e treble clef of the pi ano part in bar 56(1 4) due to the fact that it unites the Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on D with a D G tetrachord from the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D before the key signature permits doing so without accidentals. The tetrachord also serves as a thematic bridge due to the fact that it leads to a reprise of the initial theme that merges the texture of the solo piano variation with a counter melody in the violin part in bars 57 69. 89 Bars 57 58 feature imitation at the dotted quart er note. The composer borrows the quotation and its imitative setting from the s econd m ovement. By doing so, he employs cyclcism. The counter melody aides the other non melodic voices in providing support for amplifying sonorities associated with particular pitches in the treble clef of the piano part. Bar 61(1) presents a clear case of this scenario, as D, E, a nd G collectively imply an A D dyad 90 In this case, the sonorities store the equivalent musical potential energy. Chajes constructs the dyad in its true form by merging the top and bottom staves to literally allow its implied manifestation to radiate from the treble clef of the piano part, which constitutes the center of the vertical musical plane. 89 See Example 4 34. 90 See Figure 4 6
204 Example 4 34 Bars 57 63 The B flat that concludes bar 63 requires slightly deeper analysis, although it effectively exemplifies the same concept. The first sonority that includes it also encompasses the pitches F and A. B flat, F, and A collectively imply a B flat E dya d. 91 91 See Figure 4 18
205 Figure 4 18 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B flat, F, and A The ascending Mixed Scale on D in the violin part in bar 69 suggests large scale closure due to the fact that it resembles the initial presentation of the theme, which concludes in the Mixed Sc ale on D as opposed to the A f alling s cale, although t he key signature following the measure indicates a return to a tonal area that contains three sharps. 92 Example 4 35 Bars 67 69 92 See Examples 4 35 and 4 36.
206 Example 4 36 Bars 70 78 The A D tetrachord functions as a trans thematic bonding agent on both the vertical and horizontal musical planes, as the melodic A foll ows the change in key signature. T he last harmonic sonority in bar 69 also reinforces the tetrachord via a symbolic A D dyad that E, G sharp, and A form through their combinatory potential 93 Bars 70 72 recall measures 29 44 as well as bars 45 56. They also affirm that the trio section traverses the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on F sharp. The composer expresses this notion directly through an F sharp m inor triad that precedes an F sharp B dya d. The A D tetrachord also assumes a melodic guise in bar 70 (1 5) In bar 73, Chajes repeats the introductory gesture from bars 1 3 using only F sharp and E as if to extoll the virtue of unity on a symbolic level. Ba r 74 features a brief return of material from bars 70 72 before he repeats the initial motive of the movement in bars 75 77. This measure recalls the Trio section through the ascending leap by a tri tone in the 93 See Figure 4 3
207 violin part. The declamatory material in ba rs 73 and 75 represent the two generator scales of the Mixed Scale on F sharp. Bar 73 symbolizes the B n eutral s cale through oscillation between E and F sharp, while bar 75 signifies the C sharp f alling s cale through fluctuation between F sharp and G shar p. The dissonant sonority in bar 77 serves several purposes. On a symbolic level, it reflects the ugliness the composer associates with the Holocaust as well as the way in which such atrocities divide humanity. On a notational level it underscores the n otion that F sharp and A D dyads embod y unity due to the fact that this sonority connects entire movements as well as disparate tonal centers, as F based pitches always constitute the lower dominant pitch in C based scales. On a practical level, F sharp c ontinues facilitates the transition toward the coda like section in bars 78 85 while C sharp and G sharp represent the chromatically altered lower leading tones to A and D. Bars 78 79 constitute a reprise of bars 37 38, and bars 80 81 feature material fr om measure 39(1). 94 Example 4 37 Bars 79 85 94 See Examples 4 36 and 4 37.
208 Chajes transposes the gesture a perfect fifth higher in measures 80(2) and 81(2). While bars 78 79 feature a generally even balance between emphasis on A and D based scales, bars 80 81 recall measures 32, 36, 40, and 44 due to the fact that they accentuat e the A f alling s cale via sonorities that contain the pitches E, A, and D as well as harmonies that include B flat, E, and A In bars 80(2) and 81(2), these pitches include A, C, E, G, and B flat, a sonority that situates E in a central position. The com poser restores the balance to D in bars 82 85 with a series of ascending G n eutral s cales. These scales culminate in a melodic A D tetrachord and quartal leaps between its boundary defining members that end the movement on a D, effectively concluding both the s econd and t hird m ovements due to the fact that the same pitch initiates Like the f irst m ovement, the f ourth m ovement of the Sonata begins in the Mixed Scale on A without accidentals. The fi rst theme occupies bars 1 18. Chajes i ncorporates cyclicism into its first three bars by composing a melody that closely resembles bars 1 2 of the f irst m ovement. He introduces the principal scale of the movement by designating D and E, the pseudo dominants, as its initial melodic pitches. The scale also constitutes the first harmonic sonority in the last eighth note of beat 1. 95 The pitches that surround the tonic within the first measure provide further tonic pitch, as this note lies directly within the center of the E f alling and D n eutral s cales. 96 A combinatory 95 See Example 4 38. 96 See Figure 4 19.
209 analysis of the pitches to w hich each of the sonorities in the measure gravitate s also indicates that A symbolizes a central tone. Example 4 38 Bars 1 18 of Finale minor For example, the first three quarter notes oscillate between E and A (as A lies in the center of the harmonic manifestation of the Mixed Scale on A). This combination represents potential gravitation toward C. Mixing the E in the first quarter note of be at 2 with the B E dyad that follows it implies F (as B E dyads symbolize potential movement toward G, which combines with E to imply motion toward F). C F dyads signify potential movement toward A.
210 Figure 4 19 Diagram of the central position of the Mi xed Scale on A between the E f alling and D n eutral s cales The E m inor triad in the last eighth note of bar 1 represents descending motion from B, the upper leading tone of the Mixed Scale on A despite its membership within the E f alling s cale. V acillation between f alling and n eutral elements however, comprises a prerequisite for demonstrating the hybrid nature of the Mixed Sixth Degree Scale, and Chajes illustrates this principal in bar 2. On a superficial level, evidence of movement toward an element of the D n eutral s cale lies in his limitation of the pitches to C, D, and E, which emphasize D by surrounding it with notes that each lie one whole step from it. 97 On a symbolic level, he creates a D m inor triad by combining G (the tone from which the E minor triad radiates) with E, which implies F. The same E mixes with the subsequent D to suggest gravitation toward A, and D represents the melodic mid point for the remainder of the measure. Accordingly, bar 3 contains pitches that illustrate the connection between the Mixed Scale on A and the E f alling s cale, while bar 4 features links between the Pseudo tonic s cale and the D n eutral s cale. The 97 Kauder notes on p.3 of Counterpoint syntonic comma is imperceptible to the human ear and A E B G D
211 composer juxtaposes esoteric and obvious manifestations of the E A dyad in bar 3 in the same manner in which he connects them in bar 2. The similarities include both limitation of pitch and exploitation of the combinatory potential of particular sonorities. He restricts the pitches to B, E, A, and D, which collectively emphasizes an E A dyad on a scalar level by literally delineating the E f alling s cale and the Mixed Scale on A. T he encoded manifestation of the dyad lies in the last eighth note of bar 3 (1) which in cludes the notes B, E, and D. The combination of these notes foreshadows and implies the E A dyads that follow it, as the B E dyad binds with both the symbolic C F and E A dyads (the sonorities to which E D and B D dyads exhibit the potential to contract and expand). The intersecting B E and E A dyads imply E, while the C F dyad represents potential movement to ward A. Adding E to A produces an E A dya d. Bar 4 contains similarly transparent and cryptic elements that depict the D n eutral s cale. While the melody traverses both implied A D and D G tetrachords and the first eighth n ote of beat 2 contains a harmonic manifestation of the scale, the second eighth note of this beat includes an implied D G dyad that consists of the pitches G, A, and C 98 Bar 5 recalls bar 1 in the sense that it accentuates the Mixed Scale on A itself, alt hough its latter use restores a sense of tonal balance following the sojourns to each of its generator scales. A triad consisting of the pitches D, F, A, C, and E proves more effective than a tetrachord based arrangement of the sa me pitches in denoting the equi distant location of the Pseudo tonic between the two Pseudo dominant notes. Bar 7 features the same pitches in a variation of this measure wherein they form the two principal triads of the s cale. A m inor represents the chord that results when the Pseudo tonic ascends and 98 See Figure 3 3.
212 the lower Pseudo dominant descends, while D m inor symbolizes the ascending upper Pseudo dominant and descending Pseudo tonic. Comparison of the G m ajor triad in bars 11(2) and 15(2) with the E m inor chords in bars 1(2) and 17(2) likewise emphasizes the position of A as an orbital center, as it situates the Pseudo tonic between the chords that embody the ascending lower leading tone and the descending upper leading tone (G and B, respectively). The G m ajor chord in bar 15(2) effec tively illustrates the quasi gravitational force Chajes assigns to the Pseudo tonic, as it precedes a singular A. highlights the location of the Pseudo tonic as well as the bi directional nature o f the Mixed Scale on A. A m inor and D m inor convey the notion that the scale ascends and descends, while only G m ajor and E m inor emphasize directionally appropriate movement toward the Pseudo tonic. B d iminished and C m ajor triads, for example, indicate movement away from A in that they form the chords that result when the upper leading tone ascends and the lower leading tone descends. Chajes also underscores pseudo tonic pitches by utilizing non triadic ha rmonies in many of his post 1930 works, as bars 15 18 feature a clearly visible descending Mixed Scale on A in the bass clef consisting of harmonic dyads I argue that, regardless of the level of transparency within the means he employs, the composer s persistent commitment to portraying tonic (including Pseudo tonic) pitches as orbital centers originates in his knowledge of (and a greement with ) conception of tonality as a quasi religious mandate:
213 Deriving the basic intervals and scales from one tone means infinitely more than a mere arithmetical pro cedure, for sound is movement, just as light and life are movement. Owing to these arithmetical relations, the scale is a measured movement. Its fundamental tone is the generator of this movemen t and its center of gravitation. This gravitation we call it tonality is the moving force and produces the inner life of music, thus making music a likeness of the order and movement of the universe. According to its function as a center of gravity, the fundamental tone has to be placed in the center to give to the scale its most perfect shape 213 Bars 19 36 constitute a variation on the first theme. 99 Example 4 39 Bars 19 22 Example 4 40 Bars 2 3 26 99 See Examples 4 39, 4 40, and 4 41.
214 Example 4 41 Bars 27 36 Although Chajes retains the original melody, he primarily differentiates it from measures 1 18 by adding polyphony to the previous homophonic and monophonic textures in bars 19 34(2). In this passage, he sets the melody in canon with itself at the quarter note between t he violin and the treble clef of the piano part. He also expands his scalar palate to include all the other scales that lack accidentals excepting the C r ising s cale, and he adds an F m ajor triad to possibly increase the level of harmonic variety I bel ieve its most striking feature includes the way in which the melodic notes in the treble
215 clef in the piano create the same sonorities that sound when these notes mix with the pitches in the other three voices. The composer overtly relates this belief in p rogram no tes for his Piano Concerto in E (1949) wherein he suggests that this practice linked which he derives from the scale which is used in the melody, following the e xample of 100 The term harmonic background applies to the present excerpt due to its polyphon ic and homophonic nature, and I contend that he embeds evidence of his belief in melodic superiority from its beginning. The initial melodic pi tch in the treble clef of the piano consists of an E. Accordingly, the first two harmonic sonorities in the bass clef consist of B E and E A dyads which signify an E f alling s cale in combination When the melodic D enters in the second quarter note of b ar 19(1), the vertical sonority encompasses the notes B, E, and D, which collectively imply an E A dyad. This dyad symbolizes the melodic movement from E to D, as combining E and D implies A. Thus, an intersecti on exists between the melody, (the horizont al plane), and the combination of all four voices (the vertical plane) in bar 19. Chajes utilizes the contrapuntal context to emphasize the pseudo tonic as a symbol of balance between surrounding sonorities. The melodic D and C in the treble clef of the piano part in bar 20(1 2) exemplif y this notion of gravitation toward A via scales that form a symbolic leading tone based triad. The last third of bar 20(1) consists of a Mixed Scale on G, where G lies in the center between D G and G C dyads G conseq uently represents the note to which D C dyads possess the potential to expand or contract In the following beat, the composer mixes the same pitches to produce a different result, a B E 100 David Loring, e mail to the author, 20 November 2009
216 tetrachord. This sonority manifests itself melodically in the B, C, D, and E shared by violin and the treble clef of the piano part. Harmonic analysis of the beat indicates the presence of the Mixed Scale on B and the E f alling s cale. The B, C, and E in the first half imply an F B d yad 101 This sonority precedes two grou ps of notes that each imply E A dyads and the combination of these implied har monies yields F B, B E and E A dyads The aggregate complex depict s the Mixed Scale on B and the E f alling s cale (F B E A). A Mixed Scale on A follows the E, G, and B Scales, and the whole passage thus reveals a scale based E m inor triad that precedes the principal scale of the sonata. The chord appropriately portrays the descending upper leading tone with the two thirds below it. Bars 27(1 2) and 31(1 2) constitute an equally enigmatic example of step wise descent toward the pseudo tonic. A Mixed Scale on B occupies all of the first quarter note of beat 1 due to the oscillation between B E and F B dya ds The third sixth of each quarter note contains the entire scale. Its central pitch, B, represents potential expan s ion to wa rd the boundary defining members of a D G pentachord The sonority that follows it in the second quarter note contains the pitches B, D, E, and F which implies a B E dyad 102 Combining D G with B E dyads implies A via the mixture of D with E as well as B with G. D also appears before E in the treble clef of the piano part at the same time that the B E dyad follows the D G dyad. Chajes places a great deal of emphasis on the pseudo tonic pitch (and motion toward it) by allowing it to pervade intersecting horizontal and vertical musical planes. 101 See Figure 3 2. 102 See Figure 4 20.
217 Figure 4 20 Discussion of the combinatory potential of B, D, E and F He illumines motion toward the pseudo tonic more discernibly in bars 29 30(1) and 33 34(1). In the first three eighth notes within these measures, he utilizes the pitches C, F, B, E, and A. B lies in the center of a complex that includes the F r ising s cale, the Mixed Scale on B, and the E f alling s cale. The next pitch consists of a G. This note draws The pitches include B,D,E, and F. Intersecting F B and B E dyads stress the B as a pitch and scale. B,D, and F stress D. D, E, and F stress E. B, D, and E requires further analysis. The B E dyad is apparent. D and E imply potential movement toward a C F dyad. They also imply potential movement toward A. B and D imply potential gravitation toward an E A dyad Intersecting E A and B E dyads stress E. E and the C F dyad imply an E A dyad and potential movement toward C. B,D,E, and F imply the notes B,C,D, and E, notes that form a B E tetrachord.
218 attention to the Pseudo tonic by counter balancing emphasis on the upper leading tone with the lower leading tone. It also underscores the melodic A in the treble clef that precedes it. In beat 2 of both measures, the composer renders the pseudo tonic a point of balance via vacillation between its two generator scales, D n eutral and E f alling, respectively. The D n eutral scale occupies the third quarter notes, which contain true A D dyads as well as implied D G an d F B dyads A chord consisting of the pitches G, B, D, F, and A situates D in the center between its two dominants, A and G. The fourth quarter note s of bars 29 and 33 include true E A dyads as well as implied B E tetrachords and G C dyads These pitch es form a sonority in which E lies directly between its two dominants, A and B (A C E G B). The first eighth note s of bars 30 and 34 briefly conclude the oscillating trend through F major triads which s ymbolize the potential that C F dyad s exhibit to gra vitate toward the Pseudo tonic pitch A. Like the previous examples, this fluctuation between the D n eutral and E f alling s cales reflects the melodic pitches in the two uppermost voices, as A and B represent the dominant pitches of the E f alling s cale, wh ile A and G constitute the dominants of the D n eutral s at lie one octave apart. The same process of analyzing the combinatory potential of various groups of pitches facilitates dis cernment of the principal melodic voice which remains the melody Chajes introduces in the First Theme following the cessation of the canon in bar 34(2). In bar 35, a cursory investigation into the pitches used in each quarter note suggests that the harmo nic background mirrors the melody in the treble clef of the piano part. The first beat features the pitches A, B, C, D, and E. The melodic descent from E to D
219 also reflects this sonority, as it features an introductory E that, when added to D, implies an A. The second beat emphasizes F within a complex of pitches that includes G, C, F, B, and E (G C F B E). The composer situates the Mixed Scale on F between the C r ising s cale and the Mixed Scale on B, and this F centered sonority accentuates the melodic oscillation between E and G. The third quarter note incorporates the same melodic/harmonic parallels that render the melody in the treble clef of the piano the principal voice. The notes encompass the E f alling s cale and the Mixed Scale on A through the pitches B, E, A, and D. The implied E A dyad in the middle of this collection of notes highlights the melodic ascent from A to B, as adding A to B suggests gravitation toward E and alludes to the E A tetrachord on a symbolic level. An examination of onl y the two highest voices in bar 36 proves that the melody in the treble clef in the piano remains the haup t stimme Its pitches consist of D, F, A, and C. They collectively represent potential movement toward the boundary defining members of a B E pentach ord through the embedded D C and F A dyads The combination of these pitches with the voice above it implies D G dyads (via the potential movement from an A C dyad ), a B E dyad ( through potential motion from a C D dyad ), and a G C dyad (via potential move ment from an F D dyad ). Combining these implied dyads produces a chord containing the pitches C, E, G, B, and D. G, the pitch that represents potential contraction from the boundary defining members of a B E pent achord, lies in its center and accentua tes the primary melodic voice. haup t stimme in the treble clef of the piano part aligns him with Kauder in the sense that both composers possess a penchant for emphasis on voices that make the earliest entrances in polyphonic set
220 that Kauder imbued him with a preference for performances of works by J.S. Bach that allow melodic lines to proceed without interruption by exaggerated accentuation of entrances that feature redun dant material. The composer generally uses the same triads in the First Theme and the variation on it excepting the F m ajor chords in bars 30(1) and 34(1), although h e often assigns different functions to the chord s in the latter passage Measure 22(2 3 ) exposes the way in which he places one harmonic sonority in multiple contexts within a relatively brief period. For example, the A m inor triad in bar 22(2) apparently symbolizes the rising Pseudo tonic, although I argue that accurate analysis requires e xamination of the preceding sonority, which in this case consists of a D n eutral scale with A D and D G dyad s. This scale renders the A m inor chord that results when the upper leading tone, E, descends by thirds. A D m inor chord follows this triad, thoug h and its adjacent position to the A m inor triad implies a collective Mixed Scale on A. Thus, the D m inor chord signifies the falling Pseudo tonic in the Mixed Scale on A as opposed to the rising t onic in the D n eutral s cale. The E m inor triad s in measures 27 (2) and 31(2) similarly divulge the way in which Chajes constructs new meanings for familiar harmonic material. These chords follow implied Mixed Scales on B and B E tetrachords as well sonorities that situate E between D and F. The D, E, and F indicate an accent uation of E, and therefore the E m inor chord embodies the descending Counter dominant in the E f alling s cale. The chord also functions as a symbolic link between the Mixed Scale on B and the E f alling s regarding scalar compatibility, as his teacher notes in Counterpoint that the Mixed Scale on B ideally lends itself to combination with the E f alling s
221 scalar principles also proves instructiv e in deriving a scale from the F m ajor triad in bars 30(1) and 34(1). Although it embodies the notion that the Pseudo tonic pitch of the Mixed Scale on A expands to the C F pent achord and forms a triad in conjunction with it, analysis of this triad in the context of the preceding E f alling s cale contradicts his fundamental belief that the E f alling s cale consists completely of falling triads. F m ajor signifies a rising leading tone in a falling scale. Therefore, thorough scalar analysis requires combinin g the triad with the previous E f alling s cale. The resulting complex includes the pitches C, F B, E, and A. B constitutes the pitch to which the A C and F E dyads possess the potential to gravitate. It occupies a central position within the Mixed Scale on B, which itself lies between the Mixed Scale on F and the E f alling s cale. The complex renders the F m ajor chord the descending upper leading tone, C, within the Mixed Scale on B. The first melodic deviation from the First Theme occurs in bars 37 41 103 Example 4 42 Bars 35 38 103 See Examples 4 42 and 4 43.
222 Example 4 43 Bars 39 41 Coupled with its symbolic shift in primary tonal area to the Mixed Scale on B, the composer alters the excerpt to an extent that warrants a designation of it as a transitional theme. The first beats of bars 37, 39, and 41 stress the Mixed Scale on B throu gh implied melodic B E and F B tetrachords as well as its harmonic manifestations such as the sonorities that include E, F, and B as well as E F dyads 104 The second beats of these measures delineate Mixed Scales on F. The first quarter notes exclusively feature pitches that lie within C F tetrachords. The second quarter notes lie within symbolic F B tetrachords that become discernible upon examining the combination of the pitches in the sense that C E hexachords situate their boundary defining members in a central position between A G and C E dyads In their harmonic forms, the embedded C E and A G dyad s also represent potential gravitation toward the boundary defining members of an F B tetrachord. The majority of the first dotted quarter notes of bars 38 and 40 consist of E A pentachords that include A D tetrachords. These s onorities precede harmonies imply the Mixed Scale on A through 104 Bars 39 40 contain a repetition of bars 37 38. Material from measure 37( 1) also reappears in bar 41(1). I derive the implied melodic F B tetrachords from the left hand of the piano part, as the pitches include E, F, G, and B.
223 harmonies that incorporate E A and A D dyads Collectively, the Mixed Scales on B F, and A accentuate the Mixed Scale on B through th e order in which they appear. The Mixed Scales on B and F imply a symbolic large scale F B dyad This sonority precedes an F A dyad that represents potential expansion toward the boundary defining memb ers of a B E pentachord. The last eighth notes of bars 38 and 40 reinforce this implied pentachord through the pitches D, F, A, and C, which represent potential motion toward it via D C and F A dyad s The sonority figures more prominently in the last thr ee quarter notes of bar 41, which also deviates slightly from bars 37 41(2) with regard to the melodic pitches. The second half of bar 41(2) remains unaffected by the slight variation, as it draws attention to an F B dyad that occupies the middlemost posi tion within the collection of notes that includes G, C, F, B, E, and A. In conjunction with the pitches in the previous quarter note, it implies the Mixed Scale on F. The first quarter note of bar 41(3) incorporates D, E, F, and A, notes that collectivel y imply an E A tetrachord. 105 In the second half of bar 41(3) Chajes amalgamates pitches that draw focus toward the same symbolic F B tetrachord that he emphasizes in the second quarter note of 41(2). 106 Connecting the F B and E A tetrachords designates B E the central tetrachord that connects the Mixed Scales on B and E. The composite complex, F B E A, demonstrates that F B E represents the Mixed Scale on B while B E A represents the E falling scale. The composer implies an E falling scale in the last eig hth note of 41(3) by merging F B E A with B E A D. The technique by which he transforms E from a pitch that emphasizes B E tetrachords in 38(2) and 40(2) to a full fledged 105 See Figure 4 12. 106 See Figure 4 21
224 compatibility of the Mixed Scal e on B with the E falling scale Figure 4 21 C ombinatory analysis of the second quarter note of bar 41(3) The elder composer relates that discerning the character of any scale that consists of a tri tone necessitates e mphasizing the opposite tetrachord, which is exactly the position the B E tetrachord assumes within the E f alling scale. Chajes also uses this tetrachord pervasively within the Transitional Theme. He accentuates it overtly in the violin by restricting the pitches to its members. He also infuses it into the melody in the treble clef of the piano part, albeit more esoterically. Measures 37 38(1) and 39 40(1) consist of G C pent achords, groups of pitches that contain boundary defining members to which E expands. The last three eighth notes of bars 38 and 40 consist of the notes B, F, and A, which mirror the composite scalar trend within the passage and collectively accentuate B. Bar 41 suggests emphasis on the B E t etrachord despite the melodic changes. The melodic D G tetrachord in m easure 41 represents potential gravitation toward B via its implied F E and D G dyads The oscillation between F and E in 41(2 3) also implies B, as well as a B E dyad in the sense tha t the melodic implications alternate between E itself and the note with which it signals gravitation toward B.
225 The Second Theme encompasses bars 42 67. As in the Transitional Theme, the B E tetrachord plays a significant structural role although the ne w key signature alters the functions of the B and E scales 107 B acts as the Pseudo tonic of the new mixed sixth degree scale, and it derives its origin from the E n eutral and F sharp f allin g s cales. E represents the t onic of the new n eutral s cale. Like t he First Theme, it consists of a variation following the initial presentation. The composer principally distinguishes the latter portion of the theme in bars 53(1) 67 by exclusively using the piano and adding five measures. The new harmonic and melodic context in which he sets the theme constitutes a quasi thematic transformation in the sense that the B E tetrachord generates the melody in the violin as opposed to assuming its minimalist guise from the Transitional Theme. He also utilizes a slower tempo longer rhythmic durations, melodic flourishes, and a softer dynamic level in the Second Theme. This is consistent with the f irst m ovement of the Sonata and the middle section of Israeli Dance. The fact that the movement itself contains no Jewish progra mmatic references indicates that these elements belong to his general compositional style in his post 1930 works as opposed to only his J ewish or Israeli themed pieces. As in the Transitional Theme, the B E tetrachord proves ubiquitous throughout the Seco nd Theme in contexts ranging from the obvious to the representational. The melody in the violin exemplifies the supremacy of this group of pitches in an overt manner. 107 See Examples 4 44 and 4 45.
226 Example 4 4 4. Bars 42 50 Example 4 4 5 Bars 51 53
227 Bars 42 43(4) consist entirely of a B E tetrachord, and Chajes assigns each of its pitches the longest rhythmic values. 108 A, the next new pitch in bar 43(4), subsequently alternates with B, and the B E/E A fluctuation delineates the E n eutral s cale. The principal tetrachord th en occupies bar 44 to the fourth fifth of bar 45. The last fifth of 45(4) consists of an F sharp that follows a B, which implies the Mixed Scale on B as evidenced by B E/F sharp B oscillation. This scale though, r epresents a passing tonal area, as an E A tetrachord follows it from bar 46 to the second third of 47(4). The E n eutral s cale returns in these two measures, as the A in bar 47(1) establishes its upper boundary. The B in bar 4 5 (1) establishes the melodic lower boundary and represents the lower dominant of the scale, which the comp oser thus establishes in bars 45 47 by using its upper and lower dominants as borders. He accentuates B at the conclusion of the scale in bar 47(4) by placing C sharp, its upper leading tone after A, its lower leading tone, and I argue that it highlights his desire to maintain emphatic balance between B and E and stress the tetrachord via both boundary defining members as oppo sed to either singular pitch. He places greater stress on the boundary defining members of the F sharp B tetrachord in bar 48, but the primary feature of bars 48 50(2) includes the way in which the B E tetrachord functions as connective tissue between the Mixed Scale on B and the E n eutral s cale. F sharp B E A represents a convenient visualization and summary of the complex. The D that follows E in measure 50(3 4) implies a Mixed Scale on A. This scale complements scale the Mixed Scale on B in the sense that the E n eutral s cale generates portions of each hybrid scale. The F sharp that follows D in bar 50(4) underscores the supremacy of E as a fundamental scale, 108 The melodic tetrachord lasts un til the first fifth of bar 43(4).
228 since each note lies one whole step apart from it. The first presentation of the melody subsequently concludes wi th a B E tetrachord in bars 51 53. The harmonic background continues to reflect and support the melody in the Second Theme and its variation Initial evidence of this characteristic of style manifests itself fairly transparently in the form of t he introductory harmonic and melodic B E dyads in the bass clef of the piano part in bar 42, the Mixed Scales on B in bars 42(2) and 43(2), and the E n eutral s cale in measure s 43(3) 44 (1). Detailed analysis of particular passages in which the B E tetracho rd functions as a bonding agent between phenomenon becomes readily apparent upon investigating excerpts in which the tetrachord itself is absent but nevertheless reveal s itself within composite pitch groups. Bar 44(1 3) effectively illustrates this concept. The last sonority in bar 44(1) consists of an A m ajor chord This sonority all udes to an E A pentachord through its embedded E A dya d The first collection of pit ches in measure 44(2) includes C sharp, E, and F sharp. Their combination implies an F sharp B d yad 109 Combining the F sharp B and E A dyads in a quartal arrangement emphasizes a symbolic B E tetrachord that represents both pitches on a scalar level withi n the previously mentioned F sharp B E A complex. The same theoretical B E tetrachord links the second and third beats, and its interaction with the F sharp falling scale in bar 44(2) emphasizes B within beats 1 3 by through C sharp F sharp B E A, a compl ex that situates B in a central positio n within the Mixed Scale on B. 109 See Figure 4 22.
229 Figure 4 22 Discussion of the combinatory potential of C sharp, E, and F sharp The complex also places the scale squarely between the E neutral scale and the F sharp falling scale. A similar situation occurs in measure 46(1 2), where a chord consisting of the pitches D, F sharp, A, and C sharp implies a B E pent achord through the mixture of D with C sharp and F sharp with A. The chord results from merging the G E dyad in the last t hird of bar 46(1) with the implied C sharp F sharp dyad in the first third of measure 46(2), since the G E dyad represents potential movement to ward an A D dyad 110 Bar 48 illustrates the technique by which the composer utilizes the harmonic background to accentuate B and E via synthesis of scalar and triadic symbolism. Beat 1 consists of an obvious Mixed Scale on B, while beat two contains a symbolic form of the same scale as it co mbines implied E A and C sharp F sharp dyad s. 111 The familiar F sharp B E A complex forms between beats 2 and 3. Thorough investigation of the 110 See Figure 4 4, as the pitches in the latter example include F sharp, G, and B 111 Ibid. F sharp and G represent potential gravitation to an E A dyad.
230 excerpt necessitates the development of a system for like variables. For a hybrid analysis that blends scalar and triadic trends, the complex requires re appropriation as a scale. It all udes to the Mixed Scale on G, since the G and F sharp that conclude beat two symbolize potential movement toward C sharp, while the F sharp B dyads in beat 3 represent potential movement toward D. Mixing D and C sharp signifies potential movement toward G An implied E n eutral s cale follows this scale in the first two thirds of beat 3. It represents the merging of the obvious F sharp B dyad with F sharp a pitch that represents potential expansion toward the boundary defining members of an A D pentachord The combined pitches lie within a chord consisting of B, D, F sharp, and A. The chord implies potential movement toward E through its B A and D F sharp dyads Chajes adds emphasis to this E in beats 3 4 by surrounding it with both neighboring scales. The implied A D dyad in beat 3 connects to an implied D G dya d in beats 3 4 to build an implied Mixed Scale on D. This scale precedes an implied F sharp falling s cale resulting from an E A D G complex wherein the A D dyad represents potential expan s ion o r contraction to ward F sharp. This model in which the tonic (or Pseudo tonic) notes of scales represent triadic pitches reflects the melody within the measure (albeit on a highly theoretical level), as the violin outlines an E m inor triad. Bars 49 50(1) also effectively illustrate the complex manner in which the composer relates the melody to its harmonic context. The melodic pitches within this excerpt A, G, and F sharp, constitute the three lowest members of an F sharp B tetra chord that begins in bar 48(1) and is interrupted by an E in the third beat before F sharp returns in bar 49. The scales lie within a chord that incorporates the pitches A, C sharp, E, and G, which represents potential movement toward F sharp B dyads through A G and C sharp E
231 dya ds The symbolic Mixed Scale on G results from an F sharp B E A complex. The G F sharp dyad in the last third of bar 49(2) represents potential motion toward an E A dyad F sharp B dyads follow it in the first third of bar 49(3) and establish the complex. An implied E n eutral s cale results when these F sharp B dyads connect to the F sharp that sounds in octaves. This note symbolizes potential expansion toward the boundary defining members of a n A D pentachord and the composite chord includes the notes B, D, F sharp, and A. The outer boundaries represent the gravitational force of the dominants of the E n eutral s cale moving toward the tonic. The inner boundaries constitute the convergence of the leading tones of the same scale. Th e implied A D dyad precedes a G F sharp dyad that represents potential motion toward an E A dyad An A D dyad returns in bar 49(4), and the Mixed Scale on A thus occupies this beat as well as the last third of measu re 49(3). The symbolic Mixed Scale on C sharp stems from the joining the latter A D dyad to the implied B E dyad in the first third of bar 50(1), as the resulting B E A D complex situates E A in the center. E A dyads embody potential movement to ward C sh arp. Complexity temporarily yields to transparency in bars 51 53(1), where overt B E tetrachords conclude the first presentation of the Second Theme and begin the variation on it in the tw o uppermost voices. T he way in which Chajes merges the B E tetrac hords and pentachords implies a Mixed Scale on B. This scale and its Pseudo tonic pitch also carry somewhat more significance than E throughout the variation on the Second Theme and foreshadow the first eight bars of the development section, which travers e the same scale. Contrasting multiple excerpts in bars 42 51(1) with their counterparts in bars 51(2) 67 effectively demonstrate the greater emphasis the composer places on B
232 in the latter portion of the Second Theme. Bars 43(4) and 53(4) clearly illust rate this intra thematic distinction. While measure 43(4) contains an E n eutral s cale, a Mixed Scale on B pr ecedes this scale in bar 53(4). The A F sharp dyad in this beat represents potential movement to ward a B E dyad. It merges with an F sharp B dyad to form the implied scale Juxtaposing measure 45(4) against bar 55(4) produces a comparable (albeit seemingly contradictory) result. 112 While bar 45(4) begins with an implied Mixed Scale on B, I argue that measure 55(4) places greater stress on this tone than E in its initial F sharp scale due to the fact that the latter scale utilizes E only as the lower leading tone rather than the tonic, dominant, or counter dominant. Example 4 46 Bars 54 59 112 See Example 4 46.
233 Chajes furthermore assigns E significantly shorter rhythmic durations in bar 55(4) than measure 45(4). Correlating measures 48 49(2) with bars 58 59(2) reveals the diminished value of E in the variation on the Second Theme, as the latter passage features F sharp f alling s c ales that completely exclude E as opposed to Mixed Scales on B. 113 The conclusion of the variation on the Second Theme in bar 67(3 5) superficially indicates that the composer restores the balance toward equal stress on both B and E, although the excerpt re sembles measures 51(2) 53(1) in the sense that it includes both B E tetrachords and B E pentachords. It also emphasizes the Mixed Scale on B. 114 Example 4 47 Bars 66 69 C ombinatory analysis also indicates that an implied Mixed Scale on C sharp and an apparent F sharp f alling s cale exclusively occu py these three beats. The implied Mixed Scale on C sharp forms when the B A dyad in beat 3 intersects the B G dyad in 113 Ibid. 114 See Example 4 47.
234 the first third of beat 4, as the B A dyad represents potential movement toward a G C shar p dyad and the B G dyad symbolizes potential motion toward a C sharp F sharp dyad. The latter dyad subsequently joins an F sharp B dyad in the second third of beat 4 to establish the initial F sharp f alling s cale. The technique by which Chajes staggers t he notes in the last three beats also reveals his intent to avoid expressing a transparent E n eutral s cale, as the B A dyad, G C sharp dyad and D F sharp dyad symbolize gravitation toward E (in an octaval guise) when they sound synchronously. The d evelopment section begins following bar 67, as bars 68 75 constitute a repetition of bars 1 8 in the Mixed Scale on B, and the composer traverses various other new tonal areas in bars 76 145 The changes of meter and tempo that precede it represent standa rd signs of sectional transition in his oeuvre Measures 76 83 repeat the first eight bars of variation on the First Theme in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on F sharp. 115 Example 4 48 Bars 76 78 115 See Examples 4 48 and 4 49. I argue that the G sharp pervades the passage even in the measures where it is absent, since Chajes utilizes the hybrid neutral/falling Scale frequently in his post 1930 works as well as within the fourth movement of the Sonata. Fluctuation between the F sharp falling scale and the Mixed Scale on F
235 Example 4 49 Bars 79 85 This excerpt accentuates A, the principal Pseudo tonic pitch of the piece in the sense that it signifies potential motion toward the initial C F sharp dya d s The fact that F sharp m inor represents the relative major key to A m ajor in common practice period works has little relevan ce in this context, as A m inor bears only a distant relationship to F sharp m inor. A combinatory discussion of the primary tonal areas Chajes explores in bars 1 83 also reinforces the notion that he emphasizes A on a large scale. The First Theme generall y lies within the Mixed Scale on A, and when this note mixes with B, the implied Pseudo tonic of the Transitional Theme and actual Pseudo t onic of the first eight bars of the development, it implies potential motion toward E. When the same B intersects F sharp, the Pseudo tonic of the Mixed Scale on F sharp, it implies potential movement toward D. Combining D with E implies A. The implied dyads in bar 83(3) underscore this concept. The G sharp, C sharp and B in the first sixteenth note of 83(3)
236 imply a C sharp F sharp dya d that precedes a G sharp C sharp dya d. 116 A chord that spans an F sharp B pent achord follows in the second eighth note. The G sharp C sharp F sharp B complex illustrates a C sharp F sharp dyad on a scalar level and this sonority als o embodies the potential gravitation of the D E dyad. Collective analysis of the notes in the beat also yields a Mixed Scale on A via progression from E to A to D. Bars 83 the fo ur introductory notes of the piece with the melody of the First Theme. He uses the same encoded language to hint at A referentially via a symbolic large scale C sharp F sharp pentachord in bar 87, which consists of sonorities that imply C sharp, A, and F sharp, respectively. 117 The chord in the initial eighth note of measure 87 implies potential movement toward C sharp via B D and G F sharp dyads The subsequent chord implies A through E D and G B dyads The A D dyads and D m ajor chord in bar 87(2) embody potential movement toward F sharp Example 4 50 Bars 86 87 Measures 88 91 place the same four bar melody in a different context that features harmonic sonorities in the violin as opposed to the piano. The passage begins 116 See Figure 4 9. 117 See Example 4 50.
237 in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G, although it ends in the Mixed (fourth) degree Scale on A. 118 Example 4 51 Bars 86 91 Evidence of this concluding scale lies in bar 91(1 2), where an E flat A dya d intersects an E flat G dyad, which represents potential movement to ward an A D dyad In this sense, the E fla t m ajor chord in measure 91(2) represents the falling upper leading tone to A. Although Chajes uses the two leading tones that surround A, he cleverly avoids returning to the Pseudo Tonic by modulating to the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A flat in bar 92(1). 119 Example 4 52 Bars 92 96 118 See Example 4 51. 119 See Example 4 52.
238 This chromatic scalar descent represents continued exploration of a leading tone based scale while simultaneously recalling A, albeit in an altered guise. The composer extends this idea further by using a melodic G sharp to begin a reprise of the initial eight bars of the variation on the First Theme in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on C sharp in bar 96. An examination of the tonal areas he elects to explore within the development secti on thus far continue to draw attention to A as a central entity within a symbolic C sharp F sharp pent achord, as they include the Mixed (sixth degree) Scales on B, F s harp, G, A flat, and C sharp. Measures 104 115 generally emphasize the Mixed (sixth deg ree) Scale on G sharp. 120 Example 4 53 Bars 103 105 They feature nearly identical material to bars 76 87 with the exception of the treble clef of the piano part in bar 104(1). The D sharp, E, and G sharp in the second eighth note of the beat combine to imply an A D sharp dya d, which joins the prior D sharp G 120 See Exampl e 4 53.
239 sharp dyads to imply a composite Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on D sharp. 121 Chajes precedes this scale with a theoretical aggregate E r ising s cale that spans bars 103(3 ) 104(1). Its dyads imply a complex spelled D sharp G sharp C sharp F sharp. The G sharp C sharp dyad (which signifies potential gravitation toward E ) symbolizes the shift from the Mixed Scale on C sharp to the forthcoming Mixed Scale on G sharp. Merging both combination based scales implies a Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on A that highlights the most signifi cant Pseudo tonic pitch of the S onata. Bar 115 concludes with a symbolic scale based G sharp minor ch ord. 122 Example 4 54 Bars 113 115 Be cause this sonority depicts potential motion toward B, it also highlights the A in the sense that the passage accentuates the scale associated with the lower leading tone, G sharp, before concluding with a measure long representative chord that stresses B, the upper leading tone. The chord derives from the same formula that indicates an accentuation of A in bar 87. The initial eighth note in bar 115(1) contains a chord with the pitches A, C sharp, E and G sharp, which symbolizes potential gravitation toward D sharp via the C sharp E and G sharp A dyads The sonority in the second eighth note features the pitches F sharp, A, C sharp, and E, which represents 121 See Figure 4 6 for a discussion of the combinatory potential of D, E, and G. 122 See Example 4 54.
240 potential motion toward B through its A C sharp an d F sharp E dyads An E m ajor chord and B E dyad follow in 115(2), and these harmonic units portray the expan sion or contraction of G sharp. This potential gravitation toward A via G sharp and B based entities manifests itself in the concrete form of a temporary return to the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A in measure 116. 123 Bars 115(2) 116(1) demonstrate its theoretical form and summarize bars 104 115, as they merge the B E dyad in bar 115(2) with the A C dyad due to the fact that the latter sonority represents potential movement toward a D G dyad The composite chord contains the pitches E, G, B, and D, which embodies potential movement towar d A through its B G and E D dyads The s cale begins a four bar passage that resembles bars 88 91 in every aspect with the exception of the chord in bar 119(2). Example 4 55 Bars 113 119 C occurs frequently throughout its melody and the composer exp loits the fact that this note symbolizes expansion to ward the boundary defining members of a E A pent achord to signify movement from the Mixed Scale on A toward the E f alling s cale in bar 119(1 2). The s cale forms as the implied B E dyad in measure 119(1) combines 123 See Example 4 55.
241 with the E A dyads in bar 119(2). 124 The stress Chajes places on the E A pent achord facilitates his depiction of a theoretical Mixed Scale on A, as the A m inor chord in bar 119(2) precedes a D m inor chord in measure 120(1). 125 The scale derives from the intersecting E A and A D dyads and the triads reinforce the central nature of its pseudo tonic pitch by representing both ascending and descending motion from A. The D m inor triad also introduces the next passage, which begins in the Mixed Scale on D T he composer thus accentuates A by utilizing a scalar progression in which the Pseudo tonic pitches ascend by fourths from the E f alling s cale to the Mixed Scale on A to the Mixed Scale on D. 126 The large scale movement from E to D in the context of the extended symbolic Mixed Scale on A becomes particularly noticeable in the second eighth note of bar 120(1), which encompasses a large complex consisting of the A falling scale, the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D, and the G neutral scale (E A D G C). This excerpt deviates from its previous manifestations with regard to its length, as bars 120 133 feature two near repetitions of a seven bar phrase. 127 It complements its predecessor in the sense that it emphasizes A D dyads on both eso teric and direct levels and continues to allude to A over an extended period. Chajes expresses the sonority directly through its harmonic manifestation in measure 120(1 2). 124 See Figure 4 18, as the pitches in the current example include F, A, and B 125 This scale does not exist according to Kauder, as it combines tetrachords from different key signatures. Kauder, though, places no overt restrictions on uniting disparate tetrachords in order to allude to particular scales. 126 See Examples 4 56 and 4 57 127 The exceptional portions include bars 127(1 2) and 133(3).
242 Example 4 56 Bars 120 131 Example 4 57 Bars 1 32 133 F also permeates the melody as a quasi pedal point in the violin, and this pitch also symbolizes potential expan s ion to ward the boundary defining members of an A D pent achord. Analysis of the range of scales t he composer uses reveals it in a somewhat more cryptic manner, as he alters their direction. Following the theoretical Mixed Scale on A in bars 119 120, Chajes incorporates every possible quartal and quintal dyad until he repeats the D G dyad in 126(2). The D G tetrachord in bar 126(2)
243 represents the first significa nt point of directional change, and therefore bars 120 126(2) fit within a descending cycle of fourths from a G C dyad to a D G dyad 128 Figure 4 23 Descending c ycle from the G C dyad Due to the redundancy of the G C and D G dyads the whole cycle lends itself to an abbreviated form that equates to a G n eutral s cale. 129 The D G tetrachord in measure 126(2) possesses a hybrid identity in the sense that it initiates an ascending cycle of fourths toward the implied A D pentachord in bar 127( 2 ) as well as the true A D pentachord that manifests itself through the pitches that occupy this measure 130 Its highest and lowest dyads establish a Mixed Scale on D in cyclical form. 128 See Figure 4 23. The cycle represents the range and direction of quartal/quintal descent despite the fact some dyads occur in a non consecutive order. The entire cycle requires a second tra versal of the D G and G C dyads. 129 Ibid. 130 See Figure 4 24. The E G dyad in bar 127(1) implies gravitation toward the boundary defining members of an A D tetrachord. It precedes the appearance of the harmonic form of an A D dyad in measure 127(2). G D A E B flat F C
244 Figure 4 24 Ascending cycle from a D G dyad to an A D dyad The A D dyad subsequently begins a descending patt ern until the D G tetrachord re appears in bar 133(2). Thi s tetrachord ascends to an implied C F pent achord in the following beat and creates a complex that emphasizes both the G n eutral s cale and the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on C. This discussion of an overarching symbolic A D dyad requires the use of like terms, however, which necessitates re naming the D G C F complex a Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on E. The three most significant cycles thus occur on G, A, and E, and the combination of these pitches implies an A D dya d. 131 131 See Figure 4 3. The D G C F cycle is incomplete. B flat E A D G C F
245 I contend that bars 134 141 traverse the Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on B flat. 132 The composer emphasize s A simply by calling attention to its leading tone, but this choice of new tonal area highlights A on a large scale in the sense that its combination with the previous cycles on E, G, and D forms a chord consisting of the pitches E, G, B flat and D. This sonority symbolizes potential movement toward A through its E D and G B flat dyads Although the scale evades simple discernment, one hint of its presence includes the frequent points of fluctuation between E and F in the piano part, since these two note s constitute the Pseudo dominants of the scale. O nly two instances occur in which F follows or precedes G, moreover, and E follows D on one occasion. The order in which the notes occur also offers evidence for the presence of this scale, as the first fiv e notes consist of C, F, B flat, E, and A. They form a complex, C F B flat E A, that places the Mixed Scale on B flat between the F r ising s cale (with which it shares the F B flat tetrachord) and the Mixed (seventh degree) s cale on E (with which it s hares the B flat E tetrachord). The first three bars of the violin part also imply the scale due to the fact that they pass through an F B flat tetrachord in bars 134 135 and continue to ascend to E in bar 136. The E F oscillation occupies it in bars 136(3) 1 37(2), and B flat begins both measure 138 and 139. These measures also contain a melodic D G pentachord, which represents potential contraction to the Pseudo tonic of the Mixed Scale on B flat. A D G tetrachord occupies bar 140. It recurs in measures 14 1 144. 133 132 See Example 4 58. 133 See Example 4 59.
246 Example 4 58 Bars 132 143 Example 4 59 Bars 144 145 A composite analysis of the excerpt also indicates that it lies within the Mixed Scale on B flat. Chajes restricts the pitches in bar 134 to those located within the B flat
247 E pent achor d. When he adds the C in measure 135(1), the range of pitches spans a C E hexachord This collection of pitches symbolizes potential contraction to ward the boundary defining members of an F B flat tetrachord. The remainder of the bar consists of an E A tetrachord and an implied E A dyad that precedes an F B flat dya d. The dyads merge within a complex, F B flat E A, that accentuates the Mixed Scale on B f lat and the Mixed Scale on E. Bars 136 137 also illustrate the scale via complementary pent achords, since measure 136(1 2) contains a collective F B flat pent achord while bars 136(3) 137(2) consist of a B flat E pent achord. The implied C F pent achord that follows it in 137(2) forms a complex, C F B flat E, that emphasizes the F r ising s cale and the Mixe d Scale on B flat. Although bars 138(2) 141 primarily emphasize F through the F r ising s cale, an A D tetrachord, an A D pentachord and A D dyads I believe the composer embeds large scale emphasis on B flat due to the fact that bars 142 145 feature altern ating B flat E pentachords a nd E A tetrachords. These pitch collections imply the Mixed Scale on E, and his juxtaposition of passages that stress E and F exposes his intent to emphasize B flat in bars 138 145. Kauder states that fourth degree scales main tain exclusive compatibility with rising scales, furthermore and therefore Chajes uses the scale in a manner consistent with his The r ecapitulation begins with a repetition of the variation on the First Theme in bar 146 in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A. The preceding four bars foreshadow the return of familiar material due to the fact that they contain B flat E pentachords, since B E dyads figure prominently in the Transitional Theme and the Second Theme. Its beginning contains a descending melodic third followed by a descending step in the
248 violin. The composer initially presents this gesture in the d evelopment s ection in bar 104. 134 Bars 146 160 primarily repeat measures 19 33. A slight melodic change in bar 161 subseq uently allows Chajes to follow the E falling scale in measure 160(2) with a Mixed Scale on F in bar 161(1), a D neutral scale in measure 161(2), and a Mixed Scale on A in bar 162(1). 135 These scales imply an E A tetrachord, the sonority that heavily influen ces the forthcoming transposed Transitional Theme and Second Theme. These material ultimately returns in scales that accentuate A. Example 4 60 Bars 144 147 The added B flat also indicates the arrival of concluding material in the sense that it introduces passages in which scales on A possess a fundamental nature ( in the cases of the A f alling s cale and the A n eutral s cale) as opposed to a hybrid character. T his 134 See Example 4 60. The passage generally emphasizes the Mixed Scale on A, although the alternation renders its initial presentation somewhat less direct than i t appears in bar 19. The G E dyad in the first eighth note of 146(1) represents potential expansion toward the boundary defining members of an A D pentachord. The E, F, and A in the second eighth note imply a B E dyad, and the composite B E A D complex e mphasizes an E A dyad. Thus, a symbolic form of the scale rests in its fluctuation between an A D dyad and the composite E A dyad it forms with the subsequent B E dyad. 135 See Example 4 61. While the E falling scale, the Mixed Scale on F, and the Mixed Sc ale on A assume fairly transparent forms, the D neutral scale requires the merging the A D dyad with the A, C, and D that follow it, as this sonority implies a D G dyad.
249 fluctuation between disparate A centered scales also stresses the principal note of the piece. The B flat permits Chajes to underscore the E A tetrachord as a symbol of the exclusively compatible relationship between the Mixed (seventh degree) Scale o n E and the A f alling s cale i n bars 164 168, a reprise of the Transitional Theme. 136 Example 4 61 Bars 160 162 Like the initial presentation of the Transitional Theme, its transposed repetition offers multiple indications of its chief tetrachord, E A. T he first beats of bars 164, 166, and 168 each feature the Mixed Scale on E. The subsequent beats of bars 164 and 166 contain Mixed (fourth degree) Scales on B flat, and measures 165 (1 2) and 167 (1 2) feature Mixed (sixth degree) Scales on D. The Pseudo tonics of all three scales, B flat, E, and D, combine to imply an E A dyad. 137 The second quarter note of bar 168(2) complements the previous quarter note in constructing the Mixed Scale on B flat, as its notes, A, B flat, C, D, E, and F, collectively symb olize potential gravitation toward the boundary defining members of a B flat E tetrachord. This symbolic tetrachord merges with the previous F B flat tetrachord to imply the scale. The first eighth note of 168(3) also forms the Mixed Scale on D, and the remaining three eighth notes reinforce A 136 See Example 4 62. 137 See Figure 4 8.
250 through a B flat E A D G complex. This collection of pitches demonstrates cyclicism, as they generally equate to the notes the composer incorporates in the first bar. 138 Example 4 62 Bars 163 171 138 The fact that a B flat replaces B natural produces no effect on the central position A occupies in both complexes. The difference purely pertains to nomenclature, as the previous complex features the Mixed Scale on A between the E falling scale and the D neutral scale while the present complex situates the A falling scale between the Mixed Scale on E and the Mixed Scale on D.
251 Bar 169 begins a repetition of the Second Theme in a key signature that renders A the Tonic of the A n eutral s cale. The shift in scalar identity to which Chajes subjects the pitch in the r ecapitulation thus far reflect the tri partite relationship between n eutral Scale s, f alling Scales, and m ixed sixth degree scales, since mixed sixth degree scales derive their origin partially from n eutral and f alling s cales. While measures 169 179 constitute an exact repetition of bars 42 52, measures 180 194 deviate from bars 53 67. The most noticeable contrasting element includes the fact that the violin continues to play during the variation on the Second Theme in the reprise while it rests in measures 53 67. Its new material consists largely of flourishes and sustained notes tha t aide the other voices in implying sonorities within the A neutral scale with varying degrees of clarity. In bars 180(1) and 182(1), the ornamental F sharp, G, and E form complete E A tetrachords in conjunction with the notes in the piano. 139 Example 4 63 Bars 178 183 139 See Example 4 63.
252 In measures 181(2 3) and 183(1), the composer alludes to the primary tetrachords in a in a way that accurately illustrates the gravitational force they exert In bar 181(2 3), for example, he incorporates B, D, F sharp, A, and C. These pitches lie within a chord that symbolizes the expansion of F sharp to ward the boundary defining members of an A D pent achord as well as the B C dyad. 140 The harmonic background mirrors the melody, as the symbolic A D pentachord unfolds as the violin descen ds to D to establish the concrete form of the same sonority. A similar situation occurs in measure 183(1). F sharp, A, C, E, and G all lie within a chord that signifies the expansion of C toward the boundary defining members of an E A pent achord as well as an F sharp G dyad. 141 This pentachord reflects the fact that the A D pentachord in the violin contracts to an E A tetrachord. Figure 4 25 The implied A D pent achord and its equivalent sonorities 140 See Figure 4 25. The G E dyad appears in parentheses due to the fact that it also represents potential e xpansion toward the boundary defining members of an A omission of it from the passage. 141 See Figure 4 26. See Footnote 140 in Chapter 4 for an explanation of the parentheses surrounding the B D dyad.
253 Figure 4 26 The implied E A pent achord and its equivalent sonorities In bars 189 194, Chajes places a series of implied E A pent achords in the violin. 142 They intersect E A tetrachords in the treble clef of the piano part, and the way h e staggers the two sonorities recalls bars 51 53(1) in the sense tha t they produce descending A n eutral s cales until bar 194(3). 143 The harmonic background also supports the notion that the passage concludes in the A neutral scale. The tonic pitch introduces the theme in octaves, and it also recurs monophonically in bars 1 89(4) and 191(4). A harmonic form of the scale occurs in bar 194(3). The composer places further emphasis on the scale by oscillating between its two component scales, which include the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on D and the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale o n E. Highly transparent harmonic Mixed Scales on D occur between flourishes in measures 190(4) and 192(4) and clear Mixed Scales on E appear in bars 191(2 4), 193(2 4), and 194(2). Bar 194(4 5) implies the scale in a more enigmatic manner through the 142 I consider the F sharp s ornamental in this passage. 143 See Example 4 64. The B in the treble clef of the piano part continues to emphasize the Pseudo tonic of the Mixed Scale on B until the first fifth of 53(4), although the present discussion relates more directly to the qua si imitative exchange that constructs the scales between the violin and the piano.
254 si multaneously sounding B, E, and D in both beats and the synchronous D, E, and G in 194(5), as these collections of pitches imply E A and A D dyads, respectively. 144 The change of scalar context in this passage represents a type of functional inversion, as a formerly mixed scale (the Mixed Scale on A) becomes fundamental (the A neutral scale) while previously fundamental scales (the D neutral scale and the E falling scale) assume a mixed character. Example 4 64 Bars 187 196 144 See Figures 4 8 and 4 6. The last eighth note also peripherally emphasizes A by outlining a chord encompassing the pitches E, G, B, and D. This sonority implies A thro ugh the combination of D with E and G with B.
255 Bars 195 196 resemble bars 68 75, as both passage s feature introductory fermatas and announcements of changes of key signature. The order in which Chajes presents the scales in the excerpt foretells the return of the Mixed Scale on A in the coda in bar 197 through a pattern of desc ent. The A n eutral s cale in bar 195(1) precedes the Mixed Scale on E in the following beat. The latter scale derives half of its origin from the B f alling s cale, and an implied manifestation of this generator scale appears in bar 195(2) 196(1) and 196(3) 145 Measures 197 212 generally consist of two repetitions of a variation on bars 1 18. 146 Example 4 65 Bars 197 202 145 The C E dyads represent potential contraction toward the boundary defining members of F sharp B dyads. 146 See Example 4 65. Bars 205 212 feature a voice exchange wherein Chajes places the melody in the treb le clef of the piano part while the violin part contains harmonic sonorities.
256 The composer utilizes diminution by restricting the melodic rhythmic durations to eighth notes and the limiting the rhythm of harmonic ma terial to quarter notes. He uses this technique as a means of variation in many of his works. Measures 213 223, the final eleven bars of the piece, expose multiple signs of cyclicism. 147 Example 4 66 Bars 213 223 The four note motive in the treble cl ef of the piano in bars 213 220 recalls the first four melodic pitches of the f irst m ovement, D, E, D, and G. persistent use of a recurring idea also initially occurs in bars 36 46 of the f irst m ovement in the violin part. Bars 214 216 recall the conclusion of the t hird m ovement due to the fact that the E, D, E, and G in the violin part in bars 214 and 216 surround a transposition of the gesture 147 See Example 4 66.
257 that lays a perfect fourth higher in bar 215. The composer uses these pitches in the violin part to pay homage to all four movements of the Sonata, as bars 213 and 215 feature the initial melodic notes of the s econd and t hird m ovements, while measures 214 and 216 encompass the first four melodic notes of the f irst and f ourth m ovemen ts. The pitches E, A, D, G, and C form the scale Kauder designates as the Neutral Pentatonic Scale. Kauder notes in Entwurf succ essfully imbues the four note motive into all four movements to unite them into one seemingly symmetrical (perfect) piece. 148 Figure 4 27 n eutral p entatonic s cale The fact that this scale occupies the violin part while the b ass clef consists of alternating B E and E A dyads that suggest the presence of the E f alling s cale also depicts A as a literal central entity. Chajes moreover, achieves a sense of symmetry between the A D and E A dyads in measures 213 216 on a represent ational level, since the pitches form a complex (B E A D G C) that emphasizes an A D dyad while several 148 Entwurf 16. See Figure 4 27. The upper portion denotes the half steps that are absent from the scale in its pentatonic form. Kauder describes the scal Counterpoint and mentions its association
258 E A dyads appear in the bass clef. The only sonorities that lie outside the Mixed Scale on A in these four bars include the E m inor triads in measures 214(2) and 216(2), although they relate to it in the sense that they depict the descent of the upper leading tone. The notion of falling continues after these triads as they precede aggregate implied E f alling s cales before the Mixed Scale on A returns. Bars 217 223 encompass further examples of cyclicism. They closely resemble the last five bars of the f irst m ovement, as they traverse an ascending Mixed Scale on A before the concluding E Falling Scale. The way in which the composer designates the Pseu do tonic pitch as pedal point also unites the two outer movements, since it first appears in bars 100 121 of the f irst m ovement. He reinforces the melodic Mixed Scale on A harmonically throughout the passage. The clearest vertical manifestations of the s cale appear in bars 217(1), 217(2), 219(1), and 219(2). Chajes also exploits the combinatory potential of dyad s other than A D and E A to imply these primary sonorities in the same manner he employs in the entire Sonata. Measures 218(2) and 220(2) illust rate this idea through the B E A D G complex that symbolically situates A between the E f alling s cale and the D n eutral s cale. Bars 220(2) 221(1) constitute a similar example of moderate complexity, as the pitches in bar 220(2) imply an A D dyad that merg es with the subsequent E A dyad to symbolize the Mixed Scale on A. 149 Bars 217(1 2) and 219(1 2) constitute interesting cases in which the composer embeds multiple identities pertinent to the Mixed Scale on A in individual sonorities by altering the combina tory context into which he places them. The last eighth note s of measur es 149 See Figure 4 3, as the pitches in the current example include E, G, and A.
259 217(1) and 219(1) encompass the pitches E, G, and A, which collectively imply an A D dyad A C E dyad follows, which represents potential contraction toward D The composite chord however includes the pitches B, D, F, and A, which implies potential motion toward E via B A and D F dyads Despite the subsequent A D dyads in bars 218(2) and 220(2), the composite chord continues to imply E. The harmonies thus continually reinforce the primary scale of the movement on both concrete and abstract levels. Measures 222 223 delineate an E f alling s cale. This tonal area suits concluding material well in the sense that the word cadence relates to the Latin term cadere which means to fall in English. The Neutral Scale would likely end the piece less effectively, as Kauder labels it as such due to its bi directional nature. The E A dyad that concludes the piece functions as a symbol of the bond between the E f alling s cale and the Mixed Scale on A. It also embodies a final sign of cyclicism in the sense that it constitutes the first harmonic sonority Chajes uses in the f irst m ovement of the Sonata.
260 CHAPTER 5 SONATA IN D MINOR (FOR PIANO) Chajes employs abund ant melodic tetrachords and quartal harmonies in Sonata in D Minor 1 These organum 1934 works that include Jewish programmatic elements, although he suggests that he first incorporated them into his 1932 piece titled The 142 nd Psalm directions, which I starte d at the age of 20 when I wrote the 142 nd Psalm, which still 2 The Sonata also recalls the a dagio movement of String Quartet No. 2 as Chajes sets its F irst and T hird movements in mixed sixth degree (Aeolian) scales. The piano commences the sonata with an ascending Mixed Scale on D in the outer voices in the treble clef and a descending Mixed Scale on D in the lowest voice of the bass clef. 3 I contend that he strategically includes the accent marks in order t o overtly emphasize the scale. The middle voice in the treble clef and the highest voice in the bass clef consist of ascending and descending A f alling s cales, respectively. This scale emblemizes the hybrid nature of the Mixed Scale on D, as the A f allin g s cale and the G n eutral s cale comprise its generator scales. use of D as a pseudo tonic pitch it as a central tone manifests itself clearly in the 1 David Loring, e mail to the author, 20 November 2009. 2 Ibid. This quote appears in a different draft of program notes for a concert that occurred in Detroit on 1 May 1961. I distinguish between post 1934 works and those that precede them because Chajes often claimed that his sojourn in Palestine from 1934 1936 significantly impacted his style. His admission that Entwurf einer neuen Melodie und Harmonielehre constituted equally influential force s. 3 See Example 5 1.
261 first eighth note of bar 4, where he places it at equidistant points from the two pseudo dominants of the scale. These notes include A and G, respectively, and D lies a fifth below A in the treble clef and a fifth above G in the bass clef. The composer allows the sonority to symbolize the Mixed Scale on D by incorp orating both the A D and D G dyads. Example 5 1. Bars 1 5 of Allegro con fuoco minor (portion of beat 1) The highest voice of the treble clef in bars 5 9(1) features the Mixed (seventh degree) scale on E. In bars 5 6(1), it traverses a B flat E tetrachord. In measures 6(1) 8(1), it ascends an E A tetrachord. The B flat E tetrachord r eturns in measures 8(1) 9(1). According to Kauder, this passage constitutes the beginning of a transition to the A f alling s cale, as he ar gued tha t the mixed seventh degree (Loc rian) scale proved solely compatible with this fundamental scale:
262 In the scale of F, and its inversion, that on B, one of the two tetrachords runs through an augmented fourth; therefore only the second tetrachord det ermines the tonality. Thus the scale on F can be coordinated only with the rising scale, the scale on B only with the falling scale. 4 Evidence of movement toward the A falling scale in the bass clef initially appears in bar 6. 5 Beat 1 encompasses A D and E A dyads that precede an A. Example 5 2. B ars 5 9 (portion of beat 1) 4 Kauder, Counterpoint 8. See Example 5 1. For the purposes of this sonata, I advise the reader to transpose the keys noted in the quotation a perfect fifth lower or a perfect fourth higher. Therefore, the scale on F refers to the scale on B flat and the scale on B refers to a scale on E. 5 See Example 5 2.
263 Beats 2 3 feature the pitches A, E, and D. A constitutes the tonic note of the A f alling s cale, while E and D respectively comprise the lower and uppe r dominant tones. Chajes likely chose to set the piece in the Mixed Scale on D precisely because it combines tetrachords from two fundamental scales, as these generator scales provide rich sources of harmonic and melodic tension in the same manner that cl assical and romantic sonata forms highlight alternation between major and minor scales as well as tonic and dominant or subdominant keys. The F B flat dyads in bar 7 hint at the Mixed Scale on D due to the fact that they represent potential gravitation to ward it, although this measure also alludes to the A f alling s cale due to the fact that Kauder believed the falling half step between the two lowest scale degrees defined its identity as a descending scale. The composer reinforces motion toward the A fall ing scale through the notes in the bass clef in bars 8 (3) 9 (1), as these pitches aide the melody in accentuating the Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on E They feature a descending B flat E tetrachord that expands to an E A pentachord against an ascending B flat E tetrachord in the melody. decision to set the E A pent achord in the descending constitutes a definitive trait of f alling s cales. 6 The composer continues to accentuate both the Mixed Scale on D and the A f alling s cale until bar 17. B ars 9 10 though, exemplify the emphasis that he places on the A f alling s cale. 7 In the treble clef, the last eighth note of bar 9 and all of bar 10 consist of simultaneous presentations of the G C and D G tetrachords. Although these 6 Kauder believed that direction only formed an essential identifying characteristic of the Falling and Rising Scales. The rising B flat ssertion that the Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on E possesses a bi directional character. 7 See Example 5 3
264 tetrachords belong to the G n eutral s cale, Chajes arranges the pitches in a manner that draws attention to the E A tetrachord via the E A dyad. Example 5 3 Bars 9 12 The same phenomenon occurs in the bass clef fr om bar 10 to beat 1 of bar 11 (concluding with the first eighth note). Similar statements of the two tetrachords from the A f alling s cale appear in bars 11 12. The G n eutral s cale occupies the treble clef in bars 13 16 in the sense that the passage start s with a quartal leap from G to C ascends through a series of fourths (or, alternatively, descends through a series of fifths), and ends with a quartal leap from D to G, although the initial A in bar 15 in the bass clef foreshadows the arrival of the A fal ling scale. 8 The Mixed Scale on E fills the bass clef inasmuch as the excerpt encompasses a descending progression of fourths (or ascending fifths) that begins with an ascending leap from A to E and concludes with a descending leap from B flat to E. This large scale symbolic G E dyad represents potential expansion toward an A D dyad. This dyad signifies the transitional nature of the passage, as it embodies the notion of equal emphasis on both the Mixed Scale on D and the A Falling Scale. The sonorities in the last three sixteenth notes of bar 16, 8 See Example 5 4.
26 5 however, foretell the arrival of an A based scale. They imply gravitation toward A via the G E and D B flat dyads, as these sonorities represent potential movement toward A D and E A dyads respectively Example 5 4. Bars 13 16 initial use of chromaticism appears in bars 17 20. 9 Example 5 5 Bars 17 21 (first sixteenth note) 9 See Example 5 5.
266 While the omission of an F sharp obscures true discernment of an y particular scale, bars 17 18 seem to depict a mixed fourth degree (Lydian) scale on A due to the thirds that ascend from A to D sharp. The D sharp G sharp dyads indirectly represent a counterpart to the E A dyads, as their juxtaposition in bars 17 18 and 18 19 implies an E A D sharp G sharp complex that emphasizes A D sharp dyads. The fact that the excerpt begins with an E A dyad and concludes with an implied A D sharp dyad indicates that Chajes utilizes symbolic forms of tetrachords that establish the Mixed Scale on A as significant structural elements. The arp eg g iated A m ajor triads in bars 19 20 further strengthen the case for the Mixed Scale on A (in a key with four sharps), since this sonori ty sounds when the Pseudo tonic rises by thirds. The temporary modulation from an implied falling scale to a Mixed Scale compatible with a rising scale embodies the composer s regarding the nature of scales as opposed to an avant garde deviation from them. The elder composer whole heartedly endorsed a Double Scale that consists of an amalgamation of the Rising and Falling Scales: The utmost exten sion of tonality can be achieved by combining the two opposite basic scales on one tone The two opposite scales are hereby united to one hermaphroditic double scale of eleven tones, a diatonic scale in the original sense of the Greek dia tonos, i.e. moving through the tones, none of them being omitted, all of them equally essential and centered on the tonic hose who might worry about the missing twelfth tone may be comforted. This tone, although exceeding the space of the closed scale, can be introduced a s an auxiliary tone, the upper leading tone of the counterdominant or the lower leading tone of the dominant Thus the range of tonality includes thirteen tones, since the two auxiliary tones cannot be interchanged enharmonically, being of opposite sense, o ne falling, the other rising. 10 10 Kauder, Counterpoint 8 tone away from the tonic post dates Entwurf as he mentions the association of the interval with diabolus in musica without refuting it. I believe he deems the pitches non enharmonically equivalent in order to distance himself aesthetically
267 While he asserts in Counterpoint that the Double Scale offers numerous melodic choices, Kauder issues a considerably stronger endorsement of it in Entwurf In this earlier treatise, he claims that his particular brand of chromaticism in which no pitch assumes an ornamental role encapsulates a musical manifestation of the Universe itself: So the androgynous scale [is] a true reflection of the cosmic cycle, [and is essentially] a cosmic scale. It resembles the ascending and descending path of the sun through the annual cycle: the tonic is the vernal and autumnal equinox, the upper dominant is the winter solstice and the beginning of the rising path, and the lower dominant is the point of the summer solstice and the beginning of the sinking path. 11 Kauder uses the Double Scale as early as 1931, as the seventh sonata in his 1931 collection of pedagogical violin pieces titled Ein neues Geigebchlein: Sieben Sona ten fr die Geige allein, Sonate fr zwei Geigen, Sonate fr drei Geigen contains the within the E Double Scale, and the third variation on its theme highlights both ri sing and falling manifestations of the E A and B E tetrachords. 12 A similar prelude from Klavierbchlein I (1943) uses the G double scale. Kauder uses the rising and falling elements of the scale to construct the three phrases of the piece. The first and third phrases emphasize the falling tetrachords (despite occasional rising tetrachords), while the second phrase generally provides contrast through the rising tetrachords. 13 from twelve tone music with a thirteen tone scale. A letter by Kauder preceding his Sonata for Flute and Piano tone stands within a tonal (even diatonic!) context, which makes it destined to supersede the catastrophic 11 Kauder, Entwurf 18. 12 See Example 5 6. Note that this variation lies within an eleven tone double scale. 13 See Examples 5 7 and 5 8
268 Example 5 6. E xcerpt of seventh sonata from Sieben Sonaten fr die Geige allein Example 5 7. Excerpt 1 from Prelude (second brief piece) from Klavierbchlein I
269 Example 5 8 Excerpt 2 from Prelude (second brief piece) from Klavierbchlein I Chajes firmly plants measures 21 32 in t he A f alling s cale. 14 Although he averts conspicuous descent via leaps by fourths and fifths until bars 25 26 (in the bass clef), he starts and ends each of the three segments of the scale on members of an A m inor triad. This triad itself contains an E A dyad that connects the boundary defining members of an E A pentachord and it thus furn ishes a strong indication that he utilizes the sonority in order to allude to the A f alling s cale. H e also sets the material in measures 21 25 (the first two sixteenth notes) in a quasi imitative manner that allows the two voices to collectively reinforce the A m inor chord in bar s 21 (1) and 23 (1) 15 Example 5 9. Bars 21 25 14 See Examples 5 9 and 5 10. 15 Despite the fact that identical pitches appear in each voice in canon at the eighth note, I have chosen to use the term quasi imitative to account for the fact that the initial interval in the treble clef consists of a descending perfect fourth while the first bass clef interval comprises an ascending perfect fifth.
270 Example 5 10 Bars 21 32 The scale conti nues to descend from bars 25 29 (1). Measures 27 28 illustrate the penchant for variation, as he derives the harmonies in the treble clef from previous melodic leaps. He alternates these sonorities with harmonies in the bass clef that recall the previous melodic descending m otion by steps. In addition to the harmonic and melodic references to the A f alling s cale Chajes embeds in these two measures, he also calls attention to it through the incomplete cycle of fourths he imbues in the harmonies in the treble clef. I argue th at movement by fourths between A and C belies his intent to accentuate the scal e by purposely omitting D and G. 16 16 See Figure 5 1.
271 Figure 5 1 Incomplete cycle of f ourths from an E A dyad to a C F dyad In measures 29 30, the composer sets these five pitches in rhythmic a ugmentation. In bars 31 32, he removes the C and diverts emphasis toward the A E tetrachord and the falling half step s from B flat to A and F to E This F B flat E A complex excludes an A D dyad although he establishes the A f alling s cale by combining the symbolic B flat E dyad with an E A dyad. These two sonorities imply the Mixed Scale on E, which exclusively merges with the A f alling s cale. Chajes further removes any ambiguity regarding the tonality of the excerpt by placing a singular A in the hig hest staff in 32 (3) The Second Theme proceeds from bars 33 59. In addition to the pseudo modulation to the Mixed Scale on D, the composer alters the meter and tempo. 17 He 17 I have elected to utilize the term quasi modulation to distinguish this change of tonal area from more conventional modulations, as the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D sha res the A D tetrachord with the A falling scale and hence owes half of its identity to what Kauder deemed one of its generator scales.
272 often utilizes such changes in order to introduce new themes, and this phenomenon also occurs in bar 33. 18 Example 5 1 1 Bars 33 41(first eighth note) 18 See Example 5 11.
273 In measures 33 36, he incorporates several changes of melodic direction that prevent the complete ascent or descent of the Mixed Scale on D in the conventional sense. H is arrangement of the melodic pitches comports with Kauder's belief that tonic pitches should occupy central positions within the scales to which they belong: Sound is movement just T he scale is a measured movement Its funda mental tone is the generator of this movement and its center of gravitation. This gravitation we call it tonality is the moving force and produces the inner life of music, thus making music a likeness of the order and movement of the universe. According to its function as a center of gravity, the fundamental tone has to be placed in the center in order to give to t he scale its most perfect The attractive force toward th e central tone reaches the maxi mum in the two outermost tones of the closed scale, the u pper and lower fourth from the tonic. These are the opposite poles and turning points of the scale, the dominants. 19 This type of motion toward and away from a tonic located at the middlemost point between the Pseudo dominants informs phrase struct ure in bars 33 36. Bars 33 34 form the antecedent portion of the phrase, which emphasizes the idea that the Pseudo tonic lays a perfect fourth above A. The composer alludes to the A D tetrachord through the introductory melodic leap from A to D, which su bsequently descends back to A. Measures 35 36 also highlight the A D tetrachord to a lesser extent, as the melody from the highest voice of bars 33 34 moves to the middle voice. The highest voice of these two bars accentuates the Pseudo tonic pitch throu gh an E A D G C complex. Bars 33 34 feature simultaneou s melodic presentations of a D G pentachord (a group of notes that includes an A D tetrachord) and an A D pentachord (a collection of pitches that incorporates a D G tetrachord). These pentachords ac t as guideposts that reinforce the primary tonal area of the theme. B ar 34 (2) also furnishes 19 Kauder, Counterpoint 4 5.
274 a visually helpful example of the way in which Chajes establishes D as a tonal center as its first sixteenth note con sists of a quartal sonority that constitutes a harmonic manifestation of the Mixed Scale on D itself Other similarly illustrative excerpts in this passage relate to the two primary scales from which the Mixed Scale on D derives its pitches. B ar s 33 (2) and 36 (3) represent ideal manifestations of t he A f alling s cale through their synchronous A D and E A dyads The aforementioned initial melodic leap also symbolizes the A f alling s cale and the equidistant location of its tonic from its dominants due to its ascent from an E A dyad to an A D dyad Th e descending leap from the G C dyad to the D G dyad in bar 34 (1 2) likewise highlight s the G n eutral s cale The pitches in the treble clef in measures 33 34(2) collectively emphasize the central position the composer assigns D as a pitch and as a scale through an E A D G C com plex. This complex situates D in the middle of the Mixed Scale on D. This scale lies equidistantly between its two generator scales The notes in the bass clef within this passage also illuminate the Mixed Scale on D. The ascendi ng octave in bar 33 and the implied A D tetrachord through which it passes suggest emphasis on the primary scale of the movement, and the fluctuation between A and G in bar 34 (2) allude s to alternating A D and D G tetrachords. Although Chajes omits the D necessary to completely ascend the Mixed Scale on D in the bass clef, this pitch appears in the treble clef in bar 34 (2) The material in the bass clef of measures 35 36 features an analogou s traversal of the same scale although the composer subtly disti nguishes the notes in the bass clef in bars 35 36 from bars 33 34 by utilizing fewer pitches. He also incorporates different (albeit related) tetrachords that lie outside the scale, as measures 33 34 include a G C tetrachord that invokes the G
275 n eutral s c ale, while the scale in bars 35 36 passes through an E A tetrachord that recalls the A f alling s cale. Chajes contrasts bars 37 40 with this passage by using fewer leaps, although he continues to emphasize the Mixed Scale on D and its generator scales. F rom bar s 37 38 (2) the treble clef contains parallel D G and A D tetrachords. The material in the lowest voice of the treble clef moves to the highest voice in bars 39 40, and this transposition allows the highest voice to complete a Mixed Scale on D that begins in bar 37. The lowest voice of the treble clef also consists of an ascending A f alling s cale, which constitutes a non the bass clef renders these four bars a consequent phrase to bars 33 36 as it underscores fluctuation between an A D tetrachord and a D G pentachord as opposed to oscillation between a D G tetrachord and an A D pentachord. The step wise motion between the implied harmonic tetrachords in the treble clef of bars 37 38 also illumines the Mixed Scale on D through a descending cycle of fourths from an A D to a D G dyad 20 Figure 5 2 Descending cycle of f ourths from D 20 See Figure 5 2.
276 Bars 41 48 f orm a slightly varied repetition of bars 33 40 wherein the composer employs thicker textures. These new sonorities add variety to the theme, and the doubled pitches in the treble clef add greater emphasis to the ascending Mixed Scale on D in bars 45 48. 21 Example 5 1 2 Bars 45 49 (first quarter note) 21 See Example 5 12.
277 Measures 49 59 consist of an exte nsion of bars 33 40. 22 Example 5 1 3 Bars 49 59 The brief quasi cadential melodic E that appears in bars 40 41 and recurs in bars 48 49 cause little interruption to the Mixed Scal e on D. The note follows B flat in both instances, and these melodic leap s from B flat to E embody potential gravitation toward G. The leaps foreshadow the D G tetrachords and A D pentachords that follow them. The leap descending leap between A and C in bar 52 (1) similarly accentuates the Mixed Scale on D, as the A C dyad imp lies potential movement to ward a D G dyad and the pitches A, C, D, and B flat form an A D tetrachord. The D in the first eighth note of bar 53(2) represents the highest note of the theoretical A D tetrachord as well as a link to the D G tetrachord embedde d within the A D pentachord that continues until bar 55. 22 See Example 5 13.
278 The way in which Chajes situates the pitches in the treble clef of bar 50 also presents a clear melodic and harmonic manifestation of the primary scale of the movement. He exclusively utilizes para llel ascending A D and D G tetrachords in this measure. Bars 5 7 59 constitute a similarly overt manifestation of the scale, since they situate the same tetrachords in both staves in a quasi imitative context. 23 The thicker textures in bars 41 58 also produce multiple B flat m ajor triads that offer further harmonic evidence of the Mixed Scale on D as these sonorities highlight the potential that F B flat dyads exhibit to gravitate toward the Pseudo tonic pitch Bars 50 52 symbolize each primary tetrachord through their triads The chords that establish the tetrachords include the D minor and E diminished chords in bar 50(1), the F major chords in bar 51, and the G minor chord in measure 52(4). The roots of thes e sonorities delineate a D G tetrachord. Due to the fact that the Mixed Scale on D is bi directional, the fifths from which the chords descend also imply a tetrachord. In this particular instance, the fifths of the triads imply an A D tetrachord. The D minor chord descends from A, the E diminished triad from B flat, the F major triad from C, and the G minor chord from D. In bars 53 55, the composer utilizes the triads to accentuate D by situating the D minor chord in measure 54(1) between the C major tr iad in bar 53(1) and the E diminished triad in bar 55 ( 3). He extends the notion of gravitation toward the tonic further in bar 56(2), as the G minor triad in this beat symbolize s the descent of D by thirds. minor chord in bar 56(3) and the D minor triads in bars 57 59 implies a complete falling cycle of thirds from D that spans two octaves. Examining these chords as if they rise from their roots produces a 23 A can on at the quarter note ensues between the staves from bars 55 58, although Chajes occasionally follows perfect fourths and fifths with their inversions.
279 progression from a G based sonority to an A based t riad to a D based triad. The order in which the composer presents these triads indicates that the roots of the G minor and A minor chords allude to oscillation between the Pseudo dominant notes The vacillation concludes with a chord that rises from the Pseudo tonic pitch. This triadic Pseudo dominant notes of any particular scale implies gravitation toward i ts tonic or Pseudo tonic pitch. The third theme occurs in bars 60 78. Chajes imbues it with a markedly different character through homophonic textures, triadic harmonies, and the designations tranquillo and dolce 24 Example 5 1 4 Bars 60 62 Example 5 1 5 Bars 63 67 24 See Examples 5 14 and 5 15.
280 Although he sets them in an entirely new context, the composer accentuates multiple ele ments of the Mixed Scale on D. Each melodic voice draws attention to the scale and its constituent tetrachords The pitches in the soprano voice in bars 60 65 include G, A, B flat, C, and D. Condensing them into the space of a pentachord produces a D G pentachord. The relatively long rhythmic durations Chajes assigns to the A in bar 60(1 2), the G in bar 61 underscore the Pseudo dominant pitches of the primary scale. He highlights the Pseudo tonic pitch in bar 62(2 3) by allowing it t o delineate the upper melodic boundary In bar 66, the vacillation between an arpeggiated F major chord and the D a minor third below it represents oscillation between A and G, the two P seudo dominant t ones of the Mixed Scale on D. The F major triad symbolizes potential gravitation to A while D, F, A, and C collectively suggest potential motion toward G via D C and F A dyads. The alto plays an auxiliary role in bar 61 by aiding the sopr ano in establishing the D G tetrachord. It serves the sa me function in measures 65(2 3), where a D G tetrachord expand s to an A D pentachord in order to allude to the Mixed Scale on D. A similar situation occurs in bar 66, where an A D pentachord contrac ts to a D G tetrachord. The middle voice of the left hand stresses the G neutral scale in bars 60 61 via oscillation between C and D that precedes G. It highlights the A falling scale in bars 62 63 through vacillation between D and E that precedes moveme nt toward A. These two scales generate the Mixed Scale on D and suggest emphasis on the primary scale of the movement. The bass traverses a series of alternating ascending fifths and descending fourths that implies a large scale progression from F to B f lat in bars 60 66. The F B flat dyads imply potential gravitation toward D. The bass most clearly depicts
281 the Mixed Scale on D in conjunction with the tenor in bars 63 64, as the voices each contain the complementary primary tetrachords of this scale. Th e composer places similarly strong harmonic emphasis on the Mixed Scale on D in this passage. Bars 60 66(1) feature fluctuation between var ious A and G based sonorities that allude to oscillation between its Pseudo dominant notes. In measure 60(1 2), the notes D, F, A, and C follow and precede an F major chord. In bar 62(1 2), Chajes situates g minor chords before and after a sonority that includes the pitches E, G, B flat, and D. This chord represents potential gravitation towa rd A through its E D and G B flat dyads. Thus, a chord that represents G rising by thirds precedes and follows a chord that symbolizes movement toward A. The alternating A minor and C major chords in bars 64 66(1) signify D through their combined pitches as A, C, E, and G imply gravitation toward the pseudo to nic through A G and C E dyads. The composer implies the notion that the oscillating gesture resolves with the synchronous sounding of all four pitches in measures 64(3) and 65(3). The D minor, B fl at major, and G minor triads in bars 66(2 3) collectively represent a descending progression of thirds from A to G. D occupies the middlemost position. These chords also depict the Mixed Scale on D through suggested motion from an A D dyad to D itself (a s the B flat major chord situates this pitch in a central position) to a D G dyad. The alternating D minor and G minor chords in bar 67 ideally portray the principal scale of the sonata through its two most significant dyads. Chajes adds emphasis to its Pseudo tonic pitch by assigning it the longest rhythmic duration in the measure. The chords in bars 60 66(1) also imply a progression from an F major triad to an A minor chord. The pitches within the introductory and concluding sonorities, F, A, C, and E imply potential
282 gravitation toward a D G dyad through F E and A C dyads. When the composer introduces the B flat major chord in bar 66(3), the progression encompasses a complete cycle from F. F implies potential movement toward an A D dyad. This symbol ic motion from a large scale D G dyad to an A D dyad constitutes another method by which Chajes stresses the primary scale of the movement. Bars 68 78 consist of a variation of measures 60 67 in which the composer predominantly employs running sixteenth notes in the bass clef. 25 Example 5 1 6 Bars 68 78 25 See Example 5 16.
283 While the pitches in the bass clef in measure 68 (1) relate to their counterparts in bar 60 (1 3) the notes in the bass clef of beats 2 3 correspond to the melody above them in the treble clef. Although the scale visually resembles an A f alling s cale, I believe that the A in the second sixteenth note of beat 2 acts as a preparation for the descent to the G that follows it as opposed to a tonic pitch. I argue instead that these notes echo the Mix ed Scale on C from bars 60 61, as Chajes places C at an equidistant point a perfect fifth above F and below G. An analysis of the notes in both staves also furnishes confirmation that the passage lies within the Mixed Scale on C, as the composer follows a harmonic G C dyad with a harmonic C F dyad in the second eighth note of beat 2. 26 He also utilizes C as a point of convergence in both staves in the first sixteenth note of beat 3 The same situation occurs in bar 70, as the pitches in the bass clef of b eats 2 3 mirror the melody they accompany. The harmonic A D and D G dyads between the staves in the second ei use of the Pseudo tonic in both staves in the first sixteenth note of beat 3 suggest that the passage accentuates the Mixed Scale on D. The composer expands the rhythmic augmentation from bar 67 in bars 75 77. His use of the B flat in the bass clef in measure 75 recalls bars 21 32. Along with the silence in bar 78 and the removal of accidentals that follows it, thi s pitch signifies a thematic change that relates to the A f alling s cale. Bar 79 verifies the meaning of the se signals, as the d evelopment s ection begins in this measure with a re statement of the First Theme in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A. 27 Thus, Chajes links the first two themes to the development via connections between the scales. 26 Note the metrical change. 27 See Example 5 17.
284 Example 5 1 7 Bars 79 82 The Mixed Scale on A possesses the same intervallic relationships as the Mixed Scale on D, and the A f alling s cale also consists of E A and A D tetrachords (albeit with different constituent pitches). The composer expands the material from bars 1 4 in bars 83 91. Despite their scalar ambiguity, I argue that measures 83 87 also lay within the Mixed Scale on A. 28 Beats 1 and 3 of bar 83 and bar 86 (1) consist of harmonic manifestations of the scale through their simultaneously sounding E A and A D dyads. The outer voices of the right hand ascend the scale in bars 83 86(1), and the leap from F to B that follows repr esents D, a Pseudo dominant of the scale. The left hand emphasizes A D dyads overtly and symbolically in bars 83 86, as the obvious sonorities in bars 83(1) and 85(1) precede cycles between F B and C F dyads. These cycles highlight F, the note that embod ies potential gravitation toward an A D dyad. An E A dyad follows the second cycle in bar 87(1), and therefore Chajes draws attention to the scale in the left hand via alternating A D and E A dyads. 28 See Example 5 18.
285 Example 5 18 Bars 83 93 The way in which he interch anges D and A scales between the exposition and development involves a subtle quasi inversion of scalar context, as the exposition features a fundamental A scale with a mixed D scale while the development highlights a primary D scale with a hybrid A scale. The composer draws inspiration for the mat erial in bars 87 91 ( 1 ) from the notes in the treble clef in bars 2 and 4 in the sense that they consist of falling melodic thirds that
286 precede ascending melodic fourths. He uses D to facilitate a transition fro m the Mixed Scale on A to the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G. Harmonic and melodic analysis of the passage attests to the unifying power of this pitch, as the roots of the triads generate a hybrid D based scale comprised of two incompatible tetrachords. The A D tetrachord lies within the D n eutral s cale, while the D G tetrachord holds membership in the D f alling s cale and the G f alling s cale 29 The chord progression also encapsulates tonal incongruity in comparison with the progressions that form when the roots of tone scales rise or fall by thirds. 30 While Kauder admits one diminished chord to any particular scale, bars 87 90 feature two diminished triads and one augmented chord. previous cycles of fourths incorporate one tri tone, although this passage features one diminished fourth and one augmented fifth. These new types of tetrachords render my earlier cyclical models ineffective, although an illustration reminiscent of Kauder the relationships D bears to G, A, and A flat. It also reinforces the fact that D constitutes the only pitch in this excerpt that connects to three other tones by a fourth. 31 29 I derive the initial G in this scale from the G in bar 89(1), as the pitches in the outer voices of the treble clef allude to an A D tetrachord that expands to a D G pentachord in bars 87 89(1). The accented notes in the same voices su ggest that a D A flat pentachord contracts to a D G tetrachord in bars 88(2) 91(1). 30 My analysis assumes a coalescence of the roots into the interval of a minor seventh despite the leap Chajes places between the initial A minor chord and the subsequent D minor chord. The same situation occurs in bar 89(1), as a minor third separates the C minor chord from the E flat augmented chord. He also approaches the D minor chord in bar 90(1) by the same interval. 31 See Figure 5 3. I dismiss the B E flat tetrach theoretical treatises. I have placed the tonic at multiple points along the outer ring to demonstrate the gravitational force it exerts on the dominant notes and the A flat in accordance with Kaude the thirteen tone Double Scale.
287 In bars 9 1 94, the composer transposes the material from bars 79 82 to the Mixed Scale on G. 32 Measures 95 99(1) recall bars 83 87(1). 33 Figure 5 3 M odel of interconnected D G, A D, and A flat D tetrachords I suggest that the apparent Mixed Scale on A in the t reble clef consisting of E flat A and A D tetrachords represents an extension of the Mixed Scale on G, although Kauder permits the joining of this scale to the D f alling s cale. This fundamental scale furnishes the Mixed Scale on G with its D G tetrachord. The pervasive real and implied G C dyads in the bass clef of bars 95 98 accentuate both the Mixed Scale on G and the C n eutral s cale, although they primarily emphasize the Mixed Scale on G in the sense that they precede a D G dyad in bar 99(1). 32 See Examples 5 18 and 5 19. 33 See Examples 5 19 and 5 20.
288 Example 5 19 Bars 95 96 Example 5 2 0 Bars 9 7 99 (beat 2 ) In measures 99 103( 1) Chajes transposes material from bars 87 91 (1) down one whole step although he evades a complete transition from the Mixed Scale on G to the F f alling s cale by excluding the F B flat tetrachord. 34 While the concluding C F dyads receive relatively long rhythmic values and accent markings, he uses them synchronously with E flat A flat and E flat B flat dyads from the E flat n eutral s cale in bars 103 104. Measures 105 106 similarly feature tension between the F sharp f alling 34 See Examples 5 20 and 5 21.
289 and E n eutral s cales, and both two bar gestures collectively constitute a reprise of bars 9 12. 35 Example 5 2 1 Bars 101 104 Example 5 2 2 Bars 105 106 Measures 107 112 feature a variation on bars 13 16. The composer utilizes more movement by half steps in the latter passage by incorporating the A flat and E flat from bars 89 90 in bar 107. 36 Although D only appears in beat 2 of this measure, he echoes i ts force as an orbital center in measures 107 108 by alluding to its cyclic relationship to the D G, E flat A flat, and E A tetrachords, respectively. These two measures also demonstrate the extent to which Chajes values symmetry, as the movement from an implied D G tetrachord through E flat A flat dyad to an E A dyad represents a quasi inversion of the motion between t etrachords in b ars 83 87 (1). 35 See Example 5 22. 36 See Example 5 23.
290 Example 5 2 3 Bars 107 113 While the composer uses an exact repetition of bars 17 18 to hint at a return to the A f alling s cale via the implied Mixed (fourth degree) S cale on A in measures 113 114, he varies material from me asures 21 25 in bars 115 116. He primarily constructs this passage from the melodic leaps by fourths and eliminates the step wise descendi ng scalar gestures. 37 He also distinguishes it from its first presentation by restricting the pitches to C, F, B flat, E, and A. These notes form a complex, C F B flat E A, that situates B flat in the center of a Mixed (fourth degree) scale on B flat. De spite the fact that the scale lies between the F Rising Scale and the Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on E, it adds emphasis to the forthcoming A falling scale due to the fact that its pseudo tonic pitch falls toward A in bar 117. This descending half step f rom the upper leading tone toward the tonic comprises the most significant characteristic of Falling Scales according to Kauder. 37 See Examples 5 24 and 5 25.
291 Example 5 2 4 Bars 113 114 Example 5 2 5 Bars 115 11 6 Bars 117 122 re establish the A f alling s cale through a repetition of measures 27 32, although a repeat of the Second Theme in the Mixed Scale on D begins in bar 123. 38 The new presentation of the theme includes identical material to its predecessor until bar 146 (3) where Chajes delays the descent via step wis e motion by placing an ascending leap between an F B flat dyad and a B flat E dyad He exploits the combinatory potential of the latter dyad, as it leads to G C and D G dyads that denote the G neutral scale beginning in bar 147 (2) 39 38 One minor variation concerns the octave i n which Chajes sets the reprise, and another slight difference involves the thicker texture in the first sixteenth note of bar 117. 39 See Example 5 26 and compare with Example 5 13.
292 Example 5 2 6 Bar s 139 149 Measures 150 167 consist of a reprise of the Third Theme and its variation 40 The composer distinguishes it from the previous Tranquillo section by setting bars 150 164 in the D rising Scale 41 This tonal area contrasts with the Mixed (sixth degr ee) Scale on D, a scale that shares its A D tetrachord with the A falling scale. The passage 40 See Example 5 27. 41 I base this assertion on the fact that its harmonic progression begins with a D major triad and concludes with a G major triad.
293 underscores the significance Chajes assigns to its tonic pitch, however, as D now bears relationships to all three fundamental types of scales. Example 5 27 Bars 150 156 Bars 168 170 constitute a deviation from the initial variation on the Third Theme The latter variation consists of a chorale like passage that begins in the Mixed (sixth degree) scale on B and ends in the E neutral scale 42 Example 5 28 Bars 165 170 Despite the concluding E A dyad, this gesture alludes to the return of the D r ising s cale in bar 171. Overt e vidence for this assertion includes the melodic D G tetrachord in the soprano in bars 168 169 that expands to an A D pentachord in b ar 170 and the A D tetrachord that the alto and tenor voi ces form in measure 169 A comparison of the two concluding sonorities suggests symbolic emphasis on D through a C sharp E dyad, as a 42 See Example 5 28.
294 harmonic manifestation of an E neutral scale precedes an A majo r chord. The scale accentuates E, its tonic pitch, while the triad depicts the potential that E A dyads exhibit to gravitate toward C sharp. Bars 171 182 (1) represent a quasi thematic transformation of the First Theme, as the composer sets material from bars 1 7 in the D r ising s cale, uses equal rhythmic durations, and places descending leaps by thirds between the principal melodic pitches. 43 Example 5 29 Bars 171 174 In bars 171 179, these thirds form ar p eg g iated triads that sound when every pitch in the D r ising s cale rises by thirds. 44 The chords imbue the passage with a cyclical nature through cycles of thirds and fourths. Following the D G tetrachords and leaps between E and A the triadic portions of each th ree measure pattern contain a descending cycle 43 See Example 5 29. I use this term cautiously to avoid the myriad problems surrounding subjective analy sis of the extent to which composers must alter themes to render their new forms transformations as opposed to variations. 44 Bars 171 173 form a pattern that repeats in bars 174 176 and 177 179.
295 of thirds on A. 45 Chajes creates the cycle somewhat superficially by adding an additional A at its conclusion, although I attribute it to the fact that a C sharp d iminished chord comprises the sonority that r esults when the rising lower leading tone in the D r ising s cale rises by thirds 46 Nevertheless, it draws attention to a significant dominant note within the scale. Figure 5 4 Descending c ycle of thirds from A In contrast to the cycle of thirds, the cycle of fourths in this excerpt accentuates G, the complementary dominant (counter dominant) pitch of the D r ising s cale. Taking into account the redundancy of the A D tetrachords and leaps between E and A a cycle emer ges from the D G tetrachord to a G C sharp dyad Its juxtaposition with the added 45 See Figure 5 4. I intentionally ignore the ascending co ntour of this passage and substitute thirds for sixths to facilitate a clear explanation of the cycle. 46 Ibid. The pattern would occupy six descending octaves in its pure form.
296 A from the cycle of thirds also emphasizes the D r ising s cale through fluctuation between the dominant notes. 47 Figure 5 5 Descending c ycle of f ourths from G The composer interrupts the cycle in bar 180 by repeating bar 179, and bar 181 presents a further reprise of beats 2 3 of the same measure. 48 47 See Figure 5 5. 48 See Example 5 30.
297 Example 5 3 0 Bars 1 79 182 (beat 1) I argue that he uses the disruption to continually emphasize oscillation between the dominant notes of the D rising scale in bars 179 180, as the F sharp minor chord highlights the potential that C F sharp dyads posses s to converge on A the G major triad constitutes the chord that sounds when G rises by thirds, and the A major chord signifies the chord that forms when A asc ends by thirds. Bar 181 consists of a descending cycle of thirds from D to A that accentuates the D rising scale in the sense that it begins with D, passes through G, and concludes on A. Although Chajes continues to restrict the rhythmic values to sixteenth notes and retains the key signature with two sharps, bars 182 185 comprise two repetitions of a two bar variation on the Second Theme in the original Mixed Scale on D. 49 49 See Example 5 31.
298 Example 5 3 1 Bars 182 185 Despite the fact that these measures constitute the third recurrence of this material in the principal scale of the movement, I believe that they represent the beginning of the r ecapitulation despite their proximity to the conclusion of the movement. I base this assertion on the fact that the material from bars 17 21 that follows in bars 186 189 recurs for the first time in the D r ising s cale. Combining this passage with the Coda in bars 190 192 yields a thirteen tone D d ouble s cale, and this key further binds it to its predecessor. 50 50 See Exampl e 5 32.
299 Example 5 3 2 Bars 186 192 tremolo to accentuate the implied D G tetrachord in the coda comple ments the A D dyads from bars 182 189 in outlining the D d ouble s cale. His transposition of a portion of the Second Theme to the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E
300 flat in bars 191 192 (1) recalls the development section in the sense that he uses indirect paths to oscillate between adjacent notes, as he utilizes a n incomplete cycle of fourths around F to approach the A in bar 192 (1) from the B flat in the bass clef in bar 191 (1) The cycle serves the symbolic purpose of highlighting D in the sense that it proceeds from F to C flat, a pitch that is enharmonically equivalent to B. This implied F B dyad represents potential gravitatio n toward D. The multiple thirds Chajes places between bars 191 and 192 (1) also recall the tonal relationships in both T ranquillo sections as well as the constant thirds in bars 171 182 (1). The augmented seconds between the last eighth note of bar 191 and bar 192 (1) similarly recollect these passages, as they enharmonically represent minor thirds between B and D, F sharp and A, and F sharp and D. The composer reiterates the significance of the Pseudo tonic pitch in bar 192 (2) by setting a singular D in a monophonic texture. Despite its deviation from strict adherence to Sonata Form, I argue t hat this movement demonstrates sonata p rinciple in the sense that it generally features departure from and arrival at the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D as a unifying structural element, and material in foreign (or related) tonal areas ultimately returns to a D related scale. 51 The movement features several scalar and harmonic tendencies that seem to resemb le those Kauder utilizes in the majori ty of his works. Only a small probability exists however, that Chajes revealed the true influence his teacher exerted on him in any program notes for the concert on which Dr. Paul Schoenfield performed 965. I base this conclusion on the 51 I believe this claim withstands the distinction between the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D and the D double scale, as the D double scale incorporates every tone within the Mixed Scale on D.
301 formed, idiomatic work with plenty of 52 The s econd movement of Sonata in D Minor utilizes the key signature associated with D major or B m inor, but the tetrachords pentachords and dyads featured throughout the first theme, as well as those used during the recurrence of the second theme indicate that the composer set the majority of the movement in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B. 53 The organum like textures in the introductory theme underscore the significance of tetrach ords in much of his oeuvre The harmonic fourths and fifths, as well as the double dotted rhythmic gestures reminiscent of the in troduction to a French Overture, lend the fifteen measure theme an austere quality. 54 Example 5 3 3 First Theme of Andante (Bars 1 5) minor 52 53 The accidentals cause occasional scalar changes. 54 See Example 5 33 and 5 34.
302 Example 5 3 4 First Theme of Andante (Bars 6 15 ) The first phrase, which comp rises the first five measures, begins with an oscillation between the dominant tones. This initial gesture occurs in the highest voice and the outer voices of the middle staff The third beat of the first measure contains an echo of the same figure in the lowest staff. The other voices in the first measure oscillate
303 between A and B. These two pitches serve dual functions in that they highlight the two dominant notes of the E ne utral scale while accentuating the notion of arrival at B through the ascent of its lower neighbor. While leaps between B and E that imply a B E dyad occur in bar 1 (1 2) a leap from F sharp to B occurs in the third beat of this measure in the lowest staf f. This fifth alludes to an F sharp B dyad An examination of the harmonic sonorities in the first two measures also reveals vacillation between the two primary dyads within B based scales. 55 Bar 1 features an F sharp B E A complex that emphasizes a B E dyad, while bar 2 consists of a G C F sharp B E A complex that accentuates an F sharp B dyad. The reduction in the number of voices at the conclusion of both the first and second measures suggests that the tonic note, B, acts as a unifying element. In th e second measure, fluctuation between B and C complements movement between A and B in emphasizing convergence on B through descent from its upper neighbor and ascent from its lower neighbor 56 In bar s 3 5 the melod ic range in the highest voice and the out er voices of the middle staff expands to a hexachord that includes A and C sharp as its boundary defining members. Deriving an A C sharp dyad from its borders implies potential gravitation toward B, as both pitches surround the Pseudo tonic tone of the pr incipal scale of the movement. The lower voice of the highest staff and the middle voice of the middle staff also accentuate B in the sense that they highlight both E and F sharp They imply an E neutral scale in bars 3 4 through a B E tetrachord that ex pands to an E A pentachord. In measure 5, this pentachord expands to a hexachord that implies potential gravitation toward F sharp via 55 Measure 2 lies within the B falling scale. 56 Fluctuation between B and C natural also implies the Mixed (seventh degree) scale on F sharp. This scale complements the previous E based scale, as E and F sharp based scales collectively allude to B based scales.
304 its boundaries, E and G sharp. The clearest example of a harmonic sonority that emphasizes the central position of the Pseudo tonic pitch in these three measures consists of the C sharp F sharp B E A complex in bar 3(1 2). The complex situates B in the center of the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B and extends toward the boundaries of the F sharp falling scale and the E ne utral scale. This complex recurs in a more veiled guise in bar 5(3). The first third of this beat comprises an implied C sharp falling scale. Its tonic pitch represents potential gravitation toward an E A dyad The subsequent sonority consists of C sha rp F sharp B E complex that accentuates an F sharp B dyad. Other harmonies that imply potential movement toward B include the initial chord in bar 3(3) and those that occupy measure 4(2 3). The sonority in bar 3(3) accentuates the Pseudo tonic pitch itse lf through the pitches F sharp, A, C sharp, and E due to the fact that its F sharp E and A C sharp dyads imply potential motion toward it. In bar 4(2 3), implied B E dyads precede implied F sharp B dyads. The B E dyads stem from chords that contain the p itches D, F sharp, A, and C sharp. These chords imply potential gravitation toward B E dyads via their D C sharp and F sharp A dyads. The latter sonorities consist of C sharp F sharp B E complexes that highlight F sharp B dyads by placing them in the mos t central position. Measures 6 10 generally reiterate the same thematic material that appears in bars 1 5 with some slight melodic and rhythmic variations, although the melodic alteration s in bar 7 embody a signifi cant difference between the two occurren ces. The melo dic B in the outer voices and the F sharp in the middle voice of the two highest staves in bar 8(2) allow parallel F sharp B and B E pentachords to imply the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B within the measure The imitative passage between the highest two staves
305 also begins one beat earlier in measures 6 10 than in bars 1 5. The first three harmonic sonorities in this measure similarly reflect the scale. The first chord, which consists of the notes F sharp, A, C sharp, and E, implies potential movement toward B through its F sharp E and A C sharp dyads. The subsequent simultaneous F sharp B and C F sharp dyads allu de to the F sharp falling scale that consequently emphasizes F sharp. This implied scale precede s a D G C sharp F sharp complex that implies potential motion toward E (the complementary dominant note in the Mixed Scale on B) through its D sharp F sharp and G C sharp dyads. In bars 8(2) 10, the F sharp falling scale occupies the outer voices of the h ighest two staves while the inner voices traverse a C sharp falling scale. These scales complement their counterparts in bars 11 15 in accentuating B in the sense that they precede A and E based scales. These four scales collectively symbolize the chord consisting of the pitches F sharp, A, C sharp, and E that doubly reflects potential gravitation toward B. 57 The lowest staff also highlights the Pseudo tonic pitch of the primary scale of the movement in measures 10 15 despite its absence. In bars 10 11, the implied C sharp F sharp tetrachord that precedes G alludes to an F sharp B dyad, as G implies potential gravitation toward a B E dyad. The collective C sharp F sharp B E complex stresses an F sharp B dyad. Chajes contrasts bars 11 13 with bars 10 11 by granting long rhythmic durations to G, the note toward which the B E dyad exhibits the potential to gravitate. The C sharp F sharp dyads in bars 11(2) and 12(2) imply potential movement toward A, and their ascent to D G dyads (which imply potential mot ion toward B) alludes to arrival at B from 57 Although the A sharp and E sharp in measure 15 create an unidentified hybrid Kauderian Scale, I flat and D flat signifies a commitment to underscoring B by counter balancing the C sharp falling scale with a broadly defined A based scale and the F sharp falling scale with a broadly defined E based scale.
306 its lower neighbor. The composer assigns B a central position in bars 14 15, an excerpt in which D G dyads lie between E A dyads (sonorities that imply potential gravitation toward C sharp) and C sharp F sharp dy ads. Measures 16 24 constitute a transitional theme. The monophonic texture and piano dynamic level distinguish this passage from the first theme although an examination of the harmonic content in combination with singular pitches reveals thematic conn ections 58 Example 5 35 Bars 16 2 6 The primary link consist s of an emphasis on B. The tri ads in bars 16 17 (2) consist of G major, A m ajor, and B minor, respectively. An analysis that emphasizes their thirds accentuates B, C sharp, and D. Combining these pitches with the B, A, and G in bars 17(2 3) draws attention to a symbolic D G pentachord in bars 16 17. The boundaries of this pentachord represent the notes to which B exhibits the potential to expand. The C sharp and A in bar 18(1) constitute th e upper and lower neighbor tones of B, 58 See Example 5 35.
307 respectively, and the subsequent F sharp implies an F sharp minor triad that sustains the emphasis on A (as A signifies potential expansion toward its boundaries). An examination of the fifths within each of the tria ds in bars 16 17(2) in combination with the individual pitches that fo llow from bars 17(2) to the first eighth note of18(2 ) also illustrates large scale undulation between A and C sharp. The first three arpeggiated triads form an F sharp B E A D G complex It implies potential movement toward C sharp through its F sharp G, B D, and E A dyads. The notes that follow until the first eighth note of measure 18(2) counter balance this emphasis on A with attention to C sharp in the sense that they lie within a C sharp F sharp pentachord. The pitches from the second eighth note of bars 18(2) to 19(2) highlight B as opposed to oscillation between its neighbors. The melodic D G dyad in measure 18(2 3) symbolizes potential movement toward this pitch. Bars 18(3) 1 9(2) consist of a melodic form of the C sharp F sharp B E A complex from bar s 3(1 2) and 8(1 2) that situates B at a central location between its two generator scales. This Pseudo tonic pitch appears in the first eighth note of bar 19(3) It appears to c onfirm the implications of the previous complex. It begins a B E tetrachord that expands to an F sharp B pentachord in the sense that the pitches from bar 19(3) to the first two thirds of bar 20(2) include B, C sharp, D, E, and F sharp. Oscillation betwe en A and C sharp follows in the remainder of the measure, and fluctuation thus unifies the two themes as the melody in bar 21 repeats the i ntroductory gesture from bar 1. Bars 21 24 feature the most transitory material within the Transitional Theme, as they accentuate B while simultaneously foreshadowing the new key area that begins in bar 25. The B and A in measure 21 collectively represent potential gravitation toward E,
308 although they also symbolize movement toward a G C sharp dyad. This dyad figures prominently in the forthcoming Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G sharp. 59 The G sharp minor triads that follow in measure s 22 and 23 similarly symbolize B as well as a D sharp G sharp dyad that exhibits the potential to co nverge on it The brief harmonic manifestation of an F sharp neutral scale in measure 22(1) analogously highlights one of the Pseudo dominant notes of the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on B and the scale that lies one whole step below the Mixed (sixth degree ) Scale on G sharp. Semiotic duality likewise characterizes the G major triad and implied harmonic F sharp falling scale in bar 24. The recognizable oscillating figure returns in a less syncopated guise to begin the Second T heme in bar 25. 60 Measures 25 3 2 comprise a lyrical melody that recalls Sonata in A Minor due to its principal gesture. The initial figure resembles the first and fourth movements of the earlier work rhythmically through its two eighth notes that precede four quarter notes. It bears a melodic similarity to all four movements of Sonata in A Minor in the sense that it consists of step wise motion between the two eighth notes that precedes a leap to the subsequent quarter note. Despite its contrasting chara cter, Chajes matinains a sense of continuity between the Second Theme and the Transitional Theme through the pitches that occupy measure 25. They lie within a D sharp G sharp pentachor d, a collection of notes in which B occupies the most central position. This pentachord also 59 I base the assertion that Chajes sets bars 25 32 in this scale on the facts that the passage begins with the three most significant tones of the scale and that i t highlights the idea of arrival at a G sharp that sounds in octaves in bars 31(3) and 32(3). The initial quarter notes in each measure the bass clef also traverse a G sharp C sharp tetrachord that precedes a quartal ascending leap from D sharp to G sharp Chajes likely chose to modulate to this scale in order to maintain emphasis on mixed sixth degree scales throughout the Sonata. G sharp lays a major sixth above B, the Pseudo tonic pitch of the primary scale of the second movement. B also alludes to B flat, the sixth degree of the Mixed Scale on D, the principal scale of the first and third movements. 60 See Examples 5 35 and 5 36
309 recurs in bars 29 31( 1). The composer further accentuates a B related element from measure 31(2) to the penultimate eighth note in bar 32(5). The notes in this excerpt form an F sharp B tetrachord. Chajes utilizes these four pitch es to underscore the idea of arrival at G sharp from its descending upper neighbor, as the G sharp B dyads represent potential gravitation toward A sharp and the A sharp F sharp dyads symbolize potential motion toward G sharp. In bar 32 (5) the tetrachord expands to an F sharp C sharp pentacho rd. These intersecting F sharp B and C sharp F sharp dyads imply the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on F sharp. They collectively reiterate the idea of ascent toward G sharp from its lower nei ghbor, as the composer sets bars 33 39 in the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on G sharp. 61 Example 5 36 Bars 27 3 4 61 See Examples 5 36 and 5 37.
310 This scale, which represents the inversion of the previous Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G sharp, includes the tones E sharp and B sharp, and therefore its origins lie in both the C sharp r ising s cale and the D sharp n eutral s cale as opposed to the C sharp neutral scale and the D sharp falling scale. Example 5 37 Bars 35 40 M easure 33 (1 3) contain s the same two note undulating figure and leap of a descending fifth located in bars 25 and 29 in the uppermost voice, and beat 1 of all th ree measures feature the same ascending fifth from G sharp to D sharp in the left hand. Bar 33(1 3) also incorporates the pitches of a D sharp G sharp pentachord. Chajes places gre ater emphasis on B in bars 33 39 than in bars 25 32 by utilizing melodic D sharp G sharp tetrachords as these groups of pitches collectively symbolize potential gravitation toward B sharp (a pitch that broadly alludes to B). These tetrachords appear in the right hand in measures 33(4) 34(4) and 37(1 4) as well as in
311 the left hand in bars 35(4) 36(4) and 38(1 4) The composer also assigns B a more prominent role in bars 38(6) 39 than in 31(3) 32 despite the fact that F sharp B tetrachords expand to C sharp F sharp pentachords in both excerpts. In the latter passage, he utilizes melodic and harmonic octaves that feature this pitch in bar 39(2 3). He also situates it in the middle most positio n between A sharp and C sharp in measure 39(4 5). I n bar 40 a reprise of the Second Theme begins, and bars 40 52 rec all material from bars 25 37. Chajes transforms the theme from measure s 40 48(1) as he utilizes the organum like texture featured in th e first theme and slightly varies its rhythm and melody 62 In its new manifestation, the theme contains triads and quartal harmonies that often imply scales. Example 5 38 Bars 41 49 62 See Example 5 38
312 In bars 40 42, the composer employs G sharp minor, A s harp diminished, and F sharp major chords in order to accentuate the idea of arrival at the chord that represents the ascending Pseudo tonic pitch. He alludes to the notion of arrival at G sharp via its descending upper neighbor in measure 40(4) and throu gh its ascending lower neighbor in bars 41(5) 42(1). Measure 41(5) also functions as an inter thematic link in the sense that its pitches imply a C sharp F sharp B E A sharp complex. The E major triad in bar 43(5) links the Pseudo toni c pitch to a B E dy ad that possesses the potential to converge on it This chord conveys the same message as its counterpa rt in bar 28(4 5), where an E G sharp dyad precedes a C sharp F sharp dyad. 63 Measures 43(5) 44(3) similarly call attention to G sharp via oscillation b etween C sharp and D sharp. The implied C sharp neutral scale and C sharp minor triad in the last eighth note of bar 43(5) emphasize C sharp and a G sharp C sharp dyad, while the pitches in measure 44(1 3) lie within a D sharp G sharp pentachord. This ex cerpt also mirrors its predecessor in bars 28(5) 29(3), where intersecting D sharp G sharp and G sharp C sharp dyads follow a C sharp E dyad t h at precedes a B D sharp dyad. Chajes continues to highlight the Pseudo tonic pitch in bars 44(5) 45(1), albeit i n a less direct manner. The sonorities produce a symbolic chord containing the pitches C sharp, A sharp, F sharp, and D s harp that stresses potential movement toward G sharp through its C sharp D sharp and A sharp F sharp dyads The first sixteenth note consists of an A sharp diminished chord, a sonority that emphasizes the potential that A sharp E dyad s exhibit to gravitate toward it C sharp The subsequent sonority includes the 63 The E G sharp dyad represents potential motion toward F sharp, wh ile the C sharp F sharp dyad symbolizes l gravitation toward A sharp. Oscillation between F sharp and A sharp signifies potential movement toward G sharp.
313 pitches A sharp, E, and D sharp. It emphasizes A sharp and its role as the Pseudo tonic pitch of an implied harmonic Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on A sharp. The third sixteenth note implies a Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on F sharp. It precedes a B major chord, a sonority that re presents the potential that an F sharp B dyad exh ibits to converge on D sharp This potential musical energy becomes kinetic in measure 45(1), as a n implied harmonic Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G sharp occupies the first eighth note. In contrast to the previous excerpt, these two beats accentuate G sharp more emphatically than their thematic counterpart s Whi le measures 29(4) 29(5) incorporate an implied Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on A sharp that precedes a B C sharp dyad and the first eighth note of bar 30(1) consists of a D sharp C sharp dyad, the B that sounds in an octave in the second eighth note of bar 29(5) interrupts the resolution of the fluctua tion between A sharp and F sharp. that tonic and pseudo tonic pitche s must embody central locations in bar 45(2 4) by placing G sharp in the middle of a symbolic B E pentachord. In measure 45(2), a C sharp minor chor d precedes an implied harmonic Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G sharp. These sonorities emphasize E and G sharp, respectively. In bar 45(3), a D sharp minor chord follows an implied harmonic Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on A sharp. The triad stresses F s harp, while the scale accentuates A sharp. An implied harmonic B rising scale follows in the first eighth note of bar 45(4), and Chajes concretizes the representational large scale pentachord by following it with another implied Mixed Scale on G sharp. T hese three beats resemble bars 30(2 4) in the sense that a melodic D sharp and C sharp precede a harmonic B E dyad, although the gestalt in the earlier passage suggests greater emphasis on F sharp ascending toward G sharp
314 through the E A sharp D sharp G sh arp complex that appears in measure 30(2 3). Bar 46(1) analogously features a higher degree of emphasis on G sharp than bar 31(1) despite the fact that this pitch receives bi directional stems in the bass clef in both excerpts. The latter example consist s of a sonority that highlights A sharp that precedes a collection of pitches that draw s attent ion to F sharp. 64 Bar 31(1) also emphasizes A sharp in its first eighth note through a G sharp B dyad, although its second eighth note comprises an implied h ar mo nic D sharp falling scale. Bars 46(2) 48(1) bear similarities to measures 31(2) 33(1) despite the fact that the harmonic fourths and fifths preclude the composer from allowing G sharp to sound alone. Both passages feature sonorities that emphasize member s of a D sharp G sharp pentachord, a collection of pitches that situates B in a central position. 65 Bars 48(2) 53(5) constitute a reprise of measures 33(2) 38(5), and B thus functions as inter thematic connective tissue in both instances in the sense that symbolic D sharp G sharp pentachords unite portions of the Second Theme that Chajes sets in two different Mixed Scales on G sharp. Bars 53(6) 58 constitute a transitional passage, as D sharp disappears in bar 55(4) and the initial key signature returns after measure 58. 66 The composer continues to underscore the notion that G sharp based scales constitute central key a reas by placing them between an implied Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on A sharp and an unidentified Mixed Scale on F sharp. The Mixed Sca le on A sharp appears in bar 64 See Figure 3 5, as the first sonority accentuates A sharp through the pitches F sharp, G sharp, and B. The second includes the aforementioned E A sharp D sharp G sharp complex that emphasizes F sharp. 65 See Figure 4 12 for an analysis of the sonority that incorporates the pitches E, F sharp, and A sharp that occurs in bar 46(4), 47(1), and 47(4). 66 See Example 5 39.
315 53(6) 54(1), where the notes allude to an E A sharp tetrachord expanding to an A sharp D sharp pentachord. The Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G sharp returns in bars 54(2) 55(3), as the notes indicate that a D sharp G sharp tet rachord expands to a G sharp C sharp pentachord. Example 5 39 Bars 5 3 5 8 An unidentified Mixed Scale on G sharp follows from bar 55(4) 56(1 ), and the unnamed Mixed Scale on F sharp occupies measures 56(2) 58(1). Bar 58(2 5) restores emphasis to G sharp in the sense that it exclusively features D sharp and C sharp, the Pseudo dominant notes w ithin Mixed Sc ales on G sharp. Chajes demonstrates a penchant for symmetry through fluctuation between these pitches, as he employs the same melodic gesture to introduce and conclude the Second Theme. T he First Theme recurs in bars 59 68 without measures 6 10 and a variation on the Transit ional Theme appears in bars 69 77 Bars 75 77 distinguish the variation from
316 its initial presentation. 67 They reinforce the idea that bar 59 begins a recapitulation In bars 75 76, they allude to the initial Pseudo tonic pitch of the movement via oscillation between F sharp and E. In bar 75, the two sonorities collectively emphasize F sharp. 68 In bar 76, they accentuate E. 69 In bar 77, the pitches recall bar 1 despite the chromatic alterations to F sharp and B natural. Example 5 4 0 Bars 73 77 Bar 78 further confirms the idea of recapitulation, as the Second Theme returns in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on B The composer also abridges its recurrence by omitting material from bars 33 39 and repeating bars 40 47 in measures 86 93. Bars 94 99(5) lie within the Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on B, as they repeat bars 48 53(5). Chajes derives the material in bars 99( 6) 104 from bars 53(6) 58. 70 He recalls its earlier presentation by frequently incorporating G sharp The passage accentuates the idea of arrival at B through its descending upper neighbor, as unidentified scales on C sharp 67 See Example 5 40. 68 See Figure 4 9, as the first sonority includes the pitches G, B, and C. It emphasizes A, while the F sharp B dyad represents potential gravitation toward D. The collective A D dyad accentuates F sharp within the measure. 69 I base this conclusion on the fact that the fifth, sixth, and seventh thirty second notes of bar 76(1) consist of a B that sounds in octaves. This B lies between symbolic and true manifestations of A. 70 See Example 5 41.
317 precede Mixed (sixth degree) Sc ales on B until bar 105(2 5). These four beats imply the C sharp falling scale through undulation between F sharp and G. Example 5 4 1 Bars 96 104 Bars 105 113 contain a coda derived primarily from material found in the First Theme. 71 71 See Example 5 42.
318 Example 5 4 2 Bars 105 113 In bars 105 108, the upper voice of the highest staff traverses a B E pentachord while the voice below it highlights a B E tetrachord in the sense that its A F sharp hexachord implies potential contraction toward the boundaries of this group of pitches. The lowest voice of the same staff features an F sharp B tetrachord In the middle staff, the outer voices emphasize the initial tonal area through oscillation between its Pseudo dominant notes. The middle voice of this staff consists of flu ctuation between B and its upper and lower neighbors. The composer calls the most attention to the Pseudo tonic pitch of the movement in the last eighth notes of these four measures by allowing it to sound in a harmonic octave in the lowest staff. The as cending leaps in all voices on the top two staves in bars 108 109 and 109 directional variety. The undulating figure from bar 1 appears in rhyth mic augmentation in bars 110 111, and the movement concludes m onophonically on its Pseudo tonic pitch.
319 Chajes sets t he t hird m ovement of Sonata in D Minor in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D. In the F irst T heme, he utilizes the melodic contour to highlight the primary scale and its two most significant dyads. 72 Example 5 4 3 Bars 1 15 of Allegro molto minor In bars 1 2(2 ), the first ascending gesture progresses from an A D dyad to a G C dyad. Their combination forms an A D G C complex that emphasizes a D G dyad. The 72 See Example 5 43
320 subsequ ent descent from the G C dyad to a B E dyad in bar 2 highlights the complementary dyad, as the notes C, E, G, and B imply potential gravitation toward an A D dyad through their B C and E G dyads. The directional reversal that follows suggests resolution t o the oscillation between dyads in the sense that it accen tuates the Pseudo tonic pitch. Combining the B E dyad in bar 2(8 9) with the C F dyad in measure 4 (3) produces a C F B E complex that situates D in its center, as an F B dyad represents potential m ovement toward this pitch The composer reinforces the primacy of the Pseudo tonic note by emp loying the same complex in bar 4 (3 4). In conjunction with the D in the upper voice of meas ure 1(1), the remainder of bar 4 alludes to a descending melodic D G tetrachord. 73 The way in which Chajes places significant D related elements in the middlemost positions in ea ch of the three aforementioned directionally defined portions of bars 1 3(3) that tonic and Pseudo tonic pitches must occupy central positions within the scales they establish in order to create true tonal centers. Measures 5 15 (1) draw attention to D through a symbolic D G tetrachord th at expands to an A D pentachord. The D neutral scale occupies bar 5(1 6), the E falling scale follows in bars 5(7) 6(3), and an F rising scale appears in measure 6(4 9). I contend that bars 7 8 lay within the G neutral scale, as they begin and conclude w ith B E dyads. They also feature a quartal leap between a D G dyad and a G C dyad. 74 Measures 9 12(1) delineate the A falling scale through a progression from an E A dyad to an A D dyad. Bars 12(1) 15 (2) serve the same function as th e C F B E complex. 73 The B E dyad in bar 3(9) signifies potential gravitation toward G. 74 I argue that the B natural produces no effect on the identity of the scale due to the fact that the B E dyad represents potential gravitation toward G. The D G and G C dyads also appear while Chajes replaces B flat with B natural.
321 T he D falling scale they demarcate evokes a sense of resolution due to the fact that it emphasize s the principal pitch of the movement as opposed to any particular dyad. 75 The multiple D flats, A flats and E flats in bars 9 15(1) chromatically alter the E A dyads and A D dyads. I suggest that a greater probability exists that the composer employs them due to a greater interest in embellishment than creating scalar ambiguity. His generous employment of chromaticism in this portion of the theme exposes his desire to expand some of the compositional boundaries he imposed upon himself. He based on a modal scale. However, Mr. Chajes uses more chromatic intercha nges than in his other 76 Less than two years after he composed the Piano Sonata, Chajes similarly took pride in the extent to which he expanded his tonal arsenal in program notes for a concert that occurred in February 1961. He dubbed his s ymphonic poem Eros 77 Bars 15 29 feature a transposition of the First Th eme by a perfect fourth higher to the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G 78 I shall refrain from naming it a Transitional Theme due to the fact that it contains previous material. I shall instead name this 75 An alternative anal ysis that produces similar findings involves considering bars 12 13 a journey from an A D dyad to a C F dyad. Their four combined pitches imply potential movement toward G through A F and D C dyads. This model also illustrates the way in which Chajes dra ws focus toward D, as it demonstrates oscillation between A and G. 76 Undated, hand written draft of program notes. Provided via e mail to the author on 19 Nove mber 2009. The program featured works performed on a concert for which Detroit Free Press cr itic Collins George wrote a review that the paper printed on 2 May 1961. The concert likely occurred on 1 May 1961, as the reviewer made reference to the event having taken place on a Monday evening. 1 May 1961 constitutes the most recent Monday prior to suggests that multiple Mondays had not passed before the publication of the review. 77 These program notes accompanied a concert in which the Detroit Jewish Community Center performed the premiere of E ros on 7 February 1961. Chajes noted on a sketch of the Piano Sonata that he completed it in August 1958. He mentioned in the program notes to Eros that he completed the latter work in May 1960. 78 See Bar 15 in Example 5 43.
322 excerpt a pseudo transitional theme, since modulation constitutes a common characteristic of transitional themes. The th eme contains thicker textures in bars 19 22 as well as one additional measure than its earlier counterpart, as bar 29 consists of a brief reiteration of material from bars 14 and 28. 79 Example 5 4 4 Bars 25 32 The Second Theme features a change of mete r to 4/4 and contains a greater degree of syncopation than the First Theme. 80 Example 5 45 Bars 33 40 79 See Example 5 44. 80 Se e Examples 5 44 and 5 45
323 The composer also differentiates it from the First Theme by revealing the scale in which he sets it in a more direct manner. In bars 30 33, he renders the G C dyad a central sonority by granting it the majority of musical time and surrounding it by its upper and lower neighbors. 81 He calls attention to the D G dyad by including it in a passage that otherwise exclusively uses th e G C, F B flat, and A D dyads G also form s a central point at which the two fundamental dyads converge in the leaps between them in the highest voice s at bars 30 and 32 (beat 4). I ts position pseudo tonic within the Mixed Scale on G. In bars 34 36, Chajes alters the position of each primary dyad as the G C dyad consumes the lower half of the scale while the D G dyad occupies its upper half. The ascending leap between the fundamental dyads from bar s 3 4(4) 35 (1) exem plifies the new role of G, which involves defining the upper and lower scalar border s. In bar 37 though the composer restores the D G dyad to its previous position below the G C dyad and consequently re assigns the pseudo tonic to its former capacity as a locus of convergence. Bars 38 45 encompass a variation on the Second Theme. 82 The principal source of differentiation in this passage includes expansion and contraction of the intervallic space between the two voices. Chajes demonstrates an economy o f means by leaving the majority of the pitches unchanged while altering the direction by which he approaches several of them. 83 Th e left hand portions of bars 38 ( 2) 39 ( 1) and bars 81 In using the term neighbor in this particular passage I refer to tetrachords that lie one whole step both above and below the G C tetrachord. The D G tetrachord also comprises a neighbor to the G C tetrachord, but their shared boundary, G, lays one perfect fourth away from both D and C. 82 See Examples 5 45 and 5 46. 83 The left hand material in bar 44(3 pitches he employs in the Second Theme, as the sixth eigh th note consists of a D rather than a C and the
324 40 ( 2) 41( 1) exemplify the intervallic inversions that often occur as a resul t of these directional reversals, although the material in the right hand in bar 45 (3 4) and in the left hand in bar 39 (3 4) through transposition of particular notes by one octave lower without modification of the melodic direction. Example 5 46 Bars 41 45 Chajes draws inspiration for bars 46 50 from the Second Theme and its variation. 84 final eighth note contains an E as opposed to a D. These changes of pitch emphasize D through an E A D G C complex that situates some sort of D based scale between A and G based scales. 84 See Example 5 47.
325 Example 5 47 Bars 46 50 This excerpt accentuates his previously discussed penchant for chromatic exploration. In bar 46 (1 2) he transposes material from bar 38 one half step lower. In beat 3, he rec ollects the ascending leap to E flat from bars 34 and 42. In beat 4, he similarly recalls the concluding g estures from bars 37 and 45 Bars 46 47(1) also feature a horizonta l B major (or C flat major ) chord in the right hand 85 This sonority draws attention to the Pseudo tonic pitch of the movement in the sense that its F sharp B dyad represents one of the dy ads to which D exhibits the potential to gravitate. 86 The composer stresses the significant role he assigns D within the movement by accenting each pitch within the chord and allowing them to interrupt the theme. He employs the same strategy by placing a horizontal B flat major chord in measures 48 49(1). The F sharp that concludes the first interruptive triad remains in b ar 47 Chajes uses it in a transpos ition of measure 45 by one half step lower The material in this bar alludes to 85 T he accented notes in bars 46 (beats 1, 3, and 4) and 47(1) form a B major (or C flat major) chord. 86 E flat constitutes a chromatically altered form of D.
326 the F sharp falling scale Bar s 49 50 similarly con sist of a transposition of bar 47 that accentuates the F falling scale They also contain D flat G flat C F complexes that foreshadow the transposition to the E based scale that begins in bar 51. 87 Example 5 48 Bars 51 56 This measure introduces a variation on the First Theme that ends in bar 68 88 The theme also appears in both staves during this passage, although the composer casts it in a sharply contrasting mold in the lowest staff by utilizing running sixteenth notes and a monophonic texture. 89 Chajes also exposes his predilection for polyphonic devices by setting material from the highest voice of the First Theme imitatively at the distance of one quarter note, although he often varies the rhythmic va lues of the notes contained in 87 See Example 5 48. 88 Chajes uses the same number of measures in the theme and its variation, although he omits the repeat sign in the variation. 89 The theme consumes bars 51 68, although bars 63 68 contain previously utilized textures. In the lowest staff, the variation consists of only the highest voice of the theme as opposed to the earlier presentation of the theme that featured an accompanying voice one perfect fourth below it.
327 the highest staff. 90 Although the pitch alterations render the previous contour based analysis ineffective, investigation of other patterns suggest that that the composer set s this passage in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E One such indication that bars 51 58 accentuate this scale pertains to the order in which the implied harmonic s cales appear. 91 Bars 51 52 feature a scale based symbolic B E dyad. Implied harmonic B falling scales occupy p ortions of bar 51(1 2) and the Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on C sharp follows in the second eighth note of measure 51(2). This scale precedes an implied D rising scale in bar 51(3), and an implied E neutral scale follows in bar 51(3). Chajes reinforces this large scale B E dyad in bar 52, as the B falling scale and G rising scale that appear in the first beat imply an E minor triad in combination with the previous E n eutral scale. He complements bars 51 52 in measures 53 54 by drawing attention to a D B hexachord that represents potential gravitation to ward an E A dyad. Mixed (fifth degree) Scales on D appear in bar 53(1 2). They precede a Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E in the second eighth note of bar 53(2), a Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on F sharp in the first eighth note of bar 53(3), and a G rising scale in the second eighth note of the same beat. The A neutral scale and B falling scale follow in bar 54(1). The Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E also appears to figure prominently in bars 51 52, as it begins with a B E dyad and concludes with an A minor triad. In bar 52, the A D, F sharp B, and G C dyads emphasize the scale through an A D G C F sharp B complex. Bars 53 54 draw focus toward E through their triads. The B E dyad occupies 90 I argue that Chajes exclusively uses three sixteenth notes followed by one sixteenth note in the lowest staff, as he begins each beat with a note from the first t heme, follows it with its lower neighbor and re writes the previous note before ending the beat with the next corresponding thematic pitch. In the highest staff, he alternates pairs of eighth notes with dotted eighth notes joined to sixteenth notes. 91 Bars 55 58 generally repeat bars 51 54. Only the last three sixteenth notes of bar 54 vary from their counterparts in bar 58.
328 bar 53 in th e sense that the G major, A minor, B minor, and C major chords imply potential movement toward each of its members. The C major chord in bar 53(3) also represents the lowest member of the E A dyad it implies in combination with the D major, E minor and F sharp minor triads in bar 54. In bars 59 62, t he composer alludes to the Pseudo tonic pitch of the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E through implied harmonic scales that illustrate vacillation between its Pseudo dominant notes. 92 Example 5 49 Bars 57 62 Measures 59 60 accentuate B through a D G dyad in the sense that they include a Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on D in bar 59(1), an F sharp falling scale in measure 59(3), an E neutral scale in the same beat, and a G rising scale in bar 60(2). The B fa lling scale in bar 62(1) reinforces the D G dyad, as it represents a sonority to which B exhibits the potential to gravitate. This scale precedes the implied A neutral scale that occupies the remainder of the measure. Bars 62 66(1) feature more overt osc illation 92 See Figure 5 49.
329 between A and B, as measures 63 66(1) imply a B falling scale. The fluctuating gesture resolves to E in bar 69(1) in the sense that measures 66(1) 69(1) imply the Mixed (s ixth degree) Scale on E through a progression from a B E dyad to an E A dya d. 93 Example 5 5 0 Bars 63 71 Bars 69 84 comprise a variation of the Pseudo Transitional Theme in the A neutral scale and thus express areas that lie at equidistant points from D based sca les In measures 69 7 6, the composer alludes to the s cale through the order in which he presents the triads. 94 93 See Example 5 50. 94 See Examples 5 50, 5 51, and 5 52. Bars 73 76 generally repeat bars 69 72 with t he exception of the three concluding sixteenth notes.
330 Example 5 5 1 Bars 72 74 Measures 69 70(1) feature an ascending progression from an A minor triad to an E minor triad that emphasizes the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E through its boundary defining chords, as they contain E A and B E dyads, respectively. Bar 70 highlights A through its E minor and G major chords, as a combination of their pitches forms G B and D E dya ds that represent potential movement toward this pitch. Bars 71 72(1) stress D through the C major and A minor chords that establish their borders, as these triads collectively imply gravitation toward this n ote through A G and C E dyads. Measures 77 85 r ecall bars 59 62 in the sense that their implied harmoni c scales allude to emphasis on the Pseudo tonic pitch 95 Bars 77 79(2) stress A through a symbolic C F sharp pentachord. This passage includes a G rising scale in bar 77(1), a B falling scale in meas ures 77(3) and 78(1 2), an A neutral scale in bar 77(3), a Mixed (fourth degree) Scale on C in measure 78(2), and a Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on F sharp in bar 79(2). 95 See Example 5 52.
331 Example 5 5 2 Bars 75 86 In bar 80(2), Chajes creates a sense of vacillation betw een E and D by placing an implied Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on D before a group of pitches that collectively
332 implies E. 96 He places further emphasis on E in bar 80(3) through an implied F sharp B E A D complex, and he stresses this Pseudo dominant pitch i n measures 81 85(1) through a progression from a B E dyad to an E A dyad. 97 He retai ns the running sixteenth notes and organum like sonorities from the variation on the First Theme, although he inverts the position of the material in each staff. He also c reates contrast between the two variations by abstaining from melodic ornamentation in the variation on the Pseudo Transitional Theme, as the highest staff contains melodic manifestations of every harmonic dyad he uses in bars 15 24. In addition to distin guishing the variations from one another, the composer further differentiates the Pseudo Transitional Theme from the variation on it by omitting material from bars 25 29. 98 The missing passage features the leap from a D G dyad to the G C dyad that maintains scalar continuity between the Pseudo Transitiona l Theme and the Second Theme. Had Chajes elected to eliminate this excerpt from the Pseudo Transitional Theme, the Second Theme would have utilized a D based scale This situation occurs in b ars 81 86, as the new variation on the Second Theme that begins in bar 85 appears in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on E as opposed to the A neutral scale 99 Bars 85 86 exemplify the multiple features from previous variations that the composer incorporates in this passage. He recalls the variation on the First Theme by 96 See Figure 4 2, as the pitches include C, D, and F. 97 See Figure 3 2 for an explanation of the sonority that contains B, C, and E and Figure 3 4 for a discussion of the sonority that contains A, B, and D. Combining these implied F sharp B and E A dyads with the A D dyad from the D major triad and the B E dy ad from the E minor chord produces the complex. Bar 85(1) also reinforces the notion that an E based scale receives primary emphasis, as it contains intersecting B E and E A dyads. 98 Compare Examples 5 52 and 5 44. 99 See Example 5 52.
333 imitatively setting the first pitches of each beat at the temporal distance of one third of one beat between the two staves. 100 The melodic fourths in the treble clef in beats 1, 3, and 4 of b ar 85 recollect the Pseudo Transitional Theme, where Chajes initially extracts them from previously used harmonic dyads He borrows the ascending major sevenths in the bass clef in bar 86 (3 4) from the variation on the Second Theme, as they constitute rem inders of the directional reversals and intervallic inversions he originally uses to obtain them. 101 In the bass clef the descending major ninth in bar 85 (2) and the descending octave in bar 86 (2) similarly reintroduce the octave displacement the composer utilizes in the variation on the Second Theme. The harmonic dyads in the last one third of beats 1, 3, and 4 of bar 85 call to mind all three earlier variations, as he derives their highest pitches from notes that occupy the lowest positions of their coun terparts from each theme. 102 He first includes such dyads in the variation on the Second Theme in the last three eighth notes of bar 44. Chajes employs them in the variation on the First Theme in bar 51 (1) in the treble clef and the variation on the Pseudo Transitional Theme in bar 69 (1) in the bass clef. He also uses these dyads extensively in the third variation on the Second Theme, which enc ompasses bars 93 104(1) 103 They imply harmonic scales that collectively suggest emphasis on an over arching B base d scale until the first eighth note of bar 104, where the range of tonic and Pseudo tonic pitches expands to a major ninth. I contend that the composer situates E 100 These pitche s initially appear in the treble clef in beats 1, 3, and 4 of bars 85 86. In the second beat of each measure, however, the notes in the bass clef precede their counterparts in the treble clef. 101 The same phenomenon occurs in bar 85(2) in the treble clef 102 The same situation occurs in bar 86(1). 103 See Examples 5 53 and 5 54. Chajes borrows the chromatically descending gesture in bars 102 104(1) from measures 47 51(1)
334 between B E and E A pentachords D dyad occupy the same position as the other tonic and Pseudo tonic notes within the various scales. Example 5 5 3 Bars 93 101 Example 5 5 4 Bars 102 104 (first eighth note)
335 Bar 104 features a temporary return to the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D Thi s measure introduces a 40 measure fughetta in three voices rather than a development section. 104 The subject of the fughetta encompasses bars 1 04 108 (1) in the middle voice. 105 Example 5 55 Bars 104 108 Chajes utilizes both A D and D G dyads to construct its melodic contour. The entry of a real answer occurs in middle voice from bar s 108 112 (1) in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A. 106 While composing an answer in a sub dominant key might constitute fairly common practice, I argue that in th is context, choice of scale reveals his preoccupation with tetracho rdal and scalar relationships. The Mixed Scale on D derives half of its origin from the Mixed Scale on A and both scales share the A D 104 The fughetta ends in bar 144(1). Chajes admits to employing the identical proced ure in String Quartet No. 2 I argue that he omits a true development in this sonata movement because the numerous variations constitute a process of continuous development. Each theme and variation also returns with very few alterations, and although he often transposes them, he explores the same scales before and after the fughetta. 105 See Example 5 55. 106 See Example 5 56.
336 tetrachord. T he majority of the subj moreover, occur at the interval of a perfect fourth throughout the fughetta. Example 5 56 Bars 109 112 T he material in the soprano voice in measure s 108 112 (1) constitutes a pseudo countersubject, as the material never returns in its original form despite the fact that excerpts of it occur frequently throughout the entire fughetta. M easures 112 113 constitute a codetta. 107 107 See Example 5 57.
337 Example 5 57 Bars 112 113 T he pseud o countersubject contains alterations of the intervallic relationships featured in its earlier occurrence, and neither the subject nor the answer appears during this passage. It highlights Chajes' interest in tetrachordal connections as the soprano and m iddle voices sound in imitation at the interval of a fourth and at the distance of an eig h th note. They also sound in imitation at the distance of a dotted quarter note a t the interval of a fifth. 108 The subject begins in bar 11 4 in the bass and last s unti l bar 118 (1) 109 The second pseudo countersubject in the middle voice accentuates the predominance of the scale via sustained tonic notes and motion by steps and leaps that render D a significant point of departure and return. The three voices collectively draw attention to the Pseudo tonic pitch in bars 114 117(3) through the implied harmonic Mixed (sixth degree) Scales on D that appear in bar 114(2 3), 115(2) and 117( 2) They also form triads that emphasize the Pseudo tonic pitch and primary dyads of the scal e. D minor 108 I have refrained from using the term canon because the B natural in the soprano in the second sixteenth note in bar 10 (1) creates a discrepancy in the intervallic relationships. Nevertheless, Chajes frequen tly utilized tri tones, since these intervals exist in all of Kauder's sca les. 109 See Example 5 58 and 5 59.
338 and G minor chords occur in all four measures, and B flat major chords appear in bar 116(2) and 117(1 2). 110 Example 5 58 Bars 112 11 7 Example 5 59 Bars 118 119 The answer begins in stretto in the soprano on the last sixteenth note of bar 1 17 (3) and lasts until the first beat of bar 121. 111 110 I choose to examine the frequency with which Chajes utilizes these sonorities due to the fact that the G major and G minor chords contain D G dyads, the D minor chords contain A D dyads, and the B flat major chords emphasize the potential that F B flat dyads that possess to converge on D. 111 See Examples 5 58, 5 59, and 5 60.
339 Example 5 6 0 Bars 1 20 12 2 A new pseudo countersubject begins in the middle voice, although it bears a close r elationship to its predecessors in the sense that it resembles a less ornamented variation of the excerpt of t he first pseudo countersubject from bars 109 (2) 110 (1) combined with material from the same voice in measures 11 4 (2) 1 15 (1) The new pseudo countersubject sounds in canon at the quarter note be tween the middle and bass voices from bars 1 17 (4) 1 18 (3) The soprano and bass voices present the answer in can on at the quarter note in bar 119 and bars 120 121 (1). A canon at the eighth note ensues between th ese voices from bars 121 (2) 122 (1) 112 Anoth er new pseudo countersubject accompanies these canon s in the middle voice. In measures 119(3) 120 ( 1), this melody constitutes a retrograde presentation of earlier material in the same voice from bar 1 15 (2) 1 16 (1) The rhythmic values within thi s figure r ecur from measures 121 ( 2) 122 (1). In bars 120 ( 2) 121 ( 1 ) this voice contains material that combines the dotted eighth note from bar 1 19 with material from the soprano from bars 108 ( 3) 109( 1). The sonorities in measures 117(3) 121(1) reflect accentuation of the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A The implied harmonic scales situate A in the center of a B E A D G complex, as the composer employs an E falling 112 See Example 5 60.
340 scale in measure 118(2), a Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A in bar 118(4), a Mixed (fifth degree) Scale on G in bar 119(2), a D neutral scale in the subsequent beat, and a Mixed (seventh degree) Scale on B in 120(2). The triads similarly render A a central pitch. The A minor and D minor chords in measure 118(2 3) represent the rising and falling motion of the Pseudo tonic pitch by thirds, respectively. They follow G major and C major chords that collectively represent the ascent and descent of the lower neighbor to A. They also precede an F major triad in bar 118(4) that situates the Pseudo tonic note be tween pitches that collectively exhibit the potential to gravitate toward it as well as E minor chord s in measures 120(1 2) and 121(1) that signify the descent of the upper neighbor. T he last si xteenth note of bar 121 (3) delineates the end of the exposit ion and the beginning of the development, since the subject occurs without any accompanying pseudo countersubject. The subject occurs from bar s 121 (3) 126 (2) 113 Example 5 6 1 Bars 123 12 5 113 See Examples 5 60, 5 61, and 5 62.
341 Example 5 6 2 Bars 126 128 The composer reinforces the notion that it continues to traverse the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale in A by allowing the middle and bass voices to converge on the Pseudo tonic pitch in the first sixteenth note of measure 122(1) and implying a B E A D G complex in bar 122(2 ). The subject sounds in canon at the quarter note between the middle and bass voices from bar s 121(3) 123 (3) Chajes creates a slight rhythmic and melodic difference between the material in the middle voice of bar 123 (2) and the bass in bar 124 (1). Ano ther discrepancy exists between the middle voice of measure 124 (3) and the bass in bar 125 (1) and these variations briefly interrup t the canon until it resumes and complete s the subject from bar s 125 (2) 126 (1) From measures 125 (3) 126(1) the soprano co ntains a portion of the pseudo countersubject from the middle voice th at sound s from bar s 121 (2) 122 (1) although this gesture acts as both pseudo countersubject and rhy thmically varied subject entry. T he initial statement constitutes a false entry, as the dotted eighth note that begins this gesture only appears one beat l ater in beats 2 3 of bar 126. Measures 126 ( 2) 130 (2) constitute a real answer in the sense that the intervallic relationships remain intact, but the rhythmic content varies slig htly fr om the subject. 114 114 See Example 5 63.
342 Example 5 6 3 Bars 126 130 Therefore, I shall label this material a partially real answer. The answer enters a fif th above the subject in the Mixed (sixth degree) S cale on E The soprano and middle voices share the subject in imitat ion at the quarter note, although they utilize somewhat d ifferent rhythms in stating it. The composer derives the descending bass pattern in bars 126 ( 2) 127 from the middle voice material in bar s 1 13 (3) 11 4 (2) This gesture aids the soprano in drawing at t ention to the Mixed Scale on E via its descending B E pentachord The harmonic fourth i n the first sixteenth note of measure 126 (2) and harmonic fifth s in the first beats of both bars 127 and 128 also accentuate the Mixed Scale on E via B E dyads. The codetta from bars 112 1 13 returns in an expanded form from measures 130 (2) 132 (4) 115 115 See Examples 5 64 and 5 65.
343 Example 5 6 4 Bars 130 131 Example 5 65 Bar 132 The bass and soprano voices sound in imitation, but th e durations of their rhythmic values vary slightly. Therefo re, bars 130 (2) 131 (1) constitute a non canonic point of imitation. This classification also applies to the bass ma terial in bar 131 (2 3) The point of imitation between the soprano and bass occur s at the interval of a perfect twelfth with the exception of the augmented fifth between F sharp and B flat (which reflects a slight degree of inconsistency with regard to the intervallic relationships) The point of imitation between the middle and bass voices similarly sound s at the interval of a perfect fifth with the same exception The rh ythmic values equalize in bar 132 though and a canon at the eighth note at the interval of a perfect fifth occurs from beats 1 to 3 of this measure between the s oprano and bass voices. A canon at th e same harmonic interv al occurs at the distance of a quarter note between the bass and middle voi ces
344 during the same passage. Measures 130(2) 132(3) render D a trans tonal mediator in the sense that the middle voice traverses a series of tetrachords that begins the D G tetrach ord that lies within the D and G rising scales and concludes with an A D tetrachord that belongs to the A and D falling scales. The introductory and concluding triads similarly underscore the supremacy of D related scales within the movement, as the B min or chord in bar 130(2) highlights the potential that an F sharp B dyad possesses to converge on it while the B flat major chord in the first sixteenth note of bar 132(3) calls attention to the same concept via a different sonority The subject appears i n the bass from measures 132 (3) 136 (3) 116 Example 5 66 Bars 132 137 116 See Example 5 66.
345 It follows in imitation at the quarter note one beat later in the middle voice from bar s 132 (4) 137 (1) Chajes treats this presentation o f the subject canonically, but melodic and rhy thmic discrepancies between the rhythmic values among these voices briefly interrupt the progression of a strict canon in measure 134 (2) T he canon resumes though, in bar 135 until the complet ion of the subject. By transposing the subject to the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G (which lies one fourth above the Mixed Scale on D) from measure 132(3) to the first sixteenth note of bar 136(2), the composer create s balance within the entire formal structure by ne utralizing his previous tendency to utilize sc ales that lie one and two fourths below the Mixed Scale on D respectively. In addition to its symmetrical value, exploration of the Mixed Scale on G likens the fughetta to bars 1 104(1). Its four key areas situate an A D dyad in the middlemost position within an E A D G complex. The tonal areas within the earlier passage accentuate an A D pentachord. The soprano disappears during thi s presentation of the subject. Measure 136(3) signifies the end of the development section and the beginning of the recap itulation, as Chajes transposes the subject to its original key (despite the fact that he states it in its post exposition guise that includes descending melo dic tetrachords as variations). This presentation of the subject, which lasts from bar s 136 (3) 14 1 (1) sounds in imitation at the quarter note between the soprano and middle voices. 117 This statement resembles its predecessor due to the interrupted canon. The variation between the voices manifests itself in the bass in measure 140(1). 117 See Examples 5 66 and 5 67.
346 Example 5 67 Bars 138 145 The bass also contains a rhythmic variation of the descending stepwi se pattern from bar s 126 (2) 127 (1) The sustained ped al point on D creates several D minor chords that highlight the Mixed Scale on D, as this sonority symbolizes the Pseudo tonic pitch ascending by thirds. Bars 141 143 comprise a coda due to their repetitive nature The soprano and bass voices sound in canon at the quarter note at the interval of an octave until
347 measure 143 (2) The middle and bass vo ices similarly sound in canon at the quarter note at the interval of a fifth during this passage. Bar 141 alludes to descent toward D from its upper neighbor. Its first two beats stress the E falling scale through their introductory E A dyad and concludi ng E minor triad while third beat highlights the D neutral scale 118 Measures 142 143 accentuate D through large scale fluctuation between E and C, as bars 142 143(2) emphasize E and measure 143(3) features sonorities that call attention to C. 119 The descend ing parallel harmonic and melodic fourths in the soprano and middle voices assert t he dominance of the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D in bars 143(3) 144(1) through its two primary tetrachords. The D G tetrachord descends in the soprano while the A D tetr achord ascends in the middle voice. The fughetta ends on the first beat of bar 144. Bars 144 151 feature a reprise of the Second Theme in its original form in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on A. 120 Bars 152 159 closely resemble the first variation on the Second Theme, although the composer imbues them with a thicker texture by occasionally incorporating harmonic dyads in both staves. 121 118 I base this conclusion on the fact that the firs t sixteenth note features synchronous A D and D G dyads while the two subsequent sonorities that situate A in a central position (the implied Mixed Sixth Degree Scale on A and the F major triad) each surround an E minor chord (a triad that highlights the p otential that B E dyads t exhibits to gravitate toward G. 119 Bars 142(1), 142(3) and 143(1) emphasize collective G C tetrachords that symbolize potential movement toward E, as the E minor triads stress G, the harmonic implied Mixed (seventh degree) Scales on B accentuate B, the E A dyads represent potential gravitation toward C, and the implied Mixed (sixth degree) Scales on A stress A. Bars 142(2) and 143(2) highlight E through sonorities that emphasize D, E, and F. See Figure 4 6 for a discussion of th e combinatory potential of D, E, and G and Figure 4 11 for a discussion of the combinatory potential of C, E, and F. Bar 143(3) stresses C through sonorities that call attention to F, G, and C. See Figure 4 18 for a discussion of the combinatory potentia l of F, A, and B. 120 See Examples 5 67 and 5 68. 121 See Example 5 68.
348 Example 5 68 Bars 15 0 1 61 He borrows the descending chromatic motion in bars 160 16 5(1) from measures 46 51(1) and bars 102 104(1) 122 122 See Examples 5 68 and 5 69.
349 Example 5 69 Bars 162 167 The horizontal C sharp major (or D flat major) chord in bars 160 161 and the C major triad in measures 162 163(1) echo bars 46 51(1), as they accentuate melodic descent from F to E T he first triad highlights the potential that an A f lat D flat dyad exhibits to converge on F (or the potential that a G sharp C sharp dyad possesses to gravitate toward E sharp ) The C major chord connects E to a G C dyad that exhibits the potential to move toward it Measures 164 165 mirror bars 102 104(1) in the sense that they extend the descending gesture further to D and facilitate a return to the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D. Bars 165 182 consist of a transposition of the variation on the First Theme from measures 51 68 123 The variation on the Pseudo Transitional Theme follows in bars 183 198. 124 I argue that because Chajes sets it in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G and re states it in its original form, bar 165 begins a pseudo recapitulation despite the 123 See Example 5 69. 124 See Example 5 70.
350 fact he always uses different scales in order to distinguish the First and Pseudo Transitional Themes from one another. Hi s restoration of both themes to their original scales further demonstrates a dherence to sonata p rinciple. Example 5 7 0 Bars 183 185 Bars 195 198 further justify the case for a reca pitulation, as they contain the material from bars 81 84 that allow s the composer to transpose the scale of the variation on the Pseudo Transition al Theme a perfect fourth lower upon beginning the second variation on the Second Theme. He maintains the same scalar relationships between variations, and the repetition of the second variation on the Second Theme in bars 199 206 consequently appears in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D and reinforces the tonic scale of the movement. 125 125 See Example 5 71.
351 Example 5 7 1 Bars 198 200 He retains most features of its previous presentation, although he includes more harmonic dyads and thus closely aligns it with the first variation on the Second Theme in bars 152 159. Measures 207 214 (2) comprise material Chajes borrows from bars 93 100. 126 Example 5 7 2 Bars 207 210 126 Se Examples 5 72 and 5 73.
352 Example 5 7 3 Bars 211 214 Although this passage bears strong similarity to the third variation on the Second Theme, it also embodies a culmination of all the previous variations with regard to the harmonic dyads that lay a perfect fourth below those the Chajes uses in each theme. In this excerpt, he combines dyads from variations with their thematic counterparts in order to create a series of quartal harmonies The fact that bars 212 214(2) begin and end with implied A falling scales suggests that the composer emphasizes A in meas ures 207 214(2), although the latter A falling scale also accentuates D in combination the implied harmonic scales in bar 214(3 4). It begins an ascending progression toward a G sharp based scale in 214(4). The tonic pitches of the A and G sharp based sc ales imply an A G sharp dyad that represents one of the sonorities to which D possesses the potential to gravitate. In bars 215 218(1), Chajes places further emphasis on D through oscillation between A and G sharp based scales and symbolic scale based chords consisting of the pitches A, C, E, and G that represent potential gravitation toward the Pseudo tonic pitch through C E and A G dyads. The origins of the ascending scalar progressions in
353 measures 215(3) 218(1) lie in the arpeggiated triads that in itially appear in bars 46 50. 127 Example 5 7 4 Bars 21 5 218 Bars 218 225 consist of a new variation on the First Theme in the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D. Material from bars 1 5(6) appears in the treble clef while the subject of the fughetta accom panies it in the bass 128 The composer slightly varies the subject in order to confine it within the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D. 129 127 See Example 5 74. 128 See Examples 5 74, 5 75, and 5 76. 129 Bar 221(3) contains a B Flat and C. In the fughetta, these pitches consist of C and D.
354 Example 5 75 Bars 219 222 Example 5 76 Bars 2 23 22 8 This variation echoes the variation on the Pseudo Transitional Theme, as the treble clef features melodic materials he derives from previous thematic harmonies.
355 The melody contains descending octave leaps and some perfect fifths in lieu of the perfect fou rths from the theme, but it only bears a superficial resemblance to the first va riation on the Second Theme. I t recalls the First Theme through the dyads Chajes situates in central positions in bars 218 221(2) and 222 225(2 ), as these sonorities underscor e the notion that D represents a true tonal center. They include the A G dyads in the fourth sixteenth notes of measures 218(2) and 222(2), the A D dyads that immediately precede D G dyads in the second eighth notes of bars 219(2) and 223(2), and the F B flat dyads in the fourth sixteenth notes of bars 220(2) and 224(2). In measures 221(2) 222(1), the composer reconfigures the Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D from bar 5(1 6) by evoking a sense of arrival via convergence on the Pseudo tonic pitch. The high est voice features a descending D G tetrachord while the bass contains an ascending A D tetrachord. The middle voice calls attention to the Pseudo tonic pitch through a C F B flat E complex, as the centrally positioned F B flat dyad represents potential g ravitation toward D. Measure 225(2 4) repeats bar 221(2 4), although Chajes delays its arrival at a melodic D until bar 228(1). I n bar 226, he draws inspiration from bars 46 51(1) by transposing the highest voice a major third higher. He repeats the sam e procedure in measure 227. Bars 225 227 collectively accentuate D through a symbolic triad that includes F and B based pitches as its boundary defining members, as measure 226 implies potential convergence on F or F sharp while bar 227 represents potenti al gravitation toward B or B flat. Bar 228 constitutes the beginning of a coda, and bars 228 231 encompass a variation on the subject of the fughetta. 130 130 See Examples 5 76 and 5 77. I argue that the coda begins in bar 228 due to the fact that the last changes of meter and tempo occur in this measure.
356 Example 5 77 Bars 229 238 The composer derives its texture from bars 207 210, although he utilizes sonorities that include two distinct pitches as opposed to exclusively quartal harmonies 131 He also recalls measures 221(2) 222 in the sense that he utilizes melodic alterations in both voices that render collective D based scales points of arriva l, as bars 229(2) 230(1) and 231(2) 232(1) contain D falling scales. Measures 232 236 constitute a variation on bars 131 The pseudo countersubject also appears in the middle voice in this excerpt. Chajes also changes its melody in the identical manner.
357 218 225. The passage highlights a D based scale in the sense that it begins with an A D dyad, ascends to a D G dyad, and features implied harmonic Mixed (sixth degree) Scales on D that occupy central positions in bars 232 234. Chajes retains the amalgamation of the material from both staves of bar 1 in the treble clef of the same three measures although he exclusively employs organum like sonorities r ather than melodic intervals. Repetition also figures prominently in this variation, as measures 232 234 include material from bar 1 that he repeats once per measure in succes sively higher octaves. The bass clef similarly features three repe titions of the first measure of the fughetta subject from bar 104. In bars 235 236, Chajes repeats the descending melodic G C dyad from measure 104 (3) in the bass clef The composer derives the material in beats 1 2 of the treble in bar 235 from measure 2(1 3). He develops it by using the B flat in beat 3 of bar 2 as a pedal point. He extends the pattern of ascending melodic motion, which contrasts with the descending motion that follows the same B flat in its first presentation and represents a techni que he initially employs in the first variation on the Second Theme. Bar 237 constitutes final emphasis of a D as a tonic entity. 132 The outer voices of the treble clef ascend an undefined Mixed Scale on D while the bass clef alludes to the Pseudo tonic pitch through a C E flat dyad. Although the middle voice of the treble clef ascends an undefined Mixed Scale on A that foreshadows the implied harmonic A falling scale in bar 238, it complements the other voices in creating harmonies that accentuat e D The first beat contains sonorities that represent 132 An alternative possibility exists that Chajes renders the two concluding measures a manifest ation of a D based scale in the sense that the bass clef contains a Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on G while the treble clef ascends an undefined Mixed Scale on A, although the implied harmonic A falling scale in bar 238 lends more credence to the above discu ssion.
358 fluctuation between E and C that resolves to D, as it features an A minor triad ( a sonority that highlights the potential that a n E A dyad possesses to gravitate toward C ), an implied Mixed (seventh d egree) Scale on E, and an F B flat dyad that symbolizes potential movement toward D. Beats 2 3 similarly accentuate D through vacillation between sonorities that gravitate toward A and those that imply potential motion toward G. These fluctuating gesture s also resolve to sonorities that emphasize the Pseudo tonic pitch, as the implied harmonic Mixed (sixth degree) Scale on D in the second beat follows an implied D G dyad that precedes an A D dyad and the sonority that includes the pitches C, E flat, and F sharp follows an E flat major triad that precedes two sonorities that symbolize potential gravitation toward A. 133 The sonority that concludes the measure implies an A D dyad and foreshadows the motion toward the implied A falling scale in bar 238 in the sense that it symbolically connects D to A on a scalar y emphasizes a Mixed (sixth degree) Scale with a falling scale echoes the first and fourth movements of Sonata in A Minor 134 Like these movements from his earlier work, the concluding conception of falling to a cadential gesture despite the fact that the treble clef reaches it via ascent as opposed to descent. 133 See Figure 3 3 for a discussion of the combinatory potential of the sonority that includes the pitches G, A, and C. See Figure 4 11 for a discussion of the combinatory potential of the sonority that includes the pitches C, E, and F. I argue th at the chromatic alterations to E and F produce no effect on the implied dyad. 134 Bar 238 also bears a similarity to the last two bars of String Quartet No. 2 and Israeli Dance in the sense that these two works end with implied Mixed (sixth degree) Scales these pieces with scales that include dyads that also belong to falling scales suggests that he consistently expresses his final cadences in a manner that pays tribute to Kauder.
359 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Chajes' eclectic modern style embodies in betweenness a term Philip Bohlman utilizes in conn ection with Jewish Music as a multi faceted modern entity in Jewish Music and Modernity Although the following commentary relates to geographical borders, I believe it relates to Chajes' compositional style as well: Any map charting in betweenness would necessarily highlight border regions and regions that overflow histo rical and political boundaries. In betweenness d but emerges from zones of hybridit whe reas cultures o f in betweenness may form along borders, they als o tend to negate the divisive impact of borders, enhancing the possibi lity for a new common culture. 1 The fundamental musical materials Chajes e mploys in each of the four works I have discussed in the previous chapters encapsulate hybridity in themselves. In the case of String Quartet No. 2 and I sraeli Dance the primary scale straddle s the very borders of earth and sky in Kauder's musical Universe due to its position between the Rising and Falling Scales. Historically and culturally, the scale also lies at various borders, including those between Judaism and Christianity, Ancient and Modern Israel, and Science and Religion (in the sense that Kauder approaches it scientifically rather than through a religious context). The mixed sixth degree scale, ubiqu itous in the Sonatas in A minor and D minor, engenders the very ess e nce of in betweenness due to i ts mixed nature that situates its identity between the Falling and Neutral Scales. Ha r monically, String Quartet N o. 2 inhabits Chajes' idiosyncra tic border between late romanticism and Kauder's modern approach to harmony as a reflection of musical gravity. In Israeli Dance Chajes creates a musical space that literally unites secular 1 Bohlman, Jewish Music and Modernity 6.
360 and religious aspects of Judaism via the prayer like middle sect ion that is followed by and precedes a secular dance t une. It further occupies a meta phorical European/Mediterranean border in the sense that a theme and variations, a European concept in the context of the piece, finds space in an attempt to musically de pict multiple aspects of Israeli life. In the Sonata in A minor Jewish and absolute musics intersect as the non programmatic theme from the first and fourth movements assumes a Jewish guise in the second and third movements. "Mourner's Prayer" transcends a border between Christia nity and Judaism, as imitation ( initially a Christian compositional device ) figures prominently in a movement that signifies a response to the mass murder of Jews. Chajes literally removes the geographical distance between Jews and Christians he mentions in the text that precedes the movement by permitting the church bell to sound simultaneously with the melody it accompanies. In the scherzo movement, he constructs a space between unity and otherness by utilizing a non cultural, objective European form translated literally as joke to comment on the irony that humanity is capable of denying six million European Jews their right to exist. In Sonata in D minor elements of Chajes' J ewish works re emerge in another border between Ju daism and his interpretation of modernity itself. It also emblema tizes in betweeness through its merging of this sense of modernity wi th Sonata Form and a fughetta, uniting various historical p eriods in a Twentieth C entury work. These features of neo cla ssicism render the work post modern, as it necessarily incorporates retrospection. In summary, it is Chajes' unique tendency to occupy religious, historical, cultural, and stylistic borders in his works that render him a moderately modern composer irrespe ctive of his avoidance of more avant garde techniques.
361 His music also creates various opportunities for future research. Music theorists may wish to consider performing independent Kauderian analyses of his works before applying the technique to tonal pie ces by various other composers to test the utility of such concepts as his theory of invisible harmony (manifested as potential musical energy). Chajes also represents an as yet under explored school of composition that should expand standard concepts of Twentieth Century music history and theory as well as more distant musical eras, since Kauder based his theories on works he studied from various periods, genres, and styles. In addition to the above mentioned possibilities for scholars within the field o ethnomusicologists. He often borrowed materials from Jewish songs he heard during his time in the British Mandate of Palestine from 1934 36. Locating the source of these songs, as well as the particu lar manipulations he performed to create them can reveal a great deal of information on incipie nt Israeli musical culture. Chajes also represents an important link to a past pianistic heritage that includes such famous figures as W.A. Mozart Franz Liszt and Moriz Rosenthal Inquiry regarding his teachers and teaching methods may interest piano ped agogues, as he won an honor prize at an international competition for pianists in 1933. 2 Several of his piano student s have also achieved notoriety. B eth Rhodes was a Music Teachers National Association Junior Performance c ompetition winner in 1966 and an East Central Division finalist in the 1965 Baldw in Keyboard Achievement Awards, while Dr s Paul Schoenfield, Dr. Rita Sloan, and Judith Edberg served as piano faculty members 2
362 at various American universities. 3 Furthermore, many of his teaching pieces present opportunities for students to embrace diversity, as Six Pieces for Young People unites Western European and Mediterranean/Israeli inspired vignet autobiographical piece that indirectly teaches respect for others. I base this assertion on the fact that the composer witnessed the burning of the Jewis h ghetto (or shtetl ) as a music explaining that the victims of the fire yearn for their burnt possessions and homes despite the heroic efforts of firemen. Chajes was al so a prolific writer, and his articles beg further analysis, as his contributions to the Wiener Musikzeitung provide a unique perspective on pre nationalist Israeli musical culture. For example, he cites Nietzsche in one review and represents one of the f ew Jewish musicians who prophesied negative 3 For a list of Music Teachers National Association winners, see http://members.mtna.org/competition_history.pdf The unsigned article that ann in the Baldwin Keyboard Achievement Award appears in volume 37 of The School Musician. Dr. Schoenfield is currently a professor of composition at the University of Michigan, Dr. Sloan works as professor of piano at the University of Maryland, and Dr. Edberg served on the piano faculty at the University of Tampa.
363 LIST OF REFERENCES The School Musician 37 (1965) 44. Barta, Erwin. E mail to the author, 23 February 2009. Binder, Abraham W. The Jewish People Past and Present 3 (1952) 324 375. Bohlman, Philip V Jewish Music and Modernity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008). Bohlman, Philip V. The Land Where Two Streams Flow: Music in the German Jewish Community of Israel (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989). Brod, Max. (Tel Aviv: WIZO Zionist Education Department 1951). Detroit Free Press (18 December 1953) 5. Casals, Pablo. letter to Julius Chajes, 20 January 1936. Tel Aviv: Personal collection of Dr. Jeffrey H. Chajes. Chajes, Jeffrey H. E mail to the author, 7 June 2009. __ ___. E mail to the author, 8 June 2009. Detroit Jewish News (28 November 1975) 41. Cooper, Jameson. Liner notes for Hugo Kauder: String Quartets 1 4 (Centaur Records CRC 2840, 2007). Neue Freie Presse (13 April 1933) 7. The Reconstructionist 12/3 (1946) 21 25. Fleisher, Robert Jay. Twenty Israeli Composers: Voices of a Culture (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1997). Fromm, Herbert. (New York: Bloch, 1978). _____. Letter to Julius Chajes, 15 March 1945. Tel Aviv: Personal Collection of Jeffrey H. Chajes. Detroit Free Press (23 December 1965) 5 B.
364 New York Herald Tribune (18 February 1946) 11. Hirshberg, Jehoash. Music in the Jewish community of Pale stine 1880 1948 : A Social History (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995). _____. Modern Jews and their Musical Agendas, ed. by Ezra Mendelsohn. Studies in Contemporary Jewry IX (N ew York: Oxford University Press, 1993) 98. Holde, Arthur. Jews in Music from the Age of Enlightenment to the Mid Twentieth Century (New York: Bloch, 1974). Idelsoh n Abraham Zvi. Jewish Music in its Historical Development (New York: Schocken Books, 1967). Kauder, Hugo Entwurf einer n euen Melod ie u nd Harmonielehre (Vienna: Universal Edition, 1932). _____. Counterpoint: An Introduction to Polyphonic Composition (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1960). Keren, Zvi. C ontemporary Israeli Music (Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University Press, 1980). List, Kurt. Commentary 4 (1947) 527 534. Loring, David. E mail to the author, 20 November 2009. The Detroit Jewish Chronicle (7 June 1946), 5. Detroit News (18 December 1953) 49. Paul Ben Haim and the Mediterranean School : A Re ISCM (2005) http://www.jmi.org.uk/suppressedmusic/newsletter/articles/003.html The Menorah Journal 34/1 (1946) 78 79. Neue Freie Presse (1 1 Ap ril 1934) 8. Rabinovitch, Israel Of Jewish Music, Ancient and Modern (Montreal: Book Center, 1952). Rothmller, Aaron Marko. The Music of the Jews; An Historical A ppreciation (New York: Beechurst Press, 1954). Saminsky, Lazare. Living Music of the Americas (New York: Howell, Soskin, 1949).
365 Sherry, Sandra. Julius Chajes: Man and Music (M.S. M. thesis, Hebrew Union College, 1990). Straus New York Times (18 February 1946) 17. Stolzenberg, Marni Alyse. Jewish American Art Songs: The Music of David Diamond and Julius Chajes (M.S.M. thesis, Hebrew Union College, 2006). New York Times (29 April 1965) 38. Detroit Times (14 March 1957) 14. The Detroit Jewish News (21 September 1984) 14 15. Detroit Jewish Chronicle (5 January 1951) 12.
366 BIOGRA PHICAL SKETCH Americas, and he has presented papers on these topics at several academic conferences including the College Music Society, the American Musicological Society, the Association for Jewish Studies, and the Nineteenth Century Studies Association. Mr. Goldblatt is an active performer/composer, and works for both the University of Florida and Santa Fe College in Gainesville, FL as an accompanist for both ballet and m summer festival and he has also serve d as an accompanist for the 2011 southeastern regional conference of the American College Dance Festival. Mr. Goldblatt also teaches at Santa Fe College as an adjunct professor of music.