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The Development of a Keyboard Theory Curriculum Utilizing a Chronological, Comprehensive Approach to Reinforce Theory Sk...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042774/00001

Material Information

Title: The Development of a Keyboard Theory Curriculum Utilizing a Chronological, Comprehensive Approach to Reinforce Theory Skills of First Semester College Music Majors
Physical Description: 1 online resource (601 p.)
Language: english
Creator: MCCOY,CAROL PIATNEK
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: CHRONOLOGICAL -- COMPREHENSIVE -- CURRICULUM -- KEYBOARD -- MODE -- MUSIC -- MUSICIANSHIP -- TAXONOMY -- THEORY -- UNDERGRADUATE
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study developed and tested the first semester of a planned four-semester keyboard theory curriculum utilizing a chronological, comprehensive approach to reinforce theory skills of first-semester undergraduate music majors and minors. The new curriculum is designed to companion freshman core theory and history classes. This method followed a 7-step progressive taxonomy designed by the author of this dissertation who was also the Project instructor. Of the twenty students involved in the study, eight students enrolled in an Introduction to Music Theory class (control group, n=12) participated in the Keyboard Theory Project class (experimental group, n=8) during a sixteen-week semester. Participation in the project was voluntary. Each student received one credit hour for satisfactory completion of the project class. Both groups took the Introduction to Music Theory class (N=20). Only the experimental group (n=8) took the Keyboard Theory Project class. A pretest and posttest was administered to the total population to determine the efficacy of the new curriculum in reinforcing the theory skills of the first semester music majors and minors. There were three sections in the pre- and post-test. A t test was used to calculate the gain in each section and for total group scores (N=20). In all three sections, there was no statistical significance due to low numbers. In calculating improvement per individual student from pretest to posttest, the experimental group showed only a 3% increase per student over the control group. Data for the total population that took both pretest and posttest and who were also music majors or minors (N=14) was calculated. A t test was used to calculate the gain in each section and for total group scores. In all three areas, there again was no statistical significance due to low numbers. However, in calculating improvement per individual student from pretest to posttest, results reveal a 45% improvement rate per individual student in the experimental group over the control group. It is concluded that great practical significance was gained in the study and also that the efficacy of this new keyboard curriculum was significantly successful when administered to its intended population.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by CAROL PIATNEK MCCOY.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Sain, James P.
Local: Co-adviser: Robinson, Russell L.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0042774:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042774/00001

Material Information

Title: The Development of a Keyboard Theory Curriculum Utilizing a Chronological, Comprehensive Approach to Reinforce Theory Skills of First Semester College Music Majors
Physical Description: 1 online resource (601 p.)
Language: english
Creator: MCCOY,CAROL PIATNEK
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: CHRONOLOGICAL -- COMPREHENSIVE -- CURRICULUM -- KEYBOARD -- MODE -- MUSIC -- MUSICIANSHIP -- TAXONOMY -- THEORY -- UNDERGRADUATE
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study developed and tested the first semester of a planned four-semester keyboard theory curriculum utilizing a chronological, comprehensive approach to reinforce theory skills of first-semester undergraduate music majors and minors. The new curriculum is designed to companion freshman core theory and history classes. This method followed a 7-step progressive taxonomy designed by the author of this dissertation who was also the Project instructor. Of the twenty students involved in the study, eight students enrolled in an Introduction to Music Theory class (control group, n=12) participated in the Keyboard Theory Project class (experimental group, n=8) during a sixteen-week semester. Participation in the project was voluntary. Each student received one credit hour for satisfactory completion of the project class. Both groups took the Introduction to Music Theory class (N=20). Only the experimental group (n=8) took the Keyboard Theory Project class. A pretest and posttest was administered to the total population to determine the efficacy of the new curriculum in reinforcing the theory skills of the first semester music majors and minors. There were three sections in the pre- and post-test. A t test was used to calculate the gain in each section and for total group scores (N=20). In all three sections, there was no statistical significance due to low numbers. In calculating improvement per individual student from pretest to posttest, the experimental group showed only a 3% increase per student over the control group. Data for the total population that took both pretest and posttest and who were also music majors or minors (N=14) was calculated. A t test was used to calculate the gain in each section and for total group scores. In all three areas, there again was no statistical significance due to low numbers. However, in calculating improvement per individual student from pretest to posttest, results reveal a 45% improvement rate per individual student in the experimental group over the control group. It is concluded that great practical significance was gained in the study and also that the efficacy of this new keyboard curriculum was significantly successful when administered to its intended population.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by CAROL PIATNEK MCCOY.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Sain, James P.
Local: Co-adviser: Robinson, Russell L.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0042774:00001


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1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF A KEYBOARD THEORY CURRICULUM UTILIZING A CHRONOLOGICAL, COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO REINFORCE THEORY SKILLS OF FIRST SEMESTER COLLEGE MUSIC MAJORS By CAROL PIATNEK MCCOY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GR ADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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2 2011 Carol Piatnek McCoy

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3 To the memory of my dear mother, Ida Margaret Walton Piatnek (192 7 2005) who sacrificed many of her own dreams that I might realize mine, To my three much loved children, Sean, Katie (KT), and Kevin, in hopes that all their dreams come true, and, above all earthly loves, To God alone be the Glory

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMEN TS I must first thank my outstanding committee who has s upported me through these tumultuous years and encouraged me every step of the way. It is my honor and privilege to have such a distinguished and highly emulated faculty supporting my doctoral studie s and freely dedicating their time and many talents to my efforts. I hold them all in the highest regard, professionally, as educators and l eaders of quality and integrity in their own fields, but more importantly, in their own lives, as wonderful, intell igent, good natured and compassionate individuals. They have been my role models for more than many years and I have never been disappointed. My deepest g ratitude and most heartfelt thanks go to Dr. James Paul Sain, chair, who has gone far and beyond the requirements of advising. I deeply appreciate his gifts of patience, understanding, empathy, advice, and unflinching support. A work of this magnitude takes years to complete and through th ose years come peaks and valleys. He s upported me and encouraged me through some of those darkest valleys, not because of a require ment but because he is, indeed, a true mentor, leader, educator, colleague, and now, most special friend. I am very grateful to Dr. Russell L. Robinson, co chair, for his steadfastness th rough the man y years we have known each other. I appreciate the impromptu conferences and his expertise, not only in the classroom, but in guiding me through the intricacies of the professional music education world, and always with a smile and a contagio us pos i His very active and impressive teaching, publishing and performing career provides great inspiration to all of his students as well as the practical information and sound advice he shares with them. His classes in

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5 music education have inspired me to dig further, think deeper, and approach the music profession with integrity and optimism. To Professor Willis Bodine, musician extraordinaire, who has opened the door for me to so many invaluable opportunities in theory and i n practice. In each of his classes that I took I experienced true collegiate endeavors from both teacher and student perspective. So much of my experience in and out of Prof essor class es is present in this document. I n fact, it was from his fi gured bass class that the early ideas for this dissertation originated. I am particularly grateful to him for introducing me to the world of the carillon and the opportunity to play such a unique instrument. He has been and remains for me a model of exqu isite musicianship, flawlessly executed with style wit, and grace I am very grateful to Dr. Margaret B. Portillo for her enthusiastic support and encouragement throughout this project. A well published author in her own field of Interior Design she has graciously given of her time and experience to guide me through the writing process. Always cheerful and encouraging, she has co nstantly offered thoughtful commentary and practical advice for which I will always be thankful. T hree distinguished faculty m embers served on my doctoral committee right before their retirement and my graduation. I am deeply grateful for their time and efforts on my behalf I would like to thank Dr. David Z. Kushner for his support throughout all of my graduate studies. He ha s my deepest respect and admiration and I wish him well in his retirement. I am grateful as well to Dr. Iris G. (Jeri) Benson, Emeritus, Associate Dean and Professor, College of Education Her interest and support is well

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6 appreciated. I am also indebted to Dr. Linda Crocker, College of Education for her advice, support and guidance in the early years of my graduate studies. This study would not have been possible without the help and assistance of many other generous individuals and organizations I am very grateful to the University of Florida for the educational opportunity provided me in this study. I am most thankful to the School of Music (SOM) and Dr. John Duff, Dean for giving me the chance to conduct a semester long study I appreciate the sup port and encouragement of the SOM faculty and staff and thank Mutlu Citim Kepic for her time and help in promoting the project; Dr. Alex Reed, for his time and support of the project; and Dr. Paul Richards for his suggestions concerning the pretest posttes t materials. I would like to thank Kelly Fitzsimmons of the College Board for securing permission for me to use the Advanced Placement Music Theory Exam as the pretest posttest I am extremely grateful to John Netardus oboist and long time colleague for his expertise in recording the aural section s of the pretest posttest I greatly appreciate the assistance of fellow doctoral student Chris Sharp in working with me It was his class that became the control group for the Project and he graciously agreed to contribute two of his class periods for me in which to admin ister the pretest and posttest. I am forever grateful to John C. Tucker, flutist and long time friend, for his time, expertise, and guidance in the statistical data computation and presentatio n. My gratitude also extends to Adam Scott Neal, for his assistance with the musical examples included in the work. Their gift of time and talent to this Project is greatly appreciated. For technical help and support (late night and otherwise), I thank my family, husband Mike, daughter KT, and son Kevin, and also for living with stacks of books and

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7 notebooks, piles of papers and file folders of all types and in great quantities for more than a couple of years. I am grateful for the long distance support and encouragement from my son Sean and his wife Ann. I appreciate the extra help from KT in the final stages of document preparation and presentation. I am especially thankful to Dr. James P. Sain and Dr. Charles R. Hoffer for the personal interviews gra nted which lend such a special element to the study. I appreciate them taking the time out of their busy schedules to give their perspective s and share their experiences. This dissertation would not have been possible without the expert help and assistanc e from the Music Library staff in the School of Music. Always professional, eager to help, thorough, knowledgeable and a pleasure to work with, there are not enough superlatives to describe Robena Cornwell, Associate University Librarian and Head of the Music Library; and Michele Wilbanks Music Library Associate. Mam e Wood also deserves mention for her cheery help and support. Through the many years as a masters and now a doctoral student, I have witnessed how they have gone out of their way to serve a ll students and help them in their research endeavo rs as they have done for me. My appreciation is heartfelt and my gratitude is endless. A special thanks and note of great appreciation goes to Dr. John D. White, composer, cellist, pedagogue and my first theory mentor. He found the musician inside and tried to help me in every way imaginable. I will be forever grateful to him for his generosity, his kindness, and the freedom with which he shared his passionate spirit and unquenchable thirst for music.

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8 I also remember and acknowledge the late Dr. Budd A. Udell, composer and teacher, and Chair of my masters degree committee. His support and encouragement propelled me into the doctoral program. I am thankful for the musical opportunities and classes I had with him and am grateful for his kindness and guidance. For the final rounds of document preparation and formatting I would like to s Support Center. To Manager Ken Booth and his staff -Nicole, Jesse, Mark, and AnnaRose, I extend my deepest gratitude for a job more than well done. What most students normally consider a tedious and stressful procedure became an enlightening and enjoyable process due to the knowledge and experti se of the staff but moreso to their true motivation and desire to help every student who comes to the center for assistance. I would say the same of the editors in the Editorial Office. Many thanks to Anna, Stacy, and Lisa, for their quick answers to the many questions that came up and for their consistently cheerful attitudes. I had no idea it would be that much fun to see my document take real shape and I thank them for making it such a pleasant place to work. T here are many who have supported and enco uraged me through the years. I thank Dr. Leslie Odom Miller and Laura Robertson for their time and hel p with the administrative aspects of graduate s chool. have to thank J.J. and her staff, Jessica, Kim Amy and Thomas for their topnotch service and endless smiles. I am most appreciative of the patience and flexibility of my private music students and their families. I am deeply grateful for the tremendous support and constant encouragement from my church famil y at First Presbyterian Church. My way has been made easier and more joyful because they have shared the

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9 journey with me. There is no way I could say I did this alone. In the same vein, I am thankful for the support of my second church family at Covenan t Presbyterian. All of these wonderful and loving people have been a part of this effort in one way or another and for that I am eternally thankful. On a more personal note, I would like to thank dear friends, Ron Weigert, Ed Thieman, Jr., Charlotte and Bob Edelstein, and Marilyn and Roger Bachman n for their friendship, constant support, and hearty encouragement. It has meant a great deal to me to have such loyal and true friends. I also include my longtime best friend, Dana eyed freshman students ourselves. There are several teachers through my educational career who have helped me tremendously and influenced me to strive to be the best musician possible. I would like to acknowledge them here. They include Dr. John Paul and Mrs. Margaret Jones and Ken Williams, Albany, Georgia; Herman Gunter, Tallahassee, Florida; Dr. Raymond C. Martin and Dr. Theodore K. Mathews, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, GA; Dr. Harald Rohlig, Huntingdon College, Montgome ry, Alabama; and William Beck and Norman Johnson, North Carolina School of the Arts, Winston Salem, NC. And, finally, I thank most of all the students of the Fall 2008 Keyboard Theory Project MUS 4905 and the Intro to Music Theory Class I hope they learn ed as much as the Project instructor! I also hope they realize how much I appreciate their hard work and their willingness to be a part of my doctoral research study. I wish only the best for them in their future endeavors.

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10 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 L IST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 14 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 16 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 18 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 20 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 21 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 23 Delimitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 23 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 24 Research Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ............................. 24 Definitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 25 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 27 Research Studies (Dissertations and Abstracts) ................................ ..................... 28 Professional Journals and Periodicals ................................ ................................ .... 91 Books ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 129 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 145 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES ................................ ................................ ......... 150 Intr oductory Remarks ................................ ................................ ............................ 150 Pilot Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 150 Selection of the Participants ................................ ................................ ........... 151 Pretest and Posttest ................................ ................................ ....................... 152 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 153 Dependent Measures ................................ ................................ ........................... 153 Independent Measures ................................ ................................ ......................... 153 Treatment Variable ................................ ................................ ............................... 154 Design of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 154 Pre Class and Post Class Survey ................................ ................................ .. 154 Lesson Plans and Assignments ................................ ................................ ..... 154 Administration ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 220 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ 223 Preparation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 225

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11 4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ................................ ...................... 236 Introductory Remarks ................................ ................................ ............................ 236 Statistical Data (N=20) ................................ ................................ .......................... 238 Pretest/Postte st Data (N=20) ................................ ................................ ................ 240 Pre Class Survey (n=8) ................................ ................................ ........................ 248 Post Class Survey (n=8) ................................ ................................ ....................... 254 Statistical Data (N=14) ................................ ................................ .......................... 267 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ 276 APPENDIX A PROTOCOL SUBMISSION FORM ................................ ................................ ....... 290 B PERMISSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 292 Institutional Review Board Letter of Release ................................ ........................ 292 Advanced Placement Exam Email of Permission ................................ ................. 293 Society of Composers, Inc., Email of Permission ................................ ................. 295 C FLYER FOR ADVERTISEMENT ................................ ................................ .......... 297 D PRETEST/POSTTEST ................................ ................................ ......................... 298 Booklet Cover ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 298 Individual Student A nswers ................................ ................................ ................... 300 Raw Data Totals (N=20) ................................ ................................ ....................... 310 Raw Data Totals (N=14) ................................ ................................ ....................... 315 E PRE CLASS SURVEY ................................ ................................ .......................... 320 Survey ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 320 Raw Data from Pre Class Survey ................................ ................................ ......... 322 F POST CLASS SURVEY ................................ ................................ ....................... 325 Survey ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 325 Raw Data from Post Class Survey ................................ ................................ ....... 330 G SYLLABUS ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 337 H LESSON PLANS AND ASSIGNMENTS ................................ ............................... 340 I COURSE REFERENCES AND RESOURCES ................................ ..................... 394

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12 J TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: LISTEN/HEAR ................................ ..... 397 Samples of Ear Training (ET) Quizzes ................................ ................................ 397 ET Test ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 402 Melodic Dictations ................................ ................................ ................................ 404 LISTEN Tracksheets and Worksheets ................................ ................................ .. 407 K TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: PLAY & SING/SING & PLAY ............... 475 Sight Reading/Prepared Piano List of Excerpts ................................ .................... 475 Sample o f Practice Journal Record and Keyboard Testing Forms ....................... 476 Sample Keyboard Testing Signup Sheet ................................ .............................. 477 Sample of Keyboard Testing Sch edule Handout ................................ .................. 478 Homework Checklist ................................ ................................ ............................. 481 L TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: WRITE ................................ .................. 482 Theory/Composition (Comp) Notebook Requirements ................................ ......... 482 Samples of Analysis Assignments ................................ ................................ ........ 487 LISTEN Worksheets and Tracksheets ................................ ................................ .. 495 History of Music Outlines ................................ ................................ ...................... 498 Sample of Vocabulary List Form ................................ ................................ ........... 499 M TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: READ ................................ ................... 500 LISTEN: Worksheets and Tracksheets ................................ ................................ 500 History of Music Outlines ................................ ................................ ...................... 503 Sample of Vocabulary List Form ................................ ................................ ........... 504 N TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: COMPOSE ................................ .......... 505 O TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: PERFORM ................................ .......... 506 P FINAL EXAM ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 507 Q STUDY GUIDE AND VOCABULARY LIST ................................ ........................... 520 R QUOTE FOR THE DAY ................................ ................................ ........................ 531 S TIMELINE OF COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP MOVEMENT ORIGINS ...... 534 T JOINT COMMITTEE MEMBERS LIST 1963 ................................ ........................ 535 U NORTHWESTERN SEMINAR CM PRINCIPLES APRIL 1965 ............................. 536 V FACULTY OF THE EASTMAN WORKSHOP JUNE 1969 ................................ .... 537 W DR. CHARLES R. HOFFER INTERVIEW ................................ ............................. 538

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13 X DR. JAMES P. SAIN INTERVIEW ................................ ................................ ........ 551 Y SOCIETY OF COMPOSERS, INC., SURVEY ................................ ...................... 559 Z LIST OF COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP TEXTBOOKS .............................. 592 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 593 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 600

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14 L IST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Survey results for Question II 3, a f. Who teaches the following classes? ...... 232 3 2 Survey results. Question II 4.1. The amount of class time devoted to five subject areas. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 232 3 3 Survey results. Question II 4.2. The amount of class time devoted to four subject areas. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 234 4 1 Unpaired t test results for Section 1: with aural stimul us (N=20). ..................... 239 4 2 Unpaired t test results for Section 2.1: treble clef dictation (N=20). .................. 2 39 4 3 Unpaired t test results for Se ction 2.2: bass clef dictation (N=20). ................... 239 4 4 Unpaired t test results for Section 2.3: soprano/bass dictation (N=20). ............ 240 4 5 U npaired t test results for Section 3: without aural stimulus (N=20). ................ 240 4 6 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences of the experimenta l (n=8) and control (n=12) groups in Section 1: with aural stimulus (N=20). ................................ .............................. 241 4 7 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences of the expe rimental and control groups in Section 2, including subsections 2.1: treble clef dictation, 2.2: bass clef dictation, and 2.3: soprano/bass dictation and Section 2 Total scores(N=20). ....................... 242 4 8 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and percent difference for experimental and control groups in Section 3: without aural stimulus (N=20). ................................ ................................ ...................... 246 4 9 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences for experimental and control group total scores (N=20). .... 247 4 10 Summary of student responses to Item 6 in two groupings of strength skills. .. 252 4 11 List of skills rated by students in order of strongest to weakest skill area in the pre class survey. ................................ ................................ ........................ 252 4 12 Summary of student responses to Item 1 of the post class survey in two groupings of strength skills. ................................ ................................ .............. 255 4 13 List of skills rated by students in order of strongest to weakest skill area in the post class survey. ................................ ................................ ....................... 256

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15 4 14 A comparison of the pre class and post class ratings of skill areas from strongest to weakest ratings in the higher 50% group. ................................ ..... 257 4 15 Unpaired t test results for Section 1: with aural stimulus (N=14) ...................... 267 4 16 Unpaired t test results for Section 2.1:treble clef dictation (N=14). ................... 267 4 17 Unpaired t test results for Section 2.2: bass clef dictation (N=14) .................... 268 4 18 Unpaired t test results for Section 2.3: soprano/bass dictation (N=14). ............ 268 4 19 Unpaired t test results for Section 3: without aural stimulus (N=14). ................ 268 4 20 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences of the experimental (n=7) and control (n=7) groups in Section 1: with aural stimulus (N=14). ................................ .............................. 269 4 21 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences of the experimental and control groups in Section 2, including subsections 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and Section 2 total scores (N=14). ........... 270 4 22 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and percent difference for experimental and control groups in Section 3: without aural stimulus (N=14). ................................ ................................ ...................... 272 4 23 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences for experimental and control group total scores (N=14). .... 272 4 24 Pilot test study results. Comparison of individual per student difference scores of the experimental groups between the All Students population (N=20) and the Music Majors/Minors population (N=14). ................................ 273

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16 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AP Advanced Placement CAI Computer Assisted Instruction CM Comprehensive Musicianship CMP Contemporary Music Project later known as Comprehensive Musicianship Project Comp Composition ECU East Carolina University ET Ear Training Exer./ Ex Exercise FSU Florida State University GPCT George Peabody College for Teachers H Half step IMCE Institutes of Music in Contemporary Education IRB Institutional Review Board JRME Journal of Research in Music Education MEJ Music Educators Journal MENC Musi c Educators National Conference mm Metronome Marking NASM National Association of Schools of Music PreK Pre Kindergarten S S Sight Singing S R/Prep Sight Reading/Prepared piano piece SCI Society of Composers, Inc. SDSU San Diego State University SECM Sympo sium on the Evaluation of Comprehensive Musicianship

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17 Sep Separate SOM School of Music Tog Together Trksht Tracksheet UGA University of Georgia UK University of Kentucky Wrksht Worksheet WSU Wichita State University YCP Young Composers Project

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18 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE DEVELOPMENT OF A KEYBOARD THEORY CURRICULUM UTILIZING A CHRONOLOGICAL, COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO REINFORCE THEORY SKILLS OF FIRST SEMESTER COLLEGE MUSIC MAJORS By Carol Piatnek McCoy May 2011 Chair: James Paul Sain Co -chair: Russell L. Robinson Major: Musi This study developed and tested the first semester of a planned four-semester keyboard theory curriculum utilizing a chronological comprehensive approach to reinforce theory skills of first-semester undergraduate music majors and minors. The new curriculum is designed to companion freshman core theory and history classes. This method followed a 7-step progressive taxonomy designed by the author of this dissertation who was also the Project instructor. Of the twenty students involved in the study, eight students enrolled in an Introduction to Music Theory class (control group, n=12) participated in the Keyboard Theory Project class (experimental group, n=8) during a sixteen-week semester. Participation in the project was voluntary E ach student received one credit hour for satisfactory completion of the project class. Both groups took the Introduction to Music Theory class (N=20). Only the experimental group (n=8) took the Keyboard Theory Project class. A pretest and posttest was administered to the total population to

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19 determine the efficacy of the new c urriculum i n reinforcing the theory skills of the first semester music majors and minors. There were three sections in the pre and post test. A t test was used to calculate the gain in each section and for total group scores (N= 20 ). In all three section s there was no statistical significance due to low numbers. In calculating improvement per individual student from pretest to posttest, the experimental group showed only a 3% increase per student over the control group. Data for the total population tha t took both pretest and posttest and who were also music majors or minors (N=14) was calculated. A t test was used to calculate the gain in each section and for total group scores In all three areas there again was no statistical significance due to lo w numbers. However, in calculating improvement per individual student from pretest to posttest, results reveal a 45% improvement rate per individual student in the experimental group over the control group. It is concluded that great practical significan ce was gained in the study and also that the efficacy of this new keyboard curriculum was significantly successful when administered to its intended population.

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20 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION What does it mean to be a musician? What does it mean when a college or university awards a Bachelor of Music degree? The study of music is a lifetime undertaking. After the first four years of professional study, what do we expect of the graduate? What guarantees, if any, does a Bachelor degree in Music provide about wh at the graduate knows and is skilled to do? What kind of curriculum makes up the body of knowledge required, and/or an acknowledged degree of proficiency on an instru ment or with the voice necessary to be awarded a professional music degree? What should the aspiring student expect from the undergraduate music degree program? Each of these questions makes for interesting topics in a research project. They are valid to pics of discussion that, hopefully, college music educators keep at the top of their lists when deciding curricul a and courses requirements and requisites for their own music programs. Equally important, they are questions that textbook writers in music education should always be considering. This dissertation will not individually address or answer each of those questions, but will respond to th ose queries in general by offering a n ew keyboard theory curriculum intended to complement the core music theo ry class. The ultimate goal is the improvement of the quality of the undergraduate music degree program. The study advocates a chronological, comprehensive musicianship based approach in the development of a four semester keyboard theory program to compa nion the core theory class in the first two years of the undergraduate music program. This study presents the first of the four semesters and i s intended for

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21 f irst semester music majors and minors. These questions, and others, will serve as a guide in co nstructing a new keyboard theory curriculum. Statement of the Problem The problem is apparently not a new one but it seems to be a continu ing if not worsened one. More and more students are entering undergraduate music programs ill prepared to study music at the college level, specifically in aural skills, listening skills and keyboard skills. Once in the college music program, they are faced with fragmented and segregated courses that seem to have little connection with or relevance to each other or to go on, there is more musical material to be studied but not more time allowed in which to study it. In most cases, this results in the exclusion of meaningful study of the early music of past cent uries. It is time in the 21 st century that this is recognized and dealt with by all involved in the undergraduate education. Research from the last 5 0 years addresses many concerns in the college music s, instructors, curricul a and administration s Time has passed and the 20 th century is complete. Change within the last half of the 20 th century dictates change in many venues and it affects everyone involved in the theory program. Both positive and ne gative changes have affected the theory classroom and curriculum. For example, technology has long been successfully incorporated into college programs and is the major contributing factor of many positive changes in the music classroom. Never has researc quality audio and visual performances of artists worldwide, to improving certain skills in

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22 music/keyboa rd labs. While it is no real substitute for the live, hands on experience gained from the teacher student relationship and the student student classroom experience, labs, audio visual resources, and computer assisted instruction (CAI) can have wonderful p ositive outcomes when used as a supplementary learning device to augment an already sound pedagogy being implemented in the classroom. It is a matter of fact that the body of musical knowledge has expanded exponentially and must now be incorporated at ever y possible level into the undergraduate music major program. The entering freshman is faced with another college professor must design a new syllabus and the music textbook writer must add more chapters including the new literature and materials without sacrificing study of the earlier eras. College curricul a and requirements must be reviewed and must remain open to change when necessary by faculty and administration to insu re that the standard of excellence in the program is maintained. needs have changed; instructors teaching the students have changed; curricula differ ma rkedly from college to college, and administrations and their ideas o f education and curriculum have changed. There are three problems that this study hop e s to address: 1) the lack of developed fundamental aural skills, listening skills and keyboard skills in the entering freshman undergraduate music major, 2) the fragmente d and segregated curriculum worth of music to an already overcrowded syllabus without neglecting other musical times.

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23 One solution to the problem takes shape in the form of a two year comprehensive music curriculum with emphasizes skills development while working in tandem with the theory and history sequences. It begins in the first semester with the study of the Medieval and Renaissance modal music and progresses throug h the 20 th century by the end of the fourth semester. This study will focus specifically on only the first of the four planned semesters by developing, implementing, and evaluating a keyboard theory class curriculum for first semester music majors and min ors. Purpose of the S tudy The purpose of this dissertation is to introduce the first semester of a new keyboard theory curriculum intended for the first two years of the undergraduate core music major program that uses a historical /chronological comprehen sive approach to develop mastery of aural, listening, and keyboard skills which include technique, composition and performance. The study will determine the efficacy of such an approach by conducting a pilot test study of first semester music majors and m inors. A pretest posttest design will be used to determine and evaluate individual student performance. Pre class and p ost class student surveys will be used to discover the reaction and opinions of the student participants about the curriculum and their experience in the study. I t is the intention of this approach to benefit the student; the instructor; the curriculum; and the administration/faculty and ultimately, improve the quality of undergraduate music education. Delimitations of the Study This st udy will not specifically address the individual components of the course. It is not the intent to provide a detailed historical accounting of the Comprehensive Musicianship (CM) method. Although theory textbook studies are mentioned, it is not

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24 the inten t to present a theory textbook review. Edition or the student version of a textbook, but only the raw materials used in the course of the Project. Research Questions Two basic questions were addressed: 1 ) What is th e efficacy of a comprehensive, ch r onological approach in a new keyboard theory curriculum the Keyboard Theory Project in reinforcing theory skills of first semester music majors and minors? and 2) What are the opinions of the experimental group study par ticipants regarding this Project ? Research Hypotheses The research hypothesis was: Collectively, first semester music major and minor students enrolled in a core theory class who successfully completed the requirements of the new Keyboard Theory Project (e xperimental group) will show significantly greater percentage improvement in the pretest posttest scores than the first semester music major and minor students enrolled in the core theory class who did not take the Keyboard T heory Project (control group). The corresponding n ull hypothes i s w as: There will be no significant differences in the percentage improvement in the pretest posttest scores of the students who took the new keyboard theory curriculum in conjunction with the core theory class and those stu dents who did not take the new keyboard theory curriculum in conjunction with the core theory class.

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25 Definitions An abbreviated historical exploration of comprehend, comprehension, and comprehensive was conducted. The earliest source consulted (1913) dictionary, listed these definitions: C OMPREHEN D (v.t.) 1. t o contain; to embrace; to include. 2. t o take in or include by construction or implication; to comprise; to imply. 3. t o take in to the mind; to grasp with understanding; to appreh end the mea n C OMPREHENSION of comprehending, containing, or comprising; inclusion. 2. that which is comprehended or enclosed within narrow limits; a summary an epitome. 3. the capacity of the mind to perceiv e and understand; the power, act, or process of grasping with the intellect; perception; understanding. synonym: C OMPREHENSIVE scope or a full view. 2. having the power t o comprehend or understand many a compact desk edition, streamlines the definitions : C OMPREHEND C OMPREHENSION omprehending or comprising. 2. the act or capability of understanding: C OMPREHENSIVE (adj) (p. 98). The Living Webster Encyclopedic Dictionary (1977) includes the Latin derivation of the word compre hend in its definition, explaining that it comes from comprehendo -com meaning together; prae meaning before, and hendere meaning to catch. C OMPREHEND (v.t.) understanding have in idea; to underst and; to take in or include within a certain scope; to include by implication or significations C OMPREHENSION (n inclusion; capacity of the mind to understand; power of the understanding to

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26 C OMPREHENSIVE (adj number or a wide extent; of extensive application wide in scope having the power to comprehe The most recent definition came from Word Monkey Dictionary, an online reference source: C OMPREHEND sphere or territory. 3. get C OMPREHENSION n ability to understand the meaning or importance of something (or the knowledge acquired C OMPREHENSIVE class. ( an unabridged dictionary). 3. including all or everything ( a comprehensive history s urvey For the purposes of this study and the pilot test keyboard Project, a paraphrased synthesis of all of these definitions is applicable. C OMPREHEND (v.t.) to grasp, take in, understand, not only through the mind, but through and with all of the senses C OMPREHENSION (n) the capacity of the mi nd to retain the knowledge acquired from the ability to understand and organize C OMPREHENSIVE (adj) the inclusion and extensive application of many things within a broader and wider scope.

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27 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW A review of related literature focused on three areas: Research Studies (dissertations and abstracts), Professional Journals and Periodicals, and Books. The literature reviewed for this study concerns comprehensive, chronological approaches to teaching core music courses at the undergraduate level. Items chosen for inclusion in this chapter were selected on the basis of their significance to this study in the area of comprehensive musicianship in the undergraduate music curriculum. The C ontemporary M usic P roject (CMP) You ng Composers Project ( YCP ) the Northwestern Seminar and the resulting Institutes of Music in Contemporary Education ( IMCE ) experimental programs are highlighted as the founding programs directly inv olved in the development of the Comprehensive Musicianshi p ( CM ) movement. This literature review revealed an abundance of information in research and experimental studies related to the more specific areas of the actual course content in the proposed curriculum of this study. The importance of and development i n aural skills, listening skills, dictation, writing skills, form and analysis, sight singing, sight reading, improvisation, composition, performance, are topics that continue to be researched and explored. It is not the purpose of this study to review th ese more specific, individual components of the proposed curriculum. Due to time and space constraints it would be impractical to attempt a thorough review of each of these components T heir educational value and need of inclusion in a professional music degree program has long been established and remains undisputed.

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28 R esearch Studies (Dissertations and Abstracts) Research into approximately the last 50 years, 1960 2010, provides a wide array and variety of studies dealing with comprehensive musicianship in many areas of music. An advanced search was conducted in five categories: comprehensive music; comprehensive music education; comprehensive music program; comprehensive music curriculum; and comprehensive musicianship, and yielded over 900 titles/items The broader categories (comprehensive music education and comprehensive music program) were then eliminated which left 244 titles/abstracts. The remaining 244 abstracts were again reviewed for significance and relevance to the study. Some studies wer e listed in more than one category and not all studies were relevant to comprehensive musicianship as discussed in this study. The primary emphasis of this portion of the literature review resides with CM studies found at the college level, although there is some discussion of and reference to Y oung C omposers P roject the Northwestern Seminar and the resulting IMCE experimental programs are also included. Brief mention o f the studies at the pre the goal is of teaching music in all kinds of situations from private lessons, to individual classes and large ensembles, to complete department programs that are structured on, developed from and implemented through a comprehensive musicianship approach. The selected studies were grouped into three categories: College s tudies concerning comprehensive music, comprehensive musicianship, and comprehe nsive music curricula at the college level, public and private, includin g junior and community colleges; P re collegiate s tudies concerning comprehensive music, comprehensive

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29 musicianship, and comprehensive music curricula at the preschool through senior hi gh school level (PreK 12), public and private ; and R elated Studies, which includes historical studies, biographical studies of individual music educators and their use of, influence in, development of and contributions to the comprehensive musicianship app roach; and a theory textbook study. The studies are listed chronologically within each category. College studies This category was further divided into three sub categories: college curriculum -general concerns; college curriculum -specific areas/class es; and community colleges The studies reviewed in this section concern the development of programs and curricula identifying needs, objectives, goals, and specifically cite CM as the basis of their reasoning and curriculum construction. Three of the s tudies mentioned focus specifically on the IMCE experimental programs from 1966 1968 in which the principles of CM were implemented. College curriculum -general concerns David ( 19 70 ) investigative study of the IMCE can be regarded as the mos t authoritative source of information concerning almost every aspect of the 1966 1968 experimental program s He became the Administrative Associate for the Contemporary Music Project in 1970 and has done extensive writing about the CMP and its activities since its inception. He was also instrumental in the development of college level programs at Elizabethtown College in Pennsylvania. The aim of the IMCE program was to improve undergraduate music instruction. Willoughby documents, analyzes, and summarize s the activities of each of the thirty two participating institutions, gathering the information solely from the Program Heads and

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30 Regional Directors. He outlines each program and summarizes the comments and reactions of the participants and also of obser vers (such as the Program Heads and Regional Directors). Additional information came from personal interviews and on campus visitations. This material assembled by Willoughby in his study serves as an excellent starting point for further study of the peop le, places, and programs documented in this work. His accounting is thorough and complete. He included lists of the fifteen member CMP Policy committee and the five member Administrative committee serving at the time. He also lists the six Regional Inst itutes: Eastern, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Northwestern, and Western. (The IMCE began with five regions in 1966 but later in the year expanded to the six regions mentioned here). For each school he lists the Administrative Director and Program Head when applicable. It is important to read these lists of who and where because these name re appear in the succeeding discussions found in journals and periodicals, at conventions and workshop presentations for many years to come, and many of which ar e discussed in the present study. Particularly useful or of interest to curriculum study is the bibliography of textbooks and instructional references used in the IMCE programs that is included in his document. escribe the IMCE programs but to also [ the ] application of the curriculum. The actual questionnaires are included, which show the extent to which the project was carried out. He describes each of the thirty two programs and documents the report with factual information. He then presents an over

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31 view of the most important aspects of the programs before selecting eleven individual institutions for further detailed study The eleven schools were selected according to particular criteria: being an undergraduate theory curriculum (there were actually thirty six participating institutes but four of them were implemented at the pre college level); the completeness and adequacy of t he submitted materials in their reports; including at least one school from each of the six Regions; representing a mix of different types of schools -large and small, public and private, and of selecting the school where each Regional Director was located Willoughby conducted 61 extensive interviews at the eleven schools and provides a list of those participating faculty members and administrative personnel. The responses from these interviews were classified into six categories -structure, content, imp act, theory, student, and teacher. He then discusses each of these catego ries at each of these schools. Three of the eleven schools have been subjects of two research studies mentioned later in this section: Kim (1997) focuses on the San Diego State Univ provides an in State University (FSU) and East Carolina University (ECU). Willoughby also traces the general development of the CMP from its ini tial program in 1959, the Young Composers Project supported by funding from the Ford Foundation and administrative work of the ( MENC) under the supervision of Norman Dello Joio to the final years, 1966 1968, of the IMCE programs. Some of these programs w ere extended one last time through the terminal five year grant, 1969 1973, from the Ford Foundation.

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32 Discussion of contemporary educational trends in relation to the CM theory is faces in many ve n ues, such as in the periodicals and journal articles, books and the CMP publicat i ons that are discussed later in the p resent work. In summary, Willoughby reinforces the premise that CM is a process which can be successfully applied at all levels of study from preschool through doctoral study. He explains that the essence of the integrated CM approach is using the actual musical score as the point of departure for music study. Through this method students will understand concepts; develop skills (analytical, aural, visual and otherwise); gain historical perspective and cultivate the ability to make sound judgments about music. He confirms that IMCE was designed primarily for the first two years of undergraduate study and that no one single resources was used, such as anthologies, scores, recordings, and programmed instructional materials. Textbooks were used as references. The CM approach endorses student centered learning and ac tively involving the student in every possible aspect in the learning process. When students are actively engaged, he says, they become motivated, enthusiastic and excited about their education. The IMCE courses reinforced this concept through minimal le cturing and increased student discussion and participation, student composition, performance and analysis, both aural and visual. Willoughby observes that many courses were o l s (1966 1968) He also notes that the expanded scope of the curriculum to include pre Renaissance through 20th century

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33 various styl He also cites some weaknesses of the program, mostly in the lack of commitment 307) insufficient staff, and teachers who opposed the CM theory or portions thereof. Research finds these complaints are n ot uncommon when dealing with the implementation of the CM approach. Willoughby makes several conclusions about the CM theory of music education. music student is m ore verbal, more analytical, and has a wider perspective of music earlier in this training as compared with one taught in a compartmentalized program: (p. e students; to their own continuing improvements in teaching; and to the art of music itself as a living, evolving entity (p. 307). Willoughby concurs that the CM approach can be implemented in almost every music course and mentions the possibility of inc luding sight singing and ear training in CM courses. This Project researcher would add historical, listening, performance and compositional elements as well. He also concludes, and this Project researcher strongly agrees, that two years is not enough tim e for students to absorb the total content from the courses in a CM curriculum. He recommends three years but the present Project researcher can envision a total four year undergraduate curriculum providing a solid foundation preparing the young music pro fessional for more specialized study at the graduate level. Black (1972) devised a model program of comprehensive musicianship for

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34 spontaneous and universal need to evaluat e and change existing theories and practices in education, musical or otherwise, according to realities of the day and expectations for weaknesses within the existing progr am must be identified. Data concerning the intensive (p.80). From the collected data, Black cites the same four categories discussed in the present study -curriculum, students, faculty and administration -as areas needing change. In developing his model plan, Black initiated a five phase process. The firs t step involved describing the (p. 4) ypical music program defined by Black as those programs meeting the minimum requirements as outlined by NASM (p. 6), and a CM program as found in the literature of music education. Ste p Two analyzed each of the four vectors of change in the experimental CM programs of the IMCE and compared them to the same vectors in the typical program. Step Three provided the design and the setting of the new CM model according to the four vectors of change. Each of these vectors is individually discussed in the model plan in relation to orientation (a brief overview of the category), objectives for each vector, and implementation of each vector. In Step Four Black reported the results of a review o f the model plan by a panel of seventeen experts in the music education field. Step Five incorporated the recommendations of the review panel into the model and developed guidelines for the implementation of the new CM program. deve loped to strengthen the four weaknesses identified from his research in music

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35 education literature and of the CM approach. These four areas are Curriculum, Students, Faculty, and Administration, and are findings. C urriculum 4). The n eed for change is reflected in many statements by educators and students. Educators see the ineffectiveness of a fragmented course curriculum (p.8) in which the classes do not relate to each other in any meaningful way for the students, and the students c an find no relevance between what happens in the classroom and what happens in the professional environment. The curriculum does not seem to have any This directly re lates to and affects student motivation, a crucial element in the success of any music program and an identified need in the Student vector Students T graduate comments about course content and the relevance of the curriculum to their ensuing professional careers. When student s do not understand the why of taking certain courses, their interest and hence, motivation, declines, affecting the rate and quality of absorption, depth of comprehension and competency in job performance. Student motivation has become and remains a major factor and topic of research in music education, and is the major concern of the present study in the student category. Research has already proven that when a student is truly motivated, he becomes personally involved and responsible for his own education. This results in learning

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36 taking place much quicker, with more ease, and with much better and longer retention rates than in the past. Faculty The CM objectives fo r teachers emphasize the need to cultivate broad musicianship which will form their basis for teaching. (p 17). CM also stresses the need [ s ] aural skills, reading skills analytical, conducting, keyboard and rehearsal skills, along with extensive knowledge of repertoire in their principal field. Teacher education and teacher preparation was the predominant area found in need of change. A special ature review is devoted to the history and development of Music Teacher Education. This major concern is traced back to 1884, (p. 12) with the establishment of the Potsdam Musical Institute, the first normal school of music to offer music instruction to e lementary school teachers. Black is writing 88 years later about the same concerns that are identified in this dissertation as contemporary problems in teacher education appearing over two decades later. However, it must be noted that teacher education h as continually improved since the late 19 th century. It is the opinion of the Project researcher that the concern for quality and competency teacher education remains the same today although it seems to be the nature of the problems, sometimes non musical ones, causing the concern that is different than two centuries ago. Administration In tracing the history of the role Administration has played in music education, Black identifies the importance of that role He discusses the need for the Administrati philosophies and teaching strategies

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37 strategy is used in the classroom. Curriculum is not the only area of concern which must be contin ually evaluated in terms of educational needs and evolving teaching strategies and opinions (p.3 4). All periodic assessment and evaluation The integrity of the music pr ogram then requires that change is implemented when the need for change has been determined. recommendations growing out of the deliberations at the Northwestern Seminar on Co mprehensive Musicianship in April, 1965 and the January, 1966 IMCE e xperimental programs The fundamental objectives, principles and goals resulting from these two events a re summarized below They form most of the basis and rationale for the keyboard th eory curriculum developed and tested in the present study. Eleven objectives and statements regarding the components of comprehensive musicianship training evolved from the Northwestern Seminar and are summarized as follows: 1) All music degree students should receive musicianship training, regardless of their particular area of specialization 2) Inclusion of composition in the program is essential as well as 3) aural and analytical study, 4) music history and 5) the connections realized between histor ical and theoretical studies, all four of which serve the broader end pattern of musical learning remains the same at all levels of instruction, moving from concrete to abstract and obvious to more subtle, (known to unknown, larger to smaller

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38 concepts and perspectives), 7) In CM, students will be introduced to concepts, learn (develop) a skill, be directly exposed to works of art, and 8) CM training will incorporate the three musica l experiences in #7 to achieve full comprehension of a musical work, 9) Course materials should be designed to interrelate with other courses and a continuity should exist between courses on one level and those preceding and following 10) All CM studies should relate the present music era to past music eras and 11) CM courses are regarded as open ended and open minded. Students use all of the knowledge and skills gained as a springboard for lifelong exploration and learning. As a result of the Northwes tern Seminar, recommendations made for the practical application of comprehensive musicianship at the college level inspired the organization and implementation of experimental programs which became known as the Institutes for Music in Contemporary Educati on. These programs were a continuation of the original 1957 1959 Contemporary Music Project as funded by the Ford Foundation. In January, 1966, thirty six institutions participated in the IMCE program. Black describes the changes made in each vector to better fulfill the goals of the comprehensive musicianship approach. The change most significant to the present study is the first of three discussed in the area of c urriculum and course content. The goal of CM regarding course content was to include all periods of music, past and present. The historical range for the IMCE courses was from pre Renaissance through the 20th century He later observes that there were courses which were taught or organized chronologically. Presenting the study of music to s tudents in a chronological order is the second of the two philosophies and strategies guiding this research study. The second curriculum change occurred in

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39 instructional strategies, reinforcing the use of the actual literature the musical score, for the basic course content in lieu of textbooks. T he third change concerning primary source and resource materials Musical scores and anthologies were used while textbooks were regarded as reference materials. Changes in the Student vector involved improved a ttitudes and increased motivation resulting from the freedom generated by the less rigid CM approach in the 64). Since the focus of CM centered mostly on curricular structure, there is little information concerning change in the Faculty vector and what is there is unspecific. However, Black draws inferences from the resea mu included broadening the musical perspective, breaking through previously established histor ical boundaries, and studying all types of music, past and present. Less lecturing on the part of the teacher and more active exploration on the part of the students is a hallmark of CM as well as providing uninterrupted succession between a course on one Information concerning the Administration vector was also very scant. Black was able to draw inferences from fina l reports in the areas of staffing and other items related to changes in the program. One responsibility of Administration was defined in the hiring of faculty who would support and work within the CM approach, in other words,

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40 identify the same areas of music education in need of change -curriculum, student, faculty and administration. The underlying educational philosophies, objectives, goals and teaching strategies of CM as identified, developed, and implemented since 1957 by the YCP, CMP, MENC, Northwestern Seminar, the IMCE program, and other programs are the basis and rationale for both studies in their development and presentation of CM curricula with plenty of backup from the CM literature to support the changes in the program with need for developing a model for teaching comprehensive musicianship at all al application of [ his ] model a t a later date would and development in music education based on, or using a comprehensive musicianship approach in the last forty ye ars has provided teaching models of all shapes and sizes and in all types and in all levels of learning situations. The practical application called for is also answered in this present study, although it is not the model developed by Black, but the autho music education in the 21 st century. Not only was a new curriculum conceived designed, and introduced in this study, the curriculum was physically implemented in as close to a real life e ducational setting as can be expected, for a full 16 week semester

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41 at a major school of music in the undergraduate track in a professional music degree program. Lein (1980) examined the music curricula of the Bachelor of Fine Arts and the Bachelor of Music degrees in Applied Music and in Music Education in 115 public universities. She identified four institutions as offering a CM program which she maintained could not be compared or discussed along with the remaining 111 institutions. The brief mention co ncerning these four CM programs consisted of a listing of the courses offered that were different and a statement of the minimum number of hours required for the major areas, and some for a few specific course requirements. The contribution of this study to the present work is the identification of the four CM institutions: West Texas State University, University of Nebraska, San Diego State recognized as the model program to wh ich the others were very similar. That concludes that music curricula studies are few and warrant further research. The history of comprehensive musicianship is well doc umented in (1988) detailed study of the Southern Region of the 1966 1968 IMCE programs During those two years, the IMCE involved thirty two institutions from the six geographical regions of the MENC Five schools from the Southern Region were inc luded in the study: East Carolina University (ECU) the George Peabody College for Teachers (GPCT) Florida State University (FSU) University of Kentucky (UK) and the University of Georgia (UG /UGA ) The largest and most influential program from this regi on was East Carolina University in Greenville, and Bess devotes an entire chapter to the history and

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42 implementation of its two year CM program. The second largest program was implemented at the George Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville, T ennessee and the smallest program was at the University of Georgia in Athens. grant which funded most of the CM pilot programs, workshops and seminars. He then discusses the YCP, the r esults of which led to an increased number of pilot programs. Through these pilot programs, the immediate need for teacher training and teacher competency was identified and as a result, the Northwestern Symposium was designed to explicitly address the te acher education problem. It was at this conference that the basic philosophy and principles of CM were established. The IMCE experimental pilot test program was the vehicle with which to test the CM approach throughout the 48 states. Bess presents a ver y thorough and detailed account of these developments discusses the aftermath of the CMP and CM as well. and only large most influential arts program implemented (at the time) in the United States education system. By examining five different institutions within one geographica l division, a broader historical perspective is gained and many comparisons and generalizations about the CM movement can be made. Bess tried to determine for each school: the short term and the long term influence of the CM program on the general curricu lum; administration and faculty; the evaluation methods used in each school; and, finally, the

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43 strengths and weaknesses in each program. Also included are the opinions of those involved in the programs concerning CM in the college music curriculum. The general conclusion was that while the short term influences were widespread, the long term influences of CM and the IMCE experimental programs were minimal in the Southern Region Institutions. Many of the IMCE faculty admitted the program had effected significant improvement in their own teaching, regardless of the overall success of the program. Bess argues this may indicate that the teachers have incorporated CM elements into t heir approach, and thus it is still possible that the CM influence continues in those classes. Other observations concerning faculty support were made. It seems with t work closely together, and cooperate in order to achieve the CM goals. The need for administrative cooperation and support was also identified as directly related to th e success and longevity of the program. Bess does cite so failure of the CM program acceptance and implementation on a long term basis in the college music degree oncepts did not originate from the bottom up, but from the top down. As explained by John Naisbitt is his book, Megatrends of support was necessary to propel the CM movement into a more permanent status. That support did not exist because, Bess continues, in the case of putting composers in public schools to improve never any evidence that

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44 the teachers, in general, wanted to be involved in contemporary music in this way. (However, Bess revealed earlier in his discussion that feedback from those teachers had been positive and they had been glad to have been exposed t o the program and contemporary music.) And, Bess adds, what is probably a much stronger argument, that the teachers who were instructed to teach the CM approach had no say or input into the development of the approach, and therefore showed little interest in themselves. Bess also calls attention to the large amount of funding made available for these projects as well as the accompanying widespread publicity that seem to have had no s uccess or influence in producing a groundswell movement, or in securing a concrete place in the college music curriculum for the CM approach. Many former that it had enco uraged discussion of important issues amongst music educators which resulted in needed changes, albeit only temporarily. Bess points out that if talking about issues is the only thing produced from the hundreds of thousands of dollars and untold hours inv (p. 223). Bess concludes that, even in 1988, it may still be too soon to determine the full extent and influence of the CMP and the CM movement and recognizes that will be a proj ect for future research. Several of the activities and objectives in that program support th e goals and philosophies expressed in the proposed curriculum of this dissertation. Bess explains

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45 that the integrated courses included theory, history, analysis, ensemble performance, ear training and composition, and were required of all majors. These s ame courses (p. 219). Requiring all music majors to take a set of core CM classes taught in a chronological order, beginning with at least Gregorian chant and including c ontemporary music, is a major benchmark of this dissertation. The George Peabody College for Teachers was also identified as having required all music majors to take the CM classes as well as combining the study of music theory and history in one class, e xamining music from classical antiquity to the present. The CMP continued from 1969 through 1973 to develop and promote CM undergraduate programs. Evaluation, feedback and general results from the short term two year pilot test of the IMCE indicated a p ositive effect and attitude about CM courses. Still, those courses gradually disappeared as their funding ceased and the ram at the San Diego State University, a 1997. This program is addressed in the dissertation discussed immediately following the present one and is the only program that can prov ide a true long term perspective of the CM program as implemented and continued when all others had ceased. A condensed report on this research study is also presented in an article by Bess (1991) in the Journal of Research in Music Education (JRME) K im (1997) presents a thorough and detailed study of the CM program at the San Diego State University, the acknowledged leader and role model of the CM movement.

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46 CM developed as a result of the CMP (Contemporary Music Project for Creativity in Music Education ). The CMP continued for fourteen years, 1959 1973, and, Kim 1967 1997, in various forma ts, time frames, and continually reviewed, revised and redesigne d curricula term experiments in curriculum design in the count comprehensive study provide contemporary historical information about both CMP ventures and the CM programs, the documentation, investigation and evaluation of the longest running CM program paints a complete picture of a su ccessful undergraduate music program. Kim begins with a discussion and overview of the CMP, the Northwestern Seminar in April, 1965, at which the principles of CM were constructed, and the IMCE in January, 1966, at which the CM principles from the Northwes tern Seminar were implemented in experimental programs. Black (1992) also addresses these developments in his study which was mentioned earlier. Within that discussion, the eleven principles of CM from the Northwestern Seminar are listed, so they will no t be reiterated here. Bess (1988) specifically studies the IMCE programs of five schools in the Southern Region and provides a thorough historical account of the CM origination and development through 1968, also mentioned earlier. The data collected in Ki (1997) interviews and surveys, written and oral, by administrative personnel and participating

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47 faculty; student surveys and questionnaires; class observations; attendance at two recitals; document analysis of over 120 items during a visit to the campus; and a journal Seventy seven of the 120 documents coll ected were retained as significant and of the 30 year history of CM at SDSU, in the listings and discussions of the actual classes, course descriptions, program requ irements and curricula. Kim traces how the curriculum gradually changed from the initial pilot program in the CMP, 1964, to a two year program in 1967 under the auspices of the IMCE program, to a three year program in 1972, and finally to the four year pr ogram (the New CM Program) that ran from 1992 until its close in 1997. Outlines of the courses for each curriculum change are listed in the document. Of significance to the present study is the description of the 1992, New CM curriculum (p. 65). This is the first instance in this review of related literature that a stated intent for a chronological approach was planned for the new curriculum, which is one of the two objectives in th e description of three main modules of study developed which would focus on the six main periods of Western music history, the first of which is the Medieval period The three modules were: CM Core (theory, aural skills), CM Lab/Activity (a variety of Western and non West ern ensembles, and computers in music), and CM History (World Music, jazz, and a systematic survey of the six main periods of music) (p.66). The basic premise was that the CM Core and CM History would focus on the particular historical

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48 music period, the C M Lab would bring in material from outside the period (non Western music or non common practice music) to relate through common elements to the Core and History subjects. Sometimes the material would be taken from the same period. It was most insightful to view the tables constructed by Kim showing the structure The activities in each of the three modules was described, textbooks and references for each course were listed individual projects and other assignments for the semesters. Examinations and tests for each of the three modules were also discussed. Kim also includes descriptions from observing four C M classes -three Core classes at the freshman, sophomore and junior level, and one freshman CM Lab Class. Part of the CM approach includes constant review, evaluation, and re implementation of any aspects of the music education program when identified as n eeding change. Kim adheres to this principle as well in his study. An entire chapter is devoted to the feedback from the faculty and the students concerning many areas of the curriculum and the CM approach. Ten faculty members participated in unstructur ed and semi structured interviews concerning ten topics in the CM program. Some of the topics included: general opinions about the theory of CM; the integration and synthesis in the CM courses; the CM teachers and the effect of CM on the teachers; the CM students; the strengths of the program and the reasons for the success of the program. Fifty two students participated in surveys and informal interviews in six different areas: the strengths and the weaknesses of the program; the World Music component; the CM Lab/Activity courses in relation to the Core and History courses; the composition

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49 exercises and Final Projects; and the influences and individual needs of the students. Both groups were asked for suggestions and recommendations. Kim also discusses the implementation of CM principles in the SDSU program, are presented in Drawing on data collected fr om interviews, documents, and observations, Kim describes seven basic CM areas: 1) Music of all times and places, 2) Synthesis and relationships of knowledge, 3) Renewed links between teachers and students, 4) preparation for future teachers, 5) Needs and interests of individual students, 6) Experiences with music through basic activities -listening, performance, and creation, and 7) Inter art principles of CM as s CM program at SDSU was especially concerned with the first objective Music of all times and places -which is also a primary underlying principle in this wo year CM program administered at SDSU was successful in implementing the CM principles as described in the CMP objectives. I n general, the majority of students and faculty were found to have und erstood and appreciated the CM philosophy although several concerns were voiced for future study, evaluation and implementation. The outstanding feature of this venture, its longevity and success, is rightfully attributed to Dr. David Ward lopment, support and participation in the CM program at SDSU throughout those thirty years. In citing contributing factors to the success of the program, Kim considers the smaller size of the

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50 school, the continuous administrative support, and the devotion and commitment of the strong, individual musician teachers, most notably Dr. Ward ey individuals Steinman [ had ] been an influential faculty member at SDSU and was able to promote interest among administrator and other faculty members since the IMCE experiment, cannot be over looked in as sessing true CM programs are hard to find (and this Project researcher will add that today in 2010 CM programs are seemingly just as hard to find,) the CM movement di d not promote a step by step ready made set of rules and regulations for musical learning. Instead, the CM movement advocated a philosophy and teaching strategy as an approach and practical attitude that can realistically be applied in almost any educatio nal setting, if the faculty and administrative support is there, as well as mature students interested in learning and owning their craft through a living and evolving comprehensive music curriculum. Research has shown widespread interest and concern in th e area of music teacher training and educational background. Lack of competent and knowledgeable faculty has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the implementation and success of a CM curriculum and program. W ollenzein (1997) inspects the mu sic education curriculum topics in colleges and universities in the North Central Division of the MENC. Selecting only NASM accredited schools within the division, surveys were sent to a music education faculty member at each of the 135 schools. Forty se ven

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51 institutions in ten states responded. The ten states represented in the survey are Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Part Two of the survey is of interest to the present study. Thi s section contained 76 topics regarding the undergraduate music education curricula. For each topic, three questions were asked: if the topic was included in their curriculum; which music education majors were required to study that topic; and how much ti me (in terms of class periods) was devoted to that topic (p.47 48). ( These three questions were also addressed in a preliminary research survey conducted by the present Project researcher The result of that survey can be found in Appendix Y.) The 76 to pics were grouped into more specific categories. Core Topic in Music is the specific category most related to this study. Wollenzein chose six of the 76 topics as being generally considered as core to most music curricula and for any major in music, not j ust for music education students. Those topics are: music theory and ear training; music history ( Western ) ; music of world cultures; American music i ncl uding jazz pop, folk, popular, etc.; jazz improvisation; and composition, and they fall within the sco pe of the CM curricular goals and objectives. His findings indicate there is still work to be done in providing true comprehensive music education in over half of the responding institutions. Music theory and history continue to be the main focus of one or two courses, probably several. Music in world cultures courses are on the rise with a little over half of the schools offering a full course in the subject. American music and jazz improvisation rated significantly less time and attention in these pro grams, and sadly, composition always came in last. Less than

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52 50% of the responding schools could admit to offering courses in which these three categories were the main focus. The significance of this study is that this detailed and comprehensive evaluati on can serve as a model with which will aid administration and faulty in the evaluation of their own general undergraduate music program curriculum and more specifically, in their undergraduate program for our music educators. It is mentioned in this docu ment in relation to the widespread problem of teacher training, which is a major component in at the San Diego State University. J agow (2005) recognizes and addresses the need for increased awareness of the curriculum in a comprehensive music education. Jagow a nswers this curricular need by presenting a proposed textbook, Nurturing Musicianship which outlines and discusses concept development and instrumental rehearsal te chniques and performance in great detail The study also discusses teacher training and education and the current role and responsibility of the teacher including critical perspectives from theoretical, psychological and emotional viewpoints. These pers pectives are drawn from the Although x), active in schools, colleges and univ ersities, it is also worthwhile for the orchestral conductor and of great benefit to the undergraduate and graduate music curricula can be enhanced with this textbook that attempts to provide a comprehensive paradig m for instructing band rehearsal and p. xi).

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53 Three of the issues discussed in th e document specific to the comprehensive musicianship objectives are curriculum, student motivation, and administrative leadership Ea ch of these subjects is given individual attention in chapters of their own and will benefit all music educators, administrators and new music teachers Throughout the work Jagow supports and enacts a CM approach. In the area of rehearsal technique she applies a comprehensive perspective according to the cognitive taxonomy (p. 10) Particularly useful is the listing of the taxonomies of the affective, psychomotor and cogniti ve domains as developed by Bloom and noted music educators (p. 5, 10). Knowledge of these domains is crucial in designing comprehensive and effective curricula for all music classes. College c urriculum -specific areas/classes The six research studies re viewed in this section present CM based or related curricula developed for specific subject areas and courses within the undergraduate music degree program. Through a research and literature review, S egress (1979) established the need for a jazz improvisat Within a three year period, 1977 79, h e developed and evaluated a comprehensive jazz improvisation course intended for the first semeste r of a college jazz curriculum. During improvisation classes in the spring and summer semesters in 1977, the entire curriculum materials and resources, including assessments and evaluative forms, were developed. Two pilot studies were then conducted in th e fall semester of 1977 and the spring semester of 1978 after which the curriculum was revised and readied for

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54 implementation in a classroom situation. In the spring semester of 1979 the actual dissertation project was conducted and subsequently evaluated The general conclusions reached indicated positive gains in attaining knowledge of the subject matter in many of the aspects and venues studied, in improvisation performance in the visation. However, the primary interest of this Project researcher lies in the curriculum content, structure and adherence to CM principles/guidelines. Segress divides the curriculum into nine units and each unit is divided into five sections. One unit could cover two to five class periods. One major key per unit was selected mostly in deference to instrumental considerations (Eb, F, C, Bb, G Ab, Db, Gb, and D). He stipulates that all chords and scales studied are first memorized and improvised on sepa rately before being used in tunes or progressions. Each unit is basically designed the same way. A discussion of the first unit, in Eb Major, will serve as the model for the remaining eight units It shows great significance for the present study. In eac and exercises the named major key is explored, studied, practiced, memorized, listened to, and manipulated in many ways. The first section of each unit lists the instructional objectives and performance standards particular to that uni t. The same seven are listed for each unit, but in Unit IV and V, an improvising element is added, totaling eight items. A second improvising requirement is added in Units VI and VII, now totaling nine objectives Within this section students are instruc chords and scales set at a set tempo; analyze and improvise on those same chords and

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55 scales at a set tempo. The keyboard element presented in this dissertation s curriculum keyboard technique, goals were established and tempos were set. Only in this study, the y were performing the actual modes. The second section in each unit simply listed the instructional materials used Included w ithin the listings was any equipment needed and other supplementary materials. A specific book on improvisation and a record play er are some examples. The third section listed the instructional strategies, which, like the first section, were virtually repeated in every unit. There were thirteen, which will not be individually addressed here, but summarized. The strategy was to mem orize and perform specific technical items (chords, arpeggios, scales) at a certain tempo and to certain rhythmic specifications; to memorize excerpts or exercises they had to read; to listen to excerpts and play along with a recording of them; and, of cou rse, to improvise to specific and set conditions. This same strategy is used in both studies, with the one exception that no The fourth section functions as a unit bibliography It lis t s the supplementary instructional materials used particular to each unit. Also included are any other equipment needs of the unit. Section five also lists supplementary instructional strategies These strategies for the most part reiterate those stated in section three. Compositional exercises and selected readings have been included.

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56 uncanny likeness in structure, objectives, strategies and adherence to the CM guidelines and to the keyboard theory curriculum presented in this dissertation. There are far more similarities and common ground than not between these two works, although a few weaknesses deserve mention. Segress reports in his findings that some students, although ag reeing that they did benefit from the jazz course, found there to be too much material to be covered in the curriculum. One of his recommendations was that the course be reevaluated in terms of a four semester program. This Project researcher would agree with that proposal. The course as designed requires too much complex theoretical knowledge for the freshman level. They are not ready for seventh aural skills for transc ribing from a recording or aurally analyzing complex jazz rhythms increase their listening accuracy. In the body of the dissertation, Segress presents the interesting histor y of improvisation, dating keyboard improvisation at least, back to the early 14 th century and following its trends and development to the 20th century. The th century as revealed, would be a step towards that four semester suggestion I t c ould companion or be combined with the present keyboard theory curriculum Lastly, it would provide the final step in complying with all of the CM principles, mainly the one that has received a great deal of attention, which is the study of all music eras, showing the continuity from one to the next. These three areas can be integrated with the existing curriculum without too much ado.

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57 t of other music curricula using the systems approach he used in his model. It is the opinion of this Project researcher other core music classes for a departmental core comprehensi ve music curriculum With the developed curriculum that Segress presents, this Project researcher feels that a committed CM faculty would certainly be competent enough to teach this course The freedom and flexibility inherent in the CM approach enables faculty to initiate their own added review and extra study of the material. In this way, they are free and even encouraged to de velop their particular way of handling the subject matter and to customize the course with their own special educational knowle dge and talents. S haw ( 1984) applies a comprehensive musicianship approach to solo trombone study through the use of music literature. Recognizing that several of the core music classes -theory, history and performance -are usually taught as separate com ponents with no regard to the relevance between analysis, historical information, and performance skills, Shaw presents a manual that integrates these elements. His intent the methods and exibility of the CM

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58 approach provides its adaptation to all educational levels, preschool through graduate. modification can take place in the general curriculum conten t but also at practically any time in the daily classroom and throughout the span/length of the course. Shaw background to continue developing their sk ills and musical unders tanding [ comprehension ] Three contrasting compositions from three periods of music -Baroque, Romantic, and Twentieth Century -were chosen for the study. Each work was discussed in three major categories, historical background, music al analysis, and stylistic considerations. The musical analysis considered three further topics of form, melody, and harmony. The intent was to connect the historical and theoretical aspects of each work to the performance of each work. Using this approa ch as a model to prepare other musical materials, explains Shaw, the student will develop the tools and background necessary for continued development of independent thinking. He also advocates this method for students and teachers in other applied areas. K ella (1984) develops a comprehensive curriculum for the viola and for strings in general. From personal interviews and other direct contacts with William Lincer (a renowned violin, viola, and chamber music teacher at numerous well respected schools of music in the northeastern United States) and several other contemporary viola teachers, Kella discovered a need for a complete viola curriculum that would provide a im of the proposed c development of musical response,

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59 accomplish these goals through four instructional categories: musical concepts, music al sources, instrumental skills, and interdisciplinary concepts and skills. The comprehensive research study is presented in three parts. Part One presents a historical perspective concerning the instructional literature of the violin and viola from the 1 6 th through the 20 th centuries. In the discussion of 20 th general music curriculum innovations, Kella includes a succinctly written synopsis of the history and development of the Comprehensive Musicianship movement in America and discusses two of its offs hoot programs, the Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project and the Hawaii Music Curriculum Project. Even though both of these curricula were designed for and implemented at the K 12 level, the rationales, objectives, guidelines, and basic philosophies are the same that guide undergraduate CM curricula Kella provides a clear, concise overall history of the CMP, its partner organizations, and the programs developed from their combined efforts and support. H ead (2002) developed a course outline and assessme nt of an undergraduate mplemented choral study courses that provide a comprehensive academic program, Head argues that in t they are unable to connect the historical, theoretical and performance elements when preparing and examining musical scores. He attributes most of this to the didactic way the conducting

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60 class is being taught, mostly through incessant lecturing and coun tless listening the students to dig in and take ownership of the scores in solving the issues of interpretation themselves. He then identifies two areas that have bee n neglected in choral music education: 1) combining performance practice with historical context and style in developing choral can effectively communicate to the p erformers what is happening in the music, and 2) presenting materials to the student in a way that requires the student to take the material and synthesize it in much the same way a conductor must do when handed a new score. In other words, the student n eeds to know as many ways as possible to approach and solve musical issues or problems that will arise in choral conducting, a procedure commonly known as alternative or changing modalities. As a result of a specific undergraduate course that embraces the concepts of performance practice, historical stylistic development, and about working with primary sources; guiding t involved learners; from in their future career as music educators/conductors, thus bringing immediate relevance of their undergraduate studies to their future career needs; all of which are part of the CM objectives and goals. In contrast to the curriculum aforementioned by Segress (1979), Course Outline and Assessment presented here is not a lesson by lesson curriculum, but just that -an o utline of some very good guidelines that

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61 any competent faculty should be able to absorb, assimilate and administer in absence The special significance of this study is the definite inclusion of course mate rial from the Renaissance period in the first semester. This is the first study found in the present literature review that approaches a chronological ordering of materials, as advocated in this document. Head also presents four analyses of choral literat ure that were pilot tested at the University of Delaware and the Westminster Choir College at Rider University. The first one is an analysis of a Renaissance Madrigal, and although Head stipulates that it is not the purpose at that point to try and learn everything there is to know about the Renaissance, at least the effort to include earlier music has been made. J ung (2004) claims to promote comprehensive musicianship in keyboard harmony classes for undergraduate non keyboard music majors in Korean univer sities and suggests modifications for the teachers in these keyboard classes. Jung first describes and compares the current curriculum of piano classes for non keyboard music majors in selected colleges and universities in Korea and the United States. Se condly, the views of class piano instructors were summarized regarding the relevance of the curricula to the future needs of the non keyboard music major. Then, the strengths of the curricula were examined according to the knowledge and skills developed a nd also for their relevance to the future needs of the non keyboard music major. Finally, suggestions

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62 The major differenc e found between the American and the Korean keyboard class programs was in the focus of the class offered. In Korea, the classes focused on either performance as a secondary or minor instrument, or as a specialized class, focusing on one particular functi onal keyboard skill such as transposition, modulation, sight reading, etc. The American piano classes combined the study of all the keyboard skills into the (p. 2). piano class through the more standardized approach found in the American system. To demonstrate the new approach, Jung presents four sample lesson plans, one for each semeste r of a four semester program. And although, Jung does succeed in assimilating a variety of keyboard activities and including many of the specific skills that had been previously isolated in separate classes, Jung falls short of presenting a truly comprehe nsive program. are either missing or not adequately addressed that would define this plan as a comprehensive approach. In a more detailed study of only the first lesson plan which is suggested for the first semester piano class, several components are either missing or not adequately addressed that would define this plan as a comprehensive approac h. With the presentation or the first piece, no historical information concerning the piece or its composer is either given or asked for. Other than a brief explanation of the word riod from which it came or to any other even general background information that would help the student

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63 1708) would at least place the piece and the composer in a historical time period. T aking a few moments to mention that he was an English composer and contemporary of Purcell who wrote an abundance of harpsichord music, became the organist at Westminster Abbey, and whose opera, Venus and Adonis is one of the earliest surviving operas wou ld provide the missing comprehensive element. Also, in widening the focus of the class this way, people, places and things are mentioned that many, if not most, of the students will have heard of before. Thus a relationship is established, musical meanin g is acquired, and therefore, memory develops. The students have previous knowledge they can connect to this new knowledge and retain more successfully. Another obvious omission is the development and use of singing in the keyboard class. There was no si nging included as part of the desired varied activities in the lesson plan. Incorporating singing into the lesson plan would complement and reinforce all of the keyboard elements studied, while further training the ear and encouraging students to internal ize the class material. One other problem remains with this study. The data collection instruments included a five question survey, interviews, and information collected from websites. Since only one of sixty two surveys was returned, and only two person s were interviewed, the data for this document, in reality, becomes a statistical listing of college courses and course descriptions gleaned from college websites. From this kind of information there is no real way to determine how much attention is devot ed to each skill and developmental area, nor is there any data to show that all of these areas in fact

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64 were taught, or in what sequence, or any evaluative information as to the success of the courses. the present work. Both studies aspire to the CM approach and both studies deal with undergraduate non keyboard music majors. Both studies also incorporate varied activities within each class period, or lesson, as teaching and learning strategies within suggested lesson plans fall short of true comprehensive musicianship. As has been shown already in this literature review, a CM approach can be implemented in practically every learning situation and environment. Merely changin g the class structure from individual mini lessons to a group class piano does not signify CM in any way. Research and practical teaching experience proves that CM can be followed in individual and class settings. Quantity of activity, although provided with quality, still does not guarantee or comprise comprehensiveness. S ervias (2010) provides a keyboard curriculum (tonal music only) intended for the undergraduate music major in lieu of the current piano class curriculum. Although he musicianship and most of the curriculum goals, objectives, and teaching strategies do reflect the CM philosophy, if not always the approach. The set of originally designed exercises and A bstract), improving general musicianship instead of focusing on performance skills and repertoire. He argues that a study such as this is an A bstract). He continually reminds his readers that the proposed curriculum

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65 does not address performance or technique, but functions as a tool through which studen ts will develop musical understanding and see the relevance of harmony and music theory. He maintains that the course should occupy a place beside the written theory and aural skills courses as part of the core curriculum. Further defining the scope and n eed for the study, Servias observes, as many other researchers have, that students are not finding relevance in piano class to their he correctly assesses that many st udents see their required piano courses as nothing more than another hurdle to clear in the path of their music education. As a result, the class holds little value for the student; the student becomes unmotivated, and next to nothing is retained from the piano class experience. Many times, the situation worsens when both teacher and student have relegated the piano class to just another item on the graduation checklist. Servias is attempting to refocus these kinds of attitudes towards piano class by re designing the curriculum to focus on the application of functional skills as studied in written theory and aural skills courses. Using this approach he hopes that keyboard class will be more generally recognized and accepted as an essential component in stated areas of emphasis in his curriculum related to the theory and ear training courses are playing, listening, improvising and composing at the keyboard. The significance of this study to the prese educational philosophy and teaching strategies reflect, in theory, a CM approach. He is concerned with student motivation active learning and student involvement. He believes that the keyboard class is an equal partner with the theory and aural skills

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66 classes, not to be confused with performance and technique class. Within the actual activities and exercises, a CM approach is taken, going from larger to smaller, known to unknown, and building upon material already learn ed within the particular exercise or lesson. Singing is included in the lessons to increase ear training and internalize melodic and harmonic materials. However, some problems surfaced upon further review of the actual exercise and activities. Servias div ides his exercises into four groups, one for each semester of a two year program. The first semester contains thirty pages of exercises and activities, and that section only is reviewed here to determine relevance to the first semester course presented in this document. later admits greatly minimizing attention to those scales, along with arpeggios (p. 2). Scales are the building blocks of the melodic and harmonic concepts in tonal music, and knowledge and proficiency in playing them is a necessity for competent application and use in playing, ear training, improvising and composing, the very skill s listed as components of the curriculum. One has to wonder about this contradiction in the philosophy and the curriculum. materials and the noticeable lack of any conne cting information when a new skill or exercises do not connect to each othe r, and there is no progressive flow from one

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67 activity to the next. Several exercises/activities focus on skills that needed to be addressed earlier in the sequence to set up the lesson they actually follow and several more jump from one skill/concept area to another and back again. For example, one activity presents the figured bass style of playing with a single tone in the left hand while the right hand takes the triad. The very next exercise presents four part chorale style settings, which is then fol lowed by another activity involving the figured bass style. And while this may seem like a good pedagogical effort to expose students to the different styles, from personal experience, this Project researcher can verify that a sequence such as this is a p rescription for keyboard disaster. First semester freshman students are not ready for so many different styles of playing combined with trying to absorb and master the theoretical concepts that accompany each, while also being asked, (other than the piano majors) to learn to play a new instrument, and especially when no explanatory or background information is provided along with the exercises. The hundreds of years of musical styles and literature and nothing is offered about the Again, too much is expected, in ability and in comprehension, of t he nubile college student. Thirty pages of exercises is suggested for the first semester. The second semester is allocated only twenty pages, and the third semester only eighteen. It is not until the fourth and final semester that the number of assignme nts increases. A worthwhile suggestion here would encompass restructuring not only the order and

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68 content of the lessons, but also the amount of material expected to be mastered in each semester. With that in mind, it seems that the overall problem here is the conflict of stated arguments, rationale and philosophy support the development of general keyboard proficiency and musicianship, the actual materials presented do not solve the problems addressed in the discussion. The exercises do not follow a guided, sequenced method nor do they build from one lesson to the next. Too many concepts and skills are expected to be covered in one semester, especially the first one. Too much is left to the instructor, who may or may not, have enough experience of their own to contribute any further research or construction of more class material. To handle the thirty pages in one sixteen week semester, an average of about two lessons per week would have to be completed. This is an unrealistic suggestion and expectation. I t defies the previously discussed idea of taking the time to educate and not rush ing the students through the material so they can have the necessary time to assimilate evaluate, synthesize and then create. In final analysis, Servias does correctly describe these exercises and activities as n of exercises alone does not constitute a curriculum. The best use of this presented material is simply as supplementary exercises for a course already defined with a curriculum that relates the activities at the keyboard to the history and theoretical development of music.

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69 Community c ollege Too little research in music and music education has occurred at the community/junior college level Out of the hundreds of studies and abstracts reviewed, less than 20 were found concerning music in general, and only the following two studies that are related to the present study. B enson (1994) conducted a case study of five community colleges in the south central United States (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma) to establish icular functions (p.6) are prioritized by their existing music programs. One aspect of the study relevant to this dissertation is the portion addressing whether the community colleges had the necessary resources to successfully implement c omprehensive mu sic programs. Data was gathered via the college catalogs and from interviews with music faculty program heads chief academic officers and division chairs through visits at each institution. human resources necessary to support comprehensive music but several colleges seemed to be lacking the needed physical resources. Further and more detailed study into this situation was recommended. The curriculum in this dissertation is intended to cover a two year period. comprehensive musicianship program as suggested in this document. An even stronger argument for incorporating a comprehensive musicianship curriculum at the community college level appears in his own findings (p.161) Benson states that ograms may not

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70 programs Benson reports that the colleges in the study were lacking a true comprehensive program for music career (1972 ) repeated mantra that a weakness must be identified in order to provide the basis for constructing new curricula education community a definite weakness in the curriculum, thus establishing the need for curricular change. The re is encouraging significance in A viable educational situation has been discovered in which a total program of comprehensive musicianship could be pilot tested and further developed probably much ea sier than in the larger four year institutions. Once the program is implemented successfully in the community college environment, it seems viable that this finis hed product could be more welcomed in the larger music departments or schools of music in whi ch many times, change can be harder to achieve. R ushton (1994) conducted an evaluative study of the music program at Trinity Western University, a small, private Christian university in Langley, British Columbia. It opened in 1962 as Trinity Junior Col lege, offering a two year university transfer program. Ten years later, in 1972, the name changed to Trinity Western College and by 1979 degree granting privileges were earned. In 1983 the first B achelor of Arts degrees in music were awarded. In 1993 94 ten years later, Rushton, chairman of the music department at now Trinity Western University, determined (as Black had done in his 1972 study), the need to evaluate the curricular needs, teaching strategies and current opinions of the now ten year old mu sic program. two fold: to evaluate the quality of the existing music program and to determine which

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71 entering a new century. He determined the quality of the existing program by evaluating it according to the NASM standards and guidelines for liberal arts degrees in music. Rushton realized the changing environment of the late 20th century. complex, rapidly changing, pluralistic technological, and multi the ideological basis of his study is dr awn from the philosophy and ideals of the comprehensive musicianship movement and from the 1986 College Music Society focus and content of present undergraduate curricula in mus ic. Three data collection instruments, two questionnaires and a survey, were created and administered within the music department population. One questionnaire was given to first year students to establish, among other things, their expectations of Trinit ten years of classes at Trinity, to determine their post graduation musical careers and activities, but also to obtain their opinions and assessments of the music program at Trinity. Both groups were asked to rate themselves on each of six personal attributes that Rushton determined as requisite to the development of comprehensive musicianship. Four of these six qualities were also considerations in the planning the objecti level of student motivation; self discipline in study habits; level of self discipline in practice habits; and the willingness to learn about new and unfamiliar styles of musi c.

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72 The third instrument, a 75 item survey, was dispersed to a well proportioned population representing all participants in the music program for the first ten years of year music ma jors, music students mid way through the program, present and former music faculty, They were asked to rate the items in order of strongest agreement to the least of each statement. In reviewing the top 25 ratings, at least 17 of the statements involved some aspect of comprehensive musicianship or the four categories previously defined as curriculum, students, faculty and administration. The first and third place top ics competent music professionals The next seven out of eight statements applied direc tly to issues in the curriculum, the most significant for this study being the seventh th substantive experience in complete 91). Ranking #17 addresses the chu rch music curriculum, insisting on inclusion of all musics, from pre Renaissance motets and masses to gospel songs and hymns. The demand for performance majors complete understanding of music theory and history in r anking #19 segues to #20 which states that the m based education for music

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73 Statement #23 reinforces the musicianship concept of administrative, faculty and staff working together in strategic planning efforts. Perhaps the most interesting rating, for this Project researcher at least, was the statement ranked last, in 75 th 20th cen 3.5% of the surveyed population (N=85) agreed with this statement, indicating a desire on the part of the participants to proceed not backward s but frontward s in time, chron ologically in theory and his tory study of the earlier centuries in music. The Project researcher would point out that 1600 is not the beginning of music and would refer the reader s of this document to the proposed curriculum study presented in this rese arch study. It is specifically significant to the present study since the data collected established the presence of the need for a com prehensive musicianship approach in the college music curriculum. It is also interesting to study the development of a two year junior college into a four year institution offering the professional bachelor of music degree. P re collegiate s tudies. Studie s concerning comprehensive music comprehensive musicianship and comprehensive music curriculum at the pre collegiate level public and private. This category spans the entire pre college educational years from preschool through senior high school. Bec ause the focus of this dissertation is an undergraduate curriculum, it does not fall within the scope of this work to delve into detailed research findings in this area. However, it is considered significant to the

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74 present study that the reader understand s how broadly, how diversely, and how successfully comprehensive musicianship has been applied to all levels of education from early preschool beginnings to terminal graduate degree programs. For the most part, general synopses or overviews will be presen ted. and ease in accessing particular areas of interest. The first category contains studies concerned with or applicable to the preschool through high school years. The seco nd category focuses on the senior high school years, generally considered ninth to twelfth grades, but some studies and some schools include eighth grade, or combine a junior or middle school with high school and those studies will be included in this seco nd category. The third category is middle or junior high schools, generally sixth to eighth grades, but at least one study is included that encompassed the elementary and the middle school grades, first through eighth. The fourth category lists all resea rch in the elementary field, from preschool through fifth grade. It is acknowledged that these are very arbitrary guidelines, but it fits the studies researched in this chapter. Pre school 12 th grade (p reK 12 ). W oods (1973) describes and evaluates the CMP oriented PreK 12 music curriculum at Colorado Academy, a private school near Denver. Founded in 1971 as a twelve year country day school, it served around 400 students at the time in classes of usually ten to fifteen students, rarely over twenty, student By reviewing and evaluating this program, which was developed from the CM principles established at the Northwestern Seminar in April, 1965, Woods provides all those involved in mus

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75 comprehensive totality of music learning from accomplishment level to accomplishment emphasize [ d ] comprehensive musi education preschool through high school music educators can evaluate a total process of music learning influenced by the concepts and objectives advocated by the Contemporary Music Project (p. l4) For each grade level Woods lists and briefly discusses the principles and eleven objectives built into the curriculum which followed the spiral curriculum as advocated by J erome Bruner. He provides the guidelines to show how they can be incorporated into the class structure and activities. He also provides summations of the program at each grade level. His final recommendations and ultimate findings reinforce at the PreK 12 level of education and support the principles and objectives of the CM approach to music education. E rnst (1974) presents a taxonomical study and analysis of selected portions of lum Project, which was formed in 1968, developed and published a specific curriculum intended to provide a comprehensive musicianship course for the general music, performance, and academic classes from K indergarten through the twelfth grade. It is clearl y stipulated that this comprehensive program is not to be confused with the CMP program of the MENC and Ford series of publication which were first published in 1973 for public distribution. This stud y is mentioned at this time because this specific program and curriculum is often referred

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76 to in research concerning comprehensive musicianship. Those readers interested in rrelation of student behaviors and the achievement of the taxonomical objectives. This area falls and to show the continuing impact of the original comprehensive musician ship movement from the mainland. Comprehensive musicianship and music education is seen as the answer by many studies to the meeting of portions of the National Standards and also to many of the MENC goals in music education. A questionnaire study by R ive ire (1997) investigates the curriculum content of K 12 string classes in California in relation to the National Standards with emphasis on improvisation. The study also addresses the string teacher tudes and self confidence in teaching a more comprehensive music curriculum than the traditional repertoire (Abstract). High s chool (9 th 12 th ) D (1993) study promotes a comprehensive basis in music education. He cites the conceptu al approach of well known pedagogues Emile Jaques Dalcroze, Soltan Kodaly, Carl Orff, and Shinichi Suzuki as the basis for developing and maintaining an effective and successful wind and percussion education program in 6 th 12 th grades. Daigneault states t beginner, concert, and marching bands has the potential to promote comprehensive music skills which should ultimately lead to the MENC goal of music literacy in music He concludes in his study that ins trumental music education would be

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77 is contingent upon the college music education musical elements associated with building and maintaining an effective instrumental music education Abstract ) Sometimes the problem is not re ally a musical one, but an administrative one. For example, because of a change to block scheduling, band directors were finding it hard to teach everything they needed to teach while also maintaining a quality performance program. N orrington (2006) deve loped a model for secondary school band directors that would be compatible with the block scheduling issues while also fostering a comprehensive music education. The focus was placed on a major objective in the comprehensive approach, using student center ed learning activities which would provide more educational freedom and individual student motivation Because of increasingly extreme and more frequent budget cuts in public school systems H arris (2006) identified the need for band directors to educate a ll involved (administration, other faculty, parents, and students) in understanding that music classes, specifically band in this study, are worthy academic pursuits that should not be excluded from the high school curriculum. Harris states, however, that the band curricula have suffered because of too much emphasis on performances and (Abstract) in hurrying to prepare, or teach to the next performance. The solution offer ed in this study is providing an outline of a written comprehensive music theory component

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78 to be used on a daily basis specifically in the band class. Sample lessons, quizzes and exercises are provided. In the area of private instruction of clarinet at th e intermediate, pre collegiate level, S tarling (2005) cites an imbalance of the content in the available teaching materials. caused the emphasis to fall mostly in three areas -technique, tone production, and reading music. A search for comprehensive method books for clarinet revealed that what little there was available seemed to r this need, and to meet the national standards set as well as university admission requirements, Starling has constructed a method book curriculum which combines performance objectives with the c omprehensive music approach. The curriculum is based on the principles and concepts developed and implemented by the offshoot programs of the CMP which specifically the Manhattanville Music Curriculum Program, the Hawaii Music Curriculum Project and the Wisconsin Comprehensive Musicianshi p through Performance programs. Sample teaching units of the new clarinet method curriculum are included in the study. Middle/junior high (6th 8 th ; 1st 8 th ) In an Ontario study of the primary and junior st 8 th ) music education program. R inald o ( 2001 ) voices concern over the contemporary mindset of society that values expediency of performance over quality. rather than process; a concept that is fundamentally against everything for which music

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79 (Abstract) that will benefit both the specialist and the general music teac her in these grades. The second chapter reviews literature concerning the roles of both student and teacher, as well as arts pedagogy. In Florida, H owle (1999) She investigate d thirteen listed aspec ts pertaining to that particular choral experience, was gathered through questionnaires, interviews, and concert attendance. It was found that the directors focused more on singing than music education concepts. The (Abstract) their own outside study. Elementa ry ( p reschool 5th) It is never too early to begin teaching comprehensive musicianship to young students/musicians. Research show numerous and varied studies, worldwide, whose goal is a comprehensive music curriculum beginning in early childhood and exte nding through graduate study. Four research studies are briefly discussed. S trange (1990) recognize d the problems of an imbalanced program which over emphasizes performance skills and neglects the broader aspects in music, such as music history and litera ture, theory and composition. Based on the CM movement of sequential and comprehensive approach. The study presents a comprehensive elementary music curriculum designed f or the beginning level of violin which combines

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80 comprehensive approach deals with all aspects of musical training in an integrated, carefully sequenced program providing stude nts with a wide knowledge and broad 5 ) Her approach provide s the student with the chance to listen, compose, perform, analyze and improvise. She maintains that by actively involving the students in these processes of music and through a comprehensive approach, the students will achieve a greater understanding of music, thereby impr oving their musical literacy. A study concerning preschool aged children, T homas L ee (2003) involved the teaching of piano to four and five year old s. Ten piano method books were evaluated to determine if they included the necessary elements as decided by other researchers ge (Abstract) Even at this young age, the call for com prehensive music curricula is heard. The results of this study indicated that although each method book addressed at least one, usually more, of the main elements in comprehensive musicianship, not one method addressed the elements in equal percentages. R ho (2004) worked with five year old Kindergarten children in South Korea to develop an extensive music curriculum for early childhood. One of the problems of the two year study was to develop an appropriate, multi level, comprehensive music (Abstract) in this case, the Audie Music Curriculum Three groups of children participated in the study. Experimental Group I followed the curriculum for one year; Experimental Group II followed the curriculum for two years, and Control Group I

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81 and II d id not follow the curriculum at any time during the two years. The results indicate effective adaptation of the children in Groups I and II to the curriculum. B urdman (2007) worked with 4 th (Abstrac t) to teach notation through a multisensory pedagogical approach. In a brief discussion of the importance of reading music at an early age, she cites an online source (Isaacson, 2005, p. 389) which explains that the origins of contemporary music notation are found in the Middle Ages with later developments in the Renaissance and ongoing today. This source is included in the List of References She describes the Comprehensive Musicianship on that is integrated, and that shows the Burdman defines the disadvantaged learning situation in her study as the comprehensive music curriculum high turnover of music teachers, and low priority R elated s tudies. B r ief mention i ncludes three areas: historical studies; theory textbook studies pertai ning to comprehensive musicianship ; and biographical studies of music educators and their use of, influence in, development of and contributions to the comprehensive musicianship approach Historical The true genesis of the c omprehensive musicianship mov ement upon and experimental programs funded initially by the Ford Foundation. Later the administration and implementation of said projects was transferred to the MENC and it

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82 conferences that the principles and objectives of CM were discussed, studied and formulated. Implementation and evaluation of the CM programs occurred at many participating inst K idd (1984) provides a detailed, comprehensive historical account of the MENC in an analysis of its curricular philosophy during those years. He begins his study with a section describing the state of music education in Am erican Society beginning in 1930, identifying the influences on music education, the music profession at the time, the problem of the post war years and ends with a general overview of music education from 1930 to 1960. The majority of the data is gathered publications. He cites as particularly useful the personal interviews conducted from 1968 1970 with the national presidents of the MENC. Supportive materials were gathered from special project reports, conven tions and symposiums as well as pertinent doctoral dissertations. In the opinion of this Project researcher, the entire study is pertinent and relevant to the present dissertation because it provides an interesting and succinct but broad and comprehensive overview of music education in America, 1930 development of significant and influential programs and organizations which have shaped and contributed to the present music educational environment. The reader is referred to this disse rtation study for a more detailed look into the history of the entire CM movement; as an outgrowth of the CMP experimental programs; the development of its philosophy, objectives and goals; the implementation of the experimental programs; and the support o f and funding by the varied organizations, institutions,

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83 The section most relevant to this study and t hat of CM is the account of the CMP and the Northwestern Seminar. The eleven principles of CM were formulated at the Northwestern Seminar and are listed in Appendix U These principles, Kidd states, t processes for the remaining projects [ of the MENC ] I n her own comprehensive study M ueller (1995) provides detailed insight to the piano pedagogy of the nineteenth century in which the early beginnings of comprehensive music can be traced The periodical literature of the day shows continual encouragement to pedagogues to expand their methodologies and employ new ideas, of which comprehensive music appreciation was one. The evolution of educational philo sophies and teaching strategies are explored and discussed at length, providing the background from which the 20th century pedagogical thought emerged. Mueller shows that piano instruction methods were developing a broader perspec tive, widening the focus and aiming toward a more comprehensive approach in piano pedagogy. Theory textbook study Of particular interest and significance to the present study is M (1995) investigation of philosophical trends in written music theor y skills through the examination of music theory textbooks in the United States from 1941 to in chronological order so that the reader will understand (comprehend) the infl uences of and developments in the trends as reflected in the evolution of the textbooks. Using a

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84 chronological approach in the study and teaching of music is one of the two main principles espoused in the present work. The same reasoning applies to the s tudy of music, especially at the undergraduate level of education. If Murrow had presented his discussions out of chronological order, it would have been more confusing and much more difficult to trace the influences of and developments in the trends and the textbooks. Murrow selected 38 textbooks for his study, each with some unique feature or new pedagogical approaches in music theory instruction developed: 1) the Common Practice Approach, 2) the Schenkerian Approach, 3) the Comprehensive Musicianship Approach, and 4) the Programmed Instruction Approach. He uses these four categories in grouping the 38 texts in his discussions. It is the third category, the Compr ehensive Musicianship Approach, that is of sole interest to the present study. Murrow lists and discusses 14 texts in the Comprehensive Musicianship category. Many times he gives a chapter by chapter analysis of content, exercises, assignments and other s pecifics, and other times he provides a broader perspective of the general approach. But for each, Murrow points out the distinguishing features that reflect one or more principles and philosophies in the CM approach. He also compares them to subsequent editions of the text and to any accompanying workbooks as well as to texts using the other three approaches. It is noted that some texts in this chapter used combined approaches, so they were included in more than one category. For example, the Christ te xt and the Kraft text were also discussed in the Schenkerian Approach Chapter for those portions of the texts that were designed from that approach.

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85 Murrow explains that the early CM texts appeared in the mid major differences in this approach from the previous common practice approach: 1) the emphasis on the study of melody and 2) the inclusions of additional historical periods, the Renaissance and the 20th century. Another philosophical trend became apparent as the CM approach evolv ed. It was observed that more and more theory texts were using actual music literature as the basis and source material for music instruction, and Murrow notes this in his descriptions. Of the 14 theory textbooks discussed in the Comprehensive Musiciansh ip Approach chapter, only those texts significantly implementing the CM philosophy and principles, as described by Murrow, will be mentioned briefly in this review. The first and earliest text mentioned, Siegmeister, Harmony and Melody 1965, seems to func tion mostly as a common practice text, but Murrow calls attention to the expansion of the scope of this text. It is significant to this study that not only did the scope expand to cover the Renaissance, it went further to include Medieval music and extend ed through the 20th century. Not all of the texts mentioned in the chapter include a worthy study of M edieval music. The emphasis on the study of melody in this text was brought up to that of the study of harmony. Siegmeister was also the first theorist The Christ, et al. (1966 67; 1972 73; 1980 81) text used a spiral approach progressing from a simple to complex study of melody. The text places the study of two, three, and four voices before the study of harmony and also includes a great

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86 number of various exercises. Acco than ent h The scope of the Cooper (1973) text, spans 500 years, 1450 1950, and uses musical examples taken from literature as early as the eleventh century through the lso used the spiral approach in the historical 229). He adds that in the second edition, a significant number of musical examples had been includ ed. volume text with a two volume companion anthology also employs the spiral approach in covering the medieval period to the 20th century. Main histo rical vantage point (p. 242), enabling the student to understand how one event or development lead to another. Increased emphasis on the study of melody appeared in the reasons for this return was to study the chorale melodies and how they have been used to form the basis for larger scale works. Benward ( 1977 ) also offers a two volume text with accompanying workbooks. The first edition does take a historical approac h, but in the specific area of notation, beginning ca. 650 and extending through the 17th concentrated effort [ was made ] throughout the text to focus on the historical perspective of harmony and voice leading, from the Midd le Ages to the 20th century (p.247). In the fourth edition, with Gary White (1989 1990), the chapters were reordered chronologically from the Renaissance to the 20th century.

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87 Brandt Basic Principles of Music Theory is Volume VI of a plann ed twelve volume series entitled The Comprehensive Study of Music Volumes I V serve X. Only Volumes I VI were published. Although Murrow provides an analysis of the intr oductory music theory text, the interest of the present study lies in the five anthologies completed and published. They are arranged in chronological order and were to be coupled with a corresponding theory/history text in the same musical period as the anthology. Volume I: Anthology of Plainchant Through Gabrieli is one of the resource texts used in the pilot test study in this dissertation, from which several exercises and assignments in ear training and dictation were drawn. Volume II covers Montever di t hrough Mozart; Volume III: Beethoven t hrough Wagner; and Volume IV: Debussy t hrough Stockhausen. Volume V contains piano reductions to be used for score study. This concept of anthology with a corresponding historical/theoretical text in addition to workbooks in ear training, sight singing, and keyboard harmony aligns well with the CM principles and approach. Murrow points out that criticism of the Volume VI theory book suggested that the comprehensive approach used in the book was too confusing and t oo eclectic in its desire to cover all approaches, appeal to all students, and to study all the theoretical bases in all musical eras. In other words, the introduction overdid itself in trying to be comprehensive (meaning expansive and all inclusory) and therefore ended up in a please all please none kind of situation. If Volumes VII XII were to be written, it seems quite plausible that the problems of the introductory Volume VI could be resolved through those texts. It is unfortunate that this series was never completed.

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88 volume text, Music Theory Through Literature (1985), may be the most truly comprehensive text reviewed so far. in music history, 269). Of even greater significance to the present study, this text is one of the few theory texts found by this Project researcher that unabashedly supports and implements a chronological approach. The text begins in the tenth century with Gregorian Chant and extends through the 20th century with music of Krystof Penderecki and George Crumb. Also, in opening the text with the vocally dominated medieval period, it follows tha t emphasis on the study of melody is inherent. The inclusion of all musical eras in 1,000 years solves the earlier identified problem of concentrating on only two or three musical eras. Baur has selected 30 compositions, either in whole or part, which ar e then discussed in Murrow, p. 269). Thus the development of music over some 1,000 years is traced as Baur itemizes the stylistic [a nd ] harmony, [ consonance an d ] dissonance, There are sound pedagogical reasons for presenting the material in this fashion ( chronologically). The most im portant is that the progression of musical and theoretical ideas from century to century becomes clear and understandable to the student. In addition, by presenting the material in this manner one can avoid any prejudicial emphasis of style or period. On e need not explain why a theory course begins with the earliest notated music, in fact, beginning elsewhere ought to require justification. Baur explain s the selection of the compositions later on saying that rather than focusing only on their historical placement, the pieces are used to provide an ascending order of skill complexity, (from) melodic intervals in plainchant to harmonic intervals in organum to triads in thirteenth

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89 century motets, and so on. (Stylistic conventions and practices) are in troduced as they occur in the pieces quoted. In this way the theoretical and the historical materials are gradually fused, creating a clear understanding (comprehension) of style (and history) for the student. (p. 269 270). A text constructed and compile d in this manner serves not only as a true comprehensive textbook, but also as a guide for instructors to study musical selections of their own choosing. A subsequent edition of this text could then include works from 1985 to the present. A list of the C omprehensive Musicianship textbooks as classified by Murrow in his study is provided in Appendix Z Ruviella Knorr ( 2004 ) includes in her biographical research study of George Frederick Root (1820 1895) an extensive section comparing current (2004) musicia here, as her study is included in the following Biographical category. Biographical As part of his study, Kress ( 1982) presents the educational philosophies of composer Roger Se ssions Many of his philosophies on music education agree with the u nderlying principles of the CM programs used in the Manhattanville Music experimental IMCE program, and views concerning the composer as the focus of music education, the curriculum, the composer teacher approach, the teacher university relationship, and the student teacher relationship, as well as other related topics and ideas. Steele ( 1988) calls attentio 1945 pedagogy was this new curriculum approach, imp lemented at Juilliard in 1947, using

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90 music itself as the source of information rather than textbooks and other materials written about music. Presented as a philosophical concept and approach over an unyielding method or system of instruction and aimed at teaching musicianship including all periods of music, Steele credits this approach as a precedent to the later CM philosophies and succeeding CM programs such as the YCP, the CMP, and the IMCE projects. Forester ( 1997) documents the life of piano pedagogu e Robert Pace and discusses his contributions to music education in piano pedagogy. Forester shows that and quite extensive in scope, he promoted and practiced a comprehensive musicianship approach to music education. He may be best known for his published series of piano method books of thousands of private teachers and piano students throughout the following years with its musicianship approach. His influence is also felt in his teaching career at Columbia Teachers College in training the next generation of music teachers, both public and private, in a comprehensive musicianship approach. In her biographical study Fast ( 1997) investigates the contributions of Marguerite Miller to piano pedagogy at Wichita State University (WSU) where Miller taught piano, group piano, and piano pedagogy for thirty eight years. After attending a Comprehensive Musicianship workshop in 1970 at WSU, Miller immediately began incorporating CM principles into her own teaching. She became active ly involved in the CM from 1971 to 1975, presenting CM workshops throughout Kansas as well as at

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91 division and national MENC Conventions. Her influ ence also effected significant changes in the WSU music department curriculum. Ruviella Knorr ( 2004) traces the early origins of a CM (integrated) approach back to student apprentice and later fr iend of Lowell influences, Ruviella Knorr focuses on his two instructional manuals, The Musical Curriculum of 1864 and 1872, calling attention to their unique approach of integrating theory, harmony, and sight singing with piano and voice training. She also compares or new integrative curricula, programs, and texts [ educators ] in 21st century classrooms Her analysis of current musicianship Profession al Journals a nd Periodicals Professional journals and periodicals were reviewed present. The particular articles mentioned in this section of the study were chosen for their relevance and significance to CM concerning the YCP; the Northwestern Seminar; the IMCE pilot program for CM; and particularly chronological/historical sequencing in CM curricula. Other articles considered appropriate to the present study may be included. (There was also interest in trying to determine what current interest and support there may still be in developing and implementing comprehensive musicianship at the undergraduate level. ) There are hundreds of a rticles in the past 5 0 + years relating to comprehensive musicianship from broad to specific topic s of research, study and discussion

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92 Professional journals and periodicals were and over 680 titles were reviewed concerning comprehensive musicianship, undergraduate college curricula, and chronological sequen cing. Approximately 50 articles in addition to one entire issue of a publication were found to specifically relate to the topics listed above. It is not the intent of this present work to provide a specific or detailed historical account or documentation of the origins or the development of the comprehensive musicianship movement. Research has shown i t is already well doc u mented ; rather the purpose of this review is to provide general background approach and how successful the CM programs really were and still can be. In considering the articles chronologically, it is not surprising to discover that the bulk of information concerning CM appeared in the journals and periodicals of the during the crest of the CM wave in music education in the United States. Participants, administrative directors and organizers, school music supervisors and directors, composers, music educators, students and others involved in the many projects and experiments of the MENC/Ford Foundation ventures contributed their opinions and ideas, accounts and descriptions of their particular involvements in these programs. As a result, an abundance of good primary source information is now available for succeeding generations and as a fount of generative material for further research and educational use. These articles range from one to two page listings of factual matters to several page short es

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93 philosophies to a few voluminous accounts of the events, conferences, and experiments in the CM history. YCP & Norman D ello J oio Robert Washburn (1960), one of the original twelve participants during the first year, 1959 in (p. 108) experience in the Elkhart, Indiana school district. On a more personal level, he cites being able to compose exclusivel y for an entire year as a luxury unknown to most composers, who usually are juggling several jobs, musical and non musical, just to make a decent living for themselves and their families. He also appreciates and has grown tremendously in his craft from wo rking in a live, hands on environment in which he interacts with the students who will be performing his works, getting immediate feedback from both student performer as well as advice and guidance from the school music director/supervisor, and also establ ishing a healthy, person to person relationship with the local community audience throughout the year. of today which will and audiences. The second one called the attention of the composers to the potential music and who can be found in the public schools across the country (p.109) William Gowdy, choral director at Elkhart High School and one of the two directors who worked with Washburn (the other was the instrumental director, John Davies), cites the com

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94 the program and in stimulat [ ing ] interest in performance of contemporary music by administration, faculty and students and confides that their only consolation at losing Washburn a t the end of the first year is the acquisition of a new composer, William Thomson, for the second year of the project. These observations, experiences, and conclusions are not unique to this one situation in Elkhart. The majority of the literature reflec ts the same sentiments by those involved and overwhelming support for the composer in residence programs (p. 109). Peter Schickele (1967) happily writes of his own unique experience in his year as a composer in the YCP program at three very active Los Ange les area high schools. He admits he was interested in the composer in residence program from the start in performers orking composer (p. 73) ; working in an environment different than the usual commission type work; writing for a wide variety of instrumental and vocal combinat ions at varying degrees of ability; and working with good teachers who were open minded about new (p. 75) from his standpoint and, having gott en to know many of them, feels that the students felt the same way.

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95 The influence and leadership of Norman Dello Joio cannot be ignored when discussing the CM movement as it is his name and his suggestion to the Ford Foundation of putting composers in the public schools in the first place that started the ensuing projects. If just one article was to be read concerning the origination of the CMP and its resulting projects, seminars, workshops and experimental programs, this very informative account of the C MP presented by Dello Joio (1968 ) would be the one. He traces his involvement in the history of the CMP for the first eight years, 1959 1968, as director of the project, from its genesis in 1957 through the Ford Foundation grant with the Young Composers P roject to its near completion and evolution in 1968. He shares his preliminary thoughts about composition, musical creativity, roles and responsibility of both teacher and student, and music education in general, all of which became the background and fun damental basis of the direction and goals of the Contemporary Music Project (CMP) which later became the C omprehensive Musicianship Program (CMP) After his first meeting with the Ford Foundation he reflected on questions arising from areas, many of which are concerns of the present Project researcher process that can be of excitement as the [ student ] 45 46). All aims towards the education of the professional musician (by professio nal teachers) and how to best achieve these goals of life long learning and life (p. 46) This thirty of the IMCE conducted from 1966 1968. The intent of that experimental study was to implement the principles of comprehensive musicianship as had been defined in the April 1965 Northwestern Symposium / Seminar Dello Joio, Project Chairman, provides a

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96 personal narrative of his recollections, i ncluding educational philosophies which helped shape the Project as well as citing factual events of the Project. However, he is not the sole author of the article. Several other participants, such as the Project Director, Grant Beg l arian, committee membe r Louis G. Wersen, and one of the composers, Martin Mailman, contributed shorter, topic specific articles within the bigger article which were mentioned in his recanting. T his group of articles provides valuable source material concerning major aspects of the CMP project which include a personal overall narrative of its origins from the first Project Chairman; personal accounts from one of the composers, Martin Mailman, and two of the participating school music directors, Howard Halgedahl and Gary Fletcher. entries concerning the Composers in Public S chools (YCP); Northwestern Seminar; the IMCE and the Regional Directors Report; the listing of the Project Policy Committee members and their length of service on that committee; a map of all the composers and their location and years there; and, finally, a list of the resulting CMP publications. T he reader is referred to the CMP publications and newsletters for more primary source information on all aspects of the entire project and affiliated events. Alex Zimmerman, then president of the MENC (1963) announces the awarding of year Project on Contemporary Music in the Schools (p. 37) In a one page concise synopsis, he outlines the project goals and planned activities, the first of which was the continuation of the Young Composers Project w hich the Foundation had begun four years earlier.

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97 He lists the expected outcomes of the Project and identifies the Project Director, R. Bernard Fitzgerald, and the Assistant Project Director, Grant Beglarian. The Project included many other activities, s eminars, and workshops during the five year period. Under the direction of the MENC with the funding of the Ford Foundation, a Joint Committee was appointed to direct the Project and Dello Joio was named Chairman of that committee. All three men were ext remely active in the Project and have contributed greatly to the literature concerning the Project activities and their involvement in them. Zimmerman states that forthcoming information and details on the Project and other activities would be presented i n future editions of the Music Educators Journal and other official communications of MENC. Not surprisingly, the reader will see that most of the articles chosen as relevant to this study have been located mainly in the MEJ publications. An accounting of the first meeting of the Joint Committee was presented by the MENC executive secretary, Vanett Lawler (1963 ) Of special interest is the a ccompanying photo of those in attendance (p. 41) A list of all the members of the Joint Committee can be found in Appendix T A listing in the MEJ of the Young Composers Awards for the 1965 1966 year ( MENC, 1965) names the fifteen composers chosen for the second group of awards made from the Ford Foundation grant The grant was article. The members of the Joint Committee who reviewed the applications of the composers and the school districts are listed and the three purposes of the project are defined (p. 94).

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98 In his article, Youth and New Music Halsey Stevens (1963), one of the origin al members of the Joint Committee of the CMP discussed previously, addresses the c ontemporary, new music of the day. He emphasizes the need for the composers to relate to their audience -the youth, and fa ults the composers themselves for not getting involved with their audience. Stevens credits the YCP with changing the current (1963) picture of composers and their audiences and lists some of the benefits to the students. Through their daily work with th e actual composer, students have learned that music is not a passive art, rather, a living, active, and continuing art. They come to understand that while contemporary of experiencing the benefit of such a varied collection of new, contemporary mus ical works. N orthwestern S eminar Dello Joio, in his lengthy MEJ article mentioned above, describes the formation of the Northwestern Seminar as an outgrowth of concerns that n dean of the School of Music at Northwestern University and Project Committee member) invitation, selected individuals from across the United States gathered for a four (p. 6 0). He does provide a list of the forty one participants of the Seminar, of which he was one, and the three observers.

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99 T o this Project researcher pleasure a very familiar name surfaced on that list. Dr. Charles R. Hoffer, well known music education pe dagogue and educator who has had an impressive teaching publishing and research career, has been teaching at the University of Florida since 1984 He was also the music education instructor for several graduate classes of the present Project researcher Dr. Hoffer graciously agreed to a personal interview concerning his role as an original participant in the April 1965 Northwestern Seminar. That interview can be found in Appendix W A concise synopsis of CM at the Seminar states the purpose of the semin ar was to (p.60). Three categories of deliberations were identified, 1) the need to restructure the [ s ] with a synthesis of all [ their ] studies be relating them [ the studies ] (p. 61) At present (1968) the sive view of his entire in teaching young children. The need for college curricula to help future music teachers develop creative teaching techniques which include contemporary music. Project spon sored experiments Seminar, but proceeds with his narrative to the IMCE experimen ts which were established to implement the recommendations from the Northwestern Seminar. A much shorter but more detailed and very significant article by R. Bernard Fitzgerald (1965), former director of the Contemporary Music Project is devoted

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100 specifical ly to the Northwestern Seminar He traces the origination of the term and the initial broad concepts of CM to this Seminar. In 1963, with the second Ford Foundation grant, the MENC worked to expand the original concept of composers in the schools. He ex plains how the activities broadened to include seminars and workshops for it to their students, and to include support for pilot programs dealing with exploring and secondary schools, but in higher education institutions as well. Describing the (p. 57), the formation of the Northwestern Seminar resulted from these objectives and from the many other seminars which had been conducted around the country. Participants selected for the Seminar from all parts of the country as well, including composers, theorists, music educa tors, conductors, musicologists and representatives from several professional music organizations. musicianshi p courses theory, history, and performance could be updated to prepare teacher or performer Ensuing common practice

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101 Fitzgerald concludes that the Seminar was successful as a forum for bringing together music specialists from many diverse areas to work for the common goal of improving the general music situation. He includes a list of the 41 Seminar participants as well as the background papers presented. David Willou ghby, assistant director, CMP, defines the purpose of the Northwestern Seminar (MENC, 1971). He explains it i mproving music curricula and the possibilities of employing the concept of (p. 55). These recommendations, he claims, became the foundation for the many, extensive CMP programs in the succeeding ye ars. John Buccheri (1990) describes the music program at Northwestern in the early (p. 125). In 1972, the arrival of a new dean, Thomas Miller, brought a major restructuring of the music curriculum. The traditional approach felt the impact of some of the newer currents of CM pedagogy. Out of the six quarters, one quarter each was delegat ed to World Music and Twentieth Century Music during the first two years of the program. The major problem in Project researcher is the sequencing of those six quarters, which does not follow CM pedagogy at all. The first q uarter is the new World Music topic followed by Baroque and Classic to complete the first year. The second year continues the historical progression with Romantic music followed by the new Twentieth Century music. Last and least, the sixth and final quar ter jumps back to Medieval and Renaissance music.

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102 Bucchieri admits in his discussion that the program did contain several flaws and the lack of a chronological approach must be considered the most egregious Even though finalized new patchwork curriculum that Bucchieri describes defies any idea of continuity from course to course. The sequencing is just not logical. The idea is to build upon the materials presented in previously studied areas. To build from simple to complex does mandate beginning music study exactly there -in the beginning so the students can experience and develop the historical and compositional perspective they need in order to be successful in understanding the underlying foundation of later musical periods. Ch r onological approaches are discussed later in this review section. IMCE At the conclusion of the Northwestern Seminar in April 1965, the participants left empty handed. About six months later, they received the f inal reports that had been established at the conference. After further review and evaluation by the MENC it was decided that in the fall of 1966 a new and expansive two year instructional program would test pilot the recommendations made at the Seminar on Comprehensive Musicianship. Five Institutes for Music in Contemporary Education (IMCE) were established, according to a very concise and factual MENC (1966) report who se (p. 79). By that time, over 70 composers had been placed in public schools throughout the United States for at least a one year period, and at least sixteen teacher worksh ops and Contemporary Music Project. The success of that initial YCP program from 1959 plus

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103 the renewed funding from the Ford Foundation had encouraged and inspired the MENC to broaden its scope to now include similar experimental programs at the college level. students -whether they are aspiring professionals, teachers, or dedicated amateurs . [ and] pro viding them with a broad perspective of their field by helping them relate various musical disciplines -and including aural skills, conducting, orchestration and arranging. An additional objective wa (p. 79). A breakdown of the program is included in this report, listing each of the five regions and the amount of funding received, their directors and administrative centers, the p articipating institutions (colleges and public schools), program heads and any associate member institutions. The majority of the Fall 1967 issue, Volume 7, of the College Music Symposium the professional journal of the College Music Society, is devoted t o the Ford / Contemporary Music Project -the IMCE project in Comprehensive Musicianship. The entire Symposium section ( 60 pages) of the journal was written by CMP director Grant Beglarian (1967) His article pulls everything together concerning the IMCE program. He describes the origins and objectives of the CMP as determined at the Northwestern Seminar. The theory of CM that resulted from the Seminar was the underlying premise for all institutes involved in the IMCE. Beglarian recants the general history of the CMP, mentioning the early pilot programs and experimental teaching approaches. From the information obtained in the reports of these programs, seminars, and experimental programs, as well as personal visits by and consultations with the Pr oject administrator,

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104 observations were made concerning the state of teaching contemporary musical practices and current musical thought. Attention was also turned to the general state of music education being offered at the college level, and primarily wi th music teacher education. deliberations of the Seminar on Comprehensiveness and the establishment of the sufficient background knowledge on the part of the teachers from which grew the need to restructure the currently required basic musicianship courses to include music of all eras to be considered in terms of the current day perspectives, 2) the need for sy nthesis between music courses to develop a comprehensive perspective of the entire field of musicality must emanate form a broad, comprehensive base of musical knowledge and sk The curricular recommendations formulated at the Northwestern He lists five recommendations: 1) to directly relate the music courses to o ne another 2) to establish a connection between music of the past and music of today by studying the styles and techniques of all periods, 3) to provide continuity from one level of study to the next, even beginning in Kindergarten and progressing throu gh graduate study, 4) for the students to acquire a broad perspective of music through the development of self direction, heightened imagination, and critical judgment and, 5) to lar from

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105 ). These recommendations, in general, became the aims and guidelines for the IMCE programs. Beglarian then presents a concise and informative report on each of the thirty six participating schools in the six regions. The pr evious article by the MENC ( MEJ 53: 1, Sep 1966) reported five regions, omitting the Southwestern region whose programs did not begin until a year later, in September 1967. The reader will be reminded of the study (Bess, 1988) previously discussed in this study which focuses solely and intricately on the IMCE program at ECU in the Southern Region. One year into the IMCE, Grant Beglarian (1967) provides additional insight to the IMCE pilot programs and university music teaching in general He again explains the origins of the principles guiding the IMCE project as the premises of Comprehensive Musicianship as defined by the Northwestern Seminar participants and summarizes the seven CM principles established at the Seminar. In order to implement these princi ples, Beglarian concludes that a new approach in a new environment is needed in which the 115). He then defines that environment and how realistic it might be. He claims tha t such an environment works, as exemplified in the Composers in Public Schools program and lists several beneficial results of the program. The main benefit (for the students) was the actual personal contact and direct involvement with xperiencing the actual and complete process of musical creation from initial conception to final performance and all the intricate steps in between. Young students learn valuable lessons that cannot emerge from pages in a textbook. They experience first hand the artists living their craft, understanding how and why they do

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106 what they do. Beglarian, in his closing statements, also shows how the entire learning and teaching experience from Kindergarten through the college and university level is connected. According to the Editorial by Philip F. Nelson (1969) in the College Music Symposium, Volume 9, Comprehensive Musicianship has been the theme of the three consecutive volumes, seven, eight and nine. Volume Seven, as previously discussed, focused extensive ly on the IMCE experimental programs in Comprehensive Musicianship. Volume Eight, Fall 1968, however, presents only one short article by Robert J. Werner, Project Director, CMP, whose intent is to describe the next five years of CMP programs, which had be en extended by yet another grant from the Ford Foundation. In briefly summarizing the past ten years, Werner observes that the CMP 105 106). He recogn izes that throughout the successes as well as the failures of the past decade, the constant has been the importance of the will now become the main theme of the next fiv e years of CMP activities (p. 106) A n other short article by Werner (1969) is very similar to the one just mentioned H ct educational reform or change I t is however, still the importance of the individual student that remains paramount. The lengthy and detailed report by William Mitchell (1969) in the Volume 9, Fall issue concerns the post IMCE workshop held June 10 20, 1969 at the Eastman School of Music, Rochester, New York. This workshop reviewed and summarized the CM

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107 focused on the teaching of CM at the college level and involved thos e concerned with music and music education, such as, music historians, theorists, composers, of a musician -tions in their careers, which is exactly the subject of the present study and part of the philosophical teaching approach. The curriculum presented and pilot tested in this study aligns itself with the goals of the Northwestern Seminar and the experimenta l IMCE programs in providing a single with students ways in which the various skills and subjects of musical instruction might be blended within a single class in order to aid the development of represen ta tive (p. 67). mentioned previously as outgrowths of the recommendations from the Northwestern College Music Symposium Vol. 7, Fall 1979). All four elements are realized in the curriculum of the present study but the third element is particularly significant to the present study because it affirms the ultimate applicability of the theory and practice of CM to all levels of education in music and to all types of participating (music) students, regardless of their designs on a professional calling in music. Mitchell, the reporter for the Eastman Workshop, divides the discussion of the workshop into three categories: the Background, which recants the first ten years of the

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108 CMP; the Present, in which the Ford Foundation renewed the CMP grant, extending their programs and activities to 1973; and the Workshop which is of most interest to this toward music which It was intended for the college teachers of first and second year basic musicianship courses. hardened veterans of various regiona experienced conductor performers. A list of the Workshop members can be found in Appendix V. musician in his own right and b y his own working definition, it is safe to assert that no and combined to produce excelle the Workshop into three main areas of concentration, performance, composition/writing skills, and analysis. For the majority of the article, Mitchell details their work in these three topics. Alt hough Mitchell concludes that the Workshop was successful in its original attempts and objectives he almost sounds the CM swan song as he notes that the CM pedagogy and approach have still to be universally established, in spite of the acknowledged generou s support of the Ford Foundation for the past fourteen years as well as the support and direction of the MENC, under the influence and direction of Dello Joio.

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109 Charles H. Ball (1969) one of seven members of the National Commission on Teacher Education app ointed by MENC president Wiley Housewright was invited to attend as an observer the CMP sponsored Eastman Workshop on teaching comprehensive musicianship. Ball day learning experience for college teachers of und e says, that this musical understanding is approach to music often provided future teachers does not produce musical In summarizing his observations an example of what can happen when music is unashamedly taught as an art also said the workshop showed the need for integration of music instruction, relating the materials of one course to another. His final observation concerned the actual [ various ] composers, theorists, conductors, and musicologists. And although Ball identifies them as competent, distinguished and [ their students ]

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110 last statement may seem to be wandering from the CM subject of this study, but it does a musician and music educator. To edu cate future musicians, the teacher must be both musician and teacher. Before Samuel Adler was appointed Eastman Workshop chairman he served as Director of the Eastern Region of the IMCE. In September Adler ( 1968 ) ,discusses areas in college music educati on programs that need to be re evaluated and re considered. He calls for curriculum changes in order to better serve the students. To accomplish this, Adler firmly and unquestionably advocates the implementation of CM principles. Referring to the many a chievements and successes of the CMP, Adler music education back on a course updating outmoded systems of teaching and lethargic curricula. He cites the needs and problem s of the current curricula and teaching systems, saying that the current needs of the students have been neglected. He states that what is being offered to the students must constantly be evaluated and the CMP provides that opportunity. Adler also consid ers the method by which this information is imparted. we must also give them the raw material and the tools with which to handle music from His final topic of re examinat

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11 1 The curriculum must rem ain flexible and open to experimentation with new ideas while maintaining what has proven to be worthy. As stated in the beginning of this section of the literature review of periodicals, articles were selected that highlighted the CMP projects dealing spe cifically with the development, incorporation, experimentation, assessment and evaluation of CM principles and pedagogy. Beth Landis (1968) Committee concisely outlines the progression of the CMP projects -t he YCP, t he Northwestern Seminar on CM, and the IMCE experimental program -from their inception in 1959 through the end of the IMCE. She calls the CMP for Creativity in 41) and predicts that the CM principles developed at the Northwestern Seminar will restates the basic premises of the CMP that the study of music should include music from all p eriods, past and present; that students will benefit from contact with practicing dev (p. 42) using skills in listening, performing, reading notation and composition. The evaluation of and reports from those involved in these projects will, she assures, have a large scale beneficial effect on the teaching o f music. A lengthy and detailed description of the three year CM program at San Diego State University is provided by the director of the program, Dr. David Ward Steinman (1987) The program was an outgrowth of the 1967 1969 IMCE project and was

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112 developed by Ward Steinman. After a brief overview, in which eight overall goals Steinman describes each course and its content for the six semester sequence. He also discusses the early changes in t he curriculum and those for future consideration and implementation. A brief synopsis of the original CM course at San Diego State twenty years earlier in the two year IMCE experimental project is included to show the evolution of the CM program. He brief ly explains the requirements and implementation of the curriculum in the then four semester sequence. In the evaluation of the course, the Music possible, which was Fall 1972. Two incidents stand out from the initial pilot program unique to the SDSU program. In describing the course he had designed, Ward Steinman explains that in following CM philosophy of developing independent thinking in the s tudents, as well as in taking required during the two training handbook, the basis for the course was the actual music liter (p. 139) two apparent that this source was inadequate which led Ward Steinman and his then wife, Susan Lucas to compile their own CM anthology to serve the needs of the program. It can still be found today for those interested in researching CM materials and resources. The second item of interest to this Project researcher concerns the teaching of counterpoint. As he notes the future changes unde r consideration, Ward Steinman reports that they were unable to locate any other schools requiring both 16 th and 18 th

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113 century counterpoint for all music majors, or who relate medieval and contemporary counterpoint, completing the full circle and which, to this Project researcher seems to be following the CM pedagogy. One program, at the American University, was found to be very similar to SDSU and is discussed later in this document in terms of its chronological approach. Of interest to the reader may be the condensed report by Bess (1991) of his 1988 research study of the five participating institutions of the Southern Region in the IMCE project This article appears in the Journal of Research in Music Education His study was discussed earlier in the Research Studies section of th is literature review C hronological a pproaches This portion of the review of related literat ure concerns the comprehensive chronological approach in the undergraduate core music curricula as advocated and pilot tested in the present research study. Research in all areas of the comprehensive element has been well documented and generally agrees upon CM as a very effective pedagogy. However, according to the literature reviewed for this study, the idea of presenting the CM ma terial in a chronological (historical) sequence has not received as much attention as maybe it should. When found, supporting articles present undeniably logical, sound, and compelling arguments for implementing this approach and also as part of fulfillin g and completing the bigger comprehensive musicianship picture. A chronological approach to the new undergraduate music theory program developed in the mid (1968) Chairman of the Department of Music at American University, connects the dots, so to speak, in the study of the early music of the past and the current music of the

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114 20th century as he presents part II of a four part series of articles Theory with a Thrust on this topic. He answer required of all music majors, begins with an exploratory one semester introduction to of study in the modal period (Medieval and Renaissance eras); one year devoted to the tonal period (Baroque through the Romantic eras); and lastly, one semester of 20th century music. year study, semesters two and three, in the modal period in this particular article. ( The first, fourth, fifth and sixth se mesters are described in the September, November 1968, and the January 1969 MEJ ) that the underlying principles of CM are present, even though CM is not specifically mentioned. As he furth er describes the sequencing and focus of the general class activities, it can be seen that the progression also follows the general guidelines and philosophy behind the taxonomy (which is outlined and discussed in Chapter Three) created for the present res earch study. Beginning with modes, melodies, and meters, the students find themselves countering the plainsong of the Liber Usualis e in a comfortable and easy vocal range and which is excellent for beginning students. These melodies are used for sight reading ( singing), for analytical study of just one simple line of music, and as a primary resource in

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115 pieces from other period sources are used as supplements to the Liber as the students progress to transcribing modal examples into modern notation, or modern examples into modal notation. The wor and [ variation ] 50). The next step involves the students composing in the sacred and secular forms they have been studyi ng and analyzing, from plainsong to mensural secular form to canon and Stimmtausch [ voice crossing ] ractice in the creative use of these various devices builds up historical and theoretical familiarity with a basic compositional technique directly The second semester turns to the study of music in the Renaissance concentrating on refining and developing the skills and techniques of modal counterpoint learned in the first semester. The concentrated focus on notation now turns more intently to analysis and composition. More s ight reading is included and the students are required to sing all the parts of the music they study. Performance of student compositions is also increased. Some ear training, which is taken from the literature of the period being studied, takes place wi thin the class, but the majority is done individually in the listening lab. Each student receives a guidesheet containing twenty seven items grouped under four subheadings for consideration in the more advanced and detailed analytical process in the secon d semester. The four subheadings are line, rhythm, counterpoint and form, and some representative items

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116 include range, tessitura, contour, phrase structure, and treatment of the text. Ultan ovide students with a technique of thinking that will serve them in their efforts to approach the music of any semester program and is further reinforced by practical comp ositional assignments in all well as the student composed works and ear training exercises from those compositions. In explaining the goals and objectives of the curricul um, Ultan makes the point that neither semester of the class covers in any depth all the literature of the period, or all the nuances of compositional forms and techniques, or all the composers and theorists in the period. There is such a large output fro technique of the period accurately within the necessarily restrictive time and subject In spite of the limited amount exposure to the vast repertoire, generalizations about the music studied must be and are made. A crucial element in the design of the program of study is the idea of flexibility which the students are encouraged to employ as they approach each composer and each work on their own terms. The main objectives of this curriculum can be summed up in three categories: Analysis, Composition, and Performance. A seven more detailed objectives, the first five ( LISTEN ; PLAY / SING ; READ / WRITE ) are

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117 easily categorized under the bigger Analysis umbrella and then followed by the remaining two Composition and Performance objectiv es. The type of program as significant to the present study as it provides an accurate model of a core music theory class that would companion the keyboard curricul um presented in this study. Without actually mentioning CM, the goals, objectives and philosophies reflect a CM pedagogy f students entered the study of four part harmony with all of the skills and knowledge from this type of a drastic contrast to placing unknowing freshman novices into the first semester of tonal theory and tertian harmonies. How can one really comprehend tonal music in its totality without first understanding its modal roots? What meaning would there be with nothing to compare it with? Like Ultan and the faculty at American University in this new theory program, this Project researcher [ s ] firm in [ the ] belief in the validity of the approach and in its ability to achieve its defined goal -producing musicians with the capacity to approach the music of any period (past, present, an In the article just discussed, Lloyd Ultan describes the new theory curriculum program at American University and outlines its philosophy, goals, and objectives. In part IV of the same series, Esther W. Ballou (1968) Assistant Professor of Theory and Composition at The American University, addresses the sixth and final semester. At the full cycle of students had comp

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118 the old program in which each segment She explains that the ne She observes the changes in the students from the first semester to the final sixth towards composition. Because the students had now accepted the certainty of completed composition assignments, composing had now become a habit. She credits the learned that the so and observations put together after the fact and act of composition. The first semest er fear had been removed, replaced by knowledge acquired through experience. Ballou ises, 56). She observed musical growth as evidenced in the more advanced composi tion linking the studies in the first semester of sound and silence, and basic musica l elements, to the successes of the students in the final semester.

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119 Ward Steinman designed the CM program at SDSU with a chronological approach, as seen in the course descriptions of the first year studies and stated in the current official SDSU General Ca talog -SDSU (mentioned earlier in this review) follows the historical route but also directly includes the early periods in the later semesters of study, providing continuity between courses, relating music of the past to the present and present to the past, and including study of all periods of music, for the first two years (four semesters) at least. The final two semest ers continue from the foundation set up in the first fou r. The significance to this study of the SDSU CM program is that even today, this curriculum designed by Ward Steinman can be used as an exemplary model of the CM pedagogy and approach for undergradua te music education. The basic outline is source materials drawn from the music literature. Another undergraduate CM music program of significance is highlighted by Mary H. Wennerstrom (1989) as she describes the core music curriculum at Indiana University comprehensive the Dean and faculty were committed to basic tenets and a philosophy of music in Chapter One, they structured the curriculum around their collective belief that all music students need a core music curriculum to provide them with basic music

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120 knowledge and ability, regardless of their major. Included in this curriculum were the areas of emphasis that p arallel the first five subjects in the taxonomy of the present pilot part of the theory class; sight singing and music reading; and written theoretical skills. Mentio n was made of the influence on this curriculum by the Literature and Materials courses at Juilliard that Dr. Hoffer spoke about in the personal interview (Appendix W ). By the mid departm Steinman had done for San Diego State. This two volume text with accompany workbooks was study of theory textbooks. He categorized this text as one of the comprehensive theory textbooks and this Project researcher agrees that it is one of the more comprehensive texts discussed. A definite chronological approach was implemented when Indiana University became Wennerstrom (1989) sophomore literature and history courses were each arranged chronologically from antiquity to the present (N.B. for many years in the 20th 20th century with little attention given to contemporary music). She reports that the students were enthusia stic about the historical/analytical approach and the program was deemed a success. An interestingly constructed article is put forth by Leland D. Bland (1977) concerning a successful general college music theory curriculum. His points about the

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121 design of the curriculum and emphasis on the sequential order of presenting musical concepts are logical and well founded. He champions, whether knowingly or not, a stages of th eoretical study when the means are limited the material should be arranged so the basic thought processes are established from the onset and then development of music from its beginnings will accomplish this. To promote student involvement and early creative thought processes, he level at which fundamental principles of musical structure may be presented and this is mastered. Indeed, harmonizing melodies is the first step in learning to part write and must be the writing rules. This will happen when the modal period is put first in theoretical study and the students must negotiate their way around a few but simple rules dealing with two voices not four to begin with. part harmonies are not as simplified as two part harmonies, in which the students will become extremely adapt at manipulating basic rses species counterpoint later in the article but still fails to connect his premises with the

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122 obvious conclusion that what he is really advancing is the initial study of the modal Rudimen tary voice leading procedures can be learned readily through species counterpoint. Attempted before [ emphasis added ] writing four part harmonizations, species counterpoint can ference this experience when dealing with the more advanced harmonic and melodic study in later courses. By understanding the styles and the rules of the earlier voice leading of the common practice period, such as the avoidance of parallel fifths and octaves (p. 173). It follows that the musical period before the common practice period should be studied before the common practice period, for at least these reasons, but for man y more as well. It seems that the horse has been put before the cart as Bland concludes his article. It is not only surprising, but confusing and contradictory in the summary when ractice identified problems in the article and, in truth, is part of the problem, not the solution to the problem. One cannot proceed from four part writing backwards to a single melody line and expect academia to accept that as a valid example of teaching from simple to complex. activities from its earlier work in developing, defining, impl ementing and evaluating the principles and philosophy of comprehensive musicianship. As a result of the

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123 was discovered in the area of the training and development of the co mprehensive intended for music teachers to learn how to develop comprehensive musicianship in outl ines the make up and purposes of the SECM (Symposium on the Evaluation of Comprehensive Musicianship) which convened in June of 1971 and whose roots, he says, were the Northwestern Seminar recommendations on CM. And even though he admits that the many ext ensive CMP activities and experimental classes had occurred particularly at the undergraduate level, the membership for the SECM was comprised only of elementary and secondary school teachers. It is at this juncture that the CMP activities and research be gan winding down, leaving it to future researchers to further the study of issues, such as comprehensive teacher training and the role of the teacher in CM, that arose from the fourteen year run of the CMP projects. It is recognized that the last of the CM P program and activities occurred in June 1973, when the funding from the final grant from the Ford Foundation ran out and was not renewed again. However, during the months before, the CMP began a last new proj forums (p. 7 8) -the Graduate Education of College Music Teachers held at Northwestern University, and the Education of the Performing Musician held at the Yale School of Music. These were two of the main topics that had s, seminars, and workshops. A summary of both forums can be read in the article in CMS 13 1973, pp. 78 96. The present study attempts to provide some answers at the undergraduate level to both

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124 issues of educating the performing musician and the future c ollege music teachers by presenting a pilot test study of a keyboard theory curriculum which incorporates and implements the CM principles and pedagogy through a chronological approach. A 1973 report on the CMP consisting of a group of four combined articl es written by several contributors, offers a summation of the history and the work of the Project and outlines its ongoing but final programs. The contributing writers include Edward (1973) After presenting a concise and thorough history of the CMP 1957 1973, a timeline of which is provided in Appendix S, the first of four articles proceeds to discuss the final five year project supported by the MENC and the Ford Foundation. Still follow ing the principles of CM, the project sponsored three programs: I) Professionals in Residence to Communities, an expansion of the original YCP/Composers in Public Schools programs from 1957, II) The Teaching of Comprehensive Musicianship, and III) Compleme ntary previously mentioned. It is Programs II and III that are of most interest and significance to this study. In Program II, grants were awarded to twenty one teachers from 1969 1973 for the purpose o f designing and implementing their own various teaching approaches in the teaching of comprehensive musicianship. Curricula, including course sequences; syllabi and materials, for all grade levels -K 12, undergraduate, and graduate -were developed for bot the total curriculum, and in service offerings for

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125 In Program III, the C omplementary Activities promoted CM through consulting services to institutions interested in implementing CM; CM workshops, courses, and seminars for faculty at all grade levels; presentations at state, regional, and national music conventions and other p rofessional organizations; new publications focusing on the CM philosophy and teaching techniques; articles on all aspects of CM published in the CMP newsletters; and two national conferences, 1970 and 1971, focused on the c ollege m usic curriculum and usin g CM as the basis for the total curriculum. National elements of the music profession to think together about the future of music and to make plans for influencing that fut The second article focuses on delineating the principles of CM and divides the discussion into three broad categories: the common elements approach; musicianly functions; and educational strategies. The philosophy and pedagogy used in the pr are educators all mus ic students should be taught the full range of what music is and not just certain things the source of all music study is the [ actual ] li and that music from all periods, from the earliest times to contemporary, be included in music study. The CM approach can also be implemented at every stage of learning, from preschool thro ugh college graduate study. The first category, the common elements approach in CM, is described as analysis of music by its commonalities, thus enabling students to apply this technique to any style of music in any culture. Analysis can be approached from the perspectives that music is sound and soun d exists in time and space; the elements of sound include

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126 frequency, durations, intensity and timbre, and the interaction of these elements can be organized and analyzed for how they produce musical sound. The second category deals with the actual events -listening, composing, performing, evaluating, performing, research and teaching -to name a few. The third category concerns the educational strategies used in the application of CM within the classroom. Thes e include integration (relating the classes and activities to each other); breadth and depth (how much detail to go into for each topic studied); involvement (student centered learning, application of learning to current lives, and activities as musicians) ; and independence (students take responsibility for their own learning, becoming in dependent thinkers). organizations and institutions involved throughout the years, and even mor e so through years of the CMP existence. The article concludes that the CMP has done its job in fulfilling many of its goals as stated in the 1968 proposal to the Ford Foundation [ those ] who have worked with CMP move into positions of influence and as [ their ] students assume active roles in the music n in this article includes lists of the CMP Publications an d the CMP film and lists of committee and project members. Research shows some support for a keyboard harmony class in conjunction with the theory class. Trantham (1970) summarizes his dissertatio A

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127 which advocates adding a comprehensive musicianship approach to these keyboard classes. He says that keyboard harmony classes are more effective when following CM [ the class ] materials with the study of music class that is required by the majority of undergrad music curricula need to add two things to become a truly comprehensive musicianship program -sight reading and improvisation and suggests that more theory be incorporated into the piano (keyboard harmony) class. Charles W. Walton (1981) targets the theory class, identifyi ng six areas in the . All aspects of music combine and become the basis for the study of music literature. This synthesis is e correct observation that finding the balance amongst the many elements of music is the real challenge. He briefly discusses the six areas, which include all the elements but one of the taxonomy designed for the present study. They are listening, analys is, music reading, creativity, writing music, and keyboard harmony. Listening, music reading and writing are three of the seven sequenced activities of the taxonomy. Creativity would include the composition and performance element and keyboard harmony wo is significant in presenting the type of theory class that would be a perfect companion to the keyboard harmony class presented in this study, assuming that the six identified areas (plus singing) were given the emphasis he claims is needed.

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128 T he entire issue of the Autumn 1990 publication of The Quarterly Vol. 1 No. 3, the entire issue was devoted solely to the CMP. ( The Quarterly only ran for eight years, 1990 1997, not to be confused with The Musical Quarterly which is still in publication.) Editor Richard Colwell (1990) be devoted to a (p. 2). He reminds the readers that the CMP research projects raised many issues, but as of yet, many of those issues remain unresolved. He recalls that in those projects, f aculty worked together -composers, theorists, musicologists, applied teachers -to solve problems. And he remembers that students benefited when the music courses were related to each other in a synthesis of musical information. He declares that now the situation has reversed itself and teaching has regressed to the earlier segregated of the larger history and theory subjects. Insisting that he and the contributing writers are not taking a stand on which approach i s better, Colwell says that programs advantages and disadvantages and then compare them with the current teaching approaches and philosoph ies. With that in mind, he lists some of the most important and informative CMP publications for the readers to pursue on their own, due to space limitations of the Journal. Instead, the publishers asked a varied group of sixteen scholars who had each the project goals and procedures, then and now (p. 2). At least one article included has already been reviewed in this section, Peter S c the reader will recog nize the names of several other writers who have also been

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129 previously mentioned in the present study, such as Norman Dello Joio, Martin Mailman, Robert J. Werner, William Thomson, David Willoughby, Charles H. Ball, and Robert Washburn. In the Epilogue, Wer ner summarizes the many benefits for all involved in the music profession and throu gh the dialogue that ensued, everyone grew and all were Books Th e books reviewed in this section emanate only from what was found in the library resources at the University of Florida music library. The focus was on locating significant books or portions thereof concerning Comprehensive Musicianship and related activities, the forerunners of its origination and development, th e YCP, the Northwestern Seminar and the IMCE experimental program. Histories of music and music education in America were consulted to see how h istory has catalogued the CMP movement and if music education has used the CM approach. Also reviewed were sel ected primary source CMP publications that find themselves in book form. Books on related issues in this study may also be included. Th is discussion attempts to present the materials reviewed in a chronological sequence as much as possible, for deeper co mprehension and understanding of the flow of literature presented. James Mursell (1948) well known writer and philosopher in music education has the book included in th is study still applies today and would serve as interesting

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130 background and preparatory reading for those pursuing future music teaching careers. Several of his thoughts and basic educational philosophies presented in these volumes align themselves with th activities. In the 1948 Education for Musical Growth, Mursell, after defining for himself that preference for the developmental approach over the mechanistic approach, but it is here that the P roject researcher will respectfully disagree and suggest that through the achieved. He explains the developmental point of view: fulfillment come through gr owth ( and) it is true in every field of human endeavor, including (p. 3) He explains the process of musical growth, stipulating that there should be a musical reason for every musical activity and learning experience and every activity and exp erience should be planned with musical growth as the objective. The mechanistic approach he defines as the visible, outer manifestations of musical activity and learning, devel opmental approach. Research and practical experience in the classroom show that both approaches must work together in order to achieve any growth at all. Later -awareness, initiative, discrimination, insight, and skill -all of

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131 which are goals of the present curriculum and were considered when developing each book, which is discussed below. Tellstrom (1971), in Music in American Education, Past and Present, explains the format of the book -at the beginning of each section the first chapter is devoted to the follows discussion of how the principles were implemented in their respective areas in music education. The CMP, however, almost escaped detection in its very brief one paragraph entry. From the publishing date, 1971, one will see that the CMP projects this Project researcher at least, that the CMP activities of the preceding twelve years had created quite a stir and initiated an educationa l movement of enough magnitude, interest and participation throughout the country that it would warrant more than just a few lines of general note in a book with the stated intent this one had. Twelve years later, even less space is given to the CMP in Kee (1982) A History of Music Education in the U nited S tates In fact, it is the Northwestern Seminar relate theoretical and historical aspects to the performance area. Both Keene and Tellstrom describe the Seminar as intended fro teachers and teacher training. Keene also refers to the esearch and reflects the structure used in the pilot curriculum, as having been traditionally attributed MEJ

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132 ntly these writers In Contemporary Music Education of the historical foundations in music education, Michael L. Mark (1986), jumps right into the curricular foundations of music education and begins with the history and description of the Contemporary Music Project. Mark provides a succinct and factual re porting of this educational movement and the programs implemented during its total sixteen years of operation. While echoing the focus of the Northwestern Seminar was on improving music teacher education, he also acknowledges (unlike the previous authors mentioned) that out of the Seminar arose the initial principles of comprehensive musicianship (p. 39). Later in the book, Mark discusses CM in more detail, specifically the Northwestern Seminar, and the assessment and evaluation of the resulting IMCE test the history and theory that shaped it. Their fragmented view of music prevents them from developing insights necessary for true musical understanding (p. 183) ng college music w shifted to the elementary and secondary [ music ] education (p. 191). He concludes that two things must happen for CM to succeed -one being the resources and positive att

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133 Ten years later (1996) third edition of his Contemporary Music Education was published T here were no substantial or significant changes in his section on Comprehensive Musicianship. The focus of this edit ion concerns the social environment within which all musicians and music educators must learn to function. author Charles L. Gary for the third edition of A History of American Musi c Education, published in conjunction with the MENC (Mark & Gary, 2007) Discussion of the CMP not for ll follows the as Ward music curriculum to show how various aspects of music relate to each other High Fidelity/Musical America March 1979, saying that CM deserves praise because it counter music from all periods and styles, including Eastern and ethnic in addition to Western music. Sullivan also notes that many students have become more motivated with a CM approach (1979). Later in the text, under the heading New Curricular Foundat ions of Music Education Comprehensive Musicianship is discussed in terms of the Northwestern -the Foundation for College Education in usic

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134 this study is the passage devoted to Ward professional in residence, 1970 1972, in the Tampa Bay, Florida area and his continue d involvement and exemplary leadership in the CM program that he designed and implemented at San Diego State University following his residency. In a rather odd way, indirect support for a chronological approach is found in The Art of Listening by Bamberg er and Brofsky (1 979) They begin with listening as the first experience in music for the students and the effect that listening to music for its own sake first has on the student. This premise is the one emphasized the most over the other six taxonomy o music. After the initial listening the students are taken through discussions and studies of each par ticular aspect in music. At the end of the book, the materials just studied, generalizations about the style of each period. This chronological reordering should give a sk Project researcher that, if studying music literature provides the students with more understanding of the stylistic tendencies in not rearrange the elements of music instead, to go along in a chronological order? At least three birds, it looks like, are being done in by one stone.

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135 Willoughby ( 1971) lists nine publications of the CMP in his study. S ome of these were already out of print and others were listed as T h ree of th ese publications were selected for review -the CMP 2, CMP 5, and CMP 6 Comprehensive Musicianship, The Foundation for College Education in Music, CMP 2 (MENC,1965) is a report on the April 1965 CMP Seminar at Northwestern University which provides concise factual and thorough descriptions of the development and events of the seminar. In the Foreword, Dello Joio and Beglarian of the CMP in all levels of music educatio ( emphasis added) and not to state any actively involved in the music teaching profession. ntation of those required college music course which are designed to develop general musical musicianship training. A specially upo n which the CMP was founded is identified as the belief that our living musical culture is a combination of our preserved past musical heritage with our present heritage. The aim of the conference was defined as not particularly to consensus of rather

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136 Five of the forty three participants were asked to present background papers at the conference All five papers are included in the book. Other papers and outlines we re also presented by theory professors from several other colleges. The general discussions of the Seminar were divided into two main interrelated areas: concepts and skills. The seminar discussions on musicianship training were divided into three main to pics and participants were assigned to the various groups. Again, their job was to provide recommendations for future action. Charles R. Hoffer, with whom there is a personal interview in the present document, was part of Group I: Compositional Process and Writing Skills. Group II dealt with Musical Analysis and Aural Skills. Group III made recommendations in History, Literature and Performance Skills. It can be seen from the recommendations made by these groups that the guidelines of the CM movement are emerging. are summarized as follows. 1) Rhythmic elements should be included in the st udy of pitch organization. In the technical study of the modes and mode playing, mastery of three different rhythmic patterns were required in the test curriculum. 2) Students should study literature outside the common practice period. This research stu dy answers that call, being solely devoted to the m edieval period. 3) Contrapuntal techniques and instrumental idioms should be included in teaching harmony. Species counterpoint was the starting point in the test curriculum to begin the study of harmony Instrumental idioms began to be addressed in the study of early dance forms and accompanied song. 4) The process of acquainting students with the basic elements of

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137 assignment Group II (Musical Analysis and Aural Skills) made five recommendations in the aural skills area. The ones, or portions thereof, which pertain to this study are: 1) to the early music periods and also the inclusion in the taxonomy objectives of student ed to the literature heard and studying the literature of all periods and styles is another significant objective of the current study (p. 15). All musical ventures involve analysis of some sort. The value of analytical skills is identified by Group II in listening, composition, and performance skills as well as in music education teaching skills. At almost every juncture in the present study, the students are involved in analysis, whether aural, verbal, written, or at the keyboard, in order to complete t he coursework. Group III (History, Literature and Performance Skills) draws in the aesthetic taught a skill or being directly exposed to the experience of a work of art . all three of these categories must be experienced by the student to achieve comprehensive

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138 udents would The reader is asked to consider why the use of the word intimate and to then connect that with the study of music in Mid dle Ages. The Project researcher hopes that the need to devote sufficient time to this period becomes more understood and supported as these objectives are thoughtfully reviewed. This study hopes to provide a more intimate knowledge of the music of the Middle Ages. An other relevant determination is that historical study would also enable students to improve their performance of period pieces though enlightened interpretive skills and stylistic characteristics of the different musical eras. But the unarguable tenet sur faces in the chronological survey of Western art music, and (2) an exploration in depth of certain composers, styles t h century and non Western music. T his Project researcher would add non Western and now 21 st century It left them with s everal pri nciples to remember: history must be preceded by aural experience through carefully guided listening and/or performance; present ans wers, but to encourage continuing interest and investigation on the part (p. 19). In summary, several recommendations made by the three groups were common to

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139 have come to be known as the initial guidelines and principles of the CM movement. The seven recommendations are listed in Appendix U as pr inted in the CMP 2 for the (1971) Comprehensive Musicianship, An Anthology o f Evolving Thought CMP5, 1969) of the Project, states Dello Joio and Werner in the Foreword. David Willoughby selected and prepared the materials from seventeen contributors in published articles, eith er in part or in entirety, or from speeches given by those most closely involved with the CMP. In its Appendices is a significant item for this study, the chronology of the CM events from its inception in 1959 to the present (1971) A general timeline of events that shaped the CM movement is provided in Appendix S of the current work, compiled by the Project researcher Another item of interest i s the primary source material the actual compositions from the Project, housed in the CMP Library rms, former associate director of the Ford Foundation and then current member of the Project Policy Committee (mentioned earlier in this work), ma k e s some important points about comprehensive musicianship and music in general that support the philosophy an d principles of the curriculum presented in the current study. He stipulates that there was never the pretense that CM had all the answers or was the only answer to issues in the music education profession, but there were several common beliefs shared by -and more important -than student, from first grade (this 21 st century Project researcher will add preschool and

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140 Kindergarten to the list) through the conservatory, deserves to be taught the full range no one way to achieving comprehe nsive musicianship, which, to this Project researcher is the beauty of the approach. Not all students learn the same way, so what may work for one may not for another. The wide, encompassing nature of CM is flexible enough to accommodate the differences as well as the creative aspects of each student, and [ incapable ] of precise -composers, performers, c onductors, educators, students and listeners. The book is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the YCP and its evolution to the Composers in Public Schools program and discusses articles by Norman Dello Joio, Halsey Stevens, Grant Beglarian, Robert Washburn, Joseph Penna, Peter Schickele, Martin Mailman, and John Davies, several of which have been to 1969. Se condary topics of CM, as identified in the Northwestern Seminar, appear in these articles concerning the education and training of music teachers and educators, student motivation, and curriculum issues. Dello Joio, Beglarian, and William Thomson (Indiana University) are the writers included in this section. A truncated synopsis of the IMCE is included but is quickly followed by discussion of speeches on related topics given at various institutions or conventions throughout the country. Some of these in speech at the 1966 Conference of the International Society of Music Education at Interlochen, Michigan concerning CM goals and the traditional music curriculum and

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141 iation concerning the cyclic approach that he had promoted at the Northwestern Seminar. Other speakers included Beglarian, Thomson, Sam Adler, Robert Trotter, Eunice Boardman, and William Mitchell. A very brief nod was given of the Eastman Workshop, whic h has been mentioned previously in this work There was also a mention of a presentation by Robert Werner, in July 1970, summarizing the philosophy and structure of CM in a Moscow meeting of the International Society for Music Education (p. 99). Willoughb y (1971) in Comprehensive Musicianship and Undergraduate Music Curriculu m CMP6 provides reports on the IMCE experimental programs which were instruction in basic musicianship at two participating institutions across the United States, 1966 1968. He assembled the material, most of which is gathered from articles and reports written by those working in the IMCE programs or who were clos ely involved in its activities, personal interviews and the materials from the classrooms themselves. Dello Joio and Werner attest that ideal can yield refinement and focus while at the same time provide the impetus for Willoughby divides this book into three parts. Pa rt One provides supplementary material concerning the change in teaching and learning processes in relation to CM and educational theories and trends that reinforce the CM concept. Discussion addresses the role of the faculty in being prepared and open to new teaching and

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142 learning concepts, materials and techniques, and curricular developments. The supporting role of the college is to produce graduates as described above by always assessing, evaluating and improving, and also being open to new development s. Another change noted is the increased awareness of and attention to the thinking and understanding process of each individual student. Older learning theories identified as still pertinent today (1971) and for this Project researcher today include l earning by discovery, known as the heuristic method, keeping knowledge alive, understanding that guarding against offering too many subjects instead of emphasizing a more thor ough approach, all of which fall under the broad scope of comprehensive musicianship and within the philosophy underlying the present study. In the area of curricular development, Willoughby postulates that if the educational Beginning with basic, simpler ideas and form and building up to larger and more complex concepts and forms will deepen the Returning to the same basic ideas but at increasingly higher levels of understanding Willoughby also believes, as many music educ ators believe and as research has shown, that the CM theory is applicable to all levels of education from PreK through musicianship can serve both the individual teacher and the music department of school as a basis on which to develop renewed attitudes and approaches toward the

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143 curriculum was designed with this type of curricular and educationa l theory in mind. Part Two presents a summary of the IMCE curricular practices through reports by the teachers involved and as well as observers of the program. Additional detailed information was gathered from actual classroom materials such as assignmen ts, examinations and projects. Interesting to this study is the list of strengths and weaknesses observed and reported by the program heads and personal interviews of other closely involved with the program. More strengths than weaknesses were cited and upon the talents and capacities of individual teachers, their commitment to CM, and an extremely favorable student Several responses indicated a desire to see upper level classes more related to the lower division music classes to reinforce the CM material. The integrated approach was also deemed a success, especially in relation to connecting theory and history, relating performance to the classroom st udies, and incorporating keyboard work with sight singing and theory. There were also reported observations of the CM influence extending to other music courses beyond the IMCE classes as well as to other non music classes in other disciplines. Changes i n teacher attitudes and self evaluation were also reported. The weaknesses found were mainly due to teacher inexperience with CM in relation to continuity and integration. Other weaknesses mentioned centered mostly around the development of aural and keyb oard skills, such as ear training, sight singing, in things like scheduling performance activities, time management in the classroom and

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144 some curriculum planning issues. There were also reported observations of the CM influence extending to other music courses beyond the IMCE classes as well as to other non music classes in other disciplines. Changes in teacher attitudes and self evaluation were also reported. Another c hallenge noted was the breadth and depth concept However, it seems to have been reported that there was a sense that students did develop more depth from the comprehensive course than the traditional ones. It remains an issue to be aware of during the p lanning as well as the implementation of any curriculum. In characterizing and illuminating the comprehensive idea, Willoughby reiterates that CM is not a teaching method or a restructuring of courses. This view of CM is probably the most commonly made mi stake about the CM approach. It is a process, a concept, an attitude, and a logical approach to age old problems in the undergraduate adding that its success is based primarily on a relatively small class size of about twelve to twenty students. This Project researcher would advocate the twelve member class for many reasons, but mostly to insure that enough time would be spent on the in dividual student attending to their musical and educational needs. disparate materials. A comprehensive study probes at the roots of all music and stimulates creative thinking. It allow s a student to develop into a more complete Willoughby also has words for the Administrative element in developing

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145 and must exemplify this approach throu gh the undergraduate and graduate levels; one course is not enough. The philosophy of CM should be propagated, an adequate musical background should be provided and there should be a laboratory in which Part Three summarizes the findings in the preceding two parts It presents a very concise description of the characteristics and element s of comprehensive musicianship. Since these have already been addressed in this review they will not be reiterated h ere. musical styles s well as non Western styles of music. CM provides the breadth; the teacher provides the dep th of each element studied. to take calculated risks in their implementation. CM demands new competencies and new classroom strategies, but also serves as a bridge by which teachers can apply new ideas without rejecting those traditional approaches that have been proven successful (p. x). C hapter S ummary A call for comprehensive music education echoes throughout the literature reviewed. Not only at the college level, but from the earliest pres chool years through the graduate level of study has the comprehensive approach been explored, studied, examined, and proven to be a successful teaching strategy that is flexible and adaptable to all kinds of learning situations. In private lessons to indi vidual classes with emphasis mostly on instrumental aspects including band instruments and specific solo instruments (guitar, ukulele, alto trombone, viola) and of course, keyboard, but also vocal and choral studies as well.

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146 Research studies indicate conti nued broad support for the idea of a comprehensive approach to music education at all levels of education Research shows numerous, varied studies, worldwide, involving comprehensive music and musicianship beginning as early as the preschool years and ext ending through graduate level study. Studies show that the interest in comprehensive music extends beyond the nited States. Studies have been conducted in Canada, Taiwan, Ghana, Korea and South w est Africa concerning various elements of comprehensive music, musicianship and c urricula. The usual goal is to study the effects of a comprehensive approach in the general music class or to design a program that would foster comprehensive music education. Many times the study involves isola ting one particular aspect of the class curriculum instead of the curriculum as a whole. These studies address all sorts of music classes, in public and private teaching institutions and situations, including an impressive variety of instrumental and voca l/choral applications and working with many types of students. In every study, comprehensive music and musicianship is found to be the answer, or at least a major part of the answer to the problems encountered in PreK 12 music education. The literature review revealed that the study of music of all periods and all styles is one of the most important principles of CM and one of the first to be established. I t is interesting to discover in the related literature how little attention is given to insure th a t the earliest musical eras and styles, the Medieval and Renaissance, have not been excluded from the curricula So much attention has been focused on including the contemporary styles, the music of the present, that the earlier periods have all but disap peared, or at best have received lip service. The literature reviewed for this study

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147 reflects this disregard, intentional or not, of sufficiently addressing the importance and influence of the early music periods. Aside from the general call for and inte rest in comprehensive approaches to music education, there were four areas in comprehensive musicianship of particular concern that kept surfac ing in the research literature. All four areas are interrelated and must work together for the success of not on ly a CM approach but of any educational approach For that reason they deserve some mention in the present work. These four areas are: 1. A b alanced curriculum: performance vs concepts/musicianship 2. Teacher training/preparation and educational background 3. Stu dent c entered learning and student motivation 4. Administrative support: developing independent musical thinkers (value of mus ic ed ucation ) A balanced curriculum: performance vs concepts and musicianship The desire to balance performance based instruction with the inclusion of music theory and history to provide a more comprehensive music education program was the subject of many studies. Recognizing that too much attention and importance was given to performance skills only and that a lack of attention a nd importance was awarded to the broader skills and concepts of music theory and music education in general, studies were conducted to determine the effects of providing a more comprehensive program of musical instruction. Most of the pre collegiate studi es were conducted in band performance classes in both middle and high schools. Fewer studies addressed the choral performance class. Most of the primary school studies focused on the general music class.

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148 T eacher training/preparation and educational backg round Repeatedly identified as a definite obstacle in administering a comprehensive music education/curriculum in the classroom was the lack of adequate pedagogical training in eed for better teacher training, not only for future music educators, but for musicians in the performance areas as well. Research also cites the need for music educators to keep their own performance skills as fine tuned as possible. The issue of teache r training and teacher preparedness was consistently addressed in all lev els of music instruction, from pre school through graduate level study. S tudent c entered learning and student motivation Active student involvement was also identified in many studie s as one of the necessary (primary) elements in a successful comprehensive music education program. Extensive research and writings have focused on the importance of student centered learning and student motivation and have determined this to be critical to the success of music education. A balanced curriculum taught by a well trained (prepared) and enthusiastic teacher and supported by the administration will engage the students to become motivated and actively involved and interested in taking ownership of their own education. I ndependent musical thinkers Many studies connect the development of musically independent students to successful implementation of a comprehensive music program. Research shows that, with these three main elements active and in place, the ultimate goal of the overall music program, department, school and its administration can begin to be realized. Producing well rounded and well grounded professional music educators, performers, theorists, musicologists and composers in the

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149 un dergraduate program can be a reality using a core comprehensive musicianship curriculum. Support of this program, however, must also come from the top down, and for the go als of comprehensive musicianship to be realized. Countless research studies cite the CMP movement of the late 1950 direct influence on the study or as historical information a nd background to the study. Comprehensive musicianship is seen as the answer by many studies in meeting requirements of the National Standards and in achieving many of the MENC goals in music education. Research also shows the CM principles and approach in pedagogy had been reviewe d, discussed, tested, evaluated re tested and re evaluated enough to determine its unquestionable success. This Project researcher found no study that concluded the CM approach was ineffective and did not improve music education when implemented.

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150 CHAPT ER 3 METHODS AND PROCEDUR ES Introducto ry Remarks The purpose of this study was to develop a new keyboard theory curriculum utilizing a chronological and comprehensive musical approach and to determine the efficacy of the curriculum in reinforcing core the o ry skills. The course was designed and intended for music majors and music minors enrolled in a professional music degree program and taking their first semester of the core music theory class. The classes, lessons, and assignments were constructed accor ding to a seven step taxonomy developed by the Project instructor: 1) L ISTEN /H EAR 2) and 3) P LAY and S ING /S ING and P LAY 4) R EAD 5) W RITE 6) C OMPOSE and 7) P ERFORM Pilot Study A pilot study (Keyboard Theory Project) was conducted in order to develop an d test the efficacy of a new keyboard theory curriculum The study examined the effects of the first semester of the new curriculum. The research protocol for this study was s t itutional Review Board and its Sch ool of Music (Appendix A ) Students from four freshman core theory classes were asked to volunteer for the pilot test study during the Fall 2008 semester Of the four classes, three were Music Theory I and one was Introduction to Music Theory. These clas ses were selected based on the requirements of the test curriculum intended for music students majors and minors, in their first semester of music theory. Of the thirteen students who volunteered for the Project class, five either dropped the course duri ng the semester or did not complete the posttest, leaving an experimental group of n=8. Th es e remaining

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151 eight students were all enrolled in the Intro to Music Theory class, therefore that class served as the control group. Of the twenty six students in t he class, twelve other students completed both their theory class and both pretest and posttest for the Project. This yield ed a control group of n=12. When combined with the experimental group, the total population for the study was N=20. Both experiment al and control group students took the core theory class for the sixteen week semester. The experimental group concurrently took the Keyboard Theory Project during the same semester. While the control group met for three 50 minute classes (150 minutes to tal) per week, the experimental group met for two 50 minute classes (100 minutes total) per week. Selection of the Participants Participation in the Project was voluntary. Those students who volunteered for the Project received one credit hour. The Proj ect class was designated as the experimental treatment group and the core theory class was designated as the control group. As the treatment group was contained within the control group, all participants took the core theory class, with the treatment grou p concurrently taking the Project class. Flyers (Appendix C ) were posted in the Music Building during the Fall Registration period, including the Drop/Add period, which was also the first week of classes. They were also posted and made available in the Of fice of the Director of Undergraduate Admissions. Personal oral presentations took place during the first week of classes. At the general meeting of all first semester music majors and music minors, the Project researcher spoke to all Theory I students an d Intro to Music Theory students about the Project and asked for volunteers. A sign up sheet was passed around for interested

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152 students. The opportunity to enroll in the study was also mentioned by the Director of Undergraduate Admissions during her oral presentation to the same classes as well as during student advising appointments with individual students. The instructors of these during the general meeting of all first semester music majors and minors and also during advising appointments with individual students. Pretest and Posttest Permission was granted to use the 2003 A dvanced P lacement (AP) Music Theory Released Exam (Appendix B ) as a pre and post test for t his study. In preparation, selected questions from the test were prepared due to time limitations for the testing and relevance of the questions themselves to the ensuing course content of the Project. The order of questions as arranged in the AP exam wa s maintained in the pretest and posttest. In the first week of classes, during a regular class period agreed upon by the theory class instructor and the project administrator, the pretest was administered to the total population of the study ( N =26). Duri ng the last week of classes, the posttest was administered to the total population of the study ( N =22). The difference in the pretest total population number and the posttest total population number can be attributed to students having withdrawn from the core theory class after having taken the pretest but before taking the posttest I t can also be explained by students who simply did not show up, for whatever reason, to take the posttest. Only the scores of students who completed both pretest and postt est could be used for the study, resulting in the control group (n=12) and the treatment group (n=8) and a total population ( N =20).

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153 Research Design The design of the study was a pretest posttest design with nonequivalent groups. P articipation was voluntar y For that reason, neither random selection nor group equivalency was possible. Dependent Measures The dependent measure variable for this study w as the pretest and posttest administered before and after the treatment. The posttest was the same test as the pretest, made up of f orty five questions and three dictations w hich had been extracted from the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. The results that changed from pretest to posttest are the dependent variables. Independent Measures The independent measure for the study was the Keyboard Theory Project Class, MUS 4905, that the volunteer students took. The Project consisted of the class lessons, assignments, and tests, which were required of all students in the experimental group. The study was conducted as a core keyboard theory class in a live and interacting educational environment. Because students received one credit hour for this course, grades were recorded and dispersed according to University regulations, but had no effect on the pretest or posttest d esign study or results of the pilot study. It was the intent for the study to be administered as would be a currently existing college class. Daily, weekly, and periodic assignments and tests were assigned. Only the experimental group was subject to thi s treatment. The control group did not participate in the keyboard theory class project.

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154 Treatment Variable During the sixteen week treatment period, the total population (N=20) attended their core theory class, Intro to Music Theory, 50 minutes three tim es per week. The experimental group, n=8, received the treatment in the form of the Keyboard Theory Project class, which met for 50 minutes, twice a week. The remainder of the core theory class, n=12, was assigned to the control group and did not partici pate in the treatment. The instructors of the two classes did not have any interaction concerning class materials, sequencing, assignments, or tests, other than to coordinate the scheduling of the pretest and posttest. The Project rese a rcher was the autho r of this dissertation and the instructor of the Keyboard Theory Class (experimental group) .T he instructor of the Intro to Music Theory class (control group) was a fellow doctoral student in the final phase of completing coursework for the doctoral progr am. Design of the Study Pre C lass and Post C lass S urvey As part of the treatment, only the students in the experimental group were asked to complete a pre class survey (Appendix E) for background information on previous musical training and education A p ost class survey (Appendix F) was conducted to obtain their opinions of and suggestions for the Keyboard Theory Project. The design of the study is discussed in detail below. Lesson Plans and Assignments The treatment (Keyboard Theory Project) consisted of 26 less ons including assignments, daily quizzes, keyboard testing, listening lists and worksheets, analysis assignments, melodic dictation, reading assignments, composition assignments, and a

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155 final exam, administered during a sixteen week semester. The majority of the class material was designed and developed by the Project researcher according to a progressive 7 step learning taxonomy. This taxonomy was developed by the Project researcher reflecting the educational philosophy of using a chronological and comprehensive approach to introduce new material in a scholarly, orderly way and to provide the foundational and fundamental musical background necessary for continued c areers. A list of sources used for class activities and assignments not designed or composed by the instructor can be found in Appendix I. The success of the pilot class as a whole depended on the quality of the progress made more so than the quantity of material covered. Bearing that in mind and also recognizing that each student learns at a different level, especially at this beginning level of college study when most freshman students have not developed an efficient and organized study meth od, the Proj ect researcher was free to take the time to educate, and the students were free from being made to skim over the surface of important material only for the purpose of meeting some arbitrary deadline. The students were also freed from hearing that they wou pilot study, each subsequent lesson depended on the success or progress of the preceding lesson, and each lesson was fin alized only after the preceding class had occurred was analyzed, and then adjustments made for the next class. Several class activities in regards to the taxonomy had to be either changed or abandoned because of this method of student centered teaching an d learning, but in

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156 the larger scheme of the planned four semester curriculum of which this pilot class was the first, this situation would not be detrimental to the curriculum. In other words, they would not be behind at the end of the first semester. Th e educational flow of the first semester would not be interrupted, but continued into the second, third, and fourth semesters. Theoretically, the same class would return for Semester II and would pick up where they left off at the end of Semester I. As t hey become more seasoned students, understanding how they learn and perfecting their study methods, what might have seemed like an extremely slow learning curve in the first semester would increase during each successive semester. By the end of the second semester, the class would be operating more in tandem in meeting the goals of the curriculum so that during the third and fourth semesters competencies and goals would be achieved with more quickly and at greater rates of success. The 7 step taxonomy upon which the lessons were designed is listed below, along with the activities and assignments that emphasized each skill. 1) H EAR /L ISTEN : ear training (ET), dictation, listening list tracksheets 2 & 3) P LAY & S ING /S ING & P LAY : k eyboard s kills involving t echnical exercises and playing modes; practice journals; keyboard testing; sight reading and prepared piano pieces ( S R/Prep) ; analysis writing rhythmic elements 4) R EAD : listening worksheets; historical readings, analysis 5) W RITE : t heory n otebook ; listening worksheets; analysis, 6) C OMPOSE : species counterpoint and 7) P ERFORM : keyboard testing; prepared pieces. The underlying plan of each lesson was to integrate as many taxonomy objectives as possible in each lesson and assignment while guiding the class in a pleasant, supportive and professional manner. The modal material and literature listened to by

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157 the students in the Listening Lists is being discussed in class lectures and presentations; practiced in the k eyboard e xercises; tested in the e ar training quizzes; used in melodic dictations; played and sung/sung and played in class and in practice; written in the Theory Notebook; read about in the selected historical readings; analyzed (aurally and orally) in class and in written assignments; co mposed in two part form; and omposition was brought into the material in the latter part of the semester, although all the music discussed, analyzed and studied was done so from a compositional and theoretical perspectiv e throughout the semester. There were many activities associated with an integrated comprehensive program. A general layout of the class was established to instill a discipline of order and structure and to provide some constancy for the students to depen d upon without becoming automatic and dull. The plan behind this progression considered the fact that music is, first and foremost, an audible art. It logically follows that (for beginners especially) the first and most natural way to be exposed to a new piece of music would be just to listen to it. ( From merely the initial hearing of a piece, the experienced musician can immediately determine many things about a piece of music that takes the beginning musician hours to verbally or in written form, expre ss, discuss, or analyze what had just been heard. ) The first point of entry is the ears. For this reason, each class began with an ear training quiz. Beginning the class with a quiz served two purposes: 1) to emphasize the undying importance of ear trai ning for the professional musician, and 2) to stress the importance of punctuality, helping students form the lifelong habit of being on time to all activities which will hopefully carry over into their professional life.

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158 At some point in the class, usuall y at the beginning, the Project researcher would Q uote of the D A few minutes was given to the students to guess who the speaker was. This was randomly included in the class to add some levity and humor and to encou rage a general positive at titude It also functioned as a subtle reminder that the study of music is fun as well as demanding. After the ET quiz and the Quote of the D ay, material from the previous class would be reviewed. New material would be introduce d and discussed or explained. Assignment handouts and discussion of the new assignments took up the latter part of the class, followed by any announcements or closing remarks. Again, each lesson was ess in mind and according to the taxonomy. If no other objective was attained, the L ISTEN /H EAR objective remained the constant and the keyboard skills ( PLAY and SING/SING and PLAY ) followed closely behind. It took the first few weeks of classes to introdu ce each new activity or component and to explain procedures and how the class would operate. For example, the first few lab classroom policies, discussion of the class Syllabus, and procedures for accessing the materials on reserve in the Music Library. When the first melodic dictation was administered, a major part of the class was involved in explaining how to take dictation, what to listen for, how to listen, how to develop a working method in writing things down until later lessons. The individual objectives and their progression throughout the course are described and discussed b elow.

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159 1) HEAR/LISTEN -e ar training quizzes. All of the materials for the ear training quizzes were created and developed by the Project researcher There were 15 daily quizzes during the semester and one ear training test which included two melodic dicta tions. Quizzes #1 #10 contained ten items with a total of ten available points per quiz. Quizzes #11 #15 contained three elements with a total of seventeen points available for each quiz. The Ear Training Test was given after Quiz #10. After each class the quizzes were graded and analyzed for correct answers and progress from the preceding quiz. As skills were mastered, new things would be added and the mastered items were dropped. Examples of the quizzes can be found in Appendix J The first two qui zzes tested whole steps and half steps. There were five played in the treble clef and five played in the bass clef, in a mixed order. Each interval was played three times, once harmonically, once melodically ascending, and again harmonically. The studen ts wrote either half (H) or whole (W) on the answer sheets. Identifying whole and half steps is crucial in preparing students to differentiate between in the study when asked to identify different modal cadential patterns. The four authentic modes (dorian, phrygian, lydian, and mixolydian) were added in Quiz #3. The modes were each played twice, ascending and descending T he six whole or half steps were played 3 times each; once harmonically, once descending melodically, and once more harmonically. In Quiz #4, the perfect fifth (P5) and the perfect octave (P8) were added to the intervals. Of the ten items played, five were intervals and five were modes. The modes

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160 were played in their original form as well as in transposed positions throughout the study. The 5/5 balance remained between the intervals and modes for the next six quizzes The administration of the quizzes also remained the same. However, the quality of t he intervals changed to parallel the sounds th at th e students were listening to in their listening assignments and to what was being discussed theoretically in class for the modal period. In Quiz #5 the whole and half step intervals were dropped Only the P5 and P8 were used. The perfect fourth (P4) was added in Quizzes #6, #7 and #8. Quizzes #1 through #10 asked that the student write only the kind of the interval or the mode. For instance, for the modes, they simply wrote the name of the mode, such as the way the music developed and reinforces the chronological aspect of the study It also provides the necessary background in preparing the students for composition la ter in the study using the rules of first species counterpoint. By Quiz #9, whole and half steps were now being referred to as major and minor seconds (M2 and m2, respectively ) and the major and minor third intervals (M3 and m3) were added. The thirds we re added in congruence with the listening lists in which these intervals were now being heard and in order to introduce the students to the English practice of gymel -singing in thirds. In addition to identifying the interval, the students were now asked to write it on the staff above the given pitch. This activity engages ear, hand, and eye in the learning process and helps develop a more complete conceptual understanding. Now the students not only hear, but see, because they

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161 reproduce in written form w hat has been heard. In this way, the students gain mastery over the material through their own inception, evaluation and assessment, and finally manual reproduction of a musical sound into a physical structure. Quiz #10 maintained the same format and inc luded all the intervals and the modes studied so far. After Quiz #10 was the first and only Ear Training Test. The test contained ten intervals; ten modes; and two melodic dictations. For the intervals, they were asked to indicate the quality (perfect, m ajor, minor) and the interval, such as Each interval was played twice in the harmonic -melodic ascending harmonic order. Each mode was played twice in ascending descending order and the students simply named the mode they heard played. Th e first dictation was played in the treble clef and contained 16 notes with two phrases of eight notes each. The first note was given. This treble dictation was played eight times, all or in part. The first two times it was played in its entirety. Next the first 8 note phrase was played twice, and then the second 8 note phrase was played twice. The entire dictation was again played twice. The second dictation was played in the bass clef and contained one 10 note phrase, with the first note given. Thi s bass dictation was played in its entirety four times. After the test, and for the remaining Quizzes #11 #15, the students were now requested to write the interval below the given note on manuscript paper. A new category was added -3 note motives, changi ng the format on the quizzes to three intervals; four 3 note motives; and three modes. The intervals were now played only twice each; once harmonically, once melodically descending, and once again harmonically. The motives were each played twice and the modes were each played twice, ascending and descending.

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162 1) HEAR/LISTEN -melodic dictations All dictation material was mostly chant and was extracted from representative musical literature of the period. Examples can be found in Appendix J. The origina l intent was to have two dictations per class, progressing from two melodic dictations (one each in the treble and the bass clefs) to one melodic and one rhythmic dictation. The students had so much trouble with the melodic dictation that the rhythmic dic tation was discarded. (Rhythmic elements were included in the Keyboard portion of the course as well as in the L ISTEN component). Melodic dictation in both the treble and the bass clefs began in Lesson 6, Week 4. By this time in the semester, the student s were beginning their third week of listening assignments. After an introductory discussion and suggestions on how to take melodic dictation, each dictation was played four times, and was sung back by the class one of those times. The first pitch of eac h dictation was given. For this first time, both dictations were discussed and written on the board as an example. There were twelve dictations in all administered during the course of the next six classes. Different approaches to dictation were taken, a ccording to the difficulty level experienced by the students. The material selected for dictation was easier than the melodies they were listening to in their assignments, was comprised mostly of conjunct motion -the biggest melodic leap was a perfect fif th, and the total melodic range spanned a major sixth (M6) with one instance of a major seventh (M7) The first treble dictation contained 14 notes. It was played four times with the students singing it on the fourth and final playing. The first bass di ctation contained 15 notes. It was also played four times, but the student s sang it on the third hearing.

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163 The second treble and bass dictations, #3 and #4, each contained 15 notes. Each dictation was played five times T he students were asked to sing on the third playing. The third dictations, #5 and #6, each contained 19 notes Each dictation was played five times. The students did not sing during this dictation. The fourth dictations, #7 and #8, contained a treble line of four metered measures (no ti me signature indicated). The bass dictation continued in the same manner as before and contained 16 notes. Both dictations were played five times each. In the fifth dictation exercise, #9 and #10, the treble dictations returned to the original form with a 15 note line that was played five times. The bass dictation was an eight measure passage in an indicated time signature. It was played once in its entirety. Then m easures 1 4 were played three times; m easures 5 8 were played three times, and then th e entire passage was played twice more, totaling nine different playings. The sixth and final dictation of this type, #11 and #12, was a three measure passage from a cantiga for the treble clef dictation. It was played five times and a time signature wa s indicated. The bass dictation was a 15 note segment of a chant played five times. The Ear Training Test (Appendix J) was given one week after the last two dictations were administered in class. There were two melodic dictations on the test. The treble clef dictation was a 16 note passage of two 8 note sections. It was divided into the same segments as bass dictation #10. The bass dictation was a 10 note line played four times in its entirety.

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164 After the Ear Training test, the daily treble and bass cle f dictations were replaced with the dictation of the six canti firmi (fixed melodies) used by Johann Joseph Fux in his Gradus Ad Parnassum treatise on counterpoint This activity was also used to introduce students to beginning composition in first specie s counterpoint. These melodies can be found in Appendix N. A cantus firmus (fixed melody) was composed in each of the four authentic modes already familiar to the students: D mode (dorian), E mode (phrygian), F mode ( l ydian), and G mode (mixolydian). Fu x adds the C mode (ionian) and the A mode (aeolian), which provides the transitional pathway into the developing tonal music of the 17 th century and away from the prevailing modal system. Again, the historical component of the course is brought into full v iew and into full experience by the students as they master the art of composition at this level. One of the activities that had to be dropped for this study, as mentioned previously, was to compose melodies from the modes and the hypo modes before beginn ing to write counterpoint to existing melodies. In the ideal classroom situation, this activity would have already taken place. The first melody (cantus firmus) dictated was in Lesson 16 and from the D (dorian) mode. The reader is referred to the format used in the Fux book which was the format for this exercise used in the study. For first species counterpoint, only whole notes were used for the cantus and its counterpoint (cpt) There was one whole note per measure and each measure was numbered. Two staves were used. The cantus firmus (c.f.) was written on the lower staff. The upper staff was used for the counterpoint melody that would be added above the cantus firmus by the students. The measure numbers were put above the top staff. The D mode ca ntus firmus was written on the board after

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165 the dictation. This melody was used to demonstrate how to add a counterpoint above the cantus firmus. The counterpoint was added by the students during the class discussion. At the end of the discussion the E m ode cantus firmus was dictated to the students for them to add a counterpoint above. For each cantus firmus dictated, they were also instructed to indicate the intervals used and to be prepared to play and sing each line in class using scale degrees. The E mode cantus firmus was reviewed in Lesson 17. counterpoints were put on the board and discussed. The F mode cantus firmus and the G mode cantus firmus were then dictated for the next assignment. T he A mode cantus firmus and the C mode can tus firmus were dictated in Lesson 18. In Lesson 19 the format and guidelines for adding a counterpoint above the cantus firmus were reviewed once again. The guidelines for adding a counterpoint below the cantus firmus were introduced in Lesson 20 using the D cantus firmus again as an example. The final assignment was to add a counterpoint below each of the remaining five canti firmi. 1) HEAR/LISTEN -listening list tracksheets (and worksheets ). The Listening Lists were compiled from the personal CD lib rary of the Project researcher It was estimated that approximately one hour of actual listening time per week would constitute a productive aural literature skills portion of the class. For assessment purposes (for the study) as well as additional educa tional gain (for the students), it was necessary to design accompanying worksheets (wrksht) to the tracksheets (trksht) for each listening selection.

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166 The Listening List component utilized other objectives of the taxonomy. In addition to the obvious #1 HEA R/LISTEN objective, the worksheets engaged the students in reading and writing about the history of music and the music itself. These worksheets addressed the written material in the CD booklets and contributed to the READ and WRITE objectives of the taxo nomy. Most of the booklets offered valuable historical information. Several provided texts in the original language with English translations to the side. Others discussed compositional and/or theoretical developments. Some also provided illustrations, photographs, biographical information of the c omposers and/or performe rs, and information about the instruments used and their makers. Exposure to such a variety of ways to approach the study and experience of music early on immediately broadens the youn g mind and opens up myriad avenues of the music profession and possibilities of future interest and study. The tracksheets specifically addressed the listening component but they also required reading, writing, and analytical skills. Aural analysis was re quired for many questions on the tracksheets such as defining a certain cadence, identifying certain compositional devices or stylistic characteristics, or comparing and contrasting different pieces, different composers or different musical styles. Acute listening skills were hopefully developed by the students through these assignments as they learned how to listen and what to listen for. The literature examples were chosen for their historical value and influence; to encompass a variety of compositional styles and genres; to represent the diversity in the widest range of geographical regions; for their scholarly approach to the material presented in the accompanying booklets; and for the sheer beauty of the music itself.

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167 They were arranged and assigned i n chronological order from 800 1 700 so that the week passed. The tracksheets listed the CD title, the approximate amount of listening time per CD, the individual tracks for the students to hear followed by a list of questions about each track. Each track was chosen for a specific reason, such as, to compare or composers; or to help th e student learn to listen discriminately. One of the goals of the curriculum design was to help the students learn efficient time management, good study habits, and organizational skills. Per the Syllabus requirements, each student was to keep a notebook with specific headings for this purpose. Each assignment handout for the Listening List specified that the worksheets and tracksheets be filed in the Listening List section of their notebooks. All tracksheets and worksheets were created by the Project re searcher In most cases, each CD had an accompanying booklet containing material about each piece or track Most of the booklets were compiled using a scholarly approach and offering valuable information in a historical context, with attention given to t he theoretical practice and compositional styles Some devoted attention to the composer and/or the performers, and to the instruments and instrument makers when applicable. The questions on the worksheets were drawn from this CD booklet information. Th ese worksheets provided the historical aspect of the comprehensive approach in discussing and emphasizing particular important facts and events. of Music Library to accommodate

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168 on reserve and remained available in th e Music Library until the final exam had been administered. There were eight weeks of required Listening Assignments. The first listening assignment was given in Lesson One, Week One and continued on a weekly basis through Week Seven. The eighth and fina l Listening assignment was given in Week Twelve. Week One of this class actually occurred during the second week of the semester. The first week of the semester was used to administer the pretest to all the theory classes and to wait until after the Drop /Add period to determine the actual student enrollment in the P roject. The first three weeks of assignments focused on early chant, 800 1200. In Week women performers si middle eastern churches It featur ed significant women composers Kassia and Hildegard von Bingen and also selections from the Codex Las Huelgas Six tracks plus one bonus (extra credit) track w ere assigned from this CD. The second CD (1B) featured only composer Hildegard von Bingen as sung by the women of the well known Voices of Ascension choral group. Six tracks were chosen. The third CD (1C) featured medieval chant and polyphony from the Codex Calixtinus a French manuscript thought to have been written by Cluny around 1150 and intended to be sung by schoolboys. Instead of schoolboys, the music on this CD was sung by the

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169 Anonymo us 4. Nine tracks and two bonus tracks were chosen. On this Listening List, as well as all the succeeding ones, the students were asked were arranged in chronolo gical order, so the students would hear how the music developed and become familiar with the succession of composers. Also, many times, later questions on the tracksheets and worksheets would depend on what they had heard on the previously listed recordin g. There was no individual Worksheet with specific questions relating to each track listen to the listed tracks and describe what was heard, to compare and contrast with th and to read the CD booklet and take notes. The hindsight of reviewing the answers from this first assignment showed that those directions were too vague and too broad and the students did not have the mastery to s atisfactorily complete them at this time. The Assignment sheet for Week Two was immediately adjusted to now include the Worksheet, designed with specific questions materi al, defining important musical terms, concepts, and compositional elements. These things were being introduced and discussed in class as well. Week Two (800 significant composers of chant an d polyphony in the twelfth century of the Notre Dame (French) school -Leonin and Perotin. The CD 2A focused on Perotin and sung by the well -the Hilliard Ensemble, directed by Paul Hillier. Five tracks

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170 were selected from this CD with fo ur bonus tracks. The CD 2B presented works attributed to Leonin and Perotin as well as anonymous composers and sung by the well vocal group, Lionheart. T en tracks were chosen from this CD, with the remaining tracks offered as bonus tracks. Fo r Week 2A the students were given a Worksheet with specific questions from the CD booklet material, highlighting the important names, dates, terms, and concepts. Again they were asked to listen to the tracks and describe what was heard, but this time sugg estions were given of what to listen for such as consonance and dissonance, number and type of voices, melodic contour which reinforc ed the material from class discussions. After completing this first part of the assignment, the students were instructed to listen to the Week 2B selections and use the same guidelines in describing what was heard. They were asked to read the CD booklet and take notes without the aid of a Worksheet. Week Three (800 1200) contained three listening assignments; 3A, 3B, and 3 C, CD set of Gregorian C particular season of the church year. CD 7, the Resurrection, and CD 8, Christmas, were chose n for the first two assignments. Seven tracks were assigned from CD 7 and four tracks were assigned from CD 8. This CD collection was the only CD without any accompanying materials. The value here was one of listening and of exposing the students to the organization of the church year. The T racksheet questions were the same for both 3A and 3B. Since there was no reading worksheet, this t racksheet took the opportunity to focus solely on aural analysis and of comparing and contrasting to the

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171 previous rec ordings of the past two weeks. The students were asked to describe what they were hearing and were given examples of things to consider when listening that had been and were being discussed in class, such as the beginning interval of each chant; the type of chant, the ending intervals ( cadence ) and the range and contours of the melodies. They were also asked to note differences and similarities from the chants they heard in Weeks One and Two. Week 3C featured the music from the Magnus Liber Organi ( grea t book of polyphony a collection wh ich ( booklet p.6 ) Eight tracks were selected from this work. The CD booklet provided a valuable but concise historical synopsis of a very significant and influential period and its two most famous composers, Leonin and Perotin, of the Notre Dame (French) school. Having been introduced to their music in Week Two, the students will have attained some cognition of the names, places, an d sounds that are being reinforced in Week 3C. The material in the booklet in presented in four languages (English, French, German, and Spanish), and includes color illustrations of the manuscript. The majority of the booklet is devoted to side by side t ranslations of each Latin text into the four languages. Also included is a brief history (also translated to the four languages) of the internationally known recording group, Theatre of Voices, under the direction of conductor and founder, Paul Hillier. In reading about these contemporary vocal groups presenting what may seem to them, like performing and recording scene They will begin to understand (comprehend) the

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172 value, at least, if not the beauty as well of this era of music and discard the common stereotype that this music is just some odd looking undecipherable note like figures on y ellowed pages of some dusty, old library books that have been shelved away on the top floor or in the basement somewhere. They will begin to see the connection, the evolution, and how music would not be where it is today if it were not for what happened a ll those yesterdays ago. It was for the Week 3C assignment that a separate Worksheet and a Tracksheet were prepared. The Worksheet drew its questions as usual, from the information given in the CD booklet. The Tracksheet, however, for the first time, enu merated each track and asked specific questions per selection. All questions called for the listing of the title piece, the texture of the composition, and the cadence s (ending intervals). When applicable, other questions specific to a particular selection were posed. There was also extra space allotted after each question for the students to add their own remarks and observations. This space was provided to encourag e students to think on their own, to trust their own ears, and to be willing to share their findings and discoveries in written form. Week Four (c. 600 Assignment 4A contained five Gregorian Mass es sung by the Benedictine Monks of the Santo Domingo Monastery of Silos. Each mass was composed to be sung for a specific liturgical function, as in Week 3A and 3B assignments. Two masses were chosen: Mass I, intended for the Easter season, and Mass II, intended for solemn feasts. Both of these masses include the five regular movements, in order, of the mass: Kyrie,

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173 Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei The unique listening element in this CD was the use of organ accompaniment to the chants, which has not been heard in this manner so far in the listening assignments The accompanying booklet addressed each form, identifying which mode was used, giving a short history of each, and printing the English translation beside the Latin texts. At this point in the semester, this should have some meaning for the students since these are the modes the students are playing for their keyboard component of the class. The booklet also included historical information about the recording itself. For Week 4A, the stu dents were given a Worksheet but not a Tracksheet. The Worksheet emphasized knowing the five parts of the mass and their meaning and place in the order of the service. In lieu of the Tracksheet, the students were asked to write on their own papers the mo des (listed on the CD) for each movement of the two different masses selected and the final cadences used in each of the movements. They were also asked to analyze the first movement (Kyrie) of each mass, noting any differences in the succeeding movement s. Week 4B took the students into Russian Medieval chant transcribed from original manuscripts. The CD booklet gives a concise history of the tradition of monophonic singing in Russia from Byzantium which includes discussion and the development of certain rhythmic and compositional elements. It then lists each chant in Russian with the English translation to the side. Six tracks were chosen from this CD. There was a Worksheet on the material in the CD booklet and a Tracksheet for this listening assignme nt. On the Tracksheet, the students were asked to identify for all six tracks the final cadences. In addition, the chants on the CD were divided into obvious sections

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174 and the students were now having to notate at what approximate time in the piece the se ctions were occurring. In some chants, they were asked to identify what was happening at a particular time in the piece when something new or unusual could be heard, for instance, maybe the unison chant broke into octave doublings, or two part music. Aga in, the students were asked to employ their developing analytical skills in comparing and contrasting these chants with the ones heard in the earlier weeks. For Tracksheet. W eek Five (1100 labeled 5A, 5B, and 5C. Week 5A brings attention to the music of the Celtic peoples in the early Middle Ages and introduces accompanied sacred chant. Six tracks were chosen. The w ell written booklet gives an excellent historical account of the lasting influence of Celtic culture and music on Central Europe through the wanderings and pilgrimages of the Irish monastics and scholars. The 5A Worksheet questions center around these imp ortant events, people, and places. Each track is listed in Latin with accompanying English translation. Included in many of the selections is additional historical discussion pertinent to that particular piece, and analysis of compositional and theoretic al devices, form, and performance practice. The new element in this CD, performed by the four member Altramar Medieval Music Ensemble, is the addition of instrumental accompaniment on historical instruments made especially for the Music Ensemble. The ins trumentation is listed per each track. Students will now be exposed to the sound of the medieval instruments -the crwth, vielle, medieval Celtic harp, cruit, and gittern, hearing the ancestors of the instruments in use today, connecting the

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175 present to the past; and finding meaning in learning. A brief history of the internationally known group, formed in 1991, is given, as well as illustrations of the instruments used accompanied by explanatory paragraphs on each instrument There is also an illustration of the Monastery of the Scots, another influential cultural center at that time. With the addition of accompanying instruments, listening skills are expanding and the 5A Tracksheet addresses these developments. Now the students must be aware not only tha t there is instrumental accompaniment, but must describe what kind of instruments are being used, and heard, in each selection. Other questions pertinent to each selection are also included, such as describing the texture of one selection, the mood portra yed in another selection, or which type of scale is being used in yet a different selection. Week 5B was the first look at secular, accompanied vocal music in the Middle Ages. It presented a set of six songs by Jaufr Rudel from the mid twelfth century an d the courtly love songs ( Cantigas de amigo ) of Martin Codax from the early thirteenth century. Four tracks by Rudel and four tracks by Codax were chosen for the 5B Tracksheet. The students were asked to listen to the Rudel songs before listening to the Codax songs in the interest of maintaining the chronological sequence. The earliest troubadour from whom (booklet p. 4 ). By this time in the listening, students will have something to compare and contrast. For example, from these selections they will hear that the songs are often speaking parts which alternate with short instrumental interludes; that others begin with a lo nger instrumental prelude before the speaking voice enters; that others consist of the singing

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176 voice with scant accompaniment alternating again with solo passages in both the voice and the instrument. The students will see the beginnings of specific form a cantigas. An instrumental prelude (harp) begins the set of Cantigas I VII and an instrumental postlude (psaltery) concludes the set. The cantigas are unaccompanied solo voice. One of the tracks chosen featured the only spoken unaccompanied solo voice in this collection. Students can now compare and contrast these later songs with students are asked to do so. They are also asked to indicate th ese sections according to the duration of each section, and an example of how to notate that was provided on the tracksheet. For example: 00 -2:00 -2:45 -3:00 would indicate three sections in the piece. The students were also instructed to label the sect ions according to what was going on in each section, so the first section: 00 -The questions continue to require acute aur al analytical skills, evaluation and ass essment skills, and concise communication skills written in a scholarly manner. The intent is for them to begin to take ownership of their newly acquired knowledge and their developing listening skills Hopefully t hey will become motivated so that their desire for more knowledge and skills will spread not only to the rest of the class activities but to all of their educational experiences. The CD booklet gives a brief but fact filled historical account, in English a nd French, of both Rudel and C odax. It also provides an overview of the song form in

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177 particular, the troubadour song in Spanish, English, and French. Also listed are the instruments and their makers, and the sources used for the songs. The songs are performed by Paul Hillier, voice, and Andrew Lawrence King, harp and psaltery. Brief biographies, in English and French, with a photo of the performers are included as well as illustrations of the manuscr ipt from Codax and of a thirteenth century Troubadour manuscript recanting the legend of Rudel. The 5B Worksheet highlight s the importance and influence of the troubadours The questions center on where they flourished and what their contributions were T he individual significance of Rudel and Codax in the develop ment of song during this period is also emphasized. Week 5C focused on the role of the Medieval woman -as poet, patroness, lover, saint, as portrayed in the music of the time. The recording incl udes songs of the French troubadours and trouv res from the late twelfth century to the early fourteenth century, and the cantigas de amigo songs of a friend ( a boyfriend or lover) from the thirteenth century troubadour, Martin Codax, whom the students j ust heard in the 5B selections. Also included on this CD are several dances ( estampie ) from the thirteenth century. The accompanying booklet traces the influence of the courtly love songs of the troubadours and trouv res ( male and female composers and pe rformers, respectively) from the court of Eleanor of Aquitaine to that of her children, Richard the Lionheart and Marie de Champagne, and in both northern and southern France in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. Included is a discussion of the forms, performance practice, and stylistic traits. The sources for each track are listed, along with the instrumentation

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178 and the tunings used. This material is printed in English, French, and German. The songs are then listed in their original Frenc h or Spanish language, with an English translation to the side of each song. The 5C Worksheet focuses mostly on the historical elements from the CD booklet It does include questions on the style and form of the songs and defining the groupings of the in strument families. instruments heard in the recording, so when they were mentioned, full advantage was No songs from Martin Codax were chosen from this CD for the 5C Tracksheet because Week 5B focused specifically on his songs and those of Jaufr Rudel. Instead, six tracks were chosen, five of which were attributed to Anonymous and three of those five were instrumental dances. The questions on this tracks heet involve more elements for analysis that were not present in earlier music, such as the role of the instruments and the actual parts being played by them formal and compositional elements such as distinct sections within a piece rhythmic elements tha t now play a much bigger role than in earlier music tempos moods and dynamics. It seems likely that the students will have heard of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Richard the Lionheart in previous history classes. In hearing and reading about the music of th at time, students will thus have something to relate the music to. Hopefully, world history panorama. Week Six (1200 1400) selections were taken from a CD of medieval Hu ngarian Christmas music performed by Anonymous 4. This CD was chosen to bring in another

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179 country that had not yet been studied in the course. Seven tracks were chosen. The CD booklet gave a brief history of Hungary, from c. 500 to 800, tracing the influ ence of Western Europe on Hungarian plainchant from the 11 th century and tracing that influence back to Byzantium. The characteristics of Hungarian chant are discussed and the sources for the chants heard on the CD are listed, in addition to the Christmas story recanted in a translation from the Hungarian ( booklet p.10 ). This material was printed in English, French, German, and Spanish. The texts of the chants were printed in their original language Latin or Hungarian and translations to the four languages were listed to the side Illustrations of actual manuscripts and a 15 th century painting of the Adoration of the Magi were included, as well as a photograph of the performers followed by a brief biography of the group printed in the same four languages. The Week 6A Worksheet addressed the historical elements discussed in the CD booklet However the questions focused more on the musical development and characteristics of Hungarian chant and polyphony. Most of the booklets gave some kind of historical accounting but not always theoretical or stylistic information. The 6A Tracksheet took a completely different approach in that the questions appeared in short answer chart form. Six categories were listed in which the students had to de termine and list what was being heard -type of piece, number of voices, beginning interval, mood/tempo, rhythmic figure used, and final cadence. Four more selecti on. This approach was used for several reasons -to vary the teaching method to provide more interest; to expose the students to different forms of obtaining and

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180 recording knowledge; to reduce the amount of time needed for the students to complete the Trac ksheets and for the Project researcher to grade and return the Tracksheets By this time in the semester, the students were feeling overloaded and overwhelmed by their workloads, not only in this P roject but in all of their classes. The Worksheets and Tr acksheets took longer than anticipated to compile and to complete, so the course was adjusted to be more efficient without sacrificing the quality of the instruction. For this reason also, there was no 6B listening assignment and the 6A assignment was red uced to less than half (c.19 min utes ) of the original hour of required listening per week. Week Seven (1100 1600) presented medieval English carols and motets performed by Lionheart. Ten tracks, requiring about 27 minutes of listening time, were chosen. The CD booklet gives an interesting synopsis of the history of the carol and development of the song form and its usage. Each selection is briefly discussed in context of p erformance practice, its form, and its place in the service or feast. The texts of the selections are printed in their original language, Latin or Olde English, and only an English translation is provided. A brief biography of the group is also included. The Week 7 Worksheet questions highlighted the important historical developments of the carol and its forms and settings that were discussed in the booklet. Only three motets were included on the CD, but the worksheet addressed the information that was p resented, giving mention to the famous Old Hall Manuscript an important source of English polyphony from the 14 th century. The ten tracks listed on the Tracksheet were divided into two groups according to the presentation of the pieces described in the bo oklet. The first group was the

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181 Christmas sequence and five tracks were included in this section. Some tracks that were not required listening were included in the Tracksheet instead of the Worksheet in order to maintain the sequence of the Christmas trac ks. For each selection, the student was asked to list the title the date and the event or feast associated with that caro l, the type song i t was ( hymn, carol, etc. ), the texture used the style of the piece the language it was written in the rhythmic a nd melodic elements used, and lastly, their own observations. Depending on the specific song, sometimes the students were asked to define the tonality of the piece the cadences, or if they knew that particular carol, or what might be unique about a certa in aspect of the piece. Week Seven of CD listening was actually Week Eight of the 16 week semester, and the midpoint of the semester was taking its toll on the students. The listening component along with the Worksheets and the Tracksheets, all of which w as completed outside class time took up much more time than originally anticipated, so the Listening List was discontinued after Week Seven in order to catch up on the other components of the study. The next and the last Listening assignment for the sem ester was given in Week Twelve which was Week Thirteen of the semester. Only a couple of weeks remained in which to begin winding up the course material and reviewing for the final exam. Week Twelve focused solely on composer Josquin des Pr s from the la te 15 th and early 16 th centuries, tracks were chosen, for a total of about nine minutes listening time. With this listening assignment, the students have been brought into the Renaissance an d are exposed to one of the most famous melodies and compositional phenomena of the period, as well

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182 as to the most famous and most highly regarded composer of his time. This CD is unique in several ways. It focuses entirely on the melody, a n anonymous chanson (song) upon which dozens of mass settings have been co mposed. The chanson settings of the melody. The CD booklet presents a theoretical analysis and discussion of t he sections of the two masses in the few paragraphs provided. This material is printed in English, Italian, French, and German, as are the translations of the original Latin texts of each mass setting. The unique feature of the booklet is the melody itse lf printed in manuscript ( on staff paper ) and presented in the treble clef The CD was recorded by the internationally known recording group, the Tallis Scholars, under the direction of Peter Phillips. No biographical information on the group or its dire ctor was provided in the booklet. The 12A Worksheet addressed the material in the CD booklet, drawing attention to the many composers and contemporaries of Josquin who composed settings o f this famous tune. It also focuses on the compositional difference s and styles of the tune Of the three tracks chosen, the first is the tune itself. The following two tracks are the Kyrie from each mass. The 12A Tracksheet questio ns ask for comparisons and the sections in each movement, and then discussing each section in terms of tempo, texture, and mood. They were also asked to determine the f inal intervals the final cadence and if they were able to track the melody for each movement.

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183 Two motets were chosen equaling about ten minutes of listening. The CD booklet was uncharacteristically brief in its program notes and focuse d characteristics and its place in the R enaissance. It is printed in French, English, and German. The motet texts are presented in the original Latin only, with no translations The performers, La Chapelle Royale were directed by Philippe Herreweghe. Other than the routine contact information, no other information about this group was given. The 12B Worksheet only addressed naming characteristics of the motet as mentioned in the booklet and emphasiz ing the importance of the second motet listed. The real purpose of presenting this last listening assignment was to at least mention Josquin, for name recognition later on if nothing else, and have the students hear the difference between his works and the works they had heard in Week One. Examples of a ll of the Worksheets and Tracksheets can be found in Appendix J. 2) P LAY & SING -keyboard s kills: exercises and m odes, practice j ournals, keyboard t esting sight r eading /prepared pi ano p ieces (S R/Prep) There were many things to be considered in creating a keyboard program which would answer the demands of a comprehensive, chronological pedagogy and adhere to the objectives of emerge from the keyboard class with a solid, basic keyboard technique. Students were graded in the four areas listed above. The materials used in this portion of the study can be found in Appendix K. The keyboard skills portion of the course centered on two areas -technique and literature. The technical keyboard materials and sequencing were designed by the Project researcher with the exception of four Hanon technical exercises which were

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184 included later in the course. The keyboard materials for Sight r eading and for the Prepared piano pieces (S R/Prep) were drawn from the literature of the period. The course design and implementation of the Keyboard element utilized all seven objectives of the taxonomy in which the students hear, play, sing, see/read, write, compose, and designed so that the students would hear first, in class, what they would be expected to play; then they would usually sing it before playing and singing with counting, with finger numbers, or with note names. They would see it and read it as each exercise and mode was written on the board. Finally, they would write and file it in their Theory Notebooks. Every exercise they were assigned to play, they w ere assigned to write and file in their Theory Notebooks under the appropriate heading. All of the Prepared piano pieces required Sight r eading skills at first reading. As they continued to practice the pieces for performance (Keyboard Testings) they cont inued to reinforce their reading skills. Later in the course as they began to compose single note melodies, they had to write read and play them back as they practiced those pieces for performance (Keyboard Testings). 2) P LAY & SING keyboard skills: e x ercises and m odes The technical studies were divided into five finger exercises and mode playing. All of the technical studies began with the students playing each hand alone in three different rhythmic patterns and then both hands together in the same three rhythmic patterns. The five finger a uthentic modes (dorian/D mode, phrygian/E mode, lydian/F mode, and mixolydian/G mode) were introduced first, in keeping with the theoretical materi al being discussed in class. Later

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185 on, as music itself developed, the aeolian/A mode and ionian/C mode were added. This sequence also follows the presentation of the first species counterpoint assignments. The mode playing assignments began with one oct ave, ascending and descending, hands separate, in the three rhythms, progressing to one octave, ascending and descending, hands together, in the three rhythms; two octaves, ascending and descending, hands separate in the three rhythms; and finally, two oct aves, ascending and descending, hands together, in three rhythms. Students were required to at least have access to and use of a metronome for their keyboard studies. Part of their grade in the periodic keyboard tests was determined by their ability to p erform their technical requirements at a given metronome marking ( mm ) The written material for this section can be found in Appendix K. In the study of the literature, chants (single line melodies in the treble clef for the right hand and in the bass cle Appendix I for a list of sources used) for use in class as well as for the P repared piano pieces. The intent was to give the students pieces from the literature to read, study (analyze), practice, an d, ultimately, perform during one of the regularly scheduled keyboard testing times. As in the technical studies, the goal was to play hands separate first before putting hands together. Playing chants fulfilled this objective while also teaching the stu dents to read in each clef. Since the study of unison chant melody addresses only melodic intervals, the next step would be the study of intervals, in technique first to prepare for the playing of two part pieces from the literature. This component of the course addressed five of the seven taxonomy objectives. The piece assigned was heard first (played by the Project researcher ), then played and

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186 sung by the class, read by each student as they practiced from the score, and finally, performed at the keyboar d testing. Even though there was no more audience than the Project researcher prepared pieces were assessed and evaluated as a performance (finished product) with regards to how much progress each individual had made in that piece. The K eyboard component was also involved during the study of first species counterpoint (composition) in the last few weeks of the semester. As each cantus firmus was introduced, the class would play and sing the melody. When the counterpoints were reviewed in class, the clas s would divide into two sections. One section would sing and play the cantus firmus while the other section would sing and play the counterpoint. With the inclusion of this last compositional activity, work at the keyboard has involved all seven of the t axonomy objectives. 2) PLAY & SING practice j ournals Each student was instructed to keep a Practice J ournal (see Appendix K ) noting the da te the item practiced, the amount of time practiced, and later on, the metronome marking for the modes. This was assigned done for several reasons: to instill a daily routine of good practice habits (meaning that even a little practice every day will produce better results than cramming in last minute practicing for hours at a time) ; to increase awareness of how much or how little practicing was being done and understand how that factor relates to their success at the keyboard; to encourage discipline, accountability, and responsibility; to help students with time management of their over crowded schedules; and to hel p them develop efficient organizational skills. The Practice Journals were due on the same day as their keyboard testing. At first, it was left to the students to write out their own practice

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187 schedule as had been instructed. But the work that was handed in was of such poor quality for example, illegible handwriting sloppy work incomplete documentation work handed in on a half sheet of pape r, that a Practice Journal form was designed. This form listed the Keyboard Testing dates followed with a day by day listing and ending with the dates of the next Keyboard Testing dates. All that was required was to write down the amount of time practiced and the metronome marking. This simple form made it very easy for the students to keep the journal and for the instructor to quickly check it. Keyboard t esting Keyboard testing took place every two weeks. There were six testing periods. The first two testings took place during class time in the second class of the week. After that the testing times were chang ed to being done outside class time. Individual appointments were made for before and after the last class of the week. The Practice Journals were collected at each testing time from the previous two week period. Keyboard s kills Following is a detailed description of the Keyboard skills element through out the actual lessons. Keyboard s kills began on the first day of class, Lesson 1, Week One. None of the students in the class had any viable keyboard experience or training. In discussion with them in class and according to the pre class survey Question 1A, 1B, and 1C (Appendix E ) there were no piano majors in the study; no one listed piano as their primary instrument; and only one student listed keyboard as a secondary instrument, with only a mere 4 5 months of playing experience. The immediate goal and first objective was to engage the students in moving their fingers over the keyboard as soon as possible.

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188 After explaining the Practice Journals and reminding the students to record all practice time, e ven if it was five minutes, in the journals, the fundamentals of playing the keyboard were addressed. The discussion included, for example, good posture when playing and practicing, how the black and white keys work together to define the names of the key s, finger numbers, and proper hand position. Following that discussion, the students were asked to listen to the first half of Exercise 1.1, an elementary 5 finger exercise (Appendix L ). It was played once. The students were then asked to place their han ds in C position, and with one hand at a time, to play what they had just heard. The entire exercise was then played in an even rhythm (all quarter notes) and the students played it back in its entirety, hands separate. Then the exercise was written on t he board in both treble and bass clefs, using three different note values (quarter, half and whole). The class played it for a third time, hands separate, and was asked to explain what was different about the melody written on the board from the one origi nally played. Staccato markings and slurs were added to the quarter notes. The class played the exercise for a fourth time, hands separate, observing these markings. The fifth playing they sang the finger numbers while playing and the sixth and final t ime, they sang the letter names of the notes still with hands separate. This exercise and the different ways it was played in class was the first keyboard assignment, due one week later, in Lesson 3 Week Two. The intent behind this exercise was to build confidence and comfort into a successful learning process in the most time efficient manner without causing tension and stress (which would be reflected in the playing and would impede sufficient progress).

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189 This general procedure was repeated each time a new keyboard element or exercise was introduced. It was recommended that the students use this process in practicing their keyboard exercises, of playing one hand at a time before trying to put them together, and to count out loud, or say, as they did in class, the finger numbers five minutes or minutes several times throughout the day was also addressed regularly throughout the semester. In Lesson 2, Week One the c lass Discussion topic was the a uthentic and the p lagal modes. The Keyboard s kills portion of the class focused on playing and singing only the a uthentic modes as they were discussed. The one octave fingering for each hand was discussed and wri tten on the board. The class then played with the right hand only and sang each of the four a uthentic modes for one octave, ascending and descending. They played each note as a half note, but count sang in subdivided half notes (quarter notes). Learning to think and count rhythmic gestures by subdividing early on generates an interior rhythmic pulse that results in more accurate and more rhythmic playing on any instrument Each mode was identified as it was played and each mode was written on the board in whole notes in the treble clef. The companion assignment was Modes #1: Even Rhythm The students were instructed to practice only the four a uthentic modes in one octave, hands separate, ascending and descending, in subdivided half notes by counting ou t loud (1+2+3+4+), just as they had done in class. The first P repared p iano p ieces were also assigned from the text (p.3 6 ) Three chants from the Third Mass for Christmas Day by Anonymous were chosen: an Introit in

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190 Mode 7 (mixolydian), a Kyrie in Mode 5 (lydian), and a Gloria in Mode 1 (dorian). All three chants were single note treble clef melodies. The intent was to learn to read in the treble clef first and then proceed to chants written in the bass clef, and ultimately, progress to simple two part p ieces that could be put together within a reasonable amount (two weeks) of time. In Lesson 3, Week Two, the k eyboard part of Assignment # 2 was reviewed in class. The class played each of the four modes, one octave, hands separate, ascending and descending at least three times -once playing with the right hand only and saying note names, once playing with the left hand only and saying the solfege (do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, do), and once playing with the hand of their choice and saying the mode degrees (1 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 1). The half steps in each mode were identified and the one octave fingerings for each hand were again written on the board. The class was reminded that they were expected to be practicing Exercise 1.1 as well as the Modes #1: Eve n Rhythm In previewing the Assignment #3 Handout, Exercise 1.2 was introduced and discussed. This exercise added a rhythmic element and was also a writing exercise. Exercise 1.2 was the same exercise notewise as Exercise 1.1, but in diminishing rhythmi c values. There were two variations in this exercise and they were labeled 1.2a and 1.2b. In Exercise 1.2a, the beginning quarter notes were now eighth notes ; the half notes were now quarter notes ; and the final whole note was now a half note. In Exerci se 1.2b, the eighth notes changed to sixteenth notes, the quarter notes changed to eighth notes, and the half note changed to a quarter note (Appendix L ) Constant reminders to log in practice times in the Practice Journal were mentioned in class as well as included on the Assignment h andouts.

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191 The keyboard work in Lesson 4, Week Two, began with the class reviewing Exercise 1.2 which had been introduced and assigned in the previous lesson. They played together, counting out loud in eighth notes while readi ng the treble clef variation and counting out loud in sixteenth notes while reading the bass clef variation. The students were given the option of playing hands separate or hands together, depending on their individual rate of progress. After a discussio n of Chant and chant types, portions of the chants from the text assigned in Lesson 2, Week One, were sung and played, with accompanying verbal analysis. The new keyboard element introduced in this lesson was I ntervals within the m ode Using the dorian mo de as an example, the class played and sang the intervals in ascending order: 1 2, 1 3, 1 4, 1 5, 1 6, 1 7, 1 8. They played and sang the intervals in descending order: 8 7, 8 6, 8 5, 8 4, 8 3, 8 2, 8 1 (Appendix L) Again, those who felt ready to play b oth hands together were encouraged to do so. The class was instructed to practice this interval exercise in each of the four modes. In reviewing the Assignment # 4 handout and discussing the keyboard homework, the students admitted that even though they we re counting out loud when playing in class, most of them were not using their metronomes as instructed when they practiced keyboard assignments outside of class. The importance of practicing with the metronome was addressed again and since they were all b eginners, a specific technique to use was explained so they would have something concrete to aim for. The process begins by starting at a tempo slow enough for one hand at a time to play correct notes on the first playing of the assigned exercise or piece while counting out loud. After playing the selection three consecutive times with no mistakes, the tempo

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192 would be adjusted to the next speed (or adjusted up 2 3 numbers, for example, from 60 63,) and played again until it could be played three consecutiv e times with no mistakes. This procedure would be repeated until the ultimate tempo was reached, or until enough of a tempo had been achieved with hands separate that the player felt ready to begin the process again, this time with hands together. Using a plan such as this one is extremely beneficial for beginners. As they practice with the metronome they will see immediate success as they move the tempo marking up bit by bit. An inner rhythmic sense will automatically develop, causing the student to play in a more rhythmic style without having to do or think about anything extra. In playing from slower to quicker tempos, tension and panic disappear, because the material is approached in a calm and thorough manner. Sight reading will dramatically improve when not being forced to meet some up tempo beat that beginning musicians cannot do right away They will hear, see, and feel instant success O nce they are able to play their piece at one tempo, the process of increasing that piece to the desired perfo rmance tempo takes a much shorter time because now the student has only to keep repeating the correct notes with the correct fingers They will also be able to feel the general rhythmic flow of the selection and will experience how that flow changes as th e tempo of the piece changes. What may seem like a dull and boring way to practice results in an exciting and intimate look into each piece practiced in this way. What may seem like an eternity of practice time involved is really a misconception becaus e the piece is usually learned quicker and more thoroughly through this method using the metronome.

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193 2) PLAY & SING -sight reading /prepared p iano p ieces (S R/Prep). The first Sight Reading/Prepared piano piece assignment (S R/Prep #1) that would be required for Keyboard Testing was also assigned in Lesson 4 Week 2 In the treble clef for the right hand were three chants a Sanctus and an Agnus Dei in mode 4 ( hypophyrgian) and a short Communion chant: Viderunt omnes in mode 1 (dorian). A hypo mode is an ext ension of the mode it modifies, starting four pitches below the beginning pitch of the said mode but extending to the same ending pitch. They are also known as the plagal meaning four, modes. In the bass clef for the left hand was an Ambrosian chant. T ips on how to approach sight reading a new piece of music were discussed. There were nine S R/Prep assignments during the semester. S R/Prep #2 was given in the Assignment h andout for Lesson 5, Week Three. The treble clef chant was an anonymous chant in mode 3 phyrgian, a responsory at matins. The bass clef chant was a Gallican chant. The students were asked to provide a written analysis for these two chants and to be prepared to play them in class. S R/Prep #3 was assigned in Lesson 6, Week Four. The treble clef chant was an anonymous Hodie Christus Natus Est an antiphon at 2 nd vespers. The bass clef chant was an example of Mozarabic chant. S R/Prep #4 was assigned in Lesson 7, Week Four. The treble clef piece was a troubadour song (12 th 13 th centu ry) by Bernart de Ventadorn This piece marked a definite stylistic change from the chants that had been previously assigned. This music used a time signature and barlines, accidentals, and was written in French instead of Latin. Stemmed notes instead o f just note heads were now used, and various rhythmic

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194 figures and patterns had appeared. The bass clef piece was a short chant like excerpt from a Liturgical Drama 11 th 12 th century. S R/Prep #5 was assigned in Lesson 9, Week Five. This was the first pi ece of two part music in which both hands played together in an instrumental dance form, the estampie. The students were first asked to provide a written analysis of the intervals between the treble and bass clefs (the right and left hands). Directions w ere given to learn each hand separately first before trying to put them together. They were instructed to play slowly while counting out loud. S R/Prep #6 and S R/Prep #7 were both assigned in Lesson 10, Week Six. The #6 piece was a minnelied (German son g of the 12 th 14 th centuries) by Neidhart von Reuental, a treble clef melody for the right hand. There was no key signature indicated but there was a time signature, barlines, and accidentals which were listed above the note to be altered. The #7 piece w as a second troubadour song, by Bernart de Ventadorn This is a bass clef melody and was selected for the left hand. There was no indicated time or key signature, but barlines were employed. It was announced in class that re takes for the S R/Prep #1 #4 assignments would take place after the Lesson 11, Week Six class. The Lesson 10 Assignment handout asked the students to have the estampie (S R/Prep #5) ready to play hands separately for Lesson 11, Week Six. In Lesson 11, Week Six, the is sue of fingering for the estampie was addressed. The students were having so much trouble with the fingerings that for the remainder of the S R/Prep assignments, all selections were provided with fingerings for each hand. The estampie assignment was put on hold so the fingerings could be worked out in the

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195 next lesson. The Assignment #11 h andout called for the students to have the #6 and #7 assignments ready to play in class for Lesson 12, Week Seven. In Lesson 12, Week Seven, the fingerings for the estam pie were worked out in class so the students could understand the importance of and the principles behind good fingering technique. The first phrase of the right hand and m ost of the left hand part was w orked out. The remainder of the piece was left to t he students to figure out on their own. The Assignment Handout 12 listed the #5, #6 and #7 prepared pieces as requirements for the third Keyboard Testing period. The final S R/Prep piano pieces, #8 and #9, were assigned in Lesson 13, Week Seven. Both sel ections are by Alfonso X (1221 1284), El Sabio hand treble clef melody #8 was an excerpt from the Prologue ( prologo ) to a collection of songs, the Songs of Holy Mary ( Cantigas de Santa Maria ). The left hand bass clef melody #9 was an excerpt from another cantiga Great Delight ( ). Bo th were written in a transposed i onian (C major) mode. Barlines, time signatures and key signatures were indicated. In Lesson 16, Week Nine the students began composing single note melodies above a given melody (first species counterpoint) in each of the six modes they were now studying (Appendix N ). The resulting two part compositions were added to the repertoire for prepared pieces and the students were expected to be able to play and sin g these two part pieces as part of the #5 Keyboard Testings. The pieces were identified as the cantus firmus/counterpoint in the mode in which it had been written, for example the cantus firmus/counterpoint in E mode.

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196 2) PLAY & SING -keyboard t esting T here were six Keyboard Testing periods. The first took place in Lesson 5, Week Three during the second class period of the week. The required elements were Exercise 1.1, Exercise 1.2, Modes #1, and Modes #2, all with hands separate (and together for thos e who were able). When asked to play the first exercise, 1.1, surprisingly, every student played Exercise 1.2 instead and every student played the variation 1.2a that began with eighth notes, some with hands separate and some with hands together. The sam e thing happened when asked to play the modes. Each student played Modes #1 in the even rhythm pattern, but no one had Modes #2 ready. This first testing period ended up as a checkpoint exercise in which the current metronome marking for each exercise wa s established for each student. A goal was set to increase the tempo for the next testing and to begin putting hands together. Assignment #5 was handed out. The second Keyboard Testing occurred during Lesson 9, Week Five. Assignment #8 listed the five r equired elements for the testing: Exercise 1.2, Modes #1, Modes #2, Modes #3, and a Prepared piece. The Exercise 1.2 was the varied rhythmic patterns using the five finger pattern from Exercise 1.1. The Modes at this point, were one octave, hands separat e (together if possible) and the numbers 1, 2, and 3 also refer to three different rhythmic patterns in which each mode was to be played. The Modes #1 pattern was an even or straight rhythm of equal but subdivided quarter or half notes Th e Modes #2 patte rn was labeled with a tonic paus e in which the first note and the last note (the tonic) of the one octave mode was played as a half note while the rest of the notes were played as quarter notes, thus creating the effect of a slight pause on the lower and higher tonic pitches. The Modes #3 pattern was a dotted rhythm

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197 combination of a dotted quarter note with an eighth note. The students were required to pass the hands separate level before proceeding to the next level of playing hands together. The metro nome markings were notated to see if the goal from the previous testing had been met. Any new goals were set and recorded. Also on this test was the first required S R/Prep piece. S R/Prep #1 #4 had been assigned since Assignment # 4, but only one (studen testing period. A note in Lesson 8 made by the Project instructor explains the situation : Special Note: Have been trying to fit in playing S/R Prep #1 #4 since ASSIGN #6, but the students were not ready, meaning they h ad not practiced or worked the examples out, and introducing melodic dictation, which most of them had never done before, took a long time to discuss and for them to start assimilating. P ractice J ournals were also c ollected After this second testing duri ng the class time, the K eyboard T esting times were moved to individual appointments every two weeks. These times w ere scheduled before and after class times on the testing days. This change in the testing procedure was announced in the following two less ons and listed on the Assignment Sheet handouts. New keyboard elements were introduced and played in Lesson 10, Week Six. They included two new technical exercises and the addition of playing the modes in contrary as well as the usual parallel motion. Als o added was playing the modes and exercises in a legato and a staccato style. The two new exercises were selected Hanon exercises, labeled #1 and #2 by the Project researcher These exercises were chosen

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198 because they develop strength, agility, consistenc y of touch, endurance and rhythmic playing, and because they are easily learne d by the beginning keyboardist. The class played all four modes, one octave in contrary motion, hands together, in Modes #1 rhythm (even), in both legato and staccato. The fing ering for playing the modes one octave together was also reviewed. Hanon #1 and Hanon #2 were introduced and played in class. Part of the k eyboard portion of that class was devoted to the art of practicing and the benefits of practicing on a daily basis 10 15 minutes per day rather than waiting until the night before the test to cram in hours of frantic last minute practice. Using the metronome, keeping track of their progress in their practice journals, and setting smaller, achievable goals along the way were also discussed and highly encouraged. Semester goals were also set for the class in this lesson. The technical exercises and modes were to be played in subdivided eighth notes, hands together, with the quarter note=126 on the metronome. This way each student was allowed to develop at their own rate of growth and the K eyboard T estings would act as checkpoints on the way to the finished product at the end of the semester. The P repared pieces were expected to be played hands together by semester end. At any K eyboard T esting the students could pass out of any required element. Assignment # 10 included a new prepared piece S R/Prep #5, an estampie (dance) A K eyboard T esting schedule handout (Appendix K ) listed the testing dates with the required technical exercises and prepared pieces. Hints and reminders were

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199 separate and build up to hands together and encouragements such as, keep practicing to achieve your g oals! The estampie was reviewed in class in Lesson 11, Week Six. Fingerings proved to be a problem for the class. A fingered version was provided and worked on in Lesson 12, Week Seven. It was announced again to the students that Friday mornings outsi de of class were available for extra help and/or for completing K eyboard T estings. Reminders of upcoming K eyboard T esting due dates were included on the Assignment # 11 handout. For the remainder of the semester, the K eyboard T esting dates were announced in each class, as well as posted on each Assignment h andout. Reminders of good practicing habits, using the metronome, and keeping up with the Practice Journal were also included. Prepared pieces #8 and #9 were introduced to the class in Lesson 13, Week S even. Together, the class clapped and counted out loud the rhythms of the two pieces. The k eyboard assignment for that lesson included these two pieces and added the third and fourth Hanon exercises for them to begin, hands separate. Keyboard Testing #3 took place before and after this lesson. Each student was evaluated for progress and new goals were established where needed. The Practice Journals were also collected from each student at that time. Week Eight was the midpoint of the 16 week semester I n Lesson 14, Week Eight, each student was given a Keyboard h andout listing their progress so far in the semester in meeting the k eyboard requirements. Reminders to continue practicing at least 15 minutes daily and to continue logging practice time in the ir Practice Journals were included on the h andout.

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200 Lesson 15, Week Eight was devoted entirely to k eyboard work after briefly reviewing the Ear Training Test from the previous class. Playing two octave modes, hand separate in the three different rhythms w as reviewed as a class activity, as well as reviewing the newly assigned Hanons #3 and #4, and also the S R/Prep #5, #8, and #9. After the class review, the students were left to work individually for the remainder of the class. The signup sheet for the u pcoming Keyboard Testing #4 and re takes for Keyboard Testing #3 was handed out in Lesson 16, Week Nine. The Keyboard Testing #4 took place before and after Lesson 17, Week Nine. By this time a Practice Journal form had been designed and was handed out i n this lesson for the next two weeks of practice. Also at this time, the students were encouraged to set up extra Keyboard Test ing times for those who were not keeping up with their keyboard goals. In Lesson 18, Week Ten, the students were again encourage d to set up K eyboard T est ing times to continue meeting and passing the k eyboard requirements. This was also listed on the Assignment # 18 handout. The students were continually encouraged to set up extra t esting times for those who were falling behind in their keyboard goals. In Lesson 19, Week Ten, the Signup Sheet for Keyboard Test re takes was circulated in class. The Assignment # 19 handout re stated the procedure for Keyboard Testing It also listed updated requirements which were replacing the ones l isted on the Keyboard Testing Schedule that had been handed out in a previous lesson. By this time in the semester, it was expected that the students were becoming more proficient with the exercises and technical requirements, resulting in most of them re aching similar ability levels. The new requirements applied to all students now. The listed

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201 requirements were: 2 octave modes played hands together in all three rhythms at mm =126; 2 octave Hanon Exercises #1 and #2 played hands together at mm =126; 2 octa ve Hanon Exercises #3 and #4 played at least hands separately, and all of the counterpoints they had composed in the E,F,G,A, and C modes, since the D mode had been used as the example. This portion of the k eyboard element is discussed in the following se ction concerning Prepared p i ano p i eces and the C OMPOSE objective A reminder to turn in the Practice Journals was also listed on this assignment sheet along with advance notice of the final K eyboard T esting period at Lesson 25, Week Fourteen. Keyboard Tes ting #5 took place before and after Lesson 20, Week Eleven. The students were evaluated for their progress and final requirements were established. Practice Journals were collected. During Lesson 20, another signup sheet for more Keyboard re takes befor e and after Lesson 22, Week 12 was circulated. The Assignment Sheet Handout reminded the students of the signup sheet, the final K eyboard T esting dates and listed the final requirement for the Hanon Exercises #3 and #4 to be played hands together. They w ere also advised that at the next class period, Lesson 21, Week Twelve, each student would be given a synopsis of the requirements they had yet to pass. In Lesson 21, Week Twelve, the students were again reminded to signup for the retakes before and after Lesson 22, Week Twelve. They were also reminded of the final Keyboard Testing dates, and were given the synopsis mentioned in the previous class. Encouraging remarks were made for the students to keep practicing daily in shorter time periods if necessary Reminders were also given to complete and turn in the Practice Journals at the final testing.

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202 The Keyboard Testing r e takes took place before and after Lesson 22, Week Twelve. The students were evaluated for their progress and the final requirements we re established. Any late Practice Journals were collected. During Lesson 22, the signup sheet was again circulated for those who would be taking the test after class. The class was reminded again of the final Keyboard Testing #6 to take place before and after Lesson 25, Week Fourteen. There was no Assignment handout as the instructions had just been delivered verbally by the Project researcher The Signup Sheet for Keyboard Testing #6 was circulated during Lesson 23, Week Thirteen and during Lesson 24, Week Fourteen. No Assignment Sheets were handed out at these lessons. The students were verbally encouraged to keep practicing The final Keyboard Testing #6 took place before and after Lesson 25, Week Fourteen. The students were evaluated for their progress not only from the previous Testing period, but also from where they started at the beginning of the semester. 3) SING & PLAY eved through class/group singing the materials being heard and played at the keyboard This included both the examples from the literature and the technical exercises, the dictations, daily ear training quizzes, and composition assignments. The ideal was to have the students use their singing voices in some way in every lesson (this was not always possible) and to have them singing in their homework assignments as much as possible. Singing skills were treated as necessary but supplemental to the listenin g and keyboard components. There were no individual sight singing or prepared singing assignments or testings, but the Assignment h andouts included explicit singing

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203 directions and the students were encouraged and allowed to sing during the Keyboard Testin g periods. There was discussion in class concerning the importance of all musicians being able to access their voices to enhance and improve their musical skills and abilities, and therefore the need to be comfortable using their voices. Whenever a new ke yboard exercise or mode was introduced, the class would either play it first and then sing and play it, or sing it first and then play and sing it. With the assignments for the S R/Prep pieces, the students were instructed, verbally if not always written on the Assignment sheet handouts, to sing and play all the chants and pieces assigned. Depending on the exercise or piece, what they were singing while playing the exercises, modes, chants and instrumental pieces would vary from finger numbers, note name s, count singing, mode ( scale ) degrees, solfege syllables using movable do and sometimes monosyllables such as la, ta, pa, doo and ho. Count singing gradually became the preferred vocalizing of the modes as the rhythms became more advanced The class sa ng together in the first Lesson, Week One, as they played Keyboard Exercise 1.1. Assignment # 1 included directions to play the e xercise and sing with finger numbers and with letter names. Most of them played hands separately. Singing was also utilized in reviewing and preparing for the Ear Training Quizzes. For example, in Lesson 2, Week One, the review of whole and half steps for the first Ear Training Quiz included the class singing those intervals. The intervals were first played melodically and harm onically and the class would sing them back, or either the class would sing the requested interval above or below a given pitch from the Project

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204 instructor at the keyboard. Whenever new elements were introduced for the q uizzes, this procedure would take p lace. Also in Lesson 2, Week One, the students count sang with the introduction of the four a uthentic modes as they played each mode hands separate. The class reviewed these modes in the next Lesson 3, Week Two, singing note names, solfege, and mode degre es. In previewing the Assignment # 3 keyboard work, the class played and count sang the Modes #1 and Exercise 1.1 assignments. The class began singing the In tervals within the m ode exercise in Lesson 4, Week Two. Using the dorian mode as the example, and singing the mode degrees, the class practiced the ascending pattern (1 2, 1 3, 1 4, 1 5, 1 6, 1 7, 1 8) and the descending pattern (8 7, 8 6, 8 5, 8 4, 8 3, 8 2, 8 1). The class was then verbally instructed to practice this sing & play pattern in all four modes. The Assignment # 4 handout added singing with note names, and with solfege. Using la t he students also sang and played the chants (Text, p. 3 6) that had been assigned in Lesson 2, Week One, before verbally analyzing each chant in class. With the introduction of melodic dictation in Lesson 6, Week Four, the class sang back the melodies played in the treble clef (Dictation #1) and the bass clef (Dictation #2) as an aid in learning how to take dictation (Appendix J ). The first dictation was played three times and sung back on the fourth playing. The second dictation was played four times and sung back on the third time. Assignment # 6 directed the students to sing while playing Modes #3, using note names, mode degrees, solfege, and counting. In Le sson 7, Week Four, both Dictations #3 and #4 were played five times They were sung back at the third playing. T he syllable s used to s ing, as previously

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205 mentioned, were varied so the students would experience making different vocal sounds and to encourag e vocal flexibility. The class sang together again in Lesson 10, Week 6, when reviewing the Intervals within the m ode exercise. Singing in all four modes, the class sang a different pattern than the one used in Lesson 4, Week Two. The ascending pattern w as: 1 2 1, 1 2 3 1 3 1, 1 2 3 4 1 4 1, and so on up to the octave. The next time the class sang together was in Lesson 16, Week Nine. The compositional devices of first species counterpoint was introduced and the first cantus firmus melody in the D mode was dictated to the students. The students sang back the melody using mode degrees after the dictation. How to compose a counterpoint (note against note) melody above the dictated melody was explained and done on the board in class. The students then s ang that melody using mode degrees. The class was then divided into two sections and both melodies were sung together on la so the students could hear the finished product. The second melody in the E mode was Assignment # 16 handout instructed the students to be prepared to sing and play each of the lines for the next class. In Lesson 17, Week Nine, discussion of the assigned melody from the previous lesson included writing the dictated melody (cantus firmus) o n the board and having the class sing it. Then a student was asked to write their composed melody (the counterpoint) above the cantus firmus on the board. The class sang the counterpoint and then divided into two parts and sang both melodies together. T his same process was repeated with the F mode and G mode cantus firmus melodies and the A mode and

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206 C mode cantus firmus melodies assigned in Lesson 17, Week Nine, and in Lesson 18, Week Ten, respectively. In Lesson 19, Week Ten, the singing returned to the Intervals within the m ode for the A mode and C mode. The intervals were sung in ascending and descending order in a variation of the patterns used previously in Lesson 4, Week Two and Lesson 10, Week Six. The new ascending pattern was: 1 2 1, 1 2 3 1, 1 2 3 4 1, and so on until the one octave interval was reached. The new descending pattern was: 1 7 1, 1 7 6 1, 1 7 6 5 1, and so on until the one octave interval was reached. The higher tonic was now identified as a 1 instead of the 8 that was used previ ously. Lesson 19, Week Ten, was the last class in which the students sang together, although they were continually reminded verbally in class to keep singing and playing as they practiced their keyboard assignments and composed their new counterpoints bel ow the cantus firmus melodies. 4) REA D -listening worksheets The reading component included reading about music as well as reading music itself. It fulfills the chronological objective and the keyboard reading skills objective of the study. The student s read about music through the CD booklets and the assigned historical readings and they read music itself in the P repared piano pieces from the K eyboard skills section of the course. The Listening Worksheets, discussed above, were constructed from the ac companying CD booklet material. As the students listened their way through the history of music, they were also reading about it. Most of the CD booklets were written in a scholarly manner, giving a concise but concentrated historical synopsis and many t imes addressing each piece or track and its composer. The material also included discussions of instruments, theoretical principles and compositional styles. The

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207 diversity of presentation, organization, and substance in the CD booklet materials provided an element of interest to the students while also giving them ideas of the various ways in which to present research and historical and theoretical information in an engaging but thorough and scholarly manner. These Worksheets were discussed previously in the LISTEN: Listening List Worksheets and Tracksheets of this chapter. History of music outlines The penultimate Listening Worksheet assignment had been made in Lesson 12, Week Seven. Those assignments ceased at that time in order to incorporate histor ical readings using an outline approach in the history of Western music (Appendix L ). Nine chapters in all were assigned for the students to read and take their own notes. The chapters were short, very concise, easy to read and understand, and amenable to being easily re read for review. They also served as a reference point from which to pursue further readings and research. The main idea was to expose these beginning musicians to the ideas, concepts, historical events, people, places and things they will be expected to and need to know as future professional musicians, teachers, performers, clinicians, historians, etc., and that they will be studying in successive classes in their undergraduate curricula The book was put on Reserve in the Music Lib rary and stayed there until after the final exam had been administered. The chapters included the Introduction to the book, one chapter in Antiquity and the remaining seven chapters devoted to the Middle Ages (800 1400). After the chapter introduction to this section of the book, the remaining chapters focused on Gregorian Chant, secular song, early polyphony, the Ars Antiqua, the Fourteenth century, and instruments and dances. Introducing these readings at this time in the semester was intended to help t he students begin to see the overall

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208 historical picture of the time period in which they had been working. Reading about the music they had been listening to for the past several weeks also follows the order of the course taxonomy. The first reading assig nment in Lesson 14, Week Eight, consisted of the Introduction to the book and the one chapter in Antiquity. Directions were given to start a new page with each chapter when taking notes and to look for Vocabulary List words while they were reading. The s tudents were also reminded that neatness and organization would be considered in the grading of the written assignments. The students were given one week to complete this assignment and hand it in. They were reminded of the deadline in the Assignment # 15 handout. The second reading was assigned in Lesson 16, Week Nine. It consisted of Chapters 3 -the Introduction to the Middle Ages, and Chapter 4 -Gregorian Chant. The third reading, consisting of Chapters 5 and 6, Secular Song and Early Polyphony respe ctively, were assigned in Lesson 17, Week Nine. The final three chapters -Ars Antiqua, the Fourteenth Century, and Instruments and Dances, were assigned in Lesson 18 Week Ten All chapter readings and written work was due in Lesson 19, Week Ten. Lesson 25, Week Fourteen concerned preparation for the final exam A study guide of the nine chapters was handed out in class. The first six chapt ers were reviewed and discussed. I mportant terms and concepts were identified. The students were encouraged to be gin reviewing earlier than later for the exam. 4) READ -sight reading, analysis, composition The objective of learning to read music was achieved through the Keyboard s kills portion of the study in preparing chants and instrumental pieces to perform. Ch ants, (s ingle note melodies ) in the treble

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209 clef were assigned to the right hand and in the bass clef to the left hand. The students w ould become familiar with each clef separately before being required to read and to play hands together. The one instrume ntal dance, the estampie, that was assigned was still read and played initially hands separate before reading and playing hands together. Anytime the class was playing from writings on the board, they were reinforcing reading music, single notes, interval s, as well as musical phrases. Reading music was also used in the written analysis assignments (Appendix L ). The assignments were taken from hymns that were divided into separate two part treble clef and two part bass clef analysis. In each exercise, not e reading was reinforced. The students had to be able to read the notes in order to determine the intervals between the two notes written in each clef. In these assignments, the students were learning to read single and double notes (intervals) from one staff at a time. As the students began learning the art of composition through first species counterpoint, they had to read and analyze the cantus firmus before adding an upper and later a lower counterpoint melody to the cantus firmus. The format used in this composition process required the students to read (and write) single note lines on more than one staff. Thus, they w ere learning to read not only from one staff, but from two and then three staves at once when composing harmony lines above and below the cantus firmus. The READ and WRITE objectives were combined in many activities just as the PLAY and SING objectives were. The music writing assignments in the study also reinforced the music reading component. 5) WRITE -theory notebooks ; analysis ass ignments, composition, listening list worksheets history of music outlines, vocabulary l ists

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210 For theory notebooks t he WRITE objective of the study was discussed in the first class meeting, Lesson 1, Week One as the syllabus was reviewed. In every lesso n that new technical keyboard material was introduced, that material was written on the board by the Instructor. This procedure served as an example of what to write in their Theory Notebooks and how to write it. By requiring the students to develop and be comfortable with legible music writing through the maintenance of a Theory Notebook, they are introduced to the study of notation, varied rhythmic values, and reading and writing in the treble, bass, and alto clefs. For each writing assignment, the stu dents were given specific headings under which to file the exercise. As in the READ objective, students were involved in writing actual music, and writing about music during this study. The WRITE component was discussed and demonstrated in Lesson 3, Week Two. The 3 stave format required for the writing exercises was written on the board (Appendix L ). Three staves were required because the instructions for many assignments were to write in three clefs -the treble, or G, clef on the top staff; the alto, or C clef, on the middle staff; and the bass, or F clef, on the lowest staff. The intent here was to simply introduce the alto clef to the class. If through no other exposure during the semester, at least the idea of clefs other than the treble and bass ha s been presented, and writing in it first is a suitable preliminary step in becom ing familiar with a third clef. This first WRITE assignment was to write out Exercise 1.1 in C position (beginning on C) only in the three stave format. Exercises 1.2a and 1. 2b were rhythmic variations of Exercise 1.1. Exercise 1.2a was to be written in C position only in the treble clef, and Exercise 1.2b was to be written in C position only in the bass clef. The alto clef was

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211 only used in Exercise 1.1. This material was t o be filed in the Theory Notebook: Technique/Exercises section. The modes writing assignment called for writing each of the four modes in the three stave format in whole notes, one octave, ascending and descending. In all three clefs the notes were to be named. In the bass clef, the half and whole steps were to be indicated and in the alto clef the mode degrees were to be listed. This material went into the Theory Notebook: Modes #1/One octave section (Appendix L ) Modes #1(even rhythm) indicated the specific rhythm ic pattern of equal valued notes. The Modes #2 pattern (tonic pause) was introduced in Lesson 4, Week Two. This pattern differed from Modes #1 only in that the first and lowest note of the one octave mode, the tonic, and the last and highes t note of the one octave mode was twice the value of the notes played in between, thus simulating a kind of pause at the lowest and highest tonic pitches in the mode. In this writing assignment, the students were instructed to use varied rhythmic patterns similar to the ones used in the Keyboard Exercises 1.1 and 1.2. The treble clef patterns were to be g in with a whole note, the alto clef patterns with a half note, and the bass clef patterns with a quarter note. The students were instructed to name the n otes in all three clefs and to file this assignment as Theory Notebook: Modes #2/One octave. Also in this lesson Intervals within the m ode w as introduced. The 3 stave format was demonstrated again on the board for the WRITE assignment. The students were instructed to write the intervals for one octave in each mode, ascending and descending, using whole notes. The interval was to be labeled by number and quality (perfect 5 major 3 minor 2 ) above the treble clef the mode degrees were to be

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212 indicated ab ove the alto clef, and the note names were to be written above the bass clef. In Lesson 6, Week Four, Modes #3 (dotted rhythm) was introduced. The WRITE assignment instructed the students, using the three stave format, to write in each mode, one octave, a scending and descending, the rhythmic variations as explained in class and shown on the board. The treble clef modes were to be written using the dotted half note and quarter note combination; the alto clef modes were to be written using the dotted quarte r note and eighth note; and the bass clef modes were to be written using the dotted eighth note and sixteenth note. The counting for each rhythmic pattern was to be written under each clef for each mode. The final WRITE assignment for the Modes s ection of the Theory Notebook appeared in Lesson 19, Week Ten. By that time in the study, two new modes had been introduced, the C mode (ionian) and the A mode (aeolian). The students were instructed to write everything they had written previously for the four ol der modes in these two modes. Analysis a ssignments. Analysis, while not listed as a separate objective in the taxonomy, is inevitably included in every aspect of the class, whether aurally, verbally or in written form. To succeed in the Ear Training qui zzes and dictation s the student must analyze and identify what has been heard. The worksheets and tracksheets for the Listening Lists and the reading assignments are geared towards analysis, evaluation, and assessment. In practicing exercises and modes, patterns and rhythms have to be analyzed and identified to better understand and execute the patterns and rhythms. Through the process of pen to paper in writing the actual notes, reading

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213 (analytical) skills are automatically sharpened and improved Wri tten analysis of theoretical materials (Theory Notebook) provides an excellent training ground for later composition. For a performer to understand the music they intend to perform, there must be analysis. Both verbal and written analytical skills are ne cessary throughout any study (Appendix L ). In Lesson 3, Week Two, the class discussion centered on analysis how to and on establishing a preliminary checklist of ten i tems to consider when analyzing a melody. The melodic material for this discussion used a portion of the chants that were verbally analyzed in the Lesson 4, Week Two, P LAY and S ING portion of that class. The terms were written on the board for the studen ts. The assignments began in the next lesson and followed the lines of the development of (vocal) music of the period. First, the students studied and analyzed the melodic intervals of single line melodies and chants in the treble and the bass clefs. Th en they worked with the harmonic intervals of the two part pieces in analyzing the intervals between the two voices. The selections included two part writing in the treble clef, two part writing in the bass clef and later two part writing using both trebl e and the bass clefs. There were thirteen written analysis assignments made from Lesson 4, Week Two through Lesson 13, Week Seven. The first written analysis assignment was made in Lesson 4, Week Two. Portions of the same materials used for the S R/Prep #1 assignment were chosen for analysis. The shorter of the two chants written in the treble clef, a Sanctus in mode 4 (Text, p. 12) and sections 1 4 of the bass clef chant (Ambrosian chant handout) were selected. The students were reminded to use their c hecklist in briefly discussing the chants.

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214 The second analysis assignment was made in Lesson 5, Week Three. It followed the same format as the first assignment, taking the material this time from the S R/Prep #2 assignment, which contained one treble cle f chant and one bass clef chant. The treble clef chant was taken from the Text, p. 15, a Responsory at matins: O magnum mysterium in mode 3 and was a little longer than the first chant. The bass clef chant was the Gallican chant from the handout. The ana lysis of two part music began with the third analysis assignment in Lesson 6, Week Four. They were labeled Analysis #1 (treble clef) and Analysis #2 (bass clef). For this assignment and for the next three assignments, the students were asked to indicate only the number of the interval, such as 2, 3, 4, etc., and not the quality (major, minor, perfect, etc.) as they had done in previous writing assignments. The purpose of this was to develop quick, instant recognition of the basic interval shapes which t hen translate into numbers. The ear would later (in the study as well as in real time) be able to qualify the sound of the interval more easily. Theoretically, each interval assignment sheet should have taken only a few minutes, at most, to complete. Th ere were four assignments in all which were divided into treble clef and bass clef, totaling eight intervals sheets assigned through Lesson 9, Week Five. The material for these assignments w as taken from hymns (Appendix L ) but without words listed. Each of the four assignments was in one of the four a uthentic modes, which worked by ignoring the indicated key signatures. Therefore, the assignment for Lesson 6, Week Four was in the D mode; Lesson 7, Week Four (Analysis #3 and #4) the E mode; Lesson 8, Week Five (Analysis #5 and #6) the F mode; and Lesson 9, Week Five (Analysis #7 and #8) the G mode. For the Analysis assignments #5 through #8, the

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215 directions added naming the notes above each staff from lowest to highest and to include any accidentals presen t. Analysis #9 was also listed on the Assignment # 9 handout, but the due date for this assignment was two classes later. By this time in the class the Assignment h andouts listed not only the work due at the next class meeting, but also work that was due a t later dates. This was done to help the students better plan and organize their workloads and to give them enough time to complete all the work. It provided the opportunity to work at their own speeds while also adhering to set deadlines, and acted as a any particular assignment. It was also to help them not procrastinate (as so many college students like to do), but to develop steady, sensible, and balanced study schedules t hat would help them avoid in last minute cramming. This was a practice used throughout the course of the study. The material for Analysis #9 returned to the S R/Prep pieces, using S R/Prep #5 two part instrumental dance. In taking a second look at the dance piece that they were already practicing and preparing for performance, the students were provided with a different way to learn and study a performance piece. This was the first analysis assignment to use the treble and the bass clefs simultaneously for analysis. The assignment was to notate the intervals between the two hands (right hand / treble clef and left hand / bass clef) and write only the number not the quality, of the interval between the two staves. This also requires the m to look at two st aves at a time. As all of the students in the class were non keyboard players, they would be familiar with reading only one staff at a time. Learning to read two and more staves at a time

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216 broadens their reading skills as well as their general musicianshi p skills, setting the groundwork for other fields of musical study and performance, such as conducting and composing. Analysis assignments #10 through #13 returned to hymn material but with a different format and different instructions. These four assignm ents included a four line hymn with both treble and bass clefs present. The directions were to indicate the number only of the interval between the soprano and the bass lines. This kind of assignment makes the eye have to travel further to focus on and i solate from the other printed notes the particular notes needed for the task at hand. In emphasizing and drawing attention to the intervals between the soprano and the bass lines, the compositional stage is set for first species counterpoint which is intr oduced later in the semester. In using the traditional note by note progressions of 4 part hymn writing, the students will meet a familiar format in the note against note writing in first species counterpoint which was introduced in Lesson 16, Week Nine. Analysis was sti l l required in the counterpoint exercises beginning in Lesson 17, Week Nine and extending through Lesson 20, Week Eleven. For every composition exercise the students were instructed to indicate the intervals used and notate them in between the treble and bass clef staves. A nalysis was also included on the final exam. Composition. The compositions of counterpoints for the cantus firmus melodies fulfilled several taxonomy objectives. They were included in the Theory Notebooks and the Analy sis assignments for the WRITE objective. They serve as music r eading material for the READ objective and as play and sing material for the PLAY and SING

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217 objectives. However, t hese assignments will be addressed in the section dealing with Objective #6: C O MPOS E Listening list worksheets These Worksheets are discussed in the LISTEN/HEAR section of this chapter They provide ample opportunity for the students to employ, refine, and improve their writing about music skills. These assignments comprised the bulk of the realization of the WRITE and the READ objective. History of music outlines Having the students write outlines of the historical readings works in tandem with the READ objective and this assignment was discussed in th e READ section of this ch apter. W riting about the music they have been reading about and listening to creates a valuable learning situation while also adhering to the order of the course taxonomy. The material was introduced through the ear, sung and played, read about and now w ritten about, and reinforced a final time through verbal class discussion. Vocabulary l ists. The intent behind having the students compile vocabulary lists from all the material they encountered during the study was to encourage them to take ownership of their own education and to become more proficient and skillful in their focus and concentration when confronted with multi faceted sources of information. To have them become the teacher, so to speak, and determine what is and what is not so important, h elps them acquire a different and more mature point of view about education and their own involvement and responsibility in it. T he Vocabulary lists were collected every four weeks -at the end of Week Four, Week Eight, and Week Twelve. In Lesson 25, Week Fourteen, and again in Lesson 26, Week Fifteen, a comprehensive vocabulary list that had been compiled by the Project researcher from the student lists

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218 and the Project researcher exam. 6) COMP OSE (WRITE) s pecies counterpoint The C OMPOSE objective was introduced to the class in Lesson 16, Week Nine, during the second half of the semester and after two part music had been introduced through analysis and prepared piano pieces. The students had also been listening to more polyphonic music in the Listening Lists selections as the semester progressed. In Lesson 16, Week Nine, the guidelines for composition in first counterpoint were discussed in class and the students were instructed to take note s from the discussion to use in the following composition assignment. The first cantus firmus (in the D mode -dorian) had been written on the board to demonstrate how to set up the manuscript and how to add the counterpoint. Individual students were call ed upon in class to help furnish the counterpoint melody. Then the E mode ( p hrygian) cantus firmus was dictated to the class and checked for accuracy. The Assignment # 16 instructed the students to add a counterpoint above the cantus firmus using the guid elines discussed in class and to file all of this written work in their Theory Notebook: Composition/1 st species c ounterpoint In Lesson 17, Week Nine, the E mode cantus firmus and counterpoints were discussed in class which i ncluded student work being pu t on the board for analysis and singing. The F mode ( l ydian) and G mode (mixolydian) canti firmi were dictated for Assi gnment # 17. The students were instructed to add counterpoints abo ve these cantus firmus melodies and to indicate the intervals used T hey were also to be prepared to play and sing these compositions in class using the mode degrees The same process took place in Lesson 18, Week Ten, for the A mode ( a eolian) and the C

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219 mode (ionian) cantus firmus melodies. In Lesson 19, Week Ten, the for mat for writing the counterpoints was demonstrated again on the board, reminding the students to number the measures and to label the intervals between the two parts. In Lesson 20, Week Eleven, the class discussion focused on constructing a counterpoint be low the cantus firmus. A student version from the Fux source was written on the board for the class to analyze, correct, and re play. The students were instructed to copy this example from the board into their own class notes. Assignment # 20 instructed the students to now add counterpoints below cantus firmus melodies in the five modes to which they had just added counterpoints above. The assignment handout also included written reminders of how to prepare the manuscripts that had been discussed in clas s several times. firmus were discussed for the final time. All composition work was collected in Lesson 26, Week Fifteen, the last class meeting. 7) PERFORM keyboard testin g, prepared piano p ieces The PERFORM objective was approached through the P repared piano pieces required in the Keyboard Testings and discussed in PLAY & SING: Keyboard Testings and PLAY & SING: S R/Prep piano pieces. These P repared pieces also included the first species counterpoint compositions discussed in COMPOS E : Species counterpoint. Quote for the day This study was comprised of numerous and varied class activities and assignments. It was easy for the freshman students to become overwhelmed, esp ecially if they were carrying a heavy course load or had trouble getting and staying organized or were perhaps working a job outside the college

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220 classroom. To add a bit of levity to the classroom atmosphere and to help relieve some of the tension usually present around testing and examination times, the Project researcher would read a quote about music and/or the arts (Appendix R ) and have the students try to guess who said it. This took place the majority of the time at the beginning of the class period as students were coming in and getting settled. The quotes were chosen for pure humor or silliness, as well as for some thought provoking insights or perspectives that maybe they had not considered before. It hopefully reminded all involved to keep a gen eral sense of humor and to keep things in perspective in relation to the Keyboard Theory Project and their participation in it. Administration Pretests and posttests were conducted during one class period (50 minutes) during the first week of classes for t he pretest and one class period (50 minutes) during the last week of classes for the posttest. Selections from the 2003 AP Music Theory Released Exam were chosen by the Project researcher and assembled into Pretest and Posttest booklets (Appendix D ). The same questions were administered in the Posttest as in the Pretest (Appendix D ). For the aural portion of the tests, a separate CD was made containing the excerpts and questions selected for the test. Verbal instructions as well as recorded instructions were given during the tests. The pretest and posttest was conducted in the theory classroom and the same procedure was used in both tests. All booklets were numbered for tracking. As students entered the classroom they were given a booklet and offered a pencil. They were asked to put their names on the labels on the front cover of the booklet but to wait until the start of the test to open the booklet. They were also asked to indicate on the label if they had previously taken an AP Music Theory exam in high school and to

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221 indicate which year. After preliminary verbal instructions were given, students were asked to open their booklets and begin the test. Being a timed test (50 minutes), the tests began at 8:30 am and all booklets were collected by 9:20a m. Students who finished early were allowed to turn their booklets in and leave the classroom quietly. At 9:20 the remaining booklets were collected. After determining that all booklets had been returned, the Project researcher secured the booklets in a locked cubicle. Some students did not take both the pretest and the posttest. Therefore, only students who had taken both tests could participate in the study. After the posttests had been turned in and all booklets were again accounted for, only th e bo oklets of those students who had completed both pretest and posttest were gathered together and re secured in the locked cubicle. The remaining booklets where only a pretest or posttest had been turned in were destroyed. To guarantee the anonymity of the participants, the students were identified only by the letter of the group they were in and a number assigned in random order, for example, E 1 and C 1 signified the first numbered student in the experimental group and the control group, respectively. The booklets were scored by the Project researcher in random order without regard to student name or study number. The labels on the front covers were covered with new labels upon which was written the study number (C 1, C 2, etc.), obscuring the name on the original label. There were three sections to the test Section 1 contained Aural skills q uestions with aural stimulus Section 2 consisted of s ingle line and two part melodic dictations Section 3 contained w ritten questions with no aural stimulus. Se ctions 1 and 3 were multiple choice questions and graded according to the answer key provided in the AP

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222 test booklet. Section 2 contained three dictations. These answers were graded point value (.5) to each eighth note value. The rhythmic and melodic elements were graded separately and the totals combined for a composite score. Therefore, the students could get a correct pitch sequence, but incorrect rhythmic placing and still receive credit f or the elements in which they did show some knowledge. This process of grading was determined by the Project researcher to be the most beneficial for the test taker and most informative to the study in determining individual skill levels and any developme nt in them during the course of treatment. Before both pretest and posttest, the following verbal instructions were given after test booklets and extra pencils were distributed: Thank you and your theory instructor for participating in this doctoral resea rch. Please do not open the booklet until instructed to do so. Please do not discuss this test with other students. The scores on this pretest/posttest will not affect your grade in either class the core the ory class or the Project class. Please print your name on the white label on the front of your booklet and indicate on the label if you have previously taken an AP music theory test, including the year. After the posttest the labels will be replaced with a blank label and you will become a random number assigned to you by the Project researcher to protect your anonymity in this study. There are three parts to this exam. There will be a slight pause between sections. We are not using a bubble sheet for your answers. Please circle the answer itself for e ach question right in the booklet. You may use clear space below the questions for notes or work space but the answer for the question must be circled to be scored.

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223 If you change an answer, please be sure that the previous answer is erased completely. Do not worry if you do not know all the answers to all the questions. Just guessing is not advised, but if you can eliminate answers you know are wrong, it may be an advantage to answer the question. The page numbers and the question numbers are in order, bu t several numbers have been skipped for our purposes here. Use your time effectively, working as rapidly as you can without losing accuracy. It is not expected that everyone will be able to answer all the questions. Any questions? Please open your booklet to the first pag e and listen to the directions. The Project researcher graded both pretest and posttest using the answer sheet for the first and third sections of the AP Music Theory Exam. For the three dictations in the second section, melodic and rhyth mic elements were graded separately and then combined for the total score. A value of .5 was designated for each eighth note value. Statistical Analysis The pretest/posttest data was analyzed based on the mean gain scores of the two groups in two areas: 1 ) the total scores of the pretest/posttest; 2) each of the three sections and subsections of the pretest/posttest. There were three sections to the pretest/posttest. The sections and subsections are identified as: Section 1; Section 2.1, Section 2.2, Sec tion 2.3; and Section 3. Section 1 contained 25 questions divided into seven subsections with aural stimulus. These questions were selected from Section I, Part A of the AP exam. Sectio n 2 contained three dictations each considered a subsection and usin g aural stimulus. These questions were selected from Section II, Part A of the AP exam. Section 3 contained 20 questions divided into five subsections

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224 using no aural stimulus. These questions were selected from Section I, Part B of the AP exam. Separate statistical tests in the form of unpaired t tests were conducted in each of the three major sections and subsections to determine statistical significance between the two groups (N=20). According to the results of the t test calculations, no statistical significance was found due to a low N (N=18 or less) However, there seemed to be substantial practical significance gained in this study. The data used in the t tests were also analyzed to determine the percent differences per student in each of the two groups for each of the test sections and for the total test scores. The results show the average percentage increase of each student from pretest to posttest. Extracted from the data of the total population (N=20) were the scores of the participants who were music majors or music minors. This resulted in a secondary population (N=14) with the experimental group n=7 and the control group n=7. Separate statistical tests in the form of unpaired t tests were conducted in the same three major sections and su bsections of the pretest and posttest to determine statistical significance between the two groups. According to the results of the t test calculations, no statistical significance was found due to a low N (N=18 or less) The data used in the unpaired t t ests were also analyzed to determine the per student differences in each of the two groups for each of the test sections and for the total test scores. These results show the average percentage increase of each music major and minor student from pretest t o posttest. The per student percentage differences from pretest to posttest between the two populations, N=20 and N=14, were analyzed by comparing the total test scores and the scores from each section and

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225 subsection of the test. A substantial and signif icant difference in the improvement per individual student scores was discovered between the two populations. Finally, responses to the pre class and post class surveys were examined and compiled The purpose was t o determine student progress and the cont ributing factors and to evaluate the student comments on the K eyboard T heory P roject. The majority of the comments were thoughtful, helpful and encouraging. Preparation SCI survey An online survey (Appendix Y ) was posted to the membership of the Societ y of Composers, Inc. (SCI) Abeles, Hoffer, & Kotman, 1995) and to the pedagogical taxonomy created by the Project researcher creation is the highest skilled activity. SCI, Inc. was chosen in order to survey contemporary c omposers, the creators of the art, to obtain their perspective concerning Permission from the organization was sought and granted to email and survey the SCI membership (Appendix B). The purpose of the survey was to determine which kinds of theory and keyboard classes were being offered in undergraduate curricula what materials were being used to teach the curricula and to obtain the opinions of the respondents concerning the role and importance of theory and ke yboard classes in the music curriculum at the undergraduate level. There were 16 valid responses from the 1 4 00+ membership between July 12, 2007 and Nov. 1, 2007. As the survey addressed questions concerning the four semester project previously mentioned only those questions and responses which deal directly with the pilot study will be discussed in this section. To preserve the anonymity of the respondents, some responses have been omitted.

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226 The survey consisted of two parts. Part One contained 18 ques tions, but questions I. 11, I. 12, I. 13, and I. 18 were omitted from this study either to maintain anonymity of the respondent or because the question did not apply to the study. Questions I. 1 I. 6 dealt with demographics and establishing the credibility of t he respondents by determining their educational background; their current professional and educational activities, including classes they have taught and were currently teaching. Questions I.7 training, and proficiency, including improvisatory skills. Questions I.14 I.18 asked for the theory, keyboard and improvisation for piano and non piano majors. They were a lso asked to evaluate the progress and /or success of their own institutions in these areas. Examination of the responses in Part One indicate that all 16 respondents h old at least a bachelor degree. Eight (50%) of those degrees are in music or music educa tion, seven (44%) are bachelor of arts and one (7%) is a degree in science. Thirteen (82%) hold masters degrees and nine of those are in music or music education. Nine respondents (57%) hold a doctoral degree, all of which are in music. In considering t he majors/areas of specialization in the total 38 degrees listed, sixteen degrees (42%) were in composition; four degrees (11%) were piano performance; three degrees (8%) were in music theory; two degrees (5%) in each of three categories -music, piano peda gogy, and music education; and one degree (3%) in violin and one degree in chemistry. At the time of the survey, all but one respondent were employed in their respective fields throughout t en different states and Washington DC. Alphabetically, the states represented are Arizona, California, Connecticut, Colorado, Iowa, Missouri, North

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227 Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The one respondent not employed was the only undergrad student composer who responded to the survey. The colleges represented i nclude community colleges, and private and state colleges and universities. The positions held varied from two graduate teaching assistants, one lecturer, and one Teaching Fellow to three adjunct instructors and eight assistant or associate professors. Th e area of instruction indicated by most of the replies (13) was music theory, including general theory as well as specialized categories such as chromat ic theory and theory for music i ndustry majors. Six instructors listed composition and four more listed aural skills. Analysis and computer music each were listed by two instructors. Other areas mentioned included music appreciation, film scoring, voice, musical theatre, education, chamber music, musicianship including keyboard skills, and piano. Examinat ion of the responses from Questions I 5 and I 6 exhibit a wide array of past. The class most often mentioned (51 times) in the survey was music theory, from fundamentals to advanced theory, including basic and advanced musicianship, and specialized sections such as diatonic practice, chromatic practice, and 20 th century theory. One fundamentals class listed was specifically intended for music majors. This distinction in the intent of the class for only music majors calls attention to the significance found in this study of teaching a population containing mixed majors compared to a population containing music majors and minors. C omposition/orchestration classes were list ed 19 times. Aural skills classes were mentioned 16 times, including all levels 1 4 and separate ear training and sight singing

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228 classes. Piano and piano related classes were mentioned eight times, and included accompanying, piano pedagogy, class and indi vidual piano, and piano literature. Questions I.7 training proficiency, and improvisatory skills. Fourteen respondents indicated they played keyboard instruments. The eleven who listed the number of years they have been playing keyboard instruments totaled 224+ years, ranging from eight to forty five years with one response of O ne respondent indicated 40 years of experience on organ, clavichord, and harpsichord and one other respondent listed the accordion. The majority (13) of the respondents indicated they improvise on keyboard instruments although only 4 claimed keyboard as their primary (major) instrument. Other primary instruments listed were strings ( including gu itar ) brass, and percussion. The capacity in which improvisation is used was spread amongst three categories mostly as an aid and means in compositional activities for entertainment in both public and in private situations and in playing jazz. One re spondent cited using improvisation to improve their keyboard skills as a composer. Another used improvisation in class for teaching purposes and two cited using improvisation on the job, in church and in rock bands. Eight of the thirteen who improvise on keyboard instruments said they had formal training in improvisation, from private lessons to classes in Vienna, Austria; U niversity of Texas Austin ; Antioch, C alifornia ; University of Wyoming; and West Virginia University. The other eight respondents in the survey admitted no formal training in improvisation.

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229 Questions I.14 curriculum requirements regarding theory, keyboard and improvisation for piano and non piano majors. They were also asked to evaluate the progress and / or success of their own institutions in these areas. All respondents thought that improvisational skills are important areas of study in the training of professional musicians. The majority (14) agreed to the importance of non piano majors to be able to improvise on keyboard. interests. One has to wonder what kind of education would take place if we taught the students only what the piano majors to be able to improvise on their major instruments, 15 respondents answered yes, with one saying it depended on their major. All respondents felt it was important for piano major s to be able to improvise on keyboard. When asked if they were satisfied that their institution was training well rounded, well grounded musicians in keyboard theory, only half of the respondents said yes. Five said no, with one comment that it could be more thorough One respondent said Another q ualified to answer, but that no keyboard skills were required in the theory class they taught. Part Two contained seven questions more spe cific to the undergraduate of this section was to get a general idea of the kinds of keyboard classes being offered as related to the core theory classes, who on the fa culty is teaching these classes, and what the degree requirements are for music majors regarding these classes.

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230 R espondents were asked to list the theory books used in their classrooms. Over half (9) listed the Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony Clendinning and Guide to Theory and Analysis was listed by three respondents. Three other texts by Be nward ; Gauldin ; and Kostka Payne (Materials and Techniques of the 20 th Century) were each mentioned twice. Ten respondents indicated their willingne ss to share the instructor generated materials in these classes for this study. One respondent reported using the J. S. Bach chorales as guidelines and another mentioned using keyboard exercises on a daily basis. Five different types of keyboard classes w ere listed for the respondents to indicate whether they were being taught at their institutions and if so, which texts, if any, were being used. There was also space to list other materials, including instructor generated, that were used in the classes. The five types of keyboard classes were figured bass -separate from theory class; keyboard improvisation; piano/keyboard harmony class -in tandem with the core theory class; piano/keyboard harmony class -separate from the core theory class; and jazz harmon y class. Three respondents indicated that figured bass classes separate from the theory figured bass textbooks but do contain sections within the book devoted to the figur ed Keyboard improvisation classes separate from the theory cla ss were offered in two curricula

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231 respondents did not answer. No texts were listed and no other materials were mentioned. Piano/keyboard classes in tandem with the theory class were offered in four curricula courses and another commented there was a keyboard skills lab t hat covers a great deal of jazz harmony basics nine respondents did not answer. The Gauldin text was listed by one respondent and other materials used included keyboard exercises for Music 201/202, and inst ructor sheets made by the respondent. Piano/keyboard classes separate from the theory class were offered in three curricula Jazz harmony was offered as a class in two curricula One inst itution offered remaining 12 respondents did not answer. Table 3 1 below presents th e results of Question II 3, a f, which determine who on the faculty carried the responsibility for teaching the theory and keyboard classes. Six categories were addressed: theory; keyboard harmony; keyboard improvisation; other improvisation classes; figured bass; and jazz harmony. Three teaching categories were provided for the responses: full time faculty (F); adjunct faculty/instructors (ADJ); and teaching/graduate assistants (TA). The responses indicate that most of the classes are being taught by Faculty only and Faculty/Adjunct Instructors.

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232 Table 3 1 Survey results for Question II 3, a f. Who teaches th e following classes? Theory K eyboard Harmony Keyboard Improv O ther I mprov F igured B ass J azz harmony F only 5 5 4 3 4 1 F w/TA 1 0 0 0 1 0 F/ADJ* 6 2 1 5 0 4 ADJ/TA 2 1 0 0 0 0 ADJ only 1 3 1 1 2 3 TA only 0 2 0 0 0 0 Unknown 0 1 1 2 2 2 No answ er 1 2 9 5 7 6 The responses in Question II 4.1 indicate approximately how much class time is spent in the theory class on five specific subjects: modes; figured bass; keyboard improvisation; improvisation in general; and jazz harmony. There were six categories for the respondents to choose: A. none, B. mentioned -fyi, C. discussed, 1 2 classes, no assignments, D. discussed, 1 2 classes, some assignments, E. discussed and studied in some depth, 3 4 classes, F. studied more tho roughly, 5+ classes, and, G. the tables. Table 3 2 shows the responses to these questions. Table 3 2. Survey results. Question II 4.1. The amount of class time devoted to five subject areas. Theory Class ratings A B C D E F G Modes 0 3 1 6 3 2 1 Figured bass 0 1 0 2 3 10 0 Keyboard improvisation 5 1 2 3 3 0 2 Improvisation in general 3 3 4 1 3 1 1 Jazz harmony 1 2 4 2 1 1 3 For analysis purposes, the responses ca n be grouped into two broader categories. The responses A C represent none to very little time spent in the classroom, with no

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233 assignments for the students. The D F responses represent very little time spent in class, but with at least a few assignments f or the students to significant time spent in class and including substantial assignments for the students. With these groupings in mind, examination of the Modes subject area show that the highest number of responses (11) fall into the D F category, with the D response getting the majority (6) of the responses. Figured bass responses fall heavily (15) in the D F category with the clear majority (10) in the F category of thorough study and assignments. Keyboard improvisation, however, falls the opposite way into the A C interesting result, considering the responses in the figured bass area and acknowledging that figured bass, in itself, is a type of keyboard improvisation. In the Improvisation in general subject area, the majority of the responses (10) again fall into the lower A C category, as do the responses for jazz harmony which indicate seven responses in the lower A C category. It is interesting to note that accordin g to the responses to questions I.5 and I.6 in Part One of this survey w hile the bulk of the classes taught by the respondents are theory classes ranging from fundamentals to advance d graduate theory, and the response to Question I 17 was unanimous in tha t improvisational skills are important areas of study in the training of professional musicians, that there is not more indication of improvisational skills being taught in the theory classes. The last three subject areas listed deal specifically with imp rovisational skills but the responses indicate a significant lack of attention to these skills in the theory class.

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234 The responses in Question II 4.2 indicate approximately how much class time is spent in piano/keyboard class in the same categories, omittin g improvisation in general, as Question II 3 Table 3 3. Survey results. Question II 4.2. The amount of class time devoted to four subject areas. Piano/Keyboard Class ratings A B C D E F G Modes 2 1 0 5 0 1 0 Figured bass 2 0 0 1 2 4 0 Keyboard improvisation 1 1 1 3 3 0 0 Jazz harmony 0 3 0 3 0 1 0 The re sults from this table indicate that the modes are still only given slight mention and minimal assignments. The indication in three responses (one third of the total responses) that none to only a mention of the modes takes place in keyboard class could raise concerns about the educational quality of a curriculum that basically ignores a large part of music history and theory. The same can be said for the figured bass area as far as two of the responses indicating no exposure or experience whatsoever in the keyboard class with the keyboard practice that was the foundation and mainstay of the Baroque era. It is encouraging that the remaining responses in this category fall mainly in the D F rating, with the highest number (4) in the F category. Keyboard improvisation responses show surprisingly minimal attention being given to this area in the piano/keyboard classes. One third of the responses falls into the A C category, one third falls into the D category, with few assignments, and one third falls int o just the E category, with no responses indicating thorough study. As with the

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235 results in Table 3.2, these results seem to conflict with the responses given in Part One concerning the unanimous agreement to the importance of improvisational skills in the training of professional musicians, piano and non piano majors. But in this case of the piano/keyboard class, only one of the respondents indicated earlier in the survey that they actually taught a piano class, so the responses in this table are not from the actual keyboard class instructors. Question II 5 determined the length of the required theory sequence in the The majority of the responses (7) indicated the traditional 4 semester sequence. Three responses list ed a 5 semester sequence and two responses were indicated for a 3 semester sequence and also for a 6 semester sequence. One indicated a 3 4 semester sequence in which students could place out of the first semester and one respondent did not answer. In som e curriculum and degree programs there is variance in the core requirements. Question II 6 addresses the core theory sequence for music majors and no that music c ommercial majors were exempt and that music industry majors took a 2 semesters. Question II 7 addresses the piano requirements proficiency require d of all music majors. One respondent did not know and three others did not answer.

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236 CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANA LYSIS OF DATA Introduct ory Remarks A pretest/posttest (Appendix D ) was administered to both control and experimental groups in the study (N=20) For the pretest/posttest, the Project researcher compiled selected portions of the 2003 College Board AP Music Theory Exam. The resulting pretest/posttest contained three major sections. Data were maintained and evaluated for both experimental a nd control groups for each of the three sections of the pre and post tests. The first section Section 1, contained 25 questions with aural stimulus and focused on fundamental areas in aural skills knowledge: pitch patterns and rhythmic patterns involving melodic and harmonic intervals, scales, and chords; compositional characteristics such as form, meter, tempo, timbre, and texture; score reading combined with pitch and rhythm error detection in both treble and bass clefs, stylistic features such as voice leading, ornaments and embellishments, and recurring melodic and rhythmic figures. The examples were presented in various musical combinations, including orchestral excerpts, jazz ensembles, voice and piano, and concerto grosso ensembles. The second sect ion Section 2, contained three separate dictations labeled Section 2.1, Section 2.2 and Section 2.3. The Section 2.1 dictation was in the bass clef and played on a cello The Section 2.2 dictation was in the treble clef and played on an oboe The Secti on 2.3 dictation consisted of soprano and bass lines played on a piano. The third section Section 3, consisted of 20 questions without aural stimulus (free response) and requiring analytical skills and recognition of compositional and theoretical concepts These questions involved intervals and their inversions; modes and

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237 major/minor scales; nonharmonic tones; textures; rhythmic gestures such as the hemiola and rhythmic diminution; chord qualities; compositional devices such as ostinato, imitation, melodi c sequence; articulation; meter; motion of voices; and tempo. Separate statistical tests in the form of unpaired t tests were conducted in each of the three major sections and subsections to determine statistical significance between the two groups (N=20) The sections and subsections are identified as listed in the paragraphs above : Section 1; Section 2.1, Section 2.2, Section 2.3; and Section 3. The individual student an s wers as well as the raw data totals are also found in Appendix D. The data used in the t tests were also analyzed to determine the percent differences per student in each of the two groups for each of the test sections and for the total test scores. The results show the average percentage increase of each student from pretest to posttes t. Extracted from the data of the total population (N=20) were the scores of the participants who were music majors or music minors. This resulted in a secondary population (N=14) with the experimental group n=7 and the control group n=7. Separate stati stical tests in the form of unpaired t tests were conducted in the same three major sections and subsections of the pretest and posttest to determine statistical significance between the two groups. The data used in the unpaired t tests were also analyzed to determine the per student differences in each of the two groups for each of the test sections and for the total test scores. These results show the average percentage increase of each music major/minor student from pretest to posttest. F inally, a pre class survey (Appendix E ) and post class survey (Appendix F ) was conducted with the initial experimental group (n=8). The pre class survey, given at the

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238 beginning of the semester, revealed past musical experience and training for each participant. The po st class survey, given during the last week of the semester, provided the participants the opportunity to evaluate the study and contribute suggestions for future reference and possible inclusion in the pl anned four semester curriculum. The results are pre sented in the following order: 1) listing of the unpaired t test results in each section of the pretest/posttest for all students in the experimental and control groups, N=20, 2) listing of the experimental and control group percentage increase per all st udents, N=20, between the pretest and posttest scores for the three test sections, 3) listing of the experimental and control group percentage increase per all students, N=20, between the pretest and posttest total scores, 4) results and discussion of th e pre class survey of students in the experimental group, n=8, 5) results and discussion of the post class survey of students in the experimental group, n=8, 6) listing of the paired t test results in each section of the pretest/posttest for the music ma jor/minor students in the experimental and control groups, N=14, 7) listing of the experimental and control group percentage increase per music major/music minor students, N=14, between pretest and posttest scores for all three test sections, and 8) list ing of the experimental and control group percentage increase per music major/music minor students, N=14, between the pretest and posttest total scores. Statistical Data (N=20) Listing of the unpaired t test results in each section of the pretest/posttest for all students in the experimental and control groups. An unpaired t test was used to determine statistical significance of the study results in the number of correct answers given in the pretest and posttest between the experimental and control groups. Tables 4 1 through 4 5 show the results for each test section.

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239 Table 4 1. Unpaired t test results for Section 1 : with aural stimulus (N=20). Group Experimental Control Mean 3.00 1.33 SD 2.83 2.39 SEM 1.00 0.69 N 8 12 P value and statistical signif icance: The two tailed P value equals 0.1721 By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. Confidence interval: The mean of Group One (experimental) minus Group Two (control) equals 1.67 95% confidence inter val of this difference: From 0.80 to 4.13. Intermediate values used in calculations: t = 1.4221 df = 18 standard error of difference = 1.172 Table 4 2. Unpaired t test results for Section 2.1 : treble clef dictation (N=20). Group Experimental Control Mean 1.188 2.500 SD 4.259 6.918 SEM 1.506 1.997 N 8 12 P value and statistical significance: The two tailed P value equals 0.639 By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. Confidence interval: The m ean of Group One minus Group Two equals 1.313. 95% confidence interval of this difference: From 7.090 to 4.465. Intermediate values used in calculations: t = 0.4772 df = 18 standard error of difference = 2.750 Table 4 3. Unpaired t test results for Section 2.2 : bass clef dictation (N=20). Group Experimental Control Mean 2.063 3.583 SD 6.361 5.869 SEM 2.249 1.694 N 8 12 P value and statistical significance: The two tailed P value equals 0.5895 By conventional criteria, this difference is con s idered to be not statistically significant. Confidence interval: The mean of Group One minus Group Two equals 1.521. 95% confidence interval of this difference: From 7.337 to 4.295. Intermediate values used in calculations : t = 0.5494 df = 18 stan dard error of difference = 2.768

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240 Table 4 4. Unpaired t test results for Section 2.3 : soprano/bass dictation (N=20). Group Experimental Control Mean 1.125 1.125 SD 3.357 1.707 SEM 1.187 0.493 N 8 12 P value and statistical significance: The two t ailed P value equals 1.000 By conventional criteria, this difference is cons idered to be not statistically significant. Confidence interval: The mean of Group One minus Group Two equals 0.000 95% confidence interval of this difference: From 2.381 to 2. 381. Intermediate values used in calculations: t = 0.000 df = 18 standard error of difference = 1.133 Table 4 5. Unpaired t test results for Section 3 : without aural stimulus (N=20). Group Experimental Control Mean 3.50 2.00 SD 2.78 1.60 SEM 0.98 0.46 N 8 12 P value and statistical significance: The two tailed P value equals 0.1410 By conventional criteria, this difference is cons idered to be not statistically significant. Confidence interval: The mean of Group One minus Group Two equals 1.50 95% confidence interval of this difference: From 0.55 to 3.55 Intermediate values used in calculations: t = 1.5397 df = 18 standard error of difference = 0.974 Discussion/Analysis T he t tests yielded no statistical significance However, it is de termined that indicative significance was gained in the study. Therefore, raw data in the form of difference scores and per student difference scores were examined and analyzed for performance measure between pretest and posttest of the two groups. Pretes t/Posttest Data (N=20) Listing of the experimental and control group percentage increase per all students between the pretest and posttest scores for all three test section and subsections. Tables 4 6, 4 7, 4 8, and 4 9 show the actual number of correct a nswers

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241 on the pretest to posttest. Difference scores were calculated by subtracting the pretest score from the posttest score. Per student differences were calculated to determine the improvement/performance in the scores of each individual student. Tabl e 4 6. Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences of the experimental (n=8) and control (n=12) groups in Section 1 : with aural stimulus (N=20). GROUP SCORES Population Pretest Posttest Score Per studen t Section 1 (25pts) N Totals Totals Difference Difference Experimental Group 8 81 105 24 3.00 Control Group 12 157 173 16 1.33 Comparison of experimental and control groups in Section 1 of the pretest and posttest Both groups improved their scores f rom pretest to posttest for Section 1. A comparison of the percentage increases of each group shows a 30% increase in the experimental group, and a 10% increase in the control group. Examination of the per student difference scores in the experimental gro up shows a 3.0 point increase per student. Compared to the 1.33 point increase per student in the control group, the results show that the individual student score in the experimental group improved 126% more than the individual student score of the contr ol group. Although both groups showed improvement in the scores for the posttest, examination of the per student difference score indicates dramatic improvement in the m skill of listening was listed as first priority. In addition to keyboard skills, listening skills, including extensive listening lists, daily ear training quizzes, and melodic dictations were

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242 the most consistently applied aspect of the project. These data seem to indicate a direct correlation between the listening skills applied in the keyboard project and the significantly improved scores of the experimental group in t his section. Table 4 7. Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences of the experimental and control groups in Section 2, including subsections 2.1 : treble clef dictation 2.2 : bass clef dictation and 2 .3 : soprano/bass dictation and Section 2 Total scores ( N =20) GROUP SCORES Population Pretest Posttest Score Per student Section 2 (92 pts) N Totals Totals Difference Difference Section 2.1 (30pts) Experimental Group 8 67 76.5 9.5 1.2 Control Group 12 118.5 148.5 30 2.5 Section 2.2 (46pts) Experimental group 8 34 50.5 16.5 2.1 Control group 12 55.5 98.5 43 3.6 Section 2.3 (16pts) Experimental group 8 24 33 9 1.13 Control group 12 21 34.5 13.5 1.13 Section 2 TOTALS Experimental group 8 125 160 35 4.4 Control group 12 195 268 86.5 7.2 Comparison of experimental and control groups in Section 2 of the pretest and posttest. dictation. There were three dictations and each dictation was considered a subsection They were Section 2.1, Section 2.2 and Section 2.3. Section 2.1. Both groups showed improvement in their scores from pretest to posttest. The experimental group increased their pretest score by 14% and th e control group increased their pretest score by 25%. Examination of the per student difference

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243 scores for the experimental group reveal a 1.2 point increase per student from pretest to posttest and for the control group a 2.5 increase per student from pr etest to posttest. The results show that there was 52% less improvement in the individual student score in the experimental group than in the individual student score of the control group. Section 2.1 consisted of a single note melody in th e bass clef pla yed on a cello. The pulse was established before the first playing of the melody and the melody was played 3 times. The (written) pitch and rhythm of the first note was given and there were no rests in the melody. There were 30 possible points for both p itch and rhythm. Section 2.2 Both groups improved their scores from pretest to posttest for Section 2.2. A comparison of the percentage increase of each group shows a 49% increase in the experimental groups and a 77% increase in the control group. Exam ination of the per student difference scores for the two groups show s a 2.1 point increase per student in the experimental group and a 3.6 point increase per student in the control group. The results show 42% less improvement in the individual student sco re in the experimental group than the individual student scores of the control group. Section 2.2 consisted of a single note melody in the treble clef played on an oboe. The pulse was given before the first playing of the melody. Only the (written) pitch of the first note was given. The melody was played three times and there were no rests in the melody. There were 46 possible points for both pitch and rhythm. Section 2.3 Both groups showed improvement in their scores from pretest to posttest. A comp arison of the percentage increase of each group reveals a 38% increase in the experimental group and a 64% increase in the control group. Examination of the per student difference score for the two groups reveal s the same

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244 increase per individual student s core of 1.13 points per student in both experimental and control groups. Section 2.3 consisted of a harmonic progression in four parts played on a piano. The students were asked to notate only the soprano voice in the treble clef (highest pitch) and the ba ss voice in the bass clef (lowest pitch). There were nine chords in the progression. The (written) pitch and rhythm of the soprano and bass notes were given. There were no rests in the progression and it was played four times. Section 2 -Totals Both ex perimental and control groups showed improvement from pretest to posttest in each of the 3 sections of Section 2. Overall, the experimental group improved their total score by 28% and the control group improved their total score by 44%. Examining the per student difference scores show s a 4.4 point increase per individual student in the experimental group and a 7.2 point increase per individual student in the control group. These figures reveal that the individual student score in the experimental group s howed 39% less improvement than the individual student score in the control group. I n summary, both groups improved their actual scores in each subsection of Section 2 from pretest to posttest. Examination of the total per student difference scores for th e two groups shows that the individual student score in the experimental group improved 39% less than the individual student scores in the control group. However, it is found that the improvement in the individual student scores of the experimental group increase from Section 2.1 to section 2.2 where the differences between the two groups become smaller and smaller (from 52% less improvement in Section 2.1 to 42% less improvement in Section 2.2) until in Section 2.3, both groups

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245 show the same level of impr ovement per individual student. In calculating the total per student difference for Section 2, due to the improvement of the experimental group in Section 2.3, the smallest per student difference yet in Section 2 for the experimental group appears of 39% less than the control group. The two dictations in Section 2.1 and 2.2 were very similar in that they addressed an primar il y fundamental skill. Both consisted of a single note melody played on a solo instrument. The variable was that the 2.1 dictation te sted the ability to hear and notate a melody played in the lower bass register while the 2.2 dictation tested the ability to hear and notate a melody played in the higher treble register. The third dictation in Section 2.3 differed from Sections 2.1 and 2. 2 in that a four part chord (harmonic) progression was played rather than a single note melody. This section address the more complex skill of hearing four pitches simultaneously and having to isolate the two outer voices -the highest and the lowest of th e four sounds. This section could be considered a combination of the two sections before it in regards to the pitch element at least. The rhythm in Section 2.3 was basically a static pattern, therefore the challenge in this section centered mainly around pitch isolation of two different voices in two different registers. Comparison of experimental and control groups in Section 3 of the pretest and posttest. Table 4 8 lists the actual pretest and posttest scores and percentages and the percent differences between the two groups for Section 3. The 20 questions in this section were without aural stimulus They focused on analytical skills, and visual recognition and understanding of compositional and theoretical concepts.

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246 Table 4 8. Pilot study results: A ctual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and percent difference for experimental and control groups in Section 3 : without aural stimulus (N=20) GROUP SCORES Population Pretest Posttest Score Per student Section 3 (20pts) N Totals Totals Difference Difference Experimental group 8 33 61 28 3.5 Control group 12 73 97 24 2.0 Section 3 Both groups improved their scores from pretest to posttest. A comparison of the percentage increases of each group shows a dramatic 85% increase in the experimental group (the biggest increase in the study), and a 33% increase in the control group. Examination of the per student difference scores in the experimental group reflect s a 3.5 point increase per individual student. Compared to the 2.0 point increase per st udent in the control group, the results show that the individual student score in the experimental group improved 75% more than the individual student score in the control group. Section 3 consisted of 20 questions without aural stimulus. These questions focused on analytical skills, and visual recognition and understanding of compositional and theoretical concepts. Analysis is a fundamental skill used in listening and understanding theoretical concepts through composition. The experimental group was con stantly being challenged to improve their aural analytical skills throughout the project in every step of the taxonomy. These data would seem to indicate that the added emphasis on this basic skill in the experimental group test study had a significant po sitive impact on their scores in the pretest and posttest.

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247 Table 4 9. Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences for experimental and control group total scores (N=20) GROUP SCORES Population Pretest Posttest Score Per Student TOTALS N Totals Totals Difference Difference Experimental group 8 239 326 87 10.9 Control group 12 425 551.5 126.5 10.5 Comparison of experimental and control groups total scores between the pretest and posttest In examin ing both experimental and control group total pretest and posttest scores, the results show that both groups, overall, improved their actual pretest scores. The experimental group made a 36% increase from pretest to posttest and the control group made a 3 0% increase from pretest to posttest. Per student difference scores. A comparison of the per student difference scores finds a 10.9 (10.875) point increase per student in the experimental group and a 10.5 point increase per student in the control group. This results in an overall improvement of the individual student scores in the experimental group of 3% more than the individual student scores in the control group. Summary of pretest/posttest data Overall, these data seem to suggest that the keyboard p roject did have some positive effect on student performance in the experimental group. In two thirds of the pretest/posttest, Section 1 and Section 3, the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in per student difference of 126% an d 75%, respectively. In Section 2, however, the experimental group fell behind the control group by 39% less improvement in the per student difference scores, and that is what contributed to the overall 3% improvement on individual student scores of the ex perimental group over the control group.

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248 Pre C lass Survey ( n =8) Results and discussion from the pre class survey of students in the experimental group, n =8. During the second week of classes, a pre class survey was handed out only to the students in the e xperimental group. They were asked to turn it in at the next class meeting. A copy of the Survey can be found in Appendix E The purpose of the survey was to determine the musical background and experience of the evaluation of their own strengths and weaknesses in success in the class; and to offer an opportunity for each student to voice any other concerns or comments concerning the stu dy. Student responses to the Pre class Survey can also be found in Appendix E Survey items 1 musical background and experience of each participant. Item 1A indicates that seven of the eig ht students were seeking professional degrees in the music field. One student was seeking a degree in the field of science. Item 1B identified as primary instruments, a mixture of brass, voice, strings and one woodwind. No type of keyboard was listed as a primary instrument and percussion was not listed as a primary instrument. Half of the students (4), listed no secondary instrument in Item 1C. Guitar was listed twice, but only as having played for one year or less. Clarinet was listed by one student who had played it for several years from middle school through 10 th grade. Only one student mentioned keyboard, but studied it for only 4 5 months. For these two items, it is established that, realistically no students had any significant knowledge of or experience in playing any type of keyboard instruments.

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249 Item 2 indicates that six students (75%) in the experimental group participated in music classes -band, choir, and guitar -during their middle school years. Half of those were in band classes. Tw o students (25%) took no music classes during middle school. In Item 3, seven of the eight students (87.5%) participated in music classes in high school. Four students were in band classes. One student played in o rchestra and two other students participa ted in chorus. In Item 4 over half of the students reported no previous theory study. One student admitted to one year of study as a senior in high school. Two others indicated they had studied theory very little -intermittently either in choir or throug hout the years spent in band class. dictation; harmonic dictation; rhythmic dictation; and sight singing. The majority of the students (75%) indicated no experience with melo dic or harmonic dictation. Two students (25%) said yes, or that they had had very little experience with melodic dictation. Five students (62.5%) admitted to no experience in rhythmic dictation and ence. For sight singing, again, students used solfege to sight sing and only two used movable do One student acknowledged using numbers instead of solfege to sight si ng. T he student responses to Items 1 5 indicate that all but one student in the project intended to pursue a professional music degree. Brass was listed the most as a p rimary instrument (3 students), then voice (2 students), strings (1 student), and woodw ind (1 student). Keyboard was not listed as a primary instrument. Half of the

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250 students did not list a secondary instrument. Clarinet was the only instrument listed where there was more than one less t han 6 months experience. college music experience took place mainly in middle and high school band classes. Over half of the students participated in some type of band class. Two students participated mainly in choir and chorus classes. Col lectively, from middle school through high school, it is recognized that seven of the eight students had anywhere from one to seven years of pre college musical performance experience. Pre college training in music theory is practically non existent. Only one student indicated theory study for one year. The majority of the students reported no experience or training in aural skills. Of the few that cited some -experience would have to be considered negligible. Survey Item 6 addresses t evaluation of their own strengths and weaknesses in keyboard and theory skills, music history, and composition. There are discrepancies in totaling the number of responses for each category due to one respondent rating only four categori es and another respondent rating all categories but starting with a strength factor of 4 and listing more than one category under one rating. Item 6 asked the students to evaluate their skill level in ten different areas, using 1 as the strongest and 10 a s the weakest. Performance skills were given the strongest rating of 1 by 60% of the students. The second strongest rating was equally attributed to two areas -sight reading on your own instrument and performance skills. Transposition skills and sight r eading on your own instrument were rated third by five students. Four categories took fourth place in equal divisions of two students (25%) per

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251 category. Those four categories are keyboard skills analysis music history, ; and prepared singing. In 5th pl ace, midway from strongest to weakest skill, four students (50%) listed composition skills and transposition skills in equal distribution of two students per category. Six students listed six separate categories for sixth place. It is interesting to note that of the ten skill areas listed, all but one ( sight singing ) have been identified at least once by the students with a strength factor from 1 to 6. The first time sight singing is listed by the students is for 7 th place, by three students (37.5%), a si gnificantly low rating. Dictation, also listed by three students, also appears as 7 th place, but it was previously listed in higher ratings. Keyboard skills and analysis are rated in 8 th place by 25% of the students in each category. Ninth place indicate s the same division as 8 th place between two categories -dictation (25%) and prepared singing (25%). Sight singing was identified by 50% of the students as their weakest skill. The student responses were then divided into two groups of strength factors. T he t op 50% represents those skills indicated in 1 st through 5 th place. The l ower 50% represents those skills indicated in 6 th through 10 th place. The entire class (100%) rated performance skills as their strongest skill area. The next highest rated skill s were sight reading on the primary instrument and transposition skills, with five students (67.5%) each picking these two skills. Exactly half of the class (four students per each skill) considered analysis, music history and prepared singing in the top 50% of the strength group.

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252 Table 4 10 presents a summary of the student responses to Item 6. The number of students who rated each skill in each category and its percentage is also listed. Table 4 1 0 Summary of student responses to Item 6 in two groupi ngs of strength skills. Skill area Top 50% rating Lower 50% rating # of students % # of students % Keyboard Skills 3 37.5 5 62.5 Dictation 1 12.5 6 75.0 Sight Singing 0 0 7 87.5 Sight reading on primary instrument 5 62.5 3 37.5 Music Histo ry 4 50.0 4 50.0 Performance Skills 8 100.0 0 0 Composition Skills 3 37.5 3 37.5 Transposition Skills 5 62.5 2 25.0 Prepared Singing 4 50.0 3 37.5 The lowest skill rating, 10 th place, was given by seven students (87.5%) to sight singing. Six student s (75%) placed dictation in 9 th place as the next weakest skill. Five students (62.5%) indicated keyboard for the 8 th place and four students (50%) placed music history in the weaker skills group. Table 4 1 1 shows the listing of rated skills in order from strongest to weakest, as rated by at least half the class ( four or more students). Table 4 1 1 List of skills rated by students in order of strongest to weake st skill area in the pre class survey. Top 50% rating of 4+ students Lower 50% rating of 4 + students Skill area # of students % Skill area # of students % Performance 8 100 .0 History 4 50.0 Sight reading 5 62.5 Keyboard 5 62.5 primary instrument Dictation 6 75.0 Transposition 5 62.5 Sight sing ing 7 87.5 Analysis 4 50 .0 Music history 4 50 .0 Prepared singing 4 50 .0

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253 In Item 7A the students were asked i f they anticipated doing well in their core quest ion in relation to the P This seems to indicate they had a favorable and positive outlook towards their first semester of at least these two music classes. n general and its relative value to each student as well as musicians in general was the topic of Item 8. In Item 8A, five students thought music theory was interesting asked if they thought music theory is important for all musicians to study. Six students students also thought that in Item 8D, music theory was relevant to their career, The final survey question, Item 9, asked for any other thoughts or comments the student would like to share for this study. Three of the most insightful comments offered Based on these results in Items 7 9, it seems that the major ity of the students were excited and looking forward to the core theory class and also their participation in

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254 is very encouraging that many of the s tudents considered theory to be fun, exciting, and interesting. Chances of success are m uch higher when tasks are approached with a positive, inquisitive attitude. Post Class Survey ( n =8) Results from the post class s urvey o f students in the experimental group n =8. During the final class meeting (Lesson 26), the post class survey was handed out to only the students in the experimental group. They were asked to complete and turn it i n by the exam date a copy of whic h can be found in Appendix F. The purpose of the and what they had accomplished; their responsibility and role as students in the class; which objectives had been met and which had not; and to provide an opportunity for them to offer any other comments about any aspect of the study. The raw data for the p ost class s urvey is also in Appendix F Item 1 of the post class survey asks the same question as Item 6 in the pre class survey. The student responses show the changes in their self evaluations about which skills improved during the course of the P roject. Performance skill was again the most frequently chosen category for the strongest (1st place) skill. However, on ly three students listed this in the post class survey, compared to the five students who placed it first in the pre class survey. The second strongest skill was listed by 50% ( four students) of the class as keyboard skills. This response seems to indica te significant improvements in keyboard. In the pre class survey keyboard skills was placed by the majority of the students in the weaker skills group (5 th 10th place). Dictation and analysis had equal ratings by 25% (two students) as the third strongest skill. Three students named composition as the fourth strongest skill and two

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255 name transposition skills as fourth place. Three students put music history as the fifth strongest skill while two students each placed analysis and transposition in the sixth strongest place. Dictation and music history were placed 7th by two students (25%) in each area. Composition was rated 8th by three students and p repared singing was rated 9th by three students. As in the pre class survey, the weakest skill, sight singi ng, was rated 10th place by a majority (62.5%) of the students. The student responses were divided into two groups of strength factors. The Top 50% represents those skills indicated in 1st 5th place. The number of students who rated each skill in each category and its percentage is also listed. Table 4 1 2 shows the summary of the responses for Item 1 of the post class survey in these two groupings. Table 4 1 2 Summary of student responses to Item 1 of the post class survey in two groupings of strength skills. Top 50% rating Lower 50% rating Skill area # of students % # of students % Keyboard 7 87.5 1 12.5 Dictation 4 50 .0 4 50 .0 Analysis 4 50 .0 4 50 .0 Sight singing 1 12.5 6 75 .0 Sight reading on 5 62.5 2 25 .0 primary instrument Music history 4 50 .0 4 50 .0 Performance 5 62.5 2 0 .0 Composition 4 50 .0 4 37.5 Transposition 3 37.5 4 25 .0 Prepared singing 2 25 .0 5 37.5

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256 In the stronger skills group rated 1st 5th place by four or more students (50%) the results show that largest number of students, seven out of ei ght (87.5%) rated keyboard skills in the greater strength group. Five students (62.5%) placed sight reading on primary instrument and also performance skills in the greater strength group. Four students (50%) rated dictation, analysis, music history, and composition in the greater strength group. The other skills were rated by three or fewer students in the higher group. The skills ratings for the weaker skills grouping 6 th 1 0th place show that sight singing remained the weakest skill (placed in both 9th and 10th places) rated by five (62.5%) students. Five students rated prepared singing as the next weakest skill. Four students (50%) each listed five categories in the weaker skills group -dictation, analysis, music history, composition, and transpos ition. Table 4 1 3 shows the listing of rated skills in order from strongest to weakest, as rated by at least half the class ( four or more students). The number of students who rated each skill in each category and its percentage is also listed. Table 4 1 3 List of skills rated by students in order of strongest to weake st skill area in the post class survey. Top 50% rating of 4+ students Lower 50% rating of 4+ students Skill area # of students % Skill area # of students % Keyboard ski lls 7 87.5 Transpostion 3 37.5 Sight reading 5 62.5 Prepared singing 2 25.0 primary instrument Sight singing 1 12.5 Performance skills 5 62.5 Analysis 4 50 .0 Music history 4 50 .0 Dictation 4 50 .0 Composition 4 50 .0

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257 A comparison of the skills ratings between the pre class and post class surveys reveals significant overall progress and specific improvements in certain skills areas in the experimental group through the course of the Pr oject. Table 4 1 4 shows b oth survey ratings of the two strength groups, including the number of students rating the skill and the percentages. Table 4 1 4 A comparison of the pre class and post class rati ngs of skill areas from strongest to weakest ratings in the higher 50% group PRE CLASS SURVEY POST CLASS SURVEY Skill area # of students % Skill area # of students % Performance 8 1 00 .0 Keyboard 7 87.5 Sight reading 5 62.5 Sight reading 5 62.5 primary instrument primary instrument Transposition 5 62.5 Performance 5 62.5 Analysis 4 50 .0 Analysis 4 50 .0 Music history 4 50 .0 Music history 4 50 .0 Prepared singing 4 50 .0 Dictation 4 50 .0 Keyboard 2 25.0 C om position 4 50 .0 Keyboard 3 37.5 T ransposition 3 37.5 Composition 3 37.5 Dictation 1 12.5 Prepared singing 2 25 .0 Sight singing 0 0 .0 Sight singing 1 12.5 In the p re class survey the hig hest rating given to k eyboard skills was 4 th place by two students. One student rated k eyboard as their fifth strongest skill. The majority of the class rated keyboard skills as a weaker sk ill in the lower 50% ranking. It is very significant that in the post class survey, seven (87.5%) students rated the skill above the 50% mark. This indicates definite improvement in that four students half of the class, moved k eyboard from a weaker to a stronger skill and that four students of the seven rated k eyboard now as their second strongest skill. The next biggest movement was i n d ictation. Only one student rated dictation as a stronger skill (in second place) on the pre class survey. The next rating for dictation in that survey was 6 th place by only one stude nt. Five more placed dictation in 7th and 9th

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258 places, and one student did not answer. In the post class survey 50% of the class rated dictation in 5th place or higher, with one student claiming it as their strongest skill in 1st place. And although the remaining 50% of the class ranked dictation below 5th place, those rankings were also higher than in the pre class survey. The lowest ranking was 8th place, by only one student, then 7th place with two students, and one student ranking for 6th place. Comp osition also moved into the upper 50% rankings. Its highest ranking remained second strongest in both pre and pos t class surveys, but its two rankings of 5th place in the pre class survey moved to three rankings of 4th place in the post class survey. Sig ht singing, the last place in both surveys, also made some progress. From a zero ranking in the top five places, one student felt their sight singing skills had improved to merit a 5th place rank in the post class survey. In summary, the student ratings i ndicate significant improvement in several skills categories from pre class to post class survey. All four skills areas that had been ranked in the lower 50% ratings (keyboard, composition, dictation, and sight singing) made progress from the pre to post evaluation of their stronger and weaker skills. Three of the four skills (keyboard, composition, and dictation) moved out of the lower ratings as a weaker skill and into the upper 50% of stronger skills. The one skill area that was not rated at all in the upper 50% group (sight singing) moved into that group, although it was still considered a weak skill by the majority of the class. Two skills that had been considered a stronger skill in the pre class surve y (transposition and prepared singing) moved into the lower 50%

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259 group by the post class survey. As a result, there were three skills considered by the majority of the class at the end of the study to be weaker skills. It is important to note, however, th at those skills were not the primary focus of the study. The areas of primary importance to the study and its taxonomy listening and keyboard, did show significant improvement, according to the student evaluations. In Item 1 the students were also asked to indicate whether they thought the P roject had helped them improve their skills in each of the ten areas. The entire class -keyboard, music history, and composition. Seven of r areas -dictation and analysis. Five students (62.5%) acknowledged transposition skills and four students (50%) said their performance skills had been helped in the P roject. One student added two other categories in which the class had helped time mana gement and organization. Item 2 and Item 3 address five areas of concentration that were significant components of the study. The five areas are a ural skills k eyboard skills h istorical development l istening skills and a nalysis skills. Item 2 asks the students to evaluate their own level of competence in each category and subcategory at the beginning of semester, before the treatment was gories for Item 2A, a ural skills in general, were interval identification, dictation skills, and mode identification. The subcategories for Item 2B, k eyboard skills in general, were technical exercises, mode playing, and prepared pieces. The subcategorie s for Item 2C, h istorical development, were music history, history of theory, composers of the period, and musical styles. The subcategory

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260 for Item 2D, l istening skills in general, was how to listen to music. The subcategory for Item 2E, a nalysis skills in general, were aural analysis, and written analysis. k eyboard skills in general, in all categories but the l istening skills, the majority of the he majority (62.5%) of the students indicated they had student claiming elementary knowledge in k eyboard skills, since in the pre class survey no students indicated any keyboard skills at all. In Item 3, the students were asked to evaluate their present level of competence at the end of the semester in the same categories listed in Item 2 The responses listed responses were more varied than in Item 2, but all show progress. In Item 3A, a em 3B, k h istorica l l istening skills in two students ( 25% ) of the class. In Item 3E, a nalysis skills in general, the majority of student responses claimed

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261 progress in the study over the course of the semester. Progressing from a majority of on the pre class survey on the post class survey indicates that the students felt significant learning had taken place in the study. Item 4A was concerned with class achiev ement and success. When asked if they thought the class had achieved the goals stated in the Syllabus, the majority (75%) of -answer. Item 4B asked the students to list which items were not addressed in the class, or were not successfully achieved. They were also asked to list any factors that may have co ntributed to this. Composition an d/or harmonization was mentioned by three students. Sight singing, sight reading, sight playing was mentioned by five students. Transposition was mentioned by two students. Other items mentioned only once include meters harmonic dictation rhythmic dic tation scalar technical exercises intervallic construction and inversions melodic construction historical understanding of modal theory and the transition to the major/minor period. Two comments were: t all the way through the Renaissance -we had to teach ourselves everything with little to no six students). Two students (25%) offered no responses at all.

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262 In Item 5, the students identify what items were new for them, keeping in mind that this project served to introduce and expose the student to new musical concepts, ideas, and experiences. The majority (75%) listed modes while 50% listed keyboard, k eyboard skills, playing piano on a regular basis and the historical component. Three two students listed composition and musical analysis. The aspects of the class that were most beneficial to the students w ere asked for i piano skills actual ly playing in class and keyboard practicing. Two students (25%) mentioned music history. In Item 7 the students were asked to identify which aspects of the class were not ur Item 8 was concerned with the freshman year challenges of new stu dents acclimating to the many aspects, academically as well as in general life skills needed to achieve success in the classroom. This item addressed four areas: 8A -t ime management; 8B -p ersonal organizational skills; 8C -p ersonal responsibility; and 8D -p racticing with the metronome. In Item 8A -t ime management 50% of the class indicated they did prioritize their assignments according to the due dates and

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263 Five students ( 62.5 ) % said they worked stea dily in smaller amount s of time or combined that with completing easier assignments first, saving the harder ones for later. The remainder of the students (37.5%) admitted waiting until the end of the semester. In Item 8B -p ersonal organizational skills 5 0% of the class reported using a binder with dividers as required in the syllabus and 50% reported they did not. Two of the four who used the binders (25%) reported that they did help. One student reported there When asked to explain why the binder and dividers did not help, the two comments In Item 8C -p ersonal responsib ility, concerning absences from class, three students claimed two absences for the semester. Two students listed only one absence and three others said they missed no classes at all. In reviewing the actual class attendance record kept by the Project res earcher slightly different statistics are revealed. There were two students who had three absences; one student who had two absences; two students who had one absence; and three students who had no absences at all. As far as attendance is concerned, the data seem to suggest that the students did understand the value of consistent class attendance. Another area addressed in Item 8 C was completion of assigned work. Five students (62.5%) said the assigned work. Not only is it important to complete the assigned work, but also to get it completed

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264 d meeting Getting the assigned work turned in on time, and in a rea sonable amount of time, i.e., if not by the due date, then by the very next class time was a major factor that prevented the class from moving forward as a whole and accomplishing more of the planned curriculum. This factor alone obstructed much of t he progress that should and could have been made by the students, as a class and also in their own individual s tudy. Getting outside extra help can be crucial in some situations. Knowing when to ask for help and actually obtaining the extra help are somet imes two different things, but students have to learn the value of working out problems themselves first and then asking for help if the material continues to evade their understanding. Five students indicated they asked the Project researcher for help. Two students made an appointment with the instructor outside of class. Three students claimed that the instructor did help them when they asked. The final area addressed may seem non related to the other areas addressed in Item 8D -p racticing with the met ronome but for this study the issue of practicing with a metronome is certainly one of priority and great value. It was enough of a priority in the study for the Project researcher to make it a requirement stated directly in the syllabus. Three students 100%) practicing with the metronome. One 80%) with it and one other student said 60%) using the metronome. Another student claimed

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265 practice (31% claiming the higher end in that category of 21% 30%, and the other claiming the lower end of 11% 20%. Three of the students acknowledged a correlation between the difference of practicing with and without a metronome. One did not see a correlation and the remaining four students did not answer. In relation to this area, five students offered helpful comments and revelations about metronome practice, such as, yes and no -e in the beginning but it perfected my rhythms ; practicing with the metronome unusually involved less time ; practicing with the metronome definitely helped ; not in my personal opinion because I normally internalize the beat ; and metronomes help in counting overall Item 9 queried the students concerning the general curriculum and requirements. Six students (75%) thought that the class keyboard project or a derivative thereof, should be a required class in conjunction with the same level theory cla ss. Only one it depends -the instructors should discuss lesson plans That comment was the m ost frequently made by the majority of the students. One other student thought the class should be offered as an e lective. Helpful comments in support of the class becoming a required class in a college curriculum included, Rudiments -I believe all levels of theory should have a partner piano class ; Only if the two classes work together. For example, the skills us ed in theory, like scales should be used in this class a lso, we could do more sight singing, part writing, and whatever else goes on in the theory class ; It helps develop piano

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266 skills before Piano I ; and It helped a little but will be nice if both teachers work together and know what each other is teaching and what times The student responses in Item 10 indicated that the majority, five students (62.5%) felt the keyboard project helped them in their core theory class. Two students (25%) felt tha t it did not help them and one student did not answer. The students were asked in Item 11 to discuss any aspects of the class that they felt would contribute to its future success as a college class. One student did not respond but seven students (87.5%) offered comments, both positive and negative. Some of the more positive and helpful responses were mpressive workload playing more piano in class very agreeable instructor discuss homework done outside of class make listening assignments mo re conveniently available -not only in the library and although the history is important I feel we did not spend enough time with the keyboard. I feel unbelievably prepared for MUH (Music History) and somewhat ready for MVK (Applied Piano Class). Othe r than that I believe this class has been extremely beneficia Some of the least helpful were the comments concerning correlating the keyboard post class survey and it was addressed repeatedly within the keyboard class that the design of the study precluded any interaction between the two instructors. What these recurring comments indicate is a turn towards a comprehensive curriculum wherein the keyboard class would no t only work in tandem with the core theory class, but also with the other core music classes, such as music history, aural skills and music literature. It also identifies the need for faculty to work together.

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267 Statistical Data (N=14) Listing of the unpai red t test results in each section of the pretest/posttest for the music major and music minor students in the experimental and control groups (N=14) An unpaired t test was used to determine statistical significance of the study results in the number of correct answers given in the pretest and posttest between the experimental and control groups (N=14). Tables 4 15 through 4 19 below show the results for each test section. Table 4 1 5 Unpaired t test results for Section 1 : with aural stimulus (N=14) Gr oup Experimental Control Mean 3.00 1.29 SD 3.06 1.38 SEM 1.15 0.52 N 7 7 P value and statistical significance: The two tailed P value equals 0.2010 By conventional criteria, this difference is cons idered to be not statistically significan t. Confidence interval: The mean of Group One (experimental) minus Group Two (control) equals 1.71. 95% confidence interval of this difference: From 1.05 to 4.47 Intermediate values used in calculations: t = 1.3530 df = 12 standard error of differenc e = 1.267 Table 4 1 6 Unpaired t test results for Section 2.1 :treble clef dictation (N=14). Group Experimental Control Mean 1.929 0.00 SD 4.004 4.983 SEM 1.514 1.884 N 7 7 P value and statistical significance: The two tailed P value equa ls 0.4403 By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. Confidence interval: The mean of Group One minus Group Two equals 1.929 95% confidence interval of this difference: From 3.336 to 7.193 Intermediate values used in calculations: t = 0.7982 df = 12 standard error of difference = 2.416

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268 Table 4 1 7 Unpaired t test results for Section 2.2 : bass clef dictation (N=14) Group Experimental Control Mean 2.143 4.071 SD 6.866 7.003 SEM 2.595 2.64 7 N 7 7 P value and statistical significance: The two tailed P value equals 0.6123 By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. Confidence interval: The mean of Group One minus Group Two equals 1.928 95% confidence interval of this difference: From 10.005 to 6.148 Intermediate values used in calculations: t = 0.5203 df = 12 standard error of difference = 3.707 Table 4 1 8 Unpaired t test results for Section 2.3 : soprano/bass dictation (N=14). Gr oup Experimental Control Mean 1.29 0.86 SD 3.59 1.46 SEM 1.36 0.55 N 7 7 P value and statistical significance: The two tailed P value equals 0.7750 By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significan t. Confidence interval: The mean of Group One minus Group Two equals 0.43 95% confidence interval of this difference: From 2.77 to 3.62 Intermediate values used in calculations: t = 0.2923 df = 12 standard error of difference = 1.466 Table 4 19 Un paired t test results for Section 3 : without aural stimulus (N=14). Group Experimental Control Mean 3.57 2.00 SD 2.99 1.15 SEM 1.13 0.44 N 7 7 P value and statistical significance: The two tailed P value equals 0.2192 By conventional crit eria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. Confidence interval: The mean of Group One minus Group Two equals 1.57 95% confidence interval of this difference: From 1.07 to 4.21 Intermediate values used in calculations: t = 1.2964 df = 12 standard error of difference = 1.212

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269 Discussion/Analysis Although the t tests yielded no statistical significance, it is determined that much practical/indicative significance was gained in the study. Therefore, raw data in the form of difference scores and difference score percentages was examined and analyzed for performance measure between the two groups. Listing of the experimental and control group percentage increase per music major/music minor students between pretest and posttes t scores for all three test sections (N=14) Table 4 20 lists the c omparison of experimental and control groups in S ection 1 of the pretest and posttest. Table 4 2 0 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student dif ferences of the experimental (n=7) and co ntrol (n=7) groups in Section 1 : with aural stimulus (N=14) GROUP SCORES Score Per student Section 1 (25pts) N Pretest Posttest Difference Difference Experimental Group 7 77 98 21 3.0 Control Group 7 96 105 9 1.285 B oth experimental and control group scores improved from pretest to posttest. A comparison of the percentage increase of each group shows a 27% increase in the experimental groups and a 9% increase in the control group. Examination of the per student difference scores reveals a 3.0 point increase per student in the experimental groups and a 1.285 (1.29) point increase per student in the control group. These results show that the individual student scores in the experimental group i mproved 133% more than the individual student scores in the control g roup Table 4 21 lists the c omparison of experimental and control groups in Section 2 of the pretest and posttest. The three subsections of Section 2 are labeled Section 2.1, Section 2.2 and Section 2.3. These subsection totals are also listed in the table.

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270 Section 2.1 This section contains the first and only instance of a group showing no improvement in their pretest to posttest score. The experimental group pretest score increased 23% on the posttest but the control group score remained exactly the same, show ing 0% increase in their posttest score. Table 4 2 1 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differences of the experimental and co ntrol groups in Section 2, including subsections 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and Section 2 total scores (N=14). GROUP SCORES Pretest Posttest Score Per student Section 2 (92 pts) N Totals Totals Difference Difference Section 2.1 : treble clef dictation (30pts) Exper imental Group 7 58 .0 71.5 13.5 1.928 (1.93) Control Group 7 83.5 83.5 0 .0 0 0 Section 2.2 : bass clef dictation (46pts) Experimental group 7 4 49 .0 15 .0 2.14 Control group 7 36 64.5 28.5 4.07 Section 2.3 : without aural stimulus (16pts) Ex perimental group 7 24 33 9 1.285 (1.29) Control group 7 12 18 6 .857 Section 2 TOTALS Experimental group 7 116 .0 153.5 37.5 5.357 (5.36) Control group 7 131.5 166 .0 34.5 4.928 (4.93) *Examination of the per student difference score s show s a 1.93 point increase per individual student in the experimental group. In the control group, however, with a 0% group score, there is no per student difference score. Therefore, the zero change for the control group causes the value of the ratio to be performance. Section 2.2 Both groups improved their scores from pretest to posttest in Section 2.2. A comparison of the percentage increases of ea ch group shows a 44% increase in the experimental group. The control group score improved by 79%. Examination of the per student difference scores shows a 2.14 point increase per student in the experimental group. Compared to the 4.07 point increase per student in the control group the experimental group shows 47% less improvement than the control group in the individual student scores.

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271 Section 2.3 Both groups show improvement in their scores from pretest to posttest. A comparison of the percentage in crease of each group shows a 38% increase in the experimental group and a 50% increase in the control group. In spite of the larger percentage increase from pretest to posttest in the control group examination of the per student difference scores between the two groups reveals that the individual student scores in the experimental group improved 50% more than the individual student scores in the control group. The experimental group students averaged a 1.29 point increase per student while the control gro up students averaged an .86 point increase per student, less than one point per student in the control group. Section 2 -Totals Both experimental and control groups improved their overall scores from pretest to posttest in Section 2. A comparison of the total percentage increase of each group shows a 32% increase in the experimental group and a 26% increase in the control group. Examination of the total per student difference scores shows an overall 5.36 point increase per student in the experimental gro up and an overall 4.93 point increase per student in the control group. These data show that the individual student scores in the experimental group improved 9% more than the individual student score of the control group. Table 4 22 lists the c omparison o f experimental and control groups in Section 3 of the pretest and posttest. Both groups showed improved scores in Section 3 from pretest to posttest. A comparison of the percentage increases of each group shows an 81% increase in the experimental group a nd a 38% increase in the control group.

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272 Table 4 2 2 Pilot study results : Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and percent difference for experimental and control groups in Section 3 : without aural stimulus (N=14) GROUP SCORES Pretest Posttest Score Per student Section 3 (20pts) N Totals Totals Difference Difference Experimental group 7 31 56 25 3.57 Control group 7 37 51 14 2.00 Examination of the per student difference scores in the experimental group shows a 3.57 point increase per student. The control group shows a 2.0 point increase per student. As a result, the individual student scores in the experimental group improved 79% more than the individual student scores in the control group. Listing of the experimental and control gr oup percentage increase per music major/music minor students, N=14, between the pretest and posttest total scores Examination of the total group scores of both groups reveals that both groups did improve their scores from pretest to posttest. A compariso n of the percentage increases of each group shows an overall 37% increase in the experimental group and an overall 26% increase in the control group. Table 4 2 3 Pilot study results: Actual pretest, posttest, and difference scores and per student differen ces for experimental and control group total scores (N=14) GROUP SCORES Pretest Posttest Score Per Student TOTALS N Totals Totals Difference Difference Experimental group 7 224 .0 307.5 83.5 11.928 Control group 7 264.5 322.0 57.5 8 214 Further examination of the per student difference scores shows an 11.9 point increase per student in the experimental group. Compared to the 8.2 increase per student in the control group, from pretest to posttest, the individual student score in the experimental group improved 45% more than the individual student score of the control group.

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273 Discussion/Analysis The purpose of extracting the music majors and minors from the original population (N=20) which included non music majors and minors was to d etermine the difference in the individual student scores if any, when examining the target p opulation who completed both requirements for the study versus the random volunteer population which only completed the pretest and posttest requirement. Table 4 2 4 presents a comparison of the per student differences and percentages of the experimental groups of the two populations N=20 (All Students) and N=14 (Music Majors/Minors) for the three sections of the pretest/posttest and for the total test scores. Tabl e 4 2 4 Pilot test study results. Comparison of individual per student difference scores of the experimental groups between the All Students population (N=20) and the Music Majors/Minors population (N=14). Test All Students N=20 Music Majors/Minors N=14 Section experimental group (%) experimental group (%) Section 1 : with aural stimulus +126 +133 Section 2.1 : treble dictation 52 + 23 improvement* Section 2.2 : bass dictation 42 47 Section 2.3 : sop/bass dictation 1** +50 Section 2 39 +9 Section 3 : no aural stimulus +75 +79 Total Test Score +3 +45 *As previously noted, examination of the per student difference scores show a 1.93 point increase per individual student in the experimental group. In the control group, however, with a 0% group score, there is no per student difference score. Therefore, the zero change for the control group causes the value of the ratio to be undefined. The only value remaining is the gross improvement (23.27%) of the experimental group **As previously discussed, in Section 2.3 of the N=20 group, both experimental and control groups showed the same percentage improvement per individual student, which was 1.13 points increase per student. The plus sign (+) before the perce ntage indicates that percentage more improvement of the individual student score in the experimental group over the individual student score in the control group. The minus sign ( ) before the percentage indicates that percentage less improvement of the in dividual student score in the experimental group over the individual score in the control group.

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274 The total test scores reveal a significant difference between the two populations, even though the individual student scores in the experimental group improved more than the individual student scores in the control group in both populations. In the N=20 e N=14 (Music Further examination of the individual student scores shows that the N=20 experimental group out performed the control group only twice -in Section 1 by 133% and in Section 3 by 75%. In Section 2.3 both experimental and control groups showed the same improvement of 1.13 points per student. In both sections 2.1 and 2.2, h owever, the experimental grou p showed 52% and 42%, respectively, less improvement than the control group. A comparison of these scores to those of the N=14 experimental group shows that experimental group outperformed the control group in every section /subsection of the pretest/postte st but one. In Section 1, the percentage increased from 126% to 133% more improvement than the control group. In Section 2.1, the control group showed no improvement (0%), while the experimental group score increased their pretest score by 1.93 per stude nt. Section 2.2 is the only section in which the experimental group did not outperform the control group. In fact, the experimental group score dropped even f urther in the N=14 population than it was in the N=20 population, from 42% less i mprovement to 4 7% less improvement. In Section 2.3, where both groups showed the same rate of improvement in N=20, the experimental group for N=14 showed 50% more

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275 improvement than the control group. In considering the total scores for Section 2, the experimental groups made significant progress from 39% less improvement than the control group to 9% more improvement than the control group. Section 3 scores followed the same path as Section 1 scores. The percentage rose from 75% in the N=20 group to 79% in the N=14 grou p. Overall test scores for the individual student scores indicate a significant difference in the individual student scores between the N=20 population to the N=14 population. The experimental group percentage improvement rose from 3% to 45% improvement o ver the control group. These results seem to indicate that the proposed keyboard theory course is highly effective when taken by members of the target population, but that its effectiveness is diminished enough to be considered relatively insignificant wh en the population contains non music majors or minors.

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276 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION S The purpose of this study was to develop and te s t the efficacy of a college level keyboard theory curriculum using a chronological, comprehensiv e musicianship approach. This particular curriculum was designed for implementation in the first semester of the undergraduate music major and minor core music program. It is the first of four planned semesters in a larger two year sequence and intended to companion a core comprehensive music theory and history curriculum. The study was also concerned with obtaining and evaluating the feedback and opinions of the participating students. A sequential taxonomy of objectives was developed to better integrat e the comprehensive elements of the Project and to correlate the Project activities. The period. The study used a pretest posttest design to determine individual student improvement percentages. A pre class survey was administered to establish the college preparation and training. A post class survey was administered to obtain important feedback, opinions, and perspectives from the students regarding their experience in the Project. Preliminary research in the summer of 2007 began with an online survey sent to the membership of the Society of Composers, Inc. (SCI). As it was an exploratory survey concerning all four semesters of the larger, planned curricu lum, only questions that pertained to the present research were extracted and included in this study. Questions included general and specific curriculum topics such as length of the theory

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277 sequence, who on the faculty was teaching the core classes, and ho w much attention was given to modal music in the undergraduate program. The opportunity to conduct a test pilot study of the proposed curriculum arose in early 2008. Permissions were granted and the curriculum planning began in late spring for the Fall 20 08 semester at the University of Florida. The curriculum was implemented during that sixteen week semester and the course was named the Keyboard Theory Project. For space considerations, it will be referred to as the Project in this document. During the first week of class, music students enrolled in freshman theory classes were asked to volunteer for the Keyboard Theory Project. Flyers were posted in the music building and the Project researcher was invited to speak to the theory classes about the Proje ct. The Director of Admissions, faculty advisors and other music faculty informed students of the opportunity to participate in the Project. Each Project participant in the treatment group received one credit hour for successful completion of the study. As it happened, all of the students who volunteered for the study were also in the same Introduction to Theory class, so that entire class became the control group. The pretest was administered to the entire population before the treatment began. At the end of the treatment period, the posttest was again administered to the total population. Both groups met for fifty minutes three times per week in the core theory class. The experimental group ( the Project) met for fifty minutes twice per week. The the ory class instructor and the Project researcher met only to set the pre and post test dates and times At the end of the treatment period grades were given according to University

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278 procedures and they had no effect on the Project. Data gathered from the t tests that were conducted yielded no real significance due to low numbers (N=20). Data was calculated from the total population who completed the pretest and posttest and evaluated for percentage of individual student improvement. Results showed only a 3% improvement in the treatment group over the control group from pretest to posttest. Data was then extracted for those students from the total population who met both requirements of the study: to complete both pretest and posttest and to be a music maj or or minor. Data for the new population (N=14) was calculated. The results showed a significant 45% increase in individual student improvement in the experimental group over the control group from pretest to posttest. A p ost class survey was administere d only to the experimental group participants. The comments and observations from the post class survey were compiled. The students were asked their opinions on different aspects of the Project and also to list the strengths and weaknesses of the program A review of related literature concerning comprehensive musicianship and chronological (historical) approaches in teaching undergraduate core music was conducted in three areas: Research Studies (dissertations and abstracts), Periodicals and Professional Journals, and Books. Related areas of research also included the Comprehensive Musicianship ( CM ) movement itself. Its history and that of the resulting programs throughout the country are well documented. There is an abundance of literature on the orig ins and development of the event leading up to the development, implementation, and evaluation of the CM method -from the initial YCP program sponsored by the MENC and the Ford Foundation to the Northwestern Seminar where

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279 the CM guidelines were formulated and through the IMCE experimental programs that pilot tested the CM approach. Two personal interviews were also conducted with current UF music faculty. One was with an original participant of the Northwestern Seminar in April, 1965, Dr. Charles R. Hoffer The second interview was with Dr. James Paul Sain, who is a graduate of the early San Diego State University CM program under the direction of Dr. David Ward Steinman. Discussion and c onclusions The results of the study indicate that the chronological comprehensive approach used in the proposed keyboard theory curriculum is successful when administered to the target population. Due to low population numbers (N=20 and N=14) analysis of statistical significance was inhibited. Student responses from th e post class survey indicate a general positive assessment of the Project. Their observations and suggestions for improvement were very informative and helpful. It was also determined that the general educational philosophy along with the teaching strate gies developed by the Project researcher and implemented through Current research identified many proble m areas as ongoing educational related to the Project in various ways. T he level of musical knowledge and basic competency in fundamental skills of entering music degree s eeking freshman students has decreased over the years. Too many college curricula offer fragmented and segregated programs which hinder instead of contribute to the improvement and

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280 advancement of the educational process. With the dawn of a new century co mes the challenge of incorporating even more musical literature into already overcrowded syallabi into the same amount of class time and without sacrificing the quality of the program. The inadequate and sometimes non existent skill levels of the students especially keyboard, proved to be the biggest impediment in the Project. Because of no prior significant keyboard experience of any of the students in the experimental group, the entire keyboard skills portion of the Project had to be re evaluated, re wr itten and re designed to meet the students at their rank beginner level. Most of the keyboard material ended up, in actuality, as beginning piano lessons. Although great progress was made in keyboard skills -going from zero proficiency to playing two oct ave modes hand together at the required tempo, the lack of prior keyboard skills still caused problems for the study. Specifically, this was apparent in the failure to bring the S ING & P LAY /P LAY & S ING and P ERFORM objectives to the level of achievement th at was originally projected and planned for. Another contributing factor to this situation was the two sessions per week format instead of the regular three sessions per week. After experimenting with in class piano practice, it was determined by the Pro ject researcher that with the two session per week format very few classes could be devoted completely to piano practice. Ironically, it became necessary for the students to practice outside class time after the material was first introduced in class. The dictation portions of the study also suffered from lack of aural skills proficiency in the students. For first semester students, this deficiency is not as surprising as the lack of keyboard skills, but even so, the study participants had such difficulty absorbing

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281 and acclimating to the process that substantial progress was not made in this area either, at least not to the projected outcome of the program. And although adding a third session would have helped to address this issue, it would not have reso lved it. Working to implement the originally intended three hour class into two periods provided a challenge for both the Project researcher and the students. It was inevitable that some lack of depth and breadth would occur. It became necessary to eithe r alter, postpone, or re direct certain class activities while trying to keep the P roject as close to a replica of an actual class as possible. The Project researcher recognized that all of the taxonomy objectives may not be achieved during the study. T hroughout the study, as new objectives were introduced, elements were subject to change as needed in order to find the students where they were and to better assess the work and progress of the Project. Too many college curricula still offer fragmented and segregated programs which many music educators find obstructing instead of contributing to the improvement and advancement of the educational process. Many studies have revealed that ered the better -the more activities squeezed into one music class the better thus substituting quantity for true understanding (comprehension). The focus has been fixed on the numbers of classes offered, but not on the relationships and the relevance between th ose classes There were many different activities within the scope of the Project The one unifying element was the chronological (historical) factor which kept all the materials of the course within one musical period. What they listened to, they played, they sang, they transcribed in dictation, they read about, they analyzed, they composed

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2 82 and they performed. This, when combined with the proposed core theory and core history class, would greatly enhance and advance the rate of student learni ng and comprehension as well as improve the effectiveness of th at curriculum. It is much more conducive to understanding and retaining knowledge than flitting from one course in one era to another course in a different era without any regard to historical continuity It is not within the scope of the present study but it would be interesting to investigate other related professional arts as well as non music fields to determine their method of teaching the historical background and theoretical elements i n their own areas. The chronological approach remains a debatable issue for many music educators. Research indicates that a chronological approach was one of the originally suggested CM guidelines but was later omitted With the beginning of a new centur y and the help of highly developed communication technology, there is even more musical literature available today than probably ever imagined even thirty years ago. To study the musics of all eras, this CM guideline seems like an impossible feat. In thi s Project researcher opinion, the only way to accomplish this CM objective and provide the necessary professional music training at the undergraduate level is to implement the core music curriculum through a chronological and comprehensive approach By the end of the Project, in spite of the few drawbacks or impediments, it can be concluded that the proposed k eyboard theory curriculum was successful in achieving its main goal. The student participants became familiar and knowledgeable about the modal per iod. They were introduced to an era of music they had not known before. They thanks to technology and the efforts of other students discovered possible new

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283 career paths in the field. They read and wrote about what they heard. They all learned a new functional basic skill at the keyboard. They overcame the challenge of working with a metronome to eventually realize its benefits. They gained experience in singing and playing the music of the period while also reading and writing about its history. were recognized in later history classes. They analyzed the literature, aurally, verbally and in writing, to identify its theoretic al and compositional characteristics. They composed new music in the style of the period and performed several pieces from the literature. They achieved an understanding, a comprehension, of the early music of the Middle Ages. This would not have taken place if the materials of the individual activities had been taken from different musical eras. In spite of intense course loads and congested schedules (many students in the Project were carrying extra hours, some had outside jobs, some were involved in e xtracurricular time consuming school activities, and a few were double majors), student motivation for the Project remained high throughout the study. Of the original thirteen who volunteered for the experimental group, the seven that completed the study worked hard and were diligent in trying to get all the course work completed. The post class survey comments reveal a general good feeling on the part of the students con c e r nin g the amount of work the y had done, the progress they had made in keyboard, dic tations and composition, and the preparedness they felt for the next semester. With this attained and assimilated foundation of knowledge, the students are ready to continue their study of natural development from the Medieval era into the Renaiss ance period. They will see how the body of musical knowledge gradually changes as it moves from era to era. Because the connection is not broken, the

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284 understanding will remain more complete and concrete. Short term memory will gradually become a permane nt resident in working long term memory Recommendations for further s tudy. From survey comments and the Project researcher project study be conducted in tandem with at least a co re theory class, but preferably with both core theory and history classes These three classes, each of which would meet three times per week, would begin in the modal period and implemented at the freshman level for music majors and minors. The instruc tors of the three classes would have to function as a team in the planning, implementation and evaluation of the study. Several of the study participants indicated the need for the theory and the keyboard theory instructor to work together. They understa nd the need for faculty to work with each other in planning and implementing a successful curriculum. This is at the heart of the CM approach. Integrated and inclusive does not apply to only the assembled courses and materials, but also to the faculty as sembled to teach those materials. The students recognized the unnecessary difficulties and frustrations caused when classes are presented in a segregated and fragmented manner because they experienced it first hand. Whether they have ever heard of CM or not, the students themselves are demanding a comprehensive approach in their curriculum Because of the severe lack of basic musicianship skills of entering freshman music students that was discovered in the present study and evidenced in current research, further study is recommended to determine not only why this is happening, but also to investigate ways to alleviate this situation. Solutions could include determining skill levels and proficiencies at student auditions in the senior high school years and

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285 requiring that a certain level be achieved before being officially admitted to a bachelor of music degree program. That could mean requiring student s to study on their own during the summer session before Fall admittance, or enrolling in the remedial cou rses at the college during the summer session. Over 20 years ago, Wennerstrom (1989) music education before [emphasis added] (p. 163). Unfortunately, the situation is worse today, considering all the myriad public school budget cuts in music and fine arts curricula. Further research is recommended to study ways to ad dress and solve this problem that is nationwide. It is also recommended that this comprehensive, chronological approach to the core keyboard, theory and history classes be extended to at least three years, if not all four of the undergraduate years of stud y. In order to adequately address, in breadth and in depth, all of the musics of all the eras that professional musicians need to experience, as time goes on, more time will be needed to master quantity without sacrificing quality. A method is needed to accomplish this in an orderly and scholarly but interesting way that is flexible and accepting of ever improving teaching and learning strategies The comprehensive approach has been used by thousands of teachers and students. Not once, in this Project r esearcher work was it ever found or concluded to be unsuccessful However, th e chronological approach is still questioned by many. From the research for this study as well as personal educational experience, it is this Project researcher opinion tha t the combination of both comprehensive and

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286 chronological in the core music curriculum seems more and more likely to be the most common sense approach in digesting centuries of music and all that would encompass. Research has identified the need for consta nt attention to and evaluation of music teacher training and education. The early CMP program evaluations immediately recognized this problem. They conducted studies and workshops to assess the depth of the problem and to suggest solutions. Unfortunatel y the problem still exists today. For the music teachers to be, who are in the process of completing their formal education, t he solution will be found in the improved curriculum design in the undergraduate and graduate music teacher programs. Periodic a ssessment and evaluation of these programs and curricula will keep them fresh and up to date. But for the teachers who have finished their formal education, it becomes their own responsibility to educate themselves. To be effective in the classroom, they must become lifelong learners and exemplify in their professional lives what they are assumedly teaching in the classroom. Concerning both student and teacher, s ome of the questions posed in Chapter One reappear: What does it mean to be a musician? What does a bachelor of music degree really mean? Does that degree guarantee certain skills and proficiencies certain knowledge retained by all who hold the same degree? What should we expect from that graduate? What training and preparation should that gr aduate expect from the degree awarding institution? It is recommended that stud ies be conducted to determine the answers to any of the questions posed above. Student centered learning and student motivation are also major components of a CM education as r evealed in the literature review. Research has found that students

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287 often become motivated in a CM program. Students become motivated when they are actively involved, -mentally, physically and emotionally, in their own education. Seeing a faculty and adm inistration that work well together and show real concern for each student is also a big motivator. Colwell (1990) instructor advocates that 2011 is an even better time for the music education profession to re visit the CM approach and then work to re establish CM programs at all levels of education Some final recommendation s for further research concern the community or junior college. It has been suggested that the CM approach is more successful in smaller colleges and community college environments. Investigat i ve studies could be conducted to determine if the CM approach is being used in community colleges, which ones, why o r why not, and if not, whether that administration would consider adopting a CM approach for its core music curriculum in the near future. Additional studies could involve tracking the progress and success of the community college transfer student in the four transfer students. participating institutions. It is recommended that similar studies be conducted in the remaining f ive regions to complete the body of research be gun by Bess. There were many innovative and creative programs implemented in these institutions that would be of interest to music educators today and that hold historical value as well In the same vein, mor e detailed and in depth studies of each participating institution in the IMCE, like Ward at San Diego State University is also

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288 recommended for further research. Just the fact that each of the 32 IMCE institutions devised and implemented their own CM programs gives great credenc e to the versatility and flexibility and therefore, longevity, of the CM approach. It would be invaluable for specific information con cerning the undergraduate music curriculum For those researchers interested in historical and biographical studies, an intriguing could be the original 12 Composers in Residence of the YCP (1959 60), any or all of the 70+ composers involved in the IMCE programs, the 15 composers from the Young Composer Awards (1965 66), the 41 participants of the Northwestern Seminar, or any of the administrators involved in these programs. Obtainin g live, primary source material directly form those involved in the many MENC/Ford Foundation experimental programs over the years concerning the Comprehensive Musicianship approach would contribute significantly to the field and to the improvement of the contemporary undergraduate music curriculum. This study attempted to show that the comprehensive, chronological approach in a keyboard theory course can complement the core theory and history class. Thus the reason for using a nationally accepted theory e xam as the measuring instrument. It is subject core curriculum can contribute to improvement in contemporary undergraduate music education. However, the acceptance and the enactmen t of the comprehensive approach at the college level, which is what the present study hopes to draw attention to, seems to be at a standstill. The present study also endeavors to show other music

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289 educators and music administrators that a core comprehensiv e music program is definitely within reach P r esenting the curricular guidelines via a test pilot study of a first semester CM keyboard theory class to companion the core theory class hopefully provides at least one missing link in the present CM puzzle.

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290 APPENDIX A PROTOCOL SUBMISSION FORM UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Title of Protocol: The effects of taking an elective keyboard theory curriculum to reinforce the ory skills of first semester college music majors. Principa l Investigator: Carol P. McCoy UFID #: 7508 6720 Degree / Title: Master of Music Department: School of Music Mailing Address: 43138 NW 30 Terr. Gainesville, FL 32605 Email Address & Telephone Number: piatnek@ ufl.edu 352 371 7351 Co Investigator(s): none UFID#: Supervisor: Dr. James P. Sain UFID#: 8952 0800 Degree / Title: D.M.A/Professor of Music Department: School of Music Mailing Address: University of Florida MUB 130 Gainesville, Fl 32611 Emai l Address & Telephone Number: jsain@ufl.edu 352 392 0223 X240 Date of Proposed Research: Fall Semester, 2008 August 21 December 19, 2008 Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with t his protocol if funding is involved): None Scientific Purpose of the Study: To determine the effect of a supplemental keyboard theory curriculum to reinforce theory skills of first semester college music majors. Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language: (Explain what will be done with or to the research participant.) The research participant will volunteer to take an elective keyboard theory class during their freshman year and while taking their required core theory class. They will attend a 50 min. class twice weekly and receive 1 3 credit hours for a passing grade in the class. The assignments will include practice time; individual keyboard juries; reading, writing and listening assignments to be completed outside class time. T hey will be subject to all the requirements and activities of the class, including any and all tests; quizzes; exams; juries; projects and all other course requirements as determined by the investigator. They will take a pretest survey and/or exam and a po sttest survey and/or exam to aid in the assessment of success of the study. All class materials will be compiled by the Principal Investigator, using existing and original literature and documents. Describe Potential Benefits and Anticipated Risks: ( If ri sk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) Potential benefits include: increased, more thorough understanding of music theory; development of more advanced aural, keyboard, written, an d listening skills; quicker, more thorough development of technical proficiency at the keyboard; improving test taking and performance skills; becoming a more well rounded musician; better performance in their core theory class as well as other core music classes; learning to compose at the keyboard; gaining a historical perspective of the development of music theory at the keyboard as well as a historical context of the keyboard itself and its role in music history; and gaining more confidence in themselv es through newly acquired skills which will provide a positive outlook for their musical careers and goals and become a source of strong student motivation. No more than minimal risk is anticipated.

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291 Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited, the Numb er and AGE of the Participants, and Proposed Compensation: Up to 12 volunteer music students will be accepted for the class, 18+ years, who are enrolled in a core theory class for the Fall Semester, 2008. The Principal Investigator can speak personally t o each theory class to notify students of the class and will have consent forms ready to distribute to any volunteers. The Class Instructors may also inform students of this opportunity and may hand out the consent forms. The School of Music, its office staff and advisors may also distribute information to students about the class and may hand out consent forms. The Principal Investigator may post notices in the Music Building of the class being offered and how to obtain the consent forms. There is no co mpensation. Describe the Informed Consent Process. Include a Copy of the Informed Consent Document: Upon volunteering and registering to take the class, each participant will be given a copy of the Informed Consent Document to read and sign. The origina l copies will remain with the study and each volunteer will be given a copy. Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Supervisor Signature: Theory Class Instructor Signature: Department Chair/Center Director Signature: Date:

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292 APPENDIX B PERMISS IONS I nstitutional R eview B oard L etter of R elease A reprint of the original letter Institutional Review Board PO Box 112250 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 2250 352 392 0433(Phone) 352 392 9234 (Fax) irb2@ufl.edu January 31, 2008 TO: Carol P. McCoy 4318 NW 30 Terrace Gainesville, FL 32605 FROM: Ira S. Fisher, PhD; Chair University of Florida Institutional Review Board 02 SUBJECT: Approval of Protocol #2008 U 0082 The effects of taking an elective keyboard theory curriculum on the performance in a core theory class SPONSOR: None Because this protocol involves research on the effectiveness of or the comparison of educational practices, it is exempt from furthe r review by this Board in accordance with 45 CFR 46.101(b)(1). Should the nature of your study change or if you need to revise this protocol in any way, please contact this office before implementing the changes. IF:dl

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293 A dvanced P lacement Exam Email of Permission Subject RE: Music Theory AP Exam contract Sender Fitzsimmons, Kelly Recipient MCCOY,CAROL PIATNEK Date 07/02/2008 3:30 PM 7/02/08 Name C arol McCoy Email piatnek@ufl.edu RE: 2003 AP Music Theory Exam Contract Number: E0806051 Dear Carol McCoy: Thank you for your request to reproduce the aforementioned AP Material for the purposes indicated below: Title of Your Work: Ph.D dissertation Author: Carol Piatnek McCoy Distribution/Audience: University of Florida freshman music theory class. Distribution date: August 2008 Quantity: 30 Price: $0 Permission to use the aforementioned Items is grante d and is contingent upon the following: 1) Permission is granted on a one time, non exclusive, and non transferable basis. 2) Please include the following credit line, exactly as written below, in each instance where the Items appear: Source:Copyright 2008. The College Board. Reproduced with permission. http://apcentral.collegeboard.com Please refer to the above contract number in any further correspondence. I had prepared the contract o n 6/5/08. I thought I had sent it to you but it appears from your email you did not receive the contract. Please let me know if you have any questions and sorry for the delay.

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294 Thank you, Kelly Fitzsimmons Coordinator, AP Program Development 212.520.85 92 ----Original Message ----From: MCCOY,CAROL PIATNEK [mailto: piatnek@ufl.edu ] Sent: Wednesday, July 02, 2008 4:27 PM To: Fitzsimmons, Kelly Subject: Music Theory AP Exam contract Hi Kelly, I have been out of to wn for about two weeks and am just getting caught back up with everything. I am wondering where we stand with the contract you were preparing for me to use the 2003 Music Theory test as my pre and post test in my dissertation work this fall. I will have at most, 24 students who will need to take the test. Please let me know if I need to do anything else to help you in this matter. Our classes start in about a month, so I am trying to get everything organized now. Thank you again for your support of m y project. Carol McCoy, M.M. University of Florida Doctoral Candidate School of Music Gainesville, FL 32611 352 371 7351 c)352 262 6300

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295 S ociety of C omposers Inc., Email of Permission Hi Mr. Warfield, Thank you so much for reviewing the surv ey and for permission to post. I am hoping to entice them with the "small gift" and am now wondering if I have dug a pit for myself envisioning hundreds of responses! Thank you again for your time. Carol McCoy On Fri Jun 29 21:26:36 EDT 2007, Gerald Warfield wrote: Hi Carol, Yes, the survey is fine. I can't say how many responses you'll get, though. Composers can be an ornery lot. So, please send just the survey part (starting where is says "Hello SCI") directly to t he listserve at scimembers@societyofcomposers.org It's much easier for me if you do it that way. (The routing gets stripped incorrectly.) I'll send it out as soon as I see it. All best, Gerald Warfield Manager, SCI ----Original Message ----From: "Ca rol P. McCoy" To: Cc: Sent: Friday, June 29, 2007 10:16 AM Subject: Permission to post to SCI? Reply to: piatnek@ufl.edu Hi Mr. Warfield, My name is Carol McCoy, a doctoral student at UF in Mus. Ed/theory emphasis under the advisement of Dr. James P. Sain. I am a student member in the SCI UF Chapter. As part of my dissertation research I have developed a two part survey that I would like to pass through the SCI membership for their ins ight, input and any help they might like to offer. Dr. Sain advised me to contact you to see if you would please post the survey to the list.

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296 It is enclosed below. I am developing a 2 year piano/keyboard theory class for undergrads that uses modal melodic invention, the practice of figured bass, and the basics of modern jazz improvisation in its method. The underlying intent is to provide a historical keyboard theory foundation combined with technical requirements to develop musicians who can improvise/co mpose in all styles of music at the keyboard, including inventing their own. I would greatly appreciate it if you would post this to the membership. I am a student member (in goo d standing -my dues are current ) of the UF Student chapter. If you have any q uestions, please contact me. Thank you in advance for your time. Carol P. McCoy, M.M University of Florida School of Music Doctoral student, Mus. Ed./Theory emphasis 352 371 7351 352 262 6300 cell

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297 APPENDIX C FLYER FOR ADVERTISEMENT FRESHMAN THEORY STUD ENTS ONLY !!! A CHANCE TO MAKE MUSICAL HISTORY!!! PARTICIPATE IN A PILOT TEST STUDY OF A BRAND NEW KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT MUS 4905 TIME: TBA To register or for more info contact CAROL MCCOY, M.M piatne k@ufl.edu 262 6300 LIMITED ENROLLMENT 1 hr. credit Increase your skills in Theory I and develop a deeper understanding of how theory and keyboard work together

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298 APPENDIX D PRETEST/POSTTEST Booklet Cover KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT PRETEST Sel ected portions of the 2003 AP Music Theory Released Exam MUS 4905 FALL 2008 Instructor: Carol P. McCoy, M.M. University of Florida 2003 AP Music Theory Released Exam. Copyright c 2004 by the College Entrance Examination Board. R eprinted with permission. All rights reserved. www.collegeboard.com This material may not be mass distributed, electronically or otherwise. This publication and any copies made from it may not be resold. Please print name on label below:

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299 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT P OST TEST Selected portions of the 2003 AP Music Theory Released Exam MUS 4905 FALL 2008 Instructor: Carol P. McCoy, M.M. University of Florida 2003 AP M usic Theory Released Exam. Copyright c 2004 by the College Entrance Examination Board. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. www.collegeboard.com This material may not be mass distributed, elect ronically or otherwise. This publication and any copies made from it may not be resold. Please print name on label below:

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300 Individual Student Answers PRETEST/POSTTEST -Experimental Group #1 # 4 participants Section 1 -25 questions with aural stimulus Item Pre Posttest Pre Posttest Pre Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer Answer E 1 E 2 E 3 E 4 01 I C I I I I I C 02 C C N I C I I N 03 I C I C I I I I 05 C C I I C C C N 07 C C C C C C I I 08 I C C I C C C I 09 C C I I C C I C 10 N I N I I I I I 12 I I N I C C I I 13 C C N C C C C I 14 C C C C C C N N 15 C C N N I C N I 16 C C N N C C N N 17 I C C C C C I C 19 I I I I N I I C 20 C C C I C C C C 21 I I N C C C N C 22 C I N C I I I I 23 I I C I I C N N 24 I I N I I I N I 27 I C N N I I N C 32 I I N N I I I I 33 C C C C C C I I 35 C C C N C I N N 37 C C C I I I N N Item no.=actual number of the question extracted from Section I, Part A of the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. C=Correct answer I=Incorrect answer N=No answer E 1=Student Identification number in the Experi mental group

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301 PRETEST/POSTTEST -Experimental Group, # 5 # 8 participants Section 1 -25 questions with aural stimulus Item Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer An swer E 5 E 6 E 7 E 8 01 I I I C I C I I 02 C I I C I I I I 03 I I I C I C I C 05 C C C C N C C I 07 C C C C C C I C 08 C I C C I C I C 09 C C I C C I I I 10 I C C C C I C C 12 I I I C N N I I 13 I I C I C C C C 14 I C C I I C I C 15 C C C C N C N I 16 C C I I N N C C 17 C C C C N N C C 19 C C I I I I C I 20 C I I I N C N C 21 I C C C I C N C 22 I I I C N C I C 23 C C C C C I I C 24 I I I I C I I I 27 C C C I N C C C 32 I I C I N I I I 33 I C C C C C I C 35 C C I C I I N I 37 C C I C N I N I Item no.=actual number of the question extracted from Section I, Part A of the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. C=Correct answer I=Incorrect answer N=No answer E 1=Student Identification number in the Experimental group

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302 PRETEST/POSTTEST -Experimental Group # 1 # 4 participants Section 3 -20 questions without aural stimulus Item Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer Answer E 1 E 2 E 3 E 4 45 N I I C I C C C 46 I C I C N C N C 47 N C N C N C N I 49 C C C C C C C C 51 I I N I N I N N 53 N I N C I I N N 54 I C N C I I N N 59 I I N N N N N N 60 N I N I N C N N 61 I I N N N N N N 64 N N N N N N N N 65 I I N N N I N N 66 I C N N N I N N 67 I C N N C C N N 68 N I N N N I N N 70 I C I N N C N C 71 C C C N C C N I 72 I C C C C I N I 73 C I N N I N N I 74 I I I I C C N C Item no.=actual number of the question extracted from Section I, Part B of the 2003 AP Music Theo ry exam. C=Correct answer I=Incorrect answer N=No answer E 1=Student Identification number in the Experimental group

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303 PRETEST/POSTTEST -Experimental Group # 5 # 8 participants Section 3 -20 questions without aural stimulus Item Pre -Posttest P re -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer Answer E 5 E 6 E 7 E 8 45 I C C I N I I C 46 I C I C I C C C 47 N I I C N C N I 49 N C C C C C C 51 N C I I I I N I 53 N C I I I I N I 54 N I I I C C N I 59 N C I I N I I N 60 N C C I N I C I 61 N I I I I N N I 64 N I I C N N N N 65 N I I N I C N I 66 N I I N N N I N 67 N I I N C C I N 68 N I C N N I N N 70 N C I I N I C C 71 C C C C C C C C 72 C C C C I C N I 73 N I C I N N I I 74 C I C C I C I I Item no.=actual number of the question extracted from Section I, Part B of the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. C=Correct answer I=Incorrect answer N=No answer E 1=Student Identification number in the Experimental group

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304 PRET EST/POSTTEST Control Group # 1 # 4 participants Section I -25 questions with aural stimulus Item Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer Answer C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 01 C C C I I I I I 02 C C C I C C C C 03 I C I C C I I C 05 C C I C I I C C 07 C C C C C C C C 08 C C I I C C C C 09 C C I C C C C C 10 C C C C C I C C 12 C C I I C I I I 13 C C C I C C C C 14 C I N I C C C C 15 C C N N I C C C 16 I I N N C C I C 17 C C N N C C C C 19 C C I I I I N I 20 C C C C C C C C 21 C C C C C C C C 22 C C C C C C I I 23 I C I I I I C I 24 I I I C C I C C 27 I I C I I I C C 32 C C I I I I I I 33 C C C C C C C C 35 I C C I C C C C 37 C C I I I I N I I tem no.= actual number of the question extracted from Section I, Part A of the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. C= Correct answer I= Incorrect answer N= No answer C 1= Student Identification number in the Control group

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305 PRETEST/POSTTEST Control Group #5 # 8 part icipants Section I -2 5 questions with aural stimulus Item Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer Answer C 5 C 6 C 7 C 8 01 I C I C I I I C 02 I I C N I I C I 03 I I C I I C I I 05 C C C C I I C I 07 C C C C I C I C 08 C C C C C C C C 09 I C C C C C C I 10 C C I C C C I C 12 N N I I C I I I 13 C C C N C C I I 14 N C C C C C N C 15 N I I N C C N C 16 I C C N C C N N 17 N I C C C C N N 19 N I C C I I C I 20 C I C C C C C C 21 N N C C C I C C 22 N N C C C I C C 23 C I I I C I C I 24 I I I I I C C I 27 I C I C C C C C 32 N I I I I I N I 33 C I C C C C I C 35 N N C C I C I I 37 I C I C I I I I Item no.=actual number of the question e xtracted from Section I, Part A of the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. C=Correct answer I=Incorrect answer N=No answer C 1=Student Identification number in the Control group

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306 PRETEST/POSTTEST Control Group #9 # 12 participants Section I -25 questions with aural stimulus Item Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer Answer C 9 C 10 C 11 C 12 01 I I I I I I I I 02 I I I I I N I I 03 I I I I I C I I 05 C C C C N I C C 07 C C C C I C C I 08 C C C C I C C I 09 C C C C I C C C 10 C C C C N C I C 12 I C I I I I I I 13 C C I C C C C C 14 C C I C I C C C 15 C C I I N C C C 16 I I C C C N N C 17 C C I C I C C I 19 C C I I C C C C 20 C C C C I C C C 2 1 C C I C N N I C 22 C C I C I I I I 23 I I C I N N I C 24 C C I I C I I I 27 I I C I C I C C 32 I I I I I N I I 33 C C I C C C I C 35 I I I N C N I C 37 C C I C I I I I Item no.=actual number of the question extracted from Section I, Part A of the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. C=Correct answer I=Incorrect answer N=No answer C 1=Student Identification number in the Control group

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307 PRETEST/POSTTEST -Control Group #1 # 4 participants Section 3 -20 questions without aural stimulus Item Pre -Postt est Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer Answer C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 45 I I I N N C I I 46 I C C C C C C I 47 N N C C N N I I 49 C C C C C C C C 51 I I N I I I I C 53 I I N N N I N C 5 4 I I N I I I C C 59 N N N I I I N I 60 N N N I N I N I 61 N N C C C I I C 64 N N N N N I I I 65 I I N I I I I I 66 I N N N C C I I 67 C C C C C C C C 68 N N C C I I I C 70 N N N N C C N I 71 C C C C C I C C 72 I C I C C C C C 73 I I I C I I I I 74 I C I I C C C C Item no.= actual number of the question extracted from Section I, Part B of the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. C= Correct answer I= Incorrect answer N= No answer C 1= Student Identification number in the Control group

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308 PRETEST/POSTTEST -Control Group #5 # 8 participants Section 3 -20 questions without aural stimulus Item Correct Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer Answer Answ er C 5 C 6 C 7 C 8 45 B I I I C C C I I 46 A I C N C C C I I 47 B N N N N N N N N 49 C C C C C C I C C 51 A N I I I I C I I 53 B I C N I C I N I 54 B C C N I N I N I 59 C I I C C I I N N 60 C N I N I I I N C 61 A N N N I C I I I 64 D N I N N I I N N 65 D N I C I I I N C 66 B I C N N I C I I 67 A N I C C C C I I 68 D N N N N N I N I 70 B N I N I I C I I 71 C C C C C I C C C 72 C I I C C C I C C 73 D N I I I I I I I 74 C C C C C C C C C Item no.=actual number of the question ext racted from Section I, Part B of the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. C=Correct answer I=Incorrect answer N=No answer C 1=Student Identification number in the Control group

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309 PRETEST/POSTTEST -Control Group #9 12 participants Section 3 20 questions without aural stimulus Item Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest Pre -Posttest No Answer Answer Answer Answer C 9 C 10 C 11 C 12 45 I C I I I C I C 46 I C C C C C C C 47 N N N I N N N C 49 C C C C C C C C 51 I I I I I N C I 53 N N N I N N I I 54 I I C C I C I I 59 I I C C N C N N 60 N I N I N I N I 61 I N I C N N I I 64 N N N N N N I C 65 N I N I I C N I 66 I I I N I N N I 67 C C I N C C C C 68 N N I I N N I I 70 I I N N I C I I 71 C C C C C C C C 72 I C I I C C C C 73 N N C C C C I C 74 C C I I C C C I Item no.=actual number of the question extracted from Section I, Part B of the 2003 AP Music Theory exam. C=Correct answer I=Incorrect answer N=No answer C 1=Student Identificat ion number in the Control group

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310 Raw Data Totals (N=20) PRETEST/POSTTEST RAW DATA -TOTALS p.1 of 5 SECTION I -25 questions with aural stimulus Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest P retest/Posttest ID CORRECT INCORRECT NO ANSWER E1 13 17 11 8 1 0 E2 9 8 5 12 11 5 E3 14 14 10 11 1 0 E4 4 7 12 11 9 7 E5 14 15 11 10 0 0 E6 13 17 12 8 0 0 E7 7 13 8 9 10 3 E8 7 14 13 11 5 0 81 105 82 80 37 1 5 C1 19 21 6 4 0 0 C2 11 10 10 12 4 3 C3 17 14 8 11 0 0 C4 17 18 6 7 2 0 C5 8 11 8 10 9 4 C6 16 16 9 5 0 4 C7 15 15 10 10 0 0 C8 11 11 9 12 5 2 C9 16 17 9 8 0 0 C10 9 14 16 10 0 1 C11 7 12 13 7 5 6 C12 11 14 13 11 1 0 157 173 117 108 26 20

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311 PRETEST/POSTTE ST RAW DATA -TOTALS (N=20) p.2 of 5 SECTION 3 -20 questions without aural stimulus Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest ID CORRECT INCORRECT NO ANSWER E1 3 9 11 10 6 1 E2 3 7 4 3 13 10 E3 5 9 4 7 11 4 E4 2 5 0 4 18 11 E5 3 10 2 10 15 0 E6 8 7 12 9 0 4 E7 4 9 7 7 9 4 E8 5 5 6 1 0 9 5 33 61 46 6 0 81 39 C1 3 6 10 6 7 8 C2 7 9 4 6 9 5 C3 9 8 6 11 5 1 C4 7 10 9 10 4 0 C5 4 7 6 10 10 3 C6 7 8 3 8 10 4 C7 8 8 9 11 3 1 C8 4 6 8 11 8 3 C9 4 7 9 7 7 6 C10 6 7 8 9 6 4 C11 7 12 6 1 7 7 C12 7 9 8 10 5 1 7 3 9 7 86 100 81 43

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312 PRETEST/POSTTEST RAW DATA -TOTALS (N=20) p.3 of 5 SECTION 2.1 Three dictations #1 Dictation 30pts Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest ID PITCH 15 pts. RHYTHM 15 pts. TOTAL 30 pts. E1 2 7 .0 13 10 15 17 .0 E2 2 2 .0 11 9 13 11 .0 E3 0 4 .0. 9 12 9 16 .0 E4 2 1 .0 7 4 9 5 .0 E5 1 2 .0 2 6 3 8 .0 E6 0 0 .0 8 5 8 5 .0 E7 1 0 .0 4 4 5 4 .0 E8 1 2.5 4 8 5 10.5 9 18.5 58 58 67 76.5 C1 11.5 11.5 14 .0 14 2 5.5 25.5 C2 4.5 6 .0 5.5 0 10 .0 6 .0 C3 0. 0 4.5 5 .5 15 5 .0 19.5 C4 1 .0 3 .0 12 .0 10 13 .0 13 .0 C5 0 .0 2.5 3.5 3 3.5 5.5 C6 0 0 3.5 13 .0 12 13 .0 15.5 C7 7.5 4 .0 15 .0 9 22.5 13 .0 C8 1.5 4 .0 2 .0 4 3.5 8 .0 C9 1.5 4.5 3 .0 4 4.5 4 .0 C10 1 .0 3.5 3 .0 6 4 .0 9.5 C11 0.0 4 .0 3 .0 13 3 .0 17 .0 C12 6 .0 3.5 5 .0 4 11 .0 7.5 34.5 54.5 84 .0 94 118.5 135 .0

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313 PRETEST/POSTTEST RAW DATA -TOTALS (N=20) p.4 of 5 SECTION 2.2 -Three dictations #2 Dictation 46pts Pretest/Posttes t Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest ID PITCH 23 pts. RHYTHM 23 pts. TOTAL 46 pts. E1 0 .0 2 .0 0 9 0 .0 11 .0 E2 2 .0 0 .0 6 0 8 .0 0 .0 E3 1 .0 4 .0 0 5 1 .0 9 .0 E4 0 .0 1.5 0 0 0 .0 1.5 E5 2.5 3.5 4 4 6.5 7.5 E6 0 .0 1 .0 5 0 5 .0 1 .0 E7 2.5 2.5 3 3 5.5 5.5 E8 1 .0 4 .0 7 11 8 .0 15 .0 9 .0 18.5 25 32 34 .0 50.5 C1 1.5 1.5 5 4.0 6.5 5.5 C2 0 .0 4.5 0 5 .0 0 .0 9.5 C3 1.5 2.5 3 5 .0 4.5 7.5 C4 1 .0 1.5 6 4 .0 7 .0 5.5 C5 1.5 9.5 0 0 .0 1.5 9.5 C6 1.5 7.0 5 12.5 6.5 19.5 C7 0 .0 3.5 0 5 .0 0 .0 8.5 C8 2.5 1.5 0 3 .0 2.5 4.5 C9 3.5 1.5 6 0 .0 9.5 1.5 C10 1.5 1.5 1 0 .0 2.5 1.5 C11 1.5 1 .0 4 9 .0 5.5 10 .0 C12 6.5 8.5 3 7 .0 9.5 15.5 22.5 44.0 33 54.5 55.5 98.5

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314 PRETEST/POSTTEST RAW DATA TOTALS (N=20) p.5 of 5 SECTION 2.3 -Three dictations # 3 Dictation 1 6pts Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest ID SOPRANO 8 pts. BASS 8 pts. TOT AL 16 pts. E1 0 0 1 1 1 1 E2 3 1 1 0 4 1 E3 2 7 2 2 4 9 E4 0 0 0 0 0 0 E5 1 7 3 4 4 11 E6 3 2 0 2 3 4 E7 6 4 1 1 7 5 E8 1 0 0 2 1 2 16 21 8 12 24 33 C1 1 2 1 1 .0 2 3 .0 C2 0 0 5 8 .0 5 8 .0 C3 0 0 0 1 .0 0 1 .0 C4 2 3 0 2 .0 2 5 .0 C5 0 3 0 1.0 0 4.0 C6 0 0 1 1.0 1 1.0 C7 0 0 1 2.0 1 2.0 C8 3 1 1 3 .0 4 4 .0 C9 1 0 1 2 .0 2 2 .0 C10 2 0 0 0 .0 2 0 .0 C11 0 1 0 1.5 0 2.5 C12 2 0 0 2 .0 2 2 .0 11 10 10 24.5 21 34.5

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315 Raw Data Totals (N=14) PRETEST/POSTTEST RAW DATA -TOTALS p.1 of 5 SECTION I -25 questions with aural stimulus Pretest/Posttest Pr etest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest ID CORRECT INCORRECT NO ANSWER E1 13 17 11 8 1 0 E2 9 8 5 12 11 5 E3 14 14 10 11 1 0 E5 14 15 11 10 0 0 E6 13 17 12 8 0 0 E7 7 13 8 9 10 3 E8 7 14 13 11 5 10 7 7 98 70 69 28 15 C1 19 21 6 4 0 0 C5 8 11 8 10 9 4 C6 16 16 9 5 0 4 C7 15 15 10 10 0 0 C8 11 11 9 12 5 2 C9 16 17 9 8 0 0 C12 11 14 13 11 1 0 96 105 64 60 15 1 0

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316 PRETEST/POSTTEST RAW DATA TOTALS (N=14) p. 2 of 5 SECTION 2.1 -Three dictations #1 Dictation 30pts Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest ID PITCH 15 pts. RHYTHM 15 pts. TOTAL 30 pts. E1 2 7.0 13 10 15 17.0 E2 2 2.0 11 9 13 11.0 E3 0 4.0. 9 12 9 16.0 E5 1 2.0 2 6 3 8.0 E6 0 0.0 8 5 8 5.0 E7 1 0.0 4 4 5 4.0 E8 1 2.5 4 8 5 10.5 7 1 7 .5 5 1 5 4 58 7 1 .5 C1 11.5 11.5 14.0 14 25.5 25 .5 C5 0.0 2.5 3.5 3 3.5 5.5 C6 0 0 3.5 13.0 12 13.0 15.5 C7 7.5 4.0 15.0 9 22.5 13.0 C8 1.5 4.0 2.0 4 3.5 8.0 C9 1.5 4.5 3.0 4 4.5 4.0 C12 6 .0 3.5 5 .0 4 11 .0 7.5 2 8 0 33 .5 5 5 5 50 83 .5 79 .0

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317 PRETEST/POSTTEST RAW DATA -TOTALS (N=14) p. 3 of 5 SECTION 2.2 -Three dictations #2 Dictation 46pts Pretest /Posttest Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest ID PITCH 23 pts. RHYTHM 23 pts. TOTAL 46 pts. E1 0.0 2.0 0 9 0.0 11.0 E2 2.0 0.0 6 0 8.0 0.0 E3 1.0 4.0 0 5 1.0 9.0 E5 2.5 3.5 4 4 6.5 7.5 E6 0.0 1.0 5 0 5.0 1.0 E7 2.5 2.5 3 3 5.5 5.5 E8 1.0 4.0 7 11 8.0 15.0 9.0 1 7 0 25 32 34.0 49 0 C1 1.5 1.5 5 4.0 6.5 5.5 C5 1.5 9.5 0 0.0 1.5 9 .5 C6 1.5 7.0 5 12.5 6.5 19.5 C7 0.0 3.5 0 5.0 0.0 8.5 C8 2.5 1.5 0 3.0 2.5 4.5 C9 3.5 1.5 6 0.0 9.5 1.5 C12 6.5 8.5 3 7 .0 9.5 15.5 17 0 33 .0 19 31 .5 36 0 64 .5

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318 PRETEST/POSTTEST RAW DATA -TOTALS (N=14) p. 4 of 5 SECTION 2.3 -Three dictations # 3 Dictatio n 1 6pts Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest ID SOPRANO 8 pts. BASS 8 pts. TOTAL 16 pts. E1 0 0 1 1 1 1 E2 3 1 1 0 4 1 E3 2 7 2 2 4 9 E5 1 7 3 4 4 11 E6 3 2 0 2 3 4 E7 6 4 1 1 7 5 E8 1 0 0 2 1 2 16 21 8 12 24 33 C1 1 2 1 1.0 2 3.0 C5 0 3 0 1.0 0 4.0 C6 0 0 1 1.0 1 1.0 C7 0 0 1 2.0 1 2.0 C8 3 1 1 3.0 4 4.0 C9 1 0 1 2.0 2 2.0 C12 2 0 0 2 .0 2 2 .0 7 6 5 1 2 .0 1 2 18 0

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319 PRETEST/POSTTEST RAW DATA TOTALS (N=14) p.5 of 5 SECTION 3 -20 questions without aural stimulus Pretest/Posttest Pretest/Posttest Pre test/Posttest ID CORRECT INCORRECT NO ANSWER E1 3 9 11 10 6 1 E2 3 7 4 3 13 10 E3 5 9 4 7 11 4 E5 3 10 2 10 15 0 E6 8 7 12 9 0 4 E7 4 9 7 7 9 4 E8 5 5 6 1 0 9 5 33 61 46 5 6 63 28 C1 3 6 10 6 7 8 C5 4 7 6 10 10 3 C6 7 8 3 8 10 4 C7 8 8 9 11 3 1 C8 4 6 8 11 8 3 C9 4 7 9 7 7 6 C12 7 9 8 10 5 1 3 7 51 53 63 50 26

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320 APPENDIX E PRE CLASS SURVEY Survey MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 PRE CLASS SURVEY _________________________ B. your primary instrument _________________________ C. other ins ___ ____________________________________________ ___ ____________________________________________ ___ ____________________________________________ ___ ____________________________________________ 2. What music classes, incl. band & chorus, did you take in middle school? __ __________________________________________________ __ __________________________________________________ __ __________________________________________________ 3. What music class, incl. band & chorus, did you take in high school? __ __________________________________________________ __ __________________________________________________ __ __________________________________________________ 4. Have you studied theory prev iously? ______________________________ If so, for how long? _______________________________________ 5. Do you have experience in: A. melodic dictation? ________________________ B. harmonic dictation? _______________________ C. rhythmic dictati on? _______________________ D. sight singing? ________________________ if yes, do you use solfege? ______ ____________ if yes, do you used fixed do or movable do?______________ if no, what do you use to sight sing? ___________________

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321 MUS 490 5 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 PRE CLASS SURVEY, p. 2 6. Please evaluate your abilities in the categories listed below. Number them from strongest to weakest, with 1 as the strongest. Add your own category if it is omitted. ___ __ keyboard skill _____ dictation _____ analysis _____ sight singing _____ sight reading on your major instrument _____ music history _____ performance skills _____ composition skills _____ transposition skills _____ prepared singing 7. Do you a nticipate doing well: A. in Music Theory ? ______ B. in this class? ______ 8. Do you think that music theory is: A. fun? ______ B. interesting ? ______ C. important for all musicians to study? ______ D. is relevant to your music career? _________ 9. Any other thoughts or comments you would like to share for this study? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ __________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Everything in this survey will remain confidential and will only be referred to by an anonymous n umber that cannot be publicly connected to you. Only the instructor of this study will have the key (your responses), which will remain private.

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322 Raw Data from Pre C lass Survey APPENDIX E 2 RAW DATA for the PRE CLASS SURVEY 1. Please list: A. Degree 2 performance 1 performance with specialization in another field 2 music education 1 composition 1 science 1 undecided (just want to learn more about music) B. Your primary instrument 3 brass (2 tuba; 1 euphonium) 2 voice 2 string (viola; guitar) 1 WW (saxophone) C. Other instruments you play; for how long? 4 none 2 guitar (1 when younger; 1 for 1 year) 1 keyboard (4 5 months) 1 clarinet (middle schoo l through 10 th grade) 2. What music classes (include band and chorus) did you take in middle school? 2 None 4 Band classes 2 beginning band 1 intermediate band 2 advanced band 1 concert band 1 jazz band 1 band (no classification listed) 1 Chorus 1 chorus 1 show choir 1 Guitar (one class) 3. What music classes (include band and chorus) did you take in high school? 1 None 4 Band classes 2 concert band 2 symphonic band 2 wind ensemble 2 jazz band 2 marching band 1 band (no classification listed)

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323 1 Orchestra 2 Chorus classes 2 chorus 1 show choir 1 Introductory theory 4. Have you studied theory previously? If so, for how long? 5 No 2 Yes 1 just the basic theory learned over the years in Honor Band & School Band 1 senior year 1 very little, provided in choir/guitar 5. Do you have experience in: A. melodic B. harmonic C. rhythmic D. sight dictation dictation dictation singing No 6 6 5 6 Yes 1 1 2 0 Very little 1 1 1 2 D. cont. If yes, do you use: Solfege 1 a little 1 yes Fixed or movable Do 2 movable Do If no, what do you use to sight sing? 1 use numbers in addition to solfege 6. Please evaluate your abilities in the categories listed below. Number them from strongest to weakest, with 1 as the stron Ratings strong to weak: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Keyboard skills 2 1 1 1 2 1 Dictation 1 1 3 2 Analysis 1 2 1 1 2 Sight singing 3 4 Sight reading on your own instrument 1 2 2 1 1 1 Music history 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

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324 Ratings strong to weak: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Performance skills 5 2 1 Composition skills 1 2 1 2 Transposition skills 3 2 1 1 Prepared singing 1 1 2 1 2 7. Do you anticipate doing well: Yes No A. in Music Theory? 8 0 B. in this class? 8 0 8. Do you think Music Theory is: Yes No Other comments A. fun 5 0 somewhat it depends B. interesting 5 0 of course very much so sort of C. important for all musicians to study 6 0 definitely very much so D. relevant to your career 6 0 absolutely very much so 9. Any other thoughts or comments you would like to share for this study? get my adminis trators and my music teacher (s) to offer it at my school or allow

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325 APPENDIX F POST CLASS SURVEY Survey MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 POST CLASS SURVEY 1. Please evaluate your abilities in the categories listed below. Number them from strongest to weakest, with 1 as the strongest. Add your own category if it is omitted. _____ keyboard skill Yes No _____ dictation Yes No _____ analysis Yes No _____ sight singing Yes No _____ sight reading on your major instrument Yes No _____ music history Yes No _____ performa nce skills Yes No _____ composition skills Yes No _____ transposition skills Yes No _____ prepared singing Yes No _____ Yes No _____ Yes No 2. Please indicate your level of knowledge/competence at the beginning of the s emester in the following areas by circling the most accurate answer: A. in Aural Skills, in general none elementary intermediate advanced master interval identification none elementary intermediate advanced master dictation skills none elementary intermediate advanced master mode identification none elementary intermediate advanced master B. Keyboard Skills, in general none elementary intermediate advanced master technical exercises none elementary intermediate advanced master mode playing none elementary intermediate advanced master prepared pieces none eleme ntary intermediate advanced master C. Historical development none elementary intermediate advanced master music history none elementary intermediate advanced master history of theory none elementary intermediate a dvanced master composers of the period none elementary intermediate advanced master musical styles none elementary intermediate advanced master D. Listening Skills, in general none elementary intermediate advanced mas ter how to listen to music none elementary intermediate advanced master

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326 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 POST CLASS SURVEY, p.2 E. Analysis Skills, in general none elementary intermediate advanced master aural a nalysis none elementary intermediate advanced master written analysis none elementary intermediate advanced mas ter 3. From your answers in question 2, please indicate now how much progress you made in these areas from partici pating in this project A. in Aural Skills, in general none little adequate substantial great maximum interval identification none little adequate substantial great maximum dictation skills none little adequate substanti al great maximum mode identification none little adequate substantial great maximum B. Keyboard Skills, in general none little adequate substantial great maximum technical exercises none little adequate substantial great maximum mode playing none little adequate substantial great maximum prepared pieces none little adequate substantial great maximum C. Historical development none little adequate substantial great maxim um music history none little adequate substantial great maximum history of theory none little adequate substantial great maximum composers of the period none little adequate substantial great maximum mu sical styles none little adequate substantial great maximum D. Listening Skills, in general none little adequate substantial great maximum how to listen to music none little adequate substantial great maximum E. Anal ysis Skills, in general none little adequate substantial great maximum aural analysis none little adequate substantial great maximum written analysis none little adequate substantial great maximum The Syllabus ( in italics) states : This course is the first semester of a four semester sequence in keyboard theory designed specifically for freshman/sophomore music majors. Students are expected to attain a working knowledge and/or technical mastery of: Interval lic construction and inversion Melodic construction using modes as basis for melodic material Technique: Modes -two octaves, hands together -varied rhythmic patterns -parallel and contrary motion Exercises

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327 M US 4905 KEYBOA RD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 POST CLASS SURVEY, p.3 Composition: unison to four voice composition -harmonizing above and below cantus firmus -employing species counterpoint technique -basic notation -early cadential f ormulas Historical understanding (overview) of modal theory and the transition to the major/minor tonal period Tests will be administered on a regular basis and will include at sight as well as prepared pieces, ear training, and keyboard mastery of a ssigned technical skills. Class activities will include but are not limited to: daily ear training quizzes; learning to play in treble and bass clefs; sight reading; sight singing; analysis; melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic dictation; transposition; prepar ed performance; technical exercises, including scalar and 5 finger exercises; composition projects; listening lists; reading suggestions; and maintenance of practice journals and a theory/comp notebook. The focus of this first semester is melody, modes, an d meters. The use of species counterpoint will introduce early voice leading principles and will comprise the major portion of the class keyboard activities. The course takes a comprehensive and historical approach, beginning around 800AD and extending i nto the Renaissance(1400 1600). Students will gain an understanding of the early theoretical principles which later evolved into the period known as the common practice period and which are still in use today. As a foundation class in aural and keyboard skills students will also begin developing the aural and keyboard skills needed for successful advancement in their music education at the college level and later in their careers. In understanding and experiencing the previous musical periods, students w ill better understand the succeeding musical periods, with more ease, confidence and success. The instructor may adjust the course at any time in order to best serve the class and/or the needs of this study. Materials needed: pencils and 6 inch ruler manuscript (12 staves) and notebook paper binder with dividers metronome 4. Did the class achieve the goals stated in the Syllabus? All Most Some None Please list which items were not addressed in the class, or were not successfully achieved, and also the factors that may have contributed to this:

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328 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 POST CLASS SURVEY, p.4 5. Keeping in mind that this project served to introduce and expose the student to new musical conc epts, ideas, and experiences, please list (and discuss) what items were new for you: 6. What aspects of the class were most beneficial to you? 7. Which ones were not? 8. The Freshman year brings many challenges, academically, as well as in the area of general life skills needed to achieve success in the classroom. Did this class help you in the following areas (circle one): a. Time management Did you prioritize your assignments according to due dates? Yes No Did y ou: a) practice/work steadily in smaller amounts of time later c) do a little of both a) and b) d) wait until most of the semester was gone before doing most of the work e) other, please explain b. Personal organizational skills: Did you use the binder with dividers as required in the syllabus? If so, did it help? If not, why not? c. Personal responsibility (i.e., your role as the student): How many classes did you miss? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Complete all assignments? all most many half some few none Meet deadlines, due dates? all most many half some few none If you needed help did you ask the instructor for help?

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329 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 POST CLASS SURVEY, p.5 Did you make an appointment with instructor outside of class? If so, did the instructor help you? If you needed help and did not contact t he instructor for help, why not? How often did you practice with the metronome? None 0% of the time Little 1 10% Seldom 11 20% 21 30% Frequent 31 40% 41 50% Regularly 51 60% 61 70% Very often 71 80% 81 90% 91 100% Do you think there is a correlation between how much you practiced, and how much you practiced with or without the metronome? 9. Do you think this class, or a derivative thereof, should be a required class in conjunction with the same level theory class? Why or why not? 10. Do you feel that this class has helped you in your theory class this semester? 11. Please discuss any aspects of this class that you feel will contribute to its future success as college c lass. !!!! THANK YOU FOR COMPLETING THIS CLASS AND THIS SURVEY !!!!

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330 Raw Data from P ost C lass Survey RAW DATA for the POST CLASS SURVEY 1. Please evaluate your abilities in the categories listed below. Number them from strongest to weakest with 1 as the strongest. Add your own category if it is omitted. Ratings strong to weak: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Yes No N/A Ke yboard skills 4 1 1 1 1 8 0 0 Dictation 1 2 1 1 2 1 7 1 0 Analysis 1 2 1 2 1 1 7 0 1 Sight singing 1 1 5 3 4 1 Sight reading on 1 2 1 1 2 2 5 1 your own instrument Music history 1 3 1 2 1 8 0 0 Performance skills 3 1 1 1 1 4 3 1 Composition skills 1 3 1 3 8 0 0 Transposition skills 1 2 2 1 1 5 3 0 Prepared singing 1 1 1 3 1 1 6 0 One stude nt added two categories: Time management; with a skill level of 11 1 Organization; with a skill level of 12 1 2. Please indicate your level of knowledge/competence at the beginn ing of the semester in the following areas by circling the most accurate answer: none elementary intermediate advanced master A. in Aural Skills, in general 5 2 1 interval identification 4 2 1 dictation skills 4 2 1 mode identification 5 1 1

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331 none elementary intermediate advanced master B. Keyboard Skills, in general 3 4 1 technical exercises 5 1 mode playing 6 1 6 1 none elementary intermediate advanced master C. Historical development 5 2 1 music history 4 2 1 history of theory 5 1 1 composers of the period 4 2 1 musical styles 3 3 1 none elementary intermediate advanced master D. Listening Skills, in general 2 5 1 how to listen to music 1 5 1 none elementary intermediate advanced master E. Analysis Skills, in general 5 2 aural analysis 5 1 1 written analysis 4 2 1 3. From your answers in question 2, please indicate now how much progress you made in these areas from participating in this project. none little adequate substantial great maximum A. in Aural Skills, in general 1 3 1 3 interval identification 4 1 2 dictation skills 1 4 1 1 mode identification 3 2 2 none little adequate substantial great maximum B. Keyboard Skills, in general 4 3 2 1 1 technical exercises 1 3 1 2 mode playing 2 3 2 prepa 2 3 2 none little adequate substantial great maximum C. Historical development 1 3 2 2 music history 2 2 1 2 history of theory 3 1 2 1 composers of the period 3 1 2 1 musical styles 2 2 2 1 none little adequate substantial great maximum D. Listening Skills, in general 6 2 how to liste n to music 5 2 none little adequate substantial great maximum E. Analysis Skills, in general 1 2 4 1 aural analysis 4 1 2 written analysis 1 2 2 1

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332 4. A. Did the class achieve the goals stated in the Syllabus? All Most Some None No answer 0 6 1 0 1 B. Please list which items were not addressed in the class, or were not successfully achieved, and also the factors that may have contributed to this. Composition/harmonization mentioned by 3 students: Composition projects; species counterpoint probably does count as composition unison to 4 voice composition -only did 2 voices did not get to 3 or 4 part harmonization Sight singing/sight playing was mentioned by 5 students not much sight singing at all did not do as much sight singing/prepared singing as syllabus states sight singing sight reading sight playing Transposition was mentioned by 2 students Meters Although we started at 800A.D. we did not make it all th e way through the Renaissance period. Historical perspective we had to teach ourselves everything with little to no discussion Harmonic dictation Rhythmic dictation Scalar technical exercises Intervallic construction and inversions Melodic construction Historical understanding of modal theory and the transition to the major/minor period Two students offered no responses at all.

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333 5. Keeping in mind that this project served to introduce and expose the stud ent to new musical concepts, ideas, and experiences, please list (and discuss) what items were new for you: 4 keyboard, keyboard skills, playing piano on a regular basis 6 modes 2 composition 2 musical analysis 4 history/ historical component 3 every thing (1 1 intervals 1 cantus firmus 6. What aspects of the class were most beneficial to you? 4 everything/all except for the limited composition benefit me; however the most beneficial would probably be the music history most of everything 4 piano; piano skills; actually playing in class; keyboard practicing 1 composition 2 music history 1 aura l development 7. Which ones were not? 2 No answer 2 None 1 the limited composition 1 historical perspective 1 not many; everything taught was useful 1 the work that took hours to do did not really help with anything 8. The Freshman year brings ma ny challenges, academically, as well as in the area of general life skills needed to achieve success in the classroom. Did this class help you i n the following areas (circle one): A. Time management Did you prioritize your assignments according to due dates? 4 Yes 3 No 1 Not always

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334 Did you: 1 a) practice/work steadily in smaller amounts of time 0 4 c) do a little of both a) and b) 2 d) wait until most of semes ter was gone before doing most of the work 1 e) other, please explain B. Personal organizational skills: Did you use the binder with dividers as required in the syllabus? 4 Yes 4 No partially, I forgot in the beginnin g, other than that, no real reason but I keep everything together If so, did it help? 2 Yes I had a binder and all of my work was in it so I was somewhat organized 1 No If not, w hy not? Did not bother to organize Everything in the course changed around the dividers C. Personal responsibility (i.e., your role as the student): How many classes did you miss? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 2 3 Complete all assignments? all most many half some few none 3 5 Meet deadlines, due da tes? all most many half some few none 0 2 2 1 2 1 0 Yes No N/A If you needed help, did you ask the instructor for help? 5 0 3 Did you make an appointment with instructor outside of class? 2 4 2 If so, did the instructor help you? 3 0 5 If you needed help and did not contact the instructor for help, why not? 1 did not want confrontat ion 7 no answer

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335 D. How often did you practice with the metronome? 0 None 0% of the time 0 Little 1 10% 1 Seldom 11 20% 1 21 30% 1 Frequent 31 40% 0 41 50% 1 Regularly 51 60% 0 61 70% 1 Very often 71 80% 0 81 90% 3 Always 91 100% Do you think there is a correlation between how much you practiced, and how much you practiced with or without the metronome? 3 Yes 1 No 1 No answer 5 Comments: my rhythms 9. Do you think this class or a derivative thereof, should be a required class in conjunction with the same level theory class? 6 Yes 1 No 1 It depends Why or why not? Yes although history is an important part of music, more theory a nd keyboard s I believe all levels of theory should have a partner piano c er. For example, the skills used in theory, like scales should be used in this class. Also we could do more sight singing, part writing, and whatever else goes on in the lped a little but will be nice if both teachers work together and know

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336 No because these are freshman o take It depends 10. Do you feel that this class has helped you in your theory class this semester? 5 Yes 1 a little 1 in some areas 1 a little; mostly to practice intervals and d ictations 2 No 1 it was a waste of my time 1 No answer 11. Please discuss any aspects of this class that you feel will contribute to its future success as a college class. 1 No answer 7 Comments: with the keyboard. I feel unb elievably prepared for MUH (Music History) and somewhat ready for MVK (Applied Piano Class). Other possibly hope to help us in a class when the professor has no idea what is going on in the o ther class? I feel as if I was tricked into taking this class, and I would not have taken this course had I known that it would nothing to do w ith the class. More of a skills approach than an informational and paperwork -assignments more conveniently available (not only in librar y). and helps me with the performance by knowing the background of the

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337 APPENDIX G SYLLABUS MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project FALL 2008 Carol P. McCoy, M.M., Instructor Phone: 352 371 7351 Music Office: 352 392 0223 Email: piatnek@ufl.edu Credit hours: 1 Room 143 -Piano Lab Prerequisites: Students must b e freshman music majors simultaneously enrolled in Music Theory I. Elementary knowledge of musical terms and concepts. The ability to read a single note line of music in the bass and/or treble clefs wil l be of great benefit. Textbook: The Comprehensive Study of Music, Vol. 1 Anthology of Music f rom Plainchant Through Gabrieli Harper & Row Publishers, NY, 1980. Texts will be available in class. Other texts and resources will be used f rom the music library, personal library, course reserve materials, and other sources as deemed necessary by instructor. This course is the first semester of a four semester sequence in keyboard theory designed specifically for freshman/ sophomore music majors. The 50 minute class will meet twice a week. Students are expected to attain a working knowledge and/or technical mastery of: Intervallic construction and inversion Melodic construction using modes as basis for melodic material Technique: Modes -two octaves, hands together -varied rhythmic patterns -parallel and contrary motion Exercises Composition: unison to four voice composition -harmonizing above and below cantus firmus -employing species counterpoint technique -basic notation -early cadential formulas Historical understanding (overview) of modal theory and the transition to the major/minor tonal period

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338 Tests will be administered on a regular basis a nd will include at sight as well as prepared pieces, ear training, and keyboard mastery of assigned technical skills. Class activities will include but are not limited to: daily ear training quizzes; learning to play in treble and bass clefs; sight readin g; sight singing; analysis; melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic dictation; transposition; prepared performance; technical exercises, including scalar and 5 finger exercises; composition projects; listening lists; reading suggestions; and maintenance of practic e journals and a theory/comp notebook. The focus of this first semester is melody, modes, and meters. The use of species counterpoint will introduce early voice leading principles and will comprise the major portion of the class keyboard activities. The course takes a comprehensive and historical approach, beginning around 800AD and extending into the Renaissance(1400 1600). Students will gain an understanding of the early theoretical principles which later evolved into the period known as the common pr actice period and which are still in use today. As a foundation class in aural and keyboard skills students will also begin developing the aural and keyboard skills needed for successful advancement in their music education at the college level and later in their careers. In understanding and experiencing the previous musical periods, students will better understand the succeeding musical periods, with more ease, confidence and success. The instructor may adjust the course at any time in order to best se rve the class and/or the needs of this study. Materials needed: pencils and 6 inch ruler manuscript (12 staves) and notebook paper binder with dividers metronome Criteria for grading: *There are five areas of grading. Attendance is also conside red. ( new grading scale @ bottom ) I. Aural Skills (approx. 25% ) Ear training quizzes Dictations melodic, rhythmic, harmonic Listening Lists II. Keyboard Skills (approx. 40%) Technique Sing & Play Sight Reading Prepared pieces Transposition Practice Journal III. Tests (approx. 25%) IV. Writing Skills (approx. 5%) Theory/Comp notebook V. Composition Projects (approx. 5%)

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339 Grading Scale: A 93 100% B+ 90 92% B 85 89% C+ 82 84% C 77 81% D+ 74 76% D 69 73% E/F 0 68% Attendance is required. No make up tests will be given without prior Ear training quiz grade, as will tardiness, which may also be considered an absence by the instructor. A Pretest and Posttest will be administered during the course as part of the evaluation and assessment section of the pilot study under which this class is being conducted. The scores on these two tests will ha grade for the class. All applicable University Academic policies are in effect for this class, including: Students Requesting Accommodations due to Disabilities Academic Honor Policy

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340 APPENDIX H LESSON PLANS A ND ASSIGNMENTS MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 1 MODES AND MELODIES 9/2/08 (T) Week One Introduction to and organization of the course Welcome; Roll call 13 students Introductory remarks be o n time organizational skills time management taking notes Syllabus: handout and discussion explained set up of the class stressed importance of listening lists & keyboard skills ET quiz every class periodic keyboard testing practice journals; theory & composition notebook Handouts: Listening List & Worksheets -WEEK 1A, 1B, 1C discussed importance of listening discussed procedures for this activity 12 stave manusc ript paper Keyboard Exercise 1.1 **Record all practice time in practice journals** Discussed playing fundamentals posture, proper hand position, finger numbers Played first half for the class and they played it back, hands separate. Played entire exercise, all quarter notes, hands separate wrote in on the board all quarter notes Played entire exercise a third time as written (3 note values used) asked what was different added slurs and staccato markings Clas s plays together, hands separate play & sing finger numbers play & sing letter names ASSIGNMENT #1

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341 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 ASSIGNMENT 1 9/2/08 Keyboard Exercise 1.1 due Lesson 3 Hands separ ate beginning on C, play 2x on each white key in ascending order to the next C. 12345432123454321 3 5 3 4 2 1 (R.H.) qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqh h h h h h w 54321234543212345 3 1 3 2 4 5 (L.H) 1. Sing & play with finger numbers 2. Sing & play with letter names Listening List -Week 1A, 1B, 1C due Lesson 3 Begin Week 1 and keep notes in Journal Vocabulary List -Weeks 1 4 due end of Week 4 Begin compiling from class discussions; readings; notes from CD booklets, etc.

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342 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 2 9/4 5/08 (Th) Week One Quote of the day: p.3 (J S B ach ) and p. 5 (I. Berlin) Pre quiz: Explained ET quiz format daily, graded, 10 questions Brief whole/half step r eview/intervals ET Quiz #1: 10 examples -indicate W or H (collect ) Discussion: Theoretical materials for the Middle Ages the 4 Church modes. Put time periods on board for class reference -800 1600 (800 1000; 1000 1200; 1200 1400, 1400 1600) Keyboard: Intro 1 octave fingering (for right and left hands) Play and sing the 4 a uthentic modes RH only subdivided half notes 1 octave, ascending and descending sing counting 1+2+3+4+ Named each mode as played Each mode writ ten on board in treble clef in whole notes Discuss: What is a mode a uthentic modes I,III,V,VII compared to major scale Introduced h ypo/ p lagal modes (under/4) II,IV,VI,VIII Finals of each mode defined and listed Range of each mode defined an d listed Discuss: Piano lab policies Reminder to begin Vocabulary lists Handout: Pre Class Survey (due 9/9/08, can return to my mailbox) ASSIGNMENT #2 go over any questions

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343 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 ASSIGNMENT 2 9/4 5/08 Keyboard: All modes will be played ascending and descending. Use only the D,E,F,G (I,III,V,VII) modes Modes #1 : Even Rhythm in subdivided half notes 1 octave; hands separate Text -p3 6: play hands separate Read: Text -p. xv Listen: Continue listening to Week 1 selections Vocabulary: Continue

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344 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 3 9/9/08 (T) Week Two Qu ote: p. 5 (Bernstein) ET Quiz #2 10 whole/half steps (collect) Hint: on board do re mi fa sol la ti do hear whole step of do re and half step of ti do Assignment 2 Review: Class plays the 4 modes, ascending/descending, hands separate saying note names (R.H.) saying solfege (L.H.) saying scale/mode degrees (either hand) identifying half steps 1 octave fingering written on board: RH 12312345 and LH 54321321 Discuss: Analysis How to and Terms Checklist (text, p.3 used as exam ple) -determine mode (authentic, plagal) -determine cadence -melodic range/ambitus -rhythmic elements -contour (draw on board) -chant type -conjunct/disjunct motion -the final -melodic intervals used -textual considerations W rite: Demonstrate the 3 stave format required for writing exercises reviewed the three clefs -treble, alto, bass what each clef shows -G,C,F wrote dorian mode on board as example students instructed to copy this into their notebooks C ollect: Pre class survey Reminder: What should be in the Theory Notebook Keep track of practice in Practice Journal Handout: ASSIGNMENT 3 LISTEN WEEK 2A & 2B

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345 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 3 cont 9/9/08 Previewed in class: Assignment 3: Keyboard: Modes #1 -1 octave; hands separate, ascend & descend, even rhythm in subdivided half notes. Exer. 1. 1 -hands separate, then together. played and count sang on C,D,E,F Exer. 1.2 -explained rhythmic notation begin moving from hands separate to hands together. Write: Theory Notebook: Technique/Exercises and Play: Ex. 1.1: as played in C position in G,F, C clefs Ex. 1.2: adjusted rhythmic notation of Exer. 1.1 In C position, G clef -end with half note In C position, F cle f -end with quarter note. Theory Notebook: Modes/One octave Using the 3 stave format, write each mode in each clef in whole notes; one octave, ascending & descending: treble clef -name the notes bass clef -name the notes -indicate H/W pattern alto clef -name the notes -indicate the mode degrees (1.2.3.etc.) Practice Journal: List date and amount of time practiced, for example: 9 /1/08 15 mins. 9/2/08 10 mins. 9/5/08 20 mins. You may make other notes of your own as well. You may also want to keep track of the individual mm for each exercise.

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346 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 ASSIGNMENT 3 9/9/08 Keyboard: Modes #1 -1 octave; hands sep., ascend & descend, even rhythm in subdivided half notes. Exer. 1. 1 -hands separate, then together. Exer. 1.2 -rhythmically adjusted Exer. 1.1; hands sep. and tog. Write: Theory Notebook: T echnique/Exercises and Play : Ex. 1.1: as played in C position in G,F, C clefs Ex. 1.2: adjusted rhythmic notation of Exer. 1.1 In C position, G clef -end with half note In C position, F clef -end with quarter note. Theory Notebook: M odes/One octave Using the 3 stave format, write each mode in each clef in whole notes; one octave, ascending & descending: treble clef -name the notes bass clef -name the notes -indicate H/W pattern alto clef -name the notes -indicate the mode degrees (1.2.3.etc.) Listen: DUE SEPT. 16 Begin listening to the Week Two selections (Perotin) Practice Journal: List date and amount of time practiced, for example: 9/1/08 15 mins. 9/2/08 10 mins. 9/5/08 2 0 mins. You may make other notes of your own as well. You may also want to keep track of the individual MM for each exercise. Vocabulary List: Continue

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347 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 4 9/11 12/08 (Th) Week Two Quote: p. 5 (Josh Billings) ET Quiz #3: 10 items played 3 times each: 6 H/W steps harmonic/melodic. ascending 4 modes -ascending/descending Play/Count: Exer. 1.2 ; hands together (if possible) In C position, G cl ef -ending with half note, counting 1/8 notes In C position, F clef -ending with quarter note, counting 1/16 notes Discuss: Chant and chant types: 1) syllabic 1 note/1 syllable; used in hymns and sequences 2) neumatic few notes/1 syllabl e; most common 3) melismatic many notes/1 syllable; usually found in Alleluias 4) psalmodic 1 repeated note/many syllables Play/Sing: Text, p.3 6 chants: Analysis: verbal analysis Play/Sing: Intervals within the m ode (dorian) hands to gether if possible ascending: 1 2, 1 3, 1 4, 1 5, 1 6, 1 7, 1 8 descending: 8 7, 8 6, 8 5, 8 4, 8 3, 8 2, 8 1 Class instructed to practice this in all 4 modes Handout: ASSIGNMENT 4 -Reviewed with class Explained metronome technique for practicing demonstrate WRITE : Theory Notebook: Intervals on board 3 stave format interval & quality; note names; mode degrees Announce: Keyboard Testing will begin next Thursday/Friday, 9/18 9/19 sign up sheet available at Tuesday, 9/16 class

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348 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 ASSIGNMENT 4 9/11 12/08 ****** DUE SEPT. 18 & 19***** Listening List: Notebooks for Weeks 1& 2 will be collected Keyboard Testing: Exer. 1.1 and 1.2 hands sep/hands tog. mm =TBA M odes #1 hands sep/hands tog. play in eighth notes, mm =TBA Modes #2 hands sep/hands tog. tonic quarter note, mm =TBA ****** DUE SEPT. 23 ****** Play & Sing: Modes #2 (see handout) 1 octave/ hands separate; ascending & descending Play & c ount in the three notated patterns. Play & Sing: Theory Notebook: Intervals within the mode as we did in class. ascending & descending; hands together if possible. -sing with note names -sing with numbers (1 2, 1 3,etc. and 8 7, 8 6, etc) -s ing with solfege Analyze: Melodic construction of the S R/Prep #1 ( Sight reading/Prepared pieces) Use your analysis checklist. S R/Prep #1: Be prepared to play in class: Text, p.12 14 Ambrosian Chant handout, measures 1 5

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349 MUS 4905 Keyboard T heory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 5 9/18 19/08 (Th) Week Three KEYBOARD TESTING #1 Individual Testing done in class Exer. 1.1 -did not play Exer. 1.2 -all played in 1/8 note version (1.2a) -hands sep/h ands tog. Modes #1 -established mm and set goals for each student -hands sep./even rhythm/eighth notes Modes #2 -did not play Checked Listening List for Weeks 1 & 2 Pre class survey: Turn in by Fri., 9/19 Handout: ASSIGNMENT 5

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350 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 ASSIGNMENT 5 9/18 19/08 DUE 9/23/08 (from Assignment 4) S R/Prep #1 will do in class and will be turned in: Text p. 12 14 Ambrosian Chant handout, measures 1 5 S R/Prep #2: Provide written analysis and be prepared to play in class: Text, p. 15 Gallican Chant handout DUE 9/30/08 Listening Lists: Week 3A & 3B Week 3C will be put in the library by Friday afternoon and may be available by Sunday at the earliest. Keyboard: Continue keepi ng Practice Journal as you work towards your next skill levels.

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351 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 6 9/23/08 (T) Week Four Quote: p. 48 (Stravinsky) ET Quiz #4: 5 exs H/W steps, perfect consonan t intervals 5 exs -Modes Melodic Dictation: Introduction/how to take melodic dictation Dictation #1: treble clef (Hardy & Fish) 3x played; 4x sung Dictation #2: bass clef (Parrish) 4x played; 3x sung Collect, discuss, write on board List the 4 steps discussed ?? Collect: Pre Class Survey Perotin (WK 2) worksheet Review: Tardies to class; Absences up work Put name on all papers; can staple papers together Handout: ASSIGNMENT 6 -dis cuss LISTEN: Week 3C LISTEN: Week 4A & 4 B calling attention to the due dates WRITE: All is due by 9/25, no exceptions; List in the Theory Notebook and label in following order: TECHNIQUE: Exercise 1.1 even rhythm Exercise 1.2 reduced rhythm Modes #1 even rhythm #2 with a tonic pause #3 dotted rhythm INTERVALS: Intervals within the mode: dorian, phyrgian, lydian, mixolydian

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352 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 ASSIGNMENT 6 9/23/08 **Unless otherwise noted, all assignments are due at the next class meeting.** L isten : SEPT. 25 -Week 3A & 3B Worksheets and notes are due. SEPT. 30 -Week 3C Worksheets and notes are due. Begin Week 4 Listening List. OCT. 2 -Week 4 Worksheets and Tracksheets are due. Sing & Play : Modes #3 -play in each mode -1 oct., hands separate, ascending & descending -sing along with note names -sing with numbers -sing with solfege -sin g with counting as you play in reduced notation pattern begin with mm = 69. S R/Prep #3 : Treble clef -Text, p.17 Bass clef -Mozarabic chant handout Analyze: Intervals #1 (handout) Intervals #2 (handout) Write: Theory Notebook: Modes #3 -writ e for each mode 3 stave format, one octave, ascend & descend In reduced rhythmic notation as shown on board Write in the counting for each staff: treble clef: dotted half and quarter alto clef: dotted quarter and eighth bass clef: dotted eighth and sixteenth *See WRITE handout for everything due on Sept. 25 Practice Journal : See Handout -due OCT. 2 Journals are due every two weeks in conjunction with the keyboard testing schedule. Vocabulary List: Weeks 1 4 are due SEPT 30

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353 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 7 9/25/08 (Th) Week Four (No 9/26/08) Quote: p. 7 (Britten) ET Quiz #5 Melodic Dictation #3 (Parrish, p. 10) played 5x; sang at 3x #4 (Parrish, p. 10) played 5x; sang at 3x Collect: WRITE handout paper Analysis #1 and #2 Listening Lists Handout: ASSIGNMENT 7

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354 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 ASSIGNMENT 7 DUE SEPT. 30 9/25/08 Listen: Week 3A, 3B, 3 C handouts and notes Analysis: Intervals #3 and #4 Vocabulary : Weeks 1 4 Keyboard: Practice for Keyboard Testing on OCT. 2 Keep Practice Journal S R/Prep #4: treble clef -Text, p. 26 Bass clef -Liturgical drama handout

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355 MUS 4905 Keyboard T heory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 8 9/30/08 (T) Week Five ET Quiz #6 Melodic Dictation #5 treble clef (Parrish, p. 19) played 5x #6 bass clef (Parrish, p. 21) played 5x Play & Sing: Modes #3: Intervals within the mode (ascending & descending) dorian, lydian -solfege phyrgian, mixolydian -numbers Collect: ASSIGNMENT 7 due Sept. 30 LISTEN: Week 3A, 3B, 3C Analysis: #3 and #4 Vocabulary Lists: Weeks 1 4 Pass Around: Keyboar d Testing #1 Signup Sheet Handout: ASSIGNMENT 8 Special Note: Have been trying to fit in playing S/R Prep #1 #4 since ASSIGN #6, but the students were not ready, meaning they had not practiced or worked the examples out, and introducing melodic dicta tion, which most of them had never done before, took a long time to discuss and for them to start assimilating. #1 treble -text, p. 12 14 bass -Ambrosian chant #2 treble -text p. 15 bass -Gallican chant #3 treble -text p. 17 bass -Mozarabic chant #4 treble -text, p. 26 bass -Liturgical drama

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356 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ASSIGNMENT 8 9/30/08 DUE OCT. 2 Week 4: Worksheets and Tracksheets -Week 4A and 4B Analysis : #5 & #6 K eyboard Testing: Exer. 1.2 Modes #1 (straight rhythm) Modes #2 (with a tonic pause) Modes #3 (dotted rhythm) S R/Prep One of the 4 S R/Prep assignments Be prepared to play these at tempo set two weeks ago Practice Journals: Turn these in at keyboard testings. Vocabulary List: Handout for Weeks 5 8 due at end of Week 8. DUE OCT. 7 Listening List: Week 5A -Cover Sheet Celtic Wanderer Worksheet and Tracksheet

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357 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNME NTS LESSON 9 10/02 03/08 (Th) Week Five KEYBOARD TESTING #2 Collect: Week 4A and 4B -Worksheets and Tracksheets Practice Journals -Weeks 1 4 Analysis #5 and #6 Handout: ASSIGNMENT 9

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358 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (10/2/08 10/3/08) ASSIGNMENT 9 DUE OCT. 7: Analysis: #7 and # 8 (Soprano and Bass lines) #9 -see Prep #5 DUE OCT. 9 -OCT. 10 WRITE: Modes #3 3 stave format in reduced notation as shown on handout. Prep #5: Analysis #9: Make your own copy to hand in with the intervals between the two hands notated between the staves. Numbers only no quality. Learn hands separate first before putting hands together. Play slowly and in correct rhythm. Read the Estampie (instrumenta l dance) handout. Listening: Week 5B and 5C Worksheets and Tracksheets. DUE OCT. 16 -OCT. 17: Keyboard: Technique/Exercises -Hanon #1 and #2 Play slowly hands separate and build up to hands together. Modes: Keep practicing to achieve your new goals. Keyboard Testing Schedule Handout: This is an approximate schedule of the remaining testing dates and the required technical exercises and prepared pieces. Practice Journals: due at Keyboard Testings.

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359 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Pro ject Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 10 10/07/08 (T) Week Six Quote: p. 9 (John Cage) Pre class testing 1 student Post class testing 2 students ET Quiz #7 Melodic Dictation (15 20 secs between playings, more time after last time) #7 treble clef, (text p. 33, 1 st line) played 5x #8 bass clef, (Treasury, p. 31) mm1 4, played 5x Hint: get major beats first, then fill in with eighth notes. Sing & Play: Intervals within the mode up to P5, then to P8 121 1 23131 -1234141 -12345151, etc. all 4 modes Keyboard: due Oct. 16/17 testing; mm = 126 Modes, 1 oct., contrary motion : all 4 modes Modes #1 rhythm, legato & staccato Modes, 1 oct. (tog.) reviewed fingering played dorian & phyrgian in h alf notes Technical Exercises: Hanon #1 and Hanon #2 briefly discussed practice routine and goals better to practice 10 15 mins per day than 30 60 mins. night before test explained to play from C to C, 1 octave, then increase to 2 octaves. Ex: 1 st week: learn/practice Hanon #1 and 1 oct. modes, tog, parallel 2 nd week: learn/practice Hanon #2 and 1 oct. modes, tog. contrary

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360 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 10 -cont. 10/07/08 Collect: Analysis #7, #8, #9 Week 5A Worksheets and Tracksheets Remind: Syllabus requires ruler and metronome Referred specifically to Keyboard Testing Schedule Read the directions on the Assignment sheets first Most of the questions asked in class about homework are answered on those assignment sheets. (organization, time management) DUE OCT. 10: See ASSIGNMENT 9 Modes #3 WRITE Prep #5 be ready to play hands sep and to discuss the reading handout. Week 5B & 5C Worksheets & Tracksheets Announce: Preps #1 #4 will be re tested and scheduled on Fridays after class Handout: ASSIGNMENT 10

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361 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (10/ 7 /08 ) ASSIGNMENT 10 ***Check Assignment 9 for other due dates*** ***Make copies of your work BEFORE you turn it in if you want to keep it*** DUE OCT. 10/9 10/10 new assignment Analysis: #10 (Soprano and Bass lines) indicate the interval by number only write the interval in between the two staves WRITE: Modes #3 3 stave format in reduced notation as shown on handout. Keyboard: Prep #5 be ready to play hands separate and also discuss the reading handout. LISTEN: Weeks 5B and 5C Worksheet s and Tracksheets. DUE OCT. 14: Prep # 6 : Text, p. 31 (minnelied) Prep #7: troubadour song Listening: Week 6A Worksheet and Tracksheet. DUE OCT. 16 OCT. 17: See Assignment 9 Keyboard: Technique/Exercises -Hanon #1 and #2 (see handout) Play slowly hands separate and build up to hands together. Modes: One octave together; parallel and contrary motion. All 3 rhythms Prep #5 : Estampie Keep practicing to achieve your new goals. mm=126 Keyboard Testing Schedule Handout : This is an approximate schedule of the remaining testing dates and the required technical exercises and prepared pieces. Practice Journals: due at Keyboard Testing.

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362 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS L ESSON 11 10/9 10/08 (Th) Week Six Quote : p. 13 (Copland) Announce : Keyboard Testing is to be done outside class time on Thurs/Fri. Signup Sheets will be available in all class periods. ET Quiz #8: Review intervals and modes first how to id entify unison P5 Melodic Dictation #9 treble clef (Parrish, p. 26) played 5 x #10 bass clef (Treasury, p. 23 7) played 9x: entire passage 1x mm1 4 3x mm 4 8 3x entire passage 2x Prep #5 fingered version Handout: ASSIGNMENT 11

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363 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (10/ 9 /08 10/10/08) ASSIGNMENT 11 *** Fridays after class (11:30am) are now available for extra help and for completing keyboard testings. Must sign up befor e the Friday you want to come in. ***Make copies of your work BEFORE you turn it in if you want to keep it*** DUE OCT. 14: (*handout 10/9 10/10 ) Analysis #11 Prep #5, #6, #7: Be prepared to play in class. Listening: Week 6A Worksheet and Tra cksheet. Keyboard: Prepare for Keyboard Testing on 10/16 10/17. See Keyboard Testing Sheet from Assignment #10. Keep practicing to achieve your new goals mm=126 DUE OCT. 16 OCT. 17: See Assignment 9 Keyboard Testing : Techni que/Exercises -Hanon #1 and #2 (see handout) Play slowly hands separate and build up to hands together. Modes: One octave together; parallel and contrary motion. All 3 rhythms Prep #5 : Estampie Keyboard Testing Schedule Handout : T his is an approximate schedule of the remaining testing dates and the required technical exercises and prepared pieces. Practice Journals: due at Keyboard Testing.

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364 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 12 10/14/08 (T) Week Seven Announce: Keyboard Testing will be done outside of class. Sign up today. ET Quiz #9: 5 modes; 5 intervals (m2, M2, m3, M3, P4, P5, P8) Reminders : Reduce intervals to no higher than a 10 th Please read the directions. Use dark pencil/clear handwriting Do professional work Melodic Dictation : #11 treble clef ( Cantiga ; text, p. 35) played 5 x Hint: getting the rhythm first may help #12 bass clef (Viderunt; Treasury, p. 43) Prep #5 (Estampie): Worked out mo st of L.H., and 1 st phrase of the R.H. Handout: ASSIGNMENT 12

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365 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (10/14/08) ASSIGNMENT 12 DUE OCT. 16/17 Analysis #12 : keep intervals to a 10 th or smaller Keyboard Testing (mm=126) Keyboard te sting will now take place outside of class time. Sign up on the sheet before you leave class today. Show up at least 10 mins. before your testing time. Bring Prep #5, #6, and #7. You will be expected to play each piece in its entirety. Refer t o the Keyboard Testing Handout for the technique requirements. Practice Journals DUE OCT. 23 Listening List: Week 7A Tydings Trew Worksheet and Tracksheet

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366 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 1 3 10/16 17/08 (Th) Week Seven Quote : p. 16 (Einstein) Pre quiz review : What to listen for in the modes: M3 vs m3 = 50% elimination on first hearing Identified other unique characteristics Played examples of the modes to demonstrate ET Q uiz #10 Prep #8 and #9: Clap & count out rhythms Class concerns: Reviewed issues of time management, procrastination; taking ownership of their own education. Reviewed requirements listed on the syllabus: Use of metronome for practice U se of binders with dividers for organization Collect: Homework Announce: ET Test #1 on Tuesday, Oct. 21 Handout: ASSIGNMENT 13 briefly discussed

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36 7 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (10/16 17/08) ASSIGNMENT 13 DUE OCT. 21 : Analy sis #13 Keyboard: Hanon #3 & #4 Prep #8 Prep #9 Aural Skills Test 1 will include intervals, modes, and melodic dictation in both treble and bass clefs. Practice Journal for 10/16 10/31 included Reminder: DUE OCT. 23: Week 7A Worksheet & Tra cksheet

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368 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 14 10/21/08 (T) Week Eight Ear Training Test #1: intervals, modes, melodic dictation in treble and bass clefs. Collect: Homework Handout: Keyboard Tes ting Sheet for Week 9 (10/30 31) Practice Journal through Week 9 Review practice tips ASSIGNMENT 14 Guest Dr. Robinson spoke to class in thanks and appreciation for participating in doctoral research.

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369 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (10/ 21/08) ASSIGNMENT 14 MID SEMESTER PROGRESS REPORT HANDOUT: This work is due IMMEDIATELY. After Nov. 4 any work not accounted for will be awarded a grade of zero. This includes Re do work. You may turn things into my mailbox. Be sur e your name is on all of your work. KEYBOARD TESTING #4 & #3 RE TAKE HANDOUT : These handouts are self explanatory, but contact me if you have any questions and also to schedule a time outside class to do the re takes. DUE OCT. 23: Week 7A Worksheet a nd Tracksheet. Friday students must turn this in by Oct. 23 to my mailbox. I will be checking it on Thursday night. Keyboard Practice at least 15 mins. daily to prepare for Keyboard Testing on Oct. 30 and Oct. 31. Practice Journal continue logging in your practice time. DUE OCT. 28: reserve in the Music Library: -start a new page with each chapter -neatness and organization will count towards the grade -a good source for Voc abulary List Weeks 5 8 -due Oct. 30/31.

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370 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 15 10/23/08 (Th) Week Eight Quote : p. 19 (Gershwin) Collect: Late assignments. Review: Ear Training Test #1 Keybo ard Testing #4 (10/30 31) 1) 2 octave fingering, hands separate in C and A modes, rhythms #1, #2, #3 2) Hanon #3 and #4 3) Prep #8, #9 hand separate Prep #5 hands together Work individually for remainder of class

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371 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (10 23 08) ASSIGNMENT 15 DUE OCT. 28 Read and Outline: CHS. 1 and 2 of the History of Western Music : On reserve in the Music Library Bring to class on Oct. 28 for discu ssion. Keyboard Testing #4 (Oct. 30 31): Practice 15 mins. daily Use your metronome you should come to the testing with the tempo of each item that you have prepared. Mid Semester Progress Report: Keep working at completing the missing work and tu rn in asap. Keyboard Re Takes: Remember to sign up for testing times on signup sheet available in class. *** Fridays after class (11:30am) are still available for extra help and for completing keyboard testings. Must sign up/let me know before the F riday you want to come in. Have a Happy and Safe Homecoming Weekend!

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372 M US 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 16 10/28/08 (T) Week Nine Ear Training Test #11 Introduce: First species counterpoint (cla ss instructed to take notes) (*written on board) Gradus Ad Parnassum treatise (1660 1741) Medieval composition of motet: aggregate of parts/two dimensional approach to polyphony *discan tus two fold melody predecessor of term counterpoint early usage in strict rhythm *punctum contra punctum *contr a punctus -originated c. 1300 *cantus contra cantum -melody vs melody, c. 1400 linear Brief mention Johannes Tinctoris and Gioseffo Zarlino of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven Consonances: perfect and imperfect Dissonances Dictation: (Fux) D mode cantus firm us Demonstrate on board number measures above top staff cantus firmus (c.f.) on lower staff Discussion: General 1 st species rules of composition: simplest composition of 2 or more voices notes of equal length only consonances c .f. invent one or obtain from a book of chorales contrary motion is best option beginning and ending interval must be perfect consonance use more imperfect than perfect consonances imperf ect is more harmonious, perfect is perfection approach last interval with M6 when c.f. is in lower voice approach last interval with m3 when c.f. is in higher voice

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373 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSO N 16 -cont. 10/28/08 Demonstrate on board adding a counterpoint to the D c.f. Calling on individual students to furnish the notes Dictate: E cantus firmus Handout: Signup Sheet for Keyboard Testing #4 Signup Sheet for Keyboard Testing #3 Re takes ASSIGNMENT 17

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374 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (10/ 28 /08 ) ASSIGNMENT 16 DUE OCT. 30 31 Keyboard Testing #4 (Oct. 30 31): Practice 15 mins. daily Use your metronome you should come to the testing with the tempo of eac h item that you have prepared. Sign up today for a time on Thursday or Friday. Practice Journals and Vocabulary Lists (Weeks 5 8): due at Keyboard Testing time. Read and Outline: Chs. 3 & 4 History of Western Music On reserve in the Music Library B ring to class on Oct. 30 31 for discussion. Keyboard Theory: Add a counterpoint above the E mode cantus firmus that was dictated in class. Indicate the intervals used. Be prepared to play and sing each line in class. Use scale degrees. REMINDERS: Mid Semester Progress Report: Keep working at completing the missing work and turn in asap. Keyboard Re Takes: Remember to sign up for testing times on signup sheet available in class. *** Fridays after class (11:30am) are still available for extra he lp and for completing keyboard testings. Must sign up/let me know before the Friday you want to come in. ***I will also make individual appointments on Sats and Suns. to help you finish your testings. See me.

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375 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fa ll, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 17 10/30 31/08 (Th) Week Nine Quote : p. 22 (Heifitz two quotes) Ear Training Test #12 Dictation: F and G cantus firmus (Fux) Discuss E cantus firmus student work on board Handout: Practice Journal an d Vocabulary Sheets for Weeks 9 12 (10/30 11/14) ASSIGNMENT 17

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376 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (10/ 30 31/08) ASSIGNMENT 17 DUE NOV. 4 Keyboard Theory: Add a counterpoint above to the F and G cantus firmus. Indicate interv als used. Be prepared to play and sing each line in class. Use scale degrees. Read and Outline: Chs. 5&6 History of Western Music On reserve in the Music Library Bring to class on Nov. 4 for discussion. Keyboard Testing # 5 ( Nov. 1 3 1 4 ): Practic e 15 mins. daily, minimum. Use your metronome you should come to the testing with the tempo of each item that you have prepared. All written work is due, including: Listening List Worksheets and Tracksheets; Writing; and Analysis. It is the student assignment and to account for all missed work. If you still have Keyboard Testing requirements to fulfill, you must schedule a time for Nov. 6 and/or Nov. 7 to complete these and to avoid reductions in your final keyboard grade.

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377 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 18 11/4/08 (T) Week Ten Quote: p. 21 (Ulysses S. Grant) Ear Training Quiz #13 Melodic Dictation: A and C cantus firmus (Fux) Collect: Assign ments Review: Assignment deadlines; late work penalties Handout: ASSIGNMENT 18

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378 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (1 1 / 4 /08 ) ASSIGNMENT 18 *** Fridays after class (11:30am) are still available for extra help and for completing keyb oard testings. Must sign up before the Friday you want to come in. ***Make copies of your work BEFORE you turn it in if you want to keep it*** DUE NOV. 6/7 Keyboard Theory: Add a counterpoint above to the A and C cantus firmus. Indicate interval s used. Be prepared to play and sing each line in class. Use scale degrees. Read and Outline: Chs. 7, 8, & 9 History of Western Music On reserve in the Music Library Bring to class on Nov. 6 &7 for discussion and to turn in. All chapters, 1 9 are t o be turned in by Nov. 6/7. Keyboard Testing Makeups : Prepare for Keyboard Testing on 11/6 11/7. You must schedule a time to complete work not yet tested, not yet passed, and not yet passed at the required mm of 126. REMINDER: Keyboard Testing # 5 ( Nov. 1 3 1 4 ): Practice 15 mins. daily, minimum. Use your metronome you should come to the testing with the tempo of each item that you have prepared. Prepared pieces : will be the cantus firmus/counterpoints which you have composed in each of th e six modes. Be prepared to play and sing with each one.

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379 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 19 11/6 7/08 (Th) Week Ten Quote: p. 14 (Charles Darwin) Keyboard Sing & Play: A and C modes (aeolian and ionian) 1 2 1, 1 2 3 1, 1 2 3 4 1, etc. 1 7 1, 1 7 6 1, 1 7 6 5 1, etc. Ear Training Quiz #14: Self graded Reviewed how to listen for intervals, modes and motives Signup Sheet : Keyboard Test re takes for 11/6 7 and 11/13 14 Demonst rate on board: Format for writing the cantus firmus and its counterpoint (2 nd time) numbering measures, labeling intervals Handout: ASSIGNMENT 19

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380 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (1 1 / 6 11/7/08) ASSIGNMENT 19 DUE NOV. 13/14 Keyboard Testing #5 (mm=126) Sign up on the sheet before you leave class today. Show up 5 mins. before your testing time. Bring all of your materials with you and BE READY to play THE FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS REPLACE THE ONES LISTED O N THE KEYBOARD TESTI NG SCHEDULE: 2 octave modes hands together, all three rhythms @mm.126 2 octave Hanon Exercises #1 and #2 -hands together @ mm 126 2 octave Hanon Exercises #3 and #4 All of your cantus firmus/counterpoints in the E,F,G,A,C modes. Practice Journals -due at time of testing. WRITE: in the A and C modes (one octave, ascending & descending) Modes #1 -Using the 3 stave format, write each mode in each clef in whole notes; treble clef -name the notes bass clef -name the notes -ind icate H/W pattern alto clef -name the notes -indicate the mode degrees (1.2.3.etc.) Modes #2 -Remember to use the 3 stave format and reduced notation. Modes #3 -dotted rhythm Remember to use the 3 stave format and reduced notation. Intervals within a mode 3 stave format, whole notes, ascend & descend. treble clef -indicate interval and quality (P5, etc) alto clef -indicate numbers (1 2,1 3,etc. and 8 7,8 6, etc.) bass clef -indicate note names. DEC. 4 5 Final keyboard testing last chance to pass all requirements

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381 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 20 11/13 14/08 (Th) Week Eleven Quote: p. 21 (Arlo Guthrie) and p. 26 (Jellinek) Ear Training Quiz #15: Reviewed identifying a mode in 2 playings (M3 vs m3) Keyboard Theory: Adding a counterpoint below the cantus firmus students copy from board for example played Rule beginni ng interval must be in the mode Reminders: Deadlines; neatness counts Signup Sheet: Keyboard Testing re takes on 11/20 21

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382 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (1 1 / 13 11/14/08) ASSIGNMENT 20 DUE NOV. 18 Add counterpoints BELO W to each cantus firmus: E mode F mode G mode A mode C mode Prepare your manuscript as demonstrated in class: Use manuscript paper nothing else will be accepted. Use the 2 stave format as demonstrated. Use only whole notes separated by a bar line Label each exercise Indicate only the interval number in between the staves. Write neatly in pencil. Sloppy work will not be accepted. Play through the finished exercise and correct any mista kes found. ***Sign up for Keyboard Testing on Nov. 20 and Nov. 21*** REMINDER: The final Keyboard Testing will be Dec. 4 and Dec. 5. You will receive a final synopsis on Tuesday, Nov. 18, however, it will include the following: Hanon Exercises #3 and #4 2 octaves, hands tog. @ mm=126

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383 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 21 11/18/08 (T) Week Twelve Quote: p. 25 (Victor Hugo) LISTEN: Week 1A, 1B, 1C played selected tracks reviewed Worksh eets and Tracksheets Signup Sheet : Keyboard Testing re takes on 11/20 21 Return: Assignments to be reworked Handout: ASSIGNMENT 21

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384 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (1 1 / 18/08) ASSIGNMENT 21 DUE NOV. 25 LISTEN: Week 12A & 12B: Josquin des Prez Worksheets and Tracksheets Vocab Lists: Weeks 9 12 Re do homework is due on the date listed on individual assignments. ***Reminder*** Sign up today in class for keyboard testing this Thursday and Friday, 11/20 & 11/21. FINAL Keyboard Testing is Dec. 4 and Dec. 5. Keep practicing with the metronome at least 15 20mins. daily. Keep a practice journal through these dates and turn in at your last testing.

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385 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIG NMENTS LESSON 22 11/20 21/08 (Th) Week Twelve Quote: p. 30 (Goddard Lieberson) LISTEN: Week 2 Played selected tracks Reviewed Worksheets and Tracksheets Signup Sheet : Keyboard Testing re takes Final Exam: Brief discussion Ear Training/ Aural skills intervals, modes, motives dictation Vocabulary Composers and their dates Reminder: Final Keyboard Testing is Dec. 4 5 Listening List for Week 12 is due 11/25 Keyboard Testing #6 is 12/4 and 12/5 Practice 15 mins. da ily

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386 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 (11/20 21/08) ASSIGNMENT 22 No Assignment Sheet handed out. Assignment was given verbally in class: Final Keyboard Testing is Dec. 4 5 Listening List for Week 12 is due 11/25 Keybo ard Testing #6 is 12/4 and 12/5 Practice 15 mins. daily

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387 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 23 11/25/08 (T) Week Thirteen Quote: p. 24 (Hedda Hopper) and p. 35 (Ernest Neuman) LISTEN: Week 3A p layed selected tracks reviewed Worksheets and Tracksheets Signup Sheet : Keyboard Testing re takes Discuss: Final Exam Handout: Homework Checklist No Assignment Sheet was handed out

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388 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (11/25/08) ASSIGNMENT 23 No Assignment Sheet was handed out.

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389 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall, 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 24 12/2/08 (T) Week Fourteen Quote: p. 37 (Plato) Handout: Assignment re Reminder: POSTTEST is 12/3 at 8:30am Signup: Keyboard Testing for 12/4 and 12/5 LISTEN: Week 4 played selected tracks reviewed Worksheets and Tracksheets Discuss: Rules for adding counterpoints below the cantus firmus beginning, ending and middle intervals

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390 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ( 12/2/08 ) ASSIGNMENT 24 No Assignment Sheet handed out

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391 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 25 12/4 5/08 (Th) Week Fourteen Quote: p. 42 (R. Schumann) Handout: Study guide for CHS. 1 9 ( History of Western Music ) Vocabulary List Review: CHS. 1 6 identified important terms and concepts likely to appear on exam Discuss: Put taxonomy for the class on board Overtone series in relati on to the class No Assignment Sheet.

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392 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 (12/4 5/08) ASSIGNMENT 25 No Assignment Sheet handed out

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393 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 LESSONS AND ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 26 12/9 /08 (T) Week Fifteen Quote: p. 56 (Oscar Wilde) Prep for Final Exam: Handout: Listening Lists Vocabulary Lists and Study Guide from Listening Lists and Fux Post Class Survey Turn in by exam date to me or to my mailbox Evaluation for the Sch ool of Music Closing remarks to class in appreciation for their participation in this project and for seeing it through to the end, along with best wishes for their continued studies and successes in their professional careers. No Assignment Sheet

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394 APPENDIX I COURSE REFERENCES AN D RESOURCES DICTATION SOURCES The parenthetical abbreviation was the source reference for the Project researcher 1) Music Literature, A Workbook for Analysis (Hardy & Fish) Vol. II: Polyphony Gordon Hardy a nd Arnold Fish NY: Dodd, Mead and Co., Inc., 1966 LOC: 62 19671 2) Masterpieces of Music Before 1750 (Parrish & Ohl) An Anthology of Musical Examples from Gregorian Chant to J.S. Bach Compiled and Edited with Historical and Analytical Notes by Carl Parrish and John F. Ohl NY: W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1951 3) A Treasury of Early Music (Treasury) An Anthology of Masterworks of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque Era; college edition Compiled and edited with notes by Ca rl Parrish NY: W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1958 LOC: 58 11111 4) The Comprehensive Study of Music, Vol. I (Text) Anthology of Music from Plainchant Through Gabrieli William E. Brandt, Arthur Corra, William Christ, Richard DeLone, Allen Winold. NY: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1980 ISBN 0 06 040922 3 5) The Study of Counterpoint (Fux) Gradus Ad Parnassum Translated and edited by Alfred Mann NY: W.W. Norton and Co., 1971 that the students purchased and was used as often as possible for class assignments.

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395 CD LISTENING LIST Week 1A Sacred Women Women as Composers and Performers of Medieval Chant. Sarband. Troy, New York : Dorian Recordings, 2001 DOR 93235, 1B Voices of Angels Music of Hildegard von Bingen Voices of Ascension ; Dennis Keene, conductor. Hollywood, CA: D elos International, Inc., 1997. DE 3219. A feather on the breath of God. Sequences and hymns by Abbess Hildegard of Bingen Lon don: Hyperion Records Limited, 1984. CDA66039. (booklet only) 1C Anonymous 4. Los Angeles, CA: h armonia mundi usa 1995. HMU 907156. 2A Perotin The Hilliard Ensemble. New York, N Y: ECM Records, 1989. ECM New Series 1385. 2B Paris 1200. Perotin & Leonin Chant and Polyphony from 12 th Century France. Lionheart. England: Nimbus Communications International Limited, 1998. NI 5547. 3A B Canto Gregoriano 10 CD SET. Distributed by Membran Music Ltd. ISBN: 978 3 86562 776 6. 3C The Age of Cathedrals. Music from the Magnus Liber Organi Theatre of Voices; Paul Hillier, director. Los Angeles, CA: harmonia mundi, usa, 1996. HMU 907157. 4A The Soul of Chan t The Benedictine Monks of Santo Domingo de Silos. USA: BMG Music, 1996. 4B Russian Medieval Chant Distributed by Musical Heritage Society. Essex, England: Chandos Records Ltd., 2001. 5182805. 5A Celtic Altramar Medieval Music Ensemble. Troy, New York: Dorian Recordings, 2001. 5B Distant Love. Songs of Jaufr Rudel & Martin Codax. Los Angeles, CA: harmonia mundi, usa, 2000. HMU 907203. 5C Bella Donna. The Medieval Woman Lover, Poet, Pat roness & Saint London: Hyperion Records Limited, 2006. CDH55207.

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396 6A A Star in the East. Medieval Hungarian Christmas Music Anonymous 4. Los Angeles, CA: harmonia mundi, usa, 1996. HMU907139. 7A Tydings Trew. Medieval English Carols and Mot ets Lionheart. Port Washington, New York: Koch International Classics, 2003. KIC CD 7562. 12A Josquin des Pr s: The a rm Masses The Tallis Scholars. Oxford, England: Gimell Records, 1989. Gimell 454 919 2. 12B Josquin Desprez Motets La Chapelle Royale France: harmonia mundi s.a., 1986. HMC 901243. ANALYSIS ASSIGNMENTS Hymnaire de Christian Science French edition (hymnal) Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1898. 1948. MUSIC HISTORY History of Western Music HarperCollins College Outline Series Hugh M. Miller and Dale Cockrell NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991 ISBN 0 06 467107 0 QUOTE OF THE DAY Music: a Book of Quotations Dover Thrift Editions Edited by Herb Galewitz NY: Dove r Publications, Inc., 2001 ISBN 0 486 41596 1

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397 APPENDIX J TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: LISTEN/HEAR Samples of E ar T raining (ET) Quizzes Sample Answer Sheet for ET Quizzes #1 through # 10 HEAR YE HEAR YE! ET Daily Quiz # ______ Name ___________________ Date ____________________ 1. ________________ 2. ________________ 3. ________________ 4. ________________ 5. ________________ 6. ________________ 7. ________________ 8. ________________ 9. ____ ____________ 1 0. ________________

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398 Answer Keys for ET Quizzes #1 through #10 ET Quiz #1 ET Quiz #2 ET Quiz #3 ET Quiz #4 ET Quiz #5

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399 ET Quiz #6 ET Quiz #7 ET Quiz #8 ET Quiz #9 ET Quiz # 10

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400 Sample Master Answer Sheet for ET Quizzes #11 through #1 5 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ET Daily Quiz # _______ Intervals -3 3 note motives -4 Identify quality of each interval Construct from the given (first) note and construct the inter val below the given note Modes -3 Name the mode played 1. _________________ 2. _________________ 3. _________________

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401 Answer Keys for ET Quizzes #11 through #15 ET Quiz #11 ET Quiz #12 ET Quiz #13 ET Quiz #14 ET Qu iz #15

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402 ET Test MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 HEAR YE HEAR YE! Ear Training Test #1 Name ____________________ Date ____________________ Intervals Modes 1. _______________ 1. _________________ 2. _______________ 2. _________________ 3. _______________ 3. _________________ 4. _______________ 4. _________________ 5. _______________ 5. _________________ 6. _______________ 6. _________________ 7. ____________ ___ 7. _________________ 8. _______________ 8. _________________ 9. _______________ 9. _________________ 10. _______________ 10. _________________ Melodic Dictation -treble clef (16 notes) Melodic Dictation -bass clef (10 notes)

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403 Answer Key for ET Test #1 Intervals Modes Melodic Dictation -16 notes/ treble clef ( Text, p. 20) Melodic Dictation -10 notes/ bass clef (Treasury, p. 14 )

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404 Melodic Dictations LESSON 6 Dictation #1 (Hard y & Fish, p. 257 ) Dictation #2 (Parrish & Ohl, p. 10) LESSON 7 Dictation #3 (Parrish & Ohl, p. 10) Dictation #4 (Parrish & Ohl, p. 19) LESSON 8 Dictation #5 (Parrish & Ohl, p. 10) Dictation #6 (Parrish & O hl, p. 21)

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405 LESSON 10 Dictation #7 (Text, p. 33) Dictation #8 (Treasury, p. 31) LESSON 11 Dictation #9 (Parrish & Ohl, p. 26) Dictation #10 (Treasury, p. 36) LESSON 12 Dictation #11 (Text, p. 35) Dic tation #12 (Treasury, p. 43)

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406 Cantus Firmus Dictations LESSON 16 in D mode (dorian) (Fux, p. 27 ) in E mode (phrygian) (Fux, p. 34 ) LESSON 17 in F mode (lydian) (Fux, p. 36 ) in G mode (mixolydian) (Fux, p. 37 ) LESSON 18 I i n A mode ( a eolian) (Fux, p. 40 ) in C mode (Ionian) (Fux, p. 40 )

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407 LISTEN Tracksheets and Worksheets MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LISTS WORKSHEETS AND TRACKSHEETS LISTEN 1A Sacred Women 1B Voices of Angels 1C Santiago/Codex 2A Perotin Wrksht 2B Lionheart 3A Canto Gregoriano 3B Canto Gregoriano 3C Magnus Wrksht 3C Magnus Trksht 4A Soul of Chant Wrksht 4A MassI/II Trksht 4B Russian Medieval Chant Wrksht 4B Russian Medieval Chant Trksht 5A Celtic Wrksht 5A Celtic Trksht 5B Distant Love Wrksht 5B Distant Love Trksht 5C Bella Donna Wrksht 5C Bella Donna Trksht 6A Hungarian Wrksht 6A Hungarian Trksht 7A Tydings Wrksht 7A Tydings Trksht a rm masses) 12A Josquin Trksht 12B Josquin Wrksht (motets) 12B Josquin Trksht

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408 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 Carol P. McCoy, instructor LISTENING LIST WEEK ONE (800 1200) A. Sacred Women (Christian, Arab and Byzantine chant) B. Voices of Angels (Hildegard von Bingen) C. WEEK TWO (800 1200) A. Perotin (The Hilliard Ensemble) B. Lionheart (Paris, 1200, chant and polyphony) WEEK THREE (800 1200) A. Canto Gregoriano VII In Paradisium B. Canto Gregoriano VIII Natus est Nobis C. The Age of Cathedrals Music from the Magnus Liber Organi WEEK FOUR (c.600 1700) A. The Soul of Chant (The Benedictine Monks of Santo Domingo de Silos) B. Russia n Medieval Chant WEEK FIVE (1200 1400) A Celtic Wanderers (Altramar Medieval Music Ensemble) B. Bella Donna (The Medieval Woman) C. Distant Love (Songs of Jaufr R u del & Martin Codax) WEEK SIX (1200 1400) A. A Star in the East (medieval Hung arian Christmas music) WEEK SEVEN (1100 1600) A. Tydings Trew (medieval English carols and motets) WEEK TWELVE (c.1440 1521) A. Josquin des Prez a rm masses) B. Josquin des Prez (motets)

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409 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 20 08 LISTENING LIST Please do not make any marks in the CD booklets. All notes will go in the Listening List sections of your notebooks. Thank you. WEEK ONE A) Sacred Women women as compose rs and performers of medieval chant Christian, Arab, and Byzantine chant (c. 22mins.) 1. Read the CD booklet and take notes (include dates). 2. Listen to the following tracks and describe what you are hearing. 3. List title of selection and compos er if known. 4. Can compare and contrast the selections in this disc as well as with all other listening selections. Tracks: 1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 12 extra credit: 13 B) Voices of Angels /Dennis Keene, conductor Hildegard von Bingen (c. 11 mins.) 1. Read the extra CD booklet entitled: A feather on the breath of God and take notes. The tracks marked with are discussed in this booklet. 2. Listen to the following tracks and describe what you are hearing. 3. Compare with the selections from ( A), general comments. Tracks: 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 13 C) Music from the Codex Calixtinus Medieval Chant & Polyphony for St. James from the Codex Calixtinus (c. 33mins.) 1. Read the CD booklet and take notes. 2. Listen to the f ollowing tracks and describe what you are hearing. 3. List title of selection and type of composition (trope, prosa, etc.) 3. Suggestions: Try drawing the contour of the melodies. Evaluate the voice(s) heard. Compare these selections to the sel ections in (A) and (B). similarities and differences Tracks: 3, 7, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20 ex, credit: 13, 18 these are longer but worth it

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410 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST Please do not make any marks in th e CD booklets. All notes will go in the Listening List sections of your notebooks. Thank you. WEEK TWO A) Perotin, The Hilliard Ensemble (c. 35mins.) 1. Read CD booklet, and answer the questio ns on the accompanying worksheet. 2. List title, composer and type of piece (conductus/organum) 3. Listen to the following tracks and describe what you are hearing. Consider, among other things discussed in class: consonance/dissonance; tempo; met er; cadences; dynamics; number and type of voices; form of the piece; melodic contour; range, etc. Tracks: 1, 7, 5, 6, 8 Ex. credit: 2, 3, 4, 9 B) Lionheart, Paris 1200 Perotin & Leonin, chant & polyphony from 12 th century France (c. 25 mins .) After listening to (A): 1. Read CD booklet and take notes. 2. Listen to the following tracks and describe what you are hearing. 3. The booklet does not identify the composer of the selections! Try to determine which one wrote the pieces Tracks: 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, 18 Ex. credit: 4, and remaining tracks.

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411 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK TWO (A) PEROTIN WORKSHEET DUE SEPT. 16 Define/list characteristics of: c onductus organum discant style What book did Leonin write? _________________________ What genre of composition is Leonin known for? _________________ What genre of composit ion is Perotin known for? _________________ _____________________ _____________________ Viderunt (trk 1) and Sederunt (trk. 9)? ____________ ______________________ __________________________________ According to the St. Martial treatise, what three things must a composer know? __________________________________ How are 12 th c. Perotin and 20 th c. Steve Reich similar? ______________________ ____________ __________________________________ What element of music from his treatise is discussed? _______________ List the two basic note values: ________________________ Combinatio ns of these note values produced how many rhythmic modes: _______

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412 p. 2 Name the rhythmic modes and draw their respective patterns: __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ____________________ ______ __________________________ __________________________ Name at least one benefit from the invention of this notation system: __________________________ Where in the booklet is Igor Stravinsky mentioned? ____________

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413 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD TH EORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST Please do not make any marks in the CD booklets. All notes will go in the Listening List sections of your notebooks. Thank you. You may make your own copy of this sheet. WEEK THREE A) Canto Gregoriano, VII In Paradisium (c. 15mins) 1. Listen to the following tracks and describe what you hear. 2. Things to consider: beginning intervals, type of chant, cadences re do, ti do, sol do, others?, range, contour, etc. Use checklist. Tracks: 1, 3, 4, 5 6, 7, 8. Track 4: List the cadence type you hear the most_________ What happens at the 6 minute mark?__________ Do these chant melodies sound different from the ones in Weeks 1 2? If so, name at least two differences _____________________ ___ ________________________ If not, list two similarities ________________________ ________________________ B) Canto Gregoriano, VIII Natus est Nobis (c. 15mins.) 1. Listen to the following tracks and describe what you hear. 2. Same as Tracks: 1, 3, 7, 8

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414 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST DUE SEPT. 30 no exceptions. Please do not make any marks in the CD booklets. The Worksheet and the Track sheet will be handed in next Tuesday, Sept. 30. When they are returned they should go in the Listening Lists sections of your notebooks. Thank you. WEEK THREE C) The Age of Cathedrals, Music from the Magnus Liber Organi (c. 30mins) 1. Read the CD bo oklet (in the language of choice!) p. 5 8. 2. Answer the questions on the accompanying Magnus worksheet. 3. Listen to the following tracks and follow along with the texts in Latin, in the booklet, p. 25. 4. Listen to the tracks in the order lis ted and use the accompanying Tracksheet to record the answers to the questions as well as for your own notes. 5. List for each entry the composer and his dates and also which function the piece fulfills (see question #13 on the W orksheet). 6. As you make your observations, remember to consider: beginning intervals; type of chant; textures (solo vs. 2 part); melodic cadences; ending cadences re do, ti do, sol do; range; use of dissonance; form; tempo; re petition and imitation. Use checklist. Tracks: 1, 11; 14, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 15.

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415 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS WORKSHEET p.1 ____________ 2. Who wrote it? ________________________ 3. What country and which century is this music from? _____________________________ 4. What happened in this country during this century? _____________________________ _____________________ ________ _____________________________ 5. Where did most of this occur? __________________ 6. Describe the role and the i mportance of the Church and its cathedrals during this time. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 7. How did this influence the cathedral musicians? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

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416 MUS 4905 KEY BOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS WORKSHEET p.2 8. List the two important musical centers and locations that fostered exceptional musical achievements. _____________________________ _________________ ____________ 9. Which one preceded the other ? _____________________________ 10. Describe /list the difference s in the music of these two centers (p. 5+ 7). _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 11. List the composers from the Notre Dame school in chronological order, with dates and their musical contributions. 1. _____ _____________________ __________________________ 2. __________________________ __________________________ 3. __________________________ __________________________ 4. __________________________ __________________________ 5. _____________________ _____ __________________________

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417 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS WORKSHEET p.3 12. List the name of the Spanish cathedral mentioned and its historical significance. ____________ _________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 13. List the different functions of this music in religious life. 1. __________________________ __________________________ 2. __________________________ ____________ ______________ 3. __________________________ __________________________ 4. __________________________ __________________________ 5. __________________________ __________________________ 6. __________________________ __________________________

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418 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST DUE SEPT. 30 WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS TRACKSHEET p.1 As you listen to the selected tracks, answer the following questions and add your own notes in the space provided a nd on the back of this sheet. This sheet will be returned to you for inclusion in your Listening List section of your notebook. [1] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence: Add your own notes : [11] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence: Form: Add your own notes:

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419 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS TRACKSHEET p.2 [14] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence: Form: Add your own notes: [4] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: This piece contains some distinct features that have not been prese nt in other listening examples. Please note, in particular: Motion of the voices: *Cadences on which ending intervals: Last melodic interval in cadence: Mood of song: Tempo(s): Form of the piece: Add your notes:

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420 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD TH EORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS TRACKSHEET p.3 [6] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence: Form: How does this chant fulfill its function? _____________ __________________________ Add your own notes: [10] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence:* Form: Use of dissonance: How does this chant fulfill its function? _____________ ________ __________________ Add your own notes:

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421 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS TRACKSHEET p.4 [13] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Movement of voices: Cadences; ending intervals : melodic cadence: Tempo: Add your own notes: [15] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Opening interval: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence: Add your own notes:

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422 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST DUE OCT. 2 no exceptions. Please do not make any marks in the CD booklets. The Worksheets and any Tracksheets will be handed in next Thursday, Oct. 2. When they are returned they should go in the Listening Lists sections of your notebooks. Thank you. WEEK FOUR A) The Soul of Chant, The Benedictine Monks of Santo Domingo de Silos (c. 30mins) 1. Read the CD booklet and answer the questions on the accompanying Soul of Chant Worksheet (p. 6 14; 18 23). 2. List e ach of the five sections within Tracks 1 and 2 and name each mode used. 3. Identify the final cadences used in each section, i.e., (2 1; 5 4 3 2 1; 7 1; 2 1 1, etc.) 4. Analyze the first movement of each Mass (Kyrie eleison). Note a ny differences in the succeeding sections. Tracks: 1 Mass I: Lux et Origo 2 Mass II: Fons Bonitatis B) Russian Medieval Chant (c. 25 mins.) 1. Read the CD booklet and answer the questions on the Russian worksheet. 2. Listen to the selec ted tracks and answer the questions on the Russian Tracksheet. 3. Identify all final cadences (2 2 1; 7 1; 1 7 1; etc.) 4. Identify all definite sections -list the times they occur (1:15; 3:34, etc.) Tracks: 1, 6, 10; 4 (only the first 4 mins.), 8, 12

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423 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR (A) SOUL OF CHANT WORKSHEET p.1 *Due Oct. 2* 1. What is the most obvious difference between the chant on this CD and the others you have heard previously? ________________ 2. What type Masses are these? __________________ 3. What does Kyriale Romano mean and how many masses does it contain? _____________________________ 4. List the 5 Masses, number and title, included on this CD, and the specific lit urgical celebration they are associated with. 1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________ 3. ____________________________ 4. ____________________________ 5. ____________________________ 5. List the 5 sections of the Mass in orde r: 1. ______________ 2. ______________ 3. ______________ 4. ______________ 5. ______________ 6. Kyrie Eleison a. In what Biblical work does this phrase appear? _________ b. Kyrie means ______________________ c. Eleison means ____________ _________ d. The phrase appeared where in the 4 th century? _________ e. What happened then? ___________________ ____ _________________________

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424 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR (A) SOUL OF CHANT WORK SHEET p. 2 6. f. When was it introduced in the Roman Church? _________ g. What is the usual way of singing the Kyrie? __________________________ h. When did this practice develop and what is its significance? __________________________ ______ ____________________ 7. Gloria. a. How and when is the Gloria performed? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ b. List its origin and characteristics: __________________________ ___________________ _______ __________________________ c. How was this hymn originally used in the East as well as the West? __________________________ d. How and when was it originally used in Rome? __________________________ e. Where and when does the Latin t ext appear? __________________________ f. It was not really used in the Mass until when? _________ g. There are how many parts in the Gloria? ___________

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425 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR (A) SOUL OF CHANT WORKSHEET p. 3 7. h. Describe each part and list the beginning Latin phrase and English translation. Part 1: _______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Part 2: __________ _____________ __________________________ Part 3: _______________________ __________________________ __________________________ 8. Credo. a. Where in the liturgy does the Credo naturally belong, and why? __________________________ __________ ________________ b. What are the three sections of the Credo? __________________________ __________________________ c. What are the additional parts? __________________________ __________________________ d. The Credo first appeared where a nd by whose decree? __________________________ f. Who ordered the Credo to be recited before the Pater Noster in every Mass, when, and in what country? __________________________

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426 MUS 4905 KEYB OARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR (A) SOUL OF CHANT WORKSHEET p. 4 8. g. When and how did it reach France? __________________________ __________________________ h. When did it reach Rome? ________________ i. When was it finally accepted and at whose pleadings? __________________________ j. In the West, how and when was the Credo used in the worship service? __________________________ 9. Sanctus. a. Where and when did its definitive form take shape? ___ _______________________ b. Where is the text from? __________________________ d. What is the Latin beginning the second part of the song and its English translation? __________________________ ____ ______________________ e. Originally, who sang the Sanctus? __________________________ 10. Agnus Dei. a. Agnus Dei means ____________________ b. The first use of it in the Mass is found where? __________________________

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427 MUS 4905 KEYBOAR D THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR (A) SOUL OF CHANT WORKSHEET p. 5 10. c. Who directed its use and what was its placement in the service? __________________________ d. How is it done presently and according to what docu ment and author? __________________________ __________________________ f. This song is an adoration of and homage to whom? __________________________ g. Who is the Lamb? ___________________ h. Originally, how was the song composed, when did it change, and how? __________________________ __________________________

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428 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR ( B ) RUSSIAN CHANT WORKSHEET p. 1 DUE OCT. 2* 1. Where did Russian monophonic singing find its roots? ___________________________ 2. What is the Book of Degrees and what is its significance? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ _______ ____________________ 3. The history of these canonical texts expands how long? ____________________ 4. Identify and define the two ways that the texts were treated: in the early period ______________ in the later period ______________ 5. What was the purpose/role of the melody in the Orthodox divine service? ___________________________ ___________________________ 6. Name the oldest chant of the Russian Orthodox Church and list its characteristics. (Note also when you hear these in your listeni ______________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 7. Define rallentando: _____________________ 8. How were festive chants (from #6) characterized? ____________________________ __________ __________________ ____________________________

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429 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR ( B ) RUSSIAN CHANT WORKSHEET p. 2 9. List and define the 4 new types of the znamenniy chants that developed and the appr oximate time they appeared. 1. ____________ 2. ____________ 3. ____________ 4. ____________ 10. Who was Fyodor Krestyanin? __________________ _____________________________ 11. List 3 chants that were later included in church singing : _____________________________ 12. What is a major characteristic of Russian choral singing? _____________________________ _____________________________

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430 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR ( B ) RUSSIAN CHANT TRAC KSHEET p. 1 *DUE OCT. 2* [1] Title: Cadences: Intervals: Sections: What is the most obvious difference in this chant from the Week 1 4A chants? _______________________ Add your own notes: [4] Title: Cadences: Intervals: Begin ning interval: Sections: List how this chant is different from [1]: __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ At 3:50 what do you hear? _____________ _____ Listen to the last 15 seconds of the chant and identify the cadence type: __________________________ Add your own notes:

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431 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR ( B ) RUSSIAN CHANT TRAC KSHEET p. 2 [6] Titl e: Cadences & Sections: There are definite sections in this chant. List them by times and by type of cadence (2 1, 7 1, etc.) ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ __________ ______________ Intervals: Add your own notes: [8] Title: Cadences: Final Cadence: Intervals: Add your own notes: [10] Title: Cadences/pauses: Final cadence type: Intervals: Add your own notes:

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432

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433 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FAL L 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FOUR ( B ) RUSSIAN CHANT TRAC KSHEET p. 3 [12] Title: Cadences: Intervals: Sections: What is the final cadence? __________________ Why is this significant? ________________ Add your own notes: In general, co mpare and contrast these Russian chants to the ones heard in Weeks 1 4A. Consider the range, cadences, sonorities used, note values, predominant intervals, and form. Add your own observations as well. _____________________________ _____________________ ________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

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434 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST Please do not make any marks in the CD booklets. Remember to return each booklet to its CD case. Thank you. Please try to listen to the the selected tracks in the order listed. WEEK FIVE A) Celtic Wanderers (c. 20 mins.) Altramar Medieval Music Ensemble 1. Read the CD booklet and complete the accompanying Worksheet 5A. 2. Listen to the selected tracks and answe r the questions on the Tracksheet 5A. 3. For each selection, list instruments/voices; composer; and/or source if listed. 4. Add your own notes in the space provided on the tracksheet, including the back of the page. Tracks: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 B) Distant Love (c. 16 mins.) Songs of Jaufr Rudel and Martin Codax 1. Read the CD booklet and complete the accompanying Worksheet 5B. 2. Listen to the selected tracks in the order listed and answer the questions on the Tracksheet 5 B. Tracks: Rudel 11, 13, 14, 15 Codax 1, 6, 7, 9 C) Bella Donna The Medieval Woman (c. 16 mins.) Lover, Poet, Patroness and Saint 1. Read the first three paragraphs in the CD booklet having to do with the independent songs on tracks [8] [16]. 2. Answer the questions on the accompanying Worksheet 5C. 3. Listen to the selected tracks in the order listed and answer the questions on T racksheet 5C. Tracks: 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16

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435 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTEN ING LIST WEEK FIVE (A) CELTIC WANDERER WORKSHEET p.1 1. Who were the peregrints and when did they flourish? ______________________ ____ ______________________ ____ ______________________ ____ __________________________ 2. What was their contribut ion to not only music, but civilization? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 3. What is the significance of pilgrimages in the Middle Ages? __________________________ _________ _________________ __________________________ __________________________ 4. What nationality were the peregrints ? ____________ 5. Name the 3 sites mentioned whose monasteries and libraries were founded by Irish and Scottish monks: _____________ _____________ __________________________ __________________________ 6. Describe the specific impact of Celtic culture on Central Europe: __________________________ b. When was it foun ded and by whom? ____________ __________________________

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436 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 WEEK FIVE (A) CELTIC WANDERER WORKSHEET p.2 7. c. Why is this location significant? ______________ ___________________________ 8. Who were the Schotten ? __________________ 9. Which country is Scotia maior ? ________________ Which country is Scotia minor ? ________________ re, and when? ____________________________ 11. In what period was the influence of Schottenstift felt the most? ____________________________ 12. List two things that contributed to its demise: ____________________________ ________________________ ____ 13. What happened to the manuscripts in the Schottenstift archives? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ 14. Where did the chants on this CD come from? __________ __________________ ____________________________ ______________

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437 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 WEEK FIVE (A) CELTIC WANDERER WORKSHEET p.3 16. In pre C hristian Celtic society music was played an enormous part. Name and describe the 3 kinds of music performed: ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ 17. How was music passed on/preserved in early medieva l years in Ireland and Scotland? __________________ 18* What periodical is mentioned where more can be found out about this particular time period? _______________

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438 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTE NING LIST WEEK FIVE (A) CELTIC WANDERER TRACKSHEET P.1 [1] Composer/Source: instruments/voice: [2] Composer/Source: list instrument/voice: what family is the vielle? What intervals do you hear? Add your own notes:

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439 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FIVE (A) CELTIC WANDERER TRACKSHEET P.2 [3] Composer/source: instruments: mood of piece: What is different about this selection? Add your own notes: [5] Composer/source: instruments: texture: list intervals you are hearing: Add your own notes:

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440 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FIVE (A) CELTIC WANDERER TRACKSHEET P.3 [8] Composer/source: instruments: How does this piece start out? What type of scale is being used? [13] Composer/source: instruments: opening intervals: describe the form (sections/tempos/etc.) of the piece: Add your own notes:

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441 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FIVE (B) DISTANT LOVE WORKSHEET p.1 Songs by Jaufr 1. Who were the troubadours where and when did they flourish? ___________________________ 2. What were their contributions to the development of song? ___________________________ ___________________________ ________________ ___________ 3. Who was Jaufr Rudel and why is he significant? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 4. Define: vida -________________ canso ________________ 5. Briefly tell the legend of Jaufr Rude l (p2. & 4) ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

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442 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE (B) DISTANT LOVE WORKSHEET p.2 6. What is the theme of all of Rude __________________________ ___ 7. Briefly describe his melodies. __________________________ ___ __________________________ ___ Songs of Martin Codax: 8. Where and when did Codax flourish? __________________________ ___ 9. How and where was hi s music discovered? _____________________________ _____________________________ 10. What is Codax known for? __________________________ ___ 11. What does cantiga de amigo mean? _____________ 12. What previous traditions is this cantiga related to? __________________________ ___ __________________________ ___ 13. List 4 characteristic features __________________________ ___ __________________________ ___ __________________________ ___

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443 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK FIVE (B) DISTANT LOVE TRACKSHEET p.1 Songs of Jaufr (c. 10 mins) Indicate the sections in these songs according to their durations and list what you hear in each section. For example: :00 -2:00 -2 :45 -3:00 solo male instrument voice & voice only instrument [11] Listen to the first 2:20 minutes and document as shown above. List instru ment/voice used: _________________ What kind of cadence is heard in the last section (2:06 -2:20)? ______________________ Add your own notes: [13] Listen to the first 2:00 minutes and document as shown above. How is this track different from [11]? ______________ _____________________________ Instrument/voice used: ___________________ Add your own notes:

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444 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE (B) DISTANT LOVE TRACKSHEET p.2 [14] Listen to the first 3 :00 minutes and document as shown above. Instrument/voice used: ___________________ How is this track different from [11] and [13]? __________________________ Add your own notes: [15] Listen to the first 3:30 minutes and document as shown above. Instrument/voice used: ___________________ Beginning interval: _______ Add your own notes: _____________________________ _____________________________

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445 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE (B) DISTANT LOVE TRACKSHEET p.3 (c. 6 mins) [1] Listen to the first 2:00 minutes of this piece. Instrument used: ____________________ Form and function of piece: ________________ The booklet identifies this set of songs as a __________ Add your own notes: [6] instrument/voice: __________________ Add your own notes: [7] instrument/voice: ____________________ What is unique about this short piece? ____________ Add your own notes:

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446 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE (B) DISTANT LOVE TRACKSHEET p.4 [9] Listen to the first 2:00 minutes of this piece. Instrument used: ______________________ Form and function of the piece: ________________ Add your own notes: List 2 differences: 1. ___________________________ 2. ___________________________ List 2 similarities: 1. _________ __________________ 2. ___________________________

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447 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE (C) BELLA DONNA WORKSHEET p.1 1. Whose court became an influential center for troubadour song, and when? ______ _______ __________________ 2. What is ___________________ ____ ____________________________ 4. Where were their courts located? ____ ____________________________ 5. Their courts nurtured the French singers called __ _________ 6. How did these singers assimilate the Provencal courtly songs? ____ ____________________________ ____ ____________________________ 7. List which style of singing was done and in which part of France by the: Troubadours: ____ ______________ _______ Trouv res: ____ ______________________ 8. Define and describe the chansons de toile: ____ ____________________________ ____ ____________________________ ____ ____________________________ ________________________________

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448 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theor y Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE ( C ) BELLA DONNA WORKSHEET p.2 9. Define and describe the chansons de femmes: ____ ____________________________ ____ ____________________________ ____ ____________________________ 10. List the instruments according to the ir family: 1. _____ _________________________ 2. _____ _________________________ 3. _____ _________________________ ___ _____________

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449 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE ( C ) BELLA DONNA TRACKSHEET p.1 ***DUE OCT. 9*** Follow along with the texts in the booklet for the songs. General Questions to consider as you take your own notes: What language is used in these songs? Do the instruments play the vocal parts or are they independently constructed? Can distinct sections be heard in these pieces? Compare rhythmic elements to that of chant, as well as expression and dynamics. [8] List instrumentation, incl. voice: Composer and date: What is the historical significanc e of this song? Describe what you hear, consider among other things: voice quality: tempo and mood: instrumental accompaniment: rhythmic elements:

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450 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE ( C ) BELLA DONNA TRACKSHEET p.2 [9] Name of piece: Instrumentation: Composer and date: Describe the form of the piece: How is this different from [8]: Other notes, incl.: tempo/mood: rhythmic elements: [10] Listen to the first 3 minutes of the piece. Instrumentation: Composer and date: Describe the form: Other notes, incl.: tempo/mood: rhythmic elements:

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451 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE ( C ) BELLA DONNA TRACKSHEET p.3 [12] Name of piece: Instrumentation: Composer and date: Form: Other not es, incl.: tempo/mood: rhythmic elements: [13] Name of piece: Composer and date: Instrumentation: Compare and contrast to [12]:

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452 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 WEEK FIVE ( C ) BELLA DONNA TRACKSHEET p.4 [16] Listen to 3 minutes of this song. Name of piece: Composer and date: Instrumentation: What happens at approx. 3:00 into the song: Compare and contrast with the other two song selections from this CD:

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453 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LI STENING LIST Please do not make any marks in the CD booklets. Thank you. WEEK SIX DUE OCT. 14 A) A Star in the East -Medieval Hungarian Christmas Music (c. 19 mins.) Anonymous 4 1. Read the CD booklet and answer the questions on Worksheet 6A. 2. Listen to the following tracks in the order listed and log your answers on the chart provided. 3. The texts begin on p. 44 of the booklet for your reference. Tracks: 5, 7, 9, 13 -11, 15, 19

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454 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY P ROJECT FALL 2008 WEEK SIX (A) HUNGARIAN WORKSHEET p. 1 ______________________________ ______________________________ 2. What happened in the 16 th century and how did if affect medieval musical culture? ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ 3. Who seized control of southern Hungary for the next 150 years and how did their gious venues? ______________________________ ______________________________ 4. How were some of these manuscripts saved? ______________________________ ______________________________ 5. Where and from what century is evidence of plainchant instruct ion found? ______________________________ 6. What were its early models based on (countries)? ______________________________ 7. List specific characteristics of how this plainchant repertory was enhanced: a. __________________________ b. ________ __________________ c. __________________________ d. __________________________ e. __________________________ 8. The chants on this CD represent what time period? ____________ 9. What rite is being followed? ______________________ _____________ ___________________ 10. List the 3 Christmas masses: _____________________ 11. Polyphonic singing is mentioned more regularly in Hungary when during the Middle Ages? ____________________________

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455 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 WEEK SIX (A) HUNGARIAN WORKSHEET p. 2 12. A large part of the surviving polyphonic works center around what season? ____________________________ 13. Name and list the characteristics of the 2 basic types of polyphonic works found in Hungary. List also the tracks mentioned which fit each type. Type 1: _____________________________ Characteristics: _________________________ _________________________ 5 tracks: _________ Type 2: _____________________________ Characteristics: __________ ________________ 3 tracks; _________ 14. Polyphonic works were brought to Hungary from which European countries ? _________________________________

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456 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 WEEK SIX (A) HUNGARIAN TRACKSHEET Track [5] [7] [9] [13] type of piece _____ _____ _____ _____ voices _____ _____ _____ _____ part) beginning interval(s) _____ _____ _____ _____ (ex: 1 4; 1 m3; 1 2 4) mood/tempo _____ _____ _____ _____ (e x: calm/lively) rhythm _____ _____ _____ _____ (duple, triplets, dotted) final cadence _____ _____ _____ _____ (ex: 7 1; M3 1) Yes or No: ornamented flourishes? _____ _____ _____ _____ wide melodic leaps? _____ _____ _____ _____ pent atonic tendencies ? _____ _____ _____ _____ extended cadence? _____ _____ _____ _____ Track [11 [15] [19] type of piece _____ _____ _____ voices _____ _____ _____ part) beginning interval(s) _____ ___ __ _____ (ex: 1 4; 1 m3; 1 2 4) mood/tempo _____ _____ _____ (ex: calm/lively) rhythm _____ _____ _____ (duple, triplets, dotted) final cadence _____ _____ _____ (ex: 7 1; M3 1) Yes or No: ornamented flourishes? _____ _____ _____ wide melodic leaps? _____ _____ _____ pentatonic tendencies ? _____ _____ _____ extended cadence? _____ _____ _____

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457 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST DUE OCT. 23 Please do not make any marks in the C D booklets. Remember to return each booklet to its CD case. Thank you. Please listen to the selected tracks in the order listed. WEEK SEVEN A) Tydings Trew Medieval English Carols and Motets (c. 27 mins.) Lionheart 1. Read the CD booklet and com plete the accompanying Worksheet 7A. 2. Listen to the selected tracks and answer the questions on the Tracksheet 7A Tracks: Christmas sequence: 12, 1, 16, 17, 19 Other carols & a motet: 2,3,8; 11; 9

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458 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2 008 LISTENING LIST due Oct. 23 WEEK SEVEN (A) TYDINGS TREW WORKSHEET p.1 1. Wh at influence did the effects of the monks in medieval England have on present day Christmas celebrations? ______________________ ____ ______________________ __ __ _____________ _____________ 2. Name the saint and the year his followers appeared in England: __________________________ 3. Name the song form mentioned as one of the cultural elements the monks used: _______________________ 4. Name and descr ibe the original form of the carol: _______ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 5. How did the friars alter the carol to suit their needs? _____ _____________________ __________________________ 6. What happened in Europe in the 14 th & 15 th centuries relating to the carol? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 7. Another name for the refrain is: ___ ___________

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459 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 WEEK SEVEN (A) TYDINGS TREW WORKSHEET p.2 8. Describe the newer musical poetic form of the English carol: ___________________________ ___________________________ ____________________ _______ 9. What Italian form is the English carol similar to in form and function? __________________ 10. a. The carols vary widely in their _______ and _______. a nd title of the carol cited as an example: C arol: _________________________ Characteristics: _____________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ c. List the identifying characteristics of the carol that would suggest composition by a learned monk or nun and cite the track and title of the carol listed as an example: Carol: _________________________ Characteristics: _____________________ _________________________ ______________________ ___ _________________________ 11. When are the twelve days of Christmas? ____________________________ ____________________________ 12. English chant is also called ___________

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460 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 WEEK SEVEN (A) TYDINGS TREW WORKSHEET p.3 13. Name the two sources mentioned from which the hymns and chants on this CD were taken: ______________________ ______________________ 14. What is an Antiphon ? ____________________________ 15. What is a Matin ? __ __________________________ ____________________________ ***At this point in the booklet, the tracks are discussed in relation to the Christmas season and the TRACKSHEET follows that discussion. The questions that would usually be on the WORKSH EET will be combined with the listening questions on the TRACKSHEET. Questions 16 18 refer to the material found in the booklet on p. 4.*** 16. According to this booklet, who were the Magi and where were they from? ___________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ 17.a. What is the unique element in the Epiphany carol [19] Ave rex angelorum ? ____________________________ ____________________________ b. What is the usual verse setting of every other 15 th century carol? ____________________________ 18.a. What is the Old Hall Manuscript (incl. dates)? ____________________________ ____________________________ b. Which two motets (track numbers)on this CD are from this source? _________________ ___

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461 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 WEEK SEVEN (A) TYDINGS TREW WORKSHEET p.4 18.c. What special technique is found in these two motets? Name & describe. ____________________________ ____________________________ ________________ ____________ d. What is the historical significance of the English discant technique? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________

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462 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST due OCT. 23 WEEK SEVEN (A) TYDINGS TREW TRACKSHEET p.1 This is the Christmas sequence as described in the booklet. Although questions may be asked about each track listed, only listen to tho se tracks marked with For each selection list the date and the event/feast associated with that piece; the type of song (hymn, carol, etc.); and the title. Textures refer to, for example: monophonic; polyphonic; and contrapun tal. Styles could be Engl ish discant; chant (3 types); parallel organum; and homophonic (chordal style). [12]*Title: __________ ________________ Date and correlating event: _________________ ____________________________ Type of song: _________ Language: _________ Descri be the texture and when it changes: ___________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Style: __________________________ Rhythmic elements: _____________________ Melodic elements: _____________________ Your own observations: [1]* Title: ___________________________ Date and correlating event: __________________ _____________________________ Type of song: _________ Language: _________ List texture changes by timed sections: Style(s): _________________________ Rhyt hmic elements: _____________________ Melodic elements: _____________________ Your own observations:

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463 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST due OCT. 23 WEEK SEVEN (A) TYDINGS TREW TRACKSHEET p.2 [14] Title: ______ _____________________ Date and correlating event: __________________ Type of song: ___________ List the 3 characteristics of the later carols that reveal the change in taste and technique, defining them as true products of the Renaissance: 1. ______ _____________________ 2. ___________________________ 3. ___________________________ [16]* Title: ___________________________ Date and correlating event: __________________ Type of song: __________ Language: ________ Original source of song: ___ ________________ Which of the characteristics listed above are found in this carol: Circle the answer(s): none #1 #2 #3 all Texture : ____________ Style: _____________ Rhythmic elements: ____________________ Melodic elements: _____________________ Do you know this carol? _____ Your own observations:

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464 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST due OCT. 23 WEEK SEVEN (A) TYDINGS TREW TRACKSHEET p.3 [17]* Title: __________________________ Date and correlating event: __________________ _____________________________ Type of song: __________ Language: ________ Texture: _____________ Style: ______________ Rhythmic elements: _____________________ Melodic elements: _____________________ Your own observations: [19]* Title: __________________________ Date and correlating event: _________________ ____________________________ Type of song: __________ Language: _______ What is unique about this setting? (see question 17a & b from worksheet) ____________________________ Style: _________________________ Rhythmic elements: ____________________ Melodic elements: _______ _____________ Your own observations: The next four carols refer to questions #10a c from the worksheet. Listen to tracks [2] and [8] the first 2:00, and list the characteristics which apply to each carol. Name the type of carol. [2]* Title: ______ ____ ______________ Type of carol: _____ _________________ Characteristics: ____ _________________ __________ _________________ __________ _________________

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465 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST due OCT. 23 WEEK SEVEN ( A) TYDINGS TREW TRACKSHEET p.4 [ 8 ]* Title: ______________________ Type of carol: __________________ Characteristics: __________________ __________________ __________________ Now listen to tracks {3] and [11] to determine which type carol they are. [ 3 ]* Title: _______________________ Type of carol: ___________________ Characteristics: __________________ __________________ __________________ Cadences: __________ Texture: ___________ Style: ____________ Rhyt hmic elements: _________________ Melodic elements: __________________ Your own observations: [11]* Title: _______________________ Type of carol: ___________________ Characteristics: __________________ __________________ _______ ___________ Ending interval: ______ __ Texture: ___________ Style: ____________ Rhythmic elements: _________________ Melodic elements: __________________

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466 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST due OCT. 23 WEEK SEVEN (A) TYDINGS TREW TRACKSHEET p.5 [11] Identify the expressive technique used in this piece that has not been heard in the other selections: ___________ Your own observations: The last selection refers to question #18a d of the worksheet. [9]* Title: ________________________ Type of song: ________ Language: _______ Style: _____________ Texture: ____________ Is the counterpoint above or below the melody? ________ Rhythmic elements: ___________________ Melodic elements: _____ ______________ Your own observations: Remember to gather vocabulary words as you read and research these questions.

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467 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 (11/18/08) LISTENING LIST DUE NOV. 25 Please do not make any marks in the CD booklets. Remember to return each booklet to its CD case. Thank you. Please listen to the selected tracks in the order listed. WEEK TWELVE A) Masses Josquin des Prez (c. 1440 1521) (c. 9 mins.) The Tallis Scholars 1. Read th e CD booklet and complete the accompanying Worksheet 12A. 2. Listen to the selected tracks and answer the questions on Tracksheet 12A. Tracks: 1, 2, 7 B) Motets -Josquin des Prez (c. 10 mins.) La Chapelle Royale 1. Read the CD booklet (p. 5 6) and complete the accompanying Worksheet 12B. 2. Listen to the selected tracks and answer the questions on Tracksheet 12B. Tracks: 1, 5

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468 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 (11/18/08) LISTENING LIST due Nov. 2 5 WEEK TWEL VE (A) WORKSHEET p.1 1. There were how many Mass settings known based on the melody? ________ 2. How many did Josquin write?______ Name them in chronological order: _______________ _______________ 3. Name th e two earlier composers who also set this tune: _______________ _______________ 4. Name the two later composers mentioned who set this tune: _______________ _______________ 5. Define tessitura: ______________________ 6. What is the earliest reli able source of the melody and how many Masses based on the melody does it contain? ___________________________ ___________________________ 7. What does mean? _______________ 8. Define haubregon : _____________________ 9. Who is said to have been the original composer of this tune? _____________ _____ __ Who said that, and when? _______________

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469 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 (11/18/08) WEEK TWELVE (A) WORKSHEET p.2 10. List the 7 other c omposers mentioned who composed Masses: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 12. From the manuscript evidence, when did Josquin co mpose his two settings? _____________________________ 13. What does the title Super voces musicales indicate about the method of composition used? _____________________________ 14. What is it about this setting that causes it to sound more old fashioned than the second setting? ______________________ 15. How does he treat his voices that is atypical of the late renaissance music? _____________________________ _____________________________ 16. What does the Mass Sexti toni mean? ____ ___________ 17. What two features in this setting were borrowed from the earlier Super voces setting? _____________________________ _____________________________

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470 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 (11/18/08) WEEK TWELVE (A ) WORKSHEET p.3 _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ b. What modern day compose r is this procedure suggestive of? _______________________ Palestrina? _____________________________ _____________________________

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471 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD TH EORY PROJECT FALL 2008 (11/18/08) LISTENING LIST due Nov. 2 5 WEEK TWELVE (A) TRACKSHEET p.1 1) Follow along with the printed score in booklet p. 16 as you listen to the track a few times. On the score below, copy out the melody through m. 22 and label the notes by scale degrees. 2) Name of selection: ________ From which Mass: ________ How many sections: ________ In the space below, identify each section by the time, and describe Each se ction in terms of tempo, texture, and mood. (00 -1:00 -2:00, etc) 1 st section 2 nd section Final cadence: modal or tonal? _________ Final intervals? _______________ Were you able to hear/track the mel ody? _____

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472 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 (11/18/08) LISTENING LIST due Nov. 2 5 WEEK TWELVE (A) TRACKSHEET p.2 7) Name of selection: ________ From which Mass: ________ How many sections: ________ In the space below, identify each section by the time, and describe Each section in terms of tempo, texture, and mood. (00 -1:00 -2:00, etc) 1 st section 2 nd section Final cadence: modal or tonal? _________ Final intervals? _______________ Were you able to hear/track the melody? _____

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473 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 (11/18/08) LISTENING LIST due Nov. 2 5 WEEK TWELVE (B) MOTET WORKSHEET 1. In describing a mot et, much stylistic variety is found List at least 5 characteristics of the motet mentioned: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 2. What is the importance of Motet, track 5, according to the booklet? ____________________ ____________________

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474 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 (11/18/08) LISTENING LIST due Nov. 2 5 WEEK TWELVE (B) MOTET TRACKSHEET 1) a. Name of motet: ___________________ b. What compositional style is used to begin this motet? Circle correct answer: chordal homophony polyphonic imitation combination of both c. Analyze the motet by notating the times and describing the style and characteristics of each section: d. What happens @ 4:00? __________________ e. What is different at this point from the rest of the motet? ____________________________ 5) a. Name of motet: _______________ _______ b. What compositional style is used to begin this motet? Circle correct answer: chordal homophony polyphonic imitation combination of both c. Analyze the motet by notating the times and describing the style and character istics of each section:

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475 APPENDIX K TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE M ATERIALS: PLAY & SI NG/SING & PLAY Sight Reading/Prepared Piano List of Excerpts MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 S R/Prep Lists Prep No. Emphasis Assignment # -Resource used Introd uctory exerci s es Asst. #2 -Text, p. 3 6 (Introit, Kyrie, and Gloria chants) # 1 treble clef Asst. #4 -Text, p. 12 14 (Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Communion chants) bass clef Treasury, p. 6 ( Ambrosian chant ) # 2 treble clef Asst. #5 -Text, p. 15 (a responsory chant) bass clef Treasury, p. 8 ( Gallican chant ) # 3 treble clef Asst. #6 -Text, p.17 (antiphon) bass clef Treasury, p. 14 ( Mozarabic chant ) # 4 treble clef Asst. #7 -Text, p. 26 (troubadour song) bass clef Treasury, p. 24 ( Litur gical drama ) # 5 treble &bass clef Asst. #9 -Parrish & Ohl, p. 34 35 Estampie (2 part instrumental dance) # 6 treble clef Asst. #10 -Text, p. 31 ( minnelied ) # 7 bass clef Treasury, p. 31 (Troubadour Canso) # 8 treble clef Asst #11 -Text, p. 34 ( Prologo from Las Cantigas de Santa Maria ) # 9 bass clef Treasury, p. 36 ( Cantiga ) Th ese sources are listed fully in Appendix I Course References and Resources. :

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476 Sample of Practice Journal Record and Keyboard Testing Form s MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 PRACTICE JOURNAL RECORD and KEYBOARD TESTING SCHEDULE 9/18 & 9/19 ---10/2 & 10/3 9/18 -Keyboard Testing; Journals due 9/19 -Keyboard Testing; Journals due 9/18 9/19 9/20 9/21 9/22 9/23 9/24 9/25 9/26 9/27 9/28 9/29 9/30 10/1 10/2 -Keyboard Testing; Journals due 10/3 -Keyboard Testing; Journals due

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477 Sample Keyboard Tes t ing Signup Sheet MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 KEYBOARD TESTING #1 SIGNUP SHEET Thurs day, Oct. 2 10:30 10:40 10:50 11:00 11:10 11:20 11:30 11:40 11:50 12:00 3 Thursday students please sign up for a time one of the Friday times if you are available. Notice there are times after class offered as well. If you can make one of those times, please take that slot, as there may be students who can only take the test during the actual class time. All students must remain in the c lassroom f or the class period. You may practice quietly or catch up on other class work during this time. Friday, Oct. 3 10:40 10:50 11:00 11:10 11:20 11:30 11:40 11:50 12:00 12:10 ****If there are absolutely NO times listed above that you can make, then you MUST notify me in class on Tuesday, Sept. 30. Failure to make prior arrangements to take the test may result in a grade of zero.**** Practice journals will also be collected at this time and new ones handed out.

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478 Sample of Keyboard Testing Schedule Handout MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Keyboard Testing Schedule For Week 7 Oct. 16 17 1 octave modes hands together mm= ____ legato and staccato all three rhythms contrary and parallel motion Exercises Hanon #1 and #2 mm= ____ hands separate first, then together legato and staccato 2 octa ves Prepared piece Prep #5 -Estampie For Week 9 Oct. 30 31 2 octave modes hands separate mm= ____ legato and staccato all three rhythms **Add C mode (ionian)** **Add A mode (aeolian)** Exercises Hanon #3 and #4 mm= ____ hands separate if needed, then together legato and staccato 2 octaves Prepared piece TBA For Week 11 Nov. 13 14 2 octave modes hands together mm= ____ legato and staccato all three rhythms Exercises Hanon #5 and #6 mm= ____ hands separate if needed, then together legato and staccato 2 octaves Prepared piece: TBA

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479 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Keyboard Testing Schedule For Week 9 Oct. 30 31 Minimum requirements 6 MODES: 2 octaves; hands separate l egato mm=126 (6 mins.) Add the Ionian (C) and the Aeolian (A) modes Play in each of the three rhythms for Modes #1, #2, #3. Ascending and descending At 126 it takes 1 minute per mode for one hand to play the three rhythmic patterns. You will be a sked for 3 of the 6 modes. EXERCISES: 1 octave; hands together mm=126 (3 mins.) Hanon #1 (30 secs.) Hanon #2 (30 secs.) 1 octave; hands separate Hanon #3 (1 min.) Hanon #4 (1 min.) PREPARED PIECES: (5 mins.) Prep #5 Estampie (3 mins.) mm=100 hands together Prep #8 (1 min.) Prep #9 (1 min.) Total time: 14 mins. *Practice Journals are due at Testing time. *Use the Practice Journal form that has been passed out in class. Only those forms will be accepted for a grad e.

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480 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Keyboard Testing Schedule Handout -October 21 Listed below are the items that were not played or not passed at the previous keyboard testing. In order to receive passing grades for these you must make arrangements with the instructor for a time outside class time to complete these requirements. This must be completed by Nov. 21, no exceptions. Anything not passed by then will receive a zero. *BRING THIS SHEET WITH YOU TO THE TESTING* Name: It ems to be completed:

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481 Homework Checklist LISTEN ANALYSIS READ 1A Sacred Women #1 Chs. 1 2 1B Voices of Angels #2 Chs. 3 4 1C Santiago/Codex #3 Chs. 5 6 #4 Chs. 7 8 9 2A Perotin #5 2B Lionheart #6 JOURNALS # 7 thru 10/3 3A Canto Gregoriano #8 thru 10/17 3B Canto Gregoriano #9 thru 10/31 3C Magnus Wrksht #10 thru 11/14 3C Magnus Trksht #11 thru 12/5 #12 4A Soul of Chant Wrksht #13 VOCAB 4A MassI/II Trksht Wks 1 4 4B Ru ssian Chant Wrksht Wks 5 8 4B Russian Chant Trksht Wks 9 12 5A Celtic Wrksht WRITE 5A Celtic Trksht 1.1 5B Distant Love Wrksht 1.2 C.F./CPT 5B Distant Love Trksht DEFG: EFG cpt above 5C Bella Donna Wrksht Intervals in mode AC cpt above 5C Bella Donna Trksht Modes #1 EFGAC cpt below Modes #2 6A Hungarian Wrksht Modes #3 6A Hungarian Trksht AC: Intervals in mode 7A Tydings Wrksht Modes #1 7A Tydings Trksht Modes #2 Modes #3 12A Jos quin Wrksht 12A Josquin Trksht

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482 APPENDIX L TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: WRITE Theory/Comp osition (Comp) Notebook Requirements Theory Notebook: Technique/Exercises Ex. 1.1 Ex. 1.2

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483 Theory Notebook: Technique/ Modes/3 stave format (on e oc tave) Modes #1 -Even rhythm Modes #2 -Tonic pause Modes #3 -Dotted rhythm

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484 Theory Notebook: Technique/Exercises/Hanon Hanon #1 Hanon #2

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485 Theory Notebook: Technique/Exercises/Hanon Hanon #3 Hanon #4

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486 Theory Notebook: Interva ls within the m ode

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487 S amples of Analysis Assignments Assignments #1 #4 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ANALYSIS Intervals #1 (treble clef) Indicate only the number of the interval 2, 3, etc. Do not indicate the quality (maj or, minor, etc.)

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488 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ANALYSIS Intervals # 2 ( b ass clef) Indicate only the number of the interval 2, 3, etc. Do not indicate the quality (major, minor, etc.)

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489 Assignments #5 #8 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ANALYSIS Intervals # 5 (treble clef) Write only the number of the interval 2, 3, etc. below the staff. Do not indicate the quality (major, minor, etc.) Write the names of the notes above the staff from lowest to hig hest. Include the accidentals

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490 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ANALYSIS Intervals # 6 ( b ass clef) Write only the number of the interval 2, 3, etc. below the staff. Do not indicate the quality (major, minor, etc.) Write the names of the notes above the staff from lowest to highest. Include the accidentals

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491 Assignment #9 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ANALYSIS Intervals # 9 (Estampie) due 10/7 Indicate only the number of the interval 2, 3, etc. betwee n the two parts. Do not indicate the quality (major, minor, etc.) A two page piece. Students were asked to prepare for playing as well as analyze, and therefore needed to make their own copy for the analysis to be handed in. See Assignment #9 from 1 0/2 10/3.

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492 Assignment s #10 #13 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ANALYSIS Intervals # 10 (soprano/bass) due 10/9 10/10 Indicate the number of the interval between ONLY the soprano and the bass line. Write the number abov e the treble clef.

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493 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 ANALYSIS Intervals # 11 (soprano/bass) due 10/ 14 Indicate the number of the interval between ONLY the soprano and the bass line. Write the number above the treble clef.

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494 ANALYSIS ASSIGNMENTS Hymnaire de Christian Science French edition (hymnal) Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1898. 1948. Hymn Assignment Mode type Intervals #1 #30 #6 treble clef only D Intervals #2 #30 #6 b ass clef only D Intervals #3 #2 #7 treble clef only E Intervals #4 #2 #7 bass clef only E Intervals #5 #19 #8 treble clef only F Intervals #6 #19 #8 bass clef only F Intervals #7 #32 #9 treble clef only G Intervals #8 # 32 #9 bass clef only G Intervals #9 S R/Prep #5 #9 sop/bass lines F ionian (estampie ) Intervals #10 #30 #10 sop/bass lines D Intervals #11 #13 #11 sop/bass lines E Analysis #12 #5 #12 sop/bass lines F Analysis #13 #58 #13 sop/bas s lines G All of the written Analysis assignments except #9 were taken from the hymnal listed above.

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495 LISTEN Worksheets and Tracksheets The LISTEN: Worksheets and Tracksheets involved the Hear/Listen, Write; and Read taxonomy objectives. All of th e Worksheets and Tracksheets are listed in Appendix J MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST DUE SEPT. 30 no exceptions. Please do not make any marks in the CD booklets. The Worksheet and the Tracksheet will be handed in next Tuesday, Sept. 30. When they are returned they should go in the Listening Lists sections of your notebooks. Thank you. WEEK THREE C) The Age of Cathedrals, Music from the Magnus Liber Organi (c. 30mins) 1. Read the CD booklet (in the language of choice!) p. 5 8. 2. Answer the questions on the accompanying Magnus worksheet. 3. Listen to the following tracks and follow along with the texts in Latin, in the booklet, p. 25. 4. Listen t o the tracks in the order listed and use the accompanying Tracksheet to record the answers to the questions as well as for your own notes. 5. List for each entry the composer and his dates and also which function the piece fulfil ls (see question #13 on the Worksheet). 6. As you make your observations, remember to consider: beginning intervals; type of chant; textures (solo vs. 2 part); melodic cadences; ending cadences re do, ti do, sol do; range; use o f dissonance; form; tempo; repetition and imitation. Use checklist. Tracks: 1, 11; 14, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 15.

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496 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS WORKSHEET p.1 2. Who wrote it? ________________________ 3. What country and which century is this music from? _____________________________ 4. What happened in this country during this century? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 5. Where did most of this occur? __________________ 6. Describe the role and the i mportance of the Church and its cathedrals during this time. _____________________________ _______ ______________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 7. How did this influence the cathedral musicians? _____________________________ _____________________________ ________________________ _____

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497 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST DUE SEPT. 30 WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS TRACKSHEET p.1 As you listen to the selected tracks, answer the following questions and add your own notes in the space provided a nd on the back of this sheet. This sheet will be returned to you for inclusion in your Listening List section of your notebook. [1] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence: Add your own notes : [11] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence: Form: Add your own notes:

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498 History of Music Outlines Example of suggested outline form of the first nine chapters, as listed in the HarperCo llins College Outline s Series History of Western Music 5 th ed., 1991, p. v. This source is listed in Appendix I. History of Western Music Outline Chapter 1 Introduction Part One Antiquity Chapter 2 Antiquity Part Two The Middle Ages (800 1400) Chapte r 3 Introduction to the Middle Ages Chapter 4 Gregorian Chant Chapter 5 Secular Song Chapter 6 Early Polyphony Chapter 7 Ars Antiqua Chapter 8 The Fourteenth Century Chapter 9 Instruments and Dances

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499 Sample of Vocabulary List Form MUS 4905 Keyboa rd Theory Project Fall 2008 VOCABULARY LIST WEEKS 1 4 (due Sept. 30) Include terms from class discussions, readings, listening lists, also composers, documents, genres, stylistic devices, etc. You must list at least 15 items. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

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500 APPENDIX M TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE M ATERIALS: READ L ISTEN: Worksheets and Tracksheets The LISTEN: Worksheets and Tracksheets involved the Hear/Listen, Write; and Read taxonomy objectives. Al l of the Worksheets and Tracksheets are listed in Appendix J MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST DUE SEPT. 30 no exceptions. Please do not make any marks in the CD bo oklets. The Worksheet and the Tracksheet will be handed in next Tuesday, Sept. 30. When they are returned they should go in the Listening Lists sections of your notebooks. Thank you. WEEK THREE C) The Age of Cathedrals, Music from the Magnus Liber Org ani (c. 30mins) 1. Read the CD booklet (in the language of choice!) p. 5 8. 2. Answer the questions on the accompanying Magnus worksheet. 3. Listen to the following tracks and follow along with the texts in Latin, in the booklet, p. 25. 4. L isten to the tracks in the order listed and use the accompanying Tracksheet to record the answers to the questions as well as for your own notes. 5. List for each entry the composer and his dates and also which function the piece fulfills (see quest ion #13 on the Worksheet). 6. As you make your observations, remember to consider: beginning intervals; type of chant; textures (solo vs. 2 part); melodic cadences; ending cadences re do, ti do, sol do; range; use of dissonance; form; te mpo; repetition and imitation. Use checklist. Tracks: 1, 11; 14, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 15.

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501 MUS 4905 KEYBOARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS WORKSHEET p.1 ____________ 2. Who wrote it? ________________________ 3. What country and which century is this music from? _____________________________ 4. What happened in this country during this century? _____________________________ _____________________ ________ _____________________________ 5. Where did most of this occur? __________________ 6. Describe the role and the i mportance of the Church and its cathedrals during this time. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 7. How did this influence the cathedral musicians? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

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502 MUS 4905 KEYB OARD THEORY PROJECT FALL 2008 LISTENING LIST DUE SEPT. 30 WEEK THREE (C) MAGNUS TRACKSHEET p.1 As you listen to the selected tracks, answer the following questions and add your own notes in the space provided and on the back of this sheet. This sheet will be returned to you for inclusion in your Listening List section of your notebook. [1] Title: Composer/dates: Function: Texture: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence: Add your own notes: [11] Title: Co mposer/dates: Function: Texture: Cadences; ending intervals: melodic cadence: Form: Add your own notes:

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503 History of Music Outlines Example of suggested outline form of the first nine chapters, as listed in the HarperCollins College Outline s History of Western Music 5 th ed., 1991, p. v. This source is listed in Appendix I. History of Western Music Outline Chapter 1 Introduction Part One Antiquity Chapter 2 Antiquity Part Two The Middle Ages (800 1400) Chapter 3 Introduction to the Middle Ages Chapter 4 Gregorian Chant Chapter 5 Secular Song Chapter 6 Early Polyphony Chapter 7 Ars Antiqua Chapter 8 The Fourteenth Century Chapter 9 Instruments and Dances

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504 Sample of Vocabulary List Form MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 VOCABULARY LIST WEEKS 1 4 (due Sept. 30) Include terms from class discussions, readings, listening lists, also composers, documents, genres, stylistic devices, etc. You must list at least 15 items. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

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505 APPENDIX N TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: COMPOSE Cantus firmus melodies/1 st species counterpoint These cantus firmus melodies were taken from the Fux book listed in Appendix I. The students were asked to write a counte rpoint both above and below the fixed melody cantus firmus in D mode (dorian) cantus firmus in E mode (phrygian) cantus firmus in F mode (lydian) cantus firmus in G mode (mixolydian) cantus firmus in A mode (aeolian) cantus firmus in C mode (Ionian)

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506 APPENDIX O TAXONOMY OBJECTIVE MATERIALS: PERFORM The Performance objective was realized through the S R/Prep piano pieces which were included in the Keyboard Testing portion of the Play & Sing objective.

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507 APPENDIX P FINAL EXAM MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.1 FINAL EXAM Aural Skills Intervals 1. Identify quality of each interval and construct the interval above the given note: 2. Identify quality of each interval and construct the int erval below the given note: 3. Identify quality of each interval and construct the interval above the given note: 4. Identify quality of each interval and construct the interval below the given note: 5. Identify quality of each interva l and construct the interval above the given note:

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508 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.2 FINAL EXAM 6. Identify quality of each interval and construct the interval below the given note: Aural Skills 3 not e motives Construct from the given note: Aural Skills Modes Name the mode played. 1. ____________________ 2. ____________________ 3. ____________________ 4. ____________________ 5. ____________________ 6. ____________________ 7. ____________________ 8. ____________________

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509 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.3 FINAL EXAM Aural Skills Melodic Dictation treble clef The melody will be played 6 times. Use the space below the staff for workspace. Aural Skills Melodic Dictation b ass clef The melody will be played 6 times. Use the space below the staff for workspace.

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510 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.4 FINAL EXAM ANALYSIS Intervals #1 treble clef 1. Write only the number of the interval 2, 3, etc. below the staff. Indicate the quality (P1, m2, M2, P4, etc.) 2. Write the names of the notes above the staff from lowest to highest. Include the accidentals. ANALYSIS Inte rvals #2 bass clef 1. Write only the number of the interval 2, 3, etc. below the staff. Indicate the quality (P1, m2, M2, P4, etc.) 2. Write the names of the notes above the staff from lowest to highest. Include the accidentals.

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511 MUS 490 5 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.5 FINAL EXAM ANALYSIS Intervals #3 soprano/bass 1. Indicate the number of the interval between ONLY the soprano and the bass line. Write the number between the staves. 2. Write the name o f the soprano line notes above the treble staff. 3. Write the name of the bass line notes below the bass staff. CANTUS FIRMUS/COUNTERPOINT 1. Add a counterpoint ABOVE and BELOW the cantus firmus. 2. Mark the intervals between each counterpoint and the cantus firmus.

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512 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.6 FINAL EXAM A. Short answer Identify and define. Each question is worth 0 3pts. Extra credit questions are 0 2pts each and are at the end of Sect ion C 1. mode -2. scale -3. final -4. reciting tone -5. melody -6. rhythm -7. harmony -8. chant -9. monophony -10. polyphony -11. interval -12. melodic interval -13. harmonic interval -

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513 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.7 FINAL EXAM 14. consonance -15. dissonance -16. cadence -17. nonmetric -18. conjunct -19. disjunct -20. mass -21. a cappella 22. tenor -23. rhythm ic modes -24. cantus firmus -25. punctum contra punctum -26. organum -27. discant style -28. conductus -

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514 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.8 FINAL EXAM B. Short answer (86+ points) 1. Name the 4 auth entic modes, their number, range, final and reciting tone. ________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________ ______ _______________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________ ______ 2. Name 3 ancient Greek writers on music. _____________________________________________________ 3. List the 4 styles/kinds of Chant and describe. ______________________ __________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________ ______ 4. List 4 of the 6 types of Chant. ________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________ ______ 5. List 5 characteristics of Gregorian Chant ________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________ ______ ______________________________________________________________

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515 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p. 9 FINAL EXAM 6. List, in order, the 5 parts of the Ordinary of the Mass: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 7. List 5 characteristics of Medieval Secular Song: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ __________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. List 3 types of organum, and briefly describe them: ____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ ___________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 9. List 3 Medieval theoretical documents and author (if known) : _________________________________________ ___________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 10. List the dates for the following periods: Antiquity ____________________ Ars Nova _____________ _______ Medieval ____________________ Renaissance __________________ Ars Antiqua _________________

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516 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.10 FINAL EXAM 11. List and label the perfect and imperfect consonances: perfect : imperfect: 12. List the dissonant intervals: ___________________________________ 13. What are the 3 things a composer should know? _____________________________________________________________ 14. List, in order of priority, the 4 motion s of voice leading: _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ hen constructing a vocal line as counterpoint to a cantus firmus: __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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517 MUS 4905 Keyboar d Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.11 FINAL EXAM C. Short answer who, what, where (30 pts.) Each of the 10 questions is worth 0 3 points each. Extra credit questions will follow this section and will count for 0 2 points eac h. List the significance/contribution of the following personalities, including dates and geographical centers. 1. Hildegard -2. Leonin -3. Perotin -4. Pope Gregory -5. Pythagoras --7. St. Martial Abbey -8. Notre Dame School -h omme arm -10. Josquin des Prez -

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518 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.12 FINAL EXAM Extra Credit (0 2 points each) Identify/define 1. Doctrine of Ethos -2. trito ne -3. Troubadours -4. Trouv res -5. motet -6. ambitus -7. requiem mass -8. voice crossing -9. antiphonal -10. inversion -11. imitation -12. vielle -13. estampie -

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519 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 /p.13 FINAL EXAM Extra Credit (0 2 points each) Identify/define 14. tessitura -15. ostinato -16. cantigo de amigo -17. burden -18. carol -

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520 APPENDIX Q STUDY GUIDE AND VOCABULARY LIST MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Projec t Fall 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p.1 (from the Harper Collins College Outlines History of Western Music. 1991) CH. 1 -Music and the literary arts Style form melody rhythm harmony texture dynamics Areas of study in m usic history (9) CH. 2 -Antiquity (prehistoric -c. 200AD) timeline 4 ways to gather information Monophony Improvisation Powers of music Greek music Greek derivation: music, tetrachord, lyric, rhythm, polyphony, hymn Cult of Apollo (pluc ked string instruments) Cult of Dionysus (double pipe reed instrument) Doctrine of Ethos Aristotle & Plato Modes Conjunct (order) Disjunct (order) Rhythmic modes Writers of ancient Greek music (know 3 of the 7 listed) Roman music & develop ment of brass instruments Hebrew music Source Psalms Responsorial Antiphonal Psalter/psalteries

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521 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p.2 CH. 3 -Middle Ages /Medieval Period (800 1400) tim eline Pope Gregory Charlemagne Treatises/theorists Notre Dame, Paris Leonin & Perotin Speculum musicae Gregorian chant Growth of polyphony Improvisation -composition -notation Secular & Sacred Feudal courts vs Catholic Church Instrumental music/stylized d ances/folk music Ars Nova CH. 4 -Gregorian Chant Plainsong/plainchant 3 sources of chant 6 types of chant Define characteristics: (9) monophonic modal A cappella nonmetric conjunct range language rhythms neumatic notation The 8 Church Modes & mod e number a uthentic modes p lagal modes Final Reciting tone 4 other modes (A & C) Mixed modes Function of chant Text setting 4 types of chant: syllabic neumatic melismatic psalmodic

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522 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fa ll 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p.3 (CH. 4 cont.) 2 parts of Roman mass 5 sections of the Ordinary Identify composer of mass Requiem mass Sequence Trope CH. 5 -Secular Song 9 characteristics compare to Gregorian chant performers jongleurs (Fr.) Gaukler ( Ger.) Gleemen (Eng.) French secular song Trouv 1300) Troubadours (s. Fr./fl. later than trouv res) German secular song Minnesingers (12 th 14 th / 1100 1300) Meistersingers (15 th 16 th / 1400 1500) Latin secular song Conductus CH. 6 -Early Polyphony (c. 9 th 14 th /800 1300) Heterophony Gymel ( cantus gemellus ) Organum Parallel organum v ox principalis v ox organalis Free organum Melismatic organum aka florid, St. Martial organum purum teno r ( tenere, Latin) 6 theoretical documents know 3 3 Manuscripts

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523 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p.4 CH. 7 -Ars A ntiqua (mid 12 th 14 th /c.1150 1300) Further development of polyphony Paris p rominent composers Church influence independent secular forms Characteristics 2 part writing 3 part writing 4 part writing register voice crossing imitation rhythmic/melodic independence c antus firmus/firmi Meter t e mpus perfectum Rhythmic modes Harmonic intervals and use of Use of instruments Genres Notre Dame organum (fl. 1150 1200) discant style c l ausula o r ganum duplum o r ganum triplum o r ganum quadruplum Polyphonic conductus (fl. 1200 1250) Characteristics Motet (fl. 1250 1 300) m ot m otetus in cipit compositional style 1400) hoquet/hoketus 4 composers names & dates 4 manuscripts

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524 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p.5 CH. 8 The Fourteen th Century 7 characteristics *Landini cadence (fl. 1300 French Ars Nova Formes fixes Ballade Rondeau Virelai Isorhythmic motet Machaut (ca. 1300 1377) Messe de Notre Dame Philippe de Vitry (1291 1361) Ars nova trea tise Italian Trecento Madrigal Caccia Ballata Francesco Landini (ca. 1325 1397) CH. 9 Instruments & Dances Bowed -vielles Plucked -lute psaltery Wind -recorders shawm Organs -portative organ positive organ Robertsbridge Codex (ca. 1325) Use s of instruments Dance forms e stampie isstanpitta, stampita danse royale saltarello ductia rota, rotta, rotte

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525 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p. 1 (from Listening List Worksheets and Track sheets) WEEK 1A, 1B, 1C Kassia (810 -?) Hildegard von Bingen (1098 1179) Codex cadence chant WEEK 2A, 2B Leonin (ca. 1175 Perotin (ca. 1183? 1238?) th c.) Difference in chant style between Weeks One and Two interval consonance dissonance meter dynamics melodic contour range (ambitus, Lat.) tessitura timbre conductus (associated w/which composer?) organum discant style (associated w/which composer?) St. Martial @ Limoges Notre Dame School @ Paris 3 things a composer m ust know Perotin & Steve Reich significance rhythmic modes

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526 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p. 2 (from Listening List Worksheets and Tracksheets) WEEK 3A, 3B, 3 C Mass Requiem mass 5 parts of the Ordinary mass Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei ostinato texture refrain verse 4 motions in voice leading contrary oblique similar parallel (direct) Magnus liber organi & composer Non music factors that influe nce music in composition, performance, notation Compositional devices used imitation, repetition, inversion, etc. difference between St. Martial Abbey & Notre Dame Cathedral musicians Santiago de Compostela cathedral significance WEEK 4A, 4B Translate a nd list celebration associated with the mass: Lux et orgo Fons bonitatis De angelis Cum jubilo Orbis factor Define: Kyrie eleison Credo Sanctus Agnus Dei hymn pater noste r (Lat.) miserere nobis (Lat.)

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527 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fa ll 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p. 3 (from Listening List Worksheets and Tracksheets) WEEK 4A, 4B, (cont.) Compare Russian Medieval chants to one heard previously: note values cadences bass voice range basic intervals used WEE K 5A, 5B, 5C 5A peregrints (Fr.) pilgrimages impact of Celtic culture on Europe common tongue language in Medieval Europe 3 kinds of music performed in pre Christian Celtic society how music was preserved/passed on in early medieval Ireland & Scotland V ie lle (Fr.) Liber Hymnorum (Lat.) 5B Troubadours who, what, when, where Jaufr Troubadour who wrote love songs all about unattained/unattainable love Melodies are varied within large scale repetition AAB form Known for his cantigo de amigo [song of a (boy)friend] Use of refrains Parallelism in 2 voice couplets Much use of melodic repetition in succeeding stanzas, initial portions of lines are repeated with end (rhyming) word changed use of instruments song cycle prelude postlude

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528 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p. 4 (from Listening List Worksheets and Tracksheets) 5C (Fr.) chansons de toile (Fr.) c hansons de femmes (Fr.) gurdy] carol Trouv res who, what, when, where estampie WEEK 6A Hungarian medieval chant 16 th how was music saved plainchant use as early as 11 th c. in monasteries, collegiate & cathedral schools early plainchant models 3 influences Fr., Ger., Ital. Specific musical characteristics ornamental flourishes added to both new & existing works wide intervallic leaps pentatonic tendencies extended cadences developed specific Hungarian chant notation as result of merging foreign notations Polyphonic singing began in later Middle Ages, 14 15 th c. Other European influences: England, and neighbor ing countries WEEK 7A Medieval English carols & motets motet carol & its original form How monks influenced present day Christmas celebrations carols & changes made to them St. Francis of Assisi, 1224 burden New musical poetic form of the English carol Chorus/refrain/burden alternates with soloist/small group They sing contrasting but closely related melodies.

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529 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p. 5 (from Listening List Worksheets and Trackshee ts) 7A cont Differences between a)common folks carol and b)those composed by learned monks a) simple, monophonic melodies rocking, irregular rhythms lyrics in vernacular (not Latin ) suggestive of training in counterpoint & theology lyrics all in Latin Antiphoner m atin (Fr.) Old Hall Manuscript English discant -special technique used improvisational practice adding 2 parts in close counterpoint above given melody historical significance of English discant (in what other country was there an unprecedented flowering of arti stic life already discussed?) was taken up by composers on the European Continent & became important step in evolution of Western music WEEK 12A Josquin des Pr s (c. 1440 1521) Palestrina (1529 1594) (Fr.) masses -2 other co mposers 5 characteristics of motets chordal homophony polyphonic imitation haubregon setting Super voces musicales method of composition used indicated in title old fashioned sett ing mathematical framework Sexti toni 2 borrowed features from Super voces treatment of the melody in this later mass compositional style suggests methods of Philip Glass

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530 MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Final Exam Study Guide and Vocabulary List p.6 Gradus ad Parnassum ) cantus firmus counterpoint 1 st species counterpoint perfect consonance imperfect consonance dissonances perfection/relaxa tion vs harmonious intervals General rules to add counterpoint: 4 motions in voice leading in order of priority: contrary, oblique, similar, parallel use more imperfect than perfect consonances after beginning and before cadence no augmented, dimin ished, chromatic intervals allowed use melodic leaps no more than a fifth leaps of a m6 th or 8 th okay in upward direction no voice crossing keep intervals between the two voices a 10 th at most avoid registers too high or too low avoid successive ski ps in the same direction must begin and end in the mode Rules of adding counterpoint above cantus firmus beginning interval must be perfect consonance ending cadence (M6 in next to last bar/7 1) Rules of adding counterpoint below cantus firmus begin ning interval must be in the mode (P8 or unis) ending cadence (m3 in next to last bar/2 1)

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531 APPENDIX R QUOTE F O R THE DAY MUS 4905 Keyboard Theory Project Fall 2008 Quote for the Day Lesson 2, Week One ll you have to do is touch the right key (Johann Sebastian Bach) (Irving Berlin) Lesson 3, Week Two (Leonard Bernstein) Lesson 4, Week Two (Josh Billings) Lesson 6, Week Four (Igor Stravinsky) Lesson 7, Week Four night to write (Benjamin Britten) Lesson 10, Week Six being said, for, if something were being said, the sounds would be given the shapes of (John Cage) Lesson 11, Week Six (Aaron Copland) Lesson 13, Week Seven (Albert Einstein)

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532 Lesson 15, Week Eight (George G ershwin) Lesson 17, Week Nine (Jascha Heifetz) First to discoura ge the composer from writing any more and secondly to remind myself how much I appreciate Beethoven (Jascha Heifetz) Lesson 18, Week Ten -(Ulysses S. Grant) Lesson 19, Week Ten (Charles Darwin) Lesson 20, Week Eleven (Woody Guthrie) (George Jellinek) Lesson 21, Week Twelve (Victor Hugo) Lesson 22, Week Twelve (Goddard Lieberson) Lesson 23, Week Thirteen (Hedda Hopper) (Ernest Neuman) Les son 24, Week Fourteen (Plato)

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533 Lesson 25, Week Fourteen c omplete orchestra. Therefore respect every musician in his proper plac (Robert Schumann) Lesson 26, Week Fifteen is (Oscar Wilde)

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534 APPENDIX S TIMELINE OF COMPREHE NSIVE MUSICIANSHIP M OVEMENT ORIGINS 1959 196 2 Young Composers Project (YCP) Thirty one composers placed in public school systems 1963 Contemporary Music Project for Creativity in Music Education (CMP) Sixteen seminars and workshops at colleges nationwide 1963 1968 YCP renamed Composers in Public Schools program Forty six additional composers placed in public school systems 1965 Northwestern Seminar Reevaluate and improve music teacher education Principles of Comprehensive Musicianship (CM) established 1966 1968 Institutes for Mu sic in Contemporary Education (IMCE) Thirty six institutions (thirty two collegiate) nationwide Develop ways to implement CM principles from Northwestern Seminar 1967 Eastman Workshop Evaluate IMCE experimental program 1969 1973 CMP final projects in CM programs Three projects -composers in public schools, comprehensive m usicianship, complementary activities (including forums on CM)

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535 APPENDIX T JOINT COMMITTEE MEMBERS LIST 1963 Norman Dello Joio, chairman, New York City R. Bernard Fitz gerald, Project director Grant Beglarian, Project assistant director Vanett Lawler, executive secretary, MENC Foundation Ross Lee Finney, School of Music, University of Michig an, Ann Arbor Richard Franko Goldman, New York City Vittorio Giannini, Juilliard School of Music Howard Halgedahl, director of music, Winfield (Kansas) Public Schools Helen Hosmer, director, Crane Dept. of Music, SUNY, Potsdam (State University of New York) Wiley E. Housewright, School of Music, FSU (The Florida State University) George Howerton, dean, School of Music, Northwestern University Peter Mennin, president, Juilliard School of Music Mel Powell, School of Music, Yale University, New Haven Connecticut Ralph E. Rush, head of music education department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles Roger Sessions, Princeton, New Jersey Halsey Stevens, School of Music, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Mary Val March, San Diego California

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536 APPENDIX U NORTHWESTERN SEMINAR CM PRINC IPLES APRIL 1 965 As printed in the CMP 2, 1965, p. 19: 1. The content and orientation of musicianship training should serve all music degree students, regardless of their eventual specialization 2. Comprehensive musicianship training incorporates conceptual knowledge with technical skills to develop the capacity to experience fully and the ability to communicate the content of a musical work. 3. The courses in musicianship training should be designed to synthesize knowledge and acquired in all other musical studies. 4. All musicianship studies should relate contemporary thought and practices with those of former times. 5. Musicianship courses should be considered as evolving and open ende d disciplines. The student must be given the means to seek and deal with materials outside and beyond his formal education in music. 6. The relevance of musicianship training to professional studies should be made clear to the student. The clarity of p urpose may be achieved if musicianship training is based 7. Courses constituting comprehensive musicianship training are directly related to each other. The study of any specific subject matter need not be confined to a given course but approached in several ways in other complementary disciplines.

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537 APPENDIX V FACULTY OF THE EASTMAN WORKSHOP JUNE 1969 Grant Beglarian, General Chairman Samuel Adler, Workshop Chairman Stefan Bauer Mengelberg Mannes College of Music Warren Benson Eastman School of Music Calvin Bower University of Tennessee Ingolf Dahl University of Southern California Allen Forte Yale University Robert Gauldin Eastman School of Music Vernon Kliewe r Indiana University Jan LaRue New York University Martin Mailman North Texas State University Donal Michalsky California State College, Fullerton William J. Mitchell, Reporter for the Workshop SUNY, Binghamton Arrand Parsons Northwestern University William Thomson Indiana University Robert Trotter University of Oregon Monte Tubb University of Oregon David Ward Steinman San Diego State College

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5 38 APPENDIX W DR. CHARLES R. HOFFER INTERVIEW Personal Intervie w with Dr. Charles R. Hoffer, renown music educator and pedagogue, and original participant in the April 1965 Northwestern Seminar. Interviewer was the author of the present document and will be identified as C. Dr. Hoffer will be identified as Dr. H. Th University of Florida where he teaches graduate courses in Music Education. INTERVIEW C: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer and I are here today discussing the Northwestern Seminar of April 1965, in which Dr. Hoffer was an original participant. Dr. H.: The president (of MENC) at the times was Paul Van Bodegraven. He headed Music Education at NYU in New York and was preparing the 1966 national MENC which was going to be in Kansas City. I was assigned to come up with three or four high school special interest things. I was then at Clayton, suburban St. Louis, a school because he was up there and a co uple others of music education, but most of the seen the list of participants, like Wiley Hitchcock -Arthur Berger who was sort of a composer type and then the whole participants So the emphasis was, the big push was -we wanted to integrate and the idea of CM so that you tied in what was taught in theory, what was taught in music history, what was taught in literature, what was taught in the applied music studio so that they all could kind of synergy that idea. That we theory was split, traditionally, into ear training, keyboard, part writing, and so on. And a lot of times kids taking theo ry were getting two or three grades for different aspects of theory. The history was really history starting with the Greek hymn to the sun and into the kitara and that whole thing, and it had a very limited relationship, or at least they felt that way, and. Usually the applied music lesson was totally separate. You could be working on a concerto, and it was just, get the concerto right the notes and so on, with ve ry little understanding and not applying what was happening harmonically in the concerto or where it fit in the literature so their push was this highly integrated undergraduate program and this is what basically they were advocating. And they wanted to push masterworks all the time. Some of these people were composers but Bill Thompson

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539 who headed theory at Indiana at that time . but I remember him being there and Paul Harder from Michigan State and the whole list of make any presentation. I was just more or less a listener and sat around and discu ssed and so on couple days. And, they made a series of recommendation, which you And at the end we discussed and agreed that there was very little in there to disagree hat we covered. Now what questions do you have? C: teacher training and competency in the classroom. Was that discussed at all? Dr. H: Well, these folks tend to think of it in a much broader sense know, some of the graduates were going to teach college. Dr. Sain got a doctorate in composition or electronic music that as being a the Northwestern Seminar. C: Dr. H: W ell, people would present papers and then there would be discussions. We had split into discussion groups. They would come up with things they wanted in the report and we would be talking about them and you kind of got the feeling that whoever was secret ary responsible for that section was going to inflect, introduce a lot of their C: Was there any one principle that you advocated or championed? Dr. H: final report. C: So they just sent the report, saying, here it is. Dr. H: Yes.

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540 C: Was it accurate ? Dr. H: Yes, it was pretty accurate, I think. C: I also read that there was some dissention maybe at the conference or maybe Dr. H: We had some people take themselves very seriously. And the manner in which Berger being -luable professional life here and I think some of it was just misunderstandings and some people just had big egos C: d a name (laughter). Dr. H: There were a lot of strong personalities and they had a lot of professional seriously too seriously. C: kind of progress or with the advancement of CM programs since then? Do you use the CM approach in your textbooks a nd music education programs? Dr. H: Remember, the MENC started the CMP that Dello Joio had put in with the Ford Foundation. It ran about fifteen years, 1957 1973. The first five years were pretty much just putting composers out in the field. The CM pus h came with this Northwestern Seminar. The man who was later was dean at Cincinnati, Bob Werner, had been at Arizona and I think he was at Cincinnati. Actually, I think he was a band director at school band program, but in a very active extremely advanced program a tremendous, big high school, tremendous music groups. And so he gave the push for what was going on in colleges and that really ran from 1963 And they funded other workshops at Northwestern, most of them manifestations that came out of the results of Northwestern. The music educators put in, I think, $50,000 a year, which, for those days, was a lot. It was 10% of the cost, and the rest came from the Ford Foundation. A man named McNeil Lowrey they worked with. They always had the idea be in something that would be going for 50 years. Ten was long for them. So they did it.

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541 They did some other things and some were workshop things. Sometimes maybe the CMP probably existed in small colleges, where you have fewer theory pe ople, fewer history people, where they could actually work together. They knew each other. Indiana talked a lot about trying this, and they never really did. And the basic rd to do history when you go jumping around. C: I agree! (laughter) Dr. H: So the theory people really followed the Thomson theory books, Christ, Malone, Thomson the five authors. C: The Brandt? Dr. H: Cleaver, a couple others they started with melodic line. This was different. And Prentice Hall published I think they went wise, real successful. They saw people were still using the old start with the chords, build a chord, that stuff very popular, but their approach mainly was to stick with that and that was their impediment t The school, other than San Diego, that I k now about was Crane, up at Potsdam, There were 26 of them. Two of them had major s in music. One was Crane Institute up in Potsdam, NY. The other was down at Dunkirk -Fredonia. If you were going to be a music teacher you went to the State college. You had those two choices. They even went as far as to try to integrate conducting, which, in a sense, makes They said anything terribly well. They started from the higher up courses with the Juilliard L & M project. Peter taught in that program, and the the whole first year, maybe the second year, too. They just did the best they could. They tried tying in liter program that type of

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542 that approach and in with music history literature. So it was kind of whose class you too k as maybe where the emphasis was. Now, can any one person do a really good job doing music history, literature? f. C: started it in 1947. Dr. H: . six years? They did call it the L & M program, literature and materials. Som e of the people who taught there were there (at Northwestern) and they had said . i t sounded like, 1,000 miles away, that we did. But when you were there it was whose class were you in. C: So what do you think about that, because what you just said is what, two years ago, as part of my dissertation work, is a course I constructed, on my own as a keyboard theory class, trying to do just that. I started in the modal period and I did what you just described you know, starting in the modal period and in keyboard what I gave them instead of major /minor scales -they practiced the modes. Dr. H: Sure. C: pianists. Not one of them had a lick of keyboard training, whic h I found out after the class had started, so that changed my whole approach. Regardless, everything we did was connected. (Unrelated material omitted) C: Rudiments. Dr. H: And I remember G ary Langford teaching it at 7:30 in the morning. (K 12) music have been in band -they learned how to play the tuba, and what you did when you learned how to pla comprehensiveness to this at a ll . play F# play loud because I signal it. You know, a kid can come to college and enter here sure that music hi story people can tell you horror stories. When I went to college, we

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543 Bach wrote some, you know, as we warmed up. I just knew that it was not a place for you to put hor ses C: Dr. H: -because a teacher who wants to do what each good music C: Well, I agree. So with all of those factors -ght it would (what does in life?) because of their lack of keyboard experience so that altered my study. The students still did a tremendous thing by the end of the study. There were It was a volunteer effort, but they did get credit. They did an awful lot of work by the end two octave modes, most of them hands together and we would set metronome times hour semester loads and taking this course on top of all that and the progress they really did make. To me, ecause my premise is that these kids are entering a collegiate program in order to sustain a professional career in music. specifically designed with that in mind and being on the other end and having a career conducting. That was never in m arrange -do all those things. ne of those things. have time to do the arranging course the way that we should. I think all you can do is try to give the kids the to o ls and approach because if you have the keyboard class then you think of it as not -keyboard is just a tool for learning, and rather than just talk about the mode, we play y we learn. It reinforces and we learn to do it other ways. number of popular songs in modes. We have a lot of folk music in modes. Dr. H: Yes, in fact, they are much more now than they used to be. The reason, I think, writing was called harmony. And you had exams in harmony. But we were fascinated with -t dominant ninths or secondary dominants? Do we follow Piston,

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544 C: You just have to know them all. dominant t they already know -that will work as well as traditional V introduce these kids to modes from the beginning where they (the modes) originated. part of being a professional musician this is your job to know So, back to the history of the CM movement Out of the Northwestern came the IMCE programs as test pilots of the CM principles. Dr. H: I think they were getting their grants from trying the CM ideas. Dello Joio was very important because he was a name -of works that are quite well known. So, it was Dello Joio that went and sold the idea to the Ford Foundation/MENC. We agreed intellectually money t o put into it. C: So those programs went from 1966 68. Did you keep up with it? Dr. H: Warner, I think, had it. The MENC director hired Bob Werner and I think his tenure was roughly 1963 73. We had a man named Fitzgerald also, from Kentucky, that did s ome work on this, too. But between Fitzgerald and Bob Werner, they were out and promoting the ideas, getting places, and placing composers in schools. That was still a at the school they were at. And they were placed in very good school systems like the Evanston Township School and the Los Angeles Schools. In fact, Peter Schi c kele was of them were the college type comp teachers Robert Washburn of them. Washburn was up at either Fredonia or Potsdam. Th ey were putting out about ten people a year. They could repeat somebody could be there for two years, but were assigned to that school district and they were to wri te music, which educated them to the possibilities of writing music for school groups and what the technical level could be. Second thing was: it then stimulated interest in new music. And all of those compositions for the MENC, I think, are still in som were not thrown away. A lot of them were performed. I remember at one of the MENC conventions a lot of those got performed and done. I think you could, they may not

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545 have been publishable, but I think they were rentabl e. They tried to make is so people could get access to them. Setting up a printing of an overture of any length is going to be big sellers and they were hard to play, so put them available on a rental C: Dr. H: Yeah, I think they saved all that out of CMP Library. I think the music educators were kind of overseeing that. I just don suspect we could find out real easily. C: Vera Brodsky Lawrence? She was in charge of it then. So, from this IMCE program I did locate a dissertation by Bess, and he this involved MENC because t hey used the contiguous 48 states and they had put composers in all the districts according to the MENC divisions. This particular dissertation focused on the Southern region which included Florida State University (FSU), University of Georgia (UGS), East Carolina University (ECU), George Peabody College for Teachers (GPCT), and the University of Kentucky (UK). ECU is the one that was notable for the most comprehensive program. Dr. H: Beach? Or a name like that. They were more active, more into music education and also FSU. Wiley Housewright was president of MENC for a while, about 1968. C: Yes, this was that pilot program. Thirty six schools participated. I wrote a lot about that in my dissertation because even though some of the other schoo ls had programs that went longer, ECU had a more relevant, was closer, to the CM ideal with what they were doing and how they were doing it. Do you have any knowledge about that, or insight? but it was something C: Do you think t You said before the smaller schools seem to have more success. Dr. H: Well, I think a school kind of gets an identity and Indiana was such a big performing school left, one of the reasons you know, we were much. And music education, well, the kids who came in and wanted to study flute, well, the flute teacher has so many openings best performers, of course. So by the time they got done taking the two best flutists,

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546 a conservatory or so if felt. And we changed deans. Dean Bain had retired and his successor was not as supportive. We had even a well known jazz program, just because of the fact he was strong, Baker, an Indiana graduate, way back, from Indianapolis. So he came -he was actually kind of we pushed it very much. So, I think the idea is still valid. Is it more valid now than it was before? Perhaps because of the nature of popular music over the last forty years or so has been more eclectic. And just t he fact that we have greater variation in the types of music we hear today, and partly because of technology, the I pods, etc. It surely has not grown less -the IV V7 approaches using modes and things have a little more flexibility. The problem with what you were doing -the only problem I can see is that it just takes a little more time. You hour a week class. C: One of the questions on my quals was -if I were head of a music school, or a theory program: design your curriculum which is right up my alley because I just like to write curricula for some reason offering a professional music degree. Dr. H: Yes. C: what you play, or sing You are a musician first. Dr. H: Yes. C: As far as the CM thing -ayer can also arrange a quartet, know the history and the literature and they still all have to know the same things. Dr. H: model -at one time you went to a conservatory to l even take music history or music theory, but in modern North America there are very few conservatories left and they are much more comprehensive Juilliard; Peabody -almost all the conservatories got taken in or inte grated with universities Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester; or Peabody is part of a consortium of Johns Hopkins, whatever they call it -a consortium. American Musical College, which is now part of Roosevelt University, and on and on. So there are very few, just conservatories. Curtis is a real special place --a very special school. Everybody goes on scholarships. They take two clarinet players a year, and alone conservatory. But if they

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547 call conservatory Juilliard, proba to play violin i n the pit orchestra. That died fifty hundred years ago, with the talking movies. End of vaudeville. Now the numbers of musicians making livings as live performers my sister talked with her the other day go to the things are getting tough. Finally they agreed to an $83,000 scale tly how many major orchestras playing the classics are going to exist? And where it used get beautiful recordings. C: Dr. H: C: shoul d be able to go and hear a live performance as well as go and buy a CD of the same thing. Dr. H: living to make a course to help these kids because the community expects us, as musicians, to be able to do everything. Dr. H: Yeah. C: I just have a voice a nd a theory degree, but I have had to do almost everything. Dr. H: whole career. There are probably (this was years ago) twenty musicians who make their living entirely off just performance, and this is just the classical field. Vladmir Horowitz and a few others but Almost everyone, at one time or another, is finally going to wind up teaching. You did it out of a sense of professional obligation, interest, and so on. Yehudi Menuhin child prodigy he plays like whew! and when he gets to 45 or 50, he says interested in chamber music and he was doing the things that he did more toward the end of his life. But he just playing the violin, he started to wonder I can do

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548 how to do it. He started to be analytical about it very curious. So I think that the demands live music. We have a lot of music tough for the performer and tough for the listener in the sense that we listen and listen and liste us like wallpaper. C: Dr. H; C: (Omi t t ed unrelated section) Dr. H: So, there came the demand for versatil ity, and getting away from any kind of structure. The five day a week thing we did three days with the professor and two because we forget how green and inexperienced some of the kids are. I came here (University of Florida) in 1984. The quality of student is much better academically and musically. C: Really? Then I wonder why none of my kids had any keyboard experience? Dr. H: One of the issues has been the keyboard and the integration of keyboard and have got no keyboard feel at all. C: Dr. H: C: Another issue discussed: Dr. H: When you have the grad assistants it takes an awful lot of oversight. This is just a constant

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549 C: How thorough are these grad assistants? How thorough is thei r teaching or their a nd they are so busy, loaded down with their own graduate studies Dr. H: Yes. C: I do address that in my dissertation. I address a lot of these concerns. Dr. H: W ell, we have grad assistants and we have grad assistants. Some are very good. C: these freshman students part harmony in the first harmony s really get everything we can out of that. (Some discussion concerning theory books that have already been addressed in the document) C: and show that this (CM) can Dr. H: Well, I think the teacher has to pull it all together. C: The faculty has to be on board. Dr. H: Well, one thing that came out of that a carryover in a very small way was when they come up for their sophomore -at the end of the fourth semester they have singing. We student. But they play, or sing, and then they also discuss the piece. So the kid prepares to discuss the piece that C: So, then you think this approach is fea sible to work together? Dr. H: bring in research grants. C: r inclusion? Dr. H:

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550 C: r interview on

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551 APPENDIX X DR. JAMES P. SAIN INTERVIEW C: This is the October 10, 2010 inter view with Dr. James P. Sain, professor of music related topics. Dr. Sain, I understand you were an original participant and student at perspective, would you describe your experience with that program? Dr. S: Sure. I was a student in the CM program at SDSU starting in the fall of 1977, going through what was then the three year program. I certai at the time. And, in hind sight, I think I appreciate the program a great deal more than perhaps I did as an 18 year old freshman. Certainly the skills sets and the knowledge that I acquired as a music major in the program has served me well throughout my the comprehensive nature of the program has helped me with a lot of different types of information whether it be theoretical, or historical or performativ e, it helps me put together for myself and now, of course, for my students. taking it. But it was really brought home as I continued through my education to find out what a solid foundation it laid for me. We also had a program in place where those that did well in the freshman theory course were asked back to be proctors for the next year. As an undergraduate I gained, I think, valuable teaching experience and as a 19 20 21 year old musician, by returning and proctoring for the freshman theory class. I did it for two years, and really enjoyed that aspect of the program. Then when I returned as a masters student, I also worked with the sophomore and junior lev els in the theory perspective how valuable that was, of course, in hindsight, but also how what I was taught, and the philosophies behind that working with David Ward Steinm an and Susan Ward Steinman, Gene Moe, Brent Dutton the teachers of record I was assisting in those courses Merle Hogg. It was great. C: As a student proctor, were you actually teaching the entire lesson? Did you design the lesson plan or did you work with the advisor or teacher of the class? Dr. S: Yes. The proctors were primarily for the development of the aural skills in that portion of the curriculum. The teacher of record was the one that did that would have been Dr. Hogg for m e did the lectures within the class structure. We also worked on a PSI type of program with the ear training and sight singing where the students can accelerate through what was required for the semester as fast as they wanted to, or they could take more time on one thing or another if they needed more time. So it was really personalized as far as the pace at which you could accelerate or not through the aural skills. C: And the PSI for the readers i s what?

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552 Dr. S: t Programmed Student Instruction, or Personalized Student Instruction. You had certain sets or modules, and you could complete them at your own pace. You work up to it and then you go take an exam and they would check it hether you needed one area or another. So it was something that those who had good ears or good sight singing ability could accelerate through it and then just focus on the written work, or those that needed a little more time could spend more time and get more proctoring. C: As a masters student you said you came back as a TA Were those activities still in the aural skills or were you in the theory classroom then? Dr. S: It was more in the theory classroom and it was a lot of paper grading helping out with the students. Still, primarily, the teachers of record were doing the lectures. There was some stuff that I did that I recall very vividly with Susan Ward Steinman and her orchestration lessons, since I was a composer. She used me a l ittle more readily within the classroom in that regard. There were a couple of days when she asked if I would substitute for her when she was out. So as you get a little further, were allowed to do some work teaching. C: What textbooks, if any, were used? Dr. S: Melodic Dictation fre shman year. It was Horacek, the author of the harmonic dictation, I believe. And, we incorporated books like the Salzer Schachter text for 16 th century counterpoint -trying to think of who we used for 18 th century drawing a blank f C: Spencer? Dr. S: No. C: Dr. S: Layer Analysis text that dealt with kind of baby Schekerian analysis. It was my first exploration in that sort of reduction tec text we used but it was such a wide variety of topics. There were a lot of different textbooks that we pulled in for whatever was needed. C: From whatever particular area, like the best orchestration book, et c? Dr. S: Exactly

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553 C: readings or exercises? Dr. S: Oh, no, we had to buy the textbooks. Oh absolutely. I still have mine. I could probably go up there (looks towards tw o massive book shelves lining one wall of his office) and tell you exactly what they are. front of the microphone. (laughter) I think it was the Kennan for the 18 th century counterpoint. C: Oh, I know t hat one. Dr. S: C: Forsyth? Dr. S: a c omposer, was in Texas North Texas C: OK so you answered another question I had what were your feelings as a student as to the benefits of the CM program? I think from your experience as a proc tor and later coming back, you probably had a bit more hindsight while you were in there, with hands on experience. I think maybe you realized, even before you graduated, how that was helping, at least a little? Dr. S: Sure, sure. I mean, you just reall which is around you. And when yo was, I think, challenging, in a good way. We incorporated world musics into the curriculum and I can remember as a freshman sitting down and listening to a raga and being able to count the patterns with my hands, because we were told how to do that. hindsight having taught in other been through several textbook s and different approaches three different approaches how we will get theory for the students. I still look back and think this comprehensive approach was quite wise in how it anthologies those were two other books that David and his first wife, Susan, put together for this course. It was an anthology of a side amount of lite rature from Up, Up and Away to Palestrina to contemporary music to Mozart. There was a huge amount of literature from very disparate genres and cultures. So having been exposed to that at a young age, I think, was very health y for all of us. I still keep in touch with many of my colleagues from those days, and I think, in hindsight, the general consensus is that it was an amazing program. And again, as

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554 many of these friends have gone out, some out to higher education and are teaching in instrumental and choral programs. I think, again, the strong consensus is that it was really a unique and amazing program that prepared us for success in our field. It really was sort of one person saying that this is going to happen and a concerted faculty that saw that it would . C: A faculty that would work together for the same goal? Dr. S: is was, in their breadth of knowledge of music, tremendous. Again, having been in the . and things happen. C: So, as far as the faculty at SDSU, were they trained comprehensively or we re they more like specialists all getting together and putting their genius into one program? Dr. S: They were really good musicians. Again, the leader was the example. David was not only a fine classical musician, he was a monster jazz musician and he had great interests. It was not unusual to see him kneeling outside during a Balinese gamelan concert, playing with the gamelan ensemble. It was by example, he was doing things. That was always a great thing. We had Dr. Hogg, she was not only a classic ally trained trombonist who but was a jazz player as well. He had gone to with Nadia Boulanger in the summer course at Fountainbleau, plus he also went to a ent Dutton was an amazing performer, composer, and theory teacher and did all of those things amazingly well. Jean Moe was just cared for us all. Danny Mitchell here was a guy who was basically Harry Par successor to the Partch instrument collection when Harry died. He was in there teaching theory with us as well. It was just an amazing collection of well educated individuals that, with the leadership that David gave, saw this as being a way to educ ate young musicians completely western European classical conservatory training. It was going to be a much broader concept and some of them came from that. Some of them came from the more traditional university backgro und and some came from a conservatory background, so there was the faculty was very diverse. They somehow all agreed that this was worth doing. C: type of training first, and then to become this extraordinary jazz player, he had to go to outside workshops or he himself had to pursue it because of his own goals, desires, motivations to become a well rounded musician? Dr. S: He was a child prodigy. C: Well, that helps (l aughter) Dr. S: His mom was a piano teacher.

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555 C: That helps, too (laughter) Dr. S: So he got it from an early age. He was playing concerti with the Louisiana Symphony Orchestra he was a teenager. He was an amazing player. I think everybody tha t was growing up in that time, or at least a goodly number, had an interest in jazz. But he had an excellent education. Actually, his undergraduate work was done at Florida State. He studied with John Boda. John was a consummate musician pianist. Talk a musician does what a musician needs to do. As a consummate musician, you do all of that stuff. C: A combination of all of that ed Dr. S: All of that personal motivation, personal interests David went and actually studied with Boulanger for an extended period of time, not just with the summer program. He actually lived in Paris and studied w ith Nadia Boulanger, as did many great 20 th century composers, like Aaron Copland. They would gather together and the composers of Paris would get together whether it was Stravinsky or whomever Madame Boulanger was sort of the nexus of contemporary m usic in Paris. He had that experience as well as that would mold his persona. C: So, what do you think Dr. S: He was somewhat intimidating. You could walk into his studio with a piece of music and he could read, open score, transposed for orche stra, and he could sight read performing piano that way. But it was always great him finish my compositions (laughter) better than I could write! C: So San Diego has the longest running history at that time 1967 1997, thirty years of a CM program. Why do you think it stopped? Dr. S: that they may have completely incorporated all of the history track, because that was not part of the original program. It could still be going on. C: longest running program for that time. Dr. S: Trying to think of it that was before he (David Ward Steinman) retired. So I if it coincided with his retirement. He is now living in Bloomington with his second wife and teaching part time

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556 C: Dr. S: That would be a good question for him. Contact him and see if it does. The teachers I know are still there, like Brent Dutton. He could tell you exactly what might have happened post there, like Brent Dutton. C: Okay. Did you think well, apparently some of it is going on, with this many own te aching. As far as other institutions today do you think that this CM approach big, small, etc? Dr. S: Without a doubt, it will be successful. It will take a concerted effo rt on the part of whatever faculty decides to do it. Certainly there is no one curricular resource for making it happen, that I know of any sort of sets of books. There are some books in existence that are more comprehensive than others. There are some that are more historically based and others still We tried the same Gradus text, here (UF) for a few lot of consumables to help support the text. And that, e specially when you deal with a faculty, which is often the case in university settings, that are not necessarily theory teachers primarily maybe an applied area and theory & composition, in theory not all will either have the time, or the desire in so me cases, to create all of the consumable material that is required in a setting that a CM class requires. and the four part writing and all the traditional stuff eve ryone that was in the program had counterpoint, both 16 th and 18 th centuries and everybody had orchestration within it. Everyone had Schenker analysis. Everybody had all of this and in order to pull it all together the books and text and things to get a publisher to back it, then there might be enough momentum there, or at least required to create the supporting materials. one theorist on their faculty if they have a graduate program, or they might have a couple. But most places are served, most of the sma ller, liberal arts colleges are served by there, but it may not. It may take some additional materials. Also, now, with recordings and the Internet and all that, t here should be a way of disseminating this in a form that could be consumed by the students in a very interactive way that might help. Most And of course, paper is bec an interactive tutor.

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557 C: that it will work in a small school but not at a larger school. Dr.S: at a large school just as good as at a small school. The smaller school has different problems than the large school. I mean, when you think of it, we had 40 50 most of th ose years, so there was a goodly number of people in the classroom We must have had, my guess would be somewhere around the size of the University of Florida, probably a couple hundred music majors in the undergrad program much of a grad progr am. There were some masters in music education and then they started adding some other masters. I was actually, I think, the first masters student to graduate with a composition degree from San Diego. They were building at that time. But there was a sl was a slump when the state was readjusting its focus some of the CSU scores were something whe C: So administrative decisions can also play a part Dr. S: Oh, yeah too. C: In reference to UF you said there were other approaches tried in your 20 years. So one was a comprehensive approach? Dr. S: Well, it was a historical based approach. And we incorporate, as you know, aural skills, sight singing, dictation, keyb oard, theory within our program already. We really our majors are not required to take the two semester of counterpoint and we differentiate things, whether it be i nstrumentation for the general student or say we necessarily have a comprehensive musicianship approach, or had one, but for two years we had a more historical app roach with the Gradus, with a linear approach in the 16 th century. And we have sort of, with time, moved to the more contemporary. And faculty time that it required. I was the sort that I created lots of materials for my class, some Benward when I was at San Diego. We used the Benward for sight singing. That was the one we used for the freshman class, which was another one I just remembered. After fifty years, some of this stuff eventually comes back (laughter). C: So then what were the three different approaches? the historical basis with the Gradus

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558 Dr. S: C: Traditional as in the common practice approach? Dr .S: Traditional with the Ottman, Benward it has a little bit of variety in it and tries to become a l C: So a kind of varied approach? Dr. S: a k to it directly. It was at a point where we were debating the composition program and I was sort of out of the theory teaching loop, per se, so like in most cases, you try to leave it to those foot soldiers with their boots on the ground who need to determine another I think ung and he likes, ing to the field training and that sort of rigor anymore. Some are actually coming to it from the popular fields. C: Thank you Dr. Sain beli eve it or not Dr. S:

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559 APPENDIX Y SOCIETY OF COMPOSERS, INC., SURVEY Hello SCI, I am working on a curricular dissertation in piano/keyboard theory at the University of Florida. It will tak e a historical approach, combining figured bass with jazz I mprovisation. My initial research is not yielding the information I am looking for. I am wondering who among you would be willing to take a two part survey to help me in my work. Please reply to me offline. Thank you for your time. ALL PERSONAL INFORMATION WILL REMAIN CONFIDENTIAL. If you know someone who might be interested in this, please forward it to them. I thank you all in advance for your help and time, and a small thank you gift will b e available for the first 60 respondents (see end of survey). I will be compiling this information through August 15. Thanks! Two part Survey for Undergraduate Theory Curriculum PART ONE -18 short answer questions 1. Name: Please list all degrees earned: 2. Institution/Place of employment: 3. Title/Position: 4. Area(s) of Instruction: 5. Classes you taught this past academic year: 6. Classes you have taught in past years: 7. Do you play keyboard instruments? Yes _____ No _____ If yes please list which and include # of years' experience: 8. Do you improvise on keyboard instruments? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, in what capacity?

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560 9. Do you improvise on your major instrument (if keyboard is not your major instrument ) Yes _____ No ____ 10. Do you have formal training in improvisation? Yes ____ No ____ 11. Do you have formal training in figured bass? Yes ____ No _____ If yes, where? 12. Do you think there is value in incorporating figured bass playing as a gener al keyboard theory practice? Yes ____ No ____ 13. Do you think teaching figured bass holds historical value? Yes ____ No _____ 14. Are you satisfied that your institution is training well rounded, well grounded musicians in keyboard theory? Yes ____ No ____ 15. Do you think it's important for non piano majors to be able to improvise on keyboard? Yes ____ No ____ improvised on their major instrument? Yes ____ No ____ 16. Do you think it's important for piano majors to be able to improvise on keyboard? Yes ____ No ____ 17. Do you think improvisational skills are important areas of study in the training of professional musicians? Yes ____ No ____ 18. Would you be interested in the results of this survey? Yes _____ No ____ All personal information will be kept confidential. Nothing will be used that may identify any one individual.

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561 PART TWO -7 questions Please mark an X beside all applicable answers and fill in where needed. If instructor gener ated materials are used, would you be willing to share them with me for research purposes only ? Yes _____ No ______ 1. __ Theory text(s) used Please list name and author(s) __ Instructor generated text/materials used. 2. Does your curricul um offer classes in: __ Figured bass (separate from theory class) __ Text(s) used: __ Instructor generated text/materials __ Keyboard improvisation (separate from theory class) __ Text(s) used: __ Instructor gen erated text/materials __ Piano keyboard harmony class __ In tandem with theory class __ Text(s) used: __ Instructor generated materials __ Separate from theory class __ Text(s) used: __ Instructor generated materials __ Jazz harmony __ Text(s) used: __ Instructor generated text/materials 3. Please indicates who teaches the following classes. Use F (Full time Faculty) TA (Teaching/Grad assistants) ADJ (Adjuncts) a. Theory classes b. Piano/keyboard harmony classes c. Keyboard improvisation classes d. Other improvisation classes e. Figured bass classes f. Jazz harmony classes

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562 4. Using a g, fill in the applicable letter after each question. a. None b. Mentioned (FYI) c. Discussed, 1 2 classes -no assignments d. Discussed. 1 2 classes -some assignments e. Discussed & studied in some depth -3 4 classes f. Studied more thoroughly, 5+ classes g. Other, please describe. In theory class, how much attention is given to: Modes ______ Figured bass _______ Keyboard improvisation _____ Improvisation in general _____ Jazz harmony ______ In piano or keyboard class, how much attention is given to: Modes _______ Figured bass _____ Keyboard improvisation _____ Jazz harmony _____ 5. How long is your required theory sequence: _____ semesters _____ quarters _____ other, please describe 6. Is the theory sequence required of all music majors? __ Yes __ No If No, who is exempt? 7. Is some degree of piano proficiency re quired of all music majors? Yes __ No If No, who is exempt? Thank you for completi ng the survey. Please indicate which Thank You gift card you would prefer, and send me a physical address to where the card can be sent. ___ Starbucks ___ Barnes & Noble Thanks again! Carol P. McCoy, M.M University of Florida School of Music Doctoral s tudent, Mus. Ed./Theory emphasis 352 371 7351 / 352 262 6300 cell

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563 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I.1 Please list all degrees earned BM 7 MM 8 DMA 6 BME 1 MME 1 PhD 3 BA 7 MA 4 None 6 BS 1 None 3 QUESTION 1.2 omitted QUESTION I.3 Title/position # 001 Adj. Instructor of Theory #002 Assoc. Prof. of Music #003 Assoc. Prof. of Music #004 Adj. Prof. of Music #005 Teaching Fellow #006 TA doctoral student #007 Lecturer #008 Assoc. Prof. #009 Adj. faculty #01 0 G raduate A ssistant in Music Theory #011 Asst. Prof. of Music #012 Prof. of Music Co ordinator of Keyboard Studies #013 Professor #014 Undergrad student #015 Assoc. Prof. of Music #016 Asst. Prof. of Music Theory

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564 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I .4 Areas of Instruction #001 Music theory #002 Theory; Comp; Chamber music #003 Theory; Comp #004 20 th c. theory; Chromatic theory; Music fundamentals; Music appreciation #005 Theory IV; Film scoring; Form & analysis #006 Music theory #007 Theory #008 Music theory; Voice; Musical theatre; Education; S S; Computer music #009 Music theory #010 Aural skills #011 Theory/Comp #012 Piano & Theory #013 Comp; Computer music #014 Theory tutoring; Comp. tutoring/mentoring; Orchestral/Chamber prepping #015 Theory; Comp; Musicianship (incls. keyboard skills) #016 20 th Century music; Aural skills I; Graduate Analytical techniques; Theory for Industry majors

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565 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I .5 Classes taught in previous year (06 07 ) # 001 music theory fundamentals mus. theory 1 & 2 aural skills 1 & 2 orchestration; composition -undergrad and graduate level #002 basic musicianship diatonic harmonic practice chromatic harmonic practice 20 th c. practices chamber music -coach and pl ay in ensembles #003 aural skills 1 & 2 aural skills 3 & 4 theory 3 & 4 form & analysis comp. students #004 music appreciation #005 ear training theory IV film scoring form & analysis #006 musicianship (freshma n theory) #007 theory aural skills I, II, IV world music #008 theory voice sight singing musical theatre education computer music #009 ear training, 2 nd & 3 rd semester T heory

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566 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I .5 Classes taught in previous year (06 07 ) #010 aural skills (freshman theory students) #011 theory II; III advanced theory form & analysis aural skills 1 3 music fundamentals intro to music technology computer music #012 studio piano only (on leave previous year) #013 dissertation advising composition lessons #014 student, not applicable #015 harmony, 3 rd semester theory intro to composition advanced composition advanced musicianship humanities seminar #016 20 th century music aural ski lls I graduate analytical techniques theory for industry majors theory II, III, IV 20 th c. theory functional voice for music therapy

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567 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 6 Classes taught in past years #001 theory, levels 1 4 music fundamentals aural skills 1 & 2 undergrad and grad: orchestration composition #002 classes in I.5, plus history of western music III composition #003 all theory and aural skills or chestration counterpoint #004 music appreciation 20th c. theory #005 intro to music technology music fundamentals for music majors #006 I.5 classes #007 class piano orchestration history of theory, etc. #008 American popular music #009 ear training, 1 st 3 rd semester theory (teaching assistant) #010 not applicable #011 class piano American music theory 1 4

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568 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 6 Classes taught in past years #012 studio piano (private lessons ) class piano accompanying piano literature piano pedagogy theory I, II #013 graduate composition s eminar graduate theory seminar dissertation advising computer music orchestration composition class MIDI #014 N/A student #015 all of I.5 classes theory, 1 st semester of sequence various theory electives, including: music semiotics text music and dictation (analysis for singers) #016 I.4 and I.5 classes music technology

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569 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 7 Do you play keyboa rd instruments? #001 yes -piano: 4 years, pre undergrad; 4 years, undergrad accordion: 4 years #002 yes -piano: 45 years organ: 40 years harpsichord: 40 years #003 yes -#004 -no #005 yes -piano: 10 years #006 yes -piano: 16 years #007 yes & no pianist #008 yes -piano: 44 years #009 yes -#010 yes -piano: 9 years #011 yes -keyboard: 14 years #012 yes -piano: no answer #013 -no #014 yes -piano: 15 years, since age 6 #015 yes -piano: too many (years) to count #016 yes -piano: 20 years or so

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570 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 8 Do you improvise on keyboard instruments? If yes, in what capacity? #001 yes -after dinner entertainment in composition and jazz #002 yes -#003 yes -mostly jazz improvisation #004 -no #005 yes -for composition #006 yes -as a composer to come up with ideas #007 yes -as a composer; sit at piano daily for at least 10 minutes of improvisation to keep mind sharp and improve my keyboard skills #008 yes -professional church job rock band #009 yes -little professional experience improvising in public on keyboard instruments but lots on drumset #010 yes -for pleasure as composer to gen erate ideas #011 yes -play in jazz combo do solo improvisation in jazz and pop contexts #012 -no #013 -no #014 yes -formerly as jazz pianist to generate material for later development through improvisation #015 (yes) -not so much anymo re formerly did lots of jazz (bop) and rock (punk) on keyboard still active as free improviser #016 yes -sometimes when demonstrating chords I improvise a melody above

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571 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 9 Do you improvise on you r major instrument (if keyboard is not your major instrument)? What is your major instrument? #001 yes -no answer #002 yes -violin/viola #003 yes -double bass #004 yes -string bass #005 yes -no answer #006 --N/A -keyboard is m ajor instrument #007 yes -trumpet #008 --N/A -keyboard is major instrument #009 yes -percussion and marimba #010 yes -guitar #011 yes -no answer #012 -no no answer #013 no answer trombone as undergrad #014 no answer #015 --N/A -keyboard is major instrument #016 --N/A -keyboard is major instrument

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572 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 10 Do you have formal training in improvisation? If yes, where? #001 yes -no answer #002 yes -private lessons in h igh school in Vienna practices in many contexts and various styles #003 yes -private teachers also at Naropa Institute, UT Austin #004 yes -Los Medanos College, Antioch, CA #005 -no #006 -no #007 -no #008 -no #009 yes -Univers ity of Wyoming W. VA University #010 -no #011 yes -no answer #012 -no #013 -no #014 yes -no answer #015 yes -no answer #016 -no

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573 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 11 omitted QUESTION I 12 omitted QUESTION I 13 omitted QUESTION I 14 Are you satisfied that your institution is training well rounded, well grounded musicians in keyboard theory? #001 --not qualified to answer not involved with the keyboard program no keyboard ski lls required in the theory class I teach #002 -no #003 -no #004 yes -#005 yes -#006 yes -#007 yes -#008 -no #009 yes -#010 yes -#011 yes -#012 -no it could be more thorough #013 -no #014 yes -#015 --g there #016 --

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574 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 15 piano majors to be able to improvise on: keyboard? their major instrument? #001 yes yes #002 yes yes #003 yes yes #004 yes yes #005 yes no it depends on their major #006 yes yes #007 yes yes #008 no yes #009 yes educational/musical interests #010 yes yes #011 yes yes #012 yes yes #013 yes yes #014 yes yes #015 yes yes #016 yes yes

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575 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 16 able to improvise on keyboard? #00 1 yes #002 yes #003 yes #004 yes #005 yes #006 yes #007 yes #008 yes #009 yes #010 yes #011 yes #012 yes #013 yes #014 yes #015 yes #016 yes

PAGE 576

576 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 17 Do you think improvisational skills are impo rtant areas of study in the training of professional musicians? #001 yes #002 yes #003 yes #004 yes #005 yes #006 yes #007 yes #008 yes #009 yes #010 yes #011 yes #012 yes #013 yes #014 yes #015 yes lly more important for future non professionals #016 yes

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577 SCI SURVEY I PART ONE RESPONSES QUESTION I 18 omitted SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II If instructor generated materials are used, would you be willing to share them with me for research purposes only? #001 yes #002 yes #003 yes #004 yes #005 yes #006 yes #007 no answer #008 yes #009 yes #010 yes #011 yes #012 no answer #013 no answer #014 yes #015 no answer #016 yes

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578 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 1 Theory texts used list author(s) and title and/or instructor generated material used ***check again for full titles and proper authors names and will share/none indicated theory texts #001 Benward Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony P. Spenc er Tonal Harmony instructor generated S Bach chorales as guidelines #002 Manoff The Music Kit Gauldin Harmonic Practice in Tonal Music Music 201/202 Keyboard exercises for daily use #003 Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony #004 Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony Kostka Material and Techniques of 20 th Century Music will share #005 Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony will share #006 Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony a professor coordinates the f reshman theory class (makes sure all the are teaching similar lesson plans) #007 Clendinning and Marvin no answer #008 Benward Ottman sometimes will share

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579 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUE STION II 1 Theory texts used list author(s) and title and/or instructor generated material used #009 Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony (chosen by music division chair) will share #010 Clendinning and Marvin will share #011 Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony will share #012 Clendinning and Marvin no answer #013 No answer #014 Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony Kostka Payne Music in Theory and Practice Kostka Materia ls and Techniques of 20 th Century Music Green Form will share #015 Roig Francoli Harmony in Context Gauldin used for years No answer #016 Kostka Payne Tonal Harmony

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580 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 2 a ) curriculum offer these classes? 2a. Figured b ass Text Other materials used (separate from theory class) #001 #002 #003 no #004 #005 yes A New Approach to Keyboard Harmony instructor generated Bring, Burkhard t, Kamien, etc. #006 #007 #008 yes Benward ( -#009 #010 yes not sure of text #011 no #012 #013 #014 respondent is not piano major so ha s no specifics #015 no to class yes to private study unknown #016

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581 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 2 a classes? 2 b Keyboard improvisation Text Other materials used (separ ate from theory class) #001 ---------#002 ---------#003 yes no text not sure #004 ---------#005 yes unknown ---part of jazz dept. #006 ---------#007 ---------#008 ---------#009 ---------#010 ---------#011 no ------#012 ---------#013 ---------#014 respondent is not piano major so has no specifics #015 yes -----in private instrumental study #016 ---------

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582 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 2 a classes? 2 c Piano/k eyboard harmony class Text Other materials used ( i n tandem with theory class) #001 ---------#002 yes Gauldin keyboard exercises for Music 201/202 #003 yes no instructor sheets made by respondent #004 ---------#005 yes ------#006 ---------#007 ---------#008 ---------#009 ---------#010 ---------#011 no ------#012 yes ------#013 ---------#014 respondent is n ot piano major so has no specifics #015 there is a keyboard skills lab that covers a great deal of jazz harmony basics #016 ---------

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583 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 2 a classes? 2 d Piano/k eyboard harmony class Text Other materials used ( separate from theory class) #001 ---------#002 ---------#003 no ------#004 ---------#005 yes ------#006 ---------#007 ---------#008 ---------#009 ---------#010 yes not sure ---#011 no ------#012 ---------#013 ---------#014 ---------#015 ---------#016 yes now ---

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584 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 2 a classes? 2 e Jazz harmony class Text Other materials used #001 ---------#002 ---------#003 no, these a re done in private lessons #004 ---------#005 ---------#006 ---------#007 ---------#008 ---------#009 ---------#010 yes not sure ---#011 no ------#012 ---------#013 ---------#014 ---------#015 yes Jaffe -Jazz Harmony ---#016 ---------

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585 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 3 a f Who teaches the following classes? F = full time faculty TA = teac hing/graduate assistants ADJ = adjuncts 3a. theory 3b. keyboard harmony 3c. keyboard improvisation #001 ---------#002 F ADJ ---#003 F/ADJ F/ADJ F #004 F/ADJ/TA F F #005 F F F #006 F/ADJ(?)/TA unknown unkno wn #007 ADJ F ---#008 F F F #009 F/ADJ ------#010 F wTA TA ---#011 F TA ---#012 F ADJ ---#013 F/ADJ F F/ADJ #014 F/ADJ ADJ ADJ #015 F/ADJ F/ADJ ---#016 F/ADJ F/ADJ/TA ---

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586 SCI SURVEY I P ART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 3 a f Who teaches the following classes? F = full time faculty TA = teaching/graduate assistants ADJ = adjuncts 3d. other improvisation classes 3e. figured bass 3f. jazz harmony #001 unknown unknown un known #002 F/ADJ (see his survey) #003 F/ADJ none F/ADJ #004 F/ADJ F F/ADJ #005 ADJ F ---#006 unknown unknown unknown #007 ---------#008 F/ADJ F F/ADJ #009 ---------#010 F F w/TA F #011 F ------#012 ---------#013 F/ADJ F F/ADJ #014 F ADJ ADJ #015 ---ADJ ADJ #016 ------ADJ

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587 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 4.1 4.2 Using a g, fill in the applicable letter after eac h question: a. None b. mentioned (FYI) c. discussed, 1 2 classes, no assignments d. discussed, 1 2 classes, some assignments e. discussed and studied in some depth, 3 4 classes f. studied more thoroughly, 5+ classes g. Other, plea se describe 4.1a 4.1e In theory class, how much attention is given to: figured keyboard improvisation jazz modes bass improvisation in general #003 d e e e d #004 d f c c c #005* f f g g g #006 e f a a b #007 c f e e e #008 e e b b c #009* g d g f g #010 d e a a b #011 f f a a f #012 b f a b #013 b b c c c #014 e d d c c #015 d f e e g #016 d f d d

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588 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RES PONSES QUESTION II 4.1 4.2 Using a g, fill in the applicable letter after each question: a. None b. mentioned (FYI) c. discussed, 1 2 classes, no assignments d. discussed, 1 2 classes, some assignments e. discussed and studied in some d epth, 3 4 classes f. studied more thoroughly, 5+ classes g. Other, please describe 4.2a 4.2d In piano/keyboard class, how much attention is given to: figured keyboard jazz modes bass improvisation harmony #001 not qualified to answer #002 d f d d #003 d e e d #004 d e e b #005 d f d g unknown #006 f* f* a b #007 ------------#008 #009 ------------#010 not sure #011 ------------#012 a a b ---#013 a a c b #014 d d d d #015 b f e f #016 not sure

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589 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 5 How long is your required theory sequence? #001 5 semesters #002 3 4 semesters MUS 101*, 201,202, 313 (*students can place out of MUS 101) #0 03 4 semesters #004 2 years #005 4 semesters #006 ? semesters #007 4 semesters #008 6+ semesters #009 3 semesters #010 4 semesters #011 5 semesters #012 6 semesters #013 3 semesters #014 4 semesters -for undergrad non composition majors #015 4 semesters #016 5 semesters

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590 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 6 Is the theory sequence required of all music majors? If not, who is exempt? #001 yes #002 yes #003 yes #004 -#005 yes #006 yes #007 yes #008 yes #009 no -Mus ic Commercial majors #010 yes #011 yes #012 yes #013 yes #014 no -m usic industry majors take a truncated sequence (1 2 semesters) #015 yes #016 yes

PAGE 591

591 SCI SURVEY I PART TWO RESPONSES QUESTION II 7 Is some degree of piano proficiency required of all music majors? #001 yes #002 yes #003 yes #004 NA #005 yes #006 yes #007 yes #008 yes #009 #010 yes #011 yes #012 yes #013 NA #014 NA #015 yes #016 yes

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592 APPENDIX Z LIST OF COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP TEXTBOOKS As classified by MURROW, (1995): Siegmeister Harmony and Melody 1965 Christ et al. Materials and Structure of Music 1966 67; 1072 73; 1980 81 Cooper Perspectives in Music Theory: 1973; 1976 (wkbk); 1981 An Historical Analytical Approach Cogan a nd Escot Sonic Design 1976; 1981 (wkbk) Kraft Gradus: An Integrated Approach 1976; 1987;1990; To Harmony, Counterpoint, and Analysis Benward Music in Theory and Practice 1977; 1981; 1982; 1985;1989; 1990; 1993 Duckworth Theoretical Foun dations in Music 1978 Brandt et al. The Comprehensive Study of Music 1980 Baur Music Theory Through Literature 1985 Henry Music Theory 1985 Turek The Elements of Music: Concepts a nd Applications 1988 Sherman Concept and Design in Music 1989 Rumery Introduction to Musical Design 1992 Russell and Trubitt The Shaping of Musical Elements 1992

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593 LIST OF REFERENCES Abeles, H. F., Hoffer, C. R., & Klotman, R. H. (1995). Foundations of Music Education. 2 nd ed. New York: Schirmer Books p. 233 235. Adler, S. (1968). The CMP Institutes and curriculum change. Music Educators Journal 55(1), 36 38+123. Retrieved from http:// www. jstor.org/stable/3392286 Ball, C. H. (1969). The answer lies in t eaching. Music Educators Journal 56(2), 58 59. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3392592 Ballou, Esther W. (1968). Theory with a thrust. Part IV. Music Educators Journal 55(5). 55 57. R etrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3392503. Bamberger, J. S. & Brofsky, H. (1979). The art of listening New York: Harper & Row, Publishers. Beglarian, G. (1967). Contemporary Music Project for creativity in music education. College Music S ymposium 7, 29 88. Beglarian, G. (1967). Music, education, and the university. Music Educators Journal 54(1), 42 44+113 118. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3391124. Benson, G. V. (1997). Curricular priorities of community college music programs: case study analyses of five institutions in the south central United States (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9524898) Bess, D. M. (1988). A history of comprehensive musicianship in the Contemporary (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9002097) Bess, D. M. (1991). Comprehensive musicianship in the Contempor southern region Institutes for Music in Contemporary Education. Journal for Research in Music Education, 39(2), 101 112. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3344690 Black, L. G. (1972) Development of a model for implementing a program of comprehensive musicianship at the collegiate level (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 7233092) Bland, L. D. (1977). The college mus ic theory curriculum: the synthesis of traditional and comprehensive musicianship approaches. College Music Symposium 17(2), 167 174. Music Educators Journal 57(7), 65 67. Retrieved from http://www.jstor .org/stable/3393813.

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594 Buccheri, J. (1990). Musicianship at Northwestern. Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy 4(2), 125 145. Burdman, N. (2007). Teaching staff notation in fourth grade general music: exploring the effectiveness of a multisensory approach (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 3307983) Colwell, R. (Ed.), (1990). The Quarterly, 1(3). Comprehend. (n.d.). In Word Monkey Dictionary. Retrieved from h ttp:/www.google.com/ig/comprehend. Compr ehend. (1913). In Webster 1913. Retrieved from http:/www.webster dictionary.org/definition/comprehend. Daigneault, D. J. (1993). A survey of recommended procedures and teaching methods for building and maintaining a wind and percussion instrumental mus ic education program grades six through twelve (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9406640) Music Project forums. College Music Symposium 13,78 96. Dello Joio, N. (1968). The contemporary music project for creativity in music education. Music Educators Journal 54(7), 41 72. Ernst, R. E. (1974). A taxonomical analysis of selected units of the Hawaii (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 7500682) Fast, B. R. (1997 (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Di ssertations and theses database. (AAT 9726713) Fitzgerald, R. B. (1965). CMP seminar of comprehensive musicianship. Music Educators Journal, 52(1), 56 57. Retrieved fro m http://www.jstor.org/stable/ Forester, J.J. (1997). Robert Pace: his life and contributions to piano pedagogy and m usic education (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9824540) Guralnik, D. B. (Ed.). (1963). New York: The World Publishing Company Harris E. H. (2006). Teaching music theory in the traditional wind band rehearsal: a rationale, survey of materials, and recommendations (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 3268452)

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595 Head, P. D. (2002). Teaching choral repertoire through score study and performance practice (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 3045838) Howle, M. J. M. (1999). choirs in Florida: function in the (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9935236) Jagow S. M. (2005) Nurturing musicianshi p: a conceptual paradigm for rehearsing instrumental music; a theoretical, psychological, and emotional perspective on music making (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database (AAT 3162987) Jung, E. (2004). Promo ting comprehensive musicianship in keyboard harmony classes: suggestions for university piano instructors on non keyboard music majors in Korea (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 3152266) Isaacson, E (2005). What you see is what you get: On visualizing music. Retrieved April 2, 2007 from http://ismir2005.ismir.net/proceedings/1129.pdf. Keene, J. A. (1982). A history of music education in the United States London, England: University Press of N ew England. Kella, J. J. (1984). The development and qualitative evaluation of a comprehensive music curriculum for viola, with an historical survey of violin and viola instructional literature from the 16 th through 20 th centuries, including a review of the teaching concepts of William Lincer (Guilford, Eisner) (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 8412343) Kellerman, D.F. (Ed.).(1977). The living Webster encyclopedic dictionary of the English language Chicago: The English Language Institute of America. Kidd, R. W. (1984). analysis of curricular philosophy (education, MENC) (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 8413172) Kim, Y. H. (1997). Comprehensive musicianship today: a case study of San Diego State University (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9734071) Kress, S. M. (1982). R oger Sessions, composer and teacher: a comparative analysis philosophy of educating composers and his approach to composition in symphonies no.2 and 8 (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 8302255)

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596 Landis. B. M. (1968). Experiments in creativity. Music Educators Journal 54(9), 41 42. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3391343 Lein, S. B. (1980). Applied music and musi c education curricula in selected public universities (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 8021018) Mark, M. L. ( 1986). Contemporary music education New York: Schirmer Books. Mark, M. L. (1996). Contemporary music education New York: Schirmer Books. Mark, M. L. & Gary, C. L. (2007). A history of American music education Lantham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education. MENC: The National Association for Music Education. (1963). Joint committ ee of contemporary music project for creativity in music education. Music Educators Journal, 49(6), 41. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3389911 ) MENC: The National Association for Music Edu cation. (1965). Back Matter. Music Educators Journal, 51(5), 81 156. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3390518 MENC. (1965). Comprehensive musicianship : the foundation for college educat ion in music. CMP2. Washington, D. C.: Contemporary Music Project/MENC. MENC: The National Association for Music Education. (1966). CMP Institutes for Music in Contemporary Education. Music Educators Journal 53(1), 79 80. Retrieved from http://www .jstor.org/stable/3390814. MENC. (1971) Comprehensive musicianship: an anthology of evolving thought. CMP5. USA: Contemporary Music Project/MENC. MENC: The National Association for Music Education. (1971). A symposium on the evaluation of compre hensive musicianship. Music Educators Journal 58(2), 55. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3393919 Mitchell, W. (1969). A report on the CMP workshop at Eastman. College Music Symposium 9 65 81. Mueller, S. M. (1995). Concepts of nineteenth century piano pedagogy in the United States (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9613292) Murrow, R. C. (1995). Music theory textbooks in the U nited States, 1941 1992: philosophical trends in written skills (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9530075) Mursell, J. L. (1948). Education for musical growth New York: Ginn and Company.

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597 Nelson P. F. (1969). Editorial. College Music Symposium 9, 15. Norrington, D. M. (2006). Instrumental music instruction, assessment, and the block schedule (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 1437506) Reveire, J. H. (1997). regarding improvisation and the national standards (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9835075) Rho, J. (2004). Development of an early childhood music curriculum for south Korean children (doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 3128569) Ruviella Knorr, J. L. (2004). sica music education (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 3124015) Rinaldo, V. J. (2001). : theory, design, and implementation in primary and junior grades in Ontario (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT NQ63631) Rushton, D. W. (1994). The music program at Trinity Western University: cur riculum perspectives, past, present and future (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT NN89373) Schicklele, P. (1967). You and L.A. will love each other. Music Educators Journal 53(8), 73 75. Retrieve d from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3390988 Segress, T. D. (1979). The development and evaluation of a comprehensive first semester college jazz improvisation curriculum (Doctoral dissertation). Avail able from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 8012888) Servias (2010). Towards confident and informed musicianship: a curricular synthesis of theory, ear training, and harmony, achieved through the acquisition of keyboard skills (Doctoral d issertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT3406019) Shaw, G. R. (1984). A comprehensive musicianship approach to applied trombone through selected music literature (performance) (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 8428900) Starling, J. (2005). Comprehensive musicianship: a clarinet method book curriculum and sample units (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 317 3242)

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598 Steele, J. E. (1997). historical precedent for comprehensive musicianship (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 8924027) Stevens, H. (1963 ). Youth and new music. Music Educators Journal 50(1), 49 51. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3389985 Strange, C. (1990). The development of a beginning violin curriculum integrating a computer music station with the principles of comprehensive musicianship (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9033906) Tellstrom, A. T. (1971). Music in American education past and present New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Thomas Lee, P. M. (2003). Piano pedagogy for four and five year olds: an analysis of selected piano methods for teaching preschool children (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses d atabase. (AAT 0806036) Trantham, W. E. (1970). A music theory approach to beginning piano instruction for the college music major. Journal of Research in Music Education 18(1), 49 56. Ultan, L. (1968). Theory with a thrust. Part II. Music Educators Journal 55(2). 49 51. Retrieved http:/www.jstor.org/stable/ 3392319 Walton, C. W. (1981). Targeting the teaching of theory. Music Educators Journal 67(6), 40 41+68. Ward Steinman, D. (1987). Comprehensive musicianship at San Diego State University. Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy 1(2), 129 147. Washburn, R. (1960). The young composers project in Elkhart. Music Educators Journal 47(1), 108 109. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3389162. Wennerstrom, M. H. (1989). The undergraduate core music curriculum at Indiana University. Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy 3(2), 153 176. Werner, R. J. (1969). The individual teacher and CMP. Music Educators Journal 55(5), 47 48. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3392498 Willoughby, D. (1970). Institutes for music in contemporary education: their i mplications for the improvement of undergraduate music curricula (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and t heses database. (AAT 7026541) Willoughby, D. (1971). Comprehensive musicianship and undergraduate music curricula USA: Contemporary Music Project/MENC.

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599 Wollenzein, T. J. (1997). An analysis of undergraduate music education curriculum content in col leges and universities of the north central United States (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 9935017) Woods, D. G. (1973). The development and evaluation of an independent school music curriculum st ressing comprehensive musicianship at each level, preschool through senior high school (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and theses database. (AAT 7407849) Zimmerman, A. H. (1963), Ford Foundation grant to MENC: for projec t on contemporary music in the schools. Music Educators Journal 49(4), 37. R etrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3393629

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600 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Carol Piatnek McCoy is a native of Canonsburg, Penn sylvania In 1997, she earned a masters degree in music theory from the University of Florida. She received the Bachelor of Music in voice performance from the North Carolina School of the Arts in Winston Salem after attending Agnes Scott College in Deca tur, G eorgia. Carol has maintained a private teaching studio in voice, piano, and theory, since beginning in 1982 at Lipham Music Co. She is in her 18 th year as Assistant to the Director of Music at First Presbyterian Church Gainesville, F lorida, where s he has also served as Assistant D preschool. Carol has also served Covenant Presbyterian Church and the Unity Church of Gainesville as Music Director and Worship Leader. In addition, she h as served many area churches as substitute pianist/organist/choir director. In previous years, she was owner, administrator, teacher at the Gainesville Guitar Academy, which maintained an enrollment of 200+ students. Part of her work there included the c reation of the Guest Artist Concert Series, the Faculty concerts and the Community concerts, which took the students into the community to perform at area nursing homes and retirement centers. Schedule permitting, Carol performs in Gainesville and surround ing areas as pianist, vocalist, and organist She has performed with jazz pianists Frank Sullivan and Kurt Lang, the UF Jazz Band, the UF Symphony Orchestra, the Gainesville Civic Chorus and the Willis Bodine Chorale. As co founder of Prairie Fire, an ac oustic string and vocal band, she contributed lead and harmony vocals, played string bass and arranged for the band. She is a charter member of the a cappella vocal quartet, Cambiata. Carol has also been a regularly featured guest soloist performing on th e she has been engaged as the Musical

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601 Director/vocal coach/pianist conductor for local performances of Big River ; Seussical, the Musical ; Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory ; Shout! The mod musical ; Forbi dden Broadway and at the Gainesville Community Playhouse for Rain. H er compositions have been selected for performance by the Willis Bodine Chorale; the premiere of the International Women Composers Festival in 1997, and again in 1999, wher panel. One of her ebraska. Carol is a member of Pi Kappa Lambda the Society of Compo sers, Inc. and the Guild for Carillonneurs of North America. In addition to many other community services, she has served over five years as the President and Vice President of the Board of Directors for the Alachua County Youth Orchestra.