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Career Structures of Workforce Education Administrators in Florida Community and State Colleges

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042794/00001

Material Information

Title: Career Structures of Workforce Education Administrators in Florida Community and State Colleges Internal Labor Market Theory
Physical Description: 1 online resource (99 p.)
Language: english
Creator: DANIELS,TERRI G
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ADMINISTRATION -- ADMINISTRATORS -- COMMUNITY -- EDUCATION -- HIGHER -- POSTSECONDARY -- VOCATIONAL -- WORKFORCE
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Higher Education Administration thesis, Ed.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY CAREER STRUCTURES OF WORKFORCE EDUCATION ADMINISTRATORS IN FLORIDA COMMUNITY AND STATE COLLEGES: INTERNAL LABOR MARKET THEORY By Terri G. Daniels May 2011 Chair: Dale F. Campbell Major: Higher Education Administration The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of internal labor market theory to the career advancement of community and state college workforce administrators. The study investigated (1) career lines or sequences of positions, (2) career advancement and mobility activities, (3) education level, and (4) demographic characteristics of workforce administrators. Requests for participation were sent to the 88 workforce administrators who are members of the Occupational Education Standing Committee (OESC) for Florida State and Community Colleges. There were 56 usable surveys completed for a 64% response rate. Survey results are presented for all workforce administrators completed the survey. The survey solicited detailed information from participants in regards to educational background, work history, and level of participation in activities that may have influenced career advancement or career mobility. Internal labor market theory was tested to determine the extent of internal hiring thereby examining the extent of boundaries between community college workforce education administrator labor markets and labor markets external to postsecondary education. Findings in this study did not support the findings of Massie?s 2003 study in which internal labor market theory was applicable only the community college administrative positions of president and chief academic officer, not workforce education administrator. The difference in findings could possibly be attributed to factors such as year the study was conducted (2003 vs. 2010), sample size (16 vs. 56), or location (Nationwide vs. Florida). We found that internal labor market theory was applicable to community and state college workforce education administrators. Workforce education administrators were more likely to be selected from internal labor markets. In order to advance to the workforce administrative rank at a community or state college, there were certain internal labor market customs and practices related to career path and education level that one must follow. The majority of the participants advanced through the community college labor market through traditional academic pathways.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by TERRI G DANIELS.
Thesis: Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Campbell, Dale F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0042794:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042794/00001

Material Information

Title: Career Structures of Workforce Education Administrators in Florida Community and State Colleges Internal Labor Market Theory
Physical Description: 1 online resource (99 p.)
Language: english
Creator: DANIELS,TERRI G
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ADMINISTRATION -- ADMINISTRATORS -- COMMUNITY -- EDUCATION -- HIGHER -- POSTSECONDARY -- VOCATIONAL -- WORKFORCE
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Higher Education Administration thesis, Ed.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY CAREER STRUCTURES OF WORKFORCE EDUCATION ADMINISTRATORS IN FLORIDA COMMUNITY AND STATE COLLEGES: INTERNAL LABOR MARKET THEORY By Terri G. Daniels May 2011 Chair: Dale F. Campbell Major: Higher Education Administration The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of internal labor market theory to the career advancement of community and state college workforce administrators. The study investigated (1) career lines or sequences of positions, (2) career advancement and mobility activities, (3) education level, and (4) demographic characteristics of workforce administrators. Requests for participation were sent to the 88 workforce administrators who are members of the Occupational Education Standing Committee (OESC) for Florida State and Community Colleges. There were 56 usable surveys completed for a 64% response rate. Survey results are presented for all workforce administrators completed the survey. The survey solicited detailed information from participants in regards to educational background, work history, and level of participation in activities that may have influenced career advancement or career mobility. Internal labor market theory was tested to determine the extent of internal hiring thereby examining the extent of boundaries between community college workforce education administrator labor markets and labor markets external to postsecondary education. Findings in this study did not support the findings of Massie?s 2003 study in which internal labor market theory was applicable only the community college administrative positions of president and chief academic officer, not workforce education administrator. The difference in findings could possibly be attributed to factors such as year the study was conducted (2003 vs. 2010), sample size (16 vs. 56), or location (Nationwide vs. Florida). We found that internal labor market theory was applicable to community and state college workforce education administrators. Workforce education administrators were more likely to be selected from internal labor markets. In order to advance to the workforce administrative rank at a community or state college, there were certain internal labor market customs and practices related to career path and education level that one must follow. The majority of the participants advanced through the community college labor market through traditional academic pathways.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by TERRI G DANIELS.
Thesis: Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Campbell, Dale F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0042794:00001


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1 CAREER STRUCTURES OF WORKFORCE EDUCATION ADMINISTRATORS IN FLORIDA COMMUNITY AND STATE COLLEGES : INTERNAL LABOR MARKET THEORY By TERRI G. DANIELS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Terri G. Daniels

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3 To my family, especially my two beaut iful children, Robert and Riley

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Almighty God for giving me the strength to endure this process while working full time, teaching at night and raising my children. It has been a long, hard road but God held me in the palm of His hand and sent earthly angels to encourage me. I want to thank my family for all of their support. I would like to thank m y parents, Ronald and Deborah Graham as well as my siblings. I want to thank my grandmother, Ruth G. Wright for instilling this desire in me in the first place. I want to thank my chair, Dale Campbell, for all of his career and educational guidance. Dr. Campbell introduced me to genuine leaderships on so many levels showing me an infinite amount of caring and patience. I want to acknowledge my other committee members, David Honeyman, Craig Wood, and Maria Cody. I thank them for their educational guidance and words of wisdom. I thank all who encouraged and believed in me. Finally, I express my love to my son, Robert and daughter Riley.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 5 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 11 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 13 Theoreti cal Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 14 Research Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 14 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 15 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 15 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 15 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 16 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ................................ 17 Evolving Role of Workforce Programs ................................ ................................ .................. 17 The Community College Applied Baccalaureate ................................ ................................ ... 21 ................................ ................................ ....... 22 Historical perspectives ................................ ................................ ............................. 22 Emerging trends ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 24 Advocates versus critics ................................ ................................ ........................... 25 State Support ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 29 ................................ ................................ ........... 29 Partnerships ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 31 Resources and capacity ................................ ................................ ............................ 32 Federa l Support ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 34 Changing Economic Landscape ................................ ................................ ...................... 35 Access for Non traditional Students ................................ ................................ ................ 36 Leadership Attributes of Workforce Administrators ................................ .............................. 36 Internal Labor Market Theory and Career Pathways of Workforce Administrators .............. 40 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 43 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ........................... 45 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 45

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6 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 45 Participan ts ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 46 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 47 Instrument ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 47 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 47 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 48 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 49 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 51 Survey Responses ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 51 Participant Profiles ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 51 Research Question 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 52 Research Question 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 55 Research Question 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 55 Research Question 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 57 Research Question 5 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 57 Research Question 6 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 64 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 68 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ................................ 70 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 70 Participant Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 70 Internal Labor Market Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ 71 Implications for Higher Education Administrators ................................ ................................ 76 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 77 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 78 APPENDIX A ... 80 B EMAIL TO PARTICIPANTS ................................ ................................ ................................ 86 C TO ................................ ....................... 87 D INFORMED CONSENT ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 93 E LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 94 BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 99

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 51 4 2 First previous positions of workforce administrators ................................ ........................ 53 4 3 Second previous positions of workforce administrators ................................ .................... 54 4 4 Third previous positions of workforce administrators ................................ ....................... 55 4 5 Internal vs. external labor market selection ................................ ................................ ....... 56 4 6 Current teaching location ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 56 4 7 Education level of workforce administrators ................................ ................................ ..... 57 4 8 External professional activities ................................ ................................ .......................... 59 4 9 Frequency of external professional activities ................................ ................................ .... 60 4 10 Community activities ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 60 4 11 Frequency of community activities ................................ ................................ .................... 61 4 12 Mentoring ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 61 4 13 Frequency of mentoring ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 61 4 14 Internal professional activities ................................ ................................ ........................... 62 4 15 Frequency of internal professional activities ................................ ................................ ..... 62 4 16 Workforce education administrators career advancement variables ................................ 63 4 17 Workforce education administrators career advancement coefficients ............................. 63 4 18 Workforce education administrators reason for moving to the institution ........................ 65 4 19 Frequency of workforce education administrators reason for moving to the institution ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 65 4 20 Workforce education administrators reasons for remaining at the institution ................... 66 4 21 Frequency of workforce education administrators reasons for remai ning at the institution ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 66 4 22 Workforce education administrators job search activities ................................ ................. 67

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8 4 23 Frequency of workforce education administrators job search activities ............................ 68

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9 ABSTRACT OF DISSERTA TION PRESENTED TO TH E GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLME NT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY CAREER STRUCTURES OF WORKFORCE EDUCATION ADMINISTRATORS IN FLORIDA COMMUNITY AND STATE COLLEGES: INTERNAL LABOR MARKET THEORY By Terri G. Daniels May 2011 Chair: Dale F. Campbell Major: Higher Education Administration The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of inte rnal labor market theory to the career advancement of community and state college workforce administrators. The study investigate d (1) career lines or sequences of positions, (2) career advancement and mobility activities, (3) education level, and (4) demographic characteristics of workforce administrators. Requests for participation were sent to the 88 workforce administrators who are members of the Occupational Education Standing Committee (OESC) for Florida State and Com munity Colleges. There were 56 usable surveys completed for a 64% response rate. Survey results are presented for all workforce administrators completed the survey. The survey solicited detailed information from participants in regards to educational background, work history, and level of participation in activities that may have influenced career advancement or career mobility. Internal labor market theory was tested to determine the ex tent of internal hiring thereby examining the extent of boundaries between community college wor kforce education administrator labor market s and labor markets external to postsecondary education. Findings in this study did not support the findings of Mass labor market theory was applicable only the community college administrative positions of

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10 president and chief academic officer, not workforce education administrator. The difference in findings could possibly be attributed to factors such as year the study was conducted (2003 vs. 2010), sample size (16 vs. 56), or location (Nationwide vs. Florida). We found that internal labor market theory wa s applicable to community and state college workforce education administrators. W orkforce education administrators were more likely to be selected from internal labor markets. In order to advance to the workforce administrative rank at a community or state college, there were certain internal labor market customs and practices related to career path and education level that one must follow. The majority of the participants advanced through the community college labor market through traditional academic pathways.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION As baby boomers retire in waves, vacant administrative positions in the community college will need to be filled. This crisis has been compounded by the increased pressure on community colle ge workforce programs to prepare a nation of under educated adults for critical labor market shortages. The role of workforce development programs in the community college setting has evolved The leadership abilities of new workforce education leaders mus t evolve as well. Technological changes in the workplace have placed considerable pressure on the U.S. educational system to prepare students for increasingly skill based occupations (Bailey, Kienzl, & Marcotte 2004). The education requirement for the lab or force has risen. transformation has led to the bulk of occupational preparation taking place in community colleges and technical institutes (Jacobs & Grubb 2003). Workforce education programs play an important role in responding to local labor market & Hughes 2008) Positions that historically never required baccalaureate degr ees are now being required by employers (Walker, 2002). It is therefore imperative that community college workforce education administrators who are tasked with the daunting responsibility of increasing the educational attainment of America be found and de veloped in the leadership pipeline. A closer look at succession planning and identifying where potential workforce education administrators are in that pipeline is needed. According to Campbell (2009), succession planning is one of the tools colleges can u se to address the leadership gap. This study t ook a closer look at the career pathways, education and experience of current workforce education administrators to identify possible places to identify future leaders.

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12 Labor markets result from complex intera ctions of political, economic and institutional factors (Massie 2003). Labor markets are arenas in which employment, movement between jobs, and development of job skills are structured similarly (Althauser and Kalleberg 1981). This study examined communi ty and state college administrators to determine if t here were customs and practices that govern ed which employees were eligible to move into those positions Internal labor market theory indicates that the pricing and allocation functions of the market t ake place within, rather than outside the establishment (Massie 2003). Historically workforce education administrators came directly into their position from external business and industry markets. Previous studies have found that internal labor market theory did not apply to workforce education administrators in the community college. It was only applicable to other community college administrative positions, such as president and chief academic officer; there was a definitive career pathway that led t o these positions. The study examine d whether internal labor market theory was applicable specifically to community and state college workforce education administrators. Statement of the Problem Several major research studies have identified a pending lead ership gap among community college administrators. These impending retirements not only impact current leadership, but the leadership pipeline as well (Shults 2001). Studies by Shults (2001) and Campbell (2006) found that there will be shortage of communi ty college administrators. A national study conducted by Duree (2008) also pointed to the urgency of developing a new pipeline of leaders due to the large waves of pending retirements of baby boomers According to Campbell (2009), succession planning is on e of the tools colleges can use to address the leadership gap. There is a need to identify and prepare future workforce administrators. right person for any administrative position is crucial to the future of the co The problem

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13 was to determine if internal labor market theory a pplied to the selection of campus level community and state college workforce administrators. Purpose of the Study This study expand ed and update d earlier research completed by Dr. Susan Twombly ( 198 6 ) and Dr. Richard Massie ( 2003) in an effort to identify the career pipeline of community college workforce administrators. Dr. Twombly and Dr. Massie researched career histories of community college pr esidents, chief academic officers and chief student affairs officers to identify the structure of the labor market. This study narrow ed the focus to community college workforce administrators. The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of inte rnal labor market theory to the career advancement of community and state college workforce administrators. The study investigate d (1) career lines or sequences of positions, (2) career advancement and mobility activities, (3) education level, and (4) demographic characteristics of workforce administrators. The research questions that guided this study include d : 1. What career lines can be identified from the job histories of community and state college workforce administrators? 2. To what extent are communit y and state college administrators selected directly from the postsecondary labor market rather than from external labor markets? 3. To what extent have community and state college workforce administrators held a faculty position? 4. To what extent have community and state college workforce administrators earned a doctorate? 5. What career advancement variables are important to community and state college workforce administrators? 6. What career mobility variables are important to community and state college wo rkforce administrators?

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14 Theoretical Framework Labor markets are arenas in which employment, movement between jobs, and development of job skills are structured similarly (Althauser and Kalleberg 1981). There are customs and practices that govern which em ployees are eligible to move into jobs and how the decision is made. Internal labor market theory indicates that the pricing and allocation functions of the market take place within, rather than outside the establishment (Massie 2003). Inter nal labor mar ket theory provided the theoretical framework through which to explore career pathways of community college workforce administrators. Research Methods The results were collected from workforce education administrators that are members of the Occupation al Education Standing Committee for Florida Community and State Colleges. This statewide committee is comprised of workforce vice presidents, associate vice presidents, deans, directors and program managers from the community and state colleges in Florida. The instrument that was used to collect the responses was a modification of the questionnaire Year Colleges. The Center for the Study of Higher Education at the Pennsylvania State Univer sity, in conjunction with the American Association of Community Colleges used this instrument in 198 5 to conduct a similar s tudy. The questionnaire solicited detailed information from participants in regards to educational background, work history, and level of participation in activities that may have influenced promotion or career mobility. Several of the aforementioned studies in the literature review utili zed this instrument. Twombly also used the instrument in her 19 86 study mentioned earlier. Amey and VanDerLinden again used the instrument in 2002. The instrument was also used by Massie in 2003. Each participant was contacted by email and asked to complet e the

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15 questionnaire online by a specified date. Follow up reminder emails were used to contact non responders. Definition of Terms Workforce Education : includes specialized certificate and degree programs that lead directly to employment upon completion as well as continuing professional development training design specifically for various industries. Also referred to as career and technical education. Workforce Administrator : persons responsible for leading and administering workforce education programs (e.g. program managers, deans, directors, vice presidents) Labor Market : careers and occupations where there is job security, room for advancement, mobility chains, continuity of employment and salaried wages with benefits (Wadsworth, 2000) Limitations The research was conducted acknowledging limitations. The study was limited to workforce administrators that were located throughout Florida and were members of a statewide committee of workforce education administrators The study was limited because the method utilized was a survey. The study was limited based on the assumption that the respondents were representative of the surveyed population. This study was also limited because data was collected prior to a significant downtown in the economy for stat e and federal governments. Significance of the Study Both federal and state governments have increased pressure and support of community colleges to increase the educational attainment of the labor force. C ommunity college workforce education programs are experienc ing rap id enrollment growth and expansion resulting from this pressure and the need for more Americans to attain postsecondary credentials suitable for employment. Impounding this growth are the leadership gaps that have resulted due to retiring

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16 b aby boomers. There is a critical need to identify effective workforce education administrators that can meet societal labor market demands for skilled employees. Twombly (198 6 ) found that internal market theory was useful in the analysis of community colle ge administrators. Several subsequent studies have applied internal labor market theory to community college administrati on in general. This study analyz ed internal labor market theory specifically with the position of community college workforce education administrator. Summary Chapter 1 provided an overview of the research study. The problem leading to the study was identified as well as the purpose of the study, theoretical framework, r esearch methods, definitions, limitations and significance

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17 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE This review expand ed and update d earlier research completed by Dr. Susan Twombly (198 6 ) and Dr. Richard Massie (2003). Dr. Twombly and Dr. Massie researched career histories of community college presidents, chief academic of ficers and chief student affairs officers to identify the structure of the labor market. This review narrow ed the focus to community college workforce administrators. The purpose of this review was to examine the applicability of internal labor market the ory to the hiring, selection, and career advancement of community college workforce administrators. This review explore d literature and studies related to the ( 1) evolving role of workforce development programs in the community college ( 2) impact of the community college baccalaureate ( 3 ) leadership attributes of workforce administrators and ( 4 ) career pathways of workforce administrators in the community college setting. Evolving Role of Workforce Programs The role of workforce development programs in the community college setting has evolv ed Technological changes in the workplace have placed considerable pressure on the U.S. educational system to prepare students for increasingly skill based occupations (B ailey, Kienzl, & Marcotte occupational preparation taking place in community colleges and technical institutes (Jacobs & Grubb 2003). Workforce education programs play an impor tant role in responding to local labor Bailey, and Hughes 2008) While community colleges have always pursued multiple missions, historically the academic and transfe r functions received the most attention. Data collected by the United States Department of Education (2004) indicates that workforce and continuing education divisions of community colleges have often had second class status when compared

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18 with the academi c and credit functions of the college. However, community college workforce personnel around the nation that participated in the study felt that their importance and visibility ademic transfer function for the community college argue d that the growing emphasis on occupational education draws students into programs that do not encourage transfer to a university (Bailey 2003). Brint and Karabel (1989) asserted that occupational e ducation changed the entire mission of community colleges into low and middle class vocational schools that limit ed opportunity for advancement. In contrast, advocates of community college occupational education argue d that students do benefit fi nancially from postsecondary education that does not ed that students with associate degrees are qualified for the growing number of technical and technician level jobs that play critical roles in the economy (Baile y, Kienzl, & Marcotte 2004). Some advocates on this side of the pendulum object ed to multiple missions because it detract ed from occupational education, which they fe lt should be the core function of the communi ty college. Grubb (1999) argue d ( 1) emphasis on academic education implies that there is only one valued postsecondary institution the research university; ( 2) community colleges cannot win the academic battle due to its open access policy; and ( 3) since community colleges mostly fail in large tran sfer numbers, students are left with outcomes of uncertain academic value. In a survey which focused on understanding mission priorities of senior level community college administrators, Amy and Van D er L inden (2002b) found that data from these administrators indicated that academic transfer, workforce preparation, and lifelong learning remain the mission of community colleges with an increased emphasis on workforce development forecasted for the future. In th e ir study, more than 73% of the respondents

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19 specifically mention ed workforce training, economic development, and meeting the needs of business and industry as areas of current mission emphasis. The Workforce Development Institute (WDI) sponsored by the Unit ed States Department of Education (2004) ha d several recommendations that would better equip community college professionals to advance the division of workforce development and training. The WDI first recommend ed that community colleges examine their inte rnal reporting structure to ensure that development that mirror position s in academic divisions would convey the message internally and externally that workforce development is a priority. In community colleges that are responsive to the demands of the labor market, administrators in workforce development and continuing educat ion programs have equal standing with those who head academic divisions (USDOE 2004). Many community colleges around the nation have followed this trend. Walla Walla Community College in Washington has two vice presidents one for academic programs and o ne for workforce programs. Oakton Community College near Chicago has a similar structure one vice president for academics and one vice president for workforce development and continuing education. Florida State College at Jacksonville has two associate v ice presidents one for liberal arts and another for workforce development and adult education. The state of Virginia showed its commitment by the establishment of deans of workforce development at its community colleges who coordinate Workforce Investmen t Act (WIA) activities. This raised the stature of non credit workforce development programs in the entire state.

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20 The WDI also recommend ed that community colleges closely examine whether or not to onomic development activities. Often colleges offer ed similar content in a variety of formats credit classes, non credit classes, continuing education, and customized corporate training all over campus in order to meet the needs of different clients. Thi s set the stage for uneasy competition over students and limited resources. There were a number of community colleges that consolidated the workforce and economic development divisions. These colleges found that this consolidation enabled them to meet ne eds more efficiently, raise their visibility, and eliminate confusion over similar programming. Black Hawk Community College in Illinois eliminated confusion and reduced the use of resources by merging their Continuing Education division with their Busines s and Industry Center. Indian River State College in Florida improved coordination and management by centralizing their continuing education courses in its Business and Development Center. Springfield Technical Community College in Massachusetts took a di fferent approach by dividing its Division of Economic and Business Development (DEBD) from its Division of Continuing Education. This reorganization allowed DEBD to gain its own vice president as well as a focus within upper administration on workforce de velopment and entrepreneurship. Springfield is now more responsive to the labor demands of the market. The Workforce Development Institute further recommend ed increased collaboration between academic and workforce programs. Historically, community college s sharply divided academic credit programs and workforce noncredit programs with the workforce programs being marginalized. Labor market responsive community colleges invest effort into blurring lines that cause division between credit and non credit progr ams. This collaboration is critical to being responsive to the labor market because the strengths of each division are complementary. Van

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21 Noy et al (2008) concur red Noy agree d that increas ed collaboration between academic credit and workforce non credit programs benefits both students and employers. Academic and workforce programs must engage in continuous quality improvement initiatives that support setting goals, building teams, and commu nicating. Such cross institutional teams could work together to improve processes such as registration, external partnerships, and faculty orientations. The credit and non credit distinctions should be almost invisible to both students and all external st akeholders. While such collaborations may face faculty resistance initially, effective administrators demonstrate the advantages of working together. Ann Arundale Community College in Maryland rewrote faculty job descriptions to include workforce developme nt course responsibilities in their teaching load. Northern Virginia Community College followed a similar strategy in retooling faculty roles. Contracts with faculty at NVCC include d both academic credit and workforce non credit courses as a part of their teaching load. The contracts officer at NVCC state d that including such stipulations in the actual contract helped to blur lines between credit and non credit. Many community colleges articulate non credit workforce courses into credit programs. The state of Florida established mandatory articulation agreements for community colleges in which non credit workforce coursework or certificates articulate into credit programs. T he Community College Applied Baccalaureate As the role of workforce education in the community college evolved, the advent of the community college applied baccalaureate significantly impacted workforce education. Townsend, Bragg and Ruud (2008) define d designed to incorporate applied as non baccalaureate level while providing students with the higher order thinking skills and Within associate degree

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22 grantin g institutions, the applied baccalaureate is sometimes associated with the community college baccalaureate or CCB (Floyd, Skolnik, & Walker, 2005). Applied baccalaureates are typically in a niche and highly specialized position to address workforce needs. Since its inception, the community college has been a cornerstone in providing access to postsecondary educational opportunities for the underserved members of society. For many students the community college represen t ed their best hope for postsecondary education (Phelan, 2000). The mission has evolved from strictly preparing undergraduates for transfer to upper division course work to the latest trend the Community College Baccalaureate (CCB). The CCB is currently at the center of ongoing debates about the purposes of education. As with any emerging trend, there were both advocates and critics who represent strong opposing viewpoints. Advocates view ed the CCB as a new way to think about and facilitate the educatio nal pathway to Martin, 2001). According to Kenneth Walker, District President of Edison Community College, expanding the community college mission to include baccalaurea te degrees while retaining an open door policy is a logical option in many communities (Walker, 2001). However, critics believe d that the CCB represent ed mission and status creep an opportunity for community colleges to compete with traditional four year colleges and universities, while diverting scarce resources away from traditionally under funded populations such as remedial or workforce training (Pedersen, 2005). Community colleges with baccalaureate programs were at risk for mission creep if the CCB wa s created only to enhance academic prestige (OPPAGA, 2005). Historical perspectives The two year junior college was created by several prominent nineteenth and early twentieth century educators who wanted to relegate out the teaching of lower division

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23 undergraduates. Educators such as Henry Tappen, President of University of Michigan, William Harper of University of Chicago, David Jordan, President of Stanford, and Alex Lange, Member of the California State Board of Education, all felt that universiti es could not become true research and professional development centers until they released lower division preparatory work (Cohen & Brawer, 2003). The junior colleges provide d general education instruction to freshman and sophomore students who then tran sition ed to the university for research and higher order scholarship. Leonard Koos, Walter Eells, and George Zook were also frequently acknowledged as derived f rom his reputation as a researcher and faculty member at the University of Chicago. S. Bureau of Education. Zook secured financial backing to support the fi rst junior college dissertation. Zook was also responsible for bringing together many of the junior college leaders for a meeting in St. Louis, which resulted in the formation of the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC) (Pedersen, 1995). Walter Eells was influential due to his role as Executive Economic and social factors contributed to the expansion of the mission of junior colleges from a strictly col legiate transfer function to a more comprehensive institution that met the needs of the local community. During the 1960 s, federal funding also enabled junior colleges to grow into expanded comprehensive community colleges with programs in vocational, tech nical, and adult education. Advocates contend ed that these changes in mission, programs, and culture did not alter the fundamental mission of the community college; neither did adding baccalaureate programs (Walker 1994). Factors such as expanding industr ies, workforce

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24 training, higher numbers of high school graduates, and social equity led to the rise of the community college (Cohen & Brawer, 2003). Expanding industries and new technologies needed to compete in the global marketplace required the training of a skilled workforce. By 1960, the percentage of high school graduates had jumped to 75 % up from only 30 % in 1924 (Cohen & Brawer, 2003). Higher education was viewed as the venue for social equality, desegregation, and upward mobility. The close prox imity of the community colleges increased access for many to postsecondary education. Perhaps the most pressing factor that contributed to the evolution of the community college mission wa s the increased demand being placed on the education system to solve desegregation and unemployment. The comprehensive community college was able to quickly adapt its mission to serve all from those needing basic skill remediation to people returning for required workforce training. Emerging t rends Increased postsecondary enrollment, greater need for a baccalaureate degree, and limited geographical access wer e the foremost trends driving the CCB to meet the workforce demand for a higher ed ucated employee High school graduation rates steadily increased. The open access policy of the community college cause d it to feel the pressure of serving these graduates, who will require postsecondary training in order to be competitive in the marketpl ace. The selective admission policies of traditional four year institutions limit ed the number of graduates that were served at their institution. Of the 191 occupations projected to have above average growth rates, 34 % require d a four year college degree or higher (Walker, 2001). The geographical proximity of community colleges to the population clusters as opposed to traditional four year institutions open ed up access to postsecondary study. Limited access to public baccalaureate degree granting institut ions had a negative impact on local business and industry needs because of the inability to

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25 meet employment needs that require d upper division coursework and baccalaureate degree programs (OPPAGA, 2005). Unmet employer needs ha d the potential to have a neg ative influence on the local economy. A dvocates versus c ritics Advocates of the CCB believe d that one of the advantages of the CCB wa s an increased ability to quickly respond to community and workforce needs. One of the cornerstone reasons for the growth of the community college was its historic ability to quickly respond to rapidly changing community and workforce needs. Providing work force training requested by local employers and employees help ed Employers benefit ed because the CCB programs were specifically designed to meet the workforce needs of the local area. Community college s ha d experience developing, modifying, or terminating two year degree programs based on community and workforce needs (OPPAGA 2005). This experience was replicated for the baccalaureate degree. The governing structure of the community college allot ted flexibility for this type of quick response, whereas the governing structure of the university tend ed to be more rigid. Four year institutions have typically not edu cation, healthcare, and information technology. An example of meeting this type of workforce need include d Florida State Applied Science degree in Fire Science Technology at the request of the city and the local fire department industry. Critics of this advantage felt that CCB advocates rel ied too heavily on the assumption that a need actually exist ed in the local community for such a program (Cook, 2000). Critics also fe lt that there was only anec dotal evidence to support this theory and caution ed advocates against making such pertinent decisions without hard data to support it. Critics also point ed out that a

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26 documented need for change require d a clear understanding of how education needs have bee n met and identification of existing gaps. According to Cook (2000), community college leaders should ensure that the need warrants a new response, or alternative routes should be explored. The second advantage of the CCB according to advocates wa s the i ncreased student financial, geographical, and academic access as well as low operating expenses. Rising university tuition costs have limited postsecondary access to many students. The USDOE Spellings Commission (2006) support ed this view in their report t hat listed limited student access resulting from the rising costs of tuition and decreasing financial aid. Annual tuition and fees at public community colleges average d approximately half those at four year colleges and less than 15 percent of private fo ur year institutions (McKinney, 2003). In Florida, legislation in 2004 capped tuition for CCB degree programs at 85 % of the tuition charged by state universities (OPPAGA, 2005). The justification was that universities receive d funding to support their re search programs, which were not a part of the community college mission. For the 2004 05 year, this difference amount ed to $10.22 per credit hour or a total yearly savings of $306.60 for students who took 30 credit hours (OPPAGA, 2005). Due to the geograph ical proximity of community colleges, students also save d money on room, board, and transportation expenses associated with a traditional college education. (McKinney, 2003). Geographical proximity of community colleges also provide d access to the place bo und students who simply we re unable to uproot their families and jobs to attend a four year university. Kenneth Walker (2001) tout ed that time, and are employed. These students have famil ies, jobs, mortgages, and other demands on their time. They want academic access through the CCB refer red to the student being able to experience smaller

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27 classes, less rigid sequencing, and greater scheduling options. Community colleges historically had the ability to academically serve students at all levels, including those in need of remediation. The CCB allow ed a smoother transition due to students receiving al l of their baccalaureate degree work at one institution. Research indicate d that students we re more likely to complete baccalaureate degrees if they d id not transfer between schools (OPPAGA, 2005). Advocates also argue d that the CCB ha d the potential to lower the overall costs of providing a baccalaureate education because community colleges were able to utilize existing resources, faculty, facilities, and support services. Critics argue d that it is short sighted of community colleges to think that they will be able to maintain lower tuition rates for CCBs. Pedersen (2001) contend ed have no choice, other than major program red uctions, to install dramatic tuition increases. The fear wa s that underserved students not pursuing a baccalaureate degree will be forced to bear the Townsen d, professor at the University of Missouri, point ed indicator of a quality education. While convenience should be considered, it should not be the primary motivating factor that a student uses to choose an institution. In an era of limited federal and state resources and funding, critics we re concerned that the CCB only result s in turf wars that disrupt the delicate, but needed, relationship between community colleges and universities (Troumpoucis, 2004). Critics m ain tain that an institution can not simply continue to quickly convert to a baccalaureate mode without incurring significant on going costs (Cook, 2000). Expenses such as faculty salaries, equipment and facilities that met additional baccalaureate accreditati on requirements we re inevitable. Another critical point that was raised deal t with

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28 legislative and policy issues. Many existing postsecondary education legislative structures we re based on a clear distinction between two and four year institutions. The CCB blur red those lines, and requir ed changes in state statutes, governance, program approval, funding formulas, and financial aid (Cook, 2000). The applied baccalaureate offer ed a means of enrolling adult and non traditional students, who were historically underserved, in occupational technical baccalaureate leve l degree programs The applied baccalaureate wa s intended to address employment sectors that face d serious economic crisis. These employment sectors include d workforce occupations such as teaching, n ursing, allied healthcare, public safety, computer, and various industrial engineering technology fields. Advocate rationales often emph asize d the importance of using the applied baccalaureate to address workforce labor market needs. The applied baccalaure ate was not limited only to adult and non traditional students Advocates of the applied baccalaureate at the community college envision ed them as a means to expand access to the baccalaureate; critics claim ed they represent ed a threat to the integrity of the baccalaureate degree, diminish ed quality and add ed cost to an increasingly expensive higher education system with decreas ed funding. Critics of the applied baccalaureate cautioned against the implementation of this degree due to that have deliberately resisted the applied baccalaureate degree address ed the educational attainment gap by maximizing the existing higher education r elationships between community colleges and universities. In these regions, emphasis wa s placed on joint use education centers, two plus two articulation agreements, and university center partnerships. Research studies by Townsend, Bragg and Ruud (2008) sh ow ed that the applied baccalaureate wa s a viable option to reaching adult learners as well as meet larger systematic educational and economic needs.

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29 Advocates of the applied baccalaureate degree garnered significant support from state and federal legislato rs who share d similar concerns about access and the vitality of the economy. State Support State governments have sought to balance the interest of advocates, educational systems, and the public at large. In recognition of the need to educate more adults, a number of states have authorized community colleges to offer the baccalaureate degree. As of 2010, community colleges offer baccalaureate degree in 1 7 st ates: Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana Massachusetts, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wisconsin (Lewin, 2009) State officials gathered input from practi ti oners, policy leaders and other key stakeholders and develop ed a comprehensive higher education system that include d applied baccalaureates which address ed workforce labor needs. After engaging practitioners in taskforces, state agencies worked with state legislature to pass laws and appropriation bills in support of the community college applied baccalaureate. b accalaureate a ttainment Florida wa s one of the states that have utilized the applied baccalaureate and the community college baccalaureate (CCB) as tool s t hat addr ess ed workforce labor market shortages. Florida leads the nation in the number of baccalaureate degrees offered in the community college system. Florida also rationalize d the community college applied baccalaureate as a method to meet the needs of the grow ing number of adult and non traditional students, who have limited opportunities for baccalaureate completion yet are needed in the workforce labor market first authorized to offer s baccalaureate degree programs have grown to over 110

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30 community college baccalaureates being offered in 18 State C olleges, as of 2010 (FLDOE 2010) Florida wa s one of the states whose economy shifted from agricultural and service based to health care, technology, and other more advanced industries. Several studies point ed to the fact that Florida wa s experiencing a critical statewide shortage in the teaching, n ursing, and information technology labor markets. The approval of Florida Senate Bill 1716 (FSB 1716) resulted from efforts to close the significant gap between the increased demand for baccalaureate degreed workers versus the short supply. At the core of the reasons for the passage of FSB 1716 that permit ted the community college applied baccalaureate wa s the issue of access to address critical shortage areas. The traditional mission of the community college include d the ability to quickly respond to workf orce needs as well as provide educational opportunities to adults who are bound to the local geographic area due to family, job, and economic responsibilities. The ability to expand postsecondary education for non traditional adult students and those alrea dy in the workforce wa s essential to the United States workforce and economy (Pusser et al., 2007). However, many of these adults were limited in their pursuit of higher education due to the limitations imposed by the traditional university system. While F SB 1716 help ed to increase access to baccalaureate degrees, this legislation stipulate d that community colleges uphold their primary mission of open door access, remediation, 2 + 2 articulation, and meeting the needs of underserved populations (FLDOE 20 10 ). The State Board of Education and the Board of students, while community colleges would play a role in meeting workforce needs by providing CCBs in workfor ce oriented, teaching, and nursing degrees. This require d community colleges to develop dual access policies to meet the needs of lower division students that we re a part of the

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31 traditional mission and upper division students that were enrolled in the comm unity college applied baccalaureate programs. While the open door policy was maintained at the lower level, community colleges had more rigorous admission policies in place for students enroll ed in upper division baccalaureate coursework. The open access a nd remediation policies at the lower division allow ed the community college to better prepare these students to articulate into upper division, fully prepared for more arduous coursework. Internal systems that track and monitor student academic progress ne ed ed to be in place to ensure the effective transition of associate degreed students into the upper division. Seamless articulation policies were also needed to avoid wa s as streamlined as possible. Partnerships Community colleges that expand ed their offerings to include the community college applied baccalaureate enhance d policies regarding external partnerships. The need to expand partnerships was critical to the success of the community college a pplied baccalaureate (Cohen & Brawer 2003). Many community colleges already ha d partnerships with local business and industry through program advisory committees. Community colleges also continued to ensure that there was constant collaboration with the Regional Workforce Board, the local Chamber of Commerce and employers. Expanding these external partnerships polices serve d dual purposes. First, it ensure d that key stakeholders were provided with opportunities for input in to the curriculum, feedback on graduates, and share employment trends. Second, it provide d community colleges with the opportunity to tap into fiscal resources that could be provided by external partners, such as grant dollars, the purchase of required equ ipment or setting up clinical for nursing students with the local hospitals. Collaboration with the local university was maintained. In an era of limited federal and state resources and funding, critics we re concerned that the community college applied ba ccalaureate only result ed in turf wars that disrupt ed the

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32 delicate, but needed, relationship between community colleges and universities (Troumpoucis, 2004). There continue s to be dialog regarding articulation agreements into university programs for both 2 + 2 agreements and community college applied baccalaureate students that wish to Community college baccalaureate graduates should be able to transition into master degree programs at the university without being required to take additional courses. Documentation of collaboration with the local university is also a required part of the community college baccalaureate application process. Community colleges also need ed to expand the partnership with the local school district beyond dual enrollment and preparation of high school graduates for postsecondary study. The partnership expand ed to include discussion of the need for more teachers, from establishing community college baccalaureate degrees in the education arena to setting up alternative certification programs for teachers with degrees in other fields. Resources and c apacity As more community colleges expand ed their mission and offer ed community college baccalaureate degrees policies regarding resources and capacity were ev aluated. The Florida Legislature based on recommendations from a joint task force of the State Board of Community Colleges and the Board of Governors, re design ed the entire Division of Community Colleges and create d the Florida College System. T he Florida College System is composed of the 28 two and four year public institutions. The Florida College System has served as the higher education division students. Eighty two percent of minority st udents that attend ed postsecondary education in the Florida College System (FLDOE 2010 ). Sixty six percent of Florida high school graduates who enrolled in a Florida postsecondary institution enrolled in The Florida College System ( FLDOE 2010) More than 23% of those enrolled we re aged 35 or older,

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33 according to the Florida Department of Educa tion (2010) There wa s a Florida College System institution located within 50 miles of every Floridian (FLDOE 2010) Even with its traditional mission, community colleges were expected to do more with less. As the economy tightened community colleges d evelop ed capacity policies that allow ed them to serve more students without a sizeable increase in funding. Community colleges were charged with how to re slice the same size pie for more people, not an easy task. Critics maintain ed that an institution ca nnot simply convert to a baccalaureate mode without incurring significant costs (Cook, 2000). Expenses such as faculty salaries, equipment and facilities that m et additional baccalaureate accreditation requirements we re inevitable. In order to counter tho se additional expenses, critics of the community college baccalaureate insist ed that eventually community colleges will decrease services to the underserved (remedial and certificate st udents). Since FSB 1716 mandated that community colleges continue exist ing services, community colleges need ed to ensure that access policies we re maintained or risk ed being in violation of the state statute. Community college administrators reallocate d and/or acquire d funding to meet SACs faculty credentialing and facility r equirements, such as library holdings, etc. Policies regarding class size and course delivery systems we re evaluated in order to ensure optimal faculty and space usage. Increasing the availability of online and hybrid cours es, where appropriate, increased space and class size. In order to accommodate additional students and online courses, information technology items such as web capacity, server size and updated computer labs w ere taken into account. Funding sources from both recurring and non recurring so urces was examined. While community colleges can increase tuition as a source of recurring revenue, FS 1716 still limit ed the total student tuition cost to only 85% of current university tuition. Non recurring funding from sources such as grants was vampe d up. C ommunity colleges that expand ed their mission to

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34 include the community college baccalaureate we re still required to maintain service to their original targeted population. The demand for new teachers particularly in exceptional education, secondary math and science wa universities to keep up with the need. Approximately 20,000 teaching positions need ed to be filled annuall y between 2005 and 2020, due to the constitutional class size amendment and the growing student population ( FLDOE 2008 ). A review of the number of gradua t es from the State ed to a ten year decline in ind ividuals earning degrees (FLDOE 2008 ). Of those who d id graduate, only 50 60% historically became classroom teachers in Florida in the year follow ing their graduation (FLDOE 2008 ) Federal Support The National Commission on Adult Literacy (2008) contend e d that inadequate access to postsecondary education for adult and non traditional learners wa s placing the US at risk and recommended federal legislation and reforms. The Commission (2008) described current methods associated with educating adults for the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 and Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 attempt ed to facilitate college attendance and employment, both f e ll short of enhancing baccalaureate access for adult and non traditional students. President Obama established the American Graduation Initiative to provide additional non recurring funding in the form of grants specifically for community colleges. Community colleges were able to get federal funding for updating facilities, developing innovative student success strategies, and development of online resources. Resource development offices at communi ty colleges need to be proactive and aggressive in pursui t of these federal dollars. Administration

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35 need ed to be strategic in their use of the dollars, since they we re non recurring. C ommunity colleges that expand ed their mission to include the CCB were st ill required to maintain service to their original targeted population. Universities continue d to serve the traditional student. This new college and university system expand ed access to postsecondary education for all populations in Florida. Changing Eco nomic Landscape The level of postsecondary education continue d to be a concern in the United States. The attainment of the applied baccalaureate degree wa s recognized as a definitive indicator of educational attainment. The baccalaureate create d an economic advantage for students and governments and open ed up job opportunities, increas ed salaries, and improv ed productivity (Bragg, Townsend, & Ruud, 2009) Cab rera, Burkum, and LaNasa (2005) assert ed d a potential stepping stone to a better life. It is fully (p. 2). Even p ositions that historically never required baccalaureate degrees we re now being required by employers (Wal ker, 2002). As the economic landscape change d the necessity of preparing citizens to compete in a global market beca me vital ( FLDOE 2008). The community college applied baccalaureate emerged as one of the solutions to baccalaureate attainment and workfor ce development. E xpanding postsecondary education to adult learners and those already in the labor market wa in Florida continue d to struggle to find suitable acc ess to college. The economic landscape of Florida shifted from agricultural and service oriented industries to ones that require d higher postsecondary education. Florida rank ed 46 th out of 50 states in baccalaureate degree production (F LDOE 20 08 ). Compoun ding the low supply of degreed workers wa s the projected shortage of

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36 workers in critical needs occupations such as teachers, nurses, and information technology employees. The shortage of baccalaureate degreed workers wa s not only a dilemma in Florida, but in other states as well. The percentage of adults with at least a baccalaureate degree wa s as low as 18% in some states and only as high as 41% in others (National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education 2006). Pusser et al. (2007) assert ed of the baccalaureate degree will produce the highest individual and social returns (p. 3). Access for Non traditional S tudents The traditional mission of the community college provide d a significant access point to p ostsecondary education for the growing number of adult and non traditional students. Adult and non traditional students were typically defined as students who are older than traditional college age, working part or full time, and ha d family responsibilitie s that limit ed their ability to relocate or travel to attend college (Bragg, Townsend, & Ruud, 2009). Meeting the needs of these place bound students bec a me a priority. Most of these students ha d limited opportunities to pursue higher education because tr aditional universities d id not take into account their complex lives (Bragg, Townsend, & Ruud, 2009). The growth of the community college baccalaureate was attributed to the need to enroll this increasing number of adult and non traditional learners who ha d circumstances that ma d e attendance at a traditional university extremely challenging, if not impossible (Bragg, Townsend, & Ruud, 2009). The number of adult and non traditional students in higher education gr ew due to the chang ed economic landscape that remium on an ( Chao, DeRocco, & Flynn, 2007, p. 3). Rationale shifted from the needs of institutions to larger, economic concerns. Leadership Attributes of Workforce Administrators This evolv ed role of workforce programs in the community college also drew closer attention the leadership attributes needed by workforce administrators to manage the programs.

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37 Workforce program faculty and administrators respond ed appropriately to the various societal and workforce changes and provide d & Lynch 1997). According to Neil Edmunds, former president of the American Vocational Association, t hose who will lead workforce education into the 21 st century must be shareholders in a unify ing vision; these leaders must understand the broad scope of vocational education. They must be skilled communicators; they must be as comfortable outside the educational setting as within it, moving easily among people from government, education, and bus inesses (cited in McElvey, Hall, & Lynch 1997). Increased interest in development of leadership attributes in workforce administrators ar o se not only from new demands resulting from the evolving role of workforce education, but also from numerous retirements. Increas ed retirements of community college administrators also called for the need to identify important skills needed for future leaders (Shults 2001). A study by Campbell (2006) also found a leadership gap due to retirements in specialize d administrative positions in the community college. Research conducted specifically on leadership in workforce education has resulted in the identification of leadership attributes necessary for vocational leaders. The research studies outlined below, m any of which were sponsored by the National Center for Research in Vocational Education (NCRVE), provide a valid conceptual model of leadership in workforce education. Leadership development in workforce education progressed away from a model of categorize d, task oriented behaviors and toward a model of transformational leadership (Moss & Liang 1990). Several studies of leadership in workforce education were conducted to identify effective leadership attributes of workforce administrators. In the Moss an d Liang study (1990) of 34 postsecondary technical colleges, the following six attributes emerged in predicting perceived effectiveness: ( 1) motivating others; (2) team building; ( 3) adaptable, open and

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38 flex ible; ( 4) gathering and managing information; ( 5) willing to accept responsibility; and ( 6) insightful. These leadership attributes were clustered into three main categories: ( 1) so cial skills and characteristics, ( 2) personal characteristics, and ( 3) management skills. Evidence resulting from this stud y suggested that these three main categories could be further subdivided into the following factors: organizational, cognitive, visionary, action oriented, energetic, ethical, interpersonal, and intellectual. This study was critical in that these research efforts by Moss et al. resulted in the identification of thirty seven leadership attributes specific to workforce administrators and the development of the widely used Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI). Several subsequent studies, a few of which are desc ribed below, refined and validated these attributes outlined in the LAI. A follow up study by Finch, Gregson, and Faulkner (1991) sought to determine which leadership attributes in the LAI, as demonstrated by behaviors, were reflective of successful workf orce administrators in their work roles. The study gave consideration to the situational context, individuals, and groups within which these behaviors were demonstrated. While results of the study validated the leadership attributes and conceptual structu re identified in the 1990 Moss and Liang study, communication emerged as an attribute that needed further analysis. Several patterns related to communication emerged. Successful workforce administrators (1 ) did not rely on a single form of communication, ( 2) demonstr ated effective listening skills, ( 3) used communication in a wide range of contexts and ( 4) integrated communication with a wide variety of leadership attributes. This study also pointed t o a need for ( 1) interactive simulations that allow ed p articipants to utilize various leadership attributes in dynamic workforce education environments and ( 2) case studies and incidents drawn from actual workforce education situations that allow ed leaders to explore alternative actions and solutions.

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39 Moss, F inch, and Johanson (1991) conducted a study to determine the kind of criteria workforce faculty use when they judge the effectiveness of their administrators. The researchers in this study developed a classification system based on the extent to which the administr behavior wa s perceived to ( 1) improve t he quality of the group process, ( 2) have had a personal impact on subordinates, and ( 3) have helped the institution perform tasks successfully and attain its goals. Results of the study revealed that the criteria most frequently used by workforce faculty relat ed needs. The Finch and Faulkner (1991) did a study that focused on economic developmen t related programs that were established by postsecondary workforce education administrators and examined the leadership roles these persons played in establishing the program. Drawing from the 1991 Finch, Gregson, and Faulkner study mentioned earlier, ca ses were prepared that described how successful workforce administrators used their leadership skills to respond to the need for improved workforce development. The focus was on three areas: ( 1 ) productivity training, (2) customized training, and ( 3) tech nology transfer. Results indicated that in economic communication were critical attributes. ine the correlation between how the presidents of technical institutes in Georgia viewed their leadership attributes and how faculty at those technical institutes viewed the leadership attributes of their presidents. Findings suggested that the greatest di

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40 commitment to the common good, personal integrity, high ethical standards, sensitivity (respect), appropriate use of leadership styles, and motivating others. The greatest amount of agreement following six attributes: energetic, insightful, assertive, organizing, time manageme nt/personal organization, and information gathering. It was concluded that the faculty members and presidents did not agree on leadership attributes of the presidents. These finding indicate that future workforce education leaders must understand themselv es and faculty as well as effectively share the vision with all subordinates. Internal Labor Market Theory and Career Pathways of Workforce Administrators Now that the leadership attributes of effective workforce administrators have been developed and val idated, it is imperative to examine the pipeline of future leaders. Several major research studies have identified a pending leadership gap among community college administrators. These impending retirements not only impact current leadership, but the lea dership pipeline as well (Shults 2001). Studies by Shults (2001) and Campbell (2006) found that there will be shortage of community college administrators. A national study conducted by Duree (2008) also pointed to the urgency of developing a new pipeline of leaders due to the large waves of pending retirements of baby boomers. Labor markets we re arenas in which employment, movement between jobs, and development of job skills are structured similarly (Althauser & Kalleberg 1981). There we re customs and practices that govern ed which employees we re eligible to move into jobs and how the decision wa s made. Internal labor market theory indicate d that the pricing and allocation functions of the market take place within, rather than outside the establishment (Massie 2003). Internal labor market theory provide d the theoretical framework through which to explore career pathways of community college workforce administrators. While this study narrow ed the focus

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41 to community college workforce administrators, se veral research studies have examined internal labor market theory and the career paths of community college administrators in general. In a study by Moore, Twombly, and Martorana (1985), the researchers identified four senior administrative positions tha t were most common in the career path leading to the community college presidency. These positions were chief academic officer, chief business officer, chief student affairs officer, and continuing education officer. The study was ground breaking in that i t also charted career paths for these five senior administrative positions. Attention was given to three elements of internal labor markets boundaries, career pathways, and movement along career pathways. In this study, analysis of the responses found th at chief administrators in the aforementioned positions were likely to have come from within the community college labor market as opposed to external markets or four year university markets. Since movement along the administrative career pathway occurred within the community college labor market, then the community college administrative labor market wa s relatively closed to individuals from external labor markets. Community college business officers w ere an exception to this finding in that the majority surveyed had moved directly into their current position from outside postsecondary education. Analysis of the career lines of current presidents, chief academic, chief student affairs and chief business officers also revealed a common structure. The commo nality for the career path for each administrative position was found at the level of the first position previous to the current position (Moore, Twombly, & Martorana 1985). The first previous position appeared to be the most important position in the ca reer pathway. A follow up study by Amey and VanDerLinden (2002a) identified two additional leadership positions in the presidential pipeline that were not traditional academics the business/industry liaison and occupational/vocational education leader. This study found that

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42 most occupational or vocational administrators (OVA) held their immediate previous position at community college. Forty one percent of the OVAs had traditional career paths and moved into the position from associate/assistant dean, di rector, or department chair positions. Nineteen percent were promoted into the position directly from the faculty ranks. Only five percent came directly from private sector jobs, and only five percent came directly from a public school setting. The remain i ng OVAs in the study w ere in immediate previous positions such as career counselor, director of student services, director of human resources, and assistant to the president. While the average time at their institution was 14 years, most of the OVAs studie d were relatively new to their positions five years or less. Twenty percent of the OVAs held positions at four year colleges at some point in their career path. Almost 50% of the OVAs were faculty members at a community college at one time. Only 11% of th ese administrators previously held jobs in the private sector; typically working as consultants, human resource managers, trainers, or engineers. In a subsequent study by Massie (2003) the applicability of internal labor market theory to the career pathwa ys of four senior level community college administrators college president, chief academic officer, and chief workforce development officer was studied. While the study found that internal labor market theory was applicable to college president and chief academic officer, the research did not support the internal labor market theory for the position of chief workforce development officer. Thirty one percent of presidents surveyed in this study held the position of chief academic officer. None of the presi dents were from outside education. Thirty seven percent of the chief academic officers were previously deans/directors, 22% were associate deans, and 11% were chief academic officers. Fourteen percent were selected from outside education. For the position of chief workforce development officer, 25% were selected from

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43 outside education from the first previous position, 45% were selected from outside education for the second previous position, and 25% were selected from outside education for the third previou s position. Within the community college labor market, presidents and chief academic officers we re most likely to have earned a doctorate. Ninety six percent of presidents and all of the chief academic officers in this study had earned doctorates. The int ernal labor market in this study indicate d wa s the highest degree for the majority of chief workforce development officers; 87% 50% held a doctorate. Community college presidents and chief workforce development officers identified participation in organized community activities as the most important external activity for career advancement within the internal labor market. The most i mportant internal labor market community activity identified by all three positions was participating in economic development and business activities. Internal labor market indicators for the chief wor kforce development officer were (1) seeking out a mentor ; (2) participating in economic development and business activities; (3) participating in organized community activities; and (4) participating in special institutional task forces, committees, and commissions. W hile studies indicate d there wa s a shortage of qualified workforce administrators, the role wa s evolving and complex. Much work has been done to identify the leadership attributes that will be needed by future administrators in the pipeline. However further study needs to be done on identifying future leaders in the pipeline and providing them with the necessary leadership development training that will prepare them to lead workforce education through the 21 st century. Summary Chapter 2 discussed the evolving role of workforce education, the impact of the community college baccalaureate, the leadership attributes of workforce education

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44 administrators, and career pathways. Several similar major studies that examined internal labor market theory and career pathways were also discussed. In a study by Moor e, Twombly, and Martorana (1985), the researchers identified four senior administrative positions that were most common in the career path leading to the community college presidency. A follow up study by Amey and VanDerLinden (2002a) identified two additi onal leadership positions in the presidential pipeline that were not traditional academics the business/industry liaison and occupational/vocational education leader. This study found that most occupational or vocational administrators (OVA) held their i mmediate previous position at community college. In a subsequent study by Massie (2003) the applicability of internal labor market theory to the career pathways of four senior level community college administrators college president, chief academic office r, and chief workforce development officer was studied. While the study found that internal labor market theory was applicable to college president and chief academic officer, the research did not support the internal labor market theory for the position of chief workforce development officer.

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45 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Purpose of the Study As indicated in the literature review, s everal major research studies have identified a pending leadership gap among community college administrators. These impending retirements not only impact current leadership, but the leadership pipeline as well (Shults 2001). Studies by Shults (2001) and Campbell (2006) found that there will be shortage of community college administrators. A national study conduct ed by Duree (2008) also pointed to the urgency of developing a new pipeline of leaders due to the large waves of pending retirements of baby boomers. There wa s a need to identify and prepare future workforce administrators. This study expand ed and update d earlier research completed by Dr. Susan Twombly ( 198 6 ) and Dr. Richard Massie ( 2003) in an effort to identify the career pipeline of community college workforce administrators. Dr. Twombly and Dr. Massie researched career histories of community college p residents, chief academic officers and chief student affairs officers to identify the structure of th e labor market. This study narrow ed the focus to community college workforce administrators. The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of inter nal labor market theory to the career advancement of community and state college workforce administrators. Research Questions The research questions that guid ed this study include d : 1. What career lines can be identified from the job histories of community and state college workforce administrators? 2. To what extent are community and state college administrators selected directly from the postsecondary labor market rather than from external labor markets? 3. To what extent have community and state colle ge workforce administrators held a faculty position in their first three previous positions?

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46 4. To what extent have community and state college workforce administrators earned a doctorate? 5. What career advancement variables are important to community and state college workforce administrators? 6. What career mobility variables are important to community and state college workforce administrators? Participants W orkforce education administrators that we re members of a statewide committee of workforce education admin istrators for the 28 Florida Community and State Colleges, were selected as participants for this study. This statewide committee wa s comprised of workforce vice presidents, associate vice presidents, deans, directors and program managers from each of the community and state colleges in Florida. This committee ha d a strong influence on state policies related to workforce education. The members of this committee we re engaged in workforce education planning and advancement for the entire state of Florida. Th is committee wa s dedicated to a dvocate and promote the interests of and support for c areer and t echnical e ducation and e conomic d evelopment ; p rovide leadership for coordination and integration of collaborative efforts among all partner ; s timulate innovatio n and responsiveness in development and delivery of programs and services ; e ncourage partnerships to promote more comprehensive and effective programs and services ; p rovide for and support the professional development members ; d isseminate appropriate resea rch and information to members ; p romote ethical standards and conduct ; c ommunicate and provide appropriate information to the leadership of the state college system to support all areas of c areer and t echnical e ducation.

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47 Research Design Survey research in the form of a questionnaire w as administered to participants to examine the education, career pathways, and variables that influence career advancement. Statistical analysis including descriptive statistics was completed for each of the main research ques tions utilizing the Key Survey and Statistical Packages for Social Sciences software packages. Instrument The instrument that was used to collect the data was a modification of the questionnaire Year Colleges. The Center for the Study of Higher Education at the Pennsylvania State University, in conjunction with the American Association of Commu nity Colleg es used this instrument in 198 5 to conduct a similar study. The questionnaire solicit ed detailed information from participants in regards to educational background, work history, and level of participation in activities that may have influenced career advancement or career mobility. Several of the aforementioned studies in the literature review utilized this instrument. Twombly also used the instrument in her 19 86 study mentioned earlier. Amey and VanDerLinden again used the instrument in 2002. T he instrument was also used by Massie in 2003. Content validity was established by surveying a panel of senior level administrators as experts who identified the top five significant career advancement, mobility, and job search variables that should be inc luded. Data Collection The data was collected from workforce education administrators that we re members of the Occupational Education Standing Committee of the Council (OESC) on Instructional Affairs, a statewide committee of workforce education administ rators for the 28 Florida Community and State Colleges. Participants who attended the February 2010 OESC meeting were informed verbally during a presentation about the upcoming study by the researcher. Participants

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48 expressed interest in the results in orde r to determine the role that the committee could play in the identification and development of future workforce education administrators. Each participant was contacted on October 19, 2010 by email and asked to complete the questionnaire online utilizing a direct link to the survey included within the email The first reminder email was sent to non responders one week later on October 26, 2010 A second and final reminder email was sent to non responders two weeks later on Nov 2, 2010. Statistical Analysis A descriptive statistical analysis was completed for each of the 6 research questions. Key Survey online survey was utilized along with Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences for online distribution and statistical analysis. The analysis was evaluate d for the proportion of community and state college workforce education administrator that gave detailed responses. Research question 1 inquire d about the career lines of workforce development administrators. The analysis includes a qualitative description of the career lines utilizing the coding scheme developed by Dr. Susan Twombly (1986) in her previous research, The Structure of Careers of Top Level Two Year College Administrators: An Internal Labor Market Approach. For the purpose of this research, car eer lines we re identified sequences of positions which led to community and state college workforce administrator positions. Position sequences were placed into common career patterns. The coding scheme was as follows: First Previous Position: 1. Chief Workf orce Development Administrator 2. Acting President, Campus Executive, Executive Vice President 3. Chief Academic Officer 4. Other line dean. This category include d chief business officer, chief student affairs officer, chief planning officer, and assistant to the president.

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49 5. Other dean/director. This category include d all other deans and directors, such as registrar, director of financial aid, director of continuing education, all deans/directors of academic programs. 6. Associate/assistant/staff. This category include d all positions having a title prefix of associate/assistant/staff, with the exception assistant to the president 7. Faculty. All faculty of any rank 8. Position s outside postsecondary education. Second Previous Position: 1. Coding was the same as the first previous position with the exception of the faculty category. For the second previous position level, this category was split into faculty and department heads. Third Previous Position: 1. Top administrative position, which include d President, Campus Executive, Executive Vice President 2. All other administrative positions 3. Faculty positions, including Department Head 4. Positions outside postsecondary education The analysis for research question 2 ascertained the proportion of workforce administrators selected directly from postsecondary institutions versus external labor markets. Research question 3 included analysis of the extent to which workforce development administrators held a faculty position. Research question 4 included an analysis of the extent workforce development administrators earned a doctorate degree. Analysis of research questions 5 and 6 included statistical frequencies, percentage, mean scores and gamma coefficients to evaluate the relationship between the 16 career variables. Summary Chapter 3 discussed the research methodology for analyzing the career structures of community and state college workforce education administrators. Survey resear ch in the form of

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50 a questionnaire was administered to participants to examine the education, career pathways, and variables that influence career advancement. The instrument that was used to collect the data was a modification of the questionnaire Academic Leader: A National Study of Administrators in Two Year Colleges. The data was collected from workforce education administrators that we re members of the Occupational Education Standing Committee of the Council (OESC) on Instructional Affairs, a s tatewide committee of workforce education administrators for the 28 Florida Community and State Colleges. Statistical analysis including descriptive statistics was completed for each of the main research questions utilizing the Key Survey and Statistical P ackages for Social Sciences software packages.

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51 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Survey Responses Requests for participation were sent to the 88 workforce administrators who are members of the Occupational Education Standing Committee (OESC) for Fl orida State and Community Colleges. There were 56 usable surveys completed for a 64% response rate. Survey results we re presented for all workforce administrators completed the survey. Participant Profiles T he gender of the majority of participants in thi s research was female With 32 female and 24 male respondents, females outnumbered the males by more than 14%. The ethnicities of the participants are displayed in table 4 1 Ethnic responses gathered from the participants in this study indicate d that the majority of workforce education administrators in Florida we re Caucasian. Eighty seven percent of those who participated in this study were Caucasian. Seven percent of the participants were African American. Four percent of the participants were they were mixed with Native American and Caucasian. There were no Asian American participants. Table 4 1 Ethnicity Ethnicity Group Total African American 4 (7%) Caucasian 48 (87%) Hispanic 2 (4%) Asian 0 (0%) Native American 0 (0%) Other 1 (2%) Total 55 (100%)

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52 In analyzing the age of the participants, the majority of the participants in this study were Of the 48 responses to age, 79% were baby boomers. Twelve percent of the participants were born between 1965 and 1976. Eight percent of the participants were born prior to 1946. Research Question 1 Re search question 1 examined the previous career lines of workforce education administrators. Table 4 2 reports the first previous positions held by workforce education administrators. Eighty seven percent of the participants were selected from within the c ommunity college labor market, according to the responses given to the first previous position variable. This percentage wa s consistent with Amy and (2002a) study, in which 84% of the workforce education administrators participants held comm unity college positions as their first previous position. Thirty eight percent, the majority, of workforce education administrators in this study held a dean or director position as their first previous position. This percentage wa study in which only 25% of workforce education workforce education administrators who were previously deans was actually tied at 25% with the number of administrators wh o were pulled directly from a labor market external to postsecondary institutions. The second highest first previous position, at 27%, held by participants was the assistant or associate dean position. Fourteen percent of participants were faculty members prior to accepting their current workforce education administrative position. workforce development administrator position for their entire college. Typically, the se administrators were transitioning from a s maller college to a larger one. Workforce education administrators whose first previous position was that of an executive vice president was 4%.

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53 Two percent of the participants were previously the chief academic officer. None of the participants in this study held a first previous position of dean or director of an area outside workforce education. Table 4 2 First p revious p ositions of w orkforce a dministrators First p revious p osition Group t otal Chief Workforce Development Administrator 2 (4%) Acting President, Campus Executive, EVP 2 (4%) Chief Academic Officer 1 (2%) Other line dean or director 0 (0%) Dean or director 21 (38%) Associate/assistant/staff 15 (27%) Faculty 8 (14%) Positions outside postsecondary education. 7 (13%) Total 56 (100%) Table 4 3 reports the second previous position held by workforce education participants in this study. Seventy one percent of participants were inside the community college labor market for their second previous position. Twenty five percent of second previous positions held by workforce education participants in this study w ere in the associate dea n or staff position (such as program coordinator) category. Twenty one percent of the participants held a dean or director position as their second previous position. The position of faculty, not including department head, was held by 14% of the participan ts. Five percent of the participants were faculty department heads in their second previous position. Two percent of participants held the executive dean position. Two percent of the participants were directors of an area other than workforce education. Th is represent ed the first entry of other collegiate departments into the area of workforce education. There were 2% of the participants who did not report their second previous position. Twenty nine percent of second previous held by participants in this st udy were external to the postsecondary labor market. At this point the entryway into the community

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54 college workforce education labor market from markets external to postsecondary education widen ed from the narrow 13% in the first previous position. In Mass the workforce education participants were in markets external to the postsecondary labor market. No participants held the title of chief workforce development administrator or chief academic officer as their second previous posit ion. Table 4 3 Second p revious p ositions of w orkforce a dministrators Second p revious p osition Group t otal Chief Workforce Development Administrator 0 (0%) Acting President, Campus Executive, EVP 1 (2%) Chief Academic Officer 0 (0%) Other line dean or director 1 (2%) Dean or director 12 (21%) Associate/assistant/staff 14 (25%) Faculty 8 (14%) Faculty Department Head 3 (5%) Positions outside postsecondary education. 16 (29%) Not reported 1 (2%) Total 56 (100%) Table 4 4 reports the third previous position held by participants in my study. Nearly half of the participants, or 43%, held positions outside postsecondary education as their third previous position. This indicate d that a large percentage of the participants entered the community college workforce labor market in their second previous position. Thirty two percent of the participants had an administrative or staff position of some capacity within the postsecondary la bor market as their third previous position. Sixteen percent of the participants held faculty positions, which include d department heads. Seven percent of the participants did not report their third previous position. Two percent of the participants held a top administrative position as their third previous position. Positions included in the top administrative position were president, executive vice

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55 positions externa l to the postsecondary labor market in their third previous position. Table 4 4 Third p revious p ositions of w orkforce a dministrators Third p revious p osition Group t otal Top administrative position, includes President, Campus Executive, Executive Vice Pres. 1 (2%) All other administrative positions 18 (32%) Faculty positio ns, including Department H ead 9 (16%) Positions outside postsecondary education 24 (43%) Not reported 4 (7%) Total 56 (100%) Research Question 2 In examining the career lines of the workforce education administrators that participated in this study, research question 2 inquired about the extent that workforce education administrators were selected directly from internal postsecondary labor markets As shown in Table 4 5 87% of the participants were selected from within the postsecondary labor market. Only 13% of the participants were selected from external labor markets directly into their current workforce education administrator position. This percentage wa s consistent with Amey and of internal selections. This indica te d that while workforce education administrators ha d past experience in the business and industry labor market, they d id not immediately enter a postsecondary education administrative position directly from that external market. Research Question 3 Research question 3 inquired whether workforce education administrators held a faculty position during their immediate three previous positions. Nearly one third of the participants, at

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56 36%, listed faculty member, including department heads and adjuncts, a s one of their three previous positions. Table 4 5 Internal vs. e xternal l abor m arket s election Internal versus e xternal Group total Internal selection 49 (88%) External selection 7 (13%) Note: Percentages do not equal 100 due to rounding The majority, at 59%, did not list faculty member in any capacity as one of their three immediate previous positions. Although this figure wa which 56% of workforce education administrators responded that they neve r held a faculty position, this d id not signify that the participants in this study were never faculty members. The scope of this s tud y only inquired into the first three previous positions of the career ladder. Therefore it wa s quite possible that a porti on of the 59% in this study were faculty members prior to their third previous position. As shown in Table 4 6 32% of the participants we re currently teaching in addition to holding their current administrative position. Sixty eight percent of the partici pants we re not currently teaching. Of the participants who we re currently teaching, the majority, or 83%, was teaching at their current institution. Eighty seven percent of participants who were currently teaching we re at institutions that offer ed bachelor degrees. Eleven percent was teaching at a different institution. Six percent we re teaching at both their current institution and at another institution. Table 4 6. Current t eaching l ocation Location Group t otal At present institution 15 (83%) At another institution 2 (11%) At both 1 (6%) Total 18 (100%)

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57 Research Question 4 Research question 4 asked participants about their postsecondary education credentials. Table 4 7 reports the education level of the participants. All 56 of the participants had obtained a degree. Fifty 57% 41 % of the participants had earned a degree and 16% we re currently pursuing a doctorate degree. Forty one percent of the participants also had an earned doctorate degree. In education administrators had doctorates. This indicate d that graduate degrees we re valued in the workforce education administrator labor market Table 4 7 Education l evel of w orkforce a dministrators Degree l evel Group t otal Bachelors 56 (100%) Masters 23 (41%) Masters and pursuing doctorate 9 (16%) Doctorate 23 (41%) Research Question 5 Research question 5 sought to determine which career advancement variables were important to workforce education administrators. Career advancement variables were grouped as external professional activities, community activities, mentoring, and internal professional activities. Each of the career advancement variables were further divided into specific activities. External p rofessional activities inc lude d participation in organized community activities; participation in the publication of articles, books, or technical materials; attendance at specialized professional workshops or seminars; service on the board of directors of a national professional

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58 o rganization; and attendance at a higher education leadership institute. Community activiti es include d participation in community activities at local public schools; participation in political and governmental community activities; participation in economic development and business community activities; participation in philanthropic and cultural community activities; and participation in civic and fraternal community activities. Mentoring was a separate variable. Within the context of this study, the term m entor was defined for the participants as a long term, professionally centered relationship between two individuals in which the more experienced individual, the mentor, guides, advises and assists in any number of ways the career of the less experienced m entee. Internal p rofessional activities include d formal, written performance reviews; career reviews; in service staff development programs; temporary task or job rotations; and participation in special institutional taskforces, committees, and commissions A five point Likert scale was utilized to rate the responses. The scale of importance was as follows: 1 = Extremely Unimportant 2 = Not Important 3 = Important 4 = Somewhat Important 5 = Extremely Important Table 4 8 reports how the participants r esponded to the importance of external professional activities. The responses indicate d that attendance at specialized professional workshops had the highest mean of 3.80. Participation in organized community activities had a mean of 3.66. Attendance at a higher education institute had a mean of 3.55. Serving on the board of directors for a national professional organization had a mean of 3.07. Publication of articles, books, or technical materials had the lowest mean of 2.75.

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59 Table 4 8 External p rofessional a ctivities Descriptive statistics N Mean Std. deviation participation in organized community activities 56 3.66 1.05 publication of articles, books, or technical materials 56 2.75 1.13 attendance at specialized professional workshops 56 3.80 1.14 service on the board of directors of a national professional organization 56 3.07 1.14 attendance at a higher education leadership institute 56 3.55 1.22 Table 4 9 reports the frequency of responses on the importance of external professional activities. Ninety percent of the participants felt that attendance at specialized professional workshops was important, somewhat important, or extremely important. Eighty two percent of the participants indicated that attending higher education leadership institutes was important, somewhat important, or extremely important. Attending specialized workshops and leadership institutes we re considered important career advancement va riables to community and state college workforce education administrators. This varie d of 4.0, attending higher education leadersh ip was not important with a mean score of 2.8. Table 4 importance of community activities. Participation in economic development and business community activities had the highes t mean of 3.80. Participation in community activities at local schools had the next highest mean of 3.16. Participation in civic and fraternal community activities had the lowest mean of 2.98. These mean scores were consistent with those reported by Massie activities and community activities at local schools also had the highest two mean scores.

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60 Table 4 9 Frequency of e xternal p rofessional a ctivities Descriptive statistics 1 2 3 4 5 participation i n organized community activities 2 (4%) 4 (7%) 19 (34%) 17 (30%) 14 (25%) publication of articles, books, or technical materials 8 (14.3%) 17 (30.4%) 15 (26.8%) 13 (23.2%) 3 (5.3%) attendance at specialized professional workshops 3 (5%) 3 (5%) 15 (27%) 16 (29%) 19 (34%) service on the board of a national professional organization 2 (4%) 19 (34%) 17 (30%) 9 (16%) 9 (16%) attendance at a higher education leadership institute 5 (9%) 5 (9%) 14 (25%) 18 (32%) 14 (25%) Table 4 10 Community a ctivities Descriptive statistics N Mean Std. deviation participation in community activities at local schools 56 3.16 1.17 participation in political and governmental community activities 56 3.00 1.16 participation in economic development and business community activities 56 3.80 1.17 participation in philanthropic and cultural community activities 56 3.04 1.04 participation in civic and fraternal community activities 56 2.98 1.04 Table 4 11 shows the frequency of responses for community activities that contribute d to the career advancement of workforce education administrators. Eighty nine percent of the participants felt that participating in economic development and business community acti vities were important, somewhat important, or extremely important. It wa s not surprising that workforce education administrators value d participation in economic and business development activities in their communities. Workforce education administrators m ust stay informed about the economic and business development trends in the region in order to determine what educational degrees or certificates we re needed to prepare students for the job market. Participation in political and governmental community acti vities had the lowest importance frequency of 61%.

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61 Table 4 11. Frequency of c ommunity a ctivities Descriptive statistics 1 2 3 4 5 participation in activities at local schools 5 (9%) 10 (18%) 21 (38%) 11 (20%) 9 (16%) participation in political and governmental community activities 3 (5%) 19 (34%) 18 (32%) 7 (13%) 9 (16%) participation in economic development and business community activities 3 (5%) 3 (5%) 17 (30%) 12 (21%) 21 (38%) participation in philanthropic and cultural community activities 5 (9%) 10 (18%) 23 (41%) 14 (25%) 4 (7%) participation in civic and fraternal community activities 5 (9%) 11 (20%) 24 (43%) 12 (21%) 4 (7%) As demonstrated by the mean of 3.88, having a mentor wa s important to workforce education administrators. Tables 4 12 and 4 13 reports how the participants responded to the importance of having a mentor. The majority of the participants, at 91% felt that having a mentor was important, somewhat important, or extremely important, with 38% responding extremely important This finding wa of 3.75, with 37.5% of his participant rank having a mentor as extremely important. Table 4 12 Mentoring Descriptive statistics N Mean Std. deviation having a mentor 56 3.88 1.06 Table 4 13 Frequency of m entoring Descriptive statistics 1 2 3 4 5 having a mentor 1 (2%) 4 (7%) 17 (30%) 13 (23%) 21 (38%) Tables 4 14 and 4 15 report how the participants responded to the importance of internal professional activities. Formal, written performance reviews had a mean of 3.32. With a mean of

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62 2.91 for both, career reviews and temporary task or job rotations were viewed as not import ant to workforce education administrators. Table 4 14 Internal p rofessional a ctivities Descriptive statistics N Mean Std. deviation formal, written performance review 56 3.32 1.08 career review 56 2.91 0.96 in service staff development program 56 3.18 1.01 temporary task or job rotation 56 2.91 1.12 participation in special institutional taskforces or committees 56 4.20 1.09 Table 4 15. Frequency of internal professional activities Descriptive statistics 1 2 3 4 5 formal, written performance review 3 (5%) 9 (16%) 19 (34%) 17 (30%) 8 (14%) career review 2 (4%) 18 (32%) 23 (41%) 9 (16%) 4 (7%) in service staff development program 1 (2%) 16 (29%) 16 (29%) 18 (32%) 5 (9%) temporary task or job rotation 3 (5%) 23 (41%) 11 (20%) 14 (25%) 5 (9%) participation in special institutional taskforces or committees 2 (4%) 2 (4%) 10 (18%) 11 (20%) 31 (55%) Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine if there was a significant relationship between the career advancement variables. Table 4 16 lists the career advancement variables that were analyzed for a significant relationship. T here were 10 sets of career advancement variables where a significant relationship could be identified at less than the 0. 0 0 1 level Variables that had a significant relationship were further analyzed utilizing cross tabulations to determine gamma coefficient values. As shown in Table 4 17, p articipation in philanthropic and governmental community activities and participation in organiz ed community activities had the strongest association as demonstrated by the gamma coefficient value of 0.771, approximate T score of 7.496 and approximate significance of 0.000.

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63 Table 4 16. Workforce education administrators career advancement variables Q9a. participation in organized community activities Q10a. participation in community activities at local schools Q12a. formal, written performance review Q9b. publication of articles, books, or technical materials Q 10b. participation in political and governmental community activities Q12b. career review Q9c. attendance at specialized professional workshops Q10c. participation in economic development and business community activities Q12c. in service staff development program Q9d. service on the board of a national professional organization Q10d. participation in philanthropic and cultural community activities Q12d. temporary task or job rotation Q9e. attendance at a higher education leadership institute Q10e. participation in civic and fraternal community activities Q12e. participation in special institutional taskforces or committees Table 4 1 7 Workforce education administrators career advancement coefficients Gamma v alue Asymp. std. e rror Approx. t Approx. s ig. Q9a,9c .412 .150 2.525 .012 Q9b,9d .385 .139 2.637 .008 Q9c,9e .451 .137 3.033 .002 Q9a,10a .738 .096 6.325 .000 Q10b,9a .569 .113 4.392 .000 Q10b,10a .514 .122 3.864 .000 Q10c,9a .537 .133 3.520 .000 Q10c,10a .412 .146 2.640 .008 Q10d,9a .771 .077 7.496 .000 Q10d,10a .388 .136 2.618 .009 Q10d,10e .753 .088 5.956 .000

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64 Research Question 6 Workforce Education Administrator participants were asked about the importance of career mobility variables. The career mobility variables were grouped under three broad categories: ( 1) reasons for movi ng to their current institution, ( 2) reasons for remai ning at their current institution and ( 3) job search activities. Each of the career mobility variables were further divided into specific activities. The activities included with the reasons for moving to their current institution variable were mission an d philosophy of the institution, potential for advancement, geographic location, better institutional reputation and duties and responsibilities of the position. The activities included with the reasons for remaining at the institution variable were duties and responsibilities of the position, salary, competence and congeniality of colleagues, potential for advancement, and geographic location. The activities included with the job search variable were contacting colleagues at other institutions, developing new contacts, informing or consulting with a mentor, attending workshops or training programs and responding to position announcements. As shown in Table 4 1 8 the duties and responsibilities of the position had the highest mean score of 4.26. The participants also placed a high importance on the geographic location of the position with a mean score of 4.09. The mean scores of the mission and philosophy of the institution and the potential for advancement activities were relatively close at 3.67 and 3.62, also reflected a high mean score of 4.62 for the duties and responsibilities of the position variable. The extent of the duties and responsibilities of the position was more important to participants than any of the other reasons for moving mobility variables.

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65 Table 4 1 8 Workforce e ducation a dministrators r eason for m oving to the i nstitution Descriptive statistics N Mean Std. deviation mission and philosophy of the institution 55 3.67 1.12 potential for advancement 55 3.62 1.11 geographic location 56 4.09 1.10 a better institutional reputation 55 3.56 1.14 duties and responsibilities of the position 55 4.26 1.09 Table 4 19 shows that 95% of the workforce education administrator participants felt that the geographic location was an important, somewhat important or extremely important reason for moving to th eir current institution. Of that group, more than half of the participants, at 52%, felt that the geographic location was extremely important. While 92% percent of participants felt that duties and responsibilities of the position were important, somewhat important factors in moving to their current institution, 60% of that group viewed duties and responsibilities as extremely important. Table 4 19 Frequency of w orkforce e ducation a dministrators r eason for m oving to the i nstitution Descriptive statistics 1 2 3 4 5 Group t otal mission and philosophy of the institution 2 (4%) 5 (9%) 19 (35%) 12 (22%) 17 (31%) 55 potential for advancement 1 (2%) 9 (16%) 15 (27%) 15 (27%) 15 (27%) 55 geographic location 2 (4%) 1 (2%) 16 (29%) 8 (14%) 29 (52%) 56 a better institutional reputation 2 (4%) 8 (15%) 16 (29%) 15 (27%) 14 (25%) 55 duties and responsibilities of the position 2 (4%) 2 (4%) 9 (16%) 9 (16%) 33 (60%) 55 Table 4 2 0 shows how participants responded to the variables related to remaining at their current institution. When asked about the reasons for remaining at their current institution, once again the duties and responsibilities of the position had the highest mean s core of 4.27. The geographic location with a mean score of 4.14 was also an important reason for continuing employment at their current institution. The mean score for the competence and congeniality of

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66 colleagues at 4.11, wa s not only very close to the me an score for geographic location, but also indicate d importance in remaining at their current institution. Participants ranked colleague competence and congeniality as even more important than salary. Salary had a mean score of 3.89. These mean scores we re competence had high mean scores of 4.4 and 4.0 respectively. Potential for advancement had the study with a mean of 2.9. Table 4 2 0 Workforce e ducation a dministrators r easons for r emaining at the i nstitution Descriptive statistics N Mean Std. deviation duties and responsibilities 56 4.27 1.09 salary 56 3.89 0.89 competence and congeniality of colleagues 56 4.11 1.02 potential for advancement 56 3.50 1.25 geographic location 56 4.14 1.05 Table 4 2 1 shows the frequency of responses for the activities related to the reasons for remaining at current in stitution variable. Participant responses show ed salary, at 97%, wa s an important, somewhat important or extremely important reason for remaining at their current institution. Table 4 2 1 Frequency of w orkforce e ducation a dministrators r easons for r emaining at the i nstitution Descriptive statistics 1 2 3 4 5 Group t otal duties and responsibilities 2 (4%) 1 (2%) 12 (21%) 6 (11%) 35 (63%) 56 salary 1 (2%) 1 (2%) 16 (29%) 23 (41%) 15 (27%) 56 competence and congeniality of colleagues 2 (4%) 1 (2%) 11 (20%) 17 (30%) 25 (45%) 56 potential for advancement 2 (4%) 12 (21%) 16 (29%) 8 (14%) 18 (32%) 56 geographic location 1 (2%) 3 (5%) 12 (21%) 11 (20%) 29 (52%) 56

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67 Ninety five percent of participants responded that both variables of duties/responsibilities of the position and competence/congeniality of colleagues were important, somewhat important, or extremely important. Sixty three percent of the participants felt that the duties and responsibilities were extremely important reasons for remaining at the institution. According to the response rates, workforce education administrators place d high importance on networking with colleagues at peer institutions. Table 4 2 2 displays the participant response rate on the importance of various activities related to the job search career mobility variable. With a mean score of 4.20, developing new contacts was the most important job search activity to participants. Communicat ing with colleagues at other institutions had the second highest mean score of 3.93. Responding to position announcements had a mean score of 3.80. Attending workshops or training programs had the lowest mean score of 3.68. This differ ed y in which participants placed the highest importance with responding to was developing new contacts with a mean score of 3.81. Table 4 2 2 Workforce e ducation a dmi nistrators j ob s earch a ctivities Descriptive statistics N Mean Std. deviation contacting colleagues at other institutions 56 3.93 1.08 developing new contacts 56 4.20 1.00 informing/consulting with a mentor 56 3.77 0.85 attending workshops or training programs 56 3.68 0.99 responding to position announcements 56 3.80 1.09 Table 4 2 3 illustrates the frequency of responses for job search activities. At a response rate of 54%, more than half of the participants responded that developing new contacts was extremely important. Forty one percent of the participants responded that contacting colleagues at other institutions was extremely important. With important, somewhat i mportant, and

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68 extremely important responses combined, the informing and consulting with a mentor activity had the highest importance response rate of 99%. Fifty four out of 56, or 97% of participants felt that developing new contacts was an important job s earch activity. Table 4 2 3 Frequency of w orkforce e ducation a dministrators j ob s earch a ctivities Descriptive statistics 1 2 3 4 5 Group t otal contacting colleagues at other institutions 1 (2%) 4 (7%) 16 (29%) 12 (21%) 23 (41%) 56 developing new contacts 1 (2%) 1 (2%) 14 (25%) 10 (18%) 30 (54%) 56 informing/consulting with a mentor 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 25 (45%) 16 (29%) 14 (25%) 56 attending workshops or training programs 2 (4%) 2 (4%) 21 (38%) 18 (32%) 13 (23%) 56 responding to position announcements 1 (2%) 6 (11%) 15 (27%) 15 (27%) 19 (34%) 56 Summary Chapter 4 discussed how the 56 workforce education administrator participants mobility and job search were analyzed using descriptive and qualitative analysis along with correlation. Requests for participation were sent to the 88 workforce administrators who are members of the Occupational Education Standing Committee (OESC) for Florida State and Community Col leges. There were 56 usable surveys completed for a 64% response rate. Research questions 1 and 2 examined the previous career lines of workforce education administrators. Eighty seven percent of the participants were selected from within the community c ollege labor market, according to the responses given to the first previous position variable. Seventy one percent of participants were inside the community college labor market for their second previous position. Nearly half of the participants, or 43%, h eld positions outside postsecondary education as their third previous position. Research question 3 inquired wh ether workforce education administrators held a faculty position during their immediate three previous positions. Nearly one third of the partici pants, at

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69 36%, listed faculty member, including department heads and adjuncts, as one of their three previous positions. Research question 4 asked participants about their postsecondary education credentials. All 56 of the participants had obtained a bach degree. Fifty seven percent of the participants degree and 16% are currently pursuing a doctorate degree. Forty one percent of the participants also had an ear ned doctorate degree. Research question 5 sought to determine which career advancement variables were important to workforce education administrators. Ninety percent of the participants felt that attendance at specialized professional workshops was importa nt. Ninety three percent of workforce education administrators felt that participation in special institutional taskforces or committees was an important internal development activity. The majority of the participants, at 91%, felt that having a mentor wa s important. Research question 6 asked participants about the importance of career mobility variables. Ninety five percent of the workforce education administrator participants felt that the geographic location was an important reason for moving to their c urrent institution. Ninety two percent of participants felt that duties and responsibilities of the position were important Participant responses show ed salary, at 97%, was an important reason for remaining at their current institution. Ninety five percen t of participants responded that both variables of duties/responsibilities of the position and competence/congeniality of colleagues were important factors in remaining at their institution. Ninety seven percent of participants felt that developing new con tacts was an important job search activity.

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70 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Purpose of the Study This study expand ed and update d earlier research completed by Dr. Susan Twombly (198 6 ) and Dr. Richard Massie(2003) in an effort to identify the career pipeline of community college workforce administrators. Dr. Twombly and Dr. Massie researched career histories of community college presidents, chief academic officers and chief student aff airs officers to identify the structure of the labor market. This study narrow ed the focus to community college workforce administrators. The purpose of this study wa s to examine the applicability of inte rnal labor market theory to the career advancement of community and state college workforce administrators. Participant Demographics Analysis of the labor market in this study found that the majority of community and state college administrators were female. Females outnumbered the ma les by more than 14%. Moore, et al (1985) found that women were underrepresented specifically in the workforce education administrator position when compared with other community college administrative positions such as president, chief academic officer and chief business offi cer. A subsequent study by Amy and VanDerLinden (2002a) also found that males significantly outnumbered females in community college workforce education administrator positions by more than 42%. However, by 2003 when Massie completed his study, the number of females outnumbered the number of males in the community college workforce education administrator position by 12%. This indicate d that female representation in the community and state college workforce education administrator position ha d steadily incr eased since the early 1980 s.

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71 Analysis of the labor market and ethnicity show ed that the overwhelming majority of community and state college workforce education administrators we re Caucasian. Eighty seven percent of those who participated in this study wer e Caucasian. Only 13% of the participants were minorities. While the African American, Hispanic, and Native American ethnicities were sparsely represented, there were no Asian Americans. This finding wa s consistent with previous similar studies. Minority representation has remained minimal since the 1980s. In the study by Moore et al (1985), 90% of community college administrators were Caucasian. In the study by Am e y and VanDerLinden (2002a), 84% of the respondents were Caucasian. In the study by Massie (2003), 73% of the respondents were Caucasian. The majority of the participants in this study were baby boomers, born prior to 1964. Of the 48 responses to age, 79% were baby boomers. Twelve percent of the participants were born between 1965 and 1976. Ei ght percent of the participants were born prior to 1946. This indicated that 87% of the participants were approaching or already at retirement age. This supported the studies that point to a pending leadership gap due to retiring baby boomers. Internal La bor Market Theory This research signif ied support for the internal labor market theory for community and state college administrators. In order to advance to the workforce administrative rank at a community or state college, there we re certain internal lab or market customs and practices related to career path and education level that were follow ed The majority of the participants advanced through the community college labor market through traditional academic pathways. Eighty seven percent of the communit y and state college workforce education administrators that participated in this study were selected from within the internal community and state college labor market. This indicate d that the community and state college workforce education administrator ma rket wa s relatively closed to individuals from external labor markets. The

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72 internal labor market dominate d the selection of community and state college workforce (2002 a) study, in which 84% of the community college workforce education administrators surveyed had come from within the community college labor market. reflected a lower number, at 75%, of internal selections. This indicate d that while w orkforce education administrators ha d past experience in the business and industry labor market, they d id not immediately enter a postsecondary education administrative position directly from that external market. Thirty eight percent, the majority, of wo rkforce education administrators in this study held a dean or director position as their first previous position. This percentage wa (2003) study in which only 25% of workforce education administrators were previously deans. However, in M previously was actually tied at 25% with the number of administrators who were pulled directly from a labor market external to postsecondary institutions. The findings in this study contradict the findings of Massie (2003), whose research indicated that internal labor market theory did not apply to community and state college workforce education administrators; it was only applicable to college presidents an d chief academic officers. The difference in findings could possibly be attributed to factors such as the economic conditions at during the timeframe of the study (2003 vs. 2010), sample size (16 vs. 56), or location (Nationwide vs. Florida). Even at the second previous position, 71% of the participants were within the internal community and state college labor market. The third previous position appear ed to be the optimal entryway into the community and state college workforce education administrator labo r market. At the third previous position, 43% of the participants were completely outside the postsecondary labor

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73 market. postsecondary labor market in their third previous position. Nearly one third of the participants, at 36%, listed faculty member, including department heads and adjuncts, as one of their three previous positions. The majority, at 59%, did not list faculty member in any capacity as one of their three immed iate previous positions. Although this figure wa administrators responded that they never held a faculty position, this d id not signify that the participants in this study were neve r faculty members. The scope of this study only inquired into the first three previous positions of the career ladder. Therefore it wa s quite possible that a portion of the 59% in this study were faculty members prior to their third previous position. The internal labor market in this study indicate d wa s the required credential for community and state college workforce education administrators. This wa s an important note because many workforce industries only require d a certain type of industry wa s also important to note that graduate degrees we re becoming the norm for community college workforce education administrators. Fifty seven percent of the participants had at least a maste one percent, almost half of the participants also had a doctorate degree. workforce education administrators had doctorates. The community college workforce education administrative labor market wa s quickly trending towards requiring graduate degrees. perception of the importance of career advancement variables relating to external, community, mentor and internal activities. The community college internal labor market necessitate d ongoing external

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74 and internal professional development activities. The most important external activity was atte nding specialized professional workshops. Ninety percent of the participants felt that attendance at specialized professional workshops was important. Eighty two percent of the participants indicated that attending higher education leadership institutes w as important. Attending specialized workshops and leadership institutes we re considered important career advancement variables in the community college internal labor market. This varie d slightly from ng specialized workshops was important, attending higher education leadership was not important. Amey and VanDerLin indicated that 90% of their participants engaged in on campus staff development programs. The most important internal professiona l activity was participation in special institutional taskforces or committees. Ninety three percent of workforce education administrators felt that participation in special institutional taskforces or committees was important, somewhat important or extre percentage of 57% for their administrators participated in institutional taskforces. Participants in thei r study also placed importance on off campus leadership development programs. The most important community activity wa s participation in economic and business development. Being actively involved with local businesses and industries, as well as partnership s with organizations such as the local Chamber of Commerce and Regional Workforce Board wa s a critical internal labor market activity for persons looking to advance. Participation in activities at local schools was also an important activity to the interna l labor market. Being actively engaged in these community activities demonstrate d awareness and commitment to community needs. While publications may be a vital part of the university internal labor market, it wa s not important to career

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75 advancement in the community and state college workforce education internal labor market. When applying mentoring to community and state college internal labor market theory, this study found mentoring important to career advancement. The majority of the participants, at 91 %, felt that having a mentor was important. This finding wa s consistent wit (2003) and Amey and The internal labor market theory indicate d that administrators strongly consider the duties and responsibilities of the position, geographic location and mission and philosophy when moving to an institution. Ninety five percent of the workforce education administrator participants felt that the ge ographic location was an important reason for moving to their current institution. Ninety two percent of participants felt that duties and responsibilities of the position were important. This finding wa study, the duties and responsibilities of the position was the most important factor as reflected by the highest mean score. When deciding to remain at an institution the internal labor market indicate d that administrators t ook into account salary, the dut ies and responsibilities of the position, showed salary, at 97%, was an important reason for remaining at their current institution. Ninety five percent of particip ants responded that both variables of duties/responsibilities of the position and competence/congeniality of colleagues were important factors in remaining at their institution. mean scores. The internal labor market theory require d job search activities that place d a strong emphasis on networking. Ninety seven percent of participants felt that developing new contacts was the most important job search activity. This differ ed from participants placed the highest importance with responding to position announcements.

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76 Implications for Higher Education Administrators Internal labor market theory for community and state college administrators ha s several requirem ents. The internal labor market theory require s community and state college workforce wishing to advance up the workforce education administrative ranks should part icipate in external activities such as participation in organized community, philanthropic and governmental activities Attending specialized workshops and leadership institutes were considered important career advancement variables in the community colle ge internal labor market. In order to be effective, Campbell, Syed, & Morris (2010) recommend ed that leadership institutes recognize the needs of leaders and incorporate pedagogical practices that allow them to build upon experience. The most critical inte rnal labor market requirements for advancing up the career ladder we re participation in economic and business community activities and being actively involved with the local school system. These external and community activities will provide valuable assis tance in gaining understanding of community needs as well as formulate integral partnerships that will advance the institution and community. The internal labor market require d administrators to seek out a mentor as well as serve as a mentor to someone els e. Participation in special institutional taskforces, committees, or commissions wa s the premier requirement for the internal labor market. Community and state college workforce education administrator labor market theory ha d indicators in the area of ca reer mobility. The internal labor market theory indicate d that administrators strongly consider the duties and responsibilities of the position, geographic location and mission and philosophy when moving to an institution. When deciding to remain at an ins titution the internal labor market indicate d that administrators take into account the duties and responsibilities of the position, competence and collegiality of colleagues, and geographic

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77 location. The internal labor market theory require d job search act ivities that place a strong emphasis on networking. Workforce education administrators should develop new contacts, contact colleagues at peer institutions and respond to position announcements according to the internal labor market. This study indicated that workforce education administrators now followed traditional academic pathways related to education level and career ladder. One of the strengths of the community college was its historic ability to quickly respond to rapidly changing business and indu stry needs. Providing workforce training requested by local employers and employees help ed Following traditional academic pathways and pedagogy may not be ideal to keep pace with the innovation and quic k response required by business and industry. Community college workforce education leaders must ensure response of traditional academics. Recommendations Fut ure studies should expand knowledge of internal labor market similarities and differences across institution types. Further research should also be done to determine the optimal methods to increase minority participation in the community and state college workforce education administrator labor market. Most of the data drawn from this study took place prior to a significant downtown in the economy for state and federal governments. Further research should be done to examine the economic impact on pending le adership gaps. Most of the participants in this study were at or approaching retirement age, which implies that a new generation will soon take leadership roles. Further studies should examine leadership styles and preferences of future generations. Other recommendations for future study include:

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78 How does workforce education internal labor market theory for community colleges th at only offer two year degrees compare with those that also offer four year degrees ? What impact does the state of the economy have on leadership gaps and labor market theory? What type of workforce education internal labor market encourages optimal minority participation? How is internal labor market theory impacted by genera tional differences of retiring baby boomers with inco ming generation x, and millennials ? What role do leadership attributes play in workforce education internal labor markets? Summary Chapter 5 discussed conclusions, recommendations for future research and implications for community college administrators The implications surround internal labor market requirements related to external and internal professional activities, community, and job search activities. This research signif ied support for the internal labor market theory for community and state coll ege administrators. In order to advance to the workforce administrative rank at a community or state college, there we re certain internal labor market customs and practices related to career path and education level that were follow ed The majority of the participants advanced through the community college labor market through traditional academic pathways. This indicate d that the community and state college workforce education administrator market is relatively closed to individuals from external labor ma rkets. The community college internal labor market necessitate d ongoing external and internal professional development activities for career advancement. Future studies should expand knowledge of internal labor market similarities and differences across in stitution types. Further research should also be done to determine the optimal methods to increase minority participation in the community and state college workforce education administrator labor market. Most of the data drawn from this and other studies took

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79 place prior to a significant downtown in the economy for state and federal governments. Further research should be done to examine the economic impact on pending leadership gaps.

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80 APPENDIX A FLORIDA COLLEGE SYSTEM DEGREE PROGRAMS Broward College Degree Program Name BS Exceptional Student Education BS Middle Grades Mathematics Education BS Middle Grades Science Education BS Secondary Biology Education BS Secondary Mathematics Education BS Nursing BAS Information Technology BAS Supervision Management BAS Technology Management College of Central Florida Degree Program Name BS Early Childhood Education BAS Business and Organizational Management Chipola College Degree Program Name BS Elementary Education BS Exceptional Student Education BS Middle Grades Mathematics Education BS Middle Grades Science Education BS Secondary Biology Education BS Secondary English Education BS Secondary Mathematics Education BS Nursing BAS Organizational Management BS Business Administration Daytona State College Degree Program Name

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81 BS Elementary Education BS Exceptional Student Education BS Secondary Biology Education BS Secondary Chemistry Education BS Secondary Earth/Space Science Education BS Secondary Mathematics Education BS Secondary Physics Education BAS Supervision and Management BS Engineering Technology Edison State College Degree Program Name BS Elementary Education BS Middle Grades Language Arts Education BS Middle Grades Mathematics Education BS Middle Grades Science Education BS Secondary Biology Education BS Secondary Mathematics Education BS Nursing BAS Cardiopulmonary Sciences BAS Public Safety Management BAS Supervision and Management Florida State College at Jacksonville Degree Program Name BS Early Childhood Education BS Nursing BAS Computer Networking BAS Fire Science Management BAS Information Technology Management BAS Public Safety Management BAS Supervision and Management BS Biomedical Sciences BS Business Administration

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82 Gulf Coast Community College BAS Technology Management Indian River State College Degree Program Name BS Exceptional Student Education BS Middle Grades Mathematics Education BS Middle Grades Science Education BS Secondary Biology Education BS Secondary Mathematics Education BS Nursing BAS Digital Media BAS Organizational Management BS Biology BS Human Services State College of Florida, Manatee Sarasota Degree Program Name BS Early Childhood Education BS Nursing BAS Energy Technology Management BAS Health Services Administration BAS Public Safety Administration/Homeland Security Miami Dade College Degree Program Name BS Exceptional Student Education BS Secondary Biology Education BS Secondary Chemistry Education BS Secondary Earth/Space Science Education BS Secondary Mathematics Education BS Secondary Physics Education BS Nursing BAS Film, Television, and Digital Production BAS Health Science with an Option in Physician Assistant Studies

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83 BAS Public Safety Management BAS Supervision and Management BS Electronics Engineering Technology Northwest Florida State College Degree Program Name BS Elementary Education BS Middle Grades Mathematics Education BS Middle Grades Science Education BS Nursing BAS Project Management Palm Beach State College Degree Program Name BS Nursing BAS Information Management BAS Supervision and Management Pensacola State College Degree Program Name BS Nursing BAS Supervision and Administration Polk State College Degree Program Name BAS Supervision and Management Santa Fe College Degree Program Name BS Early Childhood Education BAS Clinical Laboratory Science BAS Health Services Administration Seminole State College of Florida Degree Program Name BAS Interior Design BS Architectural Engineering Technology BS Business Information Management

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84 BS Construction Management BS Information Systems Technology St. Johns River State College Degree Program Name BS Early Childhood Education BAS Organizational Management St. Petersburg College Degree Program Name BS Educational Studies BS Elementary Education BS Exceptional Student Education BS Middle Grades General Science Education BS Middle Grades Mathematics Education BS Secondary Biology Education BS Secondary Business Technology Education BS Secondary Mathematics Education BS Secondary Technology Education BS Nursing BAS Banking BAS Dental Hygiene BAS Health Services Administration BAS International Business BAS Management and Organizational Leadership BAS Orthotics and Prosthetics BAS Paralegal Studies BAS Public Safety Administration BAS Sustainability Management BAS Technology Management BAS Veterinary Technology BS Biology BS Business Administration BS Public Policy and Administration

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85 Valencia Community College Degree Program Name BS Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology BS Radiologic and Imaging Sciences BS = Bachelor of Science BAS = Bachelor of Applied Science

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86 APPENDIX B EMAIL TO PARTICIPANTS Hello, At the last Occupational Education Steering Committee (OESC) meeting, I discussed a study that I was doing for my dissertation. You have been selected to participate in this study that examines how internal labor m arket theory applies to the selection, promotion, and career pathways of community college workforce administrators. You will be asked t o complete a brief survey about your educational and career background, current responsibilities, and leadership attribu tes. The survey should take no longer than 10 minutes No minimum risks will be anticipated. The study will add to the understanding of the career pathway, education, and role of the workforce administrator in an effort to enhance education and training o f future community college workforce administrators. There is no compensation for participating in the study. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. The data will be stored in the password protected computer of the princip al investigator in a locked office. The final results will be a part of my dissertation. Responses will only be reported in aggregate. No email or IP address will be collected or associated with any responses. Your participation in this study is complete ly voluntary. Completion of the survey implies your consent to participate. There is no penalty for not participating. You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. You do not have to answer any questions you do not want to answer. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study : Terri Daniels, principal investigator, University of Florida Graduate student, tgdaniel@fscj.edu 904 632 3059 Whom to contact about your rights as a r esearch participant in the study : UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 21611, 352 392 0433. Below is the link to the survey. This link is unique to you. Please do not forward it. Career Structures of Workforce Education Administrators http://www.keysurvey.com/survey/311359/test/

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87 APPENDIX C ACADEMIC LEA DER ONLINE SURVEY Career Structures of Workforce Education Administrators In the new millennium community and state college workforce administrators are faced with decisions that impact their own future as well as that of their institutions. The role of workforce education administrators is evolving as the mission of the community or state college expands. This study is a way for you to assist in building knowledge about community and state college workforce education administrat ors' careers. Because of the nature of the study, you are asked to identify your position and your institution. You may be assured the confidentiality of your responses will be protected. Data will be released in the form of statistical summaries only; und er no circumstances will information be reported on an individual basis. Please answer all of the questions. Your responses on all items are important. What is your title? Does your institution offer baccalaureate degrees? Yes No During the current academic year have you taught any courses? No Yes, at my present institution Yes, at a different institution. Yes, at both my institution and a different institutions For the following list of degrees, where applicable, please tell your major and the year it was earned. Associate: Bachelor's: Master's: Doctorate: Other: While enrolled in a graduate degree program, did you hold any of the following

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88 positions? (Check all that apply) Research Assistant Teaching Assistant Program/Residence Hall Assistant Fellowship Other Graduate Assistant Sabbatical Full time job Part time job PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND We are interested in learning about your work history. Please list your immediate three previous paid professional positions (Do not include your current position or any graduate assistant type work). For each line, only list the position, institution/company, and years. For example: Dean of Workforce Programs, America University, 2005 2010 Director of Allied Health, States Community College, 2000 2005 The following items ask you to state how you feel about career advancement and career mobility issues. Please select the option that best represents your feelings.

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89 We are interested in learning about external professional activities which you feel have contributed to your professional advancement as administrator. Please select the option that best represents your feelings. During your advancement as an administrat or, how important was: Extremely Unimportant Not Important Important Somewhat Important Extremely Important participation in organized community activities? participation in the publication of books, articles, or technical materials? attending specialized professional workshops or seminars? serving on the board of directors of a national professional organization? attending a higher education leadership development institute? We are interested in learning about community activities that you feel have contributed to your professional advancement as an administrator. Please select the option that best represents your feelings. During your advancement as administrator, how important was: Extremely Unimportant Not Important Important Somewhat Important Extremely Important participating in community activities at local schools? participating in political and governmental community activities? participating in economic development and business community activities? participating in philanthropic and cultural community activities? participating in civic and fraternal community activities? The term mentor is often used to identify a long term, professionally centered relationship between two individuals in which the more experienced individual, the mentor, guides, advises and assists in any number of ways the career of the less experienced mentee. Please select the option that best describes your feelings. During your advancement as an administrator, how important was having a mentor? Extremely Unimportant Not Important Important Somewhat Important Extremely Important

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9 0 We are interested in learning about internal professional activities which you feel have contributed to your professional advancement as an administrator. Please select the option that best represents your feelings. How important were the following internal professional activities been for your career advancement: Extremely Unimportant Not Important Important Somew hat Important Extremely Important formal, written performance review? career review? in service staff development program? temporary task or job rotation? participation in special institutional taskforces, committees, and commissions? Career Mobility We would like to know how you obtained your current position. Please select the option that best represents your feelings. How did you first become a candidate for your current position? Please select one. Applied directly Mentor recommended me Nominated by person other than mentor Invitation from a search committee Assumed acting appointment Appointed by senior administrator Created position and got it funded Other (Please specify): Did you search for a job before accepting your present position? Select only one. No Yes, somewhat actively Yes, very actively We are interested in learning about your reason for moving to the institution in which

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91 you now work. Please select the option which best represents your feelings. When you moved to the institution in which you now work, how important was (were): Extremely Unimportant Not Important Important Somewhat Important Extremely Important the mission and philosophy of the institution? the potential for advancement? the geographic location? a better institutional reputation? the duties and responsibilities of the position? We are interested in learning about your reason for remaining at the institution in which you now work. Please select the option that best represents your feelings. How important are the following reason(s) for remaining at your current institution: Extremely Unimportant Not Important Important Somewhat Important Extremely Important Duties and responsibilities? Salary? Competence and congeniality of colleagues? Potential for advancement? Geographic location? We are interested in learning about which job search activities you feel contribute and are important for the career advancement of a community/state college workforce administrator. Please select the option that best describes your feelings. How important are the following job search activities for the career advancement of a community/state college workforce administrator: Extremely Unimportant Not Important Important Somewhat Important Extremely Important Contacting colleagues at other institutions? Developing new contacts? Informing/consulting with a mentor? Attending workshops or training programs? Responding to position announcements?

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92 Demographic Information We are interested in some basic demographic information about you. All information in the survey is confidential and will not be identified with your name. What is your gender? Male Female What is your racial or ethnic group? Black/African American White/Caucasian Hispanic Asian Native American Other (Please specify): Year of Birth: State where you were born(Also include country, if you were NOT born in the United States) If I have not covered the things that you consider important in the career path of community/state college administrators, please use this space for comments. You suggestions are welcome. Thank you for taking the time to participate in our efforts to understand the career advancement patterns of community/state college administrators. If you would like a copy of the results of this study, please email Terri Daniels at tgdaniel@fscj.edu

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93 APPENDIX D INFORMED CONSENT Protocol Title: Career Structures of Workforce Administrators : Internal Labor Market Theory Please read this consent carefully before you decide to participate in this study Purpose of the study: To examine how internal labor market theory applies to the selection, promotion, and career pathways of community college workforce administrators. What you will be asked to do in the study : To complete a b rief questionnaire about your educational and career background, current responsibilities, and leadership attributes. Time required: 1 5 minutes Risks and benefits : No minimum risks will be anticipated. The study will add to the understanding of the career pathway, education, and role of the workforce administrator in an effort to enhance education and training of future community college workforce administrators. Compensation: There is no compensation for participating in the study. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. The final results will be a part of my dissertation Voluntary participation: Your participati on in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study : You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. You do not have to answer any questions you do not want to answer. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study : Terri Daniels, principle investigator, University of Florida Graduate student, tgdaniel@ufl.edu 904 632 3059 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study : UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 21611, 352 392 0433. I have read the procedure outlined above. I voluntarily agree to participate in this study and have received a copy of this descripti on. I understand that completion of the survey implies my consent to participate. Terri G. Daniels 8/6/10

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94 LIST OF REFERENCES Althauser R. & Kalleberg, A. (1981). Firms, occupations and the structure of labor markets: A conceptual analysis. In Berg (Ed.), Sociological perspectives on labor markets. (pp 119 149). New York: Academic Press. Amey, M. & VanDerLinden, K. (2002a). Career paths for community college leaders American Association of Community Colleges, ( Research Brief Leadership Series No. 2 ) Retrieved October 3, 2008 from http://aacc.nche.edu/Publications/Briefs/Documents/062 42002careerpaths.pdf Amey, M. & VanDerLinden, K. (2002b ). The institutional context of community college administration Research Brief. Washington DC: Community College Press American Association of Community Colleges. Retrieved October 3, 2008 from http://aacc.nche.edu/Publications/Briefs/Pages/rb08032004.aspx Bailey, T. (2003). Community colleges in the 21 st century: Challenges and opportunities. New York: C ommunity College Research Center Teachers College, Columbia University. Bailey, T., Kienzl, G., & Marcotte D. (2004). Who benefits from postsecondary occupational education? Findings from the 1980s and 1990s. New York: Community College Research Cen ter, Teachers College, Columbia University. Bragg, D., Townsend, B., Ruud, C. (2009 January ). The adult learner and the applied baccalaureate: Emerging lessons for state and local implementation ( Research Brief ) Illinois: Office of Community College Research and Leadership, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Brint, S., & Karabel, J. (1989). The diverted dream: Community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America New York: Oxford University Press. Cabrera, A. Burkum, K. & LaNasa, S. (2005). Pathways to a four year degree: Determinants of transfer and degree completion. In Seidman, A. (ed.), Student Retention: Formula for Student Success (pp. 155 214). New York: Rowman & Littlefield. Campbell, D. (2006). The new leadership gap: Shortages in administrative positions. Community College Journal Retrieved October 3, 2008 from http://www.assessment tech.com/files/The%2 0New%20Leadership%20Gap1.pdf Campbell, D. (2009). Your next leader: Piecing together the executive search process. Community College Journal Retrieved March 1, 2011, from http: //www.assessment tech.com/files/Your_Next_Leader.pdf Campbell, D., Syed, S., & Morris, P. (2010). Minding the gap: Filling a void in community college leadership development. New Directions for Community Colleges 149, 33 39.

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95 Chao, E., DeRocco, E., & Flynn, M. (2007, March). Adult learners in higher education: Barriers to success and strategies to improve results. Washington, DC: Employment and Training Administration. Re trieved December 1, 2009, from http://wdr.doleta.gov/research/ Cohen, A. and Brawer F. (2003). The American community college. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Cook A. (2000). Community college baccalaureate degrees: a delivery model for th e future. [Electronic Version]. Education Commission of the States. Duree, C. (2008). Study shows a skimpy pipeline for new leaders. Community College Times Retrieved November 3, 2008 from http://communitycollegetimes.org/article.cfm?TopicId=35&ArticleId=1140 Finch, C., Gregson, J., & Faulkner, S. (1991 ). Leadership behaviors of successful vocational education administrators. Berkeley: National Center for Researc h in Vocational Education, University of California at Berkeley. (ERIC Docume nt Reproduction Service No. ED 330798). Florida Department of Education. (2008). Baccalaureate programs in community colleges Retrieved June 18, 2009 from: http://www.fldoe.org/cc/students/bach_degree.asp Florida Department of Education. (2010 ). The Florida college system: Your working solution. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.fldoe.org/cc/pdf/ywsfs.pdf Floyd, D., Skolnik, M., &Walker, K. (2005). Community college baccalaureate: Emerging trends and policy issues. Sterling, VA: Stylus. Grubb, W.N. (1999). Honored but invisible: An inside look at teaching in community colleges New York: Routledge. Jacobs, J. & Grubb W. (2003). The federal role in vocational technical education. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University. Lewin, T. (2009 May 3 ) Community colleges challenge hierarchy with 4 year degree. New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/03/education/03community.html Massie, R. (2003). Structures of career of campus level community college administrators: Internal labor market theory. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 2003). Dissertation Abstracts International (UMI No. 3096645). McElvey, R., Hall, H ., & Lynch, R. (1997). Perceptions of leadership in postsecondary technical institutes in Georgia. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 13(2). Retrieved November 15, 2008 from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JVTE/v13n2/Mcelvy.html

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96 McKinney, D. (2003). We need a baccalaureate now. [Electronic Version]. Community College Week. 15 ( 18 ) Moore, K., Mortorana, S., & Twombly, S. (1985). administrators in two year colleges. University Park, PA.: Center for the Study of Higher Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED264922) Moss, J., Finch, C., & Johansen, B. (1991). When is a vo cational administrator effective as a leader? Journal of Industrial Teacher Education Berkeley: National Center for Research in Vocational Education, University of California. Moss, J. Jr. & Liang, T. (1990). Leadership development. Berkeley: Nationa l Center for Research in Vocational Education, University of California. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 325645) National Center for Public Policy in Higher Education. (2006). Measuring Up 2006. Sa n Jose, CA: Retrieved July 15, 2008, fr om http://measuringup2008.highereducation.org/ National Commission on Adult Literacy. (2008, June). Reach higher, America: Overcoming crisis in the U.S. Workforce. Retrieved February 15, 2010 from http://www.nationalcommissiononadultliteracy.org Office of Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability (OPPAGA) (2005). Authorizing community colleges to award baccala ureate degrees is one of several options to expand access to higher education. [Electronic Version]. ( Florida Legislature, Report No. 05 20. ) Retrieved April 14, 2007 from http://www.oppaga.state.fl.us/MonitorDocs/Reports/pdf/0520rpt.pdf Pedersen, R. (1987). State government and the community college, 1901 1946. [Electronic Version]. Community College Review. 14, 49 52 Pedersen, R. (1995). The St. Lois conference. [Electronic Version]. Community College Journal. 65, 26 30. Pedersen, R. (2001). You say you want evolution? Read the fine print first. [Electronic Version]. Community College Week. 13(25). Pedersen, R. (2005). The road that should not be taken. Inside Higher Education Retrieved April 14, 2007 from http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2005/01/17/pedersen1 Phelan, D. (2000). E nrollment policies and student access at community colleges. [Electronic Version]. Education Commission of the States.

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97 Pusser, B., Breneman, D., Gansneder, B., Kohl, K., Levin, J., Milam, J., et al (2007, March). Indianapolis: Lumina Foundation for Education. Retrieved March 3, 2009 from: http://www.luminafoundation.org/publicat ion/ReturntolearningApril2007.pdf Samels, J. & Martin, J. (2004). One step back to take two steps forward. [Electronic Version]. Community College Week. 16 (18 ) Shults, C. (2001 ). The critical impact of impending retirements on community college leadership. American Association of Community Colleges, Research Brief No.1. Retrieved October 3, 2008 from http://aacc.nche.edu/Publications/Briefs/Documents/110 62001leadership.pdf Townsend, B., Bragg, D. & Ruud, C. (2008). The adult learner and applied baccalaureate: National and state by state inventory. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://education.missouri.edu/orgs/cccr/_files/Final%20Inventory.pdf Troumpoucis, P. (2004). The best of both worlds. [Electronic Version]. Community College Week, 16 18 21. Twombly, S. ( 1986 ). The structures of careers of top level two year college administrators: An internal labor market approach. Doctoral Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED268884). U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education (2004). Th e 21 st century community college: A strategic guide to maximiz ing labor market responsiveness. Washington, DC. Retrieved January 13, 2009 from http://www.ed.gov/rschstat/rese arch/progs/ccinits/LMRvol2.pdf U.S. Department of Education. (2006). A test of leadership: charting the future of U.S. higher education. Washington, DC. Retrieved April 21, 2007 from http://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/hiedfuture/reports/final report.pdf Van Noy, M., Jacobs, J., Korey, S., Bailey, T., & Hughes, K. (2008). Noncredit enrollment in workforce education: State policies and community college practices [Report]. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges and Community College Research Center Retrieved April 22, 2009, from http://www.aacc.nche.edu/noncreditenroll Wadsworth, T. (2000). Labor markets, delinquency, and social control theory: An empirical assessment of the mediating process. Social Forces, 78 (3). Retrieved February 10, 2010 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=182271 Walker, K. (1994). The community college baccalaureate. [Electronic Version]. Leadership Abstracts, 7 (3)

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98 Walker, K. (2001). A Leadership Abstracts, 14 (2) Walker, K. (2002). The case for the community college baccalaureate degree. U.S. Society & Values, 7(1), 15 17

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99 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Terri G. Daniels was born in 1971 in Jacksonville, Florida to Ronald and Deborah Graham. She was a n advanced student and graduated with honors from the Duval County s chool s ystem. She earned both her Bachelor of Science and Master o f Education degrees in e lementary e ducation from Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University in Tallahassee, Florida. She taught elementary school in Atlanta, Georgia, then relocated to Orlando, Florida to teach middle school for five years. She returne d to school and earned her Master of Business Administration with a double concentration in m anagement and m arketing from Crummer School of Business at Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida. She worked as a market development specialist in the business s ector before moving back the education field at Florida Community College at Jacksonville. She returned to graduate school and attended the University of Florida, where she earned her Doctor of Education degree in 2011. She is currently Director of Workfor ce Program Development at Florida State College in Jacksonville Florida.