Characterization of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Range of Laboratory-Produced Fresh and Aged Biochars

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Material Information

Title:
Characterization of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Range of Laboratory-Produced Fresh and Aged Biochars
Physical Description:
1 online resource (127 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Mukherjee,Atanu
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Interdisciplinary Ecology
Committee Chair:
Zimmerman, Andrew R
Committee Co-Chair:
Comerford, Nicholas B
Committee Members:
Nair, Vimala D
Harris, Willie G
Cooper, William

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
aged -- biochar -- columns -- extractions -- leaching -- nutrients -- soil
Interdisciplinary Ecology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Interdisciplinary Ecology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
Biochar is the carbonaceous product obtained when plant or animal biomass is subjected to heat treatment in an oxygen-limited environment. Inspired by the anthropogenic terra preta (Black Earth Soils) of Amazonia, it has been suggested that biochar amendments could be used to increase soil fertility while sequestering atmospheric CO2. Recent advancements in understanding biochar?s properties and effects have been made but progress has been hampered by the great number of individual biochars used in each of the previous studies. This work examines the physio-chemical properties of a wide range of biochars to develop a more holistic understanding of biochar?s properties and projected behavior when used as a soil amendment. Biochars were made from pine, oak, and grass by heating for 3 h under limited oxygen (250 oC) and no oxygen (flowing N2 at 400 and 650oC) conditions. With increasing production temperature, fresh biochar surface area and pH increased, while volatile matter, acid functional groups and cation exchange capacity (CEC) decreased. Thus, higher temperature biochars would be better used to neutralize soil acidity while lower temperature biochars could enhance soil CEC. However, one anticipates some CEC enhancement from any biochar as net surface charge was always found to be negative. Batch extraction and column nutrient leaching experiments indicated that biochars made at lower temperature and from grass released greater nutrients (organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus) than those made at higher temperature and from oak, respectively. Carbon and nitrogen release from biochar was related to biochar micropore surface area and acid functional group density, whereas P release was correlated to inorganic ash content. However, much of the nutrients released were in organic form and both soils tested showed some ability to sorb these components. Field aging of biochars decreased their pH and acid functional group content but increased their CEC. Combined with soils, biochar increased soil CEC up to 45%, even beyond that expected by pure additive calculation, thus indicating a positive interactive effect. These findings make progress toward the goal of designing biochars ideally suited for each soil and for each intended goal such as nutrient retention, carbon sequestration, or contaminant immobilization.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Atanu Mukherjee.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local:
Adviser: Zimmerman, Andrew R.
Local:
Co-adviser: Comerford, Nicholas B.
Electronic Access:
RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-02-29

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID:
UFE0042844:00001


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Full Text

PAGE 7

p p

PAGE 11

terra preta

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Terra preta Terra preta terra

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preta terra preta

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Literature Review terra preta

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Surface I on Exchange and Charge in Soils and Carbonaceous Materials

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terra preta terra preta

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Zeta Potential and Iso-electric Point in Soils and Carbonaceous Materials

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Materials and Methods Sample Preparation Quercus lobata Pinus taeda Tripsacum floridanum

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Analytical Methods Determination of pH Determination of Volatile Matter and Ash Content

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Determination of Surface Area Determination of CEC, AEC and PZNC

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Determination of Zeta Potential

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Determination of Surface Acid Functional Group Distribution Statistical Analyses p Results Biochar Bulk Characterization

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Biochar Surface Characterization p

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Discussion

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Development of Biochar Surface Characteristics with Production Conditions p

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Biochar Surface Charge and Ion Exchange Capacity

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p

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Environmental Implications and Conclusions

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Literature Review terra preta

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Materials and Methods Materials Quercus lobata Pinus taeda Tripsacum floridanum Bat ch Extraction Experiment

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Column Leaching Experiment

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Nutrient Extraction Analytical Methods

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Statistical Methods and Modeling Results Batch Extraction Results

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Column Leaching Results

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Discussion Nutrient Release Controlled by Biochar Properties

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Soil Biochar Interaction and Nutrient Leachates

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Long Term Prediction of Biochar Nutrient Leaching

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Comparison of Nutrient Release from Batch Extraction and Column Leaching

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Summary and Environmental Implications

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terra preta

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p p

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p p

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Literature Review Properties of Fresh Biochars

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pinus resinosa Properties of Aged Biochars

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Materials and Methods Materials Quercus lobata Pinus taeda Tripsacum floridanum

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Analytical Methods

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Results p

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Discussion Aging Processes of Biochars p

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p Aging Processes in Biochar/Soil Mixtures

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terra preta, Environmental Implications

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terra preta

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p p

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Quercus lobata Quercus lobata Quercus lobata Quercus lobata Pinus taeda Pinus taeda Pinus taeda Pinus taeda Trip sacum floridanum Tripsacum floridanum Tripsacum floridanum Tripsacum floridanum Guibourtia demeusei Guibourtia demeusei Guibourtia demeusei Guibourtia demeusei Typha spp. L Typha spp. L Typha spp. L Juniperus virginiana Juniperus virginiana Juniperus virginiana Juniperus virginiana Cocos nucifera Cocos nucifera Cocos nucifera Euphorbia mammillaris L Euphorbia mammillaris L Euphorbia mammillaris L Zea mays Zea mays Zea mays Pennisetum purpureum Pennisetum purpureum Pennisetum purpureum Acer macrophyllum

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Acer macrophyllum Acer macrophyllum Guaiacum officinale Guaiacum officinale Guaiacum officinale Melaleuca quinquenervia Melaleuca quinquenervia Melaleuca quinquenervia Sabal minor Sabal minor Sabal minor Pennisetum glaucum Pennisetum glaucum Pennisetum glaucum Quercus rubra Quercus rubra Quercus r ubra Sequoia sempervirens Sequoia sempervirens Sequoia sempervirens Acer saccharinum Acer saccharinum Acer saccharinum Saccharum officinarum L. Saccharum officinarum L. Saccharum officinarum L. Saccharum officinarum L. Juglans regia Juglans regia Juglans regia Pinus strobus Pinus strobus Pinus strobus

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